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Sample records for right-hemispheric speech lateralization

  1. The Role of the Right Hemisphere in Speech Act Comprehension

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    Holtgraves, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In this research the role of the RH in the comprehension of speech acts (or illocutionary force) was examined. Two split-screen experiments were conducted in which participants made lexical decisions for lateralized targets after reading a brief conversation remark. On one-half of the trials the target word named the speech act performed with the…

  2. Choosing words: left hemisphere, right hemisphere, or both? Perspective on the lateralization of word retrieval

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    Ries, Stephanie K.; Dronkers, Nina F.; Knight, Robert T.

    2015-01-01

    Language is considered to be one of the most lateralized human brain functions. Left hemisphere dominance for language has been consistently confirmed in clinical and experimental settings and constitutes one of the main axioms of neurology and neuroscience. However, functional neuroimaging studies are finding that the right hemisphere also plays a role in diverse language functions. Critically, the right hemisphere may also compensate for the loss or degradation of language functions following extensive stroke-induced damage to the left hemisphere. Here, we review studies that focus on our ability to choose words as we speak. Although fluidly performed in individuals with intact language, this process is routinely compromised in aphasic patients. We suggest that parceling word retrieval into its sub-processes—lexical activation and lexical selection—and examining which of these can be compensated for after left hemisphere stroke can advance the understanding of the lateralization of word retrieval in speech production. In particular, the domain-general nature of the brain regions associated with each process may be a helpful indicator of the right hemisphere's propensity for compensation. PMID:26766393

  3. Neurophysiological Evidence That Musical Training Influences the Recruitment of Right Hemispheric Homologues for Speech Perception

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    McNeel Gordon Jantzen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Musicians have a more accurate temporal and tonal representation of auditory stimuli than their non-musician counterparts (Kraus & Chandrasekaran, 2010; Parbery-Clark, Skoe, & Kraus, 2009; Zendel & Alain, 2008; Musacchia, Sams, Skoe, & Kraus, 2007. Musicians who are adept at the production and perception of music are also more sensitive to key acoustic features of speech such as voice onset timing and pitch. Together, these data suggest that musical training may enhance the processing of acoustic information for speech sounds. In the current study, we sought to provide neural evidence that musicians process speech and music in a similar way. We hypothesized that for musicians, right hemisphere areas traditionally associated with music are also engaged for the processing of speech sounds. In contrast we predicted that in non-musicians processing of speech sounds would be localized to traditional left hemisphere language areas. Speech stimuli differing in voice onset time was presented using a dichotic listening paradigm. Subjects either indicated aural location for a specified speech sound or identified a specific speech sound from a directed aural location. Musical training effects and organization of acoustic features were reflected by activity in source generators of the P50. This included greater activation of right middle temporal gyrus (MTG and superior temporal gyrus (STG in musicians. The findings demonstrate recruitment of right hemisphere in musicians for discriminating speech sounds and a putative broadening of their language network. Musicians appear to have an increased sensitivity to acoustic features and enhanced selective attention to temporal features of speech that is facilitated by musical training and supported, in part, by right hemisphere homologues of established speech processing regions of the brain.

  4. High spirituality may be associated with right hemispheric lateralization in Korean adults living with epilepsy.

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    Lee, Sang-Ahm; Ko, Myung-Ah; Choi, Eun-Ju; Jeon, Ji-Ye; Ryu, Han Uk

    2017-11-01

    Although it is known that epilepsy and spirituality are related, spirituality in epilepsy has received relatively little clinical and scientific attention. Therefore, we investigated which epilepsy-related factors are associated with high spirituality in Korean adults living with epilepsy. This cross-sectional study was conducted in two university hospitals in Korea. Spirituality was assessed using the 6-item Spirituality Self-Rating Scale (SSRS). The participants were categorized into high and low spirituality groups according to the median SSRS score. The presumptive seizure onset zone was determined based on the clinical semiology, electroencephalography, and magnetic resonance imaging findings. Of the 180 participants, 61.7% declared that they had a religious affiliation. The median SSRS score was 15 (interquartile range: 7, 22). The high spirituality subgroup consisted of 92 (51.1%) participants. In the univariate analyses, the high spirituality group was significantly associated with female sex (p<0.05), older age (p<0.01), longer epilepsy duration (p<0.05), polytherapy (p<0.05), complex partial seizure (p<0.05), levetiracetam or topiramate usage (p<0.05), and a right-lateralized seizure onset zone. The multiple logistic regression analysis identified right hemispheric lateralization as the only independent factor associated with high spirituality (odds ratio: 2.410, 95% confidence interval: 1.051-5.528, p<0.05). High spirituality may be associated with right hemispheric lateralization but not with the temporal localization of the seizure onset zone in Korean adults with epilepsy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The effect of viewing speech on auditory speech processing is different in the left and right hemispheres.

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    Davis, Chris; Kislyuk, Daniel; Kim, Jeesun; Sams, Mikko

    2008-11-25

    We used whole-head magnetoencephalograpy (MEG) to record changes in neuromagnetic N100m responses generated in the left and right auditory cortex as a function of the match between visual and auditory speech signals. Stimuli were auditory-only (AO) and auditory-visual (AV) presentations of /pi/, /ti/ and /vi/. Three types of intensity matched auditory stimuli were used: intact speech (Normal), frequency band filtered speech (Band) and speech-shaped white noise (Noise). The behavioural task was to detect the /vi/ syllables which comprised 12% of stimuli. N100m responses were measured to averaged /pi/ and /ti/ stimuli. Behavioural data showed that identification of the stimuli was faster and more accurate for Normal than for Band stimuli, and for Band than for Noise stimuli. Reaction times were faster for AV than AO stimuli. MEG data showed that in the left hemisphere, N100m to both AO and AV stimuli was largest for the Normal, smaller for Band and smallest for Noise stimuli. In the right hemisphere, Normal and Band AO stimuli elicited N100m responses of quite similar amplitudes, but N100m amplitude to Noise was about half of that. There was a reduction in N100m for the AV compared to the AO conditions. The size of this reduction for each stimulus type was same in the left hemisphere but graded in the right (being largest to the Normal, smaller to the Band and smallest to the Noise stimuli). The N100m decrease for the Normal stimuli was significantly larger in the right than in the left hemisphere. We suggest that the effect of processing visual speech seen in the right hemisphere likely reflects suppression of the auditory response based on AV cues for place of articulation.

  6. Holistic Processing and Right Hemisphere Lateralization Do Not Always Go Together—Evidence from Computational Modeling

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    Janet H. Hsiao

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies on face recognition have suggested a relationship between holistic processing and right hemisphere (RH lateralization. Thus, it has long been assumed that holistic processing is a property of RH processing. Nevertheless, recent studies showed reduced holistic processing and increased RH lateralization in Chinese character recognition expertise, suggesting that these two effects may be separate processes. Through computational modeling, in which we implement a theory of hemispheric asymmetry in perception that posits a low spatial frequency bias in the RH and a high spatial frequency bias in the left hemisphere (i.e. the Double Filtering by Frequency Theory, Ivry & Robertson, 1998, here we show that when the recognition task relies purely on featural information, holistic processing increases whereas RH lateralization decreases with increasing stimulus similarity, and there is a negative correlation between them. In contrast, when the recognition task relies purely on configural information, although holistic processing also increases whereas RH lateralization decreases with increasing stimulus similarity, there is no correlation between them. This result suggests that holistic processing and RH lateralization are separate processes that can be influenced differentially by task requirements.

  7. Gender Differences in the Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Right Hemisphere Lateralization for Facial Processing

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    Castro-Schilo, Laura; Kee, Daniel W.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined relationships between emotional intelligence, measured by the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test, and right hemisphere dominance for a free vision chimeric face test. A sample of 122 ethnically diverse college students participated and completed online versions of the forenamed tests. A hierarchical…

  8. Awake right hemisphere brain surgery.

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    Hulou, M Maher; Cote, David J; Olubiyi, Olutayo I; Smith, Timothy R; Chiocca, E Antonio; Johnson, Mark D

    2015-12-01

    We report the indications and outcomes of awake right hemispheric brain surgery, as well as a rare patient with crossed aphasia. Awake craniotomies are often performed to protect eloquent cortex. We reviewed the medical records for 35 of 96 patients, in detail, who had awake right hemisphere brain operations. Intraoperative cortical mapping of motor and/or language function was performed in 29 of the 35 patients. A preoperative speech impairment and left hand dominance were the main indicators for awake right-sided craniotomies in patients with right hemisphere lesions. Four patients with lesion proximity to eloquent areas underwent awake craniotomies without cortical mapping. In addition, one patient had a broncho-pulmonary fistula, and another had a recent major cardiac procedure that precluded awake surgery. An eloquent cortex representation was identified in 14 patients (48.3%). Postoperatively, seven of 17 patients (41.1%) who presented with weakness, experienced improvements in their motor functions, 11 of 16 (68.7%) with seizures became seizure-free, and seven of nine (77.7%) with moderate to severe headaches and one of two with a visual field deficit improved significantly. There were also improvements in speech and language functions in all patients who presented with speech difficulties. A right sided awake craniotomy is an excellent option for left handed patients, or those with right sided cortical lesions that result in preoperative speech impairments. When combined with intraoperative cortical mapping, both speech and motor function can be well preserved. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Clinical Relevance of Discourse Characteristics after Right Hemisphere Brain Damage

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    Blake, Margaret Lehman

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Discourse characteristics of adults with right hemisphere brain damage are similar to those reported for healthy older adults, prompting the question of whether changes are due to neurological lesions or normal aging processes. The clinical relevance of potential differences across groups was examined through ratings by speech-language…

  10. Hemispheric lateralization of linguistic prosody recognition in comparison to speech and speaker recognition.

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    Kreitewolf, Jens; Friederici, Angela D; von Kriegstein, Katharina

    2014-11-15

    Hemispheric specialization for linguistic prosody is a controversial issue. While it is commonly assumed that linguistic prosody and emotional prosody are preferentially processed in the right hemisphere, neuropsychological work directly comparing processes of linguistic prosody and emotional prosody suggests a predominant role of the left hemisphere for linguistic prosody processing. Here, we used two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments to clarify the role of left and right hemispheres in the neural processing of linguistic prosody. In the first experiment, we sought to confirm previous findings showing that linguistic prosody processing compared to other speech-related processes predominantly involves the right hemisphere. Unlike previous studies, we controlled for stimulus influences by employing a prosody and speech task using the same speech material. The second experiment was designed to investigate whether a left-hemispheric involvement in linguistic prosody processing is specific to contrasts between linguistic prosody and emotional prosody or whether it also occurs when linguistic prosody is contrasted against other non-linguistic processes (i.e., speaker recognition). Prosody and speaker tasks were performed on the same stimulus material. In both experiments, linguistic prosody processing was associated with activity in temporal, frontal, parietal and cerebellar regions. Activation in temporo-frontal regions showed differential lateralization depending on whether the control task required recognition of speech or speaker: recognition of linguistic prosody predominantly involved right temporo-frontal areas when it was contrasted against speech recognition; when contrasted against speaker recognition, recognition of linguistic prosody predominantly involved left temporo-frontal areas. The results show that linguistic prosody processing involves functions of both hemispheres and suggest that recognition of linguistic prosody is based on

  11. Language deficits as a possible symptom of right hemisphere dysfunctions in Asperger’s syndrome

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    Anita Bryńska

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative communication disorders belong to the key symptoms of pervasive developmental disorders (PDD. The severity of the symptoms of communication disorders varies depending on the type of PDD, from the lack of functional speech to overdeveloped verbal competencies measured by standardized scales. In Asperger’s syndrome (AS, observed language abnormalities include: pragmatics (application of language in social context, semantics (identifying different meanings of the same word and prosody (rhythm, intonation and modulation of speech. In the case of AS, the difference between formal language skills, i.e. within morphological, phonological and syntactic functions, and semantic and pragmatic deficits is clearly noticeable and distinctive. This situation arouses some questions about neurobiological conditions of these deficits. The language functions are among the first functions for which locations in the brain have been established. Traditionally they have been ascribed to some regions in the left hemisphere; they undergo lateralization and are accomplished owing to the activity of the primary, secondary and tertiary regions of associative cortex. However, there is also quite a lot of evidence suggesting that the right hemisphere plays an important role in communication processes, especially in some aspects of pragmatics and discourse. The analysis of communication deficits observed in patients with acquired right hemisphere damages and patients with AS as well as abnormal patterns of hemispheric asymmetry in this group of patients, suggest that the right hemisphere is involved in aetiology of PDD.

  12. The right hemisphere in esthetic perception.

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    Bromberger, Bianca; Sternschein, Rebecca; Widick, Page; Smith, William; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2011-01-01

    Little about the neuropsychology of art perception and evaluation is known. Most neuropsychological approaches to art have focused on art production and have been anecdotal and qualitative. The field is in desperate need of quantitative methods if it is to advance. Here, we combine a quantitative approach to the assessment of art with modern voxel-lesion-symptom-mapping methods to determine brain-behavior relationships in art perception. We hypothesized that perception of different attributes of art are likely to be disrupted by damage to different regions of the brain. Twenty participants with right hemisphere damage were given the Assessment of Art Attributes, which is designed to quantify judgments of descriptive attributes of visual art. Each participant rated 24 paintings on 6 conceptual attributes (depictive accuracy, abstractness, emotion, symbolism, realism, and animacy) and 6 perceptual attributes (depth, color temperature, color saturation, balance, stroke, and simplicity) and their interest in and preference for these paintings. Deviation scores were obtained for each brain-damaged participant for each attribute based on correlations with group average ratings from 30 age-matched healthy participants. Right hemisphere damage affected participants' judgments of abstractness, accuracy, and stroke quality. Damage to areas within different parts of the frontal parietal and lateral temporal cortices produced deviation in judgments in four of six conceptual attributes (abstractness, symbolism, realism, and animacy). Of the formal attributes, only depth was affected by inferior prefrontal damage. No areas of brain damage were associated with deviations in interestingness or preference judgments. The perception of conceptual and formal attributes in artwork may in part dissociate from each other and from evaluative judgments. More generally, this approach demonstrates the feasibility of quantitative approaches to the neuropsychology of art.

  13. The Right Hemisphere in Aesthetic Perception

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    Bianca eBromberger

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Little about the neuropsychology of art perception and evaluation is known. Most neuropsychological approaches to art have focused on art production and have been anecdotal and qualitative. The field is in desperate need of quantitative methods if it is to advance. Here, we combine a quantitative approach to the assessment of art with modern voxel-lesion-symptom-mapping (VLSM methods to determine brain-behavior relationships in art perception. We hypothesized that perception of different attributes of art are likely to be disrupted by damage to different regions of the brain. Twenty participants with right hemisphere damage were given the Assessment of Art Attributes (AAA, which is designed to quantify judgments of descriptive attributes of visual art. Each participant rated 24 paintings on 6 conceptual attributes (depictive accuracy, abstractness, emotion, symbolism, realism, and animacy and 6 perceptual attributes (depth, color temperature, color saturation, balance, stroke, and simplicity and their interest in and preference for these paintings. Deviation scores were obtained for each brain-damaged participant for each attribute based on correlations with group average ratings from 30 age-matched healthy participants. Right hemisphere damage affected participants' judgments of abstractness, accuracy, and stroke quality. Damage to areas within different parts of the frontal parietal and lateral temporal cortices produced deviation in judgments in four of six conceptual attributes (abstractness, symbolism, realism and animacy. Of the formal attributes, only depth was affected by inferior prefrontal damage. No areas of brain damage were associated with deviations in interestingness or preference judgments. The perception of conceptual and formal attributes in artwork may in part dissociate from each other and from evaluative judgments. More generally, this approach demonstrates the feasibility of quantitative approaches to the neuropsychology of

  14. Homotopic Language Reorganization in the Right Hemisphere after Early Left Hemisphere Injury

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    Tivarus, Madalina E.; Starling, Sarah J.; Newport, Elissa L.; Langfitt, John T.

    2012-01-01

    To determine the areas involved in reorganization of language to the right hemisphere after early left hemisphere injury, we compared fMRI activation patterns during four production and comprehension tasks in post-surgical epilepsy patients with either left (LH) or right hemisphere (RH) speech dominance (determined by Wada testing) and healthy…

  15. Right Hemisphere Dominance for Emotion Processing in Baboons

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    Wallez, Catherine; Vauclair, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Asymmetries of emotional facial expressions in humans offer reliable indexes to infer brain lateralization and mostly revealed right hemisphere dominance. Studies concerned with oro-facial asymmetries in nonhuman primates largely showed a left-sided asymmetry in chimpanzees, marmosets and macaques. The presence of asymmetrical oro-facial…

  16. Right Hemisphere Dominance in Visual Statistical Learning

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    Roser, Matthew E.; Fiser, Jozsef; Aslin, Richard N.; Gazzaniga, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Several studies report a right hemisphere advantage for visuospatial integration and a left hemisphere advantage for inferring conceptual knowledge from patterns of covariation. The present study examined hemispheric asymmetry in the implicit learning of new visual feature combinations. A split-brain patient and normal control participants viewed…

  17. Motor laterality as an indicator of speech laterality.

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    Flowers, Kenneth A; Hudson, John M

    2013-03-01

    The determination of speech laterality, especially where it is anomalous, is both a theoretical issue and a practical problem for brain surgery. Handedness is commonly thought to be related to speech representation, but exactly how is not clearly understood. This investigation analyzed handedness by preference rating and performance on a reliable task of motor laterality in 34 patients undergoing a Wada test, to see if they could provide an indicator of speech laterality. Hand usage preference ratings divided patients into left, right, and mixed in preference. Between-hand differences in movement time on a pegboard task determined motor laterality. Results were correlated (χ2) with speech representation as determined by a standard Wada test. It was found that patients whose between-hand difference in speed on the motor task was small or inconsistent were the ones whose Wada test speech representation was likely to be ambiguous or anomalous, whereas all those with a consistently large between-hand difference showed clear unilateral speech representation in the hemisphere controlling the better hand (χ2 = 10.45, df = 1, p laterality are related where they both involve a central control of motor output sequencing and that a measure of that aspect of the former will indicate the likely representation of the latter. A between-hand measure of motor laterality based on such a measure may indicate the possibility of anomalous speech representation. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Right-hemispheric dominance for visual remapping in humans.

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    Pisella, L; Alahyane, N; Blangero, A; Thery, F; Blanc, S; Pelisson, D

    2011-02-27

    We review evidence showing a right-hemispheric dominance for visuo-spatial processing and representation in humans. Accordingly, visual disorganization symptoms (intuitively related to remapping impairments) are observed in both neglect and constructional apraxia. More specifically, we review findings from the intervening saccade paradigm in humans--and present additional original data--which suggest a specific role of the asymmetrical network at the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) in the right hemisphere in visual remapping: following damage to the right dorsal posterior parietal cortex (PPC) as well as part of the corpus callosum connecting the PPC to the frontal lobes, patient OK in a double-step saccadic task exhibited an impairment when the second saccade had to be directed rightward. This singular and lateralized deficit cannot result solely from the patient's cortical lesion and, therefore, we propose that it is due to his callosal lesion that may specifically interrupt the interhemispheric transfer of information necessary to execute accurate rightward saccades towards a remapped target location. This suggests a specialized right-hemispheric network for visuo-spatial remapping that subsequently transfers target location information to downstream planning regions, which are symmetrically organized.

  19. The right hemisphere's contribution to discourse processing: A study in temporal lobe epilepsy.

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    Lomlomdjian, Carolina; Múnera, Claudia P; Low, Daniel M; Terpiluk, Verónica; Solís, Patricia; Abusamra, Valeria; Kochen, Silvia

    2017-08-01

    Discourse skills - in which the right hemisphere has an important role - enables verbal communication by selecting contextually relevant information and integrating it coherently to infer the correct meaning. However, language research in epilepsy has focused on single word analysis related mainly to left hemisphere processing. The purpose of this study was to investigate discourse abilities in patients with right lateralized medial temporal lobe epilepsy (RTLE) by comparing their performance to that of patients with left temporal lobe epilepsy (LTLE). 74 pharmacoresistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients were evaluated: 34 with RTLE and 40 with LTLE. Subjects underwent a battery of tests that measure comprehension and production of conversational and narrative discourse. Disease related variables and general neuropsychological data were evaluated. The RTLE group presented deficits in interictal conversational and narrative discourse, with a disintegrated speech, lack of categorization and misinterpretation of social meaning. LTLE group, on the other hand, showed a tendency to lower performance in logical-temporal sequencing. RTLE patients showed discourse deficits which have been described in right hemisphere damaged patients due to other etiologies. Medial and anterior temporal lobe structures appear to link semantic, world knowledge, and social cognition associated areas to construct a contextually related coherent meaning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Right hemispheric contributions to fine auditory temporal discriminations: high-density electrical mapping of the duration mismatch negativity (MMN

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    Pierfilippo De Sanctis

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available That language processing is primarily a function of the left hemisphere has led to the supposition that auditory temporal discrimination is particularly well-tuned in the left hemisphere, since speech discrimination is thought to rely heavily on the registration of temporal transitions. However, physiological data have not consistently supported this view. Rather, functional imaging studies often show equally strong, if not stronger, contributions from the right hemisphere during temporal processing tasks, suggesting a more complex underlying neural substrate. The mismatch negativity (MMN component of the human auditory evoked-potential (AEP provides a sensitive metric of duration processing in human auditory cortex and lateralization of MMN can be readily assayed when sufficiently dense electrode arrays are employed. Here, the sensitivity of the left and right auditory cortex for temporal processing was measured by recording the MMN to small duration deviants presented to either the left or right ear. We found that duration deviants differing by just 15% (i.e. rare 115 ms tones presented in a stream of 100 ms tones elicited a significant MMN for tones presented to the left ear (biasing the right hemisphere. However, deviants presented to the right ear elicited no detectable MMN for this separation. Further, participants detected significantly more duration deviants and committed fewer false alarms for tones presented to the left ear during a subsequent psychophysical testing session. In contrast to the prevalent model, these results point to equivalent if not greater right hemisphere contributions to temporal processing of small duration changes.

  1. Visual attention capacity after right hemisphere lesions

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    Habekost, Thomas; Rostrup, Egill

    2007-01-01

    Recently there has been a growing interest in visual short-term memory (VSTM) including the neural basis of the function. Processing speed, another main aspect of visual attention capacity, has received less investigation. For both cognitive functions human lesion studies are sparse. We used...... a whole report experiment for estimation of these two parameters in 22 patients with right side stroke. Psychophysical performance was analyzed using Bundesen's [Bundesen, C. (1990). A theory of visual attention. Psychological Review, 97, 523-547] Theory of Visual Attention (TVA) and compared...... for both VSTM capacity and ipsilesional processing speed. The study also showed that lesions in a large region of the right hemisphere, including the putamen, insula, and inferior frontal cortex, do not lead to general deficits in the capacity of visual attention. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Apr-8...

  2. Reading the Wrong Way with the Right Hemisphere

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    Ian J. Kirk

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Reading is a complex process, drawing on a variety of brain functions in order to link symbols to words and concepts. The three major brain areas linked to reading and phonological analysis include the left temporoparietal region, the left occipitotemporal region and the inferior frontal gyrus. Decreased activation of the left posterior language system in dyslexia is well documented but there is relatively limited attention given to the role of the right hemisphere. The current study investigated differences in right and left hemisphere activation between individuals with dyslexia and non-impaired readers in lexical decision tasks (regular words, irregular words, pseudowords during functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI. Results revealed the expected hypo-activation in the left posterior areas in those with dyslexia but also areas of overactivation in the right hemisphere. During pseudoword decisions, for example, adults with dyslexia showed more right inferior occipital gyrus activation than controls. In general the increased activation of left-hemisphere language areas found in response to both regular and pseudowords was absent in dyslexics. Laterality indices showed that while controls showed left lateralised activation of the temporal lobe during lexical decision making, dyslexic readers showed right activation. Findings will inform theories of reading and will have implications for the design of reading interventions.

  3. Reading the wrong way with the right hemisphere.

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    Waldie, Karen E; Haigh, Charlotte E; Badzakova-Trajkov, Gjurgjica; Buckley, Jude; Kirk, Ian J

    2013-07-17

    Reading is a complex process, drawing on a variety of brain functions in order to link symbols to words and concepts. The three major brain areas linked to reading and phonological analysis include the left temporoparietal region, the left occipitotemporal region and the inferior frontal gyrus. Decreased activation of the left posterior language system in dyslexia is well documented but there is relatively limited attention given to the role of the right hemisphere. The current study investigated differences in right and left hemisphere activation between individuals with dyslexia and non-impaired readers in lexical decision tasks (regular words, irregular words, pseudowords) during functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). Results revealed the expected hypo-activation in the left posterior areas in those with dyslexia but also areas of overactivation in the right hemisphere. During pseudoword decisions, for example, adults with dyslexia showed more right inferior occipital gyrus activation than controls. In general the increased activation of left-hemisphere language areas found in response to both regular and pseudowords was absent in dyslexics. Laterality indices showed that while controls showed left lateralised activation of the temporal lobe during lexical decision making, dyslexic readers showed right activation. Findings will inform theories of reading and will have implications for the design of reading interventions.

  4. What Does the Right Hemisphere Know about Phoneme Categories?

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    Wolmetz, Michael; Poeppel, David; Rapp, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    Innate auditory sensitivities and familiarity with the sounds of language give rise to clear influences of phonemic categories on adult perception of speech. With few exceptions, current models endorse highly left-hemisphere-lateralized mechanisms responsible for the influence of phonemic category on speech perception, based primarily on results…

  5. Right hemispheric reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome in a patient with left hemispheric partial seizures.

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    Perez, Gina S; McCaslin, Justin; Shamim, Sadat

    2017-04-01

    We report a right-handed 19-year-old girl who developed reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) lateralized to the right hemisphere with simultaneous new-onset left hemispheric seizures. RCVS, typically more diffuse, was lateralized to one of the cerebral hemispheres.

  6. Mapping a lateralization gradient within the ventral stream for auditory speech perception.

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    Specht, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    Recent models on speech perception propose a dual-stream processing network, with a dorsal stream, extending from the posterior temporal lobe of the left hemisphere through inferior parietal areas into the left inferior frontal gyrus, and a ventral stream that is assumed to originate in the primary auditory cortex in the upper posterior part of the temporal lobe and to extend toward the anterior part of the temporal lobe, where it may connect to the ventral part of the inferior frontal gyrus. This article describes and reviews the results from a series of complementary functional magnetic resonance imaging studies that aimed to trace the hierarchical processing network for speech comprehension within the left and right hemisphere with a particular focus on the temporal lobe and the ventral stream. As hypothesized, the results demonstrate a bilateral involvement of the temporal lobes in the processing of speech signals. However, an increasing leftward asymmetry was detected from auditory-phonetic to lexico-semantic processing and along the posterior-anterior axis, thus forming a "lateralization" gradient. This increasing leftward lateralization was particularly evident for the left superior temporal sulcus and more anterior parts of the temporal lobe.

  7. Factors Influencing Right Hemisphere Engagement During Metaphor Comprehension

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    Diaz, Michele T.; Eppes, Anna

    2018-01-01

    Although the left hemisphere is critical for language, clinical, behavioral, and neuroimaging research suggest that the right hemisphere also contributes to language comprehension. In particular, research has suggested that figurative language may be one type of language that preferentially engages right hemisphere regions. However, there is disagreement about whether these regions within the right hemisphere are sensitive to figurative language per se or to other factors that co-vary with figurativeness. In this article, we will review the neuroimaging literature on figurative language processing, focusing on metaphors, within the context of several theoretical perspectives that have been proposed about hemispheric function in language. Then we will examine three factors that may influence right hemisphere engagement: novelty, task difficulty, and context. We propose that factors that increase integration demands drive right hemisphere involvement in language processing, and that such recruitment is not limited to figurative language. PMID:29643825

  8. Hemispheric lateralization in an analysis of speech sounds. Left hemisphere dominance replicated in Japanese subjects.

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    Koyama, S; Gunji, A; Yabe, H; Oiwa, S; Akahane-Yamada, R; Kakigi, R; Näätänen, R

    2000-09-01

    Evoked magnetic responses to speech sounds [R. Näätänen, A. Lehtokoski, M. Lennes, M. Cheour, M. Huotilainen, A. Iivonen, M. Vainio, P. Alku, R.J. Ilmoniemi, A. Luuk, J. Allik, J. Sinkkonen and K. Alho, Language-specific phoneme representations revealed by electric and magnetic brain responses. Nature, 385 (1997) 432-434.] were recorded from 13 Japanese subjects (right-handed). Infrequently presented vowels ([o]) among repetitive vowels ([e]) elicited the magnetic counterpart of mismatch negativity, MMNm (Bilateral, nine subjects; Left hemisphere alone, three subjects; Right hemisphere alone, one subject). The estimated source of the MMNm was stronger in the left than in the right auditory cortex. The sources were located posteriorly in the left than in the right auditory cortex. These findings are consistent with the results obtained in Finnish [R. Näätänen, A. Lehtokoski, M. Lennes, M. Cheour, M. Huotilainen, A. Iivonen, M.Vainio, P.Alku, R.J. Ilmoniemi, A. Luuk, J. Allik, J. Sinkkonen and K. Alho, Language-specific phoneme representations revealed by electric and magnetic brain responses. Nature, 385 (1997) 432-434.][T. Rinne, K. Alho, P. Alku, M. Holi, J. Sinkkonen, J. Virtanen, O. Bertrand and R. Näätänen, Analysis of speech sounds is left-hemisphere predominant at 100-150 ms after sound onset. Neuroreport, 10 (1999) 1113-1117.] and English [K. Alho, J.F. Connolly, M. Cheour, A. Lehtokoski, M. Huotilainen, J. Virtanen, R. Aulanko and R.J. Ilmoniemi, Hemispheric lateralization in preattentive processing of speech sounds. Neurosci. Lett., 258 (1998) 9-12.] subjects. Instead of the P1m observed in Finnish [M. Tervaniemi, A. Kujala, K. Alho, J. Virtanen, R.J. Ilmoniemi and R. Näätänen, Functional specialization of the human auditory cortex in processing phonetic and musical sounds: A magnetoencephalographic (MEG) study. Neuroimage, 9 (1999) 330-336.] and English [K. Alho, J. F. Connolly, M. Cheour, A. Lehtokoski, M. Huotilainen, J. Virtanen, R. Aulanko

  9. Surgical improvement of speech disorder caused by amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saigusa, Hideto; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Nakamura, Tsuyoshi; Komachi, Taro; Kadosono, Osamu; Ito, Hiroyuki; Saigusa, Makoto; Niimi, Seiji

    2012-12-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive debilitating neurological disease. ALS disturbs the quality of life by affecting speech, swallowing and free mobility of the arms without affecting intellectual function. It is therefore of significance to improve intelligibility and quality of speech sounds, especially for ALS patients with slowly progressive courses. Currently, however, there is no effective or established approach to improve speech disorder caused by ALS. We investigated a surgical procedure to improve speech disorder for some patients with neuromuscular diseases with velopharyngeal closure incompetence. In this study, we performed the surgical procedure for two patients suffering from severe speech disorder caused by slowly progressing ALS. The patients suffered from speech disorder with hypernasality and imprecise and weak articulation during a 6-year course (patient 1) and a 3-year course (patient 2) of slowly progressing ALS. We narrowed bilateral lateral palatopharyngeal wall at velopharyngeal port, and performed this surgery under general anesthesia without muscle relaxant for the two patients. Postoperatively, intelligibility and quality of their speech sounds were greatly improved within one month without any speech therapy. The patients were also able to generate longer speech phrases after the surgery. Importantly, there was no serious complication during or after the surgery. In summary, we performed bilateral narrowing of lateral palatopharyngeal wall as a speech surgery for two patients suffering from severe speech disorder associated with ALS. With this technique, improved intelligibility and quality of speech can be maintained for longer duration for the patients with slowly progressing ALS.

  10. Right hemisphere control of visuospatial attention in near space.

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    Longo, Matthew R; Trippier, Sarah; Vagnoni, Eleonora; Lourenco, Stella F

    2015-04-01

    Traditionally, the right cerebral hemisphere has been considered to be specialized for spatial attention and orienting. A large body of research has demonstrated dissociable representations of the near space immediately surrounding the body and the more distance far space. In this study, we investigated whether right hemisphere activations commonly reported for tasks involving spatial attention (such as the line bisection and landmark tasks) are specific to stimuli presented in near space. In separate blocks of trials, participants judged either whether a vertical transector was to the left or right of the centre of a line (landmark task) or whether the line was red or blue (colour task). Stimuli were seen from four distances (30, 60, 90, 120 cm). We used EEG to measure an ERP component (the 'line-bisection effect') specific to the direction of spatial attention (i.e., landmark minus colour). Consistent with previous results, spatial attention produced a right-lateralized negativity over occipito-parietal channels. The magnitude of this negativity was inversely related to viewing distance, being largest in near space and reduced in far space. These results suggest that the right occipito-temporal cortex may be specialized not just for the orientation of spatial attention generally, but specifically for orienting attention in the near space immediately surrounding the body. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The non-linear development of the right hemispheric specialization for human face perception.

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    Lochy, Aliette; de Heering, Adélaïde; Rossion, Bruno

    2017-06-24

    The developmental origins of human adults' right hemispheric specialization for face perception remain unclear. On the one hand, infant studies have shown a right hemispheric advantage for face perception. On the other hand, it has been proposed that the adult right hemispheric lateralization for face perception slowly emerges during childhood due to reading acquisition, which increases left lateralized posterior responses to competing written material (e.g., visual letters and words). Since methodological approaches used in infant and children typically differ when their face capabilities are explored, resolving this issue has been difficult. Here we tested 5-year-old preschoolers varying in their level of visual letter knowledge with the same fast periodic visual stimulation (FPVS) paradigm leading to strongly right lateralized electrophysiological occipito-temporal face-selective responses in 4- to 6-month-old infants (de Heering and Rossion, 2015). Children's face-selective response was quantitatively larger and differed in scalp topography from infants', but did not differ across hemispheres. There was a small positive correlation between preschoolers' letter knowledge and a non-normalized index of right hemispheric specialization for faces. These observations show that previous discrepant results in the literature reflect a genuine nonlinear development of the neural processes underlying face perception and are not merely due to methodological differences across age groups. We discuss several factors that could contribute to the adult right hemispheric lateralization for faces, such as myelination of the corpus callosum and reading acquisition. Our findings point to the value of FPVS coupled with electroencephalography to assess specialized face perception processes throughout development with the same methodology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A Case Report of A Persian Patient with Crossed Aphasia: Agrammatism after Right Hemisphere Lesion

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    Zahra Sadat Ghoreishi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Crossed aphasia in dextral (CAD refers to aphasia occurring after right brain damage in dextral persons. CAD is a rare phenomenon in the world and there has not been any report of crossed aphasia in Persian, that is why we measured to report a Persian patient with crossed aphasia and this is a first report of incidence of CA in Persian. In this case report study, we offered a complete report of a 31-year-oldright handed man with right hemisphere lesion who experienced aphasia after his brain injury. We assessed the patient with Persian version of Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT, Test of Anomia and Apraxia. In addition, more than 100 utterances of connected speech were gathered and analyzed. According to the results of anomia and apraxia tests, he was at normal level in both of them, but he couldn’t get complete score in BAT, the worst score was achieved in making sentence subtest of BAT. He also had deficits in the syntactic comprehension, grammaticality judgments, lexical decision, verbal fluency and reading comprehension subtests of BAT. Linguistic analysis of his connected speech indicated low speech rate and deficit in using prepositions, compound nouns and verbs. The results confirmed the existence of aphasia and incoherent and non-cohesive speech. The reason of the latter could be deficit in using complex sentences and discourse marker (grammatical problems and circumlocution, deficit in topic maintenance , using pronoun ambiguouslyand selecting inappropriate words for convey meaning (pragmatic problems related to right hemisphere problem .In sum, this patient showed combination of aphasia, agrammatism, and right hemisphere damage( pragmatic deficit together.

  13. Right Hemispheric Dominance in Processing of Unconscious Negative Emotion

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    Sato, Wataru; Aoki, Satoshi

    2006-01-01

    Right hemispheric dominance in unconscious emotional processing has been suggested, but remains controversial. This issue was investigated using the subliminal affective priming paradigm combined with unilateral visual presentation in 40 normal subjects. In either left or right visual fields, angry facial expressions, happy facial expressions, or…

  14. Cardiac asystole associated with seizures of right hemispheric onset

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    Jennifer Chu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ictal asystole is frequently underrecognized despite being a potentially lethal condition. We report two cases of ictal asystole with right hemispheric onset. These cases are unique since previous literature reports that seizures associated with bradyarrhythmias typically arise from left hemispheric foci. These cases further underscore the importance of clinical vigilance and the need of an enhanced diagnostic biomarker.

  15. Right-hemispheric processing of non-linguistic word features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumgaertner, Annette; Hartwigsen, Gesa; Roman Siebner, Hartwig

    2013-01-01

    -hemispheric homologues of classic left-hemispheric language areas may partly be due to processing nonlinguistic perceptual features of verbal stimuli. We used functional MRI (fMRI) to clarify the role of the right hemisphere in the perception of nonlinguistic word features in healthy individuals. Participants made...... perceptual, semantic, or phonological decisions on the same set of auditorily and visually presented word stimuli. Perceptual decisions required judgements about stimulus-inherent changes in font size (visual modality) or fundamental frequency contour (auditory modality). The semantic judgement required......, the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), an area previously suggested to support language recovery after left-hemispheric stroke, displayed modality-independent activation during perceptual processing of word stimuli. Our findings indicate that activation of the right hemisphere during language tasks may...

  16. Sleep Spindles in the Right Hemisphere Support Awareness of Regularities and Reflect Pre-Sleep Activations.

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    Yordanova, Juliana; Kolev, Vasil; Bruns, Eike; Kirov, Roumen; Verleger, Rolf

    2017-11-01

    The present study explored the sleep mechanisms which may support awareness of hidden regularities. Before sleep, 53 participants learned implicitly a lateralized variant of the serial response-time task in order to localize sensorimotor encoding either in the left or right hemisphere and induce implicit regularity representations. Electroencephalographic (EEG) activity was recorded at multiple electrodes during both task performance and sleep, searching for lateralized traces of the preceding activity during learning. Sleep EEG analysis focused on region-specific slow (9-12 Hz) and fast (13-16 Hz) sleep spindles during nonrapid eye movement sleep. Fast spindle activity at those motor regions that were activated during learning increased with the amount of postsleep awareness. Independently of side of learning, spindle activity at right frontal and fronto-central regions was involved: there, fast spindles increased with the transformation of sequence knowledge from implicit before sleep to explicit after sleep, and slow spindles correlated with individual abilities of gaining awareness. These local modulations of sleep spindles corresponded to regions with greater presleep activation in participants with postsleep explicit knowledge. Sleep spindle mechanisms are related to explicit awareness (1) by tracing the activation of motor cortical and right-hemisphere regions which had stronger involvement already during learning and (2) by recruitment of individually consolidated processing modules in the right hemisphere. The integration of different sleep spindle mechanisms with functional states during wake collectively supports the gain of awareness of previously experienced regularities, with a special role for the right hemisphere. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press [on behalf of the Sleep Research Society].

  17. Communication Impairments in Patients with Right Hemisphere Damage

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    Abusamra, Valeria

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Right brain damages can manifest deficits of communicative skills, which sometimes cause an important inability.The communication impairments following a right hemisphere damage are distinct from those in aphasia and may affect discursive, lexico-semantic, pragmatic, and prosodic components of communication. It is calculated that this troubles affect almost a 50% of this patients.However, these impairments have essentially been studied separately and their possible coexistence in a same individual is still unknown. Moreover, the clinical profiles of communication impairments following a right hemisphere damage, including their correlation with underlying cognitive deficits, are still unreported. The goal of this article is to offer an overview of the verbal communication deficits that can be found in right-hemisphere-damaged individuals. These deficits can interfere, at different levels, with prosody, the semantic processing of words and discourse and pragmatic abilities. In spite of the incapability that they produce, communicational impairments in right brain damaged are usually neglected. Probably, the sub-diagnostic is due to the lack of an appropriate classification or to the absent of adequate assessment tools. In fact, patients with right brain damages might present harsh communicational deficits but perform correctly on aphasia tests because the last ones are not designed to detect this kind of deficit but left brain damaged impairments. Increasing our knowledge about the role of the right-hemisphere in verbal communication will have major theoretical and clinical impacts; it could facilitate the diagnosis of right brain patients in the clinical circle and it will help to lay the foundations to elaborate methods and strategies of intervention.

  18. [Amusia and aphasia of Bolero's creator--influence of the right hemisphere on music].

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    Tudor, Lorraine; Sikirić, Predrag; Tudor, Katarina Ivana; Cambi-Sapunar, Liana; Radonić, Vedran; Tudor, Mario; Buca, Ante; Carija, Robert

    2008-07-01

    The experience with cortical localization (BA 44, 45, 22) of language (Broca, Wernicke and others) in the left hemisphere has been repeatedly tested over the last 150 years and is now generally accepted. A single case report with autopsy findings (Leborgne, Tan tan), has enabled to localize the seat of spoken language in the left third frontal convolution. As music and language have a lot in common and even share the same hearing system, it is logical to try to localize the cognitive centers for music too. The disabling neurological disease illness of Maurice Ravel (1875-1937), a French impressionist composer, is not the right example to localize music center as that of Broca's language center, but it demonstrates the role of the right hemisphere in music production. In the last five years of his life, Ravel suffered from an unknown disease that affected the left hemisphere causing aphasia, apraxia, alexia, agraphia and amusia. It was the reason why Ravel could not compose during the last years of his life. In contrast to Ravel, Shebalin and Britten continued writing music works of their own although aphasic after having sustained two strokes to the left hemisphere. While lacking clinical cases with selective ablative brain lesions, research into the music localization can be done using modern imaging technologies such as fMRI and PET. Exercising music (professionally) develops analytical process in the left hemisphere whereas other individuals process music in their right hemisphere. There is right ear (left hemisphere) predominance in musicians and vice versa in musical amateurs. Music lateralization towards the right hemisphere is seen in women and in inattentive listeners. It can be subject to cultural influence, so the Japanese process their traditional popular music in the left hemisphere, whereas Westerners process the same music in the right hemisphere. Music and language are processed separately; they are localized in homologous regions of the opposite

  19. Predicting masking release of lateralized speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chabot-Leclerc, Alexandre; MacDonald, Ewen; Dau, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    . The largest masking release (MR) was observed when all maskers were on the opposite side of the target. The data in the conditions containing only energetic masking and modulation masking could be accounted for using a binaural extension of the speech-based envelope power spectrum model [sEPSM; Jørgensen et...... al., 2013, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 130], which uses a short-term equalization-cancellation process to model binaural unmasking. In the conditions where informational masking (IM) was involved, the predicted SRTs were lower than the measured values because the model is blind to confusions experienced...

  20. Right hemisphere grey matter structure and language outcomes in chronic left hemisphere stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Shihui; Lacey, Elizabeth H.; Skipper-Kallal, Laura M.; Jiang, Xiong; Harris-Love, Michelle L.; Zeng, Jinsheng

    2016-01-01

    The neural mechanisms underlying recovery of language after left hemisphere stroke remain elusive. Although older evidence suggested that right hemisphere language homologues compensate for damage in left hemisphere language areas, the current prevailing theory suggests that right hemisphere engagement is ineffective or even maladaptive. Using a novel combination of support vector regression-based lesion-symptom mapping and voxel-based morphometry, we aimed to determine whether local grey matter volume in the right hemisphere independently contributes to aphasia outcomes after chronic left hemisphere stroke. Thirty-two left hemisphere stroke survivors with aphasia underwent language assessment with the Western Aphasia Battery-Revised and tests of other cognitive domains. High-resolution T1-weighted images were obtained in aphasia patients and 30 demographically matched healthy controls. Support vector regression-based multivariate lesion-symptom mapping was used to identify critical language areas in the left hemisphere and then to quantify each stroke survivor’s lesion burden in these areas. After controlling for these direct effects of the stroke on language, voxel-based morphometry was then used to determine whether local grey matter volumes in the right hemisphere explained additional variance in language outcomes. In brain areas in which grey matter volumes related to language outcomes, we then compared grey matter volumes in patients and healthy controls to assess post-stroke plasticity. Lesion–symptom mapping showed that specific left hemisphere regions related to different language abilities. After controlling for lesion burden in these areas, lesion size, and demographic factors, grey matter volumes in parts of the right temporoparietal cortex positively related to spontaneous speech, naming, and repetition scores. Examining whether domain general cognitive functions might explain these relationships, partial correlations demonstrated that grey matter

  1. Right hemisphere grey matter structure and language outcomes in chronic left hemisphere stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Shihui; Lacey, Elizabeth H; Skipper-Kallal, Laura M; Jiang, Xiong; Harris-Love, Michelle L; Zeng, Jinsheng; Turkeltaub, Peter E

    2016-01-01

    The neural mechanisms underlying recovery of language after left hemisphere stroke remain elusive. Although older evidence suggested that right hemisphere language homologues compensate for damage in left hemisphere language areas, the current prevailing theory suggests that right hemisphere engagement is ineffective or even maladaptive. Using a novel combination of support vector regression-based lesion-symptom mapping and voxel-based morphometry, we aimed to determine whether local grey matter volume in the right hemisphere independently contributes to aphasia outcomes after chronic left hemisphere stroke. Thirty-two left hemisphere stroke survivors with aphasia underwent language assessment with the Western Aphasia Battery-Revised and tests of other cognitive domains. High-resolution T1-weighted images were obtained in aphasia patients and 30 demographically matched healthy controls. Support vector regression-based multivariate lesion-symptom mapping was used to identify critical language areas in the left hemisphere and then to quantify each stroke survivor's lesion burden in these areas. After controlling for these direct effects of the stroke on language, voxel-based morphometry was then used to determine whether local grey matter volumes in the right hemisphere explained additional variance in language outcomes. In brain areas in which grey matter volumes related to language outcomes, we then compared grey matter volumes in patients and healthy controls to assess post-stroke plasticity. Lesion-symptom mapping showed that specific left hemisphere regions related to different language abilities. After controlling for lesion burden in these areas, lesion size, and demographic factors, grey matter volumes in parts of the right temporoparietal cortex positively related to spontaneous speech, naming, and repetition scores. Examining whether domain general cognitive functions might explain these relationships, partial correlations demonstrated that grey matter

  2. Musical functioning, speech lateralization and the amusias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, I W

    1981-01-17

    Amusia is a condition in which musical capacity is impaired by organic brain disease. Music is in a sense a language and closely resembles speech, both executively and receptively. For musical functioning, rhythmic sense and sense of sounds are essential. Musical ability resides largely in the right (non-dominant) hemisphere. Tests have been devised for the assessment of musical capabilities by Dorgeuille, Grison and Wertheim. Classification of amusia includes vocal amusia, instrumental amnesia, musical agraphia, musical amnesia, disorders of rhythm, and receptive amusia. Amusia like aphasia has clinical significance, and the two show remarkable similarities and often co-exist. Usually executive amusia occurs with executive aphasia and receptive amusia with receptive aphasia, but amusias can exist without aphasia. Severely executive aphasics can sometimes sing with text (words), and this ability is used in the treatment of aphasia. As with aphasia, there is correlation between type of amusia and site of lesion. Thus in executive amusia, the lesion generally occurs in the frontal lobe. In receptive amusia, the lesion is mainly in the temporal lobe. If aphasia is also present the lesion will be in the left (dominant) hemisphere.

  3. Right-Hemisphere (Spatial? Acalculia and the Influence of Neglect

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    Silvia eBenavides-Varela

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at exploring basic number and calculation abilities in right-hemisphere damaged patients (RHD, focusing primarily on one-digit orally presented tasks, which do not require explicit visuo-spatial abilities. Twenty-four non mentally-deteriorated RHD patients (12 with clinical neglect (RHDN+, 12 without clinical neglect (RHDN-, and 12 healthy controls were included in the study. Participants were administered an ad hoc numerical battery assessing abilities such as counting, number magnitude comparison, writing and reading Arabic numerals and mental calculation, among others. Significant differences emerged among healthy controls and both the RHDN+ group and the RHDN- group, suggesting that the mathematical impairment of RHD patients does not necessarily correspond to the presence of left-neglect. A detailed analysis of the sub-tests of the battery evidenced expected differences among RHDN+ patients, RHDN- patients, and controls in writing and reading Arabic numerals. Crucially, differences between RHDN+ patients and controls were also found in tasks such as mental subtraction and mental multiplication. The present findings thus suggest that unilateral right hemisphere lesions may produce specific representational deficits that affect simple mental calculation, and not only the spatial arrangement of multi-digit written numbers as previously thought.

  4. Delusions and the Right Hemisphere: A Review of the Case for the Right Hemisphere as a Mediator of Reality-Based Belief.

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    Gurin, Lindsey; Blum, Sonja

    2017-01-01

    Delusions are beliefs that remain fixed despite evidence that they are incorrect. Although the precise neural mechanism of delusional belief remains to be elucidated, there is a predominance of right-hemisphere lesions among patients with delusional syndromes accompanied by structural pathology, suggesting that right-hemisphere lesions, or networks with key nodes in the right hemisphere, may be playing a role. The authors discuss the potential theoretical basis and empiric support for a specific right-hemisphere role in delusion production, drawing on its roles in pragmatic communication; perceptual integration; attentional surveillance and anomaly/novelty detection; and belief updating.

  5. Clinical Focus on Prosodic, Discursive and Pragmatic Treatment for Right Hemisphere Damaged Adults: What's Right?

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    Perrine Ferré

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Researchers and clinicians acknowledge today that the contribution of both cerebral hemispheres is necessary to a full and adequate verbal communication. Indeed, it is estimated that at least 50% of right brain damaged individuals display impairments of prosodic, discourse, pragmatics and/or lexical semantics dimensions of communication. Since the 1990's, researchers have focused on the description and the assessment of these impairments and it is only recently that authors have shown interest in planning specific intervention approaches. However, therapists in rehabilitation settings still have very few available tools. This review of recent literature demonstrates that, even though theoretical knowledge needs further methodological investigation, intervention guidelines can be identified to target right hemisphere damage communication impairments in clinical practice. These principles can be incorporated by speech and language pathologists, in a structured intervention framework, aiming at fully addressing prosodic, discursive and pragmatic components of communication.

  6. Polysyllable Speech Accuracy and Predictors of Later Literacy Development in Preschool Children with Speech Sound Disorders

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    Masso, Sarah; Baker, Elise; McLeod, Sharynne; Wang, Cen

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine if polysyllable accuracy in preschoolers with speech sound disorders (SSD) was related to known predictors of later literacy development: phonological processing, receptive vocabulary, and print knowledge. Polysyllables--words of three or more syllables--are important to consider because unlike…

  7. Atypical right hemisphere response to slow temporal modulations in children with developmental dyslexia.

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    Cutini, Simone; Szűcs, Dénes; Mead, Natasha; Huss, Martina; Goswami, Usha

    2016-12-01

    Phase entrainment of neuronal oscillations is thought to play a central role in encoding speech. Children with developmental dyslexia show impaired phonological processing of speech, proposed theoretically to be related to atypical phase entrainment to slower temporal modulations in speech (dyslexia have found atypical phase entrainment in the delta band (~2Hz), some studies of adults with developmental dyslexia have shown impaired entrainment in the low gamma band (~35-50Hz). Meanwhile, studies of neurotypical adults suggest asymmetric temporal sensitivity in auditory cortex, with preferential processing of slower modulations by right auditory cortex, and faster modulations processed bilaterally. Here we compared neural entrainment to slow (2Hz) versus faster (40Hz) amplitude-modulated noise using fNIRS to study possible hemispheric asymmetry effects in children with developmental dyslexia. We predicted atypical right hemisphere responding to 2Hz modulations for the children with dyslexia in comparison to control children, but equivalent responding to 40Hz modulations in both hemispheres. Analyses of HbO concentration revealed a right-lateralised region focused on the supra-marginal gyrus that was more active in children with dyslexia than in control children for 2Hz stimulation. We discuss possible links to linguistic prosodic processing, and interpret the data with respect to a neural 'temporal sampling' framework for conceptualizing the phonological deficits that characterise children with developmental dyslexia across languages. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Psychopathological manifestations of multiple meningiomas in the right hemisphere

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    A. A. Lukshina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives the data available in the literature on meningiomas and their psychopathological manifestations that occupy a central position in the clinical picture in almost every 5 patients with these tumors. The authors provide a clinical and psychopathological analysis of a female patient with multiple meningiomas in the right hemisphere: a giant meningioma in the posterior third of the falx, a large meningioma in the temporal region, and three small meningiomas in the frontal and parietal regions. The disease started as headache; however, psychopathological symptoms remained missed by physicians, such as emotional lability; personality changes leading to family dissension; lower criticism; spatial orientation problems; hypomnesia; left-sided visual inattention,occurred in parallel. Surgical treatment was performed by stages: the two largest meningiomas were removed at an 11-day interval, which presented a means of observing psychopathological changes after each operation. It is concluded that greater attention should be given to the psychopathological manifestations of the disease, which is important to make a primary diagnosis and to define further treatment policy.

  9. Atypical right hemisphere specialization for object representations in an adolescent with specific language impairment

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    Timothy T. Brown

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with a diagnosis of specific language impairment (SLI show abnormal spoken language occurring alongside normal nonverbal abilities. Behaviorally, people with SLI exhibit diverse profiles of impairment involving phonological, grammatical, syntactic, and semantic aspects of language. In this study, we used a multimodal neuroimaging technique called anatomically constrained magnetoencephalography (aMEG to measure the dynamic functional brain organization of an adolescent with SLI. Using single-subject statistical maps of cortical activity, we compared this patient to a sibling and to a cohort of typically developing subjects during the performance of tasks designed to evoke semantic representations of concrete objects. Localized, real-time patterns of brain activity within the language impaired patient showed marked differences from the typical functional organization, with significant engagement of right hemisphere heteromodal cortical regions generally homotopic to the left hemisphere areas that usually show the greatest activity for such tasks. Functional neuroanatomical differences were evident at early sensoriperceptual processing stages and continued through later cognitive stages, observed specifically at latencies typically associated with semantic encoding operations. Our findings show with real-time temporal specificity evidence for an atypical right hemisphere specialization for the representation of concrete entities, independent of verbal motor demands. More broadly, our results demonstrate the feasibility and potential utility of using aMEG to characterize individual patient differences in the dynamic functional organization of the brain.

  10. Predicting Speech Intelligibility Decline in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Based on the Deterioration of Individual Speech Subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunusova, Yana; Wang, Jun; Zinman, Lorne; Pattee, Gary L.; Berry, James D.; Perry, Bridget; Green, Jordan R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine the mechanisms of speech intelligibility impairment due to neurologic impairments, intelligibility decline was modeled as a function of co-occurring changes in the articulatory, resonatory, phonatory, and respiratory subsystems. Method Sixty-six individuals diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) were studied longitudinally. The disease-related changes in articulatory, resonatory, phonatory, and respiratory subsystems were quantified using multiple instrumental measures, which were subjected to a principal component analysis and mixed effects models to derive a set of speech subsystem predictors. A stepwise approach was used to select the best set of subsystem predictors to model the overall decline in intelligibility. Results Intelligibility was modeled as a function of five predictors that corresponded to velocities of lip and jaw movements (articulatory), number of syllable repetitions in the alternating motion rate task (articulatory), nasal airflow (resonatory), maximum fundamental frequency (phonatory), and speech pauses (respiratory). The model accounted for 95.6% of the variance in intelligibility, among which the articulatory predictors showed the most substantial independent contribution (57.7%). Conclusion Articulatory impairments characterized by reduced velocities of lip and jaw movements and resonatory impairments characterized by increased nasal airflow served as the subsystem predictors of the longitudinal decline of speech intelligibility in ALS. Declines in maximum performance tasks such as the alternating motion rate preceded declines in intelligibility, thus serving as early predictors of bulbar dysfunction. Following the rapid decline in speech intelligibility, a precipitous decline in maximum performance tasks subsequently occurred. PMID:27148967

  11. Right hemisphere dominance during spatial selective attention and target detection occurs outside the dorsal fronto-parietal network

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    Shulman, Gordon L.; Pope, Daniel L. W.; Astafiev, Serguei V.; McAvoy, Mark P.; Snyder, Abraham Z.; Corbetta, Maurizio

    2010-01-01

    Spatial selective attention is widely considered to be right hemisphere dominant. Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies, however, have reported bilateral blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) responses in dorsal fronto-parietal regions during anticipatory shifts of attention to a location (Kastner et al., 1999; Corbetta et al., 2000; Hopfinger et al., 2000). Right-lateralized activity has mainly been reported in ventral fronto-parietal regions for shifts of attention to an unattended target stimulus (Arrington et al., 2000; Corbetta et al., 2000). However, clear conclusions cannot be drawn from these studies because hemispheric asymmetries were not assessed using direct voxel-wise comparisons of activity in left and right hemispheres. Here, we used this technique to measure hemispheric asymmetries during shifts of spatial attention evoked by a peripheral cue stimulus and during target detection at the cued location. Stimulus-driven shifts of spatial attention in both visual fields evoked right-hemisphere dominant activity in temporo-parietal junction (TPJ). Target detection at the attended location produced a more widespread right hemisphere dominance in frontal, parietal, and temporal cortex, including the TPJ region asymmetrically activated during shifts of spatial attention. However, hemispheric asymmetries were not observed during either shifts of attention or target detection in the dorsal fronto-parietal regions (anterior precuneus, medial intraparietal sulcus, frontal eye fields) that showed the most robust activations for shifts of attention. Therefore, right hemisphere dominance during stimulus-driven shifts of spatial attention and target detection reflects asymmetries in cortical regions that are largely distinct from the dorsal fronto-parietal network involved in the control of selective attention. PMID:20219998

  12. Reorganization of syntactic processing following left-hemisphere brain damage: does right-hemisphere activity preserve function?

    OpenAIRE

    Tyler, Lorraine K.; Wright, Paul; Randall, Billi; Marslen-Wilson, William D.; Stamatakis, Emmanuel A.

    2010-01-01

    The extent to which the human brain shows evidence of functional plasticity across the lifespan has been addressed in the context of pathological brain changes and, more recently, of the changes that take place during healthy ageing. Here we examine the potential for plasticity by asking whether a strongly left-lateralized system can successfully reorganize to the right-hemisphere following left-hemisphere brain damage. To do this, we focus on syntax, a key linguistic function considered to b...

  13. Covert orienting in the split brain: Right hemisphere specialization for object-based attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingstone, Alan

    2015-12-18

    The present paper takes as its starting point Phil Bryden's long-standing interest in human attention and the role it can play in laterality effects. Past split-brain research has suggested that object-based attention is lateralized to the left hemisphere [e.g., Egly, R., Rafal, R. D., Driver, J., & Starreveld, Y. (1994). Covert orienting in the split brain reveals hemispheric specialization for object-based attention. Psychological Science, 5(6), 380-382]. The task used to isolate object-based attention in that previous work, however, has been found wanting [Vecera, S. P. (1994). Grouped locations and object-based attention: Comment on Egly, Driver, and Rafal (1994). Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 123(3), 316-320]; and indeed, subsequent research with healthy participants using a different task has suggested that object-based attention is lateralized to the opposite right hemisphere (RH) [Valsangkar-Smyth, M. A., Donovan, C. L., Sinnett, S., Dawson, M. R., & Kingstone, A. (2004). Hemispheric performance in object-based attention. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 11(1), 84-91]. The present study tested the same split-brain as Egly, Rafal, et al. (1994) but used the object-based attention task introduced by Valsangkar-Smyth et al. (2004). The results confirm that object-based attention is lateralized to the RH. They also suggest that subcortical interhemispheric competition may occur and be dominated by the RH.

  14. An Evidence-Based Systematic Review on Communication Treatments for Individuals with Right Hemisphere Brain Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Margaret Lehman; Frymark, Tobi; Venedictov, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this review is to evaluate and summarize the research evidence related to the treatment of individuals with right hemisphere communication disorders. Method: A comprehensive search of the literature using key words related to right hemisphere brain damage and communication treatment was conducted in 27 databases (e.g.,…

  15. Cognitive-communication disorder following right hemisphere stroke: exploring rehabilitation access and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewetson, Ronelle; Cornwell, Petrea; Shum, David

    2017-07-01

    Rehabilitation positively influences return to activities and social roles in people with aphasia. The cognitive-communication disorder (CCD) found following a right hemisphere stroke has been less extensively researched with rehabilitation access and outcomes yet to be determined. To document rehabilitation access and outcomes for people with CCD post-stroke; and compare outcomes based on presence (viz CCD; aphasia) or absence of communication impairment. A retrospective chart audit was completed for patients with first onset unilateral stroke, with a hospital length of stay (LOS) of at least two days and a communication assessment by a speech pathologist. Data extracted included presence and severity of communication impairment, access to and LOS in a rehabilitation unit, and functional outcome measures recorded at rehabilitation discharge. The majority of the 115 patients who met inclusion criteria were living independently (n = 112, 97.4%) at the time of stroke. CCD (66%) was diagnosed with similar frequency to aphasia (68%). The presence of communication impairment did not result in significant differences in rehabilitation LOS and discharge destination when compared to hemispheric strokes without communication impairment. Severity of CCD was an independent predictor of functional gain by rehabilitation discharge. People with CCD require comparable access to rehabilitation as people with aphasia, and severity of CCD should be considered in determining rehabilitation LOS. A large number of people are discharged with ongoing CCD which warrants exploration of potential participation restrictions created by the communication impairment.

  16. Task demands modulate decision and eye movement responses in the chimeric face test: examining the right hemisphere processing account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason eCoronel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A large and growing body of work, conducted in both brain-intact and brain-damaged populations, has used the free viewing chimeric face test as a measure of hemispheric dominance for the extraction of emotional information from faces. These studies generally show that normal right-handed individuals tend to perceive chimeric faces as more emotional if the emotional expression is presented on the half of the face to the viewer’s left (left hemiface. However, the mechanisms underlying this lateralized bias remain unclear. Here, we examine the extent to which this bias is driven by right hemisphere processing advantages versus default scanning biases in a unique way -- by changing task demands. In particular, we compare the original task with one in which right-hemisphere-biased processing cannot provide a decision advantage. Our behavioral and eye-movement data are inconsistent with the predictions of a default scanning bias account and support the idea that the left hemiface bias found in the chimeric face test is largely due to strategic use of right hemisphere processing mechanisms.

  17. Atypical speech lateralization in adults with developmental coordination disorder demonstrated using functional transcranial Doppler ultrasound

    OpenAIRE

    Hodgson, Jessica C.; Hudson, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Research using clinical populations to explore the relationship between hemispheric speech lateralization and handedness has focused on individuals with speech and language disorders, such as dyslexia or specific language impairment (SLI). Such work reveals atypical patterns of cerebral lateralization and handedness in these groups compared to controls. There are few studies that examine this relationship in people with motor coordination impairments but without speech or reading deficits, wh...

  18. The "Creative Right Brain" Revisited: Individual Creativity and Associative Priming in the Right Hemisphere Relate to Hemispheric Asymmetries in Reward Brain Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberg, Kristoffer Carl; Doell, Kimberly C; Schwartz, Sophie

    2017-10-01

    The idea that creativity resides in the right cerebral hemisphere is persistent in popular science, but has been widely frowned upon by the scientific community due to little empirical support. Yet, creativity is believed to rely on the ability to combine remote concepts into novel and useful ideas, an ability which would depend on associative processing in the right hemisphere. Moreover, associative processing is modulated by dopamine, and asymmetries in dopamine functionality between hemispheres may imbalance the expression of their implemented cognitive functions. Here, by uniting these largely disconnected concepts, we hypothesize that relatively less dopamine function in the right hemisphere boosts creativity by releasing constraining effects of dopamine on remote associations. Indeed, participants with reduced neural responses in the dopaminergic system of the right hemisphere (estimated by functional MRI in a reward task with positive and negative feedback), displayed higher creativity (estimated by convergent and divergent tasks), and increased associative processing in the right hemisphere (estimated by a lateralized lexical decision task). Our findings offer unprecedented empirical support for a crucial and specific contribution of the right hemisphere to creativity. More importantly our study provides a comprehensive view on potential determinants of human creativity, namely dopamine-related activity and associative processing. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. The right hemisphere supports but does not replace left hemisphere auditory function in patients with persisting aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teki, Sundeep; Barnes, Gareth R; Penny, William D; Iverson, Paul; Woodhead, Zoe V J; Griffiths, Timothy D; Leff, Alexander P

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we used magnetoencephalography and a mismatch paradigm to investigate speech processing in stroke patients with auditory comprehension deficits and age-matched control subjects. We probed connectivity within and between the two temporal lobes in response to phonemic (different word) and acoustic (same word) oddballs using dynamic causal modelling. We found stronger modulation of self-connections as a function of phonemic differences for control subjects versus aphasics in left primary auditory cortex and bilateral superior temporal gyrus. The patients showed stronger modulation of connections from right primary auditory cortex to right superior temporal gyrus (feed-forward) and from left primary auditory cortex to right primary auditory cortex (interhemispheric). This differential connectivity can be explained on the basis of a predictive coding theory which suggests increased prediction error and decreased sensitivity to phonemic boundaries in the aphasics' speech network in both hemispheres. Within the aphasics, we also found behavioural correlates with connection strengths: a negative correlation between phonemic perception and an inter-hemispheric connection (left superior temporal gyrus to right superior temporal gyrus), and positive correlation between semantic performance and a feedback connection (right superior temporal gyrus to right primary auditory cortex). Our results suggest that aphasics with impaired speech comprehension have less veridical speech representations in both temporal lobes, and rely more on the right hemisphere auditory regions, particularly right superior temporal gyrus, for processing speech. Despite this presumed compensatory shift in network connectivity, the patients remain significantly impaired.

  20. Complex syntax in the isolated right hemisphere: Receptive grammatical abilities after cerebral hemispherectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bode, Stella; Smets, Lieselotte; Mathern, Gary W; Dubinsky, Stanley

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we explored the syntactic competence of the right hemisphere (RH) after left cerebral hemispherectomy, on the premise that it (syntactic competence) is known to be one of the most strongly left-lateralized language functions. As basic syntactic development for individuals in this subject pool has already been extensively explored, we focused instead on the investigation of complex syntactic constructions that are normally acquired later in childhood, i.e., between 7 and 9years of age. Grammatical competence in 10 participants who had undergone left cerebral hemispherectomy was compared to that of a group of normally developing children, with the two groups matched by the size of their vocabulary. The two tests we used for this research were created by the 1st language acquisition linguists and were designed to test sets of constructions categorized and differentiated by the order in which they are normally acquired and by the type of grammatical competence that they involve. We found that both groups followed the same developmental sequence of syntactic development with five (50%) postsurgical participants (all with prenatal etiologies) reaching nearly mature command of sentence grammar. Seizures negatively impacted performance on all tests. The isolated RH has the potential to support the complex grammatical categories that emerge relatively late in the normal acquisition of English by native speakers. Successful performance may be related to the timing of the initial insult and seizure control following hemispherectomy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Right: Left:: East: West. Evidence that individuals from East Asian and South Asian cultures emphasize right hemisphere functions in comparison to Euro-American cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozin, Paul; Moscovitch, Morris; Imada, Sumio

    2016-09-01

    We present evidence that individuals from East or South Asian cultures (Japanese college students in Japan and East or South Asian born and raised college students in the USA) tend to exhibit default thinking that corresponds to right hemisphere holistic functions, as compared to Caucasian individuals from a Western culture (born and raised in the USA). In two lateralized tasks (locating the nose in a scrambled face, and global-local letter task), both Asian groups showed a greater right hemisphere bias than the Western group. In a third lateralized task, judging similarity in terms of visual form versus functional/semantic categorizations, there was not a reliable difference between the groups. On a classic, ambiguous face composed of vegetables, both Eastern groups displayed a greater right hemisphere (holistic face processing) bias than the Western group. These results support an "East - Right Hemisphere, West - Left Hemisphere" hypothesis, as originally proposed by Ornstein (1972). This hypothesis is open as to the degree to which social-cultural forces were involved in hemispheric specialization, or the opposite, or both. Our aim is to encourage a more thorough analysis of this hypothesis, suggesting both lateralization studies corresponding to documented East-West differences, and East-West studies corresponding to lateralization differences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Ipsilateral deficits in 1-handed shoe tying after left or right hemisphere stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Janet L; Sadek, Joseph; Haaland, Kathleen Y

    2009-10-01

    Poole JL, Sadek J, Haaland KY. Ipsilateral deficits in 1-handed shoe tying after left or right hemisphere stroke. To examine 1-handed shoe tying performance and whether cognitive deficits more associated with left or right hemisphere damage differentially affect it after unilateral stroke. Observational cohort comparing ipsilesional shoe tying, spatial and language skills, and limb praxis. Primary care Veterans Affairs and private medical center. Not applicable. Volunteer right-handed sample of adults with left or right hemisphere damage and healthy demographically matched adults. The number of correct trials and the total time to complete 10 trials tying a shoe using the 1-handed method. Both stroke groups had fewer correct trials and were significantly slower tying the shoe than the control group. Spatial skills predicted accuracy and speed after right hemisphere damage. After left hemisphere damage, accuracy was predicted by spatial skills and limb praxis, while speed was predicted by limb praxis only. Ipsilesional shoe tying is similarly impaired after left or right hemisphere damage, but for different reasons. Spatial deficits had a greater influence after right hemisphere damage, and limb apraxia had a greater influence after left hemisphere damage. Language deficits did not affect performance, indicating that aphasia does not preclude using this therapy approach. These results suggest that rehabilitation professionals should consider assessment of limb apraxia and ipsilesional skill training in the performance of everyday tasks.

  3. Lesion characteristics driving right-hemispheric language reorganization in congenital left-hemispheric brain damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidzba, Karen; de Haan, Bianca; Wilke, Marko; Krägeloh-Mann, Ingeborg; Staudt, Martin

    2017-10-01

    Pre- or perinatally acquired ("congenital") left-hemispheric brain lesions can be compensated for by reorganizing language into homotopic brain regions in the right hemisphere. Language comprehension may be hemispherically dissociated from language production. We investigated the lesion characteristics driving inter-hemispheric reorganization of language comprehension and language production in 19 patients (7-32years; eight females) with congenital left-hemispheric brain lesions (periventricular lesions [n=11] and middle cerebral artery infarctions [n=8]) by fMRI. 16/17 patients demonstrated reorganized language production, while 7/19 patients had reorganized language comprehension. Lesions to the insular cortex and the temporo-parietal junction (predominantly supramarginal gyrus) were significantly more common in patients in whom both, language production and comprehension were reorganized. These areas belong to the dorsal stream of the language network, participating in the auditory-motor integration of language. Our data suggest that the integrity of this stream might be crucial for a normal left-lateralized language development. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Better together: Left and right hemisphere engagement to reduce age-related memory loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambilla, Michela; Manenti, Rosa; Ferrari, Clarissa; Cotelli, Maria

    2015-10-15

    Episodic memory is a cognitive function that appears more susceptible than others to the effects of aging. The main aim of this study is to investigate if the magnitude of functional hemispheric lateralization during episodic memory test was positively correlated with memory performance, proving the presence of a beneficial pattern of neural processing in high-performing older adults but not in low-performing participants. We have applied anodal transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) or sham stimulation over left and right hemisphere in a group of young subjects and in high-performing and low-performing older participants during an experimental verbal episodic memory task. Remarkably, young individuals and high-performing older adults exhibited similar performances on episodic memory tasks and both groups showed symmetrical recruitment of left and right areas during memory retrieval. In contrast, low-performing older adults, who obtained lower scores on the memory tasks, demonstrated a greater engagement of the left hemisphere during verbal memory task. Furthermore, structural equation model was performed for analyzing the interrelations between the index of interhemispheric asymmetry and several neuropsychological domains. We found that the bilateral engagement of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and parietal cortex regions had a direct correlation with memory and executive functions evaluated as latent constructs. These findings drew attention to brain maintenance hypothesis. The potential of neurostimulation in cognitive enhancement is particularly promising to prevent memory loss during aging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Reorganization of syntactic processing following left-hemisphere brain damage: does right-hemisphere activity preserve function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Lorraine K; Wright, Paul; Randall, Billi; Marslen-Wilson, William D; Stamatakis, Emmanuel A

    2010-11-01

    The extent to which the human brain shows evidence of functional plasticity across the lifespan has been addressed in the context of pathological brain changes and, more recently, of the changes that take place during healthy ageing. Here we examine the potential for plasticity by asking whether a strongly left-lateralized system can successfully reorganize to the right-hemisphere following left-hemisphere brain damage. To do this, we focus on syntax, a key linguistic function considered to be strongly left-lateralized, combining measures of tissue integrity, neural activation and behavioural performance. In a functional neuroimaging study participants heard spoken sentences that differentially loaded on syntactic and semantic information. While healthy controls activated a left-hemisphere network of correlated activity including Brodmann areas 45/47 and posterior middle temporal gyrus during syntactic processing, patients activated Brodmann areas 45/47 bilaterally and right middle temporal gyrus. However, voxel-based morphometry analyses showed that only tissue integrity in left Brodmann areas 45/47 was correlated with activity and performance; poor tissue integrity in left Brodmann area 45 was associated with reduced functional activity and increased syntactic deficits. Activity in the right-hemisphere was not correlated with damage in the left-hemisphere or with performance. Reduced neural integrity in the left-hemisphere through brain damage or healthy ageing results in increased right-hemisphere activation in homologous regions to those left-hemisphere regions typically involved in the young. However, these regions do not support the same linguistic functions as those in the left-hemisphere and only indirectly contribute to preserved syntactic capacity. This establishes the unique role of the left hemisphere in syntax, a core component in human language.

  6. Speech Deterioration in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) after Manifestation of Bulbar Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkonen, Tanja; Ruottinen, Hanna; Puhto, Riitta; Helminen, Mika; Palmio, Johanna

    2018-01-01

    Background: The symptoms and their progression in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are typically studied after the diagnosis has been confirmed. However, many people with ALS already have severe dysarthria and loss of adequate speech at the time of diagnosis. Speech-and-language therapy interventions should be targeted timely based on…

  7. Polysyllable Speech Accuracy and Predictors of Later Literacy Development in Preschool Children With Speech Sound Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masso, Sarah; Baker, Elise; McLeod, Sharynne; Wang, Cen

    2017-07-12

    The aim of this study was to determine if polysyllable accuracy in preschoolers with speech sound disorders (SSD) was related to known predictors of later literacy development: phonological processing, receptive vocabulary, and print knowledge. Polysyllables-words of three or more syllables-are important to consider because unlike monosyllables, polysyllables have been associated with phonological processing and literacy difficulties in school-aged children. They therefore have the potential to help identify preschoolers most at risk of future literacy difficulties. Participants were 93 preschool children with SSD from the Sound Start Study. Participants completed the Polysyllable Preschool Test (Baker, 2013) as well as phonological processing, receptive vocabulary, and print knowledge tasks. Cluster analysis was completed, and 2 clusters were identified: low polysyllable accuracy and moderate polysyllable accuracy. The clusters were significantly different based on 2 measures of phonological awareness and measures of receptive vocabulary, rapid naming, and digit span. The clusters were not significantly different on sound matching accuracy or letter, sound, or print concept knowledge. The participants' poor performance on print knowledge tasks suggested that as a group, they were at risk of literacy difficulties but that there was a cluster of participants at greater risk-those with both low polysyllable accuracy and poor phonological processing.

  8. The connection of hemispheric activity in the field of audioverbal perception and the progressive lateralization of speech and motor processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovyazina, M.S.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the connection of hemispheric control over audioverbal perception processes and such individual features as “leading hand” (right-handedness and lefthandedness. We present a literature review and description of our research to provide evidence of the complexity and ambiguity of this connection. The method of dichotic listening was used for diagnosing audioverbal perception lateralization. This method allows estimation of the right-ear coefficient (REC, the efficiency coefficient (EC, and the effectiveness ratio (ER of different aspects of audioverbal perception. Our research involved 47 persons with a leading right hand (mean age, 29.04±9.97 years and 32 persons with a leading left hand (mean age, 29.41±10.34 years. Different hypotheses about the mechanisms of hemispheric control over audioverbal and motor processes were assessed. The research showed that both the leftand right-handers’ audioverbal perception characteristics depended mainly on right-hemisphere activity. The most dynamic and sensitive index of the functioning of the two hemispheres during dichotic listening was the efficiency coefficient of stimuli reproduction through the left ear (EC of the left ear. It turns out that this index depends on the coincidence/noncoincidence of the leading hemispheres in speech and motor processes. The highest efficiency of audioverbal perception revealed itself in the left-handers with a leading left ear (the hemispheric-control coincidence, and the lowest efficiency was in the left-handers with a leading right ear (the hemispheric-control divergence. The right-handers were characterized by less variation in values, although the influence of the coincidence/noncoincidence of the leading hemispheres in speech and motor processes also revealed itself as a tendency. This consistent pattern points out the necessity for further research on asymmetries of the different modalities that takes into account their probable

  9. Atypical speech lateralization in adults with developmental coordination disorder demonstrated using functional transcranial Doppler ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Jessica C; Hudson, John M

    2017-03-01

    Research using clinical populations to explore the relationship between hemispheric speech lateralization and handedness has focused on individuals with speech and language disorders, such as dyslexia or specific language impairment (SLI). Such work reveals atypical patterns of cerebral lateralization and handedness in these groups compared to controls. There are few studies that examine this relationship in people with motor coordination impairments but without speech or reading deficits, which is a surprising omission given the prevalence of theories suggesting a common neural network underlying both functions. We use an emerging imaging technique in cognitive neuroscience; functional transcranial Doppler (fTCD) ultrasound, to assess whether individuals with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) display reduced left-hemisphere lateralization for speech production compared to control participants. Twelve adult control participants and 12 adults with DCD, but no other developmental/cognitive impairments, performed a word-generation task whilst undergoing fTCD imaging to establish a hemispheric lateralization index for speech production. All participants also completed an electronic peg-moving task to determine hand skill. As predicted, the DCD group showed a significantly reduced left lateralization pattern for the speech production task compared to controls. Performance on the motor skill task showed a clear preference for the dominant hand across both groups; however, the DCD group mean movement times were significantly higher for the non-dominant hand. This is the first study of its kind to assess hand skill and speech lateralization in DCD. The results reveal a reduced leftwards asymmetry for speech and a slower motor performance. This fits alongside previous work showing atypical cerebral lateralization in DCD for other cognitive processes (e.g., executive function and short-term memory) and thus speaks to debates on theories of the links between motor

  10. Oral motor functions, speech and communication before a definitive diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkonen, Tanja; Korpijaakko-Huuhka, Anna-Maija; Ruottinen, Hanna; Puhto, Riitta; Hollo, Kirsi; Ylinen, Aarne; Palmio, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the cranial nerve symptoms, speech disorders and communicative effectiveness of Finnish patients with diagnosed or possible amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) at their first assessment by a speech-language pathologist. The group studied consisted of 30 participants who had clinical signs of bulbar deterioration at the beginning of the study. They underwent a thorough clinical speech and communication examination. The cranial nerve symptoms and ability to communicate were compared in 14 participants with probable or definitive ALS and in 16 participants with suspected or possible ALS. The initial type of ALS was also assessed. More deterioration in soft palate function was found in participants with possible ALS than with diagnosed ALS. Likewise, a slower speech rate combined with more severe dysarthria was observed in possible ALS. In both groups, there was some deterioration in communicative effectiveness. In the possible ALS group the diagnostic delay was longer and speech therapy intervention actualized later. The participants with ALS showed multidimensional decline in communication at their first visit to the speech-language pathologist, but impairments and activity limitations were more severe in suspected or possible ALS. The majority of persons with bulbar-onset ALS in this study were in the latter diagnostic group. This suggests that they are more susceptible to delayed diagnosis and delayed speech therapy assessment. It is important to start speech therapy intervention during the diagnostic processes particularly if the person already shows bulbar symptoms. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Right Hemispheric Dominance in Gaze-Triggered Reflexive Shift of Attention in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Takashi; Sato, Wataru; Toichi, Motomi

    2006-01-01

    Recent findings suggest a right hemispheric dominance in gaze-triggered shifts of attention. The aim of this study was to clarify the dominant hemisphere in the gaze processing that mediates attentional shift. A target localization task, with preceding non-predicative gaze cues presented to each visual field, was undertaken by 44 healthy subjects,…

  12. Effective Connectivity Reveals Right-Hemisphere Dominance in Audiospatial Perception: Implications for Models of Spatial Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friston, Karl J.; Mattingley, Jason B.; Roepstorff, Andreas; Garrido, Marta I.

    2014-01-01

    Detecting the location of salient sounds in the environment rests on the brain's ability to use differences in sounds arriving at both ears. Functional neuroimaging studies in humans indicate that the left and right auditory hemispaces are coded asymmetrically, with a rightward attentional bias that reflects spatial attention in vision. Neuropsychological observations in patients with spatial neglect have led to the formulation of two competing models: the orientation bias and right-hemisphere dominance models. The orientation bias model posits a symmetrical mapping between one side of the sensorium and the contralateral hemisphere, with mutual inhibition of the ipsilateral hemisphere. The right-hemisphere dominance model introduces a functional asymmetry in the brain's coding of space: the left hemisphere represents the right side, whereas the right hemisphere represents both sides of the sensorium. We used Dynamic Causal Modeling of effective connectivity and Bayesian model comparison to adjudicate between these alternative network architectures, based on human electroencephalographic data acquired during an auditory location oddball paradigm. Our results support a hemispheric asymmetry in a frontoparietal network that conforms to the right-hemisphere dominance model. We show that, within this frontoparietal network, forward connectivity increases selectively in the hemisphere contralateral to the side of sensory stimulation. We interpret this finding in light of hierarchical predictive coding as a selective increase in attentional gain, which is mediated by feedforward connections that carry precision-weighted prediction errors during perceptual inference. This finding supports the disconnection hypothesis of unilateral neglect and has implications for theories of its etiology. PMID:24695717

  13. Conversation after Right Hemisphere Brain Damage: Motivations for Applying Conversation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Scott; Armstrong, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Despite the well documented pragmatic deficits that can arise subsequent to Right Hemisphere Brain Damage (RHBD), few researchers have directly studied everyday conversations involving people with RHBD. In recent years, researchers have begun applying Conversation Analysis (CA) to the everyday talk of people with aphasia. This research programme…

  14. Theory of Mind in Adults with Right Hemisphere Damage: What's the Story?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed, Ethan; McGregor, William; Nielsen, Jorgen Feldbaek; Roepstorff, Andreas; Frith, Uta

    2010-01-01

    Why do people with right hemisphere damage (RHD) have difficulty with pragmatics and communication? One hypothesis has been that pragmatic impairment in RHD is the result of an underlying impairment in Theory of Mind (ToM): the ability to infer the mental states of others. In previous studies evaluating ToM abilities in people with RHD,…

  15. Suppression and Narrative Time Shifts in Adults with Right-Hemisphere Brain Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharp, Victoria L.; Tompkins, Connie A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the functioning of a central comprehension mechanism, suppression, in adults with right-hemisphere damage (RHD) while they processed narratives that cued a shift in time frame. In normal language comprehension, mental activation of concepts from a prior time frame is suppressed. The (re)activation of information…

  16. Brain Stimulation and the Role of the Right Hemisphere in Aphasia Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkeltaub, Peter E

    2015-11-01

    Aphasia is a common consequence of left hemisphere stroke and causes a disabling loss of language and communication ability. Current treatments for aphasia are inadequate, leaving a majority of aphasia sufferers with ongoing communication difficulties for the rest of their lives. In the past decade, two forms of noninvasive brain stimulation, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation, have emerged as promising new treatments for aphasia. The most common brain stimulation protocols attempt to inhibit the intact right hemisphere based on the hypothesis that maladaptive activity in the right hemisphere limits language recovery in the left. There is now sufficient evidence to demonstrate that this approach, at least for repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, improves specific language abilities in aphasia. However, the biological mechanisms that produce these behavioral improvements remain poorly understood. Taken in the context of the larger neurobiological literature on aphasia recovery, the role of the right hemisphere in aphasia recovery remains unclear. Additional research is needed to understand biological mechanisms of recovery, in order to optimize brain stimulation treatments for aphasia. This article summarizes the current evidence on noninvasive brain stimulation methods for aphasia and the neuroscientific considerations surrounding treatments using right hemisphere inhibition. Suggestions are provided for further investigation and for clinicians whose patients ask about brain stimulation treatments for aphasia.

  17. Perspectives on Treatment for Communication Deficits Associated with Right Hemisphere Brain Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Margaret Lehman

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the current treatment research for communication (prosodic, discourse, and pragmatic) deficits associated with right hemisphere brain damage and to provide suggestions for treatment selection given the paucity of evidence specifically for this population. Method: The discussion covers (a) clinical decision processes and…

  18. Inferencing Processes after Right Hemisphere Brain Damage: Effects of Contextual Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Margaret Lehman

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Comprehension deficits associated with right hemisphere brain damage (RHD) have been attributed to an inability to use context, but there is little direct evidence to support the claim. This study evaluated the effect of varying contextual bias on predictive inferencing by adults with RHD. Method: Fourteen adults with no brain damage…

  19. Split-brain, the right hemisphere, and art: fact and fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidel, Dahlia W

    2013-01-01

    The research studies of complete commissurotomy patients (split-brain) in Roger W. Sperry's psychobiology laboratory at Caltech, Pasadena, galvanized the scientific and intellectual world in the 1960s and 1970s. The findings had an important and enduring impact on brain research in countless areas. Interest in hemispheric specialization in particular was sparked by these studies and paved the way for countless discoveries. Right hemisphere specialization for visuospatial functions and facial processing was confirmed with these patients. The further unraveling of right-hemisphere cognition, the "mute" hemisphere, was a major goal in Sperry's laboratory, and much factual knowledge was learned that was not known previously. However, the linking of art and creativity with the right hemisphere was a nonempirically based inference made not by Sperry's lab but rather by others wishing to "assign" functional hemisphericity. The general assumption was that "art" is anchored in spatial cognition, that it is a nonverbal activity requiring imagery and thus must be controlled by the right, nonlanguage hemisphere. To this day, robust evidence that the right specializes in art expression or art perception is yet to be shown, if for no other reason than that art is not a single, unitary form of expression or cognition. The conjectured right hemisphere-art link turned into a popular story that filtered back into science, shaped future research of brain and art, and overlooked other avenues for insights. This chapter traces and explores this background. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Right Hemisphere Sensitivity to Novel Metaphoric Relations: Application of the Signal Detection Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashal, N.; Faust, M.

    2008-01-01

    The present study used the signal detection theory to test the hypothesis that the right hemisphere (RH) is more sensitive than the left hemisphere (LH) to the distant semantic relations in novel metaphoric expressions. In two divided visual field experiments, sensitivity (d') and criterion ([beta]) were calculated for responses to different types…

  1. Left and Right Hemisphere Brain Functions and Symbolic vs. Spontaneous Communication Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Ross

    Recent findings on the communicative functions of the left versus the right hemisphere of the brain may suggest that there is a distinction between the intentional use of symbols for the sending of specific messages or propositions (language, signing, pantomime) and spontaneous expressive behaviors that signal their meaning through a natural…

  2. Sex-differences of face coding: evidence from larger right hemispheric M170 in men and dipole source modelling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes O Tiedt

    Full Text Available The processing of faces relies on a specialized neural system comprising bilateral cortical structures with a dominance of the right hemisphere. However, due to inconsistencies of earlier findings as well as more recent results such functional lateralization has become a topic of discussion. In particular, studies employing behavioural tasks and electrophysiological methods indicate a dominance of the right hemisphere during face perception only in men whereas women exhibit symmetric and bilateral face processing. The aim of this study was to further investigate such sex differences in hemispheric processing of personally familiar and opposite-sex faces using whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG. We found a right-lateralized M170-component in occipito-temporal sensor clusters in men as opposed to a bilateral response in women. Furthermore, the same pattern was obtained in performing dipole localization and determining dipole strength in the M170-timewindow. These results suggest asymmetric involvement of face-responsive neural structures in men and allow to ascribe this asymmetry to the fusiform gyrus. This specifies findings from previous investigations employing event-related potentials (ERP and LORETA reconstruction methods yielding rather extended bilateral activations showing left asymmetry in women and right lateralization in men. We discuss our finding of an asymmetric fusiform activation pattern in men in terms of holistic face processing during face evaluation and sex differences with regard to visual strategies in general and interest for opposite faces in special. Taken together the pattern of hemispheric specialization observed here yields new insights into sex differences in face perception and entails further questions about interactions between biological sex, psychological gender and influences that might be stimulus-driven or task dependent.

  3. The assessment of premorbid intellectual ability following right-hemisphere stroke: reliability of a lexical decision task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, David C; Bowen, Audrey; Foster, Jonathan K

    2012-01-01

    Comparing current with estimated premorbid performance helps identify acquired cognitive deficits after brain injury. Tests of reading pronunciation, often used to measure premorbid ability, are inappropriate for stroke patients with motor speech problems. The Spot-the-Word Test (STWT), a measure of lexical decision, offers an alternative approach for estimating premorbid capacity in those with speech problems. However, little is known about the STWT's reliability. In the present study, a consecutive sample of right-hemisphere stroke (RHS) patients (n = 56) completed the STWT at 4 and 16 weeks poststroke. A control group, individually matched to the patients for age and initial STWT score, also completed the STWT on two occasions. More than 80% of patients had STWT scores at retest within 2 scaled score points of their initial score, suggesting that the STWT is a reliable measure for most individuals with RHS. However, RHS patients had significantly greater score change than controls. Limits of agreement analysis revealed that approximately 1 in 7 patients obtained abnormally large STWT score improvements at retest. It is concluded that although the STWT is a useful assessment tool for stroke clinicians, this instrument may significantly underestimate premorbid level of ability in approximately 14% of stroke patients.

  4. Neural pathway in the right hemisphere underlies verbal insight problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Q; Zhou, Z; Xu, H; Fan, W; Han, L

    2014-01-03

    Verbal insight problem solving means to break mental sets, to select the novel semantic information and to form novel, task-related associations. Although previous studies have identified the brain regions associated with these key processes, the interaction among these regions during insight is still unclear. In the present study, we explored the functional connectivity between the key regions during solving Chinese 'chengyu' riddles by using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging. Results showed that both insight and noninsight solutions activated the bilateral inferior frontal gyri, middle temporal gyri and hippocampi, and these regions constituted a frontal to temporal to hippocampal neural pathway. Compared with noninsight solution, insight solution had a stronger functional connectivity between the inferior frontal gyrus and middle temporal gyrus in the right hemisphere. Our study reveals the neural pathway of information processing during verbal insight problem solving, and supports the right-hemisphere advantage theory of insight. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Adapting to change: The role of the right hemisphere in mental model building and updating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipowicz, Alex; Anderson, Britt; Danckert, James

    2016-09-01

    We recently proposed that the right hemisphere plays a crucial role in the processes underlying mental model building and updating. Here, we review the evidence we and others have garnered to support this novel account of right hemisphere function. We begin by presenting evidence from patient work that suggests a critical role for the right hemisphere in the ability to learn from the statistics in the environment (model building) and adapt to environmental change (model updating). We then provide a review of neuroimaging research that highlights a network of brain regions involved in mental model updating. Next, we outline specific roles for particular regions within the network such that the anterior insula is purported to maintain the current model of the environment, the medial prefrontal cortex determines when to explore new or alternative models, and the inferior parietal lobule represents salient and surprising information with respect to the current model. We conclude by proposing some future directions that address some of the outstanding questions in the field of mental model building and updating. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Lingual-Alveolar Contact Pressure during Speech in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searl, Jeff; Knollhoff, Stephanie; Barohn, Richard J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This preliminary study on lingual-alveolar contact pressures (LACP) in people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) had several aims: (a) to evaluate whether the protocol induced fatigue, (b) to compare LACP during speech (LACP-Sp) and during maximum isometric pressing (LACP-Max) in people with ALS (PALS) versus healthy controls, (c)…

  7. Pseudoneglect in line bisection judgement is associated with a modulation of right hemispheric spatial attention dominance in right-handers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, Laure; Petit, Laurent; Jobard, Gael; Hay, Julien; Mazoyer, Bernard; Tzourio-Mazoyer, Nathalie; Karnath, Hans-Otto; Mellet, Emmanuel

    2017-01-08

    The objective of this study was to validate a line bisection judgement (LBJ) task for use in investigating the lateralized cerebral bases of spatial attention in a sample of 51 right-handed healthy participants. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the participants performed a LBJ task that was compared to a visuomotor control task during which the participants made similar saccadic and motoric responses. Cerebral lateralization was determined using a voxel-based functional asymmetry analysis and a hemispheric functional lateralization index (HFLI) computed from fMRI contrast images. Behavioural attentional deviation biases were assessed during the LBJ task and a "paper and pencil" symbol cancellation task (SCT). Individual visuospatial skills were also evaluated. The results showed that both the LBJ and SCT tasks elicited leftward spatial biases in healthy subjects, although the biases were not correlated, which indicated their independence. Neuroimaging results showed that the LBJ task elicited a right hemispheric lateralization, with rightward asymmetries found in a large posterior occipito-parietal area, the posterior calcarine sulcus (V1p) and the temporo-occipital junction (TOJ) and in the inferior frontal gyrus, the anterior insula and the superior medial frontal gyrus. The comparison of the LBJ asymmetry map to the lesion map of neglect patients who suffer line bisection deviation demonstrated maximum overlap in a network that included the middle occipital gyrus (MOG), the TOJ, the anterior insula and the inferior frontal region, likely subtending spatial LBJ bias. Finally, the LBJ task-related cerebral lateralization was specifically correlated with the LBJ spatial bias but not with the SCT bias or with the visuospatial skills of the participants. Taken together, these results demonstrated that the LBJ task is adequate for investigating spatial lateralization in healthy subjects and is suitable for determining the factors underlying the

  8. Effects of early language, speech, and cognition on later reading: A mediation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa N Durand

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This longitudinal secondary analysis examined which early language and speech abilities are associated with school-aged reading skills, and whether these associations are mediated by cognitive ability. We analyzed vocabulary, syntax, speech sound maturity, and cognition in a sample of healthy children at age 3 years (N=241 in relation to single word reading (decoding, comprehension, and oral reading fluency in the same children at age 9 to 11 years. All predictor variables and the mediator variable were associated with the three reading outcomes. The predictor variables were all associated with cognitive abilities, the mediator. Cognitive abilities partially mediated the effects of language on reading. After mediation, decoding was associated with speech sound maturity; comprehension was associated with receptive vocabulary; and oral fluency was associated with speech sound maturity, receptive vocabulary, and syntax. In summary, all of the effects of language on reading could not be explained by cognition as a mediator. Specific components of language and speech skills in preschool made independent contributions to reading skills 6 to 8 years later. These early precursors to later reading skill represent potential targets for early intervention to improve reading.

  9. Hospital acquired pneumonia is linked to right hemispheric peri-insular stroke.

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    André Kemmling

    Full Text Available Hospital acquired pneumonia (HAP is a major complication of stroke. We sought to determine associations between infarction of specific brain regions and HAP.215 consecutive acute stroke patients with HAP (2003-2009 were carefully matched with 215 non-pneumonia controls by gender, then NIHSS, then age. Admission imaging and binary masks of infarction were registered to MNI-152 space. Regional atlas and voxel-based log-odds were calculated to assess the relationship between infarct location and the likelihood of HAP. An independently validated penalized conditional logistic regression model was used to identify HAP associated imaging regions.The HAP and control patients were well matched by gender (100%, age (95% within 5-years, NIHSS (98% within 1-point, infarct size, dysphagia, and six other clinical variables. Right hemispheric infarcts were more frequent in patients with HAP versus controls (43.3% vs. 34.0%, p = 0.054, whereas left hemispheric infarcts were more frequent in controls (56.7% vs. 44.7%, p = 0.012; there was no significant difference between groups in the rate of brainstem strokes (p = 1.0. Of the 10 most infarcted regions, only right insular cortex volume was different in HAP versus controls (20 vs. 12 ml, p = 0.02. In univariate analyses, the highest log-odds regions for pneumonia were right hemisphere, cerebellum, and brainstem. The best performing multivariate model selected 7 brain regions of infarction and 2 infarct volume-based variables independently associated with HAP.HAP is associated with right hemispheric peri-insular stroke. These associations may be related to autonomic modulation of immune mechanisms, supporting recent hypotheses of stroke mediated immune suppression.

  10. Understanding Actions of Others: The Electrodynamics of the Left and Right Hemispheres. A High-Density EEG Neuroimaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortigue, Stephanie; Sinigaglia, Corrado; Rizzolatti, Giacomo; Grafton, Scott T.

    2010-01-01

    Background When we observe an individual performing a motor act (e.g. grasping a cup) we get two types of information on the basis of how the motor act is done and the context: what the agent is doing (i.e. grasping) and the intention underlying it (i.e. grasping for drinking). Here we examined the temporal dynamics of the brain activations that follow the observation of a motor act and underlie the observer's capacity to understand what the agent is doing and why. Methodology/Principal Findings Volunteers were presented with two-frame video-clips. The first frame (T0) showed an object with or without context; the second frame (T1) showed a hand interacting with the object. The volunteers were instructed to understand the intention of the observed actions while their brain activity was recorded with a high-density 128-channel EEG system. Visual event-related potentials (VEPs) were recorded time-locked with the frame showing the hand-object interaction (T1). The data were analyzed by using electrical neuroimaging, which combines a cluster analysis performed on the group-averaged VEPs with the localization of the cortical sources that give rise to different spatio-temporal states of the global electrical field. Electrical neuroimaging results revealed four major steps: 1) bilateral posterior cortical activations; 2) a strong activation of the left posterior temporal and inferior parietal cortices with almost a complete disappearance of activations in the right hemisphere; 3) a significant increase of the activations of the right temporo-parietal region with simultaneously co-active left hemispheric sources, and 4) a significant global decrease of cortical activity accompanied by the appearance of activation of the orbito-frontal cortex. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that the early striking left hemisphere involvement is due to the activation of a lateralized action-observation/action execution network. The activation of this lateralized network mediates the

  11. Understanding actions of others: the electrodynamics of the left and right hemispheres. A high-density EEG neuroimaging study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Ortigue

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: When we observe an individual performing a motor act (e.g. grasping a cup we get two types of information on the basis of how the motor act is done and the context: what the agent is doing (i.e. grasping and the intention underlying it (i.e. grasping for drinking. Here we examined the temporal dynamics of the brain activations that follow the observation of a motor act and underlie the observer's capacity to understand what the agent is doing and why. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Volunteers were presented with two-frame video-clips. The first frame (T0 showed an object with or without context; the second frame (T1 showed a hand interacting with the object. The volunteers were instructed to understand the intention of the observed actions while their brain activity was recorded with a high-density 128-channel EEG system. Visual event-related potentials (VEPs were recorded time-locked with the frame showing the hand-object interaction (T1. The data were analyzed by using electrical neuroimaging, which combines a cluster analysis performed on the group-averaged VEPs with the localization of the cortical sources that give rise to different spatio-temporal states of the global electrical field. Electrical neuroimaging results revealed four major steps: 1 bilateral posterior cortical activations; 2 a strong activation of the left posterior temporal and inferior parietal cortices with almost a complete disappearance of activations in the right hemisphere; 3 a significant increase of the activations of the right temporo-parietal region with simultaneously co-active left hemispheric sources, and 4 a significant global decrease of cortical activity accompanied by the appearance of activation of the orbito-frontal cortex. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that the early striking left hemisphere involvement is due to the activation of a lateralized action-observation/action execution network. The activation of this lateralized network

  12. Right hemispheric dominance of visual phenomena evoked by intracerebral stimulation of the human visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Jacques; Frismand, Solène; Vignal, Jean-Pierre; Colnat-Coulbois, Sophie; Koessler, Laurent; Vespignani, Hervé; Rossion, Bruno; Maillard, Louis

    2014-07-01

    Electrical brain stimulation can provide important information about the functional organization of the human visual cortex. Here, we report the visual phenomena evoked by a large number (562) of intracerebral electrical stimulations performed at low-intensity with depth electrodes implanted in the occipito-parieto-temporal cortex of 22 epileptic patients. Focal electrical stimulation evoked primarily visual hallucinations with various complexities: simple (spot or blob), intermediary (geometric forms), or complex meaningful shapes (faces); visual illusions and impairments of visual recognition were more rarely observed. With the exception of the most posterior cortical sites, the probability of evoking a visual phenomenon was significantly higher in the right than the left hemisphere. Intermediary and complex hallucinations, illusions, and visual recognition impairments were almost exclusively evoked by stimulation in the right hemisphere. The probability of evoking a visual phenomenon decreased substantially from the occipital pole to the most anterior sites of the temporal lobe, and this decrease was more pronounced in the left hemisphere. The greater sensitivity of the right occipito-parieto-temporal regions to intracerebral electrical stimulation to evoke visual phenomena supports a predominant role of right hemispheric visual areas from perception to recognition of visual forms, regardless of visuospatial and attentional factors. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Processing concrete words: fMRI evidence against a specific right-hemisphere involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiebach, Christian J; Friederici, Angela D

    2004-01-01

    Behavioral, patient, and electrophysiological studies have been taken as support for the assumption that processing of abstract words is confined to the left hemisphere, whereas concrete words are processed also by right-hemispheric brain areas. These are thought to provide additional information from an imaginal representational system, as postulated in the dual-coding theory of memory and cognition. Here we report new event-related fMRI data on the processing of concrete and abstract words in a lexical decision task. While abstract words activated a subregion of the left inferior frontal gyrus (BA 45) more strongly than concrete words, specific activity for concrete words was observed in the left basal temporal cortex. These data as well as data from other neuroimaging studies reviewed here are not compatible with the assumption of a specific right-hemispheric involvement for concrete words. The combined findings rather suggest a revised view of the neuroanatomical bases of the imaginal representational system assumed in the dual-coding theory, at least with respect to word recognition.

  14. Framing effects: the influence of handedness and access to right hemisphere processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Jeannette M

    2012-01-01

    Changing how information is framed, such that the same critical information is cast in a positive or negative light, has a powerful impact on judgements and decision making. Research indicates that the influence of frames may be driven by participants' initial affective response and that the right hemisphere is sensitive to the emotional connotation of stimuli. While previous research tested the effects of hemispheric differences on framing effects by inducing asymmetrical activation, the current study explored how stable brain differences may account for differences in susceptibility to framing effects. Because mixed degree of handedness is associated with increased access to right hemisphere processes, mixed-handed participants were expected to be more susceptible to the effects of framing than strong-handed participants. Participants responded to the Asian disease problem and completed as assessment of handedness. Although mixed- and strong-handed participants were affected differently, the results were not consistent with the hypothesis. Mixed-handed participants conformed to risky choice framing effects when options were framed negatively and showed no effect of the positive frame. Strong-handed participants conformed to positively framed options and showed no effect of the negative frame. Possible explanations are discussed.

  15. Changes of right-hemispheric activation after constraint-induced, intensive language action therapy in chronic aphasia: fMRI evidence from auditory semantic processing1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Bettina; Difrancesco, Stephanie; Harrington, Karen; Evans, Samuel; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2014-01-01

    The role of the two hemispheres in the neurorehabilitation of language is still under dispute. This study explored the changes in language-evoked brain activation over a 2-week treatment interval with intensive constraint induced aphasia therapy (CIAT), which is also called intensive language action therapy (ILAT). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to assess brain activation in perilesional left hemispheric and in homotopic right hemispheric areas during passive listening to high and low-ambiguity sentences and non-speech control stimuli in chronic non-fluent aphasia patients. All patients demonstrated significant clinical improvements of language functions after therapy. In an event-related fMRI experiment, a significant increase of BOLD signal was manifest in right inferior frontal and temporal areas. This activation increase was stronger for highly ambiguous sentences than for unambiguous ones. These results suggest that the known language improvements brought about by intensive constraint-induced language action therapy at least in part relies on circuits within the right-hemispheric homologs of left-perisylvian language areas, which are most strongly activated in the processing of semantically complex language. PMID:25452721

  16. No Acoustic Evidence from RHD for a Right Hemisphere Role in Prosody Production: A Meta-Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weed, Ethan; Fusaroli, Riccardo

    No acoustic evidence from RHD for a right hemisphere role in prosody production: A meta-analysis. Ethan Weed and Riccardo Fusaroli (Aarhus University, Denmark) Poster : The right hemisphere (RH) is often thought to have a special role in prosody comprehension and production in general...... by regression analysis of funnel plots for F0 (z = 1.5937, p = 0.1110). Intensity did show evidence of publication bias (z = -4.1582, p role for the RH in prosody...

  17. Hemispheric differences in the voluntary control of spatial attention: direct evidence for a right-hemispheric dominance within frontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duecker, Felix; Formisano, Elia; Sack, Alexander T

    2013-08-01

    Lesion studies in neglect patients have inspired two competing models of spatial attention control, namely, Heilman's "hemispatial" theory and Kinsbourne's "opponent processor" model. Both assume a functional asymmetry between the two hemispheres but propose very different mechanisms. Neuroimaging studies have identified a bilateral dorsal frontoparietal network underlying voluntary shifts of spatial attention. However, lateralization of attentional processes within this network has not been consistently reported. In the current study, we aimed to provide direct evidence concerning the functional asymmetry of the right and left FEF during voluntary shifts of spatial attention. To this end, we applied fMRI-guided neuronavigation to disrupt individual FEF activation foci with a longer-lasting inhibitory patterned TMS protocol followed by a spatial cueing task. Our results indicate that right FEF stimulation impaired the ability of shifting spatial attention toward both hemifields, whereas the effects of left FEF stimulation were limited to the contralateral hemifield. These results provide strong direct evidence for right-hemispheric dominance in spatial attention within frontal cortex supporting Heilman's "hemispatial" theory. This complements previous TMS studies that generally conform to Kinsbourne's "opponent processor" model after disruption of parietal cortex, and we therefore propose that both theories are not mutually exclusive.

  18. When is the right hemisphere holistic and when is it not? The case of Chinese character recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Harry K S; Leung, Jacklyn C Y; Wong, Vienne M Y; Hsiao, Janet H

    2018-05-15

    Holistic processing (HP) has long been considered a characteristic of right hemisphere (RH) processing. Indeed, holistic face processing is typically associated with left visual field (LVF)/RH processing advantages. Nevertheless, expert Chinese character recognition involves reduced HP and increased RH lateralization, presenting a counterexample. Recent modeling research suggests that RH processing may be associated with an increase or decrease in HP, depending on whether spacing or component information was used respectively. Since expert Chinese character recognition involves increasing sensitivity to components while deemphasizing spacing information, RH processing in experts may be associated with weaker HP than novices. Consistent with this hypothesis, in a divided visual field paradigm, novices exhibited HP only in the LVF/RH, whereas experts showed no HP in either visual field. This result suggests that the RH may flexibly switch between part-based and holistic representations, consistent with recent fMRI findings. The RH's advantage in global/low spatial frequency processing is suggested to be relative to the task relevant frequency range. Thus, its use of holistic and part-based representations may depend on how attention is allocated for task relevant information. This study provides the first behavioral evidence showing how type of information used for processing modulates perceptual representations in the RH. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Profiling Speech and Pausing in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunusova, Yana; Graham, Naida L.; Shellikeri, Sanjana; Phuong, Kent; Kulkarni, Madhura; Rochon, Elizabeth; Tang-Wai, David F.; Chow, Tiffany W.; Black, Sandra E.; Zinman, Lorne H.; Green, Jordan R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study examines reading aloud in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and those with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) in order to determine whether differences in patterns of speaking and pausing exist between patients with primary motor vs. primary cognitive-linguistic deficits, and in contrast to healthy controls. Design 136 participants were included in the study: 33 controls, 85 patients with ALS, and 18 patients with either the behavioural variant of FTD (FTD-BV) or progressive nonfluent aphasia (FTD-PNFA). Participants with ALS were further divided into 4 non-overlapping subgroups—mild, respiratory, bulbar (with oral-motor deficit) and bulbar-respiratory—based on the presence and severity of motor bulbar or respiratory signs. All participants read a passage aloud. Custom-made software was used to perform speech and pause analyses, and this provided measures of speaking and articulatory rates, duration of speech, and number and duration of pauses. These measures were statistically compared in different subgroups of patients. Results The results revealed clear differences between patient groups and healthy controls on the passage reading task. A speech-based motor function measure (i.e., articulatory rate) was able to distinguish patients with bulbar ALS or FTD-PNFA from those with respiratory ALS or FTD-BV. Distinguishing the disordered groups proved challenging based on the pausing measures. Conclusions and Relevance This study demonstrated the use of speech measures in the identification of those with an oral-motor deficit, and showed the usefulness of performing a relatively simple reading test to assess speech versus pause behaviors across the ALS—FTD disease continuum. The findings also suggest that motor speech assessment should be performed as part of the diagnostic workup for patients with FTD. PMID:26789001

  20. Profiling Speech and Pausing in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS and Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana Yunusova

    Full Text Available This study examines reading aloud in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and those with frontotemporal dementia (FTD in order to determine whether differences in patterns of speaking and pausing exist between patients with primary motor vs. primary cognitive-linguistic deficits, and in contrast to healthy controls.136 participants were included in the study: 33 controls, 85 patients with ALS, and 18 patients with either the behavioural variant of FTD (FTD-BV or progressive nonfluent aphasia (FTD-PNFA. Participants with ALS were further divided into 4 non-overlapping subgroups--mild, respiratory, bulbar (with oral-motor deficit and bulbar-respiratory--based on the presence and severity of motor bulbar or respiratory signs. All participants read a passage aloud. Custom-made software was used to perform speech and pause analyses, and this provided measures of speaking and articulatory rates, duration of speech, and number and duration of pauses. These measures were statistically compared in different subgroups of patients.The results revealed clear differences between patient groups and healthy controls on the passage reading task. A speech-based motor function measure (i.e., articulatory rate was able to distinguish patients with bulbar ALS or FTD-PNFA from those with respiratory ALS or FTD-BV. Distinguishing the disordered groups proved challenging based on the pausing measures.This study demonstrated the use of speech measures in the identification of those with an oral-motor deficit, and showed the usefulness of performing a relatively simple reading test to assess speech versus pause behaviors across the ALS-FTD disease continuum. The findings also suggest that motor speech assessment should be performed as part of the diagnostic workup for patients with FTD.

  1. Preserved visual lexicosemantics in global aphasia: a right-hemisphere contribution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, B T; Kertesz, A

    2000-12-01

    Extensive testing of a patient, GP, who encountered large-scale destruction of left-hemisphere (LH) language regions was undertaken in order to address several issues concerning the ability of nonperisylvian areas to extract meaning from printed words. Testing revealed recognition of superordinate boundaries of animals, tools, vegetables, fruit, clothes, and furniture. GP was able to distinguish proper names from other nouns and from nonwords. GP was also able to differentiate words representing living things from those denoting nonliving things. The extent of LH infarct resulting in a global impairment to phonological and syntactic processing suggests LH specificity for these functions but considerable right-hemisphere (RH) participation in visual lexicosemantic processing. The relative preservation of visual lexicosemantic abilities despite severe impairment to all aspects of phonological coding demonstrates the importance of the direct route to the meaning of single printed words.

  2. Functional Language Shift to the Right Hemisphere in Patients with Language-Eloquent Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieg, Sandro M.; Sollmann, Nico; Hauck, Theresa; Ille, Sebastian; Foerschler, Annette; Meyer, Bernhard; Ringel, Florian

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Language function is mainly located within the left hemisphere of the brain, especially in right-handed subjects. However, functional MRI (fMRI) has demonstrated changes of language organization in patients with left-sided perisylvian lesions to the right hemisphere. Because intracerebral lesions can impair fMRI, this study was designed to investigate human language plasticity with a virtual lesion model using repetitive navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Experimental design Fifteen patients with lesions of left-sided language-eloquent brain areas and 50 healthy and purely right-handed participants underwent bilateral rTMS language mapping via an object-naming task. All patients were proven to have left-sided language function during awake surgery. The rTMS-induced language errors were categorized into 6 different error types. The error ratio (induced errors/number of stimulations) was determined for each brain region on both hemispheres. A hemispheric dominance ratio was then defined for each region as the quotient of the error ratio (left/right) of the corresponding area of both hemispheres (ratio >1  =  left dominant; ratio dominant). Results Patients with language-eloquent lesions showed a statistically significantly lower ratio than healthy participants concerning “all errors” and “all errors without hesitations”, which indicates a higher participation of the right hemisphere in language function. Yet, there was no cortical region with pronounced difference in language dominance compared to the whole hemisphere. Conclusions This is the first study that shows by means of an anatomically accurate virtual lesion model that a shift of language function to the non-dominant hemisphere can occur. PMID:24069410

  3. Intuition, insight, and the right hemisphere: Emergence of higher sociocognitive functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon M McCrea

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Simon M McCreaDepartments of Neurology and Neuroophthalmology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, CanadaAbstract: Intuition is the ability to understand immediately without conscious reasoning and is sometimes explained as a ‘gut feeling’ about the rightness or wrongness of a person, place, situation, temporal episode or object. In contrast, insight is the capacity to gain accurate and a deep understanding of a problem and it is often associated with movement beyond existing paradigms. Examples include Darwin, Einstein and Freud’s theories of natural selection, relativity, or the unconscious; respectively. Many cultures name these concepts and acknowledge their value, and insight is recognized as particularly characteristic of eminent achievements in the arts, sciences and politics. Considerable data suggests that these two concepts are more related than distinct, and that a more distributed intuitive network may feed into a predominately right hemispheric insight-based functional neuronal architecture. The preparation and incubation stages of insight may rely on the incorporation of domain-specific automatized expertise schema associated with intuition. In this manuscript the neural networks associated with intuition and insight are reviewed. Case studies of anomalous subjects with ability–achievement discrepancies are summarized. This theoretical review proposes the prospect that atypical localization of cognitive modules may enhance intuitive and insightful functions and thereby explain individual achievement beyond that expected by conventionally measured intelligence tests. A model and theory of intuition and insight’s neuroanatomical basis is proposed which could be used as a starting point for future research and better understanding of the nature of these two distinctly human and highly complex poorly understood abilities.Keywords: intuition, insight, nonverbal decoding, nonverbal sequencing

  4. Functional language shift to the right hemisphere in patients with language-eloquent brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieg, Sandro M; Sollmann, Nico; Hauck, Theresa; Ille, Sebastian; Foerschler, Annette; Meyer, Bernhard; Ringel, Florian

    2013-01-01

    Language function is mainly located within the left hemisphere of the brain, especially in right-handed subjects. However, functional MRI (fMRI) has demonstrated changes of language organization in patients with left-sided perisylvian lesions to the right hemisphere. Because intracerebral lesions can impair fMRI, this study was designed to investigate human language plasticity with a virtual lesion model using repetitive navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Fifteen patients with lesions of left-sided language-eloquent brain areas and 50 healthy and purely right-handed participants underwent bilateral rTMS language mapping via an object-naming task. All patients were proven to have left-sided language function during awake surgery. The rTMS-induced language errors were categorized into 6 different error types. The error ratio (induced errors/number of stimulations) was determined for each brain region on both hemispheres. A hemispheric dominance ratio was then defined for each region as the quotient of the error ratio (left/right) of the corresponding area of both hemispheres (ratio >1 = left dominant; ratio right dominant). Patients with language-eloquent lesions showed a statistically significantly lower ratio than healthy participants concerning "all errors" and "all errors without hesitations", which indicates a higher participation of the right hemisphere in language function. Yet, there was no cortical region with pronounced difference in language dominance compared to the whole hemisphere. This is the first study that shows by means of an anatomically accurate virtual lesion model that a shift of language function to the non-dominant hemisphere can occur.

  5. Selectivity of N170 for visual words in the right hemisphere: Evidence from single-trial analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hang; Zhao, Jing; Gaspar, Carl M; Chen, Wei; Tan, Yufei; Weng, Xuchu

    2017-08-01

    Neuroimaging and neuropsychological studies have identified the involvement of the right posterior region in the processing of visual words. Interestingly, in contrast, ERP studies of the N170 typically demonstrate selectivity for words more strikingly over the left hemisphere. Why is right hemisphere selectivity for words during the N170 epoch typically not observed, despite the clear involvement of this region in word processing? One possibility is that amplitude differences measured on averaged ERPs in previous studies may have been obscured by variation in peak latency across trials. This study examined this possibility by using single-trial analysis. Results show that words evoked greater single-trial N170s than control stimuli in the right hemisphere. Additionally, we observed larger trial-to-trial variability on N170 peak latency for words as compared to control stimuli over the right hemisphere. Results demonstrate that, in contrast to much of the prior literature, the N170 can be selective to words over the right hemisphere. This discrepancy is explained in terms of variability in trial-to-trial peak latency for responses to words over the right hemisphere. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  6. Functional lateralization of speech processing in adults and children who stutter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka eSato

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Developmental stuttering is a speech disorder in fluency characterized by repetitions, prolongations and silent blocks, especially in the initial parts of utterances. Although their symptoms are motor related, people who stutter show abnormal patterns of cerebral hemispheric dominance in both anterior and posterior language areas. It is unknown whether the abnormal functional lateralization in the posterior language area starts during childhood or emerges as a consequence of many years of stuttering. In order to address this issue, we measured the lateralization of hemodynamic responses in the auditory cortex during auditory speech processing in adults and children who stutter, including preschoolers, with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. We used the analysis-resynthesis technique to prepare two types of stimuli: (i a phonemic contrast embedded in Japanese spoken words (/itta/ vs. /itte/ and (ii a prosodic contrast (/itta/ vs. /itta?/. In the baseline blocks, only /itta/ tokens were presented. In phonemic contrast blocks, /itta/ and /itte/ tokens were presented pseudo-randomly, and /itta/ and /itta?/ tokens in prosodic contrast blocks. In adults and children who do not stutter, there was a clear left-hemispheric advantage for the phonemic contrast compared to the prosodic contrast. Adults and children who stutter, however, showed no significant difference between the two stimulus conditions. A subject-by-subject analysis revealed that not a single subject who stutters showed a left advantage in the phonemic contrast over the prosodic contrast condition. These results indicate that the functional lateralization for auditory speech processing is in disarray among those who stutter, even at preschool age. These results shed light on the neural pathophysiology of developmental stuttering.

  7. Right-hemispheric processing of non-linguistic word features: implications for mapping language recovery after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgaertner, Annette; Hartwigsen, Gesa; Roman Siebner, Hartwig

    2013-06-01

    Verbal stimuli often induce right-hemispheric activation in patients with aphasia after left-hemispheric stroke. This right-hemispheric activation is commonly attributed to functional reorganization within the language system. Yet previous evidence suggests that functional activation in right-hemispheric homologues of classic left-hemispheric language areas may partly be due to processing nonlinguistic perceptual features of verbal stimuli. We used functional MRI (fMRI) to clarify the role of the right hemisphere in the perception of nonlinguistic word features in healthy individuals. Participants made perceptual, semantic, or phonological decisions on the same set of auditorily and visually presented word stimuli. Perceptual decisions required judgements about stimulus-inherent changes in font size (visual modality) or fundamental frequency contour (auditory modality). The semantic judgement required subjects to decide whether a stimulus is natural or man-made; the phonologic decision required a decision on whether a stimulus contains two or three syllables. Compared to phonologic or semantic decision, nonlinguistic perceptual decisions resulted in a stronger right-hemispheric activation. Specifically, the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), an area previously suggested to support language recovery after left-hemispheric stroke, displayed modality-independent activation during perceptual processing of word stimuli. Our findings indicate that activation of the right hemisphere during language tasks may, in some instances, be driven by a "nonlinguistic perceptual processing" mode that focuses on nonlinguistic word features. This raises the possibility that stronger activation of right inferior frontal areas during language tasks in aphasic patients with left-hemispheric stroke may at least partially reflect increased attentional focus on nonlinguistic perceptual aspects of language. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Right hemispheric dominance and interhemispheric cooperation in gaze-triggered reflexive shift of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Takashi; Sato, Wataru; Kubota, Yasutaka; Toichi, Motomi; Murai, Toshiya

    2012-03-01

    The neural substrate for the processing of gaze remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to clarify which hemisphere dominantly processes and whether bilateral hemispheres cooperate with each other in gaze-triggered reflexive shift of attention. Twenty-eight normal subjects were tested. The non-predictive gaze cues were presented either in unilateral or bilateral visual fields. The subjects localized the target as soon as possible. Reaction times (RT) were shorter when gaze-cues were congruent toward than away from targets, whichever visual field they were presented in. RT were shorter in left than right visual field presentations. RT in mono-directional bilateral presentations were shorter than both of those in left and right presentations. When bi-directional bilateral cues were presented, RT were faster when valid cues were presented in the left than right visual fields. The right hemisphere appears to be dominant, and there is interhemispheric cooperation in gaze-triggered reflexive shift of attention. © 2012 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2012 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  9. Theory of Mind disruption and recruitment of the right hemisphere during narrative comprehension in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Robert A; Williams, Diane L; Kana, Rajesh K; Minshew, Nancy; Just, Marcel Adam

    2008-01-15

    The intersection of Theory of Mind (ToM) processing and complex narrative comprehension in high functioning autism was examined by comparing cortical activation during the reading of passages that required inferences based on either intentions, emotional states, or physical causality. Right hemisphere activation was substantially greater for all sentences in the autism group than in a matched control group suggesting decreased LH capacity in autism resulting in a spillover of processing to RH homologs. Moreover, the ToM network was disrupted. The autism group showed similar activation for all inference types in the right temporo-parietal component of the ToM network whereas the control participants selectively activated this network only when appropriate. The autism group had lower functional connectivity within the ToM network and also between the ToM and a left hemisphere language network. Furthermore, the within-network functional connectivity in autism was correlated with the size of the anterior portion of the corpus callosum.

  10. Right Hemisphere Grey Matter Volume and Language Functions in Stroke Aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sladjana Lukic

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of the right hemisphere (RH in recovery from aphasia is incompletely understood. The present study quantified RH grey matter (GM volume in individuals with chronic stroke-induced aphasia and cognitively healthy people using voxel-based morphometry. We compared group differences in GM volume in the entire RH and in RH regions-of-interest. Given that lesion site is a critical source of heterogeneity associated with poststroke language ability, we used voxel-based lesion symptom mapping (VLSM to examine the relation between lesion site and language performance in the aphasic participants. Finally, using results derived from the VLSM as a covariate, we evaluated the relation between GM volume in the RH and language ability across domains, including comprehension and production processes both at the word and sentence levels and across spoken and written modalities. Between-subject comparisons showed that GM volume in the RH SMA was reduced in the aphasic group compared to the healthy controls. We also found that, for the aphasic group, increased RH volume in the MTG and the SMA was associated with better language comprehension and production scores, respectively. These data suggest that the RH may support functions previously performed by LH regions and have important implications for understanding poststroke reorganization.

  11. Maurice Ravel and right-hemisphere musical creativity: influence of disease on his last musical works?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaducci, L; Grassi, E; Boller, F

    2002-01-01

    The problem of finding correspondence between a particular neuronal organization and a specific function of the human brain remains a central question of neuroscience. It is sometimes thought that language and music are two sides of the same intellectual coin, but research on brain-damaged patients has shown that the loss of verbal functions (aphasia) is not necessarily accompanied by a loss of musical abilities (amusia). Amusia without aphasia has also been described. This double dissociation indicates functional autonomy in these mental processes. Yet verbal and musical impairments often occur together. The global picture that emerges from studies of music and its neural substrate is by no means clear and much depends on which subjects and which aspect of musical abilities are investigated. An illustration of these concepts is provided by the case of the French composer Maurice Ravel, who suffered from a progressive cerebral disease of uncertain aetiology, with prominent involvement of the left hemisphere. As a result, Ravel experienced aphasia and apraxia and became unable to compose. The available facts favour a clinical diagnosis of primary progressive aphasia (PPA), with the possibility of an overlap with corticobasal degeneration (CBD). In view of Ravel's clinical history, we propose that two of his final compositions, the Bolero and the Concerto for the Left Hand, include certain patterns characteristic of right-hemisphere musical abilities and may show the influence of disease on the creative process.

  12. Right hemisphere specialization for the identification of emotional words and sentences: evidence from stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borod, J C; Andelman, F; Obler, L K; Tweedy, J R; Welkowitz, J

    1992-09-01

    This study examines the contribution of the lexical/verbal channel to emotional processing in 16 right brain-damaged (RBD), 16 left brain-damaged (LBD) and 16 normal control (NC) right-handed adults. Emotional lexical perception tasks were developed; analogous nonemotional tasks were created to control for cognitive and linguistic factors. The three subject groups were matched for gender, age and education. The brain-damaged groups were similar with respect to cerebrovascular etiology, months post-onset, sensory-motor status and lesion location. Parallel emotional and nonemotional tasks included word identification, sentence identification and word discrimination. For both word tasks, RBDs were significantly more impaired than LBDs and NCs in the emotional condition. For all three tasks, RBDs showed a significantly greater performance discrepancy between emotional and nonemotional conditions than did LBDs or NCs. Results were not affected by the valence (i.e. positive/negative) of the stimuli. These findings suggest a dominant role for the right hemisphere in the perception of lexically-based emotional stimuli.

  13. Right hemisphere neural activations in the recall of waking fantasies and of dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Francesco; Poletti, Sara; Radaelli, Daniele; Ranieri, Rebecca; Genduso, Valeria; Cavallotti, Simone; Castelnovo, Anna; Smeraldi, Enrico; Scarone, Silvio; D'Agostino, Armando

    2015-10-01

    The story-like organization of dreams is characterized by a pervasive bizarreness of events and actions that resembles psychotic thought, and largely exceeds that observed in normal waking fantasies. Little is known about the neural correlates of the confabulatory narrative construction of dreams. In this study, dreams, fantasies elicited by ambiguous pictorial stimuli, and non-imaginative first- and third-person narratives from healthy participants were recorded, and were then studied for brain blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging on a 3.0-Tesla scanner while listening to their own narrative reports and attempting a retrieval of the corresponding experience. In respect to non-bizarre reports of daytime activities, the script-driven recall of dreams and fantasies differentially activated a right hemisphere network including areas in the inferior frontal gyrus, and superior and middle temporal gyrus. Neural responses were significantly greater for fantasies than for dreams in all regions, and inversely proportional to the degree of bizarreness observed in narrative reports. The inferior frontal gyrus, superior and middle temporal gyrus have been implicated in the semantic activation, integration and selection needed to build a coherent story representation and to resolve semantic ambiguities; in deductive and inferential reasoning; in self- and other-perspective taking, theory of mind, moral and autobiographical reasoning. Their degree of activation could parallel the level of logical robustness or inconsistency experienced when integrating information and mental representations in the process of building fantasy and dream narratives. © 2015 European Sleep Research Society.

  14. Predictors of Discharge to Home after Thrombolytic Treatment in Right Hemisphere Infarct Patients

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    E-I. Ruuskanen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The aim of the study was to assess the association between thrombolysis and length of hospital stay after right hemisphere (RH infarct, and to identify which cognitive functions were predictive of discharge. Methods The study group consisted of 75 acute RH patients. Thirty-three patients had thrombolysis. Neuropsychologicalexaminations were performed within 11 days of stroke onset. The cognitive predictors were visual neglect, visual memory, visual search and reasoning and visuoconstructive abilities. The outcome variable was time from stroke to discharge to home. Results Thrombolysis emerged as a statistically significant predictor of discharge time in patients with moderate/severe stroke (NIHSS ≥5. In the total series of patients and in patients with mild stroke (NIHSS <5, thrombolysiswas not significantly associated with discharge time. Milder visuoconstructive defects shortened the hospital stay of the whole patient group and of patients with moderate/severe stroke. In all patient groups, independence in activitiesof daily living (ADL was a significant single predictor of a shorter hospital stay. The best combination of predictors for discharge was independence in ADL in the total series of patients and in patients with mild stroke, and thrombolysis and independence in ADL in patients with moderate/severe stroke. Conclusions Thrombolytic treatment was a significant predictor of earlier discharge to home in patients with moderate/severe RH infarct, while cognitive functions had less predictive power.

  15. Reducing chronic visuo-spatial neglect following right hemisphere stroke through instrument playing

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    Rebeka eBodak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Unilateral visuo-spatial neglect is a neuropsychological syndrome commonly resulting from right hemisphere strokes at the temporo-parietal junction of the infero-posterior parietal cortex. Neglect is characterised by reduced awareness of stimuli presented on patients’ contralesional side of space and has previously been shown to be improved by a number of motivational influences, including listening to preferred music and numerical sequence completion. Here we examined whether playing musical sequences on chime bars – an instrument with a horizontal alignment – would bring about clinically significant improvement in chronic neglect.Two left neglect patients completed an intervention comprising four weekly 30-minute music sessions involving playing scales and familiar melodies on chime bars from right to left. Two cancellation tests (Mesulam shape, BIT star, the line bisection test, and the neglect subtest from the computerised TAP (Test for Attentional Performance battery were administered three times during a preliminary baseline phase, before and after each music session during the rehabilitation phase to investigate short-term effects, as well as one week after the last intervention session to investigate whether any effects would persist.Both patients demonstrated significant short-term and longer-lasting improvements on the Mesulam shape cancellation test. One patient also showed longer-lasting effects on the BIT star cancellation test and scored in the normal range one week after the intervention. These findings provide preliminary evidence that active music-making may help neglect patients attend more to their affected side.

  16. Cortical activity in the left and right hemispheres during language-related brain functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, N A; Larsen, B

    1980-01-01

    of cortical activity seen during various language functions, emphasizing the practically symmetrical involvement in both hemispheres. A case of auditive agnosia (with complete cortical word deafness but preserved pure tone thresholds) is presented. The patient's normal speech constitutes evidence...

  17. Atypical lateralization of ERP response to native and non-native speech in infants at risk for autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seery, Anne M; Vogel-Farley, Vanessa; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Nelson, Charles A

    2013-07-01

    Language impairment is common in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and is often accompanied by atypical neural lateralization. However, it is unclear when in development language impairment or atypical lateralization first emerges. To address these questions, we recorded event-related-potentials (ERPs) to native and non-native speech contrasts longitudinally in infants at risk for ASD (HRA) over the first year of life to determine whether atypical lateralization is present as an endophenotype early in development and whether these infants show delay in a very basic precursor of language acquisition: phonemic perceptual narrowing. ERP response for the HRA group to a non-native speech contrast revealed a trajectory of perceptual narrowing similar to a group of low-risk controls (LRC), suggesting that phonemic perceptual narrowing does not appear to be delayed in these high-risk infants. In contrast there were significant group differences in the development of lateralized ERP response to speech: between 6 and 12 months the LRC group displayed a lateralized response to the speech sounds, while the HRA group failed to display this pattern. We suggest the possibility that atypical lateralization to speech may be an ASD endophenotype over the first year of life. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Lingual–Alveolar Contact Pressure During Speech in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knollhoff, Stephanie; Barohn, Richard J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This preliminary study on lingual–alveolar contact pressures (LACP) in people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) had several aims: (a) to evaluate whether the protocol induced fatigue, (b) to compare LACP during speech (LACP-Sp) and during maximum isometric pressing (LACP-Max) in people with ALS (PALS) versus healthy controls, (c) to compare the percentage of LACP-Max utilized during speech (%Max) for PALS versus controls, and (d) to evaluate relationships between LACP-Sp and LACP-Max with word intelligibility. Method Thirteen PALS and 12 healthy volunteers produced /t, d, s, z, l, n/ sounds while LACP-Sp was recorded. LACP-Max was obtained before and after the speech protocol. Word intelligibility was obtained from auditory–perceptual judgments. Results LACP-Max values measured before and after completion of the speech protocol did not differ. LACP-Sp and LACP-Max were statistically lower in the ALS bulbar group compared with controls and PALS with only spinal symptoms. There was no statistical difference between groups for %Max. LACP-Sp and LACP-Max were correlated with word intelligibility. Conclusions It was feasible to obtain LACP-Sp measures without inducing fatigue. Reductions in LACP-Sp and LACP-Max for bulbar speakers might reflect tongue weakness. Although confirmation of results is needed, the data indicate that individuals with high word intelligibility maintained LACP-Sp at or above 2 kPa and LACP-Max at or above 50 kPa. PMID:28335033

  19. Altered functional connectivity differs in stroke survivors with impaired touch sensation following left and right hemisphere lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Goodin

    Full Text Available One in two survivors experience impairment in touch sensation after stroke. The nature of this impairment is likely associated with changes associated with the functional somatosensory network of the brain; however few studies have examined this. In particular, the impact of lesioned hemisphere has not been investigated. We examined resting state functional connectivity in 28 stroke survivors, 14 with left hemisphere and 14 with right hemisphere lesion, and 14 healthy controls. Contra-lesional hands showed significantly decreased touch discrimination. Whole brain functional connectivity (FC data was extracted from four seed regions, i.e. primary (S1 and secondary (S2 somatosensory cortices in both hemispheres. Whole brain FC maps and Laterality Indices (LI were calculated for subgroups. Inter-hemispheric FC was greater in healthy controls compared to the combined stroke cohort from the left S1 seed and bilateral S2 seeds. The left lesion subgroup showed decreased FC, relative to controls, from left ipsi-lesional S1 to contra-lesional S1 and to distributed temporal, occipital and parietal regions. In comparison, the right lesion group showed decreased connectivity from contra-lesional left S1 and bilateral S2 to ipsi-lesional parietal operculum (S2, and to occipital and temporal regions. The right lesion group also showed increased intra-hemispheric FC from ipsi-lesional right S1 to inferior parietal regions compared to controls. In comparison to the left lesion group, those with right lesion showed greater intra-hemispheric connectivity from left S1 to left parietal and occipital regions and from right S1 to right angular and parietal regions. Laterality Indices were significantly greater for stroke subgroups relative to matched controls for contra-lesional S1 (left lesion group and contra-lesional S2 (both groups. We provide evidence of altered functional connectivity within the somatosensory network, across both hemispheres, and to other

  20. A dual task priming investigation of right hemisphere inhibition for people with left hemisphere lesions

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    Smith-Conway Erin R

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During normal semantic processing, the left hemisphere (LH is suggested to restrict right hemisphere (RH performance via interhemispheric suppression. However, a lesion in the LH or the use of concurrent tasks to overload the LH's attentional resource balance has been reported to result in RH disinhibition with subsequent improvements in RH performance. The current study examines variations in RH semantic processing in the context of unilateral LH lesions and the manipulation of the interhemispheric processing resource balance, in order to explore the relevance of RH disinhibition to hemispheric contributions to semantic processing following a unilateral LH lesion. Methods RH disinhibition was examined for nine participants with a single LH lesion and 13 matched controls using the dual task paradigm. Hemispheric performance on a divided visual field lexical decision semantic priming task was compared over three verbal memory load conditions, of zero-, two- and six-words. Related stimuli consisted of categorically related, associatively related, and categorically and associatively related prime-target pairs. Response time and accuracy data were recorded and analyzed using linear mixed model analysis, and planned contrasts were performed to compare priming effects in both visual fields, for each of the memory load conditions. Results Control participants exhibited significant bilateral visual field priming for all related conditions (p Conclusions The results from the control group are consistent with suggestions of an age related hemispheric asymmetry reduction and indicate that in healthy aging compensatory bilateral activation may reduce the impact of inhibition. In comparison, the results for the LHD group indicate that following a LH lesion RH semantic processing can be manipulated and enhanced by the introduction of a verbal memory task designed to engage LH resources and allow disinhibition of RH processing.

  1. Cognitive aspects of human motor activity: Contribution of right hemisphere and cerebellum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedov A. S.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Concepts of movement and action are not completely synonymous, but what distinguishes one from the other? Movement may be defined as stimulus- driven motor acts, while action implies realization of a specific motor goal, essential for cognitively driven behavior. Although recent clinical and neuroimaging studies have revealed some areas of the brain that mediate cognitive aspects of human motor behavior, the identification of the basic neural circuit underlying the interaction between cognitive and motor functions remains a challenge for neurophysiology and psychology. Objective. In the current study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to investigate elementary cognitive aspects of human motor behavior. Design. Twenty healthy right-handed volunteers were asked to perform stimulus-driven and goal-directed movements by clenching the right hand into a fist (7 times. The cognitive component lay in anticipation of simple stimuli signals. In order to disentangle the purely motor component of stimulus-driven movements, we used the event-related (ER paradigm. FMRI was performed on a 3 Tesla Siemens Magnetom Verio MR-scanner with 32-channel head coil. Results. We have shown differences in the localization of brain activity depending on the involvement of cognitive functions. These differences testify to the role of the cerebellum and the right hemisphere in motor cognition. In particular, our results suggest that right associative cortical areas, together with the right posterolateral cerebellum (Crus I and lobule VI and basal ganglia, de ne cognitive control of motor activity, promoting a shift from a stimulus-driven to a goal-directed mode. Conclusion. These results, along with recent data from research on cerebro-cerebellar circuitry, redefine the scope of tasks for exploring the contribution of the cerebellum to diverse aspects of human motor behavior and cognition.

  2. The rod orientation test in patients with right-hemisphere infarction : a clinical study of spatial perception in 154 subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.D. Meerwaldt (Johannes David (Jan))

    1982-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis describes a clinical study of disturbances of spatial perception. Chapter I gives a short review of hemispheric asymmetry. For a long time the right hemisphere was regarded as the minor hemisphere, of which substantial regions were thought to have no specific function.

  3. Testing the Language of German Cerebral Palsy Patients with Right Hemispheric Language Organization after Early Left Hemispheric Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwilling, Eleonore; Krageloh-Mann, Ingeborg; Konietzko, Andreas; Winkler, Susanne; Lidzba, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Language functions are generally represented in the left cerebral hemisphere. After early (prenatally acquired or perinatally acquired) left hemispheric brain damage language functions may be salvaged by reorganization into the right hemisphere. This is different from brain lesions acquired in adulthood which normally lead to aphasia. Right…

  4. Inference Generation during Text Comprehension by Adults with Right Hemisphere Brain Damage: Activation Failure Versus Multiple Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Connie A.; Fassbinder, Wiltrud; Blake, Margaret Lehman; Baumgaertner, Annette; Jayaram, Nandini

    2004-01-01

    ourse comprehensionEvidence conflicts as to whether adults with right hemisphere brain damage (RHD) generate inferences during text comprehension. M. Beeman (1993) reported that adults with RHD fail to activate the lexical-semantic bases of routine bridging inferences, which are necessary for comprehension. But other evidence indicates that adults…

  5. Altered functional connectivity differs in stroke survivors with impaired touch sensation following left and right hemisphere lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodin, Peter; Lamp, Gemma; Vidyasagar, Rishma; McArdle, David; Seitz, Rüdiger J; Carey, Leeanne M

    2018-01-01

    One in two survivors experience impairment in touch sensation after stroke. The nature of this impairment is likely associated with changes associated with the functional somatosensory network of the brain; however few studies have examined this. In particular, the impact of lesioned hemisphere has not been investigated. We examined resting state functional connectivity in 28 stroke survivors, 14 with left hemisphere and 14 with right hemisphere lesion, and 14 healthy controls. Contra-lesional hands showed significantly decreased touch discrimination. Whole brain functional connectivity (FC) data was extracted from four seed regions, i.e. primary (S1) and secondary (S2) somatosensory cortices in both hemispheres. Whole brain FC maps and Laterality Indices (LI) were calculated for subgroups. Inter-hemispheric FC was greater in healthy controls compared to the combined stroke cohort from the left S1 seed and bilateral S2 seeds. The left lesion subgroup showed decreased FC, relative to controls, from left ipsi-lesional S1 to contra-lesional S1 and to distributed temporal, occipital and parietal regions. In comparison, the right lesion group showed decreased connectivity from contra-lesional left S1 and bilateral S2 to ipsi-lesional parietal operculum (S2), and to occipital and temporal regions. The right lesion group also showed increased intra-hemispheric FC from ipsi-lesional right S1 to inferior parietal regions compared to controls. In comparison to the left lesion group, those with right lesion showed greater intra-hemispheric connectivity from left S1 to left parietal and occipital regions and from right S1 to right angular and parietal regions. Laterality Indices were significantly greater for stroke subgroups relative to matched controls for contra-lesional S1 (left lesion group) and contra-lesional S2 (both groups). We provide evidence of altered functional connectivity within the somatosensory network, across both hemispheres, and to other networks in stroke

  6. Volubility, consonant, and syllable characteristics in infants and toddlers later diagnosed with childhood apraxia of speech: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overby, Megan; Caspari, Susan S

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study explored the volubility, consonant singleton acquisition, and syllable structure development between infants and toddlers (birth-24 months) with typical speech sound production (TYP) and those later diagnosed with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). A retrospective longitudinal between- and within-subjects research design was utilized (TYP N=2; CAS N=4). Vocalizations from participants were analyzed between birth-24 months from home videotapes, volunteered by the children's parents, according to type (nonresonant vs. resonant), volubility, place and manner of consonant singletons, and syllable shape (V, CV, VC, CVC, VCV, CVCV, VCVC, and "Other"). Volubility between groups was not significant but statistically significant differences were found in the number of: resonant and non-resonant productions; different consonant singletons; different place features; different manner classes; and proportional use of fricative, glottal, and voiceless phones. Infants and toddlers in the CAS group also demonstrated difficulty with CVCs, had limited syllable shapes, and possible regression of vowel syllable structure. Data corroborate parent reports that infants and toddlers later diagnosed with CAS present differently than do those with typical speech sound skills. Additional study with infants and toddlers later diagnosed with non-CAS speech sound disorder is needed. Readers will: (1) describe current perspectives on volubility of infants and toddlers later diagnosed with CAS; (2) describe current perspectives of the consonant singleton and syllable shape inventories of infants and toddlers later diagnosed with CAS; and (3) discuss the potential differences between the speech sound development of infants and toddlers later diagnosed with CAS and those with typical speech sound skill. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Left hemisphere lateralization for lexical and acoustic pitch processing in Cantonese speakers as revealed by mismatch negativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Feng; Zhang, Caicai; Hu, Axu; Zhao, Guoping

    2013-12-01

    For nontonal language speakers, speech processing is lateralized to the left hemisphere and musical processing is lateralized to the right hemisphere (i.e., function-dependent brain asymmetry). On the other hand, acoustic temporal processing is lateralized to the left hemisphere and spectral/pitch processing is lateralized to the right hemisphere (i.e., acoustic-dependent brain asymmetry). In this study, we examine whether the hemispheric lateralization of lexical pitch and acoustic pitch processing in tonal language speakers is consistent with the patterns of function- and acoustic-dependent brain asymmetry in nontonal language speakers. Pitch contrast in both speech stimuli (syllable /ji/ in Experiment 1) and nonspeech stimuli (harmonic tone in Experiment 1; pure tone in Experiment 2) was presented to native Cantonese speakers in passive oddball paradigms. We found that the mismatch negativity (MMN) elicited by lexical pitch contrast was lateralized to the left hemisphere, which is consistent with the pattern of function-dependent brain asymmetry (i.e., left hemisphere lateralization for speech processing) in nontonal language speakers. However, the MMN elicited by acoustic pitch contrast was also left hemisphere lateralized (harmonic tone in Experiment 1) or showed a tendency for left hemisphere lateralization (pure tone in Experiment 2), which is inconsistent with the pattern of acoustic-dependent brain asymmetry (i.e., right hemisphere lateralization for acoustic pitch processing) in nontonal language speakers. The consistent pattern of function-dependent brain asymmetry and the inconsistent pattern of acoustic-dependent brain asymmetry between tonal and nontonal language speakers can be explained by the hypothesis that the acoustic-dependent brain asymmetry is the consequence of a carryover effect from function-dependent brain asymmetry. Potential evolutionary implication of this hypothesis is discussed. © 2013.

  8. Language deficits as a possible symptom of right hemisphere dysfunctions in Asperger’s syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Anita Bryńska

    2010-01-01

    Qualitative communication disorders belong to the key symptoms of pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). The severity of the symptoms of communication disorders varies depending on the type of PDD, from the lack of functional speech to overdeveloped verbal competencies measured by standardized scales. In Asperger’s syndrome (AS), observed language abnormalities include: pragmatics (application of language in social context), semantics (identifying different meanings of the same ...

  9. Temporal Fine-Structure Coding and Lateralized Speech Perception in Normal-Hearing and Hearing-Impaired Listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Locsei, Gusztav; Pedersen, Julie Hefting; Laugesen, Søren

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between speech perception performance in spatially complex, lateralized listening scenarios and temporal fine-structure (TFS) coding at low frequencies. Young normal-hearing (NH) and two groups of elderly hearing-impaired (HI) listeners with mild or moderate...... hearing loss above 1.5 kHz participated in the study. Speech reception thresholds (SRTs) were estimated in the presence of either speech-shaped noise, two-, four-, or eight-talker babble played reversed, or a nonreversed two-talker masker. Target audibility was ensured by applying individualized linear...... threshold nor the interaural phase difference threshold tasks showed a correlation with the SRTs or with the amount of masking release due to binaural unmasking, respectively. The results suggest that, although HI listeners with normal hearing thresholds below 1.5 kHz experienced difficulties with speech...

  10. Lateralized speech perception with small interaural time differences in normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Locsei, Gusztav; Santurette, Sébastien; Dau, Torsten

    2017-01-01

    and two-talker babble in terms of SRTs, HI listeners could utilize ITDs to a similar degree as NH listeners to facilitate the binaural unmasking of speech. A slight difference was observed between the group means when target and maskers were separated from each other by large ITDs, but not when separated...... SRMs are elicited by small ITDs. Speech reception thresholds (SRTs) and SRM due to ITDs were measured over headphones for 10 young NH and 10 older HI listeners, who had normal or close-to-normal hearing below 1.5 kHz. Diotic target sentences were presented in diotic or dichotic speech-shaped noise...... or two-talker babble maskers. In the dichotic conditions, maskers were lateralized by delaying the masker waveforms in the left headphone channel. Multiple magnitudes of masker ITDs were tested in both noise conditions. Although deficits were observed in speech perception abilities in speechshaped noise...

  11. A tale of two hands: Children's early gesture use in narrative production predicts later narrative structure in speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Özlem Ece; Levine, Susan C.; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Speakers of all ages spontaneously gesture as they talk. These gestures predict children's milestones in vocabulary and sentence structure. We ask whether gesture serves a similar role in the development of narrative skill. Children were asked to retell a story conveyed in a wordless cartoon at age 5 and then again at 6, 7, and 8. Children's narrative structure in speech improved across these ages. At age 5, many of the children expressed a character's viewpoint in gesture, and these children were more likely to tell better-structured stories at the later ages than children who did not produce character-viewpoint gestures at age 5. In contrast, framing narratives from a character's perspective in speech at age 5 did not predict later narrative structure in speech. Gesture thus continues to act as a harbinger of change even as it assumes new roles in relation to discourse. PMID:25088361

  12. Cognitive outcome after awake surgery for left and right hemisphere tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke De Witte

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Awake surgery in eloquent brain regions is performed to preserve language and other cognitive functions. Although in general, no major permanent cognitive deficits are found after awake brain surgery, clinically relevant impairments are detected and cognitive recovery takes longer than generally assumed (3 months (Santini et al., 2012; Satoer et al., 2014; Talacchi et al., 2012. However, as there is a lack of extensive cognitive follow-up data it is unknown when recovery takes place. In addition, the influence of critical language sites identified by direct electrical stimulation (DES and tumour variables (e.g. left/right tumour location, tumour grade on long-term cognitive findings remains unclear. METHODS: In this longitudinal study the short-term and long-term effects of awake surgery on cognition were investigated in 40 patients (29 patients with left and 11 with right hemisphere tumours. Language, memory, attentional, executive and visuospatial functions were assessed in the preoperative phase, at short-term follow-up (6 weeks postsurgery and at long-term follow-up (6 months postsurgery with a neuropsychological protocol. In addition, the effect of intraoperative critical language sites, left/right tumour location, hemispheric language dominance, extent of resection and adjuvant treatment on cognitive change was studied. RESULTS: Both pre- and postoperatively, the mean performance of the patients was worse (impairment = z-score below -2 than the performance of the normal population in the language domain, the memory domain, the attentional and executive domain (p .05. Awake surgery negatively affected language, attentional and executive functions but not memory and visuospatial functions. At 6 weeks postsurgery, performance on all language, attentional and executive tasks deteriorated (object/action naming, semantic/phonological fluency from DuLIP, Token test; Trail Making Test A & B, Stroop I, II, & III. At 6 months

  13. Laterality in Metaphor Processing: Lack of Evidence from Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging for the Right Hemisphere Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Alexander M.; Leube, Dirk T.; Erb, Michael; Grodd, Wolfgang; Kircher, Tilo T. J.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated processing of metaphoric sentences using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Seventeen healthy subjects (6 female, 11 male) read 60 novel short German sentence pairs with either metaphoric or literal meaning and performed two different tasks: judging the metaphoric content and judging whether the sentence…

  14. Language lateralization of hearing native signers: A functional transcranial Doppler sonography (fTCD) study of speech and sign production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Sigut, Eva; Daws, Richard; Payne, Heather; Blott, Jonathan; Marshall, Chloë; MacSweeney, Mairéad

    2015-12-01

    Neuroimaging studies suggest greater involvement of the left parietal lobe in sign language compared to speech production. This stronger activation might be linked to the specific demands of sign encoding and proprioceptive monitoring. In Experiment 1 we investigate hemispheric lateralization during sign and speech generation in hearing native users of English and British Sign Language (BSL). Participants exhibited stronger lateralization during BSL than English production. In Experiment 2 we investigated whether this increased lateralization index could be due exclusively to the higher motoric demands of sign production. Sign naïve participants performed a phonological fluency task in English and a non-sign repetition task. Participants were left lateralized in the phonological fluency task but there was no consistent pattern of lateralization for the non-sign repetition in these hearing non-signers. The current data demonstrate stronger left hemisphere lateralization for producing signs than speech, which was not primarily driven by motoric articulatory demands. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Haptically guided grasping. FMRI shows right-hemisphere parietal stimulus encoding, and bilateral dorso-ventral parietal gradients of object- and action-related processing during grasp execution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia eMarangon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The neural bases of haptically-guided grasp planning and execution are largely unknown, especially for stimuli having no visual representations. Therefore, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to monitor brain activity during haptic exploration of novel 3D complex objects, subsequent grasp planning, and the execution of the pre-planned grasps. Haptic object exploration, involving extraction of shape, orientation and length of the to-be-grasped targets, was associated with the fronto-parietal, temporo-occipital, and insular cortex activity. Yet, only the anterior divisions of the posterior parietal cortex (PPC of the right hemisphere were significantly more engaged in exploration of complex objects (vs. simple control disks. None of these regions were re-recruited during the planning phase. Even more surprisingly, the left-hemisphere intraparietal, temporal, and occipital areas that were significantly invoked for grasp planning did not show sensitivity to object features. Finally, grasp execution, involving the re-recruitment of the critical right-hemisphere PPC clusters, was also significantly associated with two kinds of bilateral parieto-frontal processes. The first represents transformations of grasp-relevant target features and is linked to the dorso-dorsal (lateral and medial parieto-frontal networks. The second monitors grasp kinematics and belongs to the ventro-dorsal networks. Indeed, signal modulations associated with these distinct functions follow dorso-ventral gradients, with left aIPS showing significant sensitivity to both target features and the characteristics of the required grasp. Thus, our results from the haptic domain are consistent with the notion that the parietal processing for action guidance reflects primarily transformations from object-related to effector-related coding, and these mechanisms are rather independent of sensory input modality.

  16. Development of Right-hemispheric Dominance of Inferior Parietal Lobule in Proprioceptive Illusion Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Eiichi; Morita, Tomoyo; Saito, Daisuke N; Ban, Midori; Shimada, Koji; Okamoto, Yuko; Kosaka, Hirotaka; Okazawa, Hidehiko; Asada, Minoru

    2017-11-01

    Functional lateralization can be an indicator of brain maturation. We have consistently shown that, in the adult brain, proprioceptive processing of muscle spindle afferents generating illusory movement of the right hand activates inferior frontoparietal cortical regions in a right-side dominant manner in addition to the cerebrocerebellar motor network. Here we provide novel evidence regarding the development of the right-dominant use of the inferior frontoparietal cortical regions in humans using this task. We studied brain activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging while 60 right-handed blindfolded healthy children (8-11 years), adolescents (12-15 years), and young adults (18-23 years) (20 per group) experienced the illusion. Adult-like right-dominant use of the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) was observed in adolescents, while children used the IPL bilaterally. In contrast, adult-like lateralized cerebrocerebellar motor activation patterns were already observable in children. The right-side dominance progresses during adolescence along with the suppression of the left-sided IPL activity that emerges during childhood. Therefore, the neuronal processing implemented in the adult's right IPL during the proprioceptive illusion task is likely mediated bilaterally during childhood, and then becomes right-lateralized during adolescence at a substantially later time than the lateralized use of the cerebrocerebellar motor system for kinesthetic processing. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  17. Development of Right-hemispheric Dominance of Inferior Parietal Lobule in Proprioceptive Illusion Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Eiichi; Morita, Tomoyo; Saito, Daisuke N; Ban, Midori; Shimada, Koji; Okamoto, Yuko; Kosaka, Hirotaka; Okazawa, Hidehiko; Asada, Minoru

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Functional lateralization can be an indicator of brain maturation. We have consistently shown that, in the adult brain, proprioceptive processing of muscle spindle afferents generating illusory movement of the right hand activates inferior frontoparietal cortical regions in a right-side dominant manner in addition to the cerebrocerebellar motor network. Here we provide novel evidence regarding the development of the right-dominant use of the inferior frontoparietal cortical regions in humans using this task. We studied brain activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging while 60 right-handed blindfolded healthy children (8–11 years), adolescents (12–15 years), and young adults (18–23 years) (20 per group) experienced the illusion. Adult-like right-dominant use of the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) was observed in adolescents, while children used the IPL bilaterally. In contrast, adult-like lateralized cerebrocerebellar motor activation patterns were already observable in children. The right-side dominance progresses during adolescence along with the suppression of the left-sided IPL activity that emerges during childhood. Therefore, the neuronal processing implemented in the adult's right IPL during the proprioceptive illusion task is likely mediated bilaterally during childhood, and then becomes right-lateralized during adolescence at a substantially later time than the lateralized use of the cerebrocerebellar motor system for kinesthetic processing. PMID:28968653

  18. Narrative Ability of Children With Speech Sound Disorders and the Prediction of Later Literacy Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, Rachel L.; Lewis, Barbara A.; Freebairn, Lisa A.; Avrich, Allison A.; Hansen, Amy J.; Stein, Catherine M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The main purpose of this study was to examine how children with isolated speech sound disorders (SSDs; n = 20), children with combined SSDs and language impairment (LI; n = 20), and typically developing children (n = 20), ages 3;3 (years;months) to 6;6, differ in narrative ability. The second purpose was to determine if early narrative ability predicts school-age (8–12 years) literacy skills. Method This study employed a longitudinal cohort design. The children completed a narrative retelling task before their formal literacy instruction began. The narratives were analyzed and compared for group differences. Performance on these early narratives was then used to predict the children’s reading decoding, reading comprehension, and written language ability at school age. Results Significant group differences were found in children’s (a) ability to answer questions about the story, (b) use of story grammars, and (c) number of correct and irrelevant utterances. Regression analysis demonstrated that measures of story structure and accuracy were the best predictors of the decoding of real words, reading comprehension, and written language. Measures of syntax and lexical diversity were the best predictors of the decoding of nonsense words. Conclusion Combined SSDs and LI, and not isolated SSDs, impact a child’s narrative abilities. Narrative retelling is a useful task for predicting which children may be at risk for later literacy problems. PMID:21969531

  19. Neurology of Affective Prosody and Its Functional-Anatomic Organization in Right Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Elliott D.; Monnot, Marilee

    2008-01-01

    Unlike the aphasic syndromes, the organization of affective prosody in brain has remained controversial because affective-prosodic deficits may occur after left or right brain damage. However, different patterns of deficits are observed following left and right brain damage that suggest affective prosody is a dominant and lateralized function of…

  20. Priming vs. Rhyming: Orthographic and Phonological Representations in the Left and Right Hemispheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindell, Annukka K.; Lum, Jarrad A. G.

    2008-01-01

    The right cerebral hemisphere has long been argued to lack phonological processing capacity. Recently, however, a sex difference in the cortical representation of phonology has been proposed, suggesting discrete left hemisphere lateralization in males and more distributed, bilateral representation of function in females. To evaluate this…

  1. The right hemisphere is dominant in organization of visual search-A study in stroke patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Brink, Antonia F.; Matthijs Biesbroek, J.; Kuijf, Hugo J.; Van der Stigchel, Stefan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/29880977X; Oort, Quirien; Visser-Meily, Johanna M A; Nijboer, Tanja C W|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304832421

    2016-01-01

    Cancellation tasks are widely used for diagnosis of lateralized attentional deficits in stroke patients. A disorganized fashion of target cancellation has been hypothesized to reflect disturbed spatial exploration. In the current study we aimed to examine which lesion locations result in

  2. Vocal reaction times to unilaterally presented concrete and abstract words: towards a theory of differential right hemispheric semantic processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastatter, M; Dell, C W; McGuire, R A; Loren, C

    1987-03-01

    Previous studies investigating hemispheric organization for processing concrete and abstract nouns have provided conflicting results. Using manual reaction time tasks some studies have shown that the right hemisphere is capable of analyzing concrete words but not abstract. Others, however, have inferred that the left hemisphere is the sole analyzer of both types of lexicon. The present study tested these issues further by measuring vocal reaction times of normal subjects to unilaterally presented concrete and abstract items. Results were consistent with a model of functional localization which suggests that the minor hemisphere is capable of differentially processing both types of lexicon in the presence of a dominant left hemisphere.

  3. Crossed Apraxia of Speech: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Venu; Max, Ludo

    2004-01-01

    The present study reports on the first case of crossed apraxia of speech (CAS) in a 69-year-old right-handed female (SE). The possibility of occurrence of apraxia of speech (AOS) following right hemisphere lesion is discussed in the context of known occurrences of ideomotor apraxias and acquired neurogenic stuttering in several cases with right…

  4. Right-hemispheric dominance of spatial memory in split-brain mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Yoshiaki; Hosoya, Aki; Yamasaki, Nobuyuki; Ahmed, Hassan; Hattori, Satoko; Eguchi, Megumi; Yamaguchi, Shun; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Hirase, Hajime; Shigemoto, Ryuichi

    2012-02-01

    Left-right asymmetry of human brain function has been known for a century, although much of molecular and cellular basis of brain laterality remains to be elusive. Recent studies suggest that hippocampal CA3-CA1 excitatory synapses are asymmetrically arranged, however, the functional implication of the asymmetrical circuitry has not been studied at the behavioral level. In order to address the left-right asymmetry of hippocampal function in behaving mice, we analyzed the performance of "split-brain" mice in the Barnes maze. The "split-brain" mice received ventral hippocampal commissure and corpus callosum transection in addition to deprivation of visual input from one eye. In such mice, the hippocampus in the side of visual deprivation receives sensory-driven input. Better spatial task performance was achieved by the mice which were forced to use the right hippocampus than those which were forced to use the left hippocampus. In two-choice spatial maze, forced usage of left hippocampus resulted in a comparable performance to the right counterpart, suggesting that both hippocampal hemispheres are capable of conducting spatial learning. Therefore, the results obtained from the Barnes maze suggest that the usage of the right hippocampus improves the accuracy of spatial memory. Performance of non-spatial yet hippocampus-dependent tasks (e.g. fear conditioning) was not influenced by the laterality of the hippocampus. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation for Treating Depression in a Patient With Right Hemispheric Dominance: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiozawa, Pedro; da Silva, Mailu Enokibara; Cordeiro, Quirino

    2015-09-01

    We report the case of a 66-year-old male patient with major depressive disorder for the last 6 months. The patient had been diagnosed with dyslexia during childhood and was left-handed. The intervention protocol consisted in 10 consecutive daily transcranial direct current stimulation sessions. However, after 5 days of stimulation, the patient presented with intensification of depressive symptoms and panic attacks. It was hypothetized that the intensification of symptoms may have been due to stimulation protocol itself. Considering the patient was left-handed and presented comorbidity with dyslexia, there was a plausible hypothesis of right hemispheric dominance. This was corroborated by the Edinburgh Handedness Scale. In fact, dyslexic patients present right hemisphere dominance more frequently. The patient also presented a single photon emission computed tomography with a hypoperfusion area over the left posterior parietal lobe. After the patients agreement, a 10-day experimental repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation low-frequency protocol over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was started to inhibit the area, which was hypothetically hyperactivated following the rationale of right dominance. The patient presented amelioration of depressive and anxious symptoms. Given the hemispheric reversal we show in the present case study, however, it seems that therapies that are beneficial to right-handers could be detrimental to left-handers.

  6. [What is hidden behind the Baking Tray Task? Study of sensibility and specificity in right-hemispheric stroke patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Fernandez, Juan; Garcia-Molina, Alberto; Aparicio-Lopez, Celeste; Sanchez-Carrion, Rocío; Ensenat, Antònia; Pena-Casanova, Jordi; Roig-Rovira, Teresa

    2015-12-16

    Tham and Tegner proposed the Baking Tray Task (BTT) as a fast simple assessment test for detecting spatial negligence. However, very few studies have examined its validity as a diagnostic test. To analyse the diagnostic validity of the BTT by measuring its specificity and sensitivity in a sample of subjects with right hemisphere strokes. Forty-eight patients with right hemisphere vascular lesions were distributed in two groups (negligence group, n = 35; non-negligence group, n = 13) according to the scores obtained in a battery of visuospatial examination tests. The participants' performance on the BTT was compared with that of a healthy control group (n = 12). The results showed a high level of sensitivity of the BTT, but low specificity. The performance on the BTT of eight of the 13 members of the non-negligence group was suggestive of negligence. The BTT has proved to be a sensitive test for the detection of spatial negligence. Yet, based on its low specificity, its use alone as a single diagnostic test is not recommended.

  7. Is a lone right hemisphere enough? Neurolinguistic architecture in a case with a very early left hemispherectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danelli, Laura; Cossu, Giuseppe; Berlingeri, Manuela; Bottini, Gabriella; Sberna, Maurizio; Paulesu, Eraldo

    2013-01-01

    We studied the linguistic profile and neurolinguistic organization of a 14-year-old adolescent (EB) who underwent a left hemispherectomy at the age of 2.5 years. After initial aphasia, his language skills recovered within 2 years, with the exception of some word finding problems. Over the years, the neuropsychological assessments showed that EB's language was near-to-normal, with the exception of lexical competence, which lagged slightly behind for both auditory and written language. Moreover, EB's accuracy and speed in both reading and writing words and non-words were within the normal range, whereas difficulties emerged in reading loan words and in tasks with homophones. EB's functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) patterns for several linguistic and metalinguistic tasks were similar to those observed in the dominant hemisphere of controls, suggesting that his language network conforms to a left-like linguistic neural blueprint. However, a stronger frontal recruitment suggests that linguistic tasks are more demanding for him. Finally, no specific reading activation was found in EB's occipitotemporal region, a finding consistent with the surface dyslexia-like behavioral pattern of the patient. While a lone right hemisphere may not be sufficient to guarantee full blown linguistic competences after early hemispherectomy, EB's behavioral and fMRI patterns suggest that his lone right hemisphere followed a left-like blueprint of the linguistic network.

  8. Errors on the Trail Making Test Are Associated with Right Hemispheric Frontal Lobe Damage in Stroke Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Kopp

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Measures of performance on the Trail Making Test (TMT are among the most popular neuropsychological assessment techniques. Completion time on TMT-A is considered to provide a measure of processing speed, whereas completion time on TMT-B is considered to constitute a behavioral measure of the ability to shift between cognitive sets (cognitive flexibility, commonly attributed to the frontal lobes. However, empirical evidence linking performance on the TMT-B to localized frontal lesions is mostly lacking. Here, we examined the association of frontal lesions following stroke with TMT-B performance measures (i.e., completion time and completion accuracy measures using voxel-based lesion-behavior mapping, with a focus on right hemispheric frontal lobe lesions. Our results suggest that the number of errors, but not completion time on the TMT-B, is associated with right hemispheric frontal lesions. This finding contradicts common clinical practice—the use of completion time on the TMT-B to measure cognitive flexibility, and it underscores the need for additional research on the association between cognitive flexibility and the frontal lobes. Further work in a larger sample, including left frontal lobe damage and with more power to detect effects of right posterior brain injury, is necessary to determine whether our observation is specific for right frontal lesions.

  9. Zero in the brain: A voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping study in right hemisphere damaged patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides-Varela, Silvia; Passarini, Laura; Butterworth, Brian; Rolma, Giuseppe; Burgio, Francesca; Pitteri, Marco; Meneghello, Francesca; Shallice, Tim; Semenza, Carlo

    2016-04-01

    Transcoding numerals containing zero is more problematic than transcoding numbers formed by non-zero digits. However, it is currently unknown whether this is due to zeros requiring brain areas other than those traditionally associated with number representation. Here we hypothesize that transcoding zeros entails visuo-spatial and integrative processes typically associated with the right hemisphere. The investigation involved 22 right-brain-damaged patients and 20 healthy controls who completed tests of reading and writing Arabic numbers. As expected, the most significant deficit among patients involved a failure to cope with zeros. Moreover, a voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) analysis showed that the most common zero-errors were maximally associated to the right insula which was previously related to sensorimotor integration, attention, and response selection, yet for the first time linked to transcoding processes. Error categories involving other digits corresponded to the so-called Neglect errors, which however, constituted only about 10% of the total reading and 3% of the writing mistakes made by the patients. We argue that damage to the right hemisphere impairs the mechanism of parsing, and the ability to set-up empty-slot structures required for processing zeros in complex numbers; moreover, we suggest that the brain areas located in proximity to the right insula play a role in the integration of the information resulting from the temporary application of transcoding procedures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Brain lateralization and seizure semiology: ictal clinical lateralizing signs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Réka; Kalmár, Zsuzsanna; Fehér, Nóra; Fogarasi, András; Gyimesi, Csilla; Janszky, József

    2008-07-30

    Clinical lateralizing signs are the phenomena which can unequivocally refer to the hemispheric onset of epileptic seizures. They can improve the localization of epileptogenic zone during presurgical evaluation, moreover, their presence can predict a success of surgical treatment. Primary sensory phenomena such as visual aura in one half of the field of vision or unilateral ictal somatosensory sensation always appear on the contralateral to the focus. Periictal unilateral headache, although it is an infrequent symptom, is usually an ipsilateral sign. Primary motor phenomena like epileptic clonic, tonic movements, the version of head ubiquitously appear contralateral to the epileptogenic zone. Very useful lateralization sign is the ictal hand-dystonia which lateralizes to the contralateral hemisphere in nearly 100%. The last clonus of the secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizure lateralizes to the ipsilateral hemisphere in 85%. The fast component of ictal nystagmus appears in nearly 100% on the contralateral side of the epileptic focus. Vegetative symptoms during seizures arising from temporal lobe such as spitting, nausea, vomiting, urinary urge are typical for seizures originating from non-dominant (right) hemisphere. Ictal pallor and cold shivers are dominant hemispheric lateralization signs. Postictal unilateral nose wiping refers to the ipsilateral hemispheric focus compared to the wiping hand. Ictal or postictal aphasia refers to seizure arising from dominant hemisphere. Intelligable speech during complex partial seizures appears in non-dominant seizures. Automatism with preserved consciousness refers to the seizures of non-dominant temporal lobe.

  11. Neurophysiology of speech differences in childhood apraxia of speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Jonathan L; Molfese, Peter J; Gumkowski, Nina; Sorcinelli, Andrea; Harwood, Vanessa; Irwin, Julia R; Landi, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during a picture naming task of simple and complex words in children with typical speech and with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). Results reveal reduced amplitude prior to speaking complex (multisyllabic) words relative to simple (monosyllabic) words for the CAS group over the right hemisphere during a time window thought to reflect phonological encoding of word forms. Group differences were also observed prior to production of spoken tokens regardless of word complexity during a time window just prior to speech onset (thought to reflect motor planning/programming). Results suggest differences in pre-speech neurolinguistic processes.

  12. Infant and Toddler Oral- and Manual-Motor Skills Predict Later Speech Fluency in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernsbacher, Morton Ann; Sauer, Eve A.; Geye, Heather M.; Schweigert, Emily K.; Goldsmith, H. Hill

    2008-01-01

    Background: Spoken and gestural communication proficiency varies greatly among autistic individuals. Three studies examined the role of oral- and manual-motor skill in predicting autistic children's speech development. Methods: Study 1 investigated whether infant and toddler oral- and manual-motor skills predict middle childhood and teenage speech…

  13. Identifying Cortical Lateralization of Speech Processing in Infants Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortfeld, Heather; Fava, Eswen; Boas, David A.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the utility of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) as an alternative technique for studying infant speech processing. NIRS is an optical imaging technology that uses relative changes in total hemoglobin concentration and oxygenation as an indicator of neural activation. Procedurally, NIRS has the advantage over more common methods (e.g., fMRI) in that it can be used to study the neural responses of behaviorally active infants. Older infants (aged 6–9 months) were allowed to sit on their caretakers’ laps during stimulus presentation to determine relative differences in focal activity in the temporal region of the brain during speech processing. Results revealed a dissociation of sensory-specific processing in two cortical regions, the left and right temporal lobes. These findings are consistent with those obtained using other neurophysiological methods and point to the utility of NIRS as a means of establishing neural correlates of language development in older (and more active) infants. PMID:19142766

  14. Mapping a lateralization gradient within the ventral stream for auditory speech perception

    OpenAIRE

    Specht, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    Recent models on speech perception propose a dual-stream processing network, with a dorsal stream, extending from the posterior temporal lobe of the left hemisphere through inferior parietal areas into the left inferior frontal gyrus, and a ventral stream that is assumed to originate in the primary auditory cortex in the upper posterior part of the temporal lobe and to extend toward the anterior part of the temporal lobe, where it may connect to the ventral part of the inferior frontal gyrus....

  15. On possible linguistic correlates to brain lateralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Kouteva/Kuteva

    2014-04-01

    phenomena and brain lateralization. More precisely, on the basis of substantial neurolinguistic research it is argued that novel speech is represented in the left hemisphere, whereas formulaic speech is modulated by a subcortical right hemisphere circuit. Within the framework of Discourse Grammar (Heine et al. 2013 it is argued that there is a similar correlation between two domains of grammar, namely Sentence Grammar and Thetical Grammar: Aphasic patients and other persons with left hemisphere damage appear to draw mainly on linguistic expressions within the domain of Thetical Grammar; persons with right hemisphere damage, by contrast, use primarily Sentence Grammar as their main domain of structuring speech (Heine et al. 2014. While arriving at similar conclusions, there are a few differences between these two frameworks. In particular, the dual process model relies on the distinction between novel and formulaic speech as its main parameter, while in the framework of Discourse Grammar it is distinctions in the functions and the syntactic and prosodic independence of linguistic units that are most central. The present paper argues that such differences can be accounted for with reference to the differential role played by the situation of discourse in linguistic communication.

  16. Right Hemisphere Cognitive Functions: From Clinical and Anatomic Bases to Brain Mapping During Awake Craniotomy Part I: Clinical and Functional Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Florian; Lemée, Jean-Michel; Ter Minassian, Aram; Menei, Philippe

    2018-05-12

    The nondominant hemisphere (usually the right) is responsible for primary cognitive functions such as visuospatial and social cognition. Awake surgery using direct electric stimulation for right cerebral tumor removal remains challenging because of the complexity of the functional anatomy and difficulties in adapting standard bedside tasks to awake surgery conditions. An understanding of semiology and anatomic bases, along with an analysis of the available cognitive tasks for visuospatial and social cognition per operative mapping allow neurosurgeons to better appreciate the functional anatomy of the right hemisphere and its relevance to tumor surgery. In this article, the first of a 2-part review, we discuss the anatomic and functional basis of right hemisphere function. Whereas part II of the review focuses primarily on semiology and surgical management of right-sided tumors under awake conditions, this article provides a comprehensive review of knowledge underpinning awake surgery on the right hemisphere. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Right hemisphere dominance directly predicts both baseline V1 cortical excitability and the degree of top-down modulation exerted over low-level brain structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Q; Siddiqui, S; Ramachandran, S; Goga, U; Bonsu, A; Patel, M; Roberts, R E; Nigmatullina, Y; Malhotra, P; Bronstein, A M

    2015-12-17

    Right hemisphere dominance for visuo-spatial attention is characteristically observed in most right-handed individuals. This dominance has been attributed to both an anatomically larger right fronto-parietal network and the existence of asymmetric parietal interhemispheric connections. Previously it has been demonstrated that interhemispheric conflict, which induces left hemisphere inhibition, results in the modulation of both (i) the excitability of the early visual cortex (V1) and (ii) the brainstem-mediated vestibular-ocular reflex (VOR) via top-down control mechanisms. However to date, it remains unknown whether the degree of an individual's right hemisphere dominance for visuospatial function can influence, (i) the baseline excitability of the visual cortex and (ii) the extent to which the right hemisphere can exert top-down modulation. We directly tested this by correlating line bisection error (or pseudoneglect), taken as a measure of right hemisphere dominance, with both (i) visual cortical excitability measured using phosphene perception elicited via single-pulse occipital trans-cranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and (ii) the degree of trans-cranial direct current stimulation (tDCS)-mediated VOR suppression, following left hemisphere inhibition. We found that those individuals with greater right hemisphere dominance had a less excitable early visual cortex at baseline and demonstrated a greater degree of vestibular nystagmus suppression following left hemisphere cathodal tDCS. To conclude, our results provide the first demonstration that individual differences in right hemisphere dominance can directly predict both the baseline excitability of low-level brain structures and the degree of top-down modulation exerted over them. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. The Right Hemisphere Planum Temporale Supports Enhanced Visual Motion Detection Ability in Deaf People: Evidence from Cortical Thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiell, Martha M; Champoux, François; Zatorre, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    After sensory loss, the deprived cortex can reorganize to process information from the remaining modalities, a phenomenon known as cross-modal reorganization. In blind people this cross-modal processing supports compensatory behavioural enhancements in the nondeprived modalities. Deaf people also show some compensatory visual enhancements, but a direct relationship between these abilities and cross-modally reorganized auditory cortex has only been established in an animal model, the congenitally deaf cat, and not in humans. Using T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, we measured cortical thickness in the planum temporale, Heschl's gyrus and sulcus, the middle temporal area MT+, and the calcarine sulcus, in early-deaf persons. We tested for a correlation between this measure and visual motion detection thresholds, a visual function where deaf people show enhancements as compared to hearing. We found that the cortical thickness of a region in the right hemisphere planum temporale, typically an auditory region, was greater in deaf individuals with better visual motion detection thresholds. This same region has previously been implicated in functional imaging studies as important for functional reorganization. The structure-behaviour correlation observed here demonstrates this area's involvement in compensatory vision and indicates an anatomical correlate, increased cortical thickness, of cross-modal plasticity.

  19. Intention, false beliefs, and delusional jealousy: insights into the right hemisphere from neurological patients and neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortigue, Stephanie; Bianchi-Demicheli, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Jealousy sits high atop of a list comprised of the most human emotional experiences, although its nature, rationale, and origin are poorly understood. In the past decade, a series of neurological case reports and neuroimaging findings have been particularly helpful in piecing together jealousy's puzzle. In order to understand and quantify the neurological factors that might be important in jealousy, we reviewed the current literature in this specific field. We made an electronic search, and examined all literature with at least an English abstract, through Mars 2010. The search identified a total of 20 neurological patients, who experienced jealousy in relation with a neurological disorder; and 22 healthy individuals, who experienced jealousy under experimental neuroimaging settings. Most of the clinical cases of reported jealousy after a stroke had delusional-type jealousy. Right hemispheric stroke was the most frequently reported neurological disorder in these patients, although there was a wide range of more diffuse neurological disorders that may be reported to be associated with different other types of jealousy. This is in line with recent neuroimaging data on false beliefs, moral judgments, and intention [mis]understanding. Together the present findings provide physicians and psychologists with a potential for high impact in understanding the neural mechanisms and treatment of jealousy. By combining findings from case reports and neuroimaging data, the present article allows for a novel and unique perspective, and explores new directions into the neurological jealous mind.

  20. Organizational strategy influence on visual memory performance after stroke: cortical/subcortical and left/right hemisphere contrasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, G; Waked, W; Kirshblum, S; DeLuca, J

    2000-01-01

    To examine how organizational strategy at encoding influences visual memory performance in stroke patients. Case control study. Postacute rehabilitation hospital. Stroke patients with right hemisphere damage (n = 20) versus left hemisphere damage (n = 15), and stroke patients with cortical damage (n = 11) versus subcortical damage (n = 19). Organizational strategy scores, recall performance on the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure (ROCF). Results demonstrated significantly greater organizational impairment and less accurate copy performance (i.e., encoding of visuospatial information on the ROCF) in the right compared to the left hemisphere group, and in the cortical relative to the subcortical group. Organizational strategy and copy accuracy scores were significantly related to each other. The absolute amount of immediate and delayed recall was significantly associated with poor organizational strategy scores. However, relative to the amount of visual information originally encoded, memory performances did not differ between groups. These findings suggest that visual memory impairments after stroke may be caused by a lack of organizational strategy affecting information encoding, rather than an impairment in memory storage or retrieval.

  1. Goal-driven selective attention in patients with right hemisphere lesions: how intact is the ipsilesional field?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Jacqueline C; Mattingley, Jason B

    2006-01-01

    Patients with right hemisphere (RH) lesions often display a spatial bias in attention towards the ipsilesional hemifield. The behavioural manifestations of this spatial bias are typically interpreted as reflecting increased or enhanced attention for stimuli within the 'intact' ipsilesional field, and impaired attentional functioning within the contralesional field. In the healthy brain, goal-driven and stimulus-driven attentional processes interact to determine which stimuli should be prioritized for selection. Although unilateral brain damage increases the relative attentional salience of stimuli within the ipsilesional field, it might also cause problems in filtering or attenuating task-irrelevant information. We examined whether goal-driven attention modulates the processing of ipsilesional and contralesional information in 6 patients with unilateral brain damage following RH stroke (5 male, 1 female; mean age 60.8 years) and a group of age and sex-matched controls. We used a flanker task in which participants made speeded judgements on a central target item (a coloured letter). On each trial the target was flanked by a coloured letter in the left and right hemifields. In separate blocks, participants were instructed to judge either the identity or the colour of the central target and to ignore the flankers. The flanker on one side could be congruent, incongruent or neutral with respect to the target, on either the letter or the colour dimension, whereas the flanker on the other side was always neutral on both dimensions. Healthy controls showed significant interference from incongruent flankers on either side. Crucially, however, this effect only occurred for the task-relevant dimension [F(2,10) = 24.60; P attention leads to unselective prioritization of all feature-based attributes of stimuli appearing within the ipsilesional hemifield, whether or not they are relevant to performance. Attentional selection for ipsilesional stimuli in disorders such as spatial

  2. Abacus in the brain: a longitudinal functional MRI study of a skilled abacus user with a right hemispheric lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Satoshi; Seki, Keiko; Hanakawa, Takashi; Harada, Madoka; Sugawara, Sho K; Sadato, Norihiro; Watanabe, Katsumi; Honda, Manabu

    2012-01-01

    The abacus, a traditional physical calculation device, is still widely used in Asian countries. Previous behavioral work has shown that skilled abacus users perform rapid and precise mental arithmetic by manipulating a mental representation of an abacus, which is based on visual imagery. However, its neurophysiological basis remains unclear. Here, we report the case of a patient who was a good abacus user, but transiently lost her "mental abacus" and superior arithmetic performance after a stroke owing to a right hemispheric lesion including the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) and inferior parietal lobule (IPL). Functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments were conducted 6 and 13 months after her stroke. In the mental calculation task, her brain activity was shifted from the language-related areas, including Broca's area and the left dorsolateral prefrontal and IPLs, to the visuospatial-related brain areas including the left superior parietal lobule (SPL), according to the recovery of her arithmetic abilities. In the digit memory task, activities in the bilateral SPL, and right visual association cortex were also observed after recovery. The shift of brain activities was consistent with her subjective report that she was able to shift the calculation strategy from linguistic to visuospatial as her mental abacus became stable again. In a behavioral experiment using an interference paradigm, a visual presentation of an abacus picture, but not a human face picture, interfered with the performance of her digit memory, confirming her use of the mental abacus after recovery. This is the first case report on the impairment of the mental abacus by a brain lesion and on recovery-related brain activity. We named this rare case "abacus-based acalculia." Together with previous neuroimaging studies, the present result suggests an important role for the PMd and parietal cortex in the superior arithmetic ability of abacus users.

  3. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and developmental right-hemisphere syndrome : Congruence and incongruence of cognitive and behavioral aspects of attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landau, YE; Gross-Tsur, [No Value; Auerbach, JG; Van der Meere, J; Shalev, RS

    We studied clinical aspects of attention in three groups: children with developmental right-hemisphere syndrome and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), children with ADHD only, and normal controls. The three groups (N = 54) were case-matched for age, sex, IQ, hand dominance, and

  4. Speech Movement Measures as Markers of Bulbar Disease in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shellikeri, Sanjana; Green, Jordan R.; Kulkarni, Madhura; Rong, Panying; Martino, Rosemary; Zinman, Lorne; Yunusova, Yana

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to identify the effects of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) on tongue and jaw control, both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. The data were examined in the context of their utility as a diagnostic marker of bulbar disease. Method: Tongue and jaw movements were recorded cross-sectionally (n = 33…

  5. Effects of primary caregiver participation in vestibular rehabilitation for unilateral neglect patients with right hemispheric stroke: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai CY

    2013-04-01

    at days 14 and 28 in the areas of neglect, ADL, and balance. No significant difference was observed between the two groups in the number of falls. Conclusion: Neglect, ADL, and balance among UN patients with right hemispheric stroke can be improved through the participation of primary caregivers in VR. Trained informal caregivers were recommended to provide VR guidance and supervision to patients who suffer from UN. Keywords: neglect, vestibular rehabilitation, falls, balance, caregiver

  6. A right hemisphere safety backup at work: hypotheses for deep hypnosis, post-traumatic stress disorder, and dissociation identity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnand, Gordon

    2013-09-01

    Problem theory points to an a priori relation between six key problems of living, to which people have adapted through evolution. Children are guided through the problems one by one, learning to switch between them automatically and unawares. The first problem of raising hope of certainty (about the environment), is dealt with in the right hemisphere (RH). The second of raising hope of freedom (or power to control), is dealt with in the left hemisphere (LH). Here adventurousness and ignoring the goodness of outcomes potentially create recklessness. When uncertainty rises the RH activates a backup with an override that substitutes immobility, takes over sensory inputs, but allows obedience to parental commands, and a cut-out that stops new work on the freedom problem. Support for the use of the backup by infants is found in the immobility that precedes the crying in strange conditions, and in childhood EEGs. The hypothesis that the backup is active in deep hypnosis imposes accord on findings that appear contradictory. For example it accounts for why observations during deep hypnosis emphasize the activity of the RH, but observations of responsive people not under hypnosis emphasize the activity of the LH. The hypothesis that the backup is active in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is supported by (a) fMRI observations that could reflect the cut-out, in that part of the precuneus has low metabolism, (b) the recall of motionlessness at the time of the trauma, (c) an argument that playing dead as a defence against predators is illogical, (d) the ease of hypnosis. With dissociative identity disorder (DID), the theory is consistent with up to six alters that have executive control and one trauma identity state where childhood traumas are re-experienced. Support for the cut-out affecting the trauma identity state comes from suppression of part of the precuneus and other parts of the parietal lobe when the trauma identity state is salient and a general script about a

  7. Acoustic richness modulates the neural networks supporting intelligible speech processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yune-Sang; Min, Nam Eun; Wingfield, Arthur; Grossman, Murray; Peelle, Jonathan E

    2016-03-01

    The information contained in a sensory signal plays a critical role in determining what neural processes are engaged. Here we used interleaved silent steady-state (ISSS) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explore how human listeners cope with different degrees of acoustic richness during auditory sentence comprehension. Twenty-six healthy young adults underwent scanning while hearing sentences that varied in acoustic richness (high vs. low spectral detail) and syntactic complexity (subject-relative vs. object-relative center-embedded clause structures). We manipulated acoustic richness by presenting the stimuli as unprocessed full-spectrum speech, or noise-vocoded with 24 channels. Importantly, although the vocoded sentences were spectrally impoverished, all sentences were highly intelligible. These manipulations allowed us to test how intelligible speech processing was affected by orthogonal linguistic and acoustic demands. Acoustically rich speech showed stronger activation than acoustically less-detailed speech in a bilateral temporoparietal network with more pronounced activity in the right hemisphere. By contrast, listening to sentences with greater syntactic complexity resulted in increased activation of a left-lateralized network including left posterior lateral temporal cortex, left inferior frontal gyrus, and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Significant interactions between acoustic richness and syntactic complexity occurred in left supramarginal gyrus, right superior temporal gyrus, and right inferior frontal gyrus, indicating that the regions recruited for syntactic challenge differed as a function of acoustic properties of the speech. Our findings suggest that the neural systems involved in speech perception are finely tuned to the type of information available, and that reducing the richness of the acoustic signal dramatically alters the brain's response to spoken language, even when intelligibility is high. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier

  8. Speech-induced striatal dopamine release is left lateralized and coupled to functional striatal circuits in healthy humans: A combined PET, fMRI and DTI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonyan, Kristina; Herscovitch, Peter; Horwitz, Barry

    2013-01-01

    Considerable progress has been recently made in understanding the brain mechanisms underlying speech and language control. However, the neurochemical underpinnings of normal speech production remain largely unknown. We investigated the extent of striatal endogenous dopamine release and its influences on the organization of functional striatal speech networks during production of meaningful English sentences using a combination of positron emission tomography (PET) with the dopamine D2/D3 receptor radioligand [11C]raclopride and functional MRI (fMRI). In addition, we used diffusion tensor tractography (DTI) to examine the extent of dopaminergic modulatory influences on striatal structural network organization. We found that, during sentence production, endogenous dopamine was released in the ventromedial portion of the dorsal striatum, in its both associative and sensorimotor functional divisions. In the associative striatum, speech-induced dopamine release established a significant relationship with neural activity and influenced the left-hemispheric lateralization of striatal functional networks. In contrast, there were no significant effects of endogenous dopamine release on the lateralization of striatal structural networks. Our data provide the first evidence for endogenous dopamine release in the dorsal striatum during normal speaking and point to the possible mechanisms behind the modulatory influences of dopamine on the organization of functional brain circuits controlling normal human speech. PMID:23277111

  9. Right hemispheric language dominance in a right-handed male with a right frontal tumor shown by functional transcranial Doppler sonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, A; Preibisch, C; Sure, U; Knake, S; Heinze, S; Krakow, K; Rosenow, F; Hamer, H M

    2006-02-01

    A 38-year-old, right-handed man with late-onset right frontal epilepsy due to a ganglioglioma and atypical right hemispheric language dominance is described. Language dominance was investigated with functional transcranial Doppler sonography (fTCD), and language localization with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). During a word generation task, fTCD showed atypical right hemispheric language dominance, which was confirmed by fMRI using a semantic word comparison and a word stem completion task. This information helped to guide the resective procedure, which left the patient seizure-free and did not induce new deficits. Functional TCD appears to be a useful and reliable screening tool for determining hemispheric language dominance, even in patients with atypical language representation. Functional MRI may be used to confirm fTCD results and further localize eloquent cortex.

  10. Listening to an audio drama activates two processing networks, one for all sounds, another exclusively for speech.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Boldt

    Full Text Available Earlier studies have shown considerable intersubject synchronization of brain activity when subjects watch the same movie or listen to the same story. Here we investigated the across-subjects similarity of brain responses to speech and non-speech sounds in a continuous audio drama designed for blind people. Thirteen healthy adults listened for ∼19 min to the audio drama while their brain activity was measured with 3 T functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. An intersubject-correlation (ISC map, computed across the whole experiment to assess the stimulus-driven extrinsic brain network, indicated statistically significant ISC in temporal, frontal and parietal cortices, cingulate cortex, and amygdala. Group-level independent component (IC analysis was used to parcel out the brain signals into functionally coupled networks, and the dependence of the ICs on external stimuli was tested by comparing them with the ISC map. This procedure revealed four extrinsic ICs of which two-covering non-overlapping areas of the auditory cortex-were modulated by both speech and non-speech sounds. The two other extrinsic ICs, one left-hemisphere-lateralized and the other right-hemisphere-lateralized, were speech-related and comprised the superior and middle temporal gyri, temporal poles, and the left angular and inferior orbital gyri. In areas of low ISC four ICs that were defined intrinsic fluctuated similarly as the time-courses of either the speech-sound-related or all-sounds-related extrinsic ICs. These ICs included the superior temporal gyrus, the anterior insula, and the frontal, parietal and midline occipital cortices. Taken together, substantial intersubject synchronization of cortical activity was observed in subjects listening to an audio drama, with results suggesting that speech is processed in two separate networks, one dedicated to the processing of speech sounds and the other to both speech and non-speech sounds.

  11. Dysgraphia in Patients with Primary Lateral Sclerosis: A Speech-Based Rehearsal Deficit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, S.; Poletti, B.; Corbo, M.; Adobbati, L.; Silani, V.

    2008-01-01

    The present study aims to demonstrate that errors when writing are more common than expected in patients affected by primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) with severe dysarthria or complete mutism, independent of spasticity. Sixteen patients meeting Pringle’s et al. [34] criteria for PLS underwent standard neuropsychological tasks and evaluation of writing. We assessed writing abilities in spelling through dictation in which a set of words, non-words and short phrases were presented orally and by composing words using a set of preformed letters. Finally, a written copying task was performed with the same words. Relative to controls, PLS patients made a greater number of spelling errors in all writing conditions, but not in copy task. The error types included: omissions, transpositions, insertions and letter substitutions. These were equally distributed on the writing task and the composition of words with a set of preformed letters. This pattern of performance is consistent with a spelling impairment. The results are consistent with the concept that written production is critically dependent on the subvocal articulatory mechanism of rehearsal, perhaps at the level of retaining the sequence of graphemes in a graphemic buffer. In PLS patients a disturbance in rehearsal opportunity may affect the correct sequencing/assembly of an orthographic representation in the written process. PMID:19096141

  12. Haptically Guided Grasping. fMRI Shows Right-Hemisphere Parietal Stimulus Encoding, and Bilateral Dorso-Ventral Parietal Gradients of Object- and Action-Related Processing during Grasp Execution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangon, Mattia; Kubiak, Agnieszka; Króliczak, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    The neural bases of haptically-guided grasp planning and execution are largely unknown, especially for stimuli having no visual representations. Therefore, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to monitor brain activity during haptic exploration of novel 3D complex objects, subsequent grasp planning, and the execution of the pre-planned grasps. Haptic object exploration, involving extraction of shape, orientation, and length of the to-be-grasped targets, was associated with the fronto-parietal, temporo-occipital, and insular cortex activity. Yet, only the anterior divisions of the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) of the right hemisphere were significantly more engaged in exploration of complex objects (vs. simple control disks). None of these regions were re-recruited during the planning phase. Even more surprisingly, the left-hemisphere intraparietal, temporal, and occipital areas that were significantly invoked for grasp planning did not show sensitivity to object features. Finally, grasp execution, involving the re-recruitment of the critical right-hemisphere PPC clusters, was also significantly associated with two kinds of bilateral parieto-frontal processes. The first represents transformations of grasp-relevant target features and is linked to the dorso-dorsal (lateral and medial) parieto-frontal networks. The second monitors grasp kinematics and belongs to the ventro-dorsal networks. Indeed, signal modulations associated with these distinct functions follow dorso-ventral gradients, with left aIPS showing significant sensitivity to both target features and the characteristics of the required grasp. Thus, our results from the haptic domain are consistent with the notion that the parietal processing for action guidance reflects primarily transformations from object-related to effector-related coding, and these mechanisms are rather independent of sensory input modality.

  13. The ability of left- and right-hemisphere damaged individuals to produce prosodic cues to disambiguate Korean idiomatic sentences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Yun Yang

    2014-05-01

    Three speech language pathologists with training in phonetics participated as raters for vocal qualities. Nasality was significantly salient vocal quality of idiomatic utterances. Conclusion The findings support that (1 LHD negatively affected the production of durational cues and RHD negatively affected the production of fundamental frequency cues in idiomatic-literal contrasts; (2 healthy listeners successfully identified idiomatic and literal versions of ambiguous sentences produced by healthy speakers but not by RHD speakers; (3 Productions in brain-damaged participants approximated HC’s measures in the repetition tasks, but not in the elicitation tasks; (4 Nasal voice quality was judged to be associated with idiomatic utterances in all groups of participants. Findings agree with previous studies indicating HC’s abilities to discriminate literal versus idiomatic meanings in ditropically ambiguous idioms, as well as deficient processing of pitch production and impaired pragmatic ability in RHD.

  14. Severity of unilateral spatial neglect is an independent predictor of functional outcome after acute inpatient rehabilitation in individuals with right hemispheric stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Monaco, Marco; Schintu, Selene; Dotta, Manuela; Barba, Sonia; Tappero, Rosa; Gindri, Patrizia

    2011-08-01

    To investigate the relationship between severity of unilateral spatial neglect (USN) and functional recovery in activities of daily living after a right-hemisphere stroke. Observational study. Rehabilitation hospital in Italy. We investigated 107 of 131 inpatients with right-hemisphere stroke who were consecutively admitted to our rehabilitation hospital. Not applicable. To assess USN severity, conventional and nonconventional Behavioral Inattention Tests (BITs) were performed at admission to inpatient rehabilitation at a median of 19 days after stroke occurrence. FIM was performed both on admission to and discharge from inpatient rehabilitation to assess functional autonomy. FIM efficiency (improvement of FIM score per day of stay length) and FIM effectiveness (proportion of potential improvement achieved) were calculated. Fifty-four (50.5%) of the 107 patients were affected by USN. In these 54 patients, both conventional and nonconventional BIT scores were significantly correlated with FIM scores assessed at discharge from rehabilitation: ρ values were .385 (P=.004) and .396 (P=.003), respectively. After adjustment for 7 potential confounders, including FIM scores before rehabilitation, we found a significant positive association between either conventional or nonconventional BIT scores and FIM scores after rehabilitation (r=.276, P=.047 and r=.296, P=.033, respectively), FIM efficiency (r=.315, P=.022 and r=.307, P=.025, respectively), and FIM effectiveness (r=.371, P=.006 and r=.306, P=.026, respectively). Data support the independent prognostic role of USN severity assessed at admission to inpatient rehabilitation after a right-hemisphere stroke. Models aimed at predicting the functional outcome in stroke survivors may benefit from inclusion of USN severity. Copyright © 2011 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The lateralized arcuate fasciculus in developmental pitch disorders among mandarin amusics: left for speech and right for music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xizhuo; Zhao, Yanxin; Zhong, Suyu; Cui, Zaixu; Li, Jiaqi; Gong, Gaolang; Dong, Qi; Nan, Yun

    2018-05-01

    The arcuate fasciculus (AF) is a neural fiber tract that is critical to speech and music development. Although the predominant role of the left AF in speech development is relatively clear, how the AF engages in music development is not understood. Congenital amusia is a special neurodevelopmental condition, which not only affects musical pitch but also speech tone processing. Using diffusion tensor tractography, we aimed at understanding the role of AF in music and speech processing by examining the neural connectivity characteristics of the bilateral AF among thirty Mandarin amusics. Compared to age- and intelligence quotient (IQ)-matched controls, amusics demonstrated increased connectivity as reflected by the increased fractional anisotropy in the right posterior AF but decreased connectivity as reflected by the decreased volume in the right anterior AF. Moreover, greater fractional anisotropy in the left direct AF was correlated with worse performance in speech tone perception among amusics. This study is the first to examine the neural connectivity of AF in the neurodevelopmental condition of amusia as a result of disrupted music pitch and speech tone processing. We found abnormal white matter structural connectivity in the right AF for the amusic individuals. Moreover, we demonstrated that the white matter microstructural properties of the left direct AF is modulated by lexical tone deficits among the amusic individuals. These data support the notion of distinctive pitch processing systems between music and speech.

  16. Right is not always wrong: DTI and fMRI evidence for the reliance of reading comprehension on language-comprehension networks in the right hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz-Kraus, Tzipi; Grainger, Molly; DiFrancesco, Mark; Vannest, Jennifer; Holland, Scott K

    2015-03-01

    The Simple View theory suggests that reading comprehension relies on automatic recognition of words combined with language comprehension. The goal of the current study was to examine the structural and functional connectivity in networks supporting reading comprehension and their relationship with language comprehension within 7-9 year old children using Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) and fMRI during a Sentence Picture Matching task. Fractional Anisotropy (FA) values in the left and right Inferior Longitudinal Fasciculus (ILF) and Superior Longitudinal Fasciculus (SLF), known language-related tracts, were correlated from DTI data with scores from the Woodcock-Johnson III (WJ-III) Passage Comprehension sub-test. Brodmann areas most proximal to white-matter regions with significant correlation to Passage Comprehension scores were chosen as Regions-of-Interest (ROIs) and used as seeds in a functional connectivity analysis using the Sentence Picture Matching task. The correlation between percentile scores for the WJ-III Passage Comprehension subtest and the FA values in the right and left ILF and SLF indicated positive correlation in language-related ROIs, with greater distribution in the right hemisphere, which in turn showed strong connectivity in the fMRI data from the Sentence Picture Matching task. These results support the participation of the right hemisphere in reading comprehension and may provide physiologic support for a distinction between different types of reading comprehension deficits vs difficulties in technical reading.

  17. Sensory deprivation due to otitis media episodes in early childhood and its effect at later age: A psychoacoustic and speech perception measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Hemanth Narayan; Koonoor, Vishal

    2016-11-01

    Past research has reported that children with repeated occurrences of otitis media at an early age have a negative impact on speech perception at a later age. The present study necessitates documenting the temporal and spectral processing on speech perception in noise from normal and atypical groups. The present study evaluated the relation between speech perception in noise and temporal; and spectral processing abilities in children with normal and atypical groups. The study included two experiments. In the first experiment, temporal resolution and frequency discrimination of listeners with normal group and three subgroups of atypical groups (had a history of OM) a) less than four episodes b) four to nine episodes and c) More than nine episodes during their chronological age of 6 months to 2 years) were evaluated using measures of temporal modulation transfer function and frequency discrimination test. In the second experiment, SNR 50 was evaluated on each group of study participants. All participants had normal hearing and middle ear status during the course of testing. Demonstrated that children with atypical group had significantly poorer modulation detection threshold, peak sensitivity and bandwidth; and frequency discrimination to each F0 than normal hearing listeners. Furthermore, there was a significant correlation seen between measures of temporal resolution; frequency discrimination and speech perception in noise. It infers atypical groups have significant impairment in extracting envelope as well as fine structure cues from the signal. The results supported the idea that episodes of OM before 2 years of agecan produce periods of sensory deprivation that alters the temporal and spectral skills which in turn has negative consequences on speech perception in noise. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Selection and application of familiar and novel tools in patients with left and right hemispheric stroke: Psychometrics and normative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchmann, Ilka; Randerath, Jennifer

    2017-09-01

    Frequently left brain damage (LBD) leads to limb apraxia, a disorder that can affect tool-use. Despite its impact on daily life, classical tests examining the pantomime of tool-use and imitation of gestures are seldom applied in clinical practice. The study's aim was to present a diagnostic approach which appears more strongly related to actions in daily life in order to sensitize applicants and patients about the relevance of the disorder before patients are discharged. Two tests were introduced that evaluate actual tool selection and tool-object-application: the Novel Tools (NTT) and the Familiar Tools (FTT) Test (parts of the DILA-S: Diagnostic Instrument for Limb Apraxia - Short Version). Normative data in healthy subjects (N = 82) was collected. Then the tests were applied in stroke patients with unilateral left brain damage (LBD: N = 33), a control right brain damage group (RBD: N = 20) as well as healthy age and gender matched controls (CL: N = 28, and CR, N = 18). The tests showed appropriate interrater-reliability and internal consistency as well as concurrent and divergent validity. To examine criterion validity based on the well-known left lateralization of limb apraxia, group comparisons were run. As expected, the LBD group demonstrated a high prevalence of tool-use apraxia (NTT: 36.4%, FTT: 48.5%) ranging from mild to severe impairment and scored worse than their control group (CL). A few RBD patients did demonstrate impairments in tool-use (NTT: 15%, FTT: 15%). On a group level they did not differ from their healthy controls (CR). Further, it was demonstrated that the selection and application of familiar and novel tools can be impaired selectively. Our study results suggest that real tool-use tests evaluating tool selection and tool application should be considered for standard diagnosis of limb apraxia in left as well as right brain damaged patients. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. The influence of naturalistic, directionally non-specific motion on the spatial deployment of visual attention in right-hemispheric stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzoli, Dario; Hopfner, Simone; Preisig, Basil; Zito, Giuseppe; Vanbellingen, Tim; Jäger, Michael; Nef, Tobias; Mosimann, Urs; Bohlhalter, Stephan; Müri, René M; Nyffeler, Thomas

    2016-11-01

    An impairment of the spatial deployment of visual attention during exploration of static (i.e., motionless) stimuli is a common finding after an acute, right-hemispheric stroke. However, less is known about how these deficits: (a) are modulated through naturalistic motion (i.e., without directional, specific spatial features); and, (b) evolve in the subacute/chronic post-stroke phase. In the present study, we investigated free visual exploration in three patient groups with subacute/chronic right-hemispheric stroke and in healthy subjects. The first group included patients with left visual neglect and a left visual field defect (VFD), the second patients with a left VFD but no neglect, and the third patients without neglect or VFD. Eye movements were measured in all participants while they freely explored a traffic scene without (static condition) and with (dynamic condition) naturalistic motion, i.e., cars moving from the right or left. In the static condition, all patient groups showed similar deployment of visual exploration (i.e., as measured by the cumulative fixation duration) as compared to healthy subjects, suggesting that recovery processes took place, with normal spatial allocation of attention. However, the more demanding dynamic condition with moving cars elicited different re-distribution patterns of visual attention, quite similar to those typically observed in acute stroke. Neglect patients with VFD showed a significant decrease of visual exploration in the contralesional space, whereas patients with VFD but no neglect showed a significant increase of visual exploration in the contralesional space. No differences, as compared to healthy subjects, were found in patients without neglect or VFD. These results suggest that naturalistic motion, without directional, specific spatial features, may critically influence the spatial distribution of visual attention in subacute/chronic stroke patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Changes in motor function, cognition, and emotion-related behavior after right hemispheric intracerebral hemorrhage in various brain regions of mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei; Gao, Yufeng; Wan, Jieru; Lan, Xi; Han, Xiaoning; Zhu, Shanshan; Zang, Weidong; Chen, Xuemei; Ziai, Wendy; Hanley, Daniel F; Russo, Scott J; Jorge, Ricardo E; Wang, Jian

    2018-03-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a detrimental type of stroke. Mouse models of ICH, induced by collagenase or blood infusion, commonly target striatum, but not other brain sites such as ventricular system, cortex, and hippocampus. Few studies have systemically investigated brain damage and neurobehavioral deficits that develop in animal models of ICH in these areas of the right hemisphere. Therefore, we evaluated the brain damage and neurobehavioral dysfunction associated with right hemispheric ICH in ventricle, cortex, hippocampus, and striatum. The ICH model was induced by autologous whole blood or collagenase VII-S (0.075 units in 0.5 µl saline) injection. At different time points after ICH induction, mice were assessed for brain tissue damage and neurobehavioral deficits. Sham control mice were used for comparison. We found that ICH location influenced features of brain damage, microglia/macrophage activation, and behavioral deficits. Furthermore, the 24-point neurologic deficit scoring system was most sensitive for evaluating locomotor abnormalities in all four models, especially on days 1, 3, and 7 post-ICH. The wire-hanging test was useful for evaluating locomotor abnormalities in models of striatal, intraventricular, and cortical ICH. The cylinder test identified locomotor abnormalities only in the striatal ICH model. The novel object recognition test was effective for evaluating recognition memory dysfunction in all models except for striatal ICH. The tail suspension test, forced swim test, and sucrose preference test were effective for evaluating emotional abnormality in all four models but did not correlate with severity of brain damage. These results will help to inform future preclinical studies of ICH outcomes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of hemisphere speech dominance and seizure focus on patterns of behavioral response errors for three types of stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, R; MacDonald, K

    1997-03-01

    We used a protocol consisting of a continuous presentation of stimuli with associated response requests during an intracarotid sodium amobarbital procedure (IAP) to study the effects of hemisphere injected (speech dominant vs. nondominant) and seizure focus (left temporal lobe vs. right temporal lobe) on the pattern of behavioral response errors for three types of visual stimuli (pictures of common objects, words, and abstract forms). Injection of the left speech dominant hemisphere compared to the right nondominant hemisphere increased overall errors and affected the pattern of behavioral errors. The presence of a seizure focus in the contralateral hemisphere increased overall errors, particularly for the right temporal lobe seizure patients, but did not affect the pattern of behavioral errors. Left hemisphere injections disrupted both naming and reading responses at a rate similar to that of matching-to-sample performance. Also, a short-term memory deficit was observed with all three stimuli. Long-term memory testing following the left hemisphere injection indicated that only for pictures of common objects were there fewer errors during the early postinjection period than for the later long-term memory testing. Therefore, despite the inability to respond to picture stimuli, picture items, but not words or forms, could be sufficiently encoded for later recall. In contrast, right hemisphere injections resulted in few errors, with a pattern suggesting a mild general cognitive decrease. A selective weakness in learning unfamiliar forms was found. Our findings indicate that different patterns of behavioral deficits occur following the left vs. right hemisphere injections, with selective patterns specific to stimulus type.

  2. Electrophysiological and hemodynamic mismatch responses in rats listening to human speech syllables.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Mahmoudzadeh

    Full Text Available Speech is a complex auditory stimulus which is processed according to several time-scales. Whereas consonant discrimination is required to resolve rapid acoustic events, voice perception relies on slower cues. Humans, right from preterm ages, are particularly efficient to encode temporal cues. To compare the capacities of preterms to those observed in other mammals, we tested anesthetized adult rats by using exactly the same paradigm as that used in preterm neonates. We simultaneously recorded neural (using ECoG and hemodynamic responses (using fNIRS to series of human speech syllables and investigated the brain response to a change of consonant (ba vs. ga and to a change of voice (male vs. female. Both methods revealed concordant results, although ECoG measures were more sensitive than fNIRS. Responses to syllables were bilateral, but with marked right-hemispheric lateralization. Responses to voice changes were observed with both methods, while only ECoG was sensitive to consonant changes. These results suggest that rats more effectively processed the speech envelope than fine temporal cues in contrast with human preterm neonates, in whom the opposite effects were observed. Cross-species comparisons constitute a very valuable tool to define the singularities of the human brain and species-specific bias that may help human infants to learn their native language.

  3. Neurobehavioral and neurometabolic (SPECT) correlates of paranormal information: involvement of the right hemisphere and its sensitivity to weak complex magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roll, W G; Persinger, M A; Webster, D L; Tiller, S G; Cook, C M

    2002-02-01

    Experiments were designed to help elucidate the neurophysiological correlates for the experiences reported by Sean Harribance. For most of his life he has routinely experienced "flashes of images" of objects that were hidden and of accurate personal information concerning people with whom he was not familiar. The specificity of details for target pictures of people was correlated positively with the proportion of occipital alpha activity. Results from a complete neuropsychological assessment, Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT), and screening electroencephalography suggested that his experiences were associated with increased activity within the parietal lobe and occipital regions of the right hemisphere. Sensed presences (subjectively localized to his left side) were evoked when weak, magnetic fields, whose temporal structure simulated long-term potentiation in the hippocampus, were applied over his right temporoparietal lobes. These results suggest that the phenomena attributed to paranormal or "extrasensory" processes are correlated quantitatively with morphological and functional anomalies involving the right parietotemporal cortices (or its thalamic inputs) and the hippocampal formation.

  4. Left Superior Temporal Gyrus Is Coupled to Attended Speech in a Cocktail-Party Auditory Scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Ghinst, Marc; Bourguignon, Mathieu; Op de Beeck, Marc; Wens, Vincent; Marty, Brice; Hassid, Sergio; Choufani, Georges; Jousmäki, Veikko; Hari, Riitta; Van Bogaert, Patrick; Goldman, Serge; De Tiège, Xavier

    2016-02-03

    Using a continuous listening task, we evaluated the coupling between the listener's cortical activity and the temporal envelopes of different sounds in a multitalker auditory scene using magnetoencephalography and corticovocal coherence analysis. Neuromagnetic signals were recorded from 20 right-handed healthy adult humans who listened to five different recorded stories (attended speech streams), one without any multitalker background (No noise) and four mixed with a "cocktail party" multitalker background noise at four signal-to-noise ratios (5, 0, -5, and -10 dB) to produce speech-in-noise mixtures, here referred to as Global scene. Coherence analysis revealed that the modulations of the attended speech stream, presented without multitalker background, were coupled at ∼0.5 Hz to the activity of both superior temporal gyri, whereas the modulations at 4-8 Hz were coupled to the activity of the right supratemporal auditory cortex. In cocktail party conditions, with the multitalker background noise, the coupling was at both frequencies stronger for the attended speech stream than for the unattended Multitalker background. The coupling strengths decreased as the Multitalker background increased. During the cocktail party conditions, the ∼0.5 Hz coupling became left-hemisphere dominant, compared with bilateral coupling without the multitalker background, whereas the 4-8 Hz coupling remained right-hemisphere lateralized in both conditions. The brain activity was not coupled to the multitalker background or to its individual talkers. The results highlight the key role of listener's left superior temporal gyri in extracting the slow ∼0.5 Hz modulations, likely reflecting the attended speech stream within a multitalker auditory scene. When people listen to one person in a "cocktail party," their auditory cortex mainly follows the attended speech stream rather than the entire auditory scene. However, how the brain extracts the attended speech stream from the whole

  5. Lateralization for dynamic facial expressions in human superior temporal sulcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Winter, François-Laurent; Zhu, Qi; Van den Stock, Jan; Nelissen, Koen; Peeters, Ronald; de Gelder, Beatrice; Vanduffel, Wim; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu

    2015-02-01

    Most face processing studies in humans show stronger activation in the right compared to the left hemisphere. Evidence is largely based on studies with static stimuli focusing on the fusiform face area (FFA). Hence, the pattern of lateralization for dynamic faces is less clear. Furthermore, it is unclear whether this property is common to human and non-human primates due to predisposing processing strategies in the right hemisphere or that alternatively left sided specialization for language in humans could be the driving force behind this phenomenon. We aimed to address both issues by studying lateralization for dynamic facial expressions in monkeys and humans. Therefore, we conducted an event-related fMRI experiment in three macaques and twenty right handed humans. We presented human and monkey dynamic facial expressions (chewing and fear) as well as scrambled versions to both species. We studied lateralization in independently defined face-responsive and face-selective regions by calculating a weighted lateralization index (LIwm) using a bootstrapping method. In order to examine if lateralization in humans is related to language, we performed a separate fMRI experiment in ten human volunteers including a 'speech' expression (one syllable non-word) and its scrambled version. Both within face-responsive and selective regions, we found consistent lateralization for dynamic faces (chewing and fear) versus scrambled versions in the right human posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), but not in FFA nor in ventral temporal cortex. Conversely, in monkeys no consistent pattern of lateralization for dynamic facial expressions was observed. Finally, LIwms based on the contrast between different types of dynamic facial expressions (relative to scrambled versions) revealed left-sided lateralization in human pSTS for speech-related expressions compared to chewing and emotional expressions. To conclude, we found consistent laterality effects in human posterior STS but not

  6. Bilateral capacity for speech sound processing in auditory comprehension: evidence from Wada procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickok, G; Okada, K; Barr, W; Pa, J; Rogalsky, C; Donnelly, K; Barde, L; Grant, A

    2008-12-01

    Data from lesion studies suggest that the ability to perceive speech sounds, as measured by auditory comprehension tasks, is supported by temporal lobe systems in both the left and right hemisphere. For example, patients with left temporal lobe damage and auditory comprehension deficits (i.e., Wernicke's aphasics), nonetheless comprehend isolated words better than one would expect if their speech perception system had been largely destroyed (70-80% accuracy). Further, when comprehension fails in such patients their errors are more often semantically-based, than-phonemically based. The question addressed by the present study is whether this ability of the right hemisphere to process speech sounds is a result of plastic reorganization following chronic left hemisphere damage, or whether the ability exists in undamaged language systems. We sought to test these possibilities by studying auditory comprehension in acute left versus right hemisphere deactivation during Wada procedures. A series of 20 patients undergoing clinically indicated Wada procedures were asked to listen to an auditorily presented stimulus word, and then point to its matching picture on a card that contained the target picture, a semantic foil, a phonemic foil, and an unrelated foil. This task was performed under three conditions, baseline, during left carotid injection of sodium amytal, and during right carotid injection of sodium amytal. Overall, left hemisphere injection led to a significantly higher error rate than right hemisphere injection. However, consistent with lesion work, the majority (75%) of these errors were semantic in nature. These findings suggest that auditory comprehension deficits are predominantly semantic in nature, even following acute left hemisphere disruption. This, in turn, supports the hypothesis that the right hemisphere is capable of speech sound processing in the intact brain.

  7. Magnified Neural Envelope Coding Predicts Deficits in Speech Perception in Noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millman, Rebecca E; Mattys, Sven L; Gouws, André D; Prendergast, Garreth

    2017-08-09

    Verbal communication in noisy backgrounds is challenging. Understanding speech in background noise that fluctuates in intensity over time is particularly difficult for hearing-impaired listeners with a sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). The reduction in fast-acting cochlear compression associated with SNHL exaggerates the perceived fluctuations in intensity in amplitude-modulated sounds. SNHL-induced changes in the coding of amplitude-modulated sounds may have a detrimental effect on the ability of SNHL listeners to understand speech in the presence of modulated background noise. To date, direct evidence for a link between magnified envelope coding and deficits in speech identification in modulated noise has been absent. Here, magnetoencephalography was used to quantify the effects of SNHL on phase locking to the temporal envelope of modulated noise (envelope coding) in human auditory cortex. Our results show that SNHL enhances the amplitude of envelope coding in posteromedial auditory cortex, whereas it enhances the fidelity of envelope coding in posteromedial and posterolateral auditory cortex. This dissociation was more evident in the right hemisphere, demonstrating functional lateralization in enhanced envelope coding in SNHL listeners. However, enhanced envelope coding was not perceptually beneficial. Our results also show that both hearing thresholds and, to a lesser extent, magnified cortical envelope coding in left posteromedial auditory cortex predict speech identification in modulated background noise. We propose a framework in which magnified envelope coding in posteromedial auditory cortex disrupts the segregation of speech from background noise, leading to deficits in speech perception in modulated background noise. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT People with hearing loss struggle to follow conversations in noisy environments. Background noise that fluctuates in intensity over time poses a particular challenge. Using magnetoencephalography, we demonstrate

  8. A review of lateralization of spatial functioning in nonhuman primates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oleksiak, Anna; Postma, Albert; van der Ham, Ineke J.M.; Klink, P. Christiaan; van Wezel, Richard Jack Anton

    The majority of research on functional cerebral lateralization in primates revolves around vocal abilities, addressing the evolutionary origin of the human language faculty and its predominance in the left hemisphere of the brain. Right hemisphere specialization in spatial cognition is commonly

  9. A review of lateralization of spatial functioning in nonhuman primates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oleksiak, Anna; Postma, Albert; van der Ham, Ineke J. M.; Klink, P. Christiaan; van Wezel, Richard J. A.

    2011-01-01

    The majority of research on functional cerebral lateralization in primates revolves around vocal abilities, addressing the evolutionary origin of the human language faculty and its predominance in the left hemisphere of the brain. Right hemisphere specialization in spatial cognition is commonly

  10. A review of lateralization of spatial functioning in nonhuman primates.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oleksiak, A.; Postma, A.; Ham, I.J. van der; Klink, P.C.; Wezel, R.J.A. van

    2011-01-01

    The majority of research on functional cerebral lateralization in primates revolves around vocal abilities, addressing the evolutionary origin of the human language faculty and its predominance in the left hemisphere of the brain. Right hemisphere specialization in spatial cognition is commonly

  11. Brain activity underlying the recovery of meaning from degraded speech: A functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayasiri, Pramudi; Hartley, Douglas E H; Wiggins, Ian M

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish whether functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), an emerging brain-imaging technique based on optical principles, is suitable for studying the brain activity that underlies effortful listening. In an event-related fNIRS experiment, normally-hearing adults listened to sentences that were either clear or degraded (noise vocoded). These sentences were presented simultaneously with a non-speech distractor, and on each trial participants were instructed to attend either to the speech or to the distractor. The primary region of interest for the fNIRS measurements was the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG), a cortical region involved in higher-order language processing. The fNIRS results confirmed findings previously reported in the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) literature. Firstly, the LIFG exhibited an elevated response to degraded versus clear speech, but only when attention was directed towards the speech. This attention-dependent increase in frontal brain activation may be a neural marker for effortful listening. Secondly, during attentive listening to degraded speech, the haemodynamic response peaked significantly later in the LIFG than in superior temporal cortex, possibly reflecting the engagement of working memory to help reconstruct the meaning of degraded sentences. The homologous region in the right hemisphere may play an equivalent role to the LIFG in some left-handed individuals. In conclusion, fNIRS holds promise as a flexible tool to examine the neural signature of effortful listening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Differential bilingual laterality: mythical monster found in Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Judith; Workman, Lance; Mayer, Peter; Crowley, Kevin

    2002-11-01

    Paradis (1992) likens studies of bilingual laterality to reported sightings of the Loch Ness Monster, in that although some studies claim differential laterality much conflicting research evidence does not-and like the mythical Scottish monster, what reason have we to suspect that any such phenomenon might exist? This study reexamines differential bilingual laterality using four groups of English-Welsh bilinguals which differ in their age of acquisition and in their environment of acquisition. Using a split visual field paradigm we present evidence which, supports the notion of greater right hemisphere processing in a later learned language. Our findings also suggest the pattern of lateralization in bilinguals is strongly affected by the specific language environment during development such that the shift toward greater right hemisphere involvement for the later learned language will be more pronounced in individuals which are brought up in areas where that language is not regularly heard.

  13. Neuronal basis of speech comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    Verbal communication does not rely only on the simple perception of auditory signals. It is rather a parallel and integrative processing of linguistic and non-linguistic information, involving temporal and frontal areas in particular. This review describes the inherent complexity of auditory speech comprehension from a functional-neuroanatomical perspective. The review is divided into two parts. In the first part, structural and functional asymmetry of language relevant structures will be discus. The second part of the review will discuss recent neuroimaging studies, which coherently demonstrate that speech comprehension processes rely on a hierarchical network involving the temporal, parietal, and frontal lobes. Further, the results support the dual-stream model for speech comprehension, with a dorsal stream for auditory-motor integration, and a ventral stream for extracting meaning but also the processing of sentences and narratives. Specific patterns of functional asymmetry between the left and right hemisphere can also be demonstrated. The review article concludes with a discussion on interactions between the dorsal and ventral streams, particularly the involvement of motor related areas in speech perception processes, and outlines some remaining unresolved issues. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Human Auditory Neuroimaging. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Left hemispheric dominance of vestibular processing indicates lateralization of cortical functions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Christoph; Lange, Elena; Buchholz, Hans-Georg; Schreckenberger, Mathias; Reuss, Stefan; Dieterich, Marianne

    2014-11-01

    Lateralization of cortical functions such as speech dominance, handedness and processing of vestibular information are present not only in humans but also in ontogenetic older species, e.g. rats. In human functional imaging studies, the processing of vestibular information was found to be correlated with the hemispherical dominance as determined by the handedness. It is located mainly within the right hemisphere in right handers and within the left hemisphere in left handers. Since dominance of vestibular processing is unknown in animals, our aim was to study the lateralization of cortical processing in a functional imaging study applying small-animal positron emission tomography (microPET) and galvanic vestibular stimulation in an in vivo rat model. The cortical and subcortical network processing vestibular information could be demonstrated and correlated with data from other animal studies. By calculating a lateralization index as well as flipped region of interest analyses, we found that the vestibular processing in rats follows a strong left hemispheric dominance independent from the "handedness" of the animals. These findings support the idea of an early hemispheric specialization of vestibular cortical functions in ontogenetic older species.

  15. Hemispheric lateralization of topological organization in structural brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caeyenberghs, Karen; Leemans, Alexander

    2014-09-01

    The study on structural brain asymmetries in healthy individuals plays an important role in our understanding of the factors that modulate cognitive specialization in the brain. Here, we used fiber tractography to reconstruct the left and right hemispheric networks of a large cohort of 346 healthy participants (20-86 years) and performed a graph theoretical analysis to investigate this brain laterality from a network perspective. Findings revealed that the left hemisphere is significantly more "efficient" than the right hemisphere, whereas the right hemisphere showed higher values of "betweenness centrality" and "small-worldness." In particular, left-hemispheric networks displayed increased nodal efficiency in brain regions related to language and motor actions, whereas the right hemisphere showed an increase in nodal efficiency in brain regions involved in memory and visuospatial attention. In addition, we found that hemispheric networks decrease in efficiency with age. Finally, we observed significant gender differences in measures of global connectivity. By analyzing the structural hemispheric brain networks, we have provided new insights into understanding the neuroanatomical basis of lateralized brain functions. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Functional magnetic resonance imaging: lateralization and localization of language in healthy volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinkhoff, C.

    2000-08-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the localization and hemispheric dominance of language in 21 right-handed and 21 left-handed healthy volunteers by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Method: For language stimulation two tasks were used: phonological word generation, where subjects were asked to generate words starting with a given input letter (s, t, k), and a language perception and comprehension task requiring subjects to listen closely to the paragraph recall section of the Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test (RBMT) (1). In both tasks, 3 periods of activation were alternated with 3 rest periods of equal length. Activation were measured simultaneously in 15 horizontal slices using echoplanar imaging on a 1.5 T magnetic resonance scanner. Activated pixels were counted and anatomical localization was determined by using the Talairach Atlas of the brain (2). The pixel count in defined regions of the cortex in each hemisphere was taken as indicating the degree of language activation and was correlated with three conventional neuropsychological lateralization tasks: handedness was determined by Edinburgh Handedness Questionnaire (EHI) (3), manual dexterity was assessed by a pegboard test measuring the time to place all pegs for the right and left hand separately. A well-standardized dichotic listening paradigm using paired presentations of CV syllables was employed (4) in a non-forced condition to assess the (right or left ear) advantage indicating left or right hemisphere speech dominance. Results: Activation patterns differed significantly in both paradigms. Language comprehension caused maximum responses in temporal regions of both hemispheres, especially in the superior and the middle temporal gyrus. Independent from handedness, the language perception and comprehension paradigm exhibited bilateral activation predominantly. 52.4 % of right-handed subjects showed a bilateral activation pattern, whereas 33.3 % showed fMRI changes

  17. Atypical speech versus non-speech detection and discrimination in 4- to 6- yr old children with autism spectrum disorder: An ERP study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Galilee

    Full Text Available Previous event-related potential (ERP research utilizing oddball stimulus paradigms suggests diminished processing of speech versus non-speech sounds in children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD. However, brain mechanisms underlying these speech processing abnormalities, and to what extent they are related to poor language abilities in this population remain unknown. In the current study, we utilized a novel paired repetition paradigm in order to investigate ERP responses associated with the detection and discrimination of speech and non-speech sounds in 4- to 6-year old children with ASD, compared with gender and verbal age matched controls. ERPs were recorded while children passively listened to pairs of stimuli that were either both speech sounds, both non-speech sounds, speech followed by non-speech, or non-speech followed by speech. Control participants exhibited N330 match/mismatch responses measured from temporal electrodes, reflecting speech versus non-speech detection, bilaterally, whereas children with ASD exhibited this effect only over temporal electrodes in the left hemisphere. Furthermore, while the control groups exhibited match/mismatch effects at approximately 600 ms (central N600, temporal P600 when a non-speech sound was followed by a speech sound, these effects were absent in the ASD group. These findings suggest that children with ASD fail to activate right hemisphere mechanisms, likely associated with social or emotional aspects of speech detection, when distinguishing non-speech from speech stimuli. Together, these results demonstrate the presence of atypical speech versus non-speech processing in children with ASD when compared with typically developing children matched on verbal age.

  18. Atypical speech versus non-speech detection and discrimination in 4- to 6- yr old children with autism spectrum disorder: An ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galilee, Alena; Stefanidou, Chrysi; McCleery, Joseph P

    2017-01-01

    Previous event-related potential (ERP) research utilizing oddball stimulus paradigms suggests diminished processing of speech versus non-speech sounds in children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). However, brain mechanisms underlying these speech processing abnormalities, and to what extent they are related to poor language abilities in this population remain unknown. In the current study, we utilized a novel paired repetition paradigm in order to investigate ERP responses associated with the detection and discrimination of speech and non-speech sounds in 4- to 6-year old children with ASD, compared with gender and verbal age matched controls. ERPs were recorded while children passively listened to pairs of stimuli that were either both speech sounds, both non-speech sounds, speech followed by non-speech, or non-speech followed by speech. Control participants exhibited N330 match/mismatch responses measured from temporal electrodes, reflecting speech versus non-speech detection, bilaterally, whereas children with ASD exhibited this effect only over temporal electrodes in the left hemisphere. Furthermore, while the control groups exhibited match/mismatch effects at approximately 600 ms (central N600, temporal P600) when a non-speech sound was followed by a speech sound, these effects were absent in the ASD group. These findings suggest that children with ASD fail to activate right hemisphere mechanisms, likely associated with social or emotional aspects of speech detection, when distinguishing non-speech from speech stimuli. Together, these results demonstrate the presence of atypical speech versus non-speech processing in children with ASD when compared with typically developing children matched on verbal age.

  19. Co-speech hand movements during narrations: What is the impact of right vs. left hemisphere brain damage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogrefe, Katharina; Rein, Robert; Skomroch, Harald; Lausberg, Hedda

    2016-12-01

    Persons with brain damage show deviant patterns of co-speech hand movement behaviour in comparison to healthy speakers. It has been claimed by several authors that gesture and speech rely on a single production mechanism that depends on the same neurological substrate while others claim that both modalities are closely related but separate production channels. Thus, findings so far are contradictory and there is a lack of studies that systematically analyse the full range of hand movements that accompany speech in the condition of brain damage. In the present study, we aimed to fill this gap by comparing hand movement behaviour in persons with unilateral brain damage to the left and the right hemisphere and a matched control group of healthy persons. For hand movement coding, we applied Module I of NEUROGES, an objective and reliable analysis system that enables to analyse the full repertoire of hand movements independent of speech, which makes it specifically suited for the examination of persons with aphasia. The main results of our study show a decreased use of communicative conceptual gestures in persons with damage to the right hemisphere and an increased use of these gestures in persons with left brain damage and aphasia. These results not only suggest that the production of gesture and speech do not rely on the same neurological substrate but also underline the important role of right hemisphere functioning for gesture production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Infant VEPs reveal neural correlates of implicit naming: Lateralized differences between lexicalized versus name-unknown pictures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styles, Suzy J.; Plunkett, Kim; Duta, Mihaela D.

    2015-01-01

    Recent behavioural studies with toddlers have demonstrated that simply viewing a picture in silence triggers a cascade of linguistic processing which activates a representation of the picture’s name (Mani and Plunkett, 2010, 2011). Electrophysiological studies have also shown that viewing a picture modulates the auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) triggered by later speech, from early in the second year of life (Duta et al., 2012; Friedrich and Friederici, 2005; Mani et al., 2011) further supporting the notion that picture viewing gives rise to a representation of the picture’s name against which later speech can be matched. However, little is known about how and when the implicit name arises during picture viewing, or about the electrophysiological activity which supports this linguistic process. We report differences in the visual evoked potentials (VEPs) of fourteen-month-old infants who saw photographs of animals and objects, some of which were name-known (lexicalized), while waiting for an auditory label to be presented. During silent picture viewing, lateralized neural activity was selectively triggered by lexicalized items, as compared to nameless items. Lexicalized items generated a short-lasting negative-going deflection over frontal, left centro-temporal, and left occipital regions shortly after the picture appeared (126–225 ms). A positive deflection was also observed over the right hemisphere (particularly centro-temporal regions) in a later, longer-lasting window (421–720 ms). The lateralization of these differences in the VEP suggests the possible involvement of linguistic processes during picture viewing, and may reflect activity involved in the implicit activation of the picture’s name. PMID:26232744

  1. Speech Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Speech Problems KidsHealth / For Teens / Speech Problems What's in ... a person's ability to speak clearly. Some Common Speech and Language Disorders Stuttering is a problem that ...

  2. Is the planum temporale surface area a marker of hemispheric or regional language lateralization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzourio-Mazoyer, Nathalie; Crivello, Fabrice; Mazoyer, Bernard

    2018-04-01

    We investigated the association between the left planum temporale (PT) surface area or asymmetry and the hemispheric or regional functional asymmetries during language production and perception tasks in 287 healthy adults (BIL&GIN) who were matched for sex and handedness. The measurements of the PT surface area were performed after manually delineating the region using brain magnetic resonance images (MRI) and considering the Heschl's gyrus (HG) duplication pattern; the measurements either included (PT tot ) or did not include (PT post ) the second gyrus. A region encompassing both the PT and HG (HGPT) was also studied. Regardless of the ROI measured, 80% of the sample had a positive left minus right PT asymmetry. We first tested whether the PT tot , PT post and HGPT surface areas in the left or right hemispheres or PT asymmetries differed in groups of individuals varying in language lateralization by assessing their hemispheric index during a sentence production minus word list production task. We then investigated the association between these different measures of the PT anatomy and the regional asymmetries measured during the task. Regardless of the anatomical definition used, we observed no correlations between the left surface areas or asymmetries and the hemispheric or regional functional asymmetries during the language production task. We then performed a similar analysis using the same sample measuring language functional lateralization during speech listening tasks (i.e., listening to sentences and lists of words). Although the hemispheric lateralization during speech listening was not correlated with the left PT tot , PT post or HGPT surface areas or the PT asymmetries, significant positive correlations were observed between the asymmetries in these regions and the regional functional asymmetries measured in areas adjacent to the end of the Sylvian fissure while participants listened to the word lists or sentences. The PT asymmetry thus appears to be

  3. Behavioural relevance of atypical language lateralization in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knecht, S; Dräger, B; Flöel, A; Lohmann, H; Breitenstein, C; Deppe, M; Henningsen, H; Ringelstein, E B

    2001-08-01

    In most humans, language is lateralized to the left side of the brain. It has been speculated that this hemispheric specialization is a prerequisite for the full realization of linguistic potential. Using standardized questionnaires and performance measures, we attempted to determine if there are behavioural correlates of atypical, i.e. right-hemispheric and bilateral, language lateralization. The side and degree of language lateralization were determined by measuring the hemispheric perfusion differences by functional transcranial Doppler ultrasonography during a word generation task in healthy volunteers. Subjects with left (n = 264), bilateral (n = 31) or right (n = 31) hemisphere language representation did not differ significantly with respect to mastery of foreign languages, academic achievement, artistic talents, verbal fluency or (as assessed in a representative subgroup) in intelligence or speed of linguistic processing. These findings suggest that atypical hemispheric specialization for language, i.e. right-hemisphere or bilateral specialization, is not associated with major impairments of linguistic faculties in otherwise healthy subjects.

  4. Speech Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry D. Gibson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Speech compression is a key technology underlying digital cellular communications, VoIP, voicemail, and voice response systems. We trace the evolution of speech coding based on the linear prediction model, highlight the key milestones in speech coding, and outline the structures of the most important speech coding standards. Current challenges, future research directions, fundamental limits on performance, and the critical open problem of speech coding for emergency first responders are all discussed.

  5. The neural basis of sublexical speech and corresponding nonspeech processing: a combined EEG-MEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuuluvainen, Soila; Nevalainen, Päivi; Sorokin, Alexander; Mittag, Maria; Partanen, Eino; Putkinen, Vesa; Seppänen, Miia; Kähkönen, Seppo; Kujala, Teija

    2014-03-01

    We addressed the neural organization of speech versus nonspeech sound processing by investigating preattentive cortical auditory processing of changes in five features of a consonant-vowel syllable (consonant, vowel, sound duration, frequency, and intensity) and their acoustically matched nonspeech counterparts in a simultaneous EEG-MEG recording of mismatch negativity (MMN/MMNm). Overall, speech-sound processing was enhanced compared to nonspeech sound processing. This effect was strongest for changes which affect word meaning (consonant, vowel, and vowel duration) in the left and for the vowel identity change in the right hemisphere also. Furthermore, in the right hemisphere, speech-sound frequency and intensity changes were processed faster than their nonspeech counterparts, and there was a trend for speech-enhancement in frequency processing. In summary, the results support the proposed existence of long-term memory traces for speech sounds in the auditory cortices, and indicate at least partly distinct neural substrates for speech and nonspeech sound processing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Emotion-related hemisphere asymmetry: subjective emotional responses to laterally presented films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittling, W; Roschmann, R

    1993-09-01

    To investigate whether the cerebral hemispheres differ in their subjective emotional responses 54 adult subjects were presented two films of different emotion-related qualities (positive and negative film) either to their left or right hemisphere. The films were exposed by means of a technique for the lateralization of visual input that allows prolonged viewing while permitting free ocular scanning. Subjective emotional responses were assessed by means of a continuous rating of emotional arousal experienced during the movie as well as by retrospective ratings of ten different emotional qualities. Presenting both films to the right hemisphere resulted in stronger subjective responses in the continuous emotion rating as well as in some retrospectively assessed ratings compared to left-hemispheric presentation. The effects were more pronounced for the negative film. Taken together, the findings suggest a higher responsiveness of the right hemisphere in subjective emotional experience.

  7. Lateralized Implicit Sequence Learning in Uni- and Bi-Manual Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Remy; Pasquali, Antoine; Cleeremans, Axel; Peigneux, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    It has been proposed that the right hemisphere (RH) is better suited to acquire novel material whereas the left hemisphere (LH) is more able to process well-routinized information. Here, we ask whether this potential dissociation also manifests itself in an implicit learning task. Using a lateralized version of the serial reaction time task (SRT),…

  8. Visual attention capacity after right hemisphere lesions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habekost, Thomas; Rostrup, Egill

    2007-01-01

    Recently there has been a growing interest in visual short-term memory (VSTM) including the neural basis of the function. Processing speed, another main aspect of visual attention capacity, has received less investigation. For both cognitive functions human lesion studies are sparse. We used...... statistically to lesion location and size measured by MRI. Visual processing speed was impaired in the contralesional hemifield for most patients, but typically preserved ipsilesionally, even after large cortico-subcortical lesions. When bilateral deficits in processing speed occurred, they were related...... to damage in the right middle frontal gyrus or leukoaraiosis. The storage capacity of VSTM was also normal for most patients, but deficits were found after severe leukoaraiosis or large strokes extending deep into white matter. Thus, the study demonstrated the importance of white-matter connectivity...

  9. Spatial Probability Cuing and Right Hemisphere Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaqiri, Albulena; Anderson, Britt

    2012-01-01

    In this experiment we studied statistical learning, inter-trial priming, and visual attention. We assessed healthy controls and right brain damaged (RBD) patients with and without neglect, on a simple visual discrimination task designed to measure priming effects and probability learning. All participants showed a preserved priming effect for item…

  10. The Right Hemisphere in Aesthetic Perception

    OpenAIRE

    Bianca eBromberger; Rebecca eSternschein; Page eWidick; William eSmith; Anjan eChatterjee

    2011-01-01

    Little about the neuropsychology of art perception and evaluation is known. Most neuropsychological approaches to art have focused on art production and have been anecdotal and qualitative. The field is in desperate need of quantitative methods if it is to advance. Here, we combine a quantitative approach to the assessment of art with modern voxel-lesion-symptom-mapping (VLSM) methods to determine brain-behavior relationships in art perception. We hypothesized that perception of different att...

  11. The Right Hemisphere in Esthetic Perception

    OpenAIRE

    Bromberger, Bianca; Sternschein, Rebecca; Widick, Page; Smith, William; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2011-01-01

    Little about the neuropsychology of art perception and evaluation is known. Most neuropsychological approaches to art have focused on art production and have been anecdotal and qualitative. The field is in desperate need of quantitative methods if it is to advance. Here, we combine a quantitative approach to the assessment of art with modern voxel-lesion-symptom-mapping methods to determine brain–behavior relationships in art perception. We hypothesized that perception of different attributes...

  12. Speech Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasse Jørgensen, Stina

    2011-01-01

    About Speech Matters - Katarina Gregos, the Greek curator's exhibition at the Danish Pavillion, the Venice Biannual 2011.......About Speech Matters - Katarina Gregos, the Greek curator's exhibition at the Danish Pavillion, the Venice Biannual 2011....

  13. Speech-to-Speech Relay Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumer Guide Speech to Speech Relay Service Speech-to-Speech (STS) is one form of Telecommunications Relay Service (TRS). TRS is a service that allows persons with hearing and speech disabilities ...

  14. Quality of life in childhood epilepsy with lateralized epileptogenic foci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiak, Krystyna A; Luba, Małgorzata; Mathiak, Klaus; Karzel, Katarzyna; Wolańczyk, Tomasz; Szczepanik, Elzbieta; Ostaszewski, Paweł

    2010-08-17

    Measuring quality of life (QOL) helps to delineate mechanisms underlying the interaction of disease and psychosocial factors. In adults, epileptic foci in the left temporal lobe led to lower QOL and higher depression and anxiety as compared to the right-sided foci. No study addressed the development of QOL disturbances depending on the lateralization of epileptogenic focus. The objective of our study was to examine QOL in children with lateralized epileptiform discharges. Thirty-one parents of children with epilepsy filled the Health-Related Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy Questionnaire (QOLCE). Fifteen children had foci in the left hemisphere and sixteen in the right, as verified with Electroencephalography (EEG) examinations. We found a significant correlation between foci lateralization and reduced QOL (Spearman's rho = 0.361, p < 0.046). Children with right hemispheric foci exhibited lower overall QOL, particularly in five areas: anxiety, social-activities, stigma, general-health, and quality-of-life. We demonstrated for the first time that in children left- and right-hemispheric foci were associated with discordant QOL scores. Unlike in adults, foci in the right hemisphere led to worse emotional and social functioning demonstrating that seizures impact the brain differentially during development.

  15. Apraxia of Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Info » Voice, Speech, and Language Apraxia of Speech On this page: What is apraxia of speech? ... about apraxia of speech? What is apraxia of speech? Apraxia of speech (AOS)—also known as acquired ...

  16. Introductory speeches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This CD is multimedia presentation of programme safety upgrading of Bohunice V1 NPP. This chapter consist of introductory commentary and 4 introductory speeches (video records): (1) Introductory speech of Vincent Pillar, Board chairman and director general of Slovak electric, Plc. (SE); (2) Introductory speech of Stefan Schmidt, director of SE - Bohunice Nuclear power plants; (3) Introductory speech of Jan Korec, Board chairman and director general of VUJE Trnava, Inc. - Engineering, Design and Research Organisation, Trnava; Introductory speech of Dietrich Kuschel, Senior vice-president of FRAMATOME ANP Project and Engineering

  17. Brain lateralization and self-reported symptoms of ADHD in a population sample of adults : A dimensional approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohamed, Saleh M.H.; Börger, N.A.; Geuze, Reint H.; van der Meere, Jaap J.

    2015-01-01

    Many clinical studies reported a compromised brain lateralization in patients with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) without being conclusive about whether the deficit existed in the left or right hemisphere. It is well-recognized that studying ADHD dimensionally is more controlled for

  18. Brain lateralization and self-reported symptoms of ADHD in non-clinical adults : A dimensional approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohamed, Saleh M. H.; Borger, Norbertus; Geuze, Reint; van der Meere, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Many clinical studies reported a compromised Brain Lateralization (BL) in patients with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). However, the question remains whether the deficit is in the left or right hemisphere. It is well-recognized that research on patients is vulnerable to

  19. Speech networks at rest and in action: interactions between functional brain networks controlling speech production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuertinger, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Speech production is one of the most complex human behaviors. Although brain activation during speaking has been well investigated, our understanding of interactions between the brain regions and neural networks remains scarce. We combined seed-based interregional correlation analysis with graph theoretical analysis of functional MRI data during the resting state and sentence production in healthy subjects to investigate the interface and topology of functional networks originating from the key brain regions controlling speech, i.e., the laryngeal/orofacial motor cortex, inferior frontal and superior temporal gyri, supplementary motor area, cingulate cortex, putamen, and thalamus. During both resting and speaking, the interactions between these networks were bilaterally distributed and centered on the sensorimotor brain regions. However, speech production preferentially recruited the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) and cerebellum into the large-scale network, suggesting the importance of these regions in facilitation of the transition from the resting state to speaking. Furthermore, the cerebellum (lobule VI) was the most prominent region showing functional influences on speech-network integration and segregation. Although networks were bilaterally distributed, interregional connectivity during speaking was stronger in the left vs. right hemisphere, which may have underlined a more homogeneous overlap between the examined networks in the left hemisphere. Among these, the laryngeal motor cortex (LMC) established a core network that fully overlapped with all other speech-related networks, determining the extent of network interactions. Our data demonstrate complex interactions of large-scale brain networks controlling speech production and point to the critical role of the LMC, IPL, and cerebellum in the formation of speech production network. PMID:25673742

  20. Speech networks at rest and in action: interactions between functional brain networks controlling speech production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonyan, Kristina; Fuertinger, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    Speech production is one of the most complex human behaviors. Although brain activation during speaking has been well investigated, our understanding of interactions between the brain regions and neural networks remains scarce. We combined seed-based interregional correlation analysis with graph theoretical analysis of functional MRI data during the resting state and sentence production in healthy subjects to investigate the interface and topology of functional networks originating from the key brain regions controlling speech, i.e., the laryngeal/orofacial motor cortex, inferior frontal and superior temporal gyri, supplementary motor area, cingulate cortex, putamen, and thalamus. During both resting and speaking, the interactions between these networks were bilaterally distributed and centered on the sensorimotor brain regions. However, speech production preferentially recruited the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) and cerebellum into the large-scale network, suggesting the importance of these regions in facilitation of the transition from the resting state to speaking. Furthermore, the cerebellum (lobule VI) was the most prominent region showing functional influences on speech-network integration and segregation. Although networks were bilaterally distributed, interregional connectivity during speaking was stronger in the left vs. right hemisphere, which may have underlined a more homogeneous overlap between the examined networks in the left hemisphere. Among these, the laryngeal motor cortex (LMC) established a core network that fully overlapped with all other speech-related networks, determining the extent of network interactions. Our data demonstrate complex interactions of large-scale brain networks controlling speech production and point to the critical role of the LMC, IPL, and cerebellum in the formation of speech production network. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Common neural substrates support speech and non-speech vocal tract gestures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Soo-Eun; Kenney, Mary Kay; Loucks, Torrey M J; Poletto, Christopher J; Ludlow, Christy L

    2009-08-01

    The issue of whether speech is supported by the same neural substrates as non-speech vocal tract gestures has been contentious. In this fMRI study we tested whether producing non-speech vocal tract gestures in humans shares the same functional neuroanatomy as non-sense speech syllables. Production of non-speech vocal tract gestures, devoid of phonological content but similar to speech in that they had familiar acoustic and somatosensory targets, was compared to the production of speech syllables without meaning. Brain activation related to overt production was captured with BOLD fMRI using a sparse sampling design for both conditions. Speech and non-speech were compared using voxel-wise whole brain analyses, and ROI analyses focused on frontal and temporoparietal structures previously reported to support speech production. Results showed substantial activation overlap between speech and non-speech function in regions. Although non-speech gesture production showed greater extent and amplitude of activation in the regions examined, both speech and non-speech showed comparable left laterality in activation for both target perception and production. These findings posit a more general role of the previously proposed "auditory dorsal stream" in the left hemisphere--to support the production of vocal tract gestures that are not limited to speech processing.

  2. Hypothalamic digoxin and hemispheric chemical dominance: relation to speech and language dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurup, Ravi Kumar; Kurup, Parameswara Achutha

    2003-06-01

    The isoprenoid pathway produces three key metabolites--endogenous digoxin, dolichol, and ubiquinone. Since endogenous digoxin can regulate neurotransmitter transport and dolichols can modulate glycoconjugate synthesis important in synaptic connectivity, the pathway was assessed in patients with dyslexia, delayed recovery from global aphasia consequent to a dominant hemispheric thrombotic infarct, and developmental delay of speech milestone. The pathway was also studied in right hemispheric, left hemispheric, and bihemispheric dominance to find out the role of hemispheric dominance in the pathogenesis of speech disorders. The plasma/serum--activity of HMG CoA reductase, magnesium, digoxin, dolichol, ubiquinone--and tryptophan/tyrosine catabolic patterns, as well as RBC (Na+)-K+ ATPase activity, were measured in the above mentioned groups. The glycoconjugate metabolism and membrane composition was also studied. The study showed that in dyslexia, developmental delay of speech milestone, and delayed recovery from global aphasia there was an upregulated isoprenoidal pathway with increased digoxin and dolichol levels. The membrane (Na+)-K+ ATPase activity, serum magnesium and ubiquinone levels were low. The tryptophan catabolites were increased and the tyrosine catabolites including dopamine decreased in the serum contributing to a speech dysfunction. There was an increase in carbohydrate residues of glycoproteins, glycosaminoglycans, and glycolipids levels as well as an increased activity of GAG degrading enzymes and glyco hydrolases in the serum. The cholesterol:phospholipid ratio of RBC membrane increased and membrane glycoconjugates showed a decrease. All of these could contribute to altered synaptic inactivity in these disorders. The patterns correlated with those obtained in right hemispheric chemical dominance. Right hemispheric chemical dominance may play a role in the genesis of these disorders. Hemispheric chemical dominance has no correlation with handedness

  3. When will a stuttering moment occur? The determining role of speech motor preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhoutte, Sarah; Cosyns, Marjan; van Mierlo, Pieter; Batens, Katja; Corthals, Paul; De Letter, Miet; Van Borsel, John; Santens, Patrick

    2016-06-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate whether increased activity related to speech motor preparation preceding fluently produced words reflects a successful compensation strategy in stuttering. For this purpose, a contingent negative variation (CNV) was evoked during a picture naming task and measured by use of electro-encephalography. A CNV is a slow, negative event-related potential known to reflect motor preparation generated by the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical (BGTC) - loop. In a previous analysis, the CNV of 25 adults with developmental stuttering (AWS) was significantly increased, especially over the right hemisphere, compared to the CNV of 35 fluent speakers (FS) when both groups were speaking fluently (Vanhoutte et al., (2015) doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2015.05.013). To elucidate whether this increase is a compensation strategy enabling fluent speech in AWS, the present analysis evaluated the CNV of 7 AWS who stuttered during this picture naming task. The CNV preceding AWS stuttered words was statistically compared to the CNV preceding AWS fluent words and FS fluent words. Though no difference emerged between the CNV of the AWS stuttered words and the FS fluent words, a significant reduction was observed when comparing the CNV preceding AWS stuttered words to the CNV preceding AWS fluent words. The latter seems to confirm the compensation hypothesis: the increased CNV prior to AWS fluent words is a successful compensation strategy, especially when it occurs over the right hemisphere. The words are produced fluently because of an enlarged activity during speech motor preparation. The left CNV preceding AWS stuttered words correlated negatively with stuttering frequency and severity suggestive for a link between the left BGTC - network and the stuttering pathology. Overall, speech motor preparatory activity generated by the BGTC - loop seems to have a determining role in stuttering. An important divergence between left and right hemisphere is

  4. Speech coding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravishankar, C., Hughes Network Systems, Germantown, MD

    1998-05-08

    Speech is the predominant means of communication between human beings and since the invention of the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876, speech services have remained to be the core service in almost all telecommunication systems. Original analog methods of telephony had the disadvantage of speech signal getting corrupted by noise, cross-talk and distortion Long haul transmissions which use repeaters to compensate for the loss in signal strength on transmission links also increase the associated noise and distortion. On the other hand digital transmission is relatively immune to noise, cross-talk and distortion primarily because of the capability to faithfully regenerate digital signal at each repeater purely based on a binary decision. Hence end-to-end performance of the digital link essentially becomes independent of the length and operating frequency bands of the link Hence from a transmission point of view digital transmission has been the preferred approach due to its higher immunity to noise. The need to carry digital speech became extremely important from a service provision point of view as well. Modem requirements have introduced the need for robust, flexible and secure services that can carry a multitude of signal types (such as voice, data and video) without a fundamental change in infrastructure. Such a requirement could not have been easily met without the advent of digital transmission systems, thereby requiring speech to be coded digitally. The term Speech Coding is often referred to techniques that represent or code speech signals either directly as a waveform or as a set of parameters by analyzing the speech signal. In either case, the codes are transmitted to the distant end where speech is reconstructed or synthesized using the received set of codes. A more generic term that is applicable to these techniques that is often interchangeably used with speech coding is the term voice coding. This term is more generic in the sense that the

  5. [Improving speech comprehension using a new cochlear implant speech processor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Deile, J; Kortmann, T; Hoppe, U; Hessel, H; Morsnowski, A

    2009-06-01

    sentences in the clinical setting S(0)N(CI), with speech signal at 0 degrees and noise lateral to the CI at 90 degrees . With the convincing findings from our evaluations of this multicenter study cohort, a trial with the Freedom 24 sound processor for all suitable CI users is recommended. For evaluating the benefits of a new processor, the comparative assessment paradigm used in our study design would be considered ideal for use with individual patients.

  6. Dissociated Crossed Speech Areas in a Tumour Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Mauler

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the past, the eloquent areas could be deliberately localised by the invasive Wada test. The very rare cases of dissociated crossed speech areas were accidentally found based on the clinical symptomatology. Today functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI-based imaging can be employed to non-invasively localise the eloquent areas in brain tumour patients for therapy planning. A 41-year-old, left-handed man with a low-grade glioma in the left frontal operculum extending to the insular cortex, tension headaches, and anomic aphasia over 5 months underwent a pre-operative speech area localisation fMRI measurement, which revealed the evidence of the transhemispheric disposition, where the dominant Wernicke speech area is located on the left and the Broca’s area is strongly lateralised to the right hemisphere. The outcome of the Wada test and the intraoperative cortico-subcortical stimulation mapping were congruent with this finding. After tumour removal, language area function was fully preserved. Upon the occurrence of brain tumours with a risk of impaired speech function, the rare dissociate crossed speech areas disposition may gain a clinically relevant meaning by allowing for more extended tumour removal. Hence, for its identification, diagnostics which take into account both brain hemispheres, such as fMRI, are recommended.

  7. Non-right handed primary progressive apraxia of speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botha, Hugo; Duffy, Joseph R; Whitwell, Jennifer L; Strand, Edythe A; Machulda, Mary M; Spychalla, Anthony J; Tosakulwong, Nirubol; Senjem, Matthew L; Knopman, David S; Petersen, Ronald C; Jack, Clifford R; Lowe, Val J; Josephs, Keith A

    2018-07-15

    In recent years a large and growing body of research has greatly advanced our understanding of primary progressive apraxia of speech. Handedness has emerged as one potential marker of selective vulnerability in degenerative diseases. This study evaluated the clinical and imaging findings in non-right handed compared to right handed participants in a prospective cohort diagnosed with primary progressive apraxia of speech. A total of 30 participants were included. Compared to the expected rate in the population, there was a higher prevalence of non-right handedness among those with primary progressive apraxia of speech (6/30, 20%). Small group numbers meant that these results did not reach statistical significance, although the effect sizes were moderate-to-large. There were no clinical differences between right handed and non-right handed participants. Bilateral hypometabolism was seen in primary progressive apraxia of speech compared to controls, with non-right handed participants showing more right hemispheric involvement. This is the first report of a higher rate of non-right handedness in participants with isolated apraxia of speech, which may point to an increased vulnerability for developing this disorder among non-right handed participants. This challenges prior hypotheses about a relative protective effect of non-right handedness for tau-related neurodegeneration. We discuss potential avenues for future research to investigate the relationship between handedness and motor disorders more generally. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Exploring laterality and memory effects in the haptic discrimination of verbal and non-verbal shapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoycheva, Polina; Tiippana, Kaisa

    2018-03-14

    The brain's left hemisphere often displays advantages in processing verbal information, while the right hemisphere favours processing non-verbal information. In the haptic domain due to contra-lateral innervations, this functional lateralization is reflected in a hand advantage during certain functions. Findings regarding the hand-hemisphere advantage for haptic information remain contradictory, however. This study addressed these laterality effects and their interaction with memory retention times in the haptic modality. Participants performed haptic discrimination of letters, geometric shapes and nonsense shapes at memory retention times of 5, 15 and 30 s with the left and right hand separately, and we measured the discriminability index d'. The d' values were significantly higher for letters and geometric shapes than for nonsense shapes. This might result from dual coding (naming + spatial) or/and from a low stimulus complexity. There was no stimulus-specific laterality effect. However, we found a time-dependent laterality effect, which revealed that the performance of the left hand-right hemisphere was sustained up to 15 s, while the performance of the right-hand-left hemisphere decreased progressively throughout all retention times. This suggests that haptic memory traces are more robust to decay when they are processed by the left hand-right hemisphere.

  9. Social and emotional values of sounds influence human (Homo sapiens and non-human primate (Cercopithecus campbelli auditory laterality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel Basile

    Full Text Available The last decades evidenced auditory laterality in vertebrates, offering new important insights for the understanding of the origin of human language. Factors such as the social (e.g. specificity, familiarity and emotional value of sounds have been proved to influence hemispheric specialization. However, little is known about the crossed effect of these two factors in animals. In addition, human-animal comparative studies, using the same methodology, are rare. In our study, we adapted the head turn paradigm, a widely used non invasive method, on 8-9-year-old schoolgirls and on adult female Campbell's monkeys, by focusing on head and/or eye orientations in response to sound playbacks. We broadcast communicative signals (monkeys: calls, humans: speech emitted by familiar individuals presenting distinct degrees of social value (female monkeys: conspecific group members vs heterospecific neighbours, human girls: from the same vs different classroom and emotional value (monkeys: contact vs threat calls; humans: friendly vs aggressive intonation. We evidenced a crossed-categorical effect of social and emotional values in both species since only "negative" voices from same class/group members elicited a significant auditory laterality (Wilcoxon tests: monkeys, T = 0 p = 0.03; girls: T = 4.5 p = 0.03. Moreover, we found differences between species as a left and right hemisphere preference was found respectively in humans and monkeys. Furthermore while monkeys almost exclusively responded by turning their head, girls sometimes also just moved their eyes. This study supports theories defending differential roles played by the two hemispheres in primates' auditory laterality and evidenced that more systematic species comparisons are needed before raising evolutionary scenario. Moreover, the choice of sound stimuli and behavioural measures in such studies should be the focus of careful attention.

  10. Speech Alarms Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandor, A.; Moses, H. R.

    2016-01-01

    Currently on the International Space Station (ISS) and other space vehicles Caution & Warning (C&W) alerts are represented with various auditory tones that correspond to the type of event. This system relies on the crew's ability to remember what each tone represents in a high stress, high workload environment when responding to the alert. Furthermore, crew receive a year or more in advance of the mission that makes remembering the semantic meaning of the alerts more difficult. The current system works for missions conducted close to Earth where ground operators can assist as needed. On long duration missions, however, they will need to work off-nominal events autonomously. There is evidence that speech alarms may be easier and faster to recognize, especially during an off-nominal event. The Information Presentation Directed Research Project (FY07-FY09) funded by the Human Research Program included several studies investigating C&W alerts. The studies evaluated tone alerts currently in use with NASA flight deck displays along with candidate speech alerts. A follow-on study used four types of speech alerts to investigate how quickly various types of auditory alerts with and without a speech component - either at the beginning or at the end of the tone - can be identified. Even though crew were familiar with the tone alert from training or direct mission experience, alerts starting with a speech component were identified faster than alerts starting with a tone. The current study replicated the results from the previous study in a more rigorous experimental design to determine if the candidate speech alarms are ready for transition to operations or if more research is needed. Four types of alarms (caution, warning, fire, and depressurization) were presented to participants in both tone and speech formats in laboratory settings and later in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA). In the laboratory study, the alerts were presented by software and participants were

  11. A leftward bias however you look at it: Revisiting the emotional chimeric face task as a tool for measuring emotion lateralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R Innes, Bobby; Burt, D Michael; Birch, Yan K; Hausmann, Markus

    2015-12-28

    Left hemiface biases observed within the Emotional Chimeric Face Task (ECFT) support emotional face perception models whereby all expressions are preferentially processed by the right hemisphere. However, previous research using this task has not considered that the visible midline between hemifaces might engage atypical facial emotion processing strategies in upright or inverted conditions, nor controlled for left visual field (thus right hemispheric) visuospatial attention biases. This study used novel emotional chimeric faces (blended at the midline) to examine laterality biases for all basic emotions. Left hemiface biases were demonstrated across all emotional expressions and were reduced, but not reversed, for inverted faces. The ECFT bias in upright faces was significantly increased in participants with a large attention bias. These results support the theory that left hemiface biases reflect a genuine bias in emotional face processing, and this bias can interact with attention processes similarly localized in the right hemisphere.

  12. Hearing faces: how the infant brain matches the face it sees with the speech it hears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, Davina; Dehaene-Lambertz, Ghislaine; Mattout, Jeremie; Soares, Catherine; Gliga, Teodora; Baillet, Sylvain; Mangin, Jean-François

    2009-05-01

    Speech is not a purely auditory signal. From around 2 months of age, infants are able to correctly match the vowel they hear with the appropriate articulating face. However, there is no behavioral evidence of integrated audiovisual perception until 4 months of age, at the earliest, when an illusory percept can be created by the fusion of the auditory stimulus and of the facial cues (McGurk effect). To understand how infants initially match the articulatory movements they see with the sounds they hear, we recorded high-density ERPs in response to auditory vowels that followed a congruent or incongruent silently articulating face in 10-week-old infants. In a first experiment, we determined that auditory-visual integration occurs during the early stages of perception as in adults. The mismatch response was similar in timing and in topography whether the preceding vowels were presented visually or aurally. In the second experiment, we studied audiovisual integration in the linguistic (vowel perception) and nonlinguistic (gender perception) domain. We observed a mismatch response for both types of change at similar latencies. Their topographies were significantly different demonstrating that cross-modal integration of these features is computed in parallel by two different networks. Indeed, brain source modeling revealed that phoneme and gender computations were lateralized toward the left and toward the right hemisphere, respectively, suggesting that each hemisphere possesses an early processing bias. We also observed repetition suppression in temporal regions and repetition enhancement in frontal regions. These results underscore how complex and structured is the human cortical organization which sustains communication from the first weeks of life on.

  13. Hemispheric association and dissociation of voice and speech information processing in stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Anna B; Farrall, Andrew J; Belin, Pascal; Pernet, Cyril R

    2015-10-01

    As we listen to someone speaking, we extract both linguistic and non-linguistic information. Knowing how these two sets of information are processed in the brain is fundamental for the general understanding of social communication, speech recognition and therapy of language impairments. We investigated the pattern of performances in phoneme versus gender categorization in left and right hemisphere stroke patients, and found an anatomo-functional dissociation in the right frontal cortex, establishing a new syndrome in voice discrimination abilities. In addition, phoneme and gender performances were most often associated than dissociated in the left hemisphere patients, suggesting a common neural underpinnings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Neural Entrainment to Speech Modulates Speech Intelligibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riecke, Lars; Formisano, Elia; Sorger, Bettina; Baskent, Deniz; Gaudrain, Etienne

    2018-01-01

    Speech is crucial for communication in everyday life. Speech-brain entrainment, the alignment of neural activity to the slow temporal fluctuations (envelope) of acoustic speech input, is a ubiquitous element of current theories of speech processing. Associations between speech-brain entrainment and

  15. For Which Side the Bell Tolls: The Laterality of Approach-Avoidance Associative Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, Adam K; Ode, Scott; Robinson, Michael D

    2013-03-01

    The two hemispheres of the brain appear to play different roles in emotion and/or motivation. A great deal of previous research has examined the valence hypothesis (left hemisphere = positive; right = negative), but an increasing body of work has supported the motivational hypothesis (left hemisphere = approach; right = avoidance) as an alternative. The present investigation ( N = 117) sought to provide novel support for the latter perspective. Left versus right hemispheres were briefly activated by neutral lateralized auditory primes. Subsequently, participants categorized approach versus avoidance words as quickly and accurately as possible. Performance in the task revealed that approach-related thoughts were more accessible following left-hemispheric activation, whereas avoidance-related thoughts were more accessible following right-hemispheric activation. The present results are the first to examine such lateralized differences in accessible motivational thoughts, which may underlie more "downstream" manifestations of approach and avoidance motivation such as judgments, decision making, and behavior.

  16. Interindividual variability in the hemispheric organization for speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzourio-Mazoyer, N; Josse, G; Crivello, F; Mazoyer, B

    2004-01-01

    A PET activation study was designed to investigate hemispheric specialization during speech comprehension and production in right- and left-handed subjects. Normalized regional cerebral blood flow (NrCBF) was repeatedly monitored while subjects either listened to factual stories (Story) or covertly generated verbs semantically related to heard nouns (Gener), using silent resting (Rest) as a common control condition. NrCBF variations in each task, as compared to Rest, as well as functional asymmetry indices (FAI = right minus left NrCBF variations), were computed in anatomical regions of interest (AROIs) defined on the single-subject MNI template. FAIs were predominantly leftward in all regions during both tasks, although larger FAIs were observed during Gener. Subjects were declared "typical" for language hemispheric specialization based on the presence of significant leftward asymmetries (FAI Gener, and in the middle and inferior temporal AROIs during Story. Six subjects (including five LH) showed an atypical language representation. Among them, one presented a right hemisphere specialization during both tasks, another a shift in hemispheric specialization from production to comprehension (left during Gener, right during Story). The group of 14 typical subjects showed significant positive correlation between homologous left and right AROIs NrCBF variations in temporal areas during Story, and in temporal and inferior frontal areas during Gener, almost all regions presenting a leftward FAI. Such correlations were also present in deactivated areas with strong leftward asymmetry (supramarginalis gyrus, inferior parietal region). These results suggest that entry into a language task translates into a hemispheric reconfiguration of lateral cortical areas with global NrCBF increase in the dominant hemisphere and decrease in the minor hemisphere. This can be considered as the setting up of a "language mode", under the control of a mechanism that operates at a perisylvian

  17. Longitudinal Study of Speech Perception, Speech, and Language for Children with Hearing Loss in an Auditory-Verbal Therapy Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dornan, Dimity; Hickson, Louise; Murdoch, Bruce; Houston, Todd

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the speech perception, speech, and language developmental progress of 25 children with hearing loss (mean Pure-Tone Average [PTA] 79.37 dB HL) in an auditory verbal therapy program. Children were tested initially and then 21 months later on a battery of assessments. The speech and language results over time were compared with…

  18. Speech Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several articles addressing topics in speech research are presented. The topics include: exploring the functional significance of physiological tremor: A biospectroscopic approach; differences between experienced and inexperienced listeners to deaf speech; a language-oriented view of reading and its disabilities; Phonetic factors in letter detection; categorical perception; Short-term recall by deaf signers of American sign language; a common basis for auditory sensory storage in perception and immediate memory; phonological awareness and verbal short-term memory; initiation versus execution time during manual and oral counting by stutterers; trading relations in the perception of speech by five-year-old children; the role of the strap muscles in pitch lowering; phonetic validation of distinctive features; consonants and syllable boundaires; and vowel information in postvocalic frictions.

  19. Hate speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Birgitta Nilsen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The manifesto of the Norwegian terrorist Anders Behring Breivik is based on the “Eurabia” conspiracy theory. This theory is a key starting point for hate speech amongst many right-wing extremists in Europe, but also has ramifications beyond these environments. In brief, proponents of the Eurabia theory claim that Muslims are occupying Europe and destroying Western culture, with the assistance of the EU and European governments. By contrast, members of Al-Qaeda and other extreme Islamists promote the conspiracy theory “the Crusade” in their hate speech directed against the West. Proponents of the latter theory argue that the West is leading a crusade to eradicate Islam and Muslims, a crusade that is similarly facilitated by their governments. This article presents analyses of texts written by right-wing extremists and Muslim extremists in an effort to shed light on how hate speech promulgates conspiracy theories in order to spread hatred and intolerance.The aim of the article is to contribute to a more thorough understanding of hate speech’s nature by applying rhetorical analysis. Rhetorical analysis is chosen because it offers a means of understanding the persuasive power of speech. It is thus a suitable tool to describe how hate speech works to convince and persuade. The concepts from rhetorical theory used in this article are ethos, logos and pathos. The concept of ethos is used to pinpoint factors that contributed to Osama bin Laden's impact, namely factors that lent credibility to his promotion of the conspiracy theory of the Crusade. In particular, Bin Laden projected common sense, good morals and good will towards his audience. He seemed to have coherent and relevant arguments; he appeared to possess moral credibility; and his use of language demonstrated that he wanted the best for his audience.The concept of pathos is used to define hate speech, since hate speech targets its audience's emotions. In hate speech it is the

  20. Association fibers connecting the Broca center and the lateral superior frontal gyrus: a microsurgical and tractographic anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Masashi; Shinohara, Harumichi; Hori, Osamu; Ozaki, Noriyuki; Ueda, Fumiaki; Nakada, Mitsutoshi; Hamada, Jun-Ichiro; Hayashi, Yutaka

    2012-02-01

    Recently, intraoperative mapping has disclosed that, in addition to the classic language centers (that is, the Broca and Wernicke centers), other cortical regions may also play an important role in language organization. In the prefrontal cortex, although the lateral superior frontal gyrus (LSFG) could have language-related functions, there are no detailed reports that demonstrate the anatomical connection between the LSFG and other well-known language cortices, such as the Broca center. To show the existence of the structural connection, white matter association fibers between the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and the LSFG were examined using fiber dissection (FD) and diffusion tensor (DT) imaging-based tractography. Eight cadaveric cerebral hemispheres were dissected to reveal the association fibers between the IFG and LSFG. The DT imaging-based tractography studies targeting the prefrontal cortex were obtained in 53 right-handed patients who had no organic cerebral lesions. The association fiber tract between Brodmann area 44/45 (the Broca center in the dominant hemisphere) and LSFG were detected in all specimens by FD. In the DT imaging-based tractography studies, the tract was identified in all patients bilaterally, except for the 4 in whom the tract was detected only in the left hemisphere. This tract was spread significantly wider in the left than in the right hemisphere, and left lateralization was evident in male patients. Based on its character, this tract was named the Broca-LSFG pathway. These findings suggest a close relationship between this pathway and language organization. The structural anatomy of the Broca-LSFG pathway may explain speech disturbances induced by LSFG stimulation that are sometimes observed during intraoperative language mapping.

  1. Two distinct forms of functional lateralization in the human brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotts, Stephen J.; Jo, Hang Joon; Wallace, Gregory L.; Saad, Ziad S.; Cox, Robert W.; Martin, Alex

    2013-01-01

    The hemispheric lateralization of certain faculties in the human brain has long been held to be beneficial for functioning. However, quantitative relationships between the degree of lateralization in particular brain regions and the level of functioning have yet to be established. Here we demonstrate that two distinct forms of functional lateralization are present in the left vs. the right cerebral hemisphere, with the left hemisphere showing a preference to interact more exclusively with itself, particularly for cortical regions involved in language and fine motor coordination. In contrast, right-hemisphere cortical regions involved in visuospatial and attentional processing interact in a more integrative fashion with both hemispheres. The degree of lateralization present in these distinct systems selectively predicted behavioral measures of verbal and visuospatial ability, providing direct evidence that lateralization is associated with enhanced cognitive ability. PMID:23959883

  2. Speech enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    Benesty, Jacob; Chen, Jingdong

    2006-01-01

    We live in a noisy world! In all applications (telecommunications, hands-free communications, recording, human-machine interfaces, etc.) that require at least one microphone, the signal of interest is usually contaminated by noise and reverberation. As a result, the microphone signal has to be ""cleaned"" with digital signal processing tools before it is played out, transmitted, or stored.This book is about speech enhancement. Different well-known and state-of-the-art methods for noise reduction, with one or multiple microphones, are discussed. By speech enhancement, we mean not only noise red

  3. Preschool speech intelligibility and vocabulary skills predict long-term speech and language outcomes following cochlear implantation in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Irina; Kronenberger, William G; Beer, Jessica; Henning, Shirley C; Colson, Bethany G; Pisoni, David B

    2014-07-01

    Speech and language measures during grade school predict adolescent speech-language outcomes in children who receive cochlear implants (CIs), but no research has examined whether speech and language functioning at even younger ages is predictive of long-term outcomes in this population. The purpose of this study was to examine whether early preschool measures of speech and language performance predict speech-language functioning in long-term users of CIs. Early measures of speech intelligibility and receptive vocabulary (obtained during preschool ages of 3-6 years) in a sample of 35 prelingually deaf, early-implanted children predicted speech perception, language, and verbal working memory skills up to 18 years later. Age of onset of deafness and age at implantation added additional variance to preschool speech intelligibility in predicting some long-term outcome scores, but the relationship between preschool speech-language skills and later speech-language outcomes was not significantly attenuated by the addition of these hearing history variables. These findings suggest that speech and language development during the preschool years is predictive of long-term speech and language functioning in early-implanted, prelingually deaf children. As a result, measures of speech-language functioning at preschool ages can be used to identify and adjust interventions for very young CI users who may be at long-term risk for suboptimal speech and language outcomes.

  4. Investigating the neural correlates of voice versus speech-sound directed information in pre-school children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Maria Raschle

    Full Text Available Studies in sleeping newborns and infants propose that the superior temporal sulcus is involved in speech processing soon after birth. Speech processing also implicitly requires the analysis of the human voice, which conveys both linguistic and extra-linguistic information. However, due to technical and practical challenges when neuroimaging young children, evidence of neural correlates of speech and/or voice processing in toddlers and young children remains scarce. In the current study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in 20 typically developing preschool children (average age  = 5.8 y; range 5.2-6.8 y to investigate brain activation during judgments about vocal identity versus the initial speech sound of spoken object words. FMRI results reveal common brain regions responsible for voice-specific and speech-sound specific processing of spoken object words including bilateral primary and secondary language areas of the brain. Contrasting voice-specific with speech-sound specific processing predominantly activates the anterior part of the right-hemispheric superior temporal sulcus. Furthermore, the right STS is functionally correlated with left-hemispheric temporal and right-hemispheric prefrontal regions. This finding underlines the importance of the right superior temporal sulcus as a temporal voice area and indicates that this brain region is specialized, and functions similarly to adults by the age of five. We thus extend previous knowledge of voice-specific regions and their functional connections to the young brain which may further our understanding of the neuronal mechanism of speech-specific processing in children with developmental disorders, such as autism or specific language impairments.

  5. Left-handedness and language lateralization in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szaflarski, Jerzy P; Rajagopal, Akila; Altaye, Mekibib; Byars, Anna W; Jacola, Lisa; Schmithorst, Vincent J; Schapiro, Mark B; Plante, Elena; Holland, Scott K

    2012-01-18

    This fMRI study investigated the development of language lateralization in left- and righthanded children between 5 and 18 years of age. Twenty-seven left-handed children (17 boys, 10 girls) and 54 age- and gender-matched right-handed children were included. We used functional MRI at 3T and a verb generation task to measure hemispheric language dominance based on either frontal or temporo-parietal regions of interest (ROIs) defined for the entire group and applied on an individual basis. Based on the frontal ROI, in the left-handed group, 23 participants (85%) demonstrated left-hemispheric language lateralization, 3 (11%) demonstrated symmetric activation, and 1 (4%) demonstrated right-hemispheric lateralization. In contrast, 50 (93%) of the right-handed children showed left-hemispheric lateralization and 3 (6%) demonstrated a symmetric activation pattern, while one (2%) demonstrated a right-hemispheric lateralization. The corresponding values for the temporo-parietal ROI for the left-handed children were 18 (67%) left-dominant, 6 (22%) symmetric, 3 (11%) right-dominant and for the right-handed children 49 (91%), 4 (7%), 1 (2%), respectively. Left-hemispheric language lateralization increased with age in both groups but somewhat different lateralization trajectories were observed in girls when compared to boys. The incidence of atypical language lateralization in left-handed children in this study was similar to that reported in adults. We also found similar rates of increase in left-hemispheric language lateralization with age between groups (i.e., independent of handedness) indicating the presence of similar mechanisms for language lateralization in left- and right-handed children. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Does brain injury impair speech and gesture differently?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilbe Göksun

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available People often use spontaneous gestures when talking about space, such as when giving directions. In a recent study from our lab, we examined whether focal brain-injured individuals’ naming motion event components of manner and path (represented in English by verbs and prepositions, respectively are impaired selectively, and whether gestures compensate for impairment in speech. Left or right hemisphere damaged patients and elderly control participants were asked to describe motion events (e.g., walking around depicted in brief videos. Results suggest that producing verbs and prepositions can be separately impaired in the left hemisphere and gesture production compensates for naming impairments when damage involves specific areas in the left temporal cortex.

  7. Speech Intelligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Thomas

    Speech intelligibility (SI) is important for different fields of research, engineering and diagnostics in order to quantify very different phenomena like the quality of recordings, communication and playback devices, the reverberation of auditoria, characteristics of hearing impairment, benefit using hearing aids or combinations of these things.

  8. 78 FR 49693 - Speech-to-Speech and Internet Protocol (IP) Speech-to-Speech Telecommunications Relay Services...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    ...-Speech Services for Individuals with Hearing and Speech Disabilities, Report and Order (Order), document...] Speech-to-Speech and Internet Protocol (IP) Speech-to-Speech Telecommunications Relay Services; Telecommunications Relay Services and Speech-to-Speech Services for Individuals With Hearing and Speech Disabilities...

  9. Quality of life in childhood epilepsy with lateralized epileptogenic foci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathiak Krystyna A

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measuring quality of life (QOL helps to delineate mechanisms underlying the interaction of disease and psychosocial factors. In adults, epileptic foci in the left temporal lobe led to lower QOL and higher depression and anxiety as compared to the right-sided foci. No study addressed the development of QOL disturbances depending on the lateralization of epileptogenic focus. The objective of our study was to examine QOL in children with lateralized epileptiform discharges. Methods Thirty-one parents of children with epilepsy filled the Health-Related Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy Questionnaire (QOLCE. Fifteen children had foci in the left hemisphere and sixteen in the right, as verified with Electroencephalography (EEG examinations. Results We found a significant correlation between foci lateralization and reduced QOL (Spearman's rho = 0.361, p Conclusions We demonstrated for the first time that in children left- and right-hemispheric foci were associated with discordant QOL scores. Unlike in adults, foci in the right hemisphere led to worse emotional and social functioning demonstrating that seizures impact the brain differentially during development.

  10. Behavioural laterality as a factor in emotional regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempala, Daniel M

    2014-01-01

    Individuals who perform a variety of tasks using one side of their bodies (i.e., high-dominance people) are thought to differ from individuals who perform a variety of tasks with both sides of their body (i.e., low-dominance people) in several neurological and cognitive characteristics. We examined whether behavioural laterality predicted the efficacy of different emotional regulation strategies. Specifically, we thought that behavioural laterality would influence verbal strategies (associated with left hemisphere activation) when regulating anxiety (associated with right hemisphere activation). In three studies participants presented in front of small audiences. Behavioural laterality (as measured by a modified handedness inventory) positively correlated with presentation anxiety, such that "low-dominance" participants reported less anxiety than "high-dominance" participants, but only when using cognitive reappraisal (a verbal strategy), not attention deployment or response modulation (behavioural strategies). These results provide preliminary evidence that individual differences in behavioural laterality mediate the efficacy of certain emotional regulation strategies.

  11. Speech and Speech-Related Quality of Life After Late Palate Repair: A Patient's Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönmeyr, Björn; Wendby, Lisa; Sharma, Mitali; Jacobson, Lia; Restrepo, Carolina; Campbell, Alex

    2015-07-01

    Many patients with cleft palate deformities worldwide receive treatment at a later age than is recommended for normal speech to develop. The outcomes after late palate repairs in terms of speech and quality of life (QOL) still remain largely unstudied. In the current study, questionnaires were used to assess the patients' perception of speech and QOL before and after primary palate repair. All of the patients were operated at a cleft center in northeast India and had a cleft palate with a normal lip or with a cleft lip that had been previously repaired. A total of 134 patients (7-35 years) were interviewed preoperatively and 46 patients (7-32 years) were assessed in the postoperative survey. The survey showed that scores based on the speech handicap index, concerning speech and speech-related QOL, did not improve postoperatively. In fact, the questionnaires indicated that the speech became more unpredictable (P reported that their self-confidence had improved after the operation. Thus, the majority of interviewed patients who underwent late primary palate repair were satisfied with the surgery. At the same time, speech and speech-related QOL did not improve according to the speech handicap index-based survey. Speech predictability may even become worse and nasal regurgitation may increase after late palate repair, according to these results.

  12. Tomada de decisão no IGT: estudo de caso pós-AVC de hemisfério direito versus esquerdo Toma de decisión en el IGT: estudio de caso post-AVC de hemisferio derecho versus isquierdo Decision making in IGT: a case study of post-CVA of left versus right hemisphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline de Oliveira Cardoso

    2012-04-01

    decision-making process of two post-unilateral CVA adults as well as verifying the role of hemispheric laterality in the performance of Iowa Gambling Task (IGT. One adult with right hemisphere damage (RHD and another with left hemisphere damage (LHD, both following a subcortical ischemic post-CVA. The IGT was used to evaluate the decision making. Patients had appropriate performance on the IGT suggesting a general good ability to make decisions. However, only the patient with LHD presented signs of ascendant learning curve. Conclusion: These data indicate that a subcortical lesion independent of the hemisphere may not influence on the IGT performance. It is suggested that comparative studies of groups should be conducted in order to compare patients with frontal and non-frontal lesions, helping to characterize the decision-making process in population with unilateral vascular damage.

  13. Detection of target phonemes in spontaneous and read speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, G; Cutler, A

    1988-01-01

    Although spontaneous speech occurs more frequently in most listeners' experience than read speech, laboratory studies of human speech recognition typically use carefully controlled materials read from a script. The phonological and prosodic characteristics of spontaneous and read speech differ considerably, however, which suggests that laboratory results may not generalise to the recognition of spontaneous speech. In the present study listeners were presented with both spontaneous and read speech materials, and their response time to detect word-initial target phonemes was measured. Responses were, overall, equally fast in each speech mode. However, analysis of effects previously reported in phoneme detection studies revealed significant differences between speech modes. In read speech but not in spontaneous speech, later targets were detected more rapidly than targets preceded by short words. In contrast, in spontaneous speech but not in read speech, targets were detected more rapidly in accented than in unaccented words and in strong than in weak syllables. An explanation for this pattern is offered in terms of characteristic prosodic differences between spontaneous and read speech. The results support claims from previous work that listeners pay great attention to prosodic information in the process of recognising speech.

  14. Speech disorders - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disorder; Voice disorders; Vocal disorders; Disfluency; Communication disorder - speech disorder; Speech disorder - stuttering ... evaluation tools that can help identify and diagnose speech disorders: Denver Articulation Screening Examination Goldman-Fristoe Test of ...

  15. Speech Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-01

    The VDE system developed had the capability of recognizing up to 248 separate words in syntactic structures. 4 The two systems described are isolated...AND SPEAKER RECOGNITION by M.J.Hunt 5 ASSESSMENT OF SPEECH SYSTEMS ’ ..- * . by R.K.Moore 6 A SURVEY OF CURRENT EQUIPMENT AND RESEARCH’ by J.S.Bridle...TECHNOLOGY IN NAVY TRAINING SYSTEMS by R.Breaux, M.Blind and R.Lynchard 10 9 I-I GENERAL REVIEW OF MILITARY APPLICATIONS OF VOICE PROCESSING DR. BRUNO

  16. Speech Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Morariu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method of speech recognition by pattern recognition techniques. Learning consists in determining the unique characteristics of a word (cepstral coefficients by eliminating those characteristics that are different from one word to another. For learning and recognition, the system will build a dictionary of words by determining the characteristics of each word to be used in the recognition. Determining the characteristics of an audio signal consists in the following steps: noise removal, sampling it, applying Hamming window, switching to frequency domain through Fourier transform, calculating the magnitude spectrum, filtering data, determining cepstral coefficients.

  17. Stroke Laterality Bias in the Management of Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluskey, Gavin; Wade, Carrie; McKee, Jacqueline; McCarron, Peter; McVerry, Ferghal; McCarron, Mark O

    2016-11-01

    Little is known of the impact of stroke laterality on the management process and outcome of patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Consecutive patients admitted to a general hospital over 1 year with supratentorial AIS were eligible for inclusion in the study. Baseline characteristics and risk factors, delays in hospital admission, imaging, intrahospital transfer to an acute stoke unit, stroke severity and classification, length of hospital admission, as well as 10-year mortality were measured and compared among right and left hemisphere AIS patients. There were 141 patients (77 men, 64 women; median age 73 [interquartile range 63-79] years), There were 71 patients with left hemisphere AIS and 70 with right hemisphere AIS. Delays to hospital admission from stroke onset to neuroimaging were similar among right and left hemisphere AIS patients. Delay in transfer to an acute stroke unit (ASU) following hospital admission was on average 14 hours more for right hemisphere compared to left hemisphere AIS patients (P = .01). Laterality was not associated with any difference in 10-year survival. Patients with mild and nondominant AIS merit particular attention to minimize their intrahospital transfer time to an ASU. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Laterality of Brain Activation for Risk Factors of Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Harold W

    2016-01-01

    Laterality of brain activation is reported for tests of risk factors of addiction- impulsivity and craving-but authors rarely address the potential significance of those asymmetries. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate this laterality and discuss its relevance to cognitive and neurophysiological asymmetries associated with drug abuse vulnerability in order to provide new insights for future research in drug abuse. From published reports, brain areas of activation for two tests of response inhibition or craving for drugs of abuse were compiled from fMRI activation peaks and were tabulated for eight sections (octants) in each hemisphere. Percent asymmetries were calculated (R-L/R+L) across studies for each area. For impulsivity, most activation peaks favored the right hemisphere. Overall, the percent difference was 32% (Χ2 = 16.026; p laterality into consideration is a missed opportunity in designing studies and gaining insight into the etiology of drug abuse and pathways for treatment.

  19. Speech, stone tool-making and the evolution of language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Dana Michelle; Migliano, Andrea Bamberg; Vinicius, Lucio

    2018-01-01

    The 'technological hypothesis' proposes that gestural language evolved in early hominins to enable the cultural transmission of stone tool-making skills, with speech appearing later in response to the complex lithic industries of more recent hominins. However, no flintknapping study has assessed the efficiency of speech alone (unassisted by gesture) as a tool-making transmission aid. Here we show that subjects instructed by speech alone underperform in stone tool-making experiments in comparison to subjects instructed through either gesture alone or 'full language' (gesture plus speech), and also report lower satisfaction with their received instruction. The results provide evidence that gesture was likely to be selected over speech as a teaching aid in the earliest hominin tool-makers; that speech could not have replaced gesturing as a tool-making teaching aid in later hominins, possibly explaining the functional retention of gesturing in the full language of modern humans; and that speech may have evolved for reasons unrelated to tool-making. We conclude that speech is unlikely to have evolved as tool-making teaching aid superior to gesture, as claimed by the technological hypothesis, and therefore alternative views should be considered. For example, gestural language may have evolved to enable tool-making in earlier hominins, while speech may have later emerged as a response to increased trade and more complex inter- and intra-group interactions in Middle Pleistocene ancestors of Neanderthals and Homo sapiens; or gesture and speech may have evolved in parallel rather than in sequence.

  20. An analysis of machine translation and speech synthesis in speech-to-speech translation system

    OpenAIRE

    Hashimoto, K.; Yamagishi, J.; Byrne, W.; King, S.; Tokuda, K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of the impacts of machine translation and speech synthesis on speech-to-speech translation systems. The speech-to-speech translation system consists of three components: speech recognition, machine translation and speech synthesis. Many techniques for integration of speech recognition and machine translation have been proposed. However, speech synthesis has not yet been considered. Therefore, in this paper, we focus on machine translation and speech synthesis, ...

  1. The Effects of Fluency Enhancing Conditions on Sensorimotor Control of Speech in Typically Fluent Speakers: An EEG Mu Rhythm Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffani Kittilstved

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine whether changes in sensorimotor control resulting from speaking conditions that induce fluency in people who stutter (PWS can be measured using electroencephalographic (EEG mu rhythms in neurotypical speakers.Methods: Non-stuttering (NS adults spoke in one control condition (solo speaking and four experimental conditions (choral speech, delayed auditory feedback (DAF, prolonged speech and pseudostuttering. Independent component analysis (ICA was used to identify sensorimotor μ components from EEG recordings. Time-frequency analyses measured μ-alpha (8–13 Hz and μ-beta (15–25 Hz event-related synchronization (ERS and desynchronization (ERD during each speech condition.Results: 19/24 participants contributed μ components. Relative to the control condition, the choral and DAF conditions elicited increases in μ-alpha ERD in the right hemisphere. In the pseudostuttering condition, increases in μ-beta ERD were observed in the left hemisphere. No differences were present between the prolonged speech and control conditions.Conclusions: Differences observed in the experimental conditions are thought to reflect sensorimotor control changes. Increases in right hemisphere μ-alpha ERD likely reflect increased reliance on auditory information, including auditory feedback, during the choral and DAF conditions. In the left hemisphere, increases in μ-beta ERD during pseudostuttering may have resulted from the different movement characteristics of this task compared with the solo speaking task. Relationships to findings in stuttering are discussed.Significance: Changes in sensorimotor control related feedforward and feedback control in fluency-enhancing speech manipulations can be measured using time-frequency decompositions of EEG μ rhythms in neurotypical speakers. This quiet, non-invasive, and temporally sensitive technique may be applied to learn more about normal sensorimotor control and fluency enhancement in PWS.

  2. Determination of language lateralization using functional MRI during the performance of shiritori tasks in neurosurgery patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takayama, Hideichi; Kobayashi, Masahito; Sugishita, Morihiro; Onozuka, Satoshi; Kawase, Takeshi

    2001-01-01

    Assessment of language lateralization is crucial in patients considered for neurological surgery. The authors used functional MRI (fMRI) in conjunction with shiritori, a kind of word-generation task as paradigms, to determine language lateralization in the patients. We used a 1.5 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging devise with an echo-planar imaging sequence. Thirty-two patients undergoing neurological surgery would alternately rest and silently perform shiritori during fMRI acquisition. Language lateralization was determined in 29 out of 32 patients. Twenty-two patients were considered as left-hemisphere dominant and seven were right-hemisphere dominant. Brain activation was seen in the prefrontal area, premotor area, superior temporal gyrus and parietal lobe of the dominant hemisphere, which is consistent with the results in normal adults. Language lateralization was particularly useful in a case of meningioma in the left lateral ventricle and in a case of AVM in the left temporoparietal region. fMRI with shiritori tasks revealed right-hemisphere dominance in both cases, which was also confirmed by intracarotid amobarbital (Wada) testing. Both lesions were treated successfully without causing any further deficit to the patients' language function. These results suggest that fMRI with shiritori tasks can be used to assess language lateralization non-invasively, compared with the current techniques, such as intracarotid amobarbital testing and cortical electrostimulation mapping. Thus, fMRI with shiritori tasks has significant clinical potential as a presurgical evaluation tool. (author)

  3. Determination of language lateralization using functional MRI during the performance of shiritori tasks in neurosurgery patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takayama, Hideichi; Kobayashi, Masahito [Mihara Memorial Hospital, Isesaki, Gunma (Japan); Sugishita, Morihiro; Onozuka, Satoshi; Kawase, Takeshi

    2001-03-01

    Assessment of language lateralization is crucial in patients considered for neurological surgery. The authors used functional MRI (fMRI) in conjunction with shiritori, a kind of word-generation task as paradigms, to determine language lateralization in the patients. We used a 1.5 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging devise with an echo-planar imaging sequence. Thirty-two patients undergoing neurological surgery would alternately rest and silently perform shiritori during fMRI acquisition. Language lateralization was determined in 29 out of 32 patients. Twenty-two patients were considered as left-hemisphere dominant and seven were right-hemisphere dominant. Brain activation was seen in the prefrontal area, premotor area, superior temporal gyrus and parietal lobe of the dominant hemisphere, which is consistent with the results in normal adults. Language lateralization was particularly useful in a case of meningioma in the left lateral ventricle and in a case of AVM in the left temporoparietal region. fMRI with shiritori tasks revealed right-hemisphere dominance in both cases, which was also confirmed by intracarotid amobarbital (Wada) testing. Both lesions were treated successfully without causing any further deficit to the patients' language function. These results suggest that fMRI with shiritori tasks can be used to assess language lateralization non-invasively, compared with the current techniques, such as intracarotid amobarbital testing and cortical electrostimulation mapping. Thus, fMRI with shiritori tasks has significant clinical potential as a presurgical evaluation tool. (author)

  4. Speech and Language Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... OTC Relief for Diarrhea Home Diseases and Conditions Speech and Language Delay Condition Speech and Language Delay Share Print Table of Contents1. ... Treatment6. Everyday Life7. Questions8. Resources What is a speech and language delay? A speech and language delay ...

  5. Positive schizotypy scores correlate with left visual field interference for negatively valenced emotional words: A lateralized emotional Stroop study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Strien, Jan W; Van Kampen, Dirk

    2009-10-30

    Fourteen men scoring high and 14 men scoring low on a positive schizotypy scale participated in a lateralized emotional Stroop task. Vocal reaction times for color naming of neutral, positive and negative emotional words were recorded. Across participants, the color naming of neutral and emotional words was slightly faster to right than to left visual field presentations. In men with high scores on positive schizotypy, the presentation of negative words to the left visual field (right hemisphere) resulted in significant affective interference with color naming, which was significantly larger than in men with low scores. Correlational analysis also showed that positive schizotypy was significantly associated with emotional interference in response to LVF negative words. The outcome is discussed in terms of right hemispheric engagement in negative emotions in high positive schizotypic men.

  6. Measures to Evaluate the Effects of DBS on Speech Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weismer, Gary; Yunusova, Yana; Bunton, Kate

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review and evaluate measures of speech production that could be used to document effects of Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) on speech performance, especially in persons with Parkinson disease (PD). A small set of evaluative criteria for these measures is presented first, followed by consideration of several speech physiology and speech acoustic measures that have been studied frequently and reported on in the literature on normal speech production, and speech production affected by neuromotor disorders (dysarthria). Each measure is reviewed and evaluated against the evaluative criteria. Embedded within this review and evaluation is a presentation of new data relating speech motions to speech intelligibility measures in speakers with PD, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and control speakers (CS). These data are used to support the conclusion that at the present time the slope of second formant transitions (F2 slope), an acoustic measure, is well suited to make inferences to speech motion and to predict speech intelligibility. The use of other measures should not be ruled out, however, and we encourage further development of evaluative criteria for speech measures designed to probe the effects of DBS or any treatment with potential effects on speech production and communication skills. PMID:24932066

  7. Non-invasive mapping of bilateral motor speech areas using navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation and functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Könönen, Mervi; Tamsi, Niko; Säisänen, Laura; Kemppainen, Samuli; Määttä, Sara; Julkunen, Petro; Jutila, Leena; Äikiä, Marja; Kälviäinen, Reetta; Niskanen, Eini; Vanninen, Ritva; Karjalainen, Pasi; Mervaala, Esa

    2015-06-15

    Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) is a modern precise method to activate and study cortical functions noninvasively. We hypothesized that a combination of nTMS and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) could clarify the localization of functional areas involved with motor control and production of speech. Navigated repetitive TMS (rTMS) with short bursts was used to map speech areas on both hemispheres by inducing speech disruption during number recitation tasks in healthy volunteers. Two experienced video reviewers, blinded to the stimulated area, graded each trial offline according to possible speech disruption. The locations of speech disrupting nTMS trials were overlaid with fMRI activations of word generation task. Speech disruptions were produced on both hemispheres by nTMS, though there were more disruptive stimulation sites on the left hemisphere. Grade of the disruptions varied from subjective sensation to mild objectively recognizable disruption up to total speech arrest. The distribution of locations in which speech disruptions could be elicited varied among individuals. On the left hemisphere the locations of disturbing rTMS bursts with reviewers' verification followed the areas of fMRI activation. Similar pattern was not observed on the right hemisphere. The reviewer-verified speech disruptions induced by nTMS provided clinically relevant information, and fMRI might explain further the function of the cortical area. nTMS and fMRI complement each other, and their combination should be advocated when assessing individual localization of speech network. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Time course and hemispheric lateralization effects of complex pitch processing: evoked magnetic fields in response to rippled noise stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertrich, Ingo; Mathiak, Klaus; Lutzenberger, Werner; Ackermann, Hermann

    2004-01-01

    To delineate the time course and processing stages of pitch encoding at the level of the supratemporal plane, the present study recorded evoked magnetic fields in response to rippled noise (RN) stimuli. RN largely masks simple tonotopic representations and addresses pitch processing within the temporal domain (periodicity encoding). Four dichotic stimulus types (111 or 133 Hz RN at one ear, white noise to the other one) were applied in randomized order during either visual distraction or selective auditory attention. Strictly periodic signals, noise-like events, and mixtures of both signals served as control conditions. (1) Attention-dependent ear x hemisphere interactions were observed within the time domain of the M50 field, indicating early streaming of auditory information. (2) M100 responses to strictly periodic stimuli were found lateralized to the right hemisphere. Furthermore, the higher-pitched stimuli yielded enhanced activation as compared to the lower-pitch signals (pitch scaling), conceivably reflecting sensory memory operations. (3) Besides right-hemisphere pitch scaling, the relatively late M100 component in association with the RN condition (latency = 136 ms) showed significantly stronger field strengths over the left hemisphere. Control experiments revealed this lateralization effect to be related to noise rather than pitch processing. Furthermore, subtle noise variations interacted with signal periodicity. Obviously, thus, complex task demands such as RN encoding give rise to functional segregation of auditory processing across the two hemispheres (left hemisphere: noise, right hemisphere: periodicity representation). The observed noise/periodicity interactions, furthermore, might reflect pitch-synchronous spectral evaluation at the level of the left supratemporal plane, triggered by right-hemisphere representation of signal periodicity. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Preschool Speech Error Patterns Predict Articulation and Phonological Awareness Outcomes in Children with Histories of Speech Sound Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Jonathan L.; Hull, Margaret; Edwards, Mary Louise

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine if speech error patterns in preschoolers with speech sound disorders (SSDs) predict articulation and phonological awareness (PA) outcomes almost 4 years later. Method: Twenty-five children with histories of preschool SSDs (and normal receptive language) were tested at an average age of 4;6 (years;months) and were followed up…

  10. Right away: A late, right-lateralized category effect complements an early, left-lateralized category effect in visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constable, Merryn D; Becker, Stefanie I

    2017-10-01

    According to the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, learned semantic categories can influence early perceptual processes. A central finding in support of this view is the lateralized category effect-namely, the finding that categorically different colors (e.g., blue and green hues) can be discriminated faster than colors within the same color category (e.g., different hues of green), especially when they are presented in the right visual field. Because the right visual field projects to the left hemisphere, this finding has been popularly couched in terms of the left-lateralization of language. However, other studies have reported bilateral category effects, which has led some researchers to question the linguistic origins of the effect. Here we examined the time course of lateralized and bilateral category effects in the classical visual search paradigm by means of eyetracking and RT distribution analyses. Our results show a bilateral category effect in the manual responses, which is combined of an early, left-lateralized category effect and a later, right-lateralized category effect. The newly discovered late, right-lateralized category effect occurred only when observers had difficulty locating the target, indicating a specialization of the right hemisphere to find categorically different targets after an initial error. The finding that early and late stages of visual search show different lateralized category effects can explain a wide range of previously discrepant findings.

  11. Functional connectivity and laterality of the motor and sensory components in the volitional swallowing network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell, Soren Y; Reynolds, Richard C; Chen, Gang; Horwitz, Barry; Ludlow, Christy L

    2012-05-01

    Functional neuroimaging has shown that multiple brain regions are active during volitional swallowing. Little is known, however, about which regions integrate motor execution and sensory feedback in the swallowing system. Although unilateral brain lesions in either hemisphere can produce swallowing deficits, some functional neuroimaging studies indicate that the left hemisphere has greater activation in certain sensory and motor-related swallowing regions. In this study, correlation coefficients were computed for five seed regions during volitional saliva swallowing to determine the functional relationships of these regions with the rest of the brain: the anterior and posterior insula, inferior frontal gyrus (BA44), primary sensory cortex (S1), and primary motor cortex (M1). A laterality index (LI) was derived that accounts for relative differences in total, positive connected voxels for the left/right hemisphere seeds. Clusters of significantly connected voxels were greater from the anterior and posterior insula than from the other three seed regions. Interactions of the insula with other brain regions were greater on the left than on the right during volitional swallowing. Group means showed laterality in the anterior insula (LI = 0.25) and the posterior insula (LI = 0.33). BA44 showed a lesser degree of difference in left versus right hemisphere interactions (LI = 0.12) while S1 did not show lateralization (LI = 0.02) and M1 showed some predominance of interactions in the right hemisphere (LI = -0.19). The greater connectivity from the left hemisphere insula to brain regions within and across hemispheres suggests that the insula is a primary integrative region for volitional swallowing in humans.

  12. Functional and structural comparison of visual lateralization in birds – similar but still different

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ströckens, Felix

    2014-01-01

    Vertebrate brains display physiological and anatomical left-right differences, which are related to hemispheric dominances for specific functions. Functional lateralizations likely rely on structural left-right differences in intra- and interhemispheric connectivity patterns that develop in tight gene-environment interactions. The visual systems of chickens and pigeons show that asymmetrical light stimulation during ontogeny induces a dominance of the left hemisphere for visuomotor control that is paralleled by projection asymmetries within the ascending visual pathways. But structural asymmetries vary essentially between both species concerning the affected pathway (thalamo- vs. tectofugal system), constancy of effects (transient vs. permanent), and the hemisphere receiving stronger bilateral input (right vs. left). These discrepancies suggest that at least two aspects of visual processes are influenced by asymmetric light stimulation: (1) visuomotor dominance develops within the ontogenetically stronger stimulated hemisphere but not necessarily in the one receiving stronger bottom-up input. As a secondary consequence of asymmetrical light experience, lateralized top-down mechanisms play a critical role in the emergence of hemispheric dominance. (2) Ontogenetic light experiences may affect the dominant use of left- and right-hemispheric strategies. Evidences from social and spatial cognition tasks indicate that chickens rely more on a right-hemispheric global strategy whereas pigeons display a dominance of the left hemisphere. Thus, behavioral asymmetries are linked to a stronger bilateral input to the right hemisphere in chickens but to the left one in pigeons. The degree of bilateral visual input may determine the dominant visual processing strategy when redundant encoding is possible. This analysis supports that environmental stimulation affects the balance between hemispheric-specific processing by lateralized interactions of bottom-up and top-down systems

  13. Functional and structural comparison of visual lateralization in birds – similar but still different

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina eManns

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrate brains display physiological and anatomical left-right differences, which are related to hemispheric dominances for specific functions. Functional lateralizations likely rely on structural left-right differences in intra- and interhemispheric connectivity patterns that develop in tight gene-environment interactions. The visual systems of chickens and pigeons show that asymmetrical light stimulation during ontogeny induces a dominance of the left hemisphere for visuomotor control that is paralleled by projection asymmetries within the ascending visual pathways. But structural asymmetries vary essentially between both species concerning the affected pathway (thalamo- vs. tectofugal system, constancy of effects (transient vs. permanent, and the hemisphere receiving stronger bilateral input (right vs. left. These discrepancies suggest that at least two aspects of visual processes are influenced by asymmetric light stimulation: 1. Visuomotor dominance develops within the ontogenetically stronger stimulated hemisphere but not necessarily in the one receiving stronger bottom-up input. As a secondary consequence of asymmetrical light experience, lateralized top-down mechanisms play a critical role in the emergence of hemispheric dominance. 2. Ontogenetic light experiences may affect the dominant use of left- and right-hemispheric strategies. Evidences from social and spatial cognition tasks indicate that chickens rely more on a right-hemispheric global strategy whereas pigeons display a dominance of the left hemisphere. Thus, behavioural asymmetries are linked to a stronger bilateral input to the right hemisphere in chickens but to the left one in pigeons. The degree of bilateral visual input may determine the dominant visual processing strategy when redundant encoding is possible. This analysis supports that environmental stimulation affects the balance between hemispheric-specific processing by lateralized interactions of bottom-up and top

  14. Efficacy of melody-based aphasia therapy may strongly depend on rhythm and conversational speech formulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Stahl

    2014-04-01

    rhythmically. Moreover, the training of conversational speech formulas led to long-term progress in the production of formulaic language. The patients were able to establish their own individual formulaic repertoire in order to communicate some basic needs in daily life. This finding may result from the fact that, according to present knowledge, the production of formulaic language engages bilateral neural networks including right frontotemporal areas, the right basal ganglia and, possibly, the right cerebellum (Hughlings-Jackson, 1878; Speedie et al., 1993; Ackermann et al., 1998; Van Lancker Sidtis & Postman, 2006; Sidtis et al., 2009. In other words, left-hemisphere stroke patients may use right-hemisphere language resources to produce conversational speech formulas, whether they are sung or rhythmically spoken. In conclusion, the current experiments highlight the critical role of rhythm and conversational speech formulas in melody-based aphasia therapy.

  15. Asperger Syndrome: Tests of Right Hemisphere Functioning and Interhemispheric Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, Helen L.; Ghaziuddin, Mohammad; Ellis, Hadyn D.

    2002-01-01

    Eight participants with Asperger syndrome (AS) (ages 10-41) were assessed in the following areas: the pragmatics of language and communication; verbal and visual memory; visual-spatial abilities; and bimanual motor skills. Results confirmed the close similarity in the neuropsychologic profiles of non-verbal learning disabilities syndrome and AS.…

  16. Lateral Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Christopher; Bruun Jensen, casper

    2016-01-01

    This essay discusses the complex relation between the knowledges and practices of the researcher and his/her informants in terms of lateral concepts. The starting point is that it is not the prerogative of the (STS) scholar to conceptualize the world; all our “informants” do it too. This creates...... the possibility of enriching our own conceptual repertoires by letting them be inflected by the concepts of those we study. In a broad sense, the lateral means that there is a many-to-many relation between domains of knowledge and practice. However, each specific case of the lateral is necessarily immanent...... to a particular empirical setting and form of inquiry. In this sense lateral concepts are radically empirical since it locates concepts within the field. To clarify the meaning and stakes of lateral concepts, we first make a contrast between lateral anthropology and Latour’s notion of infra-reflexivity. We end...

  17. Speech and Communication Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to being completely unable to speak or understand speech. Causes include Hearing disorders and deafness Voice problems, ... or those caused by cleft lip or palate Speech problems like stuttering Developmental disabilities Learning disorders Autism ...

  18. Free Speech Yearbook 1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phifer, Gregg, Ed.

    The 17 articles in this collection deal with theoretical and practical freedom of speech issues. The topics include: freedom of speech in Marquette Park, Illinois; Nazis in Skokie, Illinois; freedom of expression in the Confederate States of America; Robert M. LaFollette's arguments for free speech and the rights of Congress; the United States…

  19. Hyperfamiliarity for unknown faces after left lateral temporo-occipital venous infarction: a double dissociation with prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuilleumier, Patrik; Mohr, Christine; Valenza, Nathalie; Wetzel, Corinne; Landis, Theodor

    2003-04-01

    Right hemisphere dominance in face processing is well established and unilateral right inferior temporo-occipital damage can result in prosopagnosia. Here, we describe a 21-year-old right-handed woman with acute impairment in face recognition that selectively concerned unfamiliar faces, following a focal left lateral temporo-occipital venous infarct. She was severely impaired in discerning that unknown people seen in everyday life were unfamiliar, although she had no difficulty recognizing familiar people. Thus, she had no prosopagnosia, but abnormal 'hyperfamiliarity' for unknown faces. Her difficulty was not accompanied by delusions or deficits in discrimination, identification or memory for faces. Standard neuropsychological testing showed that her recognition of familiar faces was entirely normal. By contrast, her sense of personally knowing faces was severely impaired when unknown faces evoked weak signals of familiarity based on spurious cues, to the extent that she would misattribute fame to faces that were unknown but to which she had been incidentally exposed on a prior occasion. Priming experiments also revealed that, unlike normal subjects, she made familiarity judgements without accessing semantic identity representations. Moreover, in face recognition tests, she generally showed bias in that she relied more on right-hemisphere strategies to identify global traits and less on left-hemisphere processes compared with healthy subjects. This case provides novel evidence for a differential contribution of the two hemispheres to face recognition. Hyperfamiliarity for unknown faces might arise from an imbalance between reciprocal hemispheric functions in face recognition, with relative hypoactivation of left hemisphere processes but hyperactivation of right-hemisphere processes for retrieving stored associations about people, linking seen faces to representations of affective and personal relevance. Hence, abnormal bias in attributing some personal meaning to

  20. White-matter microstructure and language lateralization in left-handers: a whole-brain MRI analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlaki, Gabor; Horvath, Reka; Orsi, Gergely; Aradi, Mihaly; Auer, Tibor; Varga, Eszter; Kantor, Gyongyi; Altbäcker, Anna; John, Flora; Doczi, Tamas; Komoly, Samuel; Kovacs, Norbert; Schwarcz, Attila; Janszky, Jozsef

    2013-08-01

    Most people are left-hemisphere dominant for language. However the neuroanatomy of language lateralization is not fully understood. By combining functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), we studied whether language lateralization is associated with cerebral white-matter (WM) microstructure. Sixteen healthy, left-handed women aged 20-25 were included in the study. Left-handers were targeted in order to increase the chances of involving subjects with atypical language lateralization. Language lateralization was determined by fMRI using a verbal fluency paradigm. Tract-based spatial statistics analysis of DTI data was applied to test for WM microstructural correlates of language lateralization across the whole brain. Fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity were used as indicators of WM microstructural organization. Right-hemispheric language dominance was associated with reduced microstructural integrity of the left superior longitudinal fasciculus and left-sided parietal lobe WM. In left-handed women, reduced integrity of the left-sided language related tracts may be closely linked to the development of right hemispheric language dominance. Our results may offer new insights into language lateralization and structure-function relationships in human language system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Laterality and mental disorders in the postgenomic age--A closer look at schizophrenia and language lateralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocklenburg, Sebastian; Güntürkün, Onur; Hugdahl, Kenneth; Hirnstein, Marco

    2015-12-01

    Most people are right-handed and show left-hemispheric language lateralization, but a minority exhibits left-handedness and right-hemispheric language lateralization. This atypical laterality pattern is observed significantly more often in schizophrenia patients than in the general population, which led several authors to conclude that there is a genetic link between laterality and schizophrenia. It has even been suggested that a failure in the lateralization process, orchestrated by genes, could be the primary cause of schizophrenia. However, the molecular genetic evidence for a link between laterality and schizophrenia is weak. Recent genetic evidence indicates that schizophrenia is not a single disorder but a group of heritable disorders caused by different genotypic networks leading to distinct clinical symptoms. To uncover the link between schizophrenia and laterality we therefore suggest a paradigm shift where genetics are not mapped on schizophrenia as a whole but on discrete schizophrenia symptoms. In addition, we provide a critical evaluation of current theories on the genetic link between schizophrenia and brain asymmetry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Speech in spinocerebellar ataxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalling, Ellika; Hartelius, Lena

    2013-12-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) are a heterogeneous group of autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxias clinically characterized by progressive ataxia, dysarthria and a range of other concomitant neurological symptoms. Only a few studies include detailed characterization of speech symptoms in SCA. Speech symptoms in SCA resemble ataxic dysarthria but symptoms related to phonation may be more prominent. One study to date has shown an association between differences in speech and voice symptoms related to genotype. More studies of speech and voice phenotypes are motivated, to possibly aid in clinical diagnosis. In addition, instrumental speech analysis has been demonstrated to be a reliable measure that may be used to monitor disease progression or therapy outcomes in possible future pharmacological treatments. Intervention by speech and language pathologists should go beyond assessment. Clinical guidelines for management of speech, communication and swallowing need to be developed for individuals with progressive cerebellar ataxia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Speech processing: from peripheral to hemispheric asymmetry of the auditory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazard, Diane S; Collette, Jean-Louis; Perrot, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    Language processing from the cochlea to auditory association cortices shows side-dependent specificities with an apparent left hemispheric dominance. The aim of this article was to propose to nonspeech specialists a didactic review of two complementary theories about hemispheric asymmetry in speech processing. Starting from anatomico-physiological and clinical observations of auditory asymmetry and interhemispheric connections, this review then exposes behavioral (dichotic listening paradigm) as well as functional (functional magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography) experiments that assessed hemispheric specialization for speech processing. Even though speech at an early phonological level is regarded as being processed bilaterally, a left-hemispheric dominance exists for higher-level processing. This asymmetry may arise from a segregation of the speech signal, broken apart within nonprimary auditory areas in two distinct temporal integration windows--a fast one on the left and a slower one on the right--modeled through the asymmetric sampling in time theory or a spectro-temporal trade-off, with a higher temporal resolution in the left hemisphere and a higher spectral resolution in the right hemisphere, modeled through the spectral/temporal resolution trade-off theory. Both theories deal with the concept that lower-order tuning principles for acoustic signal might drive higher-order organization for speech processing. However, the precise nature, mechanisms, and origin of speech processing asymmetry are still being debated. Finally, an example of hemispheric asymmetry alteration, which has direct clinical implications, is given through the case of auditory aging that mixes peripheral disorder and modifications of central processing. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  4. The appropriacy of fluency tests in assessing epileptic seizure lateralization in children with partial epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuksanović Jasmina

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluency tests are frequently used in clinical practice to asses executive functions. The literature data are not unequivocal although in a great number of papers is pointed out the importance of the left hemisphere, specially of the left frontal lobes in the mediation of phonological fluency and the right hemisphere in the mediation of nonverbal fluency. This paper considers the suitability of fluency tests for the detection of left versus right seizure laterality. The sample consisted of thirty-two epilepsy patients divided into two groups: LHF-participants with the seizure focus in the left hemisphere (n=16, and DHF-participants with the seizure focus in the right hemisphere (n=16, and K-the control group of t age-matched healthy children (n=50 aged 7-11 years. The qualitative and quantitative comparison of the phonological and nonverbal fluency performance was carried out in consideration of the seizure laterality as well as compared to the healthy controls. The results of phonological fluency performance revealed that the performance of the LHF group was significantly reduced as compared to both DHF and K group. The analysis of nonverbal fluency performance revealed that the performance of the DHF group was significantly reduced as compared to both LHF and K group The qualitative analysis obtained valuable data, which could additionally contribute to the neuropsychological evaluation of the left versus right seizure laterality.

  5. Digital speech processing using Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Gopi, E S

    2014-01-01

    Digital Speech Processing Using Matlab deals with digital speech pattern recognition, speech production model, speech feature extraction, and speech compression. The book is written in a manner that is suitable for beginners pursuing basic research in digital speech processing. Matlab illustrations are provided for most topics to enable better understanding of concepts. This book also deals with the basic pattern recognition techniques (illustrated with speech signals using Matlab) such as PCA, LDA, ICA, SVM, HMM, GMM, BPN, and KSOM.

  6. Expression of future prospective in indirect speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodnaruk Elena Vladimirovna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the characteristics and use of grammatical semantics and lexical and grammatical means used to create future prospects in double indirect discourse. The material for the study were epic works by contemporary German writers. In the analysis of the empirical material it has been pointed out that indirect discourse has preterial basis and is the kind of most frequent inner speech of characters. The most widely used form with future semantics in preterial indirect speech is conditional I, formally having a conjunctive basis, but is mostly used with the indicative semantics. Competitive to conditional I in indirect speech is preterial indicative. A characteristic feature of the indirect speech is the use of modal verbs, which, thanks to its semantics is usually referred as an action at a later term, creating the prospect of future statements. The most frequent were modal verbs wollen and sollen in the form of the preterite, more rare verbs were m ssen and k nnen. German indirect speech distinguishes the ability to use forms on the basis of conjunctive: preterite and plusquamperfect of conjunctive. Both forms express values similar to those of the indicative. However, conjunctive forms the basis of the data shown in a slightly more pronounced seme of uncertainty that accompanies future uses of these forms in indirect speech. In addition, plusquamperfect conjunctive differs from others by the presence of the seme of completeness.

  7. A comparison of brain activity associated with language production in brain tumor patients with left and right sided language laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansma, J M; Ramsey, N; Rutten, G J

    2015-12-01

    Language dominance is an important factor for clinical decision making in brain tumor surgery. Functional MRI can provide detailed information about the organization of language in the brain. One often used measure derived from fMRI data is the laterality index (LI). The LI is typically based on the ratio between left and right brain activity in a specific region associated with language. Nearly all fMRI language studies show language-related activity in both hemispheres, and as a result the LI shows a large range of values. The clinical significance of the variation in language laterality as measured with the LI is still under debate. In this study, we tested two hypotheses in relation to the LI, measured in Broca's region, and it's right hemisphere homologue: 1: the level of activity in Broca's and it's right hemisphere homologue is mirrored for subjects with an equal but opposite LI; 2: the whole brain language activation pattern differs between subjects with an equal but opposite LI. One hundred sixty-three glioma and meningioma patients performed a verb generation task as part of a standard clinical protocol. We calculated the LI in the pars orbitalis, pars triangularis and pars opercularis of the left inferior frontal gyrus, referred to as Broca's region from here on. In our database, 21 patients showed right lateralized activity, with a moderate average level (-0.32). A second group of 21 patients was selected from the remaining group, for equal but opposite LI (0.32). We compared the level and distribution of activity associated with language production in the left and right hemisphere in these two groups. Patients with left sided laterality showed a significantly higher level of activity in Broca's region than the patients with right sided laterality. However, both groups showed no difference in level of activity in Broca's homologue region in the right hemisphere. Also, we did not see any difference in the pattern of activity between patients with left

  8. Evidence for developmental programming of cerebral laterality in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Jones

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Adverse fetal environments are associated with depression, reduced cognitive ability and increased stress responsiveness in later life, but underlying mechanisms are unknown. Environmental pressures on the fetus, resulting from variations in placental function and maternal nutrition, health and stress might alter neurodevelopment, promoting the development of some brain regions over others. As asymmetry of cerebral activity, with greater right hemisphere activity, has been associated with psychopathology, we hypothesized that regional specialization during fetal life might be reflected persistently in the relative activity of the cerebral hemispheres. We tested this hypothesis in 140 healthy 8-9 year-old children, using tympanic membrane temperature to assess relative blood flow to the cerebral hemispheres at rest and following psychosocial stress (Trier Social Stress Test for Children. Their birth weight and placental weight had already been measured when their mothers took part in a previous study of pregnancy outcomes. We found that children who had a smaller weight at birth had evidence of greater blood flow to the right hemisphere than to the left hemisphere (r = -.09, P = .29 at rest; r = -.18, P = .04 following stress. This finding was strengthened if the children had a relatively low birth weight for their placental weight (r = -.17, P = .05 at rest; r = -.31, P = .0005 following stress. Our findings suggest that lateralization of cerebral activity is influenced persistently by early developmental experiences, with possible consequences for long-term neurocognitive function.

  9. Mapping a lateralisation gradient within the ventral stream for auditory speech perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten eSpecht

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent models on speech perception propose a dual stream processing network, with a dorsal stream, extending from the posterior temporal lobe of the left hemisphere through inferior parietal areas into the left inferior frontal gyrus, and a ventral stream that is assumed to originate in the primary auditory cortex in the upper posterior part of the temporal lobe and to extend towards the anterior part of the temporal lobe, where it may connect to the ventral part of the inferior frontal gyrus. This article describes and reviews the results from a series of complementary functional magnetic imaging (fMRI studies that aimed to trace the hierarchical processing network for speech comprehension within the left and right hemisphere with a particular focus on the temporal lobe and the ventral stream. As hypothesised, the results demonstrate a bilateral involvement of the temporal lobes in the processing of speech signals. However, an increasing leftward asymmetry was detected from auditory-phonetic to lexico-semantic processing and along the posterior-anterior axis, thus forming a lateralisation gradient. This increasing leftward lateralisation was particularly evident for the left superior temporal sulcus (STS and more anterior parts of the temporal lobe.

  10. Speech Alarms Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandor, Aniko; Moses, Haifa

    2016-01-01

    Speech alarms have been used extensively in aviation and included in International Building Codes (IBC) and National Fire Protection Association's (NFPA) Life Safety Code. However, they have not been implemented on space vehicles. Previous studies conducted at NASA JSC showed that speech alarms lead to faster identification and higher accuracy. This research evaluated updated speech and tone alerts in a laboratory environment and in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) in a realistic setup.

  11. Ear, Hearing and Speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben

    2000-01-01

    An introduction is given to the the anatomy and the function of the ear, basic psychoacoustic matters (hearing threshold, loudness, masking), the speech signal and speech intelligibility. The lecture note is written for the course: Fundamentals of Acoustics and Noise Control (51001)......An introduction is given to the the anatomy and the function of the ear, basic psychoacoustic matters (hearing threshold, loudness, masking), the speech signal and speech intelligibility. The lecture note is written for the course: Fundamentals of Acoustics and Noise Control (51001)...

  12. Principles of speech coding

    CERN Document Server

    Ogunfunmi, Tokunbo

    2010-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly apparent that all forms of communication-including voice-will be transmitted through packet-switched networks based on the Internet Protocol (IP). Therefore, the design of modern devices that rely on speech interfaces, such as cell phones and PDAs, requires a complete and up-to-date understanding of the basics of speech coding. Outlines key signal processing algorithms used to mitigate impairments to speech quality in VoIP networksOffering a detailed yet easily accessible introduction to the field, Principles of Speech Coding provides an in-depth examination of the

  13. Speech disorder prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladis Fornaris-Méndez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Language therapy has trafficked from a medical focus until a preventive focus. However, difficulties are evidenced in the development of this last task, because he is devoted bigger space to the correction of the disorders of the language. Because the speech disorders is the dysfunction with more frequently appearance, acquires special importance the preventive work that is developed to avoid its appearance. Speech education since early age of the childhood makes work easier for prevent the appearance of speech disorders in the children. The present work has as objective to offer different activities for the prevention of the speech disorders.

  14. Dorsal anterior cingulate cortex in typically developing children: Laterality analysis

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    Jue Wang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to elucidate the dACC laterality in typically developing children and their sex/age-related differences with a sample of 84 right-handed children (6–16 years, 42 boys. We first replicated the previous finding observed in adults that gray matter density asymmetry in the dACC was region-specific: leftward (left > right in its superior part, rightward (left < right in its inferior part. Intrinsic connectivity analysis of these regions further revealed region-specific asymmetric connectivity profiles in dACC as well as their sex and age differences. Specifically, the superior dACC connectivity with frontoparietal network and the inferior dACC connectivity with visual network are rightward. The superior dACC connectivity with the default network (lateral temporal cortex was more involved in the left hemisphere. In contrast, the inferior dACC connectivity with the default network (anterior medial prefrontal cortex was more lateralized towards the right hemisphere. The superior dACC connectivity with lateral visual cortex was more distinct across two hemispheres in girls than that in boys. This connection in boys changed with age from right-prominent to left-prominent asymmetry whereas girls developed the connection from left-prominent to no asymmetry. These findings not only highlight the complexity and laterality of the dACC but also provided insights into dynamical structure–function relationships during the development.

  15. Men appear more lateralized when noticing emotion in male faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Qazi; Anchassi, Tarek

    2012-02-01

    Empirical tests of the "right hemisphere dominance" versus "valence" theories of emotion processing are confounded by known sex differences in lateralization. Moreover, information about the sex of the person posing an emotion might be processed differently by men and women because of an adaptive male bias to notice expressions of threat and vigilance in other male faces. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether sex of poser and emotion displayed influenced lateralization in men and women by analyzing "laterality quotient" scores on a test which depicts vertically split chimeric faces, formed with one half showing a neutral expression and the other half showing an emotional expression. We found that men (N = 50) were significantly more lateralized for emotions indicative of vigilance and threat (happy, sad, angry, and surprised) in male faces relative to female faces and compared to women (N = 44). These data indicate that sex differences in functional cerebral lateralization for facial emotion may be specific to the emotion presented and the sex of face presenting it. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved

  16. Mapping the brain's orchestration during speech comprehension: task-specific facilitation of regional synchrony in neural networks

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    Keil Andreas

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background How does the brain convert sounds and phonemes into comprehensible speech? In the present magnetoencephalographic study we examined the hypothesis that the coherence of electromagnetic oscillatory activity within and across brain areas indicates neurophysiological processes linked to speech comprehension. Results Amplitude-modulated (sinusoidal 41.5 Hz auditory verbal and nonverbal stimuli served to drive steady-state oscillations in neural networks involved in speech comprehension. Stimuli were presented to 12 subjects in the following conditions (a an incomprehensible string of words, (b the same string of words after being introduced as a comprehensible sentence by proper articulation, and (c nonverbal stimulations that included a 600-Hz tone, a scale, and a melody. Coherence, defined as correlated activation of magnetic steady state fields across brain areas and measured as simultaneous activation of current dipoles in source space (Minimum-Norm-Estimates, increased within left- temporal-posterior areas when the sound string was perceived as a comprehensible sentence. Intra-hemispheric coherence was larger within the left than the right hemisphere for the sentence (condition (b relative to all other conditions, and tended to be larger within the right than the left hemisphere for nonverbal stimuli (condition (c, tone and melody relative to the other conditions, leading to a more pronounced hemispheric asymmetry for nonverbal than verbal material. Conclusions We conclude that coherent neuronal network activity may index encoding of verbal information on the sentence level and can be used as a tool to investigate auditory speech comprehension.

  17. Unique Neural Characteristics of Atypical Lateralization of Language in Healthy Individuals

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    Szymon P. Biduła

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in 63 healthy participants, including left-handed and ambidextrous individuals, we tested how atypical lateralization of language—i. e., bilateral or right hemispheric language representation—differs from the typical left-hemisphere dominance. Although regardless of their handedness, all 11 participants from the atypical group engaged classical language centers, i.e., Broca's and Wernicke's areas, the right-hemisphere components of the default mode network (DMN, including the angular gyrus and middle temporal gyrus, were also critically involved during the verbal fluency task. Importantly, activity in these regions could not be explained in terms of mirroring the typical language pattern because left-hemisphere dominant individuals did not exhibit similar significant signal modulations. Moreover, when spatial extent of language-related activity across whole brain was considered, the bilateral language organization entailed more diffuse functional processing. Finally, we detected significant differences between the typical and atypical group in the resting-state connectivity at the global and local level. These findings suggest that the atypical lateralization of language has unique features, and is not a simple mirror image of the typical left hemispheric language representation.

  18. Speech and language support: How physicians can identify and treat speech and language delays in the office setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moharir, Madhavi; Barnett, Noel; Taras, Jillian; Cole, Martha; Ford-Jones, E Lee; Levin, Leo

    2014-01-01

    Failure to recognize and intervene early in speech and language delays can lead to multifaceted and potentially severe consequences for early child development and later literacy skills. While routine evaluations of speech and language during well-child visits are recommended, there is no standardized (office) approach to facilitate this. Furthermore, extensive wait times for speech and language pathology consultation represent valuable lost time for the child and family. Using speech and language expertise, and paediatric collaboration, key content for an office-based tool was developed. early and accurate identification of speech and language delays as well as children at risk for literacy challenges; appropriate referral to speech and language services when required; and teaching and, thus, empowering parents to create rich and responsive language environments at home. Using this tool, in combination with the Canadian Paediatric Society's Read, Speak, Sing and Grow Literacy Initiative, physicians will be better positioned to offer practical strategies to caregivers to enhance children's speech and language capabilities. The tool represents a strategy to evaluate speech and language delays. It depicts age-specific linguistic/phonetic milestones and suggests interventions. The tool represents a practical interim treatment while the family is waiting for formal speech and language therapy consultation.

  19. Speech and language support: How physicians can identify and treat speech and language delays in the office setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moharir, Madhavi; Barnett, Noel; Taras, Jillian; Cole, Martha; Ford-Jones, E Lee; Levin, Leo

    2014-01-01

    Failure to recognize and intervene early in speech and language delays can lead to multifaceted and potentially severe consequences for early child development and later literacy skills. While routine evaluations of speech and language during well-child visits are recommended, there is no standardized (office) approach to facilitate this. Furthermore, extensive wait times for speech and language pathology consultation represent valuable lost time for the child and family. Using speech and language expertise, and paediatric collaboration, key content for an office-based tool was developed. The tool aimed to help physicians achieve three main goals: early and accurate identification of speech and language delays as well as children at risk for literacy challenges; appropriate referral to speech and language services when required; and teaching and, thus, empowering parents to create rich and responsive language environments at home. Using this tool, in combination with the Canadian Paediatric Society’s Read, Speak, Sing and Grow Literacy Initiative, physicians will be better positioned to offer practical strategies to caregivers to enhance children’s speech and language capabilities. The tool represents a strategy to evaluate speech and language delays. It depicts age-specific linguistic/phonetic milestones and suggests interventions. The tool represents a practical interim treatment while the family is waiting for formal speech and language therapy consultation. PMID:24627648

  20. Visual hierarchical processing and lateralization of cognitive functions through domestic chicks' eyes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Chiandetti

    Full Text Available Hierarchical stimuli have proven effective for investigating principles of visual organization in humans. A large body of evidence suggests that the analysis of the global forms precedes the analysis of the local forms in our species. Studies on lateralization also indicate that analytic and holistic encoding strategies are separated between the two hemispheres of the brain. This raises the question of whether precedence effects may reflect the activation of lateralized functions within the brain. Non-human animals have perceptual organization and functional lateralization that are comparable to that of humans. Here we trained the domestic chick in a concurrent discrimination task involving hierarchical stimuli. Then, we evaluated the animals for analytic and holistic encoding strategies in a series of transformational tests by relying on a monocular occlusion technique. A local precedence emerged in both the left and the right hemisphere, adding further evidence in favour of analytic processing in non-human animals.

  1. Evidence that NMDA-dependent limbic neural plasticity in the right hemisphere mediates pharmacological stressor (FG-7142)-induced lasting increases in anxiety-like behavior: study 3--the effects on amygdala efferent physiology of block of NMDA receptors prior to injection of FG-7142 and its relationship to behavioral change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamec, R E

    1998-01-01

    The findings of this study support the hypothesis that N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors mediate the initiation of long-term potentiation (LTP) and behavioral changes induced by the anxiogenic beta-carboline, FG-7142. Unlike previous work, this study examined the effects of FG-7142 on LTP of amygdala efferents in both hemispheres. 7-amino-phosphono-heptanoic acid (AP7), a competitive NMDA receptor blocker, given prior to administration of FG-7142, prevented LTP in amygdala efferent transmission to the medial hypothalamus and periacqueductal gray (PAG). When given FG-7142 alone, cats showed lasting behavioral changes accompanied by LTP in all pathways studied. Duration of LTP, and its relationship to behavioral change, depended on the pathway and the hemisphere of the pathway. Correlation and covariance analyses indicate that LTP in the left amygdalo-ventromedial hypothalamic pathway mediates initiation, but not maintenance, of increased defensiveness. This finding replicates previous work. A new finding is that increased local excitability in the right basal amygdala (reduced threshold for evoked response), and LTP in the right amygdalo-PAG pathway, may be important for maintenance of increases in defensive behavior. Furthermore, the effects of flumazenil, a benzodiazepine receptor antagonist, on behavior and physiology single out the importance of right amygdalo-PAG LTP as a critical mediator of increased defensiveness. Flumazenil reversed the increase in defensiveness produced by FG-7142 in a drug-dependent manner as described in Adamec (1998a). Moreover, flumazenil reversed LTP only in the right amygdalo-PAG pathway. The findings of the present study suggest that response to FG-7142 may be a useful model of the effects of traumatic stressors on limbic system function in anxiety, especially in view of the recent data in humans implicating right hemispheric function in persisting negative affective states.

  2. The Hierarchical Cortical Organization of Human Speech Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Heer, Wendy A; Huth, Alexander G; Griffiths, Thomas L; Gallant, Jack L; Theunissen, Frédéric E

    2017-07-05

    Speech comprehension requires that the brain extract semantic meaning from the spectral features represented at the cochlea. To investigate this process, we performed an fMRI experiment in which five men and two women passively listened to several hours of natural narrative speech. We then used voxelwise modeling to predict BOLD responses based on three different feature spaces that represent the spectral, articulatory, and semantic properties of speech. The amount of variance explained by each feature space was then assessed using a separate validation dataset. Because some responses might be explained equally well by more than one feature space, we used a variance partitioning analysis to determine the fraction of the variance that was uniquely explained by each feature space. Consistent with previous studies, we found that speech comprehension involves hierarchical representations starting in primary auditory areas and moving laterally on the temporal lobe: spectral features are found in the core of A1, mixtures of spectral and articulatory in STG, mixtures of articulatory and semantic in STS, and semantic in STS and beyond. Our data also show that both hemispheres are equally and actively involved in speech perception and interpretation. Further, responses as early in the auditory hierarchy as in STS are more correlated with semantic than spectral representations. These results illustrate the importance of using natural speech in neurolinguistic research. Our methodology also provides an efficient way to simultaneously test multiple specific hypotheses about the representations of speech without using block designs and segmented or synthetic speech. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT To investigate the processing steps performed by the human brain to transform natural speech sound into meaningful language, we used models based on a hierarchical set of speech features to predict BOLD responses of individual voxels recorded in an fMRI experiment while subjects listened to

  3. Logopenic and nonfluent variants of primary progressive aphasia are differentiated by acoustic measures of speech production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirrie J Ballard

    Full Text Available Differentiation of logopenic (lvPPA and nonfluent/agrammatic (nfvPPA variants of Primary Progressive Aphasia is important yet remains challenging since it hinges on expert based evaluation of speech and language production. In this study acoustic measures of speech in conjunction with voxel-based morphometry were used to determine the success of the measures as an adjunct to diagnosis and to explore the neural basis of apraxia of speech in nfvPPA. Forty-one patients (21 lvPPA, 20 nfvPPA were recruited from a consecutive sample with suspected frontotemporal dementia. Patients were diagnosed using the current gold-standard of expert perceptual judgment, based on presence/absence of particular speech features during speaking tasks. Seventeen healthy age-matched adults served as controls. MRI scans were available for 11 control and 37 PPA cases; 23 of the PPA cases underwent amyloid ligand PET imaging. Measures, corresponding to perceptual features of apraxia of speech, were periods of silence during reading and relative vowel duration and intensity in polysyllable word repetition. Discriminant function analyses revealed that a measure of relative vowel duration differentiated nfvPPA cases from both control and lvPPA cases (r(2 = 0.47 with 88% agreement with expert judgment of presence of apraxia of speech in nfvPPA cases. VBM analysis showed that relative vowel duration covaried with grey matter intensity in areas critical for speech motor planning and programming: precentral gyrus, supplementary motor area and inferior frontal gyrus bilaterally, only affected in the nfvPPA group. This bilateral involvement of frontal speech networks in nfvPPA potentially affects access to compensatory mechanisms involving right hemisphere homologues. Measures of silences during reading also discriminated the PPA and control groups, but did not increase predictive accuracy. Findings suggest that a measure of relative vowel duration from of a polysyllable word

  4. Collective speech acts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijers, A.W.M.; Tsohatzidis, S.L.

    2007-01-01

    From its early development in the 1960s, speech act theory always had an individualistic orientation. It focused exclusively on speech acts performed by individual agents. Paradigmatic examples are ‘I promise that p’, ‘I order that p’, and ‘I declare that p’. There is a single speaker and a single

  5. Private Speech in Ballet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Dale

    2006-01-01

    Authoritarian teaching practices in ballet inhibit the use of private speech. This paper highlights the critical importance of private speech in the cognitive development of young ballet students, within what is largely a non-verbal art form. It draws upon research by Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky and contemporary socioculturalists, to…

  6. Free Speech Yearbook 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Peter E., Ed.

    The 11 articles in this collection deal with theoretical and practical freedom of speech issues. The topics covered are (1) the United States Supreme Court and communication theory; (2) truth, knowledge, and a democratic respect for diversity; (3) denial of freedom of speech in Jock Yablonski's campaign for the presidency of the United Mine…

  7. Illustrated Speech Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, William M.

    Written for students in the fields of speech correction and audiology, the text deals with the following: structures involved in respiration; the skeleton and the processes of inhalation and exhalation; phonation and pitch, the larynx, and esophageal speech; muscles involved in articulation; muscles involved in resonance; and the anatomy of the…

  8. Free Speech. No. 38.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Peter E., Ed.

    This issue of "Free Speech" contains the following articles: "Daniel Schoor Relieved of Reporting Duties" by Laurence Stern, "The Sellout at CBS" by Michael Harrington, "Defending Dan Schorr" by Tome Wicker, "Speech to the Washington Press Club, February 25, 1976" by Daniel Schorr, "Funds…

  9. Paving the Way for Speech: Voice-Training-Induced Plasticity in Chronic Aphasia and Apraxia of Speech—Three Single Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Jungblut

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Difficulties with temporal coordination or sequencing of speech movements are frequently reported in aphasia patients with concomitant apraxia of speech (AOS. Our major objective was to investigate the effects of specific rhythmic-melodic voice training on brain activation of those patients. Three patients with severe chronic nonfluent aphasia and AOS were included in this study. Before and after therapy, patients underwent the same fMRI procedure as 30 healthy control subjects in our prestudy, which investigated the neural substrates of sung vowel changes in untrained rhythm sequences. A main finding was that post-minus pretreatment imaging data yielded significant perilesional activations in all patients for example, in the left superior temporal gyrus, whereas the reverse subtraction revealed either no significant activation or right hemisphere activation. Likewise, pre- and posttreatment assessments of patients’ vocal rhythm production, language, and speech motor performance yielded significant improvements for all patients. Our results suggest that changes in brain activation due to the applied training might indicate specific processes of reorganization, for example, improved temporal sequencing of sublexical speech components. In this context, a training that focuses on rhythmic singing with differently demanding complexity levels as concerns motor and cognitive capabilities seems to support paving the way for speech.

  10. The lateralization of motor cortex activation to action words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf eHauk

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available What determines the laterality of activation in motor cortex for words whose meaning is related to bodily actions? It has been suggested that the neuronal representation of the meaning of action-words is shaped by individual experience. However, core language functions are left-lateralized in the majority of both right- and left-handers. It is still an open question to what degree connections between left-hemispheric core language areas and right-hemispheric motor areas can play a role in semantics. We investigated laterality of brain activation using fMRI in right- and left-handed participants in response to visually presented hand-related action-words, namely uni- and bi-manual actions (such as "throw" and "clap". These stimulus groups were matched with respect to general (hand-action-relatedness, but differed with respect to whether they are usually performed with the dominant hand or both hands. We may expect generally more left-hemispheric motor-cortex activation for hand-related words in both handedness groups, with possibly more bilateral activation for bimanual words as well as left-handers. In our study, both participant groups activated motor cortex bilaterally for bi-manual words. Interestingly, both groups also showed a left-lateralized activation pattern to uni-manual words. We argue that this reflects the effect of left-hemispheric language dominance on the formation of semantic brain circuits on the basis of Hebbian correlation learning.

  11. Musician advantage for speech-on-speech perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Başkent, Deniz; Gaudrain, Etienne

    Evidence for transfer of musical training to better perception of speech in noise has been mixed. Unlike speech-in-noise, speech-on-speech perception utilizes many of the skills that musical training improves, such as better pitch perception and stream segregation, as well as use of higher-level

  12. Speech Production and Speech Discrimination by Hearing-Impaired Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novelli-Olmstead, Tina; Ling, Daniel

    1984-01-01

    Seven hearing impaired children (five to seven years old) assigned to the Speakers group made highly significant gains in speech production and auditory discrimination of speech, while Listeners made only slight speech production gains and no gains in auditory discrimination. Combined speech and auditory training was more effective than auditory…

  13. Recognizing speech in a novel accent: the motor theory of speech perception reframed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulin-Frier, Clément; Arbib, Michael A

    2013-08-01

    The motor theory of speech perception holds that we perceive the speech of another in terms of a motor representation of that speech. However, when we have learned to recognize a foreign accent, it seems plausible that recognition of a word rarely involves reconstruction of the speech gestures of the speaker rather than the listener. To better assess the motor theory and this observation, we proceed in three stages. Part 1 places the motor theory of speech perception in a larger framework based on our earlier models of the adaptive formation of mirror neurons for grasping, and for viewing extensions of that mirror system as part of a larger system for neuro-linguistic processing, augmented by the present consideration of recognizing speech in a novel accent. Part 2 then offers a novel computational model of how a listener comes to understand the speech of someone speaking the listener's native language with a foreign accent. The core tenet of the model is that the listener uses hypotheses about the word the speaker is currently uttering to update probabilities linking the sound produced by the speaker to phonemes in the native language repertoire of the listener. This, on average, improves the recognition of later words. This model is neutral regarding the nature of the representations it uses (motor vs. auditory). It serve as a reference point for the discussion in Part 3, which proposes a dual-stream neuro-linguistic architecture to revisits claims for and against the motor theory of speech perception and the relevance of mirror neurons, and extracts some implications for the reframing of the motor theory.

  14. Sheep laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Dean M; Murray, Leigh W

    2013-01-01

    Turning preferences among 309 white-faced ewes were individually evaluated in an enclosed, artificially lit T-maze, followed by each ewe choosing either a right or left return alley to return to peers. Data recorded included time in the start box, time in the T-maze, exit arm chosen to leave the T-maze, and return alley. Right and left arms of the T-maze were chosen 65.7% and 34.3% of the time, respectively, while right and left return alleys were chosen 32.4% and 67.6%, respectively. Exit arm and return alley were not independently chosen (p laterality was not related (α =.05) to time of day the test was administered, ewe's age or genetics, most recent liveweight, or most recent shorn fleece weight. The mean time spent in the start box (21 s) was not related to exit arm (p =.947) or return alley (p =.779). Mean time (15 s) spent in the T-maze was not related to exit arm (p =.086) or return alley (p =.952). More research will be required to understand sheep turning laterality and how it can impact working facilities and research equipment.

  15. Inner Speech's Relationship With Overt Speech in Poststroke Aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Brielle C; Geva, Sharon; Warburton, Elizabeth A

    2017-09-18

    Relatively preserved inner speech alongside poor overt speech has been documented in some persons with aphasia (PWA), but the relationship of overt speech with inner speech is still largely unclear, as few studies have directly investigated these factors. The present study investigates the relationship of relatively preserved inner speech in aphasia with selected measures of language and cognition. Thirty-eight persons with chronic aphasia (27 men, 11 women; average age 64.53 ± 13.29 years, time since stroke 8-111 months) were classified as having relatively preserved inner and overt speech (n = 21), relatively preserved inner speech with poor overt speech (n = 8), or not classified due to insufficient measurements of inner and/or overt speech (n = 9). Inner speech scores (by group) were correlated with selected measures of language and cognition from the Comprehensive Aphasia Test (Swinburn, Porter, & Al, 2004). The group with poor overt speech showed a significant relationship of inner speech with overt naming (r = .95, p speech and language and cognition factors were not significant for the group with relatively good overt speech. As in previous research, we show that relatively preserved inner speech is found alongside otherwise severe production deficits in PWA. PWA with poor overt speech may rely more on preserved inner speech for overt picture naming (perhaps due to shared resources with verbal working memory) and for written picture description (perhaps due to reliance on inner speech due to perceived task difficulty). Assessments of inner speech may be useful as a standard component of aphasia screening, and therapy focused on improving and using inner speech may prove clinically worthwhile. https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.5303542.

  16. Environmental Contamination of Normal Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Trevor A.

    1990-01-01

    Environmentally contaminated speech errors (irrelevant words or phrases derived from the speaker's environment and erroneously incorporated into speech) are hypothesized to occur at a high level of speech processing, but with a relatively late insertion point. The data indicate that speech production processes are not independent of other…

  17. APPRECIATING SPEECH THROUGH GAMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario T Carreon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the Speech and Phoneme Recognition as an Educational Aid for the Deaf and Hearing Impaired (SPREAD application and the ongoing research on its deployment as a tool for motivating deaf and hearing impaired students to learn and appreciate speech. This application uses the Sphinx-4 voice recognition system to analyze the vocalization of the student and provide prompt feedback on their pronunciation. The packaging of the application as an interactive game aims to provide additional motivation for the deaf and hearing impaired student through visual motivation for them to learn and appreciate speech.

  18. Global Freedom of Speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binderup, Lars Grassme

    2007-01-01

    , as opposed to a legal norm, that curbs exercises of the right to free speech that offend the feelings or beliefs of members from other cultural groups. The paper rejects the suggestion that acceptance of such a norm is in line with liberal egalitarian thinking. Following a review of the classical liberal...... egalitarian reasons for free speech - reasons from overall welfare, from autonomy and from respect for the equality of citizens - it is argued that these reasons outweigh the proposed reasons for curbing culturally offensive speech. Currently controversial cases such as that of the Danish Cartoon Controversy...

  19. Sex-differences, Handedness, and Lateralization in the Iowa Gambling Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha eSingh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In a widely used decision-making task, the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT, male performance is observed to be superior to that of females, and is attributed to right lateralization (i.e., right hemispheric dominance. It is as yet unknown whether sex-differences in affect and motor lateralization have implications for sex-specific lateralization in the IGT, and specifically, whether sex-difference in performance in the IGT changes with right-handedness or with affect lateralization (decision valence, and valence-directed motivation. The present study (N = 320; 160 males examined the effects of right-handedness (right-handedness vs. non-right-handedness as a measure of motor lateralization, decision valence (reward vs. punishment IGT, and valence-directedness of task motivation (valence-directed vs. non-directed instructions, as measures of affective lateralization on IGT decision making. Analyses of variance revealed that both male and female participants showed valence-induced inconsistencies in advantageous decision-making; however, right-handed females made more disadvantageous decisions in a reward IGT. These results suggest that IGT decision-making may be largely right-lateralized in right-handed males, and show that sex and lateralized differences (motor and affect have implications for sex-differences in IGT decision-making. Implications of the results are discussed with reference to lateralization and sex-differences in cognition.

  20. Investigating language lateralization during phonological and semantic fluency tasks using functional transcranial Doppler sonography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Sigut, Eva; Payne, Heather; MacSweeney, Mairéad

    2015-01-01

    Although there is consensus that the left hemisphere plays a critical role in language processing, some questions remain. Here we examine the influence of overt versus covert speech production on lateralization, the relationship between lateralization and behavioural measures of language performance and the strength of lateralization across the subcomponents of language. The present study used functional transcranial Doppler sonography (fTCD) to investigate lateralization of phonological and semantic fluency during both overt and covert word generation in right-handed adults. The laterality index (LI) was left lateralized in all conditions, and there was no difference in the strength of LI between overt and covert speech. This supports the validity of using overt speech in fTCD studies, another benefit of which is a reliable measure of speech production. PMID:24875468

  1. Long-term temporal tracking of speech rate affects spoken-word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baese-Berk, Melissa M; Heffner, Christopher C; Dilley, Laura C; Pitt, Mark A; Morrill, Tuuli H; McAuley, J Devin

    2014-08-01

    Humans unconsciously track a wide array of distributional characteristics in their sensory environment. Recent research in spoken-language processing has demonstrated that the speech rate surrounding a target region within an utterance influences which words, and how many words, listeners hear later in that utterance. On the basis of hypotheses that listeners track timing information in speech over long timescales, we investigated the possibility that the perception of words is sensitive to speech rate over such a timescale (e.g., an extended conversation). Results demonstrated that listeners tracked variation in the overall pace of speech over an extended duration (analogous to that of a conversation that listeners might have outside the lab) and that this global speech rate influenced which words listeners reported hearing. The effects of speech rate became stronger over time. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that neural entrainment by speech occurs on multiple timescales, some lasting more than an hour. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Periodic lateralized epileptiform discharges can survive anesthesia and result in asymmetric drug-induced burst suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward C. Mader Jr.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Drug-induced burst suppression (DIBS is bihemispheric and bisymmetric in adults and older children. However, asymmetric DIBS may occur if a pathological process is affecting one hemisphere only or both hemispheres disproportionately. The usual suspect is a destructive lesion; an irritative or epileptogenic lesion is usually not invoked to explain DIBS asymmetry. We report the case of a 66-year-old woman with new-onset seizures who was found to have a hemorrhagic cavernoma and periodic lateralized epileptiform discharges (PLEDs in the right temporal region. After levetiracetam and before anesthetic antiepileptic drugs (AEDs were administered, the electroencephalogram (EEG showed continuous PLEDs over the right hemisphere with maximum voltage in the posterior temporal region. Focal electrographic seizures also occurred occasionally in the same location. Propofol resulted in bihemispheric, but not in bisymmetric, DIBS. Remnants or fragments of PLEDs that survived anesthesia increased the amplitude and complexity of the bursts in the right hemisphere leading to asymmetric DIBS. Phenytoin, lacosamide, ketamine, midazolam, and topiramate were administered at various times in the course of EEG monitoring, resulting in suppression of seizures but not of PLEDs. Ketamine and midazolam reduced the rate, amplitude, and complexity of PLEDs but only after producing substantial attenuation of all burst components. When all anesthetics were discontinued, the EEG reverted to the original preanesthesia pattern with continuous non-fragmented PLEDs. The fact that PLEDs can survive anesthesia and affect DIBS symmetry is a testament to the robustness of the neurodynamic processes underlying PLEDs.

  3. Charisma in business speeches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niebuhr, Oliver; Brem, Alexander; Novák-Tót, Eszter

    2016-01-01

    to business speeches. Consistent with the public opinion, our findings are indicative of Steve Jobs being a more charismatic speaker than Mark Zuckerberg. Beyond previous studies, our data suggest that rhythm and emphatic accentuation are also involved in conveying charisma. Furthermore, the differences...... between Steve Jobs and Mark Zuckerberg and the investor- and customer-related sections of their speeches support the modern understanding of charisma as a gradual, multiparametric, and context-sensitive concept....

  4. Speech spectrum envelope modeling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vích, Robert; Vondra, Martin

    Vol. 4775, - (2007), s. 129-137 ISSN 0302-9743. [COST Action 2102 International Workshop. Vietri sul Mare, 29.03.2007-31.03.2007] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1ET301710509 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : speech * speech processing * cepstral analysis Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 0.302, year: 2005

  5. Laterality of Facial Expressions of Emotion: Universal and Culture-Specific Influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manas K. Mandal

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research indicates that (a the perception and expression of facial emotion are lateralized to a great extent in the right hemisphere, and, (b whereas facial expressions of emotion embody universal signals, culture-specific learning moderates the expression and interpretation of these emotions. In the present article, we review the literature on laterality and universality, and propose that, although some components of facial expressions of emotion are governed biologically, others are culturally influenced. We suggest that the left side of the face is more expressive of emotions, is more uninhibited, and displays culture-specific emotional norms. The right side of face, on the other hand, is less susceptible to cultural display norms and exhibits more universal emotional signals.

  6. Laterality of facial expressions of emotion: Universal and culture-specific influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Manas K; Ambady, Nalini

    2004-01-01

    Recent research indicates that (a) the perception and expression of facial emotion are lateralized to a great extent in the right hemisphere, and, (b) whereas facial expressions of emotion embody universal signals, culture-specific learning moderates the expression and interpretation of these emotions. In the present article, we review the literature on laterality and universality, and propose that, although some components of facial expressions of emotion are governed biologically, others are culturally influenced. We suggest that the left side of the face is more expressive of emotions, is more uninhibited, and displays culture-specific emotional norms. The right side of face, on the other hand, is less susceptible to cultural display norms and exhibits more universal emotional signals. Copyright 2004 IOS Press

  7. Lateral organization and aesthetic preference: the importance of peripheral visual asymmetries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, J G

    1985-01-01

    The observation that right-handers prefer pictures with the important content to the right was examined. In the first experiment, subjects manipulated the two elements of the composition. They showed a bias to place the principal object to the right and, with a central principal object, the secondary object was placed to the left. In a further experiment, eye movements were recorded while subjects scanned the pictures used in the first experiment and a rightward lateral bias in gaze direction was observed. It is argued that lateral asymmetry in preferred picture arrangements is not the result of a counterbalancing of content against perceptual bias, but a consequence of gaze being directed to informative content on the right, leaving more of the secondary content within the left visual field and associated with attentional bias or processes of the right hemisphere.

  8. Memory for speech and speech for memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, J L; Kutz, K J

    1975-03-01

    Thirty kindergarteners, 15 who substituted /w/ for /r/ and 15 with correct articulation, received two perception tests and a memory test that included /w/ and /r/ in minimally contrastive syllables. Although both groups had nearly perfect perception of the experimenter's productions of /w/ and /r/, misarticulating subjects perceived their own tape-recorded w/r productions as /w/. In the memory task these same misarticulating subjects committed significantly more /w/-/r/ confusions in unspoken recall. The discussion considers why people subvocally rehearse; a developmental period in which children do not rehearse; ways subvocalization may aid recall, including motor and acoustic encoding; an echoic store that provides additional recall support if subjects rehearse vocally, and perception of self- and other- produced phonemes by misarticulating children-including its relevance to a motor theory of perception. Evidence is presented that speech for memory can be sufficiently impaired to cause memory disorder. Conceptions that restrict speech disorder to an impairment of communication are challenged.

  9. Predicting speech intelligibility in conditions with nonlinearly processed noisy speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Søren; Dau, Torsten

    2013-01-01

    The speech-based envelope power spectrum model (sEPSM; [1]) was proposed in order to overcome the limitations of the classical speech transmission index (STI) and speech intelligibility index (SII). The sEPSM applies the signal-tonoise ratio in the envelope domain (SNRenv), which was demonstrated...... to successfully predict speech intelligibility in conditions with nonlinearly processed noisy speech, such as processing with spectral subtraction. Moreover, a multiresolution version (mr-sEPSM) was demonstrated to account for speech intelligibility in various conditions with stationary and fluctuating...

  10. Automated analysis of free speech predicts psychosis onset in high-risk youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedi, Gillinder; Carrillo, Facundo; Cecchi, Guillermo A; Slezak, Diego Fernández; Sigman, Mariano; Mota, Natália B; Ribeiro, Sidarta; Javitt, Daniel C; Copelli, Mauro; Corcoran, Cheryl M

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Psychiatry lacks the objective clinical tests routinely used in other specializations. Novel computerized methods to characterize complex behaviors such as speech could be used to identify and predict psychiatric illness in individuals. AIMS: In this proof-of-principle study, our aim was to test automated speech analyses combined with Machine Learning to predict later psychosis onset in youths at clinical high-risk (CHR) for psychosis. Methods: Thirty-four CHR youths (11 females) had baseline interviews and were assessed quarterly for up to 2.5 years; five transitioned to psychosis. Using automated analysis, transcripts of interviews were evaluated for semantic and syntactic features predicting later psychosis onset. Speech features were fed into a convex hull classification algorithm with leave-one-subject-out cross-validation to assess their predictive value for psychosis outcome. The canonical correlation between the speech features and prodromal symptom ratings was computed. Results: Derived speech features included a Latent Semantic Analysis measure of semantic coherence and two syntactic markers of speech complexity: maximum phrase length and use of determiners (e.g., which). These speech features predicted later psychosis development with 100% accuracy, outperforming classification from clinical interviews. Speech features were significantly correlated with prodromal symptoms. Conclusions: Findings support the utility of automated speech analysis to measure subtle, clinically relevant mental state changes in emergent psychosis. Recent developments in computer science, including natural language processing, could provide the foundation for future development of objective clinical tests for psychiatry. PMID:27336038

  11. Music and Speech Perception in Children Using Sung Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Yingjiu; Galvin, John J; Morikawa, Michael; André, Victoria; Wheeler, Harley; Fu, Qian-Jie

    2018-01-01

    This study examined music and speech perception in normal-hearing children with some or no musical training. Thirty children (mean age = 11.3 years), 15 with and 15 without formal music training participated in the study. Music perception was measured using a melodic contour identification (MCI) task; stimuli were a piano sample or sung speech with a fixed timbre (same word for each note) or a mixed timbre (different words for each note). Speech perception was measured in quiet and in steady noise using a matrix-styled sentence recognition task; stimuli were naturally intonated speech or sung speech with a fixed pitch (same note for each word) or a mixed pitch (different notes for each word). Significant musician advantages were observed for MCI and speech in noise but not for speech in quiet. MCI performance was significantly poorer with the mixed timbre stimuli. Speech performance in noise was significantly poorer with the fixed or mixed pitch stimuli than with spoken speech. Across all subjects, age at testing and MCI performance were significantly correlated with speech performance in noise. MCI and speech performance in quiet was significantly poorer for children than for adults from a related study using the same stimuli and tasks; speech performance in noise was significantly poorer for young than for older children. Long-term music training appeared to benefit melodic pitch perception and speech understanding in noise in these pediatric listeners.

  12. Practical speech user interface design

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, James R

    2010-01-01

    Although speech is the most natural form of communication between humans, most people find using speech to communicate with machines anything but natural. Drawing from psychology, human-computer interaction, linguistics, and communication theory, Practical Speech User Interface Design provides a comprehensive yet concise survey of practical speech user interface (SUI) design. It offers practice-based and research-based guidance on how to design effective, efficient, and pleasant speech applications that people can really use. Focusing on the design of speech user interfaces for IVR application

  13. Sensitivity and reliability of language laterality assessment with a free reversed association task - a fMRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesl, Gunther; Brueckmann, Hartmut; Bruhns, Philipp; Rau, Sabine; Ilmberger, Josef; Wiesmann, Martin; Kegel, Gerd

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the sensitivity and reliability of assessing hemispheric language dominance with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) using a 'free reversed association task.' Thirty-nine healthy subjects (13 dextrals, 13 sinistrals and 13 bimanuals) underwent two repeated fMRI sessions. In the active phases sets of words were presented via headphones, and an associated target item was named. During the baseline phases a standard answer was given after listening to unintelligible stimuli. Data were preprocessed with SPM, and then laterality indices (LI) and reliability coefficients (RC) were calculated. Extensive frontal, temporal and parietal activations were found. Seventy-eight percent of the subjects showed left-hemispheric dominance, 5% showed right-hemispheric dominance, and 17% had bilateral language representations. The incidence of right-hemispheric language dominance was 4.3 times higher in a left-hander with a handedness quotient (HQ) of -90 than in a right-hander with a HQ of +90. The RC was 0.61 for combined ROIs (global network). Strong correlations were found between the two session LIs (r = 0.95 for the global network). 'Free reversed association' is a sensitive and reliable task for the determination of individual language lateralization. This suggests that the task may be used in a clinical setting. (orig.)

  14. Sensitivity and reliability of language laterality assessment with a free reversed association task - a fMRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesl, Gunther; Brueckmann, Hartmut [University of Munich, Department of Neuroradiology, Campus Grosshadern, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377, Munich (Germany); Bruhns, Philipp [University of Munich, Department of Neuroradiology, Campus Grosshadern, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377, Munich (Germany); University of Munich, Department of Psycholinguistics, Munich (Germany); Rau, Sabine; Ilmberger, Josef [University of Munich, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Munich (Germany); Wiesmann, Martin [Helios Hospitals Schwerin, Department of Radiology and Neuroradiology, Schwerin (Germany); Kegel, Gerd [University of Munich, Department of Psycholinguistics, Munich (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the sensitivity and reliability of assessing hemispheric language dominance with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) using a 'free reversed association task.' Thirty-nine healthy subjects (13 dextrals, 13 sinistrals and 13 bimanuals) underwent two repeated fMRI sessions. In the active phases sets of words were presented via headphones, and an associated target item was named. During the baseline phases a standard answer was given after listening to unintelligible stimuli. Data were preprocessed with SPM, and then laterality indices (LI) and reliability coefficients (RC) were calculated. Extensive frontal, temporal and parietal activations were found. Seventy-eight percent of the subjects showed left-hemispheric dominance, 5% showed right-hemispheric dominance, and 17% had bilateral language representations. The incidence of right-hemispheric language dominance was 4.3 times higher in a left-hander with a handedness quotient (HQ) of -90 than in a right-hander with a HQ of +90. The RC was 0.61 for combined ROIs (global network). Strong correlations were found between the two session LIs (r = 0.95 for the global network). 'Free reversed association' is a sensitive and reliable task for the determination of individual language lateralization. This suggests that the task may be used in a clinical setting. (orig.)

  15. The pathways for intelligible speech: multivariate and univariate perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, S; Kyong, J S; Rosen, S; Golestani, N; Warren, J E; McGettigan, C; Mourão-Miranda, J; Wise, R J S; Scott, S K

    2014-09-01

    An anterior pathway, concerned with extracting meaning from sound, has been identified in nonhuman primates. An analogous pathway has been suggested in humans, but controversy exists concerning the degree of lateralization and the precise location where responses to intelligible speech emerge. We have demonstrated that the left anterior superior temporal sulcus (STS) responds preferentially to intelligible speech (Scott SK, Blank CC, Rosen S, Wise RJS. 2000. Identification of a pathway for intelligible speech in the left temporal lobe. Brain. 123:2400-2406.). A functional magnetic resonance imaging study in Cerebral Cortex used equivalent stimuli and univariate and multivariate analyses to argue for the greater importance of bilateral posterior when compared with the left anterior STS in responding to intelligible speech (Okada K, Rong F, Venezia J, Matchin W, Hsieh IH, Saberi K, Serences JT,Hickok G. 2010. Hierarchical organization of human auditory cortex: evidence from acoustic invariance in the response to intelligible speech. 20: 2486-2495.). Here, we also replicate our original study, demonstrating that the left anterior STS exhibits the strongest univariate response and, in decoding using the bilateral temporal cortex, contains the most informative voxels showing an increased response to intelligible speech. In contrast, in classifications using local "searchlights" and a whole brain analysis, we find greater classification accuracy in posterior rather than anterior temporal regions. Thus, we show that the precise nature of the multivariate analysis used will emphasize different response profiles associated with complex sound to speech processing. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press.

  16. Under-resourced speech recognition based on the speech manifold

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sahraeian, R

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Conventional acoustic modeling involves estimating many parameters to effectively model feature distributions. The sparseness of speech and text data, however, degrades the reliability of the estimation process and makes speech recognition a...

  17. Look Who’s Talking NOW! Parentese Speech, Social Context, and Language Development Across Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nairán Ramírez-Esparza

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In previous studies, we found that the social interactions infants experience in their everyday lives at 11- and 14-months of age affect language ability at 24 months of age. These studies investigated relationships between the speech style (i.e., parentese speech vs. standard speech and social context [i.e., one-on-one (1:1 vs. group] of language input in infancy and later speech development (i.e., at 24 months of age, controlling for socioeconomic status (SES. Results showed that the amount of exposure to parentese speech-1:1 in infancy was related to productive vocabulary at 24 months. The general goal of the present study was to investigate changes in (1 the pattern of social interactions between caregivers and their children from infancy to childhood and (2 relationships among speech style, social context, and language learning across time. Our study sample consisted of 30 participants from the previously published infant studies, evaluated at 33 months of age. Social interactions were assessed at home using digital first-person perspective recordings of the auditory environment. We found that caregivers use less parentese speech-1:1, and more standard speech-1:1, as their children get older. Furthermore, we found that the effects of parentese speech-1:1 in infancy on later language development at 24 months persist at 33 months of age. Finally, we found that exposure to standard speech-1:1 in childhood was the only social interaction that related to concurrent word production/use. Mediation analyses showed that standard speech-1:1 in childhood fully mediated the effects of parentese speech-1:1 in infancy on language development in childhood, controlling for SES. This study demonstrates that engaging in one-on-one interactions in infancy and later in life has important implications for language development.

  18. Intelligibility of speech of children with speech and sound disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Ivetac, Tina

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine speech intelligibility of children with primary speech and sound disorders aged 3 to 6 years in everyday life. The research problem is based on the degree to which parents or guardians, immediate family members (sister, brother, grandparents), extended family members (aunt, uncle, cousin), child's friends, other acquaintances, child's teachers and strangers understand the speech of children with speech sound disorders. We examined whether the level ...

  19. Robust Speech/Non-Speech Classification in Heterogeneous Multimedia Content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijbregts, M.A.H.; de Jong, Franciska M.G.

    In this paper we present a speech/non-speech classification method that allows high quality classification without the need to know in advance what kinds of audible non-speech events are present in an audio recording and that does not require a single parameter to be tuned on in-domain data. Because

  20. Tackling the complexity in speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    section includes four carefully selected chapters. They deal with facets of speech production, speech acoustics, and/or speech perception or recognition, place them in an integrated phonetic-phonological perspective, and relate them in more or less explicit ways to aspects of speech technology. Therefore......, we hope that this volume can help speech scientists with traditional training in phonetics and phonology to keep up with the latest developments in speech technology. In the opposite direction, speech researchers starting from a technological perspective will hopefully get inspired by reading about...... the questions, phenomena, and communicative functions that are currently addressed in phonetics and phonology. Either way, the future of speech research lies in international, interdisciplinary collaborations, and our volume is meant to reflect and facilitate such collaborations...

  1. Innovative Speech Reconstructive Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Hashem Shemshadi

    2003-01-01

    Proper speech functioning in human being, depends on the precise coordination and timing balances in a series of complex neuro nuscular movements and actions. Starting from the prime organ of energy source of expelled air from respirato y system; deliver such air to trigger vocal cords; swift changes of this phonatory episode to a comprehensible sound in RESONACE and final coordination of all head and neck structures to elicit final speech in ...

  2. The chairman's speech

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    The paper contains a transcript of a speech by the chairman of the UKAEA, to mark the publication of the 1985/6 annual report. The topics discussed in the speech include: the Chernobyl accident and its effect on public attitudes to nuclear power, management and disposal of radioactive waste, the operation of UKAEA as a trading fund, and the UKAEA development programmes. The development programmes include work on the following: fast reactor technology, thermal reactors, reactor safety, health and safety aspects of water cooled reactors, the Joint European Torus, and under-lying research. (U.K.)

  3. Inhibitory control is not lateralized in Parkinson's patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabella, G; Fragola, M; Giannini, G; Modugno, N; Lakens, Daniel

    2017-07-28

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is often characterized by asymmetrical symptoms, which are more prominent on the side of the body contralateral to the most extensively affected brain hemisphere. Therefore, lateralized PD presents an opportunity to examine the effects of asymmetric subcortical dopamine deficiencies on cognitive functioning. As it has been hypothesized that inhibitory control relies upon a right-lateralized pathway, we tested whether left-dominant PD (LPD) patients suffered from a more severe deficit in this key executive function than right-dominant PD patients (RPD). To this end, via a countermanding task, we assessed both proactive and reactive inhibition in 20 LPD and 20 RPD patients, and in 20 age-matched healthy subjects. As expected, we found that PD patients were significantly more impaired in both forms of inhibitory control than healthy subjects. However, there were no differences either in reactive or proactive inhibition between LPD and RPD patients. All in all, these data support the idea that brain regions affected by PD play a fundamental role in subserving inhibitory function, but do not sustain the hypothesis according to which this executive function is predominantly or solely computed by the brain regions of the right hemisphere. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Laterality of pain: modulation by placebo and participants' paranormal belief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemenz, Caroline; Regard, Marianne; Brugger, Peter; Emch, Oliver

    2009-09-01

    To investigate the effects of placebo and paranormal belief on the laterality of pain perception. The right hemisphere is dominantly involved in both the mediation of pain sensation and the belief in paranormal phenomena. We set out to assess a possible influence of long-term belief systems on placebo analgesia in response to unilateral nociceptive stimuli. Forty healthy participants (20 high and 20 low believers as indexed by the Magical Ideation Scale) underwent a placebo analgesia study measuring stimulus detection, pain threshold, and pain tolerance by electrostimulation on the right and left hand. Placebo treatment consisted of the application of a sham cream on the hands. Placebo had a positive influence on pain perception in the 3 variables. Enhanced pain sensitivity for the left side was only found for the disbelievers. Placebo treatment resulted in a double dissociation: in believers, it increased tolerance exclusively on the left side, in disbelievers on the right side. Our results confirm laterality effects in pain perception. However, only disbelievers conformed to the expected higher left-sided sensitivity. Placebo effects were dissociated between believers and disbelievers suggesting that short-term reactions to a placebo are modulated by a person's long-term belief system.

  5. Visualizing structures of speech expressiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbelin, Bruno; Jensen, Karl Kristoffer; Graugaard, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Speech is both beautiful and informative. In this work, a conceptual study of the speech, through investigation of the tower of Babel, the archetypal phonemes, and a study of the reasons of uses of language is undertaken in order to create an artistic work investigating the nature of speech. The ....... The artwork is presented at the Re:New festival in May 2008....

  6. Language and motor speech skills in children with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pirila, Sija; van der Meere, Jaap; Pentikainen, Taina; Ruusu-Niemi, Pirjo; Korpela, Raija; Kilpinen, Jenni; Nieminen, Pirkko; Ruusu-Niemin, P; Kilpinen, R

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate associations between the severity of motor limitations, cognitive difficulties, language and motor speech problems in children with cerebral palsy. Also, the predictive power of neonatal cranial ultrasound findings on later outcome was investigated. For this

  7. Group Insight Versus Group Desensitization in Treating Speech Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meichenbaum, Donald H.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    Results of this study indicated that the insight group was as effective as the desensitization group in significantly reducing speech anxiety over control group levels as assessed by behavioral, cognitive, and self-report measures given immediately after posttreatment and later at a three-month follow-up. (Author)

  8. Beyond production: Brain responses during speech perception in adults who stutter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tali Halag-Milo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Developmental stuttering is a speech disorder that disrupts the ability to produce speech fluently. While stuttering is typically diagnosed based on one's behavior during speech production, some models suggest that it involves more central representations of language, and thus may affect language perception as well. Here we tested the hypothesis that developmental stuttering implicates neural systems involved in language perception, in a task that manipulates comprehensibility without an overt speech production component. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD signals in adults who do and do not stutter, while they were engaged in an incidental speech perception task. We found that speech perception evokes stronger activation in adults who stutter (AWS compared to controls, specifically in the right inferior frontal gyrus (RIFG and in left Heschl's gyrus (LHG. Significant differences were additionally found in the lateralization of response in the inferior frontal cortex: AWS showed bilateral inferior frontal activity, while controls showed a left lateralized pattern of activation. These findings suggest that developmental stuttering is associated with an imbalanced neural network for speech processing, which is not limited to speech production, but also affects cortical responses during speech perception.

  9. Characterizing a neurodegenerative syndrome: primary progressive apraxia of speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephs, Keith A; Duffy, Joseph R; Strand, Edythe A; Machulda, Mary M; Senjem, Matthew L; Master, Ankit V; Lowe, Val J; Jack, Clifford R; Whitwell, Jennifer L

    2012-05-01

    Apraxia of speech is a disorder of speech motor planning and/or programming that is distinguishable from aphasia and dysarthria. It most commonly results from vascular insults but can occur in degenerative diseases where it has typically been subsumed under aphasia, or it occurs in the context of more widespread neurodegeneration. The aim of this study was to determine whether apraxia of speech can present as an isolated sign of neurodegenerative disease. Between July 2010 and July 2011, 37 subjects with a neurodegenerative speech and language disorder were prospectively recruited and underwent detailed speech and language, neurological, neuropsychological and neuroimaging testing. The neuroimaging battery included 3.0 tesla volumetric head magnetic resonance imaging, [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose and [(11)C] Pittsburg compound B positron emission tomography scanning. Twelve subjects were identified as having apraxia of speech without any signs of aphasia based on a comprehensive battery of language tests; hence, none met criteria for primary progressive aphasia. These subjects with primary progressive apraxia of speech included eight females and four males, with a mean age of onset of 73 years (range: 49-82). There were no specific additional shared patterns of neurological or neuropsychological impairment in the subjects with primary progressive apraxia of speech, but there was individual variability. Some subjects, for example, had mild features of behavioural change, executive dysfunction, limb apraxia or Parkinsonism. Voxel-based morphometry of grey matter revealed focal atrophy of superior lateral premotor cortex and supplementary motor area. Voxel-based morphometry of white matter showed volume loss in these same regions but with extension of loss involving the inferior premotor cortex and body of the corpus callosum. These same areas of white matter loss were observed with diffusion tensor imaging analysis, which also demonstrated reduced fractional anisotropy

  10. Workshop: Welcoming speech

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lummerzheim, D.

    1994-01-01

    The welcoming speech underlines the fact that any validation process starting with calculation methods and ending with studies on the long-term behaviour of a repository system can only be effected through laboratory, field and natural-analogue studies. The use of natural analogues (NA) is to secure the biosphere and to verify whether this safety really exists. (HP) [de

  11. Hearing speech in music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekström, Seth-Reino; Borg, Erik

    2011-01-01

    The masking effect of a piano composition, played at different speeds and in different octaves, on speech-perception thresholds was investigated in 15 normal-hearing and 14 moderately-hearing-impaired subjects. Running speech (just follow conversation, JFC) testing and use of hearing aids increased the everyday validity of the findings. A comparison was made with standard audiometric noises [International Collegium of Rehabilitative Audiology (ICRA) noise and speech spectrum-filtered noise (SPN)]. All masking sounds, music or noise, were presented at the same equivalent sound level (50 dBA). The results showed a significant effect of piano performance speed and octave (Ptempo had the largest effect; and high octave and slow tempo, the smallest. Music had a lower masking effect than did ICRA noise with two or six speakers at normal vocal effort (Pmusic offers an interesting opportunity for studying masking under realistic conditions, where spectral and temporal features can be varied independently. The results have implications for composing music with vocal parts, designing acoustic environments and creating a balance between speech perception and privacy in social settings.

  12. Hearing speech in music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth-Reino Ekström

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The masking effect of a piano composition, played at different speeds and in different octaves, on speech-perception thresholds was investigated in 15 normal-hearing and 14 moderately-hearing-impaired subjects. Running speech (just follow conversation, JFC testing and use of hearing aids increased the everyday validity of the findings. A comparison was made with standard audiometric noises [International Collegium of Rehabilitative Audiology (ICRA noise and speech spectrum-filtered noise (SPN]. All masking sounds, music or noise, were presented at the same equivalent sound level (50 dBA. The results showed a significant effect of piano performance speed and octave (P<.01. Low octave and fast tempo had the largest effect; and high octave and slow tempo, the smallest. Music had a lower masking effect than did ICRA noise with two or six speakers at normal vocal effort (P<.01 and SPN (P<.05. Subjects with hearing loss had higher masked thresholds than the normal-hearing subjects (P<.01, but there were smaller differences between masking conditions (P<.01. It is pointed out that music offers an interesting opportunity for studying masking under realistic conditions, where spectral and temporal features can be varied independently. The results have implications for composing music with vocal parts, designing acoustic environments and creating a balance between speech perception and privacy in social settings.

  13. Free Speech Yearbook 1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Peter E., Ed.

    The seven articles in this collection deal with theoretical and practical freedom of speech issues. Topics covered are: the United States Supreme Court, motion picture censorship, and the color line; judicial decision making; the established scientific community's suppression of the ideas of Immanuel Velikovsky; the problems of avant-garde jazz,…

  14. Gaussian mixture modeling of hemispheric lateralization for language in a large sample of healthy individuals balanced for handedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazoyer, Bernard; Zago, Laure; Jobard, Gaël; Crivello, Fabrice; Joliot, Marc; Perchey, Guy; Mellet, Emmanuel; Petit, Laurent; Tzourio-Mazoyer, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    Hemispheric lateralization for language production and its relationships with manual preference and manual preference strength were studied in a sample of 297 subjects, including 153 left-handers (LH). A hemispheric functional lateralization index (HFLI) for language was derived from fMRI acquired during a covert sentence generation task as compared with a covert word list recitation. The multimodal HFLI distribution was optimally modeled using a mixture of 3 and 4 Gaussian functions in right-handers (RH) and LH, respectively. Gaussian function parameters helped to define 3 types of language hemispheric lateralization, namely "Typical" (left hemisphere dominance with clear positive HFLI values, 88% of RH, 78% of LH), "Ambilateral" (no dominant hemisphere with HFLI values close to 0, 12% of RH, 15% of LH) and "Strongly-atypical" (right-hemisphere dominance with clear negative HFLI values, 7% of LH). Concordance between dominant hemispheres for hand and for language did not exceed chance level, and most of the association between handedness and language lateralization was explained by the fact that all Strongly-atypical individuals were left-handed. Similarly, most of the relationship between language lateralization and manual preference strength was explained by the fact that Strongly-atypical individuals exhibited a strong preference for their left hand. These results indicate that concordance of hemispheric dominance for hand and for language occurs barely above the chance level, except in a group of rare individuals (less than 1% in the general population) who exhibit strong right hemisphere dominance for both language and their preferred hand. They call for a revisit of models hypothesizing common determinants for handedness and for language dominance.

  15. Gaussian mixture modeling of hemispheric lateralization for language in a large sample of healthy individuals balanced for handedness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Mazoyer

    Full Text Available Hemispheric lateralization for language production and its relationships with manual preference and manual preference strength were studied in a sample of 297 subjects, including 153 left-handers (LH. A hemispheric functional lateralization index (HFLI for language was derived from fMRI acquired during a covert sentence generation task as compared with a covert word list recitation. The multimodal HFLI distribution was optimally modeled using a mixture of 3 and 4 Gaussian functions in right-handers (RH and LH, respectively. Gaussian function parameters helped to define 3 types of language hemispheric lateralization, namely "Typical" (left hemisphere dominance with clear positive HFLI values, 88% of RH, 78% of LH, "Ambilateral" (no dominant hemisphere with HFLI values close to 0, 12% of RH, 15% of LH and "Strongly-atypical" (right-hemisphere dominance with clear negative HFLI values, 7% of LH. Concordance between dominant hemispheres for hand and for language did not exceed chance level, and most of the association between handedness and language lateralization was explained by the fact that all Strongly-atypical individuals were left-handed. Similarly, most of the relationship between language lateralization and manual preference strength was explained by the fact that Strongly-atypical individuals exhibited a strong preference for their left hand. These results indicate that concordance of hemispheric dominance for hand and for language occurs barely above the chance level, except in a group of rare individuals (less than 1% in the general population who exhibit strong right hemisphere dominance for both language and their preferred hand. They call for a revisit of models hypothesizing common determinants for handedness and for language dominance.

  16. Nobel peace speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua FRYE

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Nobel Peace Prize has long been considered the premier peace prize in the world. According to Geir Lundestad, Secretary of the Nobel Committee, of the 300 some peace prizes awarded worldwide, “none is in any way as well known and as highly respected as the Nobel Peace Prize” (Lundestad, 2001. Nobel peace speech is a unique and significant international site of public discourse committed to articulating the universal grammar of peace. Spanning over 100 years of sociopolitical history on the world stage, Nobel Peace Laureates richly represent an important cross-section of domestic and international issues increasingly germane to many publics. Communication scholars’ interest in this rhetorical genre has increased in the past decade. Yet, the norm has been to analyze a single speech artifact from a prestigious or controversial winner rather than examine the collection of speeches for generic commonalities of import. In this essay, we analyze the discourse of Nobel peace speech inductively and argue that the organizing principle of the Nobel peace speech genre is the repetitive form of normative liberal principles and values that function as rhetorical topoi. These topoi include freedom and justice and appeal to the inviolable, inborn right of human beings to exercise certain political and civil liberties and the expectation of equality of protection from totalitarian and tyrannical abuses. The significance of this essay to contemporary communication theory is to expand our theoretical understanding of rhetoric’s role in the maintenance and development of an international and cross-cultural vocabulary for the grammar of peace.

  17. Metaheuristic applications to speech enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    Kunche, Prajna

    2016-01-01

    This book serves as a basic reference for those interested in the application of metaheuristics to speech enhancement. The major goal of the book is to explain the basic concepts of optimization methods and their use in heuristic optimization in speech enhancement to scientists, practicing engineers, and academic researchers in speech processing. The authors discuss why it has been a challenging problem for researchers to develop new enhancement algorithms that aid in the quality and intelligibility of degraded speech. They present powerful optimization methods to speech enhancement that can help to solve the noise reduction problems. Readers will be able to understand the fundamentals of speech processing as well as the optimization techniques, how the speech enhancement algorithms are implemented by utilizing optimization methods, and will be given the tools to develop new algorithms. The authors also provide a comprehensive literature survey regarding the topic.

  18. Lateralized direct and indirect semantic priming effects in subjects with paranormal experiences and beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzagalli, D; Lehmann, D; Brugger, P

    2001-01-01

    The present investigation tested the hypothesis that, as an aspect of schizotypal thinking, the formation of paranormal beliefs was related to spreading activation characteristics within semantic networks. From a larger student population (n = 117) prescreened for paranormal belief, 12 strong believers and 12 strong disbelievers (all women) were invited for a lateralized semantic priming task with directly and indirectly related prime-target pairs. Believers showed stronger indirect (but not direct) semantic priming effects than disbelievers after left (but not right) visual field stimulation, indicating faster appreciation of distant semantic relations specifically by the right hemisphere, reportedly specialized in coarse rather than focused semantic processing. These results are discussed in the light of recent findings in schizophrenic patients with thought disorders. They suggest that a disinhibition with semantic networks may underlie the formation of paranormal belief. The potential usefulness of work with healthy subjects for neuropsychiatric research is stressed. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

  19. On the Relationship between Brain Laterality and Language Proficiency in L2: A Replication Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima Shakouri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper attempted to investigate whether there is any significant relationship between participants' brain laterality and L2 proficiency level. To carry out the experiment, 30 participants administered in the present study. Fifteen of them did not have any English language learning experience and were at the start of language learning, while the rest had attended L2 learning classes for about 2 years in a popular English language center, located in Bandar-e Anzali, Iran. Finally, the researchers concluded that the activity of the right hemisphere went up by the increase in language proficiency among bilinguals. Thereupon, the result of the paper was at variance with Albert and Obler's (1978 early work on hemispheric differentiation, which indicated that bilinguals were less hemispheric dominant than monolinguals.

  20. Speech pattern improvement following gingivectomy of excess palatal tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzclaw, Dan; Toscano, Nicholas

    2008-10-01

    Speech disruption secondary to excessive gingival tissue has received scant attention in periodontal literature. Although a few articles have addressed the causes of this condition, documentation and scientific explanation of treatment outcomes are virtually non-existent. This case report describes speech pattern improvements secondary to periodontal surgery and provides a concise review of linguistic and phonetic literature pertinent to the case. A 21-year-old white female with a history of gingival abscesses secondary to excessive palatal tissue presented for treatment. Bilateral gingivectomies of palatal tissues were performed with inverse bevel incisions extending distally from teeth #5 and #12 to the maxillary tuberosities, and large wedges of epithelium/connective tissue were excised. Within the first month of the surgery, the patient noted "changes in the manner in which her tongue contacted the roof of her mouth" and "changes in her speech." Further anecdotal investigation revealed the patient's enunciation of sounds such as "s," "sh," and "k" was greatly improved following the gingivectomy procedure. Palatometric research clearly demonstrates that the tongue has intimate contact with the lateral aspects of the posterior palate during speech. Gingival excess in this and other palatal locations has the potential to alter linguopalatal contact patterns and disrupt normal speech patterns. Surgical correction of this condition via excisional procedures may improve linguopalatal contact patterns which, in turn, may lead to improved patient speech.

  1. Theory of mind performance in Parkinson's disease is associated with motor and cognitive functions, but not with symptom lateralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobis, Lisa; Schindlbeck, Katharina; Ehlen, Felicitas; Tiedt, Hannes; Rewitzer, Charlotte; Duits, Annelien A; Klostermann, Fabian

    2017-09-01

    Next to the typical motor signs, Parkinson's disease (PD) goes along with neuropsychiatric symptoms, amongst others affecting social cognition. Particularly, Theory of Mind (ToM) impairments have mostly been associated with right hemispherical brain dysfunction, so that it might prevail in patients with left dominant PD. Fourty-four PD patients, twenty-four with left and twenty with right dominant motor symptoms, engaged in the Reading the Mind in the Eyes (RME) and the Faux Pas Detection Test (FPD) to assess affective and cognitive ToM. The results were correlated with performance in further cognitive tests, and analyzed with respect to associations with the side of motor symptom dominance and severity of motor symptoms. No association of ToM performance with right hemispheric dysfunction was found. RME results were inversely correlated with motor symptom severity, while FPD performance was found to correlate with the performance in verbal fluency tasks and the overall cognitive evaluation. Affective ToM was found associated with motor symptom severity and cognitive ToM predominantly with executive function, but no effect of PD lateralization on this was identified. The results suggest that deficits in social cognition occur as a sequel of the general corticobasal pathology in PD, rather than as a result of hemisphere-specific dysfunction.

  2. Hemispheric lateralization in top-down attention during spatial relation processing: a Granger causal model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falasca, N W; D'Ascenzo, S; Di Domenico, A; Onofrj, M; Tommasi, L; Laeng, B; Franciotti, R

    2015-04-01

    Magnetoencephalography was recorded during a matching-to-sample plus cueing paradigm, in which participants judged the occurrence of changes in either categorical (CAT) or coordinate (COO) spatial relations. Previously, parietal and frontal lobes were identified as key areas in processing spatial relations and it was shown that each hemisphere was differently involved and modulated by the scope of the attention window (e.g. a large and small cue). In this study, Granger analysis highlighted the patterns of causality among involved brain areas--the direction of information transfer ran from the frontal to the visual cortex in the right hemisphere, whereas it ran in the opposite direction in the left side. Thus, the right frontal area seems to exert top-down influence, supporting the idea that, in this task, top-down signals are selectively related to the right side. Additionally, for CAT change preceded by a small cue, the right frontal gyrus was not involved in the information transfer, indicating a selective specialization of the left hemisphere for this condition. The present findings strengthen the conclusion of the presence of a remarkable hemispheric specialization for spatial relation processing and illustrate the complex interactions between the lateralized parts of the neural network. Moreover, they illustrate how focusing attention over large or small regions of the visual field engages these lateralized networks differently, particularly in the frontal regions of each hemisphere, consistent with the theory that spatial relation judgements require a fronto-parietal network in the left hemisphere for categorical relations and on the right hemisphere for coordinate spatial processing. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Speech Motor Control in Fluent and Dysfluent Speech Production of an Individual with Apraxia of Speech and Broca's Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lieshout, Pascal H. H. M.; Bose, Arpita; Square, Paula A.; Steele, Catriona M.

    2007-01-01

    Apraxia of speech (AOS) is typically described as a motor-speech disorder with clinically well-defined symptoms, but without a clear understanding of the underlying problems in motor control. A number of studies have compared the speech of subjects with AOS to the fluent speech of controls, but only a few have included speech movement data and if…

  4. Speaking with a mirror: engagement of mirror neurons via choral speech and its derivatives induces stuttering inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinowski, Joseph; Saltuklaroglu, Tim

    2003-04-01

    'Choral speech', 'unison speech', or 'imitation speech' has long been known to immediately induce reflexive, spontaneous, and natural sounding fluency, even the most severe cases of stuttering. Unlike typical post-therapeutic speech, a hallmark characteristic of choral speech is the sense of 'invulnerability' to stuttering, regardless of phonetic context, situational environment, or audience size. We suggest that choral speech immediately inhibits stuttering by engaging mirror systems of neurons, innate primitive neuronal substrates that dominate the initial phases of language development due to their predisposition to reflexively imitate gestural action sequences in a fluent manner. Since mirror systems are primordial in nature, they take precedence over the much later developing stuttering pathology. We suggest that stuttering may best be ameliorated by reengaging mirror neurons via choral speech or one of its derivatives (using digital signal processing technology) to provide gestural mirrors, that are nature's way of immediately overriding the central stuttering block. Copyright 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  5. Predicting automatic speech recognition performance over communication channels from instrumental speech quality and intelligibility scores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallardo, L.F.; Möller, S.; Beerends, J.

    2017-01-01

    The performance of automatic speech recognition based on coded-decoded speech heavily depends on the quality of the transmitted signals, determined by channel impairments. This paper examines relationships between speech recognition performance and measurements of speech quality and intelligibility

  6. Segmentation cues in conversational speech: Robust semantics and fragile phonotactics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence eWhite

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Multiple cues influence listeners’ segmentation of connected speech into words, but most previous studies have used stimuli elicited in careful readings rather than natural conversation. Discerning word boundaries in conversational speech may differ from the laboratory setting. In particular, a speaker’s articulatory effort – hyperarticulation vs hypoarticulation (H&H – may vary according to communicative demands, suggesting a compensatory relationship whereby acoustic-phonetic cues are attenuated when other information sources strongly guide segmentation. We examined how listeners’ interpretation of segmentation cues is affected by speech style (spontaneous conversation vs read, using cross-modal identity priming. To elicit spontaneous stimuli, we used a map task in which speakers discussed routes around stylised landmarks. These landmarks were two-word phrases in which the strength of potential segmentation cues – semantic likelihood and cross-boundary diphone phonotactics – was systematically varied. Landmark-carrying utterances were transcribed and later re-recorded as read speech.Independent of speech style, we found an interaction between cue valence (favourable/unfavourable and cue type (phonotactics/semantics. Thus, there was an effect of semantic plausibility, but no effect of cross-boundary phonotactics, indicating that the importance of phonotactic segmentation may have been overstated in studies where lexical information was artificially suppressed. These patterns were unaffected by whether the stimuli were elicited in a spontaneous or read context, even though the difference in speech styles was evident in a main effect. Durational analyses suggested speaker-driven cue trade-offs congruent with an H&H account, but these modulations did not impact on listener behaviour. We conclude that previous research exploiting read speech is reliable in indicating the primacy of lexically-based cues in the segmentation of natural

  7. Two distinct forms of functional lateralization in the human brain

    OpenAIRE

    Gotts, Stephen J.; Jo, Hang Joon; Wallace, Gregory L.; Saad, Ziad S.; Cox, Robert W.; Martin, Alex

    2013-01-01

    This study alters our fundamental understanding of the functional interactions between the cerebral hemispheres of the human brain by establishing that the left and right hemispheres have qualitatively different biases in how they dynamically interact with one another. Left-hemisphere regions are biased to interact more strongly within the same hemisphere, whereas right-hemisphere regions interact more strongly with both hemispheres. These two different patterns of interaction are associated ...

  8. Speech is Golden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel Henrichsen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    on the supply side. The present article reports on a new public action strategy which has taken shape in the course of 2013-14. While Denmark is a small language area, our public sector is well organised and has considerable purchasing power. Across this past year, Danish local authorities have organised around......Most of the Danish municipalities are ready to begin to adopt automatic speech recognition, but at the same time remain nervous following a long series of bad business cases in the recent past. Complaints are voiced over costly licences and low service levels, typical effects of a de facto monopoly...... the speech technology challenge, they have formulated a number of joint questions and new requirements to be met by suppliers and have deliberately worked towards formulating tendering material which will allow fair competition. Public researchers have contributed to this work, including the author...

  9. Multilevel Analysis in Analyzing Speech Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guddattu, Vasudeva; Krishna, Y.

    2011-01-01

    The speech produced by human vocal tract is a complex acoustic signal, with diverse applications in phonetics, speech synthesis, automatic speech recognition, speaker identification, communication aids, speech pathology, speech perception, machine translation, hearing research, rehabilitation and assessment of communication disorders and many…

  10. Speech-Language Therapy (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Speech-Language Therapy KidsHealth / For Parents / Speech-Language Therapy ... most kids with speech and/or language disorders. Speech Disorders, Language Disorders, and Feeding Disorders A speech ...

  11. Function Lateralization via Measuring Coherence Laterality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ze; Mechanic-Hamilton, Dawn; Pluta, John; Glynn, Simon; Detre, John A.

    2009-01-01

    A data-driven approach for lateralization of brain function based on the spatial coherence difference of functional MRI (fMRI) data in homologous regions-of-interest (ROI) in each hemisphere is proposed. The utility of using coherence laterality (CL) to determine function laterality was assessed first by examining motor laterality using normal subjects’ data acquired both at rest and with a simple unilateral motor task and subsequently by examining mesial temporal lobe memory laterality in normal subjects and patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. The motor task was used to demonstrate that CL within motor ROI correctly lateralized functional stimulation. In patients with unilateral epilepsy studied during a scene-encoding task, CL in a hippocampus-parahippocampus-fusiform (HPF) ROI was concordant with lateralization based on task activation, and the CL index (CLI) significantly differentiated the right side group to the left side group. By contrast, normal controls showed a symmetric HPF CLI distribution. Additionally, similar memory laterality prediction results were still observed using CL in epilepsy patients with unilateral seizures after the memory encoding effect was removed from the data, suggesting the potential for lateralization of pathological brain function based on resting fMRI data. A better lateralization was further achieved via a combination of the proposed approach and the standard activation based approach, demonstrating that assessment of spatial coherence changes provides a complementary approach to quantifying task-correlated activity for lateralizing brain function. PMID:19345736

  12. Ultra-fast speech comprehension in blind subjects engages primary visual cortex, fusiform gyrus, and pulvinar – a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Individuals suffering from vision loss of a peripheral origin may learn to understand spoken language at a rate of up to about 22 syllables (syl) per second - exceeding by far the maximum performance level of normal-sighted listeners (ca. 8 syl/s). To further elucidate the brain mechanisms underlying this extraordinary skill, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed in blind subjects of varying ultra-fast speech comprehension capabilities and sighted individuals while listening to sentence utterances of a moderately fast (8 syl/s) or ultra-fast (16 syl/s) syllabic rate. Results Besides left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), bilateral posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) and left supplementary motor area (SMA), blind people highly proficient in ultra-fast speech perception showed significant hemodynamic activation of right-hemispheric primary visual cortex (V1), contralateral fusiform gyrus (FG), and bilateral pulvinar (Pv). Conclusions Presumably, FG supports the left-hemispheric perisylvian “language network”, i.e., IFG and superior temporal lobe, during the (segmental) sequencing of verbal utterances whereas the collaboration of bilateral pulvinar, right auditory cortex, and ipsilateral V1 implements a signal-driven timing mechanism related to syllabic (suprasegmental) modulation of the speech signal. These data structures, conveyed via left SMA to the perisylvian “language zones”, might facilitate – under time-critical conditions – the consolidation of linguistic information at the level of verbal working memory. PMID:23879896

  13. Singing can improve speech function in aphasics associated with intact right basal ganglia and preserve right temporal glucose metabolism: Implications for singing therapy indication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanuma, Kyoko; Meguro, Kenichi; Satoh, Masayuki; Tashiro, Manabu; Itoh, Masatoshi

    2016-01-01

    Clinically, we know that some aphasic patients can sing well despite their speech disturbances. Herein, we report 10 patients with non-fluent aphasia, of which half of the patients improved their speech function after singing training. We studied ten patients with non-fluent aphasia complaining of difficulty finding words. All had lesions in the left basal ganglia or temporal lobe. They selected the melodies they knew well, but which they could not sing. We made a new lyric with a familiar melody using words they could not name. The singing training using these new lyrics was performed for 30 minutes once a week for 10 weeks. Before and after the training, their speech functions were assessed by language tests. At baseline, 6 of them received positron emission tomography to evaluate glucose metabolism. Five patients exhibited improvements after intervention; all but one exhibited intact right basal ganglia and left temporal lobes, but all exhibited left basal ganglia lesions. Among them, three subjects exhibited preserved glucose metabolism in the right temporal lobe. We considered that patients who exhibit intact right basal ganglia and left temporal lobes, together with preserved right hemispheric glucose metabolism, might be an indication of the effectiveness of singing therapy.

  14. Born criminal? Differences in structural, functional and behavioural lateralization between criminals and noncriminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savopoulos, Priscilla; Lindell, Annukka K

    2018-02-15

    Over 100 years ago Lombroso [(1876/2006). Criminal man. Durham: Duke University Press] proposed a biological basis for criminality. Based on inspection of criminals' skulls he theorized that an imbalance of the cerebral hemispheres was amongst 18 distinguishing features of the criminal brain. Specifically, criminals were less lateralized than noncriminals. As the advent of neuroscientific techniques makes more fine-grained inspection of differences in brain structure and function possible, we review criminals' and noncriminals' structural, functional, and behavioural lateralization to evaluate the merits of Lombroso's thesis and investigate the evidence for the biological underpinning of criminal behaviour. Although the body of research is presently small, it appears consistent with Lombroso's proposal: criminal psychopaths' brains show atypical structural asymmetries, with reduced right hemisphere grey and white matter volumes, and abnormal interhemispheric connectivity. Functional asymmetries are also atypical, with criminal psychopaths showing a less lateralized cortical response than noncriminals across verbal, visuo-spatial, and emotional tasks. Finally, the incidence of non-right-handedness is higher in criminal than non-criminal populations, consistent with reduced cortical lateralization. Thus despite Lombroso's comparatively primitive and inferential research methods, his conclusion that criminals' lateralization differs from that of noncriminals is borne out by the neuroscientific research. How atypical cortical asymmetries predispose criminal behaviour remains to be determined.

  15. Handedness is related to neural mechanisms underlying hemispheric lateralization of face processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frässle, Stefan; Krach, Sören; Paulus, Frieder Michel; Jansen, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    While the right-hemispheric lateralization of the face perception network is well established, recent evidence suggests that handedness affects the cerebral lateralization of face processing at the hierarchical level of the fusiform face area (FFA). However, the neural mechanisms underlying differential hemispheric lateralization of face perception in right- and left-handers are largely unknown. Using dynamic causal modeling (DCM) for fMRI, we aimed to unravel the putative processes that mediate handedness-related differences by investigating the effective connectivity in the bilateral core face perception network. Our results reveal an enhanced recruitment of the left FFA in left-handers compared to right-handers, as evidenced by more pronounced face-specific modulatory influences on both intra- and interhemispheric connections. As structural and physiological correlates of handedness-related differences in face processing, right- and left-handers varied with regard to their gray matter volume in the left fusiform gyrus and their pupil responses to face stimuli. Overall, these results describe how handedness is related to the lateralization of the core face perception network, and point to different neural mechanisms underlying face processing in right- and left-handers. In a wider context, this demonstrates the entanglement of structurally and functionally remote brain networks, suggesting a broader underlying process regulating brain lateralization.

  16. Speech endpoint detection with non-language speech sounds for generic speech processing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, Matthew; Romanowski, Brian

    2009-05-01

    Non-language speech sounds (NLSS) are sounds produced by humans that do not carry linguistic information. Examples of these sounds are coughs, clicks, breaths, and filled pauses such as "uh" and "um" in English. NLSS are prominent in conversational speech, but can be a significant source of errors in speech processing applications. Traditionally, these sounds are ignored by speech endpoint detection algorithms, where speech regions are identified in the audio signal prior to processing. The ability to filter NLSS as a pre-processing step can significantly enhance the performance of many speech processing applications, such as speaker identification, language identification, and automatic speech recognition. In order to be used in all such applications, NLSS detection must be performed without the use of language models that provide knowledge of the phonology and lexical structure of speech. This is especially relevant to situations where the languages used in the audio are not known apriori. We present the results of preliminary experiments using data from American and British English speakers, in which segments of audio are classified as language speech sounds (LSS) or NLSS using a set of acoustic features designed for language-agnostic NLSS detection and a hidden-Markov model (HMM) to model speech generation. The results of these experiments indicate that the features and model used are capable of detection certain types of NLSS, such as breaths and clicks, while detection of other types of NLSS such as filled pauses will require future research.

  17. Magneto encephalography (MEG: perspectives of speech areas functional mapping in human subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butorina A. V.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the main problems in clinical practice and academic research is how to localize speech zones in the human brain. Two speech areas (Broca and Wernicke areas that are responsible for language production and for understanding of written and spoken language have been known since the past century. Their location and even hemispheric lateralization have a substantial inter-individual variability, especially in neurosurgery patients. Wada test is one of the most frequently used invasive methodology for speech hemispheric lateralization in neurosurgery patients. However, besides relatively high-risk of Wada test for patient's health, it has its own limitation, e. g. low reliability of Wada-based evidence of verbal memory brain lateralization. Therefore, there is an urgent need for non-invasive, reliable methods of speech zones mapping.The current review summarizes the recent experimental evidence from magnitoencephalographic (MEG research suggesting that speech areas are included in the speech processing within the first 200 ms after the word onset. The electro-magnetic response to deviant word, mismatch negativity wave with latency of 100—200 ms, can be recorded from auditory cortex within the oddball-paradigm. We provide the arguments that basic features of this brain response, such as its automatic, pre-attentive nature, high signal to noise ratio, source localization at superior temporal sulcus, make it a promising vehicle for non-invasive MEG-based speech areas mapping in neurosurgery.

  18. Hemispheric speech lateralisation in the developing brain is related to motor praxis ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica C. Hodgson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Commonly displayed functional asymmetries such as hand dominance and hemispheric speech lateralisation are well researched in adults. However there is debate about when such functions become lateralised in the typically developing brain. This study examined whether patterns of speech laterality and hand dominance were related and whether they varied with age in typically developing children. 148 children aged 3–10 years performed an electronic pegboard task to determine hand dominance; a subset of 38 of these children also underwent functional Transcranial Doppler (fTCD imaging to derive a lateralisation index (LI for hemispheric activation during speech production using an animation description paradigm. There was no main effect of age in the speech laterality scores, however, younger children showed a greater difference in performance between their hands on the motor task. Furthermore, this between-hand performance difference significantly interacted with direction of speech laterality, with a smaller between-hand difference relating to increased left hemisphere activation. This data shows that both handedness and speech lateralisation appear relatively determined by age 3, but that atypical cerebral lateralisation is linked to greater performance differences in hand skill, irrespective of age. Results are discussed in terms of the common neural systems underpinning handedness and speech lateralisation.

  19. Abortion and compelled physician speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orentlicher, David

    2015-01-01

    Informed consent mandates for abortion providers may infringe the First Amendment's freedom of speech. On the other hand, they may reinforce the physician's duty to obtain informed consent. Courts can promote both doctrines by ensuring that compelled physician speech pertains to medical facts about abortion rather than abortion ideology and that compelled speech is truthful and not misleading. © 2015 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  20. Repeated speech errors: evidence for learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Karin R; Menzies, Heather; Lake, Johanna K

    2010-11-01

    Three experiments elicited phonological speech errors using the SLIP procedure to investigate whether there is a tendency for speech errors on specific words to reoccur, and whether this effect can be attributed to implicit learning of an incorrect mapping from lemma to phonology for that word. In Experiment 1, when speakers made a phonological speech error in the study phase of the experiment (e.g. saying "beg pet" in place of "peg bet") they were over four times as likely to make an error on that same item several minutes later at test. A pseudo-error condition demonstrated that the effect is not simply due to a propensity for speakers to repeat phonological forms, regardless of whether or not they have been made in error. That is, saying "beg pet" correctly at study did not induce speakers to say "beg pet" in error instead of "peg bet" at test. Instead, the effect appeared to be due to learning of the error pathway. Experiment 2 replicated this finding, but also showed that after 48 h, errors made at study were no longer more likely to reoccur. As well as providing constraints on the longevity of the effect, this provides strong evidence that the error reoccurrences observed are not due to item-specific difficulty that leads individual speakers to make habitual mistakes on certain items. Experiment 3 showed that the diminishment of the effect 48 h later is not due to specific extra practice at the task. We discuss how these results fit in with a larger view of language as a dynamic system that is constantly adapting in response to experience. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Spatiotemporal Coupling of the Tongue in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuruvilla, Mili S.; Green, Jordan R.; Yunusova, Yana; Hanford, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The primary aim of the investigation was to identify deficits in spatiotemporal coupling between tongue regions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The relations between disease-related changes in tongue movement patterns and speech intelligibility were also determined. Methods: The authors recorded word productions from 11…

  2. Speech Recognition on Mobile Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Zheng-Hua; Lindberg, Børge

    2010-01-01

    in the mobile context covering motivations, challenges, fundamental techniques and applications. Three ASR architectures are introduced: embedded speech recognition, distributed speech recognition and network speech recognition. Their pros and cons and implementation issues are discussed. Applications within......The enthusiasm of deploying automatic speech recognition (ASR) on mobile devices is driven both by remarkable advances in ASR technology and by the demand for efficient user interfaces on such devices as mobile phones and personal digital assistants (PDAs). This chapter presents an overview of ASR...

  3. Neural networks supporting audiovisual integration for speech: A large-scale lesion study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickok, Gregory; Rogalsky, Corianne; Matchin, William; Basilakos, Alexandra; Cai, Julia; Pillay, Sara; Ferrill, Michelle; Mickelsen, Soren; Anderson, Steven W; Love, Tracy; Binder, Jeffrey; Fridriksson, Julius

    2018-06-01

    Auditory and visual speech information are often strongly integrated resulting in perceptual enhancements for audiovisual (AV) speech over audio alone and sometimes yielding compelling illusory fusion percepts when AV cues are mismatched, the McGurk-MacDonald effect. Previous research has identified three candidate regions thought to be critical for AV speech integration: the posterior superior temporal sulcus (STS), early auditory cortex, and the posterior inferior frontal gyrus. We assess the causal involvement of these regions (and others) in the first large-scale (N = 100) lesion-based study of AV speech integration. Two primary findings emerged. First, behavioral performance and lesion maps for AV enhancement and illusory fusion measures indicate that classic metrics of AV speech integration are not necessarily measuring the same process. Second, lesions involving superior temporal auditory, lateral occipital visual, and multisensory zones in the STS are the most disruptive to AV speech integration. Further, when AV speech integration fails, the nature of the failure-auditory vs visual capture-can be predicted from the location of the lesions. These findings show that AV speech processing is supported by unimodal auditory and visual cortices as well as multimodal regions such as the STS at their boundary. Motor related frontal regions do not appear to play a role in AV speech integration. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Current trends in multilingual speech processing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    ; speech-to-speech translation; language identification. ... interest owing to two strong driving forces. Firstly, technical advances in speech recognition and synthesis are posing new challenges and opportunities to researchers.

  5. Double Fourier analysis for Emotion Identification in Voiced Speech

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sierra-Sosa, D.; Bastidas, M.; Ortiz P, D.; Quintero, O.L.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a novel analysis alternative, based on two Fourier Transforms for emotion recognition from speech. Fourier analysis allows for display and synthesizes different signals, in terms of power spectral density distributions. A spectrogram of the voice signal is obtained performing a short time Fourier Transform with Gaussian windows, this spectrogram portraits frequency related features, such as vocal tract resonances and quasi-periodic excitations during voiced sounds. Emotions induce such characteristics in speech, which become apparent in spectrogram time-frequency distributions. Later, the signal time-frequency representation from spectrogram is considered an image, and processed through a 2-dimensional Fourier Transform in order to perform the spatial Fourier analysis from it. Finally features related with emotions in voiced speech are extracted and presented. (paper)

  6. Marx As Journalist: Revisiting The Free Speech Debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmaja Shaw

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Marx was a practicing journalist for most of his adult life. He was editor, columnist and special correspondent at different times and his journalistic work provided significant inputs for his later theoretical work. Marx, through his engagement with the political revolutions of 19th century Europe, developed one of the finest arguments in defence of free speech and the need for expanding bourgeois democratic freedoms in the process of transition to socialism. This paper describes the role of the Marxist parties and intellectuals in India in using and expanding the democratic freedoms available in India. The paper concludes that there is a gap between the Marx’s ideological position on free speech and the praxis of Marxist parties. In contemporary India, there is urgent need to protect free speech, fight censorship and strengthen independent constitutional authorities that are governed by democratic principles.

  7. Multimodal Speech Capture System for Speech Rehabilitation and Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebkhi, Nordine; Desai, Dhyey; Islam, Mohammad; Lu, Jun; Wilson, Kimberly; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2017-11-01

    Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) are trained to correct articulation of people diagnosed with motor speech disorders by analyzing articulators' motion and assessing speech outcome while patients speak. To assist SLPs in this task, we are presenting the multimodal speech capture system (MSCS) that records and displays kinematics of key speech articulators, the tongue and lips, along with voice, using unobtrusive methods. Collected speech modalities, tongue motion, lips gestures, and voice are visualized not only in real-time to provide patients with instant feedback but also offline to allow SLPs to perform post-analysis of articulators' motion, particularly the tongue, with its prominent but hardly visible role in articulation. We describe the MSCS hardware and software components, and demonstrate its basic visualization capabilities by a healthy individual repeating the words "Hello World." A proof-of-concept prototype has been successfully developed for this purpose, and will be used in future clinical studies to evaluate its potential impact on accelerating speech rehabilitation by enabling patients to speak naturally. Pattern matching algorithms to be applied to the collected data can provide patients with quantitative and objective feedback on their speech performance, unlike current methods that are mostly subjective, and may vary from one SLP to another.

  8. Measurement of speech parameters in casual speech of dementia patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossewaarde, Roelant; Jonkers, Roel; Jalvingh, Fedor; Bastiaanse, Yvonne

    Measurement of speech parameters in casual speech of dementia patients Roelant Adriaan Ossewaarde1,2, Roel Jonkers1, Fedor Jalvingh1,3, Roelien Bastiaanse1 1CLCG, University of Groningen (NL); 2HU University of Applied Sciences Utrecht (NL); 33St. Marienhospital - Vechta, Geriatric Clinic Vechta

  9. Alternative Speech Communication System for Persons with Severe Speech Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selouani, Sid-Ahmed; Sidi Yakoub, Mohammed; O'Shaughnessy, Douglas

    2009-12-01

    Assistive speech-enabled systems are proposed to help both French and English speaking persons with various speech disorders. The proposed assistive systems use automatic speech recognition (ASR) and speech synthesis in order to enhance the quality of communication. These systems aim at improving the intelligibility of pathologic speech making it as natural as possible and close to the original voice of the speaker. The resynthesized utterances use new basic units, a new concatenating algorithm and a grafting technique to correct the poorly pronounced phonemes. The ASR responses are uttered by the new speech synthesis system in order to convey an intelligible message to listeners. Experiments involving four American speakers with severe dysarthria and two Acadian French speakers with sound substitution disorders (SSDs) are carried out to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed methods. An improvement of the Perceptual Evaluation of the Speech Quality (PESQ) value of 5% and more than 20% is achieved by the speech synthesis systems that deal with SSD and dysarthria, respectively.

  10. Speech Perception as a Multimodal Phenomenon

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenblum, Lawrence D.

    2008-01-01

    Speech perception is inherently multimodal. Visual speech (lip-reading) information is used by all perceivers and readily integrates with auditory speech. Imaging research suggests that the brain treats auditory and visual speech similarly. These findings have led some researchers to consider that speech perception works by extracting amodal information that takes the same form across modalities. From this perspective, speech integration is a property of the input information itself. Amodal s...

  11. Prosodic influences on speech production in children with specific language impairment and speech deficits: kinematic, acoustic, and transcription evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffman, L

    1999-12-01

    It is often hypothesized that young children's difficulties with producing weak-strong (iambic) prosodic forms arise from perceptual or linguistically based production factors. A third possible contributor to errors in the iambic form may be biological constraints, or biases, of the motor system. In the present study, 7 children with specific language impairment (SLI) and speech deficits were matched to same age peers. Multiple levels of analysis, including kinematic (modulation and stability of movement), acoustic, and transcription, were applied to children's productions of iambic (weak-strong) and trochaic (strong-weak) prosodic forms. Findings suggest that a motor bias toward producing unmodulated rhythmic articulatory movements, similar to that observed in canonical babbling, contribute to children's acquisition of metrical forms. Children with SLI and speech deficits show less mature segmental and speech motor systems, as well as decreased modulation of movement in later developing iambic forms. Further, components of prosodic and segmental acquisition develop independently and at different rates.

  12. Auditory Modeling for Noisy Speech Recognition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    ... digital filtering for noise cancellation which interfaces to speech recognition software. It uses auditory features in speech recognition training, and provides applications to multilingual spoken language translation...

  13. Teaching Speech Acts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teaching Speech Acts

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I argue that pragmatic ability must become part of what we teach in the classroom if we are to realize the goals of communicative competence for our students. I review the research on pragmatics, especially those articles that point to the effectiveness of teaching pragmatics in an explicit manner, and those that posit methods for teaching. I also note two areas of scholarship that address classroom needs—the use of authentic data and appropriate assessment tools. The essay concludes with a summary of my own experience teaching speech acts in an advanced-level Portuguese class.

  14. Lateralization of eye use in cuttlefish: opposite direction for anti-predatory and predatory behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Kerstin Schnell

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrates with laterally placed eyes typically exhibit preferential eye use for ecological activities such as scanning for predators or prey. Processing visual information predominately through the left or right visual field has been associated with specialized function of the left and right brain. Lateralized vertebrates often share a general pattern of lateralized brain function at the population level, whereby the left hemisphere controls routine behaviors and the right hemisphere controls emergency responses. Recent studies have shown evidence of preferential eye use in some invertebrates, but whether the visual fields are predominately associated with specific ecological activities remains untested. We used the European common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, to investigate whether the visual field they use is the same, or different, during anti-predatory and predatory behavior. To test for lateralization of anti-predatory behavior, individual cuttlefish were placed in a new environment with opaque walls, thereby obliging them to choose which eye to orient away from the opaque wall to scan for potential predators (i.e. vigilant scanning. To test for lateralization of predatory behavior, individual cuttlefish were placed in the apex of an isosceles triangular arena and presented with two shrimp in opposite vertexes, thus requiring the cuttlefish to choose between attacking a prey item to the left or to the right of them. Cuttlefish were significantly more likely to favor the left visual field to scan for potential predators and the right visual field for prey attack. Moreover, individual cuttlefish that were leftward directed for vigilant scanning were predominately rightward directed for prey attack. Lateralized individuals also showed faster decision-making when presented with prey simultaneously. Cuttlefish appear to have opposite directions of lateralization for anti-predatory and predatory behavior, suggesting that there is functional

  15. Lateralization of Eye Use in Cuttlefish: Opposite Direction for Anti-Predatory and Predatory Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, Alexandra K; Hanlon, Roger T; Benkada, Aïcha; Jozet-Alves, Christelle

    2016-01-01

    Vertebrates with laterally placed eyes typically exhibit preferential eye use for ecological activities such as scanning for predators or prey. Processing visual information predominately through the left or right visual field has been associated with specialized function of the left and right brain. Lateralized vertebrates often share a general pattern of lateralized brain function at the population level, whereby the left hemisphere controls routine behaviors and the right hemisphere controls emergency responses. Recent studies have shown evidence of preferential eye use in some invertebrates, but whether the visual fields are predominately associated with specific ecological activities remains untested. We used the European common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis , to investigate whether the visual field they use is the same, or different, during anti-predatory, and predatory behavior. To test for lateralization of anti-predatory behavior, individual cuttlefish were placed in a new environment with opaque walls, thereby obliging them to choose which eye to orient away from the opaque wall to scan for potential predators (i.e., vigilant scanning). To test for lateralization of predatory behavior, individual cuttlefish were placed in the apex of an isosceles triangular arena and presented with two shrimp in opposite vertexes, thus requiring the cuttlefish to choose between attacking a prey item to the left or to the right of them. Cuttlefish were significantly more likely to favor the left visual field to scan for potential predators and the right visual field for prey attack. Moreover, individual cuttlefish that were leftward directed for vigilant scanning were predominately rightward directed for prey attack. Lateralized individuals also showed faster decision-making when presented with prey simultaneously. Cuttlefish appear to have opposite directions of lateralization for anti-predatory and predatory behavior, suggesting that there is functional specialization of

  16. Why the Left Hemisphere Is Dominant for Speech Production: Connecting the Dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvey Martin Sussman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Evidence from seemingly disparate areas of speech/language research is reviewed to form a unified theoretical account for why the left hemisphere is specialized for speech production. Research findings from studies investigating hemispheric lateralization of infant babbling, the primacy of the syllable in phonological structure, rhyming performance in split-brain patients, rhyming ability and phonetic categorization in children diagnosed with developmental apraxia of speech, rules governing exchange errors in spoonerisms, organizational principles of neocortical control of learned motor behaviors, and multi-electrode recordings of human neuronal responses to speech sounds are described and common threads highlighted. It is suggested that the emergence, in developmental neurogenesis, of a hard-wired, syllabically-organized, neural substrate representing the phonemic sound elements of one’s language, particularly the vocalic nucleus, is the crucial factor underlying the left hemisphere’s dominance for speech production.

  17. Speech Training for Inmate Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Michael G.; Dobkins, David H.

    1982-01-01

    Using a computerized content analysis, the authors demonstrate changes in speech behaviors of prison inmates. They conclude that two to four hours of public speaking training can have only limited effect on students who live in a culture in which "prison speech" is the expected and rewarded form of behavior. (PD)

  18. Separating Underdetermined Convolutive Speech Mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Syskind; Wang, DeLiang; Larsen, Jan

    2006-01-01

    a method for underdetermined blind source separation of convolutive mixtures. The proposed framework is applicable for separation of instantaneous as well as convolutive speech mixtures. It is possible to iteratively extract each speech signal from the mixture by combining blind source separation...

  19. Speech recognition from spectral dynamics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Some of the history of gradual infusion of the modulation spectrum concept into Automatic recognition of speech (ASR) comes next, pointing to the relationship of modulation spectrum processing to wellaccepted ASR techniques such as dynamic speech features or RelAtive SpecTrAl (RASTA) filtering. Next, the frequency ...

  20. Speech Prosody in Cerebellar Ataxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casper, Maureen A.; Raphael, Lawrence J.; Harris, Katherine S.; Geibel, Jennifer M.

    2007-01-01

    Persons with cerebellar ataxia exhibit changes in physical coordination and speech and voice production. Previously, these alterations of speech and voice production were described primarily via perceptual coordinates. In this study, the spatial-temporal properties of syllable production were examined in 12 speakers, six of whom were healthy…

  1. Training to Improve Hearing Speech in Noise: Biological Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Judy H.; Skoe, Erika; Banai, Karen

    2012-01-01

    We investigated training-related improvements in listening in noise and the biological mechanisms mediating these improvements. Training-related malleability was examined using a program that incorporates cognitively based listening exercises to improve speech-in-noise perception. Before and after training, auditory brainstem responses to a speech syllable were recorded in quiet and multitalker noise from adults who ranged in their speech-in-noise perceptual ability. Controls did not undergo training but were tested at intervals equivalent to the trained subjects. Trained subjects exhibited significant improvements in speech-in-noise perception that were retained 6 months later. Subcortical responses in noise demonstrated training-related enhancements in the encoding of pitch-related cues (the fundamental frequency and the second harmonic), particularly for the time-varying portion of the syllable that is most vulnerable to perceptual disruption (the formant transition region). Subjects with the largest strength of pitch encoding at pretest showed the greatest perceptual improvement. Controls exhibited neither neurophysiological nor perceptual changes. We provide the first demonstration that short-term training can improve the neural representation of cues important for speech-in-noise perception. These results implicate and delineate biological mechanisms contributing to learning success, and they provide a conceptual advance to our understanding of the kind of training experiences that can influence sensory processing in adulthood. PMID:21799207

  2. Hemispheric lateralization for early auditory processing of lexical tones: dependence on pitch level and pitch contour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Ming; Chen, Lin

    2013-09-01

    In Mandarin Chinese, a tonal language, pitch level and pitch contour are two dimensions of lexical tones according to their acoustic features (i.e., pitch patterns). A change in pitch level features a step change whereas that in pitch contour features a continuous variation in voice pitch. Currently, relatively little is known about the hemispheric lateralization for the processing of each dimension. To address this issue, we made whole-head electrical recordings of mismatch negativity in native Chinese speakers in response to the contrast of Chinese lexical tones in each dimension. We found that pre-attentive auditory processing of pitch level was obviously lateralized to the right hemisphere whereas there is a tendency for that of pitch contour to be lateralized to the left. We also found that the brain responded faster to pitch level than to pitch contour at a pre-attentive stage. These results indicate that the hemispheric lateralization for early auditory processing of lexical tones depends on the pitch level and pitch contour, and suggest an underlying inter-hemispheric interactive mechanism for the processing. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. On speech recognition during anaesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alapetite, Alexandre

    2007-01-01

    This PhD thesis in human-computer interfaces (informatics) studies the case of the anaesthesia record used during medical operations and the possibility to supplement it with speech recognition facilities. Problems and limitations have been identified with the traditional paper-based anaesthesia...... and inaccuracies in the anaesthesia record. Supplementing the electronic anaesthesia record interface with speech input facilities is proposed as one possible solution to a part of the problem. The testing of the various hypotheses has involved the development of a prototype of an electronic anaesthesia record...... interface with speech input facilities in Danish. The evaluation of the new interface was carried out in a full-scale anaesthesia simulator. This has been complemented by laboratory experiments on several aspects of speech recognition for this type of use, e.g. the effects of noise on speech recognition...

  4. From Gesture to Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Gentilucci

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the major problems concerning the evolution of human language is to understand how sounds became associated to meaningful gestures. It has been proposed that the circuit controlling gestures and speech evolved from a circuit involved in the control of arm and mouth movements related to ingestion. This circuit contributed to the evolution of spoken language, moving from a system of communication based on arm gestures. The discovery of the mirror neurons has provided strong support for the gestural theory of speech origin because they offer a natural substrate for the embodiment of language and create a direct link between sender and receiver of a message. Behavioural studies indicate that manual gestures are linked to mouth movements used for syllable emission. Grasping with the hand selectively affected movement of inner or outer parts of the mouth according to syllable pronunciation and hand postures, in addition to hand actions, influenced the control of mouth grasp and vocalization. Gestures and words are also related to each other. It was found that when producing communicative gestures (emblems the intention to interact directly with a conspecific was transferred from gestures to words, inducing modification in voice parameters. Transfer effects of the meaning of representational gestures were found on both vocalizations and meaningful words. It has been concluded that the results of our studies suggest the existence of a system relating gesture to vocalization which was precursor of a more general system reciprocally relating gesture to word.

  5. Swahili speech development: preliminary normative data from typically developing pre-school children in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangji, Nazneen; Pascoe, Michelle; Smouse, Mantoa

    2015-01-01

    Swahili is widely spoken in East Africa, but to date there are no culturally and linguistically appropriate materials available for speech-language therapists working in the region. The challenges are further exacerbated by the limited research available on the typical acquisition of Swahili phonology. To describe the speech development of 24 typically developing first language Swahili-speaking children between the ages of 3;0 and 5;11 years in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. A cross-sectional design was used with six groups of four children in 6-month age bands. Single-word speech samples were obtained from each child using a set of culturally appropriate pictures designed to elicit all consonants and vowels of Swahili. Each child's speech was audio-recorded and phonetically transcribed using International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) conventions. Children's speech development is described in terms of (1) phonetic inventory, (2) syllable structure inventory, (3) phonological processes and (4) percentage consonants correct (PCC) and percentage vowels correct (PVC). Results suggest a gradual progression in the acquisition of speech sounds and syllables between the ages of 3;0 and 5;11 years. Vowel acquisition was completed and most of the consonants acquired by age 3;0. Fricatives/z, s, h/ were later acquired at 4 years and /θ/and /r/ were the last acquired consonants at age 5;11. Older children were able to produce speech sounds more accurately and had fewer phonological processes in their speech than younger children. Common phonological processes included lateralization and sound preference substitutions. The study contributes a preliminary set of normative data on speech development of Swahili-speaking children. Findings are discussed in relation to theories of phonological development, and may be used as a basis for further normative studies with larger numbers of children and ultimately the development of a contextually relevant assessment of the phonology of Swahili

  6. Laterality and body ownership : Effect of handedness on experience of the rubber hand illusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/37432719X; Kooistra, D I; van der Ham, I J M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304822809; Dijkerman, H C|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304829757

    2017-01-01

    Body ownership has mainly been linked to the right hemisphere and larger interhemispheric connectivity has been shown to be associated with greater right hemispheric activation. Mixed-handed participants tend to have more interhemispheric connectivity compared to extreme handed participants. The aim

  7. Laterality Biases to Chimeric Faces in Asperger Syndrome: What Is Right about Face-Processing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwin, Chris; Wheelwright, Sally; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2005-01-01

    People show a left visual field (LVF) bias for faces, i.e., involving the right hemisphere of the brain. Lesion and neuroimaging studies confirm the importance of the right-hemisphere and suggest separable neural pathways for processing facial identity vs. emotions. We investigated the hemispheric processing of faces in adults with and without…

  8. Biological impact of preschool music classes on processing speech in noise

    OpenAIRE

    Strait, Dana L.; Parbery-Clark, Alexandra; O’Connell, Samantha; Kraus, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Musicians have increased resilience to the effects of noise on speech perception and its neural underpinnings. We do not know, however, how early in life these enhancements arise. We compared auditory brainstem responses to speech in noise in 32 preschool children, half of whom were engaged in music training. Thirteen children returned for testing one year later, permitting the first longitudinal assessment of subcortical auditory function with music training. Results indicate emerging neural...

  9. Speech Silicon: An FPGA Architecture for Real-Time Hidden Markov-Model-Based Speech Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuster Jeffrey

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the design of an FPGA-based system-on-a-chip capable of performing continuous speech recognition on medium sized vocabularies in real time. Through the creation of three dedicated pipelines, one for each of the major operations in the system, we were able to maximize the throughput of the system while simultaneously minimizing the number of pipeline stalls in the system. Further, by implementing a token-passing scheme between the later stages of the system, the complexity of the control was greatly reduced and the amount of active data present in the system at any time was minimized. Additionally, through in-depth analysis of the SPHINX 3 large vocabulary continuous speech recognition engine, we were able to design models that could be efficiently benchmarked against a known software platform. These results, combined with the ability to reprogram the system for different recognition tasks, serve to create a system capable of performing real-time speech recognition in a vast array of environments.

  10. Speech Silicon: An FPGA Architecture for Real-Time Hidden Markov-Model-Based Speech Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex K. Jones

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the design of an FPGA-based system-on-a-chip capable of performing continuous speech recognition on medium sized vocabularies in real time. Through the creation of three dedicated pipelines, one for each of the major operations in the system, we were able to maximize the throughput of the system while simultaneously minimizing the number of pipeline stalls in the system. Further, by implementing a token-passing scheme between the later stages of the system, the complexity of the control was greatly reduced and the amount of active data present in the system at any time was minimized. Additionally, through in-depth analysis of the SPHINX 3 large vocabulary continuous speech recognition engine, we were able to design models that could be efficiently benchmarked against a known software platform. These results, combined with the ability to reprogram the system for different recognition tasks, serve to create a system capable of performing real-time speech recognition in a vast array of environments.

  11. Stuttering Frequency, Speech Rate, Speech Naturalness, and Speech Effort During the Production of Voluntary Stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidow, Jason H; Grossman, Heather L; Edge, Robin L

    2018-05-01

    Voluntary stuttering techniques involve persons who stutter purposefully interjecting disfluencies into their speech. Little research has been conducted on the impact of these techniques on the speech pattern of persons who stutter. The present study examined whether changes in the frequency of voluntary stuttering accompanied changes in stuttering frequency, articulation rate, speech naturalness, and speech effort. In total, 12 persons who stutter aged 16-34 years participated. Participants read four 300-syllable passages during a control condition, and three voluntary stuttering conditions that involved attempting to produce purposeful, tension-free repetitions of initial sounds or syllables of a word for two or more repetitions (i.e., bouncing). The three voluntary stuttering conditions included bouncing on 5%, 10%, and 15% of syllables read. Friedman tests and follow-up Wilcoxon signed ranks tests were conducted for the statistical analyses. Stuttering frequency, articulation rate, and speech naturalness were significantly different between the voluntary stuttering conditions. Speech effort did not differ between the voluntary stuttering conditions. Stuttering frequency was significantly lower during the three voluntary stuttering conditions compared to the control condition, and speech effort was significantly lower during two of the three voluntary stuttering conditions compared to the control condition. Due to changes in articulation rate across the voluntary stuttering conditions, it is difficult to conclude, as has been suggested previously, that voluntary stuttering is the reason for stuttering reductions found when using voluntary stuttering techniques. Additionally, future investigations should examine different types of voluntary stuttering over an extended period of time to determine their impact on stuttering frequency, speech rate, speech naturalness, and speech effort.

  12. Investigation of left and right lateral fluid percussion injury in C57BL6/J mice: In vivo functional consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurman, Lesley D; Smith, Terry L; Morales, Anthony J; Lee, Nancy N; Reeves, Thomas M; Phillips, Linda L; Lichtman, Aron H

    2017-07-13

    Although rodent models of traumatic brain injury (TBI) reliably produce cognitive and motor disturbances, behavioral characterization resulting from left and right hemisphere injuries remains unexplored. Here we examined the functional consequences of targeting the left versus right parietal cortex in lateral fluid percussion injury, on Morris water maze (MWM) spatial memory tasks (fixed platform and reversal) and neurological motor deficits (neurological severity score and rotarod). In the MWM fixed platform task, right lateral injury produced a small delay in acquisition rate compared to left. However, injury to either hemisphere resulted in probe trial deficits. In the MWM reversal task, left-right performance deficits were not evident, though left lateral injury produced mild acquisition and probe trial deficits compared to sham controls. Additionally, left and right injury produced similar neurological motor task deficits, impaired righting times, and lesion volumes. Injury to either hemisphere also produced robust ipsilateral, and modest contralateral, morphological changes in reactive microglia and astrocytes. In conclusion, left and right lateral TBI impaired MWM performance, with mild fixed platform acquisition rate differences, despite similar motor deficits, histological damage, and glial cell reactivity. Thus, while both left and right lateral TBI produce cognitive deficits, laterality in mouse MWM learning and memory merits consideration in the investigation of TBI-induced cognitive consequences. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. The Prevalence of Speech Disorder in Primary School Students in Yazd-Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedighah Akhavan Karbasi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Communication disorder is a widespread disabling problems and associated with adverse, long term outcome that impact on individuals, families and academic achievement of children in the school years and affect vocational choices later in adulthood. The aim of this study was to determine prevalence of speech disorders specifically stuttering, voice, and speech-sound disorders in primary school students in Iran-Yazd. In a descriptive study, 7881 primary school students in Yazd evaluated in view from of speech disorders with use of direct and face to face assessment technique in 2005. The prevalence of total speech disorders was 14.8% among whom 13.8% had speech-sound disorder, 1.2% stuttering and 0.47% voice disorder. The prevalence of speech disorders was higher than in males (16.7% as compared to females (12.7%. Pattern of prevalence of the three speech disorders was significantly different according to gender, parental education and by number of family member. There was no significant difference across speech disorders and birth order, religion and paternal consanguinity. These prevalence figures are higher than more studies that using parent or teacher reports.

  14. Using EEG and stimulus context to probe the modelling of auditory-visual speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Tim; Kim, Jeesun; Davis, Chris

    2016-02-01

    We investigated whether internal models of the relationship between lip movements and corresponding speech sounds [Auditory-Visual (AV) speech] could be updated via experience. AV associations were indexed by early and late event related potentials (ERPs) and by oscillatory power and phase locking. Different AV experience was produced via a context manipulation. Participants were presented with valid (the conventional pairing) and invalid AV speech items in either a 'reliable' context (80% AVvalid items) or an 'unreliable' context (80% AVinvalid items). The results showed that for the reliable context, there was N1 facilitation for AV compared to auditory only speech. This N1 facilitation was not affected by AV validity. Later ERPs showed a difference in amplitude between valid and invalid AV speech and there was significant enhancement of power for valid versus invalid AV speech. These response patterns did not change over the context manipulation, suggesting that the internal models of AV speech were not updated by experience. The results also showed that the facilitation of N1 responses did not vary as a function of the salience of visual speech (as previously reported); in post-hoc analyses, it appeared instead that N1 facilitation varied according to the relative time of the acoustic onset, suggesting for AV events N1 may be more sensitive to the relationship of AV timing than form. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Visual Speech Fills in Both Discrimination and Identification of Non-Intact Auditory Speech in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerger, Susan; Damian, Markus F.; McAlpine, Rachel P.; Abdi, Herve

    2018-01-01

    To communicate, children must discriminate and identify speech sounds. Because visual speech plays an important role in this process, we explored how visual speech influences phoneme discrimination and identification by children. Critical items had intact visual speech (e.g. baez) coupled to non-intact (excised onsets) auditory speech (signified…

  16. Speech enhancement using emotion dependent codebooks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naidu, D.H.R.; Srinivasan, S.

    2012-01-01

    Several speech enhancement approaches utilize trained models of clean speech data, such as codebooks, Gaussian mixtures, and hidden Markov models. These models are typically trained on neutral clean speech data, without any emotion. However, in practical scenarios, emotional speech is a common

  17. Automated Speech Rate Measurement in Dysarthria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Heidi; Dekens, Tomas; Van Nuffelen, Gwen; Latacz, Lukas; Verhelst, Werner; De Bodt, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, a new algorithm for automated determination of speech rate (SR) in dysarthric speech is evaluated. We investigated how reliably the algorithm calculates the SR of dysarthric speech samples when compared with calculation performed by speech-language pathologists. Method: The new algorithm was trained and tested using Dutch…

  18. Is Birdsong More Like Speech or Music?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Robert V

    2016-04-01

    Music and speech share many acoustic cues but not all are equally important. For example, harmonic pitch is essential for music but not for speech. When birds communicate is their song more like speech or music? A new study contrasting pitch and spectral patterns shows that birds perceive their song more like humans perceive speech. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Freedom of Speech Newsletter, September, 1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Winfred G., Jr., Ed.

    The Freedom of Speech Newsletter is the communication medium for the Freedom of Speech Interest Group of the Western Speech Communication Association. The newsletter contains such features as a statement of concern by the National Ad Hoc Committee Against Censorship; Reticence and Free Speech, an article by James F. Vickrey discussing the subtle…

  20. A positron emission tomography study of the neural basis of informational and energetic masking effects in speech perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Sophie K.; Rosen, Stuart; Wickham, Lindsay; Wise, Richard J. S.

    2004-02-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) was used to investigate the neural basis of the comprehension of speech in unmodulated noise (``energetic'' masking, dominated by effects at the auditory periphery), and when presented with another speaker (``informational'' masking, dominated by more central effects). Each type of signal was presented at four different signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) (+3, 0, -3, -6 dB for the speech-in-speech, +6, +3, 0, -3 dB for the speech-in-noise), with listeners instructed to listen for meaning to the target speaker. Consistent with behavioral studies, there was SNR-dependent activation associated with the comprehension of speech in noise, with no SNR-dependent activity for the comprehension of speech-in-speech (at low or negative SNRs). There was, in addition, activation in bilateral superior temporal gyri which was associated with the informational masking condition. The extent to which this activation of classical ``speech'' areas of the temporal lobes might delineate the neural basis of the informational masking is considered, as is the relationship of these findings to the interfering effects of unattended speech and sound on more explicit working memory tasks. This study is a novel demonstration of candidate neural systems involved in the perception of speech in noisy environments, and of the processing of multiple speakers in the dorso-lateral temporal lobes.

  1. Speech recovery device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankle, Christen M.

    2004-04-20

    There is provided an apparatus and method for assisting speech recovery in people with inability to speak due to aphasia, apraxia or another condition with similar effect. A hollow, rigid, thin-walled tube with semi-circular or semi-elliptical cut out shapes at each open end is positioned such that one end mates with the throat/voice box area of the neck of the assistor and the other end mates with the throat/voice box area of the assisted. The speaking person (assistor) makes sounds that produce standing wave vibrations at the same frequency in the vocal cords of the assisted person. Driving the assisted person's vocal cords with the assisted person being able to hear the correct tone enables the assisted person to speak by simply amplifying the vibration of membranes in their throat.

  2. Speech recovery device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankle, Christen M.

    2000-10-19

    There is provided an apparatus and method for assisting speech recovery in people with inability to speak due to aphasia, apraxia or another condition with similar effect. A hollow, rigid, thin-walled tube with semi-circular or semi-elliptical cut out shapes at each open end is positioned such that one end mates with the throat/voice box area of the neck of the assistor and the other end mates with the throat/voice box area of the assisted. The speaking person (assistor) makes sounds that produce standing wave vibrations at the same frequency in the vocal cords of the assisted person. Driving the assisted person's vocal cords with the assisted person being able to hear the correct tone enables the assisted person to speak by simply amplifying the vibration of membranes in their throat.

  3. Steganalysis of recorded speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Micah K.; Lyu, Siwei; Farid, Hany

    2005-03-01

    Digital audio provides a suitable cover for high-throughput steganography. At 16 bits per sample and sampled at a rate of 44,100 Hz, digital audio has the bit-rate to support large messages. In addition, audio is often transient and unpredictable, facilitating the hiding of messages. Using an approach similar to our universal image steganalysis, we show that hidden messages alter the underlying statistics of audio signals. Our statistical model begins by building a linear basis that captures certain statistical properties of audio signals. A low-dimensional statistical feature vector is extracted from this basis representation and used by a non-linear support vector machine for classification. We show the efficacy of this approach on LSB embedding and Hide4PGP. While no explicit assumptions about the content of the audio are made, our technique has been developed and tested on high-quality recorded speech.

  4. Speech enhancement theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Loizou, Philipos C

    2013-01-01

    With the proliferation of mobile devices and hearing devices, including hearing aids and cochlear implants, there is a growing and pressing need to design algorithms that can improve speech intelligibility without sacrificing quality. Responding to this need, Speech Enhancement: Theory and Practice, Second Edition introduces readers to the basic problems of speech enhancement and the various algorithms proposed to solve these problems. Updated and expanded, this second edition of the bestselling textbook broadens its scope to include evaluation measures and enhancement algorithms aimed at impr

  5. Lateral collateral ligament (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The lateral collateral ligament connects the end of the femur (thigh) to the top of the fibula (the thin bone that runs next to the shin bone). The lateral collateral ligament provides stability against varus stress. Varus stress ...

  6. INTEGRATING MACHINE TRANSLATION AND SPEECH SYNTHESIS COMPONENT FOR ENGLISH TO DRAVIDIAN LANGUAGE SPEECH TO SPEECH TRANSLATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. SANGEETHA

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an interface between the machine translation and speech synthesis system for converting English speech to Tamil text in English to Tamil speech to speech translation system. The speech translation system consists of three modules: automatic speech recognition, machine translation and text to speech synthesis. Many procedures for incorporation of speech recognition and machine translation have been projected. Still speech synthesis system has not yet been measured. In this paper, we focus on integration of machine translation and speech synthesis, and report a subjective evaluation to investigate the impact of speech synthesis, machine translation and the integration of machine translation and speech synthesis components. Here we implement a hybrid machine translation (combination of rule based and statistical machine translation and concatenative syllable based speech synthesis technique. In order to retain the naturalness and intelligibility of synthesized speech Auto Associative Neural Network (AANN prosody prediction is used in this work. The results of this system investigation demonstrate that the naturalness and intelligibility of the synthesized speech are strongly influenced by the fluency and correctness of the translated text.

  7. Speech of people with autism: Echolalia and echolalic speech

    OpenAIRE

    Błeszyński, Jacek Jarosław

    2013-01-01

    Speech of people with autism is recognised as one of the basic diagnostic, therapeutic and theoretical problems. One of the most common symptoms of autism in children is echolalia, described here as being of different types and severity. This paper presents the results of studies into different levels of echolalia, both in normally developing children and in children diagnosed with autism, discusses the differences between simple echolalia and echolalic speech - which can be considered to b...

  8. Advocate: A Distributed Architecture for Speech-to-Speech Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    tecture, are either wrapped natural-language processing ( NLP ) components or objects developed from scratch using the architecture’s API. GATE is...framework, we put together a demonstration Arabic -to- English speech translation system using both internally developed ( Arabic speech recognition and MT...conditions of our Arabic S2S demonstration system described earlier. Once again, the data size was varied and eighty identical requests were

  9. Relations between neuropsychological findings and lateral asymmetries of cerebral blood flow measured by SPECT in dementia of Alzheimer type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimura, Nahoko; Soma, Yoshiaki; Ootsuki, Mika [Takeda General Hospital, Aizu-Wakamatsu, Fukushima (Japan)

    1993-10-01

    We studied 16 right-handed patients clinically diagnosed as dementia of Alzheimer type (6 men, 10 women; aged 63-85, mean 72.8 years). The average duration of symptoms was 2.7 years. Dementia ranged from mild to moderately severe. None had clinical or laboratory evidence of cerebrovascular disease (Hachinski ischemic scores for all patients were 4 or below 4). All received the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), Mini-mental State Test (MMS) and Western Aphasia Battery (WAB, First Japanese edition, 1986). Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was evaluated by single photon emission CT (SPECT) with {sup 123}I-N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine ({sup 123}I-IMP), using the Matsuda`s quantitative method. Regional tracer uptake was measured in regions of interests (ROIs) over right and left frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital cortical regions; basal ganglia; and cerebellar hemispheres. The subjects were divided into three groups on the basis of lateral asymmetries in the temporal and parietal cortexes of rCBF (leftlateral asymmetry was present when rCBF for each ROI between left and right sides differs by more than 10%. General score (MMS, T-IQ) was not correlated with asymmetry of cerebral blood flow. Verbal IQ in patients with predominant hypoperfusion of left temporal and parietal lobe was significantly lower than other group, while performance IQ and WAB constructive scores were lower in those with right hemispheric hypoperfusion (p<0.05). We concluded that cerebral blood flow asymmetry by SPECT was related significantly to the deficit of language and constructive function in patients with dementia of Alzheimer type. Decreased rCBF in the left temporoparietal lobe was associated with language dysfunction, and that in the right hemisphere, with constructive dysfunction. (author).

  10. Relations between neuropsychological findings and lateral asymmetries of cerebral blood flow measured by SPECT in dementia of Alzheimer type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, Nahoko; Soma, Yoshiaki; Ootsuki, Mika

    1993-01-01

    We studied 16 right-handed patients clinically diagnosed as dementia of Alzheimer type (6 men, 10 women; aged 63-85, mean 72.8 years). The average duration of symptoms was 2.7 years. Dementia ranged from mild to moderately severe. None had clinical or laboratory evidence of cerebrovascular disease (Hachinski ischemic scores for all patients were 4 or below 4). All received the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), Mini-mental State Test (MMS) and Western Aphasia Battery (WAB, First Japanese edition, 1986). Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was evaluated by single photon emission CT (SPECT) with 123 I-N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine ( 123 I-IMP), using the Matsuda's quantitative method. Regional tracer uptake was measured in regions of interests (ROIs) over right and left frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital cortical regions; basal ganglia; and cerebellar hemispheres. The subjects were divided into three groups on the basis of lateral asymmetries in the temporal and parietal cortexes of rCBF (left< right, n=5; right< left, n=3; left=right, n=8). We decided that lateral asymmetry was present when rCBF for each ROI between left and right sides differs by more than 10%. General score (MMS, T-IQ) was not correlated with asymmetry of cerebral blood flow. Verbal IQ in patients with predominant hypoperfusion of left temporal and parietal lobe was significantly lower than other group, while performance IQ and WAB constructive scores were lower in those with right hemispheric hypoperfusion (p<0.05). We concluded that cerebral blood flow asymmetry by SPECT was related significantly to the deficit of language and constructive function in patients with dementia of Alzheimer type. Decreased rCBF in the left temporoparietal lobe was associated with language dysfunction, and that in the right hemisphere, with constructive dysfunction. (author)

  11. Laterality in the rubber hand illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocklenburg, Sebastian; Rüther, Naima; Peterburs, Jutta; Pinnow, Marlies; Güntürkün, Onur

    2011-03-01

    In patient studies, impairments of sense of body ownership have repeatedly been linked to right-hemispheric brain damage. To test whether a right-hemispheric dominance for sense of body ownership could also be observed in healthy adults, the rubber hand illusion was elicited on both hands of 21 left-handers and 22 right-handers. In this illusion, a participant's real hand is stroked while hidden from view behind an occluder, and a nearby visible hand prosthesis is repeatedly stroked in synchrony. Most participants experience the illusionary perception of touch sensations arising from the prosthesis. The vividness of the illusion was measured by subjective self-reports as well as by skin conductance responses to watching the rubber hand being harmed. Handedness did not affect the vividness of the illusion, but a stronger skin conductance response was observed, when the illusion was elicited on the left hand. These findings suggest a right-hemispheric dominance for sense of body ownership in healthy adults.

  12. Lateralized hybrid faces: evidence of a valence-specific bias in the processing of implicit emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prete, Giulia; Laeng, Bruno; Tommasi, Luca

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that hemispheric asymmetries exist for both the analyses of low-level visual information (such as spatial frequency) and high-level visual information (such as emotional expressions). In this study, we assessed which of the above factors underlies perceptual laterality effects with "hybrid faces": a type of stimulus that allows testing for unaware processing of emotional expressions, when the emotion is displayed in the low-frequency information while an image of the same face with a neutral expression is superimposed to it. Despite hybrid faces being perceived as neutral, the emotional information modulates observers' social judgements. In the present study, participants were asked to assess friendliness of hybrid faces displayed tachistoscopically, either centrally or laterally to fixation. We found a clear influence of the hidden emotions also with lateral presentations. Happy faces were rated as more friendly and angry faces as less friendly with respect to neutral faces. In general, hybrid faces were evaluated as less friendly when they were presented in the left visual field/right hemisphere than in the right visual field/left hemisphere. The results extend the validity of the valence hypothesis in the specific domain of unaware (subcortical) emotion processing.

  13. Studying hemispheric lateralization during a Stroop task through near-infrared spectroscopy-based connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Sun, Jinyan; Sun, Bailei; Luo, Qingming; Gong, Hui

    2014-05-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a developing and promising functional brain imaging technology. Developing data analysis methods to effectively extract meaningful information from collected data is the major bottleneck in popularizing this technology. In this study, we measured hemodynamic activity of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) during a color-word matching Stroop task using NIRS. Hemispheric lateralization was examined by employing traditional activation and novel NIRS-based connectivity analyses simultaneously. Wavelet transform coherence was used to assess intrahemispheric functional connectivity. Spearman correlation analysis was used to examine the relationship between behavioral performance and activation/functional connectivity, respectively. In agreement with activation analysis, functional connectivity analysis revealed leftward lateralization for the Stroop effect and correlation with behavioral performance. However, functional connectivity was more sensitive than activation for identifying hemispheric lateralization. Granger causality was used to evaluate the effective connectivity between hemispheres. The results showed increased information flow from the left to the right hemispheres for the incongruent versus the neutral task, indicating a leading role of the left PFC. This study demonstrates that the NIRS-based connectivity can reveal the functional architecture of the brain more comprehensively than traditional activation, helping to better utilize the advantages of NIRS.

  14. Comprehension of synthetic speech and digitized natural speech by adults with aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hux, Karen; Knollman-Porter, Kelly; Brown, Jessica; Wallace, Sarah E

    2017-09-01

    Using text-to-speech technology to provide simultaneous written and auditory content presentation may help compensate for chronic reading challenges if people with aphasia can understand synthetic speech output; however, inherent auditory comprehension challenges experienced by people with aphasia may make understanding synthetic speech difficult. This study's purpose was to compare the preferences and auditory comprehension accuracy of people with aphasia when listening to sentences generated with digitized natural speech, Alex synthetic speech (i.e., Macintosh platform), or David synthetic speech (i.e., Windows platform). The methodology required each of 20 participants with aphasia to select one of four images corresponding in meaning to each of 60 sentences comprising three stimulus sets. Results revealed significantly better accuracy given digitized natural speech than either synthetic speech option; however, individual participant performance analyses revealed three patterns: (a) comparable accuracy regardless of speech condition for 30% of participants, (b) comparable accuracy between digitized natural speech and one, but not both, synthetic speech option for 45% of participants, and (c) greater accuracy with digitized natural speech than with either synthetic speech option for remaining participants. Ranking and Likert-scale rating data revealed a preference for digitized natural speech and David synthetic speech over Alex synthetic speech. Results suggest many individuals with aphasia can comprehend synthetic speech options available on popular operating systems. Further examination of synthetic speech use to support reading comprehension through text-to-speech technology is thus warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Speech Mannerisms: Games Clients Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Lewis B.

    1978-01-01

    This article focuses on speech mannerisms often employed by clients in a helping relationship. Eight mannerisms are presented and discussed, as well as possible interpretations. Suggestions are given to help counselors respond to them. (Author)

  16. Speech recognition from spectral dynamics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Carrier nature of speech; modulation spectrum; spectral dynamics ... the relationships between phonetic values of sounds and their short-term spectral envelopes .... the number of free parameters that need to be estimated from training data.

  17. Patients with hippocampal amnesia successfully integrate gesture and speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilverman, Caitlin; Clough, Sharice; Duff, Melissa C; Cook, Susan Wagner

    2018-06-19

    During conversation, people integrate information from co-speech hand gestures with information in spoken language. For example, after hearing the sentence, "A piece of the log flew up and hit Carl in the face" while viewing a gesture directed at the nose, people tend to later report that the log hit Carl in the nose (information only in gesture) rather than in the face (information in speech). The cognitive and neural mechanisms that support the integration of gesture with speech are unclear. One possibility is that the hippocampus - known for its role in relational memory and information integration - is necessary for integrating gesture and speech. To test this possibility, we examined how patients with hippocampal amnesia and healthy and brain-damaged comparison participants express information from gesture in a narrative retelling task. Participants watched videos of an experimenter telling narratives that included hand gestures that contained supplementary information. Participants were asked to retell the narratives and their spoken retellings were assessed for the presence of information from gesture. For features that had been accompanied by supplementary gesture, patients with amnesia retold fewer of these features overall and fewer retellings that matched the speech from the narrative. Yet their retellings included features that contained information that had been present uniquely in gesture in amounts that were not reliably different from comparison groups. Thus, a functioning hippocampus is not necessary for gesture-speech integration over short timescales. Providing unique information in gesture may enhance communication for individuals with declarative memory impairment, possibly via non-declarative memory mechanisms. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Training of ultra-fast speech comprehension induces functional reorganization of the central-visual system in late-blind humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne eDietrich

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Individuals suffering from vision loss of a peripheral origin may learn to understand spoken language at a rate of up to about 22 syllables (syl per seconds (s – exceeding by far the maximum performance level of untrained listeners (ca. 8 syl/s. Previous findings indicate the central-visual system to contribute to the processing of accelerated speech in blind subjects. As an extension, the present training study addresses the issue whether acquisition of ultra-fast (18 syl/s speech perception skills induces de novo central-visual hemodynamic activation in late-blind participants. Furthermore, we asked to what extent subjects with normal or residual vision can improve understanding of accelerated verbal utterances by means of specific training measures. To these ends, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI was performed while subjects were listening to forward and reversed sentence utterances of moderately fast and ultra-fast syllable rates (8 or 18 syl/s prior to and after a training period of ca. six months. Four of six participants showed – independently from residual visual functions – considerable enhancement of ultra-fast speech perception (about 70 percentage points correctly repeated words whereas behavioral performance did not change in the two remaining participants. Only subjects with very low visual acuity displayed training-induced hemodynamic activation of the central-visual system. By contrast, participants with moderately impaired or even normal visual acuity showed, instead, increased right-hemispheric frontal or bilateral anterior temporal lobe responses after training. All subjects with significant training effects displayed a concomitant increase of hemodynamic activation of left-hemispheric SMA. In spite of similar behavioral performance, trained experts appear to use distinct strategies of ultra-fast speech processing depending on whether the occipital cortex is still deployed for visual processing.

  19. Designing speech for a recipient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Kerstin

    This study asks how speakers adjust their speech to their addressees, focusing on the potential roles of cognitive representations such as partner models, automatic processes such as interactive alignment, and social processes such as interactional negotiation. The nature of addressee orientation......, psycholinguistics and conversation analysis, and offers both overviews of child-directed, foreigner-directed and robot-directed speech and in-depth analyses of the processes involved in adjusting to a communication partner....

  20. National features of speech etiquette

    OpenAIRE

    Nacafova S.

    2017-01-01

    The article shows the differences between the speech etiquette of different peoples. The most important thing is to find a common language with this or that interlocutor. Knowledge of national etiquette, national character helps to learn the principles of speech of another nation. The article indicates in which cases certain forms of etiquette considered acceptable. At the same time, the rules of etiquette emphasized in the conduct of a dialogue in official meetings and for example, in the ex...

  1. Censored: Whistleblowers and impossible speech

    OpenAIRE

    Kenny, Kate

    2017-01-01

    What happens to a person who speaks out about corruption in their organization, and finds themselves excluded from their profession? In this article, I argue that whistleblowers experience exclusions because they have engaged in ‘impossible speech’, that is, a speech act considered to be unacceptable or illegitimate. Drawing on Butler’s theories of recognition and censorship, I show how norms of acceptable speech working through recruitment practices, alongside the actions of colleagues, can ...

  2. Speech Function and Speech Role in Carl Fredricksen's Dialogue on Up Movie

    OpenAIRE

    Rehana, Ridha; Silitonga, Sortha

    2013-01-01

    One aim of this article is to show through a concrete example how speech function and speech role used in movie. The illustrative example is taken from the dialogue of Up movie. Central to the analysis proper form of dialogue on Up movie that contain of speech function and speech role; i.e. statement, offer, question, command, giving, and demanding. 269 dialogue were interpreted by actor, and it was found that the use of speech function and speech role.

  3. Lateralization and Binaural Interaction of Middle-Latency and Late-Brainstem Components of the Auditory Evoked Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykstra, Andrew R; Burchard, Daniel; Starzynski, Christian; Riedel, Helmut; Rupp, Andre; Gutschalk, Alexander

    2016-08-01

    We used magnetoencephalography to examine lateralization and binaural interaction of the middle-latency and late-brainstem components of the auditory evoked response (the MLR and SN10, respectively). Click stimuli were presented either monaurally, or binaurally with left- or right-leading interaural time differences (ITDs). While early MLR components, including the N19 and P30, were larger for monaural stimuli presented contralaterally (by approximately 30 and 36 % in the left and right hemispheres, respectively), later components, including the N40 and P50, were larger ipsilaterally. In contrast, MLRs elicited by binaural clicks with left- or right-leading ITDs did not differ. Depending on filter settings, weak binaural interaction could be observed as early as the P13 but was clearly much larger for later components, beginning at the P30, indicating some degree of binaural linearity up to early stages of cortical processing. The SN10, an obscure late-brainstem component, was observed consistently in individuals and showed linear binaural additivity. The results indicate that while the MLR is lateralized in response to monaural stimuli-and not ITDs-this lateralization reverses from primarily contralateral to primarily ipsilateral as early as 40 ms post stimulus and is never as large as that seen with fMRI.

  4. Hemispheric Lateralization of Resting-State Functional Connectivity of the Anterior Insula: Association with Age, Gender, and a Novelty-Seeking Trait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kann, Sarah; Zhang, Sheng; Manza, Peter; Leung, Hoi-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) is widely used to examine cerebral functional organization. The imaging literature has described lateralization of insula activations during cognitive and affective processing. Evidence appears to support a role of the right-hemispheric insula in attentional orientation to salient stimulus, interoception, and physiological arousal, and a role of the left-hemispheric insula in cognitive and affective control, as well as perspective taking. In this study, in a large data set of healthy adults, we examined lateralization of the rsFC of the anterior insula (AI) by computing a laterality index (LI) of connectivity with 54 regions from the Automated Anatomic Labeling atlas. At a corrected threshold (p lateralized in connectivity with the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, superior frontal gyrus, inferior frontal cortex, and posterior orbital gyrus and right lateralized in connectivity with the postcentral gyrus, supramarginal gyrus, and superior parietal lobule. In gender differences, women, but not men, showed right-lateralized connectivity to the thalamus. Furthermore, in a subgroup of participants assessed by the tridimensional personality questionnaire, novelty seeking is correlated with the extent of left lateralization of AI connectivity to the pallidum and putamen in men and with the extent of right lateralization of AI connectivity to the parahippocampal gyrus in women. These findings support hemispheric functional differentiation of the AI. PMID:27604154

  5. Perceptual sensitivity to spectral properties of earlier sounds during speech categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stilp, Christian E; Assgari, Ashley A

    2018-02-28

    Speech perception is heavily influenced by surrounding sounds. When spectral properties differ between earlier (context) and later (target) sounds, this can produce spectral contrast effects (SCEs) that bias perception of later sounds. For example, when context sounds have more energy in low-F 1 frequency regions, listeners report more high-F 1 responses to a target vowel, and vice versa. SCEs have been reported using various approaches for a wide range of stimuli, but most often, large spectral peaks were added to the context to bias speech categorization. This obscures the lower limit of perceptual sensitivity to spectral properties of earlier sounds, i.e., when SCEs begin to bias speech categorization. Listeners categorized vowels (/ɪ/-/ɛ/, Experiment 1) or consonants (/d/-/g/, Experiment 2) following a context sentence with little spectral amplification (+1 to +4 dB) in frequency regions known to produce SCEs. In both experiments, +3 and +4 dB amplification in key frequency regions of the context produced SCEs, but lesser amplification was insufficient to bias performance. This establishes a lower limit of perceptual sensitivity where spectral differences across sounds can bias subsequent speech categorization. These results are consistent with proposed adaptation-based mechanisms that potentially underlie SCEs in auditory perception. Recent sounds can change what speech sounds we hear later. This can occur when the average frequency composition of earlier sounds differs from that of later sounds, biasing how they are perceived. These "spectral contrast effects" are widely observed when sounds' frequency compositions differ substantially. We reveal the lower limit of these effects, as +3 dB amplification of key frequency regions in earlier sounds was enough to bias categorization of the following vowel or consonant sound. Speech categorization being biased by very small spectral differences across sounds suggests that spectral contrast effects occur

  6. Exploring Australian speech-language pathologists' use and perceptions ofnon-speech oral motor exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbach, Anna F; Rose, Tanya A; Cheah, Mynn

    2018-01-29

    To explore Australian speech-language pathologists' use of non-speech oral motor exercises, and rationales for using/not using non-speech oral motor exercises in clinical practice. A total of 124 speech-language pathologists practising in Australia, working with paediatric and/or adult clients with speech sound difficulties, completed an online survey. The majority of speech-language pathologists reported that they did not use non-speech oral motor exercises when working with paediatric or adult clients with speech sound difficulties. However, more than half of the speech-language pathologists working with adult clients who have dysarthria reported using non-speech oral motor exercises with this population. The most frequently reported rationale for using non-speech oral motor exercises in speech sound difficulty management was to improve awareness/placement of articulators. The majority of speech-language pathologists agreed there is no clear clinical or research evidence base to support non-speech oral motor exercise use with clients who have speech sound difficulties. This study provides an overview of Australian speech-language pathologists' reported use and perceptions of non-speech oral motor exercises' applicability and efficacy in treating paediatric and adult clients who have speech sound difficulties. The research findings provide speech-language pathologists with insight into how and why non-speech oral motor exercises are currently used, and adds to the knowledge base regarding Australian speech-language pathology practice of non-speech oral motor exercises in the treatment of speech sound difficulties. Implications for Rehabilitation Non-speech oral motor exercises refer to oral motor activities which do not involve speech, but involve the manipulation or stimulation of oral structures including the lips, tongue, jaw, and soft palate. Non-speech oral motor exercises are intended to improve the function (e.g., movement, strength) of oral structures. The

  7. Novel Techniques for Dialectal Arabic Speech Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Elmahdy, Mohamed; Minker, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Novel Techniques for Dialectal Arabic Speech describes approaches to improve automatic speech recognition for dialectal Arabic. Since speech resources for dialectal Arabic speech recognition are very sparse, the authors describe how existing Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) speech data can be applied to dialectal Arabic speech recognition, while assuming that MSA is always a second language for all Arabic speakers. In this book, Egyptian Colloquial Arabic (ECA) has been chosen as a typical Arabic dialect. ECA is the first ranked Arabic dialect in terms of number of speakers, and a high quality ECA speech corpus with accurate phonetic transcription has been collected. MSA acoustic models were trained using news broadcast speech. In order to cross-lingually use MSA in dialectal Arabic speech recognition, the authors have normalized the phoneme sets for MSA and ECA. After this normalization, they have applied state-of-the-art acoustic model adaptation techniques like Maximum Likelihood Linear Regression (MLLR) and M...

  8. Experimental comparison between speech transmission index, rapid speech transmission index, and speech intelligibility index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larm, Petra; Hongisto, Valtteri

    2006-02-01

    During the acoustical design of, e.g., auditoria or open-plan offices, it is important to know how speech can be perceived in various parts of the room. Different objective methods have been developed to measure and predict speech intelligibility, and these have been extensively used in various spaces. In this study, two such methods were compared, the speech transmission index (STI) and the speech intelligibility index (SII). Also the simplification of the STI, the room acoustics speech transmission index (RASTI), was considered. These quantities are all based on determining an apparent speech-to-noise ratio on selected frequency bands and summing them using a specific weighting. For comparison, some data were needed on the possible differences of these methods resulting from the calculation scheme and also measuring equipment. Their prediction accuracy was also of interest. Measurements were made in a laboratory having adjustable noise level and absorption, and in a real auditorium. It was found that the measurement equipment, especially the selection of the loudspeaker, can greatly affect the accuracy of the results. The prediction accuracy of the RASTI was found acceptable, if the input values for the prediction are accurately known, even though the studied space was not ideally diffuse.

  9. The Role of Corticostriatal Systems in Speech Category Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Han-Gyol; Maddox, W Todd; Mumford, Jeanette A; Chandrasekaran, Bharath

    2016-04-01

    One of the most difficult category learning problems for humans is learning nonnative speech categories. While feedback-based category training can enhance speech learning, the mechanisms underlying these benefits are unclear. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we investigated neural and computational mechanisms underlying feedback-dependent speech category learning in adults. Positive feedback activated a large corticostriatal network including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, inferior parietal lobule, middle temporal gyrus, caudate, putamen, and the ventral striatum. Successful learning was contingent upon the activity of domain-general category learning systems: the fast-learning reflective system, involving the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex that develops and tests explicit rules based on the feedback content, and the slow-learning reflexive system, involving the putamen in which the stimuli are implicitly associated with category responses based on the reward value in feedback. Computational modeling of response strategies revealed significant use of reflective strategies early in training and greater use of reflexive strategies later in training. Reflexive strategy use was associated with increased activation in the putamen. Our results demonstrate a critical role for the reflexive corticostriatal learning system as a function of response strategy and proficiency during speech category learning. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Development of Trivia Game for speech understanding in background noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Kathryn; Ringleb, Stacie I; Sandberg, Hilary; Raymer, Anastasia; Watson, Ginger S

    2015-01-01

    Listening in noise is an everyday activity and poses a challenge for many people. To improve the ability to understand speech in noise, a computerized auditory rehabilitation game was developed. In Trivia Game players are challenged to answer trivia questions spoken aloud. As players progress through the game, the level of background noise increases. A study using Trivia Game was conducted as a proof-of-concept investigation in healthy participants. College students with normal hearing were randomly assigned to a control (n = 13) or a treatment (n = 14) group. Treatment participants played Trivia Game 12 times over a 4-week period. All participants completed objective (auditory-only and audiovisual formats) and subjective listening in noise measures at baseline and 4 weeks later. There were no statistical differences between the groups at baseline. At post-test, the treatment group significantly improved their overall speech understanding in noise in the audiovisual condition and reported significant benefits in their functional listening abilities. Playing Trivia Game improved speech understanding in noise in healthy listeners. Significant findings for the audiovisual condition suggest that participants improved face-reading abilities. Trivia Game may be a platform for investigating changes in speech understanding in individuals with sensory, linguistic and cognitive impairments.

  11. Neural pathways for visual speech perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne E Bernstein

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the questions, what levels of speech can be perceived visually, and how is visual speech represented by the brain? Review of the literature leads to the conclusions that every level of psycholinguistic speech structure (i.e., phonetic features, phonemes, syllables, words, and prosody can be perceived visually, although individuals differ in their abilities to do so; and that there are visual modality-specific representations of speech qua speech in higher-level vision brain areas. That is, the visual system represents the modal patterns of visual speech. The suggestion that the auditory speech pathway receives and represents visual speech is examined in light of neuroimaging evidence on the auditory speech pathways. We outline the generally agreed-upon organization of the visual ventral and dorsal pathways and examine several types of visual processing that might be related to speech through those pathways, specifically, face and body, orthography, and sign language processing. In this context, we examine the visual speech processing literature, which reveals widespread diverse patterns activity in posterior temporal cortices in response to visual speech stimuli. We outline a model of the visual and auditory speech pathways and make several suggestions: (1 The visual perception of speech relies on visual pathway representations of speech qua speech. (2 A proposed site of these representations, the temporal visual speech area (TVSA has been demonstrated in posterior temporal cortex, ventral and posterior to multisensory posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS. (3 Given that visual speech has dynamic and configural features, its representations in feedforward visual pathways are expected to integrate these features, possibly in TVSA.

  12. Lateralized behaviour as indicator of affective state in dairy cows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Kappel

    Full Text Available In humans, there is evidence that sensory processing of novel or threatening stimuli is right hemisphere dominated, especially in people experiencing negative affective states. There is also evidence for similar lateralization in a number of non-human animal species. Here we investigate whether this is also the case in domestic cattle that may experience long-term negative states due to commonly occurring conditions such as lameness. Health and welfare implications associated with pain in lame cows are a major concern in dairy farming. Behavioural tests combining animal behaviour and cognition could make a meaningful contribution to our understanding of disease-related changes in sensory processing in animals, and consequently enhance their welfare. We presented 216 lactating Holstein-Friesian cows with three different unfamiliar objects which were placed either bilaterally (e.g. two yellow party balloons, two black/white checkerboards or hung centrally (a Kong™ within a familiar area. Cows were individually exposed to the objects on three consecutive days, and their viewing preference/eye use, exploration behaviour/nostril use, and stop position during approach was assessed. Mobility (lameness was repeatedly scored during the testing period. Overall, a bias to view the right rather than the left object was found at initial presentation of the bilateral objects. More cows also explored the right object rather than the left object with their nose. There was a trend for cows appearing hesitant in approaching the objects by stopping at a distance to them, to then explore the left object rather than the right. In contrast, cows that approached the objects directly had a greater tendency to contact the right object. No significant preference in right or left eye/nostril use was found when cows explored the centrally-located object. We found no relationship between lameness and lateralized behaviour. Nevertheless, observed trends suggesting that

  13. Lateralized behaviour as indicator of affective state in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappel, Sarah; Mendl, Michael T; Barrett, David C; Murrell, Joanna C; Whay, Helen R

    2017-01-01

    In humans, there is evidence that sensory processing of novel or threatening stimuli is right hemisphere dominated, especially in people experiencing negative affective states. There is also evidence for similar lateralization in a number of non-human animal species. Here we investigate whether this is also the case in domestic cattle that may experience long-term negative states due to commonly occurring conditions such as lameness. Health and welfare implications associated with pain in lame cows are a major concern in dairy farming. Behavioural tests combining animal behaviour and cognition could make a meaningful contribution to our understanding of disease-related changes in sensory processing in animals, and consequently enhance their welfare. We presented 216 lactating Holstein-Friesian cows with three different unfamiliar objects which were placed either bilaterally (e.g. two yellow party balloons, two black/white checkerboards) or hung centrally (a Kong™) within a familiar area. Cows were individually exposed to the objects on three consecutive days, and their viewing preference/eye use, exploration behaviour/nostril use, and stop position during approach was assessed. Mobility (lameness) was repeatedly scored during the testing period. Overall, a bias to view the right rather than the left object was found at initial presentation of the bilateral objects. More cows also explored the right object rather than the left object with their nose. There was a trend for cows appearing hesitant in approaching the objects by stopping at a distance to them, to then explore the left object rather than the right. In contrast, cows that approached the objects directly had a greater tendency to contact the right object. No significant preference in right or left eye/nostril use was found when cows explored the centrally-located object. We found no relationship between lameness and lateralized behaviour. Nevertheless, observed trends suggesting that lateralized

  14. Psychophysiological mechanisms of speech perception and their role in methods of listening comprehension teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L A Khokhlova

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the investigation findings of the listening comprehension mechanisms in left and right - hemisphere dominant students, factors contributing to effective language mastering being analyzed.

  15. Psychophysiological mechanisms of speech perception and their role in training of students to audition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L E Deryagina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the investigation findings of the listening comprehension mechanisms in left and right - hemisphere dominant students, factors contributing to effective language mastering being analyzed.

  16. Detection of target phonemes in spontaneous and read speech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehta, G.; Cutler, A.

    1988-01-01

    Although spontaneous speech occurs more frequently in most listeners' experience than read speech, laboratory studies of human speech recognition typically use carefully controlled materials read from a script. The phonological and prosodic characteristics of spontaneous and read speech differ

  17. ARTICULATION DISORDERS IN SERBIAN LANGUAGE IN CHILDREN WITH SPEECH PATHOLOGY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitrić, Tanja; Veselinović, Mila; Mitrović, Slobodan M

    2015-01-01

    Articulation is the result of speech organs and it means clean, clear and distinct pronunciation of voices in words. A prospective study included 24 children between 5 and 15 years of age, of both sexes. All children were monolingual, Serbian being their native language. The quality of articulation was tested with Triage articulation test. Neither omission nor distortion of plosives was observed in any of them, whereas substitution of plosives occurred in 12% of patients. Omission of affricates was not observed in any of the subjects, but substitution and distortion occurred in 29%, and 76% of subjects, respectively. Omission of fricatives was found in 29% subjects, substitution in 52%, and distortion in 82% of subjects. Omission and distortion of nasals was not recorded in any of the subjects, and substitution occurred in 6% of children. Omission of laterals was observed in 6%, substitution in 46% and distortion in 52% of subjects with articulation disorders. Discussion and Articulation disorders were observed not only in children diagnosed with dyslalia but in those with dysphasia and stuttering as well. Children with speech disorders articulate vowels best, then nasals and plosives. Articulation of fricatives and laterals was found to be most severely deviated, including all three disorders, i.e. substitution, omission and distortion. Spasms of speech muscles and vegetative reactions were also observed in this study, but only in children with stuttering.

  18. Simultaneous Assessment of Speech Identification and Spatial Discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer K. Bizley

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With increasing numbers of children and adults receiving bilateral cochlear implants, there is an urgent need for assessment tools that enable testing of binaural hearing abilities. Current test batteries are either limited in scope or are of an impractical duration for routine testing. Here, we report a behavioral test that enables combined testing of speech identification and spatial discrimination in noise. In this task, multitalker babble was presented from all speakers, and pairs of speech tokens were sequentially presented from two adjacent speakers. Listeners were required to identify both words from a closed set of four possibilities and to determine whether the second token was presented to the left or right of the first. In Experiment 1, normal-hearing adult listeners were tested at 15° intervals throughout the frontal hemifield. Listeners showed highest spatial discrimination performance in and around the frontal midline, with a decline at more eccentric locations. In contrast, speech identification abilities were least accurate near the midline and showed an improvement in performance at more lateral locations. In Experiment 2, normal-hearing listeners were assessed using a restricted range of speaker locations designed to match those found in clinical testing environments. Here, speakers were separated by 15° around the midline and 30° at more lateral locations. This resulted in a similar pattern of behavioral results as in Experiment 1. We conclude, this test offers the potential to assess both spatial discrimination and the ability to use spatial information for unmasking in clinical populations.

  19. Man-system interface based on automatic speech recognition: integration to a virtual control desk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jorge, Carlos Alexandre F.; Mol, Antonio Carlos A.; Pereira, Claudio M.N.A.; Aghina, Mauricio Alves C., E-mail: calexandre@ien.gov.b, E-mail: mol@ien.gov.b, E-mail: cmnap@ien.gov.b, E-mail: mag@ien.gov.b [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Nomiya, Diogo V., E-mail: diogonomiya@gmail.co [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This work reports the implementation of a man-system interface based on automatic speech recognition, and its integration to a virtual nuclear power plant control desk. The later is aimed to reproduce a real control desk using virtual reality technology, for operator training and ergonomic evaluation purpose. An automatic speech recognition system was developed to serve as a new interface with users, substituting computer keyboard and mouse. They can operate this virtual control desk in front of a computer monitor or a projection screen through spoken commands. The automatic speech recognition interface developed is based on a well-known signal processing technique named cepstral analysis, and on artificial neural networks. The speech recognition interface is described, along with its integration with the virtual control desk, and results are presented. (author)

  20. Man-system interface based on automatic speech recognition: integration to a virtual control desk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorge, Carlos Alexandre F.; Mol, Antonio Carlos A.; Pereira, Claudio M.N.A.; Aghina, Mauricio Alves C.; Nomiya, Diogo V.

    2009-01-01

    This work reports the implementation of a man-system interface based on automatic speech recognition, and its integration to a virtual nuclear power plant control desk. The later is aimed to reproduce a real control desk using virtual reality technology, for operator training and ergonomic evaluation purpose. An automatic speech recognition system was developed to serve as a new interface with users, substituting computer keyboard and mouse. They can operate this virtual control desk in front of a computer monitor or a projection screen through spoken commands. The automatic speech recognition interface developed is based on a well-known signal processing technique named cepstral analysis, and on artificial neural networks. The speech recognition interface is described, along with its integration with the virtual control desk, and results are presented. (author)

  1. Biological impact of preschool music classes on processing speech in noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strait, Dana L; Parbery-Clark, Alexandra; O'Connell, Samantha; Kraus, Nina

    2013-10-01

    Musicians have increased resilience to the effects of noise on speech perception and its neural underpinnings. We do not know, however, how early in life these enhancements arise. We compared auditory brainstem responses to speech in noise in 32 preschool children, half of whom were engaged in music training. Thirteen children returned for testing one year later, permitting the first longitudinal assessment of subcortical auditory function with music training. Results indicate emerging neural enhancements in musically trained preschoolers for processing speech in noise. Longitudinal outcomes reveal that children enrolled in music classes experience further increased neural resilience to background noise following one year of continued training compared to nonmusician peers. Together, these data reveal enhanced development of neural mechanisms undergirding speech-in-noise perception in preschoolers undergoing music training and may indicate a biological impact of music training on auditory function during early childhood. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Content analysis of the professional journal of the College of Speech Therapists II: coming of age and growing maturity, 1946-65.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfield, Jois; Armstrong, Linda

    2016-07-01

    Following a content analysis of the first 10 years of the UK professional journal Speech, this study was conducted to survey the published work of the speech (and language) therapy profession in the 20 years following the unification of two separate professional bodies into the College of Speech Therapists. To understand better the development of the speech (and language) therapy profession in the UK in order to support the development of an online history of the speech and language therapy profession in the UK. The 40 issues of the professional journal of the College of Speech Therapists published between 1946 and 1965 (Speech and later Speech Pathology and Therapy) were examined using content analysis and the content compared with that of the same journal as it appeared from 1935 to the end of the Second World War (1945). Many aspects of the journal and its authored papers were retained from the earlier years, for example, the range of authors' professions, their location mainly in the UK, their number of contributions and the length of papers. Changes and developments included the balance of original to republished papers, the description and discussion of new professional issues, and an extended range of client groups/disorders. The journal and its articles reflect the growing maturity of the newly unified profession of speech therapy and give an indication both of the expanding depth of knowledge available to speech therapists and of the rapidly increasing breadth of their work over this period. © 2016 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  3. Noise-robust speech triage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartos, Anthony L; Cipr, Tomas; Nelson, Douglas J; Schwarz, Petr; Banowetz, John; Jerabek, Ladislav

    2018-04-01

    A method is presented in which conventional speech algorithms are applied, with no modifications, to improve their performance in extremely noisy environments. It has been demonstrated that, for eigen-channel algorithms, pre-training multiple speaker identification (SID) models at a lattice of signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) levels and then performing SID using the appropriate SNR dependent model was successful in mitigating noise at all SNR levels. In those tests, it was found that SID performance was optimized when the SNR of the testing and training data were close or identical. In this current effort multiple i-vector algorithms were used, greatly improving both processing throughput and equal error rate classification accuracy. Using identical approaches in the same noisy environment, performance of SID, language identification, gender identification, and diarization were significantly improved. A critical factor in this improvement is speech activity detection (SAD) that performs reliably in extremely noisy environments, where the speech itself is barely audible. To optimize SAD operation at all SNR levels, two algorithms were employed. The first maximized detection probability at low levels (-10 dB ≤ SNR < +10 dB) using just the voiced speech envelope, and the second exploited features extracted from the original speech to improve overall accuracy at higher quality levels (SNR ≥ +10 dB).

  4. Voice Activity Detection. Fundamentals and Speech Recognition System Robustness

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez, J.; Gorriz, J. M.; Segura, J. C.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter has shown an overview of the main challenges in robust speech detection and a review of the state of the art and applications. VADs are frequently used in a number of applications including speech coding, speech enhancement and speech recognition. A precise VAD extracts a set of discriminative speech features from the noisy speech and formulates the decision in terms of well defined rule. The chapter has summarized three robust VAD methods that yield high speech/non-speech discri...

  5. A cross-linguistic evaluation of script-specific effects on fMRI lateralization in late second language readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maki Sophia Koyama

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral and neuroimaging studies have provided evidence that reading is strongly left lateralized, and this pattern of functional lateralization can be indicative of reading competence. However, it remains unclear whether functional lateralization differs between the first (L1 and second (L2 languages in bilingual L2 readers. This question is particularly important when the particular script, or orthography, learned by the L2 readers is markedly different from their L1 script. In this study, we quantified functional lateralization in brain regions involved in visual word recognition for participants’ L1 and L2 scripts, with a particular focus on the effects of L1-L2 script differences in the visual complexity and orthographic depth of the script. Two different groups of late L2 learners participated in an fMRI experiment: L1 readers of Japanese who learnt to read alphabetic English and L1 readers of English who learnt to read both Japanese syllabic Kana and logographic Kanji. The results showed weaker leftward lateralization in the posterior lateral occipital complex (pLOC for logographic Kanji compared with syllabic and alphabetic scripts in both L1 and L2 readers of Kanji. When both L1 and L2 scripts were non-logographic, where symbols are mapped onto sounds, functional lateralization did not significantly differ between L1 and L2 scripts in any region, in any group. Our findings indicate that weaker leftward lateralization for logographic reading reflects greater requirement of the right hemisphere for processing visually complex logographic Kanji symbols, irrespective of whether Kanji is the readers’ L1 or L2, rather than characterizing the efforts of L2 readers to accommodate to the L2 script Finally, brain-behavior analysis revealed that functional lateralization for L2 reading predicted L2 reading competency.

  6. It takes two-skilled recognition of objects engages lateral areas in both hemispheres.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merim Bilalić

    Full Text Available Our object recognition abilities, a direct product of our experience with objects, are fine-tuned to perfection. Left temporal and lateral areas along the dorsal, action related stream, as well as left infero-temporal areas along the ventral, object related stream are engaged in object recognition. Here we show that expertise modulates the activity of dorsal areas in the recognition of man-made objects with clearly specified functions. Expert chess players were faster than chess novices in identifying chess objects and their functional relations. Experts' advantage was domain-specific as there were no differences between groups in a control task featuring geometrical shapes. The pattern of eye movements supported the notion that experts' extensive knowledge about domain objects and their functions enabled superior recognition even when experts were not directly fixating the objects of interest. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI related exclusively the areas along the dorsal stream to chess specific object recognition. Besides the commonly involved left temporal and parietal lateral brain areas, we found that only in experts homologous areas on the right hemisphere were also engaged in chess specific object recognition. Based on these results, we discuss whether skilled object recognition does not only involve a more efficient version of the processes found in non-skilled recognition, but also qualitatively different cognitive processes which engage additional brain areas.

  7. Functional lateralization of temporoparietal junction - imitation inhibition, visual perspective-taking and theory of mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiesteban, Idalmis; Banissy, Michael J; Catmur, Caroline; Bird, Geoffrey

    2015-10-01

    Although neuroimaging studies have consistently identified the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) as a key brain region involved in social cognition, the literature is far from consistent with respect to lateralization of function. For example, during theory-of-mind tasks bilateral TPJ activation is found in some studies but only right hemisphere activation in others. Visual perspective-taking and imitation inhibition, which have been argued to recruit the same socio-cognitive processes as theory of mind, are associated with unilateral activation of either left TPJ (perspective taking) or right TPJ (imitation inhibition). The present study investigated the functional lateralization of TPJ involvement in the above three socio-cognitive abilities using transcranial direct current stimulation. Three groups of healthy adults received anodal stimulation over right TPJ, left TPJ or the occipital cortex prior to performing three tasks (imitation inhibition, visual perspective-taking and theory of mind). In contrast to the extant neuroimaging literature, our results suggest bilateral TPJ involvement in imitation inhibition and visual perspective-taking, while no effect of anodal stimulation was observed on theory of mind. The discrepancy between these findings and those obtained using neuroimaging highlight the efficacy of neurostimulation as a complementary methodological tool in cognitive neuroscience. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. [Effects of acupuncture at left and right Hegu (LI 4) for cerebral function laterality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Linying; Xu, Chunsheng; Zhu, Yifang; Li, Chuanfu; Yang, Jun

    2015-08-01

    To explore the cerebral function laterality of acupuncture at left and right Hegu (LI 4) by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and provide objective evidences for side selection of Hegu (LI 4) in the clinical application. Eighty healthy volunteers were randomly divided into a left-acupoint group and a right-acupoint group, and they were treated with acupuncture at left Hegu (LI 4) and right Hegu (LI 4) respectively. After the arrival of qi, the task-state fMRI data in both groups was collected, and analysis of functional neuroimages (AFNI) software was used to perform intra-group and between-group comparisons. After acupuncture, acupuncture feelings were recorded and MGH acupuncture sensation scale (MASS) was recorded. The difference of MASS between the two groups was not significant (P>0. 05). The result of left-acupoint group showed an increased signal on right cerebral hemisphere, while the right-acupoint group showed extensive signal changes in both cerebral hemispheres. The analysis between left-acupoint group and retroflex right-acupoint group showed differences in brain areas. The central effect of acupuncture at left and right Hegu (LI 4) is dissymmetry, indicating right hemisphere laterality. The right lobus insularis and cingulate gyrus may be the key regions in the acupuncture at Hegu (LI 4).

  9. The right hippocampus leads the bilateral integration of gamma-parsed lateralized information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito, Nuria; Martín-Vázquez, Gonzalo; Makarova, Julia; Makarov, Valeri A; Herreras, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    It is unclear whether the two hippocampal lobes convey similar or different activities and how they cooperate. Spatial discrimination of electric fields in anesthetized rats allowed us to compare the pathway-specific field potentials corresponding to the gamma-paced CA3 output (CA1 Schaffer potentials) and CA3 somatic inhibition within and between sides. Bilateral excitatory Schaffer gamma waves are generally larger and lead from the right hemisphere with only moderate covariation of amplitude, and drive CA1 pyramidal units more strongly than unilateral waves. CA3 waves lock to the ipsilateral Schaffer potentials, although bilateral coherence was weak. Notably, Schaffer activity may run laterally, as seen after the disruption of the connecting pathways. Thus, asymmetric operations promote the entrainment of CA3-autonomous gamma oscillators bilaterally, synchronizing lateralized gamma strings to converge optimally on CA1 targets. The findings support the view that interhippocampal connections integrate different aspects of information that flow through the left and right lobes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16658.001 PMID:27599221

  10. Speech Inconsistency in Children with Childhood Apraxia of Speech, Language Impairment, and Speech Delay: Depends on the Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iuzzini-Seigel, Jenya; Hogan, Tiffany P.; Green, Jordan R.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The current research sought to determine (a) if speech inconsistency is a core feature of childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) or if it is driven by comorbid language impairment that affects a large subset of children with CAS and (b) if speech inconsistency is a sensitive and specific diagnostic marker that can differentiate between CAS and…

  11. Hemispheric specialization in affective responses, cerebral dominance for language, and handedness: Lateralization of emotion, language, and dexterity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzo, Elsa Yolanda; Villarreal, Mirta; Drucaroff, Lucas Javier; Ortiz-Villafañe, Manuel; Castro, Mariana Nair; Goldschmidt, Micaela; Wainsztein, Agustina Edith; Ladrón-de-Guevara, María Soledad; Romero, Carlos; Brusco, Luis Ignacio; Camprodon, Joan A; Nemeroff, Charles; Guinjoan, Salvador Martín

    2015-07-15

    Hemispheric specialization in affective responses has received little attention in the literature. This is a fundamental variable to understand circuit dynamics of networks subserving emotion. In this study we put to test a modified "valence" hypothesis of emotion processing, considering that sadness and happiness are processed by each hemisphere in relation to dominance for language and handedness. Mood induction and language activation during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) were used in 20 right-handed and 20 nonright-handed subjects, focusing on interconnected regions known to play critical roles in affective responses: subgenual cingulate cortex, amygdala, and anterior insular cortex. We observed a consistent relationship between lateralization of affective processing, motor dexterity, and language in individuals with clear right-handedness. Sadness induces a greater activation of right-hemisphere cortical structures in right-handed, left-dominant individuals, which is not evident in nonright-handed subjects who show no consistent hemispheric dominance for language. In anterior insula, right-handed individuals displayed reciprocal activation of either hemisphere depending upon mood valence, whereas amygdala activation was predominantly left-sided regardless of mood valence. Nonright-handed individuals exhibited less consistent brain lateralization of affective processing regardless of language and motor dexterity lateralization. In contrast with traditional views on emotion processing lateralization, hemispheric specialization in affective responses is not a unitary process but is specific to the brain structure being activated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy reveals altered hemispheric laterality in relation to schizotypy during verbal fluency task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Hiroaki; Ozeki, Yuji; Terada, Sumio; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2008-12-12

    Previous functional neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that patients with schizophrenia and those with schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) show reduced laterality, or relative right hemispheric dominance, during the performance of cognitive activation tasks; however, neuroimaging studies looking at non-clinical schizotypy have been few. We have recently reported that schizotypal traits at a non-clinical level are associated with right prefrontal dominance during a letter version of the verbal fluency task (VFT), but it is unknown whether such relationship between schizotypy and functional laterality would be observed across various cognitive tasks. Here we examined the relationships of schizotypal traits as measured by the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) in healthy adults with hemispheric lateralization of prefrontal activation during letter and category VFTs, using near-infrared spectroscopy. Thirty-two participants were divided into high- (n=16) and low- (n=16) SPQ groups by the median split of the total SPQ score. The high-SPQ group, but not low-SPQ group, showed significantly right-greater-than-left asymmetry of prefrontal activation during letter VFT, whereas such pronounced hemispheric asymmetry in relation to schizotypy was not found during category VFT. These results indicate that non-clinical schizotypy is related to right prefrontal preference during the letter version of VFT in particular, suggesting that the association between schizotypal traits and functional laterality may vary depending on cognitive activation tasks.

  13. Variable Span Filters for Speech Enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Benesty, Jacob; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we consider enhancement of multichannel speech recordings. Linear filtering and subspace approaches have been considered previously for solving the problem. The current linear filtering methods, although many variants exist, have limited control of noise reduction and speech...

  14. Represented Speech in Qualitative Health Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musaeus, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Represented speech refers to speech where we reference somebody. Represented speech is an important phenomenon in everyday conversation, health care communication, and qualitative research. This case will draw first from a case study on physicians’ workplace learning and second from a case study...... on nurses’ apprenticeship learning. The aim of the case is to guide the qualitative researcher to use own and others’ voices in the interview and to be sensitive to represented speech in everyday conversation. Moreover, reported speech matters to health professionals who aim to represent the voice...... of their patients. Qualitative researchers and students might learn to encourage interviewees to elaborate different voices or perspectives. Qualitative researchers working with natural speech might pay attention to how people talk and use represented speech. Finally, represented speech might be relevant...

  15. Quick Statistics about Voice, Speech, and Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... here Home » Health Info » Statistics and Epidemiology Quick Statistics About Voice, Speech, Language Voice, Speech, Language, and ... no 205. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2015. Hoffman HJ, Li C-M, Losonczy K, ...

  16. A NOVEL APPROACH TO STUTTERED SPEECH CORRECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alim Sabur Ajibola

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Stuttered speech is a dysfluency rich speech, more prevalent in males than females. It has been associated with insufficient air pressure or poor articulation, even though the root causes are more complex. The primary features include prolonged speech and repetitive speech, while some of its secondary features include, anxiety, fear, and shame. This study used LPC analysis and synthesis algorithms to reconstruct the stuttered speech. The results were evaluated using cepstral distance, Itakura-Saito distance, mean square error, and likelihood ratio. These measures implied perfect speech reconstruction quality. ASR was used for further testing, and the results showed that all the reconstructed speech samples were perfectly recognized while only three samples of the original speech were perfectly recognized.

  17. Developmental language and speech disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiel, G; Brunner, E; Allmayer, B; Pletz, A

    2001-09-01

    Speech disabilities (articulation deficits) and language disorders--expressive (vocabulary) receptive (language comprehension) are not uncommon in children. An overview of these along with a global description of the impairment of communication as well as clinical characteristics of language developmental disorders are presented in this article. The diagnostic tables, which are applied in the European and Anglo-American speech areas, ICD-10 and DSM-IV, have been explained and compared. Because of their strengths and weaknesses an alternative classification of language and speech developmental disorders is proposed, which allows a differentiation between expressive and receptive language capabilities with regard to the semantic and the morphological/syntax domains. Prevalence and comorbidity rates, psychosocial influences, biological factors and the biological social interaction have been discussed. The necessity of the use of standardized examinations is emphasised. General logopaedic treatment paradigms, specific therapy concepts and an overview of prognosis have been described.

  18. Motor Speech Phenotypes of Frontotemporal Dementia, Primary Progressive Aphasia, and Progressive Apraxia of Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Matthew L.; Brodtmann, Amy; Darby, David; Vogel, Adam P.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Our purpose was to create a comprehensive review of speech impairment in frontotemporal dementia (FTD), primary progressive aphasia (PPA), and progressive apraxia of speech in order to identify the most effective measures for diagnosis and monitoring, and to elucidate associations between speech and neuroimaging. Method: Speech and…

  19. Visual context enhanced. The joint contribution of iconic gestures and visible speech to degraded speech comprehension.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drijvers, L.; Özyürek, A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated whether and to what extent iconic co-speech gestures contribute to information from visible speech to enhance degraded speech comprehension at different levels of noise-vocoding. Previous studies of the contributions of these 2 visual articulators to speech

  20. Listeners Experience Linguistic Masking Release in Noise-Vocoded Speech-in-Speech Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Navin; Kokkinakis, Kostas; Williams, Brittany T.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether listeners with normal hearing perceiving noise-vocoded speech-in-speech demonstrate better intelligibility of target speech when the background speech was mismatched in language (linguistic release from masking [LRM]) and/or location (spatial release from masking [SRM]) relative to the…

  1. Predicting Speech Intelligibility with a Multiple Speech Subsystems Approach in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jimin; Hustad, Katherine C.; Weismer, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Speech acoustic characteristics of children with cerebral palsy (CP) were examined with a multiple speech subsystems approach; speech intelligibility was evaluated using a prediction model in which acoustic measures were selected to represent three speech subsystems. Method: Nine acoustic variables reflecting different subsystems, and…

  2. Visual Context Enhanced: The Joint Contribution of Iconic Gestures and Visible Speech to Degraded Speech Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drijvers, Linda; Ozyurek, Asli

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated whether and to what extent iconic co-speech gestures contribute to information from visible speech to enhance degraded speech comprehension at different levels of noise-vocoding. Previous studies of the contributions of these 2 visual articulators to speech comprehension have only been performed separately. Method:…

  3. An experimental Dutch keyboard-to-speech system for the speech impaired

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deliege, R.J.H.

    1989-01-01

    An experimental Dutch keyboard-to-speech system has been developed to explor the possibilities and limitations of Dutch speech synthesis in a communication aid for the speech impaired. The system uses diphones and a formant synthesizer chip for speech synthesis. Input to the system is in

  4. Perceived Liveliness and Speech Comprehensibility in Aphasia: The Effects of Direct Speech in Auditory Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenewold, Rimke; Bastiaanse, Roelien; Nickels, Lyndsey; Huiskes, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have shown that in semi-spontaneous speech, individuals with Broca's and anomic aphasia produce relatively many direct speech constructions. It has been claimed that in "healthy" communication direct speech constructions contribute to the liveliness, and indirectly to the comprehensibility, of speech.…

  5. Poor Speech Perception Is Not a Core Deficit of Childhood Apraxia of Speech: Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuk, Jennifer; Iuzzini-Seigel, Jenya; Cabbage, Kathryn; Green, Jordan R.; Hogan, Tiffany P.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is hypothesized to arise from deficits in speech motor planning and programming, but the influence of abnormal speech perception in CAS on these processes is debated. This study examined speech perception abilities among children with CAS with and without language impairment compared to those with…

  6. The treatment of apraxia of speech : Speech and music therapy, an innovative joint effort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurkmans, Josephus Johannes Stephanus

    2016-01-01

    Apraxia of Speech (AoS) is a neurogenic speech disorder. A wide variety of behavioural methods have been developed to treat AoS. Various therapy programmes use musical elements to improve speech production. A unique therapy programme combining elements of speech therapy and music therapy is called

  7. Speech Perception and Short-Term Memory Deficits in Persistent Developmental Speech Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Mary Kay; Barac-Cikoja, Dragana; Finnegan, Kimberly; Jeffries, Neal; Ludlow, Christy L.

    2006-01-01

    Children with developmental speech disorders may have additional deficits in speech perception and/or short-term memory. To determine whether these are only transient developmental delays that can accompany the disorder in childhood or persist as part of the speech disorder, adults with a persistent familial speech disorder were tested on speech…

  8. Development and validation of a screening procedure to identify speech-language delay in toddlers with cleft palate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Line Dahl; Willadsen, Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    condition based on assessment of consonant inventory using a real-time listening procedure in combination with parent-reported expressive vocabulary. These measures allowed evaluation of early speech-language skills found to correlate significantly with later speech-language difficulties in longitudinal......The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a clinically useful speech-language screening procedure for young children with cleft palate +/- cleft lip (CP) to identify those in need of speech-language intervention. Twenty-two children with CP were assigned to a +/- need for intervention...... studies of children with CP. The external validity of this screening procedure was evaluated by comparing the +/- need for intervention assignment determined by the screening procedure to experienced speech-language pathologists’ (SLPs’) clinical judgment of whether or not a child needed early...

  9. The role of private speech in cognitive regulation of learners: The case of English as a foreign language education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Reza Anani Sarab

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigations into the use of private speech by adult English foreign language (EFL learners in regulating their mental activities have been an interesting area of research with a sociocultural framework. Following this line of research, 30 advanced adult EFL learners were selected via the administration of Oxford quick placement test and took a test of solving challenging English riddles while their voices were being recorded. Later, instances of the produced private speech were analyzed in terms of form, content, and function. It was demonstrated that private speech with its different forms, contents, and functions plays a very crucial role in cognitive regulation of EFL learners which has important implications for the context of language learning classrooms. In addition, participants seemed to produce qualitatively different kinds of L2 private speech, which brought us to the conclusion that it would be necessary to consider quality and not just quantity in studying psycholinguistic concepts, such as cognitive regulation and private speech.

  10. THE ONTOGENESIS OF SPEECH DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. E. Braudo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to acquaint the specialists, working with children having developmental disorders, with age-related norms for speech development. Many well-known linguists and psychologists studied speech ontogenesis (logogenesis. Speech is a higher mental function, which integrates many functional systems. Speech development in infants during the first months after birth is ensured by the innate hearing and emerging ability to fix the gaze on the face of an adult. Innate emotional reactions are also being developed during this period, turning into nonverbal forms of communication. At about 6 months a baby starts to pronounce some syllables; at 7–9 months – repeats various sounds combinations, pronounced by adults. At 10–11 months a baby begins to react on the words, referred to him/her. The first words usually appear at an age of 1 year; this is the start of the stage of active speech development. At this time it is acceptable, if a child confuses or rearranges sounds, distorts or misses them. By the age of 1.5 years a child begins to understand abstract explanations of adults. Significant vocabulary enlargement occurs between 2 and 3 years; grammatical structures of the language are being formed during this period (a child starts to use phrases and sentences. Preschool age (3–7 y. o. is characterized by incorrect, but steadily improving pronunciation of sounds and phonemic perception. The vocabulary increases; abstract speech and retelling are being formed. Children over 7 y. o. continue to improve grammar, writing and reading skills. The described stages may not have strict age boundaries, as soon as they are dependent not only on environment, but also on the child’s mental constitution, heredity and character.

  11. Temporal Lobe White Matter Asymmetry and Language Laterality in Epilepsy Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellmore, Timothy M.; Beauchamp, Michael S.; Breier, Joshua I.; Slater, Jeremy D.; Kalamangalam, Giridhar P.; O’Neill, Thomas J.; Disano, Michael A.; Tandon, Nitin

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have advanced our knowledge of the organization of white matter subserving language function. It remains unclear, however, how DTI may be used to predict accurately a key feature of language organization: its asymmetric representation in one cerebral hemisphere. In this study of epilepsy patients with unambiguous lateralization on Wada testing (19 left and 4 right lateralized subjects; no bilateral subjects), the predictive value of DTI for classifying the dominant hemisphere for language was assessed relative to the existing standard - the intra-carotid Amytal (Wada) procedure. Our specific hypothesis is that language laterality in both unilateral left- and right-hemisphere language dominant subjects may be predicted by hemispheric asymmetry in the relative density of three white matter pathways terminating in the temporal lobe implicated in different aspects of language function: the arcuate (AF), uncinate (UF), and inferior longitudinal fasciculi (ILF). Laterality indices computed from asymmetry of high anisotropy AF pathways, but not the other pathways, classified the majority (19 of 23) of patients using the Wada results as the standard. A logistic regression model incorporating information from DTI of the AF, fMRI activity in Broca’s area, and handedness was able to classify 22 of 23 (95.6%) patients correctly according to their Wada score. We conclude that evaluation of highly anisotropic components of the AF alone has significant predictive power for determining language laterality, and that this markedly asymmetric distribution in the dominant hemisphere may reflect enhanced connectivity between frontal and temporal sites to support fluent language processes. Given the small sample reported in this preliminary study, future research should assess this method on a larger group of patients, including subjects with bihemispheric dominance. PMID:19874899

  12. Common neural substrates support speech and non-speech vocal tract gestures

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Soo-Eun; Kenney, Mary Kay; Loucks, Torrey M.J.; Poletto, Christopher J.; Ludlow, Christy L.

    2009-01-01

    The issue of whether speech is supported by the same neural substrates as non-speech vocal-tract gestures has been contentious. In this fMRI study we tested whether producing non-speech vocal tract gestures in humans shares the same functional neuroanatomy as non-sense speech syllables. Production of non-speech vocal tract gestures, devoid of phonological content but similar to speech in that they had familiar acoustic and somatosensory targets, were compared to the production of speech sylla...

  13. Cosmetic appreciation of lateralization of peripheral facial palsy: 'preference for left or right, true or mirror image?'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pouwels, S.; Ingels, K.J.; Heerbeek, N. van; Beurskens, C.H.

    2014-01-01

    There have been several studies in the past depicting asymmetry in 'normal' human faces. Evidence supports the fact that the right hemisphere is superior in the recognition of emotions expressed by the human face and indicates a right hemispheric specialization for processing emotional information.

  14. Multimicrophone Speech Dereverberation: Experimental Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Moonen

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Dereverberation is required in various speech processing applications such as handsfree telephony and voice-controlled systems, especially when signals are applied that are recorded in a moderately or highly reverberant environment. In this paper, we compare a number of classical and more recently developed multimicrophone dereverberation algorithms, and validate the different algorithmic settings by means of two performance indices and a speech recognition system. It is found that some of the classical solutions obtain a moderate signal enhancement. More advanced subspace-based dereverberation techniques, on the other hand, fail to enhance the signals despite their high-computational load.

  15. Discriminative learning for speech recognition

    CERN Document Server

    He, Xiadong

    2008-01-01

    In this book, we introduce the background and mainstream methods of probabilistic modeling and discriminative parameter optimization for speech recognition. The specific models treated in depth include the widely used exponential-family distributions and the hidden Markov model. A detailed study is presented on unifying the common objective functions for discriminative learning in speech recognition, namely maximum mutual information (MMI), minimum classification error, and minimum phone/word error. The unification is presented, with rigorous mathematical analysis, in a common rational-functio

  16. Ability to solve riddles in patients with speech and language impairments after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savić, Goran

    2016-01-01

    Successful riddle solving requires recognition of the meaning of words, attention, concentration, memory, connectivity and analysis of riddle content, and sufficiently developed associative thinking. The aim of the study was to determine the ability to solve riddles in stroke patients who do or do not have speech and language disorders (SLDs), to determine the presence of SLDs in relation to the lesion localization, as well as to define the relationship between riddle-solving and functional impairment of a body side. The sample consisted of 88 patients. The data used included age, sex, educational level, time of stroke onset, presence of an SLD, lesion localization, and functional damage of the body side. The patients were presented with a task of solving 10 riddles. A significant SLD was present in 38.60% of the patients. Brain lesions were found distributed at 46 different brain sites. Patients with different lesion localization had different success in solving riddles. Patients with perisylvian cortex brain lesions, or patients with Wernicke and global aphasia, had the poorest results. The group with SLDs had an average success of solved riddles of 26.76% (p = 0.000). The group with right-sided functional impairments had average success of 37.14%, and the group with functional impairments of the left side of the body 56.88% (p = 0.002). Most patients with SLDs had a low ability of solving riddles. Most of the patients with left brain lesions and perisylvian cortex damage demonstrated lower ability in solving riddles in relation to patients with right hemisphere lesions.

  17. Ability to solve riddles in patients with speech and language impairments after stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Goran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Successful riddle solving requires recognition of the meaning of words, attention, concentration, memory, connectivity and analysis of riddle content, and sufficiently developed associative thinking. Objective. The aim of the study was to determine the ability to solve riddles in stroke patients who do or do not have speech and language disorders (SLDs, to determine the presence of SLDs in relation to the lesion localization, as well as to define the relationship between riddle-solving and functional impairment of a body side. Methods. The sample consisted of 88 patients. The data used included age, sex, educational level, time of stroke onset, presence of an SLD, lesion localization, and functional damage of the body side. The patients were presented with a task of solving 10 riddles. Results. A significant SLD was present in 38.60% of the patients. Brain lesions were found distributed at 46 different brain sites. Patients with different lesion localization had different success in solving riddles. Patients with perisylvian cortex brain lesions, or patients with Wernicke and global aphasia, had the poorest results. The group with SLDs had an average success of solved riddles of 26.76% (p = 0.000. The group with right-sided functional impairments had average success of 37.14%, and the group with functional impairments of the left side of the body 56.88% (p = 0.002. Conclusion. Most patients with SLDs had a low ability of solving riddles. Most of the patients with left brain lesions and perisylvian cortex damage demonstrated lower ability in solving riddles in relation to patients with right hemisphere lesions.

  18. Speech coding, reconstruction and recognition using acoustics and electromagnetic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzrichter, J.F.; Ng, L.C.

    1998-01-01

    The use of EM radiation in conjunction with simultaneously recorded acoustic speech information enables a complete mathematical coding of acoustic speech. The methods include the forming of a feature vector for each pitch period of voiced speech and the forming of feature vectors for each time frame of unvoiced, as well as for combined voiced and unvoiced speech. The methods include how to deconvolve the speech excitation function from the acoustic speech output to describe the transfer function each time frame. The formation of feature vectors defining all acoustic speech units over well defined time frames can be used for purposes of speech coding, speech compression, speaker identification, language-of-speech identification, speech recognition, speech synthesis, speech translation, speech telephony, and speech teaching. 35 figs

  19. Speech coding, reconstruction and recognition using acoustics and electromagnetic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzrichter, John F.; Ng, Lawrence C.

    1998-01-01

    The use of EM radiation in conjunction with simultaneously recorded acoustic speech information enables a complete mathematical coding of acoustic speech. The methods include the forming of a feature vector for each pitch period of voiced speech and the forming of feature vectors for each time frame of unvoiced, as well as for combined voiced and unvoiced speech. The methods include how to deconvolve the speech excitation function from the acoustic speech output to describe the transfer function each time frame. The formation of feature vectors defining all acoustic speech units over well defined time frames can be used for purposes of speech coding, speech compression, speaker identification, language-of-speech identification, speech recognition, speech synthesis, speech translation, speech telephony, and speech teaching.

  20. Relationship between Speech Intelligibility and Speech Comprehension in Babble Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontan, Lionel; Tardieu, Julien; Gaillard, Pascal; Woisard, Virginie; Ruiz, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The authors investigated the relationship between the intelligibility and comprehension of speech presented in babble noise. Method: Forty participants listened to French imperative sentences (commands for moving objects) in a multitalker babble background for which intensity was experimentally controlled. Participants were instructed to…