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Sample records for ricinus communis polyurethane

  1. BONE REGENERATION AFTER DEMINERALIZED BONE MATRIX AND CASTOR OIL (RICINUS COMMUNIS) POLYURETHANE IMPLANTATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Fábio Renato Manzolli; Ramalho, Lizeti Toledo de Oliveira

    2008-01-01

    Innocuous biocompatible materials have been searched to repair or reconstruct bone defects. Their goal is to restore the function of live or dead tissues. This study compared connective tissue and bone reaction when exposed to demineralized bovine bone matrix and a polyurethane resin derived from castor bean (Ricinus communis). Forty-five rats were assigned to 3 groups of 15 animals (control, bovine bone and polyurethane). A cylindrical defect was created on mandible base and filled with bovine bone matrix and the polyurethane. Control group received no treatment. Analyses were performed after 15, 45 and 60 days (5 animals each). Histological analysis revealed connective tissue tolerance to bovine bone with local inflammatory response similar to that of the control group. After 15 days, all groups demonstrated similar outcomes, with mild inflammatory reaction, probably due to the surgical procedure rather than to the material. In the polymer group, after 60 days, scarce multinucleated cells could still be observed. In general, all groups showed good stability and osteogenic connective tissue with blood vessels into the surgical area. The results suggest biocompatibility of both materials, seen by their integration into rat mandible. Moreover, the polyurethane seems to be an alternative in bone reconstruction and it is an inexhaustible source of biomaterial. PMID:19089203

  2. Polyurethane resins derived from castor oil (Ricinus communis) for tibial crest deviation in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maria, P.P.; Padilha Filho, J.G.; Canola, J.C.; Castro, M.B.

    2004-01-01

    Medial patellar luxation is one of the most common orthopedic problems in small breeds of dogs and tibial crest deviation is a frequent accompaining anatomical abnormality. For that reason, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the behavior of castor oil derived polyurethane implants when apllied to experimental defects created on the medial side of the proximal tibia of normal puppies. Twelve dogs were randomly divided in 3 groups of 4 animals and were submitted to the same treatment. Histopathological study was performed respectively at 30 (GI), 60 (GII) and 90 (GIII) days post-surgery. Evaluations methods included clinical assessment, radiology, gross and macroscopic study, tomography and statistical analysis. Clinically, there were no signs of implant rejection. Radiology revealed intense periosteal reaction and new bone formation. On gross examination, there was thickening and lateral deviation of the tibial crest and new bone neoformation. On microscopic examination, there was fibrous tissue around the polyurethane, periosteal proliferation on the medial side of the tibia and no bone proliferation towards the implant. Cat scans reveled lateral deviation of the tibial crest in eleven animals, which was statistically significant (p [pt

  3. Activity of Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae) against Spodoptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the most studied plant species with insecticidal properties is the castor bean Ricinus communis. However, its activity against Spodoptera frugiperda is unclear. Therefore, to determinate the insecticidal and insectistatic activities of methanol, hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of the seeds and leaves of R. communis, ...

  4. Poliuretana de mamona (Ricinus communis para desvio da crista tibial no cão Polyurethane resins derived from castor oil (Ricinus communis for tibial crest deviation in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Popak Maria

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A luxação medial de patela é uma das principais afecções ortopédicas que afetam cães de raças de pequeno porte. Tendo como princípio que o desvio da crista tibial é uma das alterações anatômicas encontradas, este estudo objetivou avaliar o efeito da poliuretana de mamona (Ricinus communis aplicada em defeitos produzidos experimentalmente na porção proximal medial da tíbia de cães normais em fase de crescimento. Para isto, foram utilizados 12 cães subdivididos aleatoriamente em 3 grupos de igual número, com mesmo tratamento, mas com análise histopatológica aos 30 (GI, 60 (GII e 90 (GIII dias. O estudo constou de avaliações clínica, radiográfica, macroscópica, histopatológica, tomográfica e análise estatística. Avaliação clínica demonstrou não haver rejeição do implante. A análise radiográfica revelou intensa reação periosteal e neoformações ósseas no local da implantação. Macroscopicamente observou-se espessamento da crista tibial, neoformações ósseas e desvio lateral da crista. Os achados à microscopia óptica revelaram presença de tecido conjuntivo fibroso ao redor da poliuretana, ausência de proliferação óssea em direção ao implante e proliferação de periósteo na face medial das tíbias. A tomografia computadorizada revelou desvio lateral da crista em 11 animais e estes desvios foram estatisticamente significantes em nível de 5% por meio do teste t pareado.Medial patellar luxation is one of the most common orthopedic problems in small breeds of dogs and tibial crest deviation is a frequent accompaining anatomical abnormality. For that reason, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the behavior of castor oil derived polyurethane implants when apllied to experimental defects created on the medial side of the proximal tibia of normal puppies. Twelve dogs were randomly divided in 3 groups of 4 animals and were submitted to the same treatment. Histopathological study was performed

  5. Immunogenic Properties of Ricinus Communis Var Minor Seed on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    1College of Health Technology, Zawan, Plateau State.2Department of ... Ricinus communis var minor seed included in their feed (5g/100g body weight). ... White Blood cell Count (WBC) count and lymphocytosis in the differential count.

  6. Antibacterial profile of fermented seed extracts of ricinus communis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to ascertain the antibacterial properties inherent in fermented seed extracts of Ricinus communis. Dry seeds of R. communis (Castor oil plant) were deshelled, grounded to powder, fermented, and then extracted both with alcohol and water using Soxhlet machine. Different concentrations of the ...

  7. Growth response of Ricinus communis L (castor oil) in spent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The growth response of castor oil plant, Ricinus communis, in spent lubricating oil (SLO) was investigated using 1-6% w/w SLO and a control. The result showed that highest percent germination of approximately 92, was obtained in control and the least in 5% w/w. The early germination obtained in this study was significant ...

  8. Phytochemical and Pharmacological Investigations of Ricinus communis Linn.

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    Ram Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants have always played a vital role for the healthy human life. The family Euphorbiaceous is a family of flowering plants and contains nearly about 300 genera and 7,500 species. Amongst all, the species Ricinus communis or castor plant has high traditional and modern medicinal values. The individual parts of the plant like the seed, seed oil, leaves and the roots showed their importance in pharmacology. Traditionally, the plant has been used for the treatment of various diseases in traditional or folk remedies throughout the world. In modern pharmacology, this plant is reported to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, central analgesic, antitumor, anti-nociceptive, antiasthmatic activity and other medicinal properties. These activities of the plant are due to the presence of important phytochemical constituents like flavonoids, glycosides, alkaloids, steroids, terpenoids etc. The aim of present article is to explore the chemical constituents, their structures and medicinal importance of Ricinus communis.

  9. Qualitative histologic evaluation of the tissue reaction to the polyurethane resin (ricinus communis - based biopolymer implantation assessed by light and scanning electron microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Campos Belmonte

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The tissue reaction of bone tissue accessed by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM images after polyurethane resin implantation is presented in this study. Twenty four male rabbits were used, divided into two groups of 12 animals each (experimental group and control group in which full-thickness cranial defect was surgically created. At 30 and 90 days post operation 6 animals of each group were euthanized and bone samples were removed for analysis. The microscopic results indicated no inflammatory foreign body reaction, a perfect union between the polymer and surgical bone bed surface, lack of bone resorption and presence of a thin layer of osteogenic material covering the polymer surface in contact with the surgical bone bed. The SEM images demonstrate the porosity of the resin, with diameters from 120 to 500 µm. This important feature of this polymer is associated with its osteoconductivity, allowing the bone growth inside it, improving the integration between the material and bone tissue. These results confirm that polyurethane resin derived from Ricinuscommunis is an excellent bone substitute for use in repair surgery for great bone losses.

  10. Discovery and Characterization of Novel Signatures from the Ricinus communis L. (Castor Bean) Genome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Connell, Kevin P; Skowronski, Evan W; Dretchen, Kenneth L; Leshin, Jonathan A; Weeks, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    Given the infamous toxicity of ricin and the industrial usefulness of castor oil, there is a surprising lack of information about the genetic diversity of the species that produces both, the castor bean plant (Ricinus communis L...

  11. Effect of powdered castor oil seed ( Ricinus communis L.) on some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of powdered castor oil seed ( Ricinus communis L.) on some internal organs of ... distribution tables, mean, mode and percentages were used for the analysis. ... development agencies and provision of training by relevant stakeholders to ...

  12. Synthesis of Estolide 2-ethylhexyl Ester from Ricinus communis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazrizawati Ahmad Tajuddin; Nor Habibah Rosli

    2013-01-01

    Estolide 2-ethylhexyl ester synthesized through condensation reaction between ricinoleic acid from castor oil (Ricinus communis) and lauric acid, and then capped with 2-ethylhexyl alcohol. The reaction was continuously conducted under vacuum for 24 hours. Product of 2-ethylhexyl ester was characterized by using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) to determine functional group and Nuclear Magnetic Resonans (NMR) for structure's determination. The presence of ester group at 1738.23 cm -1 wavenumber indicates that the formation of estolide ester has occurred. The vibration peak of C-O at 1174.60 cm -1 and 1117.10 cm -1 support the formation of ester. The presence of CH 2 bending indicated the long-chain compound. The ester methine signal at 3.8669 ppm indicated the estolide linkage in the 1 H-NMR spectrum while the 13 C-NMR showed two carbonyl signals at 173.41 ppm for acid and 173.56 ppm for ester. (author)

  13. Effect of copper on castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, Lucia Helena Garofalo; Cunha, Tassio Cavalcanti da Silva; Lima, Vinicius Mota; Cabral, Paulo Cesar Pinto; Barros Junior, Genival; Lacerda, Rogerio Dantas de [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEAg/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia Agricola

    2008-07-01

    Castor beans crop (Ricinus communis L.) is raising attention as an alternative crop for oil and biodiesel production. Despite the mineral fertilization is an important factor for increasing castor yield, few research has been made on this issue, mainly on the use de copper. In order to evaluate the effects of copper on growth of this plant an experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, in Campina Grande, Paraiba State, Brazil, from July to December 2007. The substrate for the pot plants was a 6 mm-sieved surface soil (Neossolo Quartzarenico). The experimental design was a completely randomized with three replications. The treatments were composed of five levels of Cu (0; 1; 2; 3 and 4 mg dm{sup -3}), which were applied at the time of planting. One plant of castor bean, cultivar BRS 188 - Paraguacu, was grown per pot after thinning and was irrigated whenever necessary. Data on plant height, number and length of leaves and stem diameter were measured at 21, 34, 77 and 103 days after planting. Copper levels used, in general, did not affect the plant height, stem diameter and leaf area, however they influenced the leaves and shoot biomass dry mass and the quadratic trend was the best to show the behavior of these. (author)

  14. Identification and differentiation of Ricinus communis L. using SSR markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenka Gálová

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false CS JA X-NONE The castor-oil plant (Ricinus communis L., a member of the spurge family (Euphorbiaceae, is a versatile industrial oil crop that is cultivated in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Castor oil is of continuing importance to the global specialty chemical industry because it is the only commercial source of a hydroxylated fatty acid. Castor also has tremendous future potential as an industrial oilseed crop because of its high seed oil content, unique fatty acid composition, potentially high oil yields and ability to be grown under drought and saline conditions. Knowledge of genetic variability is important for breeding programs to provide the basis for developing desirable genotypes. The aim of this study was to assess genetic diversity within the set of 60 ricin genotypes using 10 SSR primers. Ten SSR primers revealed a total of 67 alleles ranging from 4 to 9 alleles per locus with a mean value of 6.70 alleles per locus. The PIC values ranged from 0.719 to 0.860 with an average value of 0.813 and the DI value ranged from 0.745 to 0.862 with an average value of 0.821. Probability of identity (PI was low ranged from 0.004 to 0.018 with an average of 0.008. A dendrogram was constructed from a genetic distance matrix based on profiles of the 10 SSR loci using the unweighted pair-group method with the arithmetic average (UPGMA. According to analysis, the collection of 60 diverse accessions of castor bean was clustered into six clusters. We could not distinguish 2 genotypes grouped in cluster 1, RM-96 and RM-98, which are genetically the closest. Knowledge on the genetic diversity of castor can be used to future breeding programs of castor.

  15. Proteomic profile of the nucellus of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) seeds during development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogueira, Fábio C S; Palmisano, Giuseppe; Soares, Emanoella L

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we performed a proteomic analysis of nucellus from two developmental stages of Ricinus communis seeds by a GeLC-MS/MS approach, using of a high resolution orbitrap mass spectrometer, which resulted in the identification of a total of 766 proteins that were grouped into 553 protein ...

  16. Physiological and biochemical responses of Ricinus communis seedlings to different temperatures: a metabolomics approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro de Jesus, P.R.; Fernandez, L.G.; Delmondez de Castro, R.; Ligterink, W.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Compared with major crops, growth and development of Ricinus communis is still poorly understood. A better understanding of the biochemical and physiological aspects of germination and seedling growth is crucial for the breeding of high yielding varieties adapted to various growing

  17. Recognition factors of Ricinus communis agglutinin 1 (RCA(1)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Albert M; Wu, June H; Singh, Tanuja; Lai, Li-Ju; Yang, Zhangung; Herp, Anthony

    2006-04-01

    Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA1) is one of the most important applied lectins that has been widely used as a tool to study cell surfaces and to purify glycans. Although the carbohydrate specificity of RCA1 has been described, the information obtained was mainly focused on inhibition of simple Galbeta1-related oligosaccharides and simple clusters. Here, all possible recognition factors of RCA1 of glycan binding were examined by enzyme-linked lectinosorbent (ELLSA) and inhibition assays, using known mammalian Gal/GalNAc carbohydrate structural units and natural polyvalent glycans. Among the glycoproteins (gps) tested and expressed as 50% nanogram inhibition, the high-density polyvalent Galbeta1-4GlcNAc (II) glycotopes occurring in natural gps, such as Pneumococcus type 14 capsular polysaccharide which is composed of repeating poly II residues, resulted in 9.0 x 10(4), 1.5 x 10(5), 2.3 x 10(4) and 2.1 x 10(4)-fold higher affinities to RCA1 than the monomeric Gal, linear I/II and Tri-antennary-II (Tri-II). Of the ligands tested and expressed as nanomoles of 50% inhibition, Tri-II was the best, being about 2, 4, 25.6 and 33.3 times better inhibitor than Di-II, II, I (Galbeta1-3GlcNAc) and Gal, respectively. From the results of this study, it is concluded that: (a) Galbeta1-4GlcNAc and other Galbeta1-related oligosaccharides are essential for lectin binding and their polyvalent form in macromolecules should be the most important recognition factor for RCA1; (b) the combining site of RCA1 may be a groove type, recognizing Galbeta1-4GlcNAc (II) as the major binding site; (c) its combining size may be large enough to accommodate a tetrasaccharide of beta-anomeric Gal at the non-reducing end and most complementary to human blood group I Ma active trisaccharide (Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta1-6Gal) and lacto-N-neotetraose (Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4Glc); (d) RCA1 has a preference for the beta-anomer of Gal oligosaccharides with a Galbeta1-4 linkage > Galbeta1-6 > or = Galbeta

  18. Essential oil of the leaves of Ricinus communis L.: in vitro cytotoxicity and antimicrobial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarai, Zied; Ben Chobba, Ines; Ben Mansour, Riadh; Békir, Ahmed; Gharsallah, Néji; Kadri, Adel

    2012-08-13

    The aim of the present study was to appraise the antimicrobial activity of Ricinus communis L. essential oil against different pathogenic microorganisms and the cytotoxic activity against HeLa cell lines. The agar disk diffusion method was used to study the antibacterial activity of Ricinus communis L. essential oil against 12 bacterial and 4 fungi strains. The disc diameters of zone of inhibition (DD), the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and the concentration inhibiting 50% (IC50) were investigated to characterize the antimicrobial activities of this essential oil. The in vitro cytotoxicity of Ricinus communis L. essential oil was examined using a modified MTT assay; the viability and the IC50 were used to evaluate this test. The essential oil from the leaves of Ricinus communis L. was analyzed by GC-MS and bioassays were carried out. Five constituents of the oil were identified by GC-MS. The antimicrobial activity of the oil was investigated in order to evaluate its efficacy against twelve bacteria and four fungi species, using disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration methods. The essential oil showed strong antimicrobial activity against all microorganisms tested with higher sensitivity for Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterobacter cloacae. The cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of the essential oil on HeLa cell lines were examined by MTT assay. The cytotoxicity of the oil was quite strong with IC50 values less than 2.63 mg/ml for both cell lines. The present study showed the potential antimicrobial and anticarcinogenic properties of the essential oil of Ricinus communis L., indicating the possibilities of its potential use in the formula of natural remedies for the topical treatment of infections.

  19. Intoxicação em eqüino por Ricinus communis: relato de caso.

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    R. Y. A. Baccarin

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: A intoxicação por Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae geralmente ocorre após a ingestão acidental de suas folhas ou sementes, podendo causar distúrbios neuromusculares e gastrintestinais. Um eqüino da raça Mangalarga Marchador de 4 anos de idade foi atendido no setor de Clínica de Eqüinos do Hospital Veterinário (HOVET da Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia da Universidade de São Paulo (FMVZ-USP após ter ingerido e aspirado um filtrado preparado à base de frutos de mamona. O animal apresentava pleuropneumonia, alterações de comportamento, comprometimentos hepático e renal, peritonite e desidratação. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Eqüino, Ricinus communis, pleuropneumonia. SUMMARY: The Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae intoxication generally occurs after accidental ingestion of its leaves or seeds, and may cause neuromuscular and gastrintestinal disturbance. An equine, Mangalarga Marchador breed, 4-year old, was attended at the section of Clínica de Eqüinos from the Hospital Veterinário (HOVET of Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia of Universidade de São Paulo (FMVZ-USP after ingestion and aspiration of a R. communis fruits filtrate. The animal presented pleuropneumonia, behavioural alterations, hepatic and renal disturbances, peritonitis and dehydration. KEYWORDS: Equine, Ricinus communis, pleuropneumonia.

  20. Three flavonol glycosides from Ricinus communis | Aqil | Bulletin of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 11, No 1 (1997) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Three flavonol glycosides from Ricinus ...

  1. Ricinus communis intoxications in human and veterinary medicine-a summary of real cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worbs, Sylvia; Köhler, Kernt; Pauly, Diana; Avondet, Marc-André; Schaer, Martin; Dorner, Martin B; Dorner, Brigitte G

    2011-10-01

    Accidental and intended Ricinus communis intoxications in humans and animals have been known for centuries but the causative agent remained elusive until 1888 when Stillmark attributed the toxicity to the lectin ricin. Ricinus communis is grown worldwide on an industrial scale for the production of castor oil. As by-product in castor oil production ricin is mass produced above 1 million tons per year. On the basis of its availability, toxicity, ease of preparation and the current lack of medical countermeasures, ricin has gained attention as potential biological warfare agent. The seeds also contain the less toxic, but highly homologous Ricinus communis agglutinin and the alkaloid ricinine, and especially the latter can be used to track intoxications. After oil extraction and detoxification, the defatted press cake is used as organic fertilizer and as low-value feed. In this context there have been sporadic reports from different countries describing animal intoxications after uptake of obviously insufficiently detoxified fertilizer. Observations in Germany over several years, however, have led us to speculate that the detoxification process is not always performed thoroughly and controlled, calling for international regulations which clearly state a ricin threshold in fertilizer. In this review we summarize knowledge on intended and unintended poisoning with ricin or castor seeds both in humans and animals, with a particular emphasis on intoxications due to improperly detoxified castor bean meal and forensic analysis.

  2. Use of Energy Crop (Ricinus communis L.) for Phytoextraction of Heavy Metals Assisted with Citric Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Chen, Xueping; He, Chiquan; Liang, Xia; Oh, Kokyo; Liu, Xiaoyan; Lei, Yanru

    2015-01-01

    Ricinus communis L. is a bioenergetic crop with high-biomass production and tolerance to cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb), thus, the plant is a candidate crop for phytoremediation. Pot experiments were performed to study the effects of citric acid in enhancing phytoextraction of Cd/Pb by Ricinus communis L. Citric acid increased Cd and Pb contents in plant shoots in all treatments by about 78% and 18-45%, respectively, at the dosage of 10 mM kg(-1) soil without affecting aboveground biomass production. Addition of citric acid reduced CEC, weakened soil adsorption of heavy metals and activated Cd and Pb in soil solutions. The acid-exchangeable fraction (BCR-1) of Pb remained lower than 7% and significantly increased with citric acid amendment. Respective increases in soil evaluation index induces by 14% and 19% under the Cd1Pb50 and Cd1Pb250 treatments upon addition of citric acid resulted in soil quality improvement. Ricinus communis L. has great potential in citric acid-assisted phytoextraction for Cd and Pb remediation.

  3. IMUNIDADE CRUZADA PELAS SEMENTES DE Abrus precatorius E Ricinus communis EM BOVINOS Crossimmunity by the seeds of Abrus precatorius and Ricinus communis in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Hubinger Tokarnia

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Cinco bovinos imunizados contra a ação tóxica das sementes de Abrus precatorius L. ("tento", "jiquiriti" não adoeceram ou somente levemente pela administração das sementes de Ricinus communis L. ("mamona", em doses que em bovinos que antes nunca ingeriram sementes de A. precatorius ou R. communis, causaram intoxicação de intensidade de grau moderado a acentuado ou até a morte. Um sexto bovino, que não ficou bem imunizado contra a ação tóxica das sementes de A. precatorius, adoeceu em grau acentuado pela administração de dose elevada das sementes de R. communis. Já dos cinco bovinos imunizados contra a ação tóxica das sementes de R. communis quatro adoeceram em grau acentuado, oquinto em grau moderado, pela administração das sementes de A. precatorias em doses que em bovinos que antes nunca ingeriram sementes de R. communis ou A. precatorius causaram intoxicação de intensidade leve a acentuada. Estes resultados permitem concluir que bovinos imunizados contra a ação tóxica das sementes de A. precatorius são resistentes à ação tóxica das sementes de R. communis, mas que o contrário não ocorre, isto é, bovinos imunizados contra a ação tóxica das sementes de R. communis, não se mostraram protegidos contra a intoxicação por A. precatorius. Estudos anteriores por outros autores mostraram que as toxalbuminas de A. precatorius e R. communis, respectivamente abrina e ricina, são diferentes do ponto de vista antigênico. Uma explicação para a divergência desses resultados com os nossos poderia estar no fato de que no presente estudo foram usados poligástricos que receberam as sementes por via oral, enquanto que nos estudos anteriores foram usados monogástricos em que as sementes ou as toxinas foram aplicadas por via parenteral. A administração de folhas frescas ou do pericarpo do fruto de R. communis a bovinos imunizados contra a ação das sementes desta planta tiveram o mesmo efeito tóxico que em animais n

  4. Can adaptive modulation of traits to urban environments facilitate Ricinus communis L. invasiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Neha; Pardha-Saradhi, P; Sharma, Gyan P

    2014-11-01

    This paper addresses the phenotypic variation among Ricinus communis L. populations in four urban habitat types (road verges, garbage dumps, construction debris, and natural area) in Delhi, India, by evaluating important traits such as plant height, basal circumference, seeds per plant, seed size, seed weight, specific leaf area, and reproductive index. An important biochemical marker, proline, considered as a good plant performance indicator under stress was also quantified in leaves of R. communis to evaluate its response in different habitats. Interestingly, the species showed significant variation in plant height, specific leaf area, seed size, seed weight, and leaf proline content in different habitat types. Leaf proline content was positively related to plant height, specific leaf area, and seed size while negatively related to the total number of seeds/plant. Interestingly, reproductive index, calculated as a ratio of the total number of seeds to the plant height also showed a negative relation with leaf proline content. Results indicated that R. communis exhibits adaptive modulation of growth, reproductive traits, and leaf proline content in various urban habitats which contributes to invasiveness, range expansion, and establishment of the species. The study also gives evidence of how morphological and physiological traits could directly affect invasiveness of R. communis.

  5. Evaluation of Ricinus communis L. for the Phytoremediation of Polluted Soil with Organochlorine Pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Regina Rissato

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation is an attractive alternative to conventional treatments of soil due to advantages such as low cost, large application areas, and the possibility of in situ treatment. This study presents the assessment of phytoremediation processes conducted under controlled experimental conditions to evaluate the ability of Ricinus communis L., tropical plant species, to promote the degradation of 15 persistent organic pollutants (POPs, in a 66-day period. The contaminants tested were hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH, DDT, heptachlor, aldrin, and others. Measurements made in rhizosphere soil indicate that the roots of the studied species reduce the concentration of pesticides. Results obtained during this study indicated that the higher the hydrophobicity of the organic compound and its molecular interaction with soil or root matrix the greater its tendency to concentrate in root tissues and the research showed the following trend: HCHs < diclofop-methyl < chlorpyrifos < methoxychlor < heptachlor epoxide < endrin < o,p′-DDE < heptachlor < dieldrin < aldrin < o,p′-DDT < p,p′-DDT by increasing order of log Kow values. The experimental results confirm the importance of vegetation in removing pollutants, obtaining remediation from 25% to 70%, and demonstrated that Ricinus communis L. can be used for the phytoremediation of such compounds.

  6. Biochemical, physiological and molecular responses of Ricinus communis seeds and seedlings to different temperatures: a multi-omics approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro de Jesus, P.R.

    2015-01-01

    Biochemical, physiological and molecular responses of Ricinus communis seeds and seedlings to different temperatures: a multi-omics approach

    by Paulo Roberto Ribeiro de Jesus

    The main objective of this thesis was to provide a detailed

  7. Effect of temperature on biomass allocation in seedlings of two contrasting genotypes of the oilseed crop Ricinus communis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro de Jesus, P.R.; Zanotti, R.F.; Deflers, C.; Fernandez, L.G.; Castro, De R.D.; Ligterink, W.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    2015-01-01

    Ricinus communis is becoming an important crop for oil production, and studying the physiological and biochemical aspects of seedling development may aid in the improvement of crop quality and yield. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of temperature on biomass allocation in two R.

  8. Ricinus communis L. A Value Added Crop for Remediation of Cadmium Contaminated Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauddh, Kuldeep; Singh, Kripal; Singh, Rana P

    2016-02-01

    Heavy metal pollution of soil is a global environmental problem and therefore its remediation is of paramount importance. Cadmium (Cd) is a potential toxicant to living organisms and even at very low concentrations. This study was aimed to assess the effectiveness of Ricinus communis for remediation of Cd contaminated soils. For this, growth and biomass of R. communis and Cd accumulation, translocation and partitioning in different plant parts were investigated after 8 months of plant growth in Cd contaminated soil (17.50 mg Cd kg−1 soil). Eight months old plants stabilized 51 % Cd in its roots and rest of the metal was transferred to the stem and leaves. There were no significant differences in growth, biomass and yield between control and Cd treated plants, except fresh weight of shoots. The seed yield per plant was reduced only by 5 % of Cd contaminated plants than control. The amount of Cd translocated to the castor seeds was nominal i.e. 0.007 µg Cd g−1 seeds. The bioconcentration factor reduced significantly in shoots and seeds in comparison to roots. The data indicates that R. communis is highly tolerant to Cd contamination and can be used for remediation of heavy metal polluted sites.

  9. Selective response of Ricinus communis seedlings to soil borne rhizoctonia infection

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    Andras Bittsanszky

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Seedlings of Ricinus communis tolerated soil-borne Rhizoctonia infection in strain dependent manner. There was no connection revealed between pathogenicity of strains and their origin or taxonomic position, however, the castor plant proved to be susceptible to most strains highly pathogenic to other host plants as well. Rhizoctonia zeae (teleomorph: Waitea circinata, a species new for European flora, was less aggressive to R. communis as the most potent R. solani strains. The effect of Rhizoctonia infection on mass accumulation of hypocotyls was more prominent than that on cotyledons. The protein content and glutathione S-transferase (GST activity increased in parallel with evolution of disease syndrome. Metalaxyl, an acetanilide type systemic anti-omycete fungicide induced locally the GST activity in R. communis cotyledons with 24 hours lag phase, and this induction was altered in the seedlings grown in Rhizoctonia infested soil by strain dependent manner. It might be concluded, that the stress response related detoxication mechanisms of plants in tolerant host/parasite pairs take effect at higher level than in highly susceptible relationships.

  10. In-vitro regeneration of castor bean (ricinus communis, L) and physic nut (jatropha curcas, L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afful, N. T.

    2008-06-01

    Investigations were conducted on in vitro regeneration of physic nut (Jatropha curcas, 1.) and castor bean (Ricinus communis, 1.) using zygotic embryo culture, shoot tip and meristem culture as well as somatic embryogenesis. Zygotic embryos from different stages of fruit maturity cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with benzylaminopurine (BAP), kinetin and 2-isopentyl (2iP) produced vigorous seedlings with roots. However the optimal concentration of cytokinin for seedling development depended on the type cytokinin as well as the maturity stage of the fruit. Embryos from yellow fruits of Jatropha had the highest germination (100%) on an MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/L kinetin or 1 mg/L BAP while in Ricinus embryos from black fruits had the highest percentage germination (97%) on an MS medium modified with I mg/L 2iP or 0.5 or I mg/L BAP. Decrease in embryo viability especially in Jatropha as the seed matured may be due to high oil content in matured (black) fruit. Oil content in both Jatropha and Ricinus increased as the fruit matured from green to black and this may have effect on germination of zygotic embryos. In vitro culture response of shoot tip or meristem was significantly influenced by the concentration of growth regulators in the culture medium as well as the plant species. In both plant species, 2iP resulted in highest percentage shoot regeneration. The optimal concentration of 2iP was 0.5 mg/L for Ricinus shoot tip and 1.5 or 2.0 mg/L for Jatropha, indicating genotypic difference between the species. However excessive callus formation and browning in Ricinus led to the loss of all the regenerants. Shoot regeneration from meristem explants was also influenced by growth regulators with 2iP again being the best. Cultures of cotyledon and leaf lobe explants on MS medium supplemented with 2, 4-D and picloram resulted in callus induction with the exception of cotyledons obtained from black fruits. However transfer of calli onto fresh

  11. Apis mellifera pollination improves agronomic productivity of anemophilous castor bean (Ricinus communis

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    Rômulo A.G. Rizzardo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Castor bean (Ricinus communis L. is cultivated mainly for biodiesel production because of its oil-rich seeds; it is assumed to be an anemophylous species. But pollination deficit can lead to low productivity often attributed to other reasons. In this paper, we investigated pollination requirements, pollination mechanism, occurrence of pollination deficit, and the role of biotic pollinators in a large commercial plantation of castor bean. Our results show that R. communis bears a mixed breeding system favoring selfing by geitonogamy, although the wind promotes mostly outcrossing. We also found that the honey bee (Apis mellifera L. foraging on castor bean can both transfer pollen from male to female flowers within the same raceme and boost the release of airborne pollen by male flowers. Both situations increase geitonogamy rates, raising significantly fruit set and seed yield. This is the first report of an animal foraging activity increasing seed yield in an anemophilous and geitonogamous crop and elucidates the role of biotic pollinators in castor bean reproduction.A mamoneira (Ricinus communis L. é cultivada principalmente para produção de biodiesel devido ao alto teor de óleo de suas sementes e considerada como sendo de polinização anemófila. Mas déficits de polinização podem levar a baixos índices de produtividade geralmente atribuídos a outros fatores. Neste trabalho foram investigados os requerimentos, mecanismos e déficit de polinização e o papel dos polinizadores bióticos em um monocultivo comercial de mamona. Os resultados mostram que R. communis possui um sistema de polinização misto, favorecendo a autopolinização por geitonogamia, embora o vento normalmente promova polinização cruzada. Observou-se também que a abelha melífera (Apis mellifera L. forrageando na mamoneira pode tanto transferir pólen das flores estaminadas para as pistiladas do mesmo racemo, quanto aumentar consideravelmente a liberação de p

  12. Expression of Ricinus communis receptors on epithelial cells in oral carcinomas and oral wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabelsteen, E; Mackenzie, I C

    1978-12-01

    The histological distribution of receptors for Ricinus communis Fraction 1 (RCA1) in oral carcinomas and in oral epithelial cells during wound healing has been studied by use of fluorescein-tagged RCA1. Biopsies from 15 human oral carcinomas and adjacent normal mucosa showed RCA1 receptors at the cell membranes in the basal and spinous layer of the normal epithelium, whereas receptors could not be demonstrated in invading islands of the tumors. In healing oral wounds from eight humans and three monkeys, RCA1 receptors were demonstrated both in normal epithelium adjacent to the wounds and in the epithelial outgrowth from the wound margin. Titrations, however, showed that the epithelial outgrowth reacted more weakly than did the normal adjacent epithelium. These results support previous in vitro studies showing changes in carbohydrate composition of moving normal cells and of malignant cells, a finding that may be of interest in relation to formation of metastases.

  13. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles by Ricinus communis var. carmencita leaf extract and its antibacterial study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojha, Sunita; Sett, Arghya; Bora, Utpal

    2017-09-01

    In this study, we report synthesis of silver nanoparticles (RcAgNPs) from silver nitrate solution using methanolic leaf extract of Ricinus communis var. carmencita. The polyphenols present in the leaves reduce Ag++ ions to Ag0 followed by a color change. Silver nanoparticle formation was ensured by surface plasmon resonance between 400 nm to 500 nm. Crystallinity of the synthesized nanoparticles was confirmed by UHRTEM, SAED and XRD analysis. The capping of phytochemicals and thermal stability of RcAgNPs were assessed by FTIR spectra and TGA analysis, respectively. It also showed antibacterial activity against both gram positive and gram negative strains. RcAgNPs were non-toxic against normal cell line (mouse fibroblast cell line L929) at lower concentrations (80 µg ml-1).

  14. A BATCH REACTOR CONSTRUCTION FOR OBTAINING BIODIESEL FROM OIL Ricinus communis

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    Yolimar Fernández

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A batch reactor was constructed to obtain biodiesel from 5 liters of extracted from the seed of Ricinus communis. The reactor is made of stainless steel, 29cm length, 15.24 cm of inner diameter and a conical base of 20cm long, wall thickness of 0.2 cm, 1000 W tubular resistance and 110 volt motor. It is extracted and compared with the respective norms the physical and chemical properties of crude oil. Preliminary tests catalyzed transesterification of the oil with NaOH to verify the feasibility of the reaction and define the performed operational conditions. Obtained biodiesel was characterized and compared with references. The results showed that it is possible to obtain the biofuel in the batch reactor with a conversion 88%, confirming its application in transesterification reactions in a basic medium.

  15. Isotope labeling-based quantitative proteomics of developing seeds of castor oil seed (Ricinus communis L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogueira, Fábio C S; Palmisano, Giuseppe; Schwämmle, Veit

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we used a mass spectrometry-based quantification approach employing isotopic (ICPL) and isobaric (iTRAQ) labeling to investigate the pattern of protein deposition during castor oil seed (Ricinus communis L.) development, including that of proteins involved in fatty acid metabolism...... give important insights into certain aspects of the biology of castor oil seed development such as carbon flow, anabolism, and catabolism of fatty acid and the pattern of deposition of SSPs, toxins, and allergens such as ricin and 2S albumins. We also found, for the first time, some genes of SSP......, seed-storage proteins (SSPs), toxins, and allergens. Additionally, we have used off-line hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) as a step of peptide fractionation preceding the reverse-phase nanoLC coupled to a LTQ Orbitrap. We were able to identify a total of 1875 proteins, and from these 1748...

  16. Forensic Applications of Light-Element Stable Isotope Ratios of Ricinus communis Seeds and Ricin Preparations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreuzer, Helen W.; West, Jason B.; Ehleringer, James

    2013-01-01

    Seeds of the castor plant Ricinus communis, also known as castor beans, are of forensic interest because they are the source of the poison ricin. We have tested whether stable isotope ratios of castor seeds and ricin prepared by various methods can be used as a forensic signature. We collected over 300 castor seed samples from locations around the world and measured the C, N, O, and H stable isotope ratios of the whole seeds, oil, and three types of ricin preparations. Our results demonstrate that N isotope ratios can be used to correlate ricin prepared by any of these methods to source seeds. Further, stable isotope ratios distinguished >99% of crude and purified ricin protein samples in pair-wise comparison tests. Stable isotope ratios therefore constitute a valuable forensic signature for ricin preparations.

  17. Production, optimization and quality assessment of biodiesel from Ricinus communis L. oil

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    Maryam Ijaz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available At present, biodiesel is gaining tremendous attention due to its eco-friendly nature and is possible substitute for diesel fuel. Biodiesel as renewable energy source can be produced from edible and non-edible feedstock. Non-edible resources are preferred to circumvent for food competition. In the present study FAME was produced from Ricinus communis L. oil by transesterification with methanol and ethanol in the presence of potassium hydroxide. The practical optimal condition for the production of biodiesel from castor bean was found to be: methanol/oil molar ratio, 6:1; temperature, 60 °C; time, 45 min; catalyst concentration 0.32 g. Quality assessment of biodiesel showed comparable results with ASTM standards. The values of specific gravity (SG were 0.5, kinematic viscosity 2.45 cSt, acid values 0.13 mg KOH/g, carbon residue 0.03%, flash point 119 °C, fire point 125 °C, cloud point −10 °C and pour point −20 °C of Ricinus FAME, respectively. Based on our data, it is suggested that to overcome prevailing energy crisis this non-edible plant is useful for production of biodiesel, which is an alternate to fossil fuel and may be used alone or in blend with HSD in engine combustion.

  18. Photosynthetic activity of young Ricinus communis L. plants under conditions of flooded soil

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    Davi Silva Dalberto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil flooding is a stress condition that causes changes in hydric relationships and in the metabolism of crops, thereby affecting their productivity. To evaluate the effects of soil flooding on the chlorophyll a fluorescence transient, as well as gas exchange and Ricinus communis growth, young plants of the ‘AL Guarany 2002’ and ‘IAC Guarani’ cultivars, grown in a greenhouse, were subjected to flood conditions by maintaining a layer of water 2-3 cm above the soil. The stressed plants showed drastic reduction in net CO2 assimilation and growth variables. There was, however, an increase in performance index (PIABS e PITOTAL at different moments of stress between the two cultivars. In general, R. communis plants possess mechanisms to protect the electron transport chain during a period of stress, without causing damage and reducing functionality. However, this is not enough to maintain photosynthetic activity owing to the decrease in stomatal conductance and intrinsic carboxylation efficiency, which affects biomass accumulation in stressed plants. In summary, this study found that the ‘AL Guarany 2002’ was found to be more sensitive to stress than the ‘IAC Guarani’ was.

  19. In vitro activity of total aqueous ethanol leaf extracts of Ricinus communis on Leishmania major promastigotes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okech, B.G.A.; Irungu, L.W.; Anjili, C.O.; Munyua, J.K.; Njagi, E.N.M.; Rukungu, G.

    2006-01-01

    The activity of aqueous and ethanol extracts of Ricinus communis was tested on Leishmania promastigotes in cell-free culture media. Serial dilutions of the extracts ranging from 500μg/ml, 250 μg/ml and 62.5μg/ml were prepared in triplicate using Schneiders Drosophila medium supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum in the absence of antibiotics and the growth of approximately 1x 10 (power 6) parasites monitored every two days for a period of 8 days. Parasite density was estimated every two days using the Neuabeur counting chamber. At the end of the 8-day period cell morphology was observed and photographed. Significant growth inihibitory effect was observed on the promastigotes by the aqueous and ethanol extracts especially at high concentrations. However, there was an enhanced growth effect initially thereafter leading to to a rapid decline in promastigote cell population. Flagellar motility was also greatly affected at high concentration and it appeared that there was a linear relationship between flagellar motilities and the level of concentrations. Parasite morphology was affected severely. Most of the cultures observed appeared to have abnormal round morphology. Rosseting was also evident in the extract treated cultures. The aqueous leaf extract interfered with parasite morphology but this was dose dependent. The importance of R. communis plant as a potential source for chemotypes with antileishmanial activity is discussed. (author)

  20. Potential of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) for phytoremediation of mine tailings and oil production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Olivares, Alejandro; Carrillo-González, Rogelio; González-Chávez, Ma del Carmen A; Soto Hernández, Ramón Marcos

    2013-01-15

    Bioenergy production combined with phytoremediation has been suggested to help in solving two critical world problems: the gradual reduction of fossil fuels and soil contamination. The aim of this research was to investigate the potential for the use of Ricinus communis L. (castor oil plant) as an energy crop and plant species to remediate metal-polluted sites. This study was performed in mine tailings containing high concentrations of Cu, Zn, Mn, Pb and Cd. Physico-chemical characterization, total, DTPA-extractable and water-soluble metals in rhizospheric tailings heap samples were carried. Metal concentrations in plant tissues and translocation factors (TFs) were also determined. The Ricinus seed-oil content was high between 41 and 64%, seeds from San Francisco site 6 had the highest oil content, while these from site 7 had the lowest. No trend between oil yield vs seed origin site was observed. Seed-oil content was negatively correlated with root concentration of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd, but no correlation was observed with the extractable-metals. According to its shoot metal concentrations and TFs, castor bean is not a metal accumulator plant. This primary colonizing plant is well suited to cope with the local toxic conditions and can be useful for the stabilization of these residues, and for then decreasing metal bioavailability, dispersion and human health risks on these barren tailings heaps and in the surrounding area. Our work is the first report regarding combined oil production and a phytostabilization role for Ricinus plants in metal mine tailings and may give a new value to suitable metal-polluted areas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Energy flow in castor bean (Ricinus communis L. production systems Fluxos de energia em sistemas de produção de mamona (Ricinus communis L.

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    Adilson Nunes da Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Although energy analysis is a way to evaluate the sustainability of production systems, this practice is not often used in the agribusiness. In this context, the castor bean (Ricinus communis L is an agricultural crop not yet well studied despite its great potential in the Brazilian energetic scenario. This article aimed to evaluate the productive potential of the castor bean oil, using an energetic view applied to two management systems: low (System 1 and medium (System 2 technologies. The quantification of the used material fluxes was made converting these factors in energy units. The input energy fluxes were 3,170.6 MJ ha¹ and 10,366.0 MJ ha¹ for Systems 1 and 2, respectively. The energy balance of System 1 was 11,938.2 MJ ha¹ and that of System 2 16,296.5 MJ ha¹. The net energetic gain or the energy gain over the invested energy (EROI of System 1 was 3.8 and of System 2, 2.6. Although presenting a greater energy demand and a lower EROI, System 2 had a greater energy balance, demonstrating a better viability of this cultivation system for the production of castor bean oil.A análise energética é uma forma de se avaliar a sustentabilidade de um sistema produtivo, apesar de ainda pouco utilizada no setor agropecuário. Inserida neste setor encontra-se a produção da mamoneira (Ricinus communis L., cultura ainda pouco estudada e que apresenta grande importância para o agronegócio brasileiro. Avaliou-se sob a ótica energética a produção potencial de óleo de mamona em dois sistemas de cultivo: com baixa (Sistema 1 e média (Sistema 2 tecnologias. Foi realizada a quantificação dos fluxos de materiais empregados nos dois sistemas de produção e conversão destes fatores em unidades de energia. Os fluxos de energia de entrada foram de 3.170,6 MJ ha¹ e 10.366 MJ ha¹ para os sistemas 1 e 2, respectivamente. O balanço de energia foi de 11.938,2 MJ ha¹ no sistema 1 e 16.296,5 MJ ha¹ no sistema 2. A lucratividade energética, retorno

  2. [Inhibition by cysteine of the carbohydrate-binding activity of lectins from Ricinus communis, Canavalia ensiformis and Euonymus europaeus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorkin, V M

    1985-10-01

    Precipitation induced by different lectins has been studied in the presence of some aminoacids. It was shown that precipitates formed by lectins from Ricinus communis (RCA1), Canavalia ensiformis (Con A), Euonymus europaeus (Eel) in the presence of appropriate carbohydrate-containing molecules disappeared after cysteine addition, like after addition of specific carbohydrate precipitation inhibitors. It is assumed that cysteine residues of RCA1, Con A and Eel lectins are essential for their carbohydrate binding activity.

  3. Hasil Biji dan Kadar Minyak Jarak Kepyar Lokal Beaq Amor (Ricinus communis L. pada Berbagai Umur Pemangkasan Batang Utama

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    Bambang Budi Santoso

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTSuccessful castor (Ricinus communis L. cropping depends on the reliability of production technique. Branching is a useful agronomic trait because infloresence developed at each branch’s terminal. Pruning is considered as an important technique for branching stimulation. This study attempted to elucidate the effect of main stem pruning on the yield of Beaq Amor local variety of castor (Ricinus communis L. with short cultivation system. The experiment was conducted on dry land area of Amor-Amor, North Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara during February-July 2011 and was arranged in a single-factor randomized complete block design with three replications. The treatments were four types of pruning (i.e. no pruning, main stem pruning at 30 days after planting, 45 days after planting, and 60 days after planting. The results showed that the effect of pruning was significant on dry seed yield and was not significant on kernel oil content. Pruning at 30 days old and 45 days old plant yielded in the highest dry seed weight (374.9-387.8 g tree-1 or 943.0-974.3 kg ha-1 with oil content of 62.2%.Keywords: branching, canopy, dry seed, Ricinus communis L.

  4. Single nucleotide polymorphisms for assessing genetic diversity in castor bean (Ricinus communis

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    Rabinowicz Pablo D

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Castor bean (Ricinus communis is an agricultural crop and garden ornamental that is widely cultivated and has been introduced worldwide. Understanding population structure and the distribution of castor bean cultivars has been challenging because of limited genetic variability. We analyzed the population genetics of R. communis in a worldwide collection of plants from germplasm and from naturalized populations in Florida, U.S. To assess genetic diversity we conducted survey sequencing of the genomes of seven diverse cultivars and compared the data to a reference genome assembly of a widespread cultivar (Hale. We determined the population genetic structure of 676 samples using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs at 48 loci. Results Bayesian clustering indicated five main groups worldwide and a repeated pattern of mixed genotypes in most countries. High levels of population differentiation occurred between most populations but this structure was not geographically based. Most molecular variance occurred within populations (74% followed by 22% among populations, and 4% among continents. Samples from naturalized populations in Florida indicated significant population structuring consistent with local demes. There was significant population differentiation for 56 of 78 comparisons in Florida (pairwise population ϕPT values, p Conclusion Low levels of genetic diversity and mixing of genotypes have led to minimal geographic structuring of castor bean populations worldwide. Relatively few lineages occur and these are widely distributed. Our approach of determining population genetic structure using SNPs from genome-wide comparisons constitutes a framework for high-throughput analyses of genetic diversity in plants, particularly in species with limited genetic diversity.

  5. Physiological and biochemical responses of Ricinus communis seedlings to different temperatures: a metabolomics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Paulo Roberto; Fernandez, Luzimar Gonzaga; de Castro, Renato Delmondez; Ligterink, Wilco; Hilhorst, Henk W M

    2014-08-12

    Compared with major crops, growth and development of Ricinus communis is still poorly understood. A better understanding of the biochemical and physiological aspects of germination and seedling growth is crucial for the breeding of high yielding varieties adapted to various growing environments. In this context, we analysed the effect of temperature on growth of young R. communis seedlings and we measured primary and secondary metabolites in roots and cotyledons. Three genotypes, recommended to small family farms as cash crop, were used in this study. Seedling biomass was strongly affected by the temperature, with the lowest total biomass observed at 20°C. The response in terms of biomass production for the genotype MPA11 was clearly different from the other two genotypes: genotype MPA11 produced heavier seedlings at all temperatures but the root biomass of this genotype decreased with increasing temperature, reaching the lowest value at 35°C. In contrast, root biomass of genotypes MPB01 and IAC80 was not affected by temperature, suggesting that the roots of these genotypes are less sensitive to changes in temperature. In addition, an increasing temperature decreased the root to shoot ratio, which suggests that biomass allocation between below- and above ground parts of the plants was strongly affected by the temperature. Carbohydrate contents were reduced in response to increasing temperature in both roots and cotyledons, whereas amino acids accumulated to higher contents. Our results show that a specific balance between amino acids, carbohydrates and organic acids in the cotyledons and roots seems to be an important trait for faster and more efficient growth of genotype MPA11. An increase in temperature triggers the mobilization of carbohydrates to support the preferred growth of the aerial parts, at the expense of the roots. A shift in the carbon-nitrogen metabolism towards the accumulation of nitrogen-containing compounds seems to be the main biochemical

  6. Evaluation of the cadmium and lead phytoextraction by castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) in hydroponics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Z. X.; Sun, L. N.

    2017-06-01

    Phytoextraction has been considered as an innovative method to remove toxic metals from soil; higher biomass plants such as castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) have already been considered as a hyperaccumulating candidate. In the present study, castor bean was used to accumulate the cadmium and lead in hydroponic culture, and the root exudates and biomass changes were analyzed. Results demonstrated that ratios of aerial biomass/ root biomass (AW/RW) in treatments declined with concentrations of Cd or Pb. Optical density (OD) at 190 nm and 280 nm of root exudates observed in Cd and Pb treatments were lower than the control. In single Cd or Pb treatments, bioconcentration factors (BCF) of Cd or Pb increased with time and decreased with concentrations, the highest BCFs appeared in Cd5 (14.36) and Pb50 (6.48), respectively. Cd-BCF or Pb-BCF showed positive correlations with AW/RW ratios and OD values, and they were negative correlated with Cd and Pb concentration. Results in this study may supply useful information for phytoremediation of soil contaminated with cadmium and lead in situ.

  7. Physicochemical characteristics of seeds from wild and cultivated castor bean plants (Ricinus communis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Daniel Mosquera

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The castor (Ricinus communis L. is an oilseed plant whose main features are its drought resistance, and its adaptation to eroded, polluted, and low fertility soils. Its oil has a great demand in the industrial sector and it has recently attracted considerable interest for its use in the production of biodiesel and jet fuel. In this study, morphological, physical and chemical characterizations were performed to ascertain the quality of wild (VQ-1 and under cultivation (VQ-7 oil castor seeds. The results showed that there are differences in the morphological and physicochemical characteristics regarding oil content (44,95 vs 33,84%, ash (3,20 vs 2,42%, and 100-seed-weight (45,87 vs 54,23g; similar behavior was recorded when characterizing the oil: kinematic viscosity (269,67 vs 266,44mm2 /s, density (0,9389 vs 0,9465g/cm3 , and acidity index (0,9918 vs 0,5440mg KOH/g for VQ-1 and VQ-7, respectively. Growing conditions to which castor plants were subjected may influence both the final quality of seeds and chemical properties of the oil.

  8. Eficiencia del extracto de Ricinus communis para el control del mosquito Culex

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    Diego Tomás Corradine Mora

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo evaluó el efecto insecticida del extracto de Ricinus communis sobre larvas de mosquitos Culex. A las 24 h la mortalidad es de 8.33 % con dosis de 1 mL del extracto en una concentración de 500 ppm; 35 % en dosis de 1 mL de una concentración de 1000 ppm; 65 % en dosis de 5 mL de una concentración de 1000 ppm; 98.33 % con 10 mL en concentración de 1000 ppm; testigos 3.3 %. Cuando se evaluó el efecto insecticida del extracto aplicado por aspersión en concentraciones de 500, 750 y 1000 ppm, se consiguieron mortalidades de 18.33, 36.66 y 48.32 %, respectivamente. Ninguna de las concentraciones evaluadas alcanzó el cien por ciento de letalidad. En la prueba de semicampo, solo se logró una mortalidad de 9 %. Se evidenció que el extracto tiene un mejor efecto insecticida para el control de ejemplares inmaduros en estado larvario que sobre los adultos.

  9. IDENTIFICACIÓN DE MICROORGANISMOS ASOCIADOS A RESIDUOS DE HIGUERILLA (Ricinus communis

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    Teresa Cabra Cendales

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo fue aislar e identificar los microorganismos presentes en los residuos de fruto y  torta de higuerilla (Ricinus communis. Se utilizaron medios de cultivo selectivos para la caracterización morfológica y bioquímica y para la identificación molecular se usó la técnica de PCR con oligonucleótidos universales RM y RB del gen 16S para bacterias y secuencias intergénicas ITS1 e ITS4 para hongos y levaduras. Las secuencias fueron analizadas identificándose nueve especies de hongos, siendo Penicillium brevicompactum predominante; 12 especies de bacterias, donde el género más recurrente fue Bacillus sp. y dos especies de levaduras, Rhodosporidium paludigenum y Pichia burtonni. La identificación de la microbiota nativa presente en los residuos de higuerilla es muy promisoria, aportando un amplio conocimiento sobre la versatilidad metabólica de cada una de las cepas aisladas. El mayor número de aislamientos se obtuvieron de la torta probablemente debido al alto contenido de nutrientes presentes en este residuo.

  10. Physicochemical characterization of seven Mexican Ricinus communis L. seeds and oil contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perdomo, Felipe A.; Acosta-Osorio, Andrés A.; Herrera, G.; Vasco-Leal, José F.; Mosquera-Artamonov, José D.; Millan-Malo, Beatriz; Rodriguez-Garcia, Mario E.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a rigorous study and characterization of seven Mexican Ricinus communis L. seeds and its respective extracted oil. Several physical–chemical properties were measured in order to know moisture, total lipid content, fiber content, starch presence, morphology, acidity, free fatty acid profile, ricinoleic acid content, viscosity and crude oil density. Three different methodologies were implemented for the oil extraction in each variety (extraction with chemical solvents and mechanical compression heated and non-heated). The yield percentage of the oil extraction was evaluated as well as the extraction method influence over the oil's nature. -- Highlights: ► We characterized seven different Castor seeds and oils from semi deserted region. ► We evaluate the performance of three different methods to obtain Castor Oils. ► It was found that the density and fatty acid profile depend on the method of extraction. ► According to x-ray diffraction experiments no crystalline compounds were found in the defatted mass. ► The viscosity of the Castor Oils was strongly influence by the extractive method

  11. Isolamento do alcalóide ricinina das folhas de Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae através de cromatografias em contracorrente Isolation of the alkaloid ricinine from the leaves of Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae through counter-current chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Leite

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Droplet counter-current chromatography, rotation locular counter-current chromatography and high-speed counter-current chromatography were applied to the preparative separation of the alkaloid ricinine from the dichloromethane extracts of Ricinus communis leaves. The solvent system used was composed of dichloromethane-methanol-water (93:35:72 v/v/v and all techniques led to the isolation of large amounts of the alkaloid. The best result was obtained through HSCCC, since the ricinine yield was respectively 50% and 30% higher than when using RLCCC or DCCC.

  12. Collection of castor-oil plant germoplasm (Ricinus communis L. in two municipalities of Arauca, Colombia

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    Carlos Iván Cardozo Conde

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Ricinus communis L., commonly known as the castor-oil plant, is important for its use in biofuels production. With the objective of learning about its current status, in 40 villages influential to the oil complex of Caricare (municipality of Arauquita and Caño Limón (municipality of Arauca in Arauca, Colombia (where five years earlier the crop had been established, a collection of sexual seed was carried out between December 2011 and January 2012. The variables studied include passport data as a collection resource, local name, relief, and soil type among others. A Garmin map76CSx was used in order to identify the transects and record data such as geographic location and elevation. Simple descriptive statistics were used to identify the variables of greatest variation. Using the qualitative variables of greatest importance, a contingency table analysis with a significance level of 5%, a multiple correspondence analysis (MCA and principal component analysis (PCA were performed for quantitative and qualitative variables, in addition to a classification analysis through a similarity matrix. The castor-oil plant was found in 25% of the villages visited. 12 introductions were collected, four from Caricare and eight from Caño Limón. Although the environmental conditions were favo­rable for its cultivation, there are no castor-oil plant crops in the locations visited. The absence of grain commercialization and oil extraction equipment is the main limiting factor. A garden was established using collected materials for the purpose of research, breeding and propagation.

  13. Effects of Oganic and Biofertilizers on Growth Indices of Castor Bean (Ricinus communis L.

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    A Amin Ghafori

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Castor plant, Ricinus communis L. is a species of flowering plant in the spurge family; Euphorbiaceae, which contains a vast number of plants mostly native to the tropics. It belongs to a monotypic genus Ricinus. The name Ricinus is a latin word for tick. The plant is probably named because its seed has markings and a dump at the end that resemble certain ticks (NCRI, 2014. Castorbean is an industrial oil seed crop containing about 45-58 percent oil, which has tremendous application in petrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, textiles, chemicals, soap, leather, paints, varnishes, ink, nylon and plastic. Castor oil is traditionally associated with medicine and veterinary use in the fields of obstetrics, dermatology. It is also used as laxative. Presently, its utilization as bio-diesel has magnified its importance. Its oil does not freeze even at high altitudes and it is one the best lubricants for jet engines. This 100% castor-based product, has numerous applications in industry such as rotating glass car-wipers, ski boots fixatives, and for use in air-brake systems on trucks. Many new uses, based on the biodegradability of castor oil derived products, are expected in the future (Labalette et al., 1996. The shell of the castor bean is used as an organic termite control agent and its seed cake as manure in the soil. Medicinal plants are valuable resources in a wide range of natural resources that scientific identification, cultivation, development and proper utilization of them can have an important role in community health, employment and non-petrol exports. Quality of medicinal plants is more important than other crops. One of the most important factors determining the yield of castor bean is fertility. Integrated supply of nutrient to plants through combinations of organic and inorganic sources is becoming an increasingly important aspect of environmentally sound agriculture. Reports showed that the application of manure on bean

  14. Metabolite profiling of the oilseed crop Ricinus communis during early seed imbibition reveals a specific metabolic signature in response to temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro de Jesus, P.R.; Willems, L.A.J.; Mudde, E.; Fernandez, L.G.; Castro, de R.D.; Ligterink, W.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    2015-01-01

    Seed imbibition is an important process in the plant life cycle and determines whether seed germination and plant growth will be successful or not. Ricinus communis is becoming an important crop for oil production, and therefore, studying the physiological and biochemical aspects of seed imbibition

  15. Hematological and biochemical changes in rabbits exposed to castor oil (Ricinus communis under experimental conditions

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    Sahar M. Ahmed

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last few decades there has been an exponential growth in the field of herbal medicine. One such medicinal plant is Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae, which is commonly known as castor. All parts of the plant are important phloem, bark, leaves, flowers, seed and oil. The study was conducted on 15 mature rabbitsof either sex of 1-2 kg body weight and 1-2 years old. The animals were divided into three groups of 5 animals each. Animals of group I were exposed orally to ricin extract at a dose rate of 0.5 mg /kg b.wt. daily for 14 days, while those of group II were exposed orally to aqueous leaves extract 0.5mg /kg b.wt daily for 14 day, mean while those of group III were left as a control group not exposed. The dependent parameters in the study were hemoglobin (Hb concentration, total erythrocytes count, packed cells volume (PCV%, erythrocytes indices mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC, Total and differential leucocytes count (TLC and DLC, in addition to some biochemical tests of blood serum which obtained at day 14th post exposure. The results of the study were revealed that the ricin extract and leaf extract exhibited an effects on hematological pictures as the erythrocytes counts, erythrocytes indices, Hb concentration and PCV% decreased and the obvious effects were in the 14th day. Ricin extract was less effects on many dependent parameters in comparison with aqueous leaf extract. Total leucocytes count, neutrophils % was increased in both ricin and leaf extract, and the increasing were higher in the 7th day in Ricin extract group. The lymphocytes% was decreased. While monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils % did not show any significant changes in all groups. Neutrophil /lymphocyte (N/l, and monocyte /lymphocyte (M/l increased in both exposed groups. Cholesterol (Chol, Triglyceride (TGwere increased, while total protein (TPwas decreased, Albumin (Alb, Cortisol

  16. Repellent activity of Cnidoscolus phyllacanthus Mart. and Ricinus communis L. extracts against Aedes aegypti L. oviposition behavior

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    Lafayette Pereira Candido

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Female Aedes aegypti lay their eggs on nearly any moist substrate. Methods with potential to repel oviposition may reduce infestation, thereby contributing to control of epidemics. We evaluated the influence of Cnidoscolus phyllacanthus and Ricinus communis plant extracts on the oviposition behavior of A. aegypti. Lethal concentrations were first determined in experiments with larvae after 24 h of exposure, after which LC50 and LC90 were used to test oviposition repellency. The experiment consisted of an oviposition preference test based multiple-choice and no-choice assays. The Oviposition Activity Indices (OAIs from the multiple-choice test using both R. communis and C. phyllacanthus were negative, suggesting oviposition repellent and deterrent activity. The LC90 of both plant extracts deterred oviposition by this vector, as demonstrated by an OAI = value of -1. In the choice study, mean oviposition values were significantly different between R. communis and C. phyllacanthus. In the absence of choice, mosquitoes laid eggs independent of the substrate. In conclusion, our OAI values indicate that all substrates used repelled oviposition by A. aegypti.

  17. Intercropping for Management of Insect Pests of Castor, Ricinus communis, in the Semi—Arid Tropics of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasa Rao, M.; Venkateswarlu, B.

    2012-01-01

    Intercropping is one of the important cultural practices in pest management and is based on the principle of reducing insect pests by increasing the diversity of an ecosystem. On—farm experiments were conducted in villages of semi—arid tropical (SAT) India to identify the appropriate combination of castor (Ricinus communis L.) (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae) and intercropping in relation to pest incidence. The diversity created by introducing cluster bean, cowpea, black gram, or groundnut as intercrops in castor (1:2 ratio proportions) resulted in reduction of incidence of insect pests, namely semilooper (Achaea janata L.), leaf hopper (Empoasca flavescens Fabricius), and shoot and capsule borer (Conogethes punctiferalis Guenee). A buildup of natural enemies (Microplitis, coccinellids, and spiders) of the major pests of castor was also observed in these intercropping systems and resulted in the reduction of insect pests. Further, these systems were more efficient agronomically and economically, and were thus more profitable than a castor monocrop. PMID:22934569

  18. INTOXICAÇÃO EXPERIMENTAL PELAS SEMENTES TRITURADAS DE Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae EM COELHOS

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    Brito Marilene de Farias

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available As sementes trituradas de Ricinus communis, administradas em doses únicas por sonda intragástrica a coelhos causou graves sintomas de intoxicação com êxito letal nos três coelhos que receberam a dose de 2 g/kg e em um dos quatro que receberam 1 g/kg. Os outros três coelhos que receberam 1g/kg desenvolveram sintomas discretos a moderados e se recuperaram, e os três que receberam 0,5g/kg só mostraram sintomas discretos. O período entre a administração das sementes e a morte ou recuperação variou de 12h47min a 68h08min, e de 3 a 6 dias, respectivamente. Os primeiros sintomas após a administração das sementes, foram observados dentro de cerca 8 horas nos casos letais e nos animais que adoeceram moderadamente, e dentro de cerca 24 horas nos casos com sintomatogia discreta. A evolução da intoxicação variou de 4 a 56 horas nos casos letais e de 2 a 5 meio dias nos casos de recuperação. A sintomatologia consistiu principalmente de perturbações digestivas. Os animais apresentaram inapetência até anorexia. As fezes geralmente eram escassas, com forma e tamanho das síbalas alteradas, eram escuras, às vezes pastosas, com muco. Havia nítidas manifestações de cólica. Os achados de necropsia mais evidentes foram constatados no intestino delgado e ceco. O conteúdo destes segmentos do intestino era líquido. A parede do intestino delgado apresentou congestão e edema e havia fibrina recobrindo a mucosa sob forma de pseudomembranas, ou na luz intestinal sob forma de flocos e/ou filamentos. No ceco havia edema da mucosa como também congestão da parede e fibrina aderida à mucosa ou encontrada em flocos e/ou filamentos no conteúdo. As alterações histológicas mais importantes foram verificadas no intestino delgado e ceco. No intestino delgado observou-se necrose de coagulação associada a congestão/hemorragias na mucosa. Havia ainda congestão/hemorragias e edema na submucosa. Lesões semelhantes foram vistas no ceco onde

  19. Castor (Ricinus communis L. and Pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L. Growth Indices in Terms of Interference

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    naser jafarzadeh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Growth analysis has been widely used in breeding programs to identify the important plant developmental phases and components related to higher yield under a particular set of environmental conditions. Castor bean (Ricinus communis L. is an important commercial crop. Castor oil based by products is used in manufacturing of several commercially important commodities like surfactants, coatings, greases, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, polyesters, polymers, etc. Interference (Interactive effects among species on inter-species populations is one of the main issues on the eco-physiology of plant populations where weeds impose negative effects by approaching the plant to compete in light, water and nutrient elements availability and results in reduced growth and yield (Shinggu et al., 2011. Growth indices are useful for interpreting plant reactions to the crop and weed density. Various reasons have been attributed for the low productivity among the most important is weed competition (Radosevich, 1987. The aim of the present experiment was evaluating the interference effects of redroot pigweed on growth indices of castor bean in northwest of Iran. Materials and methods This experiment was conducted in Urmia, Iran (Agricultural Research of West Azarbayjan, Saatlo Station (37°44´18״ N Latitude and 45° 10´ 53״ E Longitude, at 1338 m above sea level in 2012. The soil of the experimental field was sandy - loam, with pH of 7.2. Competitive pattern of experiment was in two-factor based on a randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications arranged in four castor plant densities (3, 4, 5 and 6 plants.m-2 and four redroot pigweed densities (0, 5, 10 and 15 plants.m-2. Redroot pigweed and castor seeds were simultaneously directly planted on the 22th May in 2012. Redroot pigweed plants were weeded at the times related to the treatments level. Irrigation and intercultural operations were performed whenever necessary. Plots were 3m×5m

  20. Balanço energético para a produção de biodiesel pela cultura da mamona (Ricinus communis L. Energy balance for biodiesel production by the castor bean crop (Ricinus communis L.

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    Rodolfo Glauber Chechetto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A cultura da mamona (Ricinus communis L. adquiriu prestígio ao interesse da indústria pela qualidade de seu óleo e, recentemente, pela busca de novas fontes de energias. O experimento que serviu como base para os dados utilizados nesse trabalho foi realizado na Fazenda Experimental Lageado, FCA - UNESP, no município de Botucatu - SP, no ano de 2008. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a viabilidade energética da cultura através do balanço e da eficiência energética, desde a implantação até a produção de biodiesel, utilizando parâmetros de consumo operacional no manejo para instalação e manutenção da cultura, colheita e processamento de óleo. As operações de manejo de solo, semeadura e colheita consumiramo total de 266,20 MJ ha-1, que juntamente com fertilizantes, agrotóxicos, combustíveis e lubrificantes, mão-de-obra, sementes e processamento industrial totalizaram uma entrada de energia de 56.808,10 MJ ha-1. A produção de energia foi de 72.814,00 MJ ha-1. O setor ainda carece de estudos que contribuiriam para o levantamento de dados e coeficientes energéticos mais específicos. A cultura da mamona foi considerada eficiente, permitindo ganho de 15.983,44 MJ ha-1, equivalente a aproximadamente 415 L de óleo diesel.The castor bean crop (Ricinus communis L. has acquired prestige due to industries interest in the oil quality and recently for new sources of energy demand. The experiment that served as basis for the data used in this study was conducted at the Lageado Experimental Farm, in Botucatu - SP, 2008. This study aimed to avaluate the crop viability through energy balance and energy efficiency since the implantation until biodiesel production using parameters of consumption in operational management for installation and maintenance of culture harvest and oil production. The soil management operations, sow and harvest consumed the total of 266.20 MJ ha-1, gathering with the fertilizers, pesticides, fuels

  1. Gene Structures, Evolution and Transcriptional Profiling of the WRKY Gene Family in Castor Bean (Ricinus communis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhi; Yang, Lifu; Wang, Danhua; Huang, Qixing; Mo, Yeyong; Xie, Guishui

    2016-01-01

    WRKY proteins comprise one of the largest transcription factor families in plants and form key regulators of many plant processes. This study presents the characterization of 58 WRKY genes from the castor bean (Ricinus communis L., Euphorbiaceae) genome. Compared with the automatic genome annotation, one more WRKY-encoding locus was identified and 20 out of the 57 predicted gene models were manually corrected. All RcWRKY genes were shown to contain at least one intron in their coding sequences. According to the structural features of the present WRKY domains, the identified RcWRKY genes were assigned to three previously defined groups (I-III). Although castor bean underwent no recent whole-genome duplication event like physic nut (Jatropha curcas L., Euphorbiaceae), comparative genomics analysis indicated that one gene loss, one intron loss and one recent proximal duplication occurred in the RcWRKY gene family. The expression of all 58 RcWRKY genes was supported by ESTs and/or RNA sequencing reads derived from roots, leaves, flowers, seeds and endosperms. Further global expression profiles with RNA sequencing data revealed diverse expression patterns among various tissues. Results obtained from this study not only provide valuable information for future functional analysis and utilization of the castor bean WRKY genes, but also provide a useful reference to investigate the gene family expansion and evolution in Euphorbiaceus plants.

  2. Gene Structures, Evolution, Classification and Expression Profiles of the Aquaporin Gene Family in Castor Bean (Ricinus communis L..

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    Zhi Zou

    Full Text Available Aquaporins (AQPs are a class of integral membrane proteins that facilitate the passive transport of water and other small solutes across biological membranes. Castor bean (Ricinus communis L., Euphobiaceae, an important non-edible oilseed crop, is widely cultivated for industrial, medicinal and cosmetic purposes. Its recently available genome provides an opportunity to analyze specific gene families. In this study, a total of 37 full-length AQP genes were identified from the castor bean genome, which were assigned to five subfamilies, including 10 plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs, 9 tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIPs, 8 NOD26-like intrinsic proteins (NIPs, 6 X intrinsic proteins (XIPs and 4 small basic intrinsic proteins (SIPs on the basis of sequence similarities. Functional prediction based on the analysis of the aromatic/arginine (ar/R selectivity filter, Froger's positions and specificity-determining positions (SDPs showed a remarkable difference in substrate specificity among subfamilies. Homology analysis supported the expression of all 37 RcAQP genes in at least one of examined tissues, e.g., root, leaf, flower, seed and endosperm. Furthermore, global expression profiles with deep transcriptome sequencing data revealed diverse expression patterns among various tissues. The current study presents the first genome-wide analysis of the AQP gene family in castor bean. Results obtained from this study provide valuable information for future functional analysis and utilization.

  3. Light and electron microscopic observations in connection with the developing pistil and seed-appendix (caruncle of Ricinus communis L.

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    Katherine Liszt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of the particularly organized stigma and obturator, their fine structure, their function as well as the histological differentiation and the role of the seed-appendix i.e. the caruncle of Ricinus communis L. have been investigated in several developmental phases from the so called "gynoecial primordium" state to the ripe state, 'using the terminology introduced by S a t t 1 e r (1974. The stigma cells are characterized by dens cytoplasm, numerous vesicles mostly of ER origin, ribosomes and negatively stained mitochondria. Dilatation of ER, the appearance of electron opaque substances in it and between the plasmamembran and cell wall are frequent. The degenerating process of some stigma cells will start before the pollination because of autolysis. In the cells of the obturator and young caruncle however dictyosomes can be found more frequently than in stigma cells and the starch content of the ;plastids is remarkable. The thickening of the cell wall is connected with the function of these tissues.

  4. Local Perceptions about the Effects of Jatropha (Jatropha curcas and Castor (Ricinus communis Plantations on Households in Ghana and Ethiopia

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    Joleen A. Timko

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Biofuel plantations have been hyped as a means to reinvigorate Africa’s rural areas. Yet there is still apprehension about the negative environmental and social impacts of large-scale commercial biofuel production around rising food prices, land grabbing, ecological damage, and disruption of rural livelihoods. Given the extent of Jatropha curcas production in Ghana and Ethiopia and Castor bean (Ricinus communis in Ethiopia, this paper presents the results of a study that assessed the socio-economic implications of industrial Jatropha plantations on local livelihoods in Ghana, and of industrial Jatropha and Castor plantations on local livelihoods in Ethiopia. This study used primary data collected from 234 households in Ghana and 165 in Ethiopia. The cultivation of Jatropha and Castor has had several important effects on local livelihoods in the study sites, most notably decreases in household landholdings due to the arrival of industrial Jatropha or Castor plantations; and the resulting changes these plantations have caused in household socio-economic status, food security, fallow periods, and fodder availability. We consider how a lack of meaningful consultation between local people, their traditional authorities and the biofuel company managers, along with shortcomings in each country’s broader land acquisition process and poor land use information, may have contributed to these overall negative effects on local livelihoods. We conclude by suggesting several ways that emerging biofuel industries could be improved from the perspective of local people and their livelihoods.

  5. Dissipation of excess photosynthetic energy contributes to salinity tolerance: a comparative study of salt-tolerant Ricinus communis and salt-sensitive Jatropha curcas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima Neto, Milton C; Lobo, Ana K M; Martins, Marcio O; Fontenele, Adilton V; Silveira, Joaquim Albenisio G

    2014-01-01

    The relationships between salt tolerance and photosynthetic mechanisms of excess energy dissipation were assessed using two species that exhibit contrasting responses to salinity, Ricinus communis (tolerant) and Jatropha curcas (sensitive). The salt tolerance of R. communis was indicated by unchanged electrolyte leakage (cellular integrity) and dry weight in leaves, whereas these parameters were greatly affected in J. curcas. The leaf Na+ content was similar in both species. Photosynthesis was intensely decreased in both species, but the reduction was more pronounced in J. curcas. In this species biochemical limitations in photosynthesis were more prominent, as indicated by increased C(i) values and decreased Rubisco activity. Salinity decreased both the V(cmax) (in vivo Rubisco activity) and J(max) (maximum electron transport rate) more significantly in J. curcas. The higher tolerance in R. communis was positively associated with higher photorespiratory activity, nitrate assimilation and higher cyclic electron flow. The high activity of these alternative electron sinks in R. communis was closely associated with a more efficient photoprotection mechanism. In conclusion, salt tolerance in R. communis, compared with J. curcas, is related to higher electron partitioning from the photosynthetic electron transport chain to alternative sinks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Eficiência da seleção recorrente para redução da estatura de plantas em mamoneira (Ricinus communis L. Recurrent selection efficiency for stature reduction of castor bean (Ricinus communis L. plants

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    Inocencio Junior de Oliveira

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se, o presente trabalho, com o objetivo de avaliar a eficiência da seleção recorrente para a redução da estatura de plantas de mamona da cultivar Guarani (Ricinus communis L., tornando-a com porte adequado para facilitar a colheita manual e/ou mecânica. Foram realizados quatro ciclos de seleção recorrente com a utilização de progênies autofecundadas na cultivar Guarani para redução da estatura das plantas, nas condições edafoclimáticas dos municípios de São Manuel - SP, Botucatu - SP e Penápolis - SP. As avaliações de estatura das plantas e de produtividade de grãos (kg.ha-1, dos quatro ciclos de seleção e do ciclo original foram realizadas nos municípios de São Manuel - SP, Botucatu - SP e Penápolis - SP na safra 2005/2006, sob um delineamento de blocos casualizados com cinco repetições e parcela útil de 30 m². A análise de variância para as características avaliadas foi feita separadamente para cada local e conjuntamente para os três locais e, posteriormente, realizada a comparação das médias pelo teste de Tukey, a 5%. Foram estimados, para as três localidades, por análise de regressão, os ganhos genéticos dos quatros ciclos de seleção para estatura de plantas. A partir dos resultados obtidos pôde-se concluir que a seleção recorrente foi eficiente para a redução da estatura de plantas e que a cultivar de mamona Guarani apresenta variabilidade genética para essa característica e que a produtividade não foi influenciada pela redução da estatura de plantas.The aim of this work was to evaluate the recurrent selection efficiency for reduction of stature of the castor bean plants of the Guarani cultivar (Ricinus communis L., turning it with appropriate strucuture to facilitate the manual and/or mechanic harvest. Four cycles of recurrent selection were accomplished through the utilization of self-pollinated progenies in the Guarani cultivar for reduction of plants stature, in

  7. Caracterización morfológica y agroproductiva de procedencias de Ricinus communis L. para la producción de aceite Morphological and agroproductive characterization of Ricinus communis L. provenances for oil production

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    R Machado

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue caracterizar dos procedencias introducidas desde Suramérica (Planta-2 y Planta-3 y tres colectadas en Cuba (SSCS-5, Colón-1 y Las Tunas, de Ricinus communis L. Para ello se consideraron indicadores morfológicos y agroproductivos. Se utilizaron parcelas de 40 m² (área vital, con diez plantas. El diseño fue totalmente aleatorizado y los datos se analizaron a partir de estadígrafos descriptivos. Planta-2 alcanzó la mayor velocidad de crecimiento (2,98 cm/día y, a los 17 meses, fue superior en cuanto a: el grosor del tallo (17,5 cm; el número de ramas primarias (45, secundarias (41 y terciarias (20; y el grosor de las ramas primarias (5,9 cm. SSCS-5, Colón-1 y Las Tunas mostraron racimos más largos, con un mayor número de frutos; pero fueron superadas por Planta-3 y Planta-2 en el peso de los frutos por racimo (134,9 y 139,0 g, respectivamente, con frutos y semillas más grandes. Las lesiones producidas por insectos y el grado de infestación por microorganismos patógenos no fueron representativos. El mayor rendimiento de semilla (95,1 kg, el de frutos por planta (5,28 kg y por área (4 398 kg/ha y el estimado de aceite por unidad de área (1 130,2 kg/ha se detectaron en Planta-2. Se concluye que estas procedencias poseen características morfoproductivas que las diferencian, y mostraron particularidades relevantes para la producción de aceite, el cual se destina no solo a la producción de biodiesel, sino a múltiples usos a partir de sus derivados. Se recomienda profundizar en estudios sobre la fitotecnia de R. communis, de forma particular en Planta-2; así como introducir tipos medianos que faciliten su cosecha.The objective of this work was to characterize two provenances introduced from South America (Planta-2 and Planta-3 and three provenances collected in Cuba (SSCS-5, Colón-1 and Las Tunas, of Ricinus communis L. For such purpose, morphological and agroproductive indicators were considered

  8. Phloem sap proteins from Cucurbita maxima and Ricinus communis have the capacity to traffic cell to cell through plasmodesmata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, Suchandra; Xiang, Yu; Schobert, Christian; Thompson, Gary A.; Lucas, William J.

    1997-01-01

    In angiosperms, the functional enucleate sieve tube system of the phloem appears to be maintained by the surrounding companion cells. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that polypeptides present within the phloem sap traffic cell to cell from the companion cells, where they are synthesized, into the sieve tube via plasmodesmata. Coinjection of fluorescently labeled dextrans along with size-fractionated Cucurbita maxima phloem proteins, ranging in size from 10 to 200 kDa, as well as injection of individual fluorescently labeled phloem proteins, provided unambiguous evidence that these proteins have the capacity to interact with mesophyll plasmodesmata in cucurbit cotyledons to induce an increase in size exclusion limit and traffic cell to cell. Plasmodesmal size exclusion limit increased to greater than 20 kDa, but less than 40 kDa, irrespective of the size of the injected protein, indicating that partial protein unfolding may be a requirement for transport. A threshold concentration in the 20–100 nM range was required for cell-to-cell transport indicating that phloem proteins have a high affinity for the mesophyll plasmodesmal binding site(s). Parallel experiments with glutaredoxin and cystatin, phloem sap proteins from Ricinus communis, established that these proteins can also traffic through cucurbit mesophyll plasmodesmata. These results are discussed in terms of the requirements for regulated protein trafficking between companion cells and the sieve tube system. As the threshold value for plasmodesmal transport of phloem sap proteins falls within the same range as many plant hormones, the possibility is discussed that some of these proteins may act as long-distance signaling molecules. PMID:9391168

  9. Phloem sap proteins from Cucurbita maxima and Ricinus communis have the capacity to traffic cell to cell through plasmodesmata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, S; Xiang, Y; Schobert, C; Thompson, G A; Lucas, W J

    1997-12-09

    In angiosperms, the functional enucleate sieve tube system of the phloem appears to be maintained by the surrounding companion cells. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that polypeptides present within the phloem sap traffic cell to cell from the companion cells, where they are synthesized, into the sieve tube via plasmodesmata. Coinjection of fluorescently labeled dextrans along with size-fractionated Cucurbita maxima phloem proteins, ranging in size from 10 to 200 kDa, as well as injection of individual fluorescently labeled phloem proteins, provided unambiguous evidence that these proteins have the capacity to interact with mesophyll plasmodesmata in cucurbit cotyledons to induce an increase in size exclusion limit and traffic cell to cell. Plasmodesmal size exclusion limit increased to greater than 20 kDa, but less than 40 kDa, irrespective of the size of the injected protein, indicating that partial protein unfolding may be a requirement for transport. A threshold concentration in the 20-100 nM range was required for cell-to-cell transport indicating that phloem proteins have a high affinity for the mesophyll plasmodesmal binding site(s). Parallel experiments with glutaredoxin and cystatin, phloem sap proteins from Ricinus communis, established that these proteins can also traffic through cucurbit mesophyll plasmodesmata. These results are discussed in terms of the requirements for regulated protein trafficking between companion cells and the sieve tube system. As the threshold value for plasmodesmal transport of phloem sap proteins falls within the same range as many plant hormones, the possibility is discussed that some of these proteins may act as long-distance signaling molecules.

  10. Potential application of waste from castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) for production for xylanase of interest in the industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herculano, Polyanna Nunes; Moreira, Keila Aparecida; Bezerra, Raquel Pedrosa; Porto, Tatiana Souza; de Souza-Motta, Cristina Maria; Porto, Ana Lúcia Figueiredo

    2016-12-01

    Xylanases activity (XY) from Aspergillus japonicus URM5620 produced by Solid-State Fermentation (SSF) of castor press cake (Ricinus communis) on different conditions of production and extraction by PEG/citrate aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) were investigated. XY production was influenced by substrate amount (5-10 g), initial moisture (15-35 %), pH (4.0-6.0) and temperature (25-35 °C), obtaining the maximum activity of 29,085 ± 1808 U g ds -1 using 5.0 g of substrate with initial moisture of 15 % at 25 °C and pH 6.0, after 120 h of fermentation. The influence of PEG molar mass (1000-8000 g mol -1 ), phase concentrations (PEG 20.0-24.0 % w/w and sodium citrate 15-20 % w/w) and pH (6.0-8.0) on partition coefficient, purification factor, yield and selectivity of XY were determinate. Enzyme partitioning into the PEG rich phase was favored by M PEG 8000 (g mol -1 ), C PEG 24 % (w/w), C C 20 % (w/w) and pH 8.0, resulting in partition coefficient of 50.78, activity yield of 268 %, 7.20-fold purification factor and selectivity of 293. A. japonicus URM5620 has a potential role in the development of a bioprocess for the XY production using low-cost media. In addition, the present study proved it is feasible to extract xylanase from SSF by adopting the one step ATPS consisting of PEG/citrate.

  11. Alternatif Pembuatan Biodiesel Melalui Transesterifikasi Minyak Castor (Ricinus communis Menggunakan Katalis Campuran Cangkang Telur Ayam dan Kaolin

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    Soni - Setiadji

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel was produced by transesterification of castor oil (Ricinus communis using a catalyst of CaO and kaolin (CaO / kaolin had been performed. CaO was obtained from the calcination of eggshell. Castor oil is selected as biodiesel feedstock because it belongs to non-food oil and easy to cultivate. In general, the research method aims to comprise the CaO / Kaolin catalysts with a ratio of 15 mmol CaO per 1 gram of kaolin activated using impregnation method and biodiesel produced through transesterification of castor oil using the catalyst at 65 ºC for 8 hours with ratio of castor oil: methanol: catalyst (1: 15: 5% w / w. The reaction is carried out on the reflux system. The XRD analysis show the presence of silica and potassium aluminum silicate hydroxide in the catalyst. The EDS results show the catalyst-forming components CaO and silica. The FTIR analysis results show the absorption peak in the functional group forming the methyl ester compound. Based on the characterization of GC-MS, the largest methyl ester components contained in biodiesel are methyl risinoleate, methyl elaidat, methyl stearate, methyl linoleate, and methyl palmitate. The overall conversion of castor oil to methyl ester using CaO / kaolin catalyst is 97.36%. The largest component in castor oil is risinoleic acid, has been successfully converted to methyl risinoleate by 74.75%.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15408/jkv.v0i0.4778

  12. Immunochemical studies on the N-acetyllactosamine beta-(1----6)-linked trisaccharide specificity of Ricinus communis agglutinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, A M; Sugii, S; Gruezo, F G; Kabat, E A

    1988-07-15

    The combining site of Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA1) was studied by quantitative precipitin and precipitin inhibition assays. Of 31 complex carbohydrates tested, all except active and inactive antifreeze glycoproteins, Streptococcus group C polysaccharide, and native rat salivary glycoprotein, reacted strongly, and 22 completely precipitated the lectin, indicating that RCA1 has both a broad range of affinity and a low solubility of its carbohydrate-bound complex. Of the monosaccharides and glycosides tested for inhibition of precipitation, p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside was the best. It was about 6.4 times better than methyl beta-D-galactopyranoside. The beta anomer of glycosides of D-galactose was much more potent than the corresponding alpha anomer. Among the oligosaccharides tested, beta-D-Galp-(1----4)-beta-D-GlcpNAc-(1----6)-D-Gal was the best inhibitor, which was approximately 2/3 as active as p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside. It was approximately 1.4 times as active as beta-D-Gal-(1----4)-D-GlcNAc (N-acetyllactosamine), twice as active as beta-D-Gal-(1----3)-D-GlcNAc, and 4.5 times more active than lacto-N-tetraose. From the results, it can be concluded that; (a) hydrophobic interaction is important for binding; (b) the combining site of this lectin is at least as large as a trisaccharide; and (c) of the compounds studied, the trisaccharide beta-D-Galp-(1----4)-beta-D-GlcpNAc-(1----6)-D-Gal was the most complementary to the human blood group I Ma determinant beta-D-Galp-(1----4)-beta-D-GlcpNAc-(1----6)-D-Gal.

  13. Gene structure, expression pattern and interaction of Nuclear Factor-Y family in castor bean (Ricinus communis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Xu, Wei; Chen, Zexi; Han, Bing; Haque, Mohammad E; Liu, Aizhong

    2018-03-01

    Nuclear Factor-Y transcription factors, which function in regulating seed development (including storage reservoir accumulation) and responding to abiotic stresses, were identified and characterized in castor bean. Nuclear Factor-Y (NF-Y) transcription factors in plants contain three subunits (NF-YA, NF-YB and NF-YC), and function as a heterodimer or heterotrimer complex in regulating plant growth, development and response to stresses. Castor bean (Ricinus communis, Euphorbiaceae) one of the most economically important non-edible oilseed crops, able to grow in diverse soil conditions and displays high tolerance to abiotic stresses. Due to increasing demands for its seed oils, it is necessary to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying the regulation of growth and development. Based on the available genome data, we identified 25 RcNF-Y members including six RcNF-YAs, 12 RcNF-YBs and seven RcNF-YCs, and characterized their gene structures. Yeast two-hybrid assays confirmed the protein-protein interactions among three subunits. Using transcriptomic data from different tissues, we found that six members were highly or specifically expressed in endosperms (in particular, two LEC1-type members RcNF-YB2 and RcNF-YB12), implying their involvement in regulating seed development and storage reservoir accumulation. Further, we investigated the expression changes of RcNF-Y members in two-week-old seedlings under drought, cold, hot and salt stresses. We found that the expression levels of 20 RcNF-Y members tested were changed and three RcNF-Y members might function in response to abiotic stresses. This study is the first reported on genomic characterization of NF-Y transcription factors in the family Euphorbiaceae. Our results provide the basis for improved understanding of how NF-Y genes function in the regulation of seed development and responses to abiotic stresses in both castor bean and other plants in this family.

  14. CAPACIDAD ANTAGÓNICA Y QUITINOLÍTICA DE MICROORGANISMOS AISLADOS DE RESIDUOS DE HIGUERILLA (Ricinus communis

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    TERESA CABRA C

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se ha comprobado que los fertilizantes y controladores biológicos a base de microorganismos benéficos productores de metabolitos de interés, inducen el crecimiento vegetal y actúan contra microorganismos patógenos y plagas que afectan los agroecosistemas. Por lo tanto, su uso constituye una práctica eficiente de producción limpia que ayuda a reducir el impacto ambiental causado por el uso de agroquímicos. En este trabajo se evaluó la capacidad antagónica y quitinolítica de 15 cepas bacterianas y una levaduriforme, aisladas de residuos lignocelulósicos de higuerilla (Ricinus communis. La actividad antagónica de cada cepa se determinó por la capacidad de inhibir el crecimiento del hongo fitopatógeno Fusarium equiseti, en medio de cultivo PDA. Solamente la bacteria Bacillus subtilis, presentó una inhibición significativa del crecimiento del hongo equivalente al 76,08%. Por lo tanto se demuestra que la cepa de Bacillus subtilis puede ser empleada en la formulación de inoculantes microbianos. La capacidad quitinolítica de las cepas se definió por el crecimiento del microorganismo y por la formación de halos de hidrólisis alrededor de las colonias sobre el medio de cultivo suplementado con quitina coloidal. Ninguna de las cepas evaluadas mostró capacidad para degradar quitina.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of dialkanolamides from castor oil (Ricinus communis) as nonionic surfactant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, M.; Wahyuningsih, T. D.

    2017-12-01

    Nonionic surfactant of dialkanolamide derivates was synthesized and characterized from castor oil (Ricinus comunnis). Ricinoleic acid was isolated from castor oil by hydrolysis in alkaline (KOH) condition at 65 °C. Oxidation of ricinoleic acid by dilute potassium permanganate (KMnO4) in alkaline condition at 75-90 °C gave dicarboxylic acid which was then reacted with ethanolamine at 140-160 °C for 6 hours. The product was recrystallized with isopropanol, and the structure elucidation was performed by FTIR, 1HNMR spectrometer, and GC-MS with silylation method. Characterization of surfactants was carried out by surface tension measurement (capillary rise method), Critical Micelle Concentration (CMC) based on turbidity method and calculation of Hydrophilic-Lipophilic Balance (HLB) value with Griffin method and Bancroft rule. The result showed that ricinoleic acid in castor oil is 86.19 % and it is oxidation give an azelaic acid and octanedioic acid in 53.25 %. Amidation of a dicarboxylic acid and ethanolamine at 140-160 °C for 6 hours yielded of N1,N9-bis(2-hydroxyethyl)nona diamide in 49.35 %. Surfactant characterization indicates that dialkanolamide derivates can be used as a surfactant due to its ability to reduce the surface tension of ethanol with CMC at 1.2 g/L, HLB value is 5.58 and can be used as emulsifier water in oil (W/O).

  16. Cyclic electron flow, NPQ and photorespiration are crucial for the establishment of young plants of Ricinus communis and Jatropha curcas exposed to drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima Neto, M C; Cerqueira, J V A; da Cunha, J R; Ribeiro, R V; Silveira, J A G

    2017-07-01

    Although plant physiological responses to drought have been widely studied, the interaction between photoprotection, photorespiration and antioxidant metabolism in water-stressed plants is scarcely addressed. This study aimed to evaluate the physiological adjustments preserving photosynthesis and growth in two plant species with different tolerance to drought: Jatropha curcas and Ricinus communis. We measured stress indicators, gas exchange, photochemistry of PSII and PSI, antioxidant enzymes, cyclic electron flow and photorespiration. Physiological stress indicators associated with reduction in growth confirmed R. communis as sensitive and J. curcas as tolerant to drought. Drought induced loss of photosynthesis in R. communis, whereas J. curcas maintained higher leaf gas exchange and photochemistry under drought. In addition, J. curcas showed higher dissipation of excess energy and presented higher cyclic electron flow when exposed to drought. Although none of these mechanisms have been triggered in R. communis, this species showed increases in photorespiration. R. communis displayed loss of Rubisco content while the Rubisco relative abundance did not change in J. curcas under drought. Accordingly, the in vivo maximum Rubisco carboxylation rate (V cmax ) and the maximum photosynthetic electron transport rate driving RuBP regeneration (J max ) were less affected in J. curcas. Both species displayed an efficient antioxidant mechanism by increasing activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Overall, we suggest that the modulation of different photoprotective mechanisms is crucial to mitigate the effects caused by excess energy, maintaining photosynthetic apparatus efficiency and promoting the establishment of young plants of these two species under drought. © 2017 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  17. A sheep hydatid cyst glycoprotein as receptors for three toxic lectins, as well as Abrus precatorius and Ricinus communis agglutinins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, A M; Song, S C; Wu, J H; Pfüller, U; Chow, L P; Lin, J Y

    1995-01-18

    The binding properties of a glycoprotein with blood group P1 specificity isolated from sheep hydatid cyst fluid with Gal and GalNAc specific lectins was investigated by quantitative precipitin and precipitin inhibition assays. The glycoprotein completely precipitated Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA1), Abrus precatorius agglutinin (APA) and Mistletoe toxic lectin-I (ML-I). Only 1.0 microgram of P1 glycoprotein was required to precipitate 50% of 5.1 micrograms ML-I nitrogen. It also reacted well with abrin-a and ricin, precipitating over 73% of the lectin nitrogen added, but poorly or weakly with Dolichos biflorus (DBL), Vicia villosa (VVL, a mixture of A4, A2B2 and B4), VVL-B4, Arachis hypogaea (PNA), Maclura pomifera (MPL), Bauchinia purpurea alba (BPL) and Wistaria floribunda (WFL) lectins. When an inhibition assay in the range of 5.1 micrograms N to 5.9 micrograms N of lectins (ML-I, abrin-a; ricin, RCA1, and APA, and 10 micrograms P1 active glycoprotein interaction was performed; from 76 to 100% of the precipitations were inhibited by 0.44 and 0.52 mumol of Gal alpha 1-->4Gal and Gal beta 1-->4GlcNAc, respectively, but not or insignificantly with 1.72 mumol of GlcNAc. The Gal alpha 1-->4Gal disaccharide found in this P1 active glycoprotein is a frequently occurring sequence of many glycosphingolipids located at the surface of mammalian cell membranes, especially human erythrocytes and intestinal cells for ligand binding and microbial toxin attachment. The present finding suggests that the Gal alpha 1-->4Gal beta 1-->4GlcNAc sequence in this P1 active glycoprotein is one of the best glycoprotein receptors for three toxic lectins (ricin, abrin-a, and ML-I) as well as for APA, and RCA1, and the result of inhibition assay implies that these lectins are recognizing part or all of the Gal alpha 1-->4Gal beta 1-->4GlcNAc sequence in the P1 active glycoprotein.

  18. Exploiting EST databases for the development and characterization of EST-SSR markers in castor bean (Ricinus communis L.

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    Yang Jun-Bo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The castor bean (Ricinus communis L., a monotypic species in the spurge family (Euphorbiaceae, 2n = 20, is an important non-edible oilseed crop widely cultivated in tropical, sub-tropical and temperate countries for its high economic value. Because of the high level of ricinoleic acid (over 85% in its seed oil, the castor bean seed derivatives are often used in aviation oil, lubricants, nylon, dyes, inks, soaps, adhesive and biodiesel. Due to lack of efficient molecular markers, little is known about the population genetic diversity and the genetic relationships among castor bean germplasm. Efficient and robust molecular markers are increasingly needed for breeding and improving varieties in castor bean. The advent of modern genomics has produced large amounts of publicly available DNA sequence data. In particular, expressed sequence tags (ESTs provide valuable resources to develop gene-associated SSR markers. Results In total, 18,928 publicly available non-redundant castor bean EST sequences, representing approximately 17.03 Mb, were evaluated and 7732 SSR sites in 5,122 ESTs were identified by data mining. Castor bean exhibited considerably high frequency of EST-SSRs. We developed and characterized 118 polymorphic EST-SSR markers from 379 primer pairs flanking repeats by screening 24 castor bean samples collected from different countries. A total of 350 alleles were identified from 118 polymorphic SSR loci, ranging from 2-6 per locus (A with an average of 2.97. The EST-SSR markers developed displayed moderate gene diversity (He with an average of 0.41. Genetic relationships among 24 germplasms were investigated using the genotypes of 350 alleles, showing geographic pattern of genotypes across genetic diversity centers of castor bean. Conclusion Castor bean EST sequences exhibited considerably high frequency of SSR sites, and were rich resources for developing EST-SSR markers. These EST-SSR markers would be particularly

  19. Ricinus communis biocompatibility histological study in the nose of Cebus apella monkeys Avaliação histológica da biocompatibilidade do polímero da mamona no dorso nasal de macacos-pregos (Cebus apella

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    Paulo Cesar de Jesus Dias

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Bone tissue lesions can be caused by congenital and acquired factors, and result in nasal deformities with cosmetic and functional repercussion. Surgical treatment in these cases frequently requires complex reconstructions and the use of biomaterials. The polyurethane derived from castor beans (Ricinus communis has a favorable formulation in terms of ease of processing, flexibility, no emission of toxic vapors and low cost. Nonetheless, despite favorable results, studies about the use of castor beam polymer (Ricinus communis assessing tissue reaction on the nasal dorsum are still missing in the literature. AIM: the goal of the present investigation is to histologically assess the Ricinus communis polymer implant biocompatibility with the nasal dorsum. STUDY DESING: experimental. MATERIALS AND METHODS: we used four Cebus appela monkeys, in which we created a nasal dorsal defect in all the animals and there we placed the aforementioned implant. The animals were sacrificed 270 days after surgery and the samples were submitted to histological study. RESULTS: in the histology analysis we did not observe the presence of foreign body granulomas or phagocytic cells. We also observed a progressive bone formation and maturation. CONCLUSION: macroscopic and microscopic results showed that the castor oil polymer implant was biocompatible.Lesões do tecido ósseo podem ser causadas por fatores congênitos e adquiridos e resultar em deformidade nasal com repercussão estética e funcional. O tratamento cirúrgico desses casos requer reconstruções complexas e frequentemente o uso de biomateriais. O poliuretano derivado do óleo da mamona apresenta uma fórmula com aspectos favoráveis de processabilidade, flexibilidade de formulação, ausência de emissão de vapores tóxicos e baixo custo. Entretanto, a despeito dos resultados favoráveis, estudos referentes ao uso do polímero de mamona, avaliando a reação tecidual no dorso nasal, ainda não foram

  20. Jatropha curcas and Ricinus communis differentially affect arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi diversity in soil when cultivated for biofuel production in a Guantanamo (Cuba) tropical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alguacil, M. M.; Torrecillas, E.; Hernández, G.; Torres, P.; Roldán, A.

    2012-04-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are a key, integral component of the stability, sustainability and functioning of ecosystems. In this study, we characterised the AMF biodiversity in a control soil and in a soil cultivated with Jatropha curcas or Ricinus communis, in a tropical system in Guantanamo (Cuba), in order to verify if a change of land use to biofuel plant production had any effect on the AMF communities. We also asses whether some soil properties related with the soil fertility (total N, Organic C, microbial biomass C, aggregate stability percentage, pH and electrical conductivity) were changed with the cultivation of both crop species. The AM fungal small sub-unit (SSU) rRNA genes were subjected to PCR, cloning, sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. Twenty AM fungal sequence types were identified: 19 belong to the Glomeraceae and one to the Paraglomeraceae. Two AMF sequence types related to cultured AMF species (Glo G3 for Glomus sinuosum and Glo G6 for Glomus intraradices-G. fasciculatum-G. irregulare) disappeared in the soil cultivated with J. curcas and R. communis. The soil properties (total N, Organic C and microbial biomass C) were improved by the cultivation of the two plant species. The diversity of the AMF community decreased in the soil of both crops, with respect to the control soil, and varied significantly depending on the crop species planted. Thus, R. communis soil showed higher AMF diversity than J. curcas soil. In conclusion, R. communis could be more suitable in long-term conservation and sustainable management of these tropical ecosystems.

  1. New observations about the antineoplasic properties of the non-oily residue from the Ricinus communis seed, cultivated in Pernambuco, Brazil and its association with Co sup(60) ionizing irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, I.A. de; Santana, C.F. de; Martins, D.G.; Santos, E.R. dos; Lins, L.J.P.

    1991-01-01

    Based on results obtained by other authors on Ricinus communis, we are investigating the antineoplasic action of the non-oily residue from ketonic extract of the seed pulp of one of the R. communis varieties cultivated in the Stat of Pernambuco. Hipocratic tests yielded a DL sub(50) of 3mg/kg. The antineoplasic tests on Yoshida sarcoma with a dosage of 0.1 mg/kg/day by intraperitoneal injection detected a 50,5% inhibition of the tumour growth. When Ricinus communis was used in alternating days in the same dosage, the inhibition recorded was 40.16%. With an oral application of 10 mg/kg/day we recorded an inhibition of 58.5%. When it was associated with Co sup(60), an inhibition of 72.45% was observed. Radiations of Co sup(60) applied alone in the same dosage (12.0 Gy) yielded an inhibition of 63.02%. Based on these results we conclude that our variety of Ricinus communis has an antineoplasic action when used orally of intraperitoneally. (author)

  2. Organic acids, amino acids compositions in the root exudates and Cu-accumulation in castor (Ricinus communis L.) Under Cu stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guoyong; Guo, Guangguang; Yao, Shiyuan; Zhang, Na; Hu, Hongqing

    2016-01-01

    Ricinus communis L. is a hyperaccumulation plant newly discovered in an abandoned land of Cu mine in China. A hydroponic experiment was then carried out to determine the root exudates in the Cu-tolerant castor (Ricinus communis L.). Plants were grown in nutrient solution with increasing level of Cu doses (0, 100, 250, 500, and 750 μmol/L Cu) in the form of CuSO4. Cu accumulation in the roots and shoots of castor, and root exudates collected from the castor were measured. The results indicated that the castor had a high Cu accumulation capacity and the Cu concentrations in the shoots and roots of the castor treated with 750 μmol/L Cu were 177.1, 14586.7 mg/kg, respectively. Tartaric was the largest in the root exudates in terms of concentrations, which reached up to 329.13 μmol/g (dry plant) in the level of 750 μmol/L Cu. There was a significantly positive linear relationship between the Cu concentration in root and the concentration of succinic (R = 0.92, P < 0.05), tartaric (R = 0.96, P < 0.01), and citric (R = 0.89, P < 0.05). These results indicated that the difference in root exudation from castor could affect their Cu tolerance. What is more, significant is that the high tartaric and citric, the low oxalic and cysteine in the root exudation of castor contributed to toleration of high Cu concentrations.

  3. Interaction Effect Between Herbivory and Plant Fertilization on Extrafloral Nectar Production and on Seed Traits: An Experimental Study With Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sibio, P R; Rossi, M N

    2016-08-01

    It is known that the release of volatile chemicals by many plants can attract the natural enemies of herbivorous insects. Such indirect interactions are likely when plants produce nectar from their extrafloral nectaries, and particularly when the production of extrafloral nectar (EFN) is induced by herbivory. In the present study, we conducted experiments to test whether foliar herbivory inflicted by Spodoptera frugiperda Smith (Noctuidae) increases nectar production by extrafloral nectaries on one of its host plants, Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae). Due to the current economic importance of R. communis, we also investigated whether the following seed traits-water content, dry mass, and essential oil production-are negatively affected by herbivory. Finally, we tested whether or not nectar production and seed traits are influenced by plant fertilization (plant quality). We found that nectar production was increased after herbivory, but it was not affected by the type of fertilization. Seed dry mass was higher in plants that were subjected to full fertilization, without herbivory; plants maintained in low fertilization conditions, however, had higher seed mass when subjected to herbivory. The same inverted pattern was observed for oil production. Therefore, our results suggest that EFN production in R. communis may act as an indirect defense strategy against herbivores, and that there is a trade-off between reproduction and plant growth when low-fertilized plants are subjected to herbivory. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Effet comparé des poudres de Nicotiana tabacum L, Cymbopogon citratus (D.C. Stapf et de l'huile de Ricinus communis L sur la conservation des graines de Vigna unguiculata (L Walp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gakuru, S.

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Compared Effect of Nicotiana tabacum L, Cymbopogon citratus (D.C. Stapf Powders and Castor Oil Ricinus communis L. on Conservation of Cowpea Vigna Unguiculata (L. Walp Grains. The effect of powder of tobacco Nicotiana tabacum L. and citronella grass Cymbopogon citratus (D.C. Stapf and castor oil Ricinus communis L. on conservation of cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. grains was investigated in Kisangani, Zaire. After 5 months of conservation, infestation rates by bean weevil Acanthoscelides obtectus Say were 72.5 %, 74.5 %, 49.5 % and 5 % respectively for the check, the samples treated by 1 % of citronella grass and tobacco powder and 1 % of castor oil. The powder dose of 7.5 % did not give more interesting results.

  5. Allelopatic effect of different caster bean organs (Ricinus communis L. on reducing germination and growth of dodder (Cuscuta campestris Yuncker

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    S.M Seyyedi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Dodder (Cascuta campestris Yuncker is an annual parasitic plant from the Convolvulaceae family (Mishra et al., 2007. It wraps around many adjacent dicot and a few monocot plants, penetrates in their vascular tissue and exploits photosynthates, nutrients and water (Lanini & Kogan, 2005. Consequently, the growth, vigor and production of the host plant will be severely reduced (Nadler-Hasasr & Rubin, 2003. Dodder is not able to complete its cycle, if it is not attached to a host. Therefore, it is entirely dependent on its host for supplying water, assimilates and minerals (Mishra et al., 2007. Considering the nature of dodder habit, it is rarely possible to completely control dodder by using different chemical herbicides (Lanini & Kogan, 2005. In addition, because of increasing the environmental concerns caused by applying synthetic herbicides, there is considerable attention to alternative strategies for weeds management (Batish et al., 2002; Bowmik & Inderjit, 2003. In recent years, allelopathic plants, an alternative strategy for weed management, have received massive attention (Narwal, 2010; Jamil et al., 2009. Due to the importance of dodder as a parasitic weed, this research was conducted with the purpose of studying the allelopathic effects of aqueous extracts and decay durations of caster bean (Ricinus communis L. organs on germination and emergence of dodder. Materials and methods The current study was conducted based on three separate experiments using a completely randomized design (CRD with factorial arrangement with three replications. The first experiment was conducted in petri dishes and consisted of caster bean organs at four levels (root, stem, leaf and total plant without inflorescence and their aqueous extract concentrations at 11 levels (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10%. The second experiment was conducted in pots and factors were caster bean organs at 4 levels (root, stem, leaf and total plant without

  6. Ricinus communis L. (castor bean) as a potential candidate for revegetating industrial waste contaminated sites in peri-urban Greater Hyderabad: remarks on seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boda, Ravi Kiran; Majeti, Narasimha Vara Prasad; Suthari, Sateesh

    2017-08-01

    Ricinus communis L. (castor bean or castor oil plant) was found growing on metal-contaminated sites (4) of peri-urban Greater Hyderabad comprises of erstwhile industrial areas viz Bollaram, Patancheru, Bharatnagar, and Kattedan industrial areas. During 2013-2017, about 60 research papers have appeared focusing the role of castor bean in phytoremediation of co-contaminated soils, co-generation of biomaterials, and environmental cleanup, as bioenergy crop and sustainable development. The present study is focused on its use as a multipurpose phytoremediation crop for phytostabilization and revegetation of waste disposed peri-urban contaminated soils. To determine the plant tolerance level, metal accumulation, chlorophyll, protein, proline, lipid peroxidation, oil content, and soil properties were characterized. It was noticed that the castor plant and soils have high concentration of metals such as cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn). The soils have high phosphorous (P), adequate nitrogen (N), and low concentration of potassium (K). Iron (Fe) concentrations ranged from1672±50.91 to 2166±155.78 mg kg -1 in the soil. The trend of metal accumulation Fe>Zn>Mn>Pb>Cd was found in different plant parts at polluted sites. The translocation of Cd and Pb showed values more than one in industrial areas viz Bollaram, Kattedan, and Bharatnagar indicating the plants resistance to metal toxicity. Chlorophyll and protein content reduced while proline and malondialdehyde increased due to its tolerance level under metal exposure. The content of ricinoleic acid was higher, and the fatty acids composition of polluted areas was almost similar to that of the control area. Thus, R. communis L. can be employed for reclamation of heavy metal contaminated soils.

  7. Mining whole genomes and transcriptomes of Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) and Castor bean (Ricinus communis) for NBS-LRR genes and defense response associated transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Archit; Jaiswal, Varun; Chanumolu, Sree Krishna; Malhotra, Nikhil; Pal, Tarun; Chauhan, Rajinder Singh

    2014-11-01

    Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) and Castor bean (Ricinus communis) are oilseed crops of family Euphorbiaceae with the potential of producing high quality biodiesel and having industrial value. Both the bioenergy plants are becoming susceptible to various biotic stresses directly affecting the oil quality and content. No report exists as of today on analysis of Nucleotide Binding Site-Leucine Rich Repeat (NBS-LRR) gene repertoire and defense response transcription factors in both the plant species. In silico analysis of whole genomes and transcriptomes identified 47 new NBS-LRR genes in both the species and 122 and 318 defense response related transcription factors in Jatropha and Castor bean, respectively. The identified NBS-LRR genes and defense response transcription factors were mapped onto the respective genomes. Common and unique NBS-LRR genes and defense related transcription factors were identified in both the plant species. All NBS-LRR genes in both the species were characterized into Toll/interleukin-1 receptor NBS-LRRs (TNLs) and coiled-coil NBS-LRRs (CNLs), position on contigs, gene clusters and motifs and domains distribution. Transcript abundance or expression values were measured for all NBS-LRR genes and defense response transcription factors, suggesting their functional role. The current study provides a repertoire of NBS-LRR genes and transcription factors which can be used in not only dissecting the molecular basis of disease resistance phenotype but also in developing disease resistant genotypes in Jatropha and Castor bean through transgenic or molecular breeding approaches.

  8. Molybdenum (Mo) increases endogenous phenolics, proline and photosynthetic pigments and the phytoremediation potential of the industrially important plant Ricinus communis L. for removal of cadmium from contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Fazal; Ali, Nasir; Fuller, Michael Paul

    2016-10-01

    Cadmium (Cd) in agricultural soil negatively affects crops yield and compromises food safety. Remediation of polluted soil is necessary for the re-establishment of sustainable agriculture and to prevent hazards to human health and environmental pollution. Phytoremediation is a promising technology for decontamination of polluted soil. The present study investigated the effect of molybdenum (Mo) (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 ppm) on endogenous production of total phenolics and free proline, plant biomass and photosynthetic pigments in Ricinus communis plants grown in Cd (25, 50 and 100 ppm) contaminated soils and the potential for Cd phytoextraction. Mo was applied via seed soaking, soil addition and foliar spray. Foliar sprays significantly increased plant biomass, Cd accumulation and bioconcentration. Phenolic concentrations showed significantly positive correlations with Cd accumulation in roots (R 2  = 0.793, 0.807 and 0.739) and leaves (R 2  = 0.707, 721 and 0.866). Similarly, proline was significantly positively correlated with Cd accumulation in roots (R 2  = 0.668, 0.694 and 0.673) and leaves (R 2  = 0.831, 0.964 and 0.930). Foliar application was found to be the most effective way to deliver Mo in terms of increase in plant growth, Cd accumulation and production of phenolics and proline.

  9. Rendimento e Características Físicas dos Óleos de Nim (Azadirachta indica e Mamona (Ricinus communis

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    Juarez Benigno Paes

    Full Text Available A pesquisa objetivou avaliar o rendimento e a viscosidade de óleos de nim (Azadirachta indica e mamona (Ricinus communis. Os frutos de nim foram coletados no Núcleo de Pesquisa do Semiárido, em Patos, Paraíba, e os de mamona, às margens do Rio Espinharas, Patos e em Igaracy, Paraíba. Os frutos foram beneficiados no Laboratório de Tecnologia de Produtos Florestais, em Patos. Foram retiradas amostras de sementes para a determinação do teor de umidade e do rendimento em óleos. Os óleos foram extraídos com álcool etílico absoluto e empregados no preparo de soluções com os óleos de nim e mamona. Determinaram-se a densidade e a viscosidade das soluções. A mamona teve menor teor de umidade e rendimento em óleo que o nim. A densidade e a viscosidade do óleo de nim foram menores que o da mamona. Uma maior quantidade de óleos de mamona proporcionou aumento na densidade e na viscosidade das soluções preparadas.

  10. CONSTRUCCIÓN DE UN REACTOR DISCONTINUO PARA LA OBTENCIÓN DE BIODIESEL A PARTIR DEL ACEITE DE Ricinus communis

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    Yolimar Fernández

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Se construyó un reactor discontinuo para obtener biodiesel a partir de 5 litros de extracto obtenido de la semilla de Ricinus communis. El reactor es de acero inoxidable, con longitud de 29 cm; diámetro interno de 15,24 cm y fondo cónico de 20cm de largo, espesor de la pared de 0,2cm, resistencia tubular de 1000 W y motor de 110 volt. Se extrajo y se comparó con las normas respectivas las propiedades físicas y químicas del aceite crudo. Se realizaron pruebas preliminares de transesterificación del aceite catalizadas con NaOH para constatar la viabilidad de la reacción y definir las condiciones operacionales. El biodiesel obtenido fue caracterizado y comparado con referencias presentes en la literatura. Los resultaron mostraron que es posible obtener el biocombustible en el reactor discontinuo con un grado de conversión 88%; confirmando su aplicación en reacciones de transesterificación en medio básico.

  11. Phytoextraction of metals and rhizoremediation of PAHs in co-contaminated soil by co-planting of Sedum alfredii with ryegrass (Lolium perenne) or castor (Ricinus communis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Huang, Huagang; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Li, Tingqiang; He, Zhenli; Yang, Xiaoe; Alva, Ashok

    2013-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the potential for phytoextraction of heavy metals and rhizoremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in co-contaminated soil by co-planting a cadmium/zinc (Cd/Zn) hyperaccumulator and lead (Pb) accumulator Sedum alfredii with ryegrass (Lolium perenne) or castor (Ricinus communis). Co-planting with castor decreased the shoot biomass of S. alfredii as compared to that in monoculture. Cadmium concentration in S. alfredii shoot significantly decreased when grown with ryegrass or castor as compared to that in monoculture. However, no reduction of Zn or Pb concentration in S. alfredii shoot was detected in co-planting treatments. Total removal of either Cd, Zn, or Pb by plants was similar across S. alfredii monoculture or co-planting with ryegrass or castor, except enhanced Pb removal in S. alfredii and ryegrass co-planting treatment. Co-planting of S. alfredii with ryegrass or castor significantly enhanced the pyrene and anthracene dissipation as compared to that in the bare soil or S. alfredii monoculture. This appears to be due to the increased soil microbial population and activities in both co-planting treatments. Co-planting of S. alfredii with ryegrass or castor provides a promising strategy to mitigate both metal and PAH contaminants from co-contaminated soils.

  12. Life history of Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor, 1954 (Acari: Phytoseiidae fed with castor bean (Ricinus communisL. pollen in laboratory conditions

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    PP Marafeli

    Full Text Available The predatory mite, Neoseiulus californicus(McGregor, 1954 (Acari: Phytoseiidae is one of the principal natural enemies of tetranychid mites in several countries, promoting efficient control of those mites in several food and ornamental crops. Pest attacks such as that of the spider mite, Tetranychus urticaeKoch, 1836 (Acari: Tetranychidae, is one of the problems faced by farmers, especially in the greenhouse, due to the difficulty of its control with the use of chemicals because of the development of fast resistance making it hard to control it. The objective of this work was to study the life history of the predatory mite N. californicus as a contribution to its mass laboratory rearing, having castor bean plant [Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae] pollen as food, for its subsequent use as a natural enemy of T. urticae on a cultivation of greenhouse rosebushes. The studies were carried out in the laboratory, at 25 ± 2°C of temperature, 70 ± 10% RH and a 14 hour photophase. The biological aspects and the fertility life table were appraised. Longevity of 32.9 days was verified for adult females and 40.4 days for males. The intrinsic rate of increase (rm was 0.2 and the mean generation time (T was 17.2 days. The population doubled every 4.1 days. The results obtained were similar to those in which the predatory mite N. californicus fed on T. urticae.

  13. Acyl-ACP thioesterases from castor (Ricinus communis L.): an enzymatic system appropriate for high rates of oil synthesis and accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-García, Alicia; Moreno-Pérez, Antonio J; Muro-Pastor, Alicia M; Salas, Joaquín J; Garcés, Rafael; Martínez-Force, Enrique

    2010-06-01

    Acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterases are enzymes that terminate the intraplastidial fatty acid synthesis in plants by hydrolyzing the acyl-ACP intermediates and releasing free fatty acids to be incorporated into glycerolipids. These enzymes are classified in two families, FatA and FatB, which differ in amino acid sequence and substrate specificity. In the present work, both FatA and FatB thioesterases were cloned, sequenced and characterized from castor (Ricinus communis) seeds, a crop of high interest in oleochemistry. Single copies of FatA and FatB were found in castor resulting to be closely related with those of Jatropha curcas. The corresponding mature proteins were heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli for biochemical characterization after purification, resulting in high catalytic efficiency of RcFatA on oleoyl-ACP and palmitoleoyl-ACP and high efficiencies of RcFatB for oleoyl-ACP and palmitoyl-ACP. The expression profile of these genes displayed the highest levels in expanding tissues that typically are very active in lipid biosynthesis such as developing seed endosperm and young expanding leaves. The contribution of these two enzymes to the synthesis of castor oil is discussed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Influence of elevated CO2 on canopy development and red:far-red ratios in two-storied stands of Ricinus communis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnone, J.A.; Körner, C.

    1993-01-01

    Vertical structure of plant stands and canopies may change under conditions of elevated CO2 due to differential responses of overstory and understory plants or plant parts. In the long term, seedling recruitment, competition, and thus population or community structure may be affected. Aside from the possible differential direct effects of elevated CO2 on photosynthesis and growth, both the quantity and quality of the light below the overstory canopy could be indirectly affected by CO2-induced changes in overstory leaf area index (LAI) and/or changes in overstory leaf quality. In order to explore such possible interactions, we compared canopy leaf area development, canopy light extinction and the quality of light beneath overstory leaves of two-storied monospecific stands of Ricinus communis exposed to ambient (340 micro litre per litre) and elevated (610 micro litre per litre) CO2. Plants in each stand were grown in a common soil as closed ''artificial ecosystems'' with a ground area of 6.7 square metre. LAI of overstory plants in all ecosystems more than doubled during the experiment but was not different between CO2 treatments at the end. As a consequence, extinction of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) was also not altered. However, under elevated CO2 the red to far-red ratio (R:FR) measured beneath overstory leaves was 10% lower than in ecosystems treated with ambient CO2. This reduction was associated with increased thickness of palisade layers of overstory leaves and appears to be a plausible explanation for the specific enhancement of stem elongation of understory plants (without a corresponding biomass response) under elevated CO2

  15. RELACIÓN ENTRE VARIABLES CLIMÁTICAS CON LA MORFOLOGÍA Y CONTENIDO DE ACEITE DE SEMILLAS DE HIGUERILLA (Ricinus communis L. DE CHIAPAS

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    María Antonieta Goytia-Jiménez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ciento cincuenta y un accesiones de higuerilla (Ricinus communis L., colectadas en el estado de Chiapas, México, fueron caracterizadas por contenido de aceite, forma, tamaño y peso de la semilla, con el objetivo de generar información que pueda servir de base en un programa de mejoramiento para esta especie, que podría ser una opción rentable para la producción de biodiesel y bioturbosina. De acuerdo con su distribución, se establecieron las cuatro siguientes zonas climáticas: Región 1 clima Lluvioso tropical sin estación seca; Región 2 Sabana tropical con inviernos secos; Región 3 Sabana tropical con inviernos menos secos que la Región 2, y Región 4 Lluvioso Tropical. Se encontró una amplia variación en tamaño (de 0.05 a 2.49 cm2, color, peso (desde 7 hasta 123.9 g por cada 100 semillas y contenido de aceite (desde 12.20 a 64.84 %. Las asociaciones que se establecieron entre el tamaño y peso de 100 semillas con temperatura y precipitación fueron negativas, y significativas sólo en las regiones 3 y 4. No hubo significancia para las asociaciones del contenido de aceite con temperatura y precipitación, pero la tendencia fue a ser positivas en las regiones 1 y 4, las de mayor humedad de las cuatro regiones, y negativas en las regiones 2 y 3. Se concluye que los individuos de esta especie presentan una gran adaptación a diferentes entornos y crean fenotipos especiales para cada lugar en donde se desarrollan.

  16. Tissue-specific expression and post-translational modifications of plant- and bacterial-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase isozymes of the castor oil plant, Ricinus communis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Leary, Brendan; Fedosejevs, Eric T.; Hill, Allyson T.; Bettridge, James; Park, Joonho; Rao, Srinath K.; Leach, Craig A.; Plaxton, William C.

    2011-01-01

    This study employs transcript profiling together with immunoblotting and co-immunopurification to assess the tissue-specific expression, protein:protein interactions, and post-translational modifications (PTMs) of plant- and bacterial-type phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) isozymes (PTPC and BTPC, respectively) in the castor plant, Ricinus communis. Previous studies established that the Class-1 PEPC (PTPC homotetramer) of castor oil seeds (COS) is activated by phosphorylation at Ser-11 and inhibited by monoubiquitination at Lys-628 during endosperm development and germination, respectively. Elimination of photosynthate supply to developing COS by depodding caused the PTPC of the endosperm and cotyledon to be dephosphorylated, and then subsequently monoubiquitinated in vivo. PTPC monoubiquitination rather than phosphorylation is widespread throughout the castor plant and appears to be the predominant PTM of Class-1 PEPC that occurs in planta. The distinctive developmental patterns of PTPC phosphorylation versus monoubiquitination indicates that these two PTMs are mutually exclusive. By contrast, the BTPC: (i) is abundant in the inner integument, cotyledon, and endosperm of developing COS, but occurs at low levels in roots and cotyledons of germinated COS, (ii) shows a unique developmental pattern in leaves such that it is present in leaf buds and young expanding leaves, but undetectable in fully expanded leaves, and (iii) tightly interacts with co-expressed PTPC to form the novel and allosterically-desensitized Class-2 PEPC heteromeric complex. BTPC and thus Class-2 PEPC up-regulation appears to be a distinctive feature of rapidly growing and/or biosynthetically active tissues that require a large anaplerotic flux from phosphoenolpyruvate to replenish tricarboxylic acid cycle C-skeletons being withdrawn for anabolism. PMID:21841182

  17. Tableros de partículas de bambú (Bambusa vulgaris Schrad y resina poliuretana a base de aceite de rícino (Ricinus communis L.

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    Flávio Januário José

    Full Text Available Esta investigación tiene como objetivo la elaboración y la evaluación de tableros de partículas homogéneas aglomeradas, utilizándose dos materiales alternativos en la búsqueda de la sustentabilidad del proceso productivo. Fueron utilizadas partículas de Bambusa vulgaris Schrad por la rapidez del ciclo de producción de esta especie de bambú. Como pegante fue utilizada la resina poliuretana a base de aceite de ricino (Ricinus communis L., por su origen parcialmente renovable, y por ser considerada no tóxica. Para la caracterización del material, fueron fabricadas, en escala de laboratorio, tableros de partículas de bambú con dimensiones inferiores al 2.4 mm, combinadas con 5%, 10% y 15% de resina en relación a la masa de partículas de bambú. Probetas fueron evaluadas de acuerdo con las especificaciones de la norma NBR 14810 - Tableros de madera aglomerada. Antes de los ensayos de compresión las probetas fueron evaluadas por medio del ensayo no destructivo por ultra-sonido. Los resultados obtenidos indicaron que los tableros con el contenido de 10% de resina no fue estadísticamente diferente al contenido de 15%, siendo ambos superiores al contenido de 5%. La mayoría de las propiedades de los tableros fueron inferiores a aquellas de los tableros comerciales. No fue posible correlacionar la velocidad del pulso de ultra-sonido con la resistencia a la compresión longitudinal.

  18. Irrigation of Castor Bean (Ricinus communis L. and Sunflower (Helianthus annus L. Plant Species with Municipal Wastewater Effluent: Impacts on Soil Properties and Seed Yield

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    Vasileios A. Tzanakakis

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of plant species (castor bean (Ricinus communis L. versus sunflower (Helianthus annus L. and irrigation regime (freshwater versus secondary treated municipal wastewater on soil properties and on seed and biodiesel yield were studied in a three year pot trial. Plant species were irrigated at rates according to their water requirements with either freshwater or wastewater effluent. Pots irrigated with freshwater received commercial fertilizer, containing N, P, and K, applied at the beginning of each irrigation period. The results obtained in this study showed that irrigation with effluent did not result in significant changes in soil pH, soil organic matter (SOM, total kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN, and dehydrogenase activity, whereas soil available P was found to increase in the upper soil layer. Soil salinity varied slightly throughout the experiment in effluent irrigated pots but no change was detected at the end of the experiment compared to the initial value, suggesting sufficient salt leaching. Pots irrigated with effluent had higher soil salinity, P, and dehydrogenase activity but lower SOM and TKN than freshwater irrigated pots. Sunflower showed greater SOM and TKN values than castor bean suggesting differences between plant species in the microorganisms carrying out C and N mineralization in the soil. Plant species irrigated with freshwater achieved higher seed yield compared to those irrigated with effluent probably reflecting the lower level of soil salinity in freshwater irrigated pots. Castor bean achieved greater seed yield than sunflower. Biodiesel production followed the pattern of seed yield. The findings of this study suggest that wastewater effluent can constitute an important source of irrigation water and nutrients for bioenergy crop cultivations with minor adverse impacts on soil properties and seed yield. Plant species play an important role with regard to the changes in soil properties and to the related factors of

  19. Secondary seed dispersal of Ricinus communis Linnaeus (Euphorbiaceae by ants in secondary growth vegetation in Minas Gerais Dispersão secundária de sementes de Ricinus communis Linnaeus (Euphorbiaceae por formigas em vegetação secundária em Minas Gerais

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    Mário Marcos do Espírito Santo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, I tested the efficacy of ants as secondary seed dispersers of Ricinus communis in southeastern Brazil. In a natural population of 143 individuals, I determined the ballistic dispersal distance for 62 seeds and 100 additional seeds were experimentally offered to ants in groups of ten seeds along a transect of 50 m. Fifty-three seeds were removed by ants, mainly by the leafcutter Atta sexdens (90.4%. The dispersal distance by ants was high, compared to the global average (4.38 m ± 0.74 m vs. 0.96 m, but was lower than the ballistic distance (7.27 m ± 0.13 m. Ants increased the total dispersal distance (8.66 m ± 0.60 m, but the main benefit for the plant was the directed dispersal, with seed deposition on the enriched soil of ant nests.Este estudo testou a eficiência de formigas como dispersores secundários de Ricinus communis no Brasil. Em uma população natural de 143 indivíduos, a distância de dispersão balística foi determinada para 62 sementes. Além disso, 100 sementes adicionais foram oferecidas a formigas em grupos de 10, ao longo de um transecto de 50 m. Cinqüenta e três sementes foram removidas por formigas, principalmente pela formiga-cortadeira Atta sexdens (90,4%. A distância de dispersão por formigas foi alta se comparada à média global (4,38m ± 0,74 m vs. 0,96 m, porém menor que a distância de dispersão balística (7,27 m ± 0,13 m. As formigas aumentaram a distância de dispersão total (8,66 m ± 0,60 m, mas o principal benefício para a planta foi a dispersão direcionada, com a deposição das sementes no solo enriquecido encontrado nos ninhos das formigas.

  20. Ricinus communis agglutinin-mediated agglutination and fusion of glycolipid-containing phospholipid vesicles: effect of carbohydrate head group size, calcium ions, and spermine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekstra, D; Düzgüneş, N

    1986-03-25

    The glycolipids galactosylcerebroside (GalCer), lactosylceramide (LacCer), and trihexosylceramide (Gb3) were inserted into phospholipid vesicles, consisting of phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidic acid. The extent to which their carbohydrate head groups protruded beyond the vesicle surface and their interference with membrane approach were examined by determining vesicle susceptibility toward type I Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA1) induced agglutination and Ca2+- and spermine-induced aggregation and fusion either in the presence or in the absence of the lectin. The initial agglutination rates increased in the order GalCer much less than LacCer less than Gb3, while a reversed order was obtained for Ca2+- and spermine-induced aggregation and fusion, indicating an enhanced steric interference on close approach of bilayers with increasing head group size. The lectin-mediated agglutination rates for LacCer- and Gb3-containing vesicles increased by an order of magnitude when Ca2+ was also included in the medium, at a concentration that did not induce aggregation per se. Charge neutralization could not account for this observation as the polyvalent cation spermine did not display this synergistic effect with RCA1. Addition of Ca2+ to preagglutinated vesicles substantially reduced the threshold cation concentration for fusion (micromolar vs. millimolar). Quantitatively, this concentration decreased with decreasing carbohydrate head group size, indicating that the head group protrusion determined the interbilayer distance within the vesicle aggregate. The distinct behavior of Ca2+ vs. spermine on RCA1-induced agglutination on the one hand and fusion on the other indicated that Ca2+ regulates the steric orientation of the carbohydrate head group, which appears to be related to its ability to dehydrate the bilayer. As a result, lectin agglutinability becomes enhanced while fusion will be interrupted as the interbilayer distance increases, the threshold head group size

  1. Emprego experimental da poliuretana derivada de óleo de mamona (Ricinus communis L: em implantes lamelares, interlamelares e penetrantes na córnea de coelhos

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    Adriana Morales

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Há muito que se estudam métodos e materiais reparadores de córnea, em busca de uma melhor reposição tecidual e, principalmente, manutenção ou recuperação da visão. A pesquisa de novos biomateriais tem permitido produzir próteses capazes de desempenhar a função requerida, sem reação importante. Conhecendo-se os bons resultados obtidos com a utilização da poliuretana vegetal derivada de óleo de mamona (Ricinus communis L. em vários procedimentos, estudou-se sua implantação, em forma de membrana, na córnea, objetivando oferecer novo material para a reparação de lesões corneanas e a confecção de ceratopróteses biologicamente inertes. Utilizaram-se 28 coelhos, divididos em dois grupos (G1 e G2 e estes em subgrupos para avaliações de implantes lamelares e interlamelares aos 2, 7, 15, 30, 60 e 120 dias, e implantes penetrantes, aos 2, 7, 15, 30 e 60 dias de pós-operatório. Estudaram-se parâmetros como neovascularização, inflamação, transparência de córneas e implantes, bem como a aderência e viabilidade destes, através de exames oculares, e histopatológicos à microscopia óptica. Observou-se reação inflamatória branda em todos os períodos. Os implantes lamelares e penetrantes permitiram reparação da córnea e manutenção da integridade dos globos oculares, embora sofressem deiscência entre 5 e 28 dias de pós-operatório. Concluiu-se pela boa biocompatibilidade do material e pela possibilidade de empregar-se o polímero na reparação corneana e, possivelmente, em ceratopróteses.

  2. Growth and carbon assimilation limitations in Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae under soil water stress conditions Crescimento e limitações à assimilação de carbono em Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae sob condições de estresse hídrico do solo

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    Tanise Luisa Sausen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Water availability may influence plant carbon gain and growth, with large impacts on plant yield. Ricinus communis (L., a drought resistant species, is a crop with increasing economic importance in Brazil, due to its use in chemical industry and for the production of biofuels. Some of the mechanisms involved in this drought resistance were analyzed in this study by imposing progressive water stress to pot-grown plants under glasshouse conditions. Water withholding for 53 days decreased soil water gravimetric content and the leaf water potential. Plant growth was negatively and significantly reduced by increasing soil water deficits. With irrigation suspension, carbon assimilation and transpiration were reduced and remained mostly constant throughout the day. Analysis of A/Ci curves showed increased stomatal limitation, indicating that limitation imposed by stomatal closure is the main factor responsible for photosynthesis reduction. Carboxylation efficiency and electron transport rate were not affected by water stress up to 15 days after withholding water. Drought resistance of castor bean seems to be related to a pronounced, early growth response, an efficient stomatal control and the capacity to keep high net CO2 fixation rates under water stress conditions.A disponibilidade hídrica pode influenciar o ganho de carbono e o crescimento, com grande impacto na produtividade das plantas. Ricinus communis (L., uma espécie resistente à seca, é uma cultura de grande importância econômica no Brasil, devido ao seu uso na indústria química e para a produção de biocombustíveis. Alguns dos mecanismos envolvidos na resistência à seca desta espécie foram analisados através de um progressivo estresse hídrico em plantas cultivadas em vasos sob condições de casa de vegetação. A suspensão da irrigação por 53 dias decresceu o conteúdo gravimétrico de água no solo e o potencial hídrico das folhas. O crescimento das plantas foi

  3. Evaluation préliminaire de l'activité larvicide des extraits aqueux des feuilles du ricin (Ricinus communis L. et du bois de thuya (Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl Mast. sur les larves de quatre moustiques culicidés : Culex pipiens (Linné, Aedes caspius (Pallas, Culiseta longiareolata (Aitken et Anopheles maculipennis (Meigen

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    Mahari S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary evaluation of larvicidal activity of aqueous extracts from leaves of Ricinus communis L. and from wood of Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl Mast. on the larvae of four mosquito species: Culex pipiens (Linné, Aedes caspius (Pallas, Culiseta longiareolata (Aitken and Anopheles maculipennis (Meigen. Aqueous extracts of Ricinus communis leaves and Tetraclinis articulata wood showed strong toxic activity against larvae of several mosquitoes. In this study, insecticide effects of these plant extracts have been investigated on 2nd and 4th instars larvae of Culicidae insects, Culex pipiens (Linné, Aedes caspius (Pallas, Culiseta longiareolata (Aitken and Anopheles maculipennis (Meigen. After 24 hours of exposition, bioassays revealed low lethal concentrations LC50. To control mosquitoes, these plant extracts might be used as natural biocides.

  4. Cálculo del balance de energía para higuerilla (Ricinus communis L. desde las etapas de producción en campo hasta el valor energético de cada componente de la planta

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    Hipólito Ortíz-Laurel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción : Pruebas de balance de energía permiten redirigir los insumos desde las etapas de producción de un cultivo, e igualmente, precesar la cantidad de energía utilizada para cada proceso y así, verificar la eficiencia al transformar la energía contenida en el cultivo cuando debe cumplir con una función deseada. Método : la planta de higuerilla (Ricinus communis L. con propósitos de cultivo energético fue sembrada en campo y sometida a procesos de mantenimiento de l cultivo y en la cosecha, la planta completa fue colectada para análisis energético, donde cada una de sus partes inclu i das las semillas fueron evaluadas en función de su contenido de energía. Así, para determinar el balance de energía; los valores de la energía biológica de la planta fueron comparados con la energía aplicada en cada uno de los procesos técnicos y físicos para la producción del cult i vo y en su procesamiento . Resultados : La energía aplicada para producir el cultivo r esulta un 28% superior a la energía a obtener de la planta. Asimismo, la biomasa de la planta completa de higuerilla, sin contar las semillas genera el doble de energía comparado con el aceite de las semillas, por lo que, conviene utilizar toda la planta e n términos de energía . Conclusión : Es recomendable utilizar el aceite de las seillas como biomaterial, ya que el b a lance es positivo en un 15%.

  5. Análise clínica, radiológica, macroscópica e histológica do úmero de codornas domésticas (Coturnix japonica, submetido ao implante da poliuretana derivada do polímero de mamona (Ricinnus communis Clinical, radiological, macroscopical and histological analysis of domestic quail (Coturnix japonica humerus submitted to implant of polyurethane from castor oil polymer (Ricinnus communis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Bolson

    2005-10-01

    ça de trabéculas e medula óssea no interior do implante. Concluiu-se que a poliuretana derivada do polímero de mamona é biocompatível em aves, podendo ser utilizada na cirurgia ortopédica, ocorrendo osteointegração.In orthopedic surgery there are frequently situations in which the surgeon faces severe bone losses caused by high-energy trauma, tumors or infections. Repairing these losses require knowledge about filling materials. Those materials can be biological, synthetic or metallic, with emphasis in bony grafts and biomaterial implants. The increase of the use of birds as pets is leading to an increasing number of clinical and surgical cases related to this taxon, where fractures are the most commonly observed surgical problems. The objective of this study was to evaluate clinical, radiological, macroscopic and microscopic effects of the polyurethane derived from castor oil (Ricinus communis polymer, when implanted in the humerus of domestic quails (Coturnix japonica. Twenty male and female quails, were used randomly distributed in four groups of five individuals. The birds received the implants in the left humerus, being submitted to daily physical examination during the postoperative period, immediate and biweekly radiological examination, and macroscopic and microscopic evaluation at the 15th, 30th, 60th and 90th days. Clinically, there were not observed local, regional or systemic changes. Radiologically, increase in local density was observed with no signs of changes in bone or adjacent tissue, as well as in the air sacs. Macroscopic analysis revealed that the polyurethane derived from castor oil polymer was not absorbed in none of the four groups, remaining implanted within the pneumatic bone. Its resistance, however, has changed. Microscopic examination evidenced minimum inflammatory reaction, slight fibrosis around the implants, and osteo-integration with presence of trabeculi and bone marrow inside the implants. Concluding, implants of polyurethane

  6. EFICIÊNCIA DOS ÓLEOS DE NIM (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. E MAMONA (Ricinus communis L. NA RESISTÊNCIA DA MADEIRA DE SUMAÚMA (Ceiba pentandra (L. Gaerth. A FUNGOS XILÓFAGOS EM SIMULADORES DE CAMPO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez Benigno Paes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to evaluate the efficiency of neem (Azadirachta indica and castor oil plant (Ricinus communis oils for the improvement of Ceiba pentandra wood resistance to xilophagous fungi in soil bed condition (field simulator. The neem and castor oil plant oils were extracted with absolute ethyl alcohol and employed in the preparation of oil solutions. Wood samples with dimensions of 1.5 x 0.5 x 15 cm (radial x tangential x longitudinal were treated to reach a nominal retention of 10 to 16 kg of solution/m³ of wood. The samples were submitted to the action of natural micro-flora of three soils; forest, agricultural use and natural pasture soils, for 180 days. Among the tested soils, the agricultural presented greater biological activity, which damaged the samples even more. Among the tested solutions, the pure neem oil provided increased protection to samples. The prepared solutions using neem and castor oil plant oils did not protect the wood from the attack of xylophagous fungi existing in the ground.

  7. Análise macroscópica e histológica do emprego da poliuretana derivada do óleo de mamona (Ricinus communis aplicada na tíbia de cães em fase de crescimento Macroscopic and histopathologic evaluations of the use of polyurethane resins derived from castor oil (Ricinus communis applied in the tibia of the puppies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Popak Maria

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar o efeito da poliuretana de mamona aplicada ao osso de cães em crescimento. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 12 cães subdivididos aleatoriamente em 3 grupos, os quais receberam o implante de mamona na face medial proximal da tíbia, com análise macroscópica e histopatológica aos 30 (GIII, 60 (GII e 90 (GI dias. RESULTADOS: A poliuretana foi recoberta por uma cápsula conjuntiva fibrosa, não ocorrendo proliferação óssea ao seu redor. CONCLUSÃO: A poliuretana é biocompatível, comportando-se como espaçador biológico em cães. Nesta espécie não ocorre a osteointegração.PURPOSE: To analyze the effects of castor oil derived poliurethane, when applied to bones of puppies. METHODS: Twelve dogs, randomly divided in 3 groups, received a castor oil derived poliurethane at the medial side of the proximal tibia. Gross and histopathologic evaluations were performed at 30 (GIII, 60 (GII and 90 (GI days. RESULTS: The poliurethane was enclosed in a connective fibrous tissue capsule and there was no new bone formation around it. CONCLUSION: The castor oil derived poliurethane is biocompatible and behaves as a biological "stand off" in dogs. Osteointegration does not occur in this species.

  8. Histologic and immunohistochemical evaluation of biocompatibility of castor oil polyurethane polymer with calcium carbonate in equine bone tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nóbrega, Fernanda S; Selim, Mariana B; Arana-Chavez, Victor E; Correa, Luciana; Ferreira, Márcio P; Zoppa, André L V

    2017-10-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy of castor oil polyurethane polymer with calcium carbonate for use in a unicortical ostectomy on the dorsal surface of the third metacarpal bone of horses. ANIMALS 6 adult horses. PROCEDURES A unicortical ostectomy was created on the dorsal surface of both third metacarpal bones of each horse. Castor bean (Ricinus communis) oil polyurethane polymer with calcium carbonate was implanted into the ostectomy on 1 limb, and the ostectomy of the contralateral limb was left unfilled and served as a control sample. Ostectomy sites were evaluated histologically 120 days later. Biopsy specimens were obtained from the interface of bone and polymer or the interface of bone and newly formed tissue; specimens were processed for histomorphometric evaluation by use of light microscopy, immunohistochemical analysis, histochemical analysis, and transmission electron microscopy. RESULTS Osteoconductive activity of the biomaterial was confirmed by the presence of osteoblasts in the biopsy specimens. Absence of a chronic inflammatory response or foreign body reaction indicated biocompatibility. Expression of osteoblast markers was detected in the newly formed tissue. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that castor oil polyurethane polymer with calcium carbonate could be an acceptable compound for use as a bone substitute in horses with fractures in which bone filling is necessary.

  9. Amelioration of Anti-Nutritive Effects of Castor Oil Seed ( Ricinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three hundred and twenty (320) day old male broilers were used to investigate the amelioration of anti-nutritive effects of castor oil seed (Ricinus communis) meal in broilers' ration using natural fermentation and DL-Methionine supplementation. The experimental designed was a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement of dietary ...

  10. Criblage in vitro des graines d'accessions locales de ricin ( Ricinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le ricin (Ricinus communis L.) est une plante peu exigeante dont la culture offre d'énormes potentialités économiques pour les exploitants agricoles sénégalais. L'identification de génotypes performants avec des rendements acceptables en conditions de stress salin constitue une des solutions pour promouvoir cette ...

  11. Defining carbohydrate specificity of Ricinus communis agglutinin as Gal beta 1-->4GlcNAc (II) > Gal beta 1-->3GlcNAc (I) > Gal alpha 1-->3Gal (B) > Gal beta 1-->3GalNAc (T).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J H; Herp, A; Wu, A M

    1993-03-01

    To define carbohydrate specificity of Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA1), the combining site of RCA1 was further characterized by quantitative precipitin (QPA) and precipitin-inhibition assays (QPIA). Among the oligosaccharides tested for QPIA, Gal beta 1-->4GlcNAc (II, human blood group type II precursor sequence) was found to be 7.1 times more active than Gal beta 1-->3GalNAc (T, Thomsen-Friedenreich sequence) and about 1.7 times more active than the other three disaccharides tested--Gal beta 1-->4Man, Gal beta 1-->3DAra and Gal beta 1-->6GalNAc. Gal alpha 1-->4Gal, the receptor of the uropathogenic E. coli ligand was 3.6 times less active than the II sequence. These results indicate that the beta 1-->4 linkage of the terminal Gal to subterminal GlcNAc is important as this beta 1-->4GlcNAc sequence is at least 1.6 times more active than other types of disaccharides. Among the glycoproteins examined for QPA, native and desialized bovine submandibular glycoproteins, native and desialized human plasma alpha 1-acid glycoproteins, as well as crude hog stomach mucin and its three mild acid hydrolyzed products reacted well with the lectin. These glycoproteins precipitated over 75% of the lectin nitrogen added indicating that RCA1 has the ability to recognize Gal beta 1-->4/3GlcNAc and/or the related residues at the non-reducing ends and at positions in the interior of the chains. However, Tn (GalNAc alpha 1-->Ser/Thr sequence) rich glycoproteins such as desialized ovine submandibular glycoprotein and desialized armadillo salivary glycoprotein, in which over 90% of the carbohydrate side chains are Tn determinants with none or only a trace of I/II or T determinants, precipitated poorly with RCA1. From the present and previous results obtained, the carbohydrate specificity of RCA1 can be constructed and summarized in decreasing order by lectin determinants as follows: II (Gal beta 1-->4GlcNAc) > I (Gal beta 1-->3GlcNAc) > E (Gal alpha 1-->4Gal) and B (Gal alpha 1-->3Gal

  12. antibacterial profile of fermented seed extracts of ricinus communis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daniel Owu

    against selected bacteria using diffusion method of susceptibility testing on sensitivity testing agar medium. Klebsiella pneumoniae .... well as any toxic effects on humans and animal tissues ... Methods of testing antimicrobial effectiveness (In:.

  13. VARIATIONS IN SEED TRAITS OF CASTOR (Ricinus communis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fatty acid composition of Malaysian castor seed oil reveals that ... ricinoleic acid content from India and Brazil castor bean oils were ... Standard cultural practices were applied to all plots. .... will influence the utilization of other nutrients by.

  14. Gamma-ray induced mutants in castor (Ricinus communis L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janila, P.; Ashok Kumar, A.; Rajashekar Reddy, N.; Hemalatha, V.

    2007-01-01

    We report isolation of three recessive mutants in castor using dry seed irradiation with gamma rays. The crinkled leaf mutant (crf) was identified in K-55-112 M2 family and leafy mutant (lea) in H-55-577 M2 family; both are recessive lethal and thus maintained as heterozygotes. The cri mutant has highly wrinkled leaves resembling finger millet head and failed to enter reproductive phase, consequently did not produce seeds. The number of leaf lobes is reduced in lea mutant and though it produced spikes, the male and female flowers are converted to leafy appendages. The third mutant, fused (Ius) stem identified in H-55-617 M2 family is a recessive mutant. The branches of which are fused at the base and though each branch terminates in to monoceous spike like normal plant, the spike is highly condensed. The three mutants under report are valuable genetic stocks for development of linkage maps in castor, which is at infancy. (author)

  15. EFFECT OF CASTOR BEAN (Ricinus communis L.) AQUEOUS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, KNUST, ... -knot nematodes in vitro and in potted-tomato plants, but this was not ... The use of chemicals has harmful effect such as air, water and soil pollution. ... suspension was filtered through cheese cloth ... mersed in Phloxine B stain for 15min and the.

  16. ARTICLE - Inbreeding depression in castor bean (Ricinus communis L. progenies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Krieger

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate inbreeding depression (DE in castor bean. From a population derived from the Guarani cultivar, 60 mother plants were sampled. Three types of progenies were obtained from each one: from self-pollination (AU, from crosses (CR and from open pollination (PL. Grain yield of the progenies was evaluated in two locations. There was a strong interaction of progenies x locations, which led to obtaining estimates within each location. Broad variation was observed in inbreeding depression, with mean values of 6.7% and 13.4%, comparing AU progenies with PL progenies. It was observed that the population has high potential for selecting promising inbred lines. The frequency of mother plants generating progenies with simultaneous high general combination capacity and low inbreeding depression was low. Recurrent selection will increase the occurrence of parent plants associating these two properties, which is necessary for obtaining superior synthetic varieties.

  17. EFFECT OF CASTOR BEAN (Ricinus communis L.) AQUEOUS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Plant Health Division, CSIR-Crops Research Institute, Fumesua, Kumasi. 2. Department of Crop ... 2013 Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST). Journal of Science ... with a pair of scissors as above and 5g of each entry in the study ... Such im- mobile or inactive nematodes were removed from the ...

  18. Toxic effects of Ricinus communis non proteic trypsin inhibitor for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marcelo Haro

    2015-10-21

    Oct 21, 2015 ... different growth stages, when the larvae burrow into the plant whorl causing ... or exposed to plant hormones (Rakwal et al., 2001). Plant proteinase ..... treatment, showing an evident deficit in larvae develop- ment. Pupae ...

  19. Variations in seed traits of castor ( Ricinus communis ) accessions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physicochemical analysis showed that castor seed and oil had saponification value of 182.9 mg/g, moisture content of 4.4%, acid value of 3.085 mg/g, viscosity of 110.41 cP, pH of 6.11, iodine value of 8.46 mg/g, specific gravity of 0.962 and refractive index of 1.477˚C. The proximate analysis showed that moisture ...

  20. Diversity of castor ( Ricinus communis L.) in Ethiopia | Alemaw ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was carried out to assess the diversity of castor germplasm in Ethiopia. A total of 102 accessions, one elite genotype and two standard varieties were characterized at Melkassa and Arsi Negelle, in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia using 12 traits for one during 2013 main season. Analysis of variance ...

  1. Three flavonol glycosides from Ricinus communis | Aqil | Bulletin of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more information about how to print, save, and work with PDFs, Highwire Press provides a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs.

  2. Chemical Investigations of the Castor Bean Plant Ricinus communis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    This technical report documents the progress made against the chemistry milestones contained in the NSST grant. This report will inform the clients ...of this work program (AFP, Chemical Warfare Agent Laboratory Network (CWALN) members, other national security clients ) of some of the capability...Umetrics AB, Umëa, Sweden) and subjected to Pareto UNCLASSIFIED 40 UNCLASSIFIED DSTO-TR-2786 scaling. Data matrices were subjected to both OPLS

  3. Characterization of Ricin and R. communis Agglutinin Reference Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worbs, Sylvia; Skiba, Martin; Söderström, Martin; Rapinoja, Marja-Leena; Zeleny, Reinhard; Russmann, Heiko; Schimmel, Heinz; Vanninen, Paula; Fredriksson, Sten-Åke; Dorner, Brigitte G.

    2015-01-01

    Ricinus communis intoxications have been known for centuries and were attributed to the toxic protein ricin. Due to its toxicity, availability, ease of preparation, and the lack of medical countermeasures, ricin attracted interest as a potential biological warfare agent. While different technologies for ricin analysis have been established, hardly any universally agreed-upon “gold standards” are available. Expert laboratories currently use differently purified in-house materials, making any comparison of accuracy and sensitivity of different methods nearly impossible. Technically challenging is the discrimination of ricin from R. communis agglutinin (RCA120), a less toxic but highly homologous protein also contained in R. communis. Here, we established both highly pure ricin and RCA120 reference materials which were extensively characterized by gel electrophoresis, liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI MS/MS), and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight approaches as well as immunological and functional techniques. Purity reached >97% for ricin and >99% for RCA120. Different isoforms of ricin and RCA120 were identified unambiguously and distinguished by LC-ESI MS/MS. In terms of function, a real-time cytotoxicity assay showed that ricin is approximately 300-fold more toxic than RCA120. The highly pure ricin and RCA120 reference materials were used to conduct an international proficiency test. PMID:26703723

  4. Characterization of Ricin and R. communis Agglutinin Reference Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Worbs

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ricinus communis intoxications have been known for centuries and were attributed to the toxic protein ricin. Due to its toxicity, availability, ease of preparation, and the lack of medical countermeasures, ricin attracted interest as a potential biological warfare agent. While different technologies for ricin analysis have been established, hardly any universally agreed-upon “gold standards” are available. Expert laboratories currently use differently purified in-house materials, making any comparison of accuracy and sensitivity of different methods nearly impossible. Technically challenging is the discrimination of ricin from R. communis agglutinin (RCA120, a less toxic but highly homologous protein also contained in R. communis. Here, we established both highly pure ricin and RCA120 reference materials which were extensively characterized by gel electrophoresis, liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI MS/MS, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight approaches as well as immunological and functional techniques. Purity reached >97% for ricin and >99% for RCA120. Different isoforms of ricin and RCA120 were identified unambiguously and distinguished by LC-ESI MS/MS. In terms of function, a real-time cytotoxicity assay showed that ricin is approximately 300-fold more toxic than RCA120. The highly pure ricin and RCA120 reference materials were used to conduct an international proficiency test.

  5. Accumulation, selection and covariation of amino acids in sieve tube sap of tansy (Tanacetum vulgare) and castor bean (Ricinus communis): evidence for the function of a basic amino acid transporter and the absence of a γ-amino butyric acid transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Susanne N; Nowak, Heike; Keller, Frank; Kallarackal, Jose; Hajirezaei, Mohamad-Reza; Komor, Ewald

    2014-09-01

    Sieve tube sap was obtained from Tanacetum by aphid stylectomy and from Ricinus after apical bud decapitation. The amino acids in sieve tube sap were analyzed and compared with those from leaves. Arginine and lysine accumulated in the sieve tube sap of Tanacetum more than 10-fold compared to the leaf extracts and they were, together with asparagine and serine, preferably selected into the sieve tube sap, whereas glycine, methionine/tryptophan and γ-amino butyric acid were partially or completely excluded. The two basic amino acids also showed a close covariation in sieve tube sap. The acidic amino acids also grouped together, but antagonistic to the other amino acids. The accumulation ratios between sieve tube sap and leaf extracts were smaller in Ricinus than in Tanacetum. Arginine, histidine, lysine and glutamine were enriched and preferentially loaded into the phloem, together with isoleucine and valine. In contrast, glycine and methionine/tryptophan were partially and γ-amino butyric acid almost completely excluded from sieve tube sap. The covariation analysis grouped arginine together with several neutral amino acids. The acidic amino acids were loaded under competition with neutral amino acids. It is concluded from comparison with the substrate specificities of already characterized plant amino acid transporters, that an AtCAT1-like transporter functions in phloem loading of basic amino acids, whereas a transporter like AtGAT1 is absent in phloem. Although Tanacetum and Ricinus have different minor vein architecture, their phloem loading specificities for amino acids are relatively similar. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  6. Jatropha curcasand Ricinus communisdisplay contrasting photosynthetic mechanisms in response to environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Costa Lima Neto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Higher plants display different adaptive strategies in photosynthesis to cope with abiotic stress. In this study, photosynthetic mechanisms and water relationships displayed byJatropha curcasL. (physic nuts andRicinus communisL. (castor bean, in response to variations in environmental conditions, were assessed.R. communis showed higher CO2 assimilation, stomatal and mesophyll conductance thanJ. curcas as light intensity and intercellular CO2 pressure increased. On the other hand,R. communis was less effective in stomatal control in response to adverse environmental factors such as high temperature, water deficit and vapor pressure deficit, indicating lower water use efficiency. Conversely,J. curcas exhibited higher photosynthetic efficiency (gas exchange and photochemistry and water use efficiency under these adverse environmental conditions.R. communisdisplayed higher potential photosynthesis, but exhibited a lowerin vivo Rubisco carboxylation rate (Vcmax and maximum electron transport rate (Jmax. During the course of a typical day, in a semiarid environment, with high irradiation, high temperature and high vapor pressure deficit, but exposed to well-watered conditions, the two studied species presented similar photosynthesis. Losing potential photosynthesis, but maintaining favorable water status and increasing non-photochemical quenching to avoid photoinhibition, are important acclimation mechanisms developed byJ. curcas to cope with dry and hot conditions. We suggest thatJ. curcas is more tolerant to hot and dry environments thanR. communis but the latter species displays higher photosynthetic efficiency under well-watered and non-stressful conditions.

  7. Antifungal Efficacy of Myrtus communis Linn

    OpenAIRE

    Sadeghi Nejad; Erfani Nejad; Yusef Naanaie; Zarrin

    2014-01-01

    Background The ethanolic extract of Myrtus communis Linn. leaves was assayed in vitro as a growth inhibitor against opportunistic fungi such as Candida and Aspergillus species. Myrtus communis Linn. (Family, Myrtaceae) is an aromatic evergreen shrub or small tree. It is native to the Mediterranean region. Objectives This study aimed to assess antifungal activity (in vitro) of the ethanolic extracts of Myrtus communis leaves as a g...

  8. Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Ricinus communis L. from Mn Contaminated Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YI Xin-yu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Xiangbi No. 1 and Zibi No. 7 were planted in the Mn contaminated soils to explore its potential of ecological remediation and ener-gy utilization in the areas of Mn contaminated site. The major nutrient elements and the concentrations of heavy metals(Mn, Pb, Zn, Cu and Cr in different parts(root, branch and leaf and topsoil samples were detected after entering into the period of reproductive growth.The results showed that the average content of Mn was as high as 7 884.96 mg·kg-1,which exceeded 6.5 times of national soil environmental quality standard(level 2.The mean level of Mn in tissues of Xiangbi No. 1 was found to be in the sequence of root>leaf>branch,whereas,the mean level of Mn in different parts of Zibi No. 7 was found to be in the order of leaf>fruit>branchroot respectively. The average concentration of Mn in the leaf reached the peak value(765.43 mg·kg-1,which was higher than Xiangbi No.1 about 79.53%.The leaf/root ratios of Pb, Cu, Cr contents in Zibi No. 7 were higher than those of Xiangbi No. 1 samples.The accumulation and translocation in plants was affect-ed by different heavy metal elements in soils.The results demonstrated that Zibi No. 7 had a better uptake and translocation capacity of Mn,Pb,Cu and Cr, meanwhile,plants of two species had differences in accumulation and translocation ability and were proved to possess good Mn-tolerance ability for remediation of heavy metal contaminated soils.

  9. Seed borne mycoflora of castor bean (ricinus communis l.) from pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawar, S.; Khalid, S.

    2014-01-01

    Castor bean seeds were analyzed by using ISTA (International seed testing association) for the detection of seed borne mycoflora. Thirty one fungal species belonging to 15 genera were isolated from 12 samples of castor bean seeds collected from different areas of Pakistan. Fusarium solani, Alternaria alternata, Cephaliophora tropica were most predominant fungal species isolated while the saprophytic fungi like A. niger, A. flavus were common in all samples of castor bean seed tested. Blotter method was considered to be better technique which gave maximum number of fungi followed by agar plate and deep freezing methods. (author)

  10. Role of biotechnological interventions in the improvement of castor (Ricinus communis L.) and Jatropha curcas L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujatha, M; Reddy, T P; Mahasi, M J

    2008-01-01

    Castor and Jatropha belong to the Euphorbiaceae family. This review highlights the role of biotechnological tools in the genetic improvement of castor and jatropha. Castor is monotypic and breeding programmes have mostly relied on the variability available in the primary gene pool. The major constraints limiting profitable cultivation are: vulnerability to insect pests and diseases, and the press cake is toxic which restrict its use as cattle feed. Conventional breeding techniques have limited scope in improvement of resistance to biotic stresses and in quality improvement owing to low genetic variability for these traits. Genetic diversity was assessed using protein based markers while use of molecular markers is at infancy. In vitro studies in castor have been successful in shoot proliferation from meristematic explants, but not callus-mediated regeneration. Genetic transformation experiments have been initiated for development of insect resistant and ricin-free transgenics with very low transformation frequency. In tropical and subtropical countries jatropha is viewed as a potential biofuel crop. The limitations in available germplasm include; lack of knowledge of the genetic base, poor yields, low genetic diversity and vulnerability to a wide array of insects and diseases. Great scope exists for genetic improvement through conventional methods, induced mutations, interspecific hybridization and genetic transformation. Reliable and highly efficient tissue culture protocols for direct and callus-mediated shoot regeneration and somatic embryogenesis are established for jatropha which indicates potential for widening the genetic base through biotechnological tools. Assessment of genetic diversity using molecular markers disclosed low interaccessional variability in local Jatropha curcas germplasm. The current status and future prospects of in vitro regeneration, genetic transformation and the role of molecular tools in the genetic enhancement of the two-oilseed crops are discussed.

  11. Evaluation of seed yield and oil contents in four materials of Ricinus communis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plaza T. Guido Armando

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Four castor materials were evaluated in 2009 in the middle region of Valle del Sinu, Colombia. The variables were phonological development, plant height, seed production and oil yield, in order to determine the best material for commercial purposes. All materials reported high yields of oil seeds and highlighting the commercial genotype Nordestina BRS149, 2.2 t ha-1 seed and 47% oil content. Planting distances were 1.5 x 1.5 m and 2.0 x 2.0 m, with densities of 6,666 and 3,906 plants ha-1, respectively. The plant height, seed productivity and oil yield showed significant differences for the interaction density × material; while comparing each material density, seed production only showed differences. These variables were significantly different between population densities, which shows that the higher the plant height, lower productivity. The planting distance of 2.0 x 2.0 m, provides higher productivity per plant values but seed oil yields were not different between densities. The oil quality parameters were assessed using free fatty acid value, iodine, acidity index, saponification, refraction and specific gravity, found that planting distance does not affect the quality of oil.

  12. Cultivar Determination of Ricinus communis via the Metabolome: a Proof of Concept Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    of French74,75 and Italian76 wines, the variety of apples used for apple juice ,69 and ecotype determinations of Arabidopsis thaliana.77 These... composition . Therefore, simply overlaying chromatograms from different specimens, while informative, will reveal gaps in one or more of the...responsible for PC1 (Appendix B) showed that across a majority of the bins, all specimens had essentially identical bin composition . However, for the

  13. Neuroprotective effect of undecylenic acid extracted from Ricinus communis L. through inhibition of μ-calpain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunyoung; Eom, Ji-Eun; Kim, Hye-Lin; Kang, Da-Hye; Jun, Kyu-Yeon; Jung, Duk Sang; Kwon, Youngjoo

    2012-05-12

    The key neuropathological features of Alzheimer's disease are abnormal deposition of Aβ plaques and insoluble Aβ peptides in extracellular brain and intracellular neurofibril tangles induced by abnormal tau hyperphosphorylation. μ-Calpain is one of the factors that bridge these Aβ- and hyperphosphorylated tau-mediated pathological pathways. Undecylenic acid (UDA), a naturally occurring unsaturated fatty acid, was discovered as a μ-calpain inhibitor by screening a chemical library using a substrate specific μ-calpain assay method. UDA inhibited Aβ oligomerization and Aβ fibrillation and reversed Aβ-induced neuronal cell death. In addition, UDA scavenged ROS and reversed the levels of proapoptotic proteins induced by ROS in SH-SY5Y cells. UDA inhibited μ-calpain activity with better potency than the known peptide-like μ-calpain inhibitor, MDL28170, in SH-SY5Y and HEK293T cells transfected with the catalytic subunit of μ-calpain. These results suggest that UDA is a novel non-peptide-like μ-calpain inhibitor with good cell permeability and potent neuroprotective effect. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Toxic effects of Ricinus communis non-protein trypsin inhibitor on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL ... Digestibility (AD), Efficiency of Ingested Food Conversion (EIC), Efficiency of Digested Food Conversion (EDC) and the Metabolic Cost (100 - EDC).

  15. Influence of phosphorous fertilization on copper phytoextraction and antioxidant defenses in castor bean (Ricinus communis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guoyong; Rizwan, Muhammad Shahid; Ren, Chao; Guo, Guangguang; Fu, Qingling; Zhu, Jun; Hu, Hongqing

    2018-01-01

    Application of fertilizers to supply appropriate nutrients has become an essential agricultural strategy for enhancing the efficiency of phytoremediation in heavy metal contaminated soils. The present study was conducted to investigate the beneficial effects of three types of phosphate fertilizers (i.e., oxalic acid-activated phosphate rock (APR), Ca(H 2 PO 4 ) 2 , and NaH 2 PO 4 ) in the range of 0-600 mg P kg -1 soil, on castor bean growth, antioxidants [antioxidative enzymes and glutathione (GSH)], and Cu uptake. Results showed that with the addition of phosphorus fertilizers, the dry weight of castor bean and the Cu concentration in roots increased significantly, resulting in increased Cu extraction. The phosphorus concentration in both shoots and roots was increased as compared with the control, and the Ca(H 2 PO 4 ) 2 treatment had the greatest effect. Application of APR, NaH 2 PO 4 , and Ca(H 2 PO 4 ) 2 reduced the malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and the activity of the two antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismustase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) and catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) in the leaves of castor bean. GSH concentration in leaves increased with the increasing levels of phosphorus applied to soil as well as the accumulation of phosphorus in shoots, compared to the control. These results demonstrated that the addition of phosphorus fertilizers can enhance the resistance of castor bean to Cu and increase the Cu extraction efficiency of the plant from contaminated soils.

  16. Ricinus communis cyclophilin: functional characterisation of a sieve tube protein involved in protein folding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschalk, Maren; Dolgener, Elmar; Xoconostle-Cázares, Beatriz; Lucas, William J; Komor, Ewald; Schobert, Christian

    2008-09-01

    The phloem translocation stream of the angiosperms contains a special population of proteins and RNA molecules which appear to be produced in the companion cells prior to being transported into the sieve tube system through the interconnecting plasmodesmata. During this process, these non-cell-autonomous proteins are thought to undergo partial unfolding. Recent mass spectroscopy studies identified peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIases) as potential molecular chaperones functioning in the phloem translocation stream (Giavalisco et al. 2006). In the present study, we describe the cloning and characterisation of a castor bean phloem cyclophilin, RcCYP1 that has high peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase activity. Equivalent enzymatic activity was detected with phloem sap or purified recombinant (His)(6)-tagged RcCYP1. Mass spectrometry analysis of proteolytic peptides, derived from a 22 kDa band in HPLC-fractionated phloem sap, immunolocalisation studies and Western analysis of proteins extracted from castor bean tissues/organs indicated that RcCYP1 is an abundant protein in the companion cell-sieve element complex. Microinjection experiments established that purified recombinant (His)(6)-RcCYP1 can interact with plasmodesmata to both induce an increase in size exclusion limit and mediate its own cell-to-cell trafficking. Collectively, these findings support the hypothesis that RcCYP1 plays a role in the refolding of non-cell-autonomous proteins after their entry into the phloem translocation stream.

  17. Optimization of Mechanical Expression of Castor Seeds Oil (Ricinus communis using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. O. Olaoye

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the processing parameters of Castor seed on its oil yield was investigated. The castor seeds were passed through drying, crushing and separation into seeds and shells. These processing conditions were further succeeded by seed roasting and subsequent mechanical expression of the roasted nut by means of screw press in the course of its preparation for oil expression. Seed samples were conditioned by adding calculated amount of distilled water to obtain different moisture levels from the initial moisture content of the seeds. Samples were roasted at the temperatures of 83.18, 90.00, 100.00, 110.00 and 116.82°C, over periods of 6.59, 10.00, 15.00, 20.00 and 23.41min, seed moisture content of 6.32, 7.00, 8.00, 9.00 and 9.68 % wb, respectively and the oil was expressed using a screw roaster-expeller. Optimization of the oil expression process was achieved by applying Central Composite Rotatable Design of Response Surface Methodology. The optimal conditions for oil yield within the experimental range of the studied variables were 7%, 110°C and 20 min; moisture content, roasting temperature and roasting duration respectively. These values of the optimum process conditions were used to predict optimum value of oil yield to be 25.77%. A second-order model was obtained to predict oil yield as a function of moisture content, heating temperature and duration. Thus the result from this research work has established the optimal conditions for mechanical extraction of oil from castor seed. Closed agreement between experimental and predicted yield was obtained.

  18. Prospects of castor (Ricinus communis L.) genotypes for biodiesel production in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavanya, C.; Murthy, I.Y.L.N.; Nagaraj, G.; Mukta, N.

    2012-01-01

    The search for suitable non-edible oilseed crops for production of biodiesel has led to exploration of the potential of castor, hitherto an export oriented commercial oilseed crop in India. In this context, a study was conducted to identify high yielding castor genotypes ideal for biodiesel production. The material evaluated included seed of 15 castor genotypes grown in rainfed conditions of Alfisols at Hyderabad, India. Variability for palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic fatty acids was recorded. Ricinoleic acid, the predominant mono unsaturated fatty acid varied among castor genotypes from 86.7 to 92.1%. Correlation coeffecients between fatty acid profile and biodiesel traits were computed. Genotypes 48-1 and DCH-200 exhibited high O/L ratio, low Iodine value (IV) and high cetane number (CN) which indicates higher stability, longer shelf life, quick ignition and greater combustion quality. Genotype DPC-9 exhibited potential as a female parent for development of biodiesel suitable hybrid. -- Highlights: ► Evaluated 15 castor genotypes for fatty acid profile. ► Computed biodiesel related traits like saponification number, iodine value and cetane number. ► Ricinoleic acid, the predominant mono unsaturated fatty acid ranged from 86.7 to 92.1%. ► Variety 48-1 and hybrid DCH-200 exhibited high O/L ratio, low iodine value (IV) and high cetane number (CN).

  19. Pyrolysis kinetics and thermodynamic parameters of castor (Ricinus communis) residue using thermogravimetric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Ravneet; Gera, Poonam; Jha, Mithilesh Kumar; Bhaskar, Thallada

    2018-02-01

    Castor plant is a fast-growing, perennial shrub from Euphorbiaceae family. More than 50% of the residue is generated from its stems and leaves. The main aim of this work is to study the pyrolytic characteristics, kinetics and thermodynamic properties of castor residue. The TGA experiments were carried out from room temperature to 900 °C under an inert atmosphere at different heating rates of 5, 10, 15, 20, 30 and 40 °C/min. The kinetic analysis was carried using different models namely Kissinger, Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO) and Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS). The average E ɑ calculated by FWO and KAS methods were 167.10 and 165.86 kJ/mole respectively. Gibbs free energy varied from 150.62-154.33 to 150.59-154.65 kJ/mol for FWO and KAS respectively. The HHV of castor residue was 14.43 MJ/kg, considered as potential feedstock for bio-energy production. Kinetic and thermodynamic results will be useful input for the design of pyrolytic process using castor residue as feedstock. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) female ticks exposed to castor oil (Ricinus communis): an ultrastructural overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampieri, B R; Furquim, K C S; Nunes, P H; Camargo-Mathias, M I

    2013-02-01

    Tick control has been accomplished through the use of synthetic acaricides, which has created resistant individuals, as well as contaminating the environment and nontarget organisms. Substances of plant origin, such as oils and extracts of eucalyptus and neem leaves, have been researched as an alternative to replace the synthetic acaricides. Ricinoleic acid esters from castor oil have recently been shown as a promising alternative in eliminating bacterial contamination during ethanol fermentation, by acting as an effective biocide. The same positive results have been observed when these esters are added to the food given to tick-infested rabbits. This study tested the effect of these substance on the reproductive system of Rhipicephalus sanguineus females, added to rabbit food, more specifically on oogenesis. For this, four groups were established: four control groups (CG1, CG2, CG3, and CG4) and four treatment groups (TG1, TG2, TG3, and TG4) with one rabbit in each (New Zealand White), used as hosts. After full 4 days feeding (semi-engorgement), the females were collected and had their ovaries extracted. In this study, it was observed that R. sanguineus females exposed to esters had their ovaries modified, which was demonstrated through transmission electron microscopy techniques. The addition of ricinoleic esters to the diet of tick-infested rabbits revealed how toxic such substances are for the cytoplasmic organelles of oocytes and pedicel cells. These compounds can change the morphophysiology of germ and somatic cells, consequently influencing their viability and, therefore, confirming that the ricinoleic acid esters from castor oil are a promising substance in the control of R. sanguineus.

  1. Diversity of Castor (Ricinus communis L.) in Ethiopia አህፅርኦት ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Ethiopia, Castor grows as annual in the low lands to small tree perennial in the high lands. India, china, Brazil and USA are the major castor producers globally. Castor bears seeds that containing highly valuable industrial oil. Castor oil is unique among vegetable oil because it is the only commercial source of a ...

  2. Structural and Spectroscopic Properties of the Peroxodiferric Intermediate of Ricinus communis Soluble Delta(9) Desaturase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Srnec, Martin; Rokob, Tibor András; Schwartz, J. K.; Kwak, Y.; Rulíšek, Lubomír; Solomon, E. I.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 5 (2012), s. 2806-2820 ISSN 0020-1669 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC512 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : diferrous non-heme iron enzyme * QM/MM calculations * delta-9 * desaturase * reaction mechanism Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.593, year: 2012

  3. Secondary metabolites and bioactivities of Myrtus communis

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud I Nassar; El-Sayed A Aboutabl; Rania F Ahmed; Ezzel-Din A El-Khrisy; Khaled M Ibrahim; Amany A Sleem

    2010-01-01

    Background: Myrtus species are characterized by the presence of phenolic acids, flavonoids, tannins, volatile oils and fatty acids. They are remedies for variety of ailments. This study therefore investigated medicinal effects of Myrtus communis L. Methods: Bioactivity studies of Myrtus communis L. leaves were carried out on volatile oil, 7% methanol and aqueous extracts and the isolated compounds myricetin 3-O-β-glucopyranoside, myricetin 3-O-∝-rhamnopyranoside and gallic acid. Results: Dete...

  4. Evaluation of phytoextracting cadmium and lead by sunflower, ricinus, alfalfa and mustard in hydroponic culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi-xin, Niu; Sun, Li-na; Sun, Tie-heng; Li, Yu-shuang; Wang, Hong

    2007-01-01

    Soil contaminated with heavy metals cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) is hard to be remediated. Phytoremediation may be a feasible method to remove toxic metals from soil, but there are few suitable plants which can hyperaccumulate metals. In this study, Cd and Pb accumulation by four plants including sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), mustard (Brassica juncea L.), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), ricinus (Ricinus communis L.) in hydroponic cultures was compared. Results showed that these plants could phytoextract heavy metals, the ability of accumulation differed with species, concentrations and categories of heavy metals. Values of BCF (bioconcentration factor) and TF (translocation factor) indicated that four species had dissimilar abilities of phytoextraction and transportation of heavy metals. Changes on the biomass of plants, pH and Eh at different treatments revealed that these four plants had distinct responses to Cd and Pb in cultures. Measurements should be taken to improve the phytoremediation of sites contaminated with heavy metals, such as pH and Eh regulations, and so forth.

  5. Antifungal Efficacy of Myrtus communis Linn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeghi Nejad

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background The ethanolic extract of Myrtus communis Linn. leaves was assayed in vitro as a growth inhibitor against opportunistic fungi such as Candida and Aspergillus species. Myrtus communis Linn. (Family, Myrtaceae is an aromatic evergreen shrub or small tree. It is native to the Mediterranean region. Objectives This study aimed to assess antifungal activity (in vitro of the ethanolic extracts of Myrtus communis leaves as a growth inhibitor against 24 clinical isolates of Candida, including C. albicans, C. glabrata, and C. tropicalis also three species of Aspergillus, including A. niger, A. flavus, and A. terreus. Materials and Methods The ethanolic extract of myrtle leaves was prepared by maceration method and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of Myrtus communis leaves extract was determined by agar-well diffusion technique. Amphotericin B and clotrimazole were used as the positive control in this assay. Results The minimal inhibitory concentration (MICs values of Myrtus communis leaves extract ranged 0.625-5.0 µg/µL and 5-40 µg/µL against tested Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp., respectively. Conclusions Results revealed that the ethanolic extract of Myrtus communis leaves have antifungal potency against both pathogenic tested fungi, and it can be used as a natural antifungal agent.

  6. Obtaining polyester from glycerin for synthesis of polyurethanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breves, Rodolfo A.; Ghesti, Grace F.; Sales, Maria J.A.

    2014-01-01

    The use of renewable resources has been increasing, due to the development of materials that have viable applications that are environmentally friendly. In this paper, a polyester was synthesized from glycerin, with the addition of adipic acid in a molar ratio of 1: 1.5, with dilauryl tin catalyst, which was added in proportions of 1 to 3% obtained PUs from castor oil (Ricinus communis) and MDI (diphenyl methane diisocyanate). The materials were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance "1H NMR, thermogravimetry (TG) and derivative thermogravimetry (DTG). The reaction for obtaining the polyester was confirmed by FTIR, the absorption band between 1708-1730 cm"-"1 and "1H NMR, in the region 1.4 to 1.8 ppm and 2.2 to 2.6 ppm. The thermal decomposition of polyester occurred with temperature above 300 ° C. PUs showed similar thermal stability. (author)

  7. Szycher's handbook of polyurethanes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Szycher, M

    2013-01-01

    .... Filled with tables, charts, and photographs, it includes new data on green polyurethanes, automotive applications, new coatings, new manufacturing equipment, new health-care uses, and other topics...

  8. Acquisition through common slave (servus communis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogunović Mirjana B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Common slave (servus communis is a slave who belongs to two masters. Both masters may entirely dispose with the slave because their joint ownership allows it. However, acquisitions through common slave (servus communis is not that clear. Does a slave evenly oblige co-masters or only the master on whose behalf he has acted? Is it possible for a slave to work in the interest of one master and oblige another? Who does the unconscientious slave correspond to, the third party or a betrayed master? This paper will analyze the opinions of two Roman iurists, which will partly solve doubts that this institute causes.

  9. Acquisition through common slave (servus communis)

    OpenAIRE

    Bogunović Mirjana B.

    2016-01-01

    Common slave (servus communis) is a slave who belongs to two masters. Both masters may entirely dispose with the slave because their joint ownership allows it. However, acquisitions through common slave (servus communis) is not that clear. Does a slave evenly oblige co-masters or only the master on whose behalf he has acted? Is it possible for a slave to work in the interest of one master and oblige another? Who does the unconscientious slave correspond to, the third party or a betrayed maste...

  10. Polyurethane Filler for Electroplating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    Polyurethane foam proves suitable as filler for slots in parts electroplated with copper or nickel. Polyurethane causes less contamination of plating bath and of cleaning and filtering tanks than wax fillers used previously. Direct cost of maintenance and indirect cost of reduced operating time during tank cleaning also reduced.

  11. Polyurethane-Foam Maskant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodemeijer, R.

    1985-01-01

    Brown wax previously used to mask hardware replaced with polyurethane foam in electroplating and electroforming operations. Foam easier to apply and remove than wax and does not contaminate electrolytes.

  12. Szycher's handbook of polyurethanes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Szycher, M

    2013-01-01

    "Written as a reference for polyurethane technologists and end users, raw materials suppliers, and students in the field, this second edition covers the technical advances in the field over the past 10 years...

  13. Exotic Rickettsiae in Ixodes ricinus: fact or artifact?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijsse-Klasen, E.; Fonville, M.; Overbeek, van L.S.; Reimerink, J.H.J.; Sprong, H.

    2010-01-01

    Several pathogenic Rickettsia species can be transmitted via Ixodes ricinus ticks to humans and animals. Surveys of I. ricinus for the presence of Rickettsiae using part of its 16S rRNA gene yield a plethora of new and different Rickettsia sequences. Interpreting these data is sometimes difficult

  14. Polyurethane compounds having carbon nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    The invention relates to semi-crystalline polyurethane (PUR) compositions filled with carbon nanotubes (CNT) and having improved electrical properties, which can be obtained on the basis of water-based polyurethane/CNT mixtures. The invention further relates to a method for producing polyurethane

  15. Energetic potential of the vegetable oil of Canton Tosagua ricinus comunnis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito Sauvanell, Angel Luis; Saltos Giler, Manuel; Lopez Vera, Mario Rene; Rodriguez Moreira, Marat

    2011-01-01

    The plantation of Higuerilla (Ricinus communis L.) can be considered as an alternative of high energy, economic and social importance for the climatic conditions of the Ecuador's coastal area, due to its easy cultivation, the resistance to the drought is being considered as a plant generator for rent and work for small farmers in the geography of Tosagua, Rocafuerte and other towns in the vicinity to Manabi province. The castor oil is a xerofila and heliofila plantation in other words , adapted to arid atmospheres and sun loving. The paper shows a characterization carried out to higuerilla seeds in the biotechnology laboratory of to the Polytechnic High School of Calceta (ESPAM). The seeds collected in different villages near Tosagua, let us estimate the energy potential of the Higuerilla plantation like energy source for the Manabi province. The industrialization of the product obtained from Higuerilla plantation would have as advantage the pure vegetable oil (PVO) as main by-product, besides it can obtain a cake rich in protein. The castor oil cake can be used to restore out lands; also, it contains products that can be used for the control of nematodes of the ground, due to the high toxicity that confers it toxic protein denominated ricine. (author)

  16. Biodegradation of polyurethanes; Polyurethane no biseibutsu bunkai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinpara, N; Ando, M; Ohira, Z [Suzuki Motor Corp., Shizuoka (Japan); Nakajima, T; Nakahara, T [University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Different types of Polyurethane (PUR) are used for various industrial products and are used in increasing quantities every year. We experimented with biodegradation of PURs to dispose of industrial wastes. 2 strains of fungi and 1 strain of bacteria which were seemed to have the ability to degrade PURs well were isolated from various soils and waste water. These strains could degrade ester-type PUR and PUR made from a mixture of ester and ether. However, these strains could not degrade ether-type PUR. From Scanning Electron Microscopy observation, it is suggested that the microbial degradation proceeded in at least 2 patterns. 4 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Flexible polyurethane foams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    Embodiments of the invention provide for a method of preparing a polyurethane foam, including reacting least one initiator comprising at least two hydroxyl groups with at least one 12-hydroxystearic acid to form at least one polyester polyol, reacting the at least one polyester polyol with at least

  18. Development of a bioassay to quantify the ricin toxin content of castor bean (Ricinus communis L. seeds=Desenvolvimento de um bioensaio para quantificar o teor da toxina ricina em sementes de mamona (Ricinus communis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dick Auld

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we developed a bioassay to quantify the ricin toxin content of castor bean seeds. Existing quantification methods do not always reflect actual toxicity of the seeds analyzed, which may present lower ricin content even though they are more toxic than seeds presenting a higher content of ricin. This is because these methods actually measure the addition of ricin RCA, which is a compound less toxic than pure ricin. We decided to use in this study, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, which has been widely used by the pharmaceutical industry. We tested two strains of C. elegans using different methods in 8 experiments. We examined 4 methods of extracting the ricin complex and 3 methods of exposing the nematodes. Among the nematode strains and ricin extraction methods tested, we concluded that the best strain for testing ricin toxicity was the strain called N2 and that the best method for ricin extraction was a rotating bath followed by centrifugation and exposing the nematodes in 24 well plates with a solution of nematodes extracted from the media with destilated waterexposing the nematodes in 24-well plates This method is inexpensive, quick and adequate for the selection of offspring with lower RIP content.Foi desenvolvido um bioensaio para quantificar o teor de ricina nas sementes de mamona. Os métodos de quantificação existentes não refletem a toxidez real das sementes analizadas, que pode mostrar um resultado de menor teor de ricina e ainda assim ser mais toxico do que as sementes que apresentaram teores maiores. Isto ocorre por que estes métodos medem alem da ricina a RCA, que é um composto menos tóxico que a ricina pura. Foi decidido utilizar neste estudo o nematoide Caenorhabditis elegans, que tem sido amplamente utilizado na industria farmacêutica. Foram testadas duas estirpes de C.elegans usadas em diferentes métodos contando com 8 experimentos distintos. nós examinamos 4 métodos de extração de ricina e 3 métodos de exposição do nematóide à ricina. Foi concluído que a melhor estirpe para testar ricina foram as estirpes chamadas de N2 e o melhor método de extração da toxina foi o do banho maria seguido pela centrifugação e o melhor método de exposição dos nematóides foi o que conta com uma placa de 24 poços onde o nematóide suspenso em água destilada são expostos a toxina. Este é um método barato, rápido e adequado para seleção de materiais com baixo teor de RIP.

  19. Testes de vigor para avaliação do potencial fisiológico de sementes de mamona (Ricinus communis L. Vigor test for the evaluation of the physiology potencial of castor bean (Ricinus communis L. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia Mendes

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A qualidade de sementes de mamona tem sido avaliada rotineiramente pelo teste de germinação, cujos resultados, muitas vezes, não são confirmados em campo. Nesse contexto, os testes de vigor são essenciais, pois retratam o comportamento das sementes sob maior amplitude de ambiente. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar a eficiência de métodos para determinar o potencial fisiológico de sementes de mamona. Para tanto, foram utilizados sete lotes de sementes de mamona, cultivar AL-Guarany, apresentando teor de água de aproximadamente 7% , que foram submetidos aos seguintes testes: germinação, primeira contagem de germinação, frio (a 10ºC/7 dias e a 25ºC/5 dias, porcentagem e velocidade de emergência de plântulas, envelhecimento acelerado a 41ºC e 45ºC e 100% UR, por 48, 72 e 96 horas e condutividade elétrica (25 sementes embebidas em 75 e 100mL de água destilada, a 25ºC, por 2, 4, 6, 8, 24, 48 e 72 horas. Os testes de frio e de envelhecimento acelerado (41ºC/72 horas e 100% UR foram eficientes para avaliação do potencial fisiológico de sementes de mamona, permitindo classificação de lotes quanto ao vigor semelhante à emergência de plântulas em solo. O teste de condutividade elétrica não se mostrou adequado para avaliação do potencial fisiológico das sementes de mamona.This work had the objective to determine the efficiency of different tests for the evaluation of physiological potential of castor bean seeds. Seven seed lots of AL-Guarany cultivar were submitted to the following tests: seed moisture content, standard germination, first count, cold test (10ºC/7 days followed by germination at 25ºC/5 days, seedling emergence, speed emergence index, accelerated aging (at 41ºC and 45ºC and 100% RH, for 48, 72, and 96h and electrical conductivity (25 seeds soaked into 75 and 100mL of distilled water, at 25ºC, for 2, 4, 6, 8, 24, 48, and 72 h. The trial was conducted in randomized completely design, with four replications. The means of treatments were compared by Tukey test at 5% probability. Results showed that cold test and accelerated aging (41ºC/72 hours were efficient to evaluate the physiological potential of castor bean seeds, allowing the classification of lots regarding vigor to be similar to the seedling emergence test. Electrical conductivity test was not adequate for the evaluation of physiological potential of these seeds.

  20. O hodowli in vitro wycinków z łodygi rącznika (Ricinus communis L. i wilczomlecza tyrlicza (Euphorbia lathyris L. [In vitro culture of segment from shoots of Ricinus communis L. and Euphorbia lathyris L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Wojciechowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of certain factors on the growth and differentiation of the material investigated was analysed. Histo- and organogenesis are discussed together with the anatomy of the coalescence of the segments.

  1. Microbial degradation of polyurethane, polyester polyurethanes and polyether polyurethanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima-Kambe, T; Shigeno-Akutsu, Y; Nomura, N; Onuma, F; Nakahara, T

    1999-02-01

    Polyurethane (PUR) is a polymer derived from the condensation of polyisocyanate and polyol and it is widely used as a base material in various industries. PUR, in particular, polyester PUR, is known to be vulnerable to microbial attack. Recently, environmental pollution by plastic wastes has become a serious issue and polyester PUR had attracted attention because of its biodegradability. There are many reports on the degradation of polyester PUR by microorganisms, especially by fungi. Microbial degradation of polyester PUR is thought to be mainly due to the hydrolysis of ester bonds by esterases. Recently, polyester-PUR-degrading enzymes have been purified and their characteristics reported. Among them, a solid-polyester-PUR-degrading enzyme (PUR esterase) derived from Comamonas acidovorans TB-35 had unique characteristics. This enzyme has a hydrophobic PUR-surface-binding domain and a catalytic domain, and the surface-binding domain was considered as being essential for PUR degradation. This hydrophobic surface-binding domain is also observed in other solid-polyester-degrading enzymes such as poly(hydroxyalkanoate) (PHA) depolymerases. There was no significant homology between the amino acid sequence of PUR esterase and that of PHA depolymerases, except in the hydrophobic surface-binding region. Thus, PUR esterase and PHA depolymerase are probably different in terms of their evolutionary origin and it is possible that PUR esterases come to be classified as a new solid-polyester-degrading enzyme family.

  2. Short communication. Evaluation of castor (Ricinus communis L.) induced mutants for possible selection in the improvement of seed yield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarwar, G.; Boota Chaudhry, M.

    2008-07-01

    The aim of the present work was to determine selection criteria suitable for developing castor ideotypes with high yield potentials. Nineteen M4 generation castor mutants were obtained by gamma irradiation (100 to 1000 Gy) of DS30 castor seeds, and evaluated alongside this reference variety over 2006-07 for their possible use in the improvement of castor seed yield. Days to ripening, plant height, number of spikes/plant, length of main spike, number of main spike capsules, capsule weight, 100-seed weight and seed yield per plant were recorded for each mutant. Correlation coefficients were calculated, path analyses performed, and the genetic features of the different traits were determined. A significant, positive correlation was seen between capsule weight and seed yield. The 100-seed weight showed a positive but non-significant phenotypic relationship plus a significant genotypic relationship with seed yield. Capsule weight also showed a strong direct effect on seed yield, plus a strong positive and significant genotypic correlation with this variable. More than 50% heritability was observed for all the traits studied except the 100-seed weight and capsule weight. The number of main spike capsules showed the greatest genetic advance, followed by spike length and number of spikes. Traits such as the number of capsules, spike length and number of spikes showed strong heritability and good genetic advance. These traits are therefore governed by additive genes, and for the improvement of seed yield selection may be based directly on these attributes. In conclusion, for the improvement of seed yield the main emphasis should be placed on the number of spikes and capsule weight, via the selection of the highest yielding mutants among those tested. However, spike length and 100-seed weight should also be taken into account. (Author) 18 refs.

  3. High-yield production of biodiesel by non-catalytic supercritical methanol transesterification of crude castor oil (Ricinus communis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Román-Figueroa, Celián; Olivares-Carrillo, Pilar; Paneque, Manuel; Palacios-Nereo, Francisco Javier; Quesada-Medina, Joaquín

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis of biodiesel from crude castor oil in a catalyst-free process using supercritical methanol in a batch reactor was investigated, studying the evolution of intermediate products as well as the conversion of triglycerides and the yield of FAMEs (fatty acid methyl esters) (biodiesel). Experiments were carried out in a temperature range of 250–350 °C (10–43 MPa) at reaction times of 15–90 min for a methanol-to-oil molar ratio of 43:1. Maintaining thermal stability of biodiesel is one of the most important concerns in high-yield supercritical biodiesel production. Hence, thermal decomposition degree of FAMEs was also investigated in different reaction conditions. The maximum yield of FAMEs (96.5%) was obtained at 300 °C (21 MPa) and 90 min. Under these conditions, the conversion of triglycerides was complete, the yield of intermediate products was low (3.29 and 1.41% for monoglycerides and diglycerides, respectively), and thermal decomposition of FAMEs did not occur. The maximum degree of thermal decomposition (80.9%) was produced at 350 °C (43 MPa) and 90 min. Methyl ricinoleate, whose fatty acid chain was the most abundant (88.09 mol%) in castor oil, was very unstable above 300 °C and 60 min, leading to low yields of FAMEs under these conditions. - Highlights: • Supercritical synthesis of biodiesel from crude castor oil was investigated. • Supercritical methanolysis of crude castor oil reached a high yield of FAMEs. • Ricinoleic acid methyl ester was very unstable above 300 °C and 60 min reaction.

  4. Phloem flow and sugar transport in Ricinus communis L. is inhibited under anoxic conditions of shoot or roots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peuke, A.D.; Gessler, A.; Trumbore, S.; Windt, C.W.; Homan, N.; Gerkema, E.; As, van H.

    2015-01-01

    Anoxic conditions should hamper the transport of sugar in the phloem, as this is an active process. The canopy is a carbohydrate source and the roots are carbohydrate sinks.By fumigating the shoot with N2 or flooding the rhizosphere, anoxic conditions in the source or sink, respectively, were

  5. Exogenous glutamine increases lipid accumulation in developing seeds of castor bean (Ricinus communis L. cultured in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This report describes biomass production and compositional changes of developing castor seeds in response to change in the nitrogen resource (glutamine of the medium. During the early developmental period (24-36 days after pollination, oil was found to initially accumulate in the developing seeds. Carbohydrates and oil were inversely related after glutamine provision (35 mM, in the culture medium. [U-14C] sucrose labeling was used to investigate the effect of metabolic fluxes among different storage materials. Addition of glutamine led to a 7% increase of labeling in lipids and an inverse decrease of labeling in carbohydrates. It was postulated that changes in the glutamine concentration in the medium are likely to influence the partitioning of resources between the various storage products, especially carbohydrates and oil. These observations will contribute to a better understanding of assimilate partitioning in developing castor seeds and the development of molecular strategies to improve castor bean seed quality and plant breeding studies.

  6. Descriptores botánicos para caracterizar germoplasmas de Ricinus communis de diferentes zonas de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Solera-Steller

    2015-03-01

    Los resultados mostraron valores significativos para la longitud del racimo y el número de frutos por racimo, la razón largo/ancho del fruto, peso del fruto, la razón del largo/ancho de la semilla y el peso de la semilla, con correlaciones superiores a un 45%. Sin embargo, el ACP mostró que existe una alta variabilidad entre los datos, algo muy común entre individuos silvestres, debido principalmente a su forma de dispersión y a la gran cantidad de zonas de vida muestreadas. Para la CJA, se pudieron observar tres grupos ordenados principalmente por las correlaciones entre el tamaño del racimo y el número de frutos, la razón largo/ancho y el peso del fruto y la razón largo/ancho y peso de la semilla, los cuales pueden usarse como indicadores para la caracterización morfológica de la higuerilla proveniente de todo el país.

  7. Effects of sowing dates and different fertilizers on yield, yield components, and oil percentage of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    parviz rezvani moghadam

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of sowing dates and different fertilizers on yield, yield components, and oil percentage of castor bean, an experiment was conducted at Experimental station, College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran in years 2004-2005. The experimental treatments comprised all combinations of four sowing dates (11 April, 25 April, 8 May and 22 May and three different fertilizers (cow manure (30 tons/ha, compost (30 tons/ha, chemical fertilizers (100 kg/ha N and 250 kg/ha of super phosphate and no fertilizer as control. Different characteristics such as plant height, main inflorescence height, number of inflorescence per plant, number of secondary stems per plant, number of capsules per plant, number of grain per plant, grain weight per plant, 100 seed weight, grain yield, oil percentage and oil yield were recorded. A factorial arrangement based on a randomized complete block design with three replications was used. The results showed by delaying sowing date grain yield, seed oil percentage and oil yield were decreased, but there was no significant differences between 25 April, 8 May and 22 May sowing dates. Harvest index and 100 seed weight did not affect by neither sowing dates nor fertilizer treatments. The highest number of branches per plant, number of fertile inflorescences per plant, number of fertile capsules per plant, number of grain per plant, grain weight per plant and biological yield were obtained at 8 May sowing date on chemical fertilizer. Percentage of seed oil, grain yield and oil yield was higher at the first sowing date (11 April in compost and chemical fertilizer treatments. Keywords: Castor bean, sowing date, fertilizer, grain yield, oil percentage.

  8. A histological study of scala communis with radiological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makary, Chadi; Shin, Jennifer; Caruso, Paul; Curtin, Hugh; Merchant, Saumil

    2010-01-01

    Scala communis or interscalar septum (IS) defect is a developmental abnormality of the inner ear characterized by a dehiscence in the partition separating the turns of the cochlea. The goals of the present study were to (1) study this anomaly and describe its characteristics compared to control ears using a histological analysis of temporal bones, (2) discuss radiological implications regarding its diagnosis, and (3) describe its embryological derivation. Out of 1775 temporal bones assessed, 22 specimens were found to have scala communis in cochleae containing all 3 turns (basal, middle and apical). These 22 ears were studied in detail by qualitative and quantitative methods using light microscopy. Scala communis occurred as an isolated inner ear anomaly, or in association with other congenital cochlear and/or vestibular anomalies. The defect occurred most often between the middle and apical turns of the cochlea. Compared to control ears, scala communis ears were found to have a smaller modiolar area (p Scala communis was compatible with normal hearing. Flattening of the interscalar ridge has the potential to improve the diagnosis of scala communis in patients using CT scanning. The anomaly may result from a mesodermal defect such as excessive resorption of mesenchyme during the formation of the scalae, an error in the formation of bone, or both. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. 21 CFR 177.1680 - Polyurethane resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyurethane resins. 177.1680 Section 177.1680 Food... of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1680 Polyurethane resins. The polyurethane...) For the purpose of this section, polyurethane resins are those produced when one or more of the...

  10. Experimental evidence against transmission of Hepatozoon canis by Ixodes ricinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannelli, Alessio; Ramos, Rafael Antonio Nascimento; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Mencke, Norbert; Baneth, Gad; Otranto, Domenico

    2013-09-01

    Hepatozoon canis is among the most widespread tick-borne protozoa infecting domestic and wild carnivores. Its distribution is related to the occurrence of its major vector, the brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus. However, the role of Ixodes ricinus as a vector of H. canis has been hypothesized. In the present study, the development of H. canis was investigated in I. ricinus and R. sanguineus nymphs collected from a naturally infested dog. All I. ricinus ticks examined (n=133) were negative by cytological examination at days 20, 30, and 90 post collection, although H. canis DNA was detected in one nymph at day 20 and in 2 nymphs at day 30 post collection. On the other hand, H. canis sporogony was documented by cytology, and H. canis DNA was detected by PCR in R. sanguineus at day 30 post collection. These results indicate that H. canis sporogony does not occur in I. ricinus, but in R. sanguineus, suggesting that I. ricinus does not act as a vector of H. canis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Developement of Spherical Polyurethane Beads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K. Maeda; H. Ohmori; H. Gyotoku

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Results and Discussion We established a new method to produce the spherical polyurethane beads which have narrower distribution of particle size. This narrower distribution was achieved by the polyurethane prepolymer which contains ketimine as a blocked chain-extending agent. Firstly, the prepolymer is dispersed into the aqueous solution containing surfactant. Secondaly, water comes into the inside of prepolymer as oil phase. Thirdly, ketimine is hydrolyzed to amine, and amine reacts with prepolymer immediately to be polyurethane.Our spherical polyurethane beads are very suitable for automotive interior parts especially for instrument panel cover sheet producing under the slush molding method, because of good process ability, excellent durability to the sunlight and mechanical properties at low temperature. See Fig. 1 ,Fig. 2 and Fig. 3 (Page 820).

  12. Obtaining polyester from glycerin for synthesis of polyurethanes; Obtencao de poliester a partir da glicerina para sintese de poliuretanas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breves, Rodolfo A.; Ghesti, Grace F.; Sales, Maria J.A., E-mail: eu_sou_o_rodolfo@hotmail.com [Universidade de Brasilia (LabPol/UnB), DF (Brazil). Laboratorio de Pesquisa em Polimeros; Silva, Jessica S.; Coelho, Paulo V.M.; Lopes, Roseany V.V. [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Faculdade do Gama; Brioude, Michel M. [Freiburg University (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The use of renewable resources has been increasing, due to the development of materials that have viable applications that are environmentally friendly. In this paper, a polyester was synthesized from glycerin, with the addition of adipic acid in a molar ratio of 1: 1.5, with dilauryl tin catalyst, which was added in proportions of 1 to 3% obtained PUs from castor oil (Ricinus communis) and MDI (diphenyl methane diisocyanate). The materials were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance {sup 1}H NMR, thermogravimetry (TG) and derivative thermogravimetry (DTG). The reaction for obtaining the polyester was confirmed by FTIR, the absorption band between 1708-1730 cm{sup -1} and {sup 1}H NMR, in the region 1.4 to 1.8 ppm and 2.2 to 2.6 ppm. The thermal decomposition of polyester occurred with temperature above 300 ° C. PUs showed similar thermal stability. (author)

  13. The extensible alloscutal cuticle of the tick, Ixodes ricinus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Svend Olav; Roepstorff, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The proteins in the distensible alloscutal cuticle of the blood-feeding tick, Ixodes ricinus, have been characterized by electrophoresis and chromatography, two of the proteins were purified and their total amino acid sequence determined. They show sequence similarity to cuticular proteins from t...

  14. Rickettsiae in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Venclíková, Kristýna; Rudolf, Ivo; Mendel, Jan; Betášová, Lenka; Hubálek, Zdeněk

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 2 (2014), s. 135-138 ISSN 1877-959X Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Ixodes ricinus * Anaplasma phagocytophilum * Rickettsia spp. * Rickettsia helvetica * Rickettsia monacensis * Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.718, year: 2014

  15. Identification of Salp15 homologues in Ixodes ricinus ticks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovius, J. W. R.; Ramamoorthi, N.; van't Veer, C.; de Groot, K. A.; Nijhof, A. M.; Jongejan, F.; van Dam, A. P.; Fikrig, E.

    2007-01-01

    The 15-kDa Ixodes scapularis salivary gland protein Salp15 protects Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto from antibody-mediated killing and facilitates infection of the mammalian host. In addition, Salp 15 has been shown to inhibit T-cell activation. We determined whether Ixodes ricinus, the major

  16. Diversity of Babesia in Ixodes ricinus ticks in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welc-Falęciak, R; Bajer, A; Paziewska-Harris, A; Baumann-Popczyk, A; Siński, E

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were: (1) to estimate Babesia prevalence in the most common species of tick in Poland, Ixodes ricinus, in two recreational areas (Urwitałt in the Mazury Lake District and Bielański Forest in Warsaw), and (2) to evaluate the molecular diversity of Babesia isolates in questing I. ricinus in Poland. Questing ticks were collected from vegetation in forest areas in Urwitałt near Mikołajki and in Bielański Forest (Warsaw). Purified genomic DNA was used with specific primers to amplify a fragment of the Babesia spp. 18S rRNA gene. Tick-drag indices for I. ricinus were high in both study areas, reaching somewhat higher values in Urwitałt than in Bielański Forest. The overall prevalence of Babesia spp. in examined ticks was 1.6%. In Urwitałt, two strains of B. microti were identified using rRNA sequences: the enzootic Munich strain and an isolate close to the zoonotic Jena strain. The proportion of infections due to these two strains in questing ticks reversed over a six-year period. During 3 years of study in Bielański Forest, all Babesia isolates obtained from I. ricinus were identical to Babesia sp. EU1 (B. venatorum), previously recognized as an agent of human babesiosis. This study has confirmed the presence of enzoonotic and zoonotic Babesia species/strains in the abundant human-biting tick I. ricinus in recreational areas in Poland. It has also shown that the distribution of different genotypes has changed over time, however the reasons for these fluctuations still remain to be investigated.

  17. Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Myrtus Communis L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development of microbial resistance to antibiotics is a global concern. The present study was carried out to determine the composition and the antimicrobial potential of the essential oil of Myrtus communis L. against 13 pathogenic strains responsible of many infections. The results show that levels of MIC observed ...

  18. 40 CFR 721.8095 - Silylated polyurethane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Silylated polyurethane. 721.8095... Substances § 721.8095 Silylated polyurethane. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a silylated polyurethane (PMN P-95-1356) is...

  19. 40 CFR 721.8090 - Polyurethane polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polyurethane polymer. 721.8090 Section... Substances § 721.8090 Polyurethane polymer. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polyurethane polymer (P-94-47) is subject...

  20. Polyurethane Foams with Pyrimidine Rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kania Ewelina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Oligoetherols based on pyrimidine ring were obtained upon reaction of barbituric acid with glycidol and alkylene carbonates. These oligoetherols were then used to obtain polyurethane foams in the reaction of oligoetherols with isocyanates and water. The protocol of foam synthesis was optimized by the choice of proper kind of oligoetherol and synthetic composition. The thermal resistance was studied by dynamic and static methods with concomitant monitoring of compressive strength. The polyurethane foams have similar physical properties as the classic ones except their enhanced thermal resistance. They stand long-time heating even at 200°C. Moreover thermal exposition of foams results generally in increase of their compressive strength.

  1. Polyurethane - positioning aids in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alzen, G.; Boeck, E.G.; Thelen, M.; Kutzner, J.

    1985-01-01

    A simple and cheap method is described for the manufacturing of individual positioning aids made of foamed polyurethane. Some examples are given to demonstrate the applicability of these positioning aids for the irradiation of different body regions. The reproducibility of the radiation field in the head and neck area was investigated with and without positioning aid. It was proved that the field is adjusted more exactly when positioning aids are applied. The dosimetric investigations performed showed a negligible influence of foamed polyurethane on the radiation quality. So the positioning aids could be left within the radiation field when drawing the field borders. (orig.) [de

  2. Bioactive polyurethane implants with hydroxyapatite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozhnova, R.; Kebuladze, I.; Galatenko, N. [NAS Ukraine, Kiev (Ukraine). Dept. of Polymers of Medical Appointment

    2001-07-01

    Biologically active polyurethane compositions for plastic of bone defects that contain bioceramic - hydroxyapatite (HAP) and immunomodulator - levamisole (LEV) were designed. The influence of the biologically active fillers in structure polyurethane compositions on their physical and chemical properties in condition in vivo by method of Equilibrium Swelling, method of IR-spectroscopy, roentgen-structural analysis was studied. The introduce in structure of the biodegraded polymeric matrix of HAP is established to promote accumulation of the inorganic component of bone tissue in vivo which is being by basis of the bone formation in regenerating tissue. (orig.)

  3. Borreliae in Ixodes ricinus ticks feeding on humans

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubálek, Zdeněk; Halouzka, Jiří; Juřicová, Zina

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 3 (2004), s. 228-231 ISSN 0269-283X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/03/0726; GA AV ČR IBS6093007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : Borrelia burgdorferi * Ixodes ricinus * Lyme disease Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 1.405, year: 2004

  4. Longitudinal surveillance of the tick Ixodes ricinus for borreliae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubálek, Zdeněk; Halouzka, Jiří; Juřicová, Zina

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 1 (2003), s. 46-51 ISSN 0269-283X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/00/1204; GA AV ČR IBS6093007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : Borrelia burgdorferi * Ixodes ricinus * Lyme disease Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 1.040, year: 2003

  5. Ixodes ricinus defensins attack distantly-related pathogens

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tonk, M.; Cabezas-Cruz, A.; Valdés, James J.; Rego, Ryan O. M.; Grubhoffer, Libor; Estrada--Pena, A.; Vilcinskas, A.; Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Rahnamaeian, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 2 (2015), s. 358-365 ISSN 0145-305X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032; GA ČR GAP502/12/2409 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 278976 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Antimicrobial peptide * Defensin * Ixodes ricinus * Listeria monocytogenes * Staphylococcus aureus * Staphylococcus epidermidis * Escherichia coli * Pseudomonas aeruginosa * Fusarium spp Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.620, year: 2015

  6. Anaplasma phagocytophilum in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks from Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matei, Ioana Adriana; Kalmár, Zsuzsa; Magdaş, Cristian; Magdaş, Virginia; Toriay, Hortenzia; Dumitrache, Mirabela Oana; Ionică, Angela Monica; D'Amico, Gianluca; Sándor, Attila D; Mărcuţan, Daniel Ioan; Domşa, Cristian; Gherman, Călin Mircea; Mihalca, Andrei Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Granulocytic anaplasmosis is a common vector-borne disease of humans and animals with natural transmission cycle that involves tick vectors, among which Ixodes ricinus is the most important. The present paper reports the prevalence and geographical distribution of A. phagocytophilum in 10,438 questing Ixodes ricinus ticks collected at 113 locations from 40 counties of Romania. The unfed ticks were examined for the presence of A. phagocytophilum by PCR targeting a portion of ankA gene. The overall prevalence of infection was 3.42%, with local prevalences ranging between 0.29% and 22.45%, with an average prevalence of 5.39% in the infected localities. The infection with A. phagocytophilum was detected in 72 out of 113 localities and in 34 out of 40 counties. The highest prevalence was recorded in females followed by males and nymphs. The results and the distribution model have shown a large distribution of A. phagocytophilum, covering Romania's entire territory. This study is the first large scale survey of the presence of A. phagocytophilum in questing I. ricinus ticks from Romania. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Additive Manufacturing of Polyurethane Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunc, Vlastimil [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lindahl, John M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Minneci, Robert P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pyzik, Alek [Dow Chemical Company, Saginaw, MI (United States); Gorin, Craig [Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI (United States); Allen, Sharon [Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI (United States); Wilson, Keith [Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI (United States); Howard, Kevin [Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI (United States)

    2017-08-10

    ORNL worked with The DOW Chemical Company to validate the feasibility of 3D printing DOW’s polyurethane (PU) materials using ORNL’s equipment and know-how. This led to the development of the first directly-3D-printable PU material.

  8. Vaccination against Bm86 Homologues in Rabbits Does Not Impair Ixodes ricinus Feeding or Oviposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coumou, Jeroen; Wagemakers, Alex; Trentelman, Jos J.; Nijhof, Ard M.; Hovius, Joppe W.

    2014-01-01

    Human tick-borne diseases that are transmitted by Ixodes ricinus, such as Lyme borreliosis and tick borne encephalitis, are on the rise in Europe. Diminishing I. ricinus populations in nature can reduce tick exposure to humans, and one way to do so is by developing an anti-vector vaccine against

  9. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Phragmites communis [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Phragmites communis 名詞 一般 * * * *... ヨシ ヨシ ヨシ Thesaurus2015 200906077254295905 C LS06 UNKNOWN_2 Phragmites communis

  10. Sustained Release Drug Delivery Applications of Polyurethanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B. Lowinger

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Since their introduction over 50 years ago, polyurethanes have been applied to nearly every industry. This review describes applications of polyurethanes to the development of modified release drug delivery. Although drug delivery research leveraging polyurethanes has been ongoing for decades, there has been renewed and substantial interest in the field in recent years. The chemistry of polyurethanes and the mechanisms of drug release from sustained release dosage forms are briefly reviewed. Studies to assess the impact of intrinsic drug properties on release from polyurethane-based formulations are considered. The impact of hydrophilic water swelling polyurethanes on drug diffusivity and release rate is discussed. The role of pore formers in modulating drug release rate is examined. Finally, the value of assessing mechanical properties of the dosage form and approaches taken in the literature are described.

  11. High molecular weight polyurethanes and a polyurethane urea based on 1,4-butanediisocyanate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaans, CJ; de Groot, JH; Dekens, FG; Pennings, AJ

    New biomedical polyurethanes and a polyurethane urea based on epsilon-caprolactone and 1,4-butanediisocyanate have been developed. On degradation, only non-toxic products are produced. The polyurethane urea with poly(epsilon-caprolactone) soft segments and butanediisocyanate/butanediamine hard

  12. Sorption of heteropoly acids by polyurethane foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitreinko, S.G.; Goncharova, L.V.; Runov, V.K.; Zakharov, V.N.; Aslanova, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    Sorption of oxidized and reduced forms of molybdosilicic, molybdophosphoric and molybdovanadophosphoric acids by polyurethane foam based on ethers and esters is studied. On the basis of sorption dependence on solution pH, polyurethane foam type and spectral characteristics of sorbates the suggestion has been made that in the polyurethane foam phase there are two main types of sorbent-sorbate interaction: electrostatic (ion-ion) and with hydrogen bond formation: and it is impossible to determine the contribution of every interaction

  13. Adhesion aspects of polyurethane foam sandwich panels.

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, Simon L.

    2016-01-01

    Sandwich panels, polyurethane foam sandwiched between two sheets of steel, form the walls and roofs in the construction of buildings. ArcelorMittal is a manufacturer of the steel as well as these finished panels. For this project they combined with a supplier of the polyurethane foams, Huntsman Polyurethanes, to joint-fund a research project investigating the fundamental mechanisms of adhesion, as well as the causes of failures in the product which manifests primarily in two different ways...

  14. Structure and Properties of Polyurethanes. Part 1,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-03-23

    since the solidification of varnish coatings on basis it is polyurethane usually it occurs under conditions for contact wita moisture of air. Page...containing fluorine is polyurethane. In works (44, 84-86] is given the information about synthesis 11 DOC = 79011105 PAGE and special feature/peculiarities...of the phase transformations of the series/number of the fluorine -bedrlng aliphatic ones it is polyurethane. Page 87. In particular, were investigated

  15. Attachment of inorganic moieties onto aliphatic polyurethanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Ayres

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Polyurethanes have been used in a series of applications due basically to their versatility in terms of controlling the behavior by altering basically the type of reagents used. However, for more specific and advanced applications, such as in membranes, biomaterials and sensors, well-organized and defined chemical functionalities are necessary. In this work, inorganic functionalities were incorporated into aliphatic polyurethanes (PU having different macromolecular architectures. Polyurethanes were synthesized using a polyether diol and dicyclohexylmethane 4,4' diisocyanate (H12-MDI. Polyurethanes having carboxylic acid groups were also produced by introducing 2,2- bis (hydroxymethyl propionic acid in the polymerization process. Inorganic functionalities were inserted into polyurethanes by reacting isocyanate end capped chains with aminopropyltriethoxysilane followed by tetraethoxysilane. PU having carboxylic acid groups yielded transparent samples after the incorporation of inorganic entities, as an evidence of smaller and better dispersed inorganic entities in the polymer network. FTIR and swelling measurements showed that polyurethanes having carboxylic acid groups had inorganic domains less packed, condensed and cross-linked when compared to polyurethanes with no carboxylic acid groups. Results also suggested that the progressive incorporation of inorganic moieties in both types of polyurethanes occurred in regions previously activated with inorganic functionalities, instead of by the creation of new domains. The temperatures of thermal decomposition and glass transition were also shifted to higher temperatures when inorganic functionalities were incorporated into polyurethanes.

  16. Polyurethane adhesives in flat roofs

    OpenAIRE

    Bogárová Markéta; Stodůlka Jindřich; Šuhajda Karel

    2017-01-01

    It is necessary to stabilize individual layers of flat roofs, mainly because of wind suction. Apart from anchoring and surcharge, these layers can be secured by bonding. At present gluing is an indispensable and widely used stabilization method. On our market we can found many types of adhesives, most widely used are based on polyurethane. This paper focuses on problematic about stabilization thermal insulation from expanded polystyrene to vapor barrier from bitumen. One of the main issues is...

  17. Polyurethane adhesives in flat roofs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogárová Markéta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is necessary to stabilize individual layers of flat roofs, mainly because of wind suction. Apart from anchoring and surcharge, these layers can be secured by bonding. At present gluing is an indispensable and widely used stabilization method. On our market we can found many types of adhesives, most widely used are based on polyurethane. This paper focuses on problematic about stabilization thermal insulation from expanded polystyrene to vapor barrier from bitumen. One of the main issues is to calculate the exact amount of adhesive, which is required to guarantee the resistance against wind suction. In this problematic we can not find help neither in technical data sheets provided by the manufactures. Some of these data sheets contain at least information about amount of adhesive depending on location in roof plane and building height, but they do not specify the strength of such connection. It was therefore resorted to select several representatives polyurethane adhesives and their subsequent testing on specimens simulating the flat roof segment. The paper described the test methodology and results for two types of polyurethane adhesives.

  18. Infestation of mammals by Ixodes ricinus ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) in south-central Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tälleklint, L; Jaenson, T G

    1997-12-01

    Infestation by Ixodes ricinus ticks on rodents, hares and cervids was examined at Bogesund, 10 km north of Stockholm, in south-central Sweden during 1991-1994 and on varying hares (Lepus timidus) at Stora Karlsö and Gotska Sandön in the Baltic Sea during 1992-1993. At Bogesund, there were great differences between two consecutive years in the number of I. ricinus larvae infesting bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus). The seasonal pattern of infestation by I. ricinus larvae and nymphs on bank voles was unimodal in 1991, with peaks in June-July and bimodal in 1992, with peaks in June and August. Male bank voles, compared to females and older voles, compared to young voles, harboured greater numbers of I. ricinus ticks. Apodemus mice, compared to bank voles, harboured greater numbers of I. ricinus ticks. Ixodes ricinus larvae engorged on Apodemus mice were heavier than larvae engorged on bank voles and resulted in larger nymphs. However, there was no difference in the proportions of viable nymphs resulting from larvae engorged on mice or voles. The ranges in the numbers of I. ricinus ticks infesting individual hosts were 1-451 for rodents, 16-2374 for hares and 428-2072 for roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). These ranges of tick numbers are estimated to represent potential blood losses from individual hosts of approximately 0.2-65% for rodents, 0.2-13% for hares and 0.3-9.0% for roe deer. Within the populations of all host species examined, the distributions of all stages of I. ricinus were clumped, with most host individuals harbouring few ticks and only a few individuals harbouring many ticks. The data suggest that, even though a small proportion of tick hosts may be severely affected, the direct effects of feeding by I. ricinus are unlikely to play an important role on mammal population dynamics.

  19. Formulation, Preparation, and Characterization of Polyurethane Foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Moises L.

    2010-01-01

    Preparation of laboratory-scale polyurethane foams is described with formulations that are easy to implement in experiments for undergraduate students. Particular attention is given to formulation aspects that are based on the main chemical reactions occurring in polyurethane production. This allows students to develop alternative formulations to…

  20. Polyurethane doped with low-concentration erbium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciobanu, C.; Stoica, E.; Cascaval, C.N.; Rosu, D.; Rosu, L.; State, M.; Emandi, A.; Nemes, I.; Petrescu, F.

    2007-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Polyurethane (PU) with lactate structures inits conformation can be used as a biological and biodegradablepolymer. Polyurethane lactate (PUL) was dopedwith small quantities of an erbium (Er3þ) complex, whichhindered the N¼N group. 2,20-Dihydroxyazobenzene wasused as a ligand for the Er3þ

  1. A case report of truncus arteriosus communis and genetic counseling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Nourzad

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Truncus arteriosus communis (TAC is a rare heart disorder with the prevalence of approximately 1%, mostly in male newborns. In this disease, aorta and pulmonary artery have not been separated during fetus development and both originate jointly from left ventricle. In addition, various disorders are reported like ventricular septal defect (VSD, mitral and tricuspid valves defects, aortic septal defect (ASD, reduction of lung and lung vessels’ resistance, pulmonary hypertension, increase in heart rate, high perspiration, bad digestion, and tetralogy of Fallot. CASR REPORT: Parents of deceased patient were referred for genetic counseling after the death of third girl due to severe cardiac disorder. Cardiologist declared the disease in deceased girl as TAC based on findings along with VSD, ASD and hypoplastic aortic arch which resulted to death in the first day of birth. CONCLUSION: There was no chromosomal disorder in chromosome analysis of patient’ skin. Parents were interested to have another child, so they were referred to university's Genetic Counseling Center to become aware of their next child’s condition. This disorder is genetically heterogeneous and multifactorial and because all external factors are not recognized, the accurate estimation of risk is not possible and the probability of risk for the next child is about 10% to 20%.   Keywords: Heart Disorder, Truncus Arteriosus Communis, Genetic Counseling 

  2. Ixodes ticks belonging to the Ixodes ricinus complex encode a family of anticomplement proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daix, V; Schroeder, H; Praet, N; Georgin, J-P; Chiappino, I; Gillet, L; de Fays, K; Decrem, Y; Leboulle, G; Godfroid, E; Bollen, A; Pastoret, P-P; Gern, L; Sharp, P M; Vanderplasschen, A

    2007-04-01

    The alternative pathway of complement is an important innate defence against pathogens including ticks. This component of the immune system has selected for pathogens that have evolved countermeasures. Recently, a salivary protein able to inhibit the alternative pathway was cloned from the American tick Ixodes scapularis (Valenzuela et al., 2000; J. Biol. Chem. 275, 18717-18723). Here, we isolated two different sequences, similar to Isac, from the transcriptome of I. ricinus salivary glands. Expression of these sequences revealed that they both encode secreted proteins able to inhibit the complement alternative pathway. These proteins, called I. ricinus anticomplement (IRAC) protein I and II, are coexpressed constitutively in I. ricinus salivary glands and are upregulated during blood feeding. Also, we demonstrated that they are the products of different genes and not of alleles of the same locus. Finally, phylogenetic analyses demonstrate that ticks belonging to the Ixodes ricinus complex encode a family of relatively small anticomplement molecules undergoing diversification by positive Darwinian selection.

  3. Experimental in vitro transmission of Babesia sp. (EU1) by Ixodes ricinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Sarah; Brisseau, Nadine; Hermouet, Axelle; Jouglin, Maggy; Chauvin, Alain

    2009-01-01

    Babesia sp. (EU1), first characterized in 2003, has been implicated in human cases of babesiosis in Italy, Austria and Germany. It has been identified in roe deer and in its suspected tick vector, Ixodes ricinus, in several European countries. The aim of the present study was to validate the competence of I. ricinus as a vector of Babesia sp. (EU1) via experimental infections. For this purpose, a parasite strain isolated from roe deer was cloned in sheep erythrocytes. After experimental infections, parasite DNA was successfully amplified by PCR in both eggs and larvae originating from infected I. ricinus females and in the salivary glands of females exposed to Babesia sp. (EU1) as nymphs. We also demonstrate that infected females were able to transmit parasite DNA during a new blood meal. Together with previous epidemiological studies, these results validate I. ricinus as a competent vector for Babesia sp. (EU1).

  4. Polyurethane membranes for surgical gown applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukpabi, Pauline Ozoemena

    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) recently issued a directive requiring all employers to supply personnel protective equipment to employees who are at risk of exposure to blood or other potentially infectious body fluids. For the healthcare worker, a wide variety of surgical gowns is available commercially but there are concerns over their barrier effectiveness and/or wearer comfort. To successfully create a barrier fabric which combines resistance to fluid penetration with comfort, a complete understanding of the relationship between membrane structure and functional properties is required. In this study, we investigated the surface properties of hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity in polyurethane membranes intended for use in surgical gowns. The polyurethane membranes were grafted with side chains of varying lengths, polyethylene glycol (PEG) being used for the hydrophilic modifications and perfluoroalkyl compounds (a monofunctional acid and a difunctional amino alcohol) for the hydrophobic modifications. The hydrophilic treatment was intended to improve the comfort properties of monolithic membranes without adversely affecting their barrier properties. The hydrophobic treatment, on the other hand, was intended to improve the fluid repellency and hence barrier properties of microporous membranes without adversely affecting their comfort properties. Reflection infrared spectroscopy showed that fluorine was successfully grafted onto the polyurethane backbone during the hydrophobic modification, but was not sensitive enough to detect PEG grafting in leached polyethylene glycol-treated polyurethanes. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed that the perfluoroalkylated polyurethanes contained up to 40% fluorine on their surfaces and the PEG-treated polyurethanes showed an increase in their C-O content over the unmodified polyurethane. Scanning electron microscopy not only showed that perfluoroalkylation yielded polyurethane membranes with very

  5. Neutron gauging to detect voids in polyurethane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, F.Y.; Alger, D.M.; Brugger, R.M.

    1978-01-01

    Thermal-neutron radiography and fast-neutron gauging measurements were made to evaluate the feasibility of detecting voids in a polyurethane block placed between steel plates. This sandwich of polyurethane and steel simulates the walls of a canister being designed to hold explosive devices. The polyurethane would act as a shock absorber in the canister. A large fabrication cost saving would result by casting the polyurethane, but a nondestructive testing (NDT) method is needed to determine the uniformity of the polyurethane fill. The radiography measurements used a beam of thermal neutrons, while the gauging used filtered beams of 24 keV and fission spectrum neutrons. For the 83-mm-thick polyurethane and 130-mm-thick steel matrix, the thermal-neutron radiography was able to detect only those voids equal to about one-half the polyurethane thickness. The gauging detected voids in the path of the neutron beam of a few millimetres thickness in seconds to minutes. The gauging is feasible as an NDT method for the canister application

  6. Effect of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) aqueous extracts on the performance of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adomako, J.; Kwoseh, C. K.

    2013-01-01

    The increased concern for environmental and health hazards have called for a reduction in the use of synthetic nematicides for nematode control. Experiments were, therefore, conducted to ascertain the nematicidal potential of castor bean's crude extract and its five lower concentrations with water as control. In the in vitro studies, crude castor bean aqueous extract and 10, 20, 30 and 40% different concentrations with 100 root-knot nematode eggs or juveniles in separate Petri dishes showed that all the different concentrations had toxic effects on eggs and juveniles of root-knot nematode. Egg hatch inhibition and juvenile mortality increased with increased concentration of the extracts. With an increase in exposure time, juvenile mortality increased. In potted plant studies, crude castor bean aqueous extracts and its lower concentrations of 20, 40 and 60% caused significant improvement in plant growth measures such as height and fresh shoot weight over the water blank control. The crude castor bean extract was nematotoxic to root -knot nematodes in vitro and in potted-tomato plants, but this was not demonstrated in field studies. Further work needs to be done before a firm recommendation can be made. (au)

  7. Characterisation of Castor (Ricinus communis L. Seed Quality Using Fourier Transform Near-Infrared Spectroscopy in Combination with Multivariate Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Gislum

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The potential of single-seed near-infrared (NIR spectroscopy was investigated to characterise castor seeds based on their seed viability and seed oil content. Distinct differences between viable and non-viable seeds were observed in the principal component analysis (PCA analysis. Furthermore, the PCA compared heavy and medium seeds with light seeds, which were comparable to the clusters of viable and non-viable seeds, respectively. Prediction accuracies of 98.7% and 99.6% were obtained with the partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA model with a classification error rate of 0.8% and 1.1% for the training set and test set, respectively. The NIR spectral regions having chemical information from the oil in castor seeds were found to be vital for determination of seed viability.

  8. Evaluación de microorganismos promotores de crecimiento vegetal en tomate (solanum lycopersicum) variedad Santa Clara, aislados de residuos lignocelulósicos de higerilla (Ricinus communis)

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez, Christian Alonso

    2013-01-01

    Tesis (Especialista en Microbiología Industrial). Universidad Católica de Manizales, 2013. En las últimas décadas ha surgido una tendencia hacia la producción limpia, cuyo fin es reducir el uso de insumos químicos para la fertilización y control de fitopatógenos que producen pérdidas agronómicas no solo en cultivos anuales sino también en cultivos perennes. Estos agroquímicos están implicados en la alteración de la microbiota natural del suelo, de manera que la reducen considerablemente y ...

  9. EFEITO DA CALAGEM E ADUBAÇÃO POTÁSSICA NO CRESCIMENTO E NUTRIÇÃO DA CULTURA DA MAMONA (Ricinus communis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Sérgio Tiritan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The castor bean is an oilseed crop of outstanding importance in Brazil and worldwide. Besides the wide application in chemical industry, is important due to its tolerance to drought, making it a viable crop for the semi-arid region of Brazil, where there are few agricultural alternatives. However, this culture is not unique to semi-arid region and is also planted with excellent results in various regions of the country. The study aimed to evaluate the effects of liming and potassium fertilization on the crop of castor bean. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse in a randomized complete block randomized in a factorial 3 x 2, where the first factor consisted of potassium (0, 30 and 60 kg ha-1 and in the presence or absence lime to raise the base saturation to 60%. It was found that liming in combination with an intermediate dose of K2O (30 kg ha-1 elevates the production of dry mass of the area, however not change the concentration nutrients in the castor bean.

  10. COMPETITIVIDAD DE LA HIGUERILLA (Ricinus communis) PARA BIOCOMBUSTIBLE EN RELACIÓN A LOS CULTIVOS ACTUALES EN EL EDO. DE OAXACA, MÉXICO

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez Hernandez, Rafael; Zamarripa Colmenero, Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    Before the current problem of global warming by high emissions of CO to the atmosphere, as 2 well as the scarcity and cost of fossil energy such as oil, coal and gas, has become important search and use of alternate sources of fuel. The main plant species that can provide biofuels are cane sugar, sorghum, corn, among others for ethanol; soybean, sunflower and groundnut, among others for biodiesel; However the use of food grains has caused higher prices of food, so it is required to seek alter...

  11. Establishment of the U.S. castor (Ricinus communis L.) core collection using seed chemical composition analysis and genotyping with EST-SSR markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural genetic variation exists in the plant germplasm collections. Normally the germplasm collection for a specific species encompasses many accessions. Due to its large number of accessions, the entire collection is hard to handle and can’t be easily utilized. To facilitate the end-users (such as...

  12. Genetic diversity and population structure of castor (Ricinus communis L.) germplasm within the U.S. collection assessed with EST-SSR markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castor is an important oilseed crop and although its oil is inedible, it has multiple industrial and pharmaceutical applications. The entire U.S. castor germplasm collection was previously screened for oil content and fatty acid composition, but its genetic diversity and population structure has not...

  13. Physicochemical and phytochemical standardization of berries of Myrtus communis Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabiha Sumbul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Herbal medicines are gaining more and more attention all over the world due to their long historical clinical practice and less side effects. The major limitation with herbal medicines is that the lack of standardization technique. Initially, the crude drugs were identified by comparison only with the standard description available. Materials and Methods: Standardization of drugs means confirmation of its identity and determination of its quality and purity. The quality control standards of various medicinal plants, used in indigenous system of medicine, are significant nowadays in view of commercialization of formulations based on medicinal plants. The quality of herbal drugs is the sum of all factors, which contribute directly or indirectly to the safety, effectiveness, and acceptability of the product. Lack of quality control can affect the efficacy and safety of drugs that may lead to health problems in the consumers. Standardization of drugs is needed to overcome the problems of adulteration and is most developing field of research now. Therefore, there is an urgent need of standardized drugs having consistent quality. Results: The drug showed the presence of phyto-chemical constituents. Powdered drug was treated with different reagents and examined under UV light. Different reagents showed different colors of the drug at 2 wavelengths. The percentage of physiological active compounds viz. total phenolics, tannins, volatile oil, fixed oil, and alkaloids were also observed. Conclusion: Myrtus communis L. (Family: Myrtaceae is one of the important drug being used in Unani system of medicine for various therapeutic purposes. In this study, an attempt has been made to study berries of M. communis from physico-chemical and phytochemical standardization point of view.

  14. Angiographic differentiation of the forms of truncus arteriosis communis and their prognostic significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumacher, G.; Schreiber, R.; Lorenz, H.P.; Sebening, W.; Meisner, H.; Sebening, F.; Buehlmeyer, K.; Deutsches Herzzentrum Muenchen des Freistaates Bayern

    1986-01-01

    To decisively improve the life expectancy of children having a truncus arteriosus communis, early surgical intervention during the first year is necessary. As a prerequisite for a successful intervention, a precise diagnosis must be made including angiographic differentiation of the form of the truncus arteriosus communis and possible associated cardiovascular malformations must be established; these constitute important operation hazards and can determine the ultimate success of the intervention. (orig.) [de

  15. Relevance of Allergenic Sensitization to Cynodon dactylon and Phragmites communis: Cross-reactivity With Pooideae Grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Matas, M A; Moya, R; Cardona, V; Valero, A; Gaig, P; Malet, A; Viñas, M; García-Moral, A; Labrador, M; Alcoceba, E; Ibero, M; Carnés, J

    The homologous group of sweet grasses belongs to the Pooideae subfamily, but grass pollen species from other subfamilies can also cause allergy, such as Cynodon dactylon (Chloridoideae) and Phragmites communis (Arundinoideae). C dactylon and P communis have not been included in the sweet grasses homologous group because of their low cross-reactivity with other grasses. The aims of this study were to investigate the profile of sensitization to C dactylon and P communis in patients sensitized to grasses and to analyze cross-reactivity between these 2 species and temperate grasses. Patients were skin prick tested with a grass mixture (GM). Specific IgE to GM, C dactylon, P communis, Cyn d 1, and Phl p 1 was measured by ImmunoCAP. A pool of sera was used for the immunoblot assays. Cross-reactivity was studied by ELISA and immunoblot inhibition. Thirty patients had sIgE to GM. Twenty-four (80%) had positive results for C dactylon, 27 (90%) for P communis, 22 (73.3%) for nCyn d 1, and 92.9% for rPhl p 1. Bands were detected in the 3 extracts by immunoblot. Inhibition of GM was not observed with C dactylon or P communis by immunoblot or ELISA inhibition. When C dactylon or P communis were used in the solid phase, GM produced almost complete inhibition. Eighty percent of patients sensitized to grasses were also sensitized to C dactylon and 90% were sensitized to P communis. Sensitization to these species seems to be induced by allergens different to those in sweet grasses.

  16. Flame Retardants Used in Flexible Polyurethane Foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    The partnership project on flame retardants in furniture seeks to update the health and environmental profiles of flame-retardant chemicals that meet fire safety standards for upholstered consumer products with polyurethane foam

  17. Genetic structure and diversity in Juniperus communis populations in Saxony, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reim Stefanie

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, land use changes led to a rapid decline and fragmentation of J. communis populations in Germany. Population isolation may lead to a restricted gene flow and, further, to negative effects on genetic variation. In this study, genetic diversity and population structure in seven fragmented J. communis populations in Saxony, Germany, were investigated using nuclear microsatellites (nSSR and chloroplast single nucleotide polymorphism (cpSNP. In all Saxony J. communis populations, a high genetic diversity was determined but no population differentiation could be detected whatever method was applied (Bayesian cluster analysis, F-statistics, AMOVA. The same was true for three J. communis out-group samples originating from Italy, Slovakia and Norway, which also showed high genetic diversity and low genetic differences regarding other J. communis populations. Low genetic differentiation among the J. communis populations ascertained with nuclear and chloroplast markers indicated high levels of gene flow by pollen and also by seeds between the sampled locations. Low genetic differentiation may also provide an indicator of Juniper survival during the last glacial maximum (LGM in Europe. The results of this study serve as a basis for the implementation of appropriate conservation measures in Saxony.

  18. POLYURETHANE COMPOSITES AS DRUG CARRIERS:: RELEASE PATTERNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Grigoreva

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable polyurethanes attract interest of those developing composite materials for biomedical applications. One of their features is their ability to serve as carriers, or matrixes, for medicines and other bioactive compounds to produce a therapeutic effect in body through targeted and/or prolonged delivery of these compounds in the process of their controlled release from matrix. The review presents polyurethane composites as matrices for a number of drugs. The relation between structure of the composites and their degradability both in vitro and in vivo and the dependence of drug release kinetics on physicochemical properties of polyurethane matrix are highlighted. The release of drugs (cefazolin, naltrexone and piroxicam from the composites based on cross-linked polyurethanes (synthesized from laprols, Mw between 1,500 and 2,000 Da and toluylene diisocyanate demonstrated more or less the same pattern (about 10 days in vitro and three to five days in vivo. In contrast, the composites with dioxydine based on a linear polyurethanes (synthesized from oligotetramethilene glycol, Mw 1,000 Da, diphenylmethane-4,4’-diisocyanate and 1,4-butanediol retained their antimicrobial activity at least 30 days. They also showed a significantly higher breaking strength as compared to that of the composites based on cross-linked polyurethanes.

  19. Competitive interactions between a native spider (Frontinella communis, Araneae: Linyphiidae) and an invasive spider (Linyphia triangularis, Araneae: Linyphiidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarski, Julie V.; Ginsberg, Howard S.; Jakob, Elizabeth M.

    2010-01-01

    There are numerous reports of spiders that have become established outside of their native ranges, but few studies examine their impact on native spiders. We examined the effect of the European hammock spider Linyphia triangularis (Araneae, Linyphiidae) on the native bowl-and-doily spider Frontinella communis (Araneae, Linyphiidae) in Acadia National Park, Maine, USA. First, we added L. triangularis to established plots of F. communis. Significantly more F. communis abandoned their webs when L. triangularis were added compared to control plots. Second, we tested whether F. communis were deterred from building webs in areas where L. triangularis was established. Significantly fewer F. communis built webs on plots with L. triangularis than on control plots. In both experiments, L. triangularis sometimes took over webs of F. communis or incorporated F. communis webs into their own webs, but F. communisnever took over or incorporated L. triangularis webs. Competition between L. triangularis and F. communis for both webs and web sites may contribute to the decline of F. communis.

  20. 40 CFR 721.8082 - Polyester polyurethane acrylate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polyester polyurethane acrylate. 721... Substances § 721.8082 Polyester polyurethane acrylate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as polyester polyurethane acrylate...

  1. 40 CFR 721.9959 - Polyurethane polymer (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polyurethane polymer (generic). 721... Substances § 721.9959 Polyurethane polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a polyurethane polymer (PMN P-01...

  2. Antiinflammatory flavonoids from Artocarpus heterophyllus and Artocarpus communis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Bai-Luh; Weng, Jing-Ru; Chiu, Pao-Hui; Hung, Chi-Feng; Wang, Jih-Pyang; Lin, Chun-Nan

    2005-05-18

    The antiinflammatory activities of the isolated flavonoids, including cycloartomunin (1), cyclomorusin (2), dihydrocycloartomunin (3), dihydroisocycloartomunin (4), cudraflavone A (5), cyclocommunin (6), and artomunoxanthone (7), and cycloheterohyllin (8), artonins A (9) and B (10), artocarpanone (11), artocarpanone A (12), and heteroflavanones A (13), B (14), and C (15) from Artocarpus communis and A. heterophyllus, were assessed in vitro by determining their inhibitory effects on the chemical mediators released from mast cells, neutrophils, and macrophages. Compound 4 significantly inhibited the release of beta-glucuronidase and histamine from rat peritoneal mast cells stimulated with P-methoxy-N-methylphenethylamine (compound 48/80). Compound 11 significantly inhibited the release of lysozyme from rat neutrophils stimulated with formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP). Compounds 8, 10, and 11 significantly inhibited superoxide anion formation in fMLP-stimulated rat neutrophils while compounds 2, 3, 5, and 6 evoked the stimulation of superoxide anion generation. Compound 11 exhibited significant inhibitory effect on NO production and iNOS protein expression in RAW 264.7 cells. The potent inhibitory effect of compound 11 on NO production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages, probably through the suppression of iNOS protein expression.

  3. Phenolic contents of myrtle (Myrtus communis L.) fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Arzu BAYIR YEĞİN; Halil İbrahim UZUN

    2015-01-01

    Mersin (Myrtus communis L.) Akdeniz Bölgesinin önemli bir doğal bitkisidir. Meyveleri siyah ve beyaz renklidir. Mersin bitkisi hakkında yapılan çalışmaların çoğu özellikle yapraklarında bulunan uçucu yağların tespiti ile ilgili iken, son yıllarda sağlık üzerine etkileri nedeniyle mersinin içerdiği fenolik bileşikler ve bunların etkileri üzerine çalışmalar yoğunlaşmıştır. Çalışmanın amacı, mersin meyvelerinin içerdiği fenolik bileşik miktarlarını ve bunların genotiplere göre değişimini saptama...

  4. An Ixodes ricinus Tick Salivary Lectin Pathway Inhibitor Protects Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from Human Complement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagemakers, Alex; Coumou, Jeroen; Schuijt, Tim J; Oei, Anneke; Nijhof, Ard M; van 't Veer, Cornelis; van der Poll, Tom; Bins, Adriaan D; Hovius, Joppe W R

    2016-04-01

    We previously identified tick salivary lectin pathway inhibitor (TSLPI) in Ixodes scapularis, a vector for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) in North America. TSLPI is a salivary protein facilitating B. burgdorferi s.s. transmission and acquisition by inhibiting the host lectin complement pathway through interference with mannose binding lectin (MBL) activity. Since Ixodes ricinus is the predominant vector for Lyme borreliosis in Europe and transmits several complement sensitive B. burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) strains, we aimed to identify, describe, and characterize the I. ricinus ortholog of TSLPI. We performed (q)PCRs on I. ricinus salivary gland cDNA to identify a TSLPI ortholog. Next, we generated recombinant (r)TSLPI in a Drosophila expression system and examined inhibition of the MBL complement pathway and complement-mediated killing of B. burgdorferi s.l. in vitro. We identified a TSLPI ortholog in I. ricinus salivary glands with 93% homology at the RNA and 89% at the protein level compared to I. scapularis TSLPI, which was upregulated during tick feeding. In silico analysis revealed that TSLPI appears to be part of a larger family of Ixodes salivary proteins among which I. persulcatus basic tail salivary proteins and I. scapularis TSLPI and Salp14. I. ricinus rTSLPI inhibited the MBL complement pathway and protected B. burgdorferi s.s. and Borrelia garinii from complement-mediated killing. We have identified a TSLPI ortholog, which protects B. burgdorferi s.l. from complement-mediated killing in I. ricinus, the major vector for tick-borne diseases in Europe.

  5. Polyurethane Production from Waste Bale Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim BİLİCİ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the methods of eliminating the pollution from wastes of the materials produced as much as the production methods are important. This requires efficiently use of sources economical and ecologically. Polyester based polymers, which is one of the most important consumed plastic materials in the world, have lots of number of recycling methods. Basically it is called chemical and physical recycling. Chemical recycle methods include glycolysis, aminolysis, methanolysis, hydrolysis and etc.. In this study aromatic polyester polyols produced from bale fiber wastes via glycolysis method. Zinc Acetate used as a catalysts and diethylene glycol used for the glycolysis reaction and moiety of glycol investigated as an experimental parameter. Polyurethane material produced via obtained polyol and TDI (Toluene di Isocyanate reaction. Obtained polyurethane material investigated via FTIR and TGA and compared with the commercial polyurethane. As a result, it has been decided that glycolysis is usable and applicable method for the waste bale fibers.

  6. Study of polyurethanes ageing offshore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, Fabio G.; Sheldrake, Terry; Clevelario, Judimar; Pires, Fabio [Wellstream International, Panama City, FL (United States); Coutinho, Fernanda M.B. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The oil industry is one of the sectors with the highest number of production systems employing high technology. Brazil is worldwide renowned as a leader in oil and gas extraction in deep and ultra deep water. Inside the production chain, a great part the oil and gas produced is conveyed through flexible pipelines that connect the production wells to the platforms. There are two segments of these lines that receive different names according to their application characteristics. When the pipes are laid on the seabed in a static service condition, are called Flow lines and when they raise from the seabed to the platform in a dynamic service condition, are called Risers. The pipes designed for dynamic applications are equipped with Bend Stiffeners, components with conical form and in general with urethane basis, which has the function of providing a smooth stiffness transition between the flexible structure of the pipes and an extremely rigid structure, the platform, not allowing that this component infringes their minimum operation Bend Radius. According to Caire, the proper compression of curvature stiffeners and the material used in its manufacture is becoming increasingly important in industry due to its growing use and the occurrence of failures that have been recorded in recent years. This paper discusses the changes in the mechanical properties of polyurethanes by the hydrolysis during accelerated ageing, reaction of water with functional groups of the polymer chain, as well as mass variation, considering that these materials are designed for a service life exceeding twenty years for operation in water. (author)

  7. Hypnotic effect of the essential oil from the leaves of Myrtus communis on mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birhanie MW

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Muluken Walle Birhanie,1 Bizuayehu Walle,1 Kidist Rebba2 1Department of Physiology, 2Department of Nursing, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia Background: Myrtus communis has been suggested as a sleep aid in unconventional medicine. Moreover, previous studies have also indicated its sedative- and hypnotic-like activity. In this study, the hypnotic effect of M. communis was investigated.Methods: Essential oil (EO of M. communis (600, 800, and 1,000 mg/kg was given orally to Swiss albino mice of both sex, and the hypnotic effect was evaluated. In addition, the EO of M. communis (500, 600, 800, and 1,000 mg/kg was administered orally to Swiss albino mice of both sex 60 minutes prior to pentobarbital injection (50 mg/kg. Latency to sleep and sleep duration were recorded. The effect of the EO on motor coordination and muscle relaxation was evaluated using chimney and traction tests, 60 and 90 minutes after administration of the respective doses of the EO, respectively.Results: There was no induction of hypnosis as the presence of the righting reflex was intact. However the EO prolonged pentobarbital-induced sleeping time and there was also 50% negative response on the chimney and traction test in a dose dependent manner.Conclusion: The EO of M. communis did not produce a hypnotic effect, but it potentiated a hypnotic effect with significant central nervous system depressant activity. Keywords: Myrtus communis, hypnotic, motor coordination, muscle relaxation, essential oil

  8. Different methods evaluation of antioxidant properties of Myrtus communis extract and its fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Moein

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Myrtus communis L. is a plant traditionally used as an antiseptic and disinfectant drug. In this research, the antioxidant activity of Myrtus communis was assayed by evaluating radical scavenging activity, reducing power, FRAP method and determination of phenolic compounds. The methanolic extract of leaves of Myrtus communis was fractionated by using petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and buthanol. In reducing power, different concentrations of samples were mixed with phosphate buffer, ferrocyanate, TCA and ferric chloride. Different concentrations of samples were mixed with DPPH and after 30 min the absorbances were measured. For determination of phenolic content, 500 μl of sample was mixed with Folin-Ciocalteu and sodium carbonate. For determination of flavonoids, 500 μl of sample was mixed with 2 ml of distilled water, NaNO2 and NaOH. In reducing power method, chloroform fraction showed the highest reducing capacity. In the DPPH radical scavenging method, the highest antioxidant capacity was found in buthanol fraction (IC50=84.42±1.8 μg/ml. In FRAP method, the highest antioxidant capacity was found in crude extract (5.4±0.3 mg/ml and buthanol fractions (5.51±0.4 mg/ml, respectively. The highest amount of phenolic compounds was detected in ethyl acetate fraction of Myrtus communis (17.5±0.001 μg/g. The highest amount of flavonoids was found in crude extract of Myrtus communis (171.9±7.3 μg/ml. Overall, we can suggest that the leaves of Myrtus communis can be used as antioxidant and as a food additives to avoid oxidative degradation of foods.

  9. Structure of the fruit peel of Pyrus communis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Konarska

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The peel of fruits of Pyrus communisL. cv. ‘Klapsa’,harvested at commercial maturity in September 2011, was examined using bright-field and fluorescence microscopy as well as scanning electron and transmission microscopy. The fruit peel was found to be composed of an epidermis covered by a cuticle and several layers of hypodermis. SEM observations showed that in the cuticle there were numerous microcracks of various widths, running in different directions, as well as numerous oval- or star-shaped lenticels with a diameter of approximately 130-230 µm. The microcracks ran along the cell walls and the appearance of the widest ones resembled a zipped-up zip. Crystalline wax platelets with horizontal and, more rarely, vertical orientation in relation to the surface of the organ were visible on the surface of the cuticle. The largest number of vertical wax platelets was found inside the microcracks, whereas inside the lenticels mycelium hyphae and/or fungal spores were sometimes observed. In the cross-section through the surface layer covering the fruit of Pyrus, the cells of the single- and sometimes two-layered epidermis were found to have different shapes and sizes and to be covered with a cuticular epithelium characterized by a varying structure and a thickness of about 10 µm. The cuticle covered not only the external tangential walls, but also penetrated through the anticlinal walls significantly increasing their thickness and reducing the inner diameter of the cells. TEM observations showed that inside the epidermal cells, which exhibited varying degrees of vacuolation, there was parietal cytoplasm in which cell nuclei, plastids with starch grains, and numerous mitochondria could be observed. In the hypodermis, which was composed of 3 up to 5 layers of tangential collenchyma cells with thickened tangential walls, organelles were found similar to those described in the epidermis, whereas in the vacuoles there were visible fibrous deposits

  10. Ultrastructure and lectin characterization of granular salivary cells from Ixodes ricinus females

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vancová, Marie; Zacharovová, Klára; Grubhoffer, Libor; Nebesářová, Jana

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 92, č. 3 (2006), s. 431-440 ISSN 0022-3395 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/03/1323 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Ixodes ricinus * salivary glands * lectin labeling Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.300, year: 2006

  11. Differential expression of Ixodes ricinus tick genes induced by blood feeding or Borrelia burgdorferi infection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rudenko, Natalia; Golovchenko, Maryna; Edwards, M. J.; Grubhoffer, Libor

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 1 (2005), s. 36-41 ISSN 0022-2585 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6022306 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Ixodes ricinus * Borrelia burgdorferi * subtractive hybridization Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.489, year: 2005

  12. Occurrence of multiple infections with different Borrelia burgdorferi genospecies in Danish Ixodes ricinus nymphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jean Vennestrøm; Egholm, H.; Mikkelsen, Per Jensen

    2008-01-01

    The pathogen Borrelia burgdorferi causes Lyme Borreliosis in human and animals world-wide. In Europe the pathogen is transmitted to the host by the vector Ixodes ricinus. The nymph is the primary instar for transmission to humans. We here study the infection rate of five Borrelia genospecies: B...

  13. The prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks in SW Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiewra, Dorota; Zaleśny, Grzegorz; Czułowska, Aleksandra

    2014-01-01

    Ticks constitute important vectors of human and animal pathogens. Besides the Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis, other pathogens such as Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp., and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, are of increasing public health interest. In Poland, as in other European countries, Ixodes ricinus, the most prevalent tick species responsible for the majority of tick bites in humans, is the main vector of A. phagocytophilum. The aim of the study was to estimate the infection level of I. ricinus with A. phagocytophilum in selected districts, not previously surveyed for the presence of this agent. Sampling of questing ticks was performed in 12 forested sites, located in four districts (Legnica, Milicz, Lubań, and Oława) in SW Poland. Altogether, 792 ticks (151 females, 101 males, and 540 nymphs) representing I. ricinus were checked for the presence of A. phagocytophilum. The average infection level was 4.3%, with higher rate reported for adult ticks. The highest percentage of infected adults was observed in Milicz (17.4%) and the lowest in Oława (6.8%). The abundance of questing I. ricinus in all examined sites as well as the infection with A. phagocytophilum indicate for the first time the risk for HGA transmission in SW Poland.

  14. Ixodes ricinus tick saliva modulates tick-borne encephalitis virus infection of dendritic cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fialová, Anna; Cimburek, Zdeněk; Iezzi, G.; Kopecký, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 7 (2010), s. 580-585 ISSN 1286-4579 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600960811 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Tick-borne encephalitis virus * Dendritic cell * Tick saliva * Ixodes ricinus Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.726, year: 2010

  15. Babesia sp. EU1 from Roe Deer and Transmission within Ixodes ricinus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouglin, Maggy; L’Hostis, Monique; Chauvin, Alain

    2007-01-01

    We report in vitro culture of zoonotic Babesia sp. EU1 from blood samples of roe deer in France. This study provides evidence of transovarial and transstadial transmission of the parasite within Ixodes ricinus, which suggests that this tick could be a vector and reservoir of EU1. PMID:17953093

  16. The ecology of Lyme borreliosis risk : interactions between lxodes ricinus, rodents and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijvendijk, van Gilian

    2016-01-01

    The sheep tick (Ixodes ricinus) is widespread throughout Europe and can transmit Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), which can cause Lyme borreliosis and B. miyamotoi, the agent of Borrelia miyamotoi disease in humans.

  17. Human pathogenic borreliae in Ixodes ricinus ticks in natural and urban ecosystem (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Venclíková, Kristýna; Betášová, Lenka; Šikutová, Silvie; Jedličková, Petra; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Rudolf, Ivo

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 4 (2014), s. 717-720 ISSN 1230-2821 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 261504 - EDENEXT Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Ixodes ricinus * Borrelia burgdorgeri s.l. * genomic species * ixodid ticks Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.905, year: 2014

  18. First detection of Borrelia miyamotoi in Ixodes ricinus ticks from northern Italy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ravagnan, Silvia; Tomassone, Laura; Montarsi, Fabrizio; Krawczyk, Aleksandra Iwona; Mastrorilli, Eleonora; Sprong, Hein; Milani, Adelaide; Rossi, Luca; Capelli, Gioia

    2018-01-01

    Borrelia miyamotoi is a spirochete transmitted by several ixodid tick species. It causes a relapsing fever in humans and is currently considered as an emerging pathogen. In Europe, B. miyamotoi seems to occur at low prevalence in Ixodes ricinus ticks but has a wide distribution. Here we report the

  19. Behavioural responses of Ixodes ricinus nymphs to carbon dioxide and rodent odour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijvendijk, van G.; Gort, G.; Sprong, H.; Takken, W.

    2017-01-01

    Many haematophagous ectoparasites use carbon dioxide (CO2) and host odour to detect and locate their hosts. The tick Ixodes ricinus (Linnaeus) (Ixodida: Ixodidae) walks only small distances and quests in vegetation until it encounters a host. The differential effects of CO2 and host odour on the

  20. Comparison of environmentally friendly, selective polyurethane catalysts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Strachota, Adam; Strachotová, Beata; Špírková, Milena

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 6 (2008), s. 566-570 ISSN 1042-6914 R&D Projects: GA MPO FT-TA3/034 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : amine catalyst * foam * gelation * kinetics * polyurethane Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.706, year: 2008

  1. Flexible optical fiber sensor based on polyurethane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaysir, Md Rejvi; Stefani, Alessio; Lwin, Richard

    Polyurethane (PU) based hollow core fibers are investigated as optical sensors. The flexibility of PU fibers makes it suitable for sensing mechanical perturbations. We fabricated a PU fiber using the fiber drawing method, characterized the fiber and experimentally demonstrated a simple way...... to measure deformation, in the form of applied pressure....

  2. The reactive extrusion of thermoplastic polyurethane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, Vincent Wilhelmus Andreas

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to increase the understanding of the reactive extrusion of thermoplastic polyurethane. Overall, several issues were identified: • Using a relative simple extrusion model, the reactive extrusion process can be described. This model can be used to further investigate

  3. Inkjet printing of polyurethane colloidal suspensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den A.M.J.; Smith, P.J.; Perelaer, J.; Schrof, W.; Koltzenburg, S.; Schubert, U.S.

    2007-01-01

    An aqueous 40 wt% dispersion of polyurethane has been successfully printed at room temperature using a piezoelectric inkjet printer. Simple layered structures, as well as dots, were made and subsequently analyzed using white-light interferometry. A single layer was found to have a structure height

  4. Preparation of eugenol-based polyurethane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yupeng; Luo, Fang; Cheng, Chuanjie

    2018-03-01

    The regenerative eugenol was used as the starting material to prepare diol species by two steps, with a total yield of 28%. Furthermore, the prepared diol reacts with 1,6-hexadiisocyanate(HDI) to afford the corresponding polyurethane (PU). The structure of intermediates and PU are characterized by 1H-NMR or IR.

  5. Self-stratifying antimicrobial polyurethane coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yagci, M.B.; Bolca, S.; Heuts, J.P.A.; Ming, W.; With, de G.

    2011-01-01

    In this work antimicrobial polyurethane coatings were prepared aiming at self-stratification. A hydroxyl end-capped liquid oligoester consisting of three equimolar diacids and an excess of 1,4-butanediol has been synthesized by a condensation reaction. A set of quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs)

  6. Rigid polyurethane and kenaf core composite foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigid polyurethane foams are valuable in many construction applications. Kenaf is a bast fiber plant where the surface stem skin provides bast fibers whose strength-to-weight ratio competes with glass fiber. The higher volume product of the kenaf core is an under-investigated area in composite appli...

  7. Time-dependent crashworthiness of polyurethane foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basit, Munshi Mahbubul; Cheon, Seong Sik

    2018-05-01

    Time-dependent stress-strain relationship as well as crashworthiness of polyurethane foam was investigated under constant impact energy with different velocities, considering inertia and strain-rate effects simultaneously during the impact testing. Even though the impact energies were same, the percentage in increase in densification strain due to higher impact velocities was found, which yielded the wider plateau region, i.e. growth in crashworthiness. This phenomenon is analyzed by the microstructure of polyurethane foam obtained from scanning electron microscopy. The equations, coupled with the Sherwood-Frost model and the impulse-momentum theory, were employed to build the constitutive equation of the polyurethane foam and calculate energy absorption capacity of the foam. The nominal stress-strain curves obtained from the constitutive equation were compared with results from impact tests and were found to be in good agreement. This study is dedicated to guiding designer use polyurethane foam in crashworthiness structures such as an automotive bumper system by providing crashworthiness data, determining the crush mode, and addressing a mathematical model of the crashworthiness.

  8. Survey of the castor bean production (Ricinus communis L. in a collection of producers from five counties of Bahia State. = Levantamento da produção de mamona (Ricinus communis L. em uma amostra de produtores em cinco municípios do Estado da Bahia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente de Paula Queiroga

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify the situation of the culture of castor bean from a collection of producers located in five counties of Bahia state, highlighting the technical conditions of production and commercialization of the product, beyond its social aspects. Twenty-five castor bean producers were interviewed during the 2005 agricultural year by a team of researchers from the Embrapa Cotton. A present questionnaire with 15 variable questions pertaining to agro-economic and social-economic was applied to producers with the objective to diagnose the agricultural social-economic profiles of theproducers of castor bean that are used for the production of berries to be used within the energy market of the Program of Biodiesel and Ricin chemistry. Data analysis concluded that the family farmers of Bahia have the culture of castor oil as, a major source of income, but the cultivation techniques, promising cultivars, and oil content are underutilized. It was shown that a technology gap can be solved by a adopting a differential pricing policy that is based on a feasibility comprehensive recovery program that increases the ricin culture productivity throughout the production chain, reduce costs, and increase the oil content of cultivars.ResumoObjetivou-se com este estudo verificar a situação da cultura da mamona em uma amostra de produtores levantados em cinco municípios localizados no noroeste do estado da Bahia (São Gabriel, Irecê, Lapão, Ibititá e Cafarnaum, destacando-se as condições técnicas de produção e de comercialização do produto, além dos seus aspectos sociais. Um total de 25 produtores de mamona foi entrevistado no ano agrícola de 2005, por uma equipe de pesquisadores da Embrapa Algodão. Um questionário preestabelecido com 15 variáveis agronômicas e socioecononômicas foi aplicado junto aos produtores, visando o diagnóstico do perfil agrossocioeconômico dos produtores de mamona que estão destinando sua produção de bagas para atender o mercado energético do Programa de Biodiesel e de Ricinoquímica. Pela análise dos dados, concluiu-se que os produtores familiares baianos têm na cultura da mamona, uma das principais fontes de renda, cujas técnicas de cultivo, cultivares promissoras e seu teor de óleo, encontram-se subutilizados. Ficou evidenciado um atraso tecnológico que pode ser solucionado mediante uma política de preço diferencial, visando à viabilidade de um amplo programa de recuperação da ricinocultura que contemple aumento de produtividade em toda cadeia de produção, redução de custos e elevação do teor de óleo das cultivares utilizadas.

  9. Biodegradable polyurethane nanocomposites containing dexamethasone for ocular route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues da Silva, Gisele; Silva-Cunha, Armando da; Behar-Cohen, Francine; Ayres, Eliane; Orefice, Rodrigo L.

    2011-01-01

    The treatment of posterior segment ocular diseases, such as uveitis, by using eye drops and oral drugs is usually not effective due to the body's natural barriers to drug penetration. In this study, ocular implants to treat uveitis were synthesized by incorporating dexamethasone acetate, an important type of corticoid used in the treatment of some uveitis, into a biodegradable polyurethane containi clay nanoparticles. Biodegradable polyurethane nanocomposites having poly(caprolactone) oligomers as soft segments were obtained by delaminating clay particles within a polyurethane aqueous dispersion. The drug was incorporated into the polymer by dispersing it in the waterborne polyurethane followed by a drying step. Nanoparticles derived from clay were demonstrated to be able to tailor the mechanical properties of polyurethanes to achieve values that can match the properties of ocular soft tissues. Infrared spectra (FTIR) showed that the presence of clay particles was able to change the microphase separation process typical of polyurethanes. X-ray diffraction and small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) results were explored to show that the incorporation of both dexamethasone acetate and nanocomponents derived from clay led to a less defined two-phase polyurethane. The presence of clay nanoparticles increased the rate of drug release measured in vitro. Human retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19) were cultured in contact with polyurethanes and polyurethane nanocomposites, and the viability of them (evaluated by using MTT assay after 7 days) showed that no toxic components were released from polyurethanes containing no drugs during the test.

  10. Biodegradable polyurethane nanocomposites containing dexamethasone for ocular route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues da Silva, Gisele [Federal University of Sao Joao Del Rei, School of Pharmacy, Divinopolis, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Silva-Cunha, Armando da [Federal University of Minas Gerais, School of Pharmacy, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Behar-Cohen, Francine [INSERM, Physiopathology of ocular diseases: Therapeutic innovations, Institut des Cordeliers, Paris (France); Laboratoire d' Innovations Therapeutiques, Fondation Rothschild, Paris (France); Universite Rene Descartes, Hotel Dieu University Hospital, Paris (France); Ayres, Eliane [Federal University of Minas Gerais, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Orefice, Rodrigo L., E-mail: rorefice@demet.ufmg.br [Federal University of Minas Gerais, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais (Brazil)

    2011-03-12

    The treatment of posterior segment ocular diseases, such as uveitis, by using eye drops and oral drugs is usually not effective due to the body's natural barriers to drug penetration. In this study, ocular implants to treat uveitis were synthesized by incorporating dexamethasone acetate, an important type of corticoid used in the treatment of some uveitis, into a biodegradable polyurethane containi clay nanoparticles. Biodegradable polyurethane nanocomposites having poly(caprolactone) oligomers as soft segments were obtained by delaminating clay particles within a polyurethane aqueous dispersion. The drug was incorporated into the polymer by dispersing it in the waterborne polyurethane followed by a drying step. Nanoparticles derived from clay were demonstrated to be able to tailor the mechanical properties of polyurethanes to achieve values that can match the properties of ocular soft tissues. Infrared spectra (FTIR) showed that the presence of clay particles was able to change the microphase separation process typical of polyurethanes. X-ray diffraction and small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) results were explored to show that the incorporation of both dexamethasone acetate and nanocomponents derived from clay led to a less defined two-phase polyurethane. The presence of clay nanoparticles increased the rate of drug release measured in vitro. Human retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19) were cultured in contact with polyurethanes and polyurethane nanocomposites, and the viability of them (evaluated by using MTT assay after 7 days) showed that no toxic components were released from polyurethanes containing no drugs during the test.

  11. MORPHOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL STUDY OF SHOOTS OF JUNIPERUS COMMUNIS L. FROM CUPRESSACEAE FAMILY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. K. Serebryanaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We have conducted morphological and anatomical studies of Juniperus communis, revealed diagnostic indices of the stamina, stalk, and needle. The leaf is sessile, linear awe shaped, pointed. Stalk form at cross section is cylindrical. Needles are lanceolar with one whitish vertical stripe, with paracytic stomata. 

  12. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF THE ESSENTIAL OIL OF Myrtus communis L BERRIES GROWING WILD IN ALGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Toauibia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of microbial resistance to antibiotics is a global concern. The present study was carried out to determine the composition and the antimicrobial potential of the essential oil of Myrtus communis L. against 13 pathogenic strains responsible of many infections. The results show that levels of MIC observed range from 0.563 to 36 mg/ml. 

  13. Antidiabetic Activity of Different Extracts of Myrtus Communis in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panjeshahin Mohammad Reza

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: Hydroalcoholic (70° extract of leaves of Myrtus communis has been shown to have antidiabetic effect in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats in our previous study. In this study, we intended to determine the components of the mentioned extract and identify the mechanism for its action.

  14. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF THE ESSENTIAL OIL OF Myrtus communis L BERRIES GROWING WILD IN ALGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    M. Toauibia

    2015-01-01

    The development of microbial resistance to antibiotics is a global concern. The present study was carried out to determine the composition and the antimicrobial potential of the essential oil of Myrtus communis L. against 13 pathogenic strains responsible of many infections. The results show that levels of MIC observed range from 0.563 to 36 mg/ml. 

  15. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF THE ESSENTIAL OIL OF MYRTUS COMMUNIS L BERRIES GROWING WILD IN ALGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Toauibia

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of microbial resistance to antibiotics is a global concern. The present study was carried out to determine the composition and the antimicrobial potential of the essential oil of Myrtus communis L. against 13 pathogenic strains responsible of many infections. The results show that levels of MIC observed range from 0.563 to 36 mg/ml.

  16. Marine biofouling resistance of polyurethane with biodegradation and hydrolyzation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wentao; Ma, Chunfeng; Ma, Jielin; Gan, Tiansheng; Zhang, Guangzhao

    2014-03-26

    We have prepared polyurethane with poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) as the segments of the main chain and poly(triisopropylsilyl acrylate) (PTIPSA) as the side chains by a combination of radical polymerization and a condensation reaction. Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation studies show that polyurethane can degrade in the presence of enzyme and the degradation rate decreases with the PTIPSA content. Our studies also demonstrate that polyurethane is able to hydrolyze in artificial seawater and the hydrolysis rate increases as the PTIPSA content increases. Moreover, hydrolysis leads to a hydrophilic surface that is favorable to reduction of the frictional drag under dynamic conditions. Marine field tests reveal that polyurethane has good antifouling ability because polyurethane with a biodegradable PCL main chain and hydrolyzable PTIPSA side chains can form a self-renewal surface. Polyurethane was also used to carry and release a relatively environmentally friendly antifoulant, and the combined system exhibits a much higher antifouling performance even in a static marine environment.

  17. Urinary catheter with polyurethane coating modified by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondyurina, I.; Nechitailo, G.S.; Svistkov, A.L.; Kondyurin, A.; Bilek, M.

    2015-01-01

    A low friction urinary catheter that could be used without a lubricant is proposed in this work. A polyurethane coating was synthesised on the surface of a metal guide wire catheter. Ion implantation was applied to surface modify the polyurethane coating. FTIR ATR, wetting angle, AFM and friction tests were used for analysis. Low friction was found to be provided by the formation of a hard carbonised layer on the polyurethane surface

  18. Degradation mechanism of polyurethane foam induced by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Wei; Fu Yibei; Bian Zhishang; He Meiying

    2002-01-01

    The degradation mechanism of irradiated polyurethane foam has been studied in detail. The changes of chemical structure and micro-phase separation have been determined by DTG. The gas products from irradiated samples are analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively by GC. The degradation mechanism of irradiated polyurethane foam has been deduced according to the experimental results. It provides some basis of the application on the polyurethane in the radiation field

  19. Rigid Polyurethane Foam Reinforced Coconut Coir Fiber Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Azham Azmi

    2012-01-01

    This research work studied the properties of composite foam panels. Coconut coir fibers were used as reinforcement in polyurethane (PU) foam in order to increase the properties of foam. This composite foam panels were fabricated by using polyurethane molded method. The polyurethane foam panels reinforced from 5 to 20wt% coconut coir were produced to investigate the physical and mechanical test via density test and three point bending test respectively. It was found that the density test resul...

  20. Environmental drivers of Ixodes ricinus abundance in forest fragments of rural European landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrmann, Steffen; Liira, Jaan; Gärtner, Stefanie; Hansen, Karin; Brunet, Jörg; Cousins, Sara A O; Deconchat, Marc; Decocq, Guillaume; De Frenne, Pieter; De Smedt, Pallieter; Diekmann, Martin; Gallet-Moron, Emilie; Kolb, Annette; Lenoir, Jonathan; Lindgren, Jessica; Naaf, Tobias; Paal, Taavi; Valdés, Alicia; Verheyen, Kris; Wulf, Monika; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael

    2017-09-06

    The castor bean tick (Ixodes ricinus) transmits infectious diseases such as Lyme borreliosis, which constitutes an important ecosystem disservice. Despite many local studies, a comprehensive understanding of the key drivers of tick abundance at the continental scale is still lacking. We analyze a large set of environmental factors as potential drivers of I. ricinus abundance. Our multi-scale study was carried out in deciduous forest fragments dispersed within two contrasting rural landscapes of eight regions, along a macroclimatic gradient stretching from southern France to central Sweden and Estonia. We surveyed the abundance of I. ricinus, plant community composition, forest structure and soil properties and compiled data on landscape structure, macroclimate and habitat properties. We used linear mixed models to analyze patterns and derived the relative importance of the significant drivers. Many drivers had, on their own, either a moderate or small explanatory value for the abundance of I. ricinus, but combined they explained a substantial part of variation. This emphasizes the complex ecology of I. ricinus and the relevance of environmental factors for tick abundance. Macroclimate only explained a small fraction of variation, while properties of macro- and microhabitat, which buffer macroclimate, had a considerable impact on tick abundance. The amount of forest and the composition of the surrounding rural landscape were additionally important drivers of tick abundance. Functional (dispersules) and structural (density of tree and shrub layers) properties of the habitat patch played an important role. Various diversity metrics had only a small relative importance. Ontogenetic tick stages showed pronounced differences in their response. The abundance of nymphs and adults is explained by the preceding stage with a positive relationship, indicating a cumulative effect of drivers. Our findings suggest that the ecosystem disservices of tick-borne diseases, via the

  1. Characterization and properties of sepiolite/polyurethane nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Hongxiang; Zheng Maosheng; Sun Hongying; Jia Qingming

    2007-01-01

    In situ polymerization method is employed to prepare sepiolite/polyurethane nanocomposite. The morphology and the dispersion of sepiolite in polyurethane have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results show the sepiolite is dispersed homogeneously in the polyurethane matrix at a nanometer scale. The tensile test shows that the tensile strength and elongation at break for the nanocomposites increase with the addition of sepiolite as compared to those of the pure polyurethane. The TGA analysis reveals that the addition of nanofillers results in the higher thermal stability

  2. Palm oil based polyols for acrylated polyurethane production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rida Tajau; Mohd Hilmi Mahmood; Mek Zah Salleh; Khairul Zaman Mohd Dahlan; Rosley Che Ismail

    2006-01-01

    Palm oil becomes important renewable resources for the production of polyols for the polyurethane manufacturing industry. The main raw materials used for the production of acrylated polyurethane are polyols, isocyanates and hydroxyl terminated acrylate compounds. In these studies, polyurethane based natural polymer (palm oil), i.e., POBUA (Palm Oil Based Urethane Acrylate) were prepared from three different types of palm oil based polyols i.e., epoxidised palm oil (EPOP), palm oil oleic acid and refined, bleached and deodorized (RBD) palm olein based polyols. The performances of these three acrylated polyurethanes when used for coatings and adhesives were determined and compared with each other. (Author)

  3. Crosslinked polyurethanes based on hyperbranched polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Jasna

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, two samples of polyurethane (PU crosslinked with hydroxy -functonal hyperbranched aliphatic polyester of the second pseudo generation were investigated. For the synthesis of these crosslinked PUs two different macrodiols were used: poly(tetramethyleneoxide (PTMO for PUPTMO and ethylene oxide-poly(dimethylsiloxane-ethylene oxide (PDMS-EO for PUPDMS-EO sample. Synthesized samples behave as elastomers and have yellow color. Obtained results show that swelling degree of the sample PUPDMS-EO in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinon (NMP determined at room temperature is higher than for the sample PUPTMO. It has been also observed that thermal properties of these polyurethane networks can be changed by incorporation of siloxane sequences in their structure.

  4. Novel metallomesogenic polyurethanes: Synthesis, characterization and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senthilkumar, Natarajan; Narasimhaswamy, Tanneru; Kim, Il-Jin

    2012-01-01

    A series of tetradentate Schiff base metallomesogenic diols were synthesized from two simple dihydroxy benzenes. The metallomesogenic diol was constructed from three ring containing mesogen linked through ester and azomethine with terminal hydroxy group. This upon complexation with copper(II) formed metallomesogenic diol with varying terminal chain length. A series of metallomesogenic polyurethanes were synthesized using these metallomesogenic diols as chain extenders for the prepolymers based on polytetramethylene glycol (PTMG) of varying molecular weight (M n = 650, 2000) and 2,4-toluene diisocyanate (TDI), or 4,4′-methylene bis(phenyl isocyanate) (MDI). The molar ratio of metallomesogenic diol and PTMG were varied in the polyurethane to find their role in liquid crystalline and mechanical properties. Extensive characterization of all metallomesogenic compounds and intermediates were carried out by FT-IR, 1 H and 13 C NMR, EPR, VSM, Mass (EI and FAB) and UV–visible spectroscopy. Hot stage polarizing microscope and differential scanning calorimetry were used to ensure the phase characteristics such as nature of phase, melting and clearing temperatures and phase range. The appearance of enantiotropic smectic A phases indicated high molecular polarizability of the core due to the metal ion. - Highlights: ► Design and synthesis of metallomesogenic diols. ► Metallomesogenic polyurethanes were prepared using these diols as chain extenders. ► Liquid crystalline and mechanical properties were studied. ► A square pyramidal structure for the copper(II) complexes have been proposed. ► Polyurethanes exhibited enantiotropic smectic A phases.

  5. Structures and Properties of Polyurethanes. Part II,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-03-23

    effect was observed for polymethyl methacrylate (222, 2721. The polyol, which contain fluorine , decrease adhesion, in spite DOC = 79011112 PAGE S4% of...small differences in the hardness of films on the basis of the fluorine -bearing polyol and generally accepted polyol. Is investigated the etfect ot...polyurethane, to rigid surface. DOC 79011112 P A * S The effect of the solvent, utilized for obtaining the varnish , on adhesion is investigated in

  6. Biodegradability of polyurethane/polysaccharide blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mothe, Cheila G.; Leite, Selma G.

    2001-01-01

    Biodegradable polymers for use in environmental waste-management has been the subject of much discussion over the last few years. Polyurethane mixtures with polysaccharide (80/20 and 90/10 w/w ) have been prepared and films obtained. These films were inoculated, according to ASTM G22-76 rule and analysed by thermogravimetry and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). The results are discussed in terms of thermal degradation and biodegradability. (author)

  7. Epoxy polyurethane nanocomposites filled with fullerite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozhnova, R.A.; Galatenko, N.A.; Lukashevich, S.A.; Shirokov, O.D.; Levenets', Je.G.

    2015-01-01

    New nanocomposite materials based on epoxy polyurethane (EPU) containing nanoscale fullerite in its composition are produced. The influence of small impurities of fullerite on physical and mechanical properties of the nanocomposites is established. The effect of a nanofiller and its concentration on the structure and properties of the composite and the ability to biodegradation in vitro is studied. The developed nanocomposites exhibit the biodegradability, and the presence of nanofillers in the EPU facilitates the course of the process

  8. Babesia microti (Piroplasmida: Babesiidae) in nymphal Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rudolf, Ivo; Golovchenko, Maryna; Šikutová, Silvie; Rudenko, Natalia; Grubhoffer, Libor; Hubálek, Zdeněk

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 3 (2005), s. 274-276 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/03/0726 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519; CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Babesia microti * Ixodes ricinus Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.138, year: 2005 http://folia.paru.cas.cz/pdfs/showpdf.php?pdf=20766

  9. Optimization of the solid-phase microextraction method in the determination of Ixodes ricinus (L.) volatiles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zahradníčková, Helena; Bouman, Edwin Arien Poul

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 2 (2006), s. 236-241 ISSN 1615-9306 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/04/0751 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508; CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : GC/MS * Ixodes ricinus * solid-phase microextraction Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.535, year: 2006

  10. Identification and partial characterisation of new members of the Ixodes ricinus defensin family

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tonk, Miray; Cabezas Cruz, Alejandro; Valdés, James J.; Rego, Ryan O. M.; Rudenko, Natalia; Golovchenko, Maryna; Bell-Sakyi, L.; de la Fuente, J.; Grubhoffer, Libor

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 540, č. 2 (2014), s. 146-152 ISSN 0378-1119 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP302/11/1901; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : antimicrobial peptide * defensin * Ixodes ricinus * tick * tick cell line Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.138, year: 2014

  11. Nonspecific Bacterial Flora Isolated from the Body Surface and Inside Ixodes ricinus Ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okła, Hubert; Sosnowska, Malwina; Jasik, Krzysztof P; Słodki, Jan; Wojtyczka, Robert D

    2012-09-28

    Ixodes ricinus and other representatives of the order Ixodida are vectors of typical pathogens: Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Anaplasma phagocytophilium, Babesia spp., a tick-borne encephalitis virus, and other microorganisms which are important from a medical and veterinary point of view. The presented study focuses on the verification of nonspecific bacterial flora of I. ricinus. We analyzed ticks collected in a forest region in Silesia, an industrial district in Poland. Methods of classical microbiology and biochemical assays (API 20 NE test, API Staph test and MICRONAUT System) were used for isolation and identification of microorganisms living on the body surface of I. ricinus and inside ticks. The results show the presence of various bacteria on the surface and inside ticks' bodies. During the study, we isolated Acinetobacter lwoffi, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Aeromonas hydrophila, Achromobacter denitrificans, Alcaligenes faecalis, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Pseudomonas oryzihabitans, Micrococcus spp., Kocuria varians, Staphylococcus lentus, Kocuria kristinae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Rhizobium radiobacter, Staphylococcus xylosus. Majority of the isolated species are non-pathogenic environmental microorganisms, but some of the isolated bacterial strains could cause severe infections.

  12. Arsenophonus nasoniae and Rickettsiae Infection of Ixodes ricinus Due to Parasitic Wasp Ixodiphagus hookeri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Bohacsova

    Full Text Available Arsenophonus nasoniae, a male-killing endosymbiont of chalcid wasps, was recently detected in several hard tick species. Following the hypothesis that its presence in ticks may not be linked to the direct occurrence of bacteria in tick's organs, we identified A. nasoniae in wasps emerging from parasitised nymphs. We confirmed that 28.1% of Ixodiphagus hookeri wasps parasitizing Ixodes ricinus ticks were infected by A. nasoniae. Moreover, in examined I. ricinus nymphs, A. nasoniae was detected only in those, which were parasitized by the wasp. However, in part of the adult wasps as well as in some ticks that contained wasp's DNA, we did not confirm A. nasoniae. We also found, that in spite of reported male-killing, some newly emerged adult wasp males were also infected by A. nasoniae. Additionally, we amplified the DNA of Rickettsia helvetica and Rickettsia monacensis (known to be Ixodes ricinus-associated bacteria in adult parasitoid wasps. This may be related either with the digested bacterial DNA in wasp body lumen or with a role of wasps in circulation of rickettsiae among tick vectors.

  13. Low prevalence of Borrelia bavariensis in Ixodes ricinus ticks in southeastern Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatz, Martin; Muellegger, Robert R; Hizo-Teufel, Cecilia; Fingerle, Volker

    2014-10-01

    Borrelia bavariensis was recently described as a distinct genospecies among the B. burgdorferi sensu lato complex. The prevalence of B. bavariensis in Austria, a highly endemic area for tick-transmitted pathogens, is scarcely characterized. To investigate the prevalence of B. bavariensis in Ixodes ricinus ticks we reevaluated the results of a study conducted in 518 ticks from southeastern Austria collected in 2002 and 2003. The presence of B. burgdorferi s.l.-specific DNA in ticks was analyzed by a PCR for the outer surface protein A (ospA) gene. Borrelia species were differentiated by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis, and samples positive for B. bavariensis were further analyzed by multilocus sequence analysis. Two of 133 (1.5%) B. burgdorferi s.l.-positive I. ricinus ticks were infected with B. bavariensis. Both specimens were coinfected with the OspA serotype 5 of B. garinii. Borrelia bavariensis is present; however, seem to be rare in I. ricinus ticks in southeastern Austria. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Essential oils of aromatic Egyptian plants repel nymphs of the tick Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Seedi, Hesham R; Azeem, Muhammad; Khalil, Nasr S; Sakr, Hanem H; Khalifa, Shaden A M; Awang, Khalijah; Saeed, Aamer; Farag, Mohamed A; AlAjmi, Mohamed F; Pålsson, Katinka; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin

    2017-09-01

    Due to the role of Ixodes ricinus (L.) (Acari: Ixodidae) in the transmission of many serious pathogens, personal protection against bites of this tick is essential. In the present study the essential oils from 11 aromatic Egyptian plants were isolated and their repellent activity against I. ricinus nymphs was evaluated Three oils (i.e. Conyza dioscoridis L., Artemisia herba-alba Asso and Calendula officinalis L.) elicited high repellent activity in vitro of 94, 84.2 and 82%, respectively. The most active essential oil (C. dioscoridis) was applied in the field at a concentration of 6.5 µg/cm 2 and elicited a significant repellent activity against I. ricinus nymphs by 61.1%. The most repellent plants C. dioscoridis, C. officinalis and A. herba-alba yielded essential oils by 0.17, 0.11 and 0.14%, respectively. These oils were further investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. α-Cadinol (10.7%) and hexadecanoic acid (10.5%) were the major components of C. dioscoridis whereas in C. officinalis, α-cadinol (21.2%) and carvone (18.2%) were major components. Artemisia herba-alba contained piperitone (26.5%), ethyl cinnamate (9.5%), camphor (7.7%) and hexadecanoic acid (6.9%). Essential oils of these three plants have a potential to be used for personal protection against tick bites.

  15. Vector competence of the tick Ixodes ricinus for transmission of Bartonella birtlesii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Reis

    Full Text Available Bartonella spp. are facultative intracellular vector-borne bacteria associated with several emerging diseases in humans and animals all over the world. The potential for involvement of ticks in transmission of Bartonella spp. has been heartily debated for many years. However, most of the data supporting bartonellae transmission by ticks come from molecular and serological epidemiological surveys in humans and animals providing only indirect evidences without a direct proof of tick vector competence for transmission of bartonellae. We used a murine model to assess the vector competence of Ixodes ricinus for Bartonella birtlesii. Larval and nymphal I. ricinus were fed on a B. birtlesii-infected mouse. The nymphs successfully transmitted B. birtlesii to naïve mice as bacteria were recovered from both the mouse blood and liver at seven and 16 days after tick bites. The female adults successfully emitted the bacteria into uninfected blood after three or more days of tick attachment, when fed via membrane feeding system. Histochemical staining showed the presence of bacteria in salivary glands and muscle tissues of partially engorged adult ticks, which had molted from the infected nymphs. These results confirm the vector competence of I. ricinus for B. birtlesii and represent the first in vivo demonstration of a Bartonella sp. transmission by ticks. Consequently, bartonelloses should be now included in the differential diagnosis for patients exposed to tick bites.

  16. Aggregation in the tick Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae): use and reuse of questing vantage points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, John A E; Bourke, Patrick

    2008-03-01

    Ongoing work in oak woods in Killarney National Park in southwestern Ireland is focusing on the factors influencing the fine-scale aggregated distribution of Ixodes ricinus L. (Acari: Ixodidae) on the ground. The extent of reuse of stems of vegetation as questing points by adult ticks was determined by paint-marking stems on which ticks were found, counting and removing these ticks, and subsequently reexamining the same stems for ticks on two further occasions. Overall, an estimated 2,967 stems in 123 separate rush plants (Juncus effusus L.) were examined. Statistical analysis of the data demonstrated a highly significant reoccupancy by ticks of stems previously and recently used. Furthermore, it is shown that the extent of stem reuse by ticks is significantly and positively correlated with the numbers of ticks originally observed on those stems. Although other factors may be involved in generating clumping of ticks, the results are compatible with the proposition that aggregation of I. ricinus on the ground is pheromone-mediated. The findings are discussed in relation to what is known about the powers of lateral movement of I. ricinus on the ground and the possible implications for the performance of tick traps.

  17. Fluorinated Polyurethane Scaffolds for 19F Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, Twan; Mertens, Marianne E.; Schuster, Philipp; Rahimi, Khosrow; Shi, Yang; Schulz, Volkmar; Kuehne, Alexander J.C.; Jockenhoevel, Stefan; Kiessling, Fabian

    2017-01-01

    Researchers used fluorinated polyurethane scaffolds for 19F magnetic resonance imaging. They generated a novel fluorinated polymer based on thermoplastic polyurethane (19F -TPU) which possesses distinct properties rendering it suitable for fluorine-based MRI. The 19F -TPU is synthesized from a

  18. Molecular simulation of fibronectin adsorption onto polyurethane surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyethylene glycol-based polyurethanes have been widely used in biomedical applications, however are prone to swelling. A natural polyol, castor oil can be incorporated into these polyurethanes to control the degree of the swelling, which alters mechanical properties and protein adsorption characte...

  19. Optimization of polyurethane foam cube in enhancing the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Attachment of microalgae biomass to polyurethane foam material is believed could reduce the cost and time needed for harvesting process in making it reliable to be used in industry for biodiesel production. This paper aim to optimize the usage of polyurethane for higher attachment of microalgae biomass yield in term of it ...

  20. Avaliação da atividade antibacteriana de folhas de Myrtus communis L. (Myrtaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Estevão Salvagnini

    Full Text Available O óleo essencial e o extrato etanólico obtidos a partir de folhas de Myrtus communis foram avaliados quanto 'a atividade inibitória frente a vários microrganismos. Os halos de inibição de crescimento foram avaliados através das técnicas de "template" e difusão em disco para as linhagens de Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis e Serratia marcescens. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram que o óleo de M. communis apresentou atividade antibacteriana superior ao extrato etanólico frente a todas as bactérias. A atividade demonstrada tanto para o óleo como para o extrato etanólico frente a algumas linhagens, foi melhor evidenciada pela técnica "template". E. coli foi resistente ao óleo e extrato etanólico testados.

  1. Biodegradative Activities of Selected Environmental Fungi on a Polyester Polyurethane Varnish and Polyether Polyurethane Foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Barragán, Joyce; Domínguez-Malfavón, Lilianha; Vargas-Suárez, Martín; González-Hernández, Ricardo; Aguilar-Osorio, Guillermo; Loza-Tavera, Herminia

    2016-09-01

    Polyurethane (PU) is widely used in many aspects of modern life because of its versatility and resistance. However, PU waste disposal generates large problems, since it is slowly degraded, there are limited recycling processes, and its destruction may generate toxic compounds. In this work, we isolated fungal strains able to grow in mineral medium with a polyester PU (PS-PU; Impranil DLN) or a polyether PU (PE-PU; Poly Lack) varnish as the only carbon source. Of the eight best Impranil-degrading strains, the six best degraders belonged to the Cladosporium cladosporioides complex, including the species C. pseudocladosporioides, C. tenuissimum, C. asperulatum, and C. montecillanum, and the two others were identified as Aspergillus fumigatus and Penicillium chrysogenum The best Impranil degrader, C. pseudocladosporioides strain T1.PL.1, degraded up to 87% after 14 days of incubation. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis of Impranil degradation by this strain showed a loss of carbonyl groups (1,729 cm(-1)) and N-H bonds (1,540 and 1,261 cm(-1)), and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis showed a decrease in ester compounds and increase in alcohols and hexane diisocyanate, indicating the hydrolysis of ester and urethane bonds. Extracellular esterase and low urease, but not protease activities were detected at 7 and 14 days of culture in Impranil. The best eight Impranil-degrading fungi were also able to degrade solid foams of the highly recalcitrant PE-PU type to different extents, with the highest levels generating up to 65% of dry-weight losses not previously reported. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of fungus-treated foams showed melted and thinner cell wall structures than the non-fungus-treated ones, demonstrating fungal biodegradative action on PE-PU. Polyurethane waste disposal has become a serious problem. In this work, fungal strains able to efficiently degrade different types of polyurethanes are reported, and

  2. Evaluation of antibacterial effect of Myrtus communis against Acinetobacter baumannii clinical strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venous Akhavan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Because of inappropriate use of antibiotics and prevalence of resistant bacteria, there is urgent need for antibacterial drugs that have fewer side effects than antibiotics. Myrtus communis is a medicinal plant which had many uses in traditional medicine. In this study, ethanol leave extract of this plant is tested on Acinetobacter baumannii. In the case of antimicrobial evaluation of plants, one of the effecting factors on effectiveness of the microbial inhibition is extraction techniques. In the presents study, the antibacterial activity of the Ethanol, Methanol, and Ethyl acetate extracts of M. communis plant was evaluated at seven different concentrations by broth microdilution method. The results of this study showed that the antimicrobial effect of M. communis extract is concentration dependent. Different extracts were obtained by the maceration method. Extracts of the plant exhibited antibacterial activity at varied levels against A. baumannii. Obtained results from our antibacterial experiments showed that all extracts have anti-bacterial activity against tested bacterial isolates According to the results, the ethyl acetate extracted fraction showed the highest level of activity at a MIC 400 mg/ml for A. baumannii. The results of this study indicate that, different extracts had growth inhibitory effect on A. baumannii. Therefore this plant has the potential to be evaluated as an alternative or adjunct to antibiotics to treat Acinetobacter infections.

  3. Antifungal and Herbicidal Effects of Fruit Essential Oils of Four Myrtus communis Genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordali, Saban; Usanmaz, Ayse; Cakir, Ahmet; Komaki, Amanmohammad; Ercisli, Sezai

    2016-01-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils isolated by hydrodistillation from the fruits of four selected Myrtus communis L. genotypes from Turkey was characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. 1,8-Cineole (29.20-31.40%), linalool (15.67-19.13%), α-terpineol (8.40-18.43%), α-pinene (6.04-20.71%), and geranyl acetate (3.98-7.54%) were found to be the major constituents of the fruit essential oils of all M. communis genotypes investigated. The oils were characterized by high amounts of oxygenated monoterpenes, representing 73.02-83.83% of the total oil compositions. The results of the fungal growth inhibition assays showed that the oils inhibited the growth of 19 phytopathogenic fungi. However, their antifungal activity was generally lower than that of the commercial pesticide benomyl. The herbicidal effects of the oils on the seed germination and seedling growth of Amaranthus retroflexus L., Chenopodium album L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Lactuca serriola L., and Rumex crispus L. were also determined. The oils completely or partly inhibited the seed germinations and seedling growths of the plants. The findings of the present study suggest that the M. communis essential oils might have potential to be used as natural herbicides as well as fungicides. Copyright © 2016 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  4. Prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks in urban and suburban areas of Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne P. Oechslin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Throughout Europe, Ixodes ricinus transmits numerous pathogens. Its widespread distribution is not limited to rural but also includes urbanized areas. To date, comprehensive data on pathogen carrier rates of I. ricinus ticks in urban areas of Switzerland is lacking. Results Ixodes ricinus ticks sampled at 18 (sub- urban collection sites throughout Switzerland showed carrier rates of 0% for tick-borne encephalitis virus, 18.0% for Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato, 2.5% for Borrelia miyamotoi, 13.5% for Rickettsia spp., 1.4% for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, 6.2% for "Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis", and 0.8% for Babesia venatorum (Babesia sp., EU1. Site-specific prevalence at collection sites with n > 45 ticks (n = 9 significantly differed for B. burgdorferi (s.l., Rickettsia spp., and "Ca. N. mikurensis", but were not related to the habitat type. Three hundred fifty eight out of 1078 I. ricinus ticks (33.2% tested positive for at least one pathogen. Thereof, about 20% (71/358 were carrying two or three different potentially disease-causing agents. Using next generation sequencing, we could detect true pathogens, tick symbionts and organisms of environmental or human origin in ten selected samples. Conclusions Our data document the presence of pathogens in the (sub- urban I. ricinus tick population in Switzerland, with carrier rates as high as those in rural regions. Carriage of multiple pathogens was repeatedly observed, demonstrating the risk of acquiring multiple infections as a consequence of a tick bite.

  5. First evidence of Babesia venatorum and Babesia capreoli in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venclikova, Kristyna; Mendel, Jan; Betasova, Lenka; Hubalek, Zdenek; Rudolf, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    Ixodes ricinus is the most common tick species occurring in Central Europe and it serves as a principal vector of emerging human pathogens. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Babesia spp. in host-seeking I. ricinus in urban and natural habitats. PCR was applied on samples to assess prevalence of Babesia spp. in questing ixodid ticks. Sequencing was used for Babesia species determination. 1,473 I. ricinus ticks (1,294 nymphs, 99 males and 80 females) were examined for the presence of Babesia spp. at the two study sites. Minimum infection rate for Babesia spp. was found to be 0.5% (infected I. ricinus nymphs were only detected in the natural ecosystem). Two Babesia species were identified by sequencing: B. venatorum (formerly called Babesia sp. EU1) and B. capreoli. The results obtained represent the first evidence of the occurrence of B. venatorum and B. capreoli in host-seeking I. ricinus ticks in the Czech Republic.

  6. Development of segmented polyurethane elastomers with low iodine content exhibiting radiopacity and blood compatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawlee, S; Jayabalan, Muthu

    2011-10-01

    Biofunctionally active and inherently radiopaque polymers are the emerging need for biomedical applications. Novel segmented polyurethane elastomer with inherent radiopacity was prepared using aliphatic chain extender 2,3-diiodo-2-butene-1,4-diol, polyol polytetramethylene glycol and 4,4'-methylenebis(phenyl isocyanate) (MDI) for blood compatible applications. Aliphatic polyurethane was also prepared using hexamethylene diisocyanate for comparison. X-ray analysis of the polyurethanes revealed good radiopacity even at a relatively low concentration of 3% iodine in aromatic polyurethane and 10% in aliphatic polyurethane. The polyurethanes also possessed excellent thermal stability. MDI-based polyurethane showed considerably higher tensile strength than the analogous HDI-based polyurethane. MDI-based aromatic polyurethane exhibited a dynamic surface morphology in aqueous medium, resulting in the segregation of hydrophilic domains which was more conducive to anti-thrombogenic properties. The polyurethane was cytocompatible with L929 fibroblast cells, non-hemolytic, and possessed good blood compatibility.

  7. Development of segmented polyurethane elastomers with low iodine content exhibiting radiopacity and blood compatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawlee, S; Jayabalan, Muthu

    2011-01-01

    Biofunctionally active and inherently radiopaque polymers are the emerging need for biomedical applications. Novel segmented polyurethane elastomer with inherent radiopacity was prepared using aliphatic chain extender 2,3-diiodo-2-butene-1,4-diol, polyol polytetramethylene glycol and 4,4'-methylenebis(phenyl isocyanate) (MDI) for blood compatible applications. Aliphatic polyurethane was also prepared using hexamethylene diisocyanate for comparison. X-ray analysis of the polyurethanes revealed good radiopacity even at a relatively low concentration of 3% iodine in aromatic polyurethane and 10% in aliphatic polyurethane. The polyurethanes also possessed excellent thermal stability. MDI-based polyurethane showed considerably higher tensile strength than the analogous HDI-based polyurethane. MDI-based aromatic polyurethane exhibited a dynamic surface morphology in aqueous medium, resulting in the segregation of hydrophilic domains which was more conducive to anti-thrombogenic properties. The polyurethane was cytocompatible with L929 fibroblast cells, non-hemolytic, and possessed good blood compatibility.

  8. Development of segmented polyurethane elastomers with low iodine content exhibiting radiopacity and blood compatibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawlee, S; Jayabalan, Muthu, E-mail: muthujayabalan@rediffmail.com [Polymer Science Division, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 012 (India)

    2011-10-15

    Biofunctionally active and inherently radiopaque polymers are the emerging need for biomedical applications. Novel segmented polyurethane elastomer with inherent radiopacity was prepared using aliphatic chain extender 2,3-diiodo-2-butene-1,4-diol, polyol polytetramethylene glycol and 4,4'-methylenebis(phenyl isocyanate) (MDI) for blood compatible applications. Aliphatic polyurethane was also prepared using hexamethylene diisocyanate for comparison. X-ray analysis of the polyurethanes revealed good radiopacity even at a relatively low concentration of 3% iodine in aromatic polyurethane and 10% in aliphatic polyurethane. The polyurethanes also possessed excellent thermal stability. MDI-based polyurethane showed considerably higher tensile strength than the analogous HDI-based polyurethane. MDI-based aromatic polyurethane exhibited a dynamic surface morphology in aqueous medium, resulting in the segregation of hydrophilic domains which was more conducive to anti-thrombogenic properties. The polyurethane was cytocompatible with L929 fibroblast cells, non-hemolytic, and possessed good blood compatibility.

  9. Nasolacrimal Polyurethane Stent: Complications with CT Correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, Isabel T.; Paul, Laura; Grande, Carlos

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate initial results in patients with epiphora secondary to obstruction of the nasolacrimal duct treated by placement of a polyurethane stent, and to discuss the technical problems and complications arising during the procedure, with visualization of the anatomy of the drainage apparatus using computed tomography (CT). Methods: We inserted 20 polyurethane Song stents under fluoroscopic guidance after dacryocystography in 19 patients with grade 3-4 epiphora caused by idiopathic obstruction of the nasolacrimal duct. CT scans were obtained following stent placement in all patients. Results: We focus on the technical problems and complications that arose during these procedures. During negotiation of the guidewire past the obstruction at the level of the junction of the duct with the lacrimal sac, the guidewire created a false passage in a posterior suborbital direction in two cases and towards the posterior midline in another. In all cases the guidewire was withdrawn and reinserted through the proper anatomic route without further difficulty or complications. In two cases the stent was improperly positioned wholly or partially outside the nasolacrimal system (one medially, one posteriorly). In one case the stent was removed and reinserted; in the other it remains in place and functional. CT was performed in all these cases to ensure proper anatomic alignment and determine what had gone wrong. The epiphora was completely resolved in 13 cases and partially relieved in four; there were three cases of stent obstruction. Epistaxis of short duration (1 hr) occurred in seven patients and headache in one. Conclusions: Treatment of epiphora with polyurethane stents is a technique that is well tolerated by patients and achieves a high success rate, yet problems in placement may be encountered. Though no major consequences for patients are involved, cognizance of such difficulties is important to avoid incorrect positioning of stents

  10. Mechanical Characterization of Rigid Polyurethane Foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Wei-Yang [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Mechanics of Materials

    2014-12-01

    Foam materials are used to protect sensitive components from impact loading. In order to predict and simulate the foam performance under various loading conditions, a validated foam model is needed and the mechanical properties of foams need to be characterized. Uniaxial compression and tension tests were conducted for different densities of foams under various temperatures and loading rates. Crush stress, tensile strength, and elastic modulus were obtained. A newly developed confined compression experiment provided data for investigating the foam flow direction. A biaxial tension experiment was also developed to explore the damage surface of a rigid polyurethane foam.

  11. A review: fabrication of porous polyurethane scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janik, H; Marzec, M

    2015-03-01

    The aim of tissue engineering is the fabrication of three-dimensional scaffolds that can be used for the reconstruction and regeneration of damaged or deformed tissues and organs. A wide variety of techniques have been developed to create either fibrous or porous scaffolds from polymers, metals, composite materials and ceramics. However, the most promising materials are biodegradable polymers due to their comprehensive mechanical properties, ability to control the rate of degradation and similarities to natural tissue structures. Polyurethanes (PUs) are attractive candidates for scaffold fabrication, since they are biocompatible, and have excellent mechanical properties and mechanical flexibility. PU can be applied to various methods of porous scaffold fabrication, among which are solvent casting/particulate leaching, thermally induced phase separation, gas foaming, emulsion freeze-drying and melt moulding. Scaffold properties obtained by these techniques, including pore size, interconnectivity and total porosity, all depend on the thermal processing parameters, and the porogen agent and solvents used. In this review, various polyurethane systems for scaffolds are discussed, as well as methods of fabrication, including the latest developments, and their advantages and disadvantages. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Electrospun polyurethane membranes for Tissue Engineering applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabriel, Laís P., E-mail: lagabriel@gmail.com [National Institute of Biofabrication, Campinas (Brazil); Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Campinas, Campinas (Brazil); Rodrigues, Ana Amélia [National Institute of Biofabrication, Campinas (Brazil); Department of Medical Sciences, University of Campinas, Campinas (Brazil); Macedo, Milton; Jardini, André L.; Maciel Filho, Rubens [National Institute of Biofabrication, Campinas (Brazil); Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Campinas, Campinas (Brazil)

    2017-03-01

    Tissue Engineering proposes, among other things, tissue regeneration using scaffolds integrated with biological molecules, growth factors or cells for such regeneration. In this research, polyurethane membranes were prepared using the electrospinning technique in order to obtain membranes to be applied in Tissue Engineering, such as epithelial, drug delivery or cardiac applications. The influence of fibers on the structure and morphology of the membranes was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the structure was evaluated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and the thermal stability was analyzed by thermogravimetry analysis (TGA). In vitro cells attachment and proliferation was investigated by SEM, and in vitro cell viability was studied by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays and Live/Dead® assays. It was found that the membranes present an homogeneous morphology, high porosity, high surface area/volume ratio, it was also observed a random fiber network. The thermal analysis showed that the membrane degradation started at 254 °C. In vitro evaluation of fibroblasts cells showed that fibroblasts spread over the membrane surface after 24, 48 and 72 h of culture. This study supports the investigation of electrospun polyurethane membranes as biocompatible scaffolds for Tissue Engineering applications and provides some guidelines for improved biomaterials with desired properties.

  13. Castor Oil Based Polyurethanes: Synthesis and Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macalino, AD; Salen, VA; Reyes, LQ

    2017-09-01

    In this study, polyurethanes based on castor oil and 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HMDI) were synthesized with varying weight ratio of the castor oil and HMDI. The formation of urethane linkages was verified through the use of a fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The hydrophilicity of the films was evaluated through the use of a contact angle meter and it was found that the contact angle of all the films were below 90 degrees which confirms their hydrophilicity. The thermal stability of the PU films were studies through the use of a thermal gravimetric analyzer and found that all of the polyurethane films exhibited two weight loss events at elevated temperatures wherein the first weight loss event was observed to occur at 285°C to 384°C while the second weight loss event was observed at around 521°C to 551°C. The hardness, elastic modulus, and tensile elongation of the PU films were determined by using a universal testing machine (UTM) where it was found out that the hardness and the elastic modulus of the film is directly proportional with HMDI loading while the tensile elongation is inversely proportional to it. Lastly, it was known through the swelling studies of the PU films that it does not swell, this is due to the presence of unreacted triglycerides in the material, which prevents water from permeating to the films.

  14. Hydroxyapatite-silver nanoparticles coatings on porous polyurethane scaffold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciobanu, Gabriela; Ilisei, Simona; Luca, Constantin

    2014-01-01

    The present paper is focused on a study regarding the possibility of obtaining hydroxyapatite-silver nanoparticle coatings on porous polyurethane scaffold. The method applied is based on a combined strategy involving hydroxyapatite biomimetic deposition on polyurethane surface using a Supersaturated Calcification Solution (SCS), combined with silver ions reduction and in-situ crystallization processes on hydroxyapatite-polyurethane surface by sample immersing in AgNO 3 solution. The morphology, composition and phase structure of the prepared samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-Vis spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements. The data obtained show that a layer of hydroxyapatite was deposited on porous polyurethane support and the silver nanoparticles (average size 34.71 nm) were dispersed among and even on the hydroxyapatite crystals. Hydroxyapatite/polyurethane surface acts as a reducer and a stabilizing agent for silver ions. The surface plasmon resonance peak in UV-Vis absorption spectra showed an absorption maximum at 415 nm, indicating formation of silver nanoparticles. The hydroxyapatite-silver polyurethane scaffolds were tested against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and the obtained data were indicative of good antibacterial properties of the materials. - Highlights: • The hydroxyapatite and silver nanoparticles were grown on the polyurethane scaffold • The hydroxyapatite/polyurethane acts as reducing agent, stabilizer and matrix for Ag • The samples were well characterized by SEM-EDX, XRD, XPS, UV-visible spectroscopy • The hydroxyapatite/silver polyurethane scaffold shows antibacterial property

  15. Contrasting patterns of genetic divergence in two sympatric pseudo-metallophytes: Rumex acetosa L. and Commelina communis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patterns of genetic divergence between populations of facultative metallophytes have been investigated extensively. However, most previous investigations have focused on a single plant species making it unclear if genetic divergence shows common patterns or, conversely, is species-specific. The herbs Rumex acetosa L. and Commelina communis L. are two pseudo-metallophytes thriving in both normal and cupriferous soils along the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River in China. Their non-metallicolous and metallicolous populations are often sympatric thus providing an ideal opportunity for comparative estimation of genetic structures and divergence under the selective pressure derived from copper toxicity. Results In the present study, patterns of genetic divergence of R. acetosa and C. communis , including metal tolerance, genetic structure and genetic relationships between populations, were investigated and compared using hydroponic experiments, AFLP, ISSR and chloroplast genetic markers. Our results show a significant reduction in genetic diversity in metallicolous populations of C. communis but not in R. acetosa . Moreover, genetic differentiation is less in R. acetosa than in C. communis , the latter species also shows a clustering of its metallicolous populations. Conclusions We propose that the genetic divergences apparent in R. acetosa and C. communis , and the contrasting responses of the two species to copper contamination, might be attributed to the differences in their intrinsic physiological and ecological properties. No simple and generalised conclusions on genetic divergence in pseudo-metallophytes can thus be drawn.

  16. Mixed Field Modification of Thermally Cured Castor Oil Based Polyurethanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortley, A.

    2006-01-01

    Thermally cured polyurethanes were prepared from castor oil and hexamethylene diisocyanatee (HMDI). Due to the long aliphatic chain of the castor oil component of polyurethane, thermal curing of castor oil based polyurethane (COPU) is limited by increasing polymer viscosity. To enhance further crosslinking, COPUs were subjected to a range of accumulated doses (0.0-3.0 MGy) produced by the mixed ionizing field of the SLOWPOKE-2 research reactor. The physico-mechanical properties of COPU, unirradiated and irradiated, were characterized by mechanical tests. Increased bond formation resulting from radiation-induced crosslinking was confirmed by favorable increases in mechanical properties and by solid-state 13 C -NMR and FTIR spectra

  17. Applicability of liquid radiopaque polyurethane for transcatheter embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, D.; Wieners, H.; Rueckner, R.

    1983-01-01

    Polyurethane Bayer was tested as an occlusive agent for experimental embolization in postmortem and postnephrectomy kidneys which served as a tumor model. Coaxial and balloon catheters were used for the embolization. To make polyurethane radiopaque, the material was labeled with different water-soluble, oily and solid contrast agents. Best results were achieved with oily contrast materials, e.g., Pantopaque. We found that polyurethane can easily be injected during a predetermined working time of 8-10 min. The embolization results in a complete, permanent, and homogeneous occlusion of the proximal arterial branches and small peripheral vessels. (orig.)

  18. Study of the morphology exhibited by linear segmented polyurethanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, I.M.; Orefice, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    Five series of segmented polyurethanes with different hard segment content were prepared by the prepolymer mixing method. The nano-morphology of the obtained polyurethanes and their microphase separation were investigated by infrared spectroscopy, modulated differential scanning calorimetry and small-angle X-ray scattering. Although highly hydrogen bonded hard segments were formed, high hard segment contents promoted phase mixture and decreased the chain mobility, decreasing the hard segment domain precipitation and the soft segments crystallization. The applied techniques were able to show that the hard-segment content and the hard-segment interactions were the two controlling factors for determining the structure of segmented polyurethanes. (author)

  19. Infections and Coinfections of Questing Ixodes ricinus Ticks by Emerging Zoonotic Pathogens in Western Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lommano, Elena; Bertaiola, Luce; Dupasquier, Christèle

    2012-01-01

    In Europe, Ixodes ricinus is the vector of many pathogens of medical and veterinary relevance, among them Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and tick-borne encephalitis virus, which have been the subject of numerous investigations. Less is known about the occurrence of emerging tick-borne pathogens like Rickettsia spp., Babesia spp., “Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis,” and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in questing ticks. In this study, questing nymph and adult I. ricinus ticks were collected at 11 sites located in Western Switzerland. A total of 1,476 ticks were analyzed individually for the simultaneous presence of B. burgdorferi sensu lato, Rickettsia spp., Babesia spp., “Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis,” and A. phagocytophilum. B. burgdorferi sensu lato, Rickettsia spp., and “Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis” were detected in ticks at all sites with global prevalences of 22.5%, 10.2%, and 6.4%, respectively. Babesia- and A. phagocytophilum-infected ticks showed a more restricted geographic distribution, and their prevalences were lower (1.9% and 1.5%, respectively). Species rarely reported in Switzerland, like Borrelia spielmanii, Borrelia lusitaniae, and Rickettsia monacensis, were identified. Infections with more than one pathogenic species, involving mostly Borrelia spp. and Rickettsia helvetica, were detected in 19.6% of infected ticks. Globally, 34.2% of ticks were infected with at least one pathogen. The diversity of tick-borne pathogens detected in I. ricinus in this study and the frequency of coinfections underline the need to take them seriously into consideration when evaluating the risks of infection following a tick bite. PMID:22522688

  20. Ixodes ricinus tick lipocalins: identification, cloning, phylogenetic analysis and biochemical characterization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Beaufays

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: During their blood meal, ticks secrete a wide variety of proteins that interfere with their host's defense mechanisms. Among these proteins, lipocalins play a major role in the modulation of the inflammatory response. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Screening a cDNA library in association with RT-PCR and RACE methodologies allowed us to identify 14 new lipocalin genes in the salivary glands of the Ixodes ricinus hard tick. A computational in-depth structural analysis confirmed that LIRs belong to the lipocalin family. These proteins were called LIR for "Lipocalin from I. ricinus" and numbered from 1 to 14 (LIR1 to LIR14. According to their percentage identity/similarity, LIR proteins may be assigned to 6 distinct phylogenetic groups. The mature proteins have calculated pM and pI varying from 21.8 kDa to 37.2 kDa and from 4.45 to 9.57 respectively. In a western blot analysis, all recombinant LIRs appeared as a series of thin bands at 50-70 kDa, suggesting extensive glycosylation, which was experimentally confirmed by treatment with N-glycosidase F. In addition, the in vivo expression analysis of LIRs in I. ricinus, examined by RT-PCR, showed homogeneous expression profiles for certain phylogenetic groups and relatively heterogeneous profiles for other groups. Finally, we demonstrated that LIR6 codes for a protein that specifically binds leukotriene B4. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This work confirms that, regarding their biochemical properties, expression profile, and sequence signature, lipocalins in Ixodes hard tick genus, and more specifically in the Ixodes ricinus species, are segregated into distinct phylogenetic groups suggesting potential distinct function. This was particularly demonstrated by the ability of LIR6 to scavenge leukotriene B4. The other LIRs did not bind any of the ligands tested, such as 5-hydroxytryptamine, ADP, norepinephrine, platelet activating factor, prostaglandins D2 and E2, and finally leukotrienes B4 and C

  1. Functional characterization of two defensin isoforms of the hard tick Ixodes ricinus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chrudimská, Tereza; Slaninová, Jiřina; Rudenko, Natalia; Růžek, Daniel; Grubhoffer, Libor

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 1 (2011), e63 ISSN 1756-3305 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009; GA ČR GA206/09/1782; GA ČR GD206/09/H026; GA ČR(CZ) GAP302/11/1901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : defensin * antimicrobial compounds * Ixodes ricinus Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.937, year: 2011

  2. IrFC - An Ixodes ricinus injury-responsive molecule related to Limulus Factor C

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Urbanová, Veronika; Hartmann, David; Grunclová, Lenka; Šíma, Radek; Flemming, Tina; Hajdušek, Ondřej; Kopáček, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 2 (2014), s. 439-447 ISSN 0145-305X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/2136; GA ČR GP13-27630P; GA ČR GP13-12816P; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Complement * Innate immunity * Limulus Clotting Factor C * Phagocytosis * RNA interference * Tick Ixodes ricinus Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.815, year: 2014

  3. Presence of potentially pathogenic Babesia sp. for human in Ixodes ricinus in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casati, Simona; Sager, Heinz; Gern, Lise; Piffaretti, Jean-Claude

    2006-01-01

    We have designed and performed a new PCR method based on the 18S rRNA in order to individuate the presence and the identity of Babesia parasites. Out of 1159 Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks collected in four areas of Switzerland, nine were found to contain Babesia DNA. Sequencing of the short amplicon obtained (411-452 bp) allowed the identification of three human pathogenic species: Babesia microti, B. divergens, for the first time in Switzerland, Babesia sp. EU1. We also report coinfections with B. sp. EU1-Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto and Babesia sp. EU1-B. afzelii.

  4. Uptake and incorporation of sialic acid by the tick Ixodes ricinus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vancová, Marie; Štěrba, J.; Dupejová, Jarmila; Simonová, Z.; Nebesářová, Jana; Novotný, M. V.; Grubhoffer, Libor

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 9 (2012), s. 1277-1287 ISSN 0022-1910 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB600960906; GA ČR GA206/09/1782; GA ČR GD206/09/H026; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Tick * Ixodes ricinus * Sialic acid * Basement membrane * Mass spectrometry * Electron microscopy Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.379, year: 2012

  5. Gamma-ray irradiation, autoclave and ethylene oxide sterilization to thermosetting polyurethane: sterilization to polyurethane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Noriko; Matsumoto, Ken-Ichi; Inishita, Takashi; Takenaka, Yoshinori; Suma, Yasunori; Shintani, Hideharu; National Inst. of Health Sciences, Tokyo

    1995-01-01

    Thermosetting polyurethane (PU) is widely used in a large variety of medical devices. 4,4'-methylenedianiline (MDA) was produced from PU by sterilization and it was studied for the relationship between urethane components or polymer characteristics and formation of MDA upon sterilization, using the commercially available dialyzers fabricated with different combination of isocyanate and polyol. We confirmed that the molecular-weight of polyol influenced the production of MDA upon sterilization. (author)

  6. Thermal insulating materials consisting of polyurethane rigid foam. Production - application - properties. 2. ed.; Waermedaemmstoffe aus Polyurethan-Hartschaum. Herstellung - Anwendung - Eigenschaften

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endres, Edmund; Kleser, Joachim

    2008-02-15

    Using rigid polyurethane (PU) / polyisocyanurate (PIR) foam as a thermal insulation material enables a conservation of resources and energy conservation. Environmentally harmful emissions significantly are reduced. Under this aspect, the authors of the contribution report on the production, application, technical and physical properties of rigid polyurethane foams. Sustainable construction with rigid polyurethane foam, quality assurance and product certification are further topics of this paper.

  7. Measurements of essential oil extract and antioxidant in Syrian Myrtus communis L. leaves using photo chemiluminescence assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayzafoon, G.; Odeh, A.; Mahzia, Y.

    2012-01-01

    The essential oil extracts and antioxidant measurements of Syrian Myrtus communis L. leaves as hydrophilic and hydrophobic existence species have been carried out. The plant leaves as a source of antioxidants was tested by the influence of its aqueous and essential oil extracts on the yield of photo chemiluminescence, PCL solution applying very sensitive and reliable method. By means of a photo chemiluminescence assay, it was possible to assess the total antioxidants capacity of hydrophilic and hydrophobic species existence in Syrian Myrtus communis L. leaves. It has been found that, the integral antioxidant capacity measurements value of Syrian Myrtus communis L. leaves was found in Kurdaha site which has a value of 465.67 1.18 nmol TE/g DM (total Trolox equivalent /gram of Dry material) . The following three mainly chemical species were found in the essential oil extracts: -Pinene, Cineole and Limonene. (author)

  8. Mixed field radiation modification of polyurethanes based on castor oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortley, A.; Bonin, H.W.; Bui, V.T.

    2006-01-01

    Polyurethane is among the polymers and polymer-based composite materials being investigated at the Royal Military College of Canada for the fabrication of leak-tight containers for the long-term disposal of radioactive waste. Due to the long aliphatic chain of the castor oil component of polyurethane, thermal curing of castor oil based polyurethane (COPU) is limited by increasing polymer viscosity. To enhance further crosslinking, COPUs were subjected to a range of doses (0.0 - 3.0 MGy) produced by the mixed ionizing radiation field of a SLOWPOKE-2 research nuclear reactor. The tensile mechanical properties of castor oil based polyurethanes (COPU), unirradiated and irradiated, were characterized by mechanical tensile tests. Increases in mechanical strength due to radiation-induced crosslinking and limitations of thermal curing were confirmed by tensile tests and changing 13 C-NMR and FTIR spectra. (author)

  9. The effect of radiosterilization on surface properties of polyurethane film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, N.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the effect of sterilization method by gamma-ray on structure and cytotoxicity of polyurethane film surface has been investigated. For this purpose reactive urethan prepolymer was synthesized by the reaction between Tdi with a mixture of Peg and castro oil (50/50, w/w). The cured prepolymer films were prepared due to the reaction of reactive prepolymer with air moister under ambient conditions. The polyurethane films were sterilized by gamma-ray (25 kGy). The surface of sterilized polyurethane film was observed by Sem and compared to that of the unsterilized film. Also, the in vitro interaction of fibroblast L 929 cells and sterilized polyurethane film was evaluated. Results showed no signs of cell toxicity

  10. The effect of radiosterilization on cytotoxicity of polyurethane film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, N.

    2003-01-01

    Nowadays a sequence of tests for evaluation of sterilized biomaterial includes an initial set of tests in vitro, both biological (cell culture) and non-biological (mechanical tests). In this paper the cytotoxicity of a sterilized polyurethane film, in order to use as biomaterial, has been investigated. For this purpose NCO-terminated urethane prepolymer in medical quality was synthesized without ingredients beside monomers (polyethylene glycol/castor oil and toluene diisocyanate). The cured prepolymer films were prepared under ambient conditions due to the reaction of free NCO-groups of prepolymer with air moisture. The polyurethane films were sterilized by gamma-ray (25 kGy). The surface structure of sterilized polyurethane film was observed by SEM and compared to that of the unsterilized film. Also, the in vitro interaction of fibroblast cells and sterilized polyurethane film in culture medium containing serum was evaluated in comparison with control samples. Results showed no signs of cell toxicity

  11. Characterization of synthesized polyurethane/montmorillonite nanocomposites foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansari, Farahnaz; Njuguna, James; Sachse, Sophia; Kavosh, Masoud; Michalowski, S; Pielichowski, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    Nanophased hybrid composites based on polyurethane/montmorillonite (PU/MMT) have been fabricated. The nanocomposite which was formed by the addition of a polyol premix with 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate to obtain nanophased polyurethane foams which were then used for fabrication of nanocomposite panels has been shown to have raised strength, stiffness and thermal insulation properties. The nanophased polyurethane foam was characterized by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) measurements and X-ray diffraction (XRD). TEM and SEM analysis indicated that nanophased particles are dispersed homogeneously in the polyurethane matrix on the nanometer scale indicating that PU/MMT is an intercalated nanocomposite with a 2-3 nm nanolayer thickness

  12. Polyurethane foam for roadway stabilization NH route 129, Loudon, NH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-12

    This report summarizes the evaluation of the performance of polyurethane foam as a method of roadway : stabilization for a rural roadway experiencing substantial frost heaving. : NHDOT is responsible for many roads which have evolved from gravel road...

  13. Mixed field radiation modification of polyurethanes based on castor oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortley, A.; Bonin, H.W.; Bui, V.T. [Royal Military College of Canada, Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: aba.mortley@rmc.ca

    2006-07-01

    Polyurethane is among the polymers and polymer-based composite materials being investigated at the Royal Military College of Canada for the fabrication of leak-tight containers for the long-term disposal of radioactive waste. Due to the long aliphatic chain of the castor oil component of polyurethane, thermal curing of castor oil based polyurethane (COPU) is limited by increasing polymer viscosity. To enhance further crosslinking, COPUs were subjected to a range of doses (0.0 - 3.0 MGy) produced by the mixed ionizing radiation field of a SLOWPOKE-2 research nuclear reactor. The tensile mechanical properties of castor oil based polyurethanes (COPU), unirradiated and irradiated, were characterized by mechanical tensile tests. Increases in mechanical strength due to radiation-induced crosslinking and limitations of thermal curing were confirmed by tensile tests and changing {sup 13}C-NMR and FTIR spectra. (author)

  14. Surface coated polyurethane with improved bioactivity and cytocompatability

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chetty, AS

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Polyurethane (PU) may be suitable for various implant applications; however, it lacks bioactivity. Bioactivity allows for direct tissue attachment at the bio- interface, enabling implant fixation while preventing fibrous encapsulation. To impart...

  15. Nano-engineered polyurethane resin-modified concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The goal of the proposed work is to investigate the application of nano-engineered polyurethane (NEPU) emulsions for latex modified : concrete (LMC). NEPU emulsions are non-toxic, environment friendly, durable over a wide temperature range, provide b...

  16. Soy-based UV resistant polyurethane pultruded composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Aliphatic polyurethane (PU) nanocomposites were synthesized using organically modified nanoclays. X-Ray diffraction results : confirmed good exfoliation of nanoclay particles in the PU resin system. With the addition of just 1% of nanoclay in the bas...

  17. Influence of polyols on properties of bio-based polyurethanes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    resources for the preparation of polyols required for the polyurethane industry. Among the vegetable oils, cardanol a meta-substituted phenol obtained (Kumar et al 2002) from ... High ortho-multinuclear cardanol–formaldehyde resin was.

  18. Experimental Investigation of Polyurethane Camouflage Coating Using Dynamic Mechanical Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crawford, Dawn

    1999-01-01

    .... The current polyurethane solvent-based (SOL) formulation, used as a chemical-agent-resistant camouflage top coat on all military tactical vehicles, was investigated, along with newly developed water-reducible (WR...

  19. Fast-Responding Bio-Based Shape Memory Thermoplastic Polyurethanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrović, Zoran S; Milić, Jelena; Zhang, Fan; Ilavsky, Jan

    2017-07-14

    Novel fast response shape-memory polyurethanes were prepared from bio-based polyols, diphenyl methane diisocyanate and butane diol for the first time. The bio-based polyester polyols were synthesized from 9-hydroxynonanoic acid, a product obtained by ozonolysis of fatty acids extracted from soy oil and castor oil. The morphology of polyurethanes was investigated by synchrotron ultra-small angle X-ray scattering, which revealed the inter-domain spacing between the hard and soft phases, the degree of phase separation, and the level of intermixing between the hard and soft phases. We also conducted thorough investigations of the thermal, mechanical, and dielectric properties of the polyurethanes, and found that high crystallization rate of the soft segment gives these polyurethanes unique properties suitable for shape-memory applications, such as adjustable transition temperatures, high degree of elastic elongations, and good mechanical strength. These materials are also potentially biodegradable and biocompatible, therefore suitable for biomedical and environmental applications.

  20. The occurrence of Ixodes ricinus ticks and important tick-borne pathogens in areas with high tick-borne encephalitis prevalence in different altitudinal levels of the Czech Republic. Part I. Ixodes ricinus ticks and tick-borne encephalitis virus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Daniel, M.; Danielová, V.; Kříž, B.; Růžek, Daniel; Fialová, A.; Malý, M.; Materna, J.; Pejčoch, M.; Erhart, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 2 (2016), s. 118-128 ISSN 1210-7913 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Ixodes ricinus * tick-borne encephalitis virus * occurence * altitude * region * season Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 0.500, year: 2016

  1. Multifunctional composite material based on carbon-filled polyurethane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinovskaya, T; Melentyev, S; Pavlov, S

    2015-01-01

    The research paper deals with the performance of composite resistive material heating coatings based on the polyurethane binder, filled with colloidal-graphite preparation C- 1, which can be used in structures of electric heaters. Frequency dependences of transmission and reflection coefficients, dielectric permeability of composite materials with the various content of carbon fillers (technical carbon, graphite) in polyurethane varnish in ranges of frequencies 26-40 GHz and 110-260 GHz are experimentally investigated. (paper)

  2. Antimicrobial polyurethane thermosets based on undecylenic acid: synthesis and evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Cádiz, V.; Galià, M.; Ronda, J.C.; Lligadas, G.; Bordons, A.; Esteve-Zarzoso, B.; Lluch, C.

    2014-01-01

    10.1002/mabi.201400017 In the present study, plant oil-derived surface-modifiable polyurethane thermosets are presented. Polyol synthesis is carried out taking advantage of thiol-yne photopolymerization of undecylenic acid derivatives containing methyl ester or hydroxyl moieties. The prepared methyl ester-containing polyurethanes allow surface modification treatment to enhance their hydrophilicity and impart antimicrobial activity through the following two steps: i) grafting poly(propylen...

  3. Polyurethane Coatings Reinforced by Halloysite Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diethelm Johannsmann

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The pencil hardness of a two-component polyurethane coating was improved by adding halloysite nanotubes to the recipe at a weight fraction of less than 10%. The pencil hardness was around F for the unfilled coating and increased to around 2H upon filling. It was important to silanize the surface of the filler in order to achieve good coupling to the matrix. Sonicating the sample during drying also improved the hardness. Scanning electron micrographs suggest that the nanotubes are always well immersed into the bulk of the film. With a thickness between 10 and 20 µm, the optical clarity was good enough to clearly read letters through the film. The films can be used in applications where transparency is required.

  4. Degradation characteristics of waste polyurethane by radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Seok; Ahn, Sung Jun; Gwon Hui Jeong; Jeong, Sung In; Nho, Young Chang; Lim, Youn Mook [Research Division for Industry and Environment, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Polyurethane (PU) is a very popular polymer that is used in a variety of applications due to its good mechanical, thermal, and chemical properties. However, waste PU recycling has received significant attention due to environmental issues. The aim of this work was to investigate the degradation characteristics of waste PU to recycle. Degradation of waste PU was carried out using a radiation techniques. Waste PUs were exposed to a gamma {sup 60}Co sources. To verify degradation, the irradiated PUs were characterized using FT-IR, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), and their thermal/mechanical properties are reported. When the radiation dose was 500 kGy, the molecular weight of the waste PU drastically decreased. Also, the mechanical properties of waste PU were approximately 4 times lower than those of non-irradiated PU. This study has confirmed the possibility of making fine particle of waste PU for recycling through radiation degradation techniques.

  5. Polyurethane elastomers from morphology to mechanical aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Prisacariu, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive account of the physical / mechanical behaviour of polyurethanes (PU´s) elastomers, films and blends of variable crystallinity. Aspects covered include the elasticity and inelasticity of amorphous to crystalline PUs, in relation to their sensitivity to chemical and physical structure. A study is made of how aspects of the constitutive responses of PUs vary with composition: the polyaddition procedure, the hard segment, soft segment and chain extender (diols and diamines) are varied systematically in a large number of systems of model and novel crosslinked andthermoplastic PUs. Results will be related to: microstructural changes, on the basis of evidence from x-ray scattering (SAXS and WAXS), and also dynamic mechanical analyses (DMA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and IR dichroism. Inelastic effects will be investigated also by including quantitative correlations between the magnitude of the Mullins effect and the fractional energy dissipation by hysteresis under cyclic straining, g...

  6. Biodegradation of polyurethane derived from castor oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Cangemi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the biodegradation of a polymer derived from castor oil, which is a renewable, natural material that is a practical alternative for the replacement of traditional polyurethane foams. Due to its molecular structure, which contains polyester segments derived from vegetable oil, the polymeric surface is susceptible to microorganism attack. This study tested the biological degrading agent that was in contact with the microorganisms resulting from microbiological grease degrading agents, when foam was inoculated. Solid-media agar-plate tests were conducted for their potential to evaluate the biodegradation of polymeric particles by specific strains of microorganisms during 216 hours. The growth rate was defined. This technique provides a way of distinguishing the degradation abilities of microorganisms from the degradability of materials.

  7. Engineering Performance of Polyurethane Bonded Aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haimin WU

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the engineering performance of polyurethane (PUR bonded aggregate were studied. The engineering performance, including compressive and flexural mechanical properties, void ratio, and coefficient of permeability were determined through laboratory tests. Moreover, the effects of two different curing conditions on the compressive strength properties of a PUR bonded aggregate were also evaluated. The compressive strengths of PUR bonded aggregates were found to be lower than that of conventional porous concrete, which is a commonly used cushion material. However, experimental results indicated a higher void ratio and coefficient of permeability, lower elasticity modulus, better toughness, and stronger adaptability to flexural deformation compared to porous concrete. Consequently, PUR bonded aggregate is a better solution than porous concrete when used as the cushion material of a geomembrane surface barrier for a high rock-fill dam.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.23.2.15798

  8. Gregarine Cephaloidophora communis mawrodiadi, 1908 in the barnacle Euraphia rhyzophorae, Oliveira, 1940 from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacombe Dyrce

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The gregarine Cephaloidophora communis was observed for the first time in Brazil in the barnacles Euraphia rhyzophorae collected in Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between 1990 and 1996. Histological studies showed growth phases of the parasite in specific parts of the digestive system. The intracellular forms occurred in the vacuoles of the intestinal cells. Syzygy was frequent, and the most common form following syzygy was cylindrical, with a single membrane. The cytoplasm of the gregarines was always irregular, dense, and occasionally presenting a dark stoch area.

  9. Preparation and Characterization of Fluorinated Hydrophobic UV-Crosslinkable Thiol-Ene Polyurethane Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Xia

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The polyurethane prepolymer terminated with a double bond was synthesized using isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI, hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene (HTPB, 1,4-butanediol (BDO, and 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA. Then, a series of innovative UV-curable polyurethane coatings were prepared by blending ene-terminated polyurethane, fluoroacrylate monomer, and multifunctional thiol crosslinker upon UV exposure. The incorporation of fluoroacrylate monomer and multifunctional thiols into polyurethane coatings significantly enhanced the hydrophobic property, mechanical property, pencil hardness, and glossiness of the polyurethane coatings. This method of preparing UV crosslinkable, hydrophobic polyurethane coatings based on thiol-ene chemistry exhibited numerous advantages over other UV photocuring systems.

  10. Nitrosomonas communis strain YNSRA, an ammonia-oxidizing bacterium, isolated from the reed rhizoplane in an aquaponics plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuyama, Tatsuaki; Mine, Atsusi; Kamiyama, Kaoru; Yabe, Ryuichi; Satoh, Kazuo; Matsumoto, Hirotoshi; Takahashi, Reiji; Itonaga, Koji

    2004-01-01

    An ammonia-oxidizing bacterium (strain YNSRA) was isolated from the rhizoplane of the reed (Phragmites communis) used in an aquaponics plant which is a wastewater treatment plant. Strain YNSRA was identified as Nitrosomonas communis by taxonomic studies. The hydroxylamine-cytochrome c reductase (HCR) of strain YNSRA was found to have a higher activity (25.60 u/mg) than that of Nitrosomonas europaea ATCC25978T (8.94 u/mg). Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RubisCO) activity was detected at very low levels in strain YNSRA, whereas strain ATCC25978T had definite activity.

  11. Hydroxyapatite-silver nanoparticles coatings on porous polyurethane scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciobanu, Gabriela; Ilisei, Simona; Luca, Constantin

    2014-02-01

    The present paper is focused on a study regarding the possibility of obtaining hydroxyapatite-silver nanoparticle coatings on porous polyurethane scaffold. The method applied is based on a combined strategy involving hydroxyapatite biomimetic deposition on polyurethane surface using a Supersaturated Calcification Solution (SCS), combined with silver ions reduction and in-situ crystallization processes on hydroxyapatite-polyurethane surface by sample immersing in AgNO3 solution. The morphology, composition and phase structure of the prepared samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-Vis spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements. The data obtained show that a layer of hydroxyapatite was deposited on porous polyurethane support and the silver nanoparticles (average size 34.71 nm) were dispersed among and even on the hydroxyapatite crystals. Hydroxyapatite/polyurethane surface acts as a reducer and a stabilizing agent for silver ions. The surface plasmon resonance peak in UV-Vis absorption spectra showed an absorption maximum at 415 nm, indicating formation of silver nanoparticles. The hydroxyapatite-silver polyurethane scaffolds were tested against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and the obtained data were indicative of good antibacterial properties of the materials. © 2013.

  12. Hydrophilic polyurethane matrix promotes chondrogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalluri, Sandeep M.; Krishnan, G. Rajesh; Cheah, Calvin; Arzumand, Ayesha; Yuan, Yuan; Richardson, Caley A.; Yang, Shuying; Sarkar, Debanjan

    2016-01-01

    Segmental polyurethanes exhibit biphasic morphology and can control cell fate by providing distinct matrix guided signals to increase the chondrogenic potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Polyethylene glycol (PEG) based hydrophilic polyurethanes can deliver differential signals to MSCs through their matrix phases where hard segments are cell-interactive domains and PEG based soft segments are minimally interactive with cells. These coordinated communications can modulate cell–matrix interactions to control cell shape and size for chondrogenesis. Biphasic character and hydrophilicity of polyurethanes with gel like architecture provide a synthetic matrix conducive for chondrogenesis of MSCs, as evidenced by deposition of cartilage-associated extracellular matrix. Compared to monophasic hydrogels, presence of cell interactive domains in hydrophilic polyurethanes gels can balance cell–cell and cell–matrix interactions. These results demonstrate the correlation between lineage commitment and the changes in cell shape, cell–matrix interaction, and cell–cell adhesion during chondrogenic differentiation which is regulated by polyurethane phase morphology, and thus, represent hydrophilic polyurethanes as promising synthetic matrices for cartilage regeneration. PMID:26046282

  13. Hydrophilic polyurethane matrix promotes chondrogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalluri, Sandeep M; Krishnan, G Rajesh; Cheah, Calvin; Arzumand, Ayesha; Yuan, Yuan; Richardson, Caley A; Yang, Shuying; Sarkar, Debanjan

    2015-09-01

    Segmental polyurethanes exhibit biphasic morphology and can control cell fate by providing distinct matrix guided signals to increase the chondrogenic potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Polyethylene glycol (PEG) based hydrophilic polyurethanes can deliver differential signals to MSCs through their matrix phases where hard segments are cell-interactive domains and PEG based soft segments are minimally interactive with cells. These coordinated communications can modulate cell-matrix interactions to control cell shape and size for chondrogenesis. Biphasic character and hydrophilicity of polyurethanes with gel like architecture provide a synthetic matrix conducive for chondrogenesis of MSCs, as evidenced by deposition of cartilage-associated extracellular matrix. Compared to monophasic hydrogels, presence of cell interactive domains in hydrophilic polyurethanes gels can balance cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. These results demonstrate the correlation between lineage commitment and the changes in cell shape, cell-matrix interaction, and cell-cell adhesion during chondrogenic differentiation which is regulated by polyurethane phase morphology, and thus, represent hydrophilic polyurethanes as promising synthetic matrices for cartilage regeneration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Crystallization and diffraction analysis of the serpin IRS-2 from the hard tick Ixodes ricinus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovářová, Zuzana; Chmelař, Jindřich; Šanda, Miloslav; Brynda, Jiří; Mareš, Michael; Řezáčová, Pavlína

    2010-01-01

    Cleavage of the serpin IRS-2 from the hard tick I. ricinus by contaminating proteolytic activity mimicked the specific processing of the serpin by its target protease and resulted in a more stable form of the serpin which produced crystals that diffracted to 1.8 Å resolution. IRS-2 from the hard tick Ixodes ricinus belongs to the serpin family of protease inhibitors. It is produced in the salivary glands of the tick and its anti-inflammatory activity suggests that it plays a role in parasite–host interaction. Recombinant IRS-2 prepared by heterologous expression in a bacterial system was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belonged to the primitive tetragonal space group P4 3 and diffracted to 1.8 Å resolution. Mass-spectrometric and electrophoretic analyses revealed that IRS-2 was cleaved by contaminating proteases during crystallization. This processing of IRS-2 mimicked the specific cleavage of the serpin by its target protease and resulted in a more stable form (the so-called relaxed conformation), which produced well diffracting crystals. Activity profiling with specific substrates and inhibitors demonstrated traces of serine and cysteine proteases in the protein stock solution

  15. Exon variability of gene encoding glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase of Ixodes ricinus ticks*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radulović Ž.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We have previously found apparent differences in Gpdh allele frequences between borrelia infected and uninfected Ixodes ricinus as revealed by native gel electrophoresis of allozyme polymorphisms. The present study deals with the genetic basis of the observed allozyme polymorphism. Multiple sequence alignment of 36 Gpdh open reading frames identified a total of 40 polymorphic nucleotide sites. Of the 40 polymorphic nucleotide sites, 34 were silent (did not result in amino acid residue change, while six were active causing a change in the amino acid chain. All polymorphic amino acid sites were situated within the N-terminal NAD-binding domain, whereas the C-terminal substrate-binding domain was highly conserved. Analysis of the obtained Gpdh sequences and GPDH allozyme polymorphisms for individual ticks pointed to amino acid changes at positions 61 (glycine-to-glutamic acid, 64 (serineto- cysteine and 102 (glycine-to-arginine as a key for differential mobility of GPDH allozymes in an electric field. Our findings are discussed in the context of the molecular basis of I. ricinus host finding behavior.

  16. Prevalence of pathogenic bacteria in Ixodes ricinus ticks in Central Bohemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klubal, Radek; Kopecky, Jan; Nesvorna, Marta; Sparagano, Olivier A E; Thomayerova, Jana; Hubert, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria associated with the tick Ixodes ricinus were assessed in specimens unattached or attached to the skin of cats, dogs and humans, collected in the Czech Republic. The bacteria were detected by PCR in 97 of 142 pooled samples including 204 ticks, i.e. 1-7 ticks per sample, collected at the same time from one host. A fragment of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene was amplified, cloned and sequenced from 32 randomly selected samples. The most frequent sequences were those related to Candidatus Midichloria midichlori (71% of cloned sequences), followed by Diplorickettsia (13%), Spiroplasma (3%), Rickettsia (3%), Pasteurella (3%), Morganella (3%), Pseudomonas (2%), Bacillus (1%), Methylobacterium (1%) and Phyllobacterium (1%). The phylogenetic analysis of Spiroplasma 16S rRNA gene sequences showed two groups related to Spiroplasma eriocheiris and Spiroplasma melliferum, respectively. Using group-specific primers, the following potentially pathogenic bacteria were detected: Borellia (in 20% of the 142 samples), Rickettsia (12%), Spiroplasma (5%), Diplorickettsia (5%) and Anaplasma (2%). In total, 68% of I. ricinus samples (97/142) contained detectable bacteria and 13% contained two or more putative pathogenic groups. The prevalence of tick-borne bacteria was similar to the observations in other European countries.

  17. Histomorphological evaluation of Compound bone of Granulated Ricinus in bone regeneration in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateus, Christiano Pavan; Chierice, Gilberto Orivaldo; Okamoto, Tetuo

    2011-01-01

    Histological evaluation is an effective method in the behavioral description of the qualitative and quantitative implanted materials. The research validated the performance of Compound bone of Granulated Ricinus on bone regeneration with the histomorphological analysis results. Were selected 30 rabbits, females, divided into 3 groups of 10 animals (G1, G2, G3) with a postoperative time of 45, 70 and 120 days respectively. Each animal is undergone 2 bone lesions in the ilium, one implemented in the material: Compound bone of Granulated Ricinus and the other for control. After the euthanasia, the iliac bone was removed, identified and subjected to histological procedure. The evaluation histological, histomorphological results were interpreted and described by quantitative and qualitative analysis based facts verified in the three experimental groups evaluating the rate of absorption of the material in the tissue regeneration, based on the neo-bone formation. The histomorphologic results classified as a material biocompatible and biologically active. Action in regeneration by bone resorption occurs slowly and gradually. Knowing the time and rate of absorption and neo-formation bone biomaterial, which can be determined in the bone segment applicable in the clinical surgical area.

  18. Genetic diversity of Ixodes ricinus (Ixodida: Ixodidae) ticks in sympatric and allopatric zones in Baltic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulauskas, A; Galdikaitė-Brazienė, E; Radzijevskaja, J; Aleksandravičienė, A; Galdikas, M

    2016-12-01

    Ixodes ricinus (Linnaeus 1758) and Ixodes persulcatus (Schulze 1930) ticks are involved in the transmission of a wide variety of pathogens with considerable impact on human and animal health. The co-distribution zone of these two tick species is situated in the Baltic countries, which provides a special setting for the population studies. In the present study, genetic variability of I. ricinus ticks collected in allopatric and sympatric locations in the Baltic countries has been investigated using a sequence analysis of the mitochondrial DNA control region, 16S rRNA and cytb genes. There were 32 haplotypes (Hd: 0.8551) and 27 haplotypes (Hd:0.8213) of control region sequences from ticks in allopatric and sympatric zones detected, respectively. Out of 47 16S rRNA gene haplotypes, 32 haplotypes (Hd: 0.7213) were found in the allopatric zone and 27 (Hd:0.9572) in the sympatric zone. The Cytb gene was very conserved and monomorphic in ticks from the allopatric zone, whereas three unique haplotypes were observed in the sympatric zone. The higher number of unique haplotypes of the control region was detected in the allopatric zone. Median joining network and Fst analysis did not reveal a clear separation between ticks from the two zones. © 2016 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  19. Multi-criteria Decision Analysis to Model Ixodes ricinus Habitat Suitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Raphaël; McGrath, Guy; McMahon, Barry J; Vanwambeke, Sophie O

    2017-09-01

    Tick-borne diseases present a major threat to both human and livestock health throughout Europe. The risk of infection is directly related to the presence of its vector. Thereby it is important to know their distribution, which is strongly associated with environmental factors: the presence and availability of a suitable habitat, of a suitable climate and of hosts. The present study models the habitat suitability for Ixodes ricinus in Ireland, where data on tick distribution are scarce. Tick habitat suitability was estimated at a coarse scale (10 km) with a multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) method according to four different scenarios (depending on the variables used and on the weights granted to each of them). The western part of Ireland and the Wicklow mountains in the East were estimated to be the most suitable areas for I. ricinus in the island. There was a good level of agreement between results from the MCDA and recorded tick presence. The different scenarios did not affect the spatial outputs substantially. The current study suggests that tick habitat suitability can be mapped accurately at a coarse scale in a data-scarce context using knowledge-based methods. It can serve as a guideline for future countrywide sampling that would help to determine local risk of tick presence and refining knowledge on tick habitat suitability in Ireland.

  20. Variability and action mechanism of a family of anticomplement proteins in Ixodes ricinus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Couvreur

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ticks are blood feeding arachnids that characteristically take a long blood meal. They must therefore counteract host defence mechanisms such as hemostasis, inflammation and the immune response. This is achieved by expressing batteries of salivary proteins coded by multigene families. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report the in-depth analysis of a tick multigene family and describe five new anticomplement proteins in Ixodes ricinus. Compared to previously described Ixodes anticomplement proteins, these segregated into a new phylogenetic group or subfamily. These proteins have a novel action mechanism as they specifically bind to properdin, leading to the inhibition of C3 convertase and the alternative complement pathway. An excess of non-synonymous over synonymous changes indicated that coding sequences had undergone diversifying selection. Diversification was not associated with structural, biochemical or functional diversity, adaptation to host species or stage specificity but rather to differences in antigenicity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Anticomplement proteins from I. ricinus are the first inhibitors that specifically target a positive regulator of complement, properdin. They may provide new tools for the investigation of role of properdin in physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms. They may also be useful in disorders affecting the alternative complement pathway. Looking for and detecting the different selection pressures involved will help in understanding the evolution of multigene families and hematophagy in arthropods.

  1. ´Candidatus Midichloria mitochondrii´, an endosymbiont of the tick Ixodes ricinus with a unique intramitochondrial lifestyle

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sassera, D.; Beninati, T.; Bandi, C.; Bouman, Edwin Arien Poul; Sacchi, L.; Fabbi, M.; Lo, N.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 11 (2006), s. 2535-2540 ISSN 1466-5026 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/04/0751 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Ixodes ricinus * endosymbiont * intramitochondrial Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.662, year: 2006

  2. Isolation, cultivation and identification of Borrelia burgdorferi genospecies from Ixodes ricinus ticks from the city of Brno, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pejchalová, K.; Žákovská, A.; Mejzlíková, M.; Halouzka, Jiří; Dendis, M.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 1 (2007), s. 75-79 ISSN 1232-1966 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Borrelia burgdorferi * cultivation * DFM method * Ixodes ricinus * Lyme Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.074, year: 2007 http://www.aaem.pl/pdf/1475.pdf

  3. Arthropod repellency, especially tick (Ixodes ricinus), exerted by extract from Artemisia abrotanum and essential oil from flowers of Dianthus caryophyllum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunón, H; Thorsell, W; Mikiver, A; Malander, I

    2006-06-01

    A toluene extract of southernwood (Artemisia abrotanum) and the essential oil from flowers of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllum ) exerted pronounced a repellent effect both against ticks (nymphs of Ixodes ricinus) and yellow fever mosquitoes (Aedes aegypti). The most potent repellents found were coumarin and thujyl alcohol from A. abrotanum and phenylethanol from D. caryophyllum where coumarin and thujyl alcohol were also detected.

  4. 'Candidatus Rickettsia mendelii', a novel basal group rickettsia detected in Ixodes ricinus ticks in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hajdušková, Eva; Literák, I.; Papoušek, I.; Costa, F.B.; Nováková, M.; Labruna, M. B.; Zdražilová-Dubská, L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 3 (2016), s. 482-486 ISSN 1877-959X Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Rickettsiae * Candidatus Rickettsia mendelii * Ixodes ricinus * basal group rickettsiae * ticks * Czech Republic Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.230, year: 2016

  5. Identification of Borrelia burgdorferi genospecies isolated from Ixodes ricinus ticks in the South Moravian region of the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bonczek, Ondřej; Žákovská, A.; Vargová, L.; Šerý, Omar

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 4 (2015), s. 642-646 ISSN 1232-1966 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : Borrelia burgdorferi s. I. * Borrelia spielmanii * Ixodes ricinus Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.895, year: 2015

  6. First evidence of Babesia venatorum and Babesia capreoli in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Venclíková, Kristýna; Mendel, Jan; Betášová, Lenka; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Rudolf, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 2 (2015), s. 212-214 ISSN 1232-1966 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 261504 - EDENEXT Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Babesia sp. EU1 * Babesia venatorum * Babesia capreoli * Ixodes ricinus * ixodid ticks Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.895, year: 2015

  7. Deer presence rather than abundance determines the population density of the sheep tick, Ixodes ricinus, in Dutch forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmeester, Tim R.; Sprong, Hein; Jansen, Patrick A.; Prins, Herbert H.T.; Wieren, Van Sipke E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Understanding which factors drive population densities of disease vectors is an important step in assessing disease risk. We tested the hypothesis that the density of ticks from the Ixodes ricinus complex, which are important vectors for tick-borne diseases, is determined by the density

  8. Transmission differentials for multible pathogens as inferred from their prevalence in larva, nymph and sult of Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per M.; Christoffersen, Christian S.; Moutailler, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Ixodes ricinus serves as vector for a range of microorganisms capable of causing clinical illness in humans. The microorganisms occur in the same vector populations and are generally affected by the same tick-host interactions. Still, the instars have different host preferences which should...

  9. Deer presence rather than abundance determines the population density of the sheep tick, Ixodes ricinus, in Dutch forests.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmeester, Tim R; Sprong, Hein; Jansen, Patrick A; Prins, Herbert H T; van Wieren, Sipke E

    2017-01-01

    Understanding which factors drive population densities of disease vectors is an important step in assessing disease risk. We tested the hypothesis that the density of ticks from the Ixodes ricinus complex, which are important vectors for tick-borne diseases, is determined by the density of deer, as

  10. The integration of multiple independent data reveals an unusual response to Pleistocene climatic changes in the hard tick Ixodes ricinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porretta, Daniele; Mastrantonio, Valentina; Mona, Stefano; Epis, Sara; Montagna, Matteo; Sassera, Davide; Bandi, Claudio; Urbanelli, Sandra

    2013-03-01

    In the last few years, improved analytical tools and the integration of genetic data with multiple sources of information have shown that temperate species exhibited more complex responses to ice ages than previously thought. In this study, we investigated how Pleistocene climatic changes affected the current distribution and genetic diversity of European populations of the tick Ixodes ricinus, an ectoparasite with high ecological plasticity. We first used mitochondrial and nuclear genetic markers to investigate the phylogeographic structure of the species and its Pleistocene history using coalescent-based methods; then we used species distribution modelling to infer the climatic niche of the species at last glacial maximum; finally, we reviewed the literature on the I. ricinus hosts to identify the locations of their glacial refugia. Our results support the scenario that during the last glacial phase, I. ricinus never experienced a prolonged allopatric divergence in separate glacial refugia, but persisted with interconnected populations across Southern and Central Europe. The generalist behaviour in host choice of I. ricinus would have played a major role in maintaining connections between its populations. Although most of the hosts persisted in separate refugia, from the point of view of I. ricinus, they represented a continuity of 'bridges' among populations. Our study highlights the importance of species-specific ecology in affecting responses to Pleistocene glacial-interglacial cycles. Together with other cases in Europe and elsewhere, it contributes to setting new hypotheses on how species with wide ecological plasticity coped with Pleistocene climatic changes. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Development of an energy-protein for animal food based crop residues pear (Pyrus communis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor Julián Pulido-Suárez,

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pear (Pyrus communis is a fruit from the species of deciduous, widely consumed worldwide for its high quality energ y. However, pear itself does not provide the amount of protein required for cattle feeding, so alternatives to improve its nutritional quality have been studied. On these grounds, the objective of this study was to evaluate the parameters of solid state fermentation, and compositional energ y value of a protein food based on pears (Pyrus communis with apparent physical damage. A completely random design was used to evaluate three treatments; these correspond to percentages of inclusion of calcium carbonate (0.25, 0.50, 0.75 formulation based on already established (40 % pear, 25 % rice flour, 25 % wheat bran and 10 % urea, the parameters evaluated were: pH, ashes (CZ, crude protein (CP and crude fiber (CF, and they were recorded at 0, 24, 48 and 72 hours. As a result, it was found that the pH dropped gradually for each treatment and at each sampling period; however, there were no significant differences. The lower value at the end of the process is recorded T2 (0.25 with 4.66, followed by T3 (0.50 with 4.50, the ash reached values of up to 6 % with T3, and T2 (0.50 reached the highest percentages in fiber and crude protein. Finally, decreasing the fermentation variables ensures a food with no presence of undesirable microorganisms and stable over time.

  12. Evaluation of Sebostatic Activity of Juniperus communis Fruit Oil and Pelargonium graveolens Oil Compared to Niacinamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Kozlowska

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available As a facial skin condition, oily skin causes cosmetic problems, such as large pores, shiny appearance, and the feeling of greasiness and heaviness. Furthermore, extensive sebum production leads to common skin disorders such as acne vulgaris or seborrheic dermatitis. This study investigated the efficacy of sebum control tonics containing Juniperus communis fruit oil, Pelargonium graveolens oil, or niacinamide. The effects of Juniperus communis fruit oil, Pelargonium graveolens oil, and niacinamide on sebum excretion rates were investigated using Sebumeter®. Sebum measurements (Sebumeter® SM 815, Courage & Khazaka®, Köln, Germany were made on the skin surface in three places by applying the sebumeter probe to the forehead after 10, 60, and 120 min from application of the tonic. The results indicated that the application of the tonic maintained a lower sebum secretion 10 min and 60 min after the application of the cosmetic, compared to those before it. However, a visible sebum-reducing efficacy after 2 h was reported only for tonic containing 0.25% Pelargonium graveolens oil and for the tonic with the addition of 3% niacinamide. After 2 h, the values of sebum measurements were 44 ± 5.13 a.u. and 58 ± 9.07 a.u., respectively. Our results show that the tonic with the addition of 0.25% Pelargonium graveolens oil is the most effective in reducing sebum production.

  13. Nanoclay Dispersion and its Effect on Properties of Waterborne Polyurethanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Honarkar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, waterborne polyurethanes as in coatings and adhesives formulations have attracted considerable attention because they are non-toxic, non-flammable and friendly to environment. Besides environmental management, the flexibility, low temperature property, high tensile strength, good adhesion and improved rheological property are specific properties of waterborne polyurethanes. Also low production cost of water borne polyurethanes over solvent-borne polyurethanes is also a reason for their applications. However, these materials have some defects such as weak water resistance and low adhesion in the moisture environment due to sensitivity of their hydrophilic ionic bonds, ether groups, urethane and ester groups to hydrolysis which need to be improved. Also, low heat resistance of these materials is due to a relatively low crystalline melting point or glass transition temperature of hard segments. One of the ways to solve this problem and improve its properties for different applications is the addition of inorganic fillers especially nano-sized layered silicates within polyurethane matrix. In this way water resistance, heat resistance, mechanical properties and modulus increase simultaneously. In this research, waterborne polyurethane nanocomposites with PTMG polyol, IPDI, DMPA (internal emulsifier, TEA (neutralizer and 1, 3 and 5weight % of Cloisite 30B as reinforcement were synthesized and characterized. Polarity of the samples was investigated by contact angle test and dispersion of nano particles in the samples was characterized by X-Ray and TEM, Thermal properties and dynamic mechanical properties were measured by TGA and DMTA, respectively. The results showed that incorporation of clay into polyurethanes did reduce water absorption and increased heat resistance, modulus, particle size and contact angle.In recent years, waterborne polyurethanes including coatings and adhesives have attracted considerable attention because they

  14. Radiation-resistance of polyurethane pipes for cooling liquid in BES III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xunfeng; Zheng Lifang; Ji Quan; Wu Ping; Wang Li

    2009-01-01

    Gamma ray radiation and neutron radiation are predominant in the working conditions of BES III, and the radiation-resistance aging of polyurethane pipes is very important in this condition, as the pipes of cooling liquid for beam pipe and SCQ (superconducting quadrupole) vacuum pipe in BESIII. Polyester polyurethane pipes and polyether polyurethane pipes were irradiated by gamma ray and neutron. The radiation doses were as much as ten years' doses in BES. Pressure test, FTIR and thermal analysis were used to study the radiation-resistance of these two kinds of polyurethane pipes. The results show that the radiation-resistance and thermal stability of polyester polyurethane pipes are prior to those of polyether polyurethane pipes, and the pressure resistance of polyester polyurethane pipes is almost maintained after the irradiation by gamma ray and neutron, but the polyether polyurethane pipes can be aged and ruptured after the irradiation by neutron. (authors)

  15. IDENTIFICATION OF CFC AND HCFC SUBSTITUTES FOR BLOWING POLYURETHANE FOAM INSULATION PRODUCTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a cooperative effort to identiry chlorofluorocarbons and hydrochlorofluorocarbon substitutes for blowing polyurethane foam insulation products. The substantial ongoing effort is identifying third-generation blowing agets for polyurethane foams to repla...

  16. Biobased composites from thermoplastic polyurethane elastomer and cross-linked acrylated-epoxidized soybean oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean oil is an important sustainable material. Crosslinked acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO) is brittle without flexibility and the incorporation of thermoplastic polyurethane improves its toughness for industrial applications. The hydrophilic functional groups from both oil and polyurethan...

  17. Ascorbic acid and tissue browning in pears (Pyrus communis L. cvs Rocha and Conference) under controlled atmosphere conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, R.H.; Kho, R.M.; Schaik, van A.C.R.; Sanders, M.G.; Oosterhaven, J.

    2000-01-01

    The relationships between storage gas composition and ascorbic acid (AA) levels, and between AA levels and the development of internal browning, were studied in 'Conference' and 'Rocha' pears (Pyrus communis L.). In both cultivars, AA levels declined under (browning-inducing) controlled atmosphere

  18. Antimicrobial activity of untenospongin B, a metabolic from the marine sponge Hippospongia communis collected from the Atlantic coast of Morocco

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rifai, S.; Kijjoa, A.; van Soest, R.W.M.

    2004-01-01

    (-)-Untenospongin B isolated from the marine sponge Hippospongia communis has been tested for its antimicrobial activity against bacteria and human pathogenic fungi using agar disk method and was found to possess a broad and strong activity toward the test organisms. Its antifungal activity was

  19. SPECIFIC FEATURES OF OLIGOMERIC PRODUCT SOLIDIFICATION FROM POLYURETHANE WASTES AND THEIR PRACTICAL APPLICATION

    OpenAIRE

    V. Belyatsky; Yu. Kryvogus

    2012-01-01

    The paper considers a possibility to use secondary polyurethane obtained by  thermal depolymerization of wastes on the basis of cross-linked polyurethane (polyurethane adduct) and isocyanate. An effect of density dependence of the obtained polyurethane samples on nature and quantity of solvent has been revealed and it is significantly observed while using low-boiling solvents. The influence of adduct/solidification agent ratio on mechanical hardness of the obtained samples has been studied in...

  20. Preparation and Characterization of Fluorinated Hydrophobic UV-Crosslinkable Thiol-Ene Polyurethane Coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Wenjing Xia; Nianqing Zhu; Rongjie Hou; Wengui Zhong; Mingqing Chen

    2017-01-01

    The polyurethane prepolymer terminated with a double bond was synthesized using isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI), hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene (HTPB), 1,4-butanediol (BDO), and 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (HEA). Then, a series of innovative UV-curable polyurethane coatings were prepared by blending ene-terminated polyurethane, fluoroacrylate monomer, and multifunctional thiol crosslinker upon UV exposure. The incorporation of fluoroacrylate monomer and multifunctional thiols into polyurethane ...

  1. Polyurethane Organosilicate Nanocomposites as Blood Compatible Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson H. Y. Chung

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Polymer clay nanocomposites (NCs show remarkable potential in the field of drug delivery due to their enhanced barrier properties. It is hypothesised that well dispersed clay particles within the polymer matrix create a tortuous pathway for diffusing therapeutic molecules, thereby resulting in more sustained release of the drug. As coatings for medical devices, these materials can simultaneously modulate drug release and improve the mechanical performance of an existing polymer system without introducing additional materials with new chemistries that can lead to regulatory concerns. In this study, polyurethane organosilicate nanocomposites (PUNCs coated onto stainless steel wires were evaluated for their feasibility as blood compatible coatings and as drug delivery systems. Heparin was selected as the model drug to examine the impact of silicate loading and modifier chain length in modulating release. Findings revealed that better dispersion was achieved from samples with lower clay loadings and longer alkyl chains. The blood compatibility of PUNCs as assessed by thrombin generation assays showed that the addition of silicate particles did not significantly decrease the thrombin generation lag time (TGT, p = 0.659 or the peak thrombin (p = 0.999 of polyurethane (PU. PUNC coatings fabricated in this research were not cytotoxic as examined by the cell growth inhibition assay and were uniformly intact, but had slightly higher growth inhibition compared to PU possibly due to the presence of organic modifiers (OM. The addition of heparin into PUNCs prolonged the TGT, indicating that heparin was still active after the coating process. Cumulative heparin release profiles showed that the majority of heparin released was from loosely attached residues on the surface of coils. The addition of heparin further prolonged the TGT as compared to coatings without added heparin, but a slight decrease in heparin activity was observed in the NCs

  2. Polyurethanes for potential use in transparent armour investigated using DSC and DMA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ekeren, P.J. van; Carton, E.P.

    2011-01-01

    A material combination that may be applied as transparent armour is glass-clad polyurethane. These are comprised of a relatively thin glass strike face and a relatively thick (transparent) polyurethane backing layer. Three transparent polyurethane samples were investigated using differential

  3. 40 CFR 721.8079 - Isophorone diisocyanate neopentyl glycol adipate polyurethane prepolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... glycol adipate polyurethane prepolymer. 721.8079 Section 721.8079 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... adipate polyurethane prepolymer. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1... polyurethane prepolymer (PMN P-94-1743) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses...

  4. Rheokinetics and effect of shear rate on the kinetics of linear polyurethane formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Navarchian, AH; Picchioni, F; Janssen, LPBM

    In this article, the rheokinetics of polyurethane formation and the influence of shear rate on its kinetics have been studied. Two different linear polyurethane systems with 0% and 100% hard segments are examined in a cone and plate rheometer. The isothermal increase of viscosity during polyurethane

  5. 40 CFR 63.1293 - Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... polyurethane foam production. 63.1293 Section 63.1293 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1293 Standards for slabstock flexible polyurethane foam production. Each owner or operator of a...

  6. 40 CFR 63.1300 - Standards for molded flexible polyurethane foam production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... polyurethane foam production. 63.1300 Section 63.1300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Flexible Polyurethane Foam Production § 63.1300 Standards for molded flexible polyurethane foam production. Each owner or operator of a new...

  7. Component composition of essential oils and ultrastructure of secretory cells of resin channel needles Juniperus communis (Cupressaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Gerling

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of determining the qualitative and quantitative composition of essential oil Juniperus communis, growing under the canopy of spruce blueberry sphagnum subzone middle taiga. Juniperus communis essential oil is liquid light yellow color. The content of essential oil was 0.46 % in shoots with needles. 37 substances of components identified. Mass fraction of components in the essential oil of Juniperus communis reached 89 %. The highest percentage of occupied fraction of monoterpenes (82.3 %, the proportion of sesquiterpenes less than 0.5 % of the total composition of essential oils, alcohols 3.5 and 0.7 % esters. In monoterpenes fraction predominant α-pinene (24.5–32.6 %, β-pinene (15–20.3 % and α-phellandrene (6.4–8.8 %. Essential oil of Juniperus communis is characterized by high content of monoterpenoids in contrast to other conifers of the taiga zone. All stages of biosynthesis essential oils occur in the epithelial cells of the resin channel (terpenoidogennyh cells. An oval shape have epithelial cells of the resin channel needles in transverse sections the Juniperus communis, which is situated vacuole in the center. Large number of lipid globules (up to 40 noted in the hyaloplasm of explored cells. Leucoplasts surrounded by membranes of smooth endoplasmic reticulum in cross sections of epithelial cells in resin channel of juniper. Endoplasmic reticulum is poorly developed in epithelial cells, which corresponds to the low content of sesquiterpenes in the needles during the study period. Development of large leucoplasts and large number of mitochondria associated with predominance of synthesis monoterpenoids the in the epithelium cells resin channel.

  8. TOPEM DSC study of glass transition region of polyurethane cationomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pielichowska, Kinga; Król, Piotr; Król, Bożena; Pagacz, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► TOPEM DSC method was employed to investigate the glass transition (T g ) region of fluorinated polyurethane cationomers. ► Introduction of fluorine compounds significantly changes thermal behaviour of cationomers in the T g region of hard segments. ► Introduction of fluorine compound leads to changes of the slope in activation diagram of glass transition. - Abstract: In this paper TOPEM DSC method was employed to investigate the glass transition region of fluorinated polyurethane cationomers. Fluorinated polyurethane cationomers have been synthesised in the reaction of MDI with poly(ethylene glycol) (600) and butane1,4-diol or N-methyl- or N-butyldiethanolamine and 2,2,3,3-tetrafluoro-1,4-butanediol. Better rigidity was found for generally amorphous cationomer coats. It was found that introduction of fluorine compound changes thermal behaviour of polyurethane cationomers as well as leads to changes in the slope in activation diagram profiles of glass transition in comparison to polyuretahene cationomer without fluorine compound. Application of TOPEM DSC allows to obtain more information concerning frequency dependence of glass transition region and thermodynamical stability of polyurethane structures.

  9. Unified Creep Plasticity Damage (UCPD) Model for Rigid Polyurethane Foams.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neilsen, Michael K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lu, Wei-Yang [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Scherzinger, William M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hinnerichs, Terry D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lo, Chi S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Numerous experiments were performed to characterize the mechanical response of several different rigid polyurethane foams (FR3712, PMDI10, PMDI20, and TufFoam35) to large deformation. In these experiments, the effects of load path, loading rate, and temperature were investigated. Results from these experiments indicated that rigid polyurethane foams exhibit significant volumetric and deviatoric plasticity when they are compressed. Rigid polyurethane foams were also found to be very strain-rate and temperature dependent. These foams are also rather brittle and crack when loaded to small strains in tension or to larger strains in compression. Thus, a new Unified Creep Plasticity Damage (UCPD) model was developed and implemented into SIERRA with the name Foam Damage to describe the mechanical response of these foams to large deformation at a variety of temperatures and strain rates. This report includes a description of recent experiments and experimental findings. Next, development of a UCPD model for rigid, polyurethane foams is described. Selection of material parameters for a variety of rigid polyurethane foams is then discussed and finite element simulations with the new UCPD model are compared with experimental results to show behavior that can be captured with this model.

  10. Biodegradation of Polyester Polyurethane by Endophytic Fungi▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Jonathan R.; Huang, Jeffrey; Anand, Pria; Kucera, Kaury; Sandoval, Amanda G.; Dantzler, Kathleen W.; Hickman, DaShawn; Jee, Justin; Kimovec, Farrah M.; Koppstein, David; Marks, Daniel H.; Mittermiller, Paul A.; Núñez, Salvador Joel; Santiago, Marina; Townes, Maria A.; Vishnevetsky, Michael; Williams, Neely E.; Vargas, Mario Percy Núñez; Boulanger, Lori-Ann; Bascom-Slack, Carol; Strobel, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    Bioremediation is an important approach to waste reduction that relies on biological processes to break down a variety of pollutants. This is made possible by the vast metabolic diversity of the microbial world. To explore this diversity for the breakdown of plastic, we screened several dozen endophytic fungi for their ability to degrade the synthetic polymer polyester polyurethane (PUR). Several organisms demonstrated the ability to efficiently degrade PUR in both solid and liquid suspensions. Particularly robust activity was observed among several isolates in the genus Pestalotiopsis, although it was not a universal feature of this genus. Two Pestalotiopsis microspora isolates were uniquely able to grow on PUR as the sole carbon source under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Molecular characterization of this activity suggests that a serine hydrolase is responsible for degradation of PUR. The broad distribution of activity observed and the unprecedented case of anaerobic growth using PUR as the sole carbon source suggest that endophytes are a promising source of biodiversity from which to screen for metabolic properties useful for bioremediation. PMID:21764951

  11. Melt electrospinning of biodegradable polyurethane scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karchin, Ari; Simonovsky, Felix I.; Ratner, Buddy D.; Sanders, Joan E.

    2014-01-01

    Electrospinning from the melt, in contrast to from solution, is an attractive tissue engineering scaffold manufacturing process as it allows for the formation of small diameter fibers while eliminating potentially cytotoxic solvents. Despite this, there is a dearth of literature on scaffold formation via melt electrospinning. This is likely due to the technical challenges related to the need for a well-controlled high temperature setup and the difficulty in developing an appropriate polymer. In this paper, a biodegradable and thermally stable polyurethane (PU) is described specifically for use in melt electrospinning. Polymer formulations of aliphatic PUs based on (CH2)4-content diisocyanates, polycaprolactone (PCL), 1,4-butanediamine and 1,4-butanediol (BD) were evaluated for utility in the melt electrospinning process. The final polymer formulation, a catalyst-purified PU based on 1,4-butane diisocyanate, PCL and BD in a 4/1/3 molar ratio with a weight-average molecular weight of about 40 kDa, yielded a nontoxic polymer that could be readily electrospun from the melt. Scaffolds electrospun from this polymer contained point bonds between fibers and mechanical properties analogous to many in vivo soft tissues. PMID:21640853

  12. Isothermal recovery rates in shape memory polyurethanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azra, Charly; Plummer, Christopher J G; Månson, Jan-Anders E

    2011-01-01

    This work compares the time dependence of isothermal shape recovery in thermoset and thermoplastic shape memory polyurethanes (SMPUs) with comparable glass transition temperatures. In each case, tensile tests have been used to quantify the influence of various thermo-mechanical programming parameters (deformation temperature, recovery temperature, and stress and storage times following the deformation step) on strain recovery under zero load (free recovery) and stress recovery under fixed strain (constrained recovery). It is shown that the duration of the recovery event may be tuned over several decades of time with an appropriate choice of programming parameters, but that there is a trade-off between the rate of shape recovery and the recoverable stress level. The results are discussed in terms of the thermal characteristics of the SMPUs in the corresponding temperature range as characterized by modulated differential scanning calorimetry and dynamic mechanical analysis, with the emphasis on the role of the effective width of the glass transition temperature and the stability of the network that gives rise to the shape memory effect. (fast track communication)

  13. Carboxylated Polyurethanes Containing Hyperbranched Polyester Soft Segments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žigon, M.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available hyperbranched polyester soft segments (HB PU with functional carboxylic groups in order to enable the preparation of stable HB PU dispersions. Carboxylated hyperbranched polyurethanes were synthesized using a hyperbranched polyester based on 2,2-bis(methylolpropionic acid of the fourth pseudo-generation (Boltorn H40 and hexamethylene (HDI or isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI. The reactivity of hyperbranched polyester with HDI was lower than expected, possibly due to the presence of less reactive hydroxyl groups in the linear repeat units. A gel was formed at mole ratios rNCO/OH = 1:2 or 1:4. The synthesis of HB PU was performed with partly esterified hyperbranched polyester with lowered hydroxyl functionality. The carboxyl groups were incorporated in the HB PU backbone by reaction of residual hydroxyl groups with cis-1,2-cyclohexanedicarboxylic anhydride. HB PU aqueous dispersions were stable at least for two months, although their films were brittle. The tensile strength and Young's modulus of blends of linear and HB PU decreased with increasing content of HB PU whereas elongation at break remained nearly constant, which was explained in terms of looser chain packing due to more open tree-like hyperbranched structures.

  14. Shape memory of polyurethanes with silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, Fernanda M.A.; Souza, Patterson P. de; Pereira, Iaci M.; Silva, Livio B.J. da; Orefice, Rodrigo L.

    2011-01-01

    Biodegradable polyurethane nano composites were synthesized in an aqueous environment and have their shape memory properties investigated. The matrix based in isopharane diisocyanate and poly(caprolactone diol) (Mn=1250, 2000 g.mol -1 ) was prepared by the prepolymer mixing process. The silver nanoparticles were produced by mixing AgNO 3 and tannic acid. The shape memory properties were measured using universal testing machine (DL3000, EMIC). The shape memory cycle consisted of the following steps: samples were deformed at room temperature; the mechanical constraints on the polymers were removed; samples were cooled down to 0 deg C and to retain the deformed shape; three processes were tested to recover the shape: (a) samples were heated up to 80 deg C in an oven, (b) immersed in pH 4.0 and (c) immersed in pH 7.0. To study the shape memory effect on the nanostructure, small angle X-ray scattering, wide angle X-ray scattering, infrared spectroscopy experiments were carried on. (author)

  15. Nano-Aramid Fiber Reinforced Polyurethane Foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semmes, Edmund B.; Frances, Arnold

    2008-01-01

    Closed cell polyurethane and, particularly, polyisocyanurate foams are a large family of flexible and rigid products the result of a reactive two part process wherein a urethane based polyol is combined with a foaming or "blowing" agent to create a cellular solid at room temperature. The ratio of reactive components, the constituency of the base materials, temperature, humidity, molding, pouring, spraying and many other processing techniques vary greatly. However, there is no known process for incorporating reinforcing fibers small enough to be integrally dispersed within the cell walls resulting in superior final products. The key differentiating aspect from the current state of art resides in the many processing technologies to be fully developed from the novel concept of milled nano pulp aramid fibers and their enabling entanglement capability fully enclosed within the cell walls of these closed cell urethane foams. The authors present the results of research and development of reinforced foam processing, equipment development, strength characteristics and the evolution of its many applications.

  16. Characterization of the early local immune response to Ixodes ricinus tick bites in human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatz, Martin; Means, Terry; Haas, Josef; Steere, Allen C; Müllegger, Robert R

    2017-03-01

    Little is known about the immunomodulation by tick saliva during a natural tick bite in human skin, the site of the tick-host interaction. We examined the expression of chemokines, cytokines and leucocyte markers on the mRNA levels and histopathologic changes in human skin biopsies of tick bites (n=37) compared to unaffected skin (n=9). Early tick-bite skin lesions (skin. With longer tick attachment (>24 hours), the numbers of innate immune cells and mediators (not significantly) declined, whereas the numbers of lymphocytes (not significantly) increased. Natural tick bites by Ixodes ricinus ticks initially elicit a strong local innate immune response in human skin. Beyond 24 hours of tick attachment, this response usually becomes less, perhaps because of immunomodulation by tick saliva. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Ixodes ricinus as vector and reservoir of Borrelia burgdorferi in an urban environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Dragana V.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available As specific arthropods, ticks in urban environments transmit the agents of dangerous contagious diseases endangering human and animal health. They are vectors of numerous infective agents that cause serious diseases of animals such as babesiosis and ehrlichiosis. Tick populations maintain and transmit an increas­ing number of different infective agents. In regard to the human population, they transmit the agents of tick encephalitis, Omsk hemorrhagic disease, Crim-Congo hemorrhagic disease, Kyasa-nur forest fever, ixodid fever, Q fever, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, tularemia, Siberian tick typhus and Lyme disease the last of which according to acarological references has become the dominant zoonosis in over 140 of the world's countries. In urban environments ticks represent problem both for their epidemiological significance and as organisms whose presence disturbs people during their work and rest. In Europe, the two most fre­quent species and Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes persulcatus. Both species have a wide spectrum of hosts.

  18. Effects of global changes on the climatic niche of the tick Ixodes ricinus inferred by species distribution modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porretta, Daniele; Mastrantonio, Valentina; Amendolia, Sara; Gaiarsa, Stefano; Epis, Sara; Genchi, Claudio; Bandi, Claudio; Otranto, Domenico; Urbanelli, Sandra

    2013-09-19

    Global climate change can seriously impact on the epidemiological dynamics of vector-borne diseases. In this study we investigated how future climatic changes could affect the climatic niche of Ixodes ricinus (Acari, Ixodida), among the most important vectors of pathogens of medical and veterinary concern in Europe. Species Distribution Modelling (SDM) was used to reconstruct the climatic niche of I. ricinus, and to project it into the future conditions for 2050 and 2080, under two scenarios: a continuous human demographic growth and a severe increase of gas emissions (scenario A2), and a scenario that proposes lower human demographic growth than A2, and a more sustainable gas emissions (scenario B2). Models were reconstructed using the algorithm of "maximum entropy", as implemented in the software Maxent 3.3.3e; 4,544 occurrence points and 15 bioclimatic variables were used. In both scenarios an increase of climatic niche of about two times greater than the current area was predicted as well as a higher climatic suitability under the scenario B2 than A2. Such an increase occurred both in a latitudinal and longitudinal way, including northern Eurasian regions (e.g. Sweden and Russia), that were previously unsuitable for the species. Our models are congruent with the predictions of range expansion already observed in I. ricinus at a regional scale and provide a qualitative and quantitative assessment of the future climatically suitable areas for I. ricinus at a continental scale. Although the use of SDM at a higher resolution should be integrated by a more refined analysis of further abiotic and biotic data, the results presented here suggest that under future climatic scenarios most of the current distribution area of I. ricinus could remain suitable and significantly increase at a continental geographic scale. Therefore disease outbreaks of pathogens transmitted by this tick species could emerge in previous non-endemic geographic areas. Further studies will

  19. Multi-source analysis reveals latitudinal and altitudinal shifts in range of Ixodes ricinus at its northern distribution limit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristoffersen Anja B

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing evidence for a latitudinal and altitudinal shift in the distribution range of Ixodes ricinus. The reported incidence of tick-borne disease in humans is on the rise in many European countries and has raised political concern and attracted media attention. It is disputed which factors are responsible for these trends, though many ascribe shifts in distribution range to climate changes. Any possible climate effect would be most easily noticeable close to the tick's geographical distribution limits. In Norway- being the northern limit of this species in Europe- no documentation of changes in range has been published. The objectives of this study were to describe the distribution of I. ricinus in Norway and to evaluate if any range shifts have occurred relative to historical descriptions. Methods Multiple data sources - such as tick-sighting reports from veterinarians, hunters, and the general public - and surveillance of human and animal tick-borne diseases were compared to describe the present distribution of I. ricinus in Norway. Correlation between data sources and visual comparison of maps revealed spatial consistency. In order to identify the main spatial pattern of tick abundance, a principal component analysis (PCA was used to obtain a weighted mean of four data sources. The weighted mean explained 67% of the variation of the data sources covering Norway's 430 municipalities and was used to depict the present distribution of I. ricinus. To evaluate if any geographical range shift has occurred in recent decades, the present distribution was compared to historical data from 1943 and 1983. Results Tick-borne disease and/or observations of I. ricinus was reported in municipalities up to an altitude of 583 metres above sea level (MASL and is now present in coastal municipalities north to approximately 69°N. Conclusion I. ricinus is currently found further north and at higher altitudes than described in

  20. Diversity of viruses in Ixodes ricinus, and characterization of a neurotropic strain of Eyach virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Moutailler

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ticks transmit more pathogens—including bacteria, parasites and viruses—than any other arthropod vector. Although the epidemiological status of many tick-borne bacteria is very well characterized, tick-borne viruses are still relatively under-studied. Recently, several novel tick-borne viruses have been isolated from human febrile illnesses following tick bites, indicating the existence of other potential new and unknown tick-borne viruses. We used high-throughput sequencing to analyse the virome of Ixodes ricinus, the main vector of tick-borne pathogens in Europe. The majority of collected viral sequences were assigned to two potentially novel Nairovirus and Phlebovirus viruses, with prevalence rates ranging from 3.95% to 23.88% in adults and estimated to be between 0.14% and 72.16% in nymphs. These viruses could not be isolated from the brains of inoculated immunocompromised mice, perhaps indicating that they are unable to infect vertebrates. Within the I. ricinus virome, we also identified contigs with >90% identity to the known Eyach virus. Initially isolated in the 1980s, this virus was indirectly associated with human disease, but had never been extensively studied. Eyach virus prevalence varied between 0.07% and 5.26% in ticks from the French Ardennes and Alsace regions. Eyach virus was successfully isolated following intracerebral inoculation of immunocompromised mice with Eyach virus-positive tick extracts. This virus was also able to multiply and persist in the blood of immunocompetent mice inoculated by intraperitoneal injection, and caused brain infections in three of nine juveniles, without any obvious deleterious effects.

  1. Driving forces for changes in geographical distribution of Ixodes ricinus ticks in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medlock Jolyon M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many factors are involved in determining the latitudinal and altitudinal spread of the important tick vector Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae in Europe, as well as in changes in the distribution within its prior endemic zones. This paper builds on published literature and unpublished expert opinion from the VBORNET network with the aim of reviewing the evidence for these changes in Europe and discusses the many climatic, ecological, landscape and anthropogenic drivers. These can be divided into those directly related to climatic change, contributing to an expansion in the tick’s geographic range at extremes of altitude in central Europe, and at extremes of latitude in Scandinavia; those related to changes in the distribution of tick hosts, particularly roe deer and other cervids; other ecological changes such as habitat connectivity and changes in land management; and finally, anthropogenically induced changes. These factors are strongly interlinked and often not well quantified. Although a change in climate plays an important role in certain geographic regions, for much of Europe it is non-climatic factors that are becoming increasingly important. How we manage habitats on a landscape scale, and the changes in the distribution and abundance of tick hosts are important considerations during our assessment and management of the public health risks associated with ticks and tick-borne disease issues in 21st century Europe. Better understanding and mapping of the spread of I. ricinus (and changes in its abundance is, however, essential to assess the risk of the spread of infections transmitted by this vector species. Enhanced tick surveillance with harmonized approaches for comparison of data enabling the follow-up of trends at EU level will improve the messages on risk related to tick-borne diseases to policy makers, other stake holders and to the general public.

  2. Diversity of viruses in Ixodes ricinus, and characterization of a neurotropic strain of Eyach virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutailler, S; Popovici, I; Devillers, E; Vayssier-Taussat, M; Eloit, M

    2016-05-01

    Ticks transmit more pathogens-including bacteria, parasites and viruses-than any other arthropod vector. Although the epidemiological status of many tick-borne bacteria is very well characterized, tick-borne viruses are still relatively under-studied. Recently, several novel tick-borne viruses have been isolated from human febrile illnesses following tick bites, indicating the existence of other potential new and unknown tick-borne viruses. We used high-throughput sequencing to analyse the virome of Ixodes ricinus, the main vector of tick-borne pathogens in Europe. The majority of collected viral sequences were assigned to two potentially novel Nairovirus and Phlebovirus viruses, with prevalence rates ranging from 3.95% to 23.88% in adults and estimated to be between 0.14% and 72.16% in nymphs. These viruses could not be isolated from the brains of inoculated immunocompromised mice, perhaps indicating that they are unable to infect vertebrates. Within the I. ricinus virome, we also identified contigs with >90% identity to the known Eyach virus. Initially isolated in the 1980s, this virus was indirectly associated with human disease, but had never been extensively studied. Eyach virus prevalence varied between 0.07% and 5.26% in ticks from the French Ardennes and Alsace regions. Eyach virus was successfully isolated following intracerebral inoculation of immunocompromised mice with Eyach virus-positive tick extracts. This virus was also able to multiply and persist in the blood of immunocompetent mice inoculated by intraperitoneal injection, and caused brain infections in three of nine juveniles, without any obvious deleterious effects.

  3. Dynamics of digestive proteolytic system during blood feeding of the hard tick Ixodes ricinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sojka Daniel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ticks are vectors of a wide variety of pathogens causing severe diseases in humans and domestic animals. Intestinal digestion of the host blood is an essential process of tick physiology and also a limiting factor for pathogen transmission since the tick gut represents the primary site for pathogen infection and proliferation. Using the model tick Ixodes ricinus, the European Lyme disease vector, we have previously demonstrated by genetic and biochemical analyses that host blood is degraded in the tick gut by a network of acidic peptidases of the aspartic and cysteine classes. Results This study reveals the digestive machinery of the I. ricinus during the course of blood-feeding on the host. The dynamic profiling of concentrations, activities and mRNA expressions of the major digestive enzymes demonstrates that the de novo synthesis of peptidases triggers the dramatic increase of the hemoglobinolytic activity along the feeding period. Overall hemoglobinolysis, as well as the activity of digestive peptidases are negligible at the early stage of feeding, but increase dramatically towards the end of the slow feeding period, reaching maxima in fully fed ticks. This finding contradicts the established opinion that blood digestion is reduced at the end of engorgement. Furthermore, we show that the digestive proteolysis is localized intracellularly throughout the whole duration of feeding. Conclusions Results suggest that the egressing proteolytic system in the early stage of feeding and digestion is a potential target for efficient impairment, most likely by blocking its components via antibodies present in the host blood. Therefore, digestive enzymes are promising candidates for development of novel 'anti-tick' vaccines capable of tick control and even transmission of tick-borne pathogens.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of waterborne polyurethane acrylate copolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultan, Misbah; Bhatti, Haq Nawaz; Zuber, Mohammad; Barikani, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Polyurethane acrylate copolymers were synthesized by emulsion polymerization process. To reduce the environmental hazards, organic solvents were replaced by eco-friendly aqueous system. Concentration of polyurethane and acrylate monomer was varied to investigate the effect of chemical composition on performance properties of copolymers. FTIR spectroscopy was used as a key tool to record the chemical synthesis route. The synthesized copolymer emulsions were characterized by evaluating their particle size, viscosity, dry weight content, chemical and water resistance. Thermal decomposition was studied by thermogravimetric analysis. Scanning electron microscope was used to visualize the morphological structure of copolymers. The experimental results indicate better polyurethane acrylate compatibility till the ratio of 30/70. However, these copolymers exhibited synergistic effects between the two polymers and revealed a remarkable improvement in numerous coating properties

  5. Extraction behavior of uranium(VI) with polyurethane foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tingchia Huang; Donghwang Chen; Muchang Shieh; Chingtsven Huang

    1992-01-01

    The extraction of uranium(VI) from aqueous solution with polyether-based polyurethane (PU) foam was studied. The effects of the kinds and concentrations of nitrate salts, uranium(VI) concentration, temperature, nitric acid concentration, pH, the content of poly(ethylene oxide) in the polyurethane foam, and the ratio of PU foam weight and solution volume on the extraction of uranium(VI) were investigated. The interferences of fluoride and carbonate ions on the extraction of uranium(VI) were also examined, and methods to overcome both interferences were suggested. It was found that no uranium was extracted in the absence of a nitrate salting-out agent, and the extraction behaviors of uranium(IV) with polyurethane foam could be explained in terms of an etherlike solvent extraction mechanism. In addition, the percentage extraction of a multiple stage was also estimated theoretically

  6. Thermal Properties of Anionic Polyurethane Composition for Leather Finishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga KOVTUNENKO

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Thermal properties of anionic polyurethane composition mixed with collagen product and hydrophilic sodium form of montmorillonite for use in the finishing of leather were studied by thermogravimetric method. The thermal indices of processes of thermal and thermo-oxidative destruction depending on the polyurethane composition were determined. The influence of anionic polyurethane composition on thermal behavior of chromium tanned gelatin films that imitate the leather were studied. APU composition with natural compounds increases their thermal stability both in air and in nitrogen atmosphere due to the formation of additional bonds between active groups of APU, protein and chrome tanning agent as the result of chemical reactions between organic and inorganic parts with the new structure formation.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.3.10043

  7. Antimicrobial polyurethane thermosets based on undecylenic acid: synthesis and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lluch, Cristina; Esteve-Zarzoso, Braulio; Bordons, Albert; Lligadas, Gerard; Ronda, Juan C; Galià, Marina; Cádiz, Virginia

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, plant oil-derived surface-modifiable polyurethane thermosets are presented. Polyol synthesis is carried out taking advantage of thiol-yne photopolymerization of undecylenic acid derivatives containing methyl ester or hydroxyl moieties. The prepared methyl ester-containing polyurethanes allow surface modification treatment to enhance their hydrophilicity and impart antimicrobial activity through the following two steps: i) grafting poly(propylene glycol) monoamine (Jeffamine M-600) via aminolysis and ii) Jeffamine M-600 layer complexation with iodine. The antimicrobial activity of the iodine-containing polyurethanes is demonstrated by its capacity to inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans in agar media. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Direct transfer of graphene films for polyurethane substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilani, C.; Romani, E.C.; Larrudé, D.G. [Departamento de Física, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro, 22451-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Barbosa, Gelza M. [Diretoria de Sistemas de Armas da Marinha, Marinha do Brasil, 20010-00 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Freire, F.L., E-mail: lazaro@vdg.fis.puc-rio.br [Departamento de Física, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro, 22451-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, 22290-180 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-11-30

    Highlights: • Graphene was prepared by CVD using copper foils as substrates. • Monolayer, bilayer and multilayer graphene were transferred to PU. • Samples were characterized by Raman and optical spectroscopies. • PU/monolayer graphene has transmittance around 80% in visible range. - Abstract: We have proposed the direct transfer of large-area graphene films grown by chemical vapor deposition to polymeric substrate by evaporating of solvents of polyurethane/tetrahydrofurane solution. The graphene films on polyurethane substrates were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, optical and atomic force microscopies and UV–vis spectroscopy measurements. The Raman spectra revealed that it is possible to transfer in a controlled manner monolayer, bilayer and multilayer graphene films over polyurethane substrate.

  9. Direct transfer of graphene films for polyurethane substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilani, C.; Romani, E.C.; Larrudé, D.G.; Barbosa, Gelza M.; Freire, F.L.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Graphene was prepared by CVD using copper foils as substrates. • Monolayer, bilayer and multilayer graphene were transferred to PU. • Samples were characterized by Raman and optical spectroscopies. • PU/monolayer graphene has transmittance around 80% in visible range. - Abstract: We have proposed the direct transfer of large-area graphene films grown by chemical vapor deposition to polymeric substrate by evaporating of solvents of polyurethane/tetrahydrofurane solution. The graphene films on polyurethane substrates were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, optical and atomic force microscopies and UV–vis spectroscopy measurements. The Raman spectra revealed that it is possible to transfer in a controlled manner monolayer, bilayer and multilayer graphene films over polyurethane substrate.

  10. Thermal stability of novel polyurethane adhesives investigated by TGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Mamiński

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the work was an assessment of thermal stability of novel polyurethane wood adhesives by means of TGA. Hyperbranched polyglycerols of various structures were used as polyol components cured with polymeric methylenediphenyldiisocyanate (PMDI or polymeric hexamethylenediisocyanate (PHDI. Resultant adhesives were thermally degraded in temperature range 20 - 500ºC. Performance of polyurethane based on fully aliphatic polyglycerol was inferior to those based on polyglycerols bearing aromatic moieties. The differences in 50%-weight loss temperature achieving 27 - 39°C as well as residual weights at 480 ºC indicate the contribution of aromatic units presence within the macromonomer structure to increased thermal stability of polyurethane upon thermal degradation. Furthermore, temperature of 50% weight loss revealed that thermal stability of the developed hyperbranched polyglycerol-based adhesives was comparable to that of the commercial PUR adhesive.

  11. Expressão gênica diferencial em genótipos de mamona (Ricinus communis L. submetidos a déficit hídrico induzido por PEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Favoretto Moraes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A mamoneira é uma cultura de relevância econômica e social no Brasil e no mundo. O óleo produzido por suas sementes, composto principalmente pelo ácido ricinoleico, é estratégico para as indústrias de lubrificantes, cosméticos, polímeros, dentre outras. Embora a mamoneira seja considerada tolerante à seca, a ausência de chuvas no período da floração pode reduzir a produtividade da planta. Respostas diferenciais ao déficit hídrico na espécie têm sido observadas em acessos de bancos de germoplasma e entre cultivares comerciais. Com intuito de conhecer melhor os mecanismos fisiológicos de resposta ao déficit hídrico e direcionar programas de melhoramento genético, o objetivo do trabalho foi analisar a expressão diferencial de genes potencialmente relacionados com a tolerância da mamoneira ao déficit hídrico e o comportamento de enzimas do sistema de defesa antioxidante. O estudo foi conduzido com três acessos (China Careca, IAC 2028 e PB 07 submetidos a um ensaio com solução de polietilenoglicol (PEG 6.000 por um período de 24 horas para indução do déficit hídrico. Os genes CAT, APX, SOD-Cu/Zn, SOD-Fe e SOD-Mn tiveram maior expressão diferencial no acesso China Careca. O gene SOD-Cu/Zn foi o mais diferencialmente expresso quanto comparado ao controle (3,57 vezes no acesso China Careca. Análise da atividade de enzimas relacionadas com estresse oxidativo (Catalase – CAT, Ascorbato Peroxidase – APX, Guaiacol Peroxidase – GPOX e Superoxide Dismutase – SOD revelou que os acessos possuem diferentes mecanismos de resposta ao déficit hídrico. Os resultados apontam que o acesso China Careca pode ser considerado de grande importância para programas de melhoramento genético por apresentar característica de precocidade, sistema de defesa antioxidante mais eficiente e resistência ao déficit hídrico.

  12. Haematological and Serum Biochemical Parameters of Broiler Chickens Fed Varying Dietary Levels of Fermented Castor Oil Seed Meal (Ricinus communis L. and Different Methionine Sources in South Western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayorinde David Adeniran

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment, the effect of varying dietary levels of fermented castor oil seed meal (FCSM and different methionine sources (DL-methionine and herbal methionine on haematological and serum biochemical parameters of broilers. A total of 240 one-day-old Anak broiler chicks were used in the experiment lasted 56 days. The dietary experiment was laid out as a completely randomized design in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement consisting of 4 dietary levels of FCSM (0, 50, 100 and 150 g/kg and 2 methionine sources (DL-methionine and herbal methionine. The birds were weighed and randomly distributed into 8 treatments with 3 replicates of 10 birds each. During the starter phase of the experiment, haemoglobin, red blood cell count, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration and eosinophil counts were higher (P

  13. Karakteristik Cookies Berbahan Dasar Tepung Sukun (Artocarpus communis Bagi Anak Penderita Autis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dede Sukandar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Tepung sukun (Artocarpus communis merupakan tepung yang bebas gluten sehingga baik digunakan sebagai alternatif dalam pembuatan cookies untuk anak penderita autis. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui tingkat kesukaan panelis terhadap cookies sukun dan berbagai formulasinya dibandingkan dengan cookies berbahan dasar tepung lain yang meliputi pengaruh penambahan bahan tambahan terhadap sifat kimia, fisika, daya terima cookies sukun, kadar kalsium dan fosforus cookies sukun, dan mengetahui cookies sukun tersukai memenuhi standar mutu cookies menurut SNI 01-2973-1992 atau tidak. Uji organoleptik dilakukan untuk mengetahui tingkat kesukaan dan penerimaan panelis terhadap cookies sukun dibandingkan dengan cookies berbahan dasar tepung lain (terigu, beras, sagu dan cookies sukun dalam berbagai formulasi. Parameter yang digunakan meliputi warna, aroma, tekstur, rasa dan penerimaan keseluruhan. Uji kadar kalsium dilakukan menggunakan spektroskopi serapan atom pada λ 422.7 nm dan kadar fosforus menggunakan spektroskopi UV-Vis pada λ 880 nm. Data yang diperoleh dianalisis menggunakan analisis sidik ragam anova dan analisis Duncan. Cookies sukun memiliki penerimaan yang rendah dibandingkan cookies tepung lain berdasarkan penerimaan rasa dan penerimaan umum. Formulasi cookies sukun memperbaiki sifat fisik (aroma, rasa, warna, dan tekstur dan daya terima cookies sukun oleh panelis. Cookies sukun tersukai adalah formulasi 718 dengan bahan tambahan susu kedelai.  Mutu cookies sukun tersukai formulasi 718 sesuai dengan SNI 01-2973-1992 kecuali kadar protein yang masih rendah 8.05% dan terdapat kandungan tembaga dengan sebesar 1.56 ppm. Cookies sukun tersukai memiliki kadar kalsium dan fosforus tertinggi dibandingkan dengan tepung sukun dan cookies komersil untuk anak penderita autis sehingga cookies sukun tersukai sangat baik dikonsumsi oleh anak penderita autis. Kata kunci : Artocarpus communis, autis, cookies sukun, organoleptik, kalsium, fosforus

  14. Micropropagation of Pear Rootstock (Pyrus Communis) by using tissue culture technique and gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sharnouby, M.E.; ESSAM, E.R.; Ayoub, S.

    2006-01-01

    New growing shoots from healthy pear rootstock (Pyrus communis) trees were taken and sterilized 3 times in dipping water. Explants were subjected to antioxidant treatment, different media, different additives and different BAP and NAA concentrations. The obtained results showed that Murashig-Skoog (MS) supplemented with 1 mg/l BA was better than Gamborg medium. Adding antioxidant solution and adenine sulphate to the culture medium was preferred for maximizing explants development. Exposing the explants to gamma irradiation at different doses decreased tissue culture parameters with increasing gamma doses. However, the low dose of gamma rays (1 Krad) significantly increased the number of shoots than other gamma treatments. Adding of BAP at 2 mg/l to the culture medium increased number and length of shoots. However, addition of 1 mg/l NAA to the rooting medium led to increase the root formation

  15. Variability of Polyphenol Compounds in Myrtus Communis L. (Myrtaceae Berries from Corsica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Chiaramonti

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenol compounds were extracted from Myrtus communis L. berries (Myrtaceae by maceration in 70% ethanol and analysed by HPLC-DAD and electrospray mass spectrometry. The Myrtus berries were collected at maturity from seven localities on the island of Corsica (France and the sampling was carried out during three years. The polyphenol composition of Corsican Myrtus berries was characterized by two phenolic acids, four flavanols, three flavonols and five flavonol glycosides. The major compounds were myricetin-3-O-arabinoside and myricetin-3-O-galactoside. Principal components analysis (PCA is applied to study the chemical composition and variability of myrtle berries alcoholic extracts from the seven localities. Canonical analysis and PCA data distinguishes two groups of myrtle berries characterized by different concentrations of polyphenols according to soil and years of harvest. The variations in the polyphenol concentration were due to biotic and abiotic factors.

  16. Mersin (Myrtus communis L. Meyvesinin bazı Fiziksel ve Kimyasal Özellikleri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Özcan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available İçel’den (Büyükeceli-Gülnar toplanan farklı büyüklük ve renklerdeki mersin (Myrtus communis L. meyvelerinin fiziksel ve kimyasal özellikleri belirlenmiştir. Mor meyvelerde antosiyanin tespit edilirken beyaz renklide bulunmamıştır. Mor meyvelerde tanen miktarı beyazlara göre oldukça yüksektir. Titrasyon asitliği mor meyvelerde aynı olup, beyaza göre yüksektir. Meyveler mineral bakımından zengindir ve en yüksek olarak potasyum belirlenmiştir.

  17. Mersin (Myrtus communis L.) Meyvesinin bazı Fiziksel ve Kimyasal Özellikleri

    OpenAIRE

    Özcan, Musa; Akbulut, Mehmet

    1998-01-01

    İçel’den (Büyükeceli-Gülnar) toplanan farklı büyüklük ve renklerdeki mersin (Myrtus communis L.) meyvelerinin fiziksel ve kimyasal özellikleri belirlenmiştir. Mor meyvelerde antosiyanin tespit edilirken beyaz renklide bulunmamıştır. Mor meyvelerde tanen miktarı beyazlara göre oldukça yüksektir. Titrasyon asitliği mor meyvelerde aynı olup, beyaza göre yüksektir. Meyveler mineral bakımından zengindir ve en yüksek olarak potasyum belirlenmiştir. 

  18. Fabrication and characterization of cellulose nanocrystal based transparent electroactive polyurethane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Hyun-U.; Kim, Hyun Chan; Kim, Jung Woong; Zhai, Lindong; Jayaramudu, Tippabattini; Kim, Jaehwan

    2017-08-01

    This paper reports cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) based transparent and electroactive polyurethane (CPPU), suitable for actively tunable optical lens. CNC is used for high dielectric filler to improve electromechanical behavior of CPPU. For high transparency and homogeneous distribution of CNC in polyurethane, CNC-poly[di(ethylene glycol) adipate] is used to play a role of polyol and isocyanate salt. The fabricated CPPU exhibits high transparency (>90%) and 10% of electromechanical strain under 3 V μm-1 electric field. Mechanical, dielectric properties as well as physical and chemical characteristics are investigated to prove the electromechanical behavior of CPPU.

  19. Auxetic Polyurethane Foam (Fabrication, Properties and Applications)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousif, H.I.Y.

    2012-01-01

    Modern technology requires new materials of special properties. For the last two decades there has been a great interest in a class of materials known as auxetic materials. An auxetic material is a material that has a negative Poisson's ratio which means that this material expands laterally when they subjected to a tensile force unlike most of the other traditional materials. This material has superior properties over the traditional material such as high shear modulus and high impact resistance, which makes this material a good candidate for many engineering applications. In the present research work, auxetic flexible polyurethane polymeric foams having different densities were fabricated from conventional flexible polyurethane polymeric foam at different compression ratios. The microstructure of conventional and processed foams was examined by optical microscope to compare between the two structures. The microstructure of processed foam was compared with the one presented in the literature and it has shown the auxetic structure configuration. This is the first time to produce auxetic foam in Egypt. Conventional and auxetic foam samples having cylindrical and square cross-sections were produced from foams having different densities (25 kg/m 3 and 30 kg/m 3 ). The compression ratios used to produce the auxetic samples are (5.56, 6.94 and 9.26). Four mechanical tests were carried out to get the mechanical properties for both conventional and auxetic foams. Two quasi-static mechanical tests t ension and compression a nd two dynamic mechanical tests H ysteresis and resilience w ere carried out to compare between the conventional and auxetic foams. The quasi-static tensile test was carried out at speed was adjusted to be position control rate of 0.2 mm/s. The compression and hysteresis tests were carried out at strain control rate of 0.3 S -1 . The data recorded from the machine were stress and strain. The modulus of elasticity and Poisson's ratio of the test

  20. First molecular evidence of potentially zoonotic Babesia microti and Babesia sp. EU1 in Ixodes ricinus ticks in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempereur, Laetitia; De Cat, Ann; Caron, Yannick; Madder, Maxime; Claerebout, Edwin; Saegerman, Claude; Losson, Bertrand

    2011-02-01

    We report the first molecular evidence of the presence of Babesia sp. EU1 and Babesia microti in Ixodes ricinus ticks in Belgium. A 1-year national survey collected 1005 ticks from cats and dogs. A polymerase chain reaction technique amplifying a part of the 18S rRNA gene detected Babesia spp. in 11 out of 841 selected and validated tick extracts. Subsequent sequencing identified Ba. microti (n=3) and Babesia sp. EU1 (n=6). This study has demonstrated a low infection rate (1.31% with 95% CI: 0.65-2.33) of Babesia spp. carriage in I. ricinus ticks in Belgium but, for the first time, reports two potentially zoonotic species belonging to this genus. Coinfection with Ba. microti and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto also was demonstrated. In addition, this study clearly demonstrates that inhibitors of polymerase chain reaction amplification are present in engorged ticks.

  1. Two ways of experimental infection of Ixodes ricinus ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) with spirochetes of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fišerová, Lenka; Černá, Kateřina; Horká, Helena; Kopecký, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 2 (2008), s. 150-154 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/05/0811; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Lyme disease spirochete * Borrelia burgdorferi * Borrelia baronii * Borrelia afzelii * tick * Ixodes ricinus Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 1.307, year: 2008

  2. Effect of salivary gland extract from Ixodes ricinus ticks on the proliferation of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto in vivo

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macháčková, Martina; Oborník, Miroslav; Kopecký, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 2 (2006), s. 153-158 ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/05/0811 Grant - others:Studentská grantová agentura, Biologická fakulta Jihočeské univerzity(CZ) SGA2004/009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Borrelia burgdorferi * Ixodes ricinus * saliva-activated transmission Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 1.511, year: 2006

  3. Effect of forest clearing on the abundance of Ixodes ricinus ticks and the prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubálek, Zdeněk; Halouzka, Jiří; Juřicová, Zina; Šikutová, Silvie; Rudolf, Ivo

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 2 (2006), s. 166-172 ISSN 0269-283X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/03/0726 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 10284 - EDEN Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Ixodes ricinus * Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato * Lyme borreliosis risk Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 2.033, year: 2006

  4. Salivary gland extract from engorged Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) stimulates in vitro growth of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rudolf, Ivo; Šikutová, Silvie; Kopecký, Jan; Hubálek, Zdeněk

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 3 (2010), s. 294-298 ISSN 0233-111X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/03/0726; GA AV ČR IAA600960811 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519; CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : salivary gland extract * Ixodes ricinus ticks * Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.395, year: 2010

  5. Europe-Wide Meta-Analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato Prevalence in Questing Ixodes ricinus Ticks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Strnad, Martin; Hönig, Václav; Růžek, Daniel; Grubhoffer, Libor; Rego, Ryan O. M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 83, č. 15 (2017), č. článku e00609-17. ISSN 0099-2240 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 278976 - ANTIGONE; European Commission(XE) 602272 - ANTIDotE Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato * tick * Ixodes ricinus * genospecies * meta-analysis * Lyme borreliosis * Lyme disease Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 3.807, year: 2016

  6. Habitat properties are key drivers of Borrelia burgdorferi (s.l.) prevalence in Ixodes ricinus populations of deciduous forest fragments

    OpenAIRE

    Ehrmann, Steffen; Ruyts, Sanne C.; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Bauhus, Jürgen; Brunet, Jörg; Cousins, Sara A. O.; Deconchat, Marc; Decocq, Guillaume; De Frenne, Pieter; De Smedt, Pallieter; Diekmann, Martin; Gallet-Moron, Emilie; Gärtner, Stefanie; Hansen, Karin; Kolb, Annette

    2018-01-01

    Background The tick Ixodes ricinus has considerable impact on the health of humans and other terrestrial animals because it transmits several tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) such as B. burgdorferi (sensu lato), which causes Lyme borreliosis (LB). Small forest patches of agricultural landscapes provide many ecosystem services and also the disservice of LB risk. Biotic interactions and environmental filtering shape tick host communities distinctively between specific regions of Europe, which makes ...

  7. Ixodes ricinus ticks are reservoir hosts for Rickettsia helvetica and potentially carry flea-borne Rickettsia species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaasenbeek Cor

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hard ticks have been identified as important vectors of rickettsiae causing the spotted fever syndrome. Tick-borne rickettsiae are considered to be emerging, but only limited data are available about their presence in Western Europe, their natural life cycle and their reservoir hosts. Ixodes ricinus, the most prevalent tick species, were collected and tested from different vegetation types and from potential reservoir hosts. In one biotope area, the annual and seasonal variability of rickettsiae infections of the different tick stages were determined for 9 years. Results The DNA of the human pathogen R. conorii as well as R. helvetica, R. sp. IRS and R. bellii-like were found. Unexpectedly, the DNA of the highly pathogenic R. typhi and R. prowazekii and 4 other uncharacterized Rickettsia spp. related to the typhus group were also detected in I. ricinus. The presence of R. helvetica in fleas isolated from small rodents supported our hypothesis that cross-infection can occur under natural conditions, since R. typhi/prowazekii and R. helvetica as well as their vectors share rodents as reservoir hosts. In one biotope, the infection rate with R. helvetica was ~66% for 9 years, and was comparable between larvae, nymphs, and adults. Larvae caught by flagging generally have not yet taken a blood meal from a vertebrate host. The simplest explanation for the comparable prevalence of R. helvetica between the defined tick stages is, that R. helvetica is vertically transmitted through the next generation with high efficiency. The DNA of R. helvetica was also present in whole blood from mice, deer and wild boar. Conclusion Besides R. helvetica, unexpected rickettsiae are found in I. ricinus ticks. We propose that I. ricinus is a major reservoir host for R. helvetica, and that vertebrate hosts play important roles in the further geographical dispersion of rickettsiae.

  8. Broad-range survey of vector-borne pathogens and tick host identification of Ixodes ricinus from Southern Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hönig, Václav; Carolan, H. E.; Vavrušková, Zuzana; Massire, C.; Mosel, M.l R.; Crowder, C. D.; Rounds, M. A.; Ecker, D. J.; Růžek, Daniel; Grubhoffer, Libor; Luft, B. J.; Eshoo, M. W.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 11 (2017), č. článku fix129. ISSN 0168-6496 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 278976 - ANTIGONE Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : burgdorferi sensu-lato * tick * Ixodes ricinus * pcr-esi/ms * Borrelia * host * Lyme borreliosis * Babesia * Anaplasma * Rickettsia Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 3.720, year: 2016

  9. Functional expression and characterization of cathepsin B and L from the gut of the tick Ixodes ricinus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Franta, Zdeněk; Pěničková, Helena; Dvorak, J.; Schneider, E. I.; Horn, Martin; Mareš, Michael; Sojka, Daniel; McKerrow, J. H.; Caffrey, C. R.; Kopáček, Petr

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 276, S1 (2009), s. 309-309 ISSN 1742-464X. [34th FEBS Congress: Life's Molecular Interactions. 04.07.2009-09.07.2009, Prague] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600960910; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : cathepsin B and L * Ixodes ricinus * functionl expresssion Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  10. Combined treatment of Thymus vulgaris L., Rosmarinus officinalis L. and Myrtus communis L. essential oils against Salmonella typhimurium: Optimization of antibacterial activity by mixture design methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadil, Mouhcine; Fikri-Benbrahim, Kawtar; Rachiq, Saad; Ihssane, Bouchaib; Lebrazi, Sara; Chraibi, Marwa; Haloui, Taoufik; Farah, Abdellah

    2018-05-01

    To increase the sensibility of Salmonella typhimurium strain, a mixture of Thymus vulgaris L. (T. vulgaris L.), Rosmarinus officinalis L. (R. officinalis L.) and Myrtus communis L. (M. communis L.) essential oils (EOs) was used in combined treatment by experimental design methodology (mixture design). The chemical composition of EOs was firstly identified by GC and GC/MS and their antibacterial activity was evaluated. The results of this first step have shown that thymol and borneol were the major compounds in T. vulgaris and M. communis L. EOs, respectively, while 1,8-cineole and α-pinene were found as major compounds in R. officinalis L. The same results have shown a strong antibacterial activity of T. vulgaris L. EO followed by an important power of M. communis L. EO against a moderate activity of R. officinalis L. EO. Besides, 1/20 (v/v) was the concentration giving a strain response classified as sensitive. From this concentration, the mixture design was performed and analyzed. The optimization of mixtures antibacterial activities has highlighted the synergistic effect between T. vulgaris L. and M. communis L. essential oils. A formulation comprising 55% of T. vulgaris L. and 45% of M. communis L. essential oils, respectively, can be considered for the increase of Salmonella typhimurium sensibility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Climate of origin affects tick (Ixodes ricinus) host-seeking behavior in response to temperature: implications for resilience to climate change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Lucy; Aungier, Jennifer; Tomkins, Joseph L

    2014-04-01

    Climate warming is changing distributions and phenologies of many organisms and may also impact on vectors of disease-causing pathogens. In Europe, the tick Ixodes ricinus is the primary vector of medically important pathogens (e.g., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the causative agent of Lyme borreliosis). How might climate change affect I. ricinus host-seeking behavior (questing)? We hypothesize that, in order to maximize survival, I. ricinus have adapted their questing in response to temperature in accordance with local climates. We predicted that ticks from cooler climates quest at cooler temperatures than those from warmer climates. This would suggest that I. ricinus can adapt and therefore have the potential to be resilient to climate change. I. ricinus were collected from a cline of climates using a latitudinal gradient (northeast Scotland, North Wales, South England, and central France). Under laboratory conditions, ticks were subjected to temperature increases of 1°C per day, from 6 to 15°C. The proportion of ticks questing was recorded five times per temperature (i.e., per day). The theoretical potential to quest was then estimated for each population over the year for future climate change projections. As predicted, more ticks from cooler climates quested at lower temperatures than did ticks from warmer climates. The proportion of ticks questing was strongly associated with key climate parameters from each location. Our projections, based on temperature alone, suggested that populations could advance their activity season by a month under climate change, which has implications for exposure periods of hosts to tick-borne pathogens. Our findings suggest that I. ricinus have adapted their behavior in response to climate, implying some potential to adapt to climate change. Predictive models of I. ricinus dynamics and disease risk over continental scales would benefit from knowledge of these differences between populations.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of bio-based polyurethane from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Benzoylated tannin prepared by benzoylation of cashewnut husk tannin, was treated with hexame-thylenediisocyanate in the presence of 1,4-butanediol as an extender to prepare thermosetting polyurethane. The sample was characterized using FT–IR and 13C NMR spectra. Thermal, morphological, physico-chemical and ...

  13. WEATHERING DEGRADATION OF A POLYURETHANE COATING. (R828081E01)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The degradation of polyurethane topcoat over a chromate pigmented epoxy primer was examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) after the coated pane...

  14. Thermoplastic shape-memory polyurethanes based on natural oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saralegi, Ainara; Eceiza, Arantxa; Corcuera, Maria Angeles; Johan Foster, E; Weder, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    A new family of segmented thermoplastic polyurethanes with thermally activated shape-memory properties was synthesized and characterized. Polyols derived from castor oil with different molecular weights but similar chemical structures and a corn-sugar-based chain extender (propanediol) were used as starting materials in order to maximize the content of carbon from renewable resources in the new materials. The composition was systematically varied to establish a structure–property map and identify compositions with desirable shape-memory properties. The thermal characterization of the new polyurethanes revealed a microphase separated structure, where both the soft (by convention the high molecular weight diol) and the hard phases were highly crystalline. Cyclic thermo-mechanical tensile tests showed that these polymers are excellent candidates for use as thermally activated shape-memory polymers, in which the crystalline soft segments promote high shape fixity values (close to 100%) and the hard segment crystallites ensure high shape recovery values (80–100%, depending on the hard segment content). The high proportion of components from renewable resources used in the polyurethane formulation leads to the synthesis of bio-based polyurethanes with shape-memory properties. (paper)

  15. Development of a phenomenological constitutive model for polyurethane foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neilsen, M.K.; Morgan, H.S.; Krieg, R.D.; Yoshimura, H.R.

    1989-01-01

    Rigid, closed-cell, polyurethane foam is used in impact limiters in nuclear waste transport containers. During a hypothetical nuclear waste transport accident, the foam is expected to absorb a significant amount of impact energy by undergoing large inelastic volume reductions. Consequently, the crushing of polyurethane foams must be well characterized and accurately modeled to properly analyze a transport container accident. At the request of Sandia National Laboratories, a series of uniaxial, hydrostatic and triaxial compression tests on polyurethane foams were performed by the New Mexico Engineering Research Institute (NMERI). The combination of hydrostatic and triaxial tests was chosen to provide sufficient data to characterize both the volumetric and deviatoric behaviors of the foams and the coupling between the two responses. Typical results from the NMERI tests are included in this paper. A complete description of these tests can be found in Neilsen et al., 1987. Constitutive models that have been used in the past to model foam did not capture some important foam behaviors observed in the NMERI tests. Therefore, a new constitutive model for rigid, closed-cell, polyurethane foams was developed and implemented in two finite element codes. Development of the new model is discussed in this paper. Also, results from analyses with the new model and other constitutive models are presented to demonstrate differences between the various models. 4 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  16. Cell–material interactions on biphasic polyurethane matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicesare, Patrick; Fox, Wade M.; Hill, Michael J.; Krishnan, G. Rajesh; Yang, Shuying; Sarkar, Debanjan

    2013-01-01

    Cell–matrix interaction is a key regulator for controlling stem cell fate in regenerative tissue engineering. These interactions are induced and controlled by the nanoscale features of extracellular matrix and are mimicked on synthetic matrices to control cell structure and functions. Recent studies have shown that nanostructured matrices can modulate stem cell behavior and exert specific role in tissue regeneration. In this study, we have demonstrated that nanostructured phase morphology of synthetic matrix can control adhesion, proliferation, organization and migration of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Nanostructured biodegradable polyurethanes (PU) with segmental composition exhibit biphasic morphology at nanoscale dimensions and can control cellular features of MSCs. Biodegradable PU with polyester soft segment and hard segment composed of aliphatic diisocyanates and dipeptide chain extender were designed to examine the effect polyurethane phase morphology. By altering the polyurethane composition, morphological architecture of PU was modulated and its effect was examined on MSC. Results show that MSCs can sense the nanoscale morphology of biphasic polyurethane matrix to exhibit distinct cellular features and, thus, signifies the relevance of matrix phase morphology. The role of nanostructured phases of a synthetic matrix in controlling cell–matrix interaction provides important insights for regulation of cell behavior on synthetic matrix and, therefore, is an important tool for engineering tissue regeneration. PMID:23255285

  17. Sorption of Triangular Silver Nanoplates on Polyurethane Foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furletov, A. A.; Apyari, V. V.; Garshev, A. V.; Volkov, P. A.; Tolmacheva, V. V.; Dmitrienko, S. G.

    2018-02-01

    The sorption of triangular silver nanoplates on polyurethane foam is investigated as a procedure for creating a nanocomposite sensing material for subsequent use in optical means of chemical analysis. Triangular silver nanoplates are synthesized and characterized, and a simple sorption technique for the formation of a composite material based on these nanoplates is proposed.

  18. Hyaluronan Immobilized Polyurethane as a Blood Contacting Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feirong Gong

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyaluronan (hyaluronic acid, HA was immobilized onto the surface of amino-functionalized polyurethane films with the goal of obtaining a novel kind of biomaterial which had the potential in blood-contacting applications. The amino-functionalized polyurethane was prepared by synthesized acidic polyurethane whose pendant carboxyl groups were treated with an excess amount of 1,3-diaminopropane in the presence of N,N-carbonyldiimidazole (CDI. Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR, Raman spectroscopy (RS, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and water contact angle measurement were used to confirm the surface changes at each step of treatment, both in morphologies and chemical compositions. APTT and PT results showed that HA immobilization could prolong the blood coagulation time, thus HA-immobilized polyurethane (PU-HA exhibited improved blood compatibility. Cytotoxicity analysis showed that the PU-HA films synthesized in this study were cytocompatible and could support human vein endothelial cells (HUVECs adhesion and proliferation.

  19. Antimicrobial polyurethane coatings based on ionic liquid quaternary ammonium compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yagci, M.B.; Bolca, S.; Heuts, J.P.A.; Ming, W.; With, de G.

    2011-01-01

    The antimicrobial effect of ionic liquids (ILs) as comonomers in polyurethane surface coatings was investigated. Ionic liquid-containing coatings were prepared from a hydroxyl end-capped liquid oligoester and a triisocyanate crosslinker. Three different commercially available hydroxyl end-capped

  20. Polyurethanes with bio-based and recycled components

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beneš, Hynek; Vlček, T.; Černá, R.; Hromádková, Jiřina; Walterová, Zuzana; Svitáková, Romana

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 114, č. 1 (2012), s. 71-83 ISSN 1438-7697 R&D Projects: GA MPO 2A-2TP1/135 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : natural oil * polyol * polyurethane Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.266, year: 2012

  1. Characterization of Novel Castor Oil-Based Polyurethane Polymer Electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salmiah Ibrahim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Castor oil-based polyurethane as a renewable resource polymer has been synthesized for application as a host in polymer electrolyte for electrochemical devices. The polyurethane was added with LiI and NaI in different wt% to form a film of polymer electrolytes. The films were characterized by using attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, dynamic mechanical analysis, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, linear sweep voltammetry and transference number measurement. The highest conductivity of 1.42 × 10−6 S cm−1 was achieved with the addition of 30 wt% LiI and 4.28 × 10−7 S·cm−1 upon addition of 30 wt% NaI at room temperature. The temperature dependence conductivity plot indicated that both systems obeyed Arrhenius law. The activation energy for the PU-LiI and PU-NaI systems were 0.13 and 0.22 eV. Glass transition temperature of the synthesized polyurethane decreased from −15.8 °C to ~ −26 to −28 °C upon salts addition. These characterizations exhibited the castor oil-based polyurethane polymer electrolytes have potential to be used as alternative membrane for electrochemical devices.

  2. Polyurethanes elastomers with amide chain extenders of uniform length

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schuur, J.M.; Noordover, B.A.J.; Noordover, Bart; Gaymans, R.J.

    2006-01-01

    Toluene diisocyanate based polyurethanes with amide extenders were synthesized poly(propylene oxide) with a number average molecular weight of 2000 and endcapped with toluene diisocyanate was used as the polyether segment. The chain extenders were based on poly(hexamethylene terephthalamide):

  3. Novel polycarbonate-based polyurethane elastomers: composition–property relationship

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špírková, Milena; Pavličevic, J.; Strachota, Adam; Poreba, Rafal; Bera, O.; Kaprálková, Ludmila; Baldrian, Josef; Šlouf, Miroslav; Lazić, N.; Budinski-Simendic, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 5 (2011), s. 959-972 ISSN 0014-3057 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/10/0195 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : polyurethane elastomer * polycarbonate diol * montmorillonite Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.739, year: 2011

  4. Synthesis and characterization of castor oil based polyurethane ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. A series of interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) of castor oil based polyurethane/polyacrylo- nitrile (PU/PAN: 80/20, 60/40, 50/50, 40/60 and 20/80) were synthesized by condensation reaction of castor oil with methylene diisocyanate and acrylonitrile, employing benzoyl peroxide (BPO) and ethylene glycol ...

  5. Use of porous polyurethanes for meniscal reconstruction and meniscal prostheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deGroot, JH; deVrijer, R; Pennings, AJ; Veth, RPH; Jansen, HWB

    In the past, porous materials made of an aromatic polyurethane (PU) were successfully used for meniscal reconstruction in dogs. Since aromatic PUs yield very toxic fragments upon degradation, a linear PU was synthesized by curing a poly(epsilon-caprolactone) and 1,4-trans-cyclohexane diisocyanate I

  6. 78 FR 55641 - Polyurethane-Type Polymers; Tolerance Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ...-Type Polymers; Tolerance Exemption AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule... polymers produced by the reaction of either 1,6-hexanediisocyanate; 2,4,4-trimethyl-1,6-hexanediisocyanate... (also known as polyurethane-type polymers), when used as an inert ingredient in a pesticide chemical...

  7. Utilization of natural oils for decomposition of polyurethanes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beneš, Hynek; Černá, R.; Ďuračková, Andrea; Látalová, Petra

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 1 (2012), s. 175-185 ISSN 1566-2543 R&D Projects: GA MPO 2A-2TP1/135 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : polyurethane * oleochemical polyol * chemical recycling Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.495, year: 2012

  8. Synthesis and characterization of castor oil-based polyurethane

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Polyurethane (PU) based on polyol, derived from castor oil has been synthesized and characterized for potential use as a base material for electrolytes. Transesterification process of castor oil formed a polyol with hydroxyl value of 190 mg KOH g–1 and molecular weight of 2786 g mol–1. The polyols together with 4 ...

  9. Characterization studies of lower and non-TDI polyurethane encapsulants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, M.H.

    1993-09-01

    Polyurethane prepolymers containing toluene diisocyanate (TDI) are used within the Nuclear Weapons complex for many adhesive and encapsulation applications. As part of a program for minimizing hazards to workers and the environment, TDI will be eliminated. This report presents evaluation of alternative encapsulants

  10. Sanitary and hygienic assessment of polyurethane foam compositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukhanov, V V; Putilina, O.N. (Donetskii NII Gigieny Truda i Professional' nykh Zabolevanii (USSR))

    1990-07-01

    Describes and presents the results of a long-term study performed by the Skochinski Institute and DonUGI into the suitability of various Soviet and foreign polyurethane foams as rock strengtheners in coal mines. Concludes that although further research is needed to clarify the effect of polyurethane absorbed by coal particles and on pneumoconioses, the industrial use of injectable polyisocyanite-based polyurethanes in amounts of up to 1 t/shift and with a minimum air exchange rate of 300 m{sup 3}/min is feasible as long as the safety laws are strictly observed. Those working with this material should be given a medical examination at least once a year. If the substance comes into contact with the skin or eyes, they should be washed with a 1-3% solution of sodium bicarbonate and then pure water; if it contaminates protective clothing this should be degassed in a 5-10% solution of ammonia for 24 hours and then washed. Due to the risk of toxic substances being released from the components of the polyurethane in the event of an endogenic fire, all workers should be equipped with their own personal breathing apparatus.

  11. Recycling Waste Polyurethane as a Carbon Resource in Ironmaking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Globally, major avenues available for dealing with waste Poly-Urethane (PU) are disposal at landfill sites and incineration. However, PU contains high levels of carbon and hydrogen that can be recovered for use as reductant in metal extraction processes. In this work the use of post-consumer PU as reductant for the ...

  12. Calcium fluxes across the plasma membrane of Commelina communis L. assayed in a cell-free system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siebers, B.; Graef, P.; Weiler, E.W.

    1990-01-01

    The inside-out fraction of plasma membrane-rich vesicles prepared from leaves of Commelina communis L. by aqueous two-phase partitioning was loaded with 45 Ca 2+ through the action of the plasma membrane Ca 2+ -ATPase. Results suggest the presence of a Ca 2+ channel in the plasma membrane of C. communis. The channel is obtained in a Ca 2+ -inactivated state after preparation and Ca 2+ -loading of the vesicles. The inactivation is removed by TFP [trifluoperazine] or W-7 [N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulfonamide], presumably due to the Ca 2+ -mobilizing effect of these compounds. The activated Ca 2+ channel is La 3+ sensitive and, in the cell, would allow for passage of Ca 2+ into the cell. The possibility that TFP or W-7 act independent of CM, or through CM tightly associated with the plasma membrane, is discussed

  13. Studies on polyurethane adhesives and surface modification of hydrophobic substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthy, Jayaraman

    This thesis work deals with (a) Curing of reactive, hot-melt polyurethane adhesives and (b) Adsorption studies using different interactions. Research on polyurethanes involves characterization of polyurethane prepolymers and a novel mechanism to cure isocyanate-terminated polyurethane prepolymer by a "trigger" mechanism. Curing of isocyanate-terminated polyurethane prepolymers has been shown to be influenced by morphology and environmental conditions such as temperature and relative humidity. Although the initial composition, final morphology and curing kinetics are known, information regarding the intermediate prepolymer mixture is yet to be established. Polyurethane prepolymers prepared by the reaction of diisocyanates with the primary hydroxyls of polyester diol (PHMA) and secondary hydroxyls of polyether diol (PPG) were characterized. The morphology and crystallization kinetics of a polyurethane prepolymer was compared with a blend of PPG prepolymer (the product obtained by the reaction of PPG with diisocyanate) and a PHMA prepolymer (the product obtained by the reaction of PHMA with diisocyanate) to study the effect of copolymer formed in the polyurethane prepolymer on the above-mentioned properties. Although the morphology of the polyurethane prepolymer is determined in the first few minutes of application, the chemical curing of isocyanate-terminated prepolymer occurs over hours to days. In the literature, different techniques are described to follow the curing kinetics. But there is no established technique to control the curing of polyurethane prepolymer. To make the curing process independent of environmental factors, a novel approach using a trigger mechanism was designed and implemented by using ammonium salts as curing agents. Ammonium salts that are stable at room temperature but decompose on heating to yield active hydrogen-containing compounds, NH3 and H2O, were used as 'Trojan horses' to cure the prepolymer chemically. Research on adsorption

  14. Occurrence of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. in Ixodes ricinus in Bavarian public parks, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahling Monia

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Only limited information is available about the occurrence of ticks and tick-borne pathogens in public parks, which are areas strongly influenced by human beings. For this reason, Ixodes ricinus were collected in public parks of different Bavarian cities in a 2-year survey (2009 and 2010 and screened for DNA of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. by PCR. Species identification was performed by sequence analysis and alignment with existing sequences in GenBank. Additionally, coinfections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum were investigated. Results The following prevalences were detected: Babesia spp.: 0.4% (n = 17, including one pool of two larvae in 2009 and 0.5 to 0.7% (n = 11, including one pool of five larvae in 2010; Rickettsia spp.: 6.4 to 7.7% (n = 285, including 16 pools of 76 larvae in 2009. DNA of Bartonella spp. in I. ricinus in Bavarian public parks could not be identified. Sequence analysis revealed the following species: Babesia sp. EU1 (n = 25, B. divergens (n = 1, B. divergens/capreoli (n = 1, B. gibsoni-like (n = 1, R. helvetica (n = 272, R. monacensis IrR/Munich (n = 12 and unspecified R. monacensis (n = 1. The majority of coinfections were R. helvetica with A. phagocytophilum (n = 27, but coinfections between Babesia spp. and A. phagocytophilum, or Babesia spp. and R. helvetica were also detected. Conclusions I. ricinus ticks in urban areas of Germany harbor several tick-borne pathogens and coinfections were also observed. Public parks are of particularly great interest regarding the epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens, because of differences in both the prevalence of pathogens in ticks as well as a varying species arrangement when compared to woodland areas. The record of DNA of a Babesia gibsoni-like pathogen detected in I. ricinus suggests that I. ricinus may harbor and transmit more Babesia spp. than previously known. Because of their high recreational value for human beings, urban green

  15. Occurrence of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. in Ixodes ricinus in Bavarian public parks, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorn, Sabine; Pfister, Kurt; Reulen, Holger; Mahling, Monia; Silaghi, Cornelia

    2011-07-15

    Only limited information is available about the occurrence of ticks and tick-borne pathogens in public parks, which are areas strongly influenced by human beings. For this reason, Ixodes ricinus were collected in public parks of different Bavarian cities in a 2-year survey (2009 and 2010) and screened for DNA of Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp. and Bartonella spp. by PCR. Species identification was performed by sequence analysis and alignment with existing sequences in GenBank. Additionally, coinfections with Anaplasma phagocytophilum were investigated. The following prevalences were detected: Babesia spp.: 0.4% (n = 17, including one pool of two larvae) in 2009 and 0.5 to 0.7% (n = 11, including one pool of five larvae) in 2010; Rickettsia spp.: 6.4 to 7.7% (n = 285, including 16 pools of 76 larvae) in 2009. DNA of Bartonella spp. in I. ricinus in Bavarian public parks could not be identified. Sequence analysis revealed the following species: Babesia sp. EU1 (n = 25), B. divergens (n = 1), B. divergens/capreoli (n = 1), B. gibsoni-like (n = 1), R. helvetica (n = 272), R. monacensis IrR/Munich (n = 12) and unspecified R. monacensis (n = 1). The majority of coinfections were R. helvetica with A. phagocytophilum (n = 27), but coinfections between Babesia spp. and A. phagocytophilum, or Babesia spp. and R. helvetica were also detected. I. ricinus ticks in urban areas of Germany harbor several tick-borne pathogens and coinfections were also observed. Public parks are of particularly great interest regarding the epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens, because of differences in both the prevalence of pathogens in ticks as well as a varying species arrangement when compared to woodland areas. The record of DNA of a Babesia gibsoni-like pathogen detected in I. ricinus suggests that I. ricinus may harbor and transmit more Babesia spp. than previously known. Because of their high recreational value for human beings, urban green areas are likely to remain in the research focus on

  16. Study of the Antibacterial Activity of Methanolic and Aqueous Extracts of Myrtus communis on Pathogenic Strains Causing Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrooz Alizadeh Behbahani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Medicine plants have been used as sources of medicine in virtually all cultures. During the last decade, the use of traditional medicine (TM has been expanded globally and is gaining popularity. Objectives The antimicrobial activities of methanol and water extracts of Myrtus communis L. leaves were evaluated in this study. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, the tests were carried out using disk agar diffusion method at four extract concentrations (5, 10, 15 and 20 mg/mL. The MICs and MBCs of the extracts of M. communis were determined by agar dilution method. Average results were reported as the mean and standard error (mean ± SE and SPSS-18 statistical software, oneway ANOVA followed by Turkey’s test were used to do inter-group comparison, while considering P ≤ 0.05 as the significance level. Results Methanol extract of M. communis exhibited significant antibacterial activity in the concentration of 20 mg/mL (P ≤ 0.05 against Staphylococcus epidermidis and Enterococcus faecalis with a greater inhibition zone of 20 mm, while a 14 mm zone of inhibition was observed in Escherichia coli and Shigella flexneri. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the extracts ranged between 2 mg/mL and 128 mg/mL while the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC ranged between 4 mg/mL and 256 mg/mL. Conclusions The study showed that species, strains and concentrations of M. communis extract are of those factors that may influence the sensitivity of the tested bacteria. A significant correlation was observed between zone of inhibition and concentration of extract.

  17. Novel route of synthesis for cellulose fiber-based hybrid polyurethane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikhwan, F. H.; Ilmiati, S.; Kurnia Adi, H.; Arumsari, R.; Chalid, M.

    2017-07-01

    Polyurethanes, obtained by the reaction of a diisocyanate compound with bifunctional or multifunctional reagent such as diols or polyols, have been studied intensively and well developed. The wide range modifier such as chemical structures and molecular weight to build polyurethanes led to designs of materials that may easily meet the functional product demand and to the extraordinary spreading of these materials in market. Properties of the obtained polymer are related to the chemical structure of polyurethane backbone. A number polyurethanes prepared from biomass-based monomers have been reported. Cellulose fiber, as a biomass material is containing abundant hydroxyl, promising material as chain extender for building hybrid polyurethanes. In previous researches, cellulose fiber was used as filler in synthesis of polyurethane composites. This paper reported a novel route of hybrid polyurethane synthesis, which a cellulose fiber was used as chain extender. The experiment performed by reacting 4,4’-Methylenebis (cyclohexyl isocyanate) (HMDI) and polyethylene glycol with variation of molecular weight to obtained pre-polyurethane, continued by adding micro fiber cellulose (MFC) with variation of type and composition in the mixture. The experiment was evaluated by NMR, FTIR, SEM and STA measurement. NMR and FTIR confirmed the reaction of the hybrid polyurethane. STA showed hybrid polyurethane has good thermal stability. SEM showed good distribution and dispersion of sorghum-based MFC.

  18. Changes in the geographical distribution and abundance of the tick Ixodes ricinus during the past 30 years in Sweden

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    Jaenson Thomas GT

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ixodes ricinus is the main vector in Europe of human-pathogenic Lyme borreliosis (LB spirochaetes, the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV and other pathogens of humans and domesticated mammals. The results of a previous 1994 questionnaire, directed at people living in Central and North Sweden (Svealand and Norrland and aiming to gather information about tick exposure for humans and domestic animals, suggested that Ixodes ricinus ticks had become more widespread in Central Sweden and the southern part of North Sweden from the early 1980s to the early 1990s. To investigate whether the expansion of the tick's northern geographical range and the increasing abundance of ticks in Sweden were still occurring, in 2009 we performed a follow-up survey 16 years after the initial study. Methods A questionnaire similar to the one used in the 1994 study was published in Swedish magazines aimed at dog owners, home owners, and hunters. The questionnaire was published together with a popular science article about the tick's biology and role as a pathogen vector in Sweden. The magazines were selected to get information from people familiar with ticks and who spend time in areas where ticks might be present. Results Analyses of data from both surveys revealed that during the near 30-year period from the early 1980s to 2008, I. ricinus has expanded its distribution range northwards. In the early 1990s ticks were found in new areas along the northern coastline of the Baltic Sea, while in the 2009 study, ticks were reported for the first time from many locations in North Sweden. This included locations as far north as 66°N and places in the interior part of North Sweden. During this 16-year period the tick's range in Sweden was estimated to have increased by 9.9%. Most of the range expansion occurred in North Sweden (north of 60°N where the tick's coverage area doubled from 12.5% in the early 1990s to 26.8% in 2008. Moreover, according to the

  19. Changes in the geographical distribution and abundance of the tick Ixodes ricinus during the past 30 years in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaenson, Thomas G T; Jaenson, David G E; Eisen, Lars; Petersson, Erik; Lindgren, Elisabet

    2012-01-10

    Ixodes ricinus is the main vector in Europe of human-pathogenic Lyme borreliosis (LB) spirochaetes, the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and other pathogens of humans and domesticated mammals. The results of a previous 1994 questionnaire, directed at people living in Central and North Sweden (Svealand and Norrland) and aiming to gather information about tick exposure for humans and domestic animals, suggested that Ixodes ricinus ticks had become more widespread in Central Sweden and the southern part of North Sweden from the early 1980s to the early 1990s. To investigate whether the expansion of the tick's northern geographical range and the increasing abundance of ticks in Sweden were still occurring, in 2009 we performed a follow-up survey 16 years after the initial study. A questionnaire similar to the one used in the 1994 study was published in Swedish magazines aimed at dog owners, home owners, and hunters. The questionnaire was published together with a popular science article about the tick's biology and role as a pathogen vector in Sweden. The magazines were selected to get information from people familiar with ticks and who spend time in areas where ticks might be present. Analyses of data from both surveys revealed that during the near 30-year period from the early 1980s to 2008, I. ricinus has expanded its distribution range northwards. In the early 1990s ticks were found in new areas along the northern coastline of the Baltic Sea, while in the 2009 study, ticks were reported for the first time from many locations in North Sweden. This included locations as far north as 66°N and places in the interior part of North Sweden. During this 16-year period the tick's range in Sweden was estimated to have increased by 9.9%. Most of the range expansion occurred in North Sweden (north of 60°N) where the tick's coverage area doubled from 12.5% in the early 1990s to 26.8% in 2008. Moreover, according to the respondents, the abundance of ticks had increased

  20. The Modification of Polyurethane Foams Using New Boroorganic Polyols (II) Polyurethane Foams from Boron-Modified Hydroxypropyl Urea Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The work focuses on research related to determination of application possibility of new, ecofriendly boroorganic polyols in rigid polyurethane foams production. Polyols were obtained from hydroxypropyl urea derivatives esterified with boric acid and propylene carbonate. The influence of esterification type on properties of polyols and next on polyurethane foams properties was determined. Nitrogen and boron impacts on the foams' properties were discussed, for instance, on their physical, mechanical, and electric properties. Boron presence causes improvement of dimensional stability and thermal stability of polyurethane foams. They can be applied even at temperature 150°C. Unfortunately, introducing boron in polyurethanes foams affects deterioration of their water absorption, which increases as compared to the foams that do not contain boron. However, presence of both boron and nitrogen determines the decrease of the foams combustibility. Main impact on the decrease combustibility of the obtained foams has nitrogen presence, but in case of proper boron and nitrogen ratio their synergic activity on the combustibility decrease can be easily seen. PMID:24587721

  1. First evidence of [i]Babesia venatorum[/i] and [i]Babesia capreoli[/i] in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristyna Venclikova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objective. [i]Ixodes ricinus[/i] is the most common tick species occurring in Central Europe and it serves as a principal vector of emerging human pathogens. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of [i]Babesia spp[/i]. in host-seeking [i]I. ricinus[/i] in urban and natural habitats. Materials and methods. PCR was applied on samples to assess prevalence of [i]Babesia spp.[/i] in questing ixodid ticks. Sequencing was used for [i]Babesia[/i] species determination. Results. 1,473 [i]I. ricinus[/i] ticks (1,294 nymphs, 99 males and 80 females were examined for the presence of [i]Babesia spp[/i]. at the two study sites. Minimum infection rate for [i]Babesia[/i] spp. was found to be 0.5% (infected I. ricinus nymphs were only detected in the natural ecosystem. Two[i] Babesia[/i] species were identified by sequencing: [i]B. venatorum[/i] (formerly called[i] Babesia[/i] sp. EU1 and [i]B. capreoli. [/i] Conclusions. The results obtained represent the first evidence of the occurrence of [i]B. venatorum[/i] and [i]B. capreoli[/i] in host-seeking[i] I. ricinus[/i] ticks in the Czech Republic.

  2. Biodiesel Obtaining from Ricinus Seed. Academical Proyect For Promoting Biofuels Use in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Daza, O.; Amador Ramirez, P.; Reyes Ortega, Y.; Rosas Mendoza, S.; Cervantes de la Rosa, A.; Pineda Gonzalez, A.A.

    2007-07-01

    Mexico shares a strong responsibility into Latin-America and with the rest of the world as GHG emitter. At present, this responsibility has not a minimum of response on education, economy, politics, science and technology. One of the most important contamination source in Mexico is transport which, additionally, undergoes a slow modernization process. Brazil and European Union experiences and an abundant scientific literature have shown the economical and technological feasibility for substituting fossil fuels by other renewable and clean fuels as bioethanol and biodiesel. Authors consider as fundamental objective to promote production and use of biofuels in Mexico. They are working on the investigation project which is developed in Puebla State searching to take advantage of regional row materials. Ricinus seed cultivation could stimulate regional socioeconomic conditions because of water demand is modest, currently the seed grows wildly and some land extension in the region is not active due to high emigration towards USA. Knowledge about biodiesel obtaining from diverse materials is abundant and international companies market industrial equipment and technology for producing it, nevertheless, the authors consider important to develop in Mexico adequate technology to the specific socioeconomic and natural conditions working the own raw materials. (auth)

  3. From Chemistry to Behavior. Molecular Structure and Bioactivity of Repellents against Ixodes ricinus Ticks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Del Fabbro

    Full Text Available Tick-borne zoonoses are considered as emerging diseases. Tick repellents represent an effective tool for reducing the risk of tick bite and pathogens transmission. Previous work demonstrated the repellent activity of the phenylpropanoid eugenol against Ixodes ricinus; here we investigate the relationship between molecular structure and repellency in a group of substances related to that compound. We report the biological activity of 18 compounds varying for the presence/number of several moieties, including hydroxyl and methoxy groups and carbon side-chain. Each compound was tested at different doses with a bioassay designed to measure repellency against individual tick nymphs. Both vapor pressure and chemical features of the tested compounds appeared to be related to repellency. In particular, the hydroxyl and methoxy groups as well as the side-chain on the benzene ring seem to play a role. These results are discussed in light of available data on chemical perception in ticks. In the course of the study new repellent compounds were identified; the biological activity of some of them (at least as effective as the "gold standard" repellent DEET appears to be very promising from a practical point of view.

  4. How ticks get under your skin: insertion mechanics of the feeding apparatus of Ixodes ricinus ticks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Dania; Matuschka, Franz-Rainer; Spielman, Andrew; Mahadevan, L.

    2013-01-01

    The tick Ixodes ricinus uses its mouthparts to penetrate the skin of its host and to remain attached for about a week, during which time Lyme disease spirochaetes may pass from the tick to the host. To understand how the tick achieves both tasks, penetration and attachment, with the same set of implements, we recorded the insertion events by cinematography, interpreted the mouthparts’ function by scanning electron microscopy and identified their points of articulation by confocal microscopy. Our structural dynamic observations suggest that the process of insertion and attachment occurs via a ratchet-like mechanism with two distinct stages. Initially, the two telescoping chelicerae pierce the skin and, by moving alternately, generate a toehold. Subsequently, a breaststroke-like motion, effected by simultaneous flexure and retraction of both chelicerae, pulls in the barbed hypostome. This combination of a flexible, dynamic mechanical ratchet and a static holdfast thus allows the tick to solve the problem of how to penetrate skin and also remain stuck for long periods of time. PMID:24174106

  5. Isolation and characterization of a bacterium which utilizes polyester polyurethane as a sole carbon and nitrogen source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima-Kambe, T; Onuma, F; Kimpara, N; Nakahara, T

    1995-06-01

    Various soil samples were screened for the presence of microorganisms which have the ability to degrade polyurethane compounds. Two strains with good polyurethane degrading activity were isolated. The more active strain was tentatively identified as Comamonas acidovorans. This strain could utilize polyester-type polyurethanes but not the polyether-type polyurethanes as sole carbon and nitrogen sources. Adipic acid and diethylene glycol were probably the main degradation products when polyurethane was supplied as a sole carbon and nitrogen source. When ammonium nitrate was used as nitrogen source, only diethylene glycol was detected after growth on polyurethane.

  6. Comparison of anti-corrosion properties of polyurethane based composite coatings with low infrared emissivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yajun; Xu Guoyue; Yu Huijuan; Hu Chen; Yan Xiaoxing; Guo Tengchao; Li Jiufen

    2011-01-01

    Four polyurethane resins, pure polyurethane (PU), epoxy modified polyurethane (EPU), fluorinated polyurethane (FPU) and epoxy modified fluorinated polyurethane (EFPU), with similar polyurethane backbone structure but different grafting group were used as organic adhesive for preparing low infrared emissivity coatings with an extremely low emissivity near 0.10 at 8-14 μm, respectively. By using these four resins, the effect of different resin matrics on the corrosion protection of the low infrared emissivity coatings was investigated in detail by using neutral salt spray test, SEM and FTIR. It was found that the emissivity of the coatings with different resin matrics changes significantly in corrosion media. And the results indicated that the coating using EFPU as organic adhesive exhibited excellent corrosion resistance property which was mainly attributed to the presence of epoxy group and atomic fluorine in binder simultaneously.

  7. Nerve regeneration using tubular scaffolds from biodegradable polyurethane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausner, T; Schmidhammer, R; Zandieh, S; Hopf, R; Schultz, A; Gogolewski, S; Hertz, H; Redl, H

    2007-01-01

    In severe nerve lesion, nerve defects and in brachial plexus reconstruction, autologous nerve grafting is the golden standard. Although, nerve grafting technique is the best available approach a major disadvantages exists: there is a limited source of autologous nerve grafts. This study presents data on the use of tubular scaffolds with uniaxial pore orientation from experimental biodegradable polyurethanes coated with fibrin sealant to regenerate a 8 mm resected segment of rat sciatic nerve. Tubular scaffolds: prepared by extrusion of the polymer solution in DMF into water coagulation bath. The polymer used for the preparation of tubular scaffolds was a biodegradable polyurethane based on hexamethylene diisocyanate, poly(epsilon-caprolactone) and dianhydro-D-sorbitol. EXPERIMENTAL MODEL: Eighteen Sprague Dawley rats underwent mid-thigh sciatic nerve transection and were randomly assigned to two experimental groups with immediate repair: (1) tubular scaffold, (2) 180 degrees rotated sciatic nerve segment (control). Serial functional measurements (toe spread test, placing tests) were performed weekly from 3rd to 12th week after nerve repair. On week 12, electrophysiological assessment was performed. Sciatic nerve and scaffold/nerve grafts were harvested for histomorphometric analysis. Collagenic connective tissue, Schwann cells and axons were evaluated in the proximal nerve stump, the scaffold/nerve graft and the distal nerve stump. The implants have uniaxially-oriented pore structure with a pore size in the range of 2 micorm (the pore wall) and 75 x 700 microm (elongated pores in the implant lumen). The skin of the tubular implants was nonporous. Animals which underwent repair with tubular scaffolds of biodegradable polyurethanes coated with diluted fibrin sealant had no significant functional differences compared with the nerve graft group. Control group resulted in a trend-wise better electrophysiological recovery but did not show statistically significant

  8. Extraction of uranium from aqueous solution by phosphonic acid-imbedded polyurethane foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katragadda, S.; Gesser, H.D.; Chow, A.

    1997-01-01

    Phenylphosphonic acid was imbedded into the matrix of the polyurethane foam during the fabrication process of the polymer. The extraction of uranium by phosphonic acid-imbedded polyurethane foam and blank polyurethane (i.e., foam without phosphonic acid functional groups) was investigated. Phosphonic acid-imbedded foam showed superior extractability of uranium from solutions with pH = 7.0 ± 1.5 over a wide range of temperatures. (author)

  9. Bio-Based Polyurethane Containing Isosorbide for Use in Composites and Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    ARL-TR-7259 ● APR 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Bio-Based Polyurethane Containing Isosorbide for Use in Composites and...copyright notation hereon. ARL-TR-7259 ● APR 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Bio-Based Polyurethane Containing Isosorbide for Use...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Bio-Based Polyurethane Containing Isosorbide for Use in Composites and Coatings 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  10. Use of Polyurethane Coating to Prevent Corrosion in Oil and Gas Pipelines Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Samimi

    2012-01-01

    Corrosion is one of the major problems in the oil and gas industry is one that automatically allocates huge sums annually. Polyurethane is a thermoses polymer with various applications. Using form this polymer has spread for military applications by Otto Bayer in 1930. In one general look polyurethane is product of Iso Syanate and ploy with each other, So that: Iso + ploy = polyurethane. Spend large cost for application and launching oil and gas transitions, has cleared the necessity protecti...

  11. COMPONENTES MINORITÁRIOS DO ÓLEO DE MAMONA (Ricinus comunnis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina Bastos Caramão

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O óleo extraído de sementes de Ricinnus communis L., conhecida como mamona, foi analisado neste trabalho quanto a presença decomponentes minoritários extraídos na fase insaponificável. A extração de insaponificáveis foi realizada conforme o método AOCS(Ca 6a-40 e a análise das amostras de óleo foi realizada por Cromatografia gasosa acoplada a espectrometria de massas (CG-DEMapós derivatização com BSA. Entre as substâncias identificadas encontrou-se o D-tocoferol, g- tocoferol, D5-ergostenol, stigmasterol,obtusifoliol, g-sitosterol, fucosterol e cicloartenol. As amostras de óleo de diferentes variedades de mamona, obtidas por prensagem afrio e por solvente em extrator soxhlet apresentaram diferenças quanto as substâncias separadas. O método empregado para extração eanálise foi apropriado para identificar a presença de componentes minoritários no óleo de mamona.

  12. Essential Oil of Myrtus communis L. as a Potential Antioxidant and Antimutagenic Agents

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    Neda Mimica-Dukić

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity and antimutagenic properties of the essential oil of myrtle (Myrtus communis L.. Plant samples were collected from the two distant localities (southernmost and northern point of the Montenegro coastline. Chemical profiles of the two samples were evaluated by GC-MS. In both of the samples monoterpenes were found to be the predominant compounds. Among them a-pinene, linalool, 1,8-cineole, and myrtenyl acetate were the major compounds. Significant differences between the samples were found in the ranges of a-pinene (14.7%–35.9% and myrtenyl acetate (5.4%–21.6%. Both oils exhibited moderate DPPH scavenging activity, with IC50 values of 6.24 mg/mL and 5.99 mg/mL. The antimutagenic properties were assayed against spontaneous and t-BOOH-induced mutagenesis in Escherichia coli oxyR mutant IC202, a bacterial strain deficient in removing ROS. Reduction of the spontaneous mutagenesis in presence of myrtle EO was only slight, up to 13% at the highest concentration tested. When the oxidative mutagen was used, EO expressed higher reduction of mutagenesis, in a concentration dependent manner, with statistical significance for effect at the highest concentration tested (28%. Suppression of t-BOOH induced mutagenesis was correlated with the observed scavenging activity.

  13. The Effect of Plant Growth Regulators on Callus Induction and Regeneration of Amygdalus communis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naimeh SHARIFMOGHADAM

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The Almond (Amygdalus communis is one of the most important and oldest commercial nut crops, belonging to the Rosaceae family. Almond has been used as base material in pharmaceutical, cosmetic, hygienically and food industry. Propagation by tissue culture technique is the most important one in woody plants. In the current research, in vitro optimization of tissue culture and mass production of almond was investigated. In this idea, explants of actively growing shoots were collected and sterilized, then transferred to MS medium with different concentrations and combinations of plant growth regulators. The experiment was done in completely randomized blocks design, with 7 treatment and 30 replications. After 4 weeks, calli induction, proliferation, shoot length and number of shoot per explants were measured. Results showed that the best medium for shoot initiation and proliferation was MS + 0.5 mg/l IAA (Indol-3-Acetic Acid + 1 mg/l BA (Benzyl Adenine. Autumn was the best season for collecting explants. The shoots were transferred to root induction medium with different concentrations of plant growth regulators. The best root induction medium was MS + 0.5 mg/l IBA (Indol Butyric Acid.

  14. Apomixis and the problem of obtaining haploids and homozygote diploids in pear (Pyrus communis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Є. О. Долматов

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights results of research over simulative apomixes in pear and its utilization for obtaining haploids and homozygote diploids. It has been established that over 50% pear varieties with failed remote hybridization are capable of generating seeds of apomictic origin producing diploid plants. Genotypes displaying maximal inclination to apomixes have been singled out. Apomictic pear seedlings obtained from foreign pollination within the limits of the same combination are inherent in profound morphological diversity. Fruit-bearing apomicts originated from one and the same maternal plant differ to the same extent as hybrid seedlings of the same family. Genetic markers have enabled to establish that these are embryo sacs in which meiosis has completed that give rise to apomictic seeds. In vitro method as used for the purpose of increasing apomictic plants output has been illustrated. The greatest induction of apomictic shoots in vitro has been reached by alternation of BAP cytokinin at concentration of 1mg/l and 2 mg/l on the background of GA3 amounting to 1,5 mg/l. Grafting with shoots in vitro on non-sterile rootstocks of pear (Pyrus communis has increased the output of plants up to 80%. A cytological assessment of 9 apomictic samples is provided. The cytological analysis of samples of apomictic forms has certified the presence of simulative haploid parthenogenesis in pear.

  15. Does heavy metal exposure affect the condition of Whitethroat (Sylvia communis) nestlings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turzańska-Pietras, Katarzyna; Chachulska, Justyna; Polechońska, Ludmiła; Borowiec, Marta

    2018-03-01

    Anthropogenic pollution results in high concentrations of heavy metals in the environment. Due to their persistence and a high potential for bioaccumulation, metals are a real threat for birds breeding in industrial areas. The aim of the present study has been to explore the contents of heavy metals (arsenic As, cadmium Cd, chromium Cr, copper Cu, iron Fe, nickel Ni, lead Pb and zinc Zn) in the excreta of Whitethroat (Sylvia communis) nestlings living in polluted environment and to investigate the relationship between these contents and the nestlings' condition. Excrement samples contained all the studied elements. The contents of arsenic, cadmium, copper and zinc in the excreta of nestlings from nests located close to a slag dump were several times higher than in the soil near the dump, which suggested accumulation in food consumed by the birds. Condition parameters (body mass and haemoglobin concentration) were not related to heavy metal concentrations in the nestlings' excreta, except of Zn. It is possible that Whitethroats are able to detoxicate heavy metals to a certain extent. Detailed, multi-element analysis of the environment, food and bird tissues or excreta should be performed to explore relations between different chemicals and bird condition.

  16. Variation in Myrtus communis L. Essential Oil Composition and its Antibacterial Activities Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mairiri, A.; Swied, G.; Hallab, L. A.; Oda, A.

    2016-01-01

    The Myrtus communis L. leaves samples were collected from five locations of its native grown areas in Lattakia, Syria, during their blooming seasons (June, 2009). Essential oil (EO) extraction was carried out by hydro-distillation in a Clevenger apparatus. The EO was analysed by both gas chromatography-Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography/mass (GC/MS) techniques. The EO yield of the dry samples was found to be around 1.88%. The main identified components of EO were: alpha-pinene 30.40%, 1,8-cineole 17.66%, limonene 8.96%, myrtenol 5.78%, and beta-caryophyllene 5.00%. The bulk EO and the separated components were tested for their antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli O157, Salmonella typhimurium, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Yersinia enterocolitica O9, Brucella melitensis, Proteus spp., and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by using broth micro-dilution method. It was found that citronellal and nerol were the most effective components against all pathogens. (author)

  17. Perineal hernia repair using an autologous tunica vaginalis communis in nine intact male dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratummintra, Kittiya; Chuthatep, Suwicha; Banlunara, Wijit; Kalpravidh, Marissak

    2013-01-01

    Perineal hernia in dogs is very problematic and mostly requires surgical reconstruction of the weak pelvic diaphragm. Tissue or synthetic grafts have been used for the correction after failure of the conventional herniorrhaphy. Aim of this clinical trial was to assess the possible use of the autologous tunica vaginalis communis as a free graft for perineal hernia repair in intact male dogs. Seven unilateral and 2 bilateral perineal hernias in nine intact male dogs free from testicular and scrotal neoplasms were included in this study. The median surgical time for unilateral herniorrhaphy was 75 min. The median follow-up time was 13 months. The success of the autografting, based on no recurrence and comfort of the animals during urination and defecation, was found in ten of 11 hernias; giving a success rate of 90.91%. One hernia (9.09%) recurred 10 days after surgery. Histopathological examination of the apposing area between the graft and the adjacent tissue, taken during the repair of the recurred case at day 20, revealed neovascularization and connective tissue ingrowth. In conclusion, the tunica vaginalis autograft can be used for perineal herniorrhaphy in intact male dogs.

  18. Composition of Myrtus communis L. Essential Oils as Affected by Climatic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Pereira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Myrtus Communis L. (Myrtaceae family, commonly known as myrtle, possesses a set of qualities that make it very interesting for the pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and cosmetic industries. In this work, myrtle was studied over a period of three years (2006-2008, encompassing the main stages of the development cycle of the plant. The influence of climatic conditions, such as temperature and rainfall, on the chemical composition and yield of the essential oils obtained from leaves and berries was studied. The leaves and berries essential oils were obtained by Clevenger distillation and analysed by GC and GC-MS. The results show that the major components were limonene+1,8-cineole, myrtenyl acetate, α-pinene and linalool. Over the three year period of study, a decrease in the composition of the most volatile compounds (α-pinene and limonene+1,8-cineole was observed, the reverse being found for linalool and myrtenyl acetate. The highest value for the yield of the leaves’ essential oils was observed in the third year (0.64%, w/w, whereas that same year the lowest yield (0.07%, w/w of fruit was observed. These results were likely due to an atypically high record for rainfall in April and May of that year. The highest value of the berry essential oils (0.14%, w/w was obtained in the second year.

  19. Antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract of Myrtus communis. L leaves against salivary Mutans streptococci

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlAnbori, Dalia K.A; AlNimer, Marwan S.M; AlWeheb, Athraa M

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of ethanolic extract of Myrtus communis (myrtle) leaves in the selective reduction of Mutans streptococci count in saliva compared to chlorhexidine through in vitro and in vivo experiments. Ethanolic extract (2%) was prepared and screened by UV-visible spectrophotometer to detect peaks of active compounds. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of myrtle extract as well as chlorhexidine (0.12%) were determined against Mutans streptococci isolated from human saliva and identified bacteriologically in vivo experiments, the effect of single mouth rinse of myrtle extract or chlorhexidine was investigated against the number of colony forming unit (CFU) of Mutans streptococci for two hours after rinse. The results showed the presence of one large peak at λ266.5 nm and a small one at λ672 of the extract in UV-visible spectra suggesting the presence of flavanoid. The MIC of myrtle was 106.6 μg/mL compared with 3.3 μg/mL of chlorhexidine. Single mouth rinse of myrtle extract significantly reduced the number of CFU of salivary Mutans streptococci but its effect was significantly less than that of chlorhexidine. It was concluded that the antibacterial effect of myrtle on Mutans streptococci was due to its flavanoid content. Therefore, ethanolic extract of myrtle could be a potential remedy for the prevention of colonization by Mutans streptococci thereby preventing or retarding development of dental caries. (author)

  20. Effects of GA3 applications on seedlesness and fruit quality in black myrtle (Myrtus communis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Alım

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Myrtle (Myrtus communis L. is one of the medical and aromatic plants naturally grown in Mediterranean basin. Myrtle fruits are mostly consumed as fresh or dried while essential oils obtained from the leaves are widely used in pharmacy, perfumery, cosmetic and even as pesticide. Myrtle fruits have white and black color. Nowadays, there is a big demand for myrtle fruits because of its high antioxidant capacity. But it contains high amount of seeds which reduce marketing and production. Main objective of this study is to investigate the effects of GA3 on seedlesness and quality in black myrtle fruits. At different flowering stages, GA3 dose of 100 ppm were applied to whole of the plants. Some applications significantly reduced seed number in fruits. Two applications of GA3 at great ballon and full bloom stages consecutively decreased seed number from 10.69 (control to 1.98 seed fruit-1 . In addition, with three consecutive application of GA3, seed rate decreased to 4.98% while 15.08% in control. Some GA3 applications resulted in fully seedless fruits up to 10.67%. Conversely, GA3 applications did not change fruit weight and some biochemical parameters of fruits.

  1. Chemical And Physiological Studies On Drought Stress Tolerance Of Irradiated Communis Pear Using Tissue Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaied, N.S.; Ragab, E.A.

    2007-01-01

    The rooted in vitro irradiated pear rootstocks (Pyrus communis) were subjected to drought stress by using different concentrations of mannitol (20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 gm/l), polyethylene glycol (PEG) at concentrations 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 % to culture medium and also agar at concentrations 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14 gm/l to study their effects on tissue culture and chemical analysis and their tolerance to drought stress. The obtained results showed that the number of shoots, shoot length and number of leaves were higher at 20 and 40 gm/l mannitol. Increasing mannitol concentration enhanced the increase of chlorophyll b, reducing sugars, total indoles and total phenols up to the highest level at 100 gm/l. Adding PEG at concentration 2% to the culture medium encouraged significant increases in the number of shoots and number of leaves and increase chlorophyll a, and non-reducing sugars as well as significant decrease in number of shoots, shoots length, number of leaves, root length and number of roots with increasing agar concentrations to the culture medium. However, decreasing agar concentration in the culture medium induced increase in chlorophyll A and non-reducing sugar

  2. Formulation and Optimization of Oral Mucoadhesive Patches of Myrtus Communis by Box Behnken Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Mahbubeh; Ramezani, Vahid; Seyedabadi, Mohammad; Ranjbar, Ali Mohamad; Jafari, Hossein; Honarvar, Mina; Fanaei, Hamed

    2017-09-01

    Purpose: Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is the most common painful ulcerative disease of oral mucosa happening in ~20% of people. Aimed to develop Myrtus communis L. (Myrtle) containing oral patches, we applied box-behnken design to evaluate the effect of polymers such as Polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), Gelatin, Methylcellulose (MC) and Pectin. Methods: The patches properties such as tensile strength, folding endurance, swelling index, thickness, mucoadhesive strength and the pattern of myrtle release were evaluated as dependent variables. Then, the model was adjusted according to the best fitted equation with box behnken design. Results: The results indicated that preparation of myrtle patch with hydrophilic polymers showed the disintegration time up to 24h and more. Using of polyvinyl pyrrolidone as a water soluble polymer and a pore-former polymer led to faster release of soluble materials from the patch to 29 (min -1 ). Also it decreases swelling index by increasing the patch disintegration. Gelatin and Pectin, with rigid matrix and water interaction properties, decreased the swelling ratio. Pectin increased the tensile strength, but gelatin produced an opposite effect. Thinner Myrtle patch (about 28µm) was obtained by formulation of methyl cellulose with equal ratio with polyvinyl pyrrolidone or gelatin. Conclusion: Altogether, the analysis showed that the optimal formulation was achieved with of 35.04 mg of Gelatin, 7.22 mg of Pectin, 7.20 mg of polyvinyl pyrrolidone, 50.52 mg of methyl cellulose and 20 mg of Myrtle extract.

  3. Effects of surface modification with hydroxyl terminated polydimethylsiloxane on the corrosion protection of polyurethane coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Jae Hong; Shon, Min Young

    2014-01-01

    Polyurethane coating was designed to give a hydrophobic property on its surface by modifying it with hydroxyl terminated polydimethylsiloxane and then effects of surface hydrophobic tendency, water transport behavior and hence corrosion protectiveness of the modified polyurethane coating were examined using FT-IR/ATR spectroscopy, contact angle measurement and electrochemical impedance test. As results, the surface of polyurethane coating was changed from hydrophilic to hydrophobic property due primarily to a phase separation tendency between polyurethane and modifier by the modification. The phase separation tendency is more appreciable when modified by polydimethylsiloxane with higher content. Water transport behavior of the modified polyurethane coating decreased more in that with higher hydrophobic surface property. The decrease in the impedance modulus ⅠZⅠ at low frequency region in immersion test for polyurethane coatings was associated with the water transport behavior and surface hydrophobic properties of modified polyurethane coatings. The corrosion protectiveness of the modified polyurethane coated carbon steel generally increased with an increase in the modifier content, confirming that corrosion protectiveness of the modified polyurethane coating is well agreed with its water transport behavior

  4. Study on thermal properties of synthetic and bio-based polyurethane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šercer Mladen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymers that are created by the chemical polymerization of naturally occurring monomers are attracting considerable commercial interest in the last few years because of their non-toxicity, biodegradability and biocompatibility and use of feedstock that is renewable. The development of specialized lignin compounds, such as electrically conducting polymers, engineering plastics and polyurethane, is an area of highest interest and growth. The paper will present the comparison of the mechanical and thermal properties of conventional polyurethane and bio-based polyurethane, i.e. polyurethane based on polyols produced by liquefaction of waste wood biomass.

  5. Development of bacterially resistant polyurethane for coating medical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roohpour, Nima; Moshaverinia, Alireza; Wasikiewicz, Jaroslaw M; Paul, Deepen; Vadgama, Pankaj; Wilks, Mark; Millar, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Polyurethanes have been widely used in medicine for coating and packaging implantable and other medical devices. Polyether-urethanes, in particular, have superior mechanical properties and are biocompatible, but in common with other medical materials they are susceptible to microbial film formation. In this study, polyether-urethane was end-capped with silver lactate and silver sulfadiazine functional groups to produce a bacterially resistant polymer without sacrificing the useful mechanical properties of the polyether-polyurethane. The silver ions were covalently incorporated into the polymer during chain extension of the prepolymer. The functionalized polymers were structurally characterized by light scattering, electron microscopy, NMR, FTIR and Raman spectroscopy. Mechanical properties, hydrophilicity, in vitro stability and antibacterial action of polymers were also investigated. Results indicate that both silver salts were successfully incorporated into the polymer structure without significant effect on mechanical properties, whilst conferring acceptable bacterial resistance.

  6. Gamma radiation effect on sisal / polyurethane composites without coupling agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Cardoso Vasco

    Full Text Available Abstract Natural fibers and polyurethane based composites may present chemical bonding between the components of the polymer and the lignin of the fiber. The incidence of radiation can cause degradation of the polymeric material and alter its mechanical properties. The objective of this study was to obtain and characterize cold pressed composites from polyurethane derived from castor oil and sisal fibers, without coupling agents, through thermogravimetric and mechanical tests, before and after the incidence of 25 kGy dose of gamma radiation. Woven composites that were not irradiated had maximum values of 4.40 GPa for flexural elastic modulus on three point flexural test and dispersed fiber composite that were not irradiated had maximum values of 2.25 GPa. These materials are adequate for use in non-structural applications in radiotherapy and radiodiagnostic rooms.

  7. Gamma radiation effect on sisal / polyurethane composites without coupling agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasco, Marina Cardoso; Claro Neto, Salvador; Nascimento, Eduardo Mauro; Azevedo, Elaine, E-mail: marina.mcv@gmail.com [University of Patras (Greece); Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP) Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2017-04-15

    Natural fibers and polyurethane based composites may present chemical bonding between the components of the polymer and the lignin of the fiber. The incidence of radiation can cause degradation of the polymeric material and alter its mechanical properties. The objective of this study was to obtain and characterize cold pressed composites from polyurethane derived from castor oil and sisal fibers, without coupling agents, through thermogravimetric and mechanical tests, before and after the incidence of 25 kGy dose of gamma radiation. Woven composites that were not irradiated had maximum values of 4.40 GPa for flexural elastic modulus on three point flexural test and dispersed fiber composite that were not irradiated had maximum values of 2.25 GPa. These materials are adequate for use in non-structural applications in radiotherapy and radiodiagnostic rooms. (author)

  8. Extraction kinetics of uranium (VI) with polyurethane foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Ting-Chia; Chen, Dong-Hwang; Huang, Shius-Dong; Huang, Ching-Tsven; Shieh, Mu-Chang.

    1993-01-01

    The extraction kinetics of uranium(VI) from aqueous nitrate solution with polyether-based polyurethane foam was investigated in a batch reactor with automatic squeezing. The extraction curves of uranium(VI) concentration in solution vs. extraction time exhibited a rather rapid exponential decay within the first few minutes, followed by a slower exponential decay during the remaining period. This phenomenon can be attributed to the presence of two-phase structure, hard segment domains and soft segment matrix in the polyurethane foam. A two-stage rate model expressed by a superposition of two exponential curves was proposed, according to which the experimental data were fitted by an optimization method. The extraction rate of uranium (VI) was also found to increase with increasing temperature, nitrate concentration, and hydration of the cation of nitrate salt. (author)

  9. The small angle neutron scattering study on the segmented polyurethane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudirman; Gunawan; Prasetyo, S.M.; Karo Karo, A.; Lahagu, I.M.; Darwinto, Tri

    1999-01-01

    The distance between hard segment (HS) and soft segment (SS) of segmented polyurethane have been determined using the Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) technique. The segmented Polyurethanes (SPU) are linear multiblock copolymers, which include elastomer thermoplastic. SPU consist of hard segment and soft segment, each has tendency to make a group with similar type to form a domain. The soft segments used were polypropylene glycol (PPG) and 4,4 diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI), while l,4 butanediol (BD) was used as hard segment. The characteristic of SPU depends on its phase structure which is affected by several factors, such as type of chemical formula and the composition of the HS and SS, solvent as well as the synthesizing process. The samples used in this study were SPU56 and SPU68. Based on the appearance of SANS profile, it was obtained that domain distances are 12.32 nm for the SPU56 and 19 nm for the SPU68. (author)

  10. Molecular detection and phylogenetic analysis of Hepatozoon spp. in questing Ixodes ricinus ticks and rodents from Slovakia and Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamšíková, Zuzana; Silaghi, Cornelia; Rudolf, Ivo; Venclíková, Kristýna; Mahríková, Lenka; Slovák, Mirko; Mendel, Jan; Blažejová, Hana; Berthová, Lenka; Kocianová, Elena; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Schnittger, Leonhard; Kazimírová, Mária

    2016-10-01

    By amplification and sequencing of 18S rRNA gene fragments, Hepatozoon spp. DNA was detected in 0.08 % (4/5057) and 0.04 % (1/2473) of questing Ixodes ricinus ticks from Slovakia and Czech Republic, respectively. Hepatozoon spp. DNA was also detected in spleen and/or lungs of 4.45 % (27/606) of rodents from Slovakia. Prevalence of infection was significantly higher in Myodes glareolus (11.45 %) than in Apodemus spp. (0.28 %) (P Hepatozoon spp. gene amplicons from I. ricinus showed 100 % identity with Hepatozoon canis isolates from red foxes or dogs in Europe. Phylogenetic analysis showed that at least two H. canis 18S rRNA genotypes exist in Slovakia of which one was identified also in the Czech Republic. The finding of H. canis in questing I. ricinus suggests the geographical spread of the parasite and a potential role of other ticks as its vectors in areas where Rhipicephalus sanguineus is not endemic. Sequencing of 18S rRNA gene amplicons from M. glareolus revealed the presence of two closely related genetic variants, Hepatozoon sp. SK1 and Hepatozoon sp. SK2, showing 99-100 % identity with isolates from M. glareolus from other European countries. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrates that 18S rRNA variants SK1 and SK2 correspond to previously described genotypes UR1 and UR2 of H. erhardovae, respectively. The isolate from Apodemus flavicollis (Hepatozoon sp. SK3b) was 99 % identical with isolates from reptiles in Africa and Asia. Further studies are necessary to identify the taxonomic status of Hepatozoon spp. parasitizing rodents in Europe and the host-parasite interactions in natural foci.

  11. Borrelia burgdorferi genospecies detection by RLB hybridization in Ixodes ricinus ticks from different sites of North-Eastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunaj, Justyna; Zajkowska, Joanna Maria; Kondrusik, Maciej; Gern, Lise; Rais, Oliver; Moniuszko, Anna; Pancewicz, Sławomir; Świerzbińska, Renata

    2014-01-01

    RLB (Reverse Line Blot Hybridization) is a molecular biology technique that might be used for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (sl) DNA detection with genospecies specification. Among B. burgdorferi sl genospecies at least 7 are regarded as pathogenic in Europe. The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of different Borrelia genospecies DNA detection in Ixodes ricinus ticks in the endemic area of North-Eastern Poland by using RLB. Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected in May - June, from 6 different sites in North-Eastern Poland (Jakubin, Kolno, Grajewo, Suwałki, Siemiatycze, Białowieża) by flagging. Extracted DNA was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the intergenic spacer 5S 23S of B. burgdorferi sl. PCR products were hybridised to 15 different oligonucleotide probes for 9 different Borrelia genospecies (B. burgdorferi sl, B. burgdorferi ss, B. garinii, B. afzelii, B. valaisiana, B. lusitaniae, B. spielmanii, B. bissettii and B. relapsing fever-like spirochetes (B. myamotoi)) by RLB. Borrelia genospecies DNA was detected in 205 Ixodes ricinus ticks. Among 14 infected with Borrelia ticks, 4 were identified as B. garinii and 10 as B. afzelii. Higher numbers of infected ticks were noticed in the eastern part of the research area, where large forest complexes dominate. Nymphs appeared to be the most frequently infected tick stage, which has an epidemiological meaning in the incidence of Lyme borreliosis. The study demonstrated that RLB might be easily used in Borrelia DNA detection with genospecies-identification, and indicated the domination of B. afzelii and B. garinii in ticks from North-Eastern Poland.

  12. Europe-Wide Meta-Analysis of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato Prevalence in Questing Ixodes ricinus Ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strnad, Martin; Hönig, Václav; Růžek, Daniel; Grubhoffer, Libor; Rego, Ryan O M

    2017-08-01

    Lyme borreliosis is the most common zoonotic disease transmitted by ticks in Europe and North America. Despite having multiple tick vectors, the causative agent, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato , is vectored mainly by Ixodes ricinus in Europe. In the present study, we aimed to review and summarize the existing data published from 2010 to 2016 concerning the prevalence of B. burgdorferi sensu lato spirochetes in questing I. ricinus ticks. The primary focus was to evaluate the infection rate of these bacteria in ticks, accounting for tick stage, adult tick gender, region, and detection method, as well as to investigate any changes in prevalence over time. The data obtained were compared to the findings of a previous metastudy. The literature search identified data from 23 countries, with 115,028 ticks, in total, inspected for infection with B. burgdorferi sensu lato We showed that the infection rate was significantly higher in adults than in nymphs and in females than in males. We found significant differences between European regions, with the highest infection rates in Central Europe. The most common genospecies were B. afzelii and B. garinii , despite a negative correlation of their prevalence rates. No statistically significant differences were found among the prevalence rates determined by conventional PCR, nested PCR, and real-time PCR. IMPORTANCE Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato is a pathogenic bacterium whose clinical manifestations are associated with Lyme borreliosis. This vector-borne disease is a major public health concern in Europe and North America and may lead to severe arthritic, cardiovascular, and neurological complications if left untreated. Although pathogen prevalence is considered an important predictor of infection risk, solitary isolated data have only limited value. Here we provide summarized information about the prevalence of B. burgdorferi sensu lato spirochetes among host-seeking Ixodes ricinus ticks, the principal tick vector of

  13. Glycolysis of flexible polyurethane foam in recycling of car seats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beneš, Hynek; Rösner, J.; Holler, Petr; Synková, Hana; Kotek, Jiří; Horák, Zdeněk

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 2 (2007), s. 149-156 ISSN 1042-7147. [International Conference on Polymeric Materials in Automotive , Slovak Rubber Conference /17./. Bratislava, 10.5.2005-12.5.2005] R&D Projects: GA MŽP SL/7/26/05 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : polyurethanes * foams * recycling Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.504, year: 2007

  14. Improved Lignin Polyurethane Properties with Lewis Acid Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Hoyong; Washburn, Newell R.

    2012-01-01

    Chemical modification strategies to improve the mechanical properties of lignin-based polyurethanes are presented. We hypothesized that treatment of lignin with Lewis acids would increase the concentration of hydroxyl groups available to react with diisocyanate monomers. Under the conditions used, hydrogen bromide-catalyzed modification resulted in a 28% increase in hydroxyl group content. Associated increases in hydrophilicity of solvent-cast thin films were also recorded as evidenced by ...

  15. Preparation and characterization of polyurethane - Fe powder composites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špírková, Milena; Bureš, R.; Fáberová, M.; Trchová, Miroslava; Strachota, Adam; Kaprálková, Ludmila

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 11, 3/4 (2011), s. 290-299 ISSN 1335-8987 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/10/0195 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : polyurethanes * polybutadiene diol * Fe powder Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry http://www.imr.saske.sk/pmp/issue/3-4-2011/PMP_Vol11_No3-4_p_290-299.pdf

  16. The effects of using immobilizer made of the polyurethane foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Hwan; Chung, Sang Hwa; Kim, Hwa Young; Lim, Shin Taek; Oh, Sae Dong

    1992-01-01

    The immogilzer for control the patient movement during the radiation beam on was made of the polyurethane foam. The time consumption is abut 8 minutes for completely making the immobilizer. In this experimental study, the effects of using the individual immobilizer have shown that the patients have had always a same position with comfortable and high reproducibilities. Furthermore, it has shown the time for patient setup was decreased by using the individual patient immobilizer.

  17. Polyurethane Nanofiber Membranes for Waste Water Treatment by Membrane Distillation

    OpenAIRE

    Jiříček, T.; Komárek, M.; Lederer, T.

    2017-01-01

    Self-sustained electrospun polyurethane nanofiber membranes were manufactured and tested on a direct-contact membrane distillation unit in an effort to find the optimum membrane thickness to maximize flux rate and minimize heat losses across the membrane. Also salt retention and flux at high salinities up to 100 g kg−1 were evaluated. Even though the complex structure of nanofiber layers has extreme specific surface and porosity, membrane performance was surprisingly predictable; the highest ...

  18. Polyester Polyols from Waste PET Bottles for Polyurethane Rigid Foams

    OpenAIRE

    Evtimova, Rozeta; Lozeva, Yordanka; Schmidt, Karl-Heinz; Wotzka, Michael; Wagner, Peter; Behrendt, Gerhard

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a modified process to produce polyester polyols from PET wastes derived from the “bottle fraction residue” of the German Dual System (DSD) [11] employing a waste oligoester condensate of the polyesterification process with the addition of some glycols of longer chain and occasional modification with further dicarboxylic acids to produce polyester polyols of a broad range of properties which are further reacted to form polyurethane or polyisocyanurate rigid foams for insul...

  19. Modyfication of the Rigid Polyurethane-Polyisocyanurate Foams

    OpenAIRE

    Bogusław Czupryński; Joanna Liszkowska; Joanna Paciorek-Sadowska

    2014-01-01

    The effect of polyethylene glycol 1500 on physicomechanical properties of rigid polyurethane-polyisocyanurate (PUR-PIR) foams has been studied. It was found that application of polyethylene glycol 1500 for synthesis of foams in amount from 0% to 20% w/w had an effect on reduction of brittleness and softening point, while the greater the increase in compressive strength the higher its content in foam composition was. Wastes from production of these foams were ground and subjected to glycolysis...

  20. Morphological anomalies in Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes inopinatus collected from tick-borne encephalitis natural foci in Central Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chitimia-Dobler, Lidia; Bestehorn, Malena; Bröker, Michael

    2017-01-01

    in Germany, Slovakia and Denmark. A total of 278 (1.9%) out of 14,602 nymph and adult ticks showed morphological anomalies. The anomalies were divided into general anomalies (body asymmetry) and local anomalies (anomalies of appendages, malformation of capitulum, exoskeleton anomalies and anal groove......, palps and exoskeleton. Anal groove deformation was observed in three females and three nymphs. In 2016, the frequency of anomalies in I. inopinatus was found five times higher (9.3%) than in I. ricinus (1.9%). This is the first report of anomaly (ectromely, leg atrophy, idiosoma deformation) in flagged...

  1. The majority of sialylated glycoproteins in adult Ixodes ricinus ticks originate in the host, not the tick

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štěrba, Ján; Vancová, Marie; Štěrbová, Jarmila; Bell-Sakyi, L.; Grubhoffer, Libor

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 389, MAY 2014 (2014), s. 93-99 ISSN 0008-6215 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP302/11/1901; GA ČR GAP302/12/2490; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032; GA ČR GA206/09/1782 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : tick * Ixodes ricinus * sialic acid * tick cell line Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.929, year: 2014

  2. First molecular evidence of potentially zoonotic Babesia microti and Babesia sp. EU1 in Ixodes ricinus ticks in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Lempereur, L.; De Cat, A.; Caron, Y.; Madder, M.; Claerebout, E.; Saegerman, C.; Losson, B.

    2011-01-01

    We report the first molecular evidence of the presence of Babesia sp. EU1 and Babesia microti in Ixodes ricinus ticks in Belgium. A 1-year national survey collected 1005 ticks from cats and dogs. A polymerase chain reaction technique amplifying a part of the 18S rRNA gene detected Babesia spp. in 11 out of 841 selected and validated tick extracts. Subsequent sequencing identified Ba. microti (n = 3) and Babesia sp. EU1 (n = 6). This study has demonstrated a low infection rate (1.31% with 95% ...

  3. The important parameters of polyurethane's properties and preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rad, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    Polyurethane (PU) is a type of plastic rind is formed by reacting a polyol (a polymeric alcohol with more than. two reactive hydroxyl groups per molecule) with diisocyanates or polymeric isocyanate in the presence of suitable catalysts and additives. Variations in the number of substitutions and the spacing between and within branch chains produce PUs ranging from linear to branched and flexible to rigid. Linear PUs are used for the manufacture of fibers and molding. The structure of polyurethane can be medley containing 'hard' and 'soft' sect, which contribute to the harmony between rigid and elastomeric properties. The chemical composition and molecular weight distribution (MWD)- of the incorporated soft block influence the macroscopic properties of the resulting coating. In modifying the backbone structure of PU coatings it is necessary to consider the end use for the coating and the cost of modification: The properties of the modified PU coating, The resistance of the coating towards mechanical and The compatibility of the coating and the substrate over the temperature range of expected application and The between the benefits to be gained and the additional cost are the parameters that must be A surface functionalization of a synthetic polyurethane was carried out by using biofunctional moieties to obtain a material with the appropriate mechanical properties and processing conditions. (author)

  4. PLATELET ADHESION TO POLYURETHANE UREA UNDER PULSATILE FLOW CONDITIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navitsky, Michael A.; Taylor, Joshua O.; Smith, Alexander B.; Slattery, Margaret J.; Deutsch, Steven; Siedlecki, Christopher A.; Manning, Keefe B.

    2014-01-01

    Platelet adhesion to a polyurethane urea surface is a precursor to thrombus formation within blood-contacting cardiovascular devices, and platelets have been found to adhere strongly to polyurethane surfaces below a shear rate of approximately 500 s−1. The aim of the current work is to determine platelet adhesion properties to the polyurethane urea surface as a function of time varying shear exposure. A rotating disk system is used to study the influence of steady and pulsatile flow conditions (e.g. cardiac inflow and sawtooth waveforms) for platelet adhesion to the biomaterial surface. All experiments retain the same root mean square angular rotation velocity (29.63 rad/s) and waveform period. The disk is rotated in platelet rich bovine plasma for two hours with adhesion quantified by confocal microscopy measurements of immunofluorescently labeled bovine platelets. Platelet adhesion under pulsating flow is found to exponentially decay with increasing shear rate. Adhesion levels are found to depend upon peak platelet flux and shear rate regardless of rotational waveform. In combination with flow measurements, these results may be useful for predicting regions susceptible to thrombus formation within ventricular assist devices. PMID:24721222

  5. Study on polyurethane foamed concrete for use in structural applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Kattoof Harith

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, foamed concrete is being widely used in civil construction and building, because of its high fluidity and settlement, low self-weight and low thermal conductivity. However, it has some major setbacks such as low strength and increased shrinkage at later ages. The strength gain of concrete depends upon several variables; one of these is the curing conditions. This work aims to study the potential production of foamed concrete as a sustainable structural material by varying the curing methods. For this purpose, sample cubes, cylinders and prisms were prepared to find the compressive strength, modulus of elasticity and drying shrinkage at different ages. Samples of the polyurethane foamed concrete cured under four different curing regimes (water, moisture, sealing by membrane-forming curing compound and air curing. At the end of the study, polyurethane foamed concrete used for this study has shown the potential for use in structural applications. Also, the results show that the samples cured by moisture have the highest compressive strength at all ages. Keywords: Polyurethane foamed concrete, Curing conditions, Fly ash, Compressive strength, Static modulus of elasticity drying shrinkage

  6. Vegetable Oil-Based Hyperbranched Thermosetting Polyurethane/Clay Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deka Harekrishna

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The highly branched polyurethanes and vegetable oil-based polymer nanocomposites have been showing fruitful advantages across a spectrum of potential field of applications.Mesua ferreaL. seed oil-based hyperbranched polyurethane (HBPU/clay nanocomposites were prepared at different dose levels by in situ polymerization technique. The performances of epoxy-cured thermosetting nanocomposites are reported for the first time. The partially exfoliated structure of clay layers was confirmed by XRD and TEM. FTIR spectra indicate the presence of H bonding between nanoclay and the polymer matrix. The present investigation outlines the significant improvement of tensile strength, scratch hardness, thermostability, water vapor permeability, and adhesive strength without much influencing impact resistance, bending, and elongation at break of the nanocomposites compared to pristine HBPU thermoset. An increment of two times the tensile strength, 6 °C of melting point, and 111 °C of thermo-stability were achieved by the formation of nanocomposites. An excellent shape recovery of about 96–99% was observed for the nanocomposites. Thus, the formation of partially exfoliated clay/vegetable oil-based hyperbranched polyurethane nanocomposites significantly improved the performance.

  7. Vegetable Oil-Based Hyperbranched Thermosetting Polyurethane/Clay Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deka, Harekrishna; Karak, Niranjan

    2009-04-25

    The highly branched polyurethanes and vegetable oil-based polymer nanocomposites have been showing fruitful advantages across a spectrum of potential field of applications. Mesua ferrea L. seed oil-based hyperbranched polyurethane (HBPU)/clay nanocomposites were prepared at different dose levels by in situ polymerization technique. The performances of epoxy-cured thermosetting nanocomposites are reported for the first time. The partially exfoliated structure of clay layers was confirmed by XRD and TEM. FTIR spectra indicate the presence of H bonding between nanoclay and the polymer matrix. The present investigation outlines the significant improvement of tensile strength, scratch hardness, thermostability, water vapor permeability, and adhesive strength without much influencing impact resistance, bending, and elongation at break of the nanocomposites compared to pristine HBPU thermoset. An increment of two times the tensile strength, 6 degrees C of melting point, and 111 degrees C of thermo-stability were achieved by the formation of nanocomposites. An excellent shape recovery of about 96-99% was observed for the nanocomposites. Thus, the formation of partially exfoliated clay/vegetable oil-based hyperbranched polyurethane nanocomposites significantly improved the performance.

  8. Chemical and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Polyurethane/Polylactide Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Brzeska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyether-esterurethanes containing synthetic poly[(R,S-3-hydroxybutyrate] (R,S-PHB and polyoxytetramethylenediol in soft segments and polyesterurethanes with poly(ε-caprolactone and poly[(R,S-3-hydroxybutyrate] were blended with poly([D,L]-lactide (PLA. The products were tested in terms of their oil and water absorption. Oil sorption tests of polyether-esterurethane revealed their higher response in comparison to polyesterurethanes. Blending of polyether-esterurethanes with PLA caused the increase of oil sorption. The highest water sorption was observed for blends of polyether-esterurethane, obtained with 10% of R,S-PHB in soft segments. The samples mass of polyurethanes and their blends were almost not changed after incubation in phosphate buffer and trypsin and lipase solutions. Nevertheless the molecular weight of polymers was significantly reduced after degradation. It was especially visible in case of incubation of samples in phosphate buffer what suggested the chemical hydrolysis of polymer chains. The changes of surface of polyurethanes and their blends, after incubation in both enzymatic solutions, indicated on enzymatic degradation, which had been started despite the lack of mass lost. Polyurethanes and their blends, contained more R,S-PHB in soft segments, were degraded faster.

  9. A multilayered polyurethane foam technique for skin graft immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Motoki; Ito, Erika; Kato, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Shoichi; Morita, Akimichi

    2012-02-01

    Several techniques are applicable for skin graft immobilization. Although the sponge dressing is a popular technique, pressure failure near the center of the graft is a weakness of the technique that can result in engraftment failure. To evaluate the efficacy of a new skin graft immobilization technique using multilayered polyurethane foam in vivo and in vitro. Twenty-six patients underwent a full-thickness skin graft. Multiple layers of a hydrocellular polyurethane foam dressing were used for skin graft immobilization. In addition, we created an in vitro skin graft model that allowed us to estimate immobilization pressure at the center and edges of skin grafts of various sizes. Overall mean graft survival was 88.9%. In the head and neck region (19 patients), mean graft survival was 93.6%. Based on the in vitro outcomes, this technique supplies effective pressure (skin graft. This multilayered polyurethane foam dressing is simple, safe, and effective for skin graft immobilization. © 2011 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Green waste cooking oil-based rigid polyurethane foam

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    Enderus, N. F.; Tahir, S. M.

    2017-11-01

    Polyurethane is a versatile polymer traditionally prepared using petroleum-based raw material. Petroleum, however, is a non-renewable material and polyurethane produced was found to be non-biodegradable. In quest for a more environmentally friendly alternative, wastecooking oil, a highly abundant domestic waste with easily derivatized structure, is a viable candidate to replace petroleum. In this study,an investigation to determine physical and chemical properties of rigid polyurethane (PU) foam from waste cooking oil (WCO) was carried out. WCO was first adsorbed by using coconut husk activated carbon adsorbent prior to be used for polyol synthesis. The purified WCO was then used to synthesize polyol via transesterification reaction to yield alcohol groups in the WCO chains structure. Finally, the WCO-based polyol was used to prepare rigid PU foam. The optimum formulation for PU formation was found to be 90 polyol: 60 glycerol: 54 water: 40 diethanolamine: 23 diisocyanate. The rigid PU foam has density of 208.4 kg/m3 with maximum compressive strength and capability to receive load at 0.03 MPa and 0.09 kN, respectively. WCO-based PU can potentially be used to replace petroleum-based PU as house construction materials such as insulation panels.

  11. (Biodegradable Ionomeric Polyurethanes Based on Xanthan: Synthesis, Properties, and Structure

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    T. V. Travinskaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available New (biodegradable environmentally friendly film-forming ionomeric polyurethanes (IPU based on renewable biotechnological polysaccharide xanthan (Xa have been obtained. The influence of the component composition on the colloidal-chemical and physic-mechanical properties of IPU/Xa and based films, as well as the change of their properties under the influence of environmental factors, have been studied. The results of IR-, PMS-, DMA-, and X-ray scattering study indicate that incorporation of Xa into the polyurethane chain initiates the formation of a new polymer structure different from the structure of the pure IPU (matrix: an amorphous polymer-polymer microdomain has occurred as a result of the chemical interaction of Xa and IPU. It predetermines the degradation of the IPU/Xa films as a whole, unlike the mixed polymer systems, and plays a key role in the improvement of material performance. The results of acid, alkaline hydrolysis, and incubation into the soil indicate the increase of the intensity of degradation processes occurring in the IPU/Xa in comparison with the pure IPU. It has been shown that the introduction of Xa not only imparts the biodegradability property to polyurethane, but also improves the mechanical properties.

  12. The Effect of Myrtus communis Extract on Liver Enzymes and Blood Biochemical Factors in Diabetic Adult Male Rats

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    Habiballah Johari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was the effect of Myrtus communis extract on liver enzymes and blood biochemical factors in diabetic adult male rats. Materials and Methods: This study has been carried out experimentally and completely random. Seventy adult male Wistar rats were divided in 7 groups including: control which received no treatment, sham who received 2 mL of distilled water, the 1st, 2nd and 3rd experimental groups which received 0.75, 1.5 and 3 mg/kg Myrtus communis leaf extract respectively, the 4th experimental group as the diabetic control group who received streptozotocin (60 mg/kg and the 5th experimental group as the diabetic treatment group who received 3 mg/kg of extract. This experiment lasted 14 days with prescript orally. After this period, all the rats, were weighted, anesthetized and blood samples were taken from the heart centrifuged and sera were evaluated for the concentration of various factors. In addition liver were removed and sliced. Results: According to the obtained results, the plasma concentration of liver enzyme (alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, cholesterol and glucose presented a significant decrease at (p≤0.05. Whereas no significant change were seen in body weight, triglyceride, urea, albumin and total protein. Histological studies of the liver tissue showed no significant difference among various groups. Conclusion: Myrtus communis is comprise of collections of flavonoids and other various components with antioxidant and anti inflammatory properties. Thence it can effective in treatment of liver diseases and decrease of blood sugar and cholesterol in diabetes mellitus patients.

  13. Aedes communis Reactivity Is Associated with Bee Venom Hypersensitivity: An in vitro and in vivo Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scala, Enrico; Pirrotta, Lia; Uasuf, Carina G; Mistrello, Gianni; Amato, Stefano; Guerra, Emma Cristina; Locanto, Maria; Meneguzzi, Giorgia; Giani, Mauro; Cecchi, Lorenzo; Abeni, Damiano; Asero, Riccardo

    2018-01-01

    Mosquito bite is usually followed by a local reaction, but severe or systemic reaction may, in rare cases, occur. Allergic reactions to Aedes communis (Ac) may be underestimated due to the lack of reliable diagnostic tools. In this multicenter study, 205 individuals reporting large local reactions to Ac were enrolled and studied for cutaneous or IgE reactivity to Ac, Blattella germanica, Penaeus monodon, and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. Extract and molecular IgE reactivity to bees, wasps, hornets, and yellow jacket venoms were also studied in 119 patients with a clinical history of adverse reaction to Hymenoptera. Immunoblot (IB) analysis and immunoCAP IgE inhibition experiments were carried out in selected sera. Ac sensitization was recorded in 96 (46.8%) patients on SPT. Strict relationship between Ac and D. pteronyssinus, B. germanica, P. monodon, or Apis mellifera reactivity on SPT was observed. Ac IgE recognition was seen in 60/131 (45.8%) patients, 49 (81.6%) of them SPT positive, and 5/14 IB reactors. Ac IgE sensitization was associated with Tabanus spp, A. mellifera, Vespula vulgaris, and Polistes dominula reactivity. A strict relationship between Ac IgE reactivity and Api m 1, Api m 2, Api m 3, Api m 5, and Api m 10 was recorded. IgE reactivity to AC was inhibited in 9/15 cases after serum absorption with the A. mellifera extract. Both SPT and IgE Ac reactivity is observed in about half of patients with a history of large local reactions to mosquito bites. The significant relationship between Ac sensitization and either extract or single bee venom components is suggestive of a "bee-mosquito syndrome" occurrence. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Antibacterial Effect of Myrtus Communis Hydro-Alcoholic Extract on Pathogenic Bacteria

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    Ali Taheri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today, due to the changes in the form of the resistance of pathogenic bacteria, discovering new antimicrobial drugs is under study. So, the aim of this study is to evaluate the antimicrobial properties of the extract of the myrtle herb on some of pathogenic bacteria. Materials and Methods: Hydroalcoholic extract of the leaves of myrtle herb was evaluated at 4 concentrations including 10-80 mg/ml on four strains of pathogenic bacteria using penetrative dissemination method together with the measuring diameter of the growth inhibition zone; then the results were compared to four conventional antibiotics. The minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations were studied using macro dilution method. Results: Treatment by the concentration of 80 mg/ml extract of this herb showed the greatest effect on the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus and Vibrio cholera serotype Ogawa which had a significant difference with all other treatments and standard antibiotics (p> 0.05. The extract showed no effect on the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa and just concentration of 80 mg/ml showed a little effect on E. coli and other antibiotics had no significant effect except tetracycline which has little effect on this strain. Minimum inhibitory concentration was 0.2 mg/ml for bacterium Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus and the maximum for E.coli by 8 mg/ml.Conclusion: This study showed that under study bacteria were more resistant to the antibiotics and the extract of Myrtus communis leaves showed greatest antibacterial effect against S. aureus and V. cholerae cerotype Ogawa.

  15. Increased temperatures negatively affect Juniperus communis seeds: evidence from transplant experiments along a latitudinal gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruwez, R; De Frenne, P; Vander Mijnsbrugge, K; Vangansbeke, P; Verheyen, K

    2016-05-01

    With a distribution range that covers most of the Northern hemisphere, common juniper (Juniperus communis) has one of the largest ranges of all vascular plant species. In several regions in Europe, however, populations are decreasing in size and number due to failing recruitment. One of the main causes for this failure is low seed viability. Observational evidence suggests that this is partly induced by climate warming, but our mechanistic understanding of this effect remains incomplete. Here, we experimentally assess the influence of temperature on two key developmental phases during sexual reproduction, i.e. gametogenesis and fertilisation (seed phase two, SP2) and embryo development (seed phase three, SP3). Along a latitudinal gradient from southern France to central Sweden, we installed a transplant experiment with shrubs originating from Belgium, a region with unusually low juniper seed viability. Seeds of both seed phases were sampled during three consecutive years, and seed viability assessed. Warming temperatures negatively affected the seed viability of both SP2 and SP3 seeds along the latitudinal gradient. Interestingly, the effect on embryo development (SP3) only occurred in the third year, i.e. when the gametogenesis and fertilisation also took place in warmer conditions. We found strong indications that this negative influence mostly acts via disrupting growth of the pollen tube, the development of the female gametophyte and fertilisation (SP2). This, in turn, can lead to failing embryo development, for example, due to nutritional problems. Our results confirm that climate warming can negatively affect seed viability of juniper. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  16. The Antimicrobial Effect of Methanolic Extracts of Achillea wilhelmsii, Myrtus communis, and Allium sativum on Pseudomonas aeruginosa

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    Mehdi Rostami Rad

    2017-12-01

      In this study, the effect of Achillea Wilhelmsii, Myrtus communis, and Allium sativum extracts, was investigated on 4 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and the effect of each extract, was studied using agar dilution method.   Among these three extracts, the Allium sativum  extract showed the highest antimicrobial activity. Also, observations were indicative of difference in the susceptibility of the studied strains to different extracts, which showed different reactions to each of the extracts based on the origin and antibiotic resistance level.   According to the results of this study, extracts are a natural and valuable sources to produce antimicrobial drugs against pseudomonas strains and other resistant pathogenic bacteria.    

  17. Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Properties of the Essential Oil of Myrtus communis L. against Clinical Strains of Mycobacterium spp.

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    Stefania Zanetti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the etiological agent of tuberculosis. The World Health Organization has estimated that 8 million of people develop active TB every year and the situation is complicated by an increase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains resistant to drugs used in antitubercular therapy: MDR and XDR-TB. Myrtle leaf extracts, used as an antiseptic in Sardinian traditional medicine, have strong antibacterial activity as several investigations showed. In this study we investigated the antimicrobial properties of the essential oil of Myrtus communis against clinical strains of M. tuberculosis and M. paratuberculosis.

  18. Crowdsourcing-based nationwide tick collection reveals the distribution of Ixodes ricinus and I. persulcatus and associated pathogens in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laaksonen, Maija; Sajanti, Eeva; Sormunen, Jani J; Penttinen, Ritva; Hänninen, Jari; Ruohomäki, Kai; Sääksjärvi, Ilari; Vesterinen, Eero J; Vuorinen, Ilppo; Hytönen, Jukka; Klemola, Tero

    2017-05-10

    A national crowdsourcing-based tick collection campaign was organized in 2015 with the objective of producing novel data on tick distribution and tick-borne pathogens in Finland. Nearly 20 000 Ixodes ticks were collected. The collected material revealed the nationwide distribution of I. persulcatus for the first time and a shift northwards in the distribution of I. ricinus in Finland. A subset of 2038 tick samples containing both species was screened for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (the prevalence was 14.2% for I. ricinus and 19.8% for I. persulcatus), B. miyamotoi (0.2% and 0.4%, respectively) and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV; 0.2% and 3.0%, respectively). We also report new risk areas for TBEV in Finland and, for the first time, the presence of B. miyamotoi in ticks from mainland Finland. Most importantly, our study demonstrates the overwhelming power of citizen science in accomplishing a collection effort that would have been impossible with the scientific community alone.

  19. The role of rodents in the ecology of Ixodes ricinus and associated pathogens in Central and Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalca, Andrei D; Sándor, Attila D

    2013-01-01

    Rodents comprise more species than any other mammal order. Most rodents are considered keystone species in their ecological communities, hence the survival of many other species in the ecosystem depend on them. From medical point of view, this is particularly important for rodent-dependent pathogens. In the particular case of tick-borne diseases, rodents are important as hosts for vector ticks and as reservoir hosts (Lyme borreliosis, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Tick-borne relapsing fevers, tick-borne rickettsioses, babesiosis). Community and population ecology of rodents was shown to be correlated with disease ecology in the case of many tick-borne diseases. In Eastern Europe, several adult hard-tick species use rodents as their principal hosts: Ixodes apronophorus, I. crenulatus, I. laguri, I. redikorzevi, I. trianguliceps. However, the majority of ticks feeding on rodents are immature stages of ticks which as adults are parasitic on larger mammals. Larvae and nymphs of Ixodes ricinus, the most abundant and medically important tick from Europe, are commonly found on rodents. This is particularly important, as many rodents are synanthropic and, together with other micromammals and birds are often the only available natural hosts for ticks in urban environments. This work reviews the correlated ecology of rodents and I. ricinus.

  20. The occurrence of Spotted Fever Group (SFG) Rickettsiae in Ixodes ricinus ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) in northern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stańczak, Joanna

    2006-10-01

    Ixodes ricinus, the most commonly observed tick species in Poland, is known vector of microorganisms pathogenic for humans as TBE virus, Borrelia burgdorferi s.1., Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia sp. in this country. Our study aimed to find out whether this tick can also transmit also rickettsiae of the spotted fever group (SFG). DNA extracts from 560 ticks (28 females, 34 males, and 488 nymphs) collected in different wooded areas in northern Poland were examined by PCR for the detection of Rickettsia sp., using a primer set RpCS.877p and RpCS.1258n designated to amplify a 381-bp fragment of gltA gene. A total of 2.9% ticks was found to be positive. The percentage of infected females and males was comparable (10.5% and 11.8%, respectively) and 6.6-7.6 times higher than in nymphs (1.6%). Sequences of four PCR-derived DNA fragments (acc. no. DQ672603) demonstrated 99% similarity with the sequence of Rickettsia helvetica deposited in GenBank. The results obtained suggest the possible role of I. ricinus as a source of a microorganism, which recently has been identified as an agent of human rickettsioses in Europe.