Sample records for rich text format

  1. Integrating conflicting information from multiple texts: Effects of prior attitudes and text format

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Strien, Johan; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Boshuizen, Els


    Van Strien, J. L. H., Brand-Gruwel, S., & Boshuizen, H. P. A. (2011, August). Integrating conflicting information from multiple texts: Effects of prior attitudes and text format. Round table session presented at the Junior Researchers pre-conference of the biannual meeting of the European

  2. H2O Formation in C-rich AGB Winds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombaert, R.; Decin, L.; Royer, P.; de Koter, A.; Cox, N.L.J.; De Ridder, J.; Khouri, T.; Agúndez, M.; Blommaert, J.A.D.L.; Gernicharo, J.; González-Alfonso, E.; Groenewegen, M.A.T.; Kerschbaum, F.; Neufeld, D.; Vandenbussche, B.; Waelkens, C.


    The Herschel detection of warm H2O vapor emission from C-rich winds of AGB stars challenges the current understanding of circumstellar chemistry. Two mechanisms have been invoked to explain warm H2O formation. In the first, penetration of UV interstellar radiation through a clumpy circumstellar

  3. Learning stoichiometry: A comparison of text and multimedia instructional formats (United States)

    Evans, Karen L.

    Even after multiple instructional opportunities, first year college chemistry students are often unable to apply stoichiometry knowledge in equilibrium and acid-base chemistry problem solving. Cognitive research findings suggest that for learning to be meaningful, learners need to actively construct their own knowledge by integrating new information into, and reorganizing, their prior understandings. Scaffolded inquiry in which facts, procedures, and principles are introduced as needed within the context of authentic problem solving may provide the practice and encoding opportunities necessary for construction of a memorable and usable knowledge base. The dynamic and interactive capabilities of online technology may facilitate stoichiometry instruction that promotes this meaningful learning. Entering college freshmen were randomly assigned to either a technology-rich or text-only set of cognitively informed stoichiometry review materials. Analysis of posttest scores revealed a significant but small difference in the performance of the two treatment groups, with the technology-rich group having the advantage. Both SAT and gender, however, explained more of the variability in the scores. Analysis of the posttest scores from the technology-rich treatment group revealed that the degree of interaction with the Virtual Lab simulation was significantly related to posttest performance and subsumed any effect of prior knowledge as measured by SAT scores. Future users of the online course should be encouraged to engage with the problem-solving opportunities provided by the Virtual Lab simulation through either explicit instruction and/or implementation of some level of program control within the course's navigational features.

  4. Lithium NLP: A System for Rich Information Extraction from Noisy User Generated Text on Social Media


    Bhargava, Preeti; Spasojevic, Nemanja; Hu, Guoning


    In this paper, we describe the Lithium Natural Language Processing (NLP) system - a resource-constrained, high- throughput and language-agnostic system for information extraction from noisy user generated text on social media. Lithium NLP extracts a rich set of information including entities, topics, hashtags and sentiment from text. We discuss several real world applications of the system currently incorporated in Lithium products. We also compare our system with existing commercial and acad...

  5. Newspaper archives + text mining = rich sources of historical geo-spatial data (United States)

    Yzaguirre, A.; Smit, M.; Warren, R.


    Newspaper archives are rich sources of cultural, social, and historical information. These archives, even when digitized, are typically unstructured and organized by date rather than by subject or location, and require substantial manual effort to analyze. The effort of journalists to be accurate and precise means that there is often rich geo-spatial data embedded in the text, alongside text describing events that editors considered to be of sufficient importance to the region or the world to merit column inches. A regional newspaper can add over 100,000 articles to its database each year, and extracting information from this data for even a single country would pose a substantial Big Data challenge. In this paper, we describe a pilot study on the construction of a database of historical flood events (location(s), date, cause, magnitude) to be used in flood assessment projects, for example to calibrate models, estimate frequency, establish high water marks, or plan for future events in contexts ranging from urban planning to climate change adaptation. We then present a vision for extracting and using the rich geospatial data available in unstructured text archives, and suggest future avenues of research.

  6. Assessing the impact of typeface design in a text-rich automotive user interface. (United States)

    Reimer, Bryan; Mehler, Bruce; Dobres, Jonathan; Coughlin, Joseph F; Matteson, Steve; Gould, David; Chahine, Nadine; Levantovsky, Vladimir


    Text-rich driver-vehicle interfaces are increasingly common in new vehicles, yet the effects of different typeface characteristics on task performance in this brief off-road based glance context remains sparsely examined. Subjects completed menu selection tasks while in a driving simulator. Menu text was set either in a 'humanist' or 'square grotesque' typeface. Among men, use of the humanist typeface resulted in a 10.6% reduction in total glance time as compared to the square grotesque typeface. Total response time and number of glances showed similar reductions. The impact of typeface was either more modest or not apparent for women. Error rates for both males and females were 3.1% lower for the humanist typeface. This research suggests that optimised typefaces may mitigate some interface demands. Future work will need to assess whether other typeface characteristics can be optimised to further reduce demand, improve legibility, increase usability and help meet new governmental distraction guidelines. Practitioner Summary: Text-rich in-vehicle interfaces are increasingly common, but the effects of typeface on task performance remain sparsely studied. We show that among male drivers, menu selection tasks are completed with 10.6% less visual glance time when text is displayed in a 'humanist' typeface, as compared to a 'square grotesque'.

  7. EGCG Inhibited Lipofuscin Formation Based on Intercepting Amyloidogenic β-Sheet-Rich Structure Conversion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuxian Cai

    Full Text Available Lipofuscin (LF is formed during lipid peroxidation and sugar glycosylation by carbonyl-amino crosslinks with biomacrolecules, and accumulates slowly within postmitotic cells. The environmental pollution, modern dietary culture and lifestyle changes have been found to be the major sources of reactive carbonyl compounds in vivo. Irreversible carbonyl-amino crosslinks induced by carbonyl stress are essentially toxiferous for aging-related functional losses in modern society. Results show that (--epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG, the main polyphenol in green tea, can neutralize the carbonyl-amino cross-linking reaction and inhibit LF formation, but the underlying mechanism is unknown.We explored the mechanism of the neutralization process from protein, cell, and animal levels using spectrofluorometry, infrared spectroscopy, conformation antibodies, and electron microscopy. LF demonstrated an amyloidogenic β-sheet-rich with antiparallel structure, which accelerated the carbonyl-amino crosslinks formation and disrupted proteolysis in both PC12 cells and D-galactose (D-gal-induced brain aging mice models. Additionally, EGCG effectively inhibited the formation of the amyloidogenic β-sheet-rich structure of LF, and prevented its conversion into toxic and on-pathway aggregation intermediates, thereby cutting off the carbonyl-amino crosslinks.Our study indicated that the amyloidogenic β-sheet structure of LF may be the core driving force for carbonyl-amino crosslinks further formation, which mediates the formation of amyloid fibrils from native state of biomacrolecules. That EGCG exhibits anti-amyloidogenic β-sheet-rich structure properties to prevent the LF formation represents a novel strategy to impede the development of degenerative processes caused by ageing or stress-induced premature senescence in modern environments.

  8. Zur Wortbildung in wissenschaftlichen Texten (Word Formation in Scientific Texts) (United States)

    Rogalla, Hanna; Rogalla, Willy


    Discusses a German frequency list of 1,500 to 2,000 scientific words, which is being developed, and the importance of learning word-building principles. Substantive and adjective suffixes are listed according to frequency, followed by remarks on copulative compounds, with examples and frequency ranking, and, finally, prefixes. (Text is in German.)…

  9. Impact of Text-Mining and Imitating Strategies on Lexical Richness, Lexical Diversity and General Success in Second Language Writing (United States)

    Çepni, Sevcan Bayraktar; Demirel, Elif Tokdemir


    This study aimed to find out the impact of "text mining and imitating" strategies on lexical richness, lexical diversity and general success of students in their compositions in second language writing. The participants were 98 students studying their first year in Karadeniz Technical University in English Language and Literature…

  10. Magnetostratigraphy of the Fossil-Rich Shungura Formation, southwest Ethiopia (United States)

    Kidane, Tesfaye; Brown, Francis H.; Kidney, Casey


    Three hundred eighty-six oriented block samples were collected from the lower 334 m of Pliocene and Pleistocene fluvial strata of the Shungura Formation in two field seasons. Paleomagnetic polarity of these was determined on samples from these blocks, using a routine of 8-13 steps for AF demagnetization, and 15-20 steps for thermal demagnetization. Rock magnetic properties revealed titanomagnetite with subordinate maghemite as the dominant magnetic minerals with pseudo-single domain magnetic grain sizes. Directional analyses indicate one or two components of magnetization both in AF and thermal techniques. The first component is mostly removed by 5-10 mT AF fields or heating to 300 °C. The magnetization component after these steps generally defined straight-line segments directed towards the origin which are interpreted as the Characteristic Remanent Magnetization (ChRM). ChRM directions so determined and averaged at the site level revealed both normal and reversed polarities. The directions of the normal and reversed polarities are respectively Dec = 357°, Inc = -0.1 (N = 36, α95 = 3.7°) and Dec = 176°, Inc = -3.4 (N = 55, α95 = 3.1°) and are antipodal. A sequence of R4-N3-R3-N2-(R2)-N1-R1 polarities was identified with R2 being an anomalous direction within N2/N1. Published weighted mean 40Ar/39Ar ages on volcanic ash layers in this part of the section with height from the base and ages in parentheses are: Tuff A (34 m; 3.60 ± 0.02 Ma), Tuff B-α (65 m; 3.43 ± 0.01 Ma), Tuff B-δ (77 m; 3.41 ± 0.01 Ma), Tuff in B-10-1 (150 m; 2.97 ± 0.01 Ma), Tuff C (170 m; 2.99 ± 0.09 Ma), Tuff D (252 m; 2.53 ± 0.01 Ma), Tuff D-3-2 (272 m; 2.47 ± 0.01 Ma), and Tuff F (228 m; 2.32 ± 0.01 Ma). These direct age results imply that the identified polarity zones correspond to the Gilbert Chron, lower Gauss Chron, Mammoth Subchron, upper Gauss Chron, and lower Matuyama Chron, respectively. No new paleomagnetic data are available for the Usno Formation, but

  11. Ag-rich precipitates formation in the Cu–11%Al–10%Mn–3%Ag alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, R.A.G., E-mail: [Departamento de Ciências Exatas e da Terra, UNIFESP, 09972-270 Diadema, SP (Brazil); Paganotti, A.; Jabase, L. [Departamento de Ciências Exatas e da Terra, UNIFESP, 09972-270 Diadema, SP (Brazil); Adorno, A.T.; Carvalho, T.M.; Santos, C.M.A. [Departamento de Físico-Química, Instituto de Química, UNESP, 14801-970 Araraquara, SP (Brazil)


    Highlights: • Cu-rich nanoprecipitates are formed in the presence of Ag. • Bainite precipitation is shifted to higher temperatures in the Cu–11%Al–10%Mn–3%Ag alloy. • The eutectoid α phase and bainite α{sub 1} phase compete by the Cu atoms during precipitation process. - Abstract: The formation of Ag-rich precipitates in the Cu–11%Al–10%Mn–3%Ag alloy initially quenched from 1123 K was analyzed. The results showed that nanoprecipitates of a Cu-rich phase are produced at about 523 K. In higher temperatures these nanoparticles grow and the relative fraction of Ag dissolved in it is increased, thus forming the Ag-rich phase.

  12. New directions towards structure formation and stability of protein-rich foods from globular proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purwanti, N.; Goot, van der A.J.; Boom, R.M.; Vereijken, J.M.


    Concentrated protein-rich foods have strong potential to be developed in terms of health and well-being roles. Unfortunately, limitations in creating products with the rights texture and stability hinder the use of those products by consumers. Main reason is that the formation of micro- and

  13. Formation of genotoxic compounds by medium pressure ultra violet treatment of nitrate rich water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martijn, A.J.; Boersma, M.G.; Vervoort, Jacques; Rietjens, I.; Kruithof, J.C.


    Genotoxic compounds were produced by full-scale medium pressure (MP) ultraviolet hydrogen peroxide (UV/H2O2) treatment of nitrate-rich pretreated surface water. It was hypothesized that this formation was caused by the reaction of nitrate photolysis intermediates with natural organic matter (NOM).

  14. Guangxi crustal structural evolution and the formation and distribution regularities of U-rich strata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang Zili.


    Based on summing up Guangxi geotectonic features and evolutionary regularities, this paper discusses the occurrence features, formation conditions and time-space distribution regularities of various U-rich strata during the development of geosyncline, platform and diwa stages, Especially, during diwa stage all those U-rich strata might be reworked to a certain degree and resulted in the mobilization of uranium, then enriching to form polygenetic composite uranium ore deposits with stratabound features. This study will be helpful for prospecting in the region

  15. Binary Format for Scene (BIFS): combining MPEG-4 media to build rich multimedia services (United States)

    Signes, Julien


    In this paper, we analyze the design concepts and some technical details behind the MPEG-4 standard, particularly the scene description layer, commonly known as the Binary Format for Scene (BIFS). We show how MPEG-4 may ease multimedia proliferation by offering a unique, optimized multimedia platform. Lastly, we analyze the potential of the technology for creating rich multimedia applications on various networks and platforms. An e-commerce application example is detailed, highlighting the benefits of the technology. Compression results show how rich applications may be built even on very low bit rate connections.

  16. Petrology and geochemistry of REE-rich Mafé banded iron formations (Bafia group, Cameroon) (United States)

    Nkoumbou, Charles; Gentry, Fuh Calistus; Tchakounte Numbem, Jacqueline; Belle Ekwe Lobé, Yolande Vanessa; Nwagoum Keyamfé, Christin Steve


    Archaean-Paleoproterozoic foliated amphibole-gneisses and migmatites interstratified with amphibolites, pyroxeno-amphibolites and REE-rich banded-iron formations outcrop at Mafé, Ndikinimeki area. The foliation is nearly vertical due to tight folds. Flat-lying quartz-rich mica schists and quartzites, likely of Pan-African age, partly cover the formations. Among the Mafé BIFs, the oxide BIF facies shows white layers of quartz and black layers of magnetite and accessory hematite, whereas the silicate BIF facies is made up of thin discontinuous quartz layers alternating with larger garnet (almandine-spessartine) + chamosite + ilmenite ± Fe-talc layers. REE-rich oxide BIFs compositions are close to the East Pacific Rise (EPR) hydrothermal deposit; silicate BIFs plot midway between EPR and the associated amphibolite, accounting for a contamination by volcanic materials, in addition to the hydrothermal influence during their oceanic deposition. The association of an oceanic setting with alkaline and tholeiitic magmatism is typical of the Algoma-type BIF deposit. The REE-rich BIFs indices recorded at Mafé are interpreted as resulting from an Archaean-Paleoproterozoic mineralization.

  17. Instabilities and soot formation in spherically expanding, high pressure, rich, iso-octane-air flames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockett, R D


    Flame instabilities, cellular structures and soot formed in high pressure, rich, spherically expanding iso-octane-air flames have been studied experimentally using high speed Schlieren cinematography, OH fluorescence, Mie scattering and laser induced incandescence. Cellular structures with two wavelength ranges developed on the flame surface. The larger wavelength cellular structure was produced by the Landau-Darrieus hydrodynamic instability, while the short wavelength cellular structure was produced by the thermal-diffusive instability. Large negative curvature in the short wavelength cusps caused local flame quenching and fracture of the flame surface. In rich flames with equivalence ratio φ > 1.8, soot was formed in a honeycomb-like structure behind flame cracks associated with the large wavelength cellular structure induced by the hydrodynamic instability. The formation of soot precursors through low temperature pyrolysis was suggested as a suitable mechanism for the initiation of soot formation behind the large wavelength flame cracks

  18. Instabilities and soot formation in spherically expanding, high pressure, rich, iso-octane-air flames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lockett, R D [School of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences, City University, Northampton Square, London EC1V OHB (United Kingdom)


    Flame instabilities, cellular structures and soot formed in high pressure, rich, spherically expanding iso-octane-air flames have been studied experimentally using high speed Schlieren cinematography, OH fluorescence, Mie scattering and laser induced incandescence. Cellular structures with two wavelength ranges developed on the flame surface. The larger wavelength cellular structure was produced by the Landau-Darrieus hydrodynamic instability, while the short wavelength cellular structure was produced by the thermal-diffusive instability. Large negative curvature in the short wavelength cusps caused local flame quenching and fracture of the flame surface. In rich flames with equivalence ratio {phi} > 1.8, soot was formed in a honeycomb-like structure behind flame cracks associated with the large wavelength cellular structure induced by the hydrodynamic instability. The formation of soot precursors through low temperature pyrolysis was suggested as a suitable mechanism for the initiation of soot formation behind the large wavelength flame cracks.

  19. Struggling readers learning with graphic-rich digital science text: Effects of a Highlight & Animate Feature and Manipulable Graphics (United States)

    Defrance, Nancy L.

    Technology offers promise of 'leveling the playing field' for struggling readers. That is, instructional support features within digital texts may enable all readers to learn. This quasi-experimental study examined the effects on learning of two support features, which offered unique opportunities to interact with text. The Highlight & Animate Feature highlighted an important idea in prose, while simultaneously animating its representation in an adjacent graphic. It invited readers to integrate ideas depicted in graphics and prose, using each one to interpret the other. The Manipulable Graphics had parts that the reader could operate to discover relationships among phenomena. It invited readers to test or refine the ideas that they brought to, or gleaned from, the text. Use of these support features was compulsory. Twenty fifth grade struggling readers read a graphic-rich digital science text in a clinical interview setting, under one of two conditions: using either the Highlight & Animate Feature or the Manipulable Graphics. Participants in both conditions made statistically significant gains on a multiple choice measure of knowledge of the topic of the text. While there were no significant differences by condition in the amount of knowledge gained; there were significant differences in the quality of knowledge expressed. Transcripts revealed that understandings about light and vision, expressed by those who used the Highlight & Animate Feature, were more often conceptually and linguistically 'complete.' That is, their understandings included both a description of phenomena as well as an explanation of underlying scientific principles, which participants articulated using the vocabulary of the text. This finding may be attributed to the multiple opportunities to integrate graphics (depicting the behavior of phenomena) and prose (providing the scientific explanation of that phenomena), which characterized the Highlight & Animate Condition. Those who used the

  20. Coreference annotation and resolution in the Colorado Richly Annotated Full Text (CRAFT) corpus of biomedical journal articles. (United States)

    Cohen, K Bretonnel; Lanfranchi, Arrick; Choi, Miji Joo-Young; Bada, Michael; Baumgartner, William A; Panteleyeva, Natalya; Verspoor, Karin; Palmer, Martha; Hunter, Lawrence E


    Coreference resolution is the task of finding strings in text that have the same referent as other strings. Failures of coreference resolution are a common cause of false negatives in information extraction from the scientific literature. In order to better understand the nature of the phenomenon of coreference in biomedical publications and to increase performance on the task, we annotated the Colorado Richly Annotated Full Text (CRAFT) corpus with coreference relations. The corpus was manually annotated with coreference relations, including identity and appositives for all coreferring base noun phrases. The OntoNotes annotation guidelines, with minor adaptations, were used. Interannotator agreement ranges from 0.480 (entity-based CEAF) to 0.858 (Class-B3), depending on the metric that is used to assess it. The resulting corpus adds nearly 30,000 annotations to the previous release of the CRAFT corpus. Differences from related projects include a much broader definition of markables, connection to extensive annotation of several domain-relevant semantic classes, and connection to complete syntactic annotation. Tool performance was benchmarked on the data. A publicly available out-of-the-box, general-domain coreference resolution system achieved an F-measure of 0.14 (B3), while a simple domain-adapted rule-based system achieved an F-measure of 0.42. An ensemble of the two reached F of 0.46. Following the IDENTITY chains in the data would add 106,263 additional named entities in the full 97-paper corpus, for an increase of 76% percent in the semantic classes of the eight ontologies that have been annotated in earlier versions of the CRAFT corpus. The project produced a large data set for further investigation of coreference and coreference resolution in the scientific literature. The work raised issues in the phenomenon of reference in this domain and genre, and the paper proposes that many mentions that would be considered generic in the general domain are not

  1. Comprehension of texts in Digital Format versus Printed Texts and Self-Regulated Learning in University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Gabriela Flores-Carrasco


    Full Text Available This article aims (1 to describe the levels of self-regulation and reading comprehension of scientific expository texts; (2 to establish the relationship between self-regulation and reading comprehension; and (3 to compare the performance in comprehension when the printed media (paper or digital media (computer is used. A quasi-experimental, quantitative, descriptive and correlative design was implemented. The sample was composed of 55 university students from four careers of Education; they were in 1st and 3rd year of study at a regional university of the Council of Rectors of Chilean Universities. Three measuring instruments were used: a questionnaire of self-regulated learning and two comprehension tests based on the understanding of Parodi’s (2005 assessment model. The implementation was made in two consecutive moments; first, the self-questionnaire; then, the tests for reading comprehension in both media. With the data obtained, statistical tests of variance, one-way ANOVA, Pearson’s correlation, and means comparison with Bruner and Munzel and U-Mann Whitney’s tests were calculated. In conclusion, and different from the initial statement, it was obtained that university students have an adequate level of self-regulation and low reading comprehension in both data, even the scores are relatively lower in digital data. In both data the output is inverse to the complexity of the questions. Between 1st and 3rd year, there is no increase either in the self-regulation or in reading comprehension; but, exceptionally, the career of Primary General Education specialist on Language and History did. There is a strong relationship between reading comprehension in printed media and self-regulation (ARATEX. The support does not affect reading comprehension, but individual reading skills of the subjects do. A competent reader will have similar performance in both reading supports.

  2. Formation and uranium explorating prospect of sub-volcanic granitic complex and rich uranium ore deposit in South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yusheng


    The rich uranium ore deposits are all closely related to tecto-magmatism of late-magmatic cycle whether volcanic types or granitic types in south China. Volcanic type rich uranium deposit has closely relationship with sub-volcanic activity, and granitic type rich uranium deposit is also closely related to mid-fine, unequal particle small massif in late main invasion stage. Based on characteristics of magmatism, we name the rock sub-volcanic granite complex, which is a unique style and closely related to the formation of rich uranium ore deposit

  3. Vacancy enhanced formation and phase transition of Cu-rich precipitates in α - iron under neutron irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, G. C. [Basic Experimental Center of Natural Science, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, 100083 (China); Corrosion and Protection Center, Key Laboratory of Environmental Fracture (MOE), University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, 100083 (China); Zhang, H. [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada, T6G2V4 (Canada); He, X. F.; Yang, W. [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing, 102413 (China); Su, Y. J., E-mail: [Corrosion and Protection Center, Key Laboratory of Environmental Fracture (MOE), University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, 100083 (China)


    In this paper, we employed both molecular statics and molecular dynamics simulation methods to investigate the role of vacancies in the formation and phase transition of Cu-rich precipitates in α-iron. The results indicated that vacancies promoted the diffusion of Cu atoms to form Cu-rich precipitates. After Cu-rich precipitates formed, they further trapped vacancies. The supersaturated vacancy concentration in the Cu-rich precipitate induced a shear strain, which triggered the phase transition from bcc to fcc structure by transforming the initial bcc (110) plane into fcc (111) plane. In addition, the formation of the fcc-twin structure and the stacking fault structure in the Cu-rich precipitates was observed in dynamics simulations.

  4. Plasma rich in growth factors and bone formation: a radiological and histomorphometric study in New Zealand rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Molina-Miñano


    Full Text Available A radiographic and histomorphometric study was conducted on the influence of autologous plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF upon bone healing in surgically created defects in rabbits. Radiographically, bone regeneration was significantly greater with the use of PRGF after one month (p = 0.005, though no differences were recorded after the second month. In the histomorphometric analysis one month after surgery, the defects filled with autologous bone plus PRGF showed a greater percentage of neoformed bone (35.01 ± 5.31 than the control defects (22.90 ± 12.23, though the differences were not significant. Two months after surgery, the defects filled with autologous bone showed greater regeneration (46.04 ± 10.36% than the control defects (30.59 ± 5.69%, though the differences were not significant. The application of PRGF in the bone defects produced in New Zealand rabbits exerted a limited effect on local bone formation.

  5. Formation mechanism of the graphite-rich protective layer in blast furnace hearths (United States)

    Jiao, Ke-xin; Zhang, Jian-liang; Liu, Zheng-jian; Liu, Feng; Liang, Li-sheng


    A long campaign life of blast furnaces is heavily linked to the existence of a protective layer in their hearths. In this work, we conducted dissection studies and investigated damage in blast furnace hearths to estimate the formation mechanism of the protective layer. The results illustrate that a significant amount of graphite phase was trapped within the hearth protective layer. Furthermore, on the basis of the thermodynamic and kinetic calculations of the graphite precipitation process, a precipitation potential index related to the formation of the graphite-rich protective layer was proposed to characterize the formation ability of this layer. We determined that, under normal operating conditions, the precipitation of graphite phase from hot metal was thermodynamically possible. Among elements that exist in hot metal, C, Si, and P favor graphite precipitation, whereas Mn and Cr inhibit this process. Moreover, at the same hot-face temperature, an increase of carbon concentration in hot metal can shorten the precipitation time. Finally, the results suggest that measures such as reducing the hot-face temperature and increasing the degree of carbon saturation in hot metal are critically important to improve the precipitation potential index.

  6. Formation of Fe- and Mg-Rich Smectite under Hyperalkaline Conditions at Narra in Palawan, the Philippines


    Shimbashi, Misato; Sato, Tsutomu; Yamakawa, Minoru; Fujii, Naoki; Otake, Tsubasa


    The formation of Fe- and Mg-rich smectite and zeolite under alkaline conditions, as secondary minerals after the alkaline alteration of bentonite in repositories for radioactive waste, is of major concern. It is crucial for safety assessments to know whether smectite is formed as a secondary mineral after the alkaline alteration of bentonite. In the present paper, Fe- and Mg-rich smectite, which interacted with the hyperalkaline groundwater at Narra in Palawan, Philippines, was used. Mineralo...

  7. Clot formation and lysis in platelet rich plasma of healthy donors and patients with resistant hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Patalakh


    Full Text Available Hemostatic balance in blood is affected by numerous factors, including coagulation and fibrinolytic proteins, the wide spectrum of their inhibitors, and blood cells. Since platelets can participate in contradictory processes, they significantly complicate the whole picture. Therefore, nowadays the development of global assays of hemostasis, which can reflect the physiological process of hemostasis and can be used for point-of-care diagnosis of thrombosis, is crucial. This paper outlines a new approach we used to analyze the capabilities of clot waveform analysis tools to distinguish the response of platelet-rich plasma from healthy donors and patients with arterial hypertension caused by stimulation of coagulation and lysis (with exogenous thrombin and recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator, respectively. In donor plasma, when the clot degradation was accompanied by 40 IU/ml of recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator, platelets potentiated fibrinolysis more than coagulation, which ultimately shifts the overall balance to a profibrinolytic state. At the same time, for patients with hypertension, platelets, embedded in clot obtained from platelet-rich plasma, showed a weaker ability to stimulate fibrinolysis. The obtained data gives the evidence that platelets can act not only as procoagulants but also as profibrinolytics. By simultaneously amplifying coagulation and fibrinolysis, making their rates comparable, platelets would control plasma procoagulant activity, thereby regulating local hemostatic balance, the size and lifetime of the clot. Moreover, clot waveform analysis may be used to distinguish the effects of platelet-rich plasma on clotting or lysis of fibrin clots in healthy donors and patients with essential hypertension.

  8. Page segmentation and text extraction from gray-scale images in microfilm format (United States)

    Yuan, Qing; Tan, Chew Lim


    The paper deals with a suitably designed system that is being used to separate textual regions from graphics regions and locate textual data from textured background. We presented a method based on edge detection to automatically locate text in some noise infected grayscale newspaper images with microfilm format. The algorithm first finds the appropriate edges of textual region using Canny edge detector, and then by edge merging it makes use of edge features to do block segmentation and classification, afterwards feature aided connected component analysis was used to group homogeneous textual regions together within the scope of its bounding box. We can obtain an efficient block segmentation with reduced memory size by introducing the TLC. The proposed method has been used to locate text in a group of newspaper images with multiple page layout. Initial results are encouraging, we would expand the experiment data to over 300 microfilm images with different layout structures, promising result is anticipated with corresponding modification on the prototype of former algorithm to make it more robust and suitable to different cases.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madhusudhan, Nikku [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Mousis, Olivier [Institut UTINAM, CNRS-UMR 6213, Observatoire de Besancon, BP 1615, F-25010 Besancon Cedex (France); Johnson, Torrence V. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Lunine, Jonathan I., E-mail: [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)


    The recent inference of a carbon-rich atmosphere, with C/O {>=} 1, in the hot Jupiter WASP-12b motivates the exotic new class of carbon-rich planets (CRPs). We report a detailed study of the atmospheric chemistry and spectroscopic signatures of carbon-rich giant (CRG) planets, the possibility of thermal inversions in their atmospheres, the compositions of icy planetesimals required for their formation via core accretion, and the apportionment of ices, rock, and volatiles in their envelopes. Our results show that CRG atmospheres probe a unique region in composition space, especially at high temperature (T). For atmospheres with C/O {>=} 1, and T {approx}> 1400 K in the observable atmosphere, most of the oxygen is bound up in CO, while H{sub 2}O is depleted and CH{sub 4} is enhanced by up to two or three orders of magnitude each, compared to equilibrium compositions with solar abundances (C/O = 0.54). These differences in the spectroscopically dominant species for the different C/O ratios cause equally distinct observable signatures in the spectra. As such, highly irradiated transiting giant exoplanets form ideal candidates to estimate atmospheric C/O ratios and to search for CRPs. We also find that the C/O ratio strongly affects the abundances of TiO and VO, which have been suggested to cause thermal inversions in highly irradiated hot Jupiter atmospheres. A C/O = 1 yields TiO and VO abundances of {approx}100 times lower than those obtained with equilibrium chemistry assuming solar abundances, at P {approx} 1 bar. Such a depletion is adequate to rule out thermal inversions due to TiO/VO even in the most highly irradiated hot Jupiters, such as WASP-12b. We estimate the compositions of the protoplanetary disk, the planetesimals, and the envelope of WASP-12b, and the mass of ices dissolved in the envelope, based on the observed atmospheric abundances. Adopting stellar abundances (C/O = 0.44) for the primordial disk composition and low-temperature formation conditions

  10. O⁶-carboxymethylguanine DNA adduct formation and lipid peroxidation upon in vitro gastrointestinal digestion of haem-rich meat. (United States)

    Vanden Bussche, Julie; Hemeryck, Lieselot Y; Van Hecke, Thomas; Kuhnle, Gunter G C; Pasmans, Frank; Moore, Sharon A; Van de Wiele, Tom; De Smet, Stefaan; Vanhaecke, Lynn


    Epidemiological and clinical studies have demonstrated that the consumption of red haem-rich meat may contribute to the risk of colorectal cancer. Two hypotheses have been put forward to explain this causal relationship, i.e. N-nitroso compound (NOC) formation and lipid peroxidation (LPO). In this study, the NOC-derived DNA adduct O(6)-carboxymethylguanine (O(6)-CMG) and the LPO product malondialdehyde (MDA) were measured in individual in vitro gastrointestinal digestions of meat types varying in haem content (beef, pork, chicken). While MDA formation peaked during the in vitro small intestinal digestion, alkylation and concomitant DNA adduct formation was observed in seven (out of 15) individual colonic digestions using separate faecal inocula. From those, two haem-rich meat digestions demonstrated a significantly higher O(6)-CMG formation (p meat. The addition of myoglobin, a haem-containing protein, to the digestive simulation showed a dose-response association with O(6)-CMG (p = 0.004) and MDA (p = 0.008) formation. The results suggest the haem-iron involvement for both the LPO and NOC pathway during meat digestion. Moreover, results unambiguously demonstrate that DNA adduct formation is very prone to inter-individual variation, suggesting a person-dependent susceptibility to colorectal cancer development following haem-rich meat consumption. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Mineral composition and heavy metal contamination of sediments originating from radium rich formation water. (United States)

    Bzowski, Zbigniew; Michalik, Bogusław


    Radium rich formation water is often associated with fossil fuels as crude oil, natural gas and hard coal. As a result of fossil fuels exploitation high amount of such water is released into environment. In spite of the high radium content such waters create a serious radiation risk neither to humans nor biota directly. First and foremost due to very high mineralization they are not drinkable at all. But after discharge chemical and physical conditions are substantially changed and sediments which additionally concentrated radium are arising. Due to features of technological processes such phenomenon is very intensive in underground coal mining where huge volume of such water must be pumped into surface in order to keep underground galleries dry. Slightly different situation occurs in oil rigs, but finally also huge volume of so called process water is pumped into environment. Regardless their origin arising sediments often contain activity concentration of radium isotopes exceeding the clearance levels set for naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) (Council Directive, 2013). The analysis of metals and minerals content showed that besides radioactivity such sediments contain high amount of metals geochemically similar to radium as barium, strontium and lead. Correlation analysis proved that main mechanism leading to sediment creation is co-precipitation radium with these metals as a sulfate. The absorption on clay minerals is negligible even when barium is not present in significant quantities. Owing to very low solubility of sulfates radium accumulated in this way should not migrate into environment in the neighborhood of a site where such sediment were deposited. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The formative years of relativity the history and meaning of Einstein's Princeton lectures : featuring Einstein's classic text The meaning of relativity in its historical context

    CERN Document Server

    Gutfreund, Hanoch


    First published in 1922 and based on lectures delivered in May 1921, Albert Einstein's The Meaning of Relativity offered an overview and explanation of the then new and controversial theory of relativity. The work would go on to become a monumental classic, printed in numerous editions and translations worldwide. Now, The Formative Years of Relativity introduces Einstein's masterpiece to new audiences. This beautiful volume contains Einstein's insightful text, accompanied by important historical materials and commentary looking at the origins and development of general relativity. Hanoch Gutfreund and Jurgen Renn provide fresh, original perspectives, placing Einstein's achievements into a broader context for all readers. In this book, Gutfreund and Renn tell the rich story behind the early reception, spread, and consequences of Einstein's ideas during the formative years of general relativity in the late 1910s and 1920s. They show that relativity's meaning changed radically throughout the nascent years of it...

  13. Artificial maturation of an immature sulfur- and organic matter-rich limestone from the Ghareb Formation, Jordan (United States)

    Koopmans, M.P.; Rijpstra, W.I.C.; De Leeuw, J. W.; Lewan, M.D.; Damste, J.S.S.


    An immature (Ro=0.39%), S-rich (S(org)/C = 0.07), organic matter-rich (19.6 wt. % TOC) limestone from the Ghareb Formation (Upper Cretaceous) in Jordan was artificially matured by hydrous pyrolysis (200, 220 ..., 300??C; 72 h) to study the effect of progressive diagenesis and early catagenesis on the amounts and distributions of hydrocarbons, organic sulfur compounds and S-rich geomacromolecules. The use of internal standards allowed the determination of absolute amounts. With increasing thermal maturation, large amounts of alkanes and alkylthiophenes with predominantly linear carbon skeletons are generated from the kerogen. The alkylthiophene isomer distributions do not change significantly with increasing thermal maturation, indicating the applicability of alkylthiophenes as biomarkers at relatively high levels of thermal maturity. For a given carbon skeleton, the saturated hydrocarbon, alkylthiophenes and alkylbenzo[b]thiophenes are stable forms at relatively high temperatures, whereas the alkylsulfides are not stable. The large amount of alkylthiophenes produced relative to the alkanes may be explained by the large number of monosulfide links per carbon skeleton. These results are in good agreement with those obtained previously for an artificial maturation series of an immature S-rich sample from the Gessoso-solfifera Formation.An immature (Ro = 0.39%), S-rich (Sorg/C = 0.07), organic matter-rich (19.6 wt.% TOC) limestone from the Ghareb Formation (Upper Cretaceous) in Jordan was artificially matured by hydrous pyrolysis (200, 220, ..., 300??C; 72 h) to study the effect of progressive diagenesis and early catagenesis on the amounts and distributions of hydrocarbons, organic sulfur compounds and S-rich geomacromolecules. The use of internal standards allowed the determination of absolute amounts. With increasing thermal maturation, large amounts of alkanes and alkylthiophenes with predominantly linear carbon skeletons are generated from the kerogen. The

  14. Femtosecond Laser-Induced Formation of Gold-Rich Nanoalloys from the Aqueous Mixture of Gold-Silver Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliati Herbani


    Full Text Available The synthesis of gold-silver (AuAg nanoalloys of various compositions has been performed by direct irradiation of highly intense femtosecond laser pulse in the presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP. The mixture of Au and Ag ions of low concentration was simply introduced into a glass vial and subjected to femtosecond laser pulses for several minutes. The AuAg nanoalloys of 2-3 nm with reasonably narrow size distribution were formed, and the position of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR increased monotonically with an increase in the gold molar fraction in the ion solutions. The high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM images exhibited the absence of core-shell structures, and the energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX analysis confirmed that the particles were Au-rich alloys even for the samples with large fraction of Ag+ ions fed in the solution mixture. The formation mechanism of the alloy nanoparticles in the high intensity optical field was also discussed.

  15. Pore formation and occurrence in the organic-rich shales of the Triassic Chang-7 Member, Yanchang Formation, Ordos Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuang Er


    Full Text Available Shale-reservoir appraisal depends greatly on its pore characteristics (e.g., diameter, geometry, connectivity. Using a new pore-classification scheme based on the matrix type and occurrence state, four types of pores are identified in the organic-rich shales of the Triassic Chang-7 Member: intergranular, intragranular, organic pore, and microfracture. The intergranular pores are subdivided into primary pores between clastic grains, clay-mineral aggregates, and secondary dissolution pores between clastic grains or clay-mineral aggregates based on their origins, respectively. The intragranular pores are subdivided into secondary dissolved pores in feldspars, intra-clay-mineral aggregates and inter-pyrite. Organic pores include primarily microfractures in the organic matter and isolated organic pores. Microfracture is mainly developed along sandy and muddy laminations. Analysis by integration of data from pore imaging, low-temperature liquid nitrogen absorption, relationships between pore geometry and mineral components and between TOC and maturity of organic matter indicates that depositional environment, diagenesis, and thermal evolution of organic matter controlled the formation and preservation of pores. Organic-rich shales deposited in a deep and semi-deep lake environment contains thinly bedded turbidite sandstones, which are characterized by high content of clastic particles and thus favor the development of primary intergranular and intragranular pores, as well as microfractures along sandy laminations. During the early diagenesis process, precipitation of pyrite favors the development of inter-pyrite pores. However, compaction reduced the diameter and bulk pore volume. Organic pore has been greatly reduced under compaction. Dissolution led to formation of both inter and intra-feldspar pores, which has improved reservoir quality to some extent. Organic pore started to develop after shale maturity reaches a threshold (RO = 0

  16. Petrologic significance of Fe-rich staurolite in pelitic schists of the Silgará Formation, Santander Massif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Ríos


    Full Text Available Medium grade metapelites of the Silgará Formation at the Santander Massif (Colombian Andes have been affected by a medium-pressure/high-temperature Barrovian type of metamorphism, developing a sequence of metamorphic zones (biotite, garnet, staurolite and sillimanite. These rocks record a complex tectonometamorphic evolution and reaction history. Metapelitic rocks from the staurolite zone are typically foliated, medium- to coarse-grained, pelitic to semipelitic schists that contain the mineral assemblage biotite + garnet + staurolite ± kyanite; all contain muscovite + quartz + plagioclase with minor K-feldspar, tourmaline, apatite, zircon, epidote, calcite, and Fe–Ti oxides. Field and microscopic evidences reveal that Fe-rich staurolite in pelitic schists is involved in several chemical reactions, which explains its formation and transformation to other minerals, which are very important to elucidate the reaction history of the Silgará Formation metapelites.   Significado Petrológico de Estaurolita Rica en Fe en Esquistos Pelíticos de la Formación Silgará, Macizo de Santander   Resumen Medium grade metapelites of the Silgará Formation en el Macizo de Santander (Andes Colombianos han sido afectadas por un metamorfismo de tipo Barroviense, el cual se ha producido en condiciones de media presión y alta temperatura, desarrollando una secuencia de zonas metamórficas (biotita, granate, estaurolita y silimanita. Estas rocas registran una evolución tectono-metamórfico e historia reacción compleja. Las metapelitas de la zona de la estaurolita están representadas por esquistos pelíticos a semipelíticos de grano medio a grueso típicamente foliados que contienen la paragénesis mineral biotita + granate + estaurolita ± cianita; todos contienen moscovita + cuarzo + plagioclasa con menor feldespato potásico, turmalina, apatito, zircón, epidota, calcita, y óxidos de Fe-Ti. Evidencias de campo y microscópicas revelan que la estaurolita

  17. Bioavailability of cobalt and nickel during anaerobic digestion of sulfur-rich stillage for biogas formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustavsson, Jenny; Shakeri Yekta, Sepehr; Sundberg, Carina; Karlsson, Anna; Ejlertsson, Jörgen; Skyllberg, Ulf; Svensson, Bo H.


    Highlights: ► We studied the effect of Co and Ni addition on biogas formation from stillage. ► Amendment with Co and Ni was necessary to maintain biogas process stability. ► 80–90% of Co and 100% of Ni was associated with organic matter/sulfides. ► The acetate-utilizing Methanosarcinales dominated during stable process. ► Co/Ni deficiency increased the number of the hydrogenotrophic Methanomicrobiales. - Abstract: Addition of Co and Ni often improves the production of biogas during digestion of organic matter, i.e. increasing CH 4 -production, process stability and substrate utilization which often opens for higher organic loading rates (OLRs). The effect of Co and Ni addition was evaluated by measuring methane production, volatile solids reduction, pH and concentration of volatile fatty acids (VFAs). A series of six lab.-scale semi-continuously fed biogas tank reactors were used for this purpose. The chemical forms and potential bioavailability of Co and Ni were examined by sequential extraction, acid volatile sulfide extraction (AVS) and simultaneously extracted metals. Furthermore, the sulfur speciation in solid phase was examined by sulfur X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy. The effect of Co and Ni deficiency on the microbial community composition was analyzed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction and 454-pyrosequencing. The results showed that amendment with Co and Ni was necessary to maintain biogas process stability and resulted in increased CH 4 -production and substrate utilization efficiency. 10–20% of the total Co concentration was in dissolved form and should be regarded as easily accessible by the microorganisms. In contrast, Ni was entirely associated with organic matter/sulfides (mainly AVS) and regarded as very difficult to take up. Still Ni had stimulatory effects suggesting mechanisms such as dissolution of NiS to be involved in the regulation of Ni availability for the microorganisms. The microbial community

  18. Isotopic evidence for the formation of unusually humus-rich soils in the Baltic region (United States)

    Leinweber, Peter; Acksel, Andre; Kühn, Peter


    Arable mineral soils in the Pleistocene landscape of Northern Germany usually contain about 4 to 8 kg of organic C (Corg) per m2, most of which is visually recognizable concentrated in the tilled topsoil horizon. Some unusually humus-rich (10 to 20 kg Corg m-2), and deeply (> 70 cm) dark-colored soils in coastal regions with mollic properties have been classified as Chernozems. Their location far away from the middle German and Central European Chernozem regions, absence of steppe vegetation and semi-arid climate conditions make classical pedogenetic theories doubtful. However, non-targeted mass spectrometric analyses of soil organic matter (SOM) composition revealed great similarities with typical Chernozems worldwide (Thiele-Bruhn et al., 2014) and made alternative (e.g. waterlogged) pathways of SOM accumulation unlikely. Subsequent detailed multi-method SOM analyses down the soil profiles revealed relative enrichments in cyclic ("black carbon") and heterocyclic organic compounds in the deeper, bioturbated horizons. These were plausibly explained by the input of combustion residues, likely originating from anthropogenic activities because spots of these soils coincided with archeological artifacts of early settlements (Acksel et al., 2016). However, these finding could not completely explain the genesis of Chernozems in the Baltic region. Therefore, we actually explored isotope analyses (12/13C, 13/14C, 14/15N, 32/34S) to find out the origin of these unusual SOM enrichments and the time period in which it occurred. The results will be compiled to a consistent hypothesis on the formation of these soils in the Baltic and other Northern European regions. References Acksel, A., W. Amelung, P. Kühn, E. Gehrt, T. Regier, P. Leinweber. 2016. Soil organic matter characteristics as indicator of Chernozem genesis in the Baltic Sea region. Geoderma Regional 7, 187-200. Thiele-Bruhn, S., Leinweber P., Eckhardt K.-U., Siem H.K., Blume H.-P. 2014. Identifying Chernozem

  19. Experimental Investigation of Biotite-Rich Schist Reacting with B-Bearing Fluids at Upper Crustal Conditions and Correlated Tourmaline Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Orlando


    Full Text Available Fluid–rock interaction experiments between a biotite-rich schist (from Mt. Calamita Formation, Elba Island, Italy and B-bearing aqueous fluids were carried out at 500–600 °C and 100–130 MPa. The experiments have been carried out in order to reproduce the reaction, which would have produced tourmalinisation of the biotite schist, supposedly by circulation of magmatic fluids issued from leucogranitic dykes. The reacting fluids were either NaCl-free or NaCl-bearing (20 wt % aqueous solutions, with variable concentration of H3BO3 (0.01–3.2 M. The experimental results show that tourmaline (belonging to the alkali group crystallise under high-temperature and upper crustal conditions (500–600 °C, 100–130 MPa when H3BO3 concentration in the system is greater than 1.6 M. The composition of tourmaline is either dravitic (Mg-rich or schorlitic (Fe-rich, depending if an NaCl-bearing or NaCl-free aqueous solution is used. In the first case, a significant amount of Fe released from biotite dissolution remains in the Cl-rich solution resulting from the experiment. By contrast, when pure water is used, Na/K exchange in feldspars makes Na available for tourmaline crystallisation. The high concentration of Fe in the residual fluid has an important metallogenic implication because it indicates that the interaction between the saline B-rich fluid of magmatic derivation and biotite-rich schists, besides producing tourmalinisation, is capable of mobilising significant amounts of Fe. This process could have produced, in part or totally, the Fe deposits located close to the quartz–tourmaline veins and metasomatic bodies of the Mt. Calamita Formation. Moreover, the super-hot reservoir that likely occurs in the deepest part of the Larderello–Travale geothermal field would also be the site of an extensive reaction between the B-rich fluid and biotite-bearing rocks producing tourmaline. Thus, tourmaline occurrence can be a useful guide during deep

  20. The effects of amino acid composition of glutamine-rich domains on amyloid formation and fragmentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander I Alexandrov

    Full Text Available Fragmentation of amyloid polymers by the chaperone Hsp104 allows them to propagate as prions in yeast. The factors which determine the frequency of fragmentation are unclear, though it is often presumed to depend on the physical strength of prion polymers. Proteins with long polyglutamine stretches represent a tractable model for revealing sequence elements required for polymer fragmentation in yeast, since they form poorly fragmented amyloids. Here we show that interspersion of polyglutamine stretches with various amino acid residues differentially affects the in vivo formation and fragmentation of the respective amyloids. Aromatic residues tyrosine, tryptophan and phenylalanine strongly stimulated polymer fragmentation, leading to the appearance of oligomers as small as dimers. Alanine, methionine, cysteine, serine, threonine and histidine also enhanced fragmentation, while charged residues, proline, glycine and leucine inhibited polymerization. Our data indicate that fragmentation frequency primarily depends on the recognition of fragmentation-promoting residues by Hsp104 and/or its co-chaperones, rather than on the physical stability of polymers. This suggests that differential exposure of such residues to chaperones defines prion variant-specific differences in polymer fragmentation efficiency.

  1. Formation and evolution of a lunar core from ilmenite-rich magma ocean cumulates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, J.; van den Berg, A.P.; van Westrenen, W.


    In the absence of comprehensive seismic data coverage, the size, composition and physical state of the lunar core are still debated. It has been suggested that a dense ilmenite-rich layer, which originally crystallised near the top of the lunar magma ocean, may have sunk to the centre of the Moon to

  2. Compositional Models of Hematite-Rich Spherules (Blueberries) at Meridiani Planum, Mars and Constraints on Their Formation (United States)

    Schneider, A.; Mittlefehldt, D.


    The Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity discovered hematite-rich spherules (``blueberries'') believed to be diagenetic concretions formed in the bedrock in stagnant or slow-moving groundwater. These spherules likely precipitated from solution, but their origins are poorly understood. Three formation mechanisms are possible: inclusive, replacive and displacive. The first would result in a distinct spherule composition compared to the other two. We propose that chemical clues may help to constrain the nature of blueberry formation. We used Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer data for undisturbed soils that were blueberry-free and with visible blueberries at the surface in Microscopic Imager images. We made plots of the elements versus iron for the spherule-rich soils and compared them to a mixing line representative of a pure hematite end member spherule (called ``the zero model''). This modeled the replacive formation mechanism, in which pure hematite would replace all of the original material. If the spherules grew inclusively, chemical data should reflect a compositional component of the rock grains included during formation. Four models were developed to test for possible compositions of a rock component. These models could not easily explain the APXS data and thus demonstrate that the most plausible rock compositions are not components of blueberries.

  3. Organic-rich shale lithofacies geophysical prediction: A case study in the fifth organic-matter-rich interval of Paleogene Hetaoyuan Formation, Biyang Depression (United States)

    Fei, S.; Xinong, X.


    The fifth organic-matter-rich interval (ORI 5) in the He-third Member of the Paleogene Hetaoyuan Formation is believed to be the main exploration target for shale oil in Biyang Depression, eastern China. An important part of successful explorating and producing shale oil is to identify and predict organic-rich shale lithofacies with different reservoir capacities and rock geomechanical properties, which are related to organic matter content and mineral components. In this study, shale lithofacies are defined by core analysis data, well-logging and seismic data, and the spatial-temporal distribution of various lithologies are predicted qualitatively by seismic attribute technology and quantitatively by geostatistical inversion analysis, and the prediction results are confirmed by the logging data and geological background. ORI 5 is present in lacustrine expanding system tract and can be further divided into four parasequence sets based on the analysis of conventional logs, TOC content and wavelet transform. Calcareous shale, dolomitic shale, argillaceous shale, silty shale and muddy siltstone are defined within ORI 5, and can be separated and predicted in regional-scale by root mean square amplitude (RMS) analysis and wave impedance. The results indicate that in the early expansion system tract, dolomitic shale and calcareous shale widely developed in the study area, and argillaceous shale, silty shale, and muddy siltstone only developed in periphery of deep depression. With the lake level rising, argillaceous shale and calcareous shale are well developed, and argillaceous shale interbeded with silty shale or muddy siltstone developed in deep or semi-deep lake. In the late expansion system tract, argillaceous shale is widely deposited in the deepest depression, calcareous shale presented band distribution in the east of the depression. Actual test results indicate that these methods are feasible to predict the spatial distribution of shale lithofacies.

  4. Formation of vacancy clusters in tungsten crystals under hydrogen-rich condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Daiji; Iwakiri, Hirotomo; Morishita, Kazunori


    Di-vacancy formation assisted by hydrogen trapping is studied in terms of nucleation free-energies evaluated with density functional theory. Calculations give binding energies for single hydrogen atom as first- and second-nearest-neighbor of di-vacancies of 1.80 and 2.15 eV, respectively, which are significantly larger than that for mono-vacancies. At elevated atomic concentrations of interstitial hydrogen atoms, evaluated nucleation free-energies indicate that the hydrogen assisted di-vacancy formation becomes more favorable. It is suggested that the formation would be preceded by VH cluster formation.

  5. Formation of vacancy clusters in tungsten crystals under hydrogen-rich condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Daiji, E-mail: [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Iwakiri, Hirotomo, E-mail: [University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa 903-0213 (Japan); Morishita, Kazunori, E-mail: [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)


    Di-vacancy formation assisted by hydrogen trapping is studied in terms of nucleation free-energies evaluated with density functional theory. Calculations give binding energies for single hydrogen atom as first- and second-nearest-neighbor of di-vacancies of 1.80 and 2.15 eV, respectively, which are significantly larger than that for mono-vacancies. At elevated atomic concentrations of interstitial hydrogen atoms, evaluated nucleation free-energies indicate that the hydrogen assisted di-vacancy formation becomes more favorable. It is suggested that the formation would be preceded by VH cluster formation.

  6. Fundamental limits of NO formation in fuel-rich premixed methane-air flames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Essen, Vincent Martijn


    Increasingly stringent regulations on pollutant emission are the driving force for designers of natural-gas-fired combustion systems to find ways of controlling NOx formation. To achieve significant emissions reduction, more insight is needed into the mechanisms of NO formation. Martijn van Essen’s

  7. Reflections on the Production of the Formation of Physiotherapy in the Con-text of SUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luísa Pinho Pinto Ferreira

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: This study was motivated by the need of understanding how the relationship of the training with the national health system is treated, both in the sphere of health services and the aca-demic area. This work aims to contribute to the debate on the inclusion of the physiotherapist in SUS (Brazil's NHS by pointing out issues that need to be deepened in future studies. Purpose: To analyze the national literature production on the relationship between the training of therapists and their work in SUS, from 1996 to 2010. Methods: Descriptive research with literature on the bases: LILACS, SCI-ELO Bank and CAPES thesis. Results: We found 13 publications, sorted by: year, publication type, region where it was published in the categories "national curriculum guidelines," "professional respon-sibility", "integrality in health" and "conceptions of teachers in training in Physiotherapy ". There no publishing from 1996 to 2005, gradually increasing from this year. It was identified a higher number of articles compared to other types of publications; there is also an important difference between the Brazilian regions, with higher prevalence of studies in the South (53.8% and a greater number of pub-lications in the category "national curriculum guidelines". Conclusion: It was possible to raise ques-tions that involve the applicability of the National Curriculum Guidelines on the pedagogical courses; suitability of teachers to the reality of SUS; investigation of the models covered in health care envi-ronments trainers, and the lack of contribution by higher education institutions on teaching-research and teaching and public service, contributing to form an important agenda of study. {#}

  8. The combined use of kartogenin and platelet-rich plasma promotes fibrocartilage formation in the wounded rat Achilles tendon entheses. (United States)

    Zhang, J; Yuan, T; Zheng, N; Zhou, Y; Hogan, M V; Wang, J H-C


    After an injury, the biological reattachment of tendon to bone is a challenge because healing takes place between a soft (tendon) and a hard (bone) tissue. Even after healing, the transition zone in the enthesis is not completely regenerated, making it susceptible to re-injury. In this study, we aimed to regenerate Achilles tendon entheses (ATEs) in wounded rats using a combination of kartogenin (KGN) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP). Wounds created in rat ATEs were given three different treatments: kartogenin platelet-rich plasma (KGN-PRP); PRP; or saline (control), followed by histological and immunochemical analyses, and mechanical testing of the rat ATEs after three months of healing. Histological analysis showed well organised arrangement of collagen fibres and proteoglycan formation in the wounded ATEs in the KGN-PRP group. Furthermore, immunohistochemical analysis revealed fibrocartilage formation in the KGN-PRP-treated ATEs, evidenced by the presence of both collagen I and II in the healed ATE. Larger positively stained collagen III areas were found in both PRP and saline groups than those in the KGN-PRP group. Chondrocyte-related genes, SOX9 and collagen II, and tenocyte-related genes, collagen I and scleraxis (SCX), were also upregulated by KGN-PRP. Moreover, mechanical testing results showed higher ultimate tensile strength in the KGN-PRP group than in the saline control group. In contrast, PRP treatment appeared to have healed the injured ATE but induced no apparent formation of fibrocartilage. The saline-treated group showed poor healing without fibrocartilage tissue formation in the ATEs. Our results show that injection of KGN-PRP induces fibrocartilage formation in the wounded rat ATEs. Hence, KGN-PRP may be a clinically relevant, biological approach to regenerate injured enthesis effectively. Cite this article: J. Zhang, T. Yuan, N. Zheng, Y. Zhou, M. V. Hogan, J. H-C. Wang. The combined use of kartogenin and platelet-rich plasma promotes

  9. A proposal of texts for political ideological work and the value formation of the future physical culture professional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Isel Rodríguez-Cruz


    Full Text Available The values like complex formations of the personality are very related to the person's own existence and they have a lot to do with each individual's ideological political formation, that’s why, by means of a texts selection associated to this theme and from the Communicative Spanish subject, the authors propose to deep in the ideological political work and the main values in correspondence with the expectations, interests and the necessities of the current Cuban society. After the application of theoretical, empirical and statistical methods the necessity of reinforcing the ideological political work and the formation of values in our students was verified. In this way, the subject team puts in practice the educational ways and the performance ways by the teacher, in such way from the classes, the teacher generates changes in the students and contributes to the professional's formation that demands the modern society. For this reason, the teacher works with texts through diverse themes related like history, sport, personalities, and important events. (The texts make emphasis in the fight that at present is taken place for the free of the Cuban five, among others. The texts analysis includes the search of key words, the relationships among significant and meaning, the translation, interpretation and extrapolation of the same ones, the paragraph qualities, as well as the rhetorical patterns or methods of development of it, among other aspects. All of these items contribute to reinforce the values that the students have and at the same time the teacher's work facilitates the students express their feelings and thinking in correspondence with their personality.

  10. Seismic data are rich in information about subsurface formations and fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farfour, Mohammed; Yoon, Wang Jung; Kim, Dongshin [Geophysical Prospecting Lab, Energy & Resources Eng., Dept., Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong-Hwan [Petroleum Engineering Lab, Energy & Resources Eng., Dept., Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)


    Seismic attributes are defined as any measured or computed information derived from seismic data. Throughout the last decades extensive work has been done in developing variety of mathematical approaches to extract maximum information from seismic data. Nevertheless, geoscientists found that seismic is still mature and rich in information. In this paper a new seismic attribute is introduced. Instantaneous energy seismic attribute is an amplitude based attribute that has the potential to emphasize anomalous amplitude associated with hydrocarbons. Promising results have been obtained from applying the attribute on seismic section traversing hydrocarbon filled sand from Alberta, Canada.

  11. Language and Didactic potential of Ukrainian for Specific Purposes Teaching forms in Developing Future Navigators' Text Formation Competency


    Tetiana Gulchuk


    The article is devoted to determining the peculiarities of the organization of future navigators ’text formation competence development during various forms of training on the basis of the analysis of scientific literature on language teaching methods. On the basis of analysis, generalization and systematization of scientific sources, we elucidated the forms of organization of language teaching (lectures, practical classes, seminars), which enable to improve the future navigators’ ability to ...

  12. Mesophilic co-digestion of dairy manure and lipid rich solid slaughterhouse wastes: process efficiency, limitations and floating granules formation. (United States)

    Pitk, Peep; Palatsi, Jordi; Kaparaju, Prasad; Fernández, Belén; Vilu, Raivo


    Lipid and protein rich solid slaughterhouse wastes are attractive co-substrates to increase volumetric biogas production in co-digestion with dairy manure. Addition of decanter sludge (DS), containing 42.2% of lipids and 35.8% of proteins (total solids basis), up to 5% of feed mixture resulted in a stable process without any indication of long chain fatty acids (LCFA) or free ammonia (NH3) inhibition and in 3.5-fold increase of volumetric biogas production. Contrary, only lipids addition as technical fat (TF) at over 2% of feed mixture resulted in formation of floating granules (FG) and process efficiency decrease. Formed FG had low biodegradability and its organic part was composed of lipids and calcium salts of LCFAs. Anaerobic digestion process intentionally directed to FG formation, could be a viable option for mitigation and control of lipids overload and derived LCFA inhibition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and soot in fuel-rich oxidation of methane in a laminar flow reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjøth-Rasmussen, Martin Skov; Glarborg, Peter; Østberg, M.


    Conversion of methane to higher hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and soot was investigated under fuel-rich conditions in a laminar flow reactor. The effects of stoichiometry, dilution, and water vapor addition were studied at temperatures between 1073 and 1823 K. A chemical...... kinetic mechanism was established for methane oxidation, with emphasis on formation of higher hydrocarbons and PAH. A submodel for soot formation was adopted from the work of Frenklach and co-workers without changes. Modeling predictions showed good agreement with experimental results. Reactants, stable...... decrease with increasing addition of water vapor. The effect is described qualitatively by the reaction mechanism. The enhanced oxidation of acetylene is attributed to higher levels of hydroxyl radicals, formed from the reaction between the water vapor and hydrogen atoms....

  14. Osteoblastic mesenchymal stem cell sheet combined with Choukroun platelet-rich fibrin induces bone formation at an ectopic site. (United States)

    Wang, Zhifa; Weng, Yanming; Lu, Shengjun; Zong, Chunlin; Qiu, Jianyong; Liu, Yanpu; Liu, Bin


    To analyze the effects of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in vitro and investigate in vivo bone formation by MSC sheets with PRF. Cell proliferation and expression of osteogenesis-related genes within MSC sheets were assessed upon exposure to PRF from the same donors. We then injected MSC sheet fragments with or without PRF subcutaneously in nude mice and assessed bone formation by micro-computed tomography and histological analyses. PRF significantly stimulated MSC proliferation and osteogenesis in vitro. MSC sheets injected with or without PRF formed new bone, but those with PRF produced significantly more and denser bone. MSC sheets can be used to generate tissue engineered bone upon injection, and PRF increases the osteogenic capacity of MSC sheets in vitro and in vivo. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. [Experimental research on the effects of different activators on the formation of platelet-rich gel and the release of bioactive substances in human platelet-rich plasma]. (United States)

    Yang, Y; Zhang, W; Cheng, B


    Objective: To explore the effects of calcium gluconate and thrombin on the formation of platelet-rich gel (PRG) and the release of bioactive substances in human platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and the clinical significance. Methods: Six healthy blood donors who met the inclusion criteria were recruited in our unit from May to August in 2016. Platelet samples of each donor were collected for preparation of PRP. (1) PRP in the volume of 10 mL was collected from each donor and divided into thrombin activation group (TA, added with 0.5 mL thrombin solution in dose of 100 U/mL) and calcium gluconate activation group (CGA, added with 0.5 mL calcium gluconate solution in dose of 100 g/L) according to the random number table, with 5 mL PRP in each group. Then the PRP of the two groups was activated in water bath at 37 ℃ for 1 h. The formation time of PRG was recorded, and the formation situation of PRG was observed within 1 hour of activation. After being activated for 1 h, one part of PRG was collected to observe the distribution of fibrous protein with HE staining, and another part of PRG was collected to observe platelet ultrastructure under transmission electron microscope (TEM). After being activated for 1 h, the supernatant was collected to determine the content of transforming growth factor β(1, )platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB), vascular endothelial growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), epidermal growth factor, and insulin-like growth factorⅠby enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. (2) Another 10 mL PRP from each donor was collected and grouped as above, and the platelet suspension was obtained after two times of centrifugation and resuspension with phosphate buffered saline, respectively. And then they were treated with corresponding activator for 1 h as that in experiment (1). Nanoparticle tracking analyzer was used to detect the concentrations of microvesicles with different diameters and total microvesicles derived from platelet. Data

  16. Formation of porous silicon oxide from substrate-bound silicon rich silicon oxide layers by continuous-wave laser irradiation (United States)

    Wang, Nan; Fricke-Begemann, Th.; Peretzki, P.; Ihlemann, J.; Seibt, M.


    Silicon nanocrystals embedded in silicon oxide that show room temperature photoluminescence (PL) have great potential in silicon light emission applications. Nanocrystalline silicon particle formation by laser irradiation has the unique advantage of spatially controlled heating, which is compatible with modern silicon micro-fabrication technology. In this paper, we employ continuous wave laser irradiation to decompose substrate-bound silicon-rich silicon oxide films into crystalline silicon particles and silicon dioxide. The resulting microstructure is studied using transmission electron microscopy techniques with considerable emphasis on the formation and properties of laser damaged regions which typically quench room temperature PL from the nanoparticles. It is shown that such regions consist of an amorphous matrix with a composition similar to silicon dioxide which contains some nanometric silicon particles in addition to pores. A mechanism referred to as "selective silicon ablation" is proposed which consistently explains the experimental observations. Implications for the damage-free laser decomposition of silicon-rich silicon oxides and also for controlled production of porous silicon dioxide films are discussed.

  17. Hydrocarbon-Rich Groundwater above Shale-Gas Formations: A Karoo Basin Case Study. (United States)

    Eymold, William K; Swana, Kelley; Moore, Myles T; Whyte, Colin J; Harkness, Jennifer S; Talma, Siep; Murray, Ricky; Moortgat, Joachim B; Miller, Jodie; Vengosh, Avner; Darrah, Thomas H


    Horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing have enhanced unconventional hydrocarbon recovery but raised environmental concerns related to water quality. Because most basins targeted for shale-gas development in the USA have histories of both active and legacy petroleum extraction, confusion about the hydrogeological context of naturally occurring methane in shallow aquifers overlying shales remains. The Karoo Basin, located in South Africa, provides a near-pristine setting to evaluate these processes, without a history of conventional or unconventional energy extraction. We conducted a comprehensive pre-industrial evaluation of water quality and gas geochemistry in 22 groundwater samples across the Karoo Basin, including dissolved ions, water isotopes, hydrocarbon molecular and isotopic composition, and noble gases. Methane-rich samples were associated with high-salinity, NaCl-type groundwater and elevated levels of ethane, 4 He, and other noble gases produced by radioactive decay. This endmember displayed less negative δ 13 C-CH 4 and evidence of mixing between thermogenic natural gases and hydrogenotrophic methane. Atmospheric noble gases in the methane-rich samples record a history of fractionation during gas-phase migration from source rocks to shallow aquifers. Conversely, methane-poor samples have a paucity of ethane and 4 He, near saturation levels of atmospheric noble gases, and more negative δ 13 C-CH 4 ; methane in these samples is biogenic and produced by a mixture of hydrogenotrophic and acetoclastic sources. These geochemical observations are consistent with other basins targeted for unconventional energy extraction in the USA and contribute to a growing data base of naturally occurring methane in shallow aquifers globally, which provide a framework for evaluating environmental concerns related to unconventional energy development (e.g., stray gas). © 2018, National Ground Water Association.

  18. Formation of alteration products during dissolution of vitrified ILW in a high-pH calcium-rich solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utton, C.A., E-mail: [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sir Robert Hadfield Building, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Hand, R.J.; Hyatt, N.C. [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sir Robert Hadfield Building, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Swanton, S.W. [AMEC, B150, Thomson Avenue, Harwell Oxford, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0QB (United Kingdom); Williams, S.J. [Nuclear Decommissioning Authority, NDA Harwell Office, Building 587, Curie Avenue, Harwell Oxford, Didcot OX11 0RH (United Kingdom)


    To simulate the possible disposition of a vitrified intermediate-level waste (ILW) in a cementitious environment within a geological disposal facility (GDF), the durability of a laboratory simulant ILW vitrified in a borosilicate glass in a saturated Ca(OH){sub 2} solution (pH ∼12.5) was measured. Both a low surface area to volume (SA/V) ratio (∼10 m{sup −1}) Materials Characterisation Center test 1 (MCC-1) and a high SA/V ratio (∼10,000 m{sup −1}) product consistency test type B (PCT-B) were used at 50 °C for up to 170 days. The formation of alteration layers and products was followed. The surfaces of the monoliths were analysed using SEM/EDX and showed the formation of magnesium-rich precipitates and distinct calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) precipitates. Cross sections showed the development of a calcium-rich alteration layer, which was observed from 14 days. The altered layer was up to 5 μm thick after 170 days and showed accumulation of zirconium, iron and magnesium and to a lesser extent aluminium, along with calcium and silicon. Based on comparison of the rate data, it is suggested that the presence of this layer may offer some protection to the underlying glass. However, the high SA/V ratio experiments showed resumed alteration after 56 days, indicating that the altered layer may not be protective in the long term (under accelerated conditions). The formation of a magnesium-containing smectite clay (likely saponite) in addition to CSH(II), a jennite-like CSH phase, were identified in the high SA/V experiment by X-ray diffraction after 170 days. These results suggest that calcium and magnesium have important roles in both the long and shorter-term durability of vitrified wastes exposed to high pH.

  19. An ALMA view of star formation efficiency suppression in early-type galaxies after gas-rich minor mergers (United States)

    van de Voort, Freeke; Davis, Timothy A.; Matsushita, Satoki; Rowlands, Kate; Shabala, Stanislav S.; Allison, James R.; Ting, Yuan-Sen; Sansom, Anne E.; van der Werf, Paul P.


    Gas-rich minor mergers contribute significantly to the gas reservoir of early-type galaxies (ETGs) at low redshift, yet the star formation efficiency (SFE; the star formation rate divided by the molecular gas mass) appears to be strongly suppressed following some of these events, in contrast to the more well-known merger-driven starbursts. We present observations with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) of six ETGs, which have each recently undergone a gas-rich minor merger, as evidenced by their disturbed stellar morphologies. These galaxies were selected because they exhibit extremely low SFEs. We use the resolving power of ALMA to study the morphology and kinematics of the molecular gas. The majority of our galaxies exhibit spatial and kinematical irregularities, such as detached gas clouds, warps, and other asymmetries. These asymmetries support the interpretation that the suppression of the SFE is caused by dynamical effects stabilizing the gas against gravitational collapse. Through kinematic modelling we derive high velocity dispersions and Toomre Q stability parameters for the gas, but caution that such measurements in edge-on galaxies suffer from degeneracies. We estimate merger ages to be about 100 Myr based on the observed disturbances in the gas distribution. Furthermore, we determine that these galaxies lie, on average, two orders of magnitude below the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation for star-forming galaxies as well as below the relation for relaxed ETGs. We discuss potential dynamical processes responsible for this strong suppression of star formation surface density at fixed molecular gas surface density.

  20. Spinel formation for stabilizing simulated nickel-laden sludge with aluminum-rich ceramic precursors. (United States)

    Shih, Kaimin; White, Tim; Leckie, James O


    The feasibility of stabilizing nickel-laden sludge from commonly available Al-rich ceramic precursors was investigated and accomplished with high nickel incorporation efficiency. To simulate the process, nickel oxide was mixed alternatively with gamma-alumina, corundum, kaolinite, and mullite and was sintered from 800 to 1480 degrees C. The nickel aluminate spinel (NiAl2O4) was confirmed as the stabilization phase for nickel and crystallized with efficiencies greater than 90% for all precursors above 1250 degrees C and 3-h sintering. The nickel-incorporation reaction pathways with these precursors were identified, and the microstructure and spinel yield were investigated as a function of sintering temperature with fixed sintering time. This study has demonstrated a promising process for forming nickel spinel to stabilize nickel-laden sludge from a wide range of inexpensive ceramic precursors, which may provide an avenue for economically blending waste metal sludges via the building industry processes to reduce the environmental hazards of toxic metals. The correlation of product textures and nickel incorporation efficiencies through selection of different precursors also provides the option of tailoring property-specific products.

  1. High Energy Radical Chemistry Formation of HCN- rich Atmospheres on early Earth

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ferus, Martin; Kubelík, Petr; Knížek, Antonín; Pastorek, Adam; Sutherland, J.D.; Civiš, Svatopluk


    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2017), č. článku 6275. ISSN 2045-2322 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-05076S; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015083; GA MŠk LG15013 Grant - others:Akademie věd - GA AV ČR(CZ) R200401521 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : high-power laser * transform emission-spectroscopy * induced dielectric-breakdown * prebiotic organic-synthesis * nucleobase formation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  2. A thermodynamic prediction for microporosity formation in aluminum-rich Al-Cu alloys (United States)

    Poirier, D. R.; Yeum, K.; Maples, A. L.


    A computer model is used to predict the formation and degree of microporosity in a directionally solidified Al-4.5 wt pct Cu alloy, considering the interplay between solidification shrinkage and gas porosity. Macrosegregation theory is used to determine the local pressure within the interdendritic liquid. Results show interdendritic porosity for initial hydrogen contents in the 0.03-1 ppm range, and none below contents of 0.03. An increase in either the thermal gradient or the solidification rate is show to decrease the amount of interdendritic porosity.

  3. Diatoms in acid mine drainage and their role in the formation of iron-rich stromatolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brake, S.S.; Hasiotis, S.T.; Dannelly, H.K. [Indiana State University, Terre Haute, IN (United States)


    Adverse conditions in the acid mine drainage (AMD) system at the Green Valley mine, Indiana, limit diatom diversity to one species, Nitzschia tubicola. It is present in three distinct microbial consortia: Euglena mutabilis-dominated biofilm, diatom-dominated biofilm, and diatom-exclusive biofilm. E. mutabilis dominates the most extensive biofilm, with lesser numbers of N. tubicola, other eukaryotes, and bacteria. Diatom-dominated biofilm occurs as isolated patches containing N. tubicola with minor fungal hyphae, filamentous algae, E. mutabilis, and bacteria. Diatom-exclusive biofilm is rare, composed entirely of N. tubicola. Diatom distribution is influenced by seasonal and intraseasonal changes in water temperature and chemistry. Diatoms are absent in winter due to cool water temperatures. In summer, isolated patchy communities are present due to warmer water temperatures. In 2001, the diatom community expanded its distribution following a major rainfall that temporarily diluted the effluent, creating hospitable conditions for diatom growth. After several weeks when effluent returned to preexisting conditions, the diatom biofilm retreated to isolated patches, and E. mutabilis biofilm flourished. Iron-rich stromatolites underlie the biofilms and consist of distinct laminae, recording spatial and temporal oscillations in physicochemical conditions and microbial activity. The stromatolites are composed of thin, wavy laminae with partially decayed E. mutabilis biofilm, representing microbial activity and iron precipitation under normal AMD conditions. Alternating with the wavy layers are thicker, porous, spongelike laminae composed of iron precipitated on and incorporated into radiating colonies of diatoms. These layers indicate episodic changes in water chemistry, allowing diatoms to temporarily dominate the system.

  4. Optimizing platelet-rich plasma gel formation by varying time and gravitational forces during centrifugation. (United States)

    Jo, Chris H; Roh, Young Hak; Kim, Ji Eun; Shin, Sue; Yoon, Kang Sup


    Despite the increasing clinical use of topical platelet-rich plasma (PRP) to enhance tissue healing and regeneration, there is no properly standardized method of autologous PRP gel preparation. This study examined the effect of the centrifugation time and gravitational force (g) on the platelet recovery ratio of PRP and determined the most effective centrifugation conditions for preparing PRP. Two-step centrifugations for preparing PRP were used in 39 subjects who had consented prior to the study's start. The separating centrifugation (Step 1, used to separate whole blood into its two main components: red blood cells and plasma) was tested from 500g to 1900g at 200g increments for 5 minutes (min), and from 100g to 1300g at 200g increments for 10 minutes. After separating centrifugation, upper plasma layer was transferred to another plain tube for the condensation centrifugation and remaining lower cell layer was discarded. The condensation centrifugation (Step 2, used to condense the platelets in the separated plasma) was tested at 1000g for 15 min, 1500g for 15 min, 2000g for 5 min and 3000g for 5 min, additionally at 1000g for 10 min and 1500g for 10 min. Platelet gelation was induced by adding 10% calcium gluconate to final PRP with volume ratio of 1:10. The optimal separating centrifugation conditions were followed by 900g for 5 minutes and the condensation conditions were followed by 1500g for 15 minutes, of which recovery ratios were 92.0 ± 3.1% and 84.3 ± 10.0%, respectively.

  5. A molecular gas-rich GRB host galaxy at the peak of cosmic star formation (United States)

    Arabsalmani, M.; Le Floc'h, E.; Dannerbauer, H.; Feruglio, C.; Daddi, E.; Ciesla, L.; Charmandaris, V.; Japelj, J.; Vergani, S. D.; Duc, P.-A.; Basa, S.; Bournaud, F.; Elbaz, D.


    We report the detection of the CO(3-2) emission line from the host galaxy of gamma-ray burst (GRB) 080207 at z = 2.086. This is the first detection of molecular gas in emission from a GRB host galaxy beyond redshift 1. We find this galaxy to be rich in molecular gas with a mass of 1.1 × 10^{11} M_{{\\odot }} assuming αCO = 4.36 M_{{\\odot }} (K km s^{-1} pc^2)^{-1}. The molecular gas mass fraction of the galaxy is ˜0.5, typical of star-forming galaxies (SFGs) with similar stellar masses and redshifts. With an SFR_{FIR} of 260 M_{{\\odot }} yr^{-1}, we measure a molecular gas depletion time-scale of 0.43 Gyr, near the peak of the depletion time-scale distribution of SFGs at similar redshifts. Our findings are therefore in contradiction with the proposed molecular gas deficiency in GRB host galaxies. We argue that the reported molecular gas deficiency for GRB hosts could be the artefact of improper comparisons or neglecting the effect of the typical low metallicities of GRB hosts on the CO-to-molecular-gas conversion factor. We also compare the kinematics of the CO(3-2) emission line to that of the H α emission line from the host galaxy. We find the H α emission to have contributions from two separate components, a narrow and a broad one. The narrow component matches the CO emission well in velocity space. The broad component, with a full width at half-maximum of ˜1100 km s^{-1}, is separated by +390 km s^{-1} in velocity space from the narrow component. We speculate this broad component to be associated with a powerful outflow in the host galaxy or in an interacting system.

  6. Contribution of eukaryotic microbial communities to the formation of Fe-rich accretions in an extreme acidic environment (United States)

    Rodrigues, L.; Valente, T.; Correia, A.; Alves, A.; Foing, B.; Davies, G. R.


    In the acid mine drainage of Valdarcas, northern Portugal, Fe-rich tubular and spherical macroaccretions are directly associated with the presence of eukaryotic microorganisms. This raises the question whether they are biogenically-derived or the result of an abiotic process mediated by microeukaryotic phototrophs. The drainage water at Valdarcas is characterized by very low pH values (pHhigh metal solubility and presence of iron colloids. Mineralogical analysis (XRD and SEM) of the precipitates indicates a mixture of goethite, schwertmannite and jarosite. Euglenophyta and Chlorophyta acidophilic algal were previously identified in this site. The spatial distribution of Euglena mutabilis indicated that it has a preference to grow up on schwertmannite-rich precipitates. Field observations demonstrate the existence of oxygenated microenvironments created by algal activity suggesting that algae influence iron minerals precipitation, especially schwertmannite. The mineral-microorganism interactions are relevant to understanding this unique and extreme environment. Further investigations regarding the mineralogical and chemical characterization of these deposits, and the identification of microorganisms involved in the process could be helpful to enhance our knowledge of past Fe formations throughout Earth's primordial environment. It is expectable that this information will contribute to establish a framework for recognition of biosignatures on other planets and extraterrestrial bodies. In this study, results on the chemical and mineralogical composition of the structures are presented. The biological context is characterised based on observations made by optical microscopy complemented with molecular data on the microbial communities obtained by culture independent methods. The results are discussed within the context of two models: the studied Fe-rich stromatolites are microeukaryotic-mediated as described by previous workers from similar environments or are the

  7. Formation and stability of Fe-rich precipitates in dilute Zr(Fe) single-crystal alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, H.; Hood, G.M.; Roy, J.A.; Schultz, R.J.


    The formation and stability of Fe-rich precipitates in two α-Zr(Fe) single-crystal alloys with nominal compositions (I, 50 ppma Fe, and II, 650 ppma Fe) have been investigated (the maximum solid solubility of Fe in α-Zr is 180 ppma - 800 C). Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) have been used to examine the characteristics of Fe-rich precipitates. SEM and TEM micrographs show that in as-grown alloy II, Zr 2 Fe precipitates are located at 'stringers'. Precipitates were not observed in as-grown alloy I. During annealing, below the solvus, Fe diffuses to the surfaces to form Zr 3 Fe precipitates in both alloys. The precipitates on the surfaces of alloy I tend to be star-like (0001) or pyramidal (1010), and their distribution is heterogeneous. Dissolution of Zr 3 Fe surface precipitates of alloy I (annealing above the solvus) leaves precipitate-like features on the surfaces. Zr 2 Fe precipitates in as-grown alloy II can be dissolved only by β-phase annealing. (Author) 8 figs., 18 refs

  8. Successive Recovery of Copper and Uranium From Carbonate-Rich Latosol, Um Bogma Formation, Abuthor Locality, South Western Sinai, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sheikh, E.M.; Amin, M.M.; Aita, S.K.; Rezk, A.A.


    A technological sample of a copper/ uranium mineralization in carbonate rich latosol rock sequence of Urn Bogma Formation Abu Thor locality at southwestern Sinai, Egypt, has been properly processed. The working sample assaying 12.5 % CuO and 875 ppm U was subjected to adipic acid leaching for copper followed by bioleaching of uranium in a manner to avoid excessive acid consumption in the classical leaching procedure. It is thus possible to achieve leaching efficiencies of 95% for Cu in the first stage and 82% for U in the second stage. From the two separately obtained leach liquors of Cu and uranium, pure products have conveniently been prepared. Accordingly, Cu adipate product was first prepared by crystallization,followed by acid dissolution and alkali precipitation of copper hydroxide. In case of uranium, the impure precipitate of the bioleach liquor is purified via Amberlite IRA-400 anion exchanger resin

  9. The Paleo-environmental significance of the iron-formations and iron-rich mudstones of the Mesoarchean Witwatersrand-Mozaan Basin, South Africa



    M.Sc. The Mesoarchean Witwatersrand and Pongola Supergroups of South Africa are the oldest, well preserved supracratonic successions worldwide. Various banded iron formation (BIF) and iron-rich mudstone units occur within the West Rand Group of the Witwatersrand Supergroup and the Mozaan Group of the Pongola Supergroup. A granular iron formation (GIF) occurs in a single unit in the Nconga Formation of the Mozaan Group. The Witwatersrand Supergroup and Mozaan Group have been lithostratigrap...

  10. Inhibition of cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) formation in emulsified porcine patties by phenolic-rich avocado (Persea americana Mill.) extracts. (United States)

    Rodríguez-Carpena, Javier-Germán; Morcuende, David; Petrón, María Jesus; Estévez, Mario


    The effect of phenolic-rich extracts from avocado peel on the formation of cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) in porcine patties subjected to cooking and chill storage was studied. Eight COPs (7α-hydroxycholesterol, 7β-hydroxycholesterol, 7-ketocholesterol, 20α-hydroxycholesterol, 25-hydroxycholesterol, cholestanetriol, 5,6β-epoxycholesterol, and 5,6α-epoxycholesterol) were identified and quantified by GC-MS. The addition of avocado extracts (∼600 GAE/kg patty) to patties significantly inhibited the formation of COPs during cooking. Cooked control (C) patties contained a larger variety and greater amounts of COPs than the avocado-treated (T) counterparts. COPs sharply increased in cooked patties during the subsequent chilled storage. This increase was significantly higher in C patties than in the T patties. Interestingly, the amount of COPs in cooked and chilled T patties was similar to those found in cooked C patties. The mechanisms implicated in cholesterol oxidation in a processed meat product, the protective effect of avocado phenolics, and the potential implication of lipid and protein oxidation are thoroughly described in the present paper.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agundez, Marcelino; Cernicharo, Jose; Guelin, Michel


    A mechanism based on the penetration of interstellar ultraviolet photons into the inner layers of clumpy circumstellar envelopes (CSEs) around asymptotic giant branch stars is proposed to explain the non-equilibrium chemistry observed in such objects. We show through a simple modeling approach that in CSEs with a certain degree of clumpiness or with moderately low mass loss rates (a few 10 -7 M sun yr -1 ) a photochemistry can take place in the warm and dense inner layers, inducing important changes in the chemical composition. In carbon-rich objects water vapor and ammonia would be formed with abundances of 10 -8 -10 -6 relative to H 2 , while in oxygen-rich envelopes ammonia and carbon-bearing molecules such as HCN and CS would form with abundances of 10 -9 -10 -7 relative to H 2 . The proposed mechanism would explain the recent observation of warm water vapor in the carbon-rich envelope IRC+10216 with the Herschel Space Observatory and predict that H 2 O should be detectable in other carbon-rich objects.

  12. Plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF-Endoret) stimulates corneal wound healing and reduces haze formation after PRK surgery. (United States)

    Anitua, E; Muruzabal, F; Alcalde, I; Merayo-Lloves, J; Orive, G


    This study evaluated the efficacy of Plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF-Endoret) on the corneal wound healing process after Photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). To address this, blood from three healthy donors was collected, centrifuged and, the whole plasma column (WP) and the plasma fraction with the highest platelet concentration (F3) were collected. The effects of F3 and WP on the proliferation and migration of human corneal epithelial cells (HCE) were analyzed. PRK was performed on C57BL/6 mice. Animals were divided in three treatment groups: Control, F3, and WP. Corneal wound healing and haze formation were evaluated macroscopically. Eyes were collected at 1, 2, 3, and 7 days after surgery, and were processed for histological studies. Immunofluorescence was used to assess cellular proliferation, apoptosis and myofibroblast transformation in the mouse cornea. Results showed a significant increased on proliferation and wound healing after F3 and WP treatment when compared with control group. In vivo studies showed significant reduction on haze formation in mice treated with both PRGF-Endoret formulations (F3 and WP). Histological studies showed an increase of epithelial cell proliferation in corneas of control group, promoting an epithelial hyperplasia. The number of SMA-positive cells (corresponding to myofibroblast differentiation) was significantly lower in the PRGF-Endoret group than in the control group, correlating with the higher transparence results observed macroscopically in both PRGF-Endoret groups. According to this, it can be concluded that PRGF-Endoret accelerates corneal tissue regeneration after PRK, reducing haze formation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Stakeholder Views of Nanosilver Linings: Macroethics Education and Automated Text Analysis Through Participatory Governance Role Play in a Workshop Format. (United States)

    Dempsey, Joshua; Stamets, Justin; Eggleson, Kathleen


    The Nanosilver Linings role play case offers participants first-person experience with interpersonal interaction in the context of the wicked problems of emerging technology macroethics. In the fictional scenario, diverse societal stakeholders convene at a town hall meeting to consider whether a nanotechnology-enabled food packaging industry should be offered incentives to establish an operation in their economically struggling Midwestern city. This original creative work was built with a combination of elements, selected for their established pedagogical efficacy (e.g. active learning, case-based learning) and as topical dimensions of the realistic scenario (e.g. nanosilver in food packaging, occupational safety and health). The product life cycle is used as a framework for integrated consideration of scientific, societal, and ethical issues. The Nanosilver Linings hypothetical case was delivered through the format of the 3-hour workshop Ethics when Biocomplexity meets Human Complexity, providing an immersive, holistic ethics learning experience for STEM graduate students. Through their participation in the Nanosilver Linings case and Ethics when Biocomplexity meets Human Complexity workshop, four cohorts of science and engineering doctoral students reported the achievement of specific learning objectives pertaining to a range of macroethics concepts and professional practices, including stakeholder perspectives, communication, human values, and ethical frameworks. Automated text analysis of workshop transcripts revealed differences in sentiment and in ethical framework (consequentialism/deontology) preference between societal stakeholder roles. These resources have been recognized as ethics education exemplars by the U.S. National Academy of Engineering .

  14. The effects of burner stabilization on Fenimore NO formation in low-pressure, fuel-rich premixed CH4/O2/N2 flames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Essen, Vincent; Sepman, Alexey; Mokhov, A. V.; Levinsky, H. B.

    We investigate the effects of varying the degree of burner stabilization on Fenimore NO formation in fuel-rich low-pressure flat CH4/O-2/N-2 flames. Towards this end, axial profiles of flame temperature and OH, NO and CH mole fractions are measured using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). The

  15. Formation of Zn-rich phyllosilicate, Zn-layered double hydroxide and hydrozincite in contaminated calcareous soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacquat, Olivier; Voegelin, Andreas; Villard, Andre; Marcus, Matthew A.; Kretzschmar, Ruben


    Recent studies demonstrated that Zn-phyllosilicate- and Zn-layered double hydroxide-type (Zn-LDH) precipitates may form in contaminated soils. However, the influence of soil properties and Zn content on the quantity and type of precipitate forming has not been studied in detail so far. In this work, we determined the speciation of Zn in six carbonate-rich surface soils (pH 6.2 to 7.5) contaminated by aqueous Zn in the runoff from galvanized power line towers (1322 to 30090 mg/kg Zn). Based on 12 bulk and 23 microfocused extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectra, the number, type and proportion of Zn species were derived using principal component analysis, target testing, and linear combination fitting. Nearly pure Zn-rich phyllosilicate and Zn-LDH were identified at different locations within a single soil horizon, suggesting that the local availabilities of Al and Si controlled the type of precipitate forming. Hydrozincite was identified on the surfaces of limestone particles that were not in direct contact with the soil clay matrix. With increasing Zn loading of the soils, the percentage of precipitated Zn increased from {approx}20% to {approx}80%, while the precipitate type shifted from Zn-phyllosilicate and/or Zn-LDH at the lowest studied soil Zn contents over predominantly Zn-LDH at intermediate loadings to hydrozincite in extremely contaminated soils. These trends were in agreement with the solubility of Zn in equilibrium with these phases. Sequential extractions showed that large fractions of soil Zn ({approx}30% to {approx}80%) as well as of synthetic Zn-kerolite, Zn-LDH, and hydrozincite spiked into uncontaminated soil were readily extracted by 1 M NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} followed by 1 M NH{sub 4}-acetate at pH 6.0. Even though the formation of Zn precipitates allows for the retention of Zn in excess to the adsorption capacity of calcareous soils, the long-term immobilization potential of these precipitates is limited.

  16. Effects of an injectable platelet-rich fibrin on osteoblast behavior and bone tissue formation in comparison to platelet-rich plasma. (United States)

    Wang, Xuzhu; Zhang, Yufeng; Choukroun, Joseph; Ghanaati, Shahram; Miron, Richard J


    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been utilized for many years as a regenerative agent capable of inducing vascularization of various tissues using blood-derived growth factors. Despite this, drawbacks mostly related to the additional use of anti-coagulants found in PRP have been shown to inhibit the wound healing process. For these reasons, a novel platelet concentrate has recently been developed with no additives by utilizing lower centrifugation speeds. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate osteoblast behavior of this novel therapy (injectable-platelet-rich fibrin; i-PRF, 100% natural with no additives) when compared to traditional PRP. Human primary osteoblasts were cultured with either i-PRF or PRP and compared to control tissue culture plastic. A live/dead assay, migration assay as well as a cell adhesion/proliferation assay were investigated. Furthermore, osteoblast differentiation was assessed by alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alizarin red and osteocalcin staining, as well as real-time PCR for genes encoding Runx2, ALP, collagen1 and osteocalcin. The results showed that all cells had high survival rates throughout the entire study period irrespective of culture-conditions. While PRP induced a significant 2-fold increase in osteoblast migration, i-PRF demonstrated a 3-fold increase in migration when compared to control tissue-culture plastic and PRP. While no differences were observed for cell attachment, i-PRF induced a significantly higher proliferation rate at three and five days when compared to PRP. Furthermore, i-PRF induced significantly greater ALP staining at 7 days and alizarin red staining at 14 days. A significant increase in mRNA levels of ALP, Runx2 and osteocalcin, as well as immunofluorescent staining of osteocalcin was also observed in the i-PRF group when compared to PRP. In conclusion, the results from the present study favored the use of the naturally-formulated i-PRF when compared to traditional PRP with anti

  17. Effect of Mn and Fe on the Formation of Fe- and Mn-Rich Intermetallics in Al–5Mg–Mn Alloys Solidified Under Near-Rapid Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulin Liu


    Full Text Available Mn was an important alloying element used in Al–Mg–Mn alloys. However, it had to be limited to a low level (<1.0 wt % to avoid the formation of coarse intermetallics. In order to take full advantage of the benefits of Mn, research was carried out to investigate the possibility of increasing the content of Mn by studying the effect of cooling rate on the formation of Fe- and Mn-rich intermetallics at different content levels of Mn and Fe. The results indicated that in Al–5Mg–Mn alloy with low Fe content (<0.1 wt %, intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn was small in size and amount. With increasing Mn content, intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn increased, but in limited amount. In high-Fe-containing Al–5Mg–Mn alloys (0.5 wt % Fe, intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn became the dominant phase, even in the alloy with low Mn content (0.39 wt %. Cooling rate played a critical role in the refinement of the intermetallics. Under near-rapid cooling, intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn was extremely refined. Even in the high Mn and/or high-Fe-containing alloys, it still demonstrated fine Chinese script structures. However, once the alloy composition passed beyond the eutectic point, the primary intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn phase displayed extremely coarse platelet-like morphology. Increasing the content of Fe caused intermetallic Al6(Fe,Mn to become the primary phase at a lower Mn content.

  18. Strong transcription blockage mediated by R-loop formation within a G-rich homopurine-homopyrimidine sequence localized in the vicinity of the promoter. (United States)

    Belotserkovskii, Boris P; Soo Shin, Jane Hae; Hanawalt, Philip C


    Guanine-rich (G-rich) homopurine-homopyrimidine nucleotide sequences can block transcription with an efficiency that depends upon their orientation, composition and length, as well as the presence of negative supercoiling or breaks in the non-template DNA strand. We report that a G-rich sequence in the non-template strand reduces the yield of T7 RNA polymerase transcription by more than an order of magnitude when positioned close (9 bp) to the promoter, in comparison to that for a distal (∼250 bp) location of the same sequence. This transcription blockage is much less pronounced for a C-rich sequence, and is not significant for an A-rich sequence. Remarkably, the blockage is not pronounced if transcription is performed in the presence of RNase H, which specifically digests the RNA strands within RNA-DNA hybrids. The blockage also becomes less pronounced upon reduced RNA polymerase concentration. Based upon these observations and those from control experiments, we conclude that the blockage is primarily due to the formation of stable RNA-DNA hybrids (R-loops), which inhibit successive rounds of transcription. Our results could be relevant to transcription dynamics in vivo (e.g. transcription 'bursting') and may also have practical implications for the design of expression vectors. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  19. Mutagens from the cooking of food. II. Survey by Ames/Salmonella test of mutagen formation in the major protein-rich foods of the American diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjeldanes, L.F. (Univ. of California, Berkeley); Morris, M.M.; Felton, J.S.; Healy, S.; Stuermer, D.; Berry, P.; Timourian, H.; Hatch, F.T.


    The formation of mutagens in the major cooked protein-rich foods in the US diet was studied in the Ames Salmonella typhimurium test. The nine protein-rich foods most commonly eaten in the USA--ground beef, beef steak, eggs, pork chops, fried chicken, pot-roasted beef, ham, roast beef and bacon--were examined for their mutagenicity towards S. typhimurium TA1538 after normal 'household' cooking (deep frying, griddle/pan frying, baking/roasting, broiling, stewing, braising or boiling at 100-475/sup 0/C). Well-done fried ground beef, beef steak, ham, pork chops and bacon showed significant mutagen formation. For chicken and beef steak high-temperature broiling produced the most mutagenicity, followed by baking/roasting and frying. Stewing, braising and deep frying produced little mutagen. Eggs andd egg products produced mutagens only after cooking at high temperatures (the yolk to a greater extent than the white). Commercially cooked hamburgers showed a wide range of mutagenic activity. We conclude that mutagen formation following cooking of protein-containing foods is a complex function of food type, cooking time and cooking temperature. It seems clear that all the major protein-rich foods if cooked to a well-done state on the griddle (eggs only at temperature above 225/sup 0/C) or by broiling will contain mutagens detectable by the Ames/Salmonella assay. This survey is a step towards determining whether any human health hazard results from cooking protein-rich foods. Further testing in both short- and long-term genotoxicity bioassays and carcinogenesis assays are needed before any human risk extrapolations can be made.

  20. Mutagens from the cooking of food. II. Survey by Ames/Salmonella test of mutagen formation in the major protein-rich foods of the American diet. (United States)

    Bjeldanes, L F; Morris, M M; Felton, J S; Healy, S; Stuermer, D; Berry, P; Timourian, H; Hatch, F T


    The formation of mutagens in the major cooked protein-rich foods in the US diet was studied in the Ames Salmonella typhimurium test. The nine protein-rich foods most commonly eaten in the USA--ground beef, beef steak, eggs, pork chops, fried chicken, pot-roasted beef, ham, roast beef and bacon--were examined for their mutagenicity towards S. typhimurium TA1538 after normal 'household' cooking (deep frying, griddle/pan frying, baking/roasting, broiling, stewing, braising or boiling of 100-475 degrees C). Well-done fried ground beef, beef steak, ham pork chops and bacon showed significant mutagen formation. For chicken and beef steak high-temperature broiling produced the most mutagenicity, followed by baking/roasting and frying. Stewing, braising and deep frying produced little mutagen. Eggs and egg products produced mutagens only after cooking at high temperatures (the yolk to a greater extent than the white). Commercially cooked hamburgers showed a wide range of mutagenic activity. We conclude that mutagen formation following cooking of protein-containing foods is a complex function of food type, cooking time and cooking temperature. It seems clear that all the major protein-rich foods if cooked to a well-done state on the griddle (eggs only at temperatures above 225 degrees C) or by broiling will contain mutagens detectable by the Ames/Salmonella assay. This survey is a step towards determining whether any human health hazard results from cooking protein-rich foods. Further testing in both short- and long-term genotoxicity bioassays and carcinogenesis assays are needed before any human risk extrapolations can be made.

  1. Interaction of peridotite with Ca-rich carbonatite melt at 3.1 and 6.5 GPa: Implication for merwinite formation in upper mantle, and for the metasomatic origin of sublithospheric diamonds with Ca-rich suite of inclusions (United States)

    Sharygin, Igor S.; Shatskiy, Anton; Litasov, Konstantin D.; Golovin, Alexander V.; Ohtani, Eiji; Pokhilenko, Nikolay P.


    We performed an experimental study, designed to reproduce the formation of an unusual merwinite + olivine-bearing mantle assemblage recently described as a part of a Ca-rich suite of inclusions in sublithospheric diamonds, through the interaction of peridotite with an alkali-rich Ca-carbonatite melt, derived from deeply subducted oceanic crust. In the first set of experiments, we studied the reaction between powdered Mg-silicates, olivine and orthopyroxene, and a model Ca-carbonate melt (molar Na:K:Ca = 1:1:2), in a homogeneous mixture, at 3.1 and 6.5 GPa. In these equilibration experiments, we observed the formation of a merwinite + olivine-bearing assemblage at 3.1 GPa and 1200 °C and at 6.5 GPa and 1300-1400 °C. The melts coexisting with this assemblage have a low Si and high Ca content (Ca# = molar 100 × Ca/(Ca + Mg) > 0.57). In the second set of experiments, we investigated reaction rims produced by interaction of the same Ca-carbonate melt (molar Na:K:Ca = 1:1:2) with Mg-silicate, olivine and orthopyroxene, single crystals at 3.1 GPa and 1300 °C and at 6.5 GPa and 1400 °C. The interaction of the Ca-carbonate melt with olivine leads to merwinite formation through the expected reaction: 2Mg2SiO4 (olivine) + 6CaCO3 (liquid) = Ca3MgSi2O8 (merwinite) + 3CaMg(CO3)2 (liquid). Thus, our experiments confirm the idea that merwinite in the upper mantle may originate via interaction of peridotite with Ca-rich carbonatite melt, and that diamonds hosting merwinite may have a metasomatic origin. It is remarkable that the interaction of the Ca-carbonate melt with orthopyroxene crystals does not produce merwinite both at 3.1 and 6.5 GPa. This indicates that olivine grain boundaries are preferable for merwinite formation in the upper mantle.

  2. Books as Culture/Books as Commerce: An Analysis of the Text and Format of the "New York Times Book Review." (United States)

    Haugland, Ann

    The oldest of the mass communication technologies, books, needs to be examined in mass communication research. Accordingly a study analyzed the structure and format of the "New York Times Book Review" to identify its dual roles: evaluating books and providing information crucial to book marketing. Also explored was how the text of the…

  3. Real time observation of phase formations by XRD during Ga-rich or In-rich Cu(In, Ga)Se{sub 2} growth by co-evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pistor, Paul; Zahedi-Azad, Setareh; Hartnauer, Stefan; Waegele, Leonard A.; Jarzembowski, Enrico; Scheer, Roland [Institute of Physics, Martin-Luther-University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Saale) (Germany)


    Solar cells with Cu(In, Ga)Se{sub 2} absorbers rely on the three-stage co-evaporation process with Cu-poor/Cu-rich/Cu-poor absorber deposition conditions for highest efficiency devices. During the three-stage process, the formation and evolution of different selenide phases with changing compositions throughout the process crucially determine the final absorber quality. In this contribution, we monitor the evolution of crystalline phases in real-time with an X-ray diffraction (XRD) line detector setup implemented into an evaporation setup. Using the common three-stage process, we prepare and compare samples covering the full alloying range from CuInSe{sub 2} to CuGaSe{sub 2}. The in situ XRD allows the detection of the crystalline phases present at all times of the process as well as an advanced analysis of the phase evolution through a closer look at peak shifts and the full width at half maximum. For samples with a Ga/(Ga + In) ratio (GGI) < 0.5, distinct phase transitions associated with the transition to the reported vacancy compounds Cu(In,Ga){sub 5}Se{sub 8} and Cu(In, Ga){sub 3}Se{sub 5} are observed. No such indication was found for samples with a GGI > 0.5. For Ga-rich Cu(In, Ga)Se{sub 2} phases with a GGI of 0.55, the XRD analysis evidenced a Ga-rich phase segregation before the stoichiometric point was reached. The above findings are discussed in view of their implication on wide gap solar cell performances. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. The Formation Mechanism of Cu(In0.7Ga0.3Se2 Nanoparticles and the Densification Trajectory of the Se-Rich Quaternary Target by Hot Pressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Ma


    Full Text Available In this paper, a method to obtain the CuInGaSe2 (CIGS absorber layer with an appropriate selenium content is put forward, in which a Se-rich target is used to deposit a CIGS thin-film and this film is annealed in a Se-free inert atmosphere. The key issue of this method is the preparation of a Se-rich target with a homogeneous composition and a high-density. The formation mechanism of CuInSe2 and CuGaSe2 is investigated and the results point to the intermediate phase Cu2−xSe playing a role of a nucleation core. The sintering densification trajectory of the target with the addition of extra selenium is researched. Additionally, an effective way to avoid the sintering defects is proposed. Finally, a conversion efficiency of 11.2% for the CIGS solar cell is reached by sputtering from the obtained Se-rich target.

  5. Predictive calculation of phase formation in Al-rich Al-Zn-Mg-Cu-Sc-Zr alloys using a thermodynamic Mg-alloy database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groebner, J.; Rokhlin, L.L.; Dobatkina, T.V.; Schmid-Fetzer, R.


    Three series of Al-rich alloys in the system Al-Zn-Mg-Cu-Sc-Zr and the subsystems Al-Zn-Mg-Cu-Sc and Al-Zn-Mg-Sc were studied by thermodynamic calculations. Phase formation was compared with experimental data obtained by DTA and microstructural analysis. Calculated phase diagrams, phase amount charts and enthalpy charts together with non-equilibrium calculations under Scheil conditions reveal significant details of the complex phase formation. This enables consistent and correct interpretation of thermal analysis data. Especially the interpretation of liquidus temperature and primary phase is prone to be wrong without using this tool of computational thermodynamics. All data are predictions from a thermodynamic database developed for Mg-alloys and not a specialized Al-alloy database. That provides support for a reasonable application of this database for advanced Mg-alloys beyond the conventional composition ranges

  6. Predictive calculation of phase formation in Al-rich Al-Zn-Mg-Cu-Sc-Zr alloys using a thermodynamic Mg-alloy database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groebner, J. [Institute of Metallurgy, Clausthal University of Technology, Robert-Koch Strasse 42, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Rokhlin, L.L. [Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Leninsky prosp. 49, 119991 GSP-1, Moscow (Russian Federation); Dobatkina, T.V. [Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science, Leninsky prosp. 49, 119991 GSP-1, Moscow (Russian Federation); Schmid-Fetzer, R. [Institute of Metallurgy, Clausthal University of Technology, Robert-Koch Strasse 42, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)]. E-mail:


    Three series of Al-rich alloys in the system Al-Zn-Mg-Cu-Sc-Zr and the subsystems Al-Zn-Mg-Cu-Sc and Al-Zn-Mg-Sc were studied by thermodynamic calculations. Phase formation was compared with experimental data obtained by DTA and microstructural analysis. Calculated phase diagrams, phase amount charts and enthalpy charts together with non-equilibrium calculations under Scheil conditions reveal significant details of the complex phase formation. This enables consistent and correct interpretation of thermal analysis data. Especially the interpretation of liquidus temperature and primary phase is prone to be wrong without using this tool of computational thermodynamics. All data are predictions from a thermodynamic database developed for Mg-alloys and not a specialized Al-alloy database. That provides support for a reasonable application of this database for advanced Mg-alloys beyond the conventional composition ranges.

  7. Formation of Si-Al-Mg-Ca-rich zoned magnetite in an end-Permian phreatomagmatic pipe in the Tunguska Basin, East Siberia (United States)

    Neumann, Else-Ragnhild; Svensen, Henrik H.; Polozov, Alexander G.; Hammer, Øyvind


    Magma-sediment interactions in the evaporite-rich Tunguska Basin resulted in the formation of numerous phreatomagmatic pipes during emplacement of the Siberian Traps. The pipes contain magnetite-apatite deposits with copper and celestine mineralization. We have performed a detailed petrographic and geochemical study of magnetite from long cores drilled through three pipe breccia structures near Bratsk, East Siberia. The magnetite samples are zoned and rich in Si (≤5.3 wt% SiO2), Ca, Al, and Mg. They exhibit four textural types: (1) massive ore in veins, (2) coating on breccia clasts, (3) replacement ore, and (4) reworked ore at the crater base. The textural types have different chemical characteristics. "Breccia coating" magnetite has relatively low Mg content relative to Si, as compared to the other groups, and appears to have formed at lower oxygen fugacity. Time series analyses of MgO variations in microprobe transects across Si-bearing magnetite in massive ore indicate that oscillatory zoning in the massive ore was controlled by an internal self-organized process. We suggest that hydrothermal Fe-rich brines were supplied from basalt-sediment interaction zones in the evaporite-rich sedimentary basin, leading to magnetite ore deposition in the pipes. Hydrothermal fluid composition appears to be controlled by proximity to dolerite fragments, temperature, and oxygen fugacity. Magnetite from the pipes has attributes of iron oxide-apatite deposits (e.g., textures, oscillatory zoning, association with apatite, and high Si content) but has higher Mg and Ca content and different mineral assemblages. These features are similar to magnetite found in skarn deposits. We conclude that the Siberian Traps-related pipe magnetite deposit gives insight into the metamorphic and hydrothermal effects following magma emplacement in a sedimentary basin.

  8. 3D for free using the Mac's standard apps : converting raw 3D text files to QuickDraw 3D's 3DMF format using AppleScript

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djajadiningrat, J.P.


    This article introduces you to the basics of 3D files in general and the 3D Metafile (3DMF), QuickDraw 3D's native 3D format, in particular. It shows how you can use AppleScript to easily convert a raw 3D text file into a 3DMF readable by the QuickDraw 3D Viewer or any other QuickDraw 3D compatible


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferré-Mateu, Anna [Subaru Telescope, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Sánchez-Blázquez, Patricia [Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, E-28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Vazdekis, Alexandre; De la Rosa, Ignacio G., E-mail: [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)


    We present a detailed stellar population analysis for a sample of 24 early-type galaxies (ETGs) belonging to the rich cluster RX J0152.7-1357 at z = 0.83. We have derived the age, metallicity, abundance pattern, and star formation history (SFH) for each galaxy individually to further characterize this intermediate-z reference cluster. We then study how these stellar population parameters depend on the local environment. This provides a better understanding on the formation timescales and subsequent evolution of the substructures in this cluster. We have also explored the evolutionary link between z ∼ 0.8 ETGs and those in the local universe by comparing the trends that the stellar population parameters followed with galaxy velocity dispersion at each epoch. We find that the ETGs in Coma are consistent with being the (passively evolving) descendants of the ETG population in RX J10152.7-1357. Furthermore, our results favor a downsizing picture, where the subclumps centers were formed first. These central parts contain the most massive galaxies, which formed the bulk of their stars in a short, burst-like event at high z. On the contrary, the cluster outskirts are populated with less-massive, smaller galaxies that show a wider variety of SFHs. In general, they present extended star formation episodes over cosmic time, which seems to be related to their posterior incorporation into the cluster around 4 Gyr after the initial event of formation.

  10. Mechanism and manipulation of DNA:RNA hybrid G-quadruplex formation in transcription of G-rich DNA. (United States)

    Zhang, Jia-yu; Zheng, Ke-wei; Xiao, Shan; Hao, Yu-hua; Tan, Zheng


    We recently reported that a DNA:RNA hybrid G-quadruplex (HQ) forms during transcription of DNA that bears two or more tandem guanine tracts (G-tract) on the nontemplate strand. Putative HQ-forming sequences are enriched in the nearby 1000 nt region right downstream of transcription start sites in the nontemplate strand of warm-blooded animals, and HQ regulates transcription under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. Therefore, knowledge of the mechanism of HQ formation is important for understanding the biological function of HQ as well as for manipulating gene expression by targeting HQ. In this work, we studied the mechanism of HQ formation using an in vitro T7 transcription model. We show that RNA synthesis initially produces an R-loop, a DNA:RNA heteroduplex formed by a nascent RNA transcript and the template DNA strand. In the following round of transcription, the RNA in the R-loop is displaced, releasing the RNA in single-stranded form (ssRNA). Then the G-tracts in the RNA can jointly form HQ with those in the nontemplate DNA strand. We demonstrate that the structural cascade R-loop → ssRNA → HQ offers opportunities to intercept HQ formation, which may provide a potential method to manipulate gene expression.

  11. Detecting the formation of products of radiolysis of tryptophan in foods rich in protein and irradiated with γ rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleeberg, K.K.; Wickern, B. van; Simat, T.J.; Steinhart, H.


    N-formyl kynurenine (NFK), OIA and the four hydroxytryptophan isomers (4-, 5-, 6- and 7-OH-TRP) were found as the major radiolysis products in γ-ray irradiated solutions containing tryptophan, in tripeptides and lysozyme. Their identification was achieved by enzymatic hydrolysis with pronase E under mild conditions (40 C, 30-60 min), applying electrochemical methods and RP-HPLC and uv fluroscence methods. Highly significant dissimilarity of results was shown for all the radiolysis products found in the specimens irradiated with 1.3 or 5 kGy and in non-irradiated samples. For release of the radiolysis products from protein-rich foods (egg white, white chicken meat, North Sea shrimps), a two-stage enzymatic hydrolytic process was developed, using proteinase K and carboxypeptidase A for egg white and chicken meat, and proteinase K and pronase E for the shrimps. The four OH-TRP isomers could be detected and quantified in all specimens. The contents varied from 0.02 to 1.97 mg/kg of proteine. Significant deviation of results between irradiated and non-irradiated specimens of egg white and chicken meat could be detected as from an applied dose of 3 kGy. In the shrimps, deviations were evident only at applied doses of 5 kGy. (orig./CB) [de

  12. Platelet rich plasma promotes skeletal muscle cell migration in association with up-regulation of FAK, paxillin, and F-Actin formation. (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Chung; Yu, Tung-Yang; Lin, Li-Ping; Lin, Mioa-Sui; Tsai, Ting-Ta; Pang, Jong-Hwei S


    Platelet rich plasma (PRP) contains various cytokines and growth factors which may be beneficial to the healing process of injured muscle. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect and molecular mechanism of PRP on migration of skeletal muscle cells. Skeletal muscle cells intrinsic to Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with PRP. The cell migration was evaluated by transwell filter migration assay and electric cell-substrate impedance sensing. The spreading of cells was evaluated microscopically. The formation of filamentous actin (F-actin) cytoskeleton was assessed by immunofluorescence staining. The protein expressions of paxillin and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) were assessed by Western blot analysis. Transfection of paxillin small-interfering RNA (siRNAs) to muscle cells was performed to validate the role of paxillin in PRP-mediated promotion of cell migration. Dose-dependently PRP promotes migration of and spreading and muscle cells. Protein expressions of paxillin and FAK were up-regulated dose-dependently. F-actin formation was also enhanced by PRP treatment. Furthermore, the knockdown of paxillin expression impaired the effect of PRP to promote cell migration. It was concluded that PRP promoting migration of muscle cells is associated with up-regulation of proteins expression of paxillin and FAK as well as increasing F-actin formation. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:2506-2512, 2017. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. A mineral-rich red algae extract inhibits polyp formation and inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract of mice on a high-fat diet. (United States)

    Aslam, Muhammad N; Paruchuri, Tejaswi; Bhagavathula, Narasimharao; Varani, James


    The purpose of this study was to determine whether a mineral-rich extract derived from the red marine algae Lithothamnion calcareum could be used as a dietary supplement for chemoprevention against colon polyp formation. A total of 60 C57bl/6 mice were divided into 3 groups based on diet. One group received a low-fat, rodent chow diet (AIN76A). The second group received a high-fat "Western-style" diet (HFWD). The third group was fed the same HFWD with the mineral-rich extract included as a dietary supplement. Mice were maintained on the respective diets for 15 months. Autopsies were performed at the time of death or at the completion of the study. To summarize, the cumulative mortality rate was higher in mice on the HFWD during the 15-month period (55%) than in mice from the low-fat diet or the extract-supplemented high-fat diet groups (20% and 30%, respectively; P < .05 with respect to both). Autopsies revealed colon polyps in 20% of the animals on the HFWD and none in animals of the other 2 groups (P < .05). In addition to the grossly visible polyps, areas of hyperplasia in the colonic mucosa and inflammatory foci throughout the gastrointestinal tract were observed histologically in animals on the high-fat diet. Both were significantly reduced in animals on the low-fat diet and animals on the extract-supplemented HFWD.These data suggest that the mineral-rich algae extract may provide a novel approach to chemoprevention in the colon.

  14. The formation, structure, and ageing of As-rich hydrous ferric oxide at the abandoned Sb deposit Pezinok (Slovakia) (United States)

    Majzlan, Juraj; Lalinská, Bronislava; Chovan, Martin; Jurkovič, L.'ubomír; Milovská, Stanislava; Göttlicher, Jörg


    The abandoned Sb deposit Pezinok in Slovakia is a significant source of As and Sb pollution that can be traced in the upper horizons of soils kilometers downstream. The source of the metalloids are two tailing impoundments which hold ˜380,000 m 3 of mining waste. The tailings and the discharged water have circumneutral pH values (7.0 ± 0.6) because the acidity generated by the decomposition of the primary sulfides (pyrite, FeS 2; arsenopyrite, FeAsS; berthierite, FeSb 2S 4) is rapidly neutralized by the abundant carbonates. The weathering rims on the primary sulfides are iron oxides which act as very efficient scavengers of As and Sb (with up to 19.2 wt% As and 23.7 wt% Sb). In-situ μ-XANES experiments indicate that As in the weathering rims is fully oxidized (As 5+). The pore solutions in the impoundment body contain up to 81 ppm As and 2.5 ppm Sb. Once these solutions are discharged from the impoundments, they precipitate or deposit masses of As-rich hydrous ferric oxide (As-HFO) with up to 28.3 wt% As 2O 5 and 2.7 wt% Sb. All As-HFO samples are amorphous to X-rays. They contain Fe and As in their highest oxidation state and in octahedral and tetrahedral coordination, respectively, as suggested by XANES and EXAFS studies on Fe K and As K edges. The iron octahedra in the As-HFO share edges to form short single chains and the chains polymerize by sharing edges or corners with the adjacent units. The arsenate ions attach to the chains in a bidentate-binuclear and monodentate fashion. In addition, hydrogen-bonded complexes may exist to satisfy the bonding requirements of all oxygen atoms in the first coordination sphere of As 5+. Structural changes in the As-HFO samples were traced by chemical analyses and Fe EXAFS spectroscopy during an ageing experiment. As the samples age, As becomes more easily leachable. EXAFS spectra show a discernible trend of increasing number of Fe-Fe pairs at a distance of 3.3-3.5 Å, that is, increasing polymerization of the iron

  15. Kinetics of Cr/Mo-rich precipitates formation for 25Cr-6.9Ni-3.8Mo-0.3N super duplex stainless steel (United States)

    Byun, Sang-Ho; Kang, Namhyun; Lee, Tae-Ho; Ahn, Sang-Kon; Lee, Hae Woo; Chang, Woong-Seong; Cho, Kyung-Mox


    The amount and composition of Cr-rich (σ) and Mo-rich (χ) precipitates in super duplex stainless steels was analyzed. An isothermal heat treatment was conducted at temperatures ranging from 700 °C to 1000 °C for up to 10 days. A time-temperature transformation (TTT) diagram was constructed for the mixture of σ and χ phases. The mixture of the σ and χ phases exhibited the fastest rate of formation at approximately 900 °C. Minor phases, such as Cr2N, M23C6, and M7C3, were also detected using a transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Also, a continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagram was constructed for the mixture of σ and χ phases using the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami equation. Compared with the known CCT diagram of the σ phase, this study revealed faster kinetics with an order of magnitude difference and a new CCT diagram was also developed for a mixture of σ and χ phases. The calculated fraction of σ and χ phases obtained at a cooling speed of 0.5 °C/s was in good agreement with the experimental data.

  16. The formation of FeO-rich pyroxene and enstatite in unequilibrated enstatite chondrites: A petrologic-trace element (SIMS) study (United States)

    Weisberg, M. K.; Prinz, M.; Fogel, R. A.; Shimizu, N.


    Enstatite (En) chondrites record the most reducing conditions known in the early solar system. Their oxidation state may be the result of condensation in a nebular region having an enhanced C/O ratio, reduction of more oxidized materials in a reducing nebula, reduction during metamorphic reheating in a parent body, or a combination of these events. The presence of more oxidized Fe-rich silicates, two types of En (distinguished by red and blue CL), and the juxtaposition of FeO-rich pyroxenes (Fe-pyx) surrounded by blue En (enstatite) in the UEC's (unequilibrated enstatite chondrites) is intriguing and led to the examination of the question of enstatite chondrite formation. Previously, data was presented on the petrologic-geochemical characteristics of the Fe-pyx and coexisting red and blue En. Here minor and trace element abundances (determined by ion probe-SIMS) on these three types of pyroxenes are reported on in the following meteorites: Kota Kota and LEW87223 (EH3), MAC88136 (EL3), St. Marks (EH4), and Hvittis (EL6). More data are currently being collected.

  17. Atomic-scale models of early-stage alkali depletion and SiO2-rich gel formation in bioactive glasses. (United States)

    Tilocca, Antonio


    Molecular dynamics simulations of Na(+)/H(+)-exchanged 45S5 Bioglass® models reveal that a large fraction of the hydroxyl groups introduced into the proton-exchanged, hydrated glass structure do not initially form covalent bonds with Si and P network formers but remain free and stabilised by the modifier metal cations, whereas substantial Si-OH and P-OH bonding is observed only at higher Na(+)/H(+) exchange levels. The strong affinity between free OH groups and modifier cations in the highly fragmented 45S5 glass structure appears to represent the main driving force for this effect. This suggests an alternative direct route for the formation of a repolymerised silica-rich gel in the early stages of the bioactive mechanism, not considered before, which does not require sequential repeated breakings of Si-O-Si bonds and silanol condensations.

  18. Formation of Ag nanoparticles in percolative Ag–PbTiO3 composite thin films through lead-rich Ag–Pb alloy particles formed as transitional phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Tao; Wang, Zongrong; Su, Yanbo; Tang, Liwen; Shen, Ge; Song, Chenlu; Han, Gaorong; Weng, Wenjian; Ma, Ning; Du, Piyi


    The Ag nanoparticle dispersed percolative PbTiO 3 ceramic thin film was prepared in situ by sol–gel method with excess lead introduced into a sol precursor. The influence of excess lead and the heat treatment time on the formation of Ag nanoparticles was investigated by energy dispersive X-ray spectra, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and ultraviolet–visible absorption spectra. Results showed that the excess lead introduced into the sol precursor was in favor of the crystallization of the thin film and in favor of formation of the perovskite phase without the pyrochlore phase. Lead-rich Ag–Pb alloy particles first formed in the thin films and then decomposed to become large numbers of Ag nanoparticles of about 3 nm in size in the thin films when the heat treatment time was longer than 2 min. The content of the Ag nanoparticles increased with increasing the heat treatment time. The percolative behavior appears typically in the Ag nanoparticle dispersed thin films. The dielectric constant of the thin film was about 3 times of that without Ag nanoparticles. - Highlights: ► The Ag nanoparticles formed in the PbTiO 3 percolative ceramic thin film. ► The Ag–Pb alloy particles formed as transitional phase during thin film preparation. ► The lead-rich Ag–Pb alloy particles decomposed to form Ag nanoparticles in the film. ► Permittivity of the thin film is 3 times higher than that without Ag nanoparticles.

  19. Text-Fabric

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roorda, Dirk


    Text-Fabric is a Python3 package for Text plus Annotations. It provides a data model, a text file format, and a binary format for (ancient) text plus (linguistic) annotations. The emphasis of this all is on: data processing; sharing data; and contributing modules. A defining characteristic is that

  20. RPA prevents G-rich structure formation at lagging-strand telomeres to allow maintenance of chromosome ends. (United States)

    Audry, Julien; Maestroni, Laetitia; Delagoutte, Emmanuelle; Gauthier, Tiphaine; Nakamura, Toru M; Gachet, Yannick; Saintomé, Carole; Géli, Vincent; Coulon, Stéphane


    Replication protein A (RPA) is a highly conserved heterotrimeric single-stranded DNA-binding protein involved in DNA replication, recombination, and repair. In fission yeast, the Rpa1-D223Y mutation provokes telomere shortening. Here, we show that this mutation impairs lagging-strand telomere replication and leads to the accumulation of secondary structures and recruitment of the homologous recombination factor Rad52. The presence of these secondary DNA structures correlates with reduced association of shelterin subunits Pot1 and Ccq1 at telomeres. Strikingly, heterologous expression of the budding yeast Pif1 known to efficiently unwind G-quadruplex rescues all the telomeric defects of the D223Y cells. Furthermore, in vitro data show that the identical D to Y mutation in human RPA specifically affects its ability to bind G-quadruplex. We propose that RPA prevents the formation of G-quadruplex structures at lagging-strand telomeres to promote shelterin association and facilitate telomerase action at telomeres. © 2015 The Authors.

  1. Scaling and application of commercial, feature-rich, modular mixed-signal technology platforms for large format ROICs (United States)

    Kar-Roy, Arjun; Racanelli, Marco; Howard, David; Miyagi, Glenn; Bowler, Mark; Jordan, Scott; Zhang, Tao; Krieger, William


    Today's modular, mixed-signal CMOS process platforms are excellent choices for manufacturing of highly integrated, large-format read out integrated circuits (ROICs). Platform features, that can be used for both cooled and un-cooled ROIC applications, can include (1) quality passives such as 4fFμm2 stacked MIM capacitors for linearity and higher density capacitance per pixel, 1kOhm high-value poly-silicon resistors, 2.8μm thick metals for efficient power distribution and reduced I-R drop; (2) analog active devices such as low noise single gate 3.3V, and 1.8V/3.3V or 1.8V/5V dual gate configurations, 40V LDMOS FETs, and NPN and PNP devices, deep n-well for substrate isolation for analog blocks and digital logic; (3) tools to assist the circuit designer such as models for cryogenic temperatures, CAD assistance for metal density uniformity determination, statistical, X-sigma and PCM-based models for corner validation and to simulate design sensitivity, and (4) sub-field stitching for large die. The TowerJazz platform of technology for 0.50μm, 0.25μm and 0.18μm CMOS nodes, with features as described above, is described in detail in this paper.

  2. In vitro study of the role of thrombin in platelet rich plasma (PRP) preparation: utility for gel formation and impact in growth factors release. (United States)

    Huber, Stephany Cares; Cunha Júnior, José Luiz Rosenberis; Montalvão, Silmara; da Silva, Letícia Queiroz; Paffaro, Aline Urban; da Silva, Francesca Aparecida Ramos; Rodrigues, Bruno Lima; Lana, José Fabio Santos Duarte; Annichino-Bizzacchi, Joyce Maria


    The use of PRP has been studied for different fields, with promising results in regenerative medicine. Until now, there is no study in the literature evaluating thrombin levels in serum, used as autologous thrombin preparation. Therefore, in the present study we evaluated the role played by different thrombin concentrations in PRP and the impact in the release of growth factors. Also, different activators for PRP gel formation were evaluated. Thrombin levels were measured in different autologous preparations: serum, L-PRP (PRP rich in leukocytes) and T-PRP (thrombin produced through PRP added calcium gluconate). L-PRP was prepared according to the literature, with platelets and leukocytes being quantified. The effect of autologous thrombin associated or not with calcium in PRP gel was determined by measuring the time of gel formation. The relationship between thrombin concentration and release of growth factors was determined by growth factors (PDGF-AA, VEGF and EGF) multiplex analysis. A similar concentration of thrombin was observed in serum, L-PRP and T-PRP (8.13 nM, 8.63 nM and 7.56 nM, respectively) with a high variation between individuals (CV%: 35.07, 43 and 58.42, respectively). T-PRP and serum with calcium chloride showed similar results in time to promote gel formation. The increase of thrombin concentrations (2.66, 8 and 24 nM) did not promote an increase in growth factor release. The technique of using serum as a thrombin source proved to be the most efficient and reproducible for promoting PRP gel formation, with some advantages when compared to other activation methods, as this technique is easier and quicker with no need of consuming part of PRP. Noteworthy, PRP activation using different thrombin concentrations did not promote a higher release of growth factors, appearing not to be necessary when PRP is used as a suspension.

  3. Inhibitory Effect of a γ-Tocopherol-Rich Mixture of Tocopherols on the Formation and Growth of LNCaP Prostate Tumors in Immunodeficient Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Xi, E-mail: [Susan Lehman Cullman Laboratory for Cancer Research, Department of Chemical Biology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 164 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ 08903 (United States); Cui, Xiao-Xing [Susan Lehman Cullman Laboratory for Cancer Research, Department of Chemical Biology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 164 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Khor, Tin Oo; Huang, Ying [Department of Pharmaceutics, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); DiPaola, Robert S; Goodin, Susan [Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ 08903 (United States); Lee, Mao-Jung [Susan Lehman Cullman Laboratory for Cancer Research, Department of Chemical Biology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 164 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Yang, Chung S [Susan Lehman Cullman Laboratory for Cancer Research, Department of Chemical Biology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 164 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ 08903 (United States); Kong, Ah-Ng [Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ 08903 (United States); Department of Pharmaceutics, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Allan H, Conney [Susan Lehman Cullman Laboratory for Cancer Research, Department of Chemical Biology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 164 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Cancer Institute of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ 08903 (United States)


    In the present study, we determined the effects of a γ-tocopherol-rich mixture of tocopherols (γ-TmT) on the growth and apoptosis of cultured human prostate cancer LNCaP cells. We also determined the effects of dietary γ-TmT on the formation and growth of LNCaP tumors in immunodeficient mice. In the in vitro study, we found that the activity of γ-TmT was stronger than α-tocopherol for inhibiting the growth and stimulating apoptosis in LNCaP cells. In the animal study, treatment of severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice with dietary γ-TmT inhibited the formation and growth of LNCaP xenograft tumors in a dose-dependent manner. Mechanistic studies showed that γ-TmT administration inhibited proliferation as reflected by decreased mitosis and stimulated apoptosis as reflected by increased caspase-3 (active form) expression in LNCaP tumors. In addition, dietary administration of γ-TmT increased the levels of α-, γ- and δ- tocopherol in plasma, and increased levels of γ- and δ- tocopherol were also observed in the prostate and in tumors. The present study demonstrated that γ-TmT had strong anticancer activity both in vitro and in vivo. Additional studies are needed to determine the potential preventive effect of γ-TmT for prostate cancer in humans.

  4. Inhibitory Effect of a γ-Tocopherol-Rich Mixture of Tocopherols on the Formation and Growth of LNCaP Prostate Tumors in Immunodeficient Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Xi; Cui, Xiao-Xing; Khor, Tin Oo; Huang, Ying; DiPaola, Robert S; Goodin, Susan; Lee, Mao-Jung; Yang, Chung S; Kong, Ah-Ng; Allan H, Conney


    In the present study, we determined the effects of a γ-tocopherol-rich mixture of tocopherols (γ-TmT) on the growth and apoptosis of cultured human prostate cancer LNCaP cells. We also determined the effects of dietary γ-TmT on the formation and growth of LNCaP tumors in immunodeficient mice. In the in vitro study, we found that the activity of γ-TmT was stronger than α-tocopherol for inhibiting the growth and stimulating apoptosis in LNCaP cells. In the animal study, treatment of severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice with dietary γ-TmT inhibited the formation and growth of LNCaP xenograft tumors in a dose-dependent manner. Mechanistic studies showed that γ-TmT administration inhibited proliferation as reflected by decreased mitosis and stimulated apoptosis as reflected by increased caspase-3 (active form) expression in LNCaP tumors. In addition, dietary administration of γ-TmT increased the levels of α-, γ- and δ- tocopherol in plasma, and increased levels of γ- and δ- tocopherol were also observed in the prostate and in tumors. The present study demonstrated that γ-TmT had strong anticancer activity both in vitro and in vivo. Additional studies are needed to determine the potential preventive effect of γ-TmT for prostate cancer in humans

  5. Effect of Si on Fe-rich intermetallic formation and mechanical properties of heat-treated Al–Cu–Mn–Fe alloys (United States)

    Zhao, Yuliang; Zhang, Weiwen; Yang, Chao; Zhang, Datong; Wang, Zhi


    The effect of Si on Fe-rich intermetallics formation and mechanical properties of heat-treated squeeze cast Al-5.0Cu-0.6Mn-0.7Fe alloy was investigated. Our results show that increasing Si content promotes the formation of Al15(FeMn)3(SiCu)2 (${\\alpha}$-Fe), and varying the morphology of T (Al20Cu3Mn2) where the size decreases and the amount increases. The major reason is that Si promotes heterogeneous nucleation of the intermetallics leading to finer precipitates. Si addition significantly enhances ultimate tensile strength and yield strength of the alloys. The strengthening effect is mainly owing to the dispersoid strengthening by increasing volume fraction of T phase and less harmful ${\\alpha}$-Fe with a compact structure, which make the cracks more difficult to initiate and propagation during tensile test. The squeeze cast Al-5.0Cu-0.6Mn-0.7Fe alloy with 1.1% Si shows significantly improved mechanical properties than the alloy without Si addition, which has tensile strength of 386 MPa, yield strength of 280 MPa and elongation of 8.6%.

  6. The role of natural organic matter in nitrite formation by LP-UV/H2O2 treatment of nitrate-rich water. (United States)

    Semitsoglou-Tsiapou, Sofia; Mous, Astrid; Templeton, Michael R; Graham, Nigel J D; Hernández Leal, Lucía; Kruithof, Joop C


    The role of natural organic matter (NOM) on nitrite formation from nitrate photolysis by low pressure ultraviolet lamp (LP-UV) photolysis and LP-UV/H 2 O 2 treatment was investigated. Nitrate levels up to the WHO guideline maximum of 50 mg NO 3 - /L were used in tests. The presence of 4 mg/L Suwannee River natural organic matter (NOM) led to increased nitrite yields compared to NOM-free controls. This was caused partly by NOM scavenging of OH radicals, preserving the produced NO 2 - as well as the ONOO - that leads to NO 2 - formation, but also via the production of radical species ( 1 O 2 , O 2 - and OH) by the photolysis of NOM. In addition, solvated electrons formed by NOM photolysis may reduce nitrate directly to nitrite. For comparison, Nordic Lake NOM, representative of aquatic NOM, as well as Pony Lake NOM, which had a greater nitrogen content (6.51% w/w) than the other two types of NOM, were investigated, yielding similar nitrite levels as Suwannee River NOM. The results suggest that neither the type nor the nitrogen content of the NOM have an effect on the nitrite yields obtained over the range of UV/H 2 O 2 doses applied (UV fluences of 500-2100 mJ/cm 2 and hydrogen peroxide doses of 10, 25, and 50 mg/L). The findings indicate that for UV fluences above 1500 mJ/cm 2 the resulting nitrite concentration can exceed the 0.1 mg/L EU regulatory limit for nitrite, suggesting that nitrite formation by LP-UV advanced oxidation of nitrate-rich waters is important to consider. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Two COWP-like cysteine rich proteins from Eimeria nieschulzi (coccidia, apicomplexa) are expressed during sporulation and involved in the sporocyst wall formation. (United States)

    Jonscher, Ernst; Erdbeer, Alexander; Günther, Marie; Kurth, Michael


    The family of cysteine rich proteins of the oocyst wall (COWPs) originally described in Cryptosporidium can also be found in Toxoplasma gondii (TgOWPs) localised to the oocyst wall as well. Genome sequence analysis of Eimeria suggests that these proteins may also exist in this genus and led us to the assumption that these proteins may also play a role in oocyst wall formation. In this study, COWP-like encoding sequences had been identified in Eimeria nieschulzi. The predicted gene sequences were subsequently utilized in reporter gene assays to observe time of expression and localisation of the reporter protein in vivo. Both investigated proteins, EnOWP2 and EnOWP6, were expressed during sporulation. The EnOWP2-promoter driven mCherry was found in the cytoplasm and the EnOWP2, respectively EnOWP6, fused to mCherry was initially observed in the extracytoplasmatic space between sporoblast and oocyst wall. This, so far unnamed compartment was designated as circumplasm. Later, the mCherry reporter co-localised with the sporocyst wall of the sporulated oocysts. This observation had been confirmed by confocal microscopy, excystation experiments and IFA. Transcript analysis revealed the intron-exon structure of these genes and confirmed the expression of EnOWP2 and EnOWP6 during sporogony. Our results allow us to assume a role, of both investigated EnOWP proteins, in the sporocyst wall formation of E. nieschulzi. Data mining and sequence comparisons to T. gondii and other Eimeria species allow us to hypothesise a conserved process within the coccidia. A role in oocyst wall formation had not been observed in E. nieschulzi.

  8. Geochemistry of recent aragonite-rich sediments in Mediterranean karstic marine lakes: Trace elements as pollution and palaeoredox proxies and indicators of authigenic mineral formation. (United States)

    Sondi, Ivan; Mikac, Nevenka; Vdović, Neda; Ivanić, Maja; Furdek, Martina; Škapin, Srečo D


    This study investigates the geochemical characteristics of recent shallow-water aragonite-rich sediments from the karstic marine lakes located in the pristine environment on the island of Mljet (Adriatic Sea). Different trace elements were used as authigenic mineral formation, palaeoredox and pollution indicators. The distribution and the historical record of trace elements deposition mostly depended on the sedimentological processes associated with the formation of aragonite, early diagenetic processes governed by the prevailing physico-chemical conditions and on the recent anthropogenic activity. This study demonstrated that Sr could be used as a proxy indicating authigenic formation of aragonite in a marine carbonate sedimentological environment. Distribution of the redox sensitive elements Mo, Tl, U and Cd was used to identify changes in redox conditions in the investigated lake system and to determine the geochemical cycle of these elements through environmental changes over the last 100 years. The significant enrichment of these elements and the presence of early formed nanostructured authigenic framboidal pyrite in laminated deeper parts of sediment in Malo Jezero, indicate sporadic events of oxygen-depleted euxinic conditions in the recent past. Concentrations of trace elements were in the range characteristic for non-contaminated marine carbonates. However, the increase in the concentrations of Zn, Cu, Pb, Sn, Bi in the upper-most sediment strata of Veliko Jezero indicates a low level of trace element pollution, resulting from anthropogenic inputs over the last 40 years. The presence of butyltin compounds (BuTs) in the surface sediment of Veliko Jezero additionally indicates the anthropogenic influence in the recent past. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Polymer Nanocomposite Film with Metal Rich Surface Prepared by In Situ Single-Step Formation of Palladium Nanoparticles: An Interesting Way to Combine Specific Functional Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Thompson


    Full Text Available This paper presents a continuous single-step route that permits preparation of a thermostable polymer/metal nanocomposite film and to combine different functional properties in a unique material. More precisely, palladium nanoparticles are in situ generated in a polyimide matrix thanks to a designed curing cycle which is applied to a polyamic acid/metal precursor solution cast on a glass plate. A metal-rich surface layer which is strongly bonded to the bulk film is formed in addition to homogeneously dispersed metal nanoparticles. This specific morphology leads to obtaining an optically reflective film. The metal nanoparticles act as gas diffusion barriers for helium, oxygen, and carbon dioxide; they induce a tortuosity effect which allows dividing the gas permeation coefficients by a factor near to 2 with respect to the neat polyimide matrix. Moreover, the ability of the in situ synthesized palladium nanoparticles to entrap hydrogen is evidenced. The nanocomposite film properties can be modulated as a function of the location of the film metal-rich surface with respect to the hydrogen feed. The synthesized nanocomposite could represent a major interest for a wide variety of applications, from specific coatings for aerospace or automotive industry, to catalysis applications or sensors.

  10. The nature of porosity in organic-rich mudstones of the Upper Jurassic Kimmeridge Clay Formation, North Sea, offshore United Kingdom (United States)

    Fishman, Neil S.; Hackley, Paul C.; Lowers, Heather; Hill, Ronald J.; Egenhoff, Sven O.; Eberl, Dennis D.; Blum, Alex E.


    Analyses of organic-rich mudstones from wells that penetrated the Upper Jurassic Kimmeridge Clay Formation, offshore United Kingdom, were performed to evaluate the nature of both organic and inorganic rock constituents and their relation to porosity in this world-class source rock. The formation is at varying levels of thermal maturity, ranging from immature in the shallowest core samples to mature in the deepest core samples. The intent of this study was to evaluate porosity as a function of both organic macerals and thermal maturity. At least four distinct types of organic macerals were observed in petrographic and SEM analyses and they all were present across the study area. The macerals include, in decreasing abundance: 1) bituminite admixed with clays; 2) elongate lamellar masses (alginite or bituminite) with small quartz, feldspar, and clay entrained within it; 3) terrestrial (vitrinite, fusinite, semifusinite) grains; and 4) Tasmanites microfossils. Although pores in all maceral types were observed on ion-milled surfaces of all samples, the pores (largely nanopores with some micropores) vary as a function of maceral type. Importantly, pores in the macerals do not vary systematically as a function of thermal maturity, insofar as organic pores are of similar size and shape in both the immature and mature Kimmeridge rocks. If any organic pores developed during the generation of hydrocarbons, they were apparently not preserved, possibly because of the highly ductile nature of much of the rock constituents of Kimmeridge mudstones (clays and organic material). Inorganic pores (largely micropores with some nanopores) have been observed in all Kimmeridge mudstones. These pores, particularly interparticle (i.e., between clay platelets), and intraparticle (i.e., in framboidal pyrite, in partially dissolved detrital K-feldspar, and in both detrital and authigenic dolomite) are noteworthy because they compose much of the observable porosity in the shales in both

  11. A randomized controlled experimental study of the efficacy of platelet-rich plasma and hyaluronic acid for the prevention of adhesion formation in a rat uterine horn model. (United States)

    Oz, Murat; Cetinkaya, Nilufer; Bas, Sevda; Korkmaz, Elmas; Ozgu, Emre; Terzioglu, Gokay Serdar; Buyukkagnici, Umran; Akbay, Serap; Caydere, Muzaffer; Gungor, Tayfun


    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been known to possess an efficacy in tissue regeneration. The aim of this study was to determine the role of PRP on post-operative adhesion formation in an experimental rat study. Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control, hyaluronic acid, and PRP treatment groups and operated on for uterine horn adhesion modeling. Blood was collected to produce a PRP with platelet counts of 688 × 10(3)/μL, and 1 ml of either hyaluronic acid gel or PRP was administered over the standard lesions, while the control group received no medication. The evaluation of post-operative adhesions was done on the 30th post-operative day. The location, extent, type, and tenacity of adhesions as well as total adhesion scores, tissue inflammation, fibrosis and transforming growth factor-1beta (TGF-1β) expressions were evaluated. The total adhesion score was significantly lower in the PRP group (3.2 ± 1.5) compared with the hyaluronic acid (5.0 ± 1.3) and control (8.1 ± 1.7) groups. The extent of the adhesions was significantly lower in the PRP group. There was no significant difference in the type and tenacity of adhesions between the hyaluronic acid and the PRP group. The level of inflammation was significantly higher in the control group than the others, while there was no difference between the PRP and hyaluronic acid groups. TGF-1β expression was significantly lesser in the PRP group than the control and hyaluronic acid groups. PRP is more effective than hyaluronic acid treatment in preventing post-operative adhesion formation in an experimental rat uterine horn adhesion model.

  12. HIghMass-high H I mass, H I-rich galaxies at z ∼ 0 sample definition, optical and Hα imaging, and star formation properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Shan; Matsushita, Satoki [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, 11F of Astronomy-Mathematics Building, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Hallenbeck, Gregory; Jones, Michael G.; Adams, Elizabeth A. K. [Center for Radiophysics and Space Research, Space Sciences Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Brinchmann, Jarle [Sterrewacht Leiden, Leiden University, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Chengalur, Jayaram N. [National Centre for Radio Astrophysics, Tata Institute for Fundamental Research, Pune 411007 (India); Hunt, Leslie K. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo East Fermi 5, I-50125, Firenze (Italy); Masters, Karen L. [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, Dennis Sciama Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth POI 3FX (United Kingdom); Saintonge, Amelie [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Place, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Spekkens, Kristine, E-mail: [Royal Military College of Canada, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 17000, Station Forces, Kingston, ON K7K 7B4 (Canada)


    We present first results of the study of a set of exceptional H I sources identified in the 40% ALFALFA extragalactic H I survey catalog α.40 as both being H I massive (M{sub HI}>10{sup 10} M{sub ⊙}) and having high gas fractions for their stellar masses: the HIghMass galaxy sample. We analyze UV- and optical-broadband and Hα images to understand the nature of their relatively underluminous disks in optical and to test whether their high gas fractions can be tracked to higher dark matter halo spin parameters or late gas accretion. Estimates of their star formation rates (SFRs) based on spectral energy distribution fitting agree within uncertainties with the Hα luminosity inferred current massive SFRs. The H II region luminosity functions, parameterized as dN/dlog L∝L {sup α}, have standard slopes at the luminous end (α ∼ –1). The global SFRs demonstrate that the HIghMass galaxies exhibit active ongoing star formation (SF) with moderate SF efficiency but, relative to normal spirals, a lower integrated SFR in the past. Because the SF activity in these systems is spread throughout their extended disks, they have overall lower SFR surface densities and lower surface brightness in the optical bands. Relative to normal disk galaxies, the majority of HIghMass galaxies have higher Hα equivalent widths and are bluer in their outer disks, implying an inside-out disk growth scenario. Downbending double exponential disks are more frequent than upbending disks among the gas-rich galaxies, suggesting that SF thresholds exist in the downbending disks, probably as a result of concentrated gas distribution.

  13. Atomic-Scale View on the H2O Formation Reaction from H2 on O-Rich RuO2(110)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Yinying; Martinez, Umberto; Lammich, Lutz


    The H2O formation reaction from H-2 on O-rich RuO2(110) was studied by temperature-programmed desorption and reaction (TPD/TPR) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) measurements and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. On the one hand, following H-2 adsorption at 270 K, our TPD/TPR me...

  14. Text Mining. (United States)

    Trybula, Walter J.


    Reviews the state of research in text mining, focusing on newer developments. The intent is to describe the disparate investigations currently included under the term text mining and provide a cohesive structure for these efforts. A summary of research identifies key organizations responsible for pushing the development of text mining. A section…

  15. Lithospheric diamond formation as a consequence of methane-rich volatile flooding: An example from diamondiferous eclogite xenoliths of the Karelian craton (Finland) (United States)

    Smart, K. A.; Cartigny, P.; Tappe, S.; O'Brien, H.; Klemme, S.


    A collection of 61 xenocrystic and 12 eclogite xenolith-derived diamonds from the 600 Ma Lahtojoki kimberlite in central Finland has been investigated. Calculated pressure and temperature conditions for the diamondiferous eclogites are in excess of 5.5 GPa and 1300 °C, suggesting residence depths greater than 180 km, near the base of the Karelian cratonic mantle lithosphere. Geochemically, the eclogite xenoliths have gabbroic compositions showing positive Eu and Sr anomalies, relatively low ΣREE and elevated Al2O3 contents, yet garnets have ambiguous δ18O values of 5.7‰ and 5.9‰. Gabbroic eclogite formation could therefore be linked to either subduction processes during the 1.9 Ga Svecofennian orogeny or to cumulate processes during 2.1 Ga rift-induced magmatism. Determination of the oxygen fugacity of Lahtojoki eclogite xenoliths from both this work and previous studies suggests that diamond-bearing eclogites may be more reduced (ΔFMQ-3.5) compared to barren eclogites (ΔFMQ-1.7). While recycled oceanic crust protoliths for the eclogites remain a possibility, the carbon isotopic compositions and nitrogen abundances of the Lahtojoki diamonds indicate mantle-derived volatile sources. All diamonds (i.e., loose and eclogite xenolith-derived) display a restricted range of δ13C values from -7.8‰ to -3.7‰ that overlaps with the carbon isotopic composition of Earth's mantle. The Lahtojoki diamond δ13C values form a negatively skewed distribution, indicating diamond growth from reduced mantle-derived carbon sources such as methane- (CH4) bearing fluids. Nitrogen contents of the Lahtojoki diamonds range from 40 to 1830 atomic ppm with a mean of ∼670 atomic ppm; these elevated nitrogen contents combined with the close association to eclogites suggest an eclogitic or crustal volatile source. However, the Karelian craton was periodically intruded by ultramafic alkaline magmas since at least 1.8 Ga, noting in particular the occurrence of phlogopite-rich

  16. Effect of osteogenic periosteal distraction by a modified Hyrax device with and without platelet-rich fibrin on bone formation in a rabbit model: a pilot study. (United States)

    Pripatnanont, P; Balabid, F; Pongpanich, S; Vongvatcharanon, S


    This study evaluated the effect of a modified Hyrax device and platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) on osteogenic periosteal distraction (OPD). Twelve adult male New Zealand white rabbits were separated into two main groups (six in each) according to the duration of the consolidation period (4 or 8 weeks). In each main group, the animals underwent OPD of the left and right sides of the mandible and were divided into four subgroups (three animals per group): device vs. device+PRF, and PRF vs. sham. Radiographic, histological, histomorphometric, and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) analyses were performed. New bone formation was observed on the lateral and vertical sides of the mandible of all groups. Micro-CT and histomorphometry showed that the device+PRF group presented the highest percentages of bone volume and bone area at 4 weeks (56.67 ± 12.67%, 41.37 ± 7.57%) and at 8 weeks (49.67 ± 8.33%, 55.46 ± 10.67%; significantly higher than the other groups, P<0.001), followed by the device group at 4 weeks (33.00 ± 1.73%, 33.21 ± 11.00%) and at 8 weeks (30.00 ± 3.00%, 23.25 ± 5.46%). In conclusion, the modified Hyrax device was used successfully for OPD in a rabbit model to gain vertical ridge augmentation, and greater bone maturation was achieved with the addition of PRF. Copyright © 2014 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Hematite Spherules in Basaltic Tephra Altered Under Aqueous, Acid-Sulfate Conditions on Mauna Kea Volcano, Hawaii: Possible Clues for the Occurrence of Hematite-Rich Spherules in the Burns Formation at Meridiani Planum, Mars (United States)

    Morris, R. V.; Ming, D. W.; Graff, T. G.; Arvidson, R. E.; Bell, J. F., III; Squyres, S. W.; Mertzman, S. A.; Gruener, J. E.; Golden, D. C.; Robinson, G. A.


    Iron-rich spherules (>90% Fe2O3 from electron microprobe analyses) approx.10-100 microns in diameter are found within sulfate-rich rocks formed by aqueous, acid-sulfate alteration of basaltic tephra on Mauna Kea volcano, Hawaii. Although some spherules are nearly pure Fe, most have two concentric compositional zones, with the core having a higher Fe/Al ratio than the rim. Oxide totals less than 100% (93-99%) suggest structural H2O and/or /OH. The transmission Moessbauer spectrum of a spherule-rich separate is dominated by a hematite (alpha-Fe2O3) sextet whose peaks are skewed toward zero velocity. Skewing is consistent with Al(3+) for Fe(3+) substitution and structural H2O and/or /OH. The grey color of the spherules implies specular hematite. Whole-rock powder X-ray diffraction spectra are dominated by peaks from smectite and the hydroxy sulfate mineral natroalunite as alteration products and plagioclase feldspar that was present in the precursor basaltic tephra. Whether spherule formation proceeded directly from basaltic material in one event (dissolution of basaltic material and precipitation of hematite spherules) or whether spherule formation required more than one event (formation of Fe-bearing sulfate rock and subsequent hydrolysis to hematite) is not currently constrained. By analogy, a formation pathway for the hematite spherules in sulfate-rich outcrops at Meridiani Planum on Mars (the Burns formation) is aqueous alteration of basaltic precursor material under acid-sulfate conditions. Although hydrothermal conditions are present on Mauna Kea, such conditions may not be required for spherule formation on Mars if the time interval for hydrolysis at lower temperatures is sufficiently long.

  18. The research of Ti-rich zone on the interface between TiCx and aluminum melt and the formation of Ti3Al in rapid solidified Al-Ti-C master alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Kun; Ma Xiaoguang; Liu Xiangfa


    In the present work, the thermodynamic tendency of formation of Ti-rich zone on the interface between TiC x and aluminum melt is calculated and a high titanium concentration can exist in the zone according to the thermodynamic calculation. Rapid solidified Al-5Ti-0.5C master alloy is analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electronic microscopy (TEM). The appearance of Ti 3 Al in the master alloy results from the existence of high-concentration Ti-rich zone.

  19. Unpacking the Black Box: A Formative Research Approach to the Development of Theory-Driven, Evidence-Based, and Culturally Safe Text Messages in Mobile Health Interventions. (United States)

    Maar, Marion A; Yeates, Karen; Toth, Zsolt; Barron, Marcia; Boesch, Lisa; Hua-Stewart, Diane; Liu, Peter; Perkins, Nancy; Sleeth, Jessica; Wabano, Mary Jo; Williamson, Pamela; Tobe, Sheldon W


    Mobile-cellular subscriptions have increased steadily over the past decade. The accessibility of SMS messages over existing mobile networks is high and has almost universal availability even on older and unsophisticated mobile phones and in geographic settings where wireless coverage is weak. There is intensive exploration of this inexpensive mobile telecommunication technology to improve health services and promote behavior change among vulnerable populations. However, a neglected area of research is the documentation and critical analysis of the formative research process required in the development and refinement of effective SMS messages. The objective of this qualitative research study was to identify major factors that may impact on the effectiveness of evidence-based SMS messages designed to reduce health inequities in hypertension management in low resource settings, including Aboriginal populations in high-income countries and rural populations in low-income countries. Specifically, we were interested in uncovering the range of mediators that impact on appropriate message content transmission and, ultimately, on health behavior improvements in a range of these sociocultural settings. Collaborative qualitative research with Canadian Aboriginal and Tanzanian participants was conducted to deconstruct the content and transmission of evidence-based health information contained in SMS messages in the context of an international research project designed to address health inequalities in hypertension, and to develop a grounded theory of the major factors that mediate the effectiveness of this communication. We also examined the interrelationship of these mediators with the three essential conditions of the behavior system of the Behavioral Change Wheel model (capability, opportunity, and motivation) and cultural safety. Four focus groups with a total of 45 participants were conducted. Our grounded theory research revealed how discrepancies develop between the

  20. Organic richness, kerogen types and maturity in the shales of the Dakhla and Duwi formations in Abu Tartur area, Western Desert, Egypt: Implication of Rock–Eval pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. El Nady


    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to assess the organic material for petroleum potential and characterize the relationships between organic material, thermal maturity, and the depositional environments. This is done using “14” samples from the shales of the Dakhla and Duwi formations in Abu Tartur area. The samples have been analyzed using the geochemical method of Rock–Eval pyrolysis. The analysis shows that the total organic carbon content lies between 0.56 and 1.96 wt%. It also shows that kerogen is a mixture of type II and III that is dominant, and is deposited in the shallow and restricted marine environment under prevailing reducing conditions. This type of kerogen is prone to oil and oil/gas production. The geochemical diagrams show that all the studied samples have good thermal maturation. The Dakhla and Duwi formations which have been divided into all zones are mature (have Tmax over 435 °C, and have organic carbon content located at the oil window (Tmax between 435 and 443 °C.

  1. Magnaporthe oryzae Glycine-Rich Secretion Protein, Rbf1 Critically Participates in Pathogenicity through the Focal Formation of the Biotrophic Interfacial Complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Nishimura


    Full Text Available Magnaporthe oryzae, the fungus causing rice blast disease, should contend with host innate immunity to develop invasive hyphae (IH within living host cells. However, molecular strategies to establish the biotrophic interactions are largely unknown. Here, we report the biological function of a M. oryzae-specific gene, Required-for-Focal-BIC-Formation 1 (RBF1. RBF1 expression was induced in appressoria and IH only when the fungus was inoculated to living plant tissues. Long-term successive imaging of live cell fluorescence revealed that the expression of RBF1 was upregulated each time the fungus crossed a host cell wall. Like other symplastic effector proteins of the rice blast fungus, Rbf1 accumulated in the biotrophic interfacial complex (BIC and was translocated into the rice cytoplasm. RBF1-knockout mutants (Δrbf1 were severely deficient in their virulence to rice leaves, but were capable of proliferating in abscisic acid-treated or salicylic acid-deficient rice plants. In rice leaves, Δrbf1 inoculation caused necrosis and induced defense-related gene expression, which led to a higher level of diterpenoid phytoalexin accumulation than the wild-type fungus did. Δrbf1 showed unusual differentiation of IH and dispersal of the normally BIC-focused effectors around the short primary hypha and the first bulbous cell. In the Δrbf1-invaded cells, symplastic effectors were still translocated into rice cells but with a lower efficiency. These data indicate that RBF1 is a virulence gene essential for the focal BIC formation, which is critical for the rice blast fungus to suppress host immune responses.

  2. E-text

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnemann, Niels Ole


    text can be defined by taking as point of departure the digital format in which everything is represented in the binary alphabet. While the notion of text, in most cases, lends itself to be independent of medium and embodiment, it is also often tacitly assumed that it is, in fact, modeled around...... the print medium, rather than written text or speech. In late 20th century, the notion of text was subject to increasing criticism as in the question raised within literary text theory: is there a text in this class? At the same time, the notion was expanded by including extra linguistic sign modalities...

  3. jmzReader: A Java parser library to process and visualize multiple text and XML-based mass spectrometry data formats. (United States)

    Griss, Johannes; Reisinger, Florian; Hermjakob, Henning; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio


    We here present the jmzReader library: a collection of Java application programming interfaces (APIs) to parse the most commonly used peak list and XML-based mass spectrometry (MS) data formats: DTA, MS2, MGF, PKL, mzXML, mzData, and mzML (based on the already existing API jmzML). The library is optimized to be used in conjunction with mzIdentML, the recently released standard data format for reporting protein and peptide identifications, developed by the HUPO proteomics standards initiative (PSI). mzIdentML files do not contain spectra data but contain references to different kinds of external MS data files. As a key functionality, all parsers implement a common interface that supports the various methods used by mzIdentML to reference external spectra. Thus, when developing software for mzIdentML, programmers no longer have to support multiple MS data file formats but only this one interface. The library (which includes a viewer) is open source and, together with detailed documentation, can be downloaded from © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Dealing with Uncertainty: Readers' Memory for and Use of Conflicting Information from Science Texts as Function of Presentation Format and Source Expertise (United States)

    Stadtler, Marc; Scharrer, Lisa; Brummernhenrich, Benjamin; Bromme, Rainer


    Past research has shown that readers often fail to notice conflicts in text. In our present study we investigated whether accessing information from multiple documents instead of a single document might alleviate this problem by motivating readers to integrate information. We further tested whether this effect would be moderated by source…

  5. Raman and micro-thermometric investigation of the fluid inclusions in quartz in a gold-rich formation from Lepaguare mining district (Honduras, Central America). (United States)

    Bersani, D; Salvioli-Mariani, E; Mattioli, M; Menichetti, M; Lottici, P P


    Fluid inclusions in the quartz crystals present in gold-rich veins from central Honduras have been studied by means of micro-thermometry and micro-Raman spectroscopy in order to provide information on the physico-chemical conditions and chemical composition of the mineralizing fluids. The use of a confocal micro-Raman apparatus allowed to obtain information on the fluid composition, in particular on the gas phase, minimizing the contributions of the host matrix to the Raman signal. The samples studied were collected from an area (Lepaguare mining district, Northern-Central Honduras) rich in ore deposits due to the Cenozoic magmatic activity, where the gold and sulphide mineralization is connected with a system of quartz veins (few decimetres thick) occurring in low-grade metamorphic rocks and produced by hydrothermal fluids. The quartz crystals present in the gold-rich veins often contain fluid inclusions. Four types of fluid inclusions have been observed, but their assemblage in the same clusters and fracture systems, as well as their comparable salinity and homogenization data, suggest that they have the same origin. Micro-thermometry and Raman spectroscopy provide a composition of the mineralizing fluids attributable to the system H(2)O-NaCl-KCl-CO(2)-CH(4), with temperature and pressure intervals of 210-413 degrees C and 1050-3850 bar, respectively. These data agree with an epigenetic origin of the gold deposit (depth < 6 km) related to granitoid or granodiorite intrusions associated to orogenic environments.

  6. Analysis of phase formation in Ni-rich alloys of the Ni-Ta-W system by calorimetry, DTA, SEM, and TEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witusiewicz, V.T.; Hecht, U.; Warnken, N.; Fries, S.G. [Access e.V., Aachen (Germany); Hu Weiping [Inst. fuer Metallkunde und Metallphysik der RWTH Aachen (Germany)


    The partial enthalpies of dissolution of pure Ni, W and Ta in liquid ternary Ni-Ta-W alloys have been determined at (1773 {+-} 5) K using a high temperature isoperibolic calorimeter. Measurements were performed in Ni-rich alloys (from 80 to 100 at.% Ni) along sections with constant Ta:W atomic ratios 1:0, 2:1, 1:2, and 0:1. The partial enthalpies and thereby the integral enthalpy of mixing of these ternary alloys are calculated from the partial enthalpies of dissolution using SGTE Gibbs energies for pure elements as reference. The obtained thermochemical data confirm that in the investigated Ni-rich alloys the binary interactions between Ta and W as well as the ternary Ni-Ta-W interactions are negligibly small. Due to this the variation of the integral enthalpy of mixing of the ternary alloys is well described as linear combination of the constituent Ni-Ta and Ni-W binaries. Such behaviour of the ternary liquid alloys is related to a very low probability of new ternary stable phases to occur in solid state. This prediction is confirmed by differential thermal analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy of the as-solidified and annealed samples obtained as last alloy compositions in the series of calorimetric dissolution. (orig.)

  7. A comparison of osteoclast-rich and osteoclast-poor osteopetrosis in adult mice sheds light on the role of the osteoclast in coupling bone resorption and bone formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thudium, Christian S; Moscatelli, Ilana; Flores, Carmen


    that osteoclasts are important for regulating osteoblast activity. To illuminate the role of the osteoclast in controlling bone remodeling, we transplanted irradiated skeletally mature 3-month old wild-type mice with hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) to generate either an osteoclast-rich or osteoclast-poor adult......Osteopetrosis due to lack of acid secretion by osteoclasts is characterized by abolished bone resorption, increased osteoclast numbers, but normal or even increased bone formation. In contrast, osteoclast-poor osteopetrosis appears to have less osteoblasts and reduced bone formation, indicating...... osteopetrosis model. We used fetal liver HSCs from (1) oc/oc mice, (2) RANK KO mice, and (3) compared these to wt control cells. TRAP5b activity, a marker of osteoclast number and size, was increased in the oc/oc recipients, while a significant reduction was seen in the RANK KO recipients. In contrast, the bone...

  8. Role of hydrology in the formation of Co-rich Mn crusts from the equatorial N Pacific, equatorial S Indian Ocean and the NE Atlantic Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Glasby, G.P.; Mountain, B.; Vineesh, T.C.; Banakar, V.K.; Rajani, R.; Ren, X.

    , the distribution of oxygen in seawater is taken from Profile PO3 which is an E-W Profile in the Equa- torial Pacific Ocean at 25°N ( gallery/P3_OXYGEN.gif; Fig. 4). This profile is 4–6 degrees of latitude north of the transect from Horizon... in the Indian Ocean at 80°E (http://www.; Fig. 5). From this profile, it can be seen that the OMZ at ANS occurs at a water depth of ~900 m and has an oxygen content of ~45 mmol kg -1 . The Co-rich Mn crust was taken at water depth...

  9. Isotopically heavy carbon in C21 to C25 regular isoprenoids in halite-rich deposits from the Sdm Formation, Dead Sea, Israel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Grice, K.; Schouten, S.; Nissenbaum, A.; Charrach, J.


    A series of Miocene/Pliocene halite deposits (with extremely low organic carbon contents) from the Sdom Formation (Dead Sea Basin, Israel) have been studied. Distributions and contents of biomarkers have been determined using GC MS and irm-GCMS analyses, respectively. The hydrocarbon fractions

  10. Protection by quercetin and quercetin-rich fruit juice against induction of oxidative DNA damage and formation of BPDE-DNA adducts in human lymphocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilms, L.C.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Boots, A.W.; Kleinjans, J.C.S.


    Flavonoids are claimed to protect against cardiovascular disease, certain forms of cancer and ageing, possibly by preventing initial DNA damage. Therefore, we investigated the protective effects of the flavonoid quercetin against the formation of oxidative DNA damage and bulky DNA adducts in human

  11. CERCLIS (Superfund) ASCII Text Format - CPAD Database (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) (Superfund) Public Access Database (CPAD) contains a selected set...


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsen, Benjamin; Yin Qingzhu; Matzel, Jennifer; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Ramon, Erick C.; Weber, Peter K.; Krot, Alexander N.; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Ishii, Hope A.; Ciesla, Fred J.


    Short-lived radionuclides (SLRs) in the early solar system provide fundamental insight into protoplanetary disk evolution. We measured the 36 Cl- 36 S-isotope abundance in wadalite ( 36 Cl (τ 1/2 ∼ 3 x 10 5 yr) in the early solar system. Its presence, initial abundance, and the noticeable decoupling from 26 Al raise serious questions about the origin of SLRs. The inferred initial 36 Cl abundance for wadalite, corresponding to a 36 Cl/ 35 Cl ratio of (1.81 ± 0.13) x 10 -5 , is the highest 36 Cl abundance ever reported in any early solar system material. The high level of 36 Cl in wadalite and the absence of 26 Al ( 26 Al/ 27 Al ≤ 3.9 x 10 -6 ) in co-existing grossular (1) unequivocally support the production of 36 Cl by late-stage solar energetic particle irradiation in the protoplanetary disk and (2) indicates that the production of 36 Cl, recorded by wadalite, is unrelated to the origin of 26 Al and other SLRs ( 10 Be, 53 Mn) recorded by primary minerals of CAIs and chondrules. We infer that 36 Cl was largely produced by irradiation of a volatile-rich reservoir in an optically thin protoplanetary disk adjacent to the region in which the CV chondrite parent asteroid accreted while the Sun was a weak T Tauri star. Subsequently, 36 Cl accreted into the Allende CV chondrite together with condensed water ices.

  13. The environmental impacts on the star formation main sequence: An Hα study of the newly discovered rich cluster at z = 1.52

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyama, Yusei; Kodama, Tadayuki; Tadaki, Ken-ichi; Hayashi, Masao [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Tanaka, Ichi [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 650 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Shimakawa, Rhythm, E-mail: [Department of Astronomical Science, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)


    We report the discovery of a strong over-density of galaxies in the field of a radio galaxy at z = 1.52 (4C 65.22) based on our broadband and narrow-band (Hα) photometry with the Subaru Telescope. We find that Hα emitters are located in the outskirts of the density peak (cluster core) dominated by passive red-sequence galaxies. This resembles the situation in lower-redshift clusters, suggesting that the newly discovered structure is a well-evolved rich galaxy cluster at z = 1.5. Our data suggest that the color-density and stellar mass-density relations are already in place at z ∼ 1.5, mostly driven by the passive red massive galaxies residing within r{sub c} ≲ 200 kpc from the cluster core. These environmental trends almost disappear when we consider only star-forming (SF) galaxies. We do not find SFR-density or SSFR-density relations amongst SF galaxies, and the location of the SF main sequence does not significantly change with environment. Nevertheless, we find a tentative hint that star-bursting galaxies (up-scattered objects from the main sequence) are preferentially located in a small group at ∼1 Mpc away from the main body of the cluster. We also argue that the scatter of the SF main sequence could be dependent on the distance to the nearest neighboring galaxy.

  14. Sheet of osteoblastic cells combined with platelet-rich fibrin improves the formation of bone in critical-size calvarial defects in rabbits. (United States)

    Wang, Zhifa; Hu, Hanqing; Li, Zhijin; Weng, Yanming; Dai, Taiqiang; Zong, Chunlin; Liu, Yanpu; Liu, Bin


    Techniques that use sheets of cells have been successfully used in various types of tissue regeneration, and platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) can be used as a source of growth factors to promote angiogenesis. We have investigated the effects of the combination of PRF and sheets of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) from bone marrow on the restoration of bone in critical-size calvarial defects in rabbits to find out whether the combination promotes bony healing. Sheets of MSC and PRF were prepared from the same donor. We then implanted the combined MSC and PRF in critical-size calvarial defects in rabbits and assessed bony restoration by microcomputed tomography (microCT) and histological analysis. The results showed that PRF significantly increased bony regeneration at 8 weeks after implantation of sheets of MSC and PRF compared with sheets of MSC alone (p=0.0048). Our results indicate that the combination of sheets of MSC and PRF increases bone regeneration in critical-size calvarial defects in rabbits, and provides a new way to improve skeletal healing. Copyright © 2015 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Formation of cyclobutanones by the photolytic reaction of (CO)/sub 5/Cr/double bond/C(OMe)Me with electron-rich olefins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra, M.A.; Hegedus, L.S.


    Recent research has centered on the development of useful organic synthetic methodology based on the photolytic reactions of chromium Fischer carbene complexes, particularly in regards to the development of new /beta/-lactam syntheses. In the course of these studies it became evident that photolysis of chromium-carbene complexes resulted in the reversible production of chromium-ketene complexes, by a photochemically driven CO insertion into the chromium-carbene carbon double bond and that this unstable intermediate was responsible for /beta/-lactam formation.

  16. Formation of a spatter-rich pyroclastic density current deposit in a Neogene sequence of trachytic-mafic igneous rocks at Mason Spur, Erebus volcanic province, Antarctica (United States)

    Martin, A. P.; Smellie, J. L.; Cooper, A. F.; Townsend, D. B.


    Erosion has revealed a remarkable section through the heart of a volcanic island, Mason Spur, in the southwestern Ross Sea, Antarctica, including an unusually well-exposed section of caldera fill. The near-continuous exposure, 10 km laterally and > 1 km vertically, cuts through Cenozoic alkalic volcanic rocks of the Erebus volcanic province (McMurdo Volcanic Group) and permits the study of an ancient volcanic succession that is rarely available due to subsequent burial or erosion. The caldera filling sequence includes an unusual trachytic spatter-rich lapilli tuff (ignimbrite) facies that is particularly striking because of the presence of abundant black fluidal, dense juvenile spatter clasts of trachytic obsidian up to 2 m long supported in a pale cream-coloured pumiceous lapilli tuff matrix. Field mapping indicates that the deposit is an ignimbrite and, together with petrological considerations, it is suggested that mixing of dense spatter and pumiceous lapilli tuff in the investigated deposit occurred during emplacement, not necessarily in the same vent, with the mixed fragmental material emplaced as a pyroclastic density current. Liquid water was not initially present but a steam phase was probably generated during transport and may represent water ingested during passage of the current as it passed over either wet ground, stream, shallow lake or (possibly) snow. Well-exposed caldera interiors are uncommon and that at Mason Spur is helping understand eruption dynamics associated with a complex large island volcano. The results of our study should help to elucidate interpretations of other, less well exposed, pyroclastic density current deposits elsewhere in Antarctica and globally.

  17. Petrographic Evidence of Microbial Mats in the Upper Cretaceous Fish-Bearing, Organic-Rich Limestone, Agua Nueva Formation, Central Mexico (United States)

    Blanco, A.; Maurrasse, F. J.; Hernández-Ávila, J.; Ángeles-Trigueros, S. A.; García-Cabrera, M. E.


    We document petrographic evidence of microbial mats in the Upper Cretaceous Agua Nueva Formation in the area of Xilitla (San Luis Potosí, Central Mexico), located in the southern part of the Tampico-Misantla basin. The sequence consists predominantly of alternating decimeter-thick beds of fossiliferous dark laminated limestone (C-org > 1.0wt%), and light gray, bioturbated limestone (C-org Duque-Botero and Maurrasse, 2005; 2008). These structures are also analogous to microbial mats in present environments, and Devonian deposits (Kremer, 2006). In addition, the laminae at Xilitla include filamentous bacterial structures, as thin and segmented red elements. In some thin sections, filaments appear to be embedded within the crinkly laminae and shreds showing the same pattern of folding, suggestive of biomorphic elements that represent the main producers of the organic matter associated with the laminae. Thus, exceptional bacterial activity characterizes sedimentation during the accumulation of the Agua Nueva Formation. Oxygen-deficient conditions related to the microbial mats were an important element in the mass mortality and preservation of the fish assemblages. Absence of bioturbation, pervasive framboidal pyrite, and the high concentration of organic matter (TOC ranges from 1.2% to 8wt%) in the dark limestones are consistent with persistent recurring dysoxic/anoxic conditions, and the light-gray bioturbated limestones represent relatively well-oxygenated episodes. Planktonic foraminifera (Rotalipora cushmani) and Inoceramu labiatus indicate a time interval from the latest Cenomanian through the earliest Turonian, thus this long interval of severe oxygen deficiency is coeval with Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (OAE-2). [Duque-Botero and Maurrasse. 2005. Jour. Iberian Geology (31), 85-98; 2008. Cret. Res., 29, 957-964; Kremer. 2006. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica (51, 1), 143-154

  18. Supplementation with linoleic acid-rich soybean oil stimulates macrophage foam cell formation via increased oxidative stress and diacylglycerol acyltransferase1-mediated triglyceride biosynthesis. (United States)

    Rom, Oren; Jeries, Helana; Hayek, Tony; Aviram, Michael


    During the last decades there has been a staggering rise in human consumption of soybean oil (SO) and its major polyunsaturated fatty acid linoleic acid (LA). The role of SO or LA in cardiovascular diseases is highly controversial, and their impact on macrophage foam cell formation, the hallmark of early atherogenesis, is unclear. To investigate the effects of high SO or LA intake on macrophage lipid metabolism and the related mechanisms of action, C57BL/6 mice were orally supplemented with increasing levels of SO-based emulsion or equivalent levels of purified LA for 1 month, followed by analyses of lipid accumulation and peroxidation in aortas, serum and in peritoneal macrophages (MPM) of the mice. Lipid peroxidation and triglyceride mass in aortas from SO or LA supplemented mice were dose-dependently and significantly increased. In MPM from SO or LA supplemented mice, lipid peroxides were significantly increased and a marked accumulation of cellular triglycerides was found in accordance with enhanced triglyceride biosynthesis rate and overexpression of diacylglycerol acyltransferase1 (DGAT1), the key enzyme in triglyceride biosynthesis. In cultured J774A.1 macrophages treated with SO or LA, triglyceride accumulated via increased oxidative stress and a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-mediated overexpression of DGAT1. Accordingly, anti-oxidants (pomegranate polyphenols), inhibition of p38 MAPK (by SB202190) or DGAT1 (by oleanolic acid), all significantly attenuated SO or LA-induced macrophage triglyceride accumulation. These findings reveal novel mechanisms by which supplementation with SO or LA stimulate macrophage foam cell formation, suggesting a pro-atherogenic role for overconsumption of SO or LA. © 2016 BioFactors, 43(1):100-116, 2017. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  19. Complex formation and vectorization of a phosphorothioate oligonucleotide with an amphipathic leucine- and lysine-rich peptide: study at molecular and cellular levels. (United States)

    Boukhalfa-Heniche, Fatima-Zohra; Hernández, Belén; Gaillard, Stéphane; Coïc, Yves-Marie; Huynh-Dinh, Tam; Lecouvey, Marc; Seksek, Olivier; Ghomi, Mahmoud


    Optical spectroscopic techniques such as CD, Raman scattering, and fluorescence imaging allowed us to analyze the complex formation and vectorization of a single-stranded 20-mer phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotide with a 15-mer amphipathic peptide at molecular and cellular levels. Different solvent mixtures (methanol and water) and molecular ratios of peptide/oligodeoxynucleotide complexes were tested in order to overcome the problems related to solubility. Optimal conditions for both spectroscopic and cellular experiments were obtained with the molecular ratio peptide/oligodeoxynucleotide equal to 21:4, corresponding to a 7:5 ratio for their respective +/- charge ratio. At the molecular level, CD and Raman spectra were consistent with a alpha-helix conformation of the peptide in water or in a methanol-water mixture. The presence of methanol increased considerably the solubility of the peptide without altering its alpha-helix conformation, as evidenced by CD and Raman spectroscopies. UV absorption melting profile of the oligodeoxynucleotide gave rise to a flat melting profile, corresponding to its random structure in solution. Raman spectra of oligodeoxynucleotide/peptide complexes could only be studied in methanol/water mixture solutions. Drastic changes observed in Raman spectra have undoubtedly shown: (a) the perturbation occurred in the peptide secondary structure, and (b) possible interaction between the lysine residues of the peptide and the oligodeoxynucleotide. At the cellular level, the complex was prepared in a mixture of 10% methanol and 90% cell medium. Cellular uptake in optimal conditions for the oligodeoxynucleotide delivery with low cytotoxicity was controlled by fluorescence imaging allowing to specifically locate the compacted oligonucleotide labeled with fluorescein at its 5'-terminus with the peptide into human glioma cells after 1 h of incubation at 37 degrees C. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. An AU-rich element in the 3{prime} untranslated region of the spinach chloroplast petD gene participates in sequence-specific RNA-protein complex formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Qiuyun; Adams, C.C.; Usack, L. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)] [and others


    In chloroplasts, the 3{prime} untranslated regions of most mRNAs contain a stem-loop-forming inverted repeat (IR) sequence that is required for mRNA stability and correct 3{prime}-end formation. The IR regions of several mRNAs are also known to bind chloroplast proteins, as judged from in vitro gel mobility shift and UV cross-linking assays, and these RNA-protein interactions may be involved in the regulation of chloroplast mRNA processing and/or stability. Here we describe in detail the RNA and protein components that are involved in 3{prime} IR-containing RNA (3{prime} IR-RNA)-protein complex formation for the spinach chloroplast petD gene, which encodes subunit IV of the cytochrome b{sub 6}/f complex. We show that the complex contains 55-, 41-, and 29-kDa RNA-binding proteins (ribonucleoproteins [RNPs]). These proteins together protect a 90-nucleotide segment of RNA from RNase T{sub 1} digestion; this RNA contains the IR and downstream flanking sequences. Competition experiments using 3{prime} IR-RNAs from the psbA or rbcL gene demonstrate that the RNPs have a strong specificity for the petD sequence. Site-directed mutagenesis was carried out to define the RNA sequence elements required for complex formation. These studies identified an 8-nucleotide AU-rich sequence downstream of the IR; mutations within this sequence had moderate to severe effects on RNA-protein complex formation. Although other similar sequences are present in the petD 3{prime} untranslated region, only a single copy, which we have termed box II, appears to be essential for in vivo protein binding. In addition, the IR itself is necessary for optimal complex formation. These two sequence elements together with an RNP complex may direct correct 3{prime}-end processing and/or influence the stability of petD mRNA in chloroplasts. 48 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Directed Activities Related to Text: Text Analysis and Text Reconstruction. (United States)

    Davies, Florence; Greene, Terry

    This paper describes Directed Activities Related to Text (DART), procedures that were developed and are used in the Reading for Learning Project at the University of Nottingham (England) to enhance learning from texts and that fall into two broad categories: (1) text analysis procedures, which require students to engage in some form of analysis of…

  2. Topography evolution of 500 keV Ar(4+) ion beam irradiated InP(100) surfaces - formation of self-organized In-rich nano-dots and scaling laws. (United States)

    Sulania, Indra; Agarwal, Dinesh C; Kumar, Manish; Kumar, Sunil; Kumar, Pravin


    We report the formation of self-organized nano-dots on the surface of InP(100) upon irradiating it with a 500 keV Ar(4+) ion beam. The irradiation was carried out at an angle of 25° with respect to the normal at the surface with 5 different fluences ranging from 1.0 × 10(15) to 1.0 × 10(17) ions per cm(2). The morphology of the ion-irradiated surfaces was examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and the formation of the nano-dots on the irradiated surfaces was confirmed. The average size of the nano-dots varied from 44 ± 14 nm to 94 ± 26 nm with increasing ion fluence. As a function of the ion fluence, the variation in the average size of the nano-dots has a great correlation with the surface roughness, which changes drastically up to the ion fluence of 1.0 × 10(16) ions per cm(2) and attains almost a saturation level for further irradiation. The roughness and the growth exponent values deduced from the scaling laws suggest that the kinetic sputtering and the large surface diffusion steps of the atoms are the primary reasons for the formation of the self-organized nanodots on the surface. X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS) studies show that the surface stoichiometry changes with the ion fluence. With irradiation, the surface becomes more indium (In)-rich owing to the preferential sputtering of the phosphorus atoms (P) and the pure metallic In nano-dots evolve at the highest ion fluence. The cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of the sample irradiated with the highest fluence showed the absence of the nanostructuring beneath the surface. The surface morphological changes at this medium energy ion irradiation are discussed in correlation with the low and high energy experiments to shed more light on the mechanism of the well separated nano-dot formation.

  3. A Customizable Text Classifier for Text Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-liang Zhang


    Full Text Available Text mining deals with complex and unstructured texts. Usually a particular collection of texts that is specified to one or more domains is necessary. We have developed a customizable text classifier for users to mine the collection automatically. It derives from the sentence category of the HNC theory and corresponding techniques. It can start with a few texts, and it can adjust automatically or be adjusted by user. The user can also control the number of domains chosen and decide the standard with which to choose the texts based on demand and abundance of materials. The performance of the classifier varies with the user's choice.

  4. Figures of thought mathematics and mathematical texts

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, David


    Examines the ways in which mathematical works can be read as texts, examines their textual strategiesand demonstrates that such readings provide a rich source of philosophical debate regarding mathematics.

  5. SparkText: Biomedical Text Mining on Big Data Framework.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan Ye

    Full Text Available Many new biomedical research articles are published every day, accumulating rich information, such as genetic variants, genes, diseases, and treatments. Rapid yet accurate text mining on large-scale scientific literature can discover novel knowledge to better understand human diseases and to improve the quality of disease diagnosis, prevention, and treatment.In this study, we designed and developed an efficient text mining framework called SparkText on a Big Data infrastructure, which is composed of Apache Spark data streaming and machine learning methods, combined with a Cassandra NoSQL database. To demonstrate its performance for classifying cancer types, we extracted information (e.g., breast, prostate, and lung cancers from tens of thousands of articles downloaded from PubMed, and then employed Naïve Bayes, Support Vector Machine (SVM, and Logistic Regression to build prediction models to mine the articles. The accuracy of predicting a cancer type by SVM using the 29,437 full-text articles was 93.81%. While competing text-mining tools took more than 11 hours, SparkText mined the dataset in approximately 6 minutes.This study demonstrates the potential for mining large-scale scientific articles on a Big Data infrastructure, with real-time update from new articles published daily. SparkText can be extended to other areas of biomedical research.

  6. Text Maps: Helping Students Navigate Informational Texts. (United States)

    Spencer, Brenda H.


    Notes that a text map is an instructional approach designed to help students gain fluency in reading content area materials. Discusses how the goal is to teach students about the important features of the material and how the maps can be used to build new understandings. Presents the procedures for preparing and using a text map. (SG)

  7. Grain Formation Processes in Oxygen-Rich Circumstellar Outflows: Testing the Metastable Eutectic Condensation Hypothesis and Measuring Atom-Grain & Grain-Grain Sticking Coefficients (A Sub-orbital Investigation) (United States)

    Nuth, Joseph

    An experimentally-based model of grain formation in oxygen-rich circumstellar outflows that includes vapor-solid nucleation, grain growth, thermal annealing and grain aggregation in sufficient detail to predict the spectral energy distribution (SED) of the shells for comparison with observations of a wide range of stellar sources still lacks critical data. In order to gather this data we propose to conduct a series of laboratory experiments using our proven experimental system and microgravity condensation, growth and grain aggregation experiments on sounding rockets with a flight-proven payload provided by Dr. Yuki Kimura of Hokkaido University. We have proposed that solids from a hydrogen-rich, supersaturated, Fe-Mg-SiO vapor condense at metastable eutectic points in this ternary phase diagram. Because the FeOMgO system is totally miscible (has no eutectic or metastable eutectic compositions), this predicts that condensates will be pure Mg-silicate or Fe-silicate grains and that no primary condensate will be a mixed Fe-Mg-silicate. We have shown that this observation leads to a logical explanation as to why pure magnesium olivine and enstatite minerals are detected in circumstellar winds rather than the mixed Mg-Fe-silicate grains that might otherwise be expected (Rietmeijer, Nuth & Karner, 1999). This simplifying hypothesis has been built into our models of circumstellar condensation and growth. However, these experimental results require confirmation and testing since they should apply to other, quite similar condensable systems. We propose to test this hypothesis by condensing solids from the Fe-Mg-AlO ternary vapor system. Since FeO-MgO miscibility also applies to this system, the primary condensates from such a vapor should consist of pure amorphous Fe-aluminates and Mg-aluminates. No mixed Fe-Mg-spinels should be detected as primary condensates if this hypothesis is correct, just as none were detected for the FeO-MgO-SiO system. Confirmation of this

  8. The CAPRICE RICH detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basini, G. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); Codino, A.; Grimani, C. [Perugia Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Perugia (Italy); De Pascale, M.P. [Rome Univ. `Tor Vergata` (Italy). Dip. di Fisica]|[INFN, Sezione Univ. `Tor Vergata` Rome (Italy); Cafagna, F. [Bari Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Bari (Italy); Golden, R.L. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Particle Astrophysics Lab.; Brancaccio, F.; Bocciolini, M. [Florence Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Florence (Italy); Barbiellini, G.; Boezio, M. [Trieste Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Trieste (Italy)


    A compact RICH detector has been developed and used for particle identification in a balloon borne spectrometer to measure the flux of antimatter in the cosmic radiation. This is the first RICH detector ever used in space experiments that is capable of detecting unit charged particles, such as antiprotons. The RICH and all other detectors performed well during the 27 hours long flight.

  9. SparkText: Biomedical Text Mining on Big Data Framework (United States)

    He, Karen Y.; Wang, Kai


    Background Many new biomedical research articles are published every day, accumulating rich information, such as genetic variants, genes, diseases, and treatments. Rapid yet accurate text mining on large-scale scientific literature can discover novel knowledge to better understand human diseases and to improve the quality of disease diagnosis, prevention, and treatment. Results In this study, we designed and developed an efficient text mining framework called SparkText on a Big Data infrastructure, which is composed of Apache Spark data streaming and machine learning methods, combined with a Cassandra NoSQL database. To demonstrate its performance for classifying cancer types, we extracted information (e.g., breast, prostate, and lung cancers) from tens of thousands of articles downloaded from PubMed, and then employed Naïve Bayes, Support Vector Machine (SVM), and Logistic Regression to build prediction models to mine the articles. The accuracy of predicting a cancer type by SVM using the 29,437 full-text articles was 93.81%. While competing text-mining tools took more than 11 hours, SparkText mined the dataset in approximately 6 minutes. Conclusions This study demonstrates the potential for mining large-scale scientific articles on a Big Data infrastructure, with real-time update from new articles published daily. SparkText can be extended to other areas of biomedical research. PMID:27685652

  10. SparkText: Biomedical Text Mining on Big Data Framework. (United States)

    Ye, Zhan; Tafti, Ahmad P; He, Karen Y; Wang, Kai; He, Max M

    Many new biomedical research articles are published every day, accumulating rich information, such as genetic variants, genes, diseases, and treatments. Rapid yet accurate text mining on large-scale scientific literature can discover novel knowledge to better understand human diseases and to improve the quality of disease diagnosis, prevention, and treatment. In this study, we designed and developed an efficient text mining framework called SparkText on a Big Data infrastructure, which is composed of Apache Spark data streaming and machine learning methods, combined with a Cassandra NoSQL database. To demonstrate its performance for classifying cancer types, we extracted information (e.g., breast, prostate, and lung cancers) from tens of thousands of articles downloaded from PubMed, and then employed Naïve Bayes, Support Vector Machine (SVM), and Logistic Regression to build prediction models to mine the articles. The accuracy of predicting a cancer type by SVM using the 29,437 full-text articles was 93.81%. While competing text-mining tools took more than 11 hours, SparkText mined the dataset in approximately 6 minutes. This study demonstrates the potential for mining large-scale scientific articles on a Big Data infrastructure, with real-time update from new articles published daily. SparkText can be extended to other areas of biomedical research.

  11. Information rich display design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, Robin; Braseth, Alf Ove; Veland, Oeystein


    This paper presents the concept Information Rich Displays. The purpose of Information Rich Displays (IRDs) is to condensate prevailing information in process displays in such a way that each display format (picture) contains more relevant information for the user. Compared to traditional process control displays, this new concept allows the operator to attain key information at a glance and at the same time allows for improved monitoring of larger portions of the process. This again allows for reduced navigation between both process and trend displays and ease the cognitive demand on the operator. This concept has been created while working on designing display prototypes for the offshore petroleum production facilities of tomorrow. Offshore installations basically consist of wells, separation trains (where oil, gas and water are separated from each other), an oil tax measurement system (where oil quality is measured and the pressure increased to allow for export), gas compression (compression of gas for export) and utility systems (water treatment, chemical systems etc.). This means that an offshore control room operator has to deal with a complex process that comprises several functionally different systems. The need for a new approach to offshore display format design is in particular based on shortcomings in today's designs related to the keyhole effect, where the display format only reveals a fraction of the whole process. Furthermore, the upcoming introduction of larger off- and on-shore operation centres will increase the size and complexity of the operators' work domain. In the light of the increased demands on the operator, the proposed IRDs aim to counter the negative effects this may have on the workload. In this work we have attempted to classify the wide range of different roles an operator can have in different situations. The information content and amount being presented to the operator in a display should be viewed in context of the roles the

  12. Estimation of the species richness of fish parasite fauna: an ecological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ieshko Evgeny Pavlovich


    Full Text Available We studied the biological diversity of the parasite fauna in pike from four habitats found in northern lakes of Karelia. The curves of the expected species richness versus sampling effort (the number of examined specimens dependency were plotted. A universal approach to the description of the new species replenishment dynamics is proposed – including finding (through combinatorial analysis the median value between the fastest and the slowest paths of the species richness growth followed by approximation using logistic function . Our analysis showed that the leading ecological factors controlling the formation of the parasite species richness in a specific waterbody are the richness of infracommunities and the age composition of the host sample. The sample of 15 host specimens contains at least 80% of all species in the parasite community.

  13. FTP: Full-Text Publishing? (United States)

    Jul, Erik


    Describes the use of file transfer protocol (FTP) on the INTERNET computer network and considers its use as an electronic publishing system. The differing electronic formats of text files are discussed; the preparation and access of documents are described; and problems are addressed, including a lack of consistency. (LRW)

  14. Bar quenching in gas-rich galaxies (United States)

    Khoperskov, S.; Haywood, M.; Di Matteo, P.; Lehnert, M. D.; Combes, F.


    Galaxy surveys have suggested that rapid and sustained decrease in the star-formation rate (SFR), "quenching", in massive disk galaxies is frequently related to the presence of a bar. Optical and near-IR observations reveal that nearly 60% of disk galaxies in the local universe are barred, thus it is important to understand the relationship between bars and star formation in disk galaxies. Recent observational results imply that the Milky Way quenched about 9-10 Gyr ago, at the transition between the cessation of the growth of the kinematically hot, old, metal-poor thick disk and the kinematically colder, younger, and more metal-rich thin disk. Although perhaps coincidental, the quenching episode could also be related to the formation of the bar. Indeed the transfer of energy from the large-scale shear induced by the bar to increasing turbulent energy could stabilize the gaseous disk against wide-spread star formation and quench the galaxy. To explore the relation between bar formation and star formation in gas rich galaxies quantitatively, we simulated gas-rich disk isolated galaxies. Our simulations include prescriptions for star formation, stellar feedback, and for regulating the multi-phase interstellar medium. We find that the action of stellar bar efficiently quenches star formation, reducing the star-formation rate by a factor of ten in less than 1 Gyr. Analytical and self-consistent galaxy simulations with bars suggest that the action of the stellar bar increases the gas random motions within the co-rotation radius of the bar. Indeed, we detect an increase in the gas velocity dispersion up to 20-35 km s-1 at the end of the bar formation phase. The star-formation efficiency decreases rapidly, and in all of our models, the bar quenches the star formation in the galaxy. The star-formation efficiency is much lower in simulated barred compared to unbarred galaxies and more rapid bar formation implies more rapid quenching.

  15. Interconnectedness und digitale Texte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Detlev Doherr


    Full Text Available Zusammenfassung Die multimedialen Informationsdienste im Internet werden immer umfangreicher und umfassender, wobei auch die nur in gedruckter Form vorliegenden Dokumente von den Bibliotheken digitalisiert und ins Netz gestellt werden. Über Online-Dokumentenverwaltungen oder Suchmaschinen können diese Dokumente gefunden und dann in gängigen Formaten wie z.B. PDF bereitgestellt werden. Dieser Artikel beleuchtet die Funktionsweise der Humboldt Digital Library, die seit mehr als zehn Jahren Dokumente von Alexander von Humboldt in englischer Übersetzung im Web als HDL (Humboldt Digital Library kostenfrei zur Verfügung stellt. Anders als eine digitale Bibliothek werden dabei allerdings nicht nur digitalisierte Dokumente als Scan oder PDF bereitgestellt, sondern der Text als solcher und in vernetzter Form verfügbar gemacht. Das System gleicht damit eher einem Informationssystem als einer digitalen Bibliothek, was sich auch in den verfügbaren Funktionen zur Auffindung von Texten in unterschiedlichen Versionen und Übersetzungen, Vergleichen von Absätzen verschiedener Dokumente oder der Darstellung von Bilden in ihrem Kontext widerspiegelt. Die Entwicklung von dynamischen Hyperlinks auf der Basis der einzelnen Textabsätze der Humboldt‘schen Werke in Form von Media Assets ermöglicht eine Nutzung der Programmierschnittstelle von Google Maps zur geographischen wie auch textinhaltlichen Navigation. Über den Service einer digitalen Bibliothek hinausgehend, bietet die HDL den Prototypen eines mehrdimensionalen Informationssystems, das mit dynamischen Strukturen arbeitet und umfangreiche thematische Auswertungen und Vergleiche ermöglicht. Summary The multimedia information services on Internet are becoming more and more comprehensive, even the printed documents are digitized and republished as digital Web documents by the libraries. Those digital files can be found by search engines or management tools and provided as files in usual formats as

  16. Text Mining in Organizational Research. (United States)

    Kobayashi, Vladimer B; Mol, Stefan T; Berkers, Hannah A; Kismihók, Gábor; Den Hartog, Deanne N


    Despite the ubiquity of textual data, so far few researchers have applied text mining to answer organizational research questions. Text mining, which essentially entails a quantitative approach to the analysis of (usually) voluminous textual data, helps accelerate knowledge discovery by radically increasing the amount data that can be analyzed. This article aims to acquaint organizational researchers with the fundamental logic underpinning text mining, the analytical stages involved, and contemporary techniques that may be used to achieve different types of objectives. The specific analytical techniques reviewed are (a) dimensionality reduction, (b) distance and similarity computing, (c) clustering, (d) topic modeling, and (e) classification. We describe how text mining may extend contemporary organizational research by allowing the testing of existing or new research questions with data that are likely to be rich, contextualized, and ecologically valid. After an exploration of how evidence for the validity of text mining output may be generated, we conclude the article by illustrating the text mining process in a job analysis setting using a dataset composed of job vacancies.

  17. Research: Rags to Rags? Riches to Riches? (United States)

    Bracey, Gerald W.


    Everyone has read about what might be called the "gold gap"--how the rich in this country are getting richer and controlling an ever-larger share of the nation's wealth. The Century Foundation has started publishing "Reality Check", a series of guides to campaign issues that sometimes finds gaps in these types of cherished delusions. The guides…

  18. Stellar formation

    CERN Document Server

    Reddish, V C


    Stellar Formation brings together knowledge about the formation of stars. In seeking to determine the conditions necessary for star formation, this book examines questions such as how, where, and why stars form, and at what rate and with what properties. This text also considers whether the formation of a star is an accident or an integral part of the physical properties of matter. This book consists of 13 chapters divided into two sections and begins with an overview of theories that explain star formation as well as the state of knowledge of star formation in comparison to stellar structure

  19. Contextual Text Mining (United States)

    Mei, Qiaozhu


    With the dramatic growth of text information, there is an increasing need for powerful text mining systems that can automatically discover useful knowledge from text. Text is generally associated with all kinds of contextual information. Those contexts can be explicit, such as the time and the location where a blog article is written, and the…

  20. XML and Free Text. (United States)

    Riggs, Ken Roger


    Discusses problems with marking free text, text that is either natural language or semigrammatical but unstructured, that prevent well-formed XML from marking text for readily available meaning. Proposes a solution to mark meaning in free text that is consistent with the intended simplicity of XML versus SGML. (Author/LRW)

  1. Kings Today, Rich Tomorrow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fattoum, Asma


    This study investigates the King vs. Rich dilemma that founder-CEOs face at IPO. When undertaking IPO, founders face two options. They can either get rich, but then run the risk of losing the control over their firms; or they can remain kings by introducing defensive mechanisms, but this is likel...

  2. Developments on RICH detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besson, P.; Bourgeois, P.


    The RICH (ring imaging Cherenkov) detector which is dedicated to Cherenkov radiation detection is described. An improvement made by replacing photo sensible vapor with solid photocathode is studied. A RICH detector prototype with a CsI photocathode has been built in Saclay and used with Saturne. The first results are presented. (A.C.)

  3. Proper Names and Their Functions in the Text Coherency Formation (at the Material of the Novels “The Twelve Chairs” and “The Little Golden Calf” by I. Ilf and E. Petrov

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Valentinovna Milevskaya


    Full Text Available The article deals with the onomastic space structure in the literary text and its constituents functions in realization of coherency as a text forming category. It is stated that providing global text coherence onyms could represent both denotative coreference and significative coherence of nomination units. The data of the studies have proved that the following units take part in providing text coherency of the novel "The Twelve Chairs" by I. Ilf and E. Petrov: anthroponyms, toponyms, and ergonyms. Having used a frame approach to the proper names analysis the authors could modify and clearly specify a detailed onym functional classification (which is known in linguistics of onyms, pointing to the necessary to distinguish six instead of three groups of onyms according to their functions in providing text coherency: 1 onyms that maintain coherency of the whole text; 2onyms that construct space-time coordinates of the literary picture of the world; 3 onyms that are both naming the characters who directly interact with the protagonists and designing external relations of the text passage; 4 onyms that organize internal relations of the text passage and represent the main characters of the text passage; 5 onyms that form space-time background of the text passage; 6 optional onyms, which do not play a significant role in the text coherency. With the particular examples the authors proved that some onyms could simultaneously perform different functions forming both external and internal links.

  4. The LawsAndFamilies questionnaire on legal family formats for same-sex and/or different-sex couples : Text of the questions and of the accompanying guidance document.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waaldijk, C.; Lorenzo, Villaverde J.M.; Nikolina, N.; Zago, G.


    This Working Paper of the research project FamiliesAndSocieties contains the text of the LawsAndFamilies questionnaire, plus the text of the guidance document provided to legal experts answering this questionnaire. These texts are preceded by a brief introduction to the background, aims and

  5. Texting on the Move (United States)

    ... text. What's the Big Deal? The problem is multitasking. No matter how young and agile we are, ... on something other than the road. In fact, driving while texting (DWT) can be more dangerous than ...

  6. Text Coherence in Translation (United States)

    Zheng, Yanping


    In the thesis a coherent text is defined as a continuity of senses of the outcome of combining concepts and relations into a network composed of knowledge space centered around main topics. And the author maintains that in order to obtain the coherence of a target language text from a source text during the process of translation, a translator can…

  7. The source rock characters of U-rich granite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mingyue, Feng; Debao, He [CNNC Key Laboratory of Uranium Resources Exploration and Evaluation Technology, Beijing Research Institute of Uranium Geology (China)


    This paper discusses the stratum composition, lithological association, uranium content of crust and the activation, migration, concentration of uranium at each tectonic cycle in South China. The authors point out that the source rock of U-rich granite is U-rich continental crust which is rich in Si, Al and K. The lithological association is mainly composed of terrestrial clastic rocks formation of mudstone and sandstone, mingled with intermediate-acidic, mafic pyroclastic rocks and carbonate rocks formation. During tectonic movements, the rocks had undergone regional metamorphism, migmatitization, granitization, and formed U-rich granites finally. (authors)

  8. The source rock characters of U-rich granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Mingyue; He Debao


    This paper discusses the stratum composition, lithological association, uranium content of crust and the activation, migration, concentration of uranium at each tectonic cycle in South China. The authors point out that the source rock of U-rich granite is U-rich continental crust which is rich in Si, Al and K. The lithological association is mainly composed of terrestrial clastic rocks formation of mudstone and sandstone, mingled with intermediate-acidic, mafic pyroclastic rocks and carbonate rocks formation. During tectonic movements, the rocks had undergone regional metamorphism, migmatitization, granitization, and formed U-rich granites finally. (authors)

  9. Vocabulary Constraint on Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sutarsyah


    Full Text Available This case study was carried out in the English Education Department of State University of Malang. The aim of the study was to identify and describe the vocabulary in the reading text and to seek if the text is useful for reading skill development. A descriptive qualitative design was applied to obtain the data. For this purpose, some available computer programs were used to find the description of vocabulary in the texts. It was found that the 20 texts containing 7,945 words are dominated by low frequency words which account for 16.97% of the words in the texts. The high frequency words occurring in the texts were dominated by function words. In the case of word levels, it was found that the texts have very limited number of words from GSL (General Service List of English Words (West, 1953. The proportion of the first 1,000 words of GSL only accounts for 44.6%. The data also show that the texts contain too large proportion of words which are not in the three levels (the first 2,000 and UWL. These words account for 26.44% of the running words in the texts.  It is believed that the constraints are due to the selection of the texts which are made of a series of short-unrelated texts. This kind of text is subject to the accumulation of low frequency words especially those of content words and limited of words from GSL. It could also defeat the development of students' reading skills and vocabulary enrichment.

  10. Dictionaries for text production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuertes-Olivera, Pedro; Bergenholtz, Henning


    Dictionaries for Text Production are information tools that are designed and constructed for helping users to produce (i.e. encode) texts, both oral and written texts. These can be broadly divided into two groups: (a) specialized text production dictionaries, i.e., dictionaries that only offer...... a small amount of lexicographic data, most or all of which are typically used in a production situation, e.g. synonym dictionaries, grammar and spelling dictionaries, collocation dictionaries, concept dictionaries such as the Longman Language Activator, which is advertised as the World’s First Production...... Dictionary; (b) general text production dictionaries, i.e., dictionaries that offer all or most of the lexicographic data that are typically used in a production situation. A review of existing production dictionaries reveals that there are many specialized text production dictionaries but only a few general...

  11. Instant Sublime Text starter

    CERN Document Server

    Haughee, Eric


    A starter which teaches the basic tasks to be performed with Sublime Text with the necessary practical examples and screenshots. This book requires only basic knowledge of the Internet and basic familiarity with any one of the three major operating systems, Windows, Linux, or Mac OS X. However, as Sublime Text 2 is primarily a text editor for writing software, many of the topics discussed will be specifically relevant to software development. That being said, the Sublime Text 2 Starter is also suitable for someone without a programming background who may be looking to learn one of the tools of

  12. Linguistics in Text Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Togeby, Ole


    A model for how text interpretation proceeds from what is pronounced, through what is said to what is comunicated, and definition of the concepts 'presupposition' and 'implicature'.......A model for how text interpretation proceeds from what is pronounced, through what is said to what is comunicated, and definition of the concepts 'presupposition' and 'implicature'....

  13. LocText

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cejuela, Juan Miguel; Vinchurkar, Shrikant; Goldberg, Tatyana


    trees and was trained and evaluated on a newly improved LocTextCorpus. Combined with an automatic named-entity recognizer, LocText achieved high precision (P = 86%±4). After completing development, we mined the latest research publications for three organisms: human (Homo sapiens), budding yeast...

  14. Systematic text condensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malterud, Kirsti


    To present background, principles, and procedures for a strategy for qualitative analysis called systematic text condensation and discuss this approach compared with related strategies.......To present background, principles, and procedures for a strategy for qualitative analysis called systematic text condensation and discuss this approach compared with related strategies....

  15. The Perfect Text. (United States)

    Russo, Ruth


    A chemistry teacher describes the elements of the ideal chemistry textbook. The perfect text is focused and helps students draw a coherent whole out of the myriad fragments of information and interpretation. The text would show chemistry as the central science necessary for understanding other sciences and would also root chemistry firmly in the…

  16. Text 2 Mind Map


    Iona, John


    This is a review of the web resource 'Text 2 Mind Map' It covers what the resource is, and how it might be used in Library and education context, in particular for School Librarians.

  17. Text File Comparator (United States)

    Kotler, R. S.


    File Comparator program IFCOMP, is text file comparator for IBM OS/VScompatable systems. IFCOMP accepts as input two text files and produces listing of differences in pseudo-update form. IFCOMP is very useful in monitoring changes made to software at the source code level.

  18. What can measures of text comprehension tell us about creative text production?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Lisanne T.; de Koning, Bjorn; van Wesel, F.; Boonstra, Marije; van der Schoot, Menno


    Evidence is accumulating that the level of text comprehension is dependent on the situatedness and sensory richness of a child's mental representation formed during reading. This study investigated whether these factors involved in text comprehension also serve a functional role in writing a

  19. What can measures of text comprehension tell us about creative text production?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, L.T.; de Koning, B.B.; van Wesel, F.; Boonstra, A. M.; van der Schoot, M.


    Evidence is accumulating that the level of text comprehension is dependent on the situatedness and sensory richness of a child’s mental representation formed during reading. This study investigated whether these factors involved in text comprehension also serve a functional role in writing a

  20. Augmenting Oracle Text with the UMLS for enhanced searching of free-text medical reports. (United States)

    Ding, Jing; Erdal, Selnur; Dhaval, Rakesh; Kamal, Jyoti


    The intrinsic complexity of free-text medical reports imposes great challenges for information retrieval systems. We have developed a prototype search engine for retrieving clinical reports that leverages the powerful indexing and querying capabilities of Oracle Text, and the rich biomedical domain knowledge and semantic structures that are captured in the UMLS Metathesaurus.

  1. Zum Bildungspotenzial biblischer Texte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theis, Joachim


    Full Text Available Biblical education as a holistic process goes far beyond biblical learning. It must be understood as a lifelong process, in which both biblical texts and their understanders operate appropriating their counterpart in a dialogical way. – Neither does the recipient’s horizon of understanding appear as an empty room, which had to be filled with the text only, nor is the latter a dead material one could only examine cognitively. The recipient discovers the meaning of the biblical text recomposing it by existential appropriation. So the text is brought to live in each individual reality. Both scientific insights and subjective structures as well as the understanders’ community must be included to avoid potential one-sidednesses. Unfortunately, a special negative association obscures the approach of the bible very often: Still biblical work as part of religious education appears in a cognitively oriented habit, which is neither regarding the vitality and sovereignty of the biblical texts nor the students’ desire for meaning. Moreover, the bible is getting misused for teaching moral terms or pontifications. Such downfalls can be disrupted by biblical didactics which are empowerment didactics. Regarding the sovereignty of biblical texts, these didactics assist the understander with his/her individuation by opening the texts with focus on the understander’s otherness. Thus each the text and the recipient become subjects in a dialogue. The approach of the Biblical-Enabling-Didactics leads the Bible to become always new a book of life. Understanding them from within their hermeneutics, empowerment didactics could be raised to the principle of biblical didactics in general and grow into an essential element of holistic education.

  2. Converting Taxonomic Descriptions to New Digital Formats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Cui


    Full Text Available Abstract.--The majority of taxonomic descriptions is currently in print format. The majority of digital descriptions are in formats such as DOC, HTML, or PDF and for human readers. These formats do not convey rich semantics in taxonomic descriptions for computer-aided process. Newer digital formats such as XML and RDF accommodate semantic annotations that allow computers to process the rich semantics on human's behalf, thus open up opportunities for a wide range of innovative usages of taxonomic descriptions, such as searching in more precise and flexible ways, integrating with gnomic and geographic information, generating taxonomic keys automatically, and text data mining and information visualization etc. This paper discusses the challenges in automated conversion of multiple collections of descriptions to XML format and reports an automated system, MARTT. MARTT is a machine-learning system that makes use of training examples to tag new descriptions into XML format. A number of utilities are implemented as solutions to the challenges. The utilities are used to reduce the effort for training example preparation, to facilitate the creation of a comprehensive schema, and to predict system performance on a new collection of descriptions. The system has been tested with several plant and alga taxonomic publications including Flora of China and Flora of North America.

  3. EST: Evading Scientific Text. (United States)

    Ward, Jeremy


    Examines chemical engineering students' attitudes to text and other parts of English language textbooks. A questionnaire was administered to a group of undergraduates. Results reveal one way students get around the problem of textbook reading. (Author/VWL)

  4. nal Sesotho texts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with literary texts written in indigenous South African languages. The project ... Homi Bhabha uses the words of Salman Rushdie to underline the fact that new .... I could not conceptualise an African-language-to-African-language dictionary. An.

  5. Plagiarism in Academic Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Eugenia Rojas-Porras


    Full Text Available The ethical and social responsibility of citing the sources in a scientific or artistic work is undeniable. This paper explores, in a preliminary way, academic plagiarism in its various forms. It includes findings based on a forensic analysis. The purpose of this paper is to raise awareness on the importance of considering these details when writing and publishing a text. Hopefully, this analysis may put the issue under discussion.

  6. Machine Translation from Text (United States)

    Habash, Nizar; Olive, Joseph; Christianson, Caitlin; McCary, John

    Machine translation (MT) from text, the topic of this chapter, is perhaps the heart of the GALE project. Beyond being a well defined application that stands on its own, MT from text is the link between the automatic speech recognition component and the distillation component. The focus of MT in GALE is on translating from Arabic or Chinese to English. The three languages represent a wide range of linguistic diversity and make the GALE MT task rather challenging and exciting.

  7. TEXT Energy Storage System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weldon, W.F.; Rylander, H.G.; Woodson, H.H.


    The Texas Experimental Tokamak (TEXT) Enery Storage System, designed by the Center for Electromechanics (CEM), consists of four 50 MJ, 125 V homopolar generators and their auxiliaries and is designed to power the toroidal and poloidal field coils of TEXT on a two-minute duty cycle. The four 50 MJ generators connected in series were chosen because they represent the minimum cost configuration and also represent a minimal scale up from the successful 5.0 MJ homopolar generator designed, built, and operated by the CEM

  8. The CBM RICH project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamczewski-Musch, J. [GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Becker, K.-H. [University Wuppertal (Germany); Belogurov, S. [ITEP Moscow (Russian Federation); Boldyreva, N. [PNPI Gatchina (Russian Federation); Chernogorov, A. [ITEP Moscow (Russian Federation); Deveaux, C. [University Gießen (Germany); Dobyrn, V. [PNPI Gatchina (Russian Federation); Dürr, M. [University Gießen (Germany); Eom, J. [Pusan National University (Korea, Republic of); Eschke, J. [GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Höhne, C. [University Gießen (Germany); Kampert, K.-H. [University Wuppertal (Germany); Kleipa, V. [GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Kochenda, L. [PNPI Gatchina (Russian Federation); Kolb, B. [GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Kopfer, J. [University Wuppertal (Germany); Kravtsov, P. [PNPI Gatchina (Russian Federation); Lebedev, S.; Lebedeva, E. [University Gießen (Germany); Leonova, E. [PNPI Gatchina (Russian Federation); and others


    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment will study the properties of super dense nuclear matter by means of heavy ion collisions at the future FAIR facility. An integral detector component is a large Ring Imaging Cherenkov detector with CO{sub 2} gas radiator, which will mainly serve for electron identification and pion suppression necessary to access rare dileptonic probes like e{sup +}e{sup −} decays of light vector mesons or J/Ψ. We describe the design of this future RICH detector and focus on results obtained by building a CBM RICH detector prototype tested at CERN-PS.

  9. New mathematical cuneiform texts

    CERN Document Server

    Friberg, Jöran


    This monograph presents in great detail a large number of both unpublished and previously published Babylonian mathematical texts in the cuneiform script. It is a continuation of the work A Remarkable Collection of Babylonian Mathematical Texts (Springer 2007) written by Jöran Friberg, the leading expert on Babylonian mathematics. Focussing on the big picture, Friberg explores in this book several Late Babylonian arithmetical and metro-mathematical table texts from the sites of Babylon, Uruk and Sippar, collections of mathematical exercises from four Old Babylonian sites, as well as a new text from Early Dynastic/Early Sargonic Umma, which is the oldest known collection of mathematical exercises. A table of reciprocals from the end of the third millennium BC, differing radically from well-documented but younger tables of reciprocals from the Neo-Sumerian and Old-Babylonian periods, as well as a fragment of a Neo-Sumerian clay tablet showing a new type of a labyrinth are also discussed. The material is presen...

  10. The Emar Lexical Texts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gantzert, Merijn


    This four-part work provides a philological analysis and a theoretical interpretation of the cuneiform lexical texts found in the Late Bronze Age city of Emar, in present-day Syria. These word and sign lists, commonly dated to around 1100 BC, were almost all found in the archive of a single school.

  11. Text Induced Spelling Correction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reynaert, M.W.C.


    We present TISC, a language-independent and context-sensitive spelling checking and correction system designed to facilitate the automatic removal of non-word spelling errors in large corpora. Its lexicon is derived from a very large corpus of raw text, without supervision, and contains word

  12. Texts and Readers. (United States)

    Iser, Wolfgang


    Notes that, since fictional discourse need not reflect prevailing systems of meaning and norms or values, readers gain detachment from their own presuppositions; by constituting and formulating text-sense, readers are constituting and formulating their own cognition and becoming aware of the operations for doing so. (FL)

  13. Documents and legal texts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This section treats of the following documents and legal texts: 1 - Belgium 29 June 2014 - Act amending the Act of 22 July 1985 on Third-Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy; 2 - Belgium, 7 December 2016. - Act amending the Act of 22 July 1985 on Third-Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy

  14. Strategy as Texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obed Madsen, Søren

    of the strategy into four categories. Second, the managers produce new texts based on the original strategy document by using four different ways of translation models. The study’s findings contribute to three areas. Firstly, it shows that translation is more than a sociological process. It is also...... a craftsmanship that requires knowledge and skills, which unfortunately seems to be overlooked in both the literature and in practice. Secondly, it shows that even though a strategy text is in singular, the translation makes strategy plural. Thirdly, the article proposes a way to open up the black box of what......This article shows empirically how managers translate a strategy plan at an individual level. By analysing how managers in three organizations translate strategies, it identifies that the translation happens in two steps: First, the managers decipher the strategy by coding the different parts...

  15. Richness and Reciprocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Harding RN, PhD


    Full Text Available Recruiting and retaining nurses in mental health practice settings have long been problematic: A situation which is not helped by student nurses being exposed to negative attitudes about mental health nursing or poor clinical experiences. A pilot program in which student nurses were mentored on the mental health clinical placement was initiated at an Australian School of Nursing. A qualitative study was undertaken to explore the value of this program for the student mentee and the registered nurse mentor. A questionnaire containing six questions was distributed to all participants before and after the clinical experience. The questions were open format seeking data on (a the perceived advantages or disadvantages of mentoring, (b perceptions of whether mentoring contributes to professional development, and (c whether mentoring contributes personally to the participant. The data were subjected to inductive thematic analysis. The registered nurse mentors found that time diverted from clients was a barrier to mentoring students; however, they experienced reciprocity through nurturance of self, students, and the profession. The student mentees found that they experienced a richer and deeper learning environment. Mentoring provides a satisfying learning environment for both parties if carefully implemented and supported.

  16. Neutron rich nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foucher, R.


    If some β - emitters are particularly interesting to study in light, medium, and heavy nuclei, another (and also) difficult problem is to know systematically the properties of these neutron rich nuclei far from the stability line. A review of some of their characteristics is presented. How far is it possible to be objective in the interpretation of data is questioned and implications are discussed

  17. Reading Authentic Texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Laura Winther


    Most research on cognates has focused on words presented in isolation that are easily defined as cognate between L1 and L2. In contrast, this study investigates what counts as cognate in authentic texts and how such cognates are read. Participants with L1 Danish read news articles in their highly...... proficient L2, English, while their eye-movements were monitored. The experiment shows a cognate advantage for morphologically simple words, but only when cognateness is defined relative to translation equivalents that are appropriate in the context. For morphologically complex words, a cognate disadvantage...... word predictability indexed by the conditional probability of each word....

  18. Documents and legal texts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This section treats of the following documents and legal texts: 1 - Brazil: Law No. 13,260 of 16 March 2016 (To regulate the provisions of item XLIII of Article 5 of the Federal Constitution on terrorism, dealing with investigative and procedural provisions and redefining the concept of a terrorist organisation; and amends Laws No. 7,960 of 21 December 1989 and No. 12,850 of 2 August 2013); 2 - India: The Atomic Energy (Amendment) Act, 2015; Department Of Atomic Energy Notification (Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage); 3 - Japan: Act on Subsidisation, etc. for Nuclear Damage Compensation Funds following the implementation of the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage

  19. Journalistic Text Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Rikke Hartmann

    , a multiple case study investigated three professional text producers’ practices as they unfolded in their natural setting at the Spanish newspaper, El Mundo. • Results indicate that journalists’ revisions are related to form markedly more often than to content. • Results suggest two writing phases serving...... at the Spanish newspaper, El Mundo, in Madrid. The study applied a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods, i.e. keystroke logging, participant observation and retrospective interview. Results indicate that journalists’ revisions are related to form markedly more often than to content (approx. three...

  20. Plasma rico em plaquetas combinado a hidroxiapatita na formação do calo ósseo em fraturas induzidas experimentalmente no rádio de cães Platelet-rich plasma combined with hydroxyapatite on bone callus formation in experimental radii fractures in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silmara Bonomi da Silva


    Full Text Available Avaliou-se, no presente estudo, os efeitos do plasma rico em plaquetas (PRP autógeno combinado a hidroxiapatita não-absorvível na formação do calo ósseo em fraturas diafisárias induzidas experimentalmente em rádio de cães e fixadas com placas e parafusos ósseos. Foram utilizados oito cães adultos sem raça definida, machos ou fêmeas, com pesos compreendidos entre 5 e 15kg. Induziu-se na diáfise de ambos os rádios defeito ósseo correspondente a 25% do diâmetro do mesmo. No rádio direito (grupo HA/PRP, implantou-se plasma rico em plaquetas combinado a hidroxiapatita. No rádio esquerdo (grupo HA, implantou-se somente a hidroxiapatita. Para a obtenção do PRP, empregou-se protocolo simplificado utilizando centrífuga laboratorial comum. Comparou-se entre os grupos a evolução clínica dos animais, o tempo de formação e a densidade do calo ósseo por exames radiográficos simples e pela técnica de densitometria óptica aos 15, 30, 45 e 60 dias de pós-operatório. Tanto na avaliação radiográfica como densitométrica não se observou diferença estatisticamente significante na evolução do calo ósseo entre os grupos (P>0,05. No presente estudo, o PRP autógeno combinado à hidroxiapatita não-absorvível não acelerou o processo de formação do calo ósseo, comparado à hidroxiapatita somente.The present study was aimed at evaluating the effects of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP in combination with unabsorbable hydroxyapatite on bone callus formation in an experimental canine diaphyseal radius fracture stabilized with bone plate. Eight mature, male and female mongrel dogs were selected weighed 5 to 15kg. Bone defects were created, bilateral, in both radii diaphysis, corresponding to 25% of bone diameter. On the right radius (group HA/PRP, the defect was filled with PRP and hydroxyapatite. On the left radius (group HA, was placed hydroxyapatite alone. PRP was obtain by a simplified technique using a laboratory

  1. Weitere Texte physiognomischen Inhalts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Böck, Barbara


    Full Text Available The present article offers the edition of three cuneiform texts belonging to the Akkadian handbook of omens drawn from the physical appearance as well as the morals and behaviour of man. The book comprising up to 27 chapters with more than 100 omens each was entitled in antiquity Alamdimmû. The edition of the three cuneiform tablets completes, thus, the author's monographic study on the ancient Mesopotamian divinatory discipline of physiognomy (Die babylonisch-assyrische Morphoskopie (Wien 2000 [=AfO Beih. 27].

    En este artículo se presenta la editio princeps de tres textos cuneiformes conservados en el British Museum (Londres y el Vorderasiatisches Museum (Berlín, que pertenecen al libro asirio-babilonio de presagios fisiognómicos. Este libro, titulado originalmente Alamdimmû ('forma, figura', consta de 27 capítulos, cada uno con más de cien presagios escritos en lengua acadia. Los tres textos completan así el estudio monográfico de la autora sobre la disciplina adivinatoria de la fisiognomía en el antiguo Oriente (Die babylonisch-assyrische Morphoskopie (Wien 2000 [=AfO Beih. 27].

  2. Utah Text Retrieval Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollaar, L A


    The Utah Text Retrieval project seeks well-engineered solutions to the implementation of large, inexpensive, rapid text information retrieval systems. The project has three major components. Perhaps the best known is the work on the specialized processors, particularly search engines, necessary to achieve the desired performance and cost. The other two concern the user interface to the system and the system's internal structure. The work on user interface development is not only concentrating on the syntax and semantics of the query language, but also on the overall environment the system presents to the user. Environmental enhancements include convenient ways to browse through retrieved documents, access to other information retrieval systems through gateways supporting a common command interface, and interfaces to word processing systems. The system's internal structure is based on a high-level data communications protocol linking the user interface, index processor, search processor, and other system modules. This allows them to be easily distributed in a multi- or specialized-processor configuration. It also allows new modules, such as a knowledge-based query reformulator, to be added. 15 references.

  3. Relating interesting quantitative time series patterns with text events and text features (United States)

    Wanner, Franz; Schreck, Tobias; Jentner, Wolfgang; Sharalieva, Lyubka; Keim, Daniel A.


    In many application areas, the key to successful data analysis is the integrated analysis of heterogeneous data. One example is the financial domain, where time-dependent and highly frequent quantitative data (e.g., trading volume and price information) and textual data (e.g., economic and political news reports) need to be considered jointly. Data analysis tools need to support an integrated analysis, which allows studying the relationships between textual news documents and quantitative properties of the stock market price series. In this paper, we describe a workflow and tool that allows a flexible formation of hypotheses about text features and their combinations, which reflect quantitative phenomena observed in stock data. To support such an analysis, we combine the analysis steps of frequent quantitative and text-oriented data using an existing a-priori method. First, based on heuristics we extract interesting intervals and patterns in large time series data. The visual analysis supports the analyst in exploring parameter combinations and their results. The identified time series patterns are then input for the second analysis step, in which all identified intervals of interest are analyzed for frequent patterns co-occurring with financial news. An a-priori method supports the discovery of such sequential temporal patterns. Then, various text features like the degree of sentence nesting, noun phrase complexity, the vocabulary richness, etc. are extracted from the news to obtain meta patterns. Meta patterns are defined by a specific combination of text features which significantly differ from the text features of the remaining news data. Our approach combines a portfolio of visualization and analysis techniques, including time-, cluster- and sequence visualization and analysis functionality. We provide two case studies, showing the effectiveness of our combined quantitative and textual analysis work flow. The workflow can also be generalized to other

  4. Documents and legal texts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This section reprints a selection of recently published legislative texts and documents: - Russian Federation: Federal Law No.170 of 21 November 1995 on the use of atomic energy, Adopted by the State Duma on 20 October 1995; - Uruguay: Law No.19.056 On the Radiological Protection and Safety of Persons, Property and the Environment (4 January 2013); - Japan: Third Supplement to Interim Guidelines on Determination of the Scope of Nuclear Damage resulting from the Accident at the Tokyo Electric Power Company Fukushima Daiichi and Daini Nuclear Power Plants (concerning Damages related to Rumour-Related Damage in the Agriculture, Forestry, Fishery and Food Industries), 30 January 2013; - France and the United States: Joint Statement on Liability for Nuclear Damage (Aug 2013); - Franco-Russian Nuclear Power Declaration (1 November 2013)

  5. Comprehension and Analysis of Information in Text: I. Construction and Evaluation of Brief Texts. (United States)

    Kozminsky, Ely; And Others

    This report describes a series of studies designed to construct and validate a set of text materials necessary to the pursuance of a long-term research project on information analysis and integration in semantically rich, naturalistic domains, primarily in the domain of the stock market. The methods and results of six separate experiments on…

  6. The CBM RICH project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamczewski-Musch, J. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Akishin, P. [Laboratory of Information Technologies, Joint Institute for Nuclear research (JINR-LIT), Dubna (Russian Federation); Becker, K.-H. [Department of Physics, University of Wuppertal, D-42097 Wuppertal (Germany); Belogurov, S. [SSC RF ITEP, 117218 Moscow (Russian Federation); Bendarouach, J. [Institute of Physics II and Institute of Applied Physics, Justus Liebig University Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Boldyreva, N. [National Research Centre “Kurchatov Institute” B.P. Konstantinov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, 188300 Gatchina (Russian Federation); Chernogorov, A. [SSC RF ITEP, 117218 Moscow (Russian Federation); Deveaux, C. [Institute of Physics II and Institute of Applied Physics, Justus Liebig University Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Dobyrn, V. [National Research Centre “Kurchatov Institute” B.P. Konstantinov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, 188300 Gatchina (Russian Federation); Dürr, M. [Institute of Physics II and Institute of Applied Physics, Justus Liebig University Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Eschke, J. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Förtsch, J. [Department of Physics, University of Wuppertal, D-42097 Wuppertal (Germany); Heep, J.; Höhne, C. [Institute of Physics II and Institute of Applied Physics, Justus Liebig University Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Kampert, K.-H. [Department of Physics, University of Wuppertal, D-42097 Wuppertal (Germany); and others


    The CBM RICH detector is an integral component of the future CBM experiment at FAIR, providing efficient electron identification and pion suppression necessary for the measurement of rare dileptonic probes in heavy ion collisions. The RICH design is based on CO{sub 2} gas as radiator, a segmented spherical glass focussing mirror with Al+MgF{sub 2} reflective coating, and Multianode Photomultipliers for efficient Cherenkov photon detection. Hamamatsu H12700 MAPMTs have recently been selected as photon sensors, following an extensive sensor evaluation, including irradiation tests to ensure sufficient radiation hardness of the MAPMTs. A brief overview of the detector design and concept is given, results on the radiation hardness of the photon sensors are shown, and the development of a FPGA-TDC based readout chain is discussed.

  7. The CLEO RICH detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artuso, M.; Ayad, R.; Bukin, K.; Efimov, A.; Boulahouache, C.; Dambasuren, E.; Kopp, S.; Li, Ji; Majumder, G.; Menaa, N.; Mountain, R.; Schuh, S.; Skwarnicki, T.; Stone, S.; Viehhauser, G.; Wang, J.C.; Coan, T.E.; Fadeyev, V.; Maravin, Y.; Volobouev, I.; Ye, J.; Anderson, S.; Kubota, Y.; Smith, A.


    We describe the design, construction and performance of a Ring Imaging Cherenkov Detector (RICH) constructed to identify charged particles in the CLEO experiment. Cherenkov radiation occurs in LiF crystals, both planar and ones with a novel 'sawtooth'-shaped exit surface. Photons in the wavelength interval 135-165nm are detected using multi-wire chambers filled with a mixture of methane gas and triethylamine vapor. Excellent π/K separation is demonstrated

  8. CBM RICH geometry optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoud, Tariq; Hoehne, Claudia [II. Physikalisches Institut, Giessen Univ. (Germany); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration


    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at the future FAIR complex will investigate the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter at high baryon density and moderate temperatures in A+A collisions from 2-11 AGeV (SIS100) beam energy. The main electron identification detector in the CBM experiment will be a RICH detector with a CO{sub 2} gaseous-radiator, focusing spherical glass mirrors, and MAPMT photo-detectors being placed on a PMT-plane. The RICH detector is located directly behind the CBM dipole magnet. As the final magnet geometry is now available, some changes in the RICH geometry become necessary. In order to guarantee a magnetic field of 1 mT at maximum in the PMT plane for effective operation of the MAPMTs, two measures have to be taken: The PMT plane is moved outwards of the stray field by tilting the mirrors by 10 degrees and shielding boxes have been designed. In this contribution the results of the geometry optimization procedure are presented.

  9. Documents and legal texts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This section treats of the following Documents and legal texts: 1 - Canada: Nuclear Liability and Compensation Act (An Act respecting civil liability and compensation for damage in case of a nuclear incident, repealing the Nuclear Liability Act and making consequential amendments to other acts); 2 - Japan: Act on Compensation for Nuclear Damage (The purpose of this act is to protect persons suffering from nuclear damage and to contribute to the sound development of the nuclear industry by establishing a basic system regarding compensation in case of nuclear damage caused by reactor operation etc.); Act on Indemnity Agreements for Compensation of Nuclear Damage; 3 - Slovak Republic: Act on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage and on its Financial Coverage and on Changes and Amendments to Certain Laws (This Act regulates: a) The civil liability for nuclear damage incurred in the causation of a nuclear incident, b) The scope of powers of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (hereinafter only as the 'Authority') in relation to the application of this Act, c) The competence of the National Bank of Slovakia in relation to the supervised financial market entities in the financial coverage of liability for nuclear damage; and d) The penalties for violation of this Act)

  10. Documents and legal texts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This section of the Bulletin presents the recently published documents and legal texts sorted by country: - Brazil: Resolution No. 169 of 30 April 2014. - Japan: Act Concerning Exceptions to Interruption of Prescription Pertaining to Use of Settlement Mediation Procedures by the Dispute Reconciliation Committee for Nuclear Damage Compensation in relation to Nuclear Damage Compensation Disputes Pertaining to the Great East Japan Earthquake (Act No. 32 of 5 June 2013); Act Concerning Measures to Achieve Prompt and Assured Compensation for Nuclear Damage Arising from the Nuclear Plant Accident following the Great East Japan Earthquake and Exceptions to the Extinctive Prescription, etc. of the Right to Claim Compensation for Nuclear Damage (Act No. 97 of 11 December 2013); Fourth Supplement to Interim Guidelines on Determination of the Scope of Nuclear Damage Resulting from the Accident at the Tokyo Electric Power Company Fukushima Daiichi and Daini Nuclear Power Plants (Concerning Damages Associated with the Prolongation of Evacuation Orders, etc.); Outline of 'Fourth Supplement to Interim Guidelines (Concerning Damages Associated with the Prolongation of Evacuation Orders, etc.)'. - OECD Nuclear Energy Agency: Decision and Recommendation of the Steering Committee Concerning the Application of the Paris Convention to Nuclear Installations in the Process of Being Decommissioned; Joint Declaration on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes. - United Arab Emirates: Federal Decree No. (51) of 2014 Ratifying the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage; Ratification of the Federal Supreme Council of Federal Decree No. (51) of 2014 Ratifying the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage

  11. Extremely 54Cr- and 50Ti-rich Presolar Oxide Grains in a Primitive Meteorite: Formation in Rare Types of Supernovae and Implications for the Astrophysical Context of Solar System Birth (United States)

    Nittler, Larry R.; O’D. Alexander, Conel M.; Liu, Nan; Wang, Jianhua


    We report the identification of 19 presolar oxide grains from the Orgueil CI meteorite with substantial enrichments in 54Cr, with 54Cr/52Cr ratios ranging from 1.2 to 56 times the solar value. The most enriched grains also exhibit enrichments at mass-50, most likely due in part to 50Ti, but close-to-normal or depleted 53Cr/52Cr ratios. There is a strong inverse relationship between 54Cr enrichment and grain size; the most extreme grains are all attractive, as these likely occur much more frequently than high-density SN Ia, and their evolutionary timescales (∼20 Myr) are comparable to those of molecular clouds. Self-pollution of the Sun’s parent cloud from an ECSN may explain the heterogeneous distribution of n-rich isotopic anomalies in planetary materials, including a recently reported dichotomy in Mo isotopes in the solar system. The stellar origins of three grains with solar 54Cr/52Cr, but anomalies in 50Cr or 53Cr, as well as of a grain enriched in 57Fe, are unclear.

  12. 94 β-Decay Half-Lives of Neutron-Rich _{55}Cs to _{67}Ho: Experimental Feedback and Evaluation of the r-Process Rare-Earth Peak Formation. (United States)

    Wu, J; Nishimura, S; Lorusso, G; Möller, P; Ideguchi, E; Regan, P-H; Simpson, G S; Söderström, P-A; Walker, P M; Watanabe, H; Xu, Z Y; Baba, H; Browne, F; Daido, R; Doornenbal, P; Fang, Y F; Gey, G; Isobe, T; Lee, P S; Liu, J J; Li, Z; Korkulu, Z; Patel, Z; Phong, V; Rice, S; Sakurai, H; Sinclair, L; Sumikama, T; Tanaka, M; Yagi, A; Ye, Y L; Yokoyama, R; Zhang, G X; Alharbi, T; Aoi, N; Bello Garrote, F L; Benzoni, G; Bruce, A M; Carroll, R J; Chae, K Y; Dombradi, Z; Estrade, A; Gottardo, A; Griffin, C J; Kanaoka, H; Kojouharov, I; Kondev, F G; Kubono, S; Kurz, N; Kuti, I; Lalkovski, S; Lane, G J; Lee, E J; Lokotko, T; Lotay, G; Moon, C-B; Nishibata, H; Nishizuka, I; Nita, C R; Odahara, A; Podolyák, Zs; Roberts, O J; Schaffner, H; Shand, C; Taprogge, J; Terashima, S; Vajta, Z; Yoshida, S


    The β-decay half-lives of 94 neutron-rich nuclei ^{144-151}Cs, ^{146-154}Ba, ^{148-156}La, ^{150-158}Ce, ^{153-160}Pr, ^{156-162}Nd, ^{159-163}Pm, ^{160-166}Sm, ^{161-168}Eu, ^{165-170}Gd, ^{166-172}Tb, ^{169-173}Dy, ^{172-175}Ho, and two isomeric states ^{174m}Er, ^{172m}Dy were measured at the Radioactive Isotope Beam Factory, providing a new experimental basis to test theoretical models. Strikingly large drops of β-decay half-lives are observed at neutron-number N=97 for _{58}Ce, _{59}Pr, _{60}Nd, and _{62}Sm, and N=105 for _{63}Eu, _{64}Gd, _{65}Tb, and _{66}Dy. Features in the data mirror the interplay between pairing effects and microscopic structure. r-process network calculations performed for a range of mass models and astrophysical conditions show that the 57 half-lives measured for the first time play an important role in shaping the abundance pattern of rare-earth elements in the solar system.

  13. Study of two new methods of geochronometry: dating method of carbonaceous formations by U-series disequilibrium gamma spectrometry; ESR dating method of rich U-content fossil dental enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Jean-Luc


    First, the U-series disequilibrium dating method was re-examined using non-destructive γ-spectrometry. A new low-background (≤ 10 ppb U- equivalent) Ge-HP γ-spectrometer has been used to date travertine with small U-content (∼ 0.1 ppm) and low (≤ 5%) Th/U , content, by comparison with old-limestone γ-spectra. Second, a new ESR dating method has been developed using fossil dental enamel which is rich in U-content (10 - 100 ppm). Both methods were applied to Arago Cave (Tautavel, France): - with an ionium-age of 120 ka (10%), the upper travertine seems to have been set up during the Riss-deglaciation period. - the high (∼ 50%) Th/U-content samples of the intermediate travertine are un-datable. - the ESR-age of EQUUS mosbachensis enamel is 400 ka (10%) for the G-soil of Arago. XXI H. erectus, and 600 ka (10%) for the Q-soil above (- 1 m) of the lower travertine of which Io-age is older than 350 ka. (author)

  14. The Coherence Formation Model of Illustrated Text Comprehension: A Path Model of Attention to Multimedia Text (United States)

    Fitzhugh, Shannon Leigh


    The study reported here tests a model that includes several factors thought to contribute to the comprehension of static multimedia learning materials (i.e. background knowledge, working memory, attention to components as measured with eye movement measures). The model examines the effects of working memory capacity, domain specific (biology) and…

  15. Rich Language Analysis for Counterterrorism (United States)

    Guidère, Mathieu; Howard, Newton; Argamon, Shlomo

    Accurate and relevant intelligence is critical for effective counterterrorism. Too much irrelevant information is as bad or worse than not enough information. Modern computational tools promise to provide better search and summarization capabilities to help analysts filter and select relevant and key information. However, to do this task effectively, such tools must have access to levels of meaning beyond the literal. Terrorists operating in context-rich cultures like fundamentalist Islam use messages with multiple levels of interpretation, which are easily misunderstood by non-insiders. This chapter discusses several kinds of such “encryption” used by terrorists and insurgents in the Arabic language, and how knowledge of such methods can be used to enhance computational text analysis techniques for use in counterterrorism.

  16. Three-dimensional structure and cytokine distribution of platelet-rich fibrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Yi Bai

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Previous reports have revealed that several cytokines (including platelet-derived growth factor-BB, transforming growth factors-β1 and insulin-like growth factor-1 can enhance the rate of bone formation and synthesis of extracellular matrix in orthopaedics or periodontology. This study aimed to determine the concentration of cytokines within platelet-rich fibrin microstructures and investigate whether there are differences in the different portions of platelet-rich fibrin, which has implications for proper clinical use of platelet-rich fibrin gel. METHODS: Whole blood was obtained from six New Zealand rabbits (male, 7 to 39 weeks old, weight 2.7-4 kg; it was then centrifuged for preparation of platelet-rich fibrin gels and harvest of plasma. The resultant platelet-rich fibrin gels were used for cytokine determination, histological analyses and scanning electron microscopy. All plasmas obtained were subject to the same cytokine determination assays for the purpose of comparison. RESULTS: Cytokines platelet-derived growth factor-BB and transforming growth factor-β1 formed concentration gradients from high at the red blood cell end of the platelet-rich fibrin gel (p=1.88×10-5 to low at the plasma end (p=0.19. Insulin-like growth factor-1 concentrations were similar at the red blood cell and plasma ends. The porosities of the platelet-rich fibrin samples taken in sequence from the red blood cell end to the plasma end were 6.5% ± 4.9%, 24.8% ± 7.5%, 30.3% ± 8.5%, 41.4% ± 12.3%, and 40.3% ± 11.7%, respectively, showing a gradual decrease in the compactness of the platelet-rich fibrin network. CONCLUSION: Cytokine concentrations are positively associated with platelet-rich fibrin microstructure and portion in a rabbit model. As platelet-rich fibrin is the main entity currently used in regenerative medicine, assessing cytokine concentration and the most valuable portion of PRF gels is essential and recommended to all physicians.

  17. Text

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    The purpose of this act is to safeguard against the dangers and harmful effects of radioactive waste and to contribute to public safety and environmental protection by laying down requirements for the safe and efficient management of radioactive waste. We will find definitions, interrelation with other legislation, responsibilities of the state and local governments, responsibilities of radioactive waste management companies and generators, formulation of the basic plan for the control of radioactive waste, radioactive waste management ( with public information, financing and part of spent fuel management), Korea radioactive waste management corporation ( business activities, budget), establishment of a radioactive waste fund in order to secure the financial resources required for radioactive waste management, and penalties in case of improper operation of radioactive waste management. (N.C.)

  18. A First Step Towards Synthesising Rubrics and Video for the Formative Assessment of Complex Skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ackermans, Kevin; Rusman, Ellen; Brand-Gruwel, Saskia; Specht, Marcus


    Abstract. The performance objectives used for the formative assessment of com- plex skills are generally set through text-based analytic rubrics[1]. Moreover, video modeling examples are a widely applied method of observational learning, providing students with context-rich modeling examples of

  19. Habit formation. (United States)

    Smith, Kyle S; Graybiel, Ann M


    Habits, both good ones and bad ones, are pervasive in animal behavior. Important frameworks have been developed to understand habits through psychological and neurobiological studies. This work has given us a rich understanding of brain networks that promote habits, and has also helped us to understand what constitutes a habitual behavior as opposed to a behavior that is more flexible and prospective. Mounting evidence from studies using neural recording methods suggests that habit formation is not a simple process. We review this evidence and take the position that habits could be sculpted from multiple dissociable changes in neural activity. These changes occur across multiple brain regions and even within single brain regions. This strategy of classifying components of a habit based on different brain signals provides a potentially useful new way to conceive of disorders that involve overly fixed behaviors as arising from different potential dysfunctions within the brain's habit network.

  20. Habit formation (United States)

    Smith, Kyle S.; Graybiel, Ann M.


    Habits, both good ones and bad ones, are pervasive in animal behavior. Important frameworks have been developed to understand habits through psychological and neurobiological studies. This work has given us a rich understanding of brain networks that promote habits, and has also helped us to understand what constitutes a habitual behavior as opposed to a behavior that is more flexible and prospective. Mounting evidence from studies using neural recording methods suggests that habit formation is not a simple process. We review this evidence and take the position that habits could be sculpted from multiple dissociable changes in neural activity. These changes occur across multiple brain regions and even within single brain regions. This strategy of classifying components of a habit based on different brain signals provides a potentially useful new way to conceive of disorders that involve overly fixed behaviors as arising from different potential dysfunctions within the brain's habit network. PMID:27069378

  1. Modeling Aquatic Macroinvertebrate Richness Using Landscape Attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia S. Meixler


    Full Text Available We used a rapid, repeatable, and inexpensive geographic information system (GIS approach to predict aquatic macroinvertebrate family richness using the landscape attributes stream gradient, riparian forest cover, and water quality. Stream segments in the Allegheny River basin were classified into eight habitat classes using these three landscape attributes. Biological databases linking macroinvertebrate families with habitat classes were developed using life habits, feeding guilds, and water quality preferences and tolerances for each family. The biological databases provided a link between fauna and habitat enabling estimation of family composition in each habitat class and hence richness predictions for each stream segment. No difference was detected between field collected and modeled predictions of macroinvertebrate families in a paired t-test. Further, predicted stream gradient, riparian forest cover, and total phosphorus, total nitrogen, and suspended sediment classifications matched observed classifications much more often than by chance alone. High gradient streams with forested riparian zones and good water quality were predicted to have the greatest macroinvertebrate family richness and changes in water quality were predicted to have the greatest impact on richness. Our findings indicate that our model can provide meaningful landscape scale macroinvertebrate family richness predictions from widely available data for use in focusing conservation planning efforts.

  2. Teaching Text Structure: Examining the Affordances of Children's Informational Texts (United States)

    Jones, Cindy D.; Clark, Sarah K.; Reutzel, D. Ray


    This study investigated the affordances of informational texts to serve as model texts for teaching text structure to elementary school children. Content analysis of a random sampling of children's informational texts from top publishers was conducted on text structure organization and on the inclusion of text features as signals of text…

  3. Platelet rich plasma in dermatology and aesthetic medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neerja Puri


    Full Text Available Platelet rich plasma is a promising therapy in dermatology and aesthetic medicine. In this article we will discuss the pros and cons of platelet rich plasma (PRP and the usage of PRP in aesthetics. PRP is especially used for conditions like facial and neck rejuvenation, fine lines and wrinkles, abdominal striae and facial scarring.

  4. Text mining with R a tidy approach

    CERN Document Server

    Silge, Julia


    Much of the data available today is unstructured and text-heavy, making it challenging for analysts to apply their usual data wrangling and visualization tools. With this practical book, you'll explore text-mining techniques with tidytext, a package that authors Julia Silge and David Robinson developed using the tidy principles behind R packages like ggraph and dplyr. You'll learn how tidytext and other tidy tools in R can make text analysis easier and more effective. The authors demonstrate how treating text as data frames enables you to manipulate, summarize, and visualize characteristics of text. You'll also learn how to integrate natural language processing (NLP) into effective workflows. Practical code examples and data explorations will help you generate real insights from literature, news, and social media. Learn how to apply the tidy text format to NLP Use sentiment analysis to mine the emotional content of text Identify a document's most important terms with frequency measurements E...

  5. Important Text Characteristics for Early-Grades Text Complexity (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Jill; Elmore, Jeff; Koons, Heather; Hiebert, Elfrieda H.; Bowen, Kimberly; Sanford-Moore, Eleanor E.; Stenner, A. Jackson


    The Common Core set a standard for all children to read increasingly complex texts throughout schooling. The purpose of the present study was to explore text characteristics specifically in relation to early-grades text complexity. Three hundred fifty primary-grades texts were selected and digitized. Twenty-two text characteristics were identified…

  6. Figure-associated text summarization and evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaji Polepalli Ramesh

    Full Text Available Biomedical literature incorporates millions of figures, which are a rich and important knowledge resource for biomedical researchers. Scientists need access to the figures and the knowledge they represent in order to validate research findings and to generate new hypotheses. By themselves, these figures are nearly always incomprehensible to both humans and machines and their associated texts are therefore essential for full comprehension. The associated text of a figure, however, is scattered throughout its full-text article and contains redundant information content. In this paper, we report the continued development and evaluation of several figure summarization systems, the FigSum+ systems, that automatically identify associated texts, remove redundant information, and generate a text summary for every figure in an article. Using a set of 94 annotated figures selected from 19 different journals, we conducted an intrinsic evaluation of FigSum+. We evaluate the performance by precision, recall, F1, and ROUGE scores. The best FigSum+ system is based on an unsupervised method, achieving F1 score of 0.66 and ROUGE-1 score of 0.97. The annotated data is available at (

  7. Osteobiology: newest bone organ topics and the platelet-rich plasma treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananias García Cardona


    Full Text Available The bone is a dynamic tissue taht provides mechanical support, physical protection, storage site for minerals, and enables genesis movement. The bone biology (osteobiology is regulated by the balance betqeen osteoblastic formation and osteoclatic resorption. the skeletal bone homeostasis is influenced by components of the bone marrow organ, neuroendocrine system and hemato-inmmune system. The purpose of this review is to describe the biodynamic of the bone organ, and actual terapeutics with platelet-rich plasma in guide bone regeneration, a co-surgical method employed to increase the quantity and quality of the bone.

  8. LHCB RICH gas system proposal

    CERN Document Server

    Bosteels, Michel; Haider, S


    Both LHCb RICH will be operated with fluorocarbon as gas radiator. RICH 1 will be filled with 4m^3 of C4F10 and RICH 2 with 100m^3 of CF4. The gas systems will run as a closed loop circulation and a gas recovery system within the closed loop is planned for RICH 1, where the recovery of the CF4 will only be realised during filling and emptying of the detector. Inline gas purification is foreseen for the gas systems in order to limit water and oxygen impurities.

  9. Nuclear localization of the dehydrin OpsDHN1 is determined by histidine-rich motif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itzell Euridice Hernández-Sánchez


    Full Text Available The cactus OpsDHN1 dehydrin belongs to a large family of disordered and highly hydrophilic proteins known as Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA proteins, which accumulate during the late stages of embryogenesis and in response to abiotic stresses. Herein, we present the in vivo OpsDHN1 subcellular localization by N-terminal GFP translational fusion; our results revealed a cytoplasmic and nuclear localization of the GFP::OpsDHN1 protein in Nicotiana benthamiana epidermal cells. In addition, dimer assembly of OpsDHN1 in planta using a Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation (BiFC approach was demonstrated. In order to understand the in vivo role of the histidine-rich motif, the OpsDHN1-ΔHis version was produced and assayed for its subcellular localization and dimer capability by GFP fusion and BiFC assays, respectively. We found that deletion of the OpsDHN1 histidine-rich motif restricted its localization to cytoplasm, but did not affect dimer formation. In addition, the deletion of the S-segment in the OpsDHN1 protein affected its nuclear localization. Our data suggest that the deletion of histidine-rich motif and S-segment show similar effects, preventing OpsDHN1 from getting into the nucleus. Based on these results, the histidine rich motif is proposed as a targeting element for OpsDHN1 nuclear localization.

  10. Figure-associated text summarization and evaluation. (United States)

    Polepalli Ramesh, Balaji; Sethi, Ricky J; Yu, Hong


    Biomedical literature incorporates millions of figures, which are a rich and important knowledge resource for biomedical researchers. Scientists need access to the figures and the knowledge they represent in order to validate research findings and to generate new hypotheses. By themselves, these figures are nearly always incomprehensible to both humans and machines and their associated texts are therefore essential for full comprehension. The associated text of a figure, however, is scattered throughout its full-text article and contains redundant information content. In this paper, we report the continued development and evaluation of several figure summarization systems, the FigSum+ systems, that automatically identify associated texts, remove redundant information, and generate a text summary for every figure in an article. Using a set of 94 annotated figures selected from 19 different journals, we conducted an intrinsic evaluation of FigSum+. We evaluate the performance by precision, recall, F1, and ROUGE scores. The best FigSum+ system is based on an unsupervised method, achieving F1 score of 0.66 and ROUGE-1 score of 0.97. The annotated data is available at (

  11. Text analysis methods, text analysis apparatuses, and articles of manufacture (United States)

    Whitney, Paul D; Willse, Alan R; Lopresti, Charles A; White, Amanda M


    Text analysis methods, text analysis apparatuses, and articles of manufacture are described according to some aspects. In one aspect, a text analysis method includes accessing information indicative of data content of a collection of text comprising a plurality of different topics, using a computing device, analyzing the information indicative of the data content, and using results of the analysis, identifying a presence of a new topic in the collection of text.

  12. Text-mining-assisted biocuration workflows in Argo (United States)

    Rak, Rafal; Batista-Navarro, Riza Theresa; Rowley, Andrew; Carter, Jacob; Ananiadou, Sophia


    Biocuration activities have been broadly categorized into the selection of relevant documents, the annotation of biological concepts of interest and identification of interactions between the concepts. Text mining has been shown to have a potential to significantly reduce the effort of biocurators in all the three activities, and various semi-automatic methodologies have been integrated into curation pipelines to support them. We investigate the suitability of Argo, a workbench for building text-mining solutions with the use of a rich graphical user interface, for the process of biocuration. Central to Argo are customizable workflows that users compose by arranging available elementary analytics to form task-specific processing units. A built-in manual annotation editor is the single most used biocuration tool of the workbench, as it allows users to create annotations directly in text, as well as modify or delete annotations created by automatic processing components. Apart from syntactic and semantic analytics, the ever-growing library of components includes several data readers and consumers that support well-established as well as emerging data interchange formats such as XMI, RDF and BioC, which facilitate the interoperability of Argo with other platforms or resources. To validate the suitability of Argo for curation activities, we participated in the BioCreative IV challenge whose purpose was to evaluate Web-based systems addressing user-defined biocuration tasks. Argo proved to have the edge over other systems in terms of flexibility of defining biocuration tasks. As expected, the versatility of the workbench inevitably lengthened the time the curators spent on learning the system before taking on the task, which may have affected the usability of Argo. The participation in the challenge gave us an opportunity to gather valuable feedback and identify areas of improvement, some of which have already been introduced. Database URL: PMID

  13. Classroom Texting in College Students (United States)

    Pettijohn, Terry F.; Frazier, Erik; Rieser, Elizabeth; Vaughn, Nicholas; Hupp-Wilds, Bobbi


    A 21-item survey on texting in the classroom was given to 235 college students. Overall, 99.6% of students owned a cellphone and 98% texted daily. Of the 138 students who texted in the classroom, most texted friends or significant others, and indicate the reason for classroom texting is boredom or work. Students who texted sent a mean of 12.21…

  14. Observation of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] decays. (United States)

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Ajaltouni, Z; Akar, S; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; An, L; Anderlini, L; Andreassi, G; Andreotti, M; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Archilli, F; d'Argent, P; Arnau Romeu, J; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Babuschkin, I; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Badalov, A; Baesso, C; Baker, S; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Baszczyk, M; Batozskaya, V; Batsukh, B; Battista, V; Bay, A; Beaucourt, L; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Bel, L J; Bellee, V; Belloli, N; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bertolin, A; Betancourt, C; Betti, F; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bezshyiko, Ia; Bifani, S; Billoir, P; Bird, T; Birnkraut, A; Bitadze, A; Bizzeti, A; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Boettcher, T; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Bordyuzhin, I; Borgheresi, A; Borghi, S; Borisyak, M; Borsato, M; Bossu, F; Boubdir, M; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Braun, S; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brodzicka, J; Buchanan, E; Burr, C; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Calabrese, R; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D H; Capriotti, L; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carniti, P; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cassina, L; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Cavallero, G; Cenci, R; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chatzikonstantinidis, G; Chefdeville, M; Chen, S; Cheung, S-F; Chobanova, V; Chrzaszcz, M; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Cogoni, V; Cojocariu, L; Collazuol, G; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombs, G; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Corvo, M; Costa Sobral, C M; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Crocombe, A; Cruz Torres, M; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; Da Cunha Marinho, F; Dall'Occo, E; Dalseno, J; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Aguiar Francisco, O; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Serio, M; De Simone, P; Dean, C-T; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Demmer, M; Dendek, A; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Dey, B; Di Canto, A; Dijkstra, H; Dordei, F; Dorigo, M; Dosil Suárez, A; Dovbnya, A; Dreimanis, K; Dufour, L; Dujany, G; Dungs, K; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Déléage, N; Easo, S; Ebert, M; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; Ely, S; Esen, S; Evans, H M; Evans, T; Falabella, A; Farley, N; Farry, S; Fay, R; Fazzini, D; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Prieto, A; Ferrari, F; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fini, R A; Fiore, M; Fiorini, M; Firlej, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fiutowski, T; Fleuret, F; Fohl, K; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forshaw, D C; Forty, R; Franco Lima, V; Frank, M; Frei, C; Fu, J; Furfaro, E; Färber, C; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gallorini, S; Gambetta, S; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garcia Martin, L M; García Pardiñas, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Garsed, P J; Gascon, D; Gaspar, C; Gavardi, L; Gazzoni, G; Gerick, D; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gianì, S; Gibson, V; Girard, O G; Giubega, L; Gizdov, K; Gligorov, V V; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gorelov, I V; Gotti, C; Govorkova, E; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graverini, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Griffith, P; Grillo, L; Gruberg Cazon, B R; Grünberg, O; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Göbel, C; Hadavizadeh, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Han, X; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Hatch, M; He, J; Head, T; Heister, A; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Henry, L; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Heß, M; Hicheur, A; Hill, D; Hombach, C; Hopchev, H; Hulsbergen, W; Humair, T; Hushchyn, M; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jalocha, J; Jans, E; Jawahery, A; Jiang, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Jurik, N; Kandybei, S; Kanso, W; Karacson, M; Kariuki, J M; Karodia, S; Kecke, M; Kelsey, M; Kenyon, I R; Kenzie, M; Ketel, T; Khairullin, E; Khanji, B; Khurewathanakul, C; Kirn, T; Klaver, S; Klimaszewski, K; Koliiev, S; Kolpin, M; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Kosmyntseva, A; Kozachuk, A; Kozeiha, M; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Krzemien, W; Kucewicz, W; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kuonen, A K; Kurek, K; Kvaratskheliya, T; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Lefèvre, R; Lemaitre, F; Lemos Cid, E; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Likhomanenko, T; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Lionetto, F; Liu, B; Liu, X; Loh, D; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lucchesi, D; Lucio Martinez, M; Luo, H; Lupato, A; Luppi, E; Lupton, O; Lusiani, A; Lyu, X; Machefert, F; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Maguire, K; Malde, S; Malinin, A; Maltsev, T; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Manning, P; Maratas, J; Marchand, J F; Marconi, U; Marin Benito, C; Marino, P; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martin, M; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martinez Vidal, F; Martins Tostes, D; Massacrier, L M; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathad, A; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Mauri, A; Maurin, B; Mazurov, A; McCann, M; McCarthy, J; McNab, A; McNulty, R; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Melnychuk, D; Merk, M; Merli, A; Michielin, E; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Mitzel, D S; Mogini, A; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monroy, I A; Monteil, S; Morandin, M; Morawski, P; Mordà, A; Morello, M J; Moron, J; Morris, A B; Mountain, R; Muheim, F; Mulder, M; Mussini, M; Müller, D; Müller, J; Müller, K; Müller, V; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nandi, A; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neri, N; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Neuner, M; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nieswand, S; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Novoselov, A; O'Hanlon, D P; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Ogilvy, S; Oldeman, R; Onderwater, C J G; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Otto, A; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pais, P R; Palano, A; Palombo, F; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Pappalardo, L L; Parker, W; Parkes, C; Passaleva, G; Pastore, A; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrignani, C; Pearce, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perret, P; Pescatore, L; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Petrov, A; Petruzzo, M; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pikies, M; Pinci, D; Pistone, A; Piucci, A; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Poikela, T; Polci, F; Poluektov, A; Polyakov, I; Polycarpo, E; Pomery, G J; Popov, A; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Poslavskii, S; Potterat, C; Price, E; Price, J D; Prisciandaro, J; Pritchard, A; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Quagliani, R; Rachwal, B; Rademacker, J H; Rama, M; Ramos Pernas, M; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Ratnikov, F; Raven, G; Redi, F; Reichert, S; Dos Reis, A C; Remon Alepuz, C; Renaudin, V; Ricciardi, S; Richards, S; Rihl, M; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, A B; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Lopez, J A; Rodriguez Perez, P; Rogozhnikov, A; Roiser, S; Rollings, A; Romanovskiy, V; Romero Vidal, A; Ronayne, J W; Rotondo, M; Rudolph, M S; Ruf, T; Ruiz Valls, P; Saborido Silva, J J; Sadykhov, E; Sagidova, N; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Sanchez Mayordomo, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santimaria, M; Santovetti, E; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Saunders, D M; Savrina, D; Schael, S; Schellenberg, M; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmelzer, T; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schubert, K; Schubiger, M; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Semennikov, A; Sergi, A; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Sestini, L; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, V; Siddi, B G; Silva Coutinho, R; Silva de Oliveira, L; Simi, G; Simone, S; Sirendi, M; Skidmore, N; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, E; Smith, I T; Smith, J; Smith, M; Snoek, H; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Spradlin, P; Sridharan, S; Stagni, F; Stahl, M; Stahl, S; Stefko, P; Stefkova, S; Steinkamp, O; Stemmle, S; Stenyakin, O; Stevenson, S; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Stracka, S; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Sun, L; Sutcliffe, W; Swientek, K; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Tayduganov, A; Tekampe, T; Tellarini, G; Teubert, F; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tilley, M J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tomassetti, L; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Toriello, F; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Trabelsi, K; Traill, M; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Trisovic, A; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tully, A; Tuning, N; Ukleja, A; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vacca, C; Vagnoni, V; Valassi, A; Valat, S; Valenti, G; Vallier, A; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; van Veghel, M; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Venkateswaran, A; Vernet, M; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vieites Diaz, M; Viemann, H; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vitti, M; Volkov, V; Vollhardt, A; Voneki, B; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; de Vries, J A; Vázquez Sierra, C; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Walsh, J; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Wark, H M; Watson, N K; Websdale, D; Weiden, A; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wilkinson, G; Wilkinson, M; Williams, M; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Williams, T; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Wishahi, J; Wislicki, W; Witek, M; Wormser, G; Wotton, S A; Wraight, K; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, Z; Xu, Z; Yang, Z; Yin, H; Yu, J; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zarebski, K A; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, L; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zheng, Y; Zhokhov, A; Zhu, X; Zhukov, V; Zucchelli, S


    The decays [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] are observed for the first time using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0 fb[Formula: see text], collected by the LHCb experiment in proton-proton collisions at the centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8[Formula: see text]. The branching fractions relative to that of [Formula: see text] are measured to be [Formula: see text]where the first uncertainties are statistical and the second are systematic.

  15. Mining the Text: 34 Text Features that Can Ease or Obstruct Text Comprehension and Use (United States)

    White, Sheida


    This article presents 34 characteristics of texts and tasks ("text features") that can make continuous (prose), noncontinuous (document), and quantitative texts easier or more difficult for adolescents and adults to comprehend and use. The text features were identified by examining the assessment tasks and associated texts in the national…

  16. Domain walls collision in Fe-rich and Co-rich glass covered microwires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez J.


    Full Text Available We report the results of the investigation of domain walls propagation in Fe-rich and Co-rich microwires performed using Sixtus-Tonks and magneto-optical Kerr effect techniques. It was found that under certain experimental conditions we are able to create the regime of the motion of two domain walls moving to opposite directions which terminates by the collision of the domain walls. Also the domain walls collision was visualized using magneto-optical Kerr effect microscope when the surface giant Barkhausen jump induced by circular magnetic field has been observed.

  17. From Text to Political Positions: Text analysis across disciplines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaal, A.R.; Maks, I.; van Elfrinkhof, A.M.E.


    ABSTRACT From Text to Political Positions addresses cross-disciplinary innovation in political text analysis for party positioning. Drawing on political science, computational methods and discourse analysis, it presents a diverse collection of analytical models including pure quantitative and

  18. Sequence spaces [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] with application in clustering. (United States)

    Khan, Mohd Shoaib; Alamri, Badriah As; Mursaleen, M; Lohani, Qm Danish


    Distance measures play a central role in evolving the clustering technique. Due to the rich mathematical background and natural implementation of [Formula: see text] distance measures, researchers were motivated to use them in almost every clustering process. Beside [Formula: see text] distance measures, there exist several distance measures. Sargent introduced a special type of distance measures [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] which is closely related to [Formula: see text]. In this paper, we generalized the Sargent sequence spaces through introduction of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] sequence spaces. Moreover, it is shown that both spaces are BK -spaces, and one is a dual of another. Further, we have clustered the two-moon dataset by using an induced [Formula: see text]-distance measure (induced by the Sargent sequence space [Formula: see text]) in the k-means clustering algorithm. The clustering result established the efficacy of replacing the Euclidean distance measure by the [Formula: see text]-distance measure in the k-means algorithm.

  19. Literacy Learning in a Digitally Rich Humanities Classroom: Embracing Multiple, Collaborative, and Simultaneous Texts (United States)

    Buckley-Marudas, Mary Frances


    Understanding what happens when teachers embrace digital media for literacy learning is critical to realizing the potential of learning in the digital era. This article examines some of the ways that a high school teacher and his students leverage digital technologies for literacy learning in their humanities classrooms. The author introduces the…

  20. Shaking alone induces de novo conversion of recombinant prion proteins to β-sheet rich oligomers and fibrils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol L Ladner-Keay

    Full Text Available The formation of β-sheet rich prion oligomers and fibrils from native prion protein (PrP is thought to be a key step in the development of prion diseases. Many methods are available to convert recombinant prion protein into β-sheet rich fibrils using various chemical denaturants (urea, SDS, GdnHCl, high temperature, phospholipids, or mildly acidic conditions (pH 4. Many of these methods also require shaking or another form of agitation to complete the conversion process. We have identified that shaking alone causes the conversion of recombinant PrP to β-sheet rich oligomers and fibrils at near physiological pH (pH 5.5 to pH 6.2 and temperature. This conversion does not require any denaturant, detergent, or any other chemical cofactor. Interestingly, this conversion does not occur when the water-air interface is eliminated in the shaken sample. We have analyzed shaking-induced conversion using circular dichroism, resolution enhanced native acidic gel electrophoresis (RENAGE, electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thioflavin T fluorescence and proteinase K resistance. Our results show that shaking causes the formation of β-sheet rich oligomers with a population distribution ranging from octamers to dodecamers and that further shaking causes a transition to β-sheet fibrils. In addition, we show that shaking-induced conversion occurs for a wide range of full-length and truncated constructs of mouse, hamster and cervid prion proteins. We propose that this method of conversion provides a robust, reproducible and easily accessible model for scrapie-like amyloid formation, allowing the generation of milligram quantities of physiologically stable β-sheet rich oligomers and fibrils. These results may also have interesting implications regarding our understanding of prion conversion and propagation both within the brain and via techniques such as protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA and quaking induced conversion (QuIC.

  1. The home concept in poetic texts: new ways of understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    С А Радзиевская


    Full Text Available The article focuses on the analysis of the HOME concept in American poetic texts and on the description of the model of its content. Linguocognitive mechanisms of the formation of the images of home are revealed.

  2. Why adult formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Justinek


    Full Text Available The article argues that the primary aim of adult formation is comprehensive personality development which is supposed to ensure quality existence in modern world. The article also suggests that formarion is a permanent process. Justinek puts special emphasis on adult formation methodology and defines fundamental formation styles which encourage independent action in individuals. Justinek differentiates between formation and education. methods and concludes that formation methods are related to the emotional sphere of personality, and education methods mostly to the rational. Justinek believes that formation of adults is based primarily on appropriate formation methodology.

  3. Text mining resources for the life sciences. (United States)

    Przybyła, Piotr; Shardlow, Matthew; Aubin, Sophie; Bossy, Robert; Eckart de Castilho, Richard; Piperidis, Stelios; McNaught, John; Ananiadou, Sophia


    Text mining is a powerful technology for quickly distilling key information from vast quantities of biomedical literature. However, to harness this power the researcher must be well versed in the availability, suitability, adaptability, interoperability and comparative accuracy of current text mining resources. In this survey, we give an overview of the text mining resources that exist in the life sciences to help researchers, especially those employed in biocuration, to engage with text mining in their own work. We categorize the various resources under three sections: Content Discovery looks at where and how to find biomedical publications for text mining; Knowledge Encoding describes the formats used to represent the different levels of information associated with content that enable text mining, including those formats used to carry such information between processes; Tools and Services gives an overview of workflow management systems that can be used to rapidly configure and compare domain- and task-specific processes, via access to a wide range of pre-built tools. We also provide links to relevant repositories in each section to enable the reader to find resources relevant to their own area of interest. Throughout this work we give a special focus to resources that are interoperable-those that have the crucial ability to share information, enabling smooth integration and reusability. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  4. Text mining resources for the life sciences (United States)

    Shardlow, Matthew; Aubin, Sophie; Bossy, Robert; Eckart de Castilho, Richard; Piperidis, Stelios; McNaught, John; Ananiadou, Sophia


    Text mining is a powerful technology for quickly distilling key information from vast quantities of biomedical literature. However, to harness this power the researcher must be well versed in the availability, suitability, adaptability, interoperability and comparative accuracy of current text mining resources. In this survey, we give an overview of the text mining resources that exist in the life sciences to help researchers, especially those employed in biocuration, to engage with text mining in their own work. We categorize the various resources under three sections: Content Discovery looks at where and how to find biomedical publications for text mining; Knowledge Encoding describes the formats used to represent the different levels of information associated with content that enable text mining, including those formats used to carry such information between processes; Tools and Services gives an overview of workflow management systems that can be used to rapidly configure and compare domain- and task-specific processes, via access to a wide range of pre-built tools. We also provide links to relevant repositories in each section to enable the reader to find resources relevant to their own area of interest. Throughout this work we give a special focus to resources that are interoperable—those that have the crucial ability to share information, enabling smooth integration and reusability. PMID:27888231

  5. Text mining from ontology learning to automated text processing applications

    CERN Document Server

    Biemann, Chris


    This book comprises a set of articles that specify the methodology of text mining, describe the creation of lexical resources in the framework of text mining and use text mining for various tasks in natural language processing (NLP). The analysis of large amounts of textual data is a prerequisite to build lexical resources such as dictionaries and ontologies and also has direct applications in automated text processing in fields such as history, healthcare and mobile applications, just to name a few. This volume gives an update in terms of the recent gains in text mining methods and reflects

  6. Working with text tools, techniques and approaches for text mining

    CERN Document Server

    Tourte, Gregory J L


    Text mining tools and technologies have long been a part of the repository world, where they have been applied to a variety of purposes, from pragmatic aims to support tools. Research areas as diverse as biology, chemistry, sociology and criminology have seen effective use made of text mining technologies. Working With Text collects a subset of the best contributions from the 'Working with text: Tools, techniques and approaches for text mining' workshop, alongside contributions from experts in the area. Text mining tools and technologies in support of academic research include supporting research on the basis of a large body of documents, facilitating access to and reuse of extant work, and bridging between the formal academic world and areas such as traditional and social media. Jisc have funded a number of projects, including NaCTem (the National Centre for Text Mining) and the ResDis programme. Contents are developed from workshop submissions and invited contributions, including: Legal considerations in te...

  7. Beyond accuracy: creating interoperable and scalable text-mining web services. (United States)

    Wei, Chih-Hsuan; Leaman, Robert; Lu, Zhiyong


    The biomedical literature is a knowledge-rich resource and an important foundation for future research. With over 24 million articles in PubMed and an increasing growth rate, research in automated text processing is becoming increasingly important. We report here our recently developed web-based text mining services for biomedical concept recognition and normalization. Unlike most text-mining software tools, our web services integrate several state-of-the-art entity tagging systems (DNorm, GNormPlus, SR4GN, tmChem and tmVar) and offer a batch-processing mode able to process arbitrary text input (e.g. scholarly publications, patents and medical records) in multiple formats (e.g. BioC). We support multiple standards to make our service interoperable and allow simpler integration with other text-processing pipelines. To maximize scalability, we have preprocessed all PubMed articles, and use a computer cluster for processing large requests of arbitrary text. Our text-mining web service is freely available at : Published by Oxford University Press 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  8. Layout-aware text extraction from full-text PDF of scientific articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakrishnan Cartic


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Portable Document Format (PDF is the most commonly used file format for online scientific publications. The absence of effective means to extract text from these PDF files in a layout-aware manner presents a significant challenge for developers of biomedical text mining or biocuration informatics systems that use published literature as an information source. In this paper we introduce the ‘Layout-Aware PDF Text Extraction’ (LA-PDFText system to facilitate accurate extraction of text from PDF files of research articles for use in text mining applications. Results Our paper describes the construction and performance of an open source system that extracts text blocks from PDF-formatted full-text research articles and classifies them into logical units based on rules that characterize specific sections. The LA-PDFText system focuses only on the textual content of the research articles and is meant as a baseline for further experiments into more advanced extraction methods that handle multi-modal content, such as images and graphs. The system works in a three-stage process: (1 Detecting contiguous text blocks using spatial layout processing to locate and identify blocks of contiguous text, (2 Classifying text blocks into rhetorical categories using a rule-based method and (3 Stitching classified text blocks together in the correct order resulting in the extraction of text from section-wise grouped blocks. We show that our system can identify text blocks and classify them into rhetorical categories with Precision1 = 0.96% Recall = 0.89% and F1 = 0.91%. We also present an evaluation of the accuracy of the block detection algorithm used in step 2. Additionally, we have compared the accuracy of the text extracted by LA-PDFText to the text from the Open Access subset of PubMed Central. We then compared this accuracy with that of the text extracted by the PDF2Text system, 2commonly used to extract text from PDF

  9. Informational Text and the CCSS (United States)

    Aspen Institute, 2012


    What constitutes an informational text covers a broad swath of different types of texts. Biographies & memoirs, speeches, opinion pieces & argumentative essays, and historical, scientific or technical accounts of a non-narrative nature are all included in what the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) envisions as informational text. Also included…

  10. The Only Safe SMS Texting Is No SMS Texting. (United States)

    Toth, Cheryl; Sacopulos, Michael J


    Many physicians and practice staff use short messaging service (SMS) text messaging to communicate with patients. But SMS text messaging is unencrypted, insecure, and does not meet HIPAA requirements. In addition, the short and abbreviated nature of text messages creates opportunities for misinterpretation, and can negatively impact patient safety and care. Until recently, asking patients to sign a statement that they understand and accept these risks--as well as having policies, device encryption, and cyber insurance in place--would have been enough to mitigate the risk of using SMS text in a medical practice. But new trends and policies have made SMS text messaging unsafe under any circumstance. This article explains these trends and policies, as well as why only secure texting or secure messaging should be used for physician-patient communication.

  11. Predicting Prosody from Text for Text-to-Speech Synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, K Sreenivasa


    Predicting Prosody from Text for Text-to-Speech Synthesis covers the specific aspects of prosody, mainly focusing on how to predict the prosodic information from linguistic text, and then how to exploit the predicted prosodic knowledge for various speech applications. Author K. Sreenivasa Rao discusses proposed methods along with state-of-the-art techniques for the acquisition and incorporation of prosodic knowledge for developing speech systems. Positional, contextual and phonological features are proposed for representing the linguistic and production constraints of the sound units present in the text. This book is intended for graduate students and researchers working in the area of speech processing.

  12. Monitoring interaction and collective text production through text mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macedo, Alexandra Lorandi


    Full Text Available This article presents the Concepts Network tool, developed using text mining technology. The main objective of this tool is to extract and relate terms of greatest incidence from a text and exhibit the results in the form of a graph. The Network was implemented in the Collective Text Editor (CTE which is an online tool that allows the production of texts in synchronized or non-synchronized forms. This article describes the application of the Network both in texts produced collectively and texts produced in a forum. The purpose of the tool is to offer support to the teacher in managing the high volume of data generated in the process of interaction amongst students and in the construction of the text. Specifically, the aim is to facilitate the teacher’s job by allowing him/her to process data in a shorter time than is currently demanded. The results suggest that the Concepts Network can aid the teacher, as it provides indicators of the quality of the text produced. Moreover, messages posted in forums can be analyzed without their content necessarily having to be pre-read.

  13. Automatically annotating web pages using Google Rich Snippets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogenboom, F.P.; Frasincar, F.; Vandic, D.; Meer, van der J.; Boon, F.; Kaymak, U.


    We propose the Automatic Review Recognition and annO- tation of Web pages (ARROW) framework, a framework for Web page review identification and annotation using RDFa Google Rich Snippets. The ARROW framework consists of four steps: hotspot identification, subjectivity analysis, in- formation

  14. Text recycling: acceptable or misconduct? (United States)

    Harriman, Stephanie; Patel, Jigisha


    Text recycling, also referred to as self-plagiarism, is the reproduction of an author's own text from a previous publication in a new publication. Opinions on the acceptability of this practice vary, with some viewing it as acceptable and efficient, and others as misleading and unacceptable. In light of the lack of consensus, journal editors often have difficulty deciding how to act upon the discovery of text recycling. In response to these difficulties, we have created a set of guidelines for journal editors on how to deal with text recycling. In this editorial, we discuss some of the challenges of developing these guidelines, and how authors can avoid undisclosed text recycling.

  15. Layout-aware text extraction from full-text PDF of scientific articles. (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Cartic; Patnia, Abhishek; Hovy, Eduard; Burns, Gully Apc


    The Portable Document Format (PDF) is the most commonly used file format for online scientific publications. The absence of effective means to extract text from these PDF files in a layout-aware manner presents a significant challenge for developers of biomedical text mining or biocuration informatics systems that use published literature as an information source. In this paper we introduce the 'Layout-Aware PDF Text Extraction' (LA-PDFText) system to facilitate accurate extraction of text from PDF files of research articles for use in text mining applications. Our paper describes the construction and performance of an open source system that extracts text blocks from PDF-formatted full-text research articles and classifies them into logical units based on rules that characterize specific sections. The LA-PDFText system focuses only on the textual content of the research articles and is meant as a baseline for further experiments into more advanced extraction methods that handle multi-modal content, such as images and graphs. The system works in a three-stage process: (1) Detecting contiguous text blocks using spatial layout processing to locate and identify blocks of contiguous text, (2) Classifying text blocks into rhetorical categories using a rule-based method and (3) Stitching classified text blocks together in the correct order resulting in the extraction of text from section-wise grouped blocks. We show that our system can identify text blocks and classify them into rhetorical categories with Precision1 = 0.96% Recall = 0.89% and F1 = 0.91%. We also present an evaluation of the accuracy of the block detection algorithm used in step 2. Additionally, we have compared the accuracy of the text extracted by LA-PDFText to the text from the Open Access subset of PubMed Central. We then compared this accuracy with that of the text extracted by the PDF2Text system, 2commonly used to extract text from PDF. Finally, we discuss preliminary error analysis for


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Rivera


    Full Text Available This study looks at demonstrative descriptions, regarding them as text-deictic procedures which contribute to weave discourse reference. Text deixis is thought of as a metaphorical referential device which maps the ground of utterance onto the text itself. Demonstrative expressions with textual antecedent-triggers, considered as the most important text-deictic units, are identified in a narrative corpus consisting of J. M. Barrie’s Peter Pan and its translation into Catalan. Some linguistic and discourse variables related to DemNPs are analysed to characterise adequately text deixis. It is shown that this referential device is usually combined with abstract nouns, thus categorising and encapsulating (non-nominal complex discourse entities as nouns, while performing a referential cohesive function by means of the text deixis + general noun type of lexical cohesion.

  17. An Improved Cluster Richness Estimator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozo, Eduardo; /Ohio State U.; Rykoff, Eli S.; /UC, Santa Barbara; Koester, Benjamin P.; /Chicago U. /KICP, Chicago; McKay, Timothy; /Michigan U.; Hao, Jiangang; /Michigan U.; Evrard, August; /Michigan U.; Wechsler, Risa H.; /SLAC; Hansen, Sarah; /Chicago U. /KICP, Chicago; Sheldon, Erin; /New York U.; Johnston, David; /Houston U.; Becker, Matthew R.; /Chicago U. /KICP, Chicago; Annis, James T.; /Fermilab; Bleem, Lindsey; /Chicago U.; Scranton, Ryan; /Pittsburgh U.


    Minimizing the scatter between cluster mass and accessible observables is an important goal for cluster cosmology. In this work, we introduce a new matched filter richness estimator, and test its performance using the maxBCG cluster catalog. Our new estimator significantly reduces the variance in the L{sub X}-richness relation, from {sigma}{sub lnL{sub X}}{sup 2} = (0.86 {+-} 0.02){sup 2} to {sigma}{sub lnL{sub X}}{sup 2} = (0.69 {+-} 0.02){sup 2}. Relative to the maxBCG richness estimate, it also removes the strong redshift dependence of the richness scaling relations, and is significantly more robust to photometric and redshift errors. These improvements are largely due to our more sophisticated treatment of galaxy color data. We also demonstrate the scatter in the L{sub X}-richness relation depends on the aperture used to estimate cluster richness, and introduce a novel approach for optimizing said aperture which can be easily generalized to other mass tracers.

  18. Text against Text: Counterbalancing the Hegemony of Assessment. (United States)

    Cosgrove, Cornelius

    A study examined whether composition specialists can counterbalance the potential privileging of the assessment perspective, or of self-appointed interpreters of that perspective, through the study of assessment discourse as text. Fourteen assessment texts were examined, most of them journal articles and most of them featuring the common…

  19. Ubiquitous picture-rich content representation (United States)

    Wang, Wiley; Dean, Jennifer; Muzzolini, Russ


    The amount of digital images taken by the average consumer is consistently increasing. People enjoy the convenience of storing and sharing their pictures through online (digital) and offline (traditional) media. A set of pictures can be uploaded to: online photo services, web blogs and social network websites. Alternatively, these images can be used to generate: prints, cards, photo books or other photo products. Through uploading and sharing, images are easily transferred from one format to another. And often, a different set of associated content (text, tags) is created across formats. For example, on his web blog, a user may journal his experiences of his recent travel; on his social network website, his friends tag and comment on the pictures; in his online photo album, some pictures are titled and keyword-tagged. When the user wants to tell a complete story, perhaps in a photo book, he must collect, across all formats: the pictures, writings and comments, etc. and organize them in a book format. The user has to arrange the content of his trip in each format. The arrangement, the associations between the images, tags, keywords and text, cannot be shared with other formats. In this paper, we propose a system that allows the content to be easily created and shared across various digital media formats. We define a uniformed data association structure to connect: images, documents, comments, tags, keywords and other data. This content structure allows the user to switch representation formats without reediting. The framework under each format can emphasize (display or hide) content elements based on preference. For example, a slide show view will emphasize the display of pictures with limited text; a blog view will display highlighted images and journal text; and the photo book will try to fit in all images and text content. In this paper, we will discuss the strategy to associate pictures with text content, so that it can naturally tell a story. We will also list

  20. Sharing Expository Texts with Preschool Children in Special Education (United States)

    Breit-Smith, Allison; Busch, Jamie; Guo, Ying


    Although a general limited availability of expository texts currently exists in preschool special education classrooms, expository tests offer speech-language pathologists (SLPs) a rich context for addressing the language goals of preschool children with language impairment on their caseloads. Thus, this article highlights the differences between…

  1. Knowledge Representation in Travelling Texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mousten, Birthe; Locmele, Gunta


    Today, information travels fast. Texts travel, too. In a corporate context, the question is how to manage which knowledge elements should travel to a new language area or market and in which form? The decision to let knowledge elements travel or not travel highly depends on the limitation...... and the purpose of the text in a new context as well as on predefined parameters for text travel. For texts used in marketing and in technology, the question is whether culture-bound knowledge representation should be domesticated or kept as foreign elements, or should be mirrored or moulded—or should not travel...... at all! When should semantic and pragmatic elements in a text be replaced and by which other elements? The empirical basis of our work is marketing and technical texts in English, which travel into the Latvian and Danish markets, respectively....

  2. Texting while driving: is speech-based text entry less risky than handheld text entry? (United States)

    He, J; Chaparro, A; Nguyen, B; Burge, R J; Crandall, J; Chaparro, B; Ni, R; Cao, S


    Research indicates that using a cell phone to talk or text while maneuvering a vehicle impairs driving performance. However, few published studies directly compare the distracting effects of texting using a hands-free (i.e., speech-based interface) versus handheld cell phone, which is an important issue for legislation, automotive interface design and driving safety training. This study compared the effect of speech-based versus handheld text entries on simulated driving performance by asking participants to perform a car following task while controlling the duration of a secondary text-entry task. Results showed that both speech-based and handheld text entries impaired driving performance relative to the drive-only condition by causing more variation in speed and lane position. Handheld text entry also increased the brake response time and increased variation in headway distance. Text entry using a speech-based cell phone was less detrimental to driving performance than handheld text entry. Nevertheless, the speech-based text entry task still significantly impaired driving compared to the drive-only condition. These results suggest that speech-based text entry disrupts driving, but reduces the level of performance interference compared to text entry with a handheld device. In addition, the difference in the distraction effect caused by speech-based and handheld text entry is not simply due to the difference in task duration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Hamman-Rich syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arshiya Mastan

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute interstitial pneumonia is a rare but important diagnosis, associated with a high mortality rate and important to identify early.Case presentation: A 76 year-old individual presented to hospital with a two-week history of shortness of breath, fevers and a non-productive cough.Treatment initially was for lower respiratory tract infection but returned to hospital three days later as her shortness of breath and peripheral oedema was worsening despite diuretic treatment. Arterial blood gas showed Type 1 Respiratory Failure (p02 was only 10 kPa on 4 L per minute of oxygen. A computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA was performed to rule out a pulmonary embolism (PE, which showed multifocal diffuse areas of consolidations bilaterally involving all lobes. Bronchoalveolar lavage cellular analysis was also done.The patient was treated as nonspecific interstitial pneumonia. This case study highlights this rare condition presenting similarly to common pulmonary conditions.Discussion: The disease is often preceded by a flu-like prodromal illness lasting one to two weeks prior to presentation. Acute respiratory failure develops in previously healthy individuals without pre-existing lung disease. Diagnosis is also supported by high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT. The effects of high flow ventilation in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis are associated with improvement in respiratory parameters, improving the efficiency of breathing.Conclusion: Acute interstitial pneumonitis can be a difficult diagnosis, associated with a high mortality rate up to 60%. It is also difficult to treat; however supportive treatment with high flow oxygen therapy along with pulsatile high dose Corticosteroids can aid recovery.

  4. Developmental localization and the role of hydroxyproline rich glycoproteins during somatic embryogenesis of banana (Musa spp. AAA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menzel Diedrik


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hydroxyproline rich glycoproteins (HRGPs are implicated to have a role in many aspects of plant growth and development but there is limited knowledge about their localization and function during somatic embryogenesis of higher plants. In this study, the localization and function of hydroxyproline rich glycoproteins in embryogenic cells (ECs and somatic embryos of banana were investigated by using immunobloting and immunocytochemistry with monoclonal JIM11 and JIM20 antibodies as well as by treatment with 3,4-dehydro-L-proline (3,4-DHP, an inhibitor of extensin biosynthesis, and by immunomodulation with the JIM11 antibody. Results Immunofluorescence labelling of JIM11 and JIM20 hydroxyproline rich glycoprotein epitopes was relatively weak in non-embryogenic cells (NECs, mainly on the edge of small cell aggregates. On the other hand, hydroxyproline rich glycoprotein epitopes were found to be enriched in early embryogenic cells as well as in various developmental stages of somatic embryos. Embryogenic cells (ECs, proembryos and globular embryos showed strong labelling of hydroxyproline rich glycoprotein epitopes, especially in their cell walls and outer surface layer, so-called extracellular matrix (ECM. This hydroxyproline rich glycoprotein signal at embryo surfaces decreased and/or fully disappeared during later developmental stages (e.g. pear-shaped and cotyledonary stages of embryos. In these later developmental embryogenic stages, however, new prominent hydroxyproline rich glycoprotein labelling appeared in tri-cellular junctions among parenchymatic cells inside these embryos. Overall immunofluorescence labelling of late stage embryos with JIM20 antibody was weaker than that of JIM11. Western blot analysis supported the above immunolocalization data. The treatment with 3,4-DHP inhibited the development of embryogenic cells and decreased the rate of embryo germination. Embryo-like structures, which developed after 3,4-DHP

  5. Active Learning for Text Classification


    Hu, Rong


    Text classification approaches are used extensively to solve real-world challenges. The success or failure of text classification systems hangs on the datasets used to train them, without a good dataset it is impossible to build a quality system. This thesis examines the applicability of active learning in text classification for the rapid and economical creation of labelled training data. Four main contributions are made in this thesis. First, we present two novel selection strategies to cho...

  6. Text Mining Applications and Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Berry, Michael W


    Text Mining: Applications and Theory presents the state-of-the-art algorithms for text mining from both the academic and industrial perspectives.  The contributors span several countries and scientific domains: universities, industrial corporations, and government laboratories, and demonstrate the use of techniques from machine learning, knowledge discovery, natural language processing and information retrieval to design computational models for automated text analysis and mining. This volume demonstrates how advancements in the fields of applied mathematics, computer science, machine learning

  7. Texting preferences in a Paediatric residency. (United States)

    Draper, Lauren; Kuklinski, Cadence; Ladley, Amy; Adamson, Greg; Broom, Matthew


    Text messaging is ubiquitous among residents, but remains an underused educational tool. Though feasibility has been demonstrated, evidence of its ability to improve standardised test scores and provide insight on resident texting preferences is lacking. The authors set out to evaluate: (1) satisfaction with a hybrid question-and-answer (Q&A) texting format; and (2) pre-/post-paediatric in-training exam (ITE) performance. A prospective study with paediatrics and internal medicine-paediatrics residents. Residents were divided into subgroups: adolescent medicine (AM) and developmental medicine (DM). Messages were derived from ITE questions and sent Monday-Friday with a 20 per cent variance in messages specific to the sub-group. Residents completed surveys gauging perceptions of the programme, and pre- and post-programme ITE scores were analysed. Forty-one residents enrolled and 32 (78%) completed a post-programme survey. Of those, 21 (66%) preferred a Q&A format with an immediate text response versus information-only texts. The percentage change in ITE scores between 2013 and 2014 was significant. Comparing subgroups, there was no significant difference between the percentage change in ITE scores. Neither group performed significantly better on either the adolescent or developmental sections of the ITE. Text messaging… remains an underused educational tool CONCLUSIONS: Overall, participants improved their ITE scores, but no improvement was seen in the targeted subgroups on the exam. Although Q&A texts are preferred by residents, further assessment is required to assess the effect on educational outcomes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  8. Adaptive Reactive Rich Internet Applications (United States)

    Schmidt, Kay-Uwe; Stühmer, Roland; Dörflinger, Jörg; Rahmani, Tirdad; Thomas, Susan; Stojanovic, Ljiljana

    Rich Internet Applications significantly raise the user experience compared with legacy page-based Web applications because of their highly responsive user interfaces. Although this is a tremendous advance, it does not solve the problem of the one-size-fits-all approach1 of current Web applications. So although Rich Internet Applications put the user in a position to interact seamlessly with the Web application, they do not adapt to the context in which the user is currently working. In this paper we address the on-the-fly personalization of Rich Internet Applications. We introduce the concept of ARRIAs: Adaptive Reactive Rich Internet Applications and elaborate on how they are able to adapt to the current working context the user is engaged in. An architecture for the ad hoc adaptation of Rich Internet Applications is presented as well as a holistic framework and tools for the realization of our on-the-fly personalization approach. We divided both the architecture and the framework into two levels: offline/design-time and online/run-time. For design-time we explain how to use ontologies in order to annotate Rich Internet Applications and how to use these annotations for conceptual Web usage mining. Furthermore, we describe how to create client-side executable rules from the semantic data mining results. We present our declarative lightweight rule language tailored to the needs of being executed directly on the client. Because of the event-driven nature of the user interfaces of Rich Internet Applications, we designed a lightweight rule language based on the event-condition-action paradigm.2 At run-time the interactions of a user are tracked directly on the client and in real-time a user model is built up. The user model then acts as input to and is evaluated by our client-side complex event processing and rule engine.

  9. Text and ideology: text-oriented discourse analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eduarda Gonçalves Peixoto


    Full Text Available The article aims to contribute to the understanding of the connection between text and ideology articulated by the text-oriented analysis of discourse (ADTO. Based on the reflections of Fairclough (1989, 2001, 2003 and Fairclough and Chouliaraki (1999, the debate presents the social ontology that ADTO uses to base its conception of social life as an open system and textually mediated; the article then explains the chronological-narrative development of the main critical theories of ideology, by virtue of which ADTO organizes the assumptions that underpin the particular use it makes of the term. Finally, the discussion presents the main aspects of the connection between text and ideology, offering a conceptual framework that can contribute to the domain of the theme according to a critical discourse analysis approach.

  10. Aspherical Dust Envelopes Around Oxygen-Rich AGB Stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Won Suh


    Full Text Available We model the aspherical dust envelopes around O-rich AGB stars. We perform the radiative transfer model calculations for axisymmetric dust distributions. We simulate what could be observed from the aspherical dust envelopes around O-rich AGB stars by presenting the model spectral energy distributions and images at various wavelengths for different optical depths and viewing angles. The model results are very different from the ones with spherically symmetric geometry.

  11. English Metafunction Analysis in Chemistry Text: Characterization of Scientific Text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Amin Dalimunte, M.Hum


    Full Text Available The objectives of this research are to identify what Metafunctions are applied in chemistry text and how they characterize a scientific text. It was conducted by applying content analysis. The data for this research was a twelve-paragraph chemistry text. The data were collected by applying a documentary technique. The document was read and analyzed to find out the Metafunction. The data were analyzed by some procedures: identifying the types of process, counting up the number of the processes, categorizing and counting up the cohesion devices, classifying the types of modulation and determining modality value, finally counting up the number of sentences and clauses, then scoring the grammatical intricacy index. The findings of the research show that Material process (71of 100 is mostly used, circumstance of spatial location (26 of 56 is more dominant than the others. Modality (5 is less used in order to avoid from subjectivity. Impersonality is implied through less use of reference either pronouns (7 or demonstrative (7, conjunctions (60 are applied to develop ideas, and the total number of the clauses are found much more dominant (109 than the total number of the sentences (40 which results high grammatical intricacy index. The Metafunction found indicate that the chemistry text has fulfilled the characteristics of scientific or academic text which truly reflects it as a natural science.

  12. Anti-Atherosclerotic Effects of a Phytoestrogen-Rich Herbal Preparation in Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika A. Myasoedova


    Full Text Available The risk of cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis progression is significantly increased after menopause, probably due to the decrease of estrogen levels. The use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT for prevention of cardiovascular disease in older postmenopausal failed to meet expectations. Phytoestrogens may induce some improvements in climacteric symptoms, but their effect on the progression of atherosclerosis remains unclear. The reduction of cholesterol accumulation at the cellular level should lead to inhibition of the atherosclerotic process in the arterial wall. The inhibition of intracellular lipid deposition with isoflavonoids was suggested as the effective way for the prevention of plaque formation in the arterial wall. The aim of this double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study was to investigate the effect of an isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation on atherosclerosis progression in postmenopausal women free of overt cardiovascular disease. One hundred fifty-seven healthy postmenopausal women (age 65 ± 6 were randomized to a 500 mg isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation containing tannins from grape seeds, green tea leaves, hop cone powder, and garlic powder, or placebo. Conventional cardiovascular risk factors and intima-media thickness of common carotid arteries (cIMT were evaluated at the baseline and after 12 months of treatment. After 12-months follow-up, total cholesterol decreased by 6.3% in isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation recipients (p = 0.011 and by 5.2% in placebo recipients (p = 0.020; low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol decreased by 7.6% in isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation recipients (p = 0.040 and by 5.2% in placebo recipients (non-significant, NS; high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol decreased by 3.4% in isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation recipients (NS and by 4.5% in placebo recipients (p = 0.038; triglycerides decreased by 6.0% in isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation recipients (NS and by

  13. Text Genres in Information Organization (United States)

    Nahotko, Marek


    Introduction: Text genres used by so-called information organizers in the processes of information organization in information systems were explored in this research. Method: The research employed text genre socio-functional analysis. Five genre groups in information organization were distinguished. Every genre group used in information…

  14. Strategies for Translating Vocative Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The paper deals with the linguistic and cultural elements of vocative texts and the techniques used in translating them by giving some examples of texts that are typically vocative (i.e. advertisements and instructions for use. Semantic and communicative strategies are popular in translation studies and each of them has its own advantages and disadvantages in translating vocative texts. The advantage of semantic translation is that it takes more account of the aesthetic value of the SL text, while communicative translation attempts to render the exact contextual meaning of the original text in such a way that both content and language are readily acceptable and comprehensible to the readership. Focus is laid on the strategies used in translating vocative texts, strategies that highlight and introduce a cultural context to the target audience, in order to achieve their overall purpose, that is to sell or persuade the reader to behave in a certain way. Thus, in order to do that, a number of advertisements from the field of cosmetics industry and electronic gadgets were selected for analysis. The aim is to gather insights into vocative text translation and to create new perspectives on this field of research, now considered a process of innovation and diversion, especially in areas as important as economy and marketing.

  15. Text Mining the History of Medicine. (United States)

    Thompson, Paul; Batista-Navarro, Riza Theresa; Kontonatsios, Georgios; Carter, Jacob; Toon, Elizabeth; McNaught, John; Timmermann, Carsten; Worboys, Michael; Ananiadou, Sophia


    Historical text archives constitute a rich and diverse source of information, which is becoming increasingly readily accessible, due to large-scale digitisation efforts. However, it can be difficult for researchers to explore and search such large volumes of data in an efficient manner. Text mining (TM) methods can help, through their ability to recognise various types of semantic information automatically, e.g., instances of concepts (places, medical conditions, drugs, etc.), synonyms/variant forms of concepts, and relationships holding between concepts (which drugs are used to treat which medical conditions, etc.). TM analysis allows search systems to incorporate functionality such as automatic suggestions of synonyms of user-entered query terms, exploration of different concepts mentioned within search results or isolation of documents in which concepts are related in specific ways. However, applying TM methods to historical text can be challenging, according to differences and evolutions in vocabulary, terminology, language structure and style, compared to more modern text. In this article, we present our efforts to overcome the various challenges faced in the semantic analysis of published historical medical text dating back to the mid 19th century. Firstly, we used evidence from diverse historical medical documents from different periods to develop new resources that provide accounts of the multiple, evolving ways in which concepts, their variants and relationships amongst them may be expressed. These resources were employed to support the development of a modular processing pipeline of TM tools for the robust detection of semantic information in historical medical documents with varying characteristics. We applied the pipeline to two large-scale medical document archives covering wide temporal ranges as the basis for the development of a publicly accessible semantically-oriented search system. The novel resources are available for research purposes, while

  16. Systematic characterizations of text similarity in full text biomedical publications. (United States)

    Sun, Zhaohui; Errami, Mounir; Long, Tara; Renard, Chris; Choradia, Nishant; Garner, Harold


    Computational methods have been used to find duplicate biomedical publications in MEDLINE. Full text articles are becoming increasingly available, yet the similarities among them have not been systematically studied. Here, we quantitatively investigated the full text similarity of biomedical publications in PubMed Central. 72,011 full text articles from PubMed Central (PMC) were parsed to generate three different datasets: full texts, sections, and paragraphs. Text similarity comparisons were performed on these datasets using the text similarity algorithm eTBLAST. We measured the frequency of similar text pairs and compared it among different datasets. We found that high abstract similarity can be used to predict high full text similarity with a specificity of 20.1% (95% CI [17.3%, 23.1%]) and sensitivity of 99.999%. Abstract similarity and full text similarity have a moderate correlation (Pearson correlation coefficient: -0.423) when the similarity ratio is above 0.4. Among pairs of articles in PMC, method sections are found to be the most repetitive (frequency of similar pairs, methods: 0.029, introduction: 0.0076, results: 0.0043). In contrast, among a set of manually verified duplicate articles, results are the most repetitive sections (frequency of similar pairs, results: 0.94, methods: 0.89, introduction: 0.82). Repetition of introduction and methods sections is more likely to be committed by the same authors (odds of a highly similar pair having at least one shared author, introduction: 2.31, methods: 1.83, results: 1.03). There is also significantly more similarity in pairs of review articles than in pairs containing one review and one nonreview paper (frequency of similar pairs: 0.0167 and 0.0023, respectively). While quantifying abstract similarity is an effective approach for finding duplicate citations, a comprehensive full text analysis is necessary to uncover all potential duplicate citations in the scientific literature and is helpful when

  17. Planet Formation (United States)

    Podolak, Morris


    Modern observational techniques are still not powerful enough to directly view planet formation, and so it is necessary to rely on theory. However, observations do give two important clues to the formation process. The first is that the most primitive form of material in interstellar space exists as a dilute gas. Some of this gas is unstable against gravitational collapse, and begins to contract. Because the angular momentum of the gas is not zero, it contracts along the spin axis, but remains extended in the plane perpendicular to that axis, so that a disk is formed. Viscous processes in the disk carry most of the mass into the center where a star eventually forms. In the process, almost as a by-product, a planetary system is formed as well. The second clue is the time required. Young stars are indeed observed to have gas disks, composed mostly of hydrogen and helium, surrounding them, and observations tell us that these disks dissipate after about 5 to 10 million years. If planets like Jupiter and Saturn, which are very rich in hydrogen and helium, are to form in such a disk, they must accrete their gas within 5 million years of the time of the formation of the disk. Any formation scenario one proposes must produce Jupiter in that time, although the terrestrial planets, which don't contain significant amounts of hydrogen and helium, could have taken longer to build. Modern estimates for the formation time of the Earth are of the order of 100 million years. To date there are two main candidate theories for producing Jupiter-like planets. The core accretion (CA) scenario supposes that any solid materials in the disk slowly coagulate into protoplanetary cores with progressively larger masses. If the core remains small enough it won't have a strong enough gravitational force to attract gas from the surrounding disk, and the result will be a terrestrial planet. If the core grows large enough (of the order of ten Earth masses), and the disk has not yet dissipated, then

  18. Linguistic Dating of Biblical Texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehrensvärd, Martin Gustaf


    For two centuries, scholars have pointed to consistent differences in the Hebrew of certain biblical texts and interpreted these differences as reflecting the date of composition of the texts. Until the 1980s, this was quite uncontroversial as the linguistic findings largely confirmed the chronol......For two centuries, scholars have pointed to consistent differences in the Hebrew of certain biblical texts and interpreted these differences as reflecting the date of composition of the texts. Until the 1980s, this was quite uncontroversial as the linguistic findings largely confirmed...... the chronology of the texts established by other means: the Hebrew of Genesis-2 Kings was judged to be early and that of Esther, Daniel, Ezra, Nehemiah, and Chronicles to be late. In the current debate where revisionists have questioned the traditional dating, linguistic arguments in the dating of texts have...... come more into focus. The study critically examines some linguistic arguments adduced to support the traditional position, and reviewing the arguments it points to weaknesses in the linguistic dating of EBH texts to pre-exilic times. When viewing the linguistic evidence in isolation it will be clear...

  19. Superclusters and galaxy formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einasto, J.; Joeveer, M.; Saar, E.


    The spatial distribution of Galaxies and Galaxy congestions in the southern galactic hemisphere is studied. The rich galaxy congestions, containing many elliptic Galaxies and radiogalaxies, are linked with each other by chains of scanty congestions with moderate content of elliptic Galaxies and radiogalaxies. The flat formation, linking the density pikes and the intermediate chains, can reasonably be called supercongestion. In the central region of supercongestions there is a thin layer of Galaxies consisting of only spiral Galaxies. The neighbouring supercongestions touch each other, while the intersupercongestion space contains no Galaxy congestions and almost no Galaxies. It is shown that such a structure was, apparently, formed before the formation of Galaxies

  20. Biomarker Identification Using Text Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Li


    Full Text Available Identifying molecular biomarkers has become one of the important tasks for scientists to assess the different phenotypic states of cells or organisms correlated to the genotypes of diseases from large-scale biological data. In this paper, we proposed a text-mining-based method to discover biomarkers from PubMed. First, we construct a database based on a dictionary, and then we used a finite state machine to identify the biomarkers. Our method of text mining provides a highly reliable approach to discover the biomarkers in the PubMed database.

  1. Stemming Malay Text and Its Application in Automatic Text Categorization (United States)

    Yasukawa, Michiko; Lim, Hui Tian; Yokoo, Hidetoshi

    In Malay language, there are no conjugations and declensions and affixes have important grammatical functions. In Malay, the same word may function as a noun, an adjective, an adverb, or, a verb, depending on its position in the sentence. Although extensively simple root words are used in informal conversations, it is essential to use the precise words in formal speech or written texts. In Malay, to make sentences clear, derivative words are used. Derivation is achieved mainly by the use of affixes. There are approximately a hundred possible derivative forms of a root word in written language of the educated Malay. Therefore, the composition of Malay words may be complicated. Although there are several types of stemming algorithms available for text processing in English and some other languages, they cannot be used to overcome the difficulties in Malay word stemming. Stemming is the process of reducing various words to their root forms in order to improve the effectiveness of text processing in information systems. It is essential to avoid both over-stemming and under-stemming errors. We have developed a new Malay stemmer (stemming algorithm) for removing inflectional and derivational affixes. Our stemmer uses a set of affix rules and two types of dictionaries: a root-word dictionary and a derivative-word dictionary. The use of set of rules is aimed at reducing the occurrence of under-stemming errors, while that of the dictionaries is believed to reduce the occurrence of over-stemming errors. We performed an experiment to evaluate the application of our stemmer in text mining software. For the experiment, text data used were actual web pages collected from the World Wide Web to demonstrate the effectiveness of our Malay stemming algorithm. The experimental results showed that our stemmer can effectively increase the precision of the extracted Boolean expressions for text categorization.

  2. Thick disk and pseudobulge formation in a clump cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inoue S.


    Full Text Available Bulges in spiral galaxies have been supposed to be classified into two types: classical bulges or pseudobulges. Classical bulges are thought to form by galactic merger with bursty star formation, whereas pseudobulges are suggested to form by secular evolution. Noguchi (1998,199 suggested another bulge formation scenario, ‘clump-origin bulge’ [1,2]. He demonstrated using a numerical simulation that a galactic disc suffers dynamical instability to form clumpy structures in the early stage of disc formation, then the clumps are sucked into the galactic centre by dynamical friction and merge into a single bulge at the centre. Therefore, clump-origin bulges may have their own unique properties. I perform a high-resolution N-body/SPH simulation for the formation of the clump-origin bulge in an isolated galaxy model and study the formation of the clump-origin bulge. I find that the clump-origin bulge resembles pseudobulges in dynamical properties, a nearly exponential surface density profile, a barred boxy shape and a significant rotation. I also find that this bulge consists of old and metal-rich stars. These natures, old metal-rich population but pseudobulge-like structures, mean that the clump-origin bulge can not be simply classified into classical bulges nor pseudobulges. From these results, I discuss similarities of the clump-origin bulge to the Milky Way (MW bulge.

  3. Comparative Effects of Platelet-Rich Plasma, Platelet Lysate, and Fetal Calf Serum on Mesenchymal Stem Cells. (United States)

    Lykov, A P; Bondarenko, N A; Surovtseva, M A; Kim, I I; Poveshchenko, O V; Pokushalov, E A; Konenkov, V I


    We studied the effects of human platelet-rich plasma and platelet lysate on proliferation, migration, and colony-forming properties of rat mesenchymal stem cells. Platelet-rich plasma and platelet lysate stimulated the proliferation, migration, and colony formation of mesenchymal stem cells. A real-time study showed that platelet-rich plasma produces the most potent stimulatory effect, while both platelet-rich plasma and platelet lysate stimulated migration of cells.

  4. Anomaly Detection with Text Mining (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Many existing complex space systems have a significant amount of historical maintenance and problem data bases that are stored in unstructured text forms. The...

  5. Social Studies: Texts and Supplements. (United States)

    Curriculum Review, 1979


    This review of selected social studies texts, series, and supplements, mainly for the secondary level, includes a special section examining eight titles on warfare and terrorism for grades 4-12. (SJL)

  6. The geological characteristics and forming conditions of granite type uranium-rich ore deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Tiangang; Tong Hangshou; Feng Mingyue; Li Yuexiang; Xu Zhan


    The forming conditions and concentration mechanism of rich ore, criteria of ore prospecting and selection of uranium-rich ore target area are introduced in the article that is based on the studying of geological characteristics and conditions of granite type uranium-rich ore deposits of No 201 and 361 and on the comparisons of rich and poor ore deposits in geological conditions. Some new view points are also presented as the separate deposition of uranium minerals and gangue minerals is the main mechanism to form rich ore, for rich ore formation the ore enrichment by superimposition is not a universal regularity and most uranium-rich ore deposits are formed within one mineralization stage or mainly in one mineralization stage

  7. The geological characteristics and forming conditions of granite type uranium-rich ore deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiangang, Li; Hangshou, Tong; Mingyue, Feng; Yuexiang, Li; Zhan, Xu [Beijing Research Inst. of Uranium Geology (China)


    The forming conditions and concentration mechanism of rich ore, criteria of ore prospecting and selection of uranium-rich ore target area are introduced in the article that is based on the studying of geological characteristics and conditions of granite type uranium-rich ore deposits of No 201 and 361 and on the comparisons of rich and poor ore deposits in geological conditions. Some new view points are also presented as the separate deposition of uranium minerals and gangue minerals is the main mechanism to form rich ore, for rich ore formation the ore enrichment by superimposition is not a universal regularity and most uranium-rich ore deposits are formed within one mineralization stage or mainly in one mineralization stage.

  8. Magnesium-rich Basalts on Mercury (United States)

    Martel, L. M. V.


    X-ray and gamma-ray spectrometers on NASA's MESSENGER spacecraft are making key measurements regarding the composition and properties of the surface of Mercury, allowing researchers to more clearly decipher the planet's formation and geologic history. The origin of the igneous rocks in the crust of Mercury is the focus of recent research by Karen Stockstill-Cahill and Tim McCoy (National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution), along with Larry Nittler and Shoshana Weider (Carnegie Institution of Washington) and Steven Hauck II (Case Western Reserve University). Using the well-known MELTS computer code Stockstill-Cahill and coauthors worked with MESSENGER-derived and rock-analog compositions to constrain petrologic models of the lavas that erupted on the surface of Mercury. Rock analogs included a partial melt of the Indarch meteorite and a range of Mg-rich terrestrial rocks. Their work shows the lavas on Mercury are most similar to terrestrial magnesian basalt (with lowered FeO content). The implications of the modeling are that Mg-rich lavas came from high-temperature sources in Mercury's mantle and erupted at high temperature with exceptionally low viscosity into thinly bedded and laterally extensive flows, concepts open to further evaluation by laboratory experiments and by geologic mapping of Mercury's surface using MESSENGER's imaging system and laser altimeter to document flow features and dimensions.

  9. Production of neutron-rich nuclides in the vicinity of N = 126 shell closure in multinucleon transfer reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karpov Alexander


    Full Text Available Multinucleon transfer in low-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions is widely discussed as a method of production of yet-unknown neutron-rich nuclei hardly accessible (or inaccessible by other methods. Modeling of complicated dynamics of nuclear reactions induced by heavy ions is done within a multidimensional dynamical model of nucleus-nucleus collisions based on the Langevin equations. The model gives a continuous description of the system evolution starting from the well-separated target and projectile in the entrance channel of the reaction up to the formation of final reaction products. In this paper, rather recent sets of experimental data for the 136Xe+198Pt,208Pb reactions are analyzed together with the production cross sections for neutron-rich nuclei in the vicinity of the N = 126 magic shell.

  10. [Plant signaling peptides. Cysteine-rich peptides]. (United States)

    Ostrowski, Maciej; Kowalczyk, Stanisław


    Recent bioinformatic and genetic analyses of several model plant genomes have revealed the existence of a highly abundant group of signaling peptides that are defined as cysteine-rich peptides (CRPs). CRPs are usually in size between 50 and 90 amino acid residues, they are positively charged, and they contain 4-16 cysteine residues that are important for the correct conformational folding. Despite the structural differences among CRP classes, members from each class have striking similarities in their molecular properties and function. The present review presents the recent progress in research on signaling peptides from several families including: EPF/EPFL, SP11/SCR, PrsS, RALF, LURE, and some other peptides belonging to CRP group. There is convincing evidence indicating multiple roles for these CRPs as signaling molecules during the plant life cycle, ranging from stomata development and patterning, self-incompatibility, pollen tube growth and guidance, reproductive processes, and nodule formation.

  11. GPU-Accelerated Text Mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, X.; Mueller, F.; Zhang, Y.; Potok, Thomas E.


    Accelerating hardware devices represent a novel promise for improving the performance for many problem domains but it is not clear for which domains what accelerators are suitable. While there is no room in general-purpose processor design to significantly increase the processor frequency, developers are instead resorting to multi-core chips duplicating conventional computing capabilities on a single die. Yet, accelerators offer more radical designs with a much higher level of parallelism and novel programming environments. This present work assesses the viability of text mining on CUDA. Text mining is one of the key concepts that has become prominent as an effective means to index the Internet, but its applications range beyond this scope and extend to providing document similarity metrics, the subject of this work. We have developed and optimized text search algorithms for GPUs to exploit their potential for massive data processing. We discuss the algorithmic challenges of parallelization for text search problems on GPUs and demonstrate the potential of these devices in experiments by reporting significant speedups. Our study may be one of the first to assess more complex text search problems for suitability for GPU devices, and it may also be one of the first to exploit and report on atomic instruction usage that have recently become available in NVIDIA devices

  12. Comprehending text in literature class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purić Daliborka S.


    Full Text Available The paper discusses the problem of understanding a text and the contribution of methodological apparatus in the reader book to comprehension of a text being read in junior classes of elementary school. By using the technique of content analysis from methodological apparatuses in eight reader books for the fourth grade of elementary school, approved for usage in 2014/2015 academic year, and surveying 350 teachers in 33 elementary schools and 11 administrative districts in the Republic of Serbia we examined: (a to what extent the Serbian language text book contents enable junior students to understand a literary text; (b to what extent teachers accept the suggestions offered in the textbook for preparing literature teaching. The results show that a large number of suggestions relate to reading comprehension, but some of categories of understanding are unevenly distributed in the methodological apparatus. On the other hand, the majority of teachers use the methodological apparatus given in a textbook for preparing classes, not only the textbook he or she selected for teaching but also other textbooks for the same grade.

  13. The STAR-RICH Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Lasiuk, B; Braem, André; Cozza, D; Davenport, M; De Cataldo, G; Dell'Olio, L; Di Bari, D; Di Mauro, A; Dunlop, J C; Finch, E; Fraissard, Daniel; Franco, A; Gans, J; Ghidini, B; Harris, J W; Horsley, M; Kunde, G J; Lasiuk, B; Lesenechal, Y; Majka, R D; Martinengo, P; Morsch, Andreas; Nappi, E; Paic, G; Piuz, François; Posa, F; Raynaud, J; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Santiard, Jean-Claude; Satinover, J; Schyns, E M; Smirnov, N; Van Beelen, J; Williams, T D; Xu, Z


    The STAR-RICH detector extends the particle idenfication capabilities of the STAR spectrometer for charged hadrons at mid-rapidity. It allows identification of pions and kaons up to ~3 GeV/c and protons up to ~5 GeV/c. The characteristics and performance of the device in the inaugural RHIC run are described.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Andrea; Marchetti, Emanuela


    Rich pictures (RP) are common in object-oriented analysis and design courses, but students seem to have problems in integrating them in their projects' workflow. A new software tool is being developed, specific for RP authoring. To better understand students' issues and working practice with RP...

  15. A Guide Text or Many Texts? "That is the Question”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delgado de Valencia Sonia


    Full Text Available The use of supplementary materials in the classroom has always been an essential part of the teaching and learning process. To restrict our teaching to the scope of one single textbook means to stand behind the advances of knowledge, in any area and context. Young learners appreciate any new and varied support that expands their knowledge of the world: diaries, letters, panels, free texts, magazines, short stories, poems or literary excerpts, and articles taken from Internet are materials that will allow learnersto share more and work more collaboratively. In this article we are going to deal with some of these materials, with the criteria to select, adapt, and create them that may be of interest to the learner and that may promote reading and writing processes. Since no text can entirely satisfy the needs of students and teachers, the creativity of both parties will be necessary to improve the quality of teaching through the adequate use and adaptation of supplementary materials.

  16. Individual Profiling Using Text Analysis (United States)


    AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2016-0011 Individual Profiling using Text Analysis 140333 Mark Stevenson UNIVERSITY OF SHEFFIELD, DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY Final...REPORT TYPE      Final 3.  DATES COVERED (From - To)      15 Sep 2014 to 14 Sep 2015 4.  TITLE AND SUBTITLE Individual Profiling using Text Analysis ...consisted of collections of tweets for a number of Twitter users whose gender, age and personality scores are known. The task was to construct some system

  17. Identifying issue frames in text.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyal Sagi

    Full Text Available Framing, the effect of context on cognitive processes, is a prominent topic of research in psychology and public opinion research. Research on framing has traditionally relied on controlled experiments and manually annotated document collections. In this paper we present a method that allows for quantifying the relative strengths of competing linguistic frames based on corpus analysis. This method requires little human intervention and can therefore be efficiently applied to large bodies of text. We demonstrate its effectiveness by tracking changes in the framing of terror over time and comparing the framing of abortion by Democrats and Republicans in the U.S.

  18. Finding text in color images (United States)

    Zhou, Jiangying; Lopresti, Daniel P.; Tasdizen, Tolga


    In this paper, we consider the problem of locating and extracting text from WWW images. A previous algorithm based on color clustering and connected components analysis works well as long as the color of each character is relatively uniform and the typography is fairly simple. It breaks down quickly, however, when these assumptions are violated. In this paper, we describe more robust techniques for dealing with this challenging problem. We present an improved color clustering algorithm that measures similarity based on both RGB and spatial proximity. Layout analysis is also incorporated to handle more complex typography. THese changes significantly enhance the performance of our text detection procedure.

  19. Multilingual text induced spelling correction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reynaert, M.W.C.


    We present TISC, a multilingual, language-independent and context-sensitive spelling checking and correction system designed to facilitate the automatic removal of non-word spelling errors in large corpora. Its lexicon is derived from raw text corpora, without supervision, and contains word unigrams

  20. Automated analysis of instructional text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, L.M.


    The development of a capability for automated processing of natural language text is a long-range goal of artificial intelligence. This paper discusses an investigation into the issues involved in the comprehension of descriptive, as opposed to illustrative, textual material. The comprehension process is viewed as the conversion of knowledge from one representation into another. The proposed target representation consists of statements of the prolog language, which can be interpreted both declaratively and procedurally, much like production rules. A computer program has been written to model in detail some ideas about this process. The program successfully analyzes several heavily edited paragraphs adapted from an elementary textbook on programming, automatically synthesizing as a result of the analysis a working Prolog program which, when executed, can parse and interpret let commands in the basic language. The paper discusses the motivations and philosophy of the project, the many kinds of prerequisite knowledge which are necessary, and the structure of the text analysis program. A sentence-by-sentence account of the analysis of the sample text is presented, describing the syntactic and semantic processing which is involved. The paper closes with a discussion of lessons learned from the project, possible alternative approaches, and possible extensions for future work. The entire project is presented as illustrative of the nature and complexity of the text analysis process, rather than as providing definitive or optimal solutions to any aspects of the task. 12 references.

  1. Solar Concepts: A Background Text. (United States)

    Gorham, Jonathan W.

    This text is designed to provide teachers, students, and the general public with an overview of key solar energy concepts. Various energy terms are defined and explained. Basic thermodynamic laws are discussed. Alternative energy production is described in the context of the present energy situation. Described are the principal contemporary solar…

  2. Quality Inspection of Printed Texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Ballisager; Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.


    -folded: for costumers of the printing and verification system, the overall grade used to verify if the text is of sufficient quality, while for printer's manufacturer, the detailed character/symbols grades and quality measurements are used for the improvement and optimization of the printing task. The proposed system...

  3. Habitability constraints on water-rich exoplanets (United States)

    Noack, Lena; Höning, Dennis; Rivoldini, Attilio; Heistracher, Clemens; Zimov, Nastasia; Journaux, Baptiste; Lammer, Helmut; Van Hoolst, Tim; Hendrik Bredehöft, Jan


    appear episodically at the water-mantle boundary (WMB). We also investigated the main paramters influencing the existence of volcanic activity and silicate crust formation. Under deep water layers, the high pressure from the overlying water layer can inhibit melting in the mantle. The main parameters influencing the maximal water layer depth, for which melting is still possible, are indeed the parameters influencing the mantle energy budget, which are the amount of radioactive heat sources and the initial upper mantle temperature. Plate tectonics also has a strong influence on the existence of volcanism. Crustal parameters (initial thickness or heat sources enrichment factor) as well as the ice rheology (i.e. the isolating effect of the ice shell on the mantle) have only a small influence on melting processes in the interior and the formation of crust. [1] L. Noack, A. Rivoldini and T. Van Hoolst 2015: CHIC - Coupling Habitability, Interior and Crust: A new Code for Modeling the Thermal Evolution of Planets and Moons. INFOCOMP 2015, ISSN 2308-3484, ISBN 978-1-61208-416-9, pp. 84-90, IARIA, 2015. [2] L. Noack, D. Höning, A. Rivoldini, C. Heistracher, N. Zimov, B. Journaux, H. Lammer, T. Van Hoolst and J.H. Bredehöft: Water-rich planets: how habitable is a water layer deeper than on Earth? Submitted to Icarus.

  4. Cluster Based Text Classification Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nizamani, Sarwat; Memon, Nasrullah; Wiil, Uffe Kock


    We propose a cluster based classification model for suspicious email detection and other text classification tasks. The text classification tasks comprise many training examples that require a complex classification model. Using clusters for classification makes the model simpler and increases...... the accuracy at the same time. The test example is classified using simpler and smaller model. The training examples in a particular cluster share the common vocabulary. At the time of clustering, we do not take into account the labels of the training examples. After the clusters have been created......, the classifier is trained on each cluster having reduced dimensionality and less number of examples. The experimental results show that the proposed model outperforms the existing classification models for the task of suspicious email detection and topic categorization on the Reuters-21578 and 20 Newsgroups...

  5. Linguistic dating of biblical texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, Ian; Rezetko, Robert; Ehrensvärd, Martin Gustaf

    Since the beginning of critical scholarship biblical texts have been dated using linguistic evidence. In recent years this has become a controversial topic, especially with the publication of Ian Young (ed.), Biblical Hebrew: Studies in Chronology and Typology (2003). However, until now there has...... been no introduction and comprehensive study of the field. Volume 1 introduces the field of linguistic dating of biblical texts, particularly to intermediate and advanced students of biblical Hebrew who have a reasonable background in the language, having completed at least an introductory course...... in this volume are: What is it that makes Archaic Biblical Hebrew archaic , Early Biblical Hebrew early , and Late Biblical Hebrew late ? Does linguistic typology, i.e. different linguistic characteristics, convert easily and neatly into linguistic chronology, i.e. different historical origins? A large amount...

  6. Text as an Autopoietic System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, Maria Skou


    The aim of the present research article is to discuss the possibilities and limitations in addressing text as an autopoietic system. The theory of autopoiesis originated in the field of biology in order to explain the dynamic processes entailed in sustaining living organisms at cellular level. Th....... By comparing the biological with the textual account of autopoietic agency, the end conclusion is that a newly derived concept of sociopoiesis might be better suited for discussing the architecture of textual systems....

  7. The TEXT upgrade vertical interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallock, G.A.; Gartman, M.L.; Li, W.; Chiang, K.; Shin, S.; Castles, R.L.; Chatterjee, R.; Rahman, A.S.


    A far-infrared interferometer has been installed on TEXT upgrade to obtain electron density profiles. The primary system views the plasma vertically through a set of large (60-cm radialx7.62-cm toroidal) diagnostic ports. A 1-cm channel spacing (59 channels total) and fast electronic time response is used, to provide high resolution for radial profiles and perturbation experiments. Initial operation of the vertical system was obtained late in 1991, with six operating channels

  8. Reasoning with Annotations of Texts


    Ma , Yue; Lévy , François; Ghimire , Sudeep


    International audience; Linguistic and semantic annotations are important features for text-based applications. However, achieving and maintaining a good quality of a set of annotations is known to be a complex task. Many ad hoc approaches have been developed to produce various types of annotations, while comparing those annotations to improve their quality is still rare. In this paper, we propose a framework in which both linguistic and domain information can cooperate to reason with annotat...

  9. Platelet-rich fibrin or platelet-rich plasma – which one is better? an opinion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Bansal


    Full Text Available The healing of hard and soft tissue in mediated by a wide range of intracellular and extracellular events that are regulated by signaling proteins. Platelets can play a crucial role in periodontal regeneration as they are the reservoirs of growth factors and cytokines which are the key factors for regeneration of bone and maturation of soft tissue. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP is first generation platelet concentrate. However, the short duration of cytokine release and its poor mechanical properties have resulted in search of new material. Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF is a natural fibrin-based biomaterial prepared from an anticoagulant-free blood harvest without any artificial biochemical modification (no bovine thrombin is required that allows obtaining fibrin membranes enriched with platelets and growth factors. The slow polymerization during centrifugation, fibrin-based structure, ease of preparation, minimal expense makes PRF somewhat superior in some aspect to PRP.

  10. New challenges for text mining: mapping between text and manually curated pathways (United States)

    Oda, Kanae; Kim, Jin-Dong; Ohta, Tomoko; Okanohara, Daisuke; Matsuzaki, Takuya; Tateisi, Yuka; Tsujii, Jun'ichi


    Background Associating literature with pathways poses new challenges to the Text Mining (TM) community. There are three main challenges to this task: (1) the identification of the mapping position of a specific entity or reaction in a given pathway, (2) the recognition of the causal relationships among multiple reactions, and (3) the formulation and implementation of required inferences based on biological domain knowledge. Results To address these challenges, we constructed new resources to link the text with a model pathway; they are: the GENIA pathway corpus with event annotation and NF-kB pathway. Through their detailed analysis, we address the untapped resource, ‘bio-inference,’ as well as the differences between text and pathway representation. Here, we show the precise comparisons of their representations and the nine classes of ‘bio-inference’ schemes observed in the pathway corpus. Conclusions We believe that the creation of such rich resources and their detailed analysis is the significant first step for accelerating the research of the automatic construction of pathway from text. PMID:18426550


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efremova Nataliya Vladimirovna


    Full Text Available The author studies inner dialogicity as an integral property of a scientist's thinking activity, a way of a scientific idea development, one of the cognitive and discursive mechanisms of new knowledge formation, its crystallization and dementalisation in a text, as a way of search for truth. Such approach to dialogicity in the study of a scientific text makes it possible to analyze the cogitative processes proceeding in human consciousness and cognitive activity, allows to fully understand the stated scientific concept, to define pragmatic strategies of the author, to plunge into his reflexive world. On the material of medical scientific texts of N.M. Amosov and F. G. Uglov, famous scientists in the field of cardio surgery, it is established that traces of internal dialogicity manifestation in the textual space of scientists actualize the origin of new knowledge, the change of author's semantic positions, his ability to reflect, compare, analyze his own thoughts and actions, to estimate oneself and the features of thinking process which are realized in logic of a statement of the scientific concept, an explanation of concepts, terms at judgment of the points of view of contemporaries and predecessors, adherents and scientist's opponents, and also orientation to the addressee's presupposition, activization of his cogitative activity. Linguistic, discursive, verbal analysis singles out the impact on the addressee, his mental activity.

  12. Text Mining for Protein Docking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha D Badal


    Full Text Available The rapidly growing amount of publicly available information from biomedical research is readily accessible on the Internet, providing a powerful resource for predictive biomolecular modeling. The accumulated data on experimentally determined structures transformed structure prediction of proteins and protein complexes. Instead of exploring the enormous search space, predictive tools can simply proceed to the solution based on similarity to the existing, previously determined structures. A similar major paradigm shift is emerging due to the rapidly expanding amount of information, other than experimentally determined structures, which still can be used as constraints in biomolecular structure prediction. Automated text mining has been widely used in recreating protein interaction networks, as well as in detecting small ligand binding sites on protein structures. Combining and expanding these two well-developed areas of research, we applied the text mining to structural modeling of protein-protein complexes (protein docking. Protein docking can be significantly improved when constraints on the docking mode are available. We developed a procedure that retrieves published abstracts on a specific protein-protein interaction and extracts information relevant to docking. The procedure was assessed on protein complexes from Dockground ( The results show that correct information on binding residues can be extracted for about half of the complexes. The amount of irrelevant information was reduced by conceptual analysis of a subset of the retrieved abstracts, based on the bag-of-words (features approach. Support Vector Machine models were trained and validated on the subset. The remaining abstracts were filtered by the best-performing models, which decreased the irrelevant information for ~ 25% complexes in the dataset. The extracted constraints were incorporated in the docking protocol and tested on the Dockground unbound

  13. The Balinese Unicode Text Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Habibi


    Full Text Available In principal, the computer only recognizes numbers as the representation of a character. Therefore, there are many encoding systems to allocate these numbers although not all characters are covered. In Europe, every single language even needs more than one encoding system. Hence, a new encoding system known as Unicode has been established to overcome this problem. Unicode provides unique id for each different characters which does not depend on platform, program, and language. Unicode standard has been applied in a number of industries, such as Apple, HP, IBM, JustSystem, Microsoft, Oracle, SAP, Sun, Sybase, and Unisys. In addition, language standards and modern information exchanges such as XML, Java, ECMA Script (JavaScript, LDAP, CORBA 3.0, and WML make use of Unicode as an official tool for implementing ISO/IEC 10646. There are four things to do according to Balinese script: the algorithm of transliteration, searching, sorting, and word boundary analysis (spell checking. To verify the truth of algorithm, some applications are made. These applications can run on Linux/Windows OS platform using J2SDK 1.5 and J2ME WTK2 library. The input and output of the algorithm/application are character sequence that is obtained from keyboard punch and external file. This research produces a module or a library which is able to process the Balinese text based on Unicode standard. The output of this research is the ability, skill, and mastering of 1. Unicode standard (21-bit as a substitution to ASCII (7-bit and ISO8859-1 (8-bit as the former default character set in many applications. 2. The Balinese Unicode text processing algorithm. 3. An experience of working with and learning from an international team that consists of the foremost experts in the area: Michael Everson (Ireland, Peter Constable (Microsoft US, I Made Suatjana, and Ida Bagus Adi Sudewa.

  14. Text mining by Tsallis entropy (United States)

    Jamaati, Maryam; Mehri, Ali


    Long-range correlations between the elements of natural languages enable them to convey very complex information. Complex structure of human language, as a manifestation of natural languages, motivates us to apply nonextensive statistical mechanics in text mining. Tsallis entropy appropriately ranks the terms' relevance to document subject, taking advantage of their spatial correlation length. We apply this statistical concept as a new powerful word ranking metric in order to extract keywords of a single document. We carry out an experimental evaluation, which shows capability of the presented method in keyword extraction. We find that, Tsallis entropy has reliable word ranking performance, at the same level of the best previous ranking methods.

  15. Biased limiter experiments on text

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, P.E.; Wootton, A.J.; Rowan, W.L.; Ritz, C.P.; Rhodes, T.L.; Bengtson, R.D.; Hodge, W.L.; Durst, R.D.; McCool, S.C.; Richards, B.; Gentle, K.W.; Schoch, P.; Forster, J.C.; Hickok, R.L.; Evans, T.E.


    Experiments using an electrically biased limiter have been performed on the Texas Experimental Tokamak (TEXT). A small movable limiter is inserted past the main poloidal ring limiter (which is electrically connected to the vacuum vessel) and biased at V Lim with respect to it. The floating potential, plasma potential and shear layer position can be controlled. With vertical strokeV Lim vertical stroke ≥ 50 V the plasma density increases. For V Lim Lim > 0 the results obtained are inconclusive. Variation of V Lim changes the electrostatic turbulence which may explain the observed total flux changes. (orig.)

  16. New Historicism: Text and Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta M. Vesić


    Full Text Available During most of the twentieth century history was seen as a phenomenon outside of literature that guaranteed the veracity of literary interpretation. History was unique and it functioned as a basis for reading literary works. During the seventies of the twentieth century there occurred a change of attitude towards history in American literary theory, and there appeared a new theoretical approach which soon became known as New Historicism. Since its inception, New Historicism has been identified with the study of Renaissance and Romanticism, but nowadays it has been increasingly involved in other literary trends. Although there are great differences in the arguments and practices at various representatives of this school, New Historicism has clearly recognizable features and many new historicists will agree with the statement of Walter Cohen that New Historicism, when it appeared in the eighties, represented something quite new in reference to the studies of theory, criticism and history (Cohen 1987, 33. Theoretical connection with Bakhtin, Foucault and Marx is clear, as well as a kind of uneasy tie with deconstruction and the work of Paul de Man. At the center of this approach is a renewed interest in the study of literary works in the light of historical and political circumstances in which they were created. Foucault encouraged readers to begin to move literary texts and to link them with discourses and representations that are not literary, as well as to examine the sociological aspects of the texts in order to take part in the social struggles of today. The study of literary works using New Historicism is the study of politics, history, culture and circumstances in which these works were created. With regard to one of the main fact which is located in the center of the criticism, that history cannot be viewed objectively and that reality can only be understood through a cultural context that reveals the work, re-reading and interpretation of

  17. Galaxy Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Longair, Malcolm S


    This second edition of Galaxy Formation is an up-to-date text on astrophysical cosmology, expounding the structure of the classical cosmological models from a contemporary viewpoint. This forms the background to a detailed study of the origin of structure and galaxies in the Universe. The derivations of many of the most important results are derived by simple physical arguments which illuminate the results of more advanced treatments. A very wide range of observational data is brought to bear upon these problems, including the most recent results from WMAP, the Hubble Space Telescope, galaxy surveys like the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey, studies of Type 1a supernovae, and many other observations.

  18. Transfer Learning beyond Text Classification (United States)

    Yang, Qiang

    Transfer learning is a new machine learning and data mining framework that allows the training and test data to come from different distributions or feature spaces. We can find many novel applications of machine learning and data mining where transfer learning is necessary. While much has been done in transfer learning in text classification and reinforcement learning, there has been a lack of documented success stories of novel applications of transfer learning in other areas. In this invited article, I will argue that transfer learning is in fact quite ubiquitous in many real world applications. In this article, I will illustrate this point through an overview of a broad spectrum of applications of transfer learning that range from collaborative filtering to sensor based location estimation and logical action model learning for AI planning. I will also discuss some potential future directions of transfer learning.

  19. Environmental heterogeneity–species richness relationships from a global perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anke Stein


    Full Text Available Spatial environmental heterogeneity (EH is considered one of the most important factors promoting species richness, but no general consent about the EH–richness relationship exists so far. This is because research methods and study settings vary widely, and because non-significant and negative associations have also been reported. My thesis provides a comprehensive review of the different measurements and terminologies of EH used in the literature, and presents strong quantitative evidence of a generally positive relationship between biotic and abiotic EH and species richness of terrestrial plants and animals from landscape to global extents. In a meta-analysis and a subsequent case study comparing multiple EH measures and their association with mammal species richness worldwide, I furthermore reveal that the outcome of EH–richness studies depends strongly on study design, including both the EH measure chosen and spatial scale. My research contributes to a better understanding of the EH–richness relationship, while identifying future research needs.

  20. The interjection in old Romanian texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margareta Manu Magda


    Full Text Available The paper tries to identify the special problems posed by the study of interjection based on the examination of a corpus of texts from the old Romanian (1600–1780, referring to texts from modern Romanian. We have watched how certain interjectional formations have acquired, through diachronic expansion, new grammatical, semantic and pragmatic values.The structure of the paper is the following: the introduction (§1 summarizes the author’s position on the status of the interjection category at a morphosyntactic, semantic and pragmatic level (§1.1 and on the relation between different linguistic structures and their grammaticalization / pragmaticalization process (§1.2. The second section (§2 refers to the specific routes followed by the evolution of the various categories of the analysed interjections, from the old Romanian to the modern Romanian: the presentatives adecă, iată, ni (§2.1, the hortatives haide, ni (§2.2, the addressing particles bre, măi (§2.3, the connectors with demarcation signal function adevăr, amin (§2.4. The third section (§3 has as objective the description of a species of delocutive derivation, illustrated in Romanian by the lexicalized semantic variants of the secondary interjection Doamne!. The study concludes with several final considerations regarding the results of the research (§4.

  1. PEDANT: Parallel Texts in Göteborg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ridings


    Full Text Available

    The article presents the status of the PEDANT project with parallel corpora at the Language Bank at Göteborg University. The solutions for access to the corpus data are presented. Access is provided by way of the internet and standard applications and SGML-aware programming tools. The SGML format for encoding translation pairs is outlined together. The methods allow working with everything from plain text to texts densely encoded with linguistic information.


    In hierdie artikel word 'n beskrywing gegee van die stand van die PEDANT-projek met parallelle korpora by die Taalbank by die Universiteit van Göteborg. Oplossings vir die verkryging van toegang tot die korpusdata word aangedui. Toegang word verskaf deur middel van die Internet en standaardtoepassings en SGML-sensitiewe programmeringshulpmiddels. Die SGML-formaat vir die enkodering van vertaalpare word gesamentlik geskets. Hierdie metodes laat toe dat gewerk kan word met enigiets vanaf suiwer teks tot tekste wat taalkundig dig geëtiketteer is.


  2. [On the text of Ihon Yamai-no-Soshi]. (United States)

    Hayashi, Yoshiro


    There are about fifteen variant texts of Yamai-no-Soshi (Ihon Yamai-no-Soshi), which is considered to have been originally compiled in the late Heian period (latter half of the twelfth century). However, few discussions have ever addressed the work's bibliography, formation or text in detail. In this study, the formation and text critique of Ihon Yamai-no-Soshi are considered. It is found that the variant texts can be divided into two categories, short and long, the former describing mainly the ten-kyo cases typical of ancient Japan before the Kamakura period, and the latter including the atypical and vulgar cases of the Edo period which were added later. For part of the texts, the corresponding source texts were found through the bibliographic research. This study highlights the value of Ihon Yamai-no-Soshi as a reference text for the historical study of psychiatry.

  3. A programmed text in statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Hine, J


    Exercises for Section 2 42 Physical sciences and engineering 42 43 Biological sciences 45 Social sciences Solutions to Exercises, Section 1 47 Physical sciences and engineering 47 49 Biological sciences 49 Social sciences Solutions to Exercises, Section 2 51 51 PhYSical sciences and engineering 55 Biological sciences 58 Social sciences 62 Tables 2 62 x - tests involving variances 2 63,64 x - one tailed tests 2 65 x - two tailed tests F-distribution 66-69 Preface This project started some years ago when the Nuffield Foundation kindly gave a grant for writing a pro­ grammed text to use with service courses in statistics. The work carried out by Mrs. Joan Hine and Professor G. B. Wetherill at Bath University, together with some other help from time to time by colleagues at Bath University and elsewhere. Testing was done at various colleges and universities, and some helpful comments were received, but we particularly mention King Edwards School, Bath, who provided some sixth formers as 'guinea pigs' for the fir...

  4. Homogenization Experiments of Crystal-Rich Inclusions in Spodumene from Jiajika Lithium Deposit, China, under Elevated External Pressures in a Hydrothermal Diamond-Anvil Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiankang Li


    Full Text Available Extensive studies of the crystal-rich inclusions (CIs hosted in minerals in pegmatite have resulted in substantially different models for the formation mechanism of the pegmatite. In order to evaluate these previously proposed formation mechanisms, the total homogenization processes of CIs hosted in spodumene from the Jiajika pegmatite deposit in Sichuan, China, were observed in situ under external H2O pressures in a new type of hydrothermal diamond-anvil cell (HDAC. The CIs in a spodumene chip were loaded in the sample chamber of HDAC with water, such that the CIs were under preset external H2O pressures during heating to avoid possible decrepitation. Our in situ observations showed that the crystals within the CIs were dissolved in carbonic-rich aqueous fluid during heating and that cristobalite was usually the first mineral being dissolved, followed by zabuyelite and silicate minerals until their total dissolution at temperatures between 500 and 720°C. These observations indicated that the minerals within the CIs were daughter minerals crystallized from an entrapped carbonate- and silica-rich aqueous solution and therefore provided useful information for evaluating the formation models of granitic pegmatites.

  5. Determining Data Entry Points For Javascript-rich Web applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Maksimovich Noseevich


    Full Text Available The paper is devoted the task of automatic crawling of javascript-rich web applications for data entry points. A new technique is proposed, which combines dynamic and static javascript code analysis. Testing the proposed technique on real world web applications such as Twitter, Youtube and Reddit has confirmed its applicability for analysis of modern web applications.

  6. Pollinator species richness: Are the declines slowing down?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom J. M. Van Dooren


    Full Text Available Changes in pollinator abundances and diversity are of major concern. A recent study inferred that pollinator species richnesses are decreasing more slowly in recent decades in several taxa and European countries. A more careful interpretation of these results reveals that this conclusion cannot be drawn and that we can only infer that declines decelerate for bees (Anthophila in the Netherlands.

  7. Formate Formation and Formate Conversion in Biological Fuels Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan R. Crable


    Full Text Available Biomethanation is a mature technology for fuel production. Fourth generation biofuels research will focus on sequestering CO2 and providing carbon-neutral or carbon-negative strategies to cope with dwindling fossil fuel supplies and environmental impact. Formate is an important intermediate in the methanogenic breakdown of complex organic material and serves as an important precursor for biological fuels production in the form of methane, hydrogen, and potentially methanol. Formate is produced by either CoA-dependent cleavage of pyruvate or enzymatic reduction of CO2 in an NADH- or ferredoxin-dependent manner. Formate is consumed through oxidation to CO2 and H2 or can be further reduced via the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway for carbon fixation or industrially for the production of methanol. Here, we review the enzymes involved in the interconversion of formate and discuss potential applications for biofuels production.

  8. Magicity of neutron-rich nuclei within relativistic self-consistent approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Jie Li


    Full Text Available The formation of new shell gaps in intermediate mass neutron-rich nuclei is investigated within the relativistic Hartree–Fock–Bogoliubov theory, and the role of the Lorentz pseudo-vector and tensor interactions is analyzed. Based on the Foldy–Wouthuysen transformation, we discuss in detail the role played by the different terms of the Lorentz pseudo-vector and tensor interactions in the appearing of the N=16, 32 and 34 shell gaps. The nuclei 24O, 48Si and 52,54Ca are predicted with a large shell gap and zero (24O, 52Ca or almost zero (48Si, 54Ca pairing gap, making them candidates for new magic numbers in exotic nuclei. We find from our analysis that the Lorentz pseudo-vector and tensor interactions induce very specific evolutions of single-particle energies, which could clearly sign their presence and reveal the need for relativistic approaches with exchange interactions.

  9. HTML5 rich media foundation

    CERN Document Server

    David, Matthew


    Learn about the new ways in which video and audio can be easily embedded into your HTML5 Web pages. Discover how you can create new Web media content and how JavaScript, CSS, and SVG can be integrated to create a compelling, rich media foundation for your work. HTML 5, is the first major update to the core language of the Web in over a decade The focus of this book is on innovations that most directly effect Web site design and multimedia integration The companion Web site features working demonstrations and tutorial media for hands-on pract

  10. Text accessibility by people with reduced contrast sensitivity. (United States)

    Crossland, Michael D; Rubin, Gary S


    Contrast sensitivity is reduced in people with eye disease, and also in older adults without eye disease. In this article, we compare contrast of text presented in print and digital formats with contrast sensitivity values for a large cohort of subjects in a population-based study of older adults (the Salisbury Eye Evaluation). Contrast sensitivity values were recorded for 2520 adults aged 65 to 84 years living in Salisbury, Maryland. The proportion of the sample likely to be unable to read text of different formats (electronic books, newsprint, paperback books, laser print, and LED computer monitors) was calculated using published contrast reserve levels required to perform spot reading, to read with fluency, high fluency, and under optimal conditions. One percent of this sample had contrast sensitivity less than that required to read newsprint fluently. Text presented on an LED computer monitor had the highest contrast. Ninety-eight percent of the sample had contrast sensitivity sufficient for high fluent reading of text (at least 160 words/min) on a monitor. However, 29.6% were still unlikely to be able to read this text with optimal fluency. Reduced contrast of print limits text accessibility for many people in the developed world. Presenting text in a high-contrast format, such as black laser print on a white page, would increase the number of people able to access such information. Additionally, making text available in a format that can be presented on an LED computer monitor will increase access to written documents.

  11. Sustainable Authorship in Plain Text using Pandoc and Markdown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Tenen


    Full Text Available In this tutorial, you will first learn the basics of Markdown—an easy to read and write markup syntax for plain text—as well as Pandoc, a command line tool that converts plain text into a number of beautifully formatted file types: PDF, .docx, HTML, LaTeX, slide decks, and more.1 With Pandoc as your digital typesetting tool, you can use Markdown syntax to add figures, a bibliography, formatting, and easily change citation styles from Chicago to MLA (for instance, all using plain text.

  12. Platelet Rich Plasma and Knee Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikel Sánchez


    Full Text Available In orthopaedic surgery and sports medicine, the knee joint has traditionally been considered the workhorse. The reconstruction of every damaged element in this joint is crucial in achieving the surgeon’s goal to restore the knee function and prevent degeneration towards osteoarthritis. In the last fifteen years, the field of regenerative medicine is witnessing a boost of autologous blood-derived platelet rich plasma products (PRPs application to effectively mimic and accelerate the tissue healing process. The scientific rationale behind PRPs is the delivery of growth factors, cytokines, and adhesive proteins present in platelets and plasma, as well as other biologically active proteins conveyed by the plasma such as fibrinogen, prothrombin, and fibronectin; with this biological engineering approach, new perspectives in knee surgery were opened. This work describes the use of PRP to construct and repair every single anatomical structure involved in knee surgery, detailing the process conducted in ligament, meniscal, and chondral surgery.

  13. Plasma rich in growth factors in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Glavina


    Full Text Available Background Plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF has wider use in many fields of dentistry due to its endogenous biocompatible regenerative potential i.e., their potential to stimulate and accelerate tissue healing and bone regeneration. Aims This review shows the increasing use of PRGF technology in various fields of dentistry. Methods In the last nine years PubMed has been searched in order to find out published articles upon PRGF in dentistry and 36 papers have been included. Results PRGF technology has many advantages with positive clinical and biological outcomes in tissue healing and bone regeneration. Conclusion In order to determine the most effective therapeutic value for patients, further research is required.

  14. Conservation and Biodiversity of Rich Fens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Dagmar Kappel


    Rich fen is a habitat type dependent on a constant supply of nutrient poor, calcium rich groundwater. A high, stable groundwater table, relatively high pH combined with nutrient poor conditions support a special and very species rich vegetation including many rare and threatened plant species. In...

  15. Neocortical connectivity during episodic memory formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Summerfield


    Full Text Available During the formation of new episodic memories, a rich array of perceptual information is bound together for long-term storage. However, the brain mechanisms by which sensory representations (such as colors, objects, or individuals are selected for episodic encoding are currently unknown. We describe a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment in which participants encoded the association between two classes of visual stimuli that elicit selective responses in the extrastriate visual cortex (faces and houses. Using connectivity analyses, we show that correlation in the hemodynamic signal between face- and place-sensitive voxels and the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is a reliable predictor of successful face-house binding. These data support the view that during episodic encoding, "top-down" control signals originating in the prefrontal cortex help determine which perceptual information is fated to be bound into the new episodic memory trace.

  16. Enriching text with images and colored light (United States)

    Sekulovski, Dragan; Geleijnse, Gijs; Kater, Bram; Korst, Jan; Pauws, Steffen; Clout, Ramon


    We present an unsupervised method to enrich textual applications with relevant images and colors. The images are collected by querying large image repositories and subsequently the colors are computed using image processing. A prototype system based on this method is presented where the method is applied to song lyrics. In combination with a lyrics synchronization algorithm the system produces a rich multimedia experience. In order to identify terms within the text that may be associated with images and colors, we select noun phrases using a part of speech tagger. Large image repositories are queried with these terms. Per term representative colors are extracted using the collected images. Hereto, we either use a histogram-based or a mean shift-based algorithm. The representative color extraction uses the non-uniform distribution of the colors found in the large repositories. The images that are ranked best by the search engine are displayed on a screen, while the extracted representative colors are rendered on controllable lighting devices in the living room. We evaluate our method by comparing the computed colors to standard color representations of a set of English color terms. A second evaluation focuses on the distance in color between a queried term in English and its translation in a foreign language. Based on results from three sets of terms, a measure of suitability of a term for color extraction based on KL Divergence is proposed. Finally, we compare the performance of the algorithm using either the automatically indexed repository of Google Images and the manually annotated Based on the results of these experiments, we conclude that using the presented method we can compute the relevant color for a term using a large image repository and image processing.

  17. Galaxy formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, J.; Di Cintio, A.; Dvorkin, I.


    Galaxy formation is at the forefront of observation and theory in cosmology. An improved understanding is essential for improving our knowledge both of the cosmological parameters, of the contents of the universe, and of our origins. In these lectures intended for graduate students, galaxy formation theory is reviewed and confronted with recent observational issues. In lecture 1, the following topics are presented: star formation considerations, including IMF, star formation efficiency and star formation rate, the origin of the galaxy luminosity function, and feedback in dwarf galaxies. In lecture 2, we describe formation of disks and massive spheroids, including the growth of supermassive black holes, negative feedback in spheroids, the AGN-star formation connection, star formation rates at high redshift and the baryon fraction in galaxies.

  18. Proscene: A feature-rich framework for interactive environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Pierre Charalambos


    Full Text Available We introduce Proscene, a feature-rich, open-source framework for interactive environments. The design of Proscene comprises a three-layered onion-like software architecture, promoting different possible development scenarios. The framework innermost layer decouples user gesture parsing from user-defined actions. The in-between layer implements a feature-rich set of widely-used motion actions allowing the selection and manipulation of objects, including the scene viewpoint. The outermost layer exposes those features as a Processing library. The results have shown the feasibility of our approach together with the simplicity and flexibility of the Proscene framework API.

  19. Content-rich biological network constructed by mining PubMed abstracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharp Burt M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The integration of the rapidly expanding corpus of information about the genome, transcriptome, and proteome, engendered by powerful technological advances, such as microarrays, and the availability of genomic sequence from multiple species, challenges the grasp and comprehension of the scientific community. Despite the existence of text-mining methods that identify biological relationships based on the textual co-occurrence of gene/protein terms or similarities in abstract texts, knowledge of the underlying molecular connections on a large scale, which is prerequisite to understanding novel biological processes, lags far behind the accumulation of data. While computationally efficient, the co-occurrence-based approaches fail to characterize (e.g., inhibition or stimulation, directionality biological interactions. Programs with natural language processing (NLP capability have been created to address these limitations, however, they are in general not readily accessible to the public. Results We present a NLP-based text-mining approach, Chilibot, which constructs content-rich relationship networks among biological concepts, genes, proteins, or drugs. Amongst its features, suggestions for new hypotheses can be generated. Lastly, we provide evidence that the connectivity of molecular networks extracted from the biological literature follows the power-law distribution, indicating scale-free topologies consistent with the results of previous experimental analyses. Conclusions Chilibot distills scientific relationships from knowledge available throughout a wide range of biological domains and presents these in a content-rich graphical format, thus integrating general biomedical knowledge with the specialized knowledge and interests of the user. Chilibot can be accessed free of charge to academic users.

  20. Chemical-text hybrid search engines. (United States)

    Zhou, Yingyao; Zhou, Bin; Jiang, Shumei; King, Frederick J


    As the amount of chemical literature increases, it is critical that researchers be enabled to accurately locate documents related to a particular aspect of a given compound. Existing solutions, based on text and chemical search engines alone, suffer from the inclusion of "false negative" and "false positive" results, and cannot accommodate diverse repertoire of formats currently available for chemical documents. To address these concerns, we developed an approach called Entity-Canonical Keyword Indexing (ECKI), which converts a chemical entity embedded in a data source into its canonical keyword representation prior to being indexed by text search engines. We implemented ECKI using Microsoft Office SharePoint Server Search, and the resultant hybrid search engine not only supported complex mixed chemical and keyword queries but also was applied to both intranet and Internet environments. We envision that the adoption of ECKI will empower researchers to pose more complex search questions that were not readily attainable previously and to obtain answers at much improved speed and accuracy.

  1. Silver-zeolite combined to polyphenol-rich extracts of Ascophyllum nodosum: potential active role in prevention of periodontal diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Tamanai-Shacoori

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate various biological effects of silver-zeolite and a polyphenol-rich extract of A. nodosum (ASCOP to prevent and/or treat biofilm-related oral diseases. Porphyromonas gingivalis and Streptococcus gordonii contribute to the biofilm formation associated with chronic periodontitis. In this study, we evaluated in vitro antibacterial and anti-biofilm effects of silver-zeolite (Ag-zeolite combined to ASCOP on P. gingivalis and S. gordonii growth and biofilm formation capacity. We also studied the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant capacities of ASCOP in cell culture models. While Ag-zeolite combined with ASCOP was ineffective against the growth of S. gordonii, it showed a strong bactericidal effect on P. gingivalis growth. Ag-zeolite combined with ASCOP was able to completely inhibit S. gordonii monospecies biofilm formation as well as to reduce the formation of a bi-species S. gordonii/P. gingivalis biofilm. ASCOP alone was ineffective towards the growth and/or biofilm formation of S. gordonii and P. gingivalis while it significantly reduced the secretion of inflammatory cytokines (TNFα and IL-6 by LPS-stimulated human like-macrophages. It also exhibited antioxidant properties and decreased LPS induced lipid peroxidation in gingival epithelial cells. These findings support promising use of these products in future preventive or therapeutic strategies against periodontal diseases.

  2. The leucine-rich repeat structure. (United States)

    Bella, J; Hindle, K L; McEwan, P A; Lovell, S C


    The leucine-rich repeat is a widespread structural motif of 20-30 amino acids with a characteristic repetitive sequence pattern rich in leucines. Leucine-rich repeat domains are built from tandems of two or more repeats and form curved solenoid structures that are particularly suitable for protein-protein interactions. Thousands of protein sequences containing leucine-rich repeats have been identified by automatic annotation methods. Three-dimensional structures of leucine-rich repeat domains determined to date reveal a degree of structural variability that translates into the considerable functional versatility of this protein superfamily. As the essential structural principles become well established, the leucine-rich repeat architecture is emerging as an attractive framework for structural prediction and protein engineering. This review presents an update of the current understanding of leucine-rich repeat structure at the primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary levels and discusses specific examples from recently determined three-dimensional structures.

  3. Pharmspresso: a text mining tool for extraction of pharmacogenomic concepts and relationships from full text. (United States)

    Garten, Yael; Altman, Russ B


    Pharmacogenomics studies the relationship between genetic variation and the variation in drug response phenotypes. The field is rapidly gaining importance: it promises drugs targeted to particular subpopulations based on genetic background. The pharmacogenomics literature has expanded rapidly, but is dispersed in many journals. It is challenging, therefore, to identify important associations between drugs and molecular entities--particularly genes and gene variants, and thus these critical connections are often lost. Text mining techniques can allow us to convert the free-style text to a computable, searchable format in which pharmacogenomic concepts (such as genes, drugs, polymorphisms, and diseases) are identified, and important links between these concepts are recorded. Availability of full text articles as input into text mining engines is key, as literature abstracts often do not contain sufficient information to identify these pharmacogenomic associations. Thus, building on a tool called Textpresso, we have created the Pharmspresso tool to assist in identifying important pharmacogenomic facts in full text articles. Pharmspresso parses text to find references to human genes, polymorphisms, drugs and diseases and their relationships. It presents these as a series of marked-up text fragments, in which key concepts are visually highlighted. To evaluate Pharmspresso, we used a gold standard of 45 human-curated articles. Pharmspresso identified 78%, 61%, and 74% of target gene, polymorphism, and drug concepts, respectively. Pharmspresso is a text analysis tool that extracts pharmacogenomic concepts from the literature automatically and thus captures our current understanding of gene-drug interactions in a computable form. We have made Pharmspresso available at

  4. Effectiveness of α-, γ- and δ-Tocopherol in a CLA-Rich Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Márquez-Ruiz


    Full Text Available Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA is a mixture of positional and geometric isomers of octadecadienoic acid with conjugated double bounds. Positive health properties have been attributed to some isomers, such as anticarcinogenic activity, antiartherosclerotic effects and reduction of body fat gain. Hence, oils rich in CLA such as Tonalin® oil (TO, normally obtained through alkaline isomerization of safflower oil (SO, an oil rich in linoleic acid (LA, are currently used in functional foods. However, special care must be taken to protect them from oxidation to ensure the quality of the supplemented foods. The objective of this work was to evaluate the oxidation and effectiveness of different tocopherol homologues (α-, γ- and δ-, alone or in combination with synergists (ascorbyl palmitate and lecithin, in TO compared to SO at different conditions, ambient temperature (25 °C and accelerated conditions in Rancimat (100 °C. The oils, the oils devoid of their antioxidants and the latter containing the antioxidants added were assayed. Results showed great differences between SO and TO in terms of formation of hydroperoxides and polymers and also in the effectiveness of tocopherols to delay oxidation. TO showed higher levels of polymerization and, in general, the effectiveness of tocopherol homologues, alone or in combination with synergists, was also lower in the TO.

  5. Water- and Boron-Rich Melt Inclusions in Quartz from the Malkhan Pegmatite, Transbaikalia, Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Badanina


    Full Text Available In this paper we show that the pegmatite-forming processes responsible for the formation of the Malkhan pegmatites started at magmatic temperatures around 720 °C. The primary melts or supercritical fluids were very water- and boron-rich (maximum values of about 10% (g/g B2O3 and over the temperature interval from 720 to 600 °C formed a pseudobinary solvus, indicated by the coexistence of two types of primary melt inclusions (type-A and type-B representing a pair of conjugate melts. Due to the high water and boron concentration the pegmatite-forming melts are metastable and can be characterized either as genuine melts or silicate-rich fluids. This statement is underscored by Raman spectroscopic studies. This study suggested that the gel state proposed by some authors cannot represent the main stage of the pegmatite-forming processes in the Malkhan pegmatites, and probably in all others. However there are points in the evolution of the pegmatites where the gel- or gel-like state has left traces in form of real gel inclusions in some mineral in the Malkhan pegmatite, however only in a late, fluid dominated stage.

  6. Lyophilized Platelet-Rich Fibrin (PRF Promotes Craniofacial Bone Regeneration through Runx2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Li


    Full Text Available Freeze-drying is an effective means to control scaffold pore size and preserve its composition. The purpose of the present study was to determine the applicability of lyophilized Platelet-rich fibrin (LPRF as a scaffold for craniofacial tissue regeneration and to compare its biological effects with commonly used fresh Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF. LPRF caused a 4.8-fold ± 0.4-fold elevation in Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2 expression in alveolar bone cells, compared to a 3.6-fold ± 0.2-fold increase when using fresh PRF, and a more than 10-fold rise of alkaline phosphatase levels and mineralization markers. LPRF-induced Runx2 expression only occurred in alveolar bone and not in periodontal or dental follicle cells. LPRF also caused a 1.6-fold increase in osteoblast proliferation (p < 0.001 when compared to fresh PRF. When applied in a rat craniofacial defect model for six weeks, LPRF resulted in 97% bony coverage of the defect, compared to 84% for fresh PRF, 64% for fibrin, and 16% without scaffold. Moreover, LPRF thickened the trabecular diameter by 25% when compared to fresh PRF and fibrin, and only LPRF and fresh PRF resulted in the formation of interconnected trabeculae across the defect. Together, these studies support the application of lyophilized PRF as a biomimetic scaffold for craniofacial bone regeneration and mineralized tissue engineering.

  7. Controlling the prion propensity of glutamine/asparagine-rich proteins. (United States)

    Paul, Kacy R; Ross, Eric D


    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae can harbor a number of distinct prions. Most of the yeast prion proteins contain a glutamine/asparagine (Q/N) rich region that drives prion formation. Prion-like domains, defined as regions with high compositional similarity to yeast prion domains, are common in eukaryotic proteomes, and mutations in various human proteins containing prion-like domains have been linked to degenerative diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Here, we discuss a recent study in which we utilized two strategies to generate prion activity in non-prion Q/N-rich domains. First, we made targeted mutations in four non-prion Q/N-rich domains, replacing predicted prion-inhibiting amino acids with prion-promoting amino acids. All four mutants formed foci when expressed in yeast, and two acquired bona fide prion activity. Prion activity could be generated with as few as two mutations, suggesting that many non-prion Q/N-rich proteins may be just a small number of mutations from acquiring aggregation or prion activity. Second, we created tandem repeats of short prion-prone segments, and observed length-dependent prion activity. These studies demonstrate the considerable progress that has been made in understanding the sequence basis for aggregation of prion and prion-like domains, and suggest possible mechanisms by which new prion domains could evolve.

  8. Growth and alteration of uranium-rich microlite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giere, R.; Swope, R. J.; Buck, E. C.; Guggenheim, R.; Mathys, D.; Reusser, E.


    Uranium-rich microlite, a pyrochlore-group mineral, occurs in 440 Ma old lithium pegmatites of the Mozambique Belt in East Africa. Microlite exhibits a pronounced growth zoning, with a U-free core surrounded by a U-rich rim (UO 2 up to 17 wt.%). The core exhibits conjugate sets of straight cracks (cleavage planes) which provided pathways for a late-stage U-enriched pegmatitic fluid which interacted with the U-free microlite to produce a distinct U enrichment along the cracks and led to the formation of the U-rich rim. Following the stage of U incorporation into microlite, a second generation of hydrothermal fluids deposited mica along the cleavage planes. Subsequent to these two hydrothermal stages, the host rock was uplifted and subjected to intense low-temperature alteration during which Na, Ca and F were leached from the microlite crystals. This alteration also led to a hydration of microlite, but there is no evidence of U loss. These low-temperature alteration effects were only observed in the U-rich rim which is characterized by a large number of irregular cracks which are most probably the result of metamictization, as indicated by electron diffraction images and powder X-ray patterns. The pyrochlore-group minerals provide excellent natural analogues for pyrochlore-based nuclear waste forms, because samples of variable age and with high actinide contents are available

  9. Butterfly Species Richness in Selected West Albertine Rift Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice Kasangaki


    Full Text Available The butterfly species richness of 17 forests located in the western arm of the Albertine Rift in Uganda was compared using cluster analysis and principal components analysis (PCA to assess similarities among the forests. The objective was to compare the butterfly species richness of the forests. A total of 630 butterfly species were collected in 5 main families. The different species fell into 7 ecological groupings with the closed forest group having the most species and the swamp/wetland group with the fewest number of species. Three clusters were obtained. The first cluster had forests characterized by relatively high altitude and low species richness despite the big area in the case of Rwenzori and being close to the supposed Pleistocene refugium. The second cluster had forests far away from the supposed refugium except Kisangi and moderate species richness with small areas, whereas the third cluster had those forests that were more disturbed, high species richness, and low altitudinal levels with big areas.

  10. Mapping and predictive variations of soil bacterial richness across France.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Terrat

    Full Text Available Although numerous studies have demonstrated the key role of bacterial diversity in soil functions and ecosystem services, little is known about the variations and determinants of such diversity on a nationwide scale. The overall objectives of this study were i to describe the bacterial taxonomic richness variations across France, ii to identify the ecological processes (i.e. selection by the environment and dispersal limitation influencing this distribution, and iii to develop a statistical predictive model of soil bacterial richness. We used the French Soil Quality Monitoring Network (RMQS, which covers all of France with 2,173 sites. The soil bacterial richness (i.e. OTU number was determined by pyrosequencing 16S rRNA genes and related to the soil characteristics, climatic conditions, geomorphology, land use and space. Mapping of bacterial richness revealed a heterogeneous spatial distribution, structured into patches of about 111km, where the main drivers were the soil physico-chemical properties (18% of explained variance, the spatial descriptors (5.25%, 1.89% and 1.02% for the fine, medium and coarse scales, respectively, and the land use (1.4%. Based on these drivers, a predictive model was developed, which allows a good prediction of the bacterial richness (R2adj of 0.56 and provides a reference value for a given pedoclimatic condition.

  11. Evolution of Acid Mine Drainage Formation in Sulphidic Mine Tailings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard Dold


    Full Text Available Sulphidic mine tailings are among the largest mining wastes on Earth and are prone to produce acid mine drainage (AMD. The formation of AMD is a sequence of complex biogeochemical and mineral dissolution processes. It can be classified in three main steps occurring from the operational phase of a tailings impoundment until the final appearance of AMD after operations ceased: (1 During the operational phase of a tailings impoundment the pH-Eh regime is normally alkaline to neutral and reducing (water-saturated. Associated environmental problems include the presence of high sulphate concentrations due to dissolution of gypsum-anhydrite, and/or effluents enriched in elements such as Mo and As, which desorbed from primary ferric hydroxides during the alkaline flotation process. (2 Once mining-related operations of the tailings impoundment has ceased, sulphide oxidation starts, resulting in the formation of an acidic oxidation zone and a ferrous iron-rich plume below the oxidation front, that re-oxidises once it surfaces, producing the first visible sign of AMD, i.e., the precipitation of ferrihydrite and concomitant acidification. (3 Consumption of the (reactive neutralization potential of the gangue minerals and subsequent outflow of acidic, heavy metal-rich leachates from the tailings is the final step in the evolution of an AMD system. The formation of multi-colour efflorescent salts can be a visible sign of this stage.

  12. A Heparin Binding Motif Rich in Arginine and Lysine is the Functional Domain of YKL-40

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nipaporn Ngernyuang


    Full Text Available The heparin-binding glycoprotein YKL-40 (CHI3L1 is intimately associated with microvascularization in multiple human diseases including cancer and inflammation. However, the heparin-binding domain(s pertinent to the angiogenic activity have yet been identified. YKL-40 harbors a consensus heparin-binding motif that consists of positively charged arginine (R and lysine (K (RRDK; residues 144–147; but they don't bind to heparin. Intriguingly, we identified a separate KR-rich domain (residues 334–345 that does display strong heparin binding affinity. A short synthetic peptide spanning this KR-rich domain successfully competed with YKL-40 and blocked its ability to bind heparin. Three individual point mutations, where alanine (A substituted for K or R (K337A, K342A, R344A, led to remarkable decreases in heparin-binding ability and angiogenic activity. In addition, a neutralizing anti-YKL-40 antibody that targets these residues and prevents heparin binding impeded angiogenesis in vitro. MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells engineered to express ectopic K337A, K342A or R344A mutants displayed reduced tumor development and compromised tumor vessel formation in mice relative to control cells expressing wild-type YKL-40. These data reveal that the KR-rich heparin-binding motif is the functional heparin-binding domain of YKL-40. Our findings shed light on novel molecular mechanisms underlying endothelial cell angiogenesis promoted by YKL-40 in a variety of diseases.

  13. Robust Optical Richness Estimation with Reduced Scatter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rykoff, E.S.; /LBL, Berkeley; Koester, B.P.; /Chicago U. /Chicago U., KICP; Rozo, E.; /Chicago U. /Chicago U., KICP; Annis, J.; /Fermilab; Evrard, A.E.; /Michigan U. /Michigan U., MCTP; Hansen, S.M.; /Lick Observ.; Hao, J.; /Fermilab; Johnston, D.E.; /Fermilab; McKay, T.A.; /Michigan U. /Michigan U., MCTP; Wechsler, R.H.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC


    Reducing the scatter between cluster mass and optical richness is a key goal for cluster cosmology from photometric catalogs. We consider various modifications to the red-sequence matched filter richness estimator of Rozo et al. (2009b), and evaluate their impact on the scatter in X-ray luminosity at fixed richness. Most significantly, we find that deeper luminosity cuts can reduce the recovered scatter, finding that {sigma}{sub ln L{sub X}|{lambda}} = 0.63 {+-} 0.02 for clusters with M{sub 500c} {approx}> 1.6 x 10{sup 14} h{sub 70}{sup -1} M{sub {circle_dot}}. The corresponding scatter in mass at fixed richness is {sigma}{sub ln M|{lambda}} {approx} 0.2-0.3 depending on the richness, comparable to that for total X-ray luminosity. We find that including blue galaxies in the richness estimate increases the scatter, as does weighting galaxies by their optical luminosity. We further demonstrate that our richness estimator is very robust. Specifically, the filter employed when estimating richness can be calibrated directly from the data, without requiring a-priori calibrations of the red-sequence. We also demonstrate that the recovered richness is robust to up to 50% uncertainties in the galaxy background, as well as to the choice of photometric filter employed, so long as the filters span the 4000 {angstrom} break of red-sequence galaxies. Consequently, our richness estimator can be used to compare richness estimates of different clusters, even if they do not share the same photometric data. Appendix A includes 'easy-bake' instructions for implementing our optimal richness estimator, and we are releasing an implementation of the code that works with SDSS data, as well as an augmented maxBCG catalog with the {lambda} richness measured for each cluster.

  14. Influence of temperature on the formation and encapsulation of gold nanoparticles using a temperature-sensitive template

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel Peter Bengzon Tan


    Full Text Available This data article describes the synthesis of temperature-sensitive and amine-rich microgel particle as a dual reductant and template to generate smart gold/polymer nanocomposite particle. TEM images illustrate the influence of reaction temperature on the formation and in-site encapsulation of gold nanoparticles using the temperature-sensitive microgel template. Thermal stability of the resultant gold/polymer composite particles was also examined.

  15. Platelet-rich fibrin in the treatment of periodontal bone defects. (United States)

    Ranganathan, Aravindhan T; Chandran, Chitraa R


    Periodontitis is characterized by the formation of true pockets, bone loss and attachment loss. Various techniques have been attempted in the past to truly regenerate the lost periodontal structures, albeit with variable outcome. In this evolution, the technique being tried out widely is the use of platelet rich concentrates, namely platelet-rich fibrin (PRF). In this report, we present a case of surgical treatment of osseous bone defects namely two walled crater and dehiscence treated in posterior teeth with autologously prepared platelet rich fibrin mixed with hydroxy apatite bone graft and PRF in the form of a membrane. Our results showed clinical improvements in all the clinical parameters postoperatively namely the pocket depth reduction and gain in attachment level and hence, PRF can be used alone or in combination with the bone graft to yield successful clinical results in treating periodontal osseous defects. Platelet-rich fibrin is an effective alternative to platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in reconstructing bone defects.

  16. Dilepton as a signature for the baryon-rich quark-gluon matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zejun He; Jiaju Zhang


    From the full stopping scenario, we study dilepton production in a baryon rich quark-gluon fireball on the basis of a relativistic hydrodynamic model, and find that with increasing initial baryon density a characteristic valley and a subsequent peak, which more uniquely signal the formation of the baryon-rich quark-gluon matter, appear in the total dilepton yield. Such characteristics can be tested in future experiments at CERN and Brookhaven. (author). Letter-to-the-editor

  17. Proton-rich nuclear statistical equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitenzahl, I.R.; Timmes, F.X.; Marin-Lafleche, A.; Brown, E.; Magkotsios, G.; Truran, J.


    Proton-rich material in a state of nuclear statistical equilibrium (NSE) is one of the least studied regimes of nucleosynthesis. One reason for this is that after hydrogen burning, stellar evolution proceeds at conditions of an equal number of neutrons and protons or at a slight degree of neutron-richness. Proton-rich nucleosynthesis in stars tends to occur only when hydrogen-rich material that accretes onto a white dwarf or a neutron star explodes, or when neutrino interactions in the winds from a nascent proto-neutron star or collapsar disk drive the matter proton-rich prior to or during the nucleosynthesis. In this Letter we solve the NSE equations for a range of proton-rich thermodynamic conditions. We show that cold proton-rich NSE is qualitatively different from neutron-rich NSE. Instead of being dominated by the Fe-peak nuclei with the largest binding energy per nucleon that have a proton-to-nucleon ratio close to the prescribed electron fraction, NSE for proton-rich material near freezeout temperature is mainly composed of 56Ni and free protons. Previous results of nuclear reaction network calculations rely on this nonintuitive high-proton abundance, which this Letter explains. We show how the differences and especially the large fraction of free protons arises from the minimization of the free energy as a result of a delicate competition between the entropy and nuclear binding energy.

  18. The Species Richness of Vascular Plants and Amphibia in Major Plant Communities in Temperate to Tropical Australia: Relationship with Annual Biomass Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. L. Specht


    Full Text Available Aerodynamic fluxes (frictional, thermal, evaporative in the atmosphere as it flows over and through a plant community determine the Foliage Projective Covers and eco-morphological attributes of new leaves developed annually in overstorey and understorey strata. The number of leaves produced on vertical foliage shoots depends on available soil water and nutrients, also ambient temperature, during this short growth season. Stem density (number of stems per hectare and species richness (number of species per hectare in the overstorey of major Floristic Groups are correlated with annual shoot growth (ASG, t ha−1 in that stratum. Species richness in the overstorey increases in the climatic gradient from the arid to the humid zone as well as with increasing air temperatures (about 10oC from temperate to tropical Australia. Species richness in the understorey is highest in plant communities in temperate Australia, decreasing in the temperature gradient towards the tropics. As with other major plant and animal groups within an ecosystem, the species richness of Amphibia is correlated with the amount of solar energy fixed (per annum by the major plant formation in the region—a photosynthetic potential determined by the foliage shoots (ASG, t ha−1 produced annually in the overstorey.

  19. Unraveling algae and cyanobacteria biodiversity in bromeliad phytotelmata in different vegetation formations in Bahia State, Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo José Peixoto Ramos


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Knowledge of algal and cyanobacterial diversity of phytotelmata remains poorly-known, especially for bromeliads from different vegetation formations. We investigated the microalgae communities of four species of tank bromeliads from different vegetation formations in Bahia State, Northeast Brazil, highlighting the composition, richness and diversity of taxa. Sampling of water stored in bromeliads was carried out quarterly between 2014 and 2016, and abiotic variables and morphometric attributes of bromeliads were measured. A total of 89 taxa of algae and cyanobacteria were recorded for the four bromeliad species studied. The microalgae communities of the phytotelmata varied among vegetation formations, with one tank bromeliad, Alcantarea nahoumii, with more complex architecture (higher number of leaves and thus more cavities, being distinguished by its high species richness (73 taxa. The bromeliads exhibited little similarity in species composition, with only one species (Phacus polytrophos occurring in all four species. Throughout the entire sampling period, classes with higher species richness, especially due to A. nahoumii, were Zygnematophyceae, Cyanophyceae and Chlorophyceae, which accounted for about 80 % of all species inventoried. Our results contribute to the knowledge of microalga communities of bromeliad phytotelmata in Brazil with regard to species richness and composition, as well as significant environmental characteristics.

  20. Estimating the spatial and temporal distribution of species richness within Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Wathen

    Full Text Available Evidence for significant losses of species richness or biodiversity, even within protected natural areas, is mounting. Managers are increasingly being asked to monitor biodiversity, yet estimating biodiversity is often prohibitively expensive. As a cost-effective option, we estimated the spatial and temporal distribution of species richness for four taxonomic groups (birds, mammals, herpetofauna (reptiles and amphibians, and plants within Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks using only existing biological studies undertaken within the Parks and the Parks' long-term wildlife observation database. We used a rarefaction approach to model species richness for the four taxonomic groups and analyzed those groups by habitat type, elevation zone, and time period. We then mapped the spatial distributions of species richness values for the four taxonomic groups, as well as total species richness, for the Parks. We also estimated changes in species richness for birds, mammals, and herpetofauna since 1980. The modeled patterns of species richness either peaked at mid elevations (mammals, plants, and total species richness or declined consistently with increasing elevation (herpetofauna and birds. Plants reached maximum species richness values at much higher elevations than did vertebrate taxa, and non-flying mammals reached maximum species richness values at higher elevations than did birds. Alpine plant communities, including sagebrush, had higher species richness values than did subalpine plant communities located below them in elevation. These results are supported by other papers published in the scientific literature. Perhaps reflecting climate change: birds and herpetofauna displayed declines in species richness since 1980 at low and middle elevations and mammals displayed declines in species richness since 1980 at all elevations.

  1. Text World Theory and real world readers: From literature to life in a Belfast prison. (United States)

    Canning, Patricia


    Cognitive stylistics offers a range of frameworks for understanding (amongst other things) what producers of literary texts 'do' with language and how they 'do' it. Less prevalent, however, is an understanding of the ways in which these same frameworks offer insights into what readers 'do' (and how they 'do' it). Text World Theory (Werth, 1999; Gavins, 2007; Whiteley, 2011) has proved useful for understanding how and why readers construct mental representations engendered by the act of reading. However, research on readers' responses to literature has largely focused on an 'idealised' reader or an 'experimental' subject-reader often derived from within the academy and conducted using contrived or amended literary fiction. Moreover, the format of traditional book groups (participants read texts privately and discuss them at a later date) as well as online community forums such as Goodreads, means that such studies derive data from post-hoc, rather than real-time textual encounters and discussions. The current study is the first of its kind in analysing real-time reading contexts with real readers during a researcher-led literary project ('') in Northern Ireland's only female prison. In doing so, the study is unique in addressing experimental and post hoc bias. Using Text World Theory, the paper considers the personal and social impact of reader engagement in the talk of the participants. As such, it has three interrelated aims: to argue for the social and personal benefits of reading stylistically rich literature in real-time reading groups; to demonstrate the efficacy of stylistics for understanding how those benefits come about, and to demonstrate the inter-disciplinary value of stylistics, particularly its potential for traversing traditional research parameters.

  2. Revascularization of Immature Necrotic Teeth: Platelet rich Fibrin an Edge over Platelet rich Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam Mittal


    Full Text Available Introduction: Revascularization is one such entity that has found its clinical application in the field of endodontics for the manage-ment of immature permanent necrotic teeth. The protocols for revascularization of such teeth focus especially on delivery of stem cells and scaffolds in a nonsurgical manner rather than concentrated growth micro molecules.The hypothesis: This article proposes the role of platelet concentrates such as platelet rich fibrin (PRF and platelet rich plasma (PRP in accelerating the regenerative process in such teeth. PRF unlike PRP is associated with slow, continuous and substantial re-lease of morphogens. It is hypothesized further if PRF instead of PRP when placed through immature apices in an orthograde manner can open newer gates for fast and controlled growth in young, ne-crotic, non-infected teeth.Evaluation of the hypothesis: Enhancement of the healing kinetics can be evaluated by change in size of periapical radiolucency, thickness of the dentinal walls, root elongation and apical closure compared between preoperative and postoperative standardized two dimensional/three dimensional radiographs taken on regular follow ups.

  3. Synthesis of magnetite from iron-rich mine water using sodium carbonate

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Akinwekomi, V


    Full Text Available is highly mineralised and technologies are required for the processing of the final sludge for possible industrial application. Conventionally, magnetite is synthesized using iron-rich, industrial grade chemical reagents making magnetite expensive to produce...

  4. Local administration of autologous platelet-rich plasma in a female patient with skin ulcer defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S M Noskov


    Full Text Available The paper describes a clinical observation of the efficiency of local therapy with autologous platelet-rich plasma for .skin ulcer defect in a female with chronic lymphocytic leukemia

  5. Minimally Invasive Treatment with Platelet Rich Plasma in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albu Daniel–Emil


    Full Text Available Background: The main target of the structural damage in osteoarthritisis the hyaline cartilage. New options such as PRP (platelet rich plasma may cause structural improvement of the cartilage.

  6. Doing Mathematics with Purpose: Mathematical Text Types (United States)

    Dostal, Hannah M.; Robinson, Richard


    Mathematical literacy includes learning to read and write different types of mathematical texts as part of purposeful mathematical meaning making. Thus in this article, we describe how learning to read and write mathematical texts (proof text, algorithmic text, algebraic/symbolic text, and visual text) supports the development of students'…

  7. The socio-demographics of texting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ling, Richard; Bertel, Troels Fibæk; Sundsøy, Pål


    Who texts, and with whom do they text? This article examines the use of texting using metered traffic data from a large dataset (nearly 400 million anonymous text messages). We ask 1) How much do different age groups use mobile phone based texting (SMS)? 2) How wide is the circle of texting...

  8. Production of K[Formula: see text](892)[Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text](1020) in p-Pb collisions at [Formula: see text] = 5.02 TeV. (United States)

    Adam, J; Adamová, D; Aggarwal, M M; Aglieri Rinella, G; Agnello, M; Agrawal, N; Ahammed, Z; Ahmad, S; Ahn, S U; Aiola, S; Akindinov, A; Alam, S N; Aleksandrov, D; Alessandro, B; Alexandre, D; Alfaro Molina, R; Alici, A; Alkin, A; Almaraz, J R M; Alme, J; Alt, T; Altinpinar, S; Altsybeev, I; Alves Garcia Prado, C; Andrei, C; Andronic, A; Anguelov, V; Antičić, T; Antinori, F; Antonioli, P; Aphecetche, L; Appelshäuser, H; Arcelli, S; Arnaldi, R; Arnold, O W; Arsene, I C; Arslandok, M; Audurier, B; Augustinus, A; Averbeck, R; Azmi, M D; Badalà, A; Baek, Y W; Bagnasco, S; Bailhache, R; Bala, R; Balasubramanian, S; Baldisseri, A; Baral, R C; Barbano, A M; Barbera, R; Barile, F; Barnaföldi, G G; Barnby, L S; Barret, V; Bartalini, P; Barth, K; Bartke, J; Bartsch, E; Basile, M; Bastid, N; Basu, S; Bathen, B; Batigne, G; Batista Camejo, A; Batyunya, B; Batzing, P C; Bearden, I G; Beck, H; Bedda, C; Behera, N K; Belikov, I; Bellini, F; Bello Martinez, H; Bellwied, R; Belmont, R; Belmont-Moreno, E; Belyaev, V; Benacek, P; Bencedi, G; Beole, S; Berceanu, I; Bercuci, A; Berdnikov, Y; Berenyi, D; Bertens, R A; Berzano, D; Betev, L; Bhasin, A; Bhat, I R; Bhati, A K; Bhattacharjee, B; Bhom, J; Bianchi, L; Bianchi, N; Bianchin, C; Bielčík, J; Bielčíková, J; Bilandzic, A; Biro, G; Biswas, R; Biswas, S; Bjelogrlic, S; Blair, J T; Blau, D; Blume, C; Bock, F; Bogdanov, A; Bøggild, H; Boldizsár, L; Bombara, M; Book, J; Borel, H; Borissov, A; Borri, M; Bossú, F; Botta, E; Bourjau, C; Braun-Munzinger, P; Bregant, M; Breitner, T; Broker, T A; Browning, T A; Broz, M; Brucken, E J; Bruna, E; Bruno, G E; Budnikov, D; Buesching, H; Bufalino, S; Buncic, P; Busch, O; Buthelezi, Z; Butt, J B; Buxton, J T; Caffarri, D; Cai, X; Caines, H; Calero Diaz, L; Caliva, A; Calvo Villar, E; Camerini, P; Carena, F; Carena, W; Carnesecchi, F; Castillo Castellanos, J; Castro, A J; Casula, E A R; Ceballos Sanchez, C; Cerello, P; Cerkala, J; Chang, B; Chapeland, S; Chartier, M; Charvet, J L; Chattopadhyay, S; Chattopadhyay, S; Chauvin, A; Chelnokov, V; Cherney, M; Cheshkov, C; Cheynis, B; Chibante Barroso, V; Chinellato, D D; Cho, S; Chochula, P; Choi, K; Chojnacki, M; Choudhury, S; Christakoglou, P; Christensen, C H; Christiansen, P; Chujo, T; Chung, S U; Cicalo, C; Cifarelli, L; Cindolo, F; Cleymans, J; Colamaria, F; Colella, D; Collu, A; Colocci, M; Conesa Balbastre, G; Conesa Del Valle, Z; Connors, M E; Contreras, J G; Cormier, T M; Corrales Morales, Y; Cortés Maldonado, I; Cortese, P; Cosentino, M R; Costa, F; Crochet, P; Cruz Albino, R; Cuautle, E; Cunqueiro, L; Dahms, T; Dainese, A; Danisch, M C; Danu, A; Das, D; Das, I; Das, S; Dash, A; Dash, S; De, S; De Caro, A; de Cataldo, G; de Conti, C; de Cuveland, J; De Falco, A; De Gruttola, D; De Marco, N; De Pasquale, S; Deisting, A; Deloff, A; Dénes, E; Deplano, C; Dhankher, P; Di Bari, D; Di Mauro, A; Di Nezza, P; Diaz Corchero, M A; Dietel, T; Dillenseger, P; Divià, R; Djuvsland, Ø; Dobrin, A; Domenicis Gimenez, D; Dönigus, B; Dordic, O; Drozhzhova, T; Dubey, A K; Dubla, A; Ducroux, L; Dupieux, P; Ehlers, R J; Elia, D; Endress, E; Engel, H; Epple, E; Erazmus, B; Erdemir, I; Erhardt, F; Espagnon, B; Estienne, M; Esumi, S; Eum, J; Evans, D; Evdokimov, S; Eyyubova, G; Fabbietti, L; Fabris, D; Faivre, J; Fantoni, A; Fasel, M; Feldkamp, L; Feliciello, A; Feofilov, G; Ferencei, J; Fernández Téllez, A; Ferreiro, E G; Ferretti, A; Festanti, A; Feuillard, V J G; Figiel, J; Figueredo, M A S; Filchagin, S; Finogeev, D; Fionda, F M; Fiore, E M; Fleck, M G; Floris, M; Foertsch, S; Foka, P; Fokin, S; Fragiacomo, E; Francescon, A; Frankenfeld, U; Fronze, G G; Fuchs, U; Furget, C; Furs, A; Fusco Girard, M; Gaardhøje, J J; Gagliardi, M; Gago, A M; Gallio, M; Gangadharan, D R; Ganoti, P; Gao, C; Garabatos, C; Garcia-Solis, E; Gargiulo, C; Gasik, P; Gauger, E F; Germain, M; Gheata, A; Gheata, M; Ghosh, P; Ghosh, S K; Gianotti, P; Giubellino, P; Giubilato, P; Gladysz-Dziadus, E; Glässel, P; Goméz Coral, D M; Gomez Ramirez, A; Gonzalez, V; González-Zamora, P; Gorbunov, S; Görlich, L; Gotovac, S; Grabski, V; Grachov, O A; Graczykowski, L K; Graham, K L; Grelli, A; Grigoras, A; Grigoras, C; Grigoriev, V; Grigoryan, A; Grigoryan, S; Grinyov, B; Grion, N; Gronefeld, J M; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J F; Grossiord, J-Y; Grosso, R; Guber, F; Guernane, R; Guerzoni, B; Gulbrandsen, K; Gunji, T; Gupta, A; Gupta, R; Haake, R; Haaland, Ø; Hadjidakis, C; Haiduc, M; Hamagaki, H; Hamar, G; Hamon, J C; Harris, J W; Harton, A; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hayashi, S; Heckel, S T; Hellbär, E; Helstrup, H; Herghelegiu, A; Herrera Corral, G; Hess, B A; Hetland, K F; Hillemanns, H; Hippolyte, B; Horak, D; Hosokawa, R; Hristov, P; Huang, M; Humanic, T J; Hussain, N; Hussain, T; Hutter, D; Hwang, D S; Ilkaev, R; Inaba, M; Incani, E; Ippolitov, M; Irfan, M; Ivanov, M; Ivanov, V; Izucheev, V; Jacazio, N; Jacobs, P M; Jadhav, M B; Jadlovska, S; Jadlovsky, J; Jahnke, C; Jakubowska, M J; Jang, H J; Janik, M A; Jayarathna, P H S Y; Jena, C; Jena, S; Jimenez Bustamante, R T; Jones, P G; Jusko, A; Kalinak, P; Kalweit, A; Kamin, J; Kang, J H; Kaplin, V; Kar, S; Karasu Uysal, A; Karavichev, O; Karavicheva, T; Karayan, L; Karpechev, E; Kebschull, U; Keidel, R; Keijdener, D L D; Keil, M; Mohisin Khan, M; Khan, P; Khan, S A; Khanzadeev, A; Kharlov, Y; Kileng, B; Kim, D W; Kim, D J; Kim, D; Kim, H; Kim, J S; Kim, M; Kim, M; Kim, S; Kim, T; Kirsch, S; Kisel, I; Kiselev, S; Kisiel, A; Kiss, G; Klay, J L; Klein, C; Klein, J; Klein-Bösing, C; Klewin, S; Kluge, A; Knichel, M L; Knospe, A G; Kobdaj, C; Kofarago, M; Kollegger, T; Kolojvari, A; Kondratiev, V; Kondratyeva, N; Kondratyuk, E; Konevskikh, A; Kopcik, M; Kostarakis, P; Kour, M; Kouzinopoulos, C; Kovalenko, O; Kovalenko, V; Kowalski, M; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, G; Králik, I; Kravčáková, A; Kretz, M; Krivda, M; Krizek, F; Kryshen, E; Krzewicki, M; Kubera, A M; Kučera, V; Kuhn, C; Kuijer, P G; Kumar, A; Kumar, J; Kumar, L; Kumar, S; Kurashvili, P; Kurepin, A; Kurepin, A B; Kuryakin, A; Kweon, M J; Kwon, Y; La Pointe, S L; La Rocca, P; Ladron de Guevara, P; Lagana Fernandes, C; Lakomov, I; Langoy, R; Lara, C; Lardeux, A; Lattuca, A; Laudi, E; Lea, R; Leardini, L; Lee, G R; Lee, S; Lehas, F; Lemmon, R C; Lenti, V; Leogrande, E; León Monzón, I; León Vargas, H; Leoncino, M; Lévai, P; Li, S; Li, X; Lien, J; Lietava, R; Lindal, S; Lindenstruth, V; Lippmann, C; Lisa, M A; Ljunggren, H M; Lodato, D F; Loenne, P I; Loginov, V; Loizides, C; Lopez, X; López Torres, E; Lowe, A; Luettig, P; Lunardon, M; Luparello, G; Lutz, T H; Maevskaya, A; Mager, M; Mahajan, S; Mahmood, S M; Maire, A; Majka, R D; Malaev, M; Maldonado Cervantes, I; Malinina, L; Mal'Kevich, D; Malzacher, P; Mamonov, A; Manko, V; Manso, F; Manzari, V; Marchisone, M; Mareš, J; Margagliotti, G V; Margotti, A; Margutti, J; Marín, A; Markert, C; Marquard, M; Martin, N A; Martin Blanco, J; Martinengo, P; Martínez, M I; Martínez García, G; Martinez Pedreira, M; Mas, A; Masciocchi, S; Masera, M; Masoni, A; Massacrier, L; Mastroserio, A; Matyja, A; Mayer, C; Mazer, J; Mazzoni, M A; Mcdonald, D; Meddi, F; Melikyan, Y; Menchaca-Rocha, A; Meninno, E; Mercado Pérez, J; Meres, M; Miake, Y; Mieskolainen, M M; Mikhaylov, K; Milano, L; Milosevic, J; Minervini, L M; Mischke, A; Mishra, A N; Miśkowiec, D; Mitra, J; Mitu, C M; Mohammadi, N; Mohanty, B; Molnar, L; Montaño Zetina, L; Montes, E; Moreira De Godoy, D A; Moreno, L A P; Moretto, S; Morreale, A; Morsch, A; Muccifora, V; Mudnic, E; Mühlheim, D; Muhuri, S; Mukherjee, M; Mulligan, J D; Munhoz, M G; Munzer, R H; Murakami, H; Murray, S; Musa, L; Musinsky, J; Naik, B; Nair, R; Nandi, B K; Nania, R; Nappi, E; Naru, M U; Natal da Luz, H; Nattrass, C; Navarro, S R; Nayak, K; Nayak, R; Nayak, T K; Nazarenko, S; Nedosekin, A; Nellen, L; Ng, F; Nicassio, M; Niculescu, M; Niedziela, J; Nielsen, B S; Nikolaev, S; Nikulin, S; Nikulin, V; Noferini, F; Nomokonov, P; Nooren, G; Noris, J C C; Norman, J; Nyanin, A; Nystrand, J; Oeschler, H; Oh, S; Oh, S K; Ohlson, A; Okatan, A; Okubo, T; Olah, L; Oleniacz, J; Oliveira Da Silva, A C; Oliver, M H; Onderwaater, J; Oppedisano, C; Orava, R; Ortiz Velasquez, A; Oskarsson, A; Otwinowski, J; Oyama, K; Ozdemir, M; Pachmayer, Y; Pagano, P; Paić, G; Pal, S K; Pan, J; Pandey, A K; Papikyan, V; Pappalardo, G S; Pareek, P; Park, W J; Parmar, S; Passfeld, A; Paticchio, V; Patra, R N; Paul, B; Pei, H; Peitzmann, T; Pereira Da Costa, H; Peresunko, D; Pérez Lara, C E; Perez Lezama, E; Peskov, V; Pestov, Y; Petráček, V; Petrov, V; Petrovici, M; Petta, C; Piano, S; Pikna, M; Pillot, P; Pimentel, L O D L; Pinazza, O; Pinsky, L; Piyarathna, D B; Płoskoń, M; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Pochybova, S; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Poghosyan, M G; Polichtchouk, B; Poljak, N; Poonsawat, W; Pop, A; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S; Porter, J; Pospisil, J; Prasad, S K; Preghenella, R; Prino, F; Pruneau, C A; Pshenichnov, I; Puccio, M; Puddu, G; Pujahari, P; Punin, V; Putschke, J; Qvigstad, H; Rachevski, A; Raha, S; Rajput, S; Rak, J; Rakotozafindrabe, A; Ramello, L; Rami, F; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Räsänen, S S; Rascanu, B T; Rathee, D; Read, K F; Redlich, K; Reed, R J; Rehman, A; Reichelt, P; Reidt, F; Ren, X; Renfordt, R; Reolon, A R; Reshetin, A; Revol, J-P; Reygers, K; Riabov, V; Ricci, R A; Richert, T; Richter, M; Riedler, P; Riegler, W; Riggi, F; Ristea, C; Rocco, E; Rodríguez Cahuantzi, M; Rodriguez Manso, A; Røed, K; Rogochaya, E; Rohr, D; Röhrich, D; Romita, R; Ronchetti, F; Ronflette, L; Rosnet, P; Rossi, A; Roukoutakis, F; Roy, A; Roy, C; Roy, P; Rubio Montero, A J; Rui, R; Russo, R; Ryabinkin, E; Ryabov, Y; Rybicki, A; Sadovsky, S; Šafařík, K; Sahlmuller, B; Sahoo, P; Sahoo, R; Sahoo, S; Sahu, P K; Saini, J; Sakai, S; Saleh, M A; Salzwedel, J; Sambyal, S; Samsonov, V; Šándor, L; Sandoval, A; Sano, M; Sarkar, D; Sarma, P; Scapparone, E; Scarlassara, F; Schiaua, C; Schicker, R; Schmidt, C; Schmidt, H R; Schuchmann, S; Schukraft, J; Schulc, M; Schuster, T; Schutz, Y; Schwarz, K; Schweda, K; Scioli, G; Scomparin, E; Scott, R; Šefčík, M; Seger, J E; Sekiguchi, Y; Sekihata, D; Selyuzhenkov, I; Senosi, K; Senyukov, S; Serradilla, E; Sevcenco, A; Shabanov, A; Shabetai, A; Shadura, O; Shahoyan, R; Shangaraev, A; Sharma, A; Sharma, M; Sharma, M; Sharma, N; Shigaki, K; Shtejer, K; Sibiriak, Y; Siddhanta, S; Sielewicz, K M; Siemiarczuk, T; Silvermyr, D; Silvestre, C; Simatovic, G; Simonetti, G; Singaraju, R; Singh, R; Singha, S; Singhal, V; Sinha, B C; Sinha, T; Sitar, B; Sitta, M; Skaali, T B; Slupecki, M; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R J M; Snellman, T W; Søgaard, C; Song, J; Song, M; Song, Z; Soramel, F; Sorensen, S; Souza, R D de; Sozzi, F; Spacek, M; Spiriti, E; Sputowska, I; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M; Stachel, J; Stan, I; Stankus, P; Stefanek, G; Stenlund, E; Steyn, G; Stiller, J H; Stocco, D; Strmen, P; Suaide, A A P; Sugitate, T; Suire, C; Suleymanov, M; Suljic, M; Sultanov, R; Šumbera, M; Szabo, A; Szanto de Toledo, A; Szarka, I; Szczepankiewicz, A; Szymanski, M; Tabassam, U; Takahashi, J; Tambave, G J; Tanaka, N; Tangaro, M A; Tarhini, M; Tariq, M; Tarzila, M G; Tauro, A; Tejeda Muñoz, G; Telesca, A; Terasaki, K; Terrevoli, C; Teyssier, B; Thäder, J; Thomas, D; Tieulent, R; Timmins, A R; Toia, A; Trogolo, S; Trombetta, G; Trubnikov, V; Trzaska, W H; Tsuji, T; Tumkin, A; Turrisi, R; Tveter, T S; Ullaland, K; Uras, A; Usai, G L; Utrobicic, A; Vajzer, M; Vala, M; Valencia Palomo, L; Vallero, S; Van Der Maarel, J; Van Hoorne, J W; van Leeuwen, M; Vanat, T; Vande Vyvre, P; Varga, D; Vargas, A; Vargyas, M; Varma, R; Vasileiou, M; Vasiliev, A; Vauthier, A; Vechernin, V; Veen, A M; Veldhoen, M; Velure, A; Venaruzzo, M; Vercellin, E; Vergara Limón, S; Vernet, R; Verweij, M; Vickovic, L; Viesti, G; Viinikainen, J; Vilakazi, Z; Villalobos Baillie, O; Villatoro Tello, A; Vinogradov, A; Vinogradov, L; Vinogradov, Y; Virgili, T; Vislavicius, V; Viyogi, Y P; Vodopyanov, A; Völkl, M A; Voloshin, K; Voloshin, S A; Volpe, G; von Haller, B; Vorobyev, I; Vranic, D; Vrláková, J; Vulpescu, B; Wagner, B; Wagner, J; Wang, H; Wang, M; Watanabe, D; Watanabe, Y; Weber, M; Weber, S G; Weiser, D F; Wessels, J P; Westerhoff, U; Whitehead, A M; Wiechula, J; Wikne, J; Wilk, G; Wilkinson, J; Williams, M C S; Windelband, B; Winn, M; Yang, H; Yang, P; Yano, S; Yasar, C; Yin, Z; Yokoyama, H; Yoo, I-K; Yoon, J H; Yurchenko, V; Yushmanov, I; Zaborowska, A; Zaccolo, V; Zaman, A; Zampolli, C; Zanoli, H J C; Zaporozhets, S; Zardoshti, N; Zarochentsev, A; Závada, P; Zaviyalov, N; Zbroszczyk, H; Zgura, I S; Zhalov, M; Zhang, H; Zhang, X; Zhang, Y; Zhang, C; Zhang, Z; Zhao, C; Zhigareva, N; Zhou, D; Zhou, Y; Zhou, Z; Zhu, H; Zhu, J; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, A; Zimmermann, M B; Zinovjev, G; Zyzak, M

    The production of K[Formula: see text](892)[Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text](1020) mesons has been measured in p-Pb collisions at [Formula: see text][Formula: see text] 5.02 TeV. K[Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] are reconstructed via their decay into charged hadrons with the ALICE detector in the rapidity range [Formula: see text]. The transverse momentum spectra, measured as a function of the multiplicity, have a p[Formula: see text] range from 0 to 15 GeV/ c for K[Formula: see text] and from 0.3 to 21 GeV/ c for [Formula: see text]. Integrated yields, mean transverse momenta and particle ratios are reported and compared with results in pp collisions at [Formula: see text][Formula: see text] 7 TeV and Pb-Pb collisions at [Formula: see text][Formula: see text] 2.76 TeV. In Pb-Pb and p-Pb collisions, K[Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] probe the hadronic phase of the system and contribute to the study of particle formation mechanisms by comparison with other identified hadrons. For this purpose, the mean transverse momenta and the differential proton-to-[Formula: see text] ratio are discussed as a function of the multiplicity of the event. The short-lived K[Formula: see text] is measured to investigate re-scattering effects, believed to be related to the size of the system and to the lifetime of the hadronic phase.

  9. Non-Equilibrium Chemistry of O-Rich AGB Stars as Revealed by ALMA (United States)

    Wong, Ka Tat


    Chemical models suggest that pulsation driven shocks propagating from the stellar surfaces of oxygen-rich evolved stars to the dust formation zone trigger non-equilibrium chemistry in the shocked gas near the star, including the formation of carbon-bearing molecules in the stellar winds dominated by oxygen-rich chemistry. Recent long-baseline ALMA observations are able to give us a detailed view of the molecular line emission and absorption at an angular resolution of a few stellar radii. I am going to present the latest results from the ALMA observations of IK Tau and o Cet in late 2017, with a particular focus on HCN.

  10. Mobile characters, mobile texts: homelessness and intertextuality in contemporary texts for young people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavis Reimer


    Full Text Available Since the 1990s, narratives about homelessness for and about young people have proliferated around the world. A cluster of thematic elements shared by many of these narratives of the age of globalization points to the deep anxiety that is being expressed about a social, economic, and cultural system under stress or struggling to find a new formation. More surprisingly, many of the narratives also use canonical cultural texts extensively as intertexts. This article considers three novels from three different national traditions to address the work of intertextuality in narratives about homelessness: Skellig by UK author David Almond, which was published in 1998; Chronicler of the Winds by Swedish author Henning Mankell, which was first published in 1988 in Swedish as Comédia Infantil and published in an English translation in 2006; and Stained Glass by Canadian author Michael Bedard, which was published in 2002. Using Julia Kristeva's definition of intertextuality as the “transposition of one (or several sign systems into another,” I propose that all intertexts can be thought of as metaphoric texts, in the precise sense that they carry one text into another. In the narratives under discussion in this article, the idea of homelessness is in perpetual motion between texts and intertexts, ground and figure, the literal and the symbolic. What the child characters and the readers who take up the position offered to implied readers are asked to do, I argue, is to put on a way of seeing that does not settle, a way of being that strains forward toward the new.

  11. Adobe AIR, Bringing Rich Internet Applications to the Desktop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Vieriu


    Full Text Available Rich Internet Applications are the new trend in software development today. Adobe AIR offers the possibility to create cross-platform desktop applications using popular Web technologies like HTML, JavaScript, Flash and Flex. This article is focused on presenting the advantages that this new environment has to offer for the web development community and how quickly you can develop a desktop application using Adobe AIR.

  12. Platelet Rich Plasma: What should the rheumatologist expect?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Fernandes


    Full Text Available In the last few decades, thousands of patients have benefited from platelet rich plasma (PRP therapies, emerging as a safe alternative in many different medical fields. Current evidence suggests that PRP may be of benefit over standard treatment in osteoarthritis patients and, in the musculoskeletal soft tissue injuries potential healing effects are waiting to be confirmed with robust evidence. Finally, in systemic rheumatic diseases PRP seems to have a role to play in the treatment of extra-articular symptoms.

  13. Negation scope and spelling variation for text-mining of Danish electronic patient records

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, Cecilia Engel; Jensen, Peter Bjødstrup; Werge, Thomas


    Electronic patient records are a potentially rich data source for knowledge extraction in biomedical research. Here we present a method based on the ICD10 system for text-mining of Danish health records. We have evaluated how adding functionalities to a baseline text-mining tool affected...

  14. LHCb RICH1 Engineering Design Review Report

    CERN Document Server

    Brook, N; Metlica, F; Muir, A; Phillips, A; Buckley, A; Gibson, V; Harrison, K; Jones, C R; Katvars, S G; Lazzeroni, C; Storey, J; Ward, CP; Wotton, S; Alemi, M; Arnabaldi, C; Bellunato, T F; Calvi, M; Matteuzzi, C; Musy, M; Negri, P; Perego, D L; Pessina, G; Chamonal, R; Eisenhardt, S; Lawrence, J; McCarron, J; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Walker, A; Cuneo, S; Fontanelli, F; Gracco, Valerio; Mini, G; Musico, P; Petrolini, A; Sannino, M; Bates, A; MacGregor, A; O'Shea, V; Parkes, C; Paterson, S; Petrie, D; Pickford, A; Rahman, M; Soler, F; Allebone, L; Barber, J H; Cameron, W; Clark, D; Dornan, Peter John; Duane, A; Egede, U; Hallam, R; Howard, A; Plackett, R; Price, D; Savidge, T; Vidal-Sitjes, G; Websdale, D M; Adinolfi, M; Bibby, J H; Cioffi, C; Gligorov, Vladimir V; Harnew, N; Harris, F; McArthur, I A; Newby, C; Ottewell, B; Rademacker, J; Senanayake, R; Somerville, L P; Soroko, A; Smale, N J; Topp-Jørgensen, S; Wilkinson, G; Yang, S; Benayoun, M; Khmelnikov, V A; Obraztsov, V F; Densham, C J; Easo, S; Franek, B; Kuznetsov, G; Loveridge, P W; Morrow, D; Morris, JV; Papanestis, A; Patrick, G N; Woodward, M L; Aglieri-Rinella, G; Albrecht, A; Braem, André; Campbell, M; D'Ambrosio, C; Forty, R W; Frei, C; Gys, Thierry; Jamet, O; Kanaya, N; Losasso, M; Moritz, M; Patel, M; Piedigrossi, D; Snoeys, W; Ullaland, O; Van Lysebetten, A; Wyllie, K


    This document describes the concepts of the engineering design to be adopted for the upstream Ring Imaging Cherenkov detector (RICH1) of the reoptimized LHCb detector. Our aim is to ensure that coherent solutions for the engineering design and integration for all components of RICH1 are available, before proceeding with the detailed design of these components.

  15. Island Species Richness Increases with Habitat Diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hortal, J.; Triantis, K.A.; Meiri, S.; Thebault, E.M.C.; Sfenthourakis, S.


    Species richness is commonly thought to increase with habitat diversity. However, a recent theoretical model aiming to unify niche and island biogeography theories predicted a hump-shaped relationship between richness and habitat diversity. Given the contradiction between model results and previous

  16. Platelet-rich plasma in otolaryngology. (United States)

    Stavrakas, M; Karkos, P D; Markou, K; Grigoriadis, N


    Platelet-rich plasma is a novel material that is being used more frequently in many surgical specialties. A literature review on the current and potential uses of platelet-rich plasma in otolaryngology was performed. There is limited evidence on the use of platelet-rich plasma in otolaryngology compared with other specialties: only 11 studies on various subspecialties (otology, rhinology and laryngology) were included in the final review. Based on the limited number of studies, we cannot draw safe conclusions about the value of platelet-rich plasma in otolaryngology. Nevertheless, the available literature suggests that platelet-rich plasma holds promise for future research and may have a number of clinical applications.

  17. Sedimentary mechanisms of a modern banded iron formation on Milos Island, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Chi Fru


    Full Text Available An early Quaternary shallow submarine hydrothermal iron formation (IF in the Cape Vani sedimentary basin (CVSB on Milos Island, Greece, displays banded rhythmicity similar to Precambrian banded iron formation (BIF. Field-wide stratigraphic and biogeochemical reconstructions show two temporal and spatially isolated iron deposits in the CVSB with distinct sedimentological character. Petrographic screening suggests the presence of a photoferrotrophic-like microfossil-rich IF (MFIF, accumulated on a basement consisting of andesites in a ∼ 150 m wide basin in the SW margin of the basin. A banded nonfossiliferous IF (NFIF sits on top of the Mn-rich sandstones at the transition to the renowned Mn-rich formation, capping the NFIF unit. Geochemical data relate the origin of the NFIF to periodic submarine volcanism and water column oxidation of released Fe(II in conditions predominated by anoxia, similar to the MFIF. Raman spectroscopy pairs hematite-rich grains in the NFIF with relics of a carbonaceous material carrying an average δ13Corg signature of ∼ −25‰. A similar δ13Corg signature in the MFIF could not be directly coupled to hematite by mineralogy. The NFIF, which postdates large-scale Mn deposition in the CVSB, is composed primarily of amorphous Si (opal-SiO2 ⋅ nH2O while crystalline quartz (SiO2 predominates the MFIF. An intricate interaction between tectonic processes, changing redox, biological activity, and abiotic Si precipitation are proposed to have collectively formed the unmetamorphosed BIF-type deposits in a shallow submarine volcanic center. Despite the differences in Precambrian ocean–atmosphere chemistry and the present geologic time, these formation mechanisms coincide with those believed to have formed Algoma-type BIFs proximal to active seafloor volcanic centers.

  18. Formative (measurement)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fassott, G.; Henseler, Jörg; Cooper, C.; Lee, N.; Farrell, A.


    When using measurement models with multiple indicators, researchers need to decide about the epistemic relationship between the latent variable and its indicators. In this article, we describe the nature, the estimation, the characteristics, and the validity assessment of formative measurement

  19. Plasma rico en plaquetas Platelet -rich plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. González Lagunas


    Full Text Available El Plasma Rico en Plaquetas es una suspensión concentrada de la sangre centrifugada que contiene elevadas concentraciones de trombocitos. Durante los últimos años, este producto ha aparecido de forma repetida en publicaciones científicas y en medios de comunicación generales como un producto que por sus características induce la curación y regeneración de los tejidos. La premisa de su uso es que las elevadas concentraciones de plaquetas en el PRP, liberan cantidades significativas de factores de crecimiento. En este artículo se van a recoger las evidencias científicas que se han presentado en la literatura médica con respecto al PRP y a la curación ósea, así como las diferentes aplicaciones clínicas que se han sugerido.Platelet-rich plasma is a by-product of centrifuged whole blood that contains high levels of thrombocytes. In the last decade, scientific and media interest has been generated by this product that apparently has the capacity of inducing and promoting tissue healing and regeneration. The premise of its use is that the large number of platelets in PRP release significant amounts of growth factors. In this paper, a critical review of the medical literature regarding PRP and bone healing will be presented. Also, the suggested clinical applications of the product will be addressed.

  20. Structure of neutron-rich nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarewicz, W.


    Complete text of publication follows. The uncharted regions of the (N,Z) plane contain information that can answer many questions of fundamental importance for science: How many protons and neutrons can be clustered together by the strong interaction to form a bound nucleus? What are the proton and neutron magic numbers of the exotic nuclei? What are the properties of very short-lived exotic nuclei with extreme neutron-to-proton ratios? What is the effective nucleon-nucleon interaction in a nucleus that has a very large neutron excess? Nuclear life far from stability is different from that around the stability line; the promised access to completely new combinations of proton and neutron numbers offers prospects for new structural phenomena. The main objective of this talk is to discuss some of the challenges and opportunities of research with exotic nuclei. The covered topics will include: Theoretical challenges; Skins and halos in heavy nuclei; Shape coexistence in exotic nuclei; Beta-decays of neutron-rich nuclei. (author)

  1. The Impact of Corporate Social Responsibility Information Richness on Trust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafeah Mat Saat


    Full Text Available Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR is a concept that describes the relationship between company  and society. The way a company portrays corporate ethics and social initiatives can evoke strong positive reactions among consumers. The emergence of Internet creates a new communicating culture and gives an idea for a company to deliver their CSR message. Applying Media Richness Theory (MRT in CSR message is believed could facilitate trust among consumer. Thus, this study aims to examine the impact of different level of CSR information richness with consumers trust towards the company. This study divides trust into three components that are competence, benevolence and integrity. An experimental design consisting of different levels of CSR information is selected (rich CSR information, lean CSR information and no CSR information as a control condition. The finding shows that rich CSR information has impacted on competence and integrity but not on benevolence. Result from this study is believed can assist companies in setting up their CSR communicating strategy in engaging consumers’ trust.

  2. Bengali text summarization by sentence extraction


    Sarkar, Kamal


    Text summarization is a process to produce an abstract or a summary by selecting significant portion of the information from one or more texts. In an automatic text summarization process, a text is given to the computer and the computer returns a shorter less redundant extract or abstract of the original text(s). Many techniques have been developed for summarizing English text(s). But, a very few attempts have been made for Bengali text summarization. This paper presents a method for Bengali ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STURZA Amalia


    Full Text Available In this paper we will speculate the possible relationships between “word,” “text,” “textile,” and “clothing”. Many of the terms we use to describe our interactions with words are derived from the common linguistic root and numerous other expressions associated with reading and writing are drawn from the rich vocabulary of cloth. Textiles are one of the most ubiquitous components of material culture and they are also integral to the material history of texts. The intersection between texts and textiles locates the relationship between language and dress, as together they structure the fashion scene over the century. We compare these texts and storytelling with the process of making clothes, they go from fibers that are spun and then create the fabric or the material out of which the clothes are made. Besides the similitude of the words “text” and “textile” that have four similar letters there is also the resemblance in the way they transmit a message. While texts are meant to transmit something to the reader, to enchant and to create emotions in so various ways, just in the same way clothes are also meant to transmit emotions and feelings to the wearer or to the people watching them.

  4. Cleaning OCR'd text with Regular Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Turner O'Hara


    Full Text Available Optical Character Recognition (OCR—the conversion of scanned images to machine-encoded text—has proven a godsend for historical research. This process allows texts to be searchable on one hand and more easily parsed and mined on the other. But we’ve all noticed that the OCR for historic texts is far from perfect. Old type faces and formats make for unique OCR. How might we improve poor quality OCR? The answer is Regular Expressions or “regex.”

  5. Magnetic properties of tetrataenite-rich meteorites. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, T.; Funaki, M.; Danon, J.


    Magnetic hysteresis and thermomagnetic characteristics of St. Severin (LL 6 ), Appley Bridge (LL 6 ) and Tuxtuac (LL 5 ) chondrites, which contain tetrataenite in their metallic components, are measured and analyzed in comparison with another tetrataenite-rich chondrite, Yamato 74160. The magnetic properties of tetrataenite-rich meteorites are characterized by (a) high magnetic coercive force (H sub(C)) which amounts to 520 Oe for St. Severin and 160 Oe for Appley Bridge, (b) essential flatness up to about 500 0 C and then a sharp irreversible drop down to Curie point of the first-run heating thermomagnetic curve. Both characteristic features are broken down to the ordinary features of disordered taenite by a breakdown of tetrataenite structure at elevated temperatures beyond the order-disorder transition temperature. The natural remanent magnetization (NRM) of tetrataenite-rich meteorites is extremely stable against AF-demagnetization and other magnetic disturbances because of the high magnetic coercivity of tetrataenite. The breakdown processes of ordered tetrataenite structure by heat treatments are experimentally pursued for the purpose of research of a possible formation process of tetrataenite phase in meteorites. (Author) [pt

  6. Inferring Group Processes from Computer-Mediated Affective Text Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schryver, Jack C [ORNL; Begoli, Edmon [ORNL; Jose, Ajith [Missouri University of Science and Technology; Griffin, Christopher [Pennsylvania State University


    Political communications in the form of unstructured text convey rich connotative meaning that can reveal underlying group social processes. Previous research has focused on sentiment analysis at the document level, but we extend this analysis to sub-document levels through a detailed analysis of affective relationships between entities extracted from a document. Instead of pure sentiment analysis, which is just positive or negative, we explore nuances of affective meaning in 22 affect categories. Our affect propagation algorithm automatically calculates and displays extracted affective relationships among entities in graphical form in our prototype (TEAMSTER), starting with seed lists of affect terms. Several useful metrics are defined to infer underlying group processes by aggregating affective relationships discovered in a text. Our approach has been validated with annotated documents from the MPQA corpus, achieving a performance gain of 74% over comparable random guessers.

  7. Text Mining of UU-ITE Implementation in Indonesia (United States)

    Hakim, Lukmanul; Kusumasari, Tien F.; Lubis, Muharman


    At present, social media and networks act as one of the main platforms for sharing information, idea, thought and opinions. Many people share their knowledge and express their views on the specific topics or current hot issues that interest them. The social media texts have rich information about the complaints, comments, recommendation and suggestion as the automatic reaction or respond to government initiative or policy in order to overcome certain issues.This study examines the sentiment from netizensas part of citizen who has vocal sound about the implementation of UU ITE as the first cyberlaw in Indonesia as a means to identify the current tendency of citizen perception. To perform text mining techniques, this study used Twitter Rest API while R programming was utilized for the purpose of classification analysis based on hierarchical cluster.

  8. Text Analysis: Critical Component of Planning for Text-Based Discussion Focused on Comprehension of Informational Texts (United States)

    Kucan, Linda; Palincsar, Annemarie Sullivan


    This investigation focuses on a tool used in a reading methods course to introduce reading specialist candidates to text analysis as a critical component of planning for text-based discussions. Unlike planning that focuses mainly on important text content or information, a text analysis approach focuses both on content and how that content is…

  9. SIAM 2007 Text Mining Competition dataset (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Subject Area: Text Mining Description: This is the dataset used for the SIAM 2007 Text Mining competition. This competition focused on developing text mining...

  10. Measurement of [Formula: see text] polarisation in [Formula: see text] collisions at [Formula: see text] = 7 TeV. (United States)

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; An, L; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Andreotti, M; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Badalov, A; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Batozskaya, V; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Borsato, M; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Bursche, A; Busetto, G; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Calabrese, R; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carranza-Mejia, H; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cassina, L; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Cenci, R; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Cheung, S-F; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Corvo, M; Counts, I; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Cruz Torres, M; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; Dalseno, J; David, P; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Déléage, N; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dijkstra, H; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dorigo, M; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Esen, S; Evans, T; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fiore, M; Fiorini, M; Firlej, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fiutowski, T; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Fu, J; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garofoli, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gavardi, L; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gianelle, A; Giani, S; Gibson, V; Giubega, L; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Gotti, C; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Griffith, P; Grillo, L; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Hampson, T; Han, X; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Hartmann, T; He, J; Head, T; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Henry, L; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Heß, M; Hicheur, A; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jalocha, J; Jans, E; Jaton, P; Jawahery, A; Jezabek, M; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Jurik, N; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Kanso, W; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Kelsey, M; Kenyon, I R; Ketel, T; Khanji, B; Khurewathanakul, C; Klaver, S; Kochebina, O; Kolpin, M; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kurek, K; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leo, S; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Lionetto, F; Liu, B; Liu, G; Lohn, S; Longstaff, I; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lopez-March, N; Lowdon, P; Lu, H; Lucchesi, D; Luisier, J; Luo, H; Lupato, A; Luppi, E; Lupton, O; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Manzali, M; Maratas, J; Marchand, J F; Marconi, U; Marino, P; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martinez Vidal, F; Martins Tostes, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Mazurov, A; McCann, M; McCarthy, J; McNab, A; McNulty, R; McSkelly, B; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morandin, M; Morawski, P; Mordà, A; Morello, M J; Moron, J; Mountain, R; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neri, N; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Neuner, M; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Onderwater, G; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palombo, F; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrignani, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pearce, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perez Trigo, E; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pescatore, L; Pesen, E; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Pistone, A; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, A; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pritchard, A; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Rachwal, B; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rama, M; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reichert, S; Reid, M M; Dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, A B; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rotondo, M; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, H; Ruiz Valls, P; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Sanchez Mayordomo, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Sestini, L; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Simi, G; Sirendi, M; Skidmore, N; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, E; Smith, J; Smith, M; Snoek, H; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spinella, F; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stenyakin, O; Stevenson, S; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Stracka, S; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Stroili, R; Subbiah, V K; Sun, L; Sutcliffe, W; Swientek, K; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szilard, D; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Tellarini, G; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tomassetti, L; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vallier, A; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vázquez Sierra, C; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vieites Diaz, M; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; de Vries, J A; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Walsh, J; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Wishahi, J; Wislicki, W; Witek, M; Wormser, G; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, Z; Xu, Z; Yang, Z; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhokhov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    The polarisation of prompt [Formula: see text] mesons is measured by performing an angular analysis of [Formula: see text] decays using proton-proton collision data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.0[Formula: see text], collected by the LHCb detector at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. The polarisation is measured in bins of transverse momentum [Formula: see text] and rapidity [Formula: see text] in the kinematic region [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], and is compared to theoretical models. No significant polarisation is observed.

  11. Neutron rich nuclei around 132Sn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, Sarmishtha


    The neutron rich nuclei with few particles or holes in 132 Sn have various experimental and theoretical interest to understand the evolution of nuclear structure around the doubly magic shell closure Z=50 and N=82. Some of the exotic neutron rich nuclei in this mass region are situated near waiting points in the r-process path and are of special astrophysical interest. Neutron rich nuclei near 132 Sn have been studied using fission fragment spectroscopy. The lifetime of low lying isomeric states have been precisely measured and the beta decay from the ground and isomeric states have been characterized using gamma-ray spectroscopy

  12. Firm size diversity, functional richness, and resilience (United States)

    Garmestani, A.S.; Allen, Craig R.; Mittelstaedt, J.D.; Stow, C.A.; Ward, W.A.


    This paper applies recent advances in ecology to our understanding of firm development, sustainability, and economic development. The ecological literature indicates that the greater the functional richness of species in a system, the greater its resilience - that is, its ability to persist in the face of substantial changes in the environment. This paper focuses on the effects of functional richness across firm size on the ability of industries to survive in the face of economic change. Our results indicate that industries with a richness of industrial functions are more resilient to employment volatility. ?? 2006 Cambridge University Press.

  13. Black manganese-rich crusts on a Gothic cathedral (United States)

    Macholdt, Dorothea S.; Herrmann, Siegfried; Jochum, Klaus Peter; Kilcoyne, A. L. David; Laubscher, Thomas; Pfisterer, Jonas H. K.; Pöhlker, Christopher; Schwager, Beate; Weber, Bettina; Weigand, Markus; Domke, Katrin F.; Andreae, Meinrat O.


    crusts sampled at greater heights (>8 m) exhibited fungal and cyanobacterial encrustation. Carbon-rich spots were found by STXM-NEXAFS underneath one of the Mn-rich crusts. However, these carbon occurrences originate from soot and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) deposited on top of the crust, rather than from organisms responsible for the crust's formation, as shown by STXM-NEXAFS and Raman spectroscopic measurements. Our results suggest that the crusts develop abiogenically, with vehicle emissions as dominant element sources.

  14. Cement Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Telschow, Samira; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming; Theisen, Kirsten


    Cement production has been subject to several technological changes, each of which requires detailed knowledge about the high multiplicity of processes, especially the high temperature process involved in the rotary kiln. This article gives an introduction to the topic of cement, including...... an overview of cement production, selected cement properties, and clinker phase relations. An extended summary of laboratory-scale investigations on clinkerization reactions, the most important reactions in cement production, is provided. Clinker formations by solid state reactions, solid−liquid and liquid......−liquid reactions are discussed, as are the influences of particles sizes on clinker phase formation. Furthermore, a mechanism for clinker phase formation in an industrial rotary kiln reactor is outlined....

  15. Star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodward, P.R.


    Theoretical models of star formation are discussed beginning with the earliest stages and ending in the formation of rotating, self-gravitating disks or rings. First a model of the implosion of very diffuse gas clouds is presented which relies upon a shock at the edge of a galactic spiral arm to drive the implosion. Second, models are presented for the formation of a second generation of massive stars in such a cloud once a first generation has formed. These models rely on the ionizing radiation from massive stars or on the supernova shocks produced when these stars explode. Finally, calculations of the gravitational collapse of rotating clouds are discussed with special focus on the question of whether rotating disks or rings are the result of such a collapse. 65 references

  16. Galaxy Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Martin

    Galaxy formation is an enormously complex discipline due to the many physical processes that play a role in shaping galaxies. The objective of this thesis is to study galaxy formation with two different approaches: First, numerical simulations are used to study the structure of dark matter and how...... galaxies form stars throughout the history of the Universe, and secondly it is shown that observations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) can be used to probe galaxies with active star formation in the early Universe. A conclusion from the hydrodynamical simulations is that the galaxies from the stateof...... is important, since it helps constraining chemical evolution models at high redshift. A new project studying how the population of galaxies hosting GRBs relate to other galaxy population is outlined in the conclusion of this thesis. The core of this project will be to quantify how the stellar mass function...

  17. Comet formation (United States)

    Blum, J.


    There has been vast progress in our understanding of planetesimal formation over the past decades, owing to a number of laboratory experiments as well as to refined models of dust and ice agglomeration in protoplanetary disks. Coagulation rapidly forms cm-sized ''pebbles'' by direct sticking in collisions at low velocities (Güttler et al. 2010; Zsom et al. 2010). For the further growth, two model approaches are currently being discussed: (1) Local concentration of pebbles in nebular instabilities until gravitational instability occurs (Johansen et al. 2007). (2) A competition between fragmentation and mass transfer in collisions among the dusty bodies, in which a few ''lucky winners'' make it to planetesimal sizes (Windmark et al. 2012a,b; Garaud et al. 2013). Predictions of the physical properties of the resulting bodies in both models allow a distinction of the two formation scenarios of planetesimals. In particular, the tensile strength (i.e, the inner cohesion) of the planetesimals differ widely between the two models (Skorov & Blum 2012; Blum et al. 2014). While model (1) predicts tensile strengths on the order of ˜ 1 Pa, model (2) results in rather compactified dusty bodies with tensile strengths in the kPa regime. If comets are km-sized survivors of the planetesimal-formation era, they should in principle hold the secret of their formation process. Water ice is the prime volatile responsible for the activity of comets. Thermophysical models of the heat and mass transport close to the comet-nucleus surface predict water-ice sublimation temperatures that relate to maximum sublimation pressures well below the kPa regime predicted for formation scenario (2). Model (1), however, is in agreement with the observed dust and gas activity of comets. Thus, a formation scenario for cometesimals involving gravitational instability is favored (Blum et al. 2014).

  18. Effect of a hyperlipidic diet rich in omegas 3, 6 and 9 on aberrant crypt formation in rat colonic mucosa Efeito de uma dieta hiperlipídica rica em ômegas 3, 6 e 9 na formação de criptas aberrantes em mucosa cólica de ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idália Maria Brasil Burlamaqui


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine whether a hypercaloric and hyperlipidic diet enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids influences the formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF in colonic mucosa of Wistar rats treated with azoxymethane (AOM. METHODS: At eight weeks of life, the rats were assigned to four groups: Group I―standard diet (STD not treated with AOM; Group II―hypercaloric and hyperlipidic diet (FED, not treated with AOM; Group III―STD, treated with AOM; Group IV―FED, treated with AOM. At 16 weeks, the animals were injected intraperitoneal with 0.9% saline solution (Group I and II or AOM at 15mg/Kg (Groups III and IV once a week for two weeks. Fifteen weeks later, the animals were euthanized. RESULTS: FED promoted weight gain in Groups II and IV compared to Groups I and III, respectively. The groups did not differ with regard to the total number of ACF. The Chi-square test revealed no predominance of the presence of foci with OBJETIVO: Determinar se uma dieta hipercalórica, hiperlipídica, rica em ácidos graxos poliinsaturados (FED tem influência na formação de focos de cripta aberrante (FCA em mucosa cólica de ratos Wistar expostos ao azoximetano (AOM. MÉTODOS: Com oito semanas de vida, os ratos foram distribuídos em quatro grupos: Grupo I: Dieta padrão (SD sem AOM; Grupo II: FED, sem AOM; Grupo III: SD, com AOM; Grupo IV: FED com AOM. Com 16 semanas, os animais dos grupos I e II receberam injeções intraperitoneais de solução salina 0,9%, enquanto os dos grupos III e IV receberam AOM na dose de 15mg/Kg de peso, 1 vez por semana por duas semanas. Quinze semanas após, os animais foram mortos. RESULTADOS: FED promoveu aumento de peso nos grupos II e IV em relação aos grupos I e III. Não houve aumento significante no número total de FCA entre os grupos. Em relação à multiplicidade das criptas por FCA, o teste do qui-quadrado mostrou que não houve predominância da presença <4 criptas por foco. Contudo, focos ≥5 criptas

  19. Examining Text Complexity in the Early Grades (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Jill; Elmore, Jeff; Hiebert, Elfrieda H.; Koons, Heather H.; Bowen, Kimberly; Sanford-Moore, Eleanor E.; Stenner, A. Jackson


    The Common Core raises the stature of texts to new heights, creating a hubbub. The fuss is especially messy at the early grades, where children are expected to read more complex texts than in the past. But early-grades teachers have been given little actionable guidance about text complexity. The authors recently examined early-grades texts to…

  20. Existence of an 16O-rich gaseous reservoir in the solar nebula. (United States)

    Krot, Alexander N; McKeegan, Kevin D; Leshin, Laurie A; MacPherson, Glenn J; Scott, Edward R D


    Carbonaceous chondrite condensate olivine grains from two distinct petrographic settings, calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion (CAI) accretionary rims and amoeboid olivine aggregates (AOAs), are oxygen-16 (16O) enriched at the level previously observed inside CAIs. This requires that the gas in the nebular region where these grains condensed was 16O-rich. This contrasts with an 16O-poor gas present during the formation of chondrules, suggesting that CAIs and AOAs formed in a spatially restricted region of the solar nebula containing 16O-rich gas. The 16O-rich gas composition may have resulted either from mass-independent isotopic chemistry or from evaporation of regions with enhanced dust/gas ratios, possibly in an X-wind environment near the young Sun.

  1. GC-rich DNA elements enable replication origin activity in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Liachko


    Full Text Available The well-studied DNA replication origins of the model budding and fission yeasts are A/T-rich elements. However, unlike their yeast counterparts, both plant and metazoan origins are G/C-rich and are associated with transcription start sites. Here we show that an industrially important methylotrophic budding yeast, Pichia pastoris, simultaneously employs at least two types of replication origins--a G/C-rich type associated with transcription start sites and an A/T-rich type more reminiscent of typical budding and fission yeast origins. We used a suite of massively parallel sequencing tools to map and dissect P. pastoris origins comprehensively, to measure their replication dynamics, and to assay the global positioning of nucleosomes across the genome. Our results suggest that some functional overlap exists between promoter sequences and G/C-rich replication origins in P. pastoris and imply an evolutionary bifurcation of the modes of replication initiation.

  2. SAW Classification Algorithm for Chinese Text Classification


    Xiaoli Guo; Huiyu Sun; Tiehua Zhou; Ling Wang; Zhaoyang Qu; Jiannan Zang


    Considering the explosive growth of data, the increased amount of text data’s effect on the performance of text categorization forward the need for higher requirements, such that the existing classification method cannot be satisfied. Based on the study of existing text classification technology and semantics, this paper puts forward a kind of Chinese text classification oriented SAW (Structural Auxiliary Word) algorithm. The algorithm uses the special space effect of Chinese text where words...

  3. Thermodynamics of neutron-rich nuclear matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López, Jorge A., E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas 79968, U.S.A (United States); Porras, Sergio Terrazas, E-mail:; Gutiérrez, Araceli Rodríguez, E-mail: [Universidad Autónoma de Ciudad Juárez, Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, México (Mexico)


    This manuscript presents methods to obtain properties of neutron-rich nuclear matter from classical molecular dynamics. Some of these are bulk properties of infinite nuclear matter, phase information, the Maxwell construction, spinodal lines and symmetry energy.

  4. Invariant practical tasks for work with text documents at the secondary school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Л И Карташова


    Full Text Available In article examples of practical tasks on creation, editing and formatting of text documents focused on pupils of the secondary school are given. Tasks have invariant character and don't depend on concrete software.

  5. Simultaneous measurement of amyloid fibril formation by dynamic light scattering and fluorescence reveals complex aggregation kinetics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron M Streets

    Full Text Available An apparatus that combines dynamic light scattering and Thioflavin T fluorescence detection is used to simultaneously probe fibril formation in polyglutamine peptides, the aggregating subunit associated with Huntington's disease, in vitro. Huntington's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder in a class of human pathologies that includes Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. These pathologies are all related by the propensity of their associated protein or polypeptide to form insoluble, β-sheet rich, amyloid fibrils. Despite the wide range of amino acid sequence in the aggregation prone polypeptides associated with these diseases, the resulting amyloids display strikingly similar physical structure, an observation which suggests a physical basis for amyloid fibril formation. Thioflavin T fluorescence reports β-sheet fibril content while dynamic light scattering measures particle size distributions. The combined techniques allow elucidation of complex aggregation kinetics and are used to reveal multiple stages of amyloid fibril formation.

  6. Influence Of The Neutron Richness On Binary Decays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy R.


    Full Text Available The influence of the neutron richness on binary decays is investigated in 78,82Kr+ 40Ca reactions at 5.5 MeV/A incident energy. Kinetic energy distributions and angular distributions of fragments with atomic number 6 ≤ Z ≤ 28 were measured using the 4π-INDRA array. Global features are compatible with an emission from a long-lived system. The yields around the symmetric splitting are about 30The persistence of strong structural effects is evidenced from elemental cross-sections of the light fragments. The cross-sections for odd-Z fragments are higher for the neutron rich CN while cross-sections for even-Z fragments are higher for the neutron poor CN. Calculations assuming two different potential energy surfaces are presented.

  7. Platelet Rich Plasma- mechanism of action and clinical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina N. Cozma


    Full Text Available Platelet-rich plasma (PRP is a blood-derived fraction containing high level of platelets, a high concentration of leukocytes and growth factors. PRP therapy has been growing as a viable treatment alternative for a number of clinical applications and has a potential benefit for use in wound healing. Nowadays platelet rich plasma is used in stimulating wound healing in skin and soft tissue ulcerations, accelerating wound healing in diabetic patients and facilitating bone proliferation in orthopedic and trauma surgery. It has also applications in maxillofacial surgery, spinal surgery, plastic and esthetic surgery, heart surgery and burns. This review of the literature shows a limited number of studies realized on humans that sustain PRP applications in orthopedic and plastic surgery. As the use of PRP increases, more properly structured clinical studies are necessary to confirm the results and to establish clearly the techniques of preparing, the conditions and the clinical indications of applying this therapy.

  8. Platelet-rich-fibrin: A novel root coverage approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anilkumar K


    Full Text Available Treatment of gingival recession has become an important therapeutic issue due to increasing cosmetic demand. Multiple surgical procedures have been developed to obtain predictable esthetic root coverage. More specifically, after periodontal regenerative surgery, the aim is to achieve complete wound healing and regeneration of the periodontal unit. A recent innovation in dentistry is the preparation and use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP, a concentrated suspension of the growth factors, found in platelets. These growth factors are involved in wound healing and postulated as promoters of tissue regeneration. This paper reports the use of PRF membrane for root coverage on the labial surfaces of the mandibular anterior teeth. This was accomplished using laterally displaced flap technique with platelet rich fibrin (PRF membrane at the recipient site.

  9. Digital literacy and problem solving in technology-rich environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Dolničar


    Full Text Available Rapid development and progress, as well as the growing presence of information and communications technologies dictate the need for more highly developed digital skills in individuals. The paper focuses on the concepts of digital skills and problem solving in technology-rich environments. It examines these on the basis of empirical data obtained in the international study PIAAC. The introductory part presents an overview of the literature and the results of previous research in the field of measurement of digital skills, and data on the use of information society services among the EU Member States. The second part of the article refers to the results obtained in the study PIAAC. The results, confirmed by the results of other studies, showed the impact of age and education level on the problem solving in technology-rich environments. Article concludes with suggestions for improving the current state of integration of all population groups in training programs in the field of digital skills.

  10. Leveraging data rich environments using marketing analytics


    Holtrop, Niels


    With the onset of what is popularly known as “big data”, increased attention is being paid to creating value from these data rich environments. Within the field of marketing, the analysis of customer and market data supported by models is known as marketing analytics. The goal of these analyses is to enhance managerial decision making regarding marketing problems. However, before these data rich environments can be used to guide managerial decision making, firms need to grasp the process of d...

  11. Characterisation of an extremely organic sulfur-rich, 150 Ma old carbonaceous rock: Palaeoenvironmental implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Kaam-Peters, H.M.E. van


    An extremely organic sulphur-rich coccolithic limestone of the Upper Jurassic Calcaires en plaquettes Formation (southern Jura, France) was analysed for its molecular composition using chemical and instrumental methods. The bitumen accounts for 19% of the total organic carbon, and consists

  12. Structural and isotopic analysis of kerogens in sediments rich in free sulfurised Botryococcus braunii biomarkers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Grice, K.; Schouten, S.; Blokker, P.; Derenne, S.; Largeau, C.; Nissenbaum, A.


    Type I kerogens of two relatively immature, unusual hypersaline sediments [with extracts rich in sulfurised Botryococcus braunii (B. braunii) biomarkers] of Miocene/Pliocene age from the Sdom Formation (Dead Sea, Israel), have been investigated using a variety of organic geochemical techniques. Py

  13. Models of alien species richness show moderate predictive accuracy and poor transferability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Capinha


    Full Text Available Robust predictions of alien species richness are useful to assess global biodiversity change. Nevertheless, the capacity to predict spatial patterns of alien species richness remains largely unassessed. Using 22 data sets of alien species richness from diverse taxonomic groups and covering various parts of the world, we evaluated whether different statistical models were able to provide useful predictions of absolute and relative alien species richness, as a function of explanatory variables representing geographical, environmental and socio-economic factors. Five state-of-the-art count data modelling techniques were used and compared: Poisson and negative binomial generalised linear models (GLMs, multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS, random forests (RF and boosted regression trees (BRT. We found that predictions of absolute alien species richness had a low to moderate accuracy in the region where the models were developed and a consistently poor accuracy in new regions. Predictions of relative richness performed in a superior manner in both geographical settings, but still were not good. Flexible tree ensembles-type techniques (RF and BRT were shown to be significantly better in modelling alien species richness than parametric linear models (such as GLM, despite the latter being more commonly applied for this purpose. Importantly, the poor spatial transferability of models also warrants caution in assuming the generality of the relationships they identify, e.g. by applying projections under future scenario conditions. Ultimately, our results strongly suggest that predictability of spatial variation in richness of alien species richness is limited. The somewhat more robust ability to rank regions according to the number of aliens they have (i.e. relative richness, suggests that models of aliens species richness may be useful for prioritising and comparing regions, but not for predicting exact species numbers.

  14. A Proposed Arabic Handwritten Text Normalization Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarik Abu-Ain


    Full Text Available Text normalization is an important technique in document image analysis and recognition. It consists of many preprocessing stages, which include slope correction, text padding, skew correction, and straight the writing line. In this side, text normalization has an important role in many procedures such as text segmentation, feature extraction and characters recognition. In the present article, a new method for text baseline detection, straightening, and slant correction for Arabic handwritten texts is proposed. The method comprises a set of sequential steps: first components segmentation is done followed by components text thinning; then, the direction features of the skeletons are extracted, and the candidate baseline regions are determined. After that, selection of the correct baseline region is done, and finally, the baselines of all components are aligned with the writing line.  The experiments are conducted on IFN/ENIT benchmark Arabic dataset. The results show that the proposed method has a promising and encouraging performance.

  15. Partition of Ni between olivine and sulfide: the effect of temperature, f_{{text{O}}_{text{2}} } and f_{{text{S}}_{text{2}} } (United States)

    Fleet, M. E.; Macrae, N. D.


    The experimental distribution coefficient for Ni/ Fe exchange between olivine and monosulfide (KD3) is 35.6±1.1 at 1385° C, f_{{text{O}}_{text{2}} } = 10^{ - 8.87} ,f_{{text{S}}_{text{2}} } = 10^{ - 1.02} , and olivine of composition Fo96 to Fo92. These are the physicochemical conditions appropriate to hypothesized sulfur-saturated komatiite magma. The present experiments equilibrated natural olivine grains with sulfide-oxide liquid in the presence of a (Mg, Fe)-alumino-silicate melt. By a variety of different experimental procedures, K D3 is shown to be essentially constant at about 30 to 35 in the temperature range 900 to 1400° C, for olivine of composition Fo97 to FoO, monosulfide composition with up to 70 mol. % NiS, and a wide range of f_{{text{O}}_{text{2}} } and f_{{text{S}}_{text{2}} }.

  16. Arabic text classification using Polynomial Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayy M. Al-Tahrawi


    Full Text Available In this paper, an Arabic statistical learning-based text classification system has been developed using Polynomial Neural Networks. Polynomial Networks have been recently applied to English text classification, but they were never used for Arabic text classification. In this research, we investigate the performance of Polynomial Networks in classifying Arabic texts. Experiments are conducted on a widely used Arabic dataset in text classification: Al-Jazeera News dataset. We chose this dataset to enable direct comparisons of the performance of Polynomial Networks classifier versus other well-known classifiers on this dataset in the literature of Arabic text classification. Results of experiments show that Polynomial Networks classifier is a competitive algorithm to the state-of-the-art ones in the field of Arabic text classification.

  17. The formation of stars

    CERN Document Server

    Stahler, Steven W


    This book is a comprehensive treatment of star formation, one of the most active fields of modern astronomy. The reader is guided through the subject in a logically compelling manner. Starting from a general description of stars and interstellar clouds, the authors delineate the earliest phases of stellar evolution. They discuss formation activity not only in the Milky Way, but also in other galaxies, both now and in the remote past. Theory and observation are thoroughly integrated, with the aid of numerous figures and images. In summary, this volume is an invaluable resource, both as a text f

  18. Multimodal Diversity of Postmodernist Fiction Text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. I. Tykha


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of structural and functional manifestations of multimodal diversity in postmodernist fiction texts. Multimodality is defined as the coexistence of more than one semiotic mode within a certain context. Multimodal texts feature a diversity of semiotic modes in the communication and development of their narrative. Such experimental texts subvert conventional patterns by introducing various semiotic resources – verbal or non-verbal.

  19. Mapping the Supernova-Rich Fireworks Galaxy NGC 6946 (United States)

    Patton, Locke; Levesque, Emily


    Supernovae (SNe) are the spectacularly violent deaths of evolved young massive stars, which expel a shock wave into the intergalactic medium that in turn can spark star formation and disperse heavy elements into their host galaxy. While a SN event can be classified by its spectral signature, determining the nature of a SN progenitor depends upon chance photometry taken prior to the event. By turning to the study of SN host environments and their surrounding interstellar medium within the unique and rare population of galaxies that have hosted three or more SN events within the last century, we are granted the opportunity to study the locations and environmental properties of stellar populations prone to supernova progenitor production. Using moderate-resolution optical slit spectra taken with the Apache Point Observatory 3.5m DIS spectrograph, our goal is to map metallicity, ionization parameter, and star formation rates using emission line diagnostic ratios across each SN-rich galaxy. Dubbed the “Fireworks Galaxy” at a distance of 5.6 ± 1.5 Mpc, NGC 6946 is of particular interest as it has uniquely produced ten core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe) and several other massive star transients within the last century. We present spatially-resolved metallicity and star formation rate (SFR) maps of NGC 6946, tracing fifty-five slit orientations which span the face of the galaxy and cover all CCSN host sites. Future work will include both stellar population synthesis modelling to determine stellar populations, ages, and SFR histories in NGC 6946 and a further expansion of this analysis to the other SN-rich host galaxies in our sample.

  20. Youth Texting: Help or Hindrance to Literacy? (United States)

    Zebroff, Dmitri


    An extensive amount of research has been performed in recent years into the widespread practice of text messaging in youth. As part of this broad area of research, the associations between youth texting and literacy have been investigated in a variety of contexts. A comprehensive, semi-systematic review of the literature into texting and literacy…

  1. Choices of texts for literary education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skyggebjerg, Anna Karlskov

    This paper charts the general implications of the choice of texts for literature teaching in the Danish school system, especially in Grades 8 and 9. It will analyze and discuss the premises of the choice of texts, and the possibilities of a certain choice of text in a concrete classroom situation...

  2. Effects of Text Messaging on Academic Performance


    Barks Amanda; Searight H. Russell; Ratwik Susan


    University students frequently send and receive cellular phone text messages during classroominstruction. Cognitive psychology research indicates that multi-tasking is frequently associatedwith performance cost. However, university students often have considerable experience withelectronic multi-tasking and may believe that they can devote necessary attention to a classroomlecture while sending and receiving text messages. In the current study, university students whoused text messaging were ...

  3. Text-Picture Relations in Cooking Instructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, Ielka; Leito, Shadira; Redeker, Gisela; Bunt, Harry


    Like many other instructions, recipes on packages with ready-to-use ingredients for a dish combine a series of pictures with short text paragraphs. The information presentation in such multimodal instructions can be compact (either text or picture) and/or cohesive (text and picture). In an

  4. Academic Journal Embargoes and Full Text Databases. (United States)

    Brooks, Sam


    Documents the reasons for embargoes of academic journals in full text databases (i.e., publisher-imposed delays on the availability of full text content) and provides insight regarding common misconceptions. Tables present data on selected journals covering a cross-section of subjects and publishers and comparing two full text business databases.…

  5. A quick survey of text categorization algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This paper contains an overview of basic formulations and approaches to text classification. This paper surveys the algorithms used in text categorization: handcrafted rules, decision trees, decision rules, on-line learning, linear classifier, Rocchio’s algorithm, k Nearest Neighbor (kNN, Support Vector Machines (SVM.

  6. Inclusion in the Workplace - Text Version | NREL (United States)

    Careers » Inclusion in the Workplace - Text Version Inclusion in the Workplace - Text Version This is the text version for the Inclusion: Leading by Example video. I'm Martin Keller. I'm the NREL of the laboratory. Another very important element in inclusion is diversity. Because if we have a

  7. Effects of Text Messaging on Academic Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barks Amanda


    Full Text Available University students frequently send and receive cellular phone text messages during classroominstruction. Cognitive psychology research indicates that multi-tasking is frequently associatedwith performance cost. However, university students often have considerable experience withelectronic multi-tasking and may believe that they can devote necessary attention to a classroomlecture while sending and receiving text messages. In the current study, university students whoused text messaging were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: 1. a group that sent andreceived text messages during a lecture or, 2. a group that did not engage in text messagingduring the lecture. Participants who engaged in text messaging demonstrated significantlypoorer performance on a test covering lecture content compared with the group that did notsend and receive text messages. Participants exhibiting higher levels of text messaging skill hadsignificantly lower test scores than participants who were less proficient at text messaging. It ishypothesized that in terms of retention of lecture material, more frequent task shifting by thosewith greater text messaging proficiency contributed to poorer performance. Overall, the findingsdo not support the view, held by many university students, that this form of multitasking has littleeffect on the acquisition of lecture content. Results provide empirical support for teachers andprofessors who ban text messaging in the classroom.

  8. The artists' text as work of art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, I.A.M.J.


    Artists’ texts are texts written and produced by visual artists. Their number increasing since the 2000s, it becomes important to clarify their obscure relationship to art institutions. Analysing and comparing four different artists’ texts on a textual level, this research proposes an alternative to

  9. Cleaning OCR'd text with Regular Expressions


    Laura Turner O'Hara


    Optical Character Recognition (OCR)—the conversion of scanned images to machine-encoded text—has proven a godsend for historical research. This process allows texts to be searchable on one hand and more easily parsed and mined on the other. But we’ve all noticed that the OCR for historic texts is far from perfect. Old type faces and formats make for unique OCR. How might we improve poor quality OCR? The answer is Regular Expressions or “regex.”

  10. Figure text extraction in biomedical literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daehyun Kim


    Full Text Available Figures are ubiquitous in biomedical full-text articles, and they represent important biomedical knowledge. However, the sheer volume of biomedical publications has made it necessary to develop computational approaches for accessing figures. Therefore, we are developing the Biomedical Figure Search engine ( to allow bioscientists to access figures efficiently. Since text frequently appears in figures, automatically extracting such text may assist the task of mining information from figures. Little research, however, has been conducted exploring text extraction from biomedical figures.We first evaluated an off-the-shelf Optical Character Recognition (OCR tool on its ability to extract text from figures appearing in biomedical full-text articles. We then developed a Figure Text Extraction Tool (FigTExT to improve the performance of the OCR tool for figure text extraction through the use of three innovative components: image preprocessing, character recognition, and text correction. We first developed image preprocessing to enhance image quality and to improve text localization. Then we adapted the off-the-shelf OCR tool on the improved text localization for character recognition. Finally, we developed and evaluated a novel text correction framework by taking advantage of figure-specific lexicons.The evaluation on 382 figures (9,643 figure texts in total randomly selected from PubMed Central full-text articles shows that FigTExT performed with 84% precision, 98% recall, and 90% F1-score for text localization and with 62.5% precision, 51.0% recall and 56.2% F1-score for figure text extraction. When limiting figure texts to those judged by domain experts to be important content, FigTExT performed with 87.3% precision, 68.8% recall, and 77% F1-score. FigTExT significantly improved the performance of the off-the-shelf OCR tool we used, which on its own performed with 36.6% precision, 19.3% recall, and 25.3% F1-score for

  11. Identification of a novel Leucine-rich repeat protein and candidate PP1 regulatory subunit expressed in developing spermatids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sperry Ann O


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spermatogenesis is comprised of a series of highly regulated developmental changes that transform the precursor germ cell into a highly specialized spermatozoon. The last phase of spermatogenesis, termed spermiogenesis, involves dramatic morphological change including formation of the acrosome, elongation and condensation of the nucleus, formation of the flagella, and disposal of unnecessary cytoplasm. A prominent cytoskeletal component of the developing spermatid is the manchette, a unique microtubular structure that surrounds the nucleus of the developing spermatid and is thought to assist in both the reshaping of the nucleus and redistribution of spermatid cytoplasm. Although the molecular motor KIFC1 has been shown to associate with the manchette, its precise role in function of the manchette and the identity of its testis specific protein partners are unknown. The purpose of this study was to identify proteins in the testis that interact with KIFC1 using a yeast 2 hybrid screen of a testis cDNA library. Results Thirty percent of the interacting clones identified in our screen contain an identical cDNA encoding a 40 kD protein. This interacting protein has 4 leucine-rich repeats in its amino terminal half and is expressed primarily in the testis; therefore we have named this protein testis leucine-rich repeat protein or TLRR. TLRR was also found to associate tightly with the KIFC1 targeting domain using affinity chromatography. In addition to the leucine-rich repeats, TLRR contains a consensus-binding site for protein phosphatase-1 (PP1. Immunocytochemistry using a TLRR specific antibody demonstrates that this protein is found near the manchette of developing spermatids. Conclusion We have identified a previously uncharacterized leucine-rich repeat protein that is expressed abundantly in the testis and associates with the manchette of developing spermatids, possibly through its interaction with the KIFC1 molecular motor

  12. Text collections for evaluation of Russian morphological taggers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyashevskaya Olga


    Full Text Available The paper describes the preparation and development of the text collections within the framework of MorphoRuEval-2017 shared task, an evaluation campaign designed to stimulate development of the automatic morphological processing technologies for Russian. The main challenge for the organizers was to standardize all available Russian corpora with the manually verified high-quality tagging to a single format (Universal Dependencies CONLL-U. The sources of the data were the disambiguated subcorpus of the Russian National Corpus, SynTagRus, data and GICR corpus with the resolved homonymy, all exhibiting different tagsets, rules for lemmatization, pipeline architecture, technical solutions and error systematicity. The collections includes both normative texts (the news and modern literature and more informal discourse (social media and spoken data, the texts are available under CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 license.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, Evan N.; Cohen, Judith G. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Boulevard, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Guhathakurta, Puragra [UCO/Lick Observatory and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Zhang, Andrew J. [The Harker School, 500 Saratoga Avenue, San Jose, CA 95129 (United States); Hong, Jerry [Palo Alto High School, 50 Embarcadero Road, Palo Alto, CA, 94301 (United States); Guo, Michelle [Stanford University, 450 Serra Mall, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Guo, Rachel [Irvington High School, 41800 Blacow Road, Fremont, CA 94538 (United States); Cunha, Katia [Observatório Nacional, São Cristóvão Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)


    Although red giants deplete lithium on their surfaces, some giants are Li-rich. Intermediate-mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars can generate Li through the Cameron–Fowler conveyor, but the existence of Li-rich, low-mass red giant branch (RGB) stars is puzzling. Globular clusters are the best sites to examine this phenomenon because it is straightforward to determine membership in the cluster and to identify the evolutionary state of each star. In 72 hours of Keck/DEIMOS exposures in 25 clusters, we found four Li-rich RGB and two Li-rich AGB stars. There were 1696 RGB and 125 AGB stars with measurements or upper limits consistent with normal abundances of Li. Hence, the frequency of Li-richness in globular clusters is (0.2 ± 0.1)% for the RGB, (1.6 ± 1.1)% for the AGB, and (0.3 ± 0.1)% for all giants. Because the Li-rich RGB stars are on the lower RGB, Li self-generation mechanisms proposed to occur at the luminosity function bump or He core flash cannot explain these four lower RGB stars. We propose the following origin for Li enrichment: (1) All luminous giants experience a brief phase of Li enrichment at the He core flash. (2) All post-RGB stars with binary companions on the lower RGB will engage in mass transfer. This scenario predicts that 0.1% of lower RGB stars will appear Li-rich due to mass transfer from a recently Li-enhanced companion. This frequency is at the lower end of our confidence interval.

  14. Parametric studies of contrail ice particle formation in jet regime using microphysical parcel modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-W. Wong


    Full Text Available Condensation trails (contrails formed from water vapor emissions behind aircraft engines are the most uncertain components of the aviation impacts on climate change. To gain improved knowledge of contrail and contrail-induced cirrus cloud formation, understanding of contrail ice particle formation immediately after aircraft engines is needed. Despite many efforts spent in modeling the microphysics of ice crystal formation in jet regime (with a plume age <5 s, systematic understanding of parametric effects of variables affecting contrail ice particle formation is still limited. In this work, we apply a microphysical parcel modeling approach to study contrail ice particle formation in near-field aircraft plumes up to 1000 m downstream of an aircraft engine in the soot-rich regime (soot number emission index >1×1015 (kg-fuel−1 at cruise. The effects of dilution history, ion-mediated nucleation, ambient relative humidity, fuel sulfur contents, and initial soot emissions were investigated. Our simulation results suggest that ice particles are mainly formed by water condensation on emitted soot particles. The growth of ice coated soot particles is driven by water vapor emissions in the first 1000 m and by ambient relative humidity afterwards. The presence of chemi-ions does not significantly contribute to the formation of ice particles in the soot-rich regime, and the effect of fuel sulfur contents is small over the range typical of standard jet fuels. The initial properties of soot emissions play the most critical role, and our calculations suggest that higher number concentration and smaller size of contrail particle nuclei may be able to effectively suppress the formation of contrail ice particles. Further modeling and experimental studies are needed to verify if our findings can provide a possible approach for contrail mitigation.

  15. Micropropagation of Alibertia edulis Rich

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Augusta Boato da Silva


    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to develop a micropropagation protocol for Alibertia edulis, a medicinal Brazilian Cerrado plant. A. edulis seeds were sterilized and germinated in water-agar. Fifteen millimeter long explants from the seedlings cultivated for 50 days were used for the multiplication in three consecutive subcultures. The cytokinin benzyladenine (BA alone or combined with indole-3-butyric acid (IBA was added to ¼ MS medium. The treatments containing combinations of the BA + IBA induced more shoot proliferation than the BA alone, with the optimum concentration of 0.5 mg.L-1 for both growth regulators. A. edulis shoots elongated easily and the presence of growth regulators did have a positive effect on the shoot elongation. Consecutive subcultures also had a positive effect on both sprouting and shoot elongation. Activated charcoal was essential for rooting, and all rooted plants were able to acclimatize.Foi desenvolvido um protocolo de micropropagação para A. edulis, uma espécie arbórea frutífera e medicinal presente no Cerrado brasileiro. Sementes de A. edulis foram esterilizadas e germinadas em ágar-água. Explantes de 15 mm foram retirados das plântulas e cultivados por 50 dias em meio de multiplicação e três subculturas. A citocinina benzilalanina (BA, sozinha ou em combinação com ácido indol butírico (IBA foram adicionados em no meio ¼ MS. Os tratamentos contendo combinações de BA-IBA induziram uma maior proliferação de brotos que aqueles somente com BA, e a concentração ótima desses reguladores de crescimento foi de 0.5 mg.L-1 para cada. Os brotos de A. edulis facilmente se alongaram e a presença de reguladores de crescimento no meio de cultura teve efeito positivo sobre o alongamento. Da mesma forma, as consecutivas subculturas tiveram um efeito positivo tanto sobre a brotação quanto no alongamento. Carvão ativado foi essencial para o enraizamento dos ramos, e todas as plantas foram aclimatadas com sucesso.

  16. An Embedded Application for Degraded Text Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thillou Céline


    Full Text Available This paper describes a mobile device which tries to give the blind or visually impaired access to text information. Three key technologies are required for this system: text detection, optical character recognition, and speech synthesis. Blind users and the mobile environment imply two strong constraints. First, pictures will be taken without control on camera settings and a priori information on text (font or size and background. The second issue is to link several techniques together with an optimal compromise between computational constraints and recognition efficiency. We will present the overall description of the system from text detection to OCR error correction.

  17. The Instructional Text like a Textual Genre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adiane Fogali Marinello


    Full Text Available This article analyses the instructional text as a textual genre and is part of the research called Reading and text production from the textual genre perspective, done at Universidade de Caxias do Sul, Campus Universitário da Região dos Vinhedos. Firstly, some theoretical assumptions about textual genre are presented, then, the instructional text is characterized. After that an instructional text is analyzed and, finally, some activities related to reading and writing of the mentioned genre directed to High School and University students are suggested.

  18. Text Line Detection from Rectangle Traffic Panels of Natural Scene (United States)

    Wang, Shiyuan; Huang, Linlin; Hu, Jian


    Traffic sign detection and recognition is very important for Intelligent Transportation. Among traffic signs, traffic panel contains rich information. However, due to low resolution and blur in the rectangular traffic panel, it is difficult to extract the character and symbols. In this paper, we propose a coarse-to-fine method to detect the Chinese character on traffic panels from natural scenes. Given a traffic panel Color Quantization is applied to extract candidate regions of Chinese characters. Second, a multi-stage filter based on learning is applied to discard the non-character regions. Third, we aggregate the characters for text lines by Distance Metric Learning method. Experimental results on real traffic images from Baidu Street View demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  19. Types of historicism in the course of the personality’s formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerashchenko Igor Germanovich


    Full Text Available This paper considers the main types of historicism in the formation process of human personality. The following historical approaches in the pedagogical theory and practice are allocated: educational evolutionism, pedagogical preformism, psychological genetism, substantial and historical method. The article shows the unity of historical and logical parts in pedagogical process. Substantial historicism in education is analysed from culturological positions. The authors substantiate the idea of the pluralistic approach in different types of historism in education. The paper proves the relevance of richly-historical method in psychology and pedagogics.

  20. Enhancing a Teen Pregnancy Prevention Program with text messaging: engaging minority youth to develop TOP ® Plus Text. (United States)

    Devine, Sharon; Bull, Sheana; Dreisbach, Susan; Shlay, Judith


    To develop and pilot a theory-based, mobile phone texting component attractive to minority youth as a supplement to the Teen Outreach Program(®), a youth development program for reducing teen pregnancy and school dropout. We conducted iterative formative research with minority youth in multiple focus groups to explore interest in texting and reaction to text messages. We piloted a month-long version of TOP(®) Plus Text with 96 teens at four sites and conducted a computer-based survey immediately after enrollment and at the end of the pilot that collected information about teens' values, social support, self-efficacy, and behaviors relating to school performance, trouble with the law, and sexual activity. After each of the first three weekly sessions we collected satisfaction measures. Upon completion of the pilot we conducted exit interviews with twelve purposively selected pilot participants. We successfully recruited and enrolled minority youth into the pilot. Teens were enthusiastic about text messages complementing TOP(®). Results also revealed barriers: access to text-capable mobile phones, retention as measured by completion of the post-pilot survey, and a need to be attentive to teen literacy. Piloting helped identify improvements for implementation including offering text messages through multiple platforms so youth without access to a mobile phone could receive messages; rewording texts to allow youth to express opinions without feeling judged; and collecting multiple types of contact information to improve follow-up. Thoughtful attention to social and behavioral theory and investment in iterative formative research with extensive consultation with teens can lead to an engaging texting curriculum that enhances and complements TOP(®). Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Text segmentation in degraded historical document images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Kavitha


    Full Text Available Text segmentation from degraded Historical Indus script images helps Optical Character Recognizer (OCR to achieve good recognition rates for Hindus scripts; however, it is challenging due to complex background in such images. In this paper, we present a new method for segmenting text and non-text in Indus documents based on the fact that text components are less cursive compared to non-text ones. To achieve this, we propose a new combination of Sobel and Laplacian for enhancing degraded low contrast pixels. Then the proposed method generates skeletons for text components in enhanced images to reduce computational burdens, which in turn helps in studying component structures efficiently. We propose to study the cursiveness of components based on branch information to remove false text components. The proposed method introduces the nearest neighbor criterion for grouping components in the same line, which results in clusters. Furthermore, the proposed method classifies these clusters into text and non-text cluster based on characteristics of text components. We evaluate the proposed method on a large dataset containing varieties of images. The results are compared with the existing methods to show that the proposed method is effective in terms of recall and precision.

  2. The nuclear modification of charged particles in Pb-Pb at $\\sqrt{\\text{s}_\\text{NN}} = \\text{5.02}\\,\\text{TeV}$ measured with ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Gronefeld, Julius


    The study of inclusive charged-particle production in heavy-ion collisions provides insights into the density of the medium and the energy-loss mechanisms. The observed suppression of high-$\\textit{p}_\\text{T}$ yield is generally attributed to energy loss of partons as they propagate through a deconfined state of quarks and gluons - Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) - predicted by QCD. Such measurements allow the characterization of the QGP by comparison with models. In these proceedings, results on high-$\\textit{p}_\\text{T}$ particle production measured by ALICE in Pb-Pb collisions at $ \\sqrt{\\text{s}_\\text{NN}}\\, = 5.02\\ \\rm{TeV}$ as well as well in pp at $\\sqrt{\\text{s}}\\,=5.02\\ \\rm{TeV}$ are presented for the first time. The nuclear modification factors ($\\text{R}_\\text{AA}$) in Pb-Pb collisions are presented and compared with model calculations.

  3. Anthocyanin-Rich Extract from Red Chinese Cabbage Alleviates Vascular Inflammation in Endothelial Cells and Apo E−/− Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Kyoung Joo


    Full Text Available Anthocyanins, the most prevalent flavonoids in red/purple fruits and vegetables, are known to improve immune responses and reduce chronic disease risks. In this study, the anti-inflammatory activities of an anthocyanin-rich extract from red Chinese cabbage (ArCC were shown based on its inhibitory effects in cultured endothelial cells and hyperlipidemic apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. ArCC treatment suppressed monocyte adhesion to tumor necrosis factor-α-stimulated endothelial cells. This was validated by ArCC’s ability to downregulate the expression and transcription of endothelial adhesion molecules, determined by immunoblot and luciferase promoter assays, respectively. The regulation of adhesion molecules was accompanied by transcriptional inhibition of nuclear factor-κB, which restricted cytoplasmic localization as shown by immunocytochemistry. Administration of ArCC (150 or 300 mg/kg/day inhibited aortic inflammation in hyperlipidemic apolipoprotein E-deficient mice, as shown by in vivo imaging. Immunohistochemistry and plasma analysis showed that the aortas from these mice exhibited markedly lower leukocyte infiltration, reduced plaque formation, and lower concentrations of blood inflammatory cytokines than those observed in the control mice. The results suggest that the consumption of anthocyanin-rich red Chinese cabbage is closely correlated with lowering the risk of vascular inflammatory diseases.

  4. Effects of Bile Acids and Nisin on the Production of Enterotoxin by Clostridium perfringens in a Nutrient-Rich Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miseon Park


    Full Text Available Clostridium perfringens is the second most common cause of bacterial foodborne illness in the United States, with nearly a million cases each year. C. perfringens enterotoxin (CPE, produced during sporulation, damages intestinal epithelial cells by pore formation, which results in watery diarrhea. The effects of low concentrations of nisin and bile acids on sporulation and toxin production were investigated in C. perfringens SM101, which carries an enterotoxin gene on the chromosome, in a nutrient-rich medium. Bile acids and nisin increased production of enterotoxin in cultures; bile acids had the highest effect. Both compounds stimulated the transcription of enterotoxin and sporulation-related genes and production of spores during the early growth phase. They also delayed spore outgrowth and nisin was more inhibitory. Bile acids and nisin enhanced enterotoxin production in some but not all other C. perfringens isolates tested. Low concentrations of bile acids and nisin may act as a stress signal for the initiation of sporulation and the early transcription of sporulation-related genes in some strains of C. perfringens, which may result in increased strain-specific production of enterotoxin in those strains. This is the first report showing that nisin and bile acids stimulated the transcription of enterotoxin and sporulation-related genes in a nutrient-rich bacterial culture medium.

  5. Marine diversity: the paradigms in patterns of species richness examined

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John S. Gray


    Full Text Available The two central paradigms of marine diversity are that there is a latitudinal cline of increasing species richness from poles to tropics and that species richness increases with depth to a maximum around 2,000 m and thereafter decreases. However, these paradigms were based on data collected in the late 1950´s and early 1960´s. Here I show that the 1960´s data, are not representative and thus the paradigms need re-examination. New data from coastal areas in the northern hemisphere record species richness as high as the highest recorded in the deep-sea. Whilst this suggests that the cline of increasing diversity from shallow to deep-sea does not exist, however, the database for the deep sea is not sufficient to draw such a conclusion. The basic problem with the data from the 1960s is that samples were taken on ecological scales and yet they are used to answer evolutionary questions. The questions that such data were to answer were why do the tropics have higher species richness than polar regions or why do deep-sea sediments have more species than coastal sediments? Evolutionary questions need data from much larger spatial areas. Recently, data representative of large scales have been collected from coastal areas in the northern hemisphere and show that there is a cline of increasing species richness from the Arctic to the tropics, but there does not yet seem to be a similar cline in the southern hemisphere. A number of hypotheses have been proposed for the observed patterns in biodiversity. In terrestrial ecology the energy-productivity hypothesis has gained wide acceptance as an explanation for the latitudinal gradient. Here I examine this and other hypotheses critically. Finally an analysis of research priorities is made. Assessment is urgently needed of the spatial scales and dynamics of species richness from point samples to assemblages, habitats and landscapes, especially in coastal areas and in the tropics, where the threats to

  6. Species richness, area and climate correlates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogues, David Bravo; Bastos Araujo, Miguel


    affects: (1) the selection of climate variables entering a species richness model; and (2) the accuracy of models in predicting species richness in unsampled grid cells. Location Western Europe. Methods Models are developed for European plant, breeding bird, mammal and herptile species richness using...... seven climate variables. Generalized additive models are used to relate species richness, climate and area. Results We found that variation in the grid cell area was large (50 × 50 km: 8-3311 km2; 220 × 220: 193-55,100 km2), but this did not affect the selection of variables in the models. Similarly...... support the assumption that variation in near-equal area cells may be of second-order importance for models explaining or predicting species richness in relation to climate, although there is a possibility that drops in accuracy might increase with grid cell size. The results are, however, contingent...

  7. The thermal evolution of large water-rich asteroids (United States)

    Schmidt, B. E.; Castillo, J. C.


    Water and heat played a significant role in the formation and evolution of large main belt asteroids, including 1 Ceres, 2 Pallas, and 24 Themis, for which there is now evidence of surficial water ice (Rivkin & Emery, ACM 2008). Shape measurements indicate some differentiation of Ceres’ interior, which, in combination with geophysical modeling, may indicate compositional layering in a core made up of anhydrous and hydrated silicate and a water ice mantle (Castillo-Rogez & McCord, in press, Icarus). We extend these interior models now to other large, possibly water-rich main belt asteroids, namely Pallas, at mean radius 272 km, and the Themis family parent body, at mean radius 150 km. The purpose of this study is to compare geophysical models against available constraints on the physical properties of these objects and to offer constraints on the origin of these objects. Pallas is the largest B-type asteroid. Its surface of hydrated minerals and recent constraint on its density, 2.4-2.8 g/cm3, seems to imply that water strongly affected its evolution (Schmidt et al., in press, Science). 24 Themis is the largest member of the Themis family that now counts about 580 members, including some of the main belt comets. The large member 90 Antiope has a density of about 1.2 g/cm3, while 24 Themis has a density of about 2.7 +/-1.3 g/cm3. The apparent contrast in the densities and spectral properties of the Themis family members may reflect a compositional layering in the original parent body. In the absence of tidal heating and with little accretional heat, the evolution of these small water-rich objects is a function of their initial composition and temperature. The latter depends on the location of formation (in the inner or outer solar system) and most importantly on the time and duration of accretion, which determines the amount of short-lived radioisotopes available for early internal activity. New accretional models suggest that planetesimals grew rapidly throughout

  8. Performance Evaluation of Refractory Composite Coatings in Potassium Rich Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina BRINKIENĖ


    Full Text Available A laboratory scale method was used to study the performance of reinforced cement composites in potassium rich environment of biomass combustion. Buckwheat husk (BH was used as potential source of unexploited biomass product applicable as biomass derived fuel. In order to enhance the alkali effect on the properties of the investigated materials, the solution of potassium carbonate (K2CO3 was selected as potassium rich aggressive environment. Two reinforced cement composites as potential repair coatings for restoration of damaged refractory surfaces with different composition of aggregate were used in corrosion tests. Performance of refractory coatings was evaluated by analysing the microstructure of the treated composites as well as mechanical properties. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS and optical microscopy were used to study the microstructure in the corroded region of the refractory coatings. Long term studies in the solution of 1M K2CO3 for 56 months have demonstrated that composite with the additive of fluid cracking catalyst of oil refinery and petrochemical industries is more durable in the potassium rich environment.DOI:

  9. Two genetic loci produce distinct carbohydrate-rich structural components of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm matrix. (United States)

    Friedman, Lisa; Kolter, Roberto


    Pseudomonas aeruginosa forms biofilms, which are cellular aggregates encased in an extracellular matrix. Molecular genetics studies of three common autoaggregative phenotypes, namely wrinkled colonies, pellicles, and solid-surface-associated biofilms, led to the identification of two loci, pel and psl, that are involved in the production of carbohydrate-rich components of the biofilm matrix. The pel gene cluster is involved in the production of a glucose-rich matrix material in P. aeruginosa strain PA14 (L. Friedman and R. Kolter, Mol. Microbiol. 51:675-690, 2004). Here we investigate the role of the pel gene cluster in P. aeruginosa strain ZK2870 and identify a second genetic locus, termed psl, involved in the production of a mannose-rich matrix material. The 11 predicted protein products of the psl genes are homologous to proteins involved in carbohydrate processing. P. aeruginosa is thus able to produce two distinct carbohydrate-rich matrix materials. Either carbohydrate-rich matrix component appears to be sufficient for mature biofilm formation, and at least one of them is required for mature biofilm formation in P. aeruginosa strains PA14 and ZK2870. Copyright 2004 American Society for Microbiology

  10. Gladwell and Group Communication: Using "The Tipping Point" as a Supplemental Text (United States)

    Browning, Blair W.


    This article describes an activity using Malcolm Gladwell's "The Tipping Point" as a supplemental text in an undergraduate group communication course. This book will help stimulate conversation and promote easy avenues for classroom discussion. In addition to weekly quizzes over each chapter to help facilitate rich classroom discussions, the…

  11. Age and origin of fluorapatite-rich dyke from Baranec Mt. (Tatra Mts., Western Carpathians: a key to understanding of the post-orogenic processes and element mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawęda Aleksandra


    Full Text Available On the southeastern slope of the Baranec Mount in the Western Tatra Mountains (Slovakia an apatite-rich pegmatite-like segregation was found in the subvertical fault zone cutting metapelitic rocks. Two zones: felsic (F and mafic (M were found, differing in mineral assemblages and consequently in chemistry. Fluorapatite crystals yield a LA-ICP-MS U-Pb age of 328.6 ± 2.4 Ma. A temperature decrease from 634 °C to 454 °C at a pressure around 500 to 400 MPa with oxygen fugacity increasing during crystallization are the possible conditions for formation of the pegmatite-like segregation, while secondary alterations took place in the temperature range of 340 – 320 °C. The Sr-Nd isotope composition of both apatite and whole rock point toward a crustal origin of the dike in question, suggesting partial melting of (P, F, H2O-rich metasedimentary rocks during prolonged decompression of the Tatra Massif. The original partial melt (felsic component was mixed with an external (F, H2O-rich fluid, carrying Fe and Mg fluxed from more mafic metapelites and crystallizing as biotite and epidote in the mafic component of the dyke.

  12. The Role of Organic Matter in the Formation of High-Grade Al Deposits of the Dopolan Karst Type Bauxite, Iran: Mineralogy, Geochemistry, and Sulfur Isotope Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Salamab Ellahi


    Full Text Available Mineralogical and geochemical analyses of the Dopolan karstic bauxite ore were performed to identify the characteristics of four bauxite horizons, which comprise from top to bottom, bauxitic kaolinite, diaspore-rich bauxite, clay-rich bauxite, and pyrite-rich bauxite. Diaspore, kaolinite, and pyrite are the main minerals; böhmite, muscovite, rutile, and anatase are the accessory minerals. The main minerals of the Dopolan bauxite deposit indicate slightly acidic to alkaline reducing conditions during bauxitization. Immobile elements (Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf, and rare earth elements are enriched in the diaspore-rich horizon, which also has the highest alumina content, whereas redox sensitive elements (e.g., Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Ag, U, and V are enriched in the lowest horizon of pyrite-rich bauxite. The presence of a high content of organic matter was identified in different horizons of bauxitic ore from wet chemistry. The presence of organic matter favored Fe bioleaching, which resulted in Al enrichment and the formation of diaspore-rich bauxite. The leached Fe2+ reacted with the hydrogen sulfur that was produced due to bacterial metabolism, resulting in the formation of the pyrite-rich horizon towards the bottom of the Dopolan bauxite horizons. Biogeochemical activity in the Dopolan bauxitic ore was deduced from the reducing environment of bauxitization, and the deposition of framboidal and cubic or cubic/octahedral pyrite crystals, with large negative values of δ34S of pyrite (−10‰ to −34‰ and preserved fossil cells of microorganisms.

  13. Adaptive Text Entry for Mobile Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proschowsky, Morten Smidt

    The reduced size of many mobile devices makes it difficult to enter text with them. The text entry methods are often slow or complicated to use. This affects the performance and user experience of all applications and services on the device. This work introduces new easy-to-use text entry methods...... for mobile devices and a framework for adaptive context-aware language models. Based on analysis of current text entry methods, the requirements to the new text entry methods are established. Transparent User guided Prediction (TUP) is a text entry method for devices with one dimensional touch input. It can...... be touch sensitive wheels, sliders or similar input devices. The interaction design of TUP is done with a combination of high level task models and low level models of human motor behaviour. Three prototypes of TUP are designed and evaluated by more than 30 users. Observations from the evaluations are used...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Gruzdeva


    Full Text Available In the article discussed the question of formation of professional mobility specialist through the formation of professional competencies within the educational process in high school.

  15. LAMOST telescope reveals that Neptunian cousins of hot Jupiters are mostly single offspring of stars that are rich in heavy elements. (United States)

    Dong, Subo; Xie, Ji-Wei; Zhou, Ji-Lin; Zheng, Zheng; Luo, Ali


    We discover a population of short-period, Neptune-size planets sharing key similarities with hot Jupiters: both populations are preferentially hosted by metal-rich stars, and both are preferentially found in Kepler systems with single-transiting planets. We use accurate Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) Data Release 4 (DR4) stellar parameters for main-sequence stars to study the distributions of short-period [Formula: see text] Kepler planets as a function of host star metallicity. The radius distribution of planets around metal-rich stars is more "puffed up" compared with that around metal-poor hosts. In two period-radius regimes, planets preferentially reside around metal-rich stars, while there are hardly any planets around metal-poor stars. One is the well-known hot Jupiters, and the other one is a population of Neptune-size planets ([Formula: see text]), dubbed "Hoptunes." Also like hot Jupiters, Hoptunes occur more frequently in systems with single-transiting planets although the fraction of Hoptunes occurring in multiples is larger than that of hot Jupiters. About [Formula: see text] of solar-type stars host Hoptunes, and the frequencies of Hoptunes and hot Jupiters increase with consistent trends as a function of [Fe/H]. In the planet radius distribution, hot Jupiters and Hoptunes are separated by a "valley" at approximately Saturn size (in the range of [Formula: see text]), and this "hot-Saturn valley" represents approximately an order-of-magnitude decrease in planet frequency compared with hot Jupiters and Hoptunes. The empirical "kinship" between Hoptunes and hot Jupiters suggests likely common processes (migration and/or formation) responsible for their existence.

  16. Planning Multisentential English Text Using Communicative Acts (United States)


    Composition, Vol. XI in series Advances in Discourse Processing, Alex Publishing Corporation. de Joia , A. and Stenton, A. 1980. Terms in Linguistics: A Guide to...investigate how attentional constraints relate to text planning and linguistic realization. 14 SUBJECT TE1MS I I N& De OF PAGES Natural Language Generation...surface form? Page I 4. What is the relation of communicative intentions to text structure and surface form? 5. What effects can texts be designed to have

  17. Text Mining of Supreme Administrative Court Jurisdictions


    Feinerer, Ingo; Hornik, Kurt


    Within the last decade text mining, i.e., extracting sensitive information from text corpora, has become a major factor in business intelligence. The automated textual analysis of law corpora is highly valuable because of its impact on a company's legal options and the raw amount of available jurisdiction. The study of supreme court jurisdiction and international law corpora is equally important due to its effects on business sectors. In this paper we use text mining methods to investigate Au...

  18. Litterfall dynamics in a iron-rich rock outcrop complex in the southeastern portion of the Iron Quadrangle of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo André Ribeiro Valim


    Full Text Available Ecosystems on cangas (duricrust present considerable heterogeneity of habitats due to microtopographic variations, soil accumulation and a variety of plant functional groups. Therefore, spatial and temporal ecosystem processes such as litterfall are to be expected to be large, and the absence of a level of productivity represents all the facets of iron-rich landscapes. We investigated litterfall in a iron-rich rock complex in the Iron Quadrangle of Brazil, with habitats formed on different evolutionary stages of the soil, resulting in a gradient of biomass, canopy cover and community structure. The measurements were made in open field areas, dominated by herb-shrub vegetation and interspersed with islands of dense vegetation in which there were individual trees, as well as in areas of semideciduous forest. The litterfall, especially that of leaf litter, followed the gradient of woody cover and was approximately two times greater in the forest formation. However, the spatial and temporal variations in deposition were greatest in the herb-shrub areas and least in the semideciduous forest area, intermediate values being obtained for the tree island areas. The peaks in litterfall also varied among habitats, occurring in some periods of the rainy season and during the transition from rainy to dry in the herb-shrub and tree island areas, whereas they occurred at the end of the dry season in the semideciduous forest area. The results show significant differences in the patterns of litterfall among different physiognomies within the same iron-rich rock complex, indicating the need for expanded studies, focusing on the flow of matter and energy in such environments.

  19. Paradoxical effect of a pequi oil-rich diet on the development of atherosclerosis: balance between antioxidant and hyperlipidemic properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.C. Aguilar


    Full Text Available Pequi is the fruit of Caryocar brasiliense and its oil has a high concentration of monounsaturated and saturated fatty acids, which are anti- and pro-atherogenic agents, respectively, and of carotenoids, which give it antioxidant properties. Our objective was to study the effect of the intake of a cholesterol-rich diet supplemented with pequi oil, compared to the same diet containing soybean oil, on atherosclerosis development, and oxidative stress in atherosclerosis-susceptible LDL receptor-deficient mice (LDLr-/-, C57BL/6-background. Female mice were fed a cholesterol-rich diet containing 7% soybean oil (Soybean group, N = 12 or 7% pequi oil (Pequi group, N = 12 for 6 weeks. The Pequi group presented a more atherogenic lipid profile and more advanced atherosclerotic lesions in the aortic root compared to the Soybean group. However, the Pequi group presented a less advanced lesion in the aorta than the Soybean group and showed lower lipid peroxidation (Soybean group: 50.2 ± 7.1; Pequi group: 30.0 ± 4.8 µmol MDA/mg protein and anti-oxidized LDL autoantibodies (Soybean group: 35.7 ± 9.4; Pequi group: 15.6 ± 3.7 arbitrary units. Peritoneal macrophages from the Pequi group stimulated with zymosan showed a reduction in the release of reactive oxygen species compared to the Soybean group. Our data suggest that a pequi oil-rich diet slows atherogenesis in the initial stages, possibly due to its antioxidant activity. However, the increase of serum cholesterol induces a more prominent LDL migration toward the intimae of arteries, increasing the advanced atherosclerotic plaque. In conclusion, pequi oil associated with an atherogenic diet worsens the lipid profile and accelerates the formation of advanced atherosclerotic lesions despite its antioxidant action.

  20. Structure of Light Neutron-rich Nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dlouhy, Zdenek


    In this contribution we searched for irregularities in various separation energies in the frame of mass measurement of neutron-rich nuclei at GANIL. On this basis we can summarize that the new doubly magic nuclei are 8 He, 22 O and 24 O. They are characterized by extra stability and, except 24 O, they cannot accept and bind additional neutrons. However, if we add to these nuclei a proton we obtain 9 Li and 25 F which are the core for two-neutron halo nucleus 11 Li and enables that fluorine can bound even 6 more neutrons, respectively. In that aspect the doubly magic nuclei in the neutron-rich region can form the basis either for neutron halo or very neutron-rich nuclei. (Author)

  1. Origin of the latitudinal richness gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engemann, Kristine; Sandel, Brody Steven; Enquist, Brian J.


    Spatial variation in richness patterns must be due to variation in rates of speciation, extinction, immigration and emigration. Hotspots of diversity can occur either because they are hotspots of speciation (cradles) or cold spots of extinction (museums) – two major hypotheses that make contrasting...... predictions for the phylogenetic structure of communities. We test these hypotheses by comparing centers of species richness and phylogenetic clustering for vascular plants in the New World. Range maps for 88,417 plant species were extracted from the Botanical Information and Ecology Network (BIEN) database...... and combined with the BIEN mega phylogeny of >80,000 species. We calculated the Phylogenetic Diversity Index (PDI) and Net Relatedness Index (NRI) for each cell in a 100×100 km grid using a new computationally efficient algorithm. Species richness patterns were compared to patterns of PDI and NRI. We found...

  2. Platelet-Rich Plasma Increases Pigmentation. (United States)

    Uysal, Cagri A; Ertas, Nilgun Markal


    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an autologous solution of plasma containing 4 to 7 times the baseline concentration of human platelets. Platelet-rich plasma has been widely popular in facial rejuvenation to attenuate wrinkles and has been practically used. The authors have been encountering various patients of increased hiperpigmentation following PRP applications that were performed to attenuate the postinflammatory hiperpigmentation especially after laser treatment. The authors have been using PRP for facial rejuvenation in selected patients and in 1 patient the authors have encountered increased pigmentation over the pigmented skin lesions that were present before the application. The authors recommend that the PRP might increase pigmentation especially in the face region and precautions might be taken before and after the application. Platelet-rich plasma should not be used for the treatment of post inflammatory hiperpigmentation.

  3. Science and Technology Text Mining Basic Concepts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Losiewicz, Paul


    ...). It then presents some of the most widely used data and text mining techniques, including clustering and classification methods, such as nearest neighbor, relational learning models, and genetic...

  4. Using Unlabeled Data to Improve Text Classification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nigam, Kamal P


    .... This dissertation demonstrates that supervised learning algorithms that use a small number of labeled examples and many inexpensive unlabeled examples can create high-accuracy text classifiers...

  5. Platelet rich fibrin - a novel acumen into regenerative endodontic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Hotwani


    Full Text Available Research into regenerative dentistry has added impetus onto the field of molecular biology. It can be documented as a prototype shift in the therapeutic armamentarium for dental disease. Regenerative endodontic procedures are widely being added to the current armamentarium of pulp therapy procedures. The regenerative potential of platelets has been deliberated. A new family of platelet concentrates called the platelet rich fibrin (PRF has been recently used by several investigators and has shown application in diverse disciplines of dentistry. This paper is intended to add light on the various prospects of PRF and clinical insights to regenerative endodontic therapy.

  6. Why is food cheaper in rich (European countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Podkaminer


    Full Text Available Relative to non-food items, food tends to be cheaper in rich, as compared with poorEuropean countries. This tendency cannot be explained in terms of cost developments or foreign-trade considerations. A positive explanation proposed focuses on demand-income-supply interaction. An analysis of a cross-country price-augmented modification of Engel Law, econometrically specified, indicates that the relative price offood is related positively to the supply of food items and negatively to that of non-food items. This finding is consistent with "agricultural price scissors", and also casts a different light on the nature of economic development and structural change.

  7. Platelet-rich plasma in dermatology: Boon or a bane?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available There has been a recent spurt in application of platelet-rich plasma (PRP in dermatology and aesthetic medicine. However, the details regarding use of PRP in various dermatological indications ranging from hair restoration to chronic ulcers are dispersed in literature, herein we have tried to focus all under one heading. Overall, PRP seems to be a promising therapeutic modality but the level of evidence as of now, from the available published data is low. This review will also stimulate readers to carry out well designed, larger population based trials, so as to validate its use in dermatology practice.

  8. Text and graphics: manipulating nutrition brochures to maximize recall. (United States)

    Clark, K L; AbuSabha, R; von Eye, A; Achterberg, C


    This study examined how altering text and graphics of a nutrition brochure could affect the ability to remember the content of the message. Two theoretical models were used to guide alterations: dual-coding theory and the communications model. Three brochure formats were tested: the original brochure containing abstract text and abstract graphics, a modified brochure with relatively concrete text and abstract graphics, and a relatively concrete text brochure with concrete graphics. Participants (N = 239 women) were divided into four age groups: 20-30, 40-50, 60-70 and over 70 years. Women were randomly assigned into each of the three experimental brochure formats or a control group. Participants completed recalled materials from the assigned brochures (the no treatment control group did not include a brochure) at two different sessions, 30 days apart. Data were content analyzed and results were compared using analysis of covariance to test differences by age and brochure types. Younger women (20-30 and 40-50 years) recalled more information than women over 60 years. More concrete nutrition education print materials enhanced recall of information presented immediately after reading the material; however, this effect was transient and lasted less than 30 days after a one-time reading. The implications of these data for communicating nutrition messages with print materials are discussed.

  9. Fast Photon Detection for COMPASS RICH1

    CERN Document Server

    Abbon, P; Angerer, H; Apollonio, M; Birsa, R; Bordalo, P; Bradamante, F; Bressan, A; Busso, L; Chiosso, M; Ciliberti, P; Colantoni, M L; Costa, S; Dibiase, N; Dafni, T; Dalla Torre, S; Diaz, V; Duic, v; Delagnes, E; Deschamps, H; Eyrich, W; Faso, D; Ferrero, A; Finger, M; Finger, M Jr; Fischer, H; Gerassimov, S; Giorgi, M; Gobbo, B; Hagemann, R; Von Harrach, D; Heinsius, F H; Joosten, R; Ketzer, B; Königsmann, K; Kolosov, V N; Konorov, I; Kramer, D; Kunne, F; Levorato, S; Maggiora, A; Magnon, A; Mann, A; Martin, A; Menon, G; Mutter, A; Nähle, O; Neyret, D; Nerling, F; Pagano, P; Paul, S; Panebianco, S; Panzieri, D; Pesaro, G; Pizzolotto, C; Polak, J; Rebourgeard, P; Rocco, E; Robinet, F; Schiavon, P; Schill, C; Schoenmeier, P; Silva, L; Slunecka, M; Steiger, L; Sozzi, F; Sulc, M; Svec, M; Tessarotto, F; Teufel, A; Wollny, H


    The new photon detection system for COMPASS RICH-1 has been designed to cope with the demanding requests of operation at high beam intensity and at high trigger rates. The detection technique in the central region of RICH-1 has been changed with a system based on multianode photomultipliers coupled to individual fused silica lens telescopes and to a fast, almost dead time free readout system based on the MAD-4 amplifier-discriminator and the F1 TDC-chip. The new photon detection system design and construction are described, as well as its first response in the experiment.

  10. Hamman-Rich syndrome in a goldsmith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, J.; Stein, A.; Jacobi, V.; Viel, K.


    We report the case of a 54-year-old goldsmith admitted because of dyspnea on exertion, persistent cough, and weakness under the suspicion of exogenous allergic alveolitis. He rapidly developed progressive lung fibrosis with exitus letalis 7 weeks after admission. Radiological examination (chest X-ray and HRCT) first showed ground glass opacities, and later rapid development of severe interstitial pattern with architectural distraction. The findings were similar to idiopathic lung fibrosis; however, the rare Hamman-Rich syndrome was confirmed by progressive course of the disease. Correlations between Hamann-Rich syndrome and idiopathic lung fibrosis are discussed. (orig.) [de

  11. Texts of the New Nature: Problems of Interdisciplinary Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazakova E.I.,


    Full Text Available The paper explores a new research direction unfolding at the junction of modern textual criticism and modernization challenges in education. It outlines the theoretical basis for constructing a model of the «new literacy» representative of the 21st century. The paper contains an attempt to describe the main trends in the changes of text: rejection of linearity, shrinkage of text volume, orientation to «small text structures», duplicative character of different sign systems in the content reflection, increase of interactivity, feedback forms development, emergence of «new forms of authorship» and a number of other trends. Examples are given of new literature, created in the form of comics, presentations, infographics, drawn notes. The author reveals the scope of «the texts of the new nature» through the provision of its characteristics; describes two main technologies of formation of such texts; provides experimental data that characterize the process of perception of this kind of texts; and, finally, formulates priority research issues.

  12. DEXTER: Disease-Expression Relation Extraction from Text. (United States)

    Gupta, Samir; Dingerdissen, Hayley; Ross, Karen E; Hu, Yu; Wu, Cathy H; Mazumder, Raja; Vijay-Shanker, K


    Gene expression levels affect biological processes and play a key role in many diseases. Characterizing expression profiles is useful for clinical research, and diagnostics and prognostics of diseases. There are currently several high-quality databases that capture gene expression information, obtained mostly from large-scale studies, such as microarray and next-generation sequencing technologies, in the context of disease. The scientific literature is another rich source of information on gene expression-disease relationships that not only have been captured from large-scale studies but have also been observed in thousands of small-scale studies. Expression information obtained from literature through manual curation can extend expression databases. While many of the existing databases include information from literature, they are limited by the time-consuming nature of manual curation and have difficulty keeping up with the explosion of publications in the biomedical field. In this work, we describe an automated text-mining tool, Disease-Expression Relation Extraction from Text (DEXTER) to extract information from literature on gene and microRNA expression in the context of disease. One of the motivations in developing DEXTER was to extend the BioXpress database, a cancer-focused gene expression database that includes data derived from large-scale experiments and manual curation of publications. The literature-based portion of BioXpress lags behind significantly compared to expression information obtained from large-scale studies and can benefit from our text-mined results. We have conducted two different evaluations to measure the accuracy of our text-mining tool and achieved average F-scores of 88.51 and 81.81% for the two evaluations, respectively. Also, to demonstrate the ability to extract rich expression information in different disease-related scenarios, we used DEXTER to extract information on differential expression information for 2024 genes in lung

  13. Classifying Written Texts Through Rhythmic Features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balint, Mihaela; Dascalu, Mihai; Trausan-Matu, Stefan


    Rhythm analysis of written texts focuses on literary analysis and it mainly considers poetry. In this paper we investigate the relevance of rhythmic features for categorizing texts in prosaic form pertaining to different genres. Our contribution is threefold. First, we define a set of rhythmic

  14. Text comprehension strategy instruction with poor readers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Bos, K.P.; Aarnoudse, C.C.; Brand-Gruwel, S.


    The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of teaching text comprehension strategies to children with decoding and reading comprehension problems and with a poor or normal listening ability. Two experiments are reported. Four text comprehension strategies, viz., question generation,

  15. Text Manipulation Techniques and Foreign Language Composition. (United States)

    Walker, Ronald W.


    Discusses an approach to teaching second language composition which emphasizes (1) careful analysis of model texts from a limited, but well-defined perspective and (2) the application of text manipulation techniques developed by the word processing industry to student compositions. (EKN)

  16. Teachers' Texts in Culturally Responsive Teaching (United States)

    Kesler, Ted


    In this paper, the author shares three teaching stories that demonstrate the social, cultural, political, and historical factors of all texts in specific interpretive communities. The author shows how the texts that comprised his curriculum constructed particular subject positions that inevitably included some students but marginalized and…

  17. Readability Revisited? The Implications of Text Complexity (United States)

    Wray, David; Janan, Dahlia


    The concept of readability has had a variable history, moving from a position where it was considered as a very important topic for those responsible for producing texts and matching those texts to the abilities and needs of learners, to its current declining visibility in the education literature. Some important work has been coming from the USA…

  18. Tipster Text Phase 2 Architecture Design (United States)


    TIPSTER Text Phase II Architecture Design Version 2.1p 19 June 1996 Ralph Grishman New York University grishman and the TIPSTER...1996 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-1996 to 00-00-1996 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE TIPSTER Text Phase II Architecture Design 5a. CONTRACT

  19. Using Digital Texts to Promote Fluent Reading (United States)

    Thoermer, Andrea; Williams, Lunetta


    Fluency is a critical skill of adept readers. As listening to read alouds and performing Readers Theatre scripts are two prevalent strategies that can increase students' fluency skills, this article provides suggestions in using these strategies with digital texts through free, online resources. Digital texts can be accessed using a desktop,…

  20. Interest, Inferences, and Learning from Texts (United States)

    Clinton, Virginia; van den Broek, Paul


    Topic interest and learning from texts have been found to be positively associated with each other. However, the reason for this positive association is not well understood. The purpose of this study is to examine a cognitive process, inference generation, that could explain the positive association between interest and learning from texts. In…

  1. Text Fabric: What, How, and Why

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erwich, C.M.; Kingham, Cody

    Text-Fabric (TF) is a promising new framework for the Eep Talstra Center for Bible and Computer corpus plus (linguistic) annotations. TF is a Python 3.x software package that provides scientific, accessible and reproducible ways of processing Biblical Hebrew text data. It also allows sharing the

  2. An Intelligent System For Arabic Text Categorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Syiam, M.M.; Tolba, Mohamed F.; Fayed, Z.T.; Abdel-Wahab, Mohamed S.; Ghoniemy, Said A.; Habib, Mena Badieh

    Text Categorization (classification) is the process of classifying documents into a predefined set of categories based on their content. In this paper, an intelligent Arabic text categorization system is presented. Machine learning algorithms are used in this system. Many algorithms for stemming and

  3. Flexible frontiers for text division into rows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan L. Lacrămă


    Full Text Available This paper presents an original solution for flexible hand-written text division into rows. Unlike the standard procedure, the proposed method avoids the isolated characters extensions amputation and reduces the recognition error rate in the final stage.

  4. Lexical Information in Memory for Text. (United States)

    Hayes-Roth, Barbara

    Cued-recall and two-alternative, forced-choice recognition measures were used to evaluate subjects' retention of the specific wordings of studied texts. Results obtained after 10-minute and 24 hour retention intervals suggest that the studied wordings of texts are functional components of their memory representations. Theories that assume…

  5. Undergraduates' Text Messaging Language and Literacy Skills (United States)

    Grace, Abbie; Kemp, Nenagh; Martin, Frances Heritage; Parrila, Rauno


    Research investigating whether people's literacy skill is being affected by the use of text messaging language has produced largely positive results for children, but mixed results for adults. We asked 150 undergraduate university students in Western Canada and 86 in South Eastern Australia to supply naturalistic text messages and to complete…

  6. Language Skills in Classical Chinese Text Comprehension (United States)

    Lau, Kit-ling


    This study used both quantitative and qualitative methods to explore the role of lower- and higher-level language skills in classical Chinese (CC) text comprehension. A CC word and sentence translation test, text comprehension test, and questionnaire were administered to 393 Secondary Four students; and 12 of these were randomly selected to…

  7. Text Structure and Retention of Prose. (United States)

    Zimmer, John W.


    The effects of text structure were studied using two kinds of reading materials: a standard text with headings and illustrations, as well as a nonstructured manuscript. The manuscript readers scored higher on delayed tests, generated more relevant ideas, and wrote better essays both immediately and after a delay. (Author/GDC)

  8. The Weaknesses of Full-Text Searching (United States)

    Beall, Jeffrey


    This paper provides a theoretical critique of the deficiencies of full-text searching in academic library databases. Because full-text searching relies on matching words in a search query with words in online resources, it is an inefficient method of finding information in a database. This matching fails to retrieve synonyms, and it also retrieves…

  9. Application of LSP Texts in Translator Training (United States)

    Ilynska, Larisa; Smirnova, Tatjana; Platonova, Marina


    The paper presents discussion of the results of extensive empirical research into efficient methods of educating and training translators of LSP (language for special purposes) texts. The methodology is based on using popular LSP texts in the respective fields as one of the main media for translator training. The aim of the paper is to investigate…

  10. Modeling text with generalizable Gaussian mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kai; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Kolenda, Thomas


    We apply and discuss generalizable Gaussian mixture (GGM) models for text mining. The model automatically adapts model complexity for a given text representation. We show that the generalizability of these models depends on the dimensionality of the representation and the sample size. We discuss...

  11. Text mining for the biocuration workflow. (United States)

    Hirschman, Lynette; Burns, Gully A P C; Krallinger, Martin; Arighi, Cecilia; Cohen, K Bretonnel; Valencia, Alfonso; Wu, Cathy H; Chatr-Aryamontri, Andrew; Dowell, Karen G; Huala, Eva; Lourenço, Anália; Nash, Robert; Veuthey, Anne-Lise; Wiegers, Thomas; Winter, Andrew G


    Molecular biology has become heavily dependent on biological knowledge encoded in expert curated biological databases. As the volume of biological literature increases, biocurators need help in keeping up with the literature; (semi-) automated aids for biocuration would seem to be an ideal application for natural language processing and text mining. However, to date, there have been few documented successes for improving biocuration throughput using text mining. Our initial investigations took place for the workshop on 'Text Mining for the BioCuration Workflow' at the third International Biocuration Conference (Berlin, 2009). We interviewed biocurators to obtain workflows from eight biological databases. This initial study revealed high-level commonalities, including (i) selection of documents for curation; (ii) indexing of documents with biologically relevant entities (e.g. genes); and (iii) detailed curation of specific relations (e.g. interactions); however, the detailed workflows also showed many variabilities. Following the workshop, we conducted a survey of biocurators. The survey identified biocurator priorities, including the handling of full text indexed with biological entities and support for the identification and prioritization of documents for curation. It also indicated that two-thirds of the biocuration teams had experimented with text mining and almost half were using text mining at that time. Analysis of our interviews and survey provide a set of requirements for the integration of text mining into the biocuration workflow. These can guide the identification of common needs across curated databases and encourage joint experimentation involving biocurators, text mining developers and the larger biomedical research community.

  12. Texts, Transmissions, Receptions. Modern Approaches to Narratives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lardinois, A.P.M.H.; Levie, S.A.; Hoeken, H.; Lüthy, C.H.


    The papers collected in this volume study the function and meaning of narrative texts from a variety of perspectives. The word 'text' is used here in the broadest sense of the term: it denotes literary books, but also oral tales, speeches, newspaper articles and comics. One of the purposes of this

  13. A text in Romani from 1622

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakker, Peter


    this is a reprint of a 2012 article: A new old text in Romani: Lord's Prayer, 1622. International Journal of Romani Language and Culture 2 (2011): 193-212.......this is a reprint of a 2012 article: A new old text in Romani: Lord's Prayer, 1622. International Journal of Romani Language and Culture 2 (2011): 193-212....

  14. Where Full-Text Is Viable. (United States)

    Cotton, P. L.


    Defines two types of online databases: source, referring to those intended to be complete in themselves, whether full-text or abstracts; and bibliographic, meaning those that are not complete. Predictions are made about the future growth rate of these two types of databases, as well as full-text versus abstract databases. (EM)

  15. The Medline/full-text research project. (United States)

    McKinin, E J; Sievert, M; Johnson, E D; Mitchell, J A


    This project was designed to test the relative efficacy of index terms and full-text for the retrieval of documents in those MEDLINE journals for which full-text searching was also available. The full-text files used were MEDIS from Mead Data Central and CCML from BRS Information Technologies. One hundred clinical medical topics were searched in these two files as well as the MEDLINE file to accumulate the necessary data. It was found that full-text identified significantly more relevant articles than did the indexed file, MEDLINE. The full-text searches, however, lacked the precision of searches done in the indexed file. Most relevant items missed in the full-text files, but identified in MEDLINE, were missed because the searcher failed to account for some aspect of natural language, used a logical or positional operator that was too restrictive, or included a concept which was implied, but not expressed in the natural language. Very few of the unique relevant full-text citations would have been retrieved by title or abstract alone. Finally, as of July, 1990 the more current issue of a journal was just as likely to appear in MEDLINE as in one of the full-text files.

  16. Ontology Assisted Formal Specification Extraction from Text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Mihis


    Full Text Available In the field of knowledge processing, the ontologies are the most important mean. They make possible for the computer to understand better the natural language and to make judgments. In this paper, a method which use ontologies in the semi-automatic extraction of formal specifications from a natural language text is proposed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J. Oliver


    Full Text Available This study examined ten EFL learners’ noticing of the corrective nature of a form of text-based SCMC (text chat feedback that combined a recast of a grammatical error with metalinguistic information. The feedback, termed a hybrid recast, was provided by a native-speaker interlocutor during two text chat activities: a spot-the-difference and picture-ordering task. Data was collected in two ways: analysis of task-based dyadic text chat interaction in which uptake was used as an indicator of learner noticing, and a post-task questionnaire containing questions that identified evidence of learner noticing. Interaction analysis showed that learners responded to almost two thirds of the hybrid recasts with uptake. In addition, every learner provided evidence that they had correctly perceived at least some of the hybrid recasts as corrective in their post-task questionnaire responses.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Ernawati


    Full Text Available Academic texts play an important role for university students. However, those texts are considered difficult. This study is intended to investigate students‘ difficulties in reading academic texts. The qualitative approach was employed in this study. The design was a case study. The participants were ten students from fifth semester of CLS: EE (Classroom Language and Strategy: Explaining and Exemplifying class who were selected by using purposive sampling. The data were gathered from students‘ journal reflections, observation, and interview. The finding shows that the students encountered reading difficulties in area of textual factors, namely vocabulary, comprehending specific information, text organization, and grammar and human factors including background knowledge, mood, laziness, and time constraint.

  19. Frontiers of biomedical text mining: current progress (United States)

    Zweigenbaum, Pierre; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Yu, Hong; Cohen, Kevin B.


    It is now almost 15 years since the publication of the first paper on text mining in the genomics domain, and decades since the first paper on text mining in the medical domain. Enormous progress has been made in the areas of information retrieval, evaluation methodologies and resource construction. Some problems, such as abbreviation-handling, can essentially be considered solved problems, and others, such as identification of gene mentions in text, seem likely to be solved soon. However, a number of problems at the frontiers of biomedical text mining continue to present interesting challenges and opportunities for great improvements and interesting research. In this article we review the current state of the art in biomedical text mining or ‘BioNLP’ in general, focusing primarily on papers published within the past year. PMID:17977867

  20. Learning from text benefits from enactment. (United States)

    Cutica, Ilaria; Ianì, Francesco; Bucciarelli, Monica


    Classical studies on enactment have highlighted the beneficial effects of gestures performed in the encoding phase on memory for words and sentences, for both adults and children. In the present investigation, we focused on the role of enactment for learning from scientific texts among primary-school children. We assumed that enactment would favor the construction of a mental model of the text, and we verified the derived predictions that gestures at the time of encoding would result in greater numbers of correct recollections and discourse-based inferences at recall, as compared to no gestures (Exp. 1), and in a bias to confound paraphrases of the original text with the verbatim text in a recognition test (Exp. 2). The predictions were confirmed; hence, we argue in favor of a theoretical framework that accounts for the beneficial effects of enactment on memory for texts.