WorldWideScience

Sample records for rich scientific discourse

  1. Lexical Features of Scientific Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Rusko

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, a lot of emphasis is placed of the ability of a person to successfully communicate in any sphere of activity, which along with upbringing and education is among the factors that determine a person’s culture. In the context of rapid scientific and technological progress, it is vital to constantly exchange relevant infor- mation. The effectiveness of this process relies not only on the proficient knowledge of the subject and the ability to make grammatically correct sentences, but to a large extent on the level of competence in scientific language. The present article attempts to consider the interaction of discourse and vocabulary, different types of cognitive phenomena responsible for the use of a language in real time and related to the language as a means of storing and organising information. Analysing and classifying some key elements of a scientific discourse lexicon contributes to the development of certain provisions of lexicology, functional stylistics, cognitive linguistics and terminology. The results of the analysis may be advantageous both to linguistics and teaching the language for specific purposes.

  2. Mythical thinking, scientific discourses and research dissemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hroar Klempe, Sven

    2011-06-01

    This article focuses on some principles for understanding. By taking Anna Mikulak's article "Mismatches between 'scientific' and 'non-scientific' ways of knowing and their contributions to public understanding of science" (IPBS 2011) as a point of departure, the idea of demarcation criteria for scientific and non-scientific discourses is addressed. Yet this is juxtaposed with mythical thinking, which is supposed to be the most salient trait of non-scientific discourses. The author demonstrates how the most widespread demarcation criterion, the criterion of verification, is self-contradictory, not only when it comes to logic, but also in the achievement of isolating natural sciences from other forms of knowledge. According to Aristotle induction is a rhetorical device and as far as scientific statements are based on inductive inferences, they are relying on humanities, which rhetoric is a part of. Yet induction also has an empirical component by being based on sense-impressions, which is not a part of the rhetoric, but the psychology. Also the myths are understood in a rhetorical (Lévi-Strauss) and a psychological (Cassirer) perspective. Thus it is argued that both scientific and non-scientific discourses can be mythical.

  3. Pecularities of French Pronoun on Usage in Lithuanian Scientific Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Dubikaltytė-Raugalienė

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Scientists studying personal identifiers in French scientific discourse incorporate the personal indefinite pronoun “on” into the paradigm. The semantics of the pronoun depends on the genre of scientific discourse. The pronoun “on” can acquire four meanings denoting or including the author. The current paper, based on two databases of native French and Lithuanian authors’ articles, aims at comparing the tendencies of the pronoun “on” usage and its functions in scientific discourse. The analyses has shown that the Lithuanian authors use the personal pronoun almost twice less frequently to mark an author or authors’ denotative or inclusive meaning. In the articles of Lithuanian authors, the pronoun “on” performs fewer pragmatic functions than in scientific discourse of French authors.

  4. Problems of future philologists’ training in modern scientific discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryna Ikonnikova

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Philosophical, psychological-pedagogical and sociolinguistic projections of future philologists’ professional training have been studied in the paper. It has been defined that they provide for creating optimal conditions for learning language, literature, translation, etc.; stimulating speech and mental activity of students; developing their critical thinking skills, linguistic personality, multiple intellect, the ability to model conceptual information; widening knowledge-based space taking into account individual styles and strategies for student learning. It has been indicated that within foreign scientific discourse scholars focus on the problem of training philologists of the integrated type that is possible provided the methodology is scientifically justified, based on the significant achievements of philosophy, psychology, pedagogy, linguodidactics, sociolinguistics and culturology, oriented toward European requirements to language education, positive foreign experience and national traditions.Key words: future philologists, professional training, philological education, philology, scientific discourse.

  5. Fusion Energy: Contextual Analysis of the Information Panels Developed by the Scientific Community versus Citizen Discourse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferri Anglada, S.; Cornejo Alvarez, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    The report presents an exploratory study on the impact of scientific dissemination, particularly a comparative analysis of two discourses on fusion energy as an alternative energy future. The report introduces a comparative analysis of the institutional discourse, as portrayed by the scientific jargon used in a European travelling exhibition on nuclear fusion Fusion Expo, and the social discourse, as illustrated by a citizen deliberation on this very same exhibition. Through textual analysis, the scientific discourse as deployed in the informative panels at the Fusion Expo is compared with the citizen discourse as developed in the discussions within the citizen groups. The ConText software was applied for such analysis. The purpose is to analyze how visitors assimilate, capture and understand highly technical information. Results suggest that, in despite of convergence points, the two discourses present certain differences, showing diverse levels of communication. The scientific discourse shows a great profusion of formalisms and technicalities of scientific jargon. The citizen discourse shows abundance of words associated with daily life and the more practical aspects (economy, efficiency), concerning institutional and evaluative references. In sum, the study shows that although there are a few common communicative spaces, there are still very few turning points. These data indicate that although exhibitions can be a good tool to disseminate advances in fusion energy in informal learning contexts, public feedback is a powerful tool for improving the quality of social dialogue. (Author)

  6. Small-Group Discourse: Establishing a Communication-Rich Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quebec Fuentes, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Establishing a communication-rich classroom can be difficult. This article describes the process and findings of a practitioner action research study addressing the question of how teachers can interact with their students while they are working in groups to encourage and enhance student-to-student communication. Recommended research-based teacher…

  7. Scientific discourse in educational research in Latin America: the case of Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Julia Castellanos Quintero

    2011-01-01

    In this article it is presented the state of arts of the analysis of the scientific discourse in educational research in Mexico, particularly, in the curriculum design and development research. The development of the research in the area of university curricula started seriously in the decade of 80´s.The scientific discourse was oriented towards the searching of models and methods of teaching and evaluation, of the best way of the implementation of practicum and the correspondence between the...

  8. Scientific Discourse in the Academy: A Case Study of an American Indian Undergraduate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Carol B.

    2008-01-01

    This case study explores how an American Indian woman experienced scientific discourse and the issues of language, power, and authority that occurred while she was an undergraduate student at a university in the southwestern United States. This ethnographic research, using a phenomenological perspective, describes her experiences as she searched…

  9. Promoting Social Norms for Scientific Discourse: Planning Decisions of an Urban Elementary Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangiante, Elaine Silva

    2015-01-01

    This case study examined planning decisions made and challenges faced by an elementary teacher in a high-poverty urban district to promote students' adoption of social norms of interaction for scientific discourse. Through interviews, document analyses, and observations during a science unit, the findings indicated that the teacher's planning…

  10. Scientific discourse in educational research in Latin America: the case of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Julia Castellanos Quintero

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article it is presented the state of arts of the analysis of the scientific discourse in educational research in Mexico, particularly, in the curriculum design and development research. The development of the research in the area of university curricula started seriously in the decade of 80´s.The scientific discourse was oriented towards the searching of models and methods of teaching and evaluation, of the best way of the implementation of practicum and the correspondence between the professional formation and employment in the national context. In the other hand, the decade of 90´s is characterized by the influence of international educational policies, the use of CIT in the teaching-learning process, the appearance of more competitive occupational market, where professionals should be inserted. The scientific discourse was oriented towards the searching of curricular models that guarantee the correspondence between the professional formation and employment in the international framework. Nowadays an integral educational reform (RIE is taking place in Mexico where the competence approach is considered the guideline of the curriculum design in primary and secondary levels. Nevertheless, at the university level, different curriculum models are being implemented. This speaks about the diversity of the scientific discourse used in the curriculum research in Mexico.

  11. The Effect of Socioscientific Topics on Discourse within an Online Game Designed to Engage Middle School Students in Scientific Argumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig-Hare, Jana; Ault, Marilyn; Rowland, Amber

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the types of argumentation discourse displayed by students when they engaged in chat as part of an online multiplayer game about both socioscientific and scientific topics. Specifically, this study analyzed discourse episodes created by middle school students as they discussed scientific and…

  12. Ebola policies that hinder epidemic response by limiting scientific discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgary, Ramin; Pavlin, Julie A; Ripp, Jonathan A; Reithinger, Richard; Polyak, Christina S

    2015-02-01

    There is an unprecedented epidemic of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in west Africa. There has been a strong response from dedicated health professionals. However, there have also been irrational and fear-based responses that have contributed to misallocation of resources, stigma, and deincentivizing volunteers to combat Ebola at its source. Recently, the State of Louisiana Department of Health and Hospitals issued a ban on those coming from affected countries wishing to attend the annual meetings of American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene and the American Public Health Association, both of which were held in New Orleans. We argue against such policies, question evidence and motivations, and discuss their practical and ethical implications in hampering effective responses to EVD by the scientific community. We aim to shed light on this issue and its implications for the future of public health interventions, reflect on the responsibility of health providers and professional societies as advocates for patients and the public health, and call for health professionals and societies to work to challenge inappropriate political responses to public health crises. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  13. Legal mentality: the interpretation of the scientific discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ігор Олексійович Поліщук

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the specifics of the interpretation of «legal mentality ‘category in different scientific concepts. The most authoritative study of the mentality directions: social psychology, which is based on the sociological theory of E. Durkheim; general psychology, theory of archetypes as the basis of the «collective unconscious,» K. Jung, the concept of «social character», V. Rayh. Legal mentality – a deep, well-established system of views and opinions of a particular social group, class, stratum, people, nation or community to another institute of law, peculiarities of its application and role in society. The specifics of the legal mentality lies in its visual Depending on historical traditions and culture of a particular nation. This necessitates mandatory accounting features of the legal mentality of the people in the legislative process. Formation of legal culture of the people is impossible without its primer on its historical traditions, culture and language. Revival Ukrainian legal culture consistent with modern legal policy polyarchy. Despite the trend of integration of their own political, economic and legal systems in the European community of the European Union member states to carefully refer to the national legal traditions. National mentality and its features are reflected in the legal submissions which are contained in proverbs, sayings, myths, thoughts, tales, is the oral form of manifestation of the people's legal culture, as well as reflected in the customs, traditions, ways of working, which were made in the legal daily on throughout the history of the people. In addition, the features appear in the national legal notions and reactions in relation to such objects of political and legal reality as a state, local government, law, crime, punishment, the court, the trial, the political leaders, customs reform, civil servants, family, inheritance, labor, property, and so on. It is noted that in legal science

  14. Investigation of historical evolution stages of the term "pedagogical innovation" in modern scientific discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Світлана Миколаївна Ефендієва

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the basic concepts of innovation. The formation of pedagogical innovations was analyzed and factors of effective management of innovative development were theoretically grounded. The essence of the concepts of scientific and pedagogical discourse was highlighted. The historical stages of the evolution of the term «pedagogical innovation» were investigated. The main draft laws about innovation activity in education were characterized

  15. Discursive geographies in science: space, identity, and scientific discourse among indigenous women in higher education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Carol B.

    2008-09-01

    Despite completing undergraduate degrees in the life sciences, few Indigenous women choose to pursue careers in scientific research. To help us understand how American Indian students engage with science, this ethnographic research describes (1) how four Navajo women identified with science, and (2) the narratives they offered when we discussed their experiences with scientific discourse. Using intensive case studies to describe the experiences of these women, my research focused on their final year of undergraduate study in the life sciences at a university in southwestern US. I point to the processes by which the participants align themselves with ideas, practices, groups, or people in science. As each participant recounted her experiences with scientific discourse, they recreated for me a discursive geography of their lives on the reservation, at home, at community colleges (in some cases), and on the university campus. In the construction and analysis of the narratives for this research, mapping this geography was critical to understanding each participant's discursive relationship with science. In these discursive spaces, I observed productive "locations of possibility" in which students and their instructors: valued connected knowing; acknowledged each other's history, culture, and knowledge; began to speak to each other subject-to-subject; and challenged normative views of schooling. I argue that this space, as a location of possibility, has the power to transform the crushing impersonalized schooling that often characterizes "rigorous" scientific programs in a research institution.

  16. Scientific Popularization in Brazil and in Russia: An Essay to a Comparative Analysis of Discourses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Vieira de Camargo Grillo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to conduct a comparative analysis of scientific popularization in Brazil and in Russia. The theoretical and methodological basis of this comparison was provided by combining Bakhtin's theory and comparative discourse analysis, present in the works of the Cediscor researchers. Based on it, we constructed a corpus of utterances of the Brazilian and Russian editions of the Scientific American magazine. As a result, we were able to observe, on the one hand, significant similarities in the genres "article" and "report of scientific popularization" in both ethno-linguistic communities, and, on the other hand, differences regarding their relation with reported speech and the use of verbal tenses and moods.

  17. Biological Discourses on Human Races and Scientific Racism in Brazil (1832-1911).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga, Juanma Sánchez

    2017-05-01

    This paper analyzes biological and scientific discourses about the racial composition of the Brazilian population, between 1832 and 1911. The first of these dates represents Darwin's first arrival in the South-American country during his voyage on H.M.S. Beagle. The study ends in 1911, with the celebration of the First universal Races congress in London, where the Brazilian physical anthropologist J.B. Lacerda predicted the complete extinction of black Brazilians by the year 2012. Contemporary European and North-American racial theories had a profound influence in Brazilian scientific debates on race and miscegenation. These debates also reflected a wider political and cultural concern, shared by most Brazilian scholars, about the future of the Nation. With few known exceptions, Brazilian evolutionists, medical doctors, physical anthropologists, and naturalists, considered that the racial composition of the population was a handicap to the commonly shared nationalistic goal of creating a modern and progressive Brazilian Republic.

  18. Searching for scientific literacy and critical pedagogy in socioscientific curricula: A critical discourse analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Kristina M.

    The omnipresence of science and technology in our society require the development of a critical and scientifically literate citizenry. However, the inclusion of socioscientific issues, which are open-ended controversial issues informed by both science and societal factors such as politics, economics, and ethics, do not guarantee the development of these skills. The purpose of this critical discourse analysis is to identify and analyze the discursive strategies used in intermediate science texts and curricula that address socioscientific topics and the extent to which the discourses are designed to promote or suppress the development of scientific literacy and a critical pedagogy. Three curricula that address the issue of energy and climate change were analyzed using Gee's (2011) building tasks and inquiry tools. The curricula were written by an education organization entitled PreSEES, a corporate-sponsored group called NEED, and a non-profit organization named Oxfam. The analysis found that the PreSEES and Oxfam curricula elevated the significance of climate change and the NEED curriculum deemphasized the issue. The PreSEES and Oxfam curricula promoted the development of scientific literacy while the NEED curricula suppressed its development. The PreSEES and Oxfam curricula both promoted the development of the critical pedagogy; however, only the Oxfam curricula provided authentic opportunities to enact sociopolitical change. The NEED curricula suppressed the development of critical pedagogy. From these findings, the following conclusions were drawn. When socioscientific issues are presented with the development of scientific literacy and critical pedagogy, the curricula allow students to develop fact-based opinions about the issue. However, curricula that address socioscientific issues without the inclusion of these skills minimize the significance of the issue and normalize the hegemonic worldview promoted by the curricula's authors. Based on these findings

  19. From riches to rags : biofuels, media discourses and resistance to sustainable energy technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sengers, F.H.; Raven, R.P.J.M.; Venrooij, A.

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to open the black box of resistance to sustainable energy technologies by analyzing (shifts in) media discourse. To this end, media coverage on biofuels in the Netherlands between 2000 and 2008 is analyzed by means of combining novel quantitative approaches with practitioner

  20. From riches to rags : biofuels, media discourse and resistance to sustainable energy technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sengers, F.H.; Raven, R.P.J.M.; Venrooij, A.

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to open the black box of resistance to sustainable energy technologies by analyzing (shifts in) media discourse. To this end, media coverage on biofuels in the Netherlands between 2000 and 2008 is analyzed by means of combining novel quantitative approaches with practitioner

  1. From riches to rags: Biofuels, media discourses, and resistance to sustainable energy technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.M.A. Sengers (Rozemarijn); R.P.J.M. Raven (Rob); A.T. van Venrooij (Alex)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis study aims to open the black box of resistance to sustainable energy technologies by analyzing (shifts in) media discourse. To this end, media coverage on biofuels in the Netherlands between 2000 and 2008 is analyzed by means of combining novel quantitative approaches with

  2. From riches to rags: biofuels, media discourses and resistance to sustainable energy technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sengers, F.; Raven, R.P.J.M.; van Venrooij, A.

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to open the black box of resistance to sustainable energy technologies by analyzing (shifts in) media discourse. To this end, media coverage on biofuels in the Netherlands between 2000 and 2008 is analyzed by means of combining novel quantitative approaches with practitioner

  3. From riches to rags: Biofuels, media discourses, and resistance to sustainable energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sengers, F. [Eindhoven University of Technology, School of Innovation Sciences, PO Box 513, 5600 MB, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Raven, R.P.J.M., E-mail: r.p.j.m.raven@tue.n [Eindhoven University of Technology, School of Innovation Sciences, PO Box 513, 5600 MB, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Van Venrooij, A. [Erasmus University, Department for the Study of Arts and Culture, PO Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-09-15

    This study aims to open the black box of resistance to sustainable energy technologies by analyzing (shifts in) media discourse. To this end, media coverage on biofuels in the Netherlands between 2000 and 2008 is analyzed by means of combining novel quantitative approaches with practitioner interviews. The quantitative analyses reveal the dynamics in the content of media discourse, but also its underlying structure in the form of two axes, each representing opposite socio-cognitive frames: 'techno-economic vs. social-ecological' and 'regional vs. global'. In-depth interviews with key practitioners in the Dutch biofuels field support these finding and provide additional insights with regard to (a) perceived shifts in media coverage; (b) cognitive pluralism; (c) the politics involved; and (d) resistance in practice.

  4. From riches to rags: Biofuels, media discourses, and resistance to sustainable energy technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengers, F.; Raven, R.P.J.M.; Van Venrooij, A.

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to open the black box of resistance to sustainable energy technologies by analyzing (shifts in) media discourse. To this end, media coverage on biofuels in the Netherlands between 2000 and 2008 is analyzed by means of combining novel quantitative approaches with practitioner interviews. The quantitative analyses reveal the dynamics in the content of media discourse, but also its underlying structure in the form of two axes, each representing opposite socio-cognitive frames: 'techno-economic vs. social-ecological' and 'regional vs. global'. In-depth interviews with key practitioners in the Dutch biofuels field support these finding and provide additional insights with regard to (a) perceived shifts in media coverage; (b) cognitive pluralism; (c) the politics involved; and (d) resistance in practice.

  5. The representation of truth by the scientific discourse: views to a rupture of the academic literacy paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Gerson Rodrigues Stefanello

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses, from a theoretical perspective, the question of writing in the academic sphere. The particularities of the ways to read and write in this sphere constitute a world of literacies characterized by a formality that distinguishes it, purposely, from other use situations of these abilities. The appropriation and maintenance of the scientific discourse, however, require students’ competences commonly not well developed during the years in basic education and which highlight the difficulties faced by both the student and the teacher in the transition to higher education. For the current discussion, I rely on literacy studies (STREET, 1984, 2003; KLEIMAN, 1995; HAMILTON, 2002 to deal, specifically, with academic literacy and the truth regime (FOUCAULT, 2004 through which the scientific discourse is legitimated in society.

  6. Radio Telescopes' Precise Measurements Yield Rich Scientific Payoffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Having the sharpest pictures always is a big advantage, and a sophisticated radio-astronomy technique using continent-wide and even intercontinental arrays of telescopes is yielding extremely valuable scientific results in a wide range of specialties. That's the message delivered to the American Astronomical Society's meeting in Austin, Texas, by Mark Reid of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, a leading researcher in the field of ultra-precise astronomical position measurements. Very Long Baseline Interferometry provides extremely high precision that can extend use of the parallax technique to many more celestial objects. Parallax is a direct means of measuring cosmic distances by detecting the slight shift in an object’s apparent position in the sky caused by Earth’s orbital motion. Credit: Bill Saxton, NRAO/AUI/NSF "Using radio telescopes, we are measuring distances and motions of celestial bodies with unprecedented accuracy. That's helping us better understand many processes ranging from star formation to the scale of the entire Universe," Reid said. The observing technique, called Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI), was pioneered in 1967, but has come into continuous use only in the past 10-15 years. The National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), a system of 10 radio-telescope antennas ranging from Hawaii to the Caribbean, was dedicated in 1993. There are other VLBI systems in Europe and Asia, and large radio telescopes around the world cooperate regularly to increase sensitivity. VLBI observations routinely produce images hundreds of times more detailed than those made at visible-light wavelengths by the Hubble Space Telescope. Several groups of researchers from across the globe use the VLBA to study stellar nurseries in our own Milky Way Galaxy and measure distances to regions where new stars are forming. The key has been to improve measurement accuracy to a factor of a hundred times better than that produced by the

  7. Discourse, More Discourse!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara N. Sinelnikova

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is an analytical review of three volumes of the Bulletin of the Russian University of Friendship of Peoples on the problem of discourse. The author has formed a number of headings, the complex of which allows to judge the priority areas of modern scientific knowledge, an essential part of which is discourse. The heading «Pragmatics and metapragmatics of discourse» was formed mainly on the basis of the articles of famous foreign researchers. In each article there are curious ideas, and the generalization of the thesis can be as follows: the evaluation category has a direct relation to the pragmatics, and the estimated semantics of the word is manifested in communication. In the section «Synchronization of paradigmatic relations: text, discourse, style, utterance, speech act, genre» the articles are presented, the material of which is important for revealing the paradigmatic relations between the phenomena named in the heading, including the culturally conditioned features. In the heading “Institutional discourses and problems of hybridization of discourses”, the material of articles of both Russian and foreign researchers is summarized, which makes it possible to identify both the general (even universal orientation of discourse studies and specific approaches and characteristics due to the peculiarities of social processes and national cultural codes . The heading «Identity in its relation to the language / discursive personality» focuses on understanding the close relationship of the category of identity with the problems of discourse and various types of communication. Many authors of the articles present a retrospective of the development of the concepts under consideration, describe the path of their development from the moment they enter the scientific space to the present. At the same time, ways of coordination and integration of methods and approaches are outlined, which is necessary for understanding the prospects

  8. How scientific experiments are designed: Problem solving in a knowledge-rich, error-rich environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Lisa M.

    While theory formation and the relation between theory and data has been investigated in many studies of scientific reasoning, researchers have focused less attention on reasoning about experimental design, even though the experimental design process makes up a large part of real-world scientists' reasoning. The goal of this thesis was to provide a cognitive account of the scientific experimental design process by analyzing experimental design as problem-solving behavior (Newell & Simon, 1972). Three specific issues were addressed: the effect of potential error on experimental design strategies, the role of prior knowledge in experimental design, and the effect of characteristics of the space of alternate hypotheses on alternate hypothesis testing. A two-pronged in vivo/in vitro research methodology was employed, in which transcripts of real-world scientific laboratory meetings were analyzed as well as undergraduate science and non-science majors' design of biology experiments in the psychology laboratory. It was found that scientists use a specific strategy to deal with the possibility of error in experimental findings: they include "known" control conditions in their experimental designs both to determine whether error is occurring and to identify sources of error. The known controls strategy had not been reported in earlier studies with science-like tasks, in which participants' responses to error had consisted of replicating experiments and discounting results. With respect to prior knowledge: scientists and undergraduate students drew on several types of knowledge when designing experiments, including theoretical knowledge, domain-specific knowledge of experimental techniques, and domain-general knowledge of experimental design strategies. Finally, undergraduate science students generated and tested alternates to their favored hypotheses when the space of alternate hypotheses was constrained and searchable. This result may help explain findings of confirmation

  9. The use of high-frequency data to engage students in quantitative reasoning and scientific discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, C.; Meixner, T.; Bader, N.; Carey, C.; Castendyk, D.; Gougis-Darner, R.; Fuller, R.; Gibson, C.; Klug, J.; Richardson, D.; Stomberg, J.

    2014-12-01

    Scientists are increasingly using sensor-collected, high-frequency datasets to study environmental processes. To expose undergraduate students to similar experiences, our team has developed six classroom modules that utilize large, long-term, and sensor-based, datasets for science courses designed to: 1) Improve quantitative skills and reasoning; 2) Develop scientific discourse and argumentation; and 3) Increase student engagement in science. A team of ten interdisciplinary faculty from both private and public research universities and undergraduate institutions have developed flexible modules suitable for a variety of undergraduate courses. These modules meet a series of pedagogical goals that include: 1) Developing skills required to manipulate large datasets at different scales to conduct inquiry-based investigations; 2) Developing students' reasoning about statistical variation; and 3) Fostering desirable conceptions about the nature of environmental science. Six modules on the following topics are being piloted during the 2014-15 and 2015-16 academic years prior to broad dissemination: 1) Temporal stream discharge evaluation using USGS data; 2) Temporal stream nutrient loads and eutrophication risk using USGS and MCM-LTER data; 3) Climate change using NOAA weather and Vostok ice core data; 4) Lake ice-off dates using GLEON data; 5) Thermal dynamics in lakes using GLEON data; and 6) Lake metabolism dynamics using GLEON data. To assess achievement of the pedagogical goals, we will use pre/post questionnaires and video-recordings of students working on modules. Questionnaires will contain modified items from the Experimental Design Ability Test (Sirum & Humberg 2011), the Views on the Nature of Science questionnaire (Lederman et al. 2001), and a validated instrument to measure students' ideas about variation (Watson et al. 2003). Information gained from these assessments and recordings will allow us to determine whether our modules are effective at engaging

  10. Asmeniniai įvardžiai mokslo kalboje. Personal pronouns in Lithuanian scientific discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nijolė Linkevičienė

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of the paper is the use of personal pronouns as a means of author stance expression in the Corpus Academicum Lithuanicum (about 9 million words representing a variety of academic genres in five science areas (Biomedical sciences, Humanities, Physical sciences, Social sciences, Technological sciences. Pronouns in the subject position in Lithuanian may be omitted, as the person/number inflection of the verb already indicates the subject. Therefore, when the pronoun does occur in scientific discourse it might be interpreted as an emphasized expression of the author stance.In this study qualitative and quantitative approaches are employed to reveal distributional information and usage patterns of the personal pronouns I and we. The results of the study indicate cross-disciplinary differences in the use of personal pronouns in different science areas: researchers in the hard science fields tend to use personal pronouns to a much smaller extent than researchers in the soft fields. The study also showed marked differences in the distribution of exclusive and inclusive we. Scientists in the humanities and social sciences prefer the inclusive communal we, whereas researchers in biomedical, physical and technological sciences favour the exclusive we which primarily refers to the authors themselves or to the academic community. A case study of the personal pronoun you revealed its rare usage in scientific Lithuanian. This pronoun is usually employed to refer to the indefinite addressee. ------ Straipsnyje aptariama autoriaus pozicijos raiška asmeniniais įvardžiais lietuvių mokslo kalbos tekstyne CorALit. Pasitelkus kiekybinę ir kokybinę analizę, tiriami asmeninių įvardžių aš ir mes bei jų dažniausių gramatinių formų vartosenos ypatumai biomedicinos, humanitarinių, socialinių, fizinių ir technologinių mokslų srityse. Tyrimas parodė, kad tiek vienaskaitinė, tiek daugiskaitinė autoriaus pozicijos raiška asmeniniais

  11. Scientific advice and public policy: expert advisers' and policymakers' discourses on boundary work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoppe, Robertus

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on considerable variety and diversity among discourses on their own jobs of boundary workers of several major Dutch institutes for science-based policy advice. Except for enlightenment, all types of boundary arrangements/work in the Wittrock-typology (Social knowledge and public

  12. Narratives of location: School science identities and scientific discourse among Navajo women at the University of New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Carol B.

    This research examines the interplay of scientific discourse and students' sense of self among four Navajo (Dine) women as they major in science at a university in the southwestern United States. This dissertation research is an ethnographic case study of Navajo women as they were completing their final year of undergraduate study in the life sciences at a university. How do Navajo women express their identity in Western science at the university? What role does scientific discourse play in this process? This research employs a feminist poststructural approach to language and expands the way discourse has typically been addressed in science education. I expand the notion of discourse through poststructuralism by recognizing the co-constitutive role of language in fashioning realities and generating meaning. Data sources in this study included transcripts from one-on-one interviews, electronic correspondence (e-mail), observations of social contexts on campus, students' writing for science courses, university policy statements, departmental outcomes assessments, web profiles of student research in science, and a researcher's reflective journal. This study took place beginning in January 2002 and continued through May of 2003 at the University of New Mexico. After completing the thematic (constant comparative analysis) and an analysis of metaphors, I "retold" or "restoried" the narratives collected during interviews. In the cross case analysis, I compared each participant's description of those discursive spaces that afforded engagement with science, and those locations where their awareness of academic language was heightened in a process of metadiscourse. I identified these spaces as locations of possibility in which students and their mentors (or instructors) valued connected knowing, acknowledged each other's history, culture, and knowledge, and began speaking to each other subject-to-subject to challenge normative views of schooling. The participants in this

  13. The international perception of scientific discourse about the climate threat by public in six countries: South Africa, Brazil, China, United States, France, India. Investigation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baecher, Cedric; Dutreix, Nicolas; Buick, Rebecca; Ioualalen, Romain; Guyot, Paul; Campagne, Jean-Charles; Collomb, Etienne

    2012-01-01

    Based on a bibliographic study, a web-based study, qualitative interviews, a quantitative field survey, a study of some results from the ScenaRio 2012 project, this investigation aimed at highlighting the perception that people of different countries and cultural backgrounds (South Africa, Brazil, China, United States, France, India) have from the scientific discourse on climate change threat. The authors first give an overview of the sources of scientific discourse on climate change (primary sources like scientific institutions, GIEC, secondary sources), then analyse how this discourse is relayed by the media (media operation principles, recent trends, Internet, messages and tools to communicate with public opinions). They analyse and comment the behaviour of the different public opinions, outline the determining factors of public opinions, the diversity of noticed profiles, and the behaviour of young generations. They also propose a comparison between countries and a synthesis of results for each country

  14. Affordances and Challenges of Using Argument as a Connective Discourse for Scientific Practices to Teach Climate Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezen-Barrie, A.; Wolfson, J.

    2015-12-01

    An important goal of science education is to support development of citizens to participate in public debate and make informed decisions relevant to their lives and their worlds. The NGSS (Next Generation Science Standards) suggest engaging students in science classrooms in argumentation as a practice to help enhance the quality of evidence based decision making. In this multi-case study, we explored the use of written argumentation in eight secondary school science classrooms during a lesson on the relationship between ocean temperature and its CO2 holding capacity. All teachers of these classrooms were trained during a day long NSF funded Climate Literacy Workshop on the basic concepts of climate science, scientific practices and implementation of an activity called "It's a Gassy World". The data of the current study involved students' written arguments, teachers' written reflections on the implementation of the activity as well as field notes from the Climate Literacy Workshop. A qualitative discourse analysis of the data was used to find common themes around affordances and challenges of argument as a connective discourse for scientific practices to teach climate change. The findings show that participating in written argumentation process encouraged students to discuss their experimental design and use data interpretation for their evidences. However, the results also indicated the following challenges: a) teachers themselves need support in connecting their evidence to their claims, b) arguing a socioscientific issue creates a sensitive environment c) conceptual quality of an argument needs to be strengthen through background in courses other than science, and d) graphing skills (or lack of) can interfere with constructing scientifically accurate claims. This study has implications in effectively teaching climate change through argumentation, and thus creating opportunities for practicing authentic climate science research in K-12 classrooms.

  15. Secondary Science Student Teachers' Use of Verbal Discourse to Communicate Scientific Ideas in Their Field Placement Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cian, Heidi; Cook, Michelle

    2018-06-01

    Student teachers struggle to identify themselves as teachers in their field placement during their student teaching year, and some of the difficulty can be attributed to the change they encounter when they must communicate scientific ideas to students in a language that differs from how they recently learned science at the university level. Using developmental levels of student teaching (Drafall and Grant in Music Educators Journal, 81(1), 35-38, 1995), we explore how three cases differ in their use of verbal classroom discourse over the course of their student teaching year. We use data from six observations, post-observation debriefs, reflections associated with the observations, and responses to assignments from the student teachers' teaching classes as data to demonstrate how the cases differ in the proficiency of their verbal communication in their classroom placement. We find that when student teachers have difficulty communicating science to their students, they struggle to use lectures effectively or engage students in meaningful conversation or questioning. This work suggests a need for more study as to the causes of different communication proficiencies and how methods instructors can help teachers develop awareness of the value of their verbal discourse interactions with students.

  16. Othering Processes and STS Curricula: From Nineteenth Century Scientific Discourse on Interracial Competition and Racial Extinction to Othering in Biomedical Technosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga, Juan Manuel Sanchez; El-Hani, Charbel N.

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the debates on "interracial competition" and "racial extinction" in the biological discourse on human evolution during the second half of the nineteenth century. Our intention is to discuss the ideological function of these biological concepts as tools for the naturalization and scientific legitimation of racial hierarchies…

  17. The Communication in Science Inquiry Project (CISIP): A Project to Enhance Scientific Literacy through the Creation of Science Classroom Discourse Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Dale R.; Lewis, Elizabeth B.; Purzer, Senay; Watts, Nievita Bueno; Perkins, Gita; Uysal, Sibel; Wong, Sissy; Beard, Rachelle; Lang, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This study reports on the context and impact of the Communication in Science Inquiry Project (CISIP) professional development to promote teachers' and students' scientific literacy through the creation of science classroom discourse communities. The theoretical underpinnings of the professional development model are presented and key professional…

  18. Searching for Scientific Literacy and Critical Pedagogy in Socioscientific Curricula: A Critical Discourse Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Kristina M.

    2017-01-01

    The omnipresence of science and technology in our society require the development of a critical and scientifically literate citizenry. However, the inclusion of socioscientific issues, which are open-ended controversial issues informed by both science and societal factors such as politics, economics, and ethics, do not guarantee the development of…

  19. Exploring corporate eco-modernism: Challenging corporate rhetoric and scientific discourses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulhøi, John Parm; Welford, Richard

    2000-01-01

    in shaping a new corporate environmentalism and, ten years on, we argue that it is time to step back and critically assess the nature and scope of corporate actions and scientific research within the field of corporate environmental management. This paper starts from the assertions that: (i) disturbing...

  20. The Role of Metaphorical Thinking in the Creativity of Scientific Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Ruiz, Maria-Jose; Santos, Manuela Romo; Jiménez, Juan Jiménez

    2013-01-01

    This article critically reviews the extant literature on scientific creativity and metaphorical thinking. Metaphorical thinking is based on a conceptual transfer of relationships or mapping, from a well-known source domain to a poorly known target domain, which could result in creative outcomes in sciences. Creativity leads to products that are…

  1. Knowledge apartheid in disaster risk management discourse: Is marrying indigenous and scientific knowledge the missing link?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukundi Mutasa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Indigenous knowledge (IK is a key component of disaster risk management (DRM and development planning, yet it is often overlooked, with practitioners preferring to use scientific knowledge. Critics of IK have termed it archaic, primitive, a constraint to development and inferior to scientific knowledge, which has contributed to its widespread marginalisation. However, smallholder farmers in rural Zimbabwe have utilised IK for generations, especially in predicting rainfall patterns and managing drought conditions, showing that IK can be a useful tool in DRM. This article presents findings from research on drought vulnerability and coping conducted in Zimbabwe’s Buhera and Chikomba districts in 2009, particularly relating to utilisation of IK in smallholder farming communities, and argues that unless IK is documented and preserved, its marginalisation will persist. The research followed a mixed-methods approach whereby both quantitative and qualitative data were collected and analysed. Whilst smallholder respondents were randomly selected for household surveys, snowball sampling was employed for key informant interviews. Respondents indicated that they utilised some indigenous rainfall pattern predictions gained from observing and interpreting plant and animal behaviour. Some cultural practices that were critical to development and utilisation of certain IK were also threatened with extinction. The article argues for ’marrying’ IK and scientific knowledge, in the hope that the two will offset each other’s weaknesses, resulting in some kind of hybrid knowledge that will be critical for promoting sustainable agricultural production in Zimbabwe. However, this is not for disregard the challenges associated with knowledge hybridisation, as these two types of knowledge are grounded on differing foundations.

  2. Hubble Space Telescope - Scientific, Technological and Social Contributions to the Public Discourse on Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope has unified the world with a sense of awe and wonder for 2 I years and is currently more scientifically powerful than ever. I will present highlights of discoveries made with the Hubble Space Telescope, including details of planetary weather, star formation, extra-solar planets, colliding galaxies, and a universe expanding with the acceleration of dark energy. I will also present the unique technical challenges and triumphs of this phenomenal observatory, and discuss how our discoveries in the cosmos affect our sense of human unity, significance, and wonder.

  3. Navigating the Complexity of Socio-scientific Controversies—How Students Make Multiple Voices Present in Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solli, Anne; Hillman, Thomas; Mäkitalo, Åsa

    2017-10-01

    In this article, we argue that students' unfolding discourse on socio-scientific issues (SSI) can be fruitfully analyzed by using dialogical theories of language and communication (Bakhtin 1986; Linell 2009). While research in science education often reports on how individual reasoning changes when bringing SSI into the classroom, we argue for the relevance of analyzing how the individual is "in dialogue" with present as well as remote interlocutors and contexts on the internet. We suggest that the analytical approach is particularly sensitized to illuminate how students' handle multiple perspectives. A dialogical perspective takes as its premise that SSI are part of society, where politicians, interest groups, and scientists engage in debates and offer perspectives that are often in conflict. Rather than assuming that the individual student is the primary unit for analysis, a dialogical approach is premised on an analysis that incorporates several perspectives and voices—a multivocality that also resides with the individual. Arguing for the relevance of this analytical approach to studies of SSI in the classroom, we analyze a group of students in upper secondary school as they discuss hydraulic fracturing after having worked with online data. The results illuminate how students discursively manage multivocality and multimodality inherent in the following SSI online. We describe a set of discursive means that the students use to handle the many perspectives involved when communicating about the issue. In addition, we describe and articulate what kind of communicative competences that are involved and, hence, could be cultivated through education, when engaging in public debates.

  4. Perpetuating "scientific motherhood": infant feeding discourse in Parents magazine, 1930-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foss, Katherine A

    2010-05-01

    Although breastfeeding initiation rates have recently been at an all-time high, duration continues to be considerably low. Given the health benefits associated with extended breastfeeding, this discrepancy is cause for concern. This research examined the messages conveyed about infant feeding in a popular parenting magazine, Parents magazine, from 1930 through 2007. Findings indicated that the messages about infant feeding shifted in accordance with changing ideologies about the means of infant feeding-from bottle-feeding to breastfeeding. However, even with changing attitudes toward infant feeding, writers used scientific evidence and the advice of "experts" to justify the dominant form of feeding. The absence of practical advice regarding breastfeeding challenges, especially from "real" women set up false expectations about the breastfeeding experience, painting it as "natural" and best for the baby. The dependency on experts and lack of practical advice in popular media, like Parents magazine, may help explain a societal trend that downplays breastfeeding obstacles, giving insight into the vast discrepancy between breastfeeding initiation and duration.

  5. Fusion Energy: Contextual Analysis of the Information Panels Developed by the Scientific Community versus Citizen Discourse; Fusion Nuclear: Analisis Contextual de Paneles Informativos Elaborados por la Comunidad Cientifica versus Discurso Ciudadano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferri Anglada, S.; Cornejo Alvarez, J. M.

    2014-02-01

    The report presents an exploratory study on the impact of scientific dissemination, particularly a comparative analysis of two discourses on fusion energy as an alternative energy future. The report introduces a comparative analysis of the institutional discourse, as portrayed by the scientific jargon used in a European travelling exhibition on nuclear fusion Fusion Expo, and the social discourse, as illustrated by a citizen deliberation on this very same exhibition. Through textual analysis, the scientific discourse as deployed in the informative panels at the Fusion Expo is compared with the citizen discourse as developed in the discussions within the citizen groups. The ConText software was applied for such analysis. The purpose is to analyze how visitors assimilate, capture and understand highly technical information. Results suggest that, in despite of convergence points, the two discourses present certain differences, showing diverse levels of communication. The scientific discourse shows a great profusion of formalisms and technicalities of scientific jargon. The citizen discourse shows abundance of words associated with daily life and the more practical aspects (economy, efficiency), concerning institutional and evaluative references. In sum, the study shows that although there are a few common communicative spaces, there are still very few turning points. These data indicate that although exhibitions can be a good tool to disseminate advances in fusion energy in informal learning contexts, public feedback is a powerful tool for improving the quality of social dialogue. (Author)

  6. ppropriation of scientific discourse by protestant biology students: the contribution of Bakhtin's language theory to educational research and culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Sepulveda

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies about the relations between classroom discourse interactions and processes of teaching and learning show that science learning is related to a process structured by speech genres and ways of establishing semantic links between events, objects, and people. Accordingly, it has been emphasized that science education research needs to incorporate theories and methods developed for the interpretative analysis of discourse. This paper shows the heuristic power that an interpretative analysis of discourse based on Bakhtin’s theory of language can have in the investigation of meaning making in science education in multicultural contexts. With this purpose, we discuss here results obtained in the analysis of the discourse about “nature” or “natural world” of protestant Biology preservice teachers of a Brazilian university, produced in the context of semi-structured interviews.

  7. Institutional discourse analysis: educational discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Б В Пеньков

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The author examines discourse parameters for the administrative, teachers and students discourse varieties in American high school. The study identifies the discourse markers, their relationships and functions.

  8. Utilizing Professional Vision in Supporting Preservice Teachers' Learning About Contextualized Scientific Practices. Collaborative Discourse Practices Between Teachers and Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezen-Barrie, Asli

    2018-03-01

    Drawn from the cultural-historical theories of knowing and doing science, this article uses the concept of professional vision to explore what scientists and experienced teachers see and articulate as important aspects of climate science practices. The study takes an abductive reasoning approach to analyze scientists' videotaped lectures to recognize what scientists pay attention to in their explanations of climate science practices. It then analyzes how ideas scientists attended align with experienced teachers' sense-making of scientific practices to teach climate change. The findings show that experienced teachers' and scientists' explanations showed alignment in the focus on scientific practices, but indicated variations in the temporal and spatial reasoning of climate data. Furthermore, the interdisciplinarity of climate science was emphasized in climate scientists' lectures, but was not apparent once scientists and teachers shared the same culture in meetings to provide feedback to preservice teachers. Given the importance of teaching through scientific practices in classrooms, this study provides suggestions to capture the epistemic diversity of scientific disciplines.

  9. Recognizing Mechanistic Reasoning in Student Scientific Inquiry: A Framework for Discourse Analysis Developed from Philosophy of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, Rosemary S.; Scherr, Rachel E.; Hammer, David; Mikeska, Jamie

    2008-01-01

    Science education reform has long focused on assessing student inquiry, and there has been progress in developing tools specifically with respect to experimentation and argumentation. We suggest the need for attention to another aspect of inquiry, namely "mechanistic reasoning." Scientific inquiry focuses largely on understanding causal…

  10. Utilizing Professional Vision in Supporting Preservice Teachers' Learning About Contextualized Scientific Practices - Collaborative Discourse Practices Between Teachers and Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezen-Barrie, Asli

    2018-03-01

    Drawn from the cultural-historical theories of knowing and doing science, this article uses the concept of professional vision to explore what scientists and experienced teachers see and articulate as important aspects of climate science practices. The study takes an abductive reasoning approach to analyze scientists' videotaped lectures to recognize what scientists pay attention to in their explanations of climate science practices. It then analyzes how ideas scientists attended align with experienced teachers' sense-making of scientific practices to teach climate change. The findings show that experienced teachers' and scientists' explanations showed alignment in the focus on scientific practices, but indicated variations in the temporal and spatial reasoning of climate data. Furthermore, the interdisciplinarity of climate science was emphasized in climate scientists' lectures, but was not apparent once scientists and teachers shared the same culture in meetings to provide feedback to preservice teachers. Given the importance of teaching through scientific practices in classrooms, this study provides suggestions to capture the epistemic diversity of scientific disciplines.

  11. Decolonializing Discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvesson, Mats; Kärreman, Dan

    2011-01-01

    identifies three particular problems prevalent in the current organizational discourse literature: reductionism, overpacking, and colonization and suggests three analytical strategies to overcome these problems: counter-balancing concepts — aiming to avoid seeing ‘everything’ as discourse — relativizing...

  12. An Analysis of the Supports and Constraints for Scientific Discussion in High School Project-Based Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alozie, Nonye M.; Moje, Elizabeth Birr; Krajcik, Joseph S.

    2010-01-01

    One goal of project-based science is to promote the development of scientific discourse communities in classrooms. Holding rich high school scientific discussions is challenging, especially when the demands of content and norms of high school science pose challenges to their enactment. There is little research on how high school teachers enact…

  13. Iatrogenia e exclusão social: a loucura como objeto do discurso científico no Brasil Iatrogeny and social exclusion: madness as an object of scientific discourse in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Gustavo Vechi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta um retrospecto histórico sobre o discurso científico a respeito da loucura no Brasil, com destaque para a evolução das noções de doença mental e de iatrogenia. O discurso manicomial, eminentemente psiquiátrico, introduziu o gerenciamento científico da loucura, a partir do final do século XIX. De meados do século XX ao final da década de 80, o discurso da saúde mental, organizado pela Psiquiatria e por outras disciplinas, como a Psicanálise, a Sociologia e a Antropologia, sob a perspectiva biopsicossocial de compreensão do homem, representou uma nova tentativa de validar o gerenciamento científico da loucura. A partir do final da década de 80, foi introduzido o discurso da desinstitucionalização que, em vez de propor uma nova validação do discurso científico no gerenciamento da loucura, indicou a necessidade de sua (desconstrução: uma radical operação epistemológica de modificação de suas concepções, como a de doença mental.This paper presents a historical retrospective on the scientific discourse about madness in Brazil, emphasizing the evolution of the notions of mental disease and of iatrogeny. The manicomial discourse, produced by Psychiatry, has introduced the scientific management of madness since the end of the 19th century. From the middle of the 20th century until the end of 1980, the discourse of mental health, organized by Psychiatry and by other disciplines, such as Psychoanalysis, Sociology and Anthropology, using a biopsychossocial understanding of man, represented a new attempt to reinforce the scientific management of madness. At the end of 1980, the deinstitutionalization discourse was introduced and, instead of proposing a new validation for the scientific discourse on madness, it indicated the necessity of its (deconstruction: a radical epistemological operation to modify some of its main notions, such as the notion of the mental disease.

  14. EL GÉNERO CIENTÍFICO. LA RELACIÓN DISCURSO-PENSAMIENTO Y LA ENSEÑANZA-APRENDIZAJE DE LAS CIENCIAS THE SCIENTIFIC GENRE. THE RELATION BETWEEN DISCOURSE-THOUGHT AND TEACHING-LEARNING IN SCIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángela Camargo Uribe

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta una caracterización del discurso de divulgación científica desde la perspectiva del género discursivo propuesta por Bajtín. Luego de una descripción lingüístico-textual del género discursivo correspondiente a las ciencias naturales, el trabajo explora las conexiones entre esta forma particular de discurso y la modalidad de pensamiento lógico-científica propuesta por Bruner. Finalmente, se realiza una reflexión sobre la necesidad de asumir los planteamientos bajtinianos a fin de lograr una educación científica efectiva e incluyente.The paper offers a characterization of scientific discourse from Bakhtin's perspective of discursive genre. After a linguistic-textual description of the discursive genre in the natural sciences, the article explores the connections between this particular form of discourse and the modality of logical-scientific thought proposed by Bruner. Finally, it includes a reflection on the need to adopt Bakhtin's formulations in order to achieve an effective and inclusive scientific education.

  15. Discourses of space

    CERN Document Server

    Ajtony, Zsuzsanna

    2013-01-01

    Ever since the emergence of the spatial turn in several scientific discourses, special attention has been paid to the surrounding space conceived as a construct created by the dynamics of human activity. The notion of space assists us in describing the most varied spheres of human existence. We can speak of various physical, metaphysical, social and cultural, and communicative spaces, as structuring components providing access to various literary, linguistic, social and cultural phenomena, th...

  16. The Chinese Cretaceous Continental Scientific Drilling Project in the Songliao Basin, NE China: Organic-rich source rock evaluation with geophysical logs from Borehole SK-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Zou, C.

    2017-12-01

    The Cretaceous strata have been recognized as an important target of oil or gas exploration in the Songliao Basin, northeast China. The second borehole (SK-2) of the Chinese Cretaceous Continental Scientific Drilling Project in the Songliao Basin (CCSD-SK) is the first one to drill through the Cretaceous continental strata in the frame of ICDP. It was designed not only to solve multiple scientific problems (including the Cretaceous paleoenvironment and paleoclimate, as well as deep resources exploration of the Songliao Basin), but also to expect to achieve new breakthroughs in oil and gas exploration. Based on the project, various geophysical log data (including gamma, sonic, resistivity, density etc.) and core samples have been collected from Borehole SK-2. We do research on organic-rich source rocks estimation using various geophysical log data. Firstly, we comprehensively analyzed organic-rich source rocks' geophysical log response characteristics. Then, source rock's identification methods were constructed to identify organic-rich source rocks with geophysical logs. The main identification methods include cross-plot, multiple overlap and Decision Tree method. Finally, the technique and the CARBOLOG method were applied to evaluate total organic carbon (TOC) content from geophysical logs which provide continuous vertical profile estimations (Passey, 1990; Carpentier et al., 1991). The results show that source rocks are widely distributed in Borehole SK-2, over a large depth strata (985 5700m), including Nenjiang, Qingshankou, Denglouku, Yingcheng, Shahezi Formations. The organic-rich source rocks with higher TOC content occur in the Qingshankou (1647 1650m), Denglouku (2534 2887m) and Shahezi (3367 5697m) Formations. The highest TOC content in these formations can reach 10.31%, 6.58%, 12.79% respectively. The bed thickness of organic-rich source rocks in the these formations are totally up to 7.88m, 74.34m, 276.60m respectively. These organic-rich rocks in the

  17. Introduction: Discourse Analysis and Policy Discourse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des); R.J. Apthorpe (Raymond)

    1996-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract: As introduction to a collection on policy discourses and patterns of argumentation in international development, this paper clarifies different meanings of `discourse' and 'discourse analysis', including as applied in development studies, and explains why effective

  18. Architectural discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boeriis, Morten; Nørgaard, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Using a multimodal social semiotic perspective, this article presents an analysis of the University of Southern Denmark as a text with particular focus on discourse and framing (cf. van Leeuwen 2005). The university consists of an original part and more recent extensions. The article examines how...... the original and the new parts of the buildings respectively realize different discourses related to education and the educational system more generally, and in particular how framing plays an important role in this respect. While employing van Leeuwen’s system network for framing (2005: 18) for the analysis...

  19. The organization and logic of doctrinary discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Nicolescu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to point out the main characteristics of doctrinary discourse in terms of structure and organization, as well as the type of argumentation used (conventions, subject matter, persuasive techniques, emphasizing the similarities with scientific discourse. Doctrinary discourse offers an abstract and partial view of divinity, as conceived by a particular religious group. It is a referential discourse, its statements constantly targeting the divine nature of God and His manifestations. The proof takes the form of Biblical evidence, which has the role of axioms in mathematics: truth taken as granted and used as such.

  20. Establishing Scientific Discourse in Classroom Interaction Teacher Students' Orientation to Mundane versus Technical Talk in the School Subject Norwegian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovholt, Karianne

    2018-01-01

    This article reports a case study on classroom interaction in teacher education in Norway. It addresses how teacher students in the school subject Norwegian constitute scientific talk in a student-led discussion. First, the analysis reveals tension in the classroom conversation between "mundane talk"--that is, where students make claims…

  1. RHIZOME AND DISCOURSE OF INTERMEDIALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Л Н Синельникова

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Rhizomaticity is a strategy and a regularity of text creation in a lot of modern commu-nicative discourse practices. What remains urgent is the problem of the systematic interdisciplinary de-scription of texts whose structure and language qualities are determined by the signs of the rhizome - a concept of post-modern philosophy introduced into the scientific field by the French philosopher Gilles Deleuze and the psychotherapist Félix Guattari (Deleuze, Guattari 1996. The rhizome (Fr. rhizome - rootstock, tuber, bulb, mycelium possesses the following qualities: it is non-linear, open and directed towards the unpredictability of discourse transformations through the possibilities of structure development in any direction; there is no centre or periphery in the rhizome, and any discourse element can become ‘a vital structure’ for text-creation. The rhizome does not have non-intersecting boundaries; and in the space of the rhizomatic discourse environment, an increase of reality facets takes place, non-standard associative con-nections appear, multiplication effects are formed, which create new meanings. Rhizomaticity is the quality of texts being organised by the laws of rhizomatic logic (V.F. Sharkov 2007, by the terms of which ‘su-perposition’ of discourses can take place, a transition from one semiotic system to another. The article makes an attempt to correlate the qualities of the rhizome with the signs of the intermedia discourse, which is built on the semiotic interaction of different media. The moving lines of the rhizome, its ‘branch-ing’ qualities can be found in poetic texts, in the evaluating segments of political discourse, in advertising discourse, in internet communications, which represent rhizomorphic environments. An analysis of examples from these spheres has shown that the rhizomatic approach opens new facets of intermediality. The author uses the methods of discourse analysis to prove that the openness and non

  2. Shaping a Scientific Self

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrade-Molina, Melissa; Valero, Paola

    us to understand how a truth is reproduced, circulating among diverse fields of human knowledge. Also it will show why we accept and reproduce a particular discourse. Finally, we state Euclidean geometry as a truth that circulates in scientific discourse and performs a scientific self. We unfold...... the importance of having students following the path of what schools perceive a real scientist is, no to become a scientist, but to become a logical thinker, a problem solver, a productive citizen who uses reason....

  3. Science teacher's discourse about reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Martins

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available In this research we start from the assumption that teachers act as mediators of reading practices in school and problematise their practices, meanings and representations of reading. We have investigated meanings constructed by a group of teachers of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, working at a federal technical school. Having French discourse analysis as our theoretical-methodological framework, we considered that meanings, concepts and conceptions of reading are built historically through discourses, which produce meanings that determine ideological practices. Our results show that, for that group of teachers, there were no opportunities during either initial training or on-going education for reflecting upon the role of reading in science teaching and learning. Moreover, there seems to be an association between the type of discourse and modes of reading, so that unique meanings are attributed to scientific texts and their reading are linked to search and assimilation of information.

  4. Between modern and postmodern: problem of the «political identity» concept in the scientific discourse of the 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Y. Uhryn

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The sociopolitical and intellectual preconditions of the «political identity» concept’s categorical construction in the 20th century, as well as its historic and political origins have been defined in the article. It has been proved by the author that the «political identity» concept had replaced certain concepts, traditional for the Western classic philosophy discourse, such as «oneness», «selfness» and «self-awareness». Moreover, it was actualized by the cultural and sociopolitical context of late Modern and by the situation of transition from traditional society towards the post-traditional one, which was characterized by the increasing complexity of the social structure and expansion of political participation’s possibilities for citizens and groups. More relevant reflection of the social and communication dimensions of identity were provided, grounded by the psychoanalytical and sociological traditions of its interpretations and were further developed by the representatives of the symbolic interactionism and social constructivism. The conceptualization of the political identity began in the first half of the 20th century within the electoral studies, during which it was equated with party, ideological and class identification. Its broader interpretation was developed within the theories of modernization, transitology, new social movements, social and political systems, which emphasized the institutional and behavioral dimensions of political identity, as well as its integrative functions. It has been established in the study that the division into individual and collective (social identities facilitated the differentiation of the identity research in political and social sphere and its subject identification. As a result, the collective identities most fully integrated into the subject field of political science, as they were interpreted as a reflection of common expectations, goals being as a factor of collective action

  5. On discourse space modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Казыдуб, Надежда

    2013-01-01

    Discourse space is a complex structure that incorporates different levels and dimensions. The paper focuses on developing a multidisciplinary approach that is congruent to the complex character of the modern discourse. Two models of discourse space are proposed here. The Integrated Model reveals the interaction of different categorical mechanisms in the construction of the discourse space. The Evolutionary Model describes the historical roots of the modern discourse. It also reveals historica...

  6. Participation of V. P. Adrianova-Peretts in the Ukrainian scientific life: epistolary discourse (on the 130th anniversary of the scientist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shapoval A. I.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article through the analysis of the epistolary heritage of prominent Ukrainian and Russian philologist, literary critic, folklorist, corresponding member of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR and the Academy of Sciences of the USSR V. P. Adrianova-Peretts the partaking of the scientist in the Ukrainian scientific life, the contribution to the development of Ukrainian science and the cooperation with Ukrainian scientists is reflected. The source of the study was the correspondence of V. P. Adrianova-Peretts with Ukrainian scientists O. I. Biletskyi, V. V. Danylov, I. F. Yerofeiev, A. M. Loboda, A. R. Mazurkevych, V. I. Maslov, S. I. Maslov, L. Ye. Makhnovets, O. A. Nazarevskyi, P. M. Popov, Ye. I. Chepur, M. V. Sharleman, S. O. Shchehlova, and the correspondence of V. M. Peretts with S. O. Yefremov and A. Yu. Krymskyi, which is deposited in the fonds of the Institute of Archival Science and the Institute of Manuscript of V. I. Vernadsky National Library of Ukraine, and the Central State Archive of Literature and Arts of Ukraine.

  7. The Logic of Equivalence in Academic Discourse?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Dorte

    2017-01-01

    of discourse to distinguish between the scientific field, where interrelationships among academic disciplines are taken as an object of research, and the widespread uses of ‘interdisciplinary’ and ‘interdisciplinarity’ in academic discourse more generally, typically for legitimation purposes. The assumption......-discourses meet. It is suggested that the logics of signification, and the tension between difference and equivalence, may be important tools for theorizing this borderland. It is argued that whereas the logic of equivalence and the production of empty signifiers appears to be of marginal interest...... to the scientific field, the logic of difference as a more complex articulation of elements, seems to be more in line with the ideals of academic discourse....

  8. Climates of risk: a field analysis of global climate change in US media discourse, 1997-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnett, John

    2010-11-01

    How are industry and environmentalist discourses of climate risk related to dominant scientific and political discourses? This study operationalizes Bourdieu's concept of symbolic capital in order to map dimensions of risk description and prescription onto a journalistic field of industry, environmentalist, scientific, and political media. Results show that conventional definitions of risk mirror an opposition between scientific and political discourses. Prescriptions for action on risk are partly autonomous from definitions however. Environmentalist and scientific media feature more proactive discourse, and industry and political media feature more reactive discourse. Implications for future research on climate risk and relational studies of media discourse are discussed.

  9. Sociology of Discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Oscar Garcia

    Sociology of Discourse takes the perspective that collective actors like social movements are capable of creating social change from below by creating new institutions through alternative discourses. Institutionalization becomes a process of moving away from existing institutions towards creating...

  10. Gender, Discourse, and "Gender and Discourse."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Hayley

    1997-01-01

    A critic of Deborah Tannen's book "Gender and Discourse" responds to comments made about her critique, arguing that the book's analysis of the relationship of gender and discourse tends to seek, and perhaps force, explanations only in those terms. Another linguist's analysis of similar phenomena is found to be more rigorous. (MSE)

  11. Post-ecological discourse in the making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeyer, Albert; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2013-01-01

    This article analyses the discourse of 15- to16-year-old Swiss junior high school students in order to understand public discourse on the environment and environmental protection. Discourse analysis reveals four interpretive repertoires as the building blocks for the so-called post-ecological discourse, which can be used to describe important aspects of current ways of talking about ecological issues in Europe. We show that 10 theoretically identifiable dimensions of this discourse can be understood in terms of a mutual interplay between the four interpretive repertoires. Post-ecological discourse in today's (Swiss) society appears to be at its core a loss-of-control-discourse, which leads (in our students) to a latent eco-depression. Thus, the public understanding of science can be affected by unintended consequences of the talk itself (in this case an unintended environmental depression), that is, by the inherent characteristics of the involved repertoires, here especially the so-called folk science repertoire. Fostering public understanding of science is thus not merely a question of providing the public with scientific 'facts'. It is also an issue of paying attention to the available discursive repertoires. If necessary, viable alternative repertoires may have to be offered. In school, for example, conversations about the nature of science, and about complexity and applied ethics might help students learn new interpretive repertoires and how to mobilize these in talking about the environment and environmental protection.

  12. The nature of critique and educational discourse

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    nature of an appropriate critical discourse in education in South Afri- can in the post-apartheid .... a logical circle that results from the fact that in the process of gi- ving reasons, one ... articulate the conditions of possibility of scientific knowledge.

  13. Exploring the Dominant Discourse of Baccalaureate Nursing Education in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdannik, Ahmadreza; Yousefy, Alireza; Mohammadi, Sepideh

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Understanding how academic dominant discourse is implicated in the shaping of nursing identity, professional aspirations and socialization of nursing students is useful as it can lead to strategies that promote nursing profession. Materials and Methods: This is a qualitative research conducted through discourse analysis approach. Semi-structured interviews, focus group, and direct observation of undergraduate theoretical and clinical courses were used to collect the data. Participants were 71 nursing students, 20 nursing educators, and 5 nursing board staffs from five universities in Iran. Results: Data analysis resulted in the development of four main themes that represent essential discourses of nursing education. The discourses explored are theoretical and scientific nursing, domination of biomedical paradigm, caring as an empty signifier, and more than expected role of research in nursing education discourse. Conclusions: The results indicated that academics attempt to define itself based on “scientific knowledge” and faculties seek to socialize students by emphasizing the scientific/theoretical basis of nursing and research, with the dominance of biomedical discourse. It fails to conceptually grasp the reality of nursing practice, and the result is an untested and impoverished theoretical discourse. The analysis highlights the need for the formation of a strong and new discourse, which contains articulation of signifiers extracted from the nature of the profession. PMID:28382053

  14. Discourse analysis and Foucault's

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen I.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Discourse analysis is a method with up to now was less recognized in nursing science, althoughmore recently nursing scientists are discovering it for their purposes. However, several authors have criticized thatdiscourse analysis is often misinterpreted because of a lack of understanding of its theoretical backgrounds. In thisarticle, I reconstruct Foucault’s writings in his “Archaeology of Knowledge” to provide a theoretical base for futurearchaeological discourse analysis, which can be categorized as a socio-linguistic discourse analysis.

  15. Discourse Futures and Discourse-to-Come

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIlvenny, Paul

    assemblages, and ‘the future’, in order to develop a prefigurative discourse studies for social change that is relevant to the turbulent twenty first century. This exploration of key issues is illustrated with three case studies: (a) reality TV parenting programmes, (b) the “Earth Hour” global media campaign......, implementing and managing democratic social change and transformation, with an explicit focus on shaping a just future. Work in discourse studies will be compared and contrasted with contemporary ideas about governmentality, mobility, infrastructure, social movements, consumption practices, sociotechnical...... to profile in future research. This includes mapping the mediated discourses and social interactional encounters interleaved with the ever changing practices and powers of, for example, control, freedom, access, mobility, cleanliness, comfort, convenience, consumption, waste, recycling and reuse...

  16. Bioethics and authoritarian discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolga Güven

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION[|]This paper has been planned as a critical response to Murat Civaner's article entitled 'Medical Ethics arguments should be concordant with scientific knowledge and certain values', published in the Autumn 2015 issue of Turkish Journal of Bioethics. It also aims to provide an evaluation of the way the authoritarian discourse manifests itself in ethical arguments.[¤]METHODS[|]For this purpose, the paper first presents the views of Orhan Hançerlioğlu on Karl Marx and Karl Popper and treats these views as a written example of such authoritarian discourse, which is essentially a problematic attitude that results from an inability to acknowledge the value-laden aspects of a given perspective. [¤]RESULTS[|]In order to show that problems in Hançerlioğlu's approach is also present in Civaner's arguments, several examples where the author did not recognize the value-laden aspects and the subjective nature of information are provided. The paper then examines the recent claim by Celal Şengör, who asserted that force feeding of feces to individuals do not qualify as torture. Based on the presentation and the justification of this reductionist claim, it is emphasized that the relationship between information and values is much more complicated than those presented by Civaner. Civaner's claim, which asserts that the concept of conscience should have no place in medical ethics arguments, is also evaluated on this basis and the dangers of excluding the moral agent in ethical evaluation are underlined. In addition, the relationship of the paternalist tradition with the perspective which I refer to as the 'macro axis' is examined. Last but not least, the paper deals with the concept of 'ethics of ethics' by using examples from national and international ethics literature and emphasizes the reason why it is important for the ethicist to become aware of her own scheme of values. [¤]DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION[|]The paper concludes that contrary

  17. Modeling Narrative Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elson, David K.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis describes new approaches to the formal modeling of narrative discourse. Although narratives of all kinds are ubiquitous in daily life, contemporary text processing techniques typically do not leverage the aspects that separate narrative from expository discourse. We describe two approaches to the problem. The first approach considers…

  18. Linking Discourse and Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richardson, Tim; Jensen, Ole B.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to explore how spatialities are contructed in spatial policy discourses and to explore how these construction processes might be conceptualised and analysed.......The aim of the paper is to explore how spatialities are contructed in spatial policy discourses and to explore how these construction processes might be conceptualised and analysed....

  19. Cultural Keywords in Discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    contributes to a global turn in cultural keyword studies by exploring keywords from discourse communities in Australia, Brazil, Hong Kong, Japan, Melanesia, Mexico and Scandinavia. Providing new case studies, the volume showcases the diversity of ways in which cultural logics form and shape discourse...

  20. DISCOURSE STYLISTICS AS CONTEXTUALIZED STYLISTICS

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Katnić-Bakaršić

    2003-01-01

    The focus of the paper is on discourse stylistics, viewed as contextualized discipline. Context includes various factors (sociohistorical, cognitive, cultural and intertextual). The paper investigates the most important approaches to discourse stylistics: pragmatic stylistics, discourse and/ or conversational analysis, cognitive stylistics, critical stylistics, feminists stylistics. In discourse stylistics analysis is always combined with interpretation, and description is followed by explana...

  1. Internet Discourse: Metalanguage Models of Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Arkadyevich Barkovich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the identification and systematization of generalized prototypical traits of online communication in linguistic context. The identification of these traits and their presentation in the form of models is an important issue of objective metadescription of modern speech practice. The involvement of discursive paradigm for the characterization of speech practice is relevant in the context of dynamic development of communication: discourse is speech activity, extended in time and space, and is due to wide extra-linguistic context and communicational specifics. Paradigmatic flexibility of discourse is in demand in different methodological perspectives: humanistic, cognitive-semiotic, metalinguistic, phenomenological, etc. Internet as a phenomenon of communication is a modern representative object of interdisciplinary scientific development. The key concept in this regard is the Internet-discourse – speech practice in the field of computer-mediated communication that is due to the format of the Internet. In the context of metalanguage modeling of Internet discourse phenomenological, structural and functional types of models can be highlighted; the typology of, for example, phenomenological models suggests differentiation of their pragmatic, social, and personal integrities. Characteristics of metalanguage models, including Internet surfing, trolling, liking, etc., meets the challenges of modeling of speech practice of the Internet, expounds scientific knowledge about peculiarities and regularities of communication and extends the object base of language research.

  2. Destructiveness in Political Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Яна Александровна Волкова

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Destructiveness is among the fundamental discourse categories that play a significant role in the organization of communicative interaction and define the pragmatics of discourse; its study helps to understand some mechanisms and principles of communication, identify strategies and tactics used by a destructive communicative personality. The relevance of this study is determined by the increasing aggressiveness in various types of discourse, and, accordingly, by the need to extend the knowledge of destructive behavior of a communicative personality. The study is based on the theory of discourse-analysis and theory of destructiveness (Z. Harris, T. van Dijk, A. Buss, E. Fromm, D. Ponton, K. Hacker, R. Wodak. N. Arutyunova, V. Karasik, M. Makarov, E. Sheigal et al. Developing the theory of destructiveness and relying on Erich Fromm’s research (1973, we specify the concept of “destructiveness” in relation to the political discourse and compare it with the related concept of aggressiveness. The paper analyses the category of destructiveness in modern US political discourse, using excerpts from the speeches of the candidates for presidency of 2016. Particular attention is paid to the dominant destructive intention - to harm the reputation of the opponent and reduce his political chances, as well as to the functions of verbal aggression: on the one hand - to discredit the opponent, bring accusations, on the other hand - to poison the audience mind against him/her and arouse the feeling of danger posed by a political opponent. The analysis of verbal and nonverbal means of destructiveness in the US political discourse is carried out. The article concludes that abusive remarks of politicians do not result from spontaneous emotional outburst, but from an elaborated destructive strategy where the agonistic nature of political discourse stipulates the use of instrumental aggression (Buss, 1971 for the sake of the conquest of power, lowering the

  3. Sociological Discourse(s) on Freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertilsson, Margareta

    The concept of freedom is often thought of as antithetical to sociology. The discipline is more prone to detect and unveil forms of unfreedom, as Zygmunt Bauman (1988) has pointed out. The question remains if any academic discipline, however, including sociology can do away with the concept...... of freedom al together! In matters of science, the problem of determinism vs. chance and spontaneity is essential. Hence, freedom, in one sense or the other, is necessarily at bottom also of sociological discourse. This text is an attempt to map the predominant forms of freedom found in sociological...... discourses. While starting out with the classic liberal concept informing theories of modernity followed by the various critiques directed against liberalism, not the least the most recently occurring (Lyotard, Agamben), the aim here is to spot possible trajectories in our comprehension of freedom, also...

  4. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the extension of use for DHA and EPA-rich algal oil from Schizochytrium sp. as a Novel Food ingredient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge; Poulsen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on an extension of use for docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)-rich algal oil from Schizochytrium sp. as a novel food...... population, excluding pregnant and lactating women. In a previous opinion on the Tolerable Upper Intake Level of EPA, DHA and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), the Panel concluded that supplemental intake of EPA and DHA combined at doses up to 5 g/day, does not give rise to safety concerns for adults. Based...... ingredient (NFI) in the context of Regulation (EC) No 258/97. The NFI is already authorised for use in a range of foodstuffs at specified maximum levels. The applicant requests an extension of use of the NFI in food supplements up to a maximum DHA and EPA content of 3 g per daily dose for the adult...

  5. Althusserian Theory: From Scientific Truth to Institutional History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Goldstein

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Scholars have emphasized the scientific and the rationalist features of Althusser's work, but few have noted its post-structuralist aspects, especially its Foucauldian accounts of discourse and power. In the early Pour Marx , Althusser divides ideological practices from objective science and theoretical norms from empirical facts; however, in several later essays Althusser repudiates his earlier faith in theory's normative force as well as his broad distinction between science and ideology. He argues that every discipline establishes its own relationship between its ideological history and its formal, scientific ideals. This argument, together with Althusser's earlier rejection of totalizing approaches, establishes important parallels with Foucault's archaeological studies. The literary theory of Tony Bennett, who develops a Foucauldian critique of traditional and Marxist aesthetics, illuminates the rich implications of these parallels for cultural analyses.

  6. Studies of Discourse and Governmentality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    have attempted to critically rethink Foucault’s ideas. This is the first volume that attempts to revisit and expand studies of governmentality by connecting it to the theories and methods of discourse analysis. The volume draws on different theoretical stances and methodological approaches including...... critical discourse analysis, conversation analysis, dialogic analysis, multimodal discourse analysis, the discourse-historical approach, corpus analysis and French discourse analysis. The volume is relevant to students and scholars in the fields of critical discourse studies, conversation analysis......, international studies, environmental studies, political science, public policy and organisation studies....

  7. Discourses of Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Jannek K.; Knudsen, Gry Høngsmark

    In this poster we address consumption of technology from the perspective of failure. A large body of studies of consumption of technology have focused on consumer acceptance (Kozinets, 2008). These studies have identified particular narratives about social and economic progress, and pleasure...... (Kozinets, 2008) as drivers of consumer acceptance of new technology. Similarly, Giesler (2008) has conceptualized consumer acceptance of technology as a form of marketplace drama, in which market ideologies are negotiated between consumers and media discourses. We suggest to study discourses around failed...... technology products to explore the negotiation of the familiar and alien that makes consumers reject or embrace a new technology. Thus, this particular project sets out to analyze consumer discourses surrounding the Google Glass video “How it Feels [through Google Glass]” on YouTube, because we want...

  8. Medicine and the sexual division of labour: An analysis of the scientific discourse on the role of the "human factor" in improving performance at work (Spain 1920-1950

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez Pérez, José

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available During the first third of the twentieth century, and especially after the 1920s, a discourse on occupational hygiene and safety began to develop in Spain. This discourse, without rejecting the value of the work carried out in the factory environment, particularly stressed the need to take into account what was called the «human factor». Promoted mainly by the budding occupational doctors and psychologists, this discourse became part of both the lines of biological thinking of constitutional pathology as well as the economic ideas of the so-called OCT, and it expounded the need to take the somatic and psychic characteristics of people into account in order to carry out a «rational» distribution of the same in the workplace. The article aims to highlight the way in which this discourse contained elements that would help to attribute specific roles within the workplace based on the biological and psychological characteristics of men and women, so facilitating the legitimisation of a sexual distribution of work which helped to reinforce the social organisation of gender at that time.

    A lo largo del primer tercio del siglo XX, y especialmente a partir de la década de los años veinte, se empezó a difundir en España un discurso sobre la higiene y seguridad en el trabajo que, aun sin rechazar el valor de la actuación sobre el medio ambiente fabril, hacía especial hincapié en la necesidad de tomar en cuenta lo que denominaban como «factor humano». Impulsado fundamentalmente por los incipientes médicos y psicólogos del trabajo, este discurso quedó enmarcado tanto en las corrientes de pensamiento biológico de la patología constitucional, como en las ideas económicas de la llamada Organización Científica del Trabajo, y planteó la necesidad de tomar en cuanta las características somáticas y psíquicas de las personas para llevar a cabo una distribución «racional» de las mismas en el mercado de trabajo. El artículo intenta

  9. DISCOURSE STYLISTICS AS CONTEXTUALIZED STYLISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Katnić-Bakaršić

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of the paper is on discourse stylistics, viewed as contextualized discipline. Context includes various factors (sociohistorical, cognitive, cultural and intertextual. The paper investigates the most important approaches to discourse stylistics: pragmatic stylistics, discourse and/ or conversational analysis, cognitive stylistics, critical stylistics, feminists stylistics. In discourse stylistics analysis is always combined with interpretation, and description is followed by explanation and critique.

  10. Discourses on Slang: Implications for English Classes in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senefonte, Fábio Henrique Rosa

    2014-01-01

    There are primarily two discourses on slang: one is based on the Linguistic Purism View (slang is seen as an ugly, poor and/or dirty vocabulary); and on the other hand, the Socio-historical-cognitive view understands slang as a rich component of language (BARRA, 2007; MATTIELLO, 2005; ZARBALIYEVA, 2012). Taking this into consideration, this…

  11. Lexical Discourse Analysis in Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Khotaba, Eissa; Al Tarawneh, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    Lexical Discourse very often depend on lexis. Lexical Discourse analysis, however, has not yet been given enough consideration of the phenomenon of translation. This paper investigates lexical discourse analysis in translation from one language to another. This qualitative study comprises 15 text translated by M.A. students at the Department of…

  12. Discourse Analysis in Ethnographic Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Deborah

    1990-01-01

    Reviews the contribution of ethnographic research to discourse analysis, focusing on discourse practices as a reflection of cultural context; educational applications and the discontinuity issue; literacy as a focus of discourse-oriented ethnographic research; and implications for applied linguistics. A 9-citation annotated and a 50-citation…

  13. Discourses on Algebra

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    BOOK REVIEW ... To the Indian reader, the word discourse, evokes a respected ... I dug a bit deeper with Google trans- late, and ... published in a journal of mathematics educa- tion. ... The article on Shafarevich's work elsewhere ... goal then, is to develop the basics of algebra in ... ometric Greeks, and works like a magician.

  14. Discourse and tractable morality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, G.; Lütge, C.

    2013-01-01

    When managerial decisions are examined, somehow the business context must be included in the analysis. In this chapter, causalities that transcend individuals are promoted as unit of analysis in empirical moral research, namely, discourse. Studying managerial decisions in their discursive context is

  15. Discourse and Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Tim; Hill, Kathryn; May, Lynette

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on the increase in discourse-based studies of oral proficiency assessment techniques. Discusses research carried out on a number of factors in the assessment setting, including the role of interlocutor, candidate, and rater, and the impact of tasks, task performance conditions, and rating criteria. (Author/VWL)

  16. duction to discourse analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus the definition of text in dis- course given here is quite broad with the underlying meaning being the intention to communicate information, whether it succeeds or fails to communicate. Discourse con- sists two interacting dimensions: context and language. Context and language interact simultaneously to realize a text.

  17. Studying Reconfigurations of Discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert, Ingmar

    2014-01-01

    The stability of a discourse is not given but produced. It is achieved in the configuration of the dispositif. The paper approaches dispositif as a practical ongoing assembling of semiotic and material entities. The article presents an assemblage of theories, methods and methodologies that allow ...

  18. Knowledge, language and subjectivities in a discourse community: Ideas we can learn from elementary children about science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurth, Lori Ann

    2000-10-01

    In light of continuing poor performance by American students in school science, feminists and sociocultural researchers have demonstrated that we need to look beyond content to address the science needs of all school children. In this study I examined issues of discourse norms, knowledge, language and subjectivities (meaning personal and social observations and characteristics) in elementary science. Over a two-year period, I used an interpretive methodological approach to investigate science experiences in two first-second and second grade classrooms. I first established some of the norms and characteristics of the discourse communities through case studies of new students attempting to gain entry to whole class conversations. I then examined knowledge, a central focus of science education addressed by a variety of theoretical approaches. In these classrooms students co-constructed and built knowledge in their whole class science conversations sometimes following convergent (similar knowledge) and, at other times, divergent (differing knowledge) paths allowing for broader discourse. In both paths, there was gendered construction of knowledge in which same gender students elaborated the reasoning of previous speakers. In conjunction with these analyses, I examined what knowledge sources the students used in their science conversations. Students drew on a variety of informal and formal knowledge sources including personal experiences, other students, abstract logic and thought experiments, all of which were considered valid. In using sources from both in and out of school, students' knowledge bases were broader than traditional scientific content giving greater access and richness to their conversations. The next analysis focused on students' use of narrative and paradigmatic language forms in the whole class science conversations. Traditionally, only paradigmatic language forms have been used in science classrooms. The students in this study used both narrative and

  19. Climate Change Discourse in Mass Media: Application of Computer-Assisted Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirilenko, Andrei P.; Stepchenkova, Svetlana O.

    2012-01-01

    Content analysis of mass media publications has become a major scientific method used to analyze public discourse on climate change. We propose a computer-assisted content analysis method to extract prevalent themes and analyze discourse changes over an extended period in an objective and quantifiable manner. The method includes the following: (1)…

  20. Pedophilia discourses in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landstrøm, Eva Koblauch; Jeppesen, Sofie Høj; Demant, Jakob Johan

    2017-01-01

    This study contributes novel digital mixed methods and findings on how fear of pedophilia affects parents and children’s bodily relations. We explore how norms for appropriate behavior between parents and children are constructed in the public debate on a specific case, where a mom has playful...... innocence. However, we find openness within the discourses on how to define respectively healthy and damaging parental behavior towards children....... contact with her son’s genitals. The case triggered a public debate with both negative and positive reactions. A Laclau and Mouffe-inspired analytical framework and Internet-specific tools for data collection as well as processing contribute to the development of a new form of discourse analysis. This new...

  1. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the safety of astaxanthin-rich ingredients (AstaREAL A1010 and AstaREAL L10) as novel food ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge; Poulsen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    /day. Mean and high-level (95th percentile) daily intakes of 0.106 mg/kg bw and 0.256 mg/kg bw astaxanthin from the NFIs were estimated, based on European consumption data of the proposed food categories. The consumption of the NFIs is not considered to be nutritionally disadvantageous. There are no safety....... The Panel notes that the maximum recommended intake of 4 mg astaxanthin per day (0.06 mg/kg bw) and the estimated mean intake based on the use levels in the proposed food categories (0.106 mg/kg bw per day) exceed the ADI by approximately two- and three-fold, respectively. The Panel therefore concludes......Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver a scientific opinion on the safety of astaxanthin-rich ingredients AstaREAL A1010 and AstaREAL L10 as novel food ingredients (NFIs) in the context of Regulation...

  2. Implicit Discourse: Contributions to a Sociological Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Espluga Trenc

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the variety of types or dimensions of implicit discourse. Specifically, a typological characterisation is proposed, based on the intentions of the producer of the discourse, including a distinction between four basic dimensions: insinuated discourse, hidden discourse, ?failed? discourse and underlying discourse. Some examples are provided of each dimension, and then it is held that the proposed typology is useful for the sociological analysis of implicit discourse, that is, for its detection and interpretation.

  3. Discourse of globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balažić Milan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the fall of the Berlin wall, the process of globalization has been understood as a necessary fate. The myth of the almightiness of the market economy, liberalization and deregulation is revitalized. Before us, there is a phenomenon Lacan’s discourse of University, which in 20 century was firstly given as a Stalinist discourse and today is given as a neo-liberal discourse of globalization. From underneath og a seeming objectivity, a Master insists-either the Party and the Capital. Just as the utopia of the world proletarian revolution has fallen apart, the utopia of globalize capitalism and liberal democracy is also falling apart. The 9/11 event is opening opportunities for a construction of the field of social and political, out of the contour of the status quo. The coordinates of the possibility has changed and if we take the non-existence of the grand Autre on ourselves, then the contingence interference in the existent socio-symbolic order is possible.

  4. Promoting Cognitive and Social Aspects of Inquiry through Classroom Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hui; Wei, Xin; Duan, Peiran; Guo, Yuying; Wang, Wenxia

    2016-01-01

    We investigated how Chinese physics teachers structured classroom discourse to support the cognitive and social aspects of inquiry-based science learning. Regarding the cognitive aspect, we examined to what extent the cognitive processes underlying the scientific skills and the disciplinary reasoning behind the content knowledge were taught.…

  5. Promoting elementary students' epistemology of science through computer-supported knowledge-building discourse and epistemic reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Feng; Chan, Carol K. K.

    2018-04-01

    This study examined the role of computer-supported knowledge-building discourse and epistemic reflection in promoting elementary-school students' scientific epistemology and science learning. The participants were 39 Grade 5 students who were collectively pursuing ideas and inquiry for knowledge advance using Knowledge Forum (KF) while studying a unit on electricity; they also reflected on the epistemic nature of their discourse. A comparison class of 22 students, taught by the same teacher, studied the same unit using the school's established scientific investigation method. We hypothesised that engaging students in idea-driven and theory-building discourse, as well as scaffolding them to reflect on the epistemic nature of their discourse, would help them understand their own scientific collaborative discourse as a theory-building process, and therefore understand scientific inquiry as an idea-driven and theory-building process. As hypothesised, we found that students engaged in knowledge-building discourse and reflection outperformed comparison students in scientific epistemology and science learning, and that students' understanding of collaborative discourse predicted their post-test scientific epistemology and science learning. To further understand the epistemic change process among knowledge-building students, we analysed their KF discourse to understand whether and how their epistemic practice had changed after epistemic reflection. The implications on ways of promoting epistemic change are discussed.

  6. H.G. Wells's Science Fiction: The Cyborg Visual Dromological Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsaneh Eshaghi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available H. G. Wells, as the forefather of science fiction, has used the relative notion of time in his stories such as Time Machine (1895. Speed is the initiator of a discourse in which humans are floating and moving ahead and has become one of the main “discourses” of the human being. Paul Virilio's theory of “dromology”, "vision machine" and “virtual reality”, along with "the aesthetics of disappearance" are applied in criticizing the novel scientific discourse by Wells who engenders a machinic, in the Deleuzian sense, and a cyborg discourse, through which he connotes the imperial narratives and the dromocratic powers. The usage of the Cyborg discourse by Wells in his science fiction stories has been to emphasize how the dromological and vision discourses are the prerequisite to the panoptical discourse through the microscopic and telescopic visions. It is concluded that the splintering frame is the created visual frame in the Wellsian science fiction.

  7. Discourses and Models of Intermediality

    OpenAIRE

    Schröter, Jens

    2011-01-01

    In his article "Discourses and Models of Intermediality" Jens Schröter discusses the question as to what relations do different discourses pose between different "media." Schröter identifies four models of discourse: 1) synthetic intermediality: a "fusion" of different media to super-media, a model with roots in the Wagnerian concept of Gesamtkunstwerk with political connotations, 2) formal (or transmedial) intermediality: a concept based on formal structures not "specific" to one medium but ...

  8. Discourse in Systemic Operational Design

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DiPasquale, Joseph A

    2007-01-01

    .... The monograph presents alternative ways to consider discourse, the implications of this for theory of Systemic Operational Design, and how these alternatives can lead to a richer understanding...

  9. Multifrenic Climate Discourses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Tove Arendt; Andersen, Maria Wael; Halgaard Nielsen, Marie

    On the basis of qualitative interviews on ’Energibyen Frederikshavn’ (Energy City Frederikshavn), the article reveals various rationales underlying modern consumers' often contradictory opinions and attitudes to climate change and energy consumption. It may seem hard to decide whether the interest...... in sustainable, alternative sources of energy is conditioned by the soaring price of oil or present threats of climate change. The paper will discuss the energy discourses produced by the people in the participating focus group in the light of three rather different, theoretical positions. And, finally, we...

  10. Twenty-Year Evolution of Discourse System of China's Educational Economics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Guirong

    2006-01-01

    Although the discourse system of China's educational economics has a short history of only 20 years,it has gained an important position in the discourse system of pedagogy.This system consists of rich discourse branches including the relations between education and economy,educational investment and educational finance,educational cost and educational benefit.changes and innovation in education system and utilization and efficiency of educational resources.All the above discourse branches show various characteristics in different stages.From theif development and changes.the following features Of diScoursc system of educational economics can be drawn:the specialty of discourse,the trend of time of discourse themes.the positivism of discourse expressions and the applicability of discourse nature and contention of Chinese perspectives.To further improve the quality of the discourse system.the emphasis of educational economic studies should be laid upon the improvement of research attitude,theoretical basis,content and methodology.

  11. Mapping Mathematics in Classroom Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbel-Eisenmann, Beth A.; Otten, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    This article offers a particular analytic method from systemic functional linguistics, "thematic analysis," which reveals the mathematical meaning potentials construed in discourse. Addressing concerns that discourse analysis is too often content-free, thematic analysis provides a way to represent semantic structures of mathematical content,…

  12. Credibility Discourse of PR Agencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isaksson, Maria; Jørgensen, Poul Erik Flyvholm

    2008-01-01

    to giving assurance of their expertise, trustworthiness and empathy, thus confirming our overall expectation that corporate credibility discourse is relatively uniform from a European perspective. However, contrary to our assumptions, the results of our study show that PR credibility discourse demonstrates...

  13. Gendered Discourse about Family Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danes, Sharon M.; Haberman, Heather R.; McTavish, Donald

    2005-01-01

    Language patterns of family business owners were explored by identifying discourse styles and emphasized ideas in four presenting contexts: business, family, intersection of family and business, and business success. The content analysis supports the existence of a general discourse style within family businesses and of similarities and…

  14. Promoting Civil Discourse on Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Rita

    2010-01-01

    During the past several decades, off campus and on, much of the discourse on controversial issues has been personal, vicious, and divisive. On the national scene, politics has become permeated with incivility. It now appears that Americans have been naive about their ability and willingness to engage in civil discourse and compromise. How can…

  15. Critical Analysis of Multimodal Discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Leeuwen, Theo

    2013-01-01

    This is an encyclopaedia article which defines the fields of critical discourse analysis and multimodality studies, argues that within critical discourse analysis more attention should be paid to multimodality, and within multimodality to critical analysis, and ends reviewing a few examples of re...

  16. Disclosing discourses: biomedical and hospitality discourses in patient education materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öresland, Stina; Friberg, Febe; Määttä, Sylvia; Öhlen, Joakim

    2015-09-01

    Patient education materials have the potential to strengthen the health literacy of patients. Previous studies indicate that readability and suitability may be improved. The aim of this study was to explore and analyze discourses inherent in patient education materials since analysis of discourses could illuminate values and norms inherent in them. Clinics in Sweden that provided colorectal cancer surgery allowed access to written information and 'welcome letters' sent to patients. The material was analysed by means of discourse analysis, embedded in Derrida's approach of deconstruction. The analysis revealed a biomedical discourse and a hospitality discourse. In the biomedical discourse, the subject position of the personnel was interpreted as the messenger of medical information while that of the patients as the carrier of diagnoses and recipients of biomedical information. In the hospitality discourse, the subject position of the personnel was interpreted as hosts who invite and welcome the patients as guests. The study highlights the need to eliminate paternalism and fosters a critical reflective stance among professionals regarding power and paternalism inherent in health care communication. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Neutrosophic elements in discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentin Smarandache

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Discourse analysis is a synergy of social science disciplines, including linguistics, education, sociology, anthropology, social work, cognitive psychology, social psychology, area studies, cultural studies, international relations, human geography, communication studies, and translation studies, subject to its own assumptions, dimensions of analysis, and methodologies. The aim of this paper is to present the applicability of (t, i, f-Neutrosophic Social Structures, introduced for the first time as new type of structures, called (t, i, f-Neutrosophic Structures, and presented from a neutrosophic logic. Neutrosophy theory can be assimilated to interpret and evaluate the individual opinion of social structures. This type of analyse already tested and applied in mathematics, artificial inteligence as well can be applied in social sciences by reseachers in social sciences, communication, sociology, psycology.

  18. Multigeneric Intertextuality in Advertising: Discourse Strategy from a Cognitive Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Nemčoková

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Advert recipients have wide-ranging experiences of perceiving other texts. When these experiences become the basis of perceiving advert messages, we speak of intertextuality operating as a discourse strategy. This paper studies multigeneric intertextuality in printed advertising, i.e. delivering an advert message through a register or text-form typical of other genres, for which discourse analysis and the genre studies perspective are adapted. From the cognitive linguistics perspective, it focuses on how the experience becomes the basis of building an emotive and attitudinal layer of meaning via exploring the recipient's mental space. The article studies cues signalling intertextual processing, specifically cues of socially determined discourses such as cooking recipes, warning signs, computer-mediated communication, scientific discussions or travel brochures, which may function as mental space inducing cues in the collected adverts. It also deals with how intertextuality in adverts can be scaled and how the level of explicitness relates to promoting various categories of products.

  19. Features structuring image of Ukraine in socio-political and socio-cultural discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Pocelujko

    2015-08-01

    Layers of socio-political discourse under defined-State officially and historically historiographical discourses. These discourses present the image of the state in the context of national history as the source, where by means of targeted public policy is formed and implemented state identity as the language of institutional communication. Images states that officially created in-state and historically historiographic discourses as a set of ethnic myths, frames, stereotypes intended to create mechanisms of perception and interpretation of the past of the country, used in educational policy as a tool for national identity with the corresponding identity discourse. Socio-cultural discourse and the corresponding image of the state is characterized by a strong plurality, conceptuality, multyparadyhmality. In the socio-cultural discourse is conceptualization image of the state as part of the living world as opposed to social and political discourse, in which the image of the state appears more like dogmatic ideological construct, which tends to uniqueness. In the scientific discourse in constructing the image of the state is dominated intellectual and conceptual component, while in the state mediadyskurs-image formed on the basis of emotional and social representations stained. Latest distributed in makroteksts designed to create appropriate social attitudes, sensatsion, mobilizing different social groups on a variety of events and more

  20. Speech and scientific paper. A rhetorical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Carmona Sandoval

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay attempts to show that the ancient rhetorical theory has explanatory capabilities to understand and learn to write modern texts and to analyze them in order to understand their communication skills, as in the scientific article, one of the most prestigious forms on scientific communication. It starts with the notion of discourse in the field of scientific communication and then address the rhetorical dimension of the paper.

  1. Communicating novel and conventional scientific metaphors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Sanne

    2005-01-01

    . But we still need empirical studies of the career of metaphors in scientific discourse and of the communicative strategies identifying a given metaphor as either novel or conventional. This paper presents a case study of the discursive development of the metaphor of "the genetic code" from......Metaphors are more popular than ever in the study of scientific reasoning and culture because of their innovative and generative powers. It is assumed, that novel scientific metaphors become more clear and well-defined, as they become more established and conventional within the relevant discourses...... the introduction of the metaphor to it was established as an entire network of interrelated conventional metaphors. Not only do the strategies in communicating the metaphor change as the metaphor becomes more established within the discourse, but the genres in which the metaphor is developed and interpreted...

  2. Troubling Discourses on Gender and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahelma, Elina

    2014-01-01

    Background: In educational policies, two discourses on gender have existed since the 1980s. I call them the "gender equality discourse" and the "boy discourse". The gender equality discourse in education is based on international and national declarations and plans, and is focused predominantly on the position of girls and…

  3. EXPLORING IMPLICIT META-DISCOURSE IN LEGAL DISCOURSE: AN ANALYSIS OF THE CHINESE AND AMERICAN CONSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengyu He

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Research in meta-discourse, particularly explicit meta-discourse or meta-discourse markers has contributed much knowledge on the discourse features of specialised genres. However, there are very few studies on implicit meta-discourse. The current study explores implicit meta-discourse in legal discourse by comparing the implicit interpersonal meta-discourse in the Constitution of the People’s Republic of China with the Constitution of the United States. The focus of the study is the use of implicit meta-discourse, particularly the grammatical meta-discourse in the legal discourse of two different languages and cultural groups. The findings demonstrate that there are similarities and differences in the use of implicit meta-discourse in the two constitutions. Within the context of language discourse, the findings of the current study suggest that legal discourse is distinctive in the use of implicit interpersonal meta-discourse, particularly in the way writers intrude into the discourse implicitly by certain key grammatical forms of meta-discourse. Despite the objectivity and rigour of legal discourse, the current study found that there is some level of subjectivity in such discourse, evident from the use of implicit meta-discourse.

  4. Arab Media Discourse: Breaking Taboos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Mustapha Lahlali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the development and change of Arab media discourse since mid-1990s. The paper looks at how the production and consumption of media discourse have changed dramatically in the Arab world over the last decade or so, notably in relation to taboos such as religion, governance and gender. The paper argues that transnational Arab media, particularly al-Jazeera, have contributed to this change by adopting a liberal and critical approach when dealing with Arab taboos. This change is clearly reflected in the new discourse adopted by both the Arab public and Arab media. Such a discourse practice shapes and is shaped by a new Arab social, cultural and political practice.

  5. The Discourse of "Environmentalist Hysteria."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killingsworth, M. Jimmie; Palmer, Jacqueline S.

    1995-01-01

    Fleshes out a model of hysterical discourse, and applies it to an analysis of the charges and countercharges of "environmentalist hysteria." Gives special attention to the book that drew the earliest accusations of hysteria, Rachel Carson's "Silent Spring." (SR)

  6. Functional discourse grammar: pragmatic aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hannay, M.; Hengeveld, K.; Brisard, F.; Östman, J.O.; Verschueren, J.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter introduces Functional Discourse Grammar, focusing on the way in which this model is capable of accounting for the grammatical encoding of pragmatic distinctions and for the typological variation found in this area of grammar.

  7. The biomedical discourse relation bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi Aravind

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of discourse relations, such as causal and contrastive relations, between situations mentioned in text is an important task for biomedical text-mining. A biomedical text corpus annotated with discourse relations would be very useful for developing and evaluating methods for biomedical discourse processing. However, little effort has been made to develop such an annotated resource. Results We have developed the Biomedical Discourse Relation Bank (BioDRB, in which we have annotated explicit and implicit discourse relations in 24 open-access full-text biomedical articles from the GENIA corpus. Guidelines for the annotation were adapted from the Penn Discourse TreeBank (PDTB, which has discourse relations annotated over open-domain news articles. We introduced new conventions and modifications to the sense classification. We report reliable inter-annotator agreement of over 80% for all sub-tasks. Experiments for identifying the sense of explicit discourse connectives show the connective itself as a highly reliable indicator for coarse sense classification (accuracy 90.9% and F1 score 0.89. These results are comparable to results obtained with the same classifier on the PDTB data. With more refined sense classification, there is degradation in performance (accuracy 69.2% and F1 score 0.28, mainly due to sparsity in the data. The size of the corpus was found to be sufficient for identifying the sense of explicit connectives, with classifier performance stabilizing at about 1900 training instances. Finally, the classifier performs poorly when trained on PDTB and tested on BioDRB (accuracy 54.5% and F1 score 0.57. Conclusion Our work shows that discourse relations can be reliably annotated in biomedical text. Coarse sense disambiguation of explicit connectives can be done with high reliability by using just the connective as a feature, but more refined sense classification requires either richer features or more

  8. Can scientific medicine incorporate alternative medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federspil, G; Vettor, R

    2000-06-01

    The authors examine the problem of defining alternative medicine, and after a brief analysis conclude that a satisfactory unifying definition of the different practices is not possible. Scientific knowledge is a function of scientific method. In turn the principle of falsifiability proposed by Karl Popper is used as a demarcation line between science and pseudoscience. They assert that the various alternative modalities do not represent authentic scientific disciplines, as they lack many of the minimum requirements of scientific discourse and, above all, because they violate the principle of falsifiability. Until they overcome these methodological shortcomings, alternative medical practices cannot become authentic scientific disciplines.

  9. On the plurality of discourses

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart-Wallace, Adam

    2010-01-01

    We talk about the world in different ways; by better understanding the ways we talk, we can better understand the world. Anyone who can appreciate this thought can appreciate the position here called discourse pluralism, or 'pluralism' for short. This covers a family of views in the realism debate, notably those of Michael Dummett (in one guise at least), Crispin Wright and Simon Blackburn. They believe that language is divided up into discourses corresponding to traditional areas of philosop...

  10. Discourse analysis and personal/professional development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyes, C.

    2004-01-01

    The article discusses discourse analysis and its relevance to personal and professional development, drawing on elements of social theory. Related terms such as text, discourse and genre are defined and social theoretical implications explored. Practical application of discourse analysis to CPD is illustrated. A case is developed for understanding contemporary practice and the construction of personal and professional identity through discourse. Understanding discourse is presented as an enabling structure for personal and professional development

  11. Re-orienting discussions of scientific explanation: A functional perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, Andrea I

    2015-08-01

    Philosophy of science offers a rich lineage of analysis concerning the nature of scientific explanation, but the vast majority of this work, aiming to provide an analysis of the relation that binds a given explanans to its corresponding explanandum, presumes the proper analytic focus rests at the level of individual explanations. There are, however, other questions we could ask about explanation in science, such as: What role(s) does explanatory practice play in science? Shifting focus away from explanations, as achievements, toward explaining, as a coordinated activity of communities, the functional perspective aims to reveal how the practice of explanatory discourse functions within scientific communities given their more comprehensive aims and practices. In this paper, I outline the functional perspective, argue that taking the functional perspective can reveal important methodological roles for explanation in science, and consequently, that beginning here provides resources for developing more adequate responses to traditional concerns. In particular, through an examination of the ideal gas law, I emphasize the normative status of explanations within scientific communities and discuss how such status underwrites a compelling rationale for explanatory power as a theoretical virtue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessing Online Collaborative Discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Henny

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study using transcript analysis was undertaken to clarify the value of Harasim's Online Collaborative Learning Theory as a way to assess the collaborative process within nursing education. The theory incorporated three phases: (a) idea generating; (b) idea organizing; and (c) intellectual convergence. The transcripts of asynchronous discussions from a 2-week module about disaster nursing using a virtual community were analyzed and formed the data for this study. This study supports the use of Online Collaborative Learning Theory as a framework for assessing online collaborative discourse. Individual or group outcomes were required for the students to move through all three phases of the theory. The phases of the Online Collaborative Learning Theory could be used to evaluate the student's ability to collaborate. It is recommended that group process skills, which have more to do with interpersonal skills, be evaluated separately from collaborative learning, which has more to do with cognitive skills. Both are required for practicing nurses. When evaluated separately, the student learning needs are more clearly delineated. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Italy in Postcolonial Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concilio, Carmen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this essay, I would like to explore the representations of Italy through the eyes of three outstanding postcolonial writers: Jhumpa Lahiri, Michael Ondaatje and Nuruddin Farah. Even though Italy is an oasis of art and culture, Jhumpa Lahiri looks at it with a profound sense of both admiration and sadness in Hema and Kaushik (2008. Her scrutiny of the ancient, pre-imperial ruins of the Etruscan period leads her characters to question life, death and marital life. Similarly, Ondaatje opposes an Italian Renaissance villa to the debris left behind by war in his well-known The English Patient (1992. His Punjabi character Kirpal Singh mentions Gabicce Mare, a place that soon after World War II will become a memorial and cemetery for the Indian troops who fought and died for the liberation of Italy. This discourse is picked up by Helena Janaczeck, a Polish-Italian writer who combines a narrative on Polish migration in Italy with an elegiac narrative about the cemetery and memorial in Cassino, where a Maori goes to visit the tombs of his ancestor, who also participated with the Commonwealth troops in World War II. Nuruddin Farah too, who provides a reportage on Somali immigrants to Italy, seems to consider the country as a springboard either to other North European destinations or to a possible destiny back home. All three writers present Italy according to varied and unusual perspectives.

  14. Research Interview Discourse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ensink, Eustatius

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of research interviews is to obtain information from different respondents in order to answer a research question. The two main types of research interviews are standardized survey interviews and open interviews. The information obtained should meet scientific requirements. These

  15. Technology and Power. A Foucauldian Analysis of Electronic Monitoring Discourses

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Vitores; Miquel Domènech

    2007-01-01

    The article aims to show the importance of FOUCAULT within social studies of science and technology. It also illustrates how a Foucauldian analysis can be useful for studies of science, technology and society focused on power effects. To accomplish these objectives we analyze the emergence of a specific techno-scientific innovation: the electronic monitoring of offenders. We map the discontinuities and discourse dispersions linked to those practices that constitute different materializations ...

  16. Ebola Policies That Hinder Epidemic Response by Limiting Scientific Discourse

    OpenAIRE

    Asgary, Ramin; Pavlin, Julie A.; Ripp, Jonathan A.; Reithinger, Richard; Polyak, Christina S.

    2015-01-01

    There is an unprecedented epidemic of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in west Africa. There has been a strong response from dedicated health professionals. However, there have also been irrational and fear-based responses that have contributed to misallocation of resources, stigma, and deincentivizing volunteers to combat Ebola at its source. Recently, the State of Louisiana Department of Health and Hospitals issued a ban on those coming from affected countries wishing to attend the annual meetings...

  17. Can academic/scientific discourse really be translated across ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The translators were selected according to their experience as professional translators and their level of English proficiency at an academic level. The translations were analysed within a ... AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  18. Special edition summarizing the scientific discourse which took ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OHCEA membership includes 14 Central and Eastern African Schools of Public Health (7) and Schools of Veterinary Medicine (7); and US partner institutions, The University of Minnesota (UMN) and Tufts University. The overall goal of this collaboration is to enhance One Health policy formation and implementation, ...

  19. Framing new research in science literacy and language use: Authenticity, multiple discourses, and the Third Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Carolyn S.

    2004-11-01

    This article presents a theoretical framework in the form of a model on which to base research in scientific literacy and language use. The assumption guiding the framework is that scientific literacy is comprised of the abilities to think metacognitively, to read and write scientific texts, and to apply the elements of a scientific argument. The framework is composed of three theoretical constructs: authenticity, multiple discourses, and Bhabha's Third Space. Some of the implications of the framework are that students need opportunities to (a) use scientific language in everyday situations; (b) negotiate readily among the many discourse genres of science; and (c) collaborate with teachers and peers on the meaning of scientific language. These ideas are illustrated with data excerpts from contemporary research studies. A set of potential research issues for the future is posed at the end of the article.

  20. Italy - A sustainable development discourse analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leconte, Arnaud; Lallemand, Xavier

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the Italian Discourse on Sustainable Development (SD). The 'mainstream political discourse', in line with the European guidelines, encompasses the three key SD dimensions (social, economic, and environmental dimensions), at least in theory. But, in practice, Italy is the country with the highest open infringements on EU environmental laws, as recently reflected by the scandalous waste management crises in the region of Naples. In the wake of the economic crises, the mainstream SD discourse is challenged by the environmentalist discourse, led by NGOs, the 'socio-religious discourse', focusing on a human SD, and by the 'alternative development' discourse, which opposes the capitalist system

  1. Nonconformist discourse of literary criticism activity of Mykhailyna Kotsiubynska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Светлана Григорьевна Бугай

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The peculiarity of scientific and critical reception of history and theory of Ukrainian literature in studios of Mykhaylyna Kotsiubynska is considered in the article. It is given the detailed analysis of scientific approaches and attitudes in literary interpretation of the key issues of artistic discourse: features of genre-thematic, compositional structure, imagery and stylistic palette of writing, specific of writer’s artistic thinking, ethical and philosophical foundations of creativity, originality of associative relationships, understanding artistic heritage in the context of the time

  2. Nanotechnology, neuromodulation & the immune response: discourse, materiality & ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fins, Joseph J

    2015-04-01

    Drawing upon the American Pragmatic tradition in philosophy and the more recent work of philosopher Karen Barad, this paper examines how scientific problems are both obscured, and resolved by our use of language describing the natural world. Using the example of the immune response engendered by neural implants inserted in the brain, the author explains how this discourse has been altered by the advent of nanotechnology methods and devices which offer putative remedies that might temper the immune response in the central nervous system. This emergent nanotechnology has altered this problem space and catalyzed one scientific community to acknowledge a material reality that was always present, if not fully acknowledged.

  3. Meat in the post-truth era: Mass media discourses on health and disease in the attention economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Frédéric; Brengman, Malaika; Ryckbosch, Wouter; Scholliers, Peter

    2018-06-01

    The debate on meat's role in health and disease is a rowdy and dissonant one. This study uses the health section of the online version of The Daily Mail as a case study to carry out a quantitative and qualitative reflection on the related discourses in mass media during the first fifteen years of the 21st century. This period ranged from the fall-out of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) crisis and its associated food safety anxieties, over the Atkins diet-craze in 2003 and the avian flu episode in 2007, to the highly influential publication of the report on colon cancer by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in 2015. A variety of conflicting news items was discernible, whereby moments of crisis, depicting the potential hazards of meat eating, seemed to generate reassuring counter-reactions stressing the benefits of meat as a rich source of nutrients. In contrast, when the popularity of meat-rich diets was on the rise due to diets stressing the role of protein in weight control, several warnings were issued. Meat's long-standing and semiotic connotations of vitality, strength, and fertility were either confirmed, rejected or inverted. Often this was achieved through scientification or medicalisation, with references to nutritional studies. The holistic role of meat within human diets and health was thus mostly reduced to a focus on specific food components and isolated biological mechanisms. The narratives were often histrionic and displayed serious contradictions. Since several interests were at play, involving a variety of input from dieticians, (health) authorities, the food industry, vegan or vegetarian movements, and celebrities, the overall discourse was highly heterogeneous. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Developing Foucault's Discourse Analytic Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Diaz-Bone

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A methodological position for a FOUCAULTian discourse analysis is presented. A sequence of analytical steps is introduced and an illustrating example is offered. It is emphasized that discourse analysis has to discover the system-level of discursive rules and the deeper structure of the discursive formation. Otherwise the analysis will be unfinished. Michel FOUCAULTs work is theoretically grounded in French structuralism and (the so called post-structuralism. In this paper, post-structuralism is not conceived as a means for overcoming of structuralism, but as a way of critically continuing the structural perspective. In this way, discursive structures can be related to discursive practices and the concept of structure can be disclosed (e. g. to inter-discourse or DERRIDAs concept of structurality. In this way, the structural methodology is continued and radicalized, but not given up. In this paper, FOUCAULTs theory is combined with the works of Michel PÊCHEUX and (especially for the sociology of knowledge and the sociology of culture Pierre BOURDIEU. The practice of discourse analysis is theoretically grounded. This practice can be conceived as a reflexive coupling of deconstruction and reconstruction in the material to be analyzed. This methodology therefore can be characterized as a reconstructive qualitative methodology. At the end of the article, forms of discourse analysis are criticized that do not intend to recover the system level of discursive rules and that do not intend to discover the deeper structure of the discursive formation (i. e. episteme, socio-episteme. These forms merely are commentaries of discourses (not their analyses, they remain phenomenological and are therefore: pre-structuralist. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs060168

  5. Discourse swings in understanding audiences:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhard, CarrieLynn D.

    Traditional discourses of the relationship between media producers and consumers have been challenged as of late in post-industrialized countries.  The blurring of established consumer/producer identities due to changes in the mediascape, forecasted for decades, has changed how both academics......’s cooptation of these consumers, conceptualizing the people who engage with their media products as a combination of the previous two, or "audience-as-pusher".  This paper is an account of this discourse swing through the description of case studies that demonstrate the utilization of interactive marketing...

  6. Drug addiction and social discourses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia dos Santos Canabarro

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the various discursive positions found in the phenomenon of addiction. The relations these discursive positions establish with the discourses of the master, the hysteric, the university and the capitalist are discussed. By analyzing material from clinical listening at a public outpatient drug and alcohol rehab center, it was seen that addiction can be described in different discourses. This article shows that the shift of focus from the symptom to the discursive position of the subject is an indicator for the clinical treatment of addiction.

  7. Laconism in the advertisement discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Marcos Mateus Kogawa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Current paper investigates the construction of a particular kind of statement called laconism. The discursive form is constructed by an enunciation modality that aggregates military, religious and economic spaces, and is characterized by ‘tell more in fewer words’. It is the hallmark of Greek civilization and typical of Christ’s universal phrases. The enunciation structure is basic and omnipresent in the myth construction within consumer society. Current investigation deals with the advertising discourse, more particularly, Coca-Cola advertisings, as a contemporary myth. French Discourse Analysis coupled to Foucault’s and Barthes’s works foreground the essay.

  8. Developing a Connective Feminine Discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek, Ulla

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the work of the Australian writer and historian Drusilla Modjeska through a focus on the intersections between women‟s lives, love and art, which constitute the central triptych of Modjeska‟s writing. It argues that Modjeska's oeuvre unfolds a connective feminine discourse...... through a development of what the paper calls hinging tropes, discursive connectors that join life, love and art, such as weaving, folding and talking. That connective feminine discourse is indeed central to Modjeska‟s personal and sometimes idiosyncratic feminism...

  9. Polarized Discourse in the Egyptian News: Critical Discourse Analysis Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissa, Mohammed Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate ideological structures of polarized discourse coded in the reports of two online news websites: egyptindependent and ikwanweb. The study focuses on online news reports relating to three interrelated events: the issuing of a constitutional declaration by Egyptian president, the aftermath clashes outside…

  10. Ontological and epistemological discourse(s) on sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article addresses philosophical discourses (ontology and epistemology) that have framed researchers' position on topical issues relating to sustainable development, particularly in relation to Sierra Leone. The country is a nation full of memories; that which has brought lasting pain in the minds of people and the use of ...

  11. Reflections on Female Circumcision Discourse in Hargeysa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    This study aimed to explore diverse discourses on female circumcision and the relationship between discourses .... 'Halalays' has the stem halal in Arabic – referring to what is permitted in ...... Strand T, Norsk rikskringkasting. Suaads reise: en.

  12. Scientific information and discursive heterogeneity: An analysis of “A brief history of time”, by Stephen Hawking

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Marci Fileti

    2010-01-01

    The present paper thematizes the issue of heterogeneity in the Discourse of Scientific Circulation (DSC). Such a discourse, articulated in the interface between scientific discourse (SC) and the statements of “non-scientists” (SNS), presents a heterogeneity which I call discursive (following GALLO, 2001), and which is constituted not only of non-coincidental enunciations (AUTHIER-REVUZ, 1982), but also of coincidences bearing pre-constructed meanings. From such an interface of meanings a new ...

  13. Negotiating Discourses: Sixth-Grade Students' Use of Multiple Science Discourses during a Science Fair Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Kimberley

    2007-01-01

    This study offers important insights into the coexistence of multiple discourses and the link between these discourses and science understanding. It offers concrete examples of students' movement between multiple discourses in sixth-grade science fair presentations, and shows how those multiple discourses in science practices illuminate students'…

  14. The Discourse of Chemistry (and Beyond)

    OpenAIRE

    Jesper Sjöström

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the mainstream discourse of chemistry and suggests a complementary discourse. On a disciplinary level, the discourse of chemistry is based on objectivism, rationalism, and molecular reductionism. On a societal level, the discourse is based on modernism. The aims of chemical research and education are often unclear, which nowadays often leads to an emphasis on the needs from industry. Integrating meta-perspectives (philosophical, historical, and socio-cultural) within chem...

  15. Pedagogical discourses in Bhutanese upper secondary schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Hanne Dauer; Utha, Karma

    2017-01-01

    two pedagogical discourses in our analysis of the Bhutanese school system: The traditional cognitive learning discourse and an alternative, experience-based discourse. The theoretical framework is then used in our analysis of empirical data from classroom observations and semi-structured interviews...

  16. Discourse Communities--Local and Global.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killingsworth, M. Jimmie

    1992-01-01

    Argues that rhetorical theory needs to keep alive competing concepts of discourse communities, so that alternatives exist in the description and analysis of discourse practices. Proposes distinguishing between two kinds of discourse communities--the local and the global--so that rhetorical analysis can achieve the necessary critical edge,…

  17. Multimodal Discourse Analysis of the Movie "Argo"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Xu

    2018-01-01

    Based on multimodal discourse theory, this paper makes a multimodal discourse analysis of some shots in the movie "Argo" from the perspective of context of culture, context of situation and meaning of image. Results show that this movie constructs multimodal discourse through particular context, language and image, and successfully…

  18. Language shifts in free indirect discourse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maier, Emar

    Free indirect discourse is a way of reporting what a protagonist thinks or says that is distinct from both direct and indirect discourse. In particular, while pronouns and tenses are presented from the narrator's perspective, as in indirect discourse, other indexical and expressive elements reflect

  19. From translation to navigation of different discourses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Livonen, Mirja; Sonnenwald, Diane H.

    1998-01-01

    ' own search experience. Data further suggest that searchers navigate these discourses dynamically and have preferences for certain discourses. Conceptualizing the selection of search terms as a meeting place of different discourses provides new insights into the complex nature of the search term...

  20. Capitalist Discourse, Subjectivity and Lacanian Psychoanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanheule, Stijn

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies how subjectivity in capitalist culture can be characterized. Building on Lacan's later seminars XVI, XVII, XVIII, and XIX, the author first outlines Lacan's general discourse theory, which includes four characteristic discourses: the discourse of the master, the discourse of the university, the discourse of the hysteric and the discourse of the analyst. Next, the author explores the subjectivity and the mode of dealing with jouissance and semblance, which is entailed in a fifth type of discourse, the capitalist discourse, discussed by Lacan (1972). Indeed, like the other discourses that Lacan discerns, the discourse of the capitalist can be thought of as a mode of dealing with the sexual non-rapport. It is argued that in the case of neurosis the discourse of the capitalist functions as an attempt to ignore the sexual non-rapport and the dimension of the unconscious. Psychosis, by contrast, is marked by an a priori exclusion from discourse. In that case, consumerist ways of relating to the other might offer a semblance, and thus the possibility of inventing a mode of relating to the other. Two clinical vignettes are presented to illustrate this perspective: one concerning the neurotic structure and one concerning the psychotic structure. PMID:28018280

  1. Mediated Discourses of Transnational Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhukova Klausen, Julia

    2013-01-01

    become represented, categorized and enacted across and beyond symbolic and geo-political national terrains. The multimodal, social-semiotic, discourse analysis focuses on semiotic shifts and discursive transformations through which the actors categorize symbols, artefacts and accounts across and beyond...

  2. Therapy Talk: Analyzing Therapeutic Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, Margaret M.

    2004-01-01

    Therapeutic discourse is the talk-in-interaction that represents the social practice between clinician and client. This article invites speech-language pathologists to apply their knowledge of language to analyzing therapy talk and to learn how talking practices shape clinical roles and identities. A range of qualitative research approaches,…

  3. Gendered Language in Interactive Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussey, Karen A.; Katz, Albert N.; Leith, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Over two studies, we examined the nature of gendered language in interactive discourse. In the first study, we analyzed gendered language from a chat corpus to see whether tokens of gendered language proposed in the gender-as-culture hypothesis (Maltz and Borker in "Language and social identity." Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp…

  4. ENCOURAGEMENT PROVERBS AND THEIR DISCOURSE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JONATHAN

    A CASE STUDY OF OGHE DIALECT OF IGBO ... data for the analysis were oral interviews and were gathered during ... conversations among native speakers of the dialect under discourse. .... proverb is not interpreted or explained as the belief is, that if it is done, it means that the ..... Ibadan: Heinemann Educational Books.

  5. The Missing Discourse of Gender?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Lucia Albino; Rader, Jill

    2002-01-01

    Gender theories provide a critical framework for considerations of heterosexual identity. Patriarchal power rests on the social meanings given to biological sex differences and to their reproduction as societal discourses regarding what it means to be a woman or a man. This is a crucial point and one that we believe is not fully recognized in the…

  6. Social discourses of healthy eating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros; Askegaard, Søren; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a framework of discourses regarding consumers' healthy eating as a useful conceptual scheme for market segmentation purposes. The objectives are: (a) to identify the appropriate number of health-related segments based on the underlying discursive subject positions of the frame...

  7. Critical Discourse Analysis and Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriaza, Gilberto

    2015-01-01

    This article outlines the need of infusing critical discourse analysis into the preparation and support of prospective school leaders. It argues that in the process of school transformation, the school leader must possess the ability to self-reflect on his/her language and understand the potential power of language as a means that may support or…

  8. Legitimation in Discourse and Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Leeuwen, Theo

    2013-01-01

    , and of persons in whom institutional authority is vested, (2) moral evaluation, legitimation by reference to discourses of value, (3) rationalization, legitimation by reference to the goals and uses of institutionalized social action and to the social knowledges that endow them with cognitive validity, and (4...

  9. Wondering Discourse in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Jane Susan

    A study examined classroom discourse in three literature class discussions among 15 high school juniors and their teacher as they tried to make sense of "Hamlet" and "Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead." Participants' moves (what the students and teacher were trying to do with their language during the discussion);…

  10. Shaping Discourse and Setting Examples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Anders

    2017-01-01

    around an issue. By using Tuomas Forsberg's framework of four different mechanisms of normative power: persuasion, invoking norms, shaping the discourse and the power of example on three important case studies from the conflict (EC/EU's declaratory diplomacy on the need for a just peace in the conflict...

  11. Discourse Approaches to Writing Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connnor, Ulla; Mbaye, Aymerou

    2002-01-01

    Discusses assessment of English-as-a-Foreign/Second-Language (EFL/ESL) writing. Suggests there is a considerable gap between current practices in writing assessment and criteria suggested by advances in knowledge of discourse structure. Illustrates this by contrasting current practices in the scoring of two major EFL/ESL writing tests with…

  12. Eismitte in the Scientific Imagination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin-Nielsen, Janet

    was a setting for scientific knowledge production as well as diplomatic maneuvering, providing new insights into the history of polar exploration and the intertwining of scientific and geopolitical considerations. Author Janet Martin-Nielsen draws on new research in private, government, military......Since the first attempts by Europeans to penetrate Greenland's interior, its geometric center, Eismitte (‘middle ice’), has been one of the most forbidding but scientifically rich locations in the Arctic. Tracing its history from European contact through the Cold War, this study shows how Eismitte......, and institutional archives in many languages in multiple countries to illuminate Eismitte’s place in the scientific imagination....

  13. Sexual Consent as a Scientific Subject: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenner, Lydia

    2017-01-01

    Despite the presumed centrality of sexual consent to definitions of sexual violence, it remains an ambiguous and often unexamined concept both in lay and professional/scientific discourses. The following literature review of peer-reviewed research studying sexual consent as a scientific object will thematically present major findings from said…

  14. [Discourse analysis: research potentialities to gender violence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azambuja, Mariana Porto Ruwer; Nogueira, Conceição

    2009-01-01

    In the last few years we see the growing use of the terms 'discourse' and 'discourses analysis' in academic and research contexts, frequently without a precise definition. This fact opens space for critics and mistakes. The aim of this paper is to show a brief contextualization of discursive studies, as well as tasks/steps to Discourse Analysis process by the Social Construcionism perspective. As examples we used fragments of an interview with a Family Doctor about gender violence. In the results we detach the potential of Discourse Analysis to deconstruct the existing discourses to subsequently (re)construction in the way to a more holistic view about gender violence problem.

  15. Science Students' Classroom Discourse: Tasha's Umwelt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Jenny

    2012-04-01

    Over the past twenty-five years researchers have been concerned with understanding the science student. The need for such research is still grounded in contemporary issues including providing opportunities for all students to develop scientific literacy and the failure of school science to connect with student's lives, interests and personal identities. The research reported here is unusual in its use of discourse analysis in social psychology to contribute to an understanding of the way students make meaning in secondary school science. Data constructed for the study was drawn from videotapes of nine consecutive lessons in a year-seven science classroom in Melbourne, post-lesson video-stimulated interviews with students and the teacher, classroom observation and the students' written work. The classroom videotapes were recorded using four cameras and seven audio tracks by the International Centre for Classroom Research at the University of Melbourne. Student talk within and about their science lessons was analysed from a discursive perspective. Classroom episodes in which students expressed their sense of personal identity and agency, knowledge, attitude or emotion in relation to science were identified for detailed analysis of the function of the discourse used by students, and in particular the way students were positioned by others or positioned themselves. This article presents the discursive Umwelt or life-space of one middle years science student, Tasha. Her case is used here to highlight the complex social process of meaning making in science classrooms and the need to attend to local moral orders of rights and duties in research on student language use, identity and learning in science.

  16. Determination of death: Metaphysical and biomedical discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irayda Jakušovaitė

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The prominence of biomedical criteria relying on brain death reduces the impact of metaphysical, anthropological, psychosocial, cultural, religious, and legal aspects disclosing the real value and essence of human life. The aim of this literature review is to discuss metaphysical and biomedical approaches toward death and their complimentary relationship in the determination of death. A critical appraisal of theoretical and scientific evidence and legal documents supported analytical discourse. In the metaphysical discourse of death, two main questions about what human death is and how to determine the fact of death clearly separate the ontological and epistemological aspects of death. During the 20th century, various understandings of human death distinguished two different approaches toward the human: the human is a subject of activities or a subject of the human being. Extinction of the difference between the entities and the being, emphasized as rational–logical instrumentation, is not sufficient to understand death thoroughly. Biological criteria of death are associated with biological features and irreversible loss of certain cognitive capabilities. Debating on the question “Does a brain death mean death of a human being?” two approaches are considering: the body-centrist and the mind-centrist. By bridging those two alternatives human death appears not only as biomedical, but also as metaphysical phenomenon. It was summarized that a predominance of clinical criteria for determination of death in practice leads to medicalization of death and limits the holistic perspective toward individual's death. Therefore, the balance of metaphysical and biomedical approaches toward death and its determination would decrease the medicalization of the concept of death.

  17. Determination of death: Metaphysical and biomedical discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakušovaitė, Irayda; Luneckaitė, Žydrunė; Peičius, Eimantas; Bagdonaitė, Živilė; Riklikienė, Olga; Stankevičius, Edgaras

    2016-01-01

    The prominence of biomedical criteria relying on brain death reduces the impact of metaphysical, anthropological, psychosocial, cultural, religious, and legal aspects disclosing the real value and essence of human life. The aim of this literature review is to discuss metaphysical and biomedical approaches toward death and their complimentary relationship in the determination of death. A critical appraisal of theoretical and scientific evidence and legal documents supported analytical discourse. In the metaphysical discourse of death, two main questions about what human death is and how to determine the fact of death clearly separate the ontological and epistemological aspects of death. During the 20th century, various understandings of human death distinguished two different approaches toward the human: the human is a subject of activities or a subject of the human being. Extinction of the difference between the entities and the being, emphasized as rational-logical instrumentation, is not sufficient to understand death thoroughly. Biological criteria of death are associated with biological features and irreversible loss of certain cognitive capabilities. Debating on the question "Does a brain death mean death of a human being?" two approaches are considering: the body-centrist and the mind-centrist. By bridging those two alternatives human death appears not only as biomedical, but also as metaphysical phenomenon. It was summarized that a predominance of clinical criteria for determination of death in practice leads to medicalization of death and limits the holistic perspective toward individual's death. Therefore, the balance of metaphysical and biomedical approaches toward death and its determination would decrease the medicalization of the concept of death. Copyright © 2016 The Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  18. Contradictory discourses of health promotion and disease prevention in the educational curriculum of Norwegian public health nursing: a critical discourse analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Berit Misund; Andrews, Therese; Clancy, Anne

    2014-02-01

    Health care is under constant change creating new and demanding tasks for public health nurses. The curriculum for public health nursing students is controlled by governmental directives that decide the structure and content of their education. This paper analyses manifest and latent discourses in the curriculum, in order to reveal underlying governmental principles for how public health nurses should promote health and prevent diseases. A critical discourse analysis of the Norwegian public health nursing curriculum was conducted. The study indicates i) 'a competing biomedical and social-scientific knowledge-discourse', with biomedical knowledge dominating the content of the curriculum; ii) 'a paternalistic meta-discourse', referring to an underlying paternalistic ideology despite a clear focus on user participation; and iii) 'a hegemonic individual discourse'. Even though the curriculum stipulates that public health nurses should work at both an individual and a societal level, there is very little population focus in the text. Recent political documents concerning public health nursing focus more on health promotion, however, this is not sufficiently explicit in the curriculum. The lack of emphasis on social scientific knowledge, and the blurred empowerment and population perspective in the curriculum, can lead to less emphasis on health promotion work in public health nursing education and practice. The curriculum should be revised in order to meet the recent governmental expectations.

  19. The Perceptions of Elementary School Teachers Regarding Their Efforts to Help Students Utilize Student-to-Student Discourse in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craddock, Jennifer Lovejoy

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to examine the perceptions of elementary teachers who teach science as opposed to science teacher specialists regarding their efforts to help students use student-to-student discourse for improving science learning. A growing body of research confirms the importance of a) student-to-student discourse for making meaning of science ideas and b) moving students' conceptual development towards a more scientific understanding of the natural world. Based on those foundations, the three research questions that guided this study examined the value elementary teachers place on student-to-student discourse, the various approaches teachers employ to promote the use of student-to-student discourse for learning science, and the factors and conditions that promote and inhibit the use of student-to-student discourse as an effective pedagogical strategy in elementary science. Data were gathered from 23 elementary teachers in a single district using an on-line survey and follow-up interviews with 8 teachers. All data were analyzed and evolving themes led to the following findings: (1) elementary teachers value student-to-student discourse in science, (2) teachers desire to increase time using student-to-student discourse, (3) teachers use a limited number of student-to-student discourse strategies to increase student learning in science, (4) teachers use student-to-student discourse as formative assessment to determine student learning in science, (5) professional development focusing on approaches to student-to-student discourse develops teachers' capacity for effective implementation, (6) teachers perceive school administrators' knowledge of and support for student-to-student discourse as beneficial, (7) time and scheduling constraints limit the use of student-to-student discourse in science. Implications of this study included the necessity of school districts to focus on student-to-student discourse in science, provide teacher and

  20. Representation of differences in Brazilian journalistic discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Resende

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Considering the technological advance, which enhances the production of mediatic discourses, and the notion of a libidinal power installed in our globalized societies, reflecting upon representation of differences seems to be a major issue. This essay discusses the production of journalistic discourses from an epistemological perspective. The field of media is taken as constituted by a triple component – discourse/narrative/machines – and we suggest that this triad has proved to be incomplete: discourse and narrative, once they really are vertexes of the triangle, are absences. Two journalistic-documentary productions – which intend to represent life in the slums of Brazil – are compared in order to reflect upon representation of differences in Brazilian journalistic discourse. In view of the up-to-date polarization and pulverization of discourses, we suggest that in the perspective of the journalistic discourse, one can only speak about alterity if one tries to comprehend the ways news is staged.

  1. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergi es (NDA) ; Scientific Opinion - Statement on the safety of the “conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) - rich oils” Clarinol ® and Tonalin TG 80 as Novel Food ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    that the additional information provided does not contain evidence thath would modify its previous conclusions regarding the effects of CLA on insulin sensitivity/glucose metabolism, blood lipids, lipid peroxidation, or subclinical inflammation. The Panel also considers that the new studies provided do not address......Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to update its opinions on the safety of the conjugated linoleic acid (CLA)-rich oils Clarinol® and Tonalin® TG 80 as Novel Food ingredients in the light of additional information...... uses and daily doses for up to six months. The safety of CLA consumption for periods longer than six months has not been established under the proposed conditions of use. The safety of CLA consumption by type-2 diabetic subjects has not been established. © European Food Safety Authority, 2012...

  2. Education between discourse and matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysgaard, Jonas Greve; Fjeldsted, Kristoffer Lolk

    2015-01-01

    education should be based on. Inspired by the speculative realists we argue that the focus on language and discourse to a wide degree has gone too far, especially when dealing with issues linked to education and nature. This is by no means a cry for a return to naïve realism, but to a greater degree......This article takes the central concepts of the emergent philosophical movement speculative realism and applies them to notions linked to education and nature. In doing that we argue that it is now time to delimit the role of discursive approaches as the sole road to a coherent understanding of what...... an effort to insist that it is important to include a focus on a material Real and perhaps take it easy when pushing language, discourse, and notions like social constructivism when engaging with issues linked to nature and education. Our aim is not to promote a certain kind of education, but to argue...

  3. Bell Discourse in Russian Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Элеонора Р Лассан

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the symbolic meaning of Russian ringing of bell in the Russian discourse. According to Lotman’s definition of symbol, it has dual nature: an invariant essence and its modification in relation to the cultural context. The article introduces informative and linguistic modifications of the bell topic in the Russian poetic discourse of the 19th, the 20th and the beginning of the 21st century. The author of the article provides the detailed analysis of such discursive descriptions of bell ringing as the ringing of church bells and alarm . The author arrives at the conlusion that the alarm topic prevails in contemporary poetry and this indicates the state of public dissatisfaction. In the 19th and the 20th centuries lexemes the ringing of church bells and alarm were used literally, but in the 21st century lexeme alarm acquires metaphorical meaning of call for blood.

  4. Action Between Plot and Discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Thor

    2007-01-01

    In this article, I argue that the representation of simple, bodily action has the function of endowing the narrative sequence with a visualizing power. It makes the narrated scenes or situations ready for visualization by the reader or listener. By virtue of this visualizing power or disposition...... an important visualizing function, these narrated actions have a communicative function and, as such, they can be said to belong to the domain of discourse-narratology. In the first part of the article, I argue that a certain type of plot-narratology, due to its retrospective epistemology and abstract...... definition of action, is unable to conceive of this visualizing function. In the second part, I argue that discourse-narratology fares no better since the visualizing function is independent of voice and focalization. In the final part, I sketch a possible account of the visualizing function of simple...

  5. On Decidability in Discourse Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karsten Hvidtfelt

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to propose 'decidability' as a new criterion for theories aiming at analysing empirical texts. Originally, 'decidability' was developed as a formal concept (Gödel 1931). In this paper, I show some of the consequences of applying the criterion of decidability to text ...... analyses as conducted within a cognitively motivated theory of discourse....

  6. Discourse Analysis in Translator Training

    OpenAIRE

    Gülfidan Ayvaz

    2015-01-01

    Translator training enables students to gain experience in both linguistic parameters and translation practice. Discourse Analysis is one of the strategies that lead to a better translation process and quality in translation. In that regard, this study aims to present DA as a translation strategy for translation practice and a useful tool for translator training. The relationship between DA and Translator Training is not widely studied. Therefore this study aims to define DA and how it can be...

  7. Discourse in Systemic Operational Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-22

    narrative theory and theories of agency in the education of officers about design use and practice. This comes from the idea that if 1 the discourse of... educational philosophy reference points, the same knowledge may be processed in significantly different ways. Similarly, these differences inform the...feminine reproductive health often places normal occurrences such as menstruation in a negative, pathological frame of reference relative to male health

  8. IRONIC METAPHORS IN POLITICAL DISCOURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А А Горностаева

    2018-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at revealing the current trends in the usage of ironic metaphors in Russian, British and American political discourse. Given the diversity of political genres, which makes it difficult to classify them, the article draws on the division into primary, secondary and folklore genres (Bazylev 2005, Sheigal 2000. The study focuses on secondary and folklore genres, as, being informal, they presuppose the use of irony. The data was taken from the speeches of Russian, American and British political leaders (V. Putin, S. Lavrov, D. Trump, B. Obama, N. Farage, B. Johnson and others. Drawing on the works on po-litical discourse (Beard 2001, Budaev 2010, Charteris-Black 2005, Chudinov 2001, Lakoff 2003, Ponton 2016, Van Dijk 2009 and developing a discursive approach to the study of irony which is often conveyed through metaphor (Shilikhina 2008, Alba-Juez 2014, Attardo 2007, Giora 2003, Hutcheon 2005, we have identified the conceptual spheres that are the most active sources of modern metaphors. We have traced the link between the new political trends and new metaphors, as well as existing metaphors which acquire a new ironic meaning. The results of the conducted analysis show the frequency of ironic metaphors, includ-ing aggressive ones, and the diversity of their functions in modern political discourse. The comparative analysis made it possible to reveal some peculiarities of the usage of ironic metaphors in Russian, English and American political discourse, which are presupposed by the speakers’ individual characteristics as well as culture specific discursive features.

  9. Discourse-shifting practices of a teacher and learning facilitator in a bilingual mathematics classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler, Robyn

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In bilingual classrooms, content is often learned simultaneously with a new language. Recent applied linguistics research has identified shifts in discourse made by teachers and learners as they work towards these two goals. Departing from a sociocultural perspective on teaching and learning, this study assumes learners and teachers bring rich and diverse linguistic repertoires to the classroom. This paper examines selected episodes of discourse shifts which took place in a week-long mathematics enrichment programme run by a non-government organisation in rural South Africa. In this Xhosa-English bilingual context, I undertook a small-scale ethnographically-informed case study in which evidence of and comment on discourse shifting was collected in the form of video and audio recordings of lessons and interviews with participants. The focus of the analysis is on the translanguaging strategies (especially register meshing of the teacher and a learning facilitator as they work to make the curriculum accessible to the learners. The argument made in the paper is that the unidirectional notion of discourse shifting from more everyday, spoken, home language discourses to more discipline-specific, written, English discourses is not adequate in explaining the complex multidirectional shifting apparent in my data.

  10. Mental Representations in Art Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Sudec

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper starts by examining the content included in the museum environment, where I write about the type of relations that emerge in a museum or artistic setting. This is followed by an observation of a social act (socialising and a chapter on the use of food in an artistic venue. At the end, I address art education via the format that I developed at the 6th Berlin Biennale. This is followed by an overview of the cognitive model of the fort-da game based on Freud’s theory via two discourse models. Here, I address discourse on art works in the form of a lecture or reading, where the art space is fictitiously present, and then move on to discuss discourse on art works in real, “present” art space. This is followed by a section on actions (Handlungen in German and methods supporting the fort-da model. The last part of the article examines the issue of “mental representations”, defining and explaining the function of mental representations with regard to the target audience of the blind and visually impaired.

  11. CONCEPTUAL METAPHORS IN BASKETBALL DISCOURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reda Toleikienė

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents part of the research performed within the scope of the national project “Conceptual Metaphors in Public Discourse,”1 financed by the Research Council of Lithuania. The aim of the present paper is to analyze conceptual metaphors in the discourse of the European Basketball Championship which took place in Kaunas, Lithuania in 2011, as well as to determine the source concepts. The analysis allows certain features of the images which are used while conceptualizing the entities related to basketball to be described. The metaphorical collocations drawn from the Lithuanian language corpora and web portals (www.delfi.lt and www.lrytas.lt were selected and analyzed from 31 August 2011 to 18 September 2011. A conceptual metaphor is defined as an interaction of two conceptual fields (source and target concepts. On the basis of the analyzed conceptual sayings, the reconstructed conceptual metaphors proved that the most prolific metaphors are of war, ontology, and scale. In basketball discourse, the war metaphor is characterized by the fact that the image of sport is war is supplemented by other source concepts (e.g.,a person, a building, a thing, a material, a scale. The features of two or sometimes even three source concepts are ascribed to the target concept.

  12. Cross-lingual and cross-domain discourse segmentation of entire documents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braud, Chloé; Lacroix, Ophélie; Søgaard, Anders

    2017-01-01

    -quality syntactic parses and rich heuristics that are not generally available across languages and domains. In this paper, we propose statistical discourse segmenters for five languages and three domains that do not rely on gold pre-annotations. We also consider the problem of learning discourse segmenters when...... no labeled data is available for a language. Our fully supervised system obtains 89.5% F1 for English newswire, with slight drops in performance on other domains, and we report supervised and unsupervised (cross-lingual) results for five languages in total....

  13. The Changing Discourse on Higher Education and the Nation-State, 1960-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Elizabeth S.

    2017-01-01

    This article examines changing ideas about the relationship between the nation-state and the university in international higher education development discourse through a quantitative content analysis of over 700 academic articles, conference proceedings and research reports published by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural…

  14. The national identities of the ‘death of multiculturalism’ discourse in Western Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossewaarde, Marinus R.R.

    2014-01-01

    Since the late 1990s, multiculturalism is discussed, in newspapers more than in scientific discourses, as a public policy failure in West European nations. The Netherlands was one of the first to have declared multiculturalism ‘dead’. In the UK, the death of multiculturalism followed mainly from the

  15. Paradox place: discourse line of nuclear sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponce, Iona

    2002-05-01

    This thesis examines the relationship between the public acceptance and image of nuclear energy and the discourse and arguments commonly employed by the nuclear institutions. In doing so, the Critical Discourse Analysis, the French Discourse Analysis and Pragmatics theories were used to evaluate important variables involved in the construction of the nuclear discourse such as social memory, intertextualilty and image construction. The analysis performed shows that the discourse in favor of the nuclear energy is in fact imbedded by the anti-nuclear discourse. As a consequence, the negative image of the nuclear sector is being reinforced at the same time that its public acceptance becomes more difficult. The core of this analysis consists of two sets of information. The first one is the Internet site of the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN). CNEN is the federal nuclear regulatory and research and development agency of Brazil. In this analysis it represents the discourse in favor of nuclear energy. The second set of information used in this thesis is composed by a number of texts displayed in the open literature such as newspapers, magazines and Internet sites, all of them expressing anti-nuclear positions. A careful comparison of both sets shows that the discourse of CNEN, instead of showing new ideas and issues related to nuclear energy, in fact, stays mainly in a reactive position as if it were trying to defend itself from the arguments posed by the anti-nuclear discourse. It was concluded that the discourse of CNEN is constrained within a complex field of non positive expressions, arguments and ideas mostly encountered in the anti-nuclear discourse which brings obvious difficulties to explain the benefits of nuclear energy as a whole. To overcome such situation a more detailed study of the CNEN discourse is suggested. (author)

  16. Scientific Misconduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodstein, David

    2002-01-01

    Explores scientific fraud, asserting that while few scientists actually falsify results, the field has become so competitive that many are misbehaving in other ways; an example would be unreasonable criticism by anonymous peer reviewers. (EV)

  17. Mediating argumentative deconstruction of advertising discourses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maier, Carmen Daniela

    exposes how the advertising discourse of various companies is articulated when promoting well known products and services in their commercials. The original advertising discourse is deconstructed and reconstructed with additional visual material in front of the viewers' eyes who are instructed by a voice......-over narrator what to look at and how to identify and decode the persuasive strategies employed. The present multimodal analysis focuses on the characteristic features of these Media Bites argumentative discourses that challenge the legitimacy of the original advertising discourses. Looking specifically...... the deceptive advertising messages.    ...

  18. Critical Discourse Analysis. The Elaboration of a Problem Oriented Discourse Analytic Approach After Foucault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Diaz-Bone

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The German discourse researcher Siegfried JÄGER from Duisburg is the first to have published a German-language book about the methodology of discourse analysis after FOUCAULT. JÄGER integrates in his work the discourse analytic work of Jürgen LINK as well as the interdisciplinary discussion carried on in the discourse analytic journal "kultuRRevolution" (Journal for Applied Discourse Analysis. JÄGER and his co-workers were associated with the Duisburger Institute for Language Research and Social Research (DISS, see http://www.diss-duisburg.de/ for 20 years, developing discourse theory and the methodology of discourse analysis. The interview was done via e-mail. It depicts the discourse analytic approach of JÄGER and his co-workers following the works of FOUCAULT and LINK. The interview reconstructs JÄGERs vita and his academic career. Further topics of the interview are the agenda of JÄGERs discourse studies, methodological considerations, the (problematic relationship between FOUCAULDian discourse analysis and (discourses, linguistics, styles and organization of research and questions concerning applied discourse analytic research as a form of critical intervention. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0603219

  19. Fictional names and fictional discourse

    OpenAIRE

    Panizza, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    [eng] In this dissertation I present a critical study of fiction, focusing on the semantics of fictional names and fictional discourse. I am concerned with the issue of whether fictional names need to refer, and also with the related issue of whether fictional characters need to exist, in order to best account for our linguistic practices involving fictional names. Fictional names like ‘Sherlock Holmes’, ‘Anna Karenina’, ‘Emma Woodhouse’ and ‘Don Quixote of La Mancha’ ordinarily occur in diff...

  20. Scientific (Wo)manpower?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amilon, Anna; Persson, Inga

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate to what extent male and female PhDs choose academic vs non‐academic employment. Further, it analyses gender earnings differences in the academic and non‐academic labour markets. Design/methodology/approach – Rich Swedish cross‐sectional regist...... scientific human capital. Originality/value – The study is the first to investigate career‐choice and earnings of Swedish PhDs. Further, the study is the first to investigate both the academic and the non‐academic labour markets....

  1. Scientific Resource EXplorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Z.; Wormuth, A.; Smith, A.; Arca, J.; Lu, Y.; Sayfi, E.

    2014-12-01

    Inquisitive minds in our society are never satisfied with curatedimages released by a typical public affairs office. They always want tolook deeper and play directly on original data. However, most scientificdata products are notoriously hard to use. They are immensely large,highly distributed and diverse in format. In this presentation,we will demonstrate Resource EXplorer (REX), a novel webtop applicationthat allows anyone to conveniently explore and visualize rich scientificdata repositories, using only a standard web browser. This tool leverageson the power of Webification Science (w10n-sci), a powerful enabling technologythat simplifies the use of scientific data on the web platform.W10n-sci is now being deployed at an increasing number of NASA data centers,some of which are the largest digital treasure troves in our nation.With REX, these wonderful scientific resources are open for teachers andstudents to learn and play.

  2. Discourse abilities in the structure of intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voronin A. N.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. This article is devoted to empirical research on discourse abilities within the structure of cognitive abilities. Discourse abilities, as well as linguistic abilities, are part of language abilities, but they are directly linked with discourse practices and a certain communicative situation. Discourse abilities allow a person to effectively initiate, keep, expand, and complete the process of communication, using language appropriate to any given situation. These abilities contribute to making communication more effective and achieving mutual understanding between partners, while at the same time they speed up the process of forming an interaction strategy. the empirical verification of the construct “discourse abilities,” and the design of original diagnostic tests on them, led us to differentiate linguistic and discourse abilities. Objective. However, it is not yet clear what place discourse abilities occupy in the structure of cognitive abilities. This is the primary goal of our research. Method. The design of the study involved group testing (in groups of 15-35 people using the following methods: a discourse abilities test; a short selection test; a social intelligence test, and short variations of Torrance’s and Mednick’s tests. In total, 208 people (133 women and 75 men, ages 17 to 21 years participated in the study, all of them either first year humanities students or high school students from Moscow. Results and Discussion. The research results revealed that discourse abilities relevantly correlate with the majority of indicators of general and social intelligence and creativity (except non-verbal intelligence. Discourse abilities as part of the structure of cognitive capabilities form a discrete factor, and include relevant components such as verbal and general intelligence and indicators of social intelligence, such as the ability to group expressions. Structures indicative of cognitive abilities varied within the

  3. Toward a computer-aided methodology for discourse analysis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aided methods to discourse ... Multilingual Concordancer, NLTK (Natural Language Tool Kit), Simple .... "media discourse" or "learner discourse". ..... The pair 'active euthanasia' occurs seven times in the text used for this .... New York: Pantheon.

  4. The CAPRICE RICH detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basini, G. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); Codino, A.; Grimani, C. [Perugia Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Perugia (Italy); De Pascale, M.P. [Rome Univ. `Tor Vergata` (Italy). Dip. di Fisica]|[INFN, Sezione Univ. `Tor Vergata` Rome (Italy); Cafagna, F. [Bari Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Bari (Italy); Golden, R.L. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States). Particle Astrophysics Lab.; Brancaccio, F.; Bocciolini, M. [Florence Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Florence (Italy); Barbiellini, G.; Boezio, M. [Trieste Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Trieste (Italy)

    1995-09-01

    A compact RICH detector has been developed and used for particle identification in a balloon borne spectrometer to measure the flux of antimatter in the cosmic radiation. This is the first RICH detector ever used in space experiments that is capable of detecting unit charged particles, such as antiprotons. The RICH and all other detectors performed well during the 27 hours long flight.

  5. Discourse analysis and social constructionism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Discourse analysis (DA) is underpinned by a social constructionist orientation to knowledge. Social constructionism rests on the philosophical assumptions that multiple versions of the world are legitimate; that texts are open to multiple readings; and that language is non-representational. As social constructionism is relativistic, the status of 'evidence' generated by DA is questionable from more traditional research perspectives. On a common-sense level, people obviously construct meaning in relation to their lives. Thus, DA can help us to examine constructions of meaning in relation to nursing care. Equally the discourse analyst constructs one possible meaning in relation to a phenomenon that may compete with other versions. Multiplicity does not necessarily entail anarchy and competing versions prevent authoritarianism and loss of freedom. However, judgements have to be made about competing versions, for example, by assessing the level of 'facticity', or referring to the ethics embedded in the cultural context. In this paper, Bob White discusses DA as a form of qualitative research that offers promise for nursing research. Subsequent papers will examine the methodology and methods of DA and its application to nursing research.

  6. Discourse analysis and social constructionism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Robert

    2004-10-01

    Discourse analysis (DA) is underpinned by a social constructionist orientation to knowledge. Social constructionism rests on the philosophical assumptions that multiple versions of the world are legitimate; that texts are open to multiple readings; and that language is non-representational. As social constructionism is relativistic, the status of 'evidence' generated by DA is questionable from more traditional research perspectives. On a common-sense level, people obviously construct meaning in relation to their lives. Thus, DA can help us to examine constructions of meaning in relation to nursing care. Equally, the discourse analyst constructs one possible meaning in relation to a phenomenon that may compete with other versions. Multiplicity does not necessarily entail anarchy, and competing versions prevent authoritarianism and loss of freedom. However, judgements have to be made about competing versions, for example, by assessing the level of 'facticity', or referring to the ethics embedded in the cultural context. In this paper, Bob White discusses DA as a form of qualitative research that offers promise for nursing research. Subsequent papers will examine the methodology and methods of DA and its application to nursing research.

  7. Analysis of Discourse Structure of Cases Verdict in The District Court (A Study of Legal Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Pakaya

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The title of this article is the discourse structure of cases verdict in the district court (a study of legal language. This article discusses several elements that compose verdict in a criminal case, such as heading, the identity of the defendant, the attorney’s indictment, witnesses’ testimony, the testimony of the accused, and the verdict statements. This study employed the qualitative method to find out the scientific facts. This article is aimed at proving that discourse structure can be used as a framework in unraveling a case verdict.

  8. Consensus and Cognitivism in Habermas's Discourse | Moellendorf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Habermas asserts that his discourse ethics rests on two main commitments: 1) Moral judgements have cognitive content analogous to truth value; and 2) moral justification requires real- life discourse. Habermas elaborates on the second claim by making actual consensus a necessary condition of normative validity. I argue ...

  9. Techniques for Small-Group Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Hulya; Cross, Dionne I.; Ersoz, Filyet A.; Mewborn, Denise S.; Swanagan, Diana; Kim, Jisun

    2010-01-01

    The nature of mathematical discourse and its influence on the development of students' mathematical understanding has received much attention from researchers in recent years. Engaging students in discursive practices can be difficult; teachers can increase their competence in facilitating discourse through greater awareness of the impact of…

  10. Building a Discourse Community: Initial Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Lynn Liao; Walther, Ashley

    2017-01-01

    Although it is not a new idea, discourse continues to be a topic of discussion among teachers, teacher educators, and researchers in mathematics education. The National Council of Teachers (NCTM) and the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM 2010) describe mathematics classrooms as discourse communities in which whole-class…

  11. Cue Effectiveness in Communicatively Efficient Discourse Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Ting; Jaeger, T. Florian

    2012-01-01

    Recent years have seen a surge in accounts motivated by information theory that consider language production to be partially driven by a preference for communicative efficiency. Evidence from discourse production (i.e., production beyond the sentence level) has been argued to suggest that speakers distribute information across discourse so as to…

  12. Grammar and Context in Functional Discourse Grammar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengeveld, K.; Mackenzie, J.L.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a proposal for the organization of the Contextual Component in Functional Discourse Grammar. A guiding principle in this proposal is that, given the fact that Functional Discourse Grammar is a theory of grammar, the Contextual Component should provide the information that is

  13. New perspectives on discourse and governmentality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIlvenny, Paul; Klausen, Julia Zhukova; Lindegaard, Laura Bang

    2016-01-01

    in English (and French). We review the narrow impact that Foucault’s ideas have had on discourse studies and summarise the scant literature on discourse and governmentality across different disciplines. Then, we elucidate the new scholarly understandings of Foucault’s later work, as well as engage...

  14. Analysis and evaluation of argumentative discourse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eemeren, F.H.; Garssen, B.; van Eemeren, F.H.

    2015-01-01

    Although Renkema’s Introduction to Discourse Studies (2004: Chap. 12) provides a useful introduction to the study of argumentation, this brief account does not provide a full characterization of the field. Among the dominant approaches to argumentative discourse a general distinction can be made

  15. Supportive Discourse Moves in Persian Requests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali Salmani; Allami, Hamid

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the findings of a study designed to investigate the types of supportive discourse moves employed by Persian speakers in their Requestive Speech Acts. 372 respondents took a Discourse Completion Test (DCT) with six scenarios ranging from formal to informal degrees of Perceived Situational Seriousness, and returned 2232 Requestive…

  16. Language, Cognition, and Manipulation in Advertising Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorova, Veronika

    2013-01-01

    This research examines advertising discourse in Russian and English as acts of communicative exchange and interpersonal relationship between advertising discourse participants. The purpose was to identify and describe the way that viewers process information contained in television commercials and how they become consumers moving from getting…

  17. Discourse Approaches to Oral Language Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Richard F.

    2002-01-01

    Looks at a sample conversation and examines layers of interpretation that different academic traditions have constructed to interpret it. Reviews studies that have compared the discourse of oral interaction in assessment with oral discourse in contexts outside the assessment. Discusses studies that related ways of speaking to cultural values of…

  18. Counter-discourse in Zimbabwean literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangena, Tendai

    2015-01-01

    Counter-Discourse in Zimbabwean Literature is a study of specific aspects of counter-discursive Zimbabwean narratives in English. In discussing the selected texts, my thesis is based on Terdiman’s (1989) the postcolonial concept of counter-discourse. In Zimbabwean literature challenges to a dominant

  19. Scientific communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Kobylarek

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article tackles the problem of models of communication in science. The formal division of communication processes into oral and written does not resolve the problem of attitude. The author defines successful communication as a win-win game, based on the respect and equality of the partners, regardless of their position in the world of science. The core characteristics of the process of scientific communication are indicated , such as openness, fairness, support, and creation. The task of creating the right atmosphere for science communication belongs to moderators, who should not allow privilege and differentiation of position to affect scientific communication processes.

  20. Scientific millenarianism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, A.M.

    1997-01-01

    Today, for the first time, scientific concerns are seriously being addressed that span future times--hundreds, even thousands, or more years in the future. One is witnessing what the author calls scientific millenarianism. Are such concerns for the distant future exercises in futility, or are they real issues that, to the everlasting gratitude of future generations, this generation has identified, warned about and even suggested how to cope with in the distant future? Can the four potential catastrophes--bolide impact, CO 2 warming, radioactive wastes and thermonuclear war--be avoided by technical fixes, institutional responses, religion, or by doing nothing? These are the questions addressed in this paper

  1. Scientific meetings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    One of the main aims of the IAEA is to foster the exchange of scientific and technical information and one of the main ways of doing this is to convene international scientific meetings. They range from large international conferences bringing together several hundred scientists, smaller symposia attended by an average of 150 to 250 participants and seminars designed to instruct rather than inform, to smaller panels and study groups of 10 to 30 experts brought together to advise on a particular programme or to develop a set of regulations. The topics of these meetings cover every part of the Agency's activities and form a backbone of many of its programmes. (author)

  2. Criminal-legal prohibitions in the soviet juridical discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey V. Skorobogatov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective to determine the place of criminal law prohibitions in the formation development and functioning of the Soviet legal discourse. Methods dialectic approach to the research of social phenomena which allows to analyze them in historical development and functioning in the context of the unity of the objective and subjective factors as well as postmodern paradigm giving the opportunity to explore the legal reality at different levels including the lawinterpretation one. Dialectical approach and postmodern paradigm have determined the choice of specific research methods comparative hermeneutics discursive formally legal. Results basing on the analysis of normativelegal acts regulating criminal legal relations in the USSR the development of the Soviet criminal law was considered since its emergence to termination of existence. Conclusion on its restrictive nature was made which was in line with the main task of this sector of law ndash the protection of the Soviet system and socialist property from criminal encroachments. The normative regulatory basis of criminal law prohibitions determined the general nature of the Soviet legal discourse which was designed to prove the necessity and expediency of such means of protecting public and state interests in the period of building communism. Scientific novelty on the basis of use of the complex classical and postclassical methods the article for the first time studies the role of criminal law prohibitions in the development of Soviet legal discourse. Practical value the key issues and conclusions of the article can be used in scientific and pedagogical activity while researching the issues of the nature and trends of development of the Soviet criminal law.

  3. Pragmatics in discourse performance: insights from aphasiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulatowska, Hanna K; Olness, Gloria Streit

    2007-05-01

    This article examines the preservation of pragmatic abilities of individuals with aphasia, as manifested in the discourse they produce. The construct of coherence is used as a framework for understanding this pragmatic preservation. Discourse coherence is largely derived from the structure, selection, and highlighting of information expressed in a discourse. Personal narratives, as one type of discourse, represent an extended turn-in-conversation on a topic of personal relevance to the speaker, common in everyday life. As such, they provide a valuable source of information about a speaker's pragmatic ability. Examples of personal narratives told by individuals with aphasia are used to illustrate and discuss the means by which discourse coherence is achieved. These include a tightly structured temporal-causal event line, development of theme, and evaluation of information. Possible approaches to clinical assessment are considered, including use of global rating systems.

  4. Hedging in Popular Scientific Articles on Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csongor Alexandra

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study is to investigate the process of rewriting medical research papers for the lay public. The latest findings of medical research often appear in the popular media. It is interesting to see what happens to a scientific text when it is transmitted to a new audience. Hedging is usually interpreted as a characteristic feature of scientific discourse. This study focuses on hedging, which also tends to be applied in popularized articles in the field of medicine.

  5. Homosexuality: a dilemma in discourse!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulia, K K; Mallick, H N

    2010-01-01

    Homosexuality has been in practice even prior to its recorded history. In the Indian cultural context, discourse on sexuality had never gained an agreeable consensus from any platform. However, in the recent past, efforts were made by governmental and nongovernmental organizations to bring sex-related issues to the masses after speculation on presumably the fast spread of AIDS (acquired immuno-deficiency syndrome) particularly through illegal homosexual activities. Nevertheless, strong cultural and religious ideologies discouraged any valid discussions on homosexuality. In light of the given scenario, the present essay aimed to highlight several aspects of homosexuality that include a brief history, biological basis, effect of nature versus nurture, evolutionary perspective and related issues concerning general well-being and health.

  6. Discourse Intonation - Making It Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Paunović

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Discourse Intonation (DI (Brazil 1997; Chun 2002 seems to be particularly well suited for use in the EFL classroom, much more so than the rather complex traditional models (e.g. O’Connor and Arnold 1973 or some recent phonological theories. Yet if L2 teachers are to be provided with clear guidelines on how to incorporate DI into communicative language teaching, much more empirical research is needed with L2 students of different L1 backgrounds to uncover the specific problems they face. The small-scale study presented here examines how 15 second-year students of the English Department in Niš manage intonation in a reading task. The analysis focuses on the components singled out by Chun (2002 as crucial for language learners: sentence stress (nuclear tone placement, terminal contour (direction of pitch change and key (pitch range at transition points.

  7. On a correct diet: exploration of the orthorexia construct from the essential nuclei of experimental discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ginés Mateo-Martínez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: To explore the experience lived by some women who are concerned with following a natural and organic diet. Method: The qualitative analysis of the discourse was done as a bricolage (thematic content analysis and phenomenological interpretative analysis, using different ad hoc techniques. Results: The subjective experience of women consists of a phenomenological field that defines their historicity: past, represented by the theme "Why did you choose to eat like this"; present, "An optimism recreated"; and imagined future, "Absence of disease as object of ideal consciousness". This phenomenological field evolves, in experience and discourse, as an intermittent dilation of the theme "The expansion of consciousness in the right appetite". Conclusions: The orthorexia construct and the correct appetite discourses should be explored in greater depth by the scientific community in order to investigate: social stigmatization of people concerned with healthy eating and, in an associated way, pathologization of condition.

  8. REPRESENTATION OF DIFFERENCES IN BRAZILIAN JOURNALISTIC DISCOURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Resende

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Considering the technological advance, which enhances the
    production of mediatic discourses, and the notion of a libidinal power installed in our globalized societies, reflecting upon representation of differences seems to be a major issue. This essay discusses the production of journalistic discourses from an epistemological perspective. The field of media is taken as constituted by a triple component – discourse/narrative/machines – and we suggest that this triad has proved to be incomplete: discourse and narrative, once they really are vertexes of the triangle, are absences. Two journalistic-documentary productions – which intend to represent life in the slums of Brazil – are compared in order to reflect upon representation of differences in Brazilian journalistic discourse. In view of the up-to-date polarization and pulverization of discourses, we suggest that in the perspective of the journalistic discourse, one can only speak about alterity if one tries to comprehend the ways news is staged.

  9. EXPLORING INTENTIONALITY. IDEOLOGICAL ROMANIAN MEDIA DISCOURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUMINIŢA ROŞCA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the discursive practices of media “transition” from Romania 80’s and early 90’s in order to identify a pattern of the ideological discourse of transition. The pragmatic analysis is in line with recent studies that discuss media discourses in post-communist countries or “in transition” which led to new approaches and nuances of classical theories of the public sphere which we consider very important in the context of contemporary Romanian social discourse. The analysis of how to make the transition from “wooden language” to “informative discourse” of the Romanian media discourse focuses on intentionality describe in text linguistic as discursive component able to realize thematic choices, media discourse and attitude of media instances during the media process production. We also consider intentionality because it introduces in the discourse the component of journalist personality, with all that this may include: attitudes, training, professional conscience, and moral values. Understanding the mechanisms of intentionality in the media discourse production can lead to a more nuanced an complex understanding of the role of media in the production of meanings and the role of the journalist’s personality in media production

  10. Discourse on corruption counteraction in network trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid A. Zhigun

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective to determine the specific forms of corruption and promising methods to counteract corruption in network trade. Methods the combination of inductive observations comparisons generalizations facts and trends of corruption in network trade with a logical analytical deduction of economic theories and the corruption concept are the basis of the study and provide an opportunity on the one hand to assess the level of compliance of theoretical concepts of corruption with the practice and on the other handnbsp to determine their applicability to organize opposition and create conditions to prevent its occurrence to summarize the features of corruption in the form of a kickback the discourse method was applied in this work. Results on the basis of theoretical provisions and facts of corruption in trade it is proved that it has typical characteristics of corruption in commercial and nonprofit organizations. The key reasons are identified why corruption occurs in trade. Among them supply of poor quality goods at inflated prices leading to bribery in the form of laquopersonal bonusraquo to administrator of the trading organization when selling goods by an unscrupulous supplier and also supply goods to the trade organizations which will not buy without kickback. Most of these corrupt deals are carried out by natural monopolies in the form of state and municipal procurement. In some cases the kickback is the argument stimulating the decision to introduce new and advanced technologies. The factors that lead to corruption in trade are listed and reasonable methods to counteract it are grounded allowing to create conditions for its eradication in other branches of business as well. Scientific novelty for the first time a generalization has been made about the deficit as the driving force in the mechanism when the bribegivers and bribetakers change places. Practical significance the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in the

  11. A distinction of two discourses concerning wellbeing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wistoft, Karen; Qvortrup, Lars

    2017-01-01

    and behavioral mental health interventions, while the latter defines wellbeing in positive terms with a focus on wellbeing as the result of learning and with pedagogical interventions that only indirectly can support the individual’s learning activity. The former sees wellbeing as the result of a “wellbeing cure......The article concerns the current discourses concerning well-being with the point that it is important to make a distinction between a healthcare oriented discourse and a learning oriented discourse. The former defines wellbeing in negative terms and looks at causally oriented aspects of wellbeing......”, while the latter sees wellbeing as the result of wellbeing learning processes....

  12. Discourses on Gender Diversity on Corporate Websites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villeseche, Florence

    In this article, we seek to contribute to the scholarship on organizational communication and on gender and diversity in organizations by identifying the influences from different streams of feminism in organizational discourses about gender diversity. In order to provide an in-depth exploratory...... study, we propose a discourse analysis, performed with tools from systemic functional linguistics, of the websites of the 14 corporate sponsors of a Swiss women’s business network. We show that there is both heterogeneity of discourses that are drawn from, but also the apparent dominance of what can...

  13. FOREIGN ACCENT PERCEPTION IN PROFESSIONAL DISCOURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyurina, S.Yu.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the attitude to the accent in professional discourse. The paper focuses on linguistic approach to accent, thus, the communicative effect of accent in professional discourse is evaluated. Discourse is considered as one of the key concepts of contemporary thinking. The key goal is to study how native speaking and non-native speaking people evaluate the accents in professional sphere. The study is considered to have important implications due to academic and professional mobility. Both quantitative and qualitative methods to collect and analyze data were used. The results of the research may be interesting for phoneticians and ESP teachers.

  14. Research: Rags to Rags? Riches to Riches?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2004-01-01

    Everyone has read about what might be called the "gold gap"--how the rich in this country are getting richer and controlling an ever-larger share of the nation's wealth. The Century Foundation has started publishing "Reality Check", a series of guides to campaign issues that sometimes finds gaps in these types of cherished delusions. The guides…

  15. Does syntax help discourse segmentation? Not so much

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braud, Chloé Elodie; Lacroix, Ophélie; Søgaard, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Discourse segmentation is the first step in building discourse parsers. Most work on discourse segmentation does not scale to real-world discourse parsing across languages, for two reasons: (i) models rely on constituent trees, and (ii) experiments have relied on gold standard identification...

  16. On Functional Potential of Interrogative Structures in Academic Linguistic Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Trofimovich Nefedov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the language of scientific communication in the field of linguistics, namely, with the functional potential of the interrogative structures in the form of direct and embedded questions. From a pragmatic perspective the interrogative structures does not seem to be compatible with the contexts of scientific interaction: scientists do not ask for information, but they offer their own solutions for the problem situations. This is reflected in the extremely low frequency of questions in academic research articles and monographs. Their text frequency works out a little over 2 % of the total number of the text predications and that of direct questions is about 1 %. Therefore, their place in verbalization of scientific knowledge in linguistics is metaphorically characterized in this article as «interrogative prohibition» by analogy with the «prohibitions» of Harald Weinrich who introduced several notions point to rarely used linguistic units: «prohibition of authorization» – das «Ich-Verbot», «narrative prohibition» – das «Erzähl-Verbot»; «prohibition of metaphors»– das «MetaphernVerbot». In its turn, low frequency makes the analyzed structures an effective tool to formulate the discussed problems, enables further argumentation, integrate the current text into overall linguistic discourse, control the development of the argumentation in scientific text and finally to draw the recipient's attention to a crucial or unexpected argument.

  17. Metaphor, Multiplicative Meaning and the Semiotic Construction of Scientific Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Owyong, Yuet See Monica

    2011-01-01

    Scientific discourse is characterized by multi-semiotic construction and the resultant semantic expansions. To date, there remains a lack of analytical methods to explicate the multiplicative nature of meaning. Drawing on the theories of systemic functional linguistics, this article examines the meaning-making processes across language and…

  18. Scientific Criticism? A Critical Approach to the Resistive Audience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddock, Andy

    1998-01-01

    Contends that critical audience research has resisted "scientific" discourses that appear positivist. States that recent research begins to show the same errors as earlier positivist style--re-emergence of debates on political economy and cultural imperialism are aimed at overturning what are seen as orthodoxies of opposition and…

  19. Management accounting versus medical profession discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmmose, Margit

    2015-01-01

    This study uses discourse, ideology and hegemony as a theoretical foundation to investigate the development of the polarised discourses of management accounting and the medical profession during the introduction of a NPM reform in the public health care debate, using Denmark as a case study. 194...... newspaper articles and 73 medical profession articles from 2002 to 2008 are analysed, using critical discourse analysis. The analysis shows that the management accounting discourse becomes the dominating ideology which is embedded in the public rhetorical debate. There are three peculiar outcomes...... perspective of a patient oriented focus to a quantitative focus through strong rationalised arguments. This puts the medical profession in a dilemma concerning their ideological Hippocratic Oath versus the NPM efficiency focus. However, they choose to gradually adopt management accounting terms in their own...

  20. Paradox place by nuclear sector discourse line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Iona Ponce

    2002-01-01

    This article, taking into consideration the Critical Discourse Analysis and the French Discourse Analysis, examines the relationship between the public image and the acceptance of nuclear energy and the discourse and arguments commonly employed by the nuclear institutions, in Brazil, in favor of a widespread use of nuclear energy by the society. In doing so, the article discusses aspects such as the social memory, intertextuality and image construction and shows that the pro-nuclear arguments and the discourse produced by the institutions of the nuclear sector, in its essence, carries much of the ideas and concepts frequently utilized by the anti-nuclear entities. This fact, instead of providing a positive view, or even a correct understanding of the nuclear area, reinforces the negative image of nuclear energy witch is reflected in its public acceptance by the society. (author)

  1. Manipulation Impact through Metaphors in Political Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Руслан Ирикович Зарипов

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article covers the metaphorical modeling in a political discourse as one of linguistic manipulation impact means. Political speech exercising a motivation function use symbols in order to link concepts which are not often even adjoined. And it’s a metaphor that plays one of leading roles in this process. Communication needs stable metaphors. It’s very important to use this linguistic means in a political discourse as it’s able to form a positive stock phrase and a negative figure. The summation of metaphors in a definitive conceptual domaine of a political discourse form part of a metaphorical model that is an universal epistemological category expressing a general discourse semantics and organizing special mentality stereotypes for a message recipient. The article is designed for students and post-graduate students specialized in philology, lecturers and professors of linguistics and foreign languages, scientists and amateurs.

  2. International political theory : varieties of moral discourse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamminga, Menno R.

    2007-01-01

    This article aims to demonstrate the value of James Gustafson's 'varieties of moral discourse' typology for international political theory (IPT), or moral reflection about international politics. Gustafson's typology is defended as entailing an adequate conception of IPT through a threefold

  3. Discourse Analysis in Stylistics and Literature Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Mick

    1990-01-01

    A review of research regarding discourse analysis in stylistics and literature instruction covers studies of text, systematic analysis, meaning, style, literature pedagogy, and applied linguistics. A 10-citation annotated bibliography and a larger unannotated bibliography are included. (CB)

  4. Institutional discourses and ascribed disability identities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukta Kulkarni

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we asked: how do institutional discourses, as represented in mass media such as newspapers, confer identities upon a traditionally marginalised collective such as those with a disability? To answer our question, we examined Indian newspaper discourse from 2001 to 2010, the time period between two census counts. We observed that disability identities—that of a welfare recipient, a collective with human rights, a collective that is vulnerable, and that engages in miscreancy—were ascribed through selective highlighting of certain aspects of the collective, thereby socially positioning the collective, and through the associated signalling of institutional subject positions. Present observations indicate that identities of a collective can be governed by institutional discourse, that those “labelled” can themselves reinforce institutionally ascribed identities, and that as institutional discourses confer identities onto the marginalised, they simultaneously also signal who the relatively more powerful institutional actors are.

  5. Kings Today, Rich Tomorrow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fattoum, Asma

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the King vs. Rich dilemma that founder-CEOs face at IPO. When undertaking IPO, founders face two options. They can either get rich, but then run the risk of losing the control over their firms; or they can remain kings by introducing defensive mechanisms, but this is likel...

  6. Developments on RICH detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besson, P.; Bourgeois, P.

    1996-01-01

    The RICH (ring imaging Cherenkov) detector which is dedicated to Cherenkov radiation detection is described. An improvement made by replacing photo sensible vapor with solid photocathode is studied. A RICH detector prototype with a CsI photocathode has been built in Saclay and used with Saturne. The first results are presented. (A.C.)

  7. Bali: the discourse of Cultural Tourism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Picard

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This interaction between touristification and Indonesianization is legible in the discourse of Cultural Tourism. As we have seen, perhaps because it could not really be implemented, the slogan of Cultural Tourism gave way to a remarkable profusion of discourses and incited genuine fervor in Balinese public opinion. But it would be wrong to see this discursive frenzy as mere verbal gesticulation, as a confession of impotence on the part of the Balinese authorities. For to the extent that they ...

  8. Contemporary journalistic texts of Latvia in the discoursively cognitive aspect

    OpenAIRE

    Milevich, I.

    2010-01-01

    In article the questions devoted to methods of studying of modern publicism of Latvia are considered. The most effective method now admits discoursive various versions – discoursive functional, discoursive cognitive, and comparative discoursive cognitive a method of studying which answers problems of cognitive and pragmatical linguistics. The research of contrastive cognitive journalistic discourse corresponds with the assignments of the cognitive and pragmatic linguistic direction in describ...

  9. Pedagogical discourses in Bhutanese school system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Hanne Dauer; Utha, Karma

    2013-01-01

    In this article we distinguish between three pedagogical discourses in our analysis of the Bhutanese school system. The results point to the dominance of the traditional cognitive discourse, but occasionally the teacher's unilateral control of the teaching-learning process is shared with the stud......In this article we distinguish between three pedagogical discourses in our analysis of the Bhutanese school system. The results point to the dominance of the traditional cognitive discourse, but occasionally the teacher's unilateral control of the teaching-learning process is shared...... with the students. On a value basis the teachers agree with the pedagogical ideal of student centered learning which is in line with an experiential learning discourse. In addition students tell about how they go to the better students, rather than to the teacher, for help. This behavior, where peers are used...... as ‘teachers’, points to a third understanding of how learning is undertaken, which builds on the social ressources of the local community of practice. Despite these smaller variations, the overall picture is that the underlying discourse of the Bhutaneese school system is in accordance with a traditional...

  10. English Computer Discourse: Some Characteristic Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Rusko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of virtual discourse is coming into focus of linguistic research. This interest results from the rapid spread of information technology, modern Internet culture incipience, a symbol of information revolution, new opportunities and threats that accompany computer civilization. The emergence of the communicative environment as a particular sphere of language actualization, necessitates new language means of communication or transformation and reframing the already existing ones. Obviously, it’s time to talk about the formation of a new discourse in the new communicative space – computer (electronic, virtual discourse, which subsequently may considerably affect the speech behavior of society. The present article makes an attempt to identify some linguistic and communicative features of virtual discourse. Computer discourse, being a sub-language of hybrid character, combines elements of oral and written discourse with its own specific features. It should be noted that in the context of information culture the problem of communication interaction is among the most topical issues in science and education. There is hardly any doubt that the study and advancement of virtual communication culture is one of higher education distinctive mission components.

  11. Workplace bullying prevention: a critical discourse analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Susan L

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the discourses of workplace bullying prevention of hospital nursing unit managers and in the official documents of the organizations where they worked. Workplace bullying can be a self-perpetuating problem in nursing units. As such, efforts to prevent this behaviour may be more effective than efforts to stop ongoing bullying. There is limited research on how healthcare organizations characterize their efforts to prevent workplace bullying. This was a qualitative study. Critical discourse analysis and Foucault's writings on governmentality and discipline were used to analyse data from interviews with hospital nursing unit managers (n = 15) and organizational documents (n = 22). Data were collected in 2012. The discourse of workplace bullying prevention centred around three themes: prevention of workplace bullying through managerial presence, normalizing behaviours and controlling behaviours. All three are individual level discourses of workplace bullying prevention. Current research indicates that workplace bullying is a complex issue with antecedents at the individual, departmental and organizational level. However, the discourse of the participants in this study only focused on prevention of bullying by moulding the behaviours of individuals. The effective prevention of workplace bullying will require departmental and organizational initiatives. Leaders in all types of organizations can use the results of this study to examine their organizations' discourses of workplace bullying prevention to determine where change is needed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The Discourse of a Preschool Education Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidija Miškeljin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a critical analysis of the discourse of a preschool education curriculum. Its starting point is Foucault’s concept of discourse as language in use, which not only reflects the social order, but also shapes it through a network of conventions, knowledge and practices determining man’s – or, in this case, the reader’s – perception of reality. The analysis is based on identifying the discourse strategies and/or systems of rules laid out in the text The basic principles of the preschool education curriculum for three- to seven-year-old children – model A which make possible certain statements and insights regarding children and thus position the child and the preschool teacher by means of discourse repertoires. This approach helps contextualize the text and leads to an understanding of the basic discourse mechanism involved in the creation of specific versions of preschool education. As discourse analysis itself is related to interpretation and narratology, with the story as a constant, so is this paper a story about a preschool curriculum, for, like any other text, it tells an unfinished story that can yet evolve in different directions.

  13. Beyond the discourse of globalization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Robertson

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the ways in which discourse concerning planet earth is being transcended. Specifically, attention is drawn to the increasingly overlapping relationship between the work of philosophers and anthropologists, one the one hand, and astrophysicists on the other. Woven into the discussion are the issues of the neglect of global consciousness and culture in comparison with the more usual concern with global connectivity. In this respect it is argued that globalization, as it is normally understood, can be regarded as self-destroying when it is considered under the rubric of glocalization. The paper concludes with discussion of the possibility of some form of global governance in the light of the present chaotic state of global affairs. It is argued that some relatively clear-cut image of the world as a whole is a precondition of any systematic attempt to resolve this problem. The attempt to provide such an image rests upon the author’s previous discussions of the global field.

  14. Discourse Analysis and Social Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazerman, Charles

    1990-01-01

    A brief review of social constructivism as a general movement and how it has been applied in particular to scientific knowledge precedes a review of investigations into the role language and linguistic activities have in the social construction of knowledge. A 39-citation unannotated bibliography is included. (CB)

  15. Water: hygienistic discourse and town council practice (Mallorca, 1855-1936

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Maria Pujadas-Mora

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to analyze the relationship between the hygienistic discourse on water cycle and the sanitary interventions carried out by the town councils of Mallorca from 1855 to 1936. The purpose of the discourse was to make the population and the municipal authorities aware of the importance of improving the water supply. The used sources have been municipal minutes, press and scientific articles from that period. Our main conclusion is the lack of timing between the hygienistic proposals and the undertaken interventions. Nevertheless these late interventions were useful to improve the quantity and the quality of the water that the citizens were supplied. The water interventions were attempted at the same time than other sanitary actions, such as isolation measures (quarantines or town walls demolition, reforms done by the municipal or provincial authorities having a scientific consensus too.

  16. Preservice teachers' discursive approaches to constructing scientific arguments from evidence to claim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilles, Brent David

    Scientific argumentation has recently become required in K-12 classrooms, but preservice teachers often do not have prior experiences with this practice. The lack of prior experiences has made engaging in argumentation during inquiry-based content courses a priority for science teacher educators because of its importance in science education. Previous research has not examined how preservice teachers construct arguments in classroom interactions. A discourse analysis of twenty-one preservice teachers was conducted to study how preservice teachers constructed arguments within small group activities. Specifically, I drew upon discursive psychology (Potter & Wetherell, 1987) and conversation analysis (Sacks, 1972) to consider how preservice teachers' talk functioned to build arguments, as well as how their talk evolved over the course of the four targeted activities. Findings indicated that the preservice teachers oriented towards institutional norms in constructing arguments. These norms shaped the ways that arguments were constructed. The construction of arguments also included negotiating epistemic authority. This authority was used by a member of the group to take up a leadership position, which they used to direct the group's actions. However, there were moments that other group members attempted to take up epistemic stances, which created instances where members used various talk moves (e.g., overlapping speech, ignoring, and holding the conversational floor) to implicitly disagree with each other. As the activities progressed the students spontaneously adopted asynchronous online collaborative tools that seemed to shape their discourse by decreasing conceptually rich talk. The transition from talk to text also coincided with an increased reliance on the teacher, which changed from focusing on expectations of the assignment to how evidence should be organized. Overall, the findings demonstrated how preservice teachers used discourse, specifically talk, to

  17. Scientific computing

    CERN Document Server

    Trangenstein, John A

    2017-01-01

    This is the third of three volumes providing a comprehensive presentation of the fundamentals of scientific computing. This volume discusses topics that depend more on calculus than linear algebra, in order to prepare the reader for solving differential equations. This book and its companions show how to determine the quality of computational results, and how to measure the relative efficiency of competing methods. Readers learn how to determine the maximum attainable accuracy of algorithms, and how to select the best method for computing problems. This book also discusses programming in several languages, including C++, Fortran and MATLAB. There are 90 examples, 200 exercises, 36 algorithms, 40 interactive JavaScript programs, 91 references to software programs and 1 case study. Topics are introduced with goals, literature references and links to public software. There are descriptions of the current algorithms in GSLIB and MATLAB. This book could be used for a second course in numerical methods, for either ...

  18. Addressing the Question of Homophobia in Jordanian Public Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad El-Sharif

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the question of homosexuality, homosexuals, and homophobia in the Jordanian public debate in the aftermath of an LGBTQIA meeting that was held secretly in Amman in May 2015. The main purpose of the article is to demonstrate the constituents and arguments which reproduce the public discourse on anti-homosexuality and anti-homosexuals and homophobia in Jordan. This purpose is reached by analysing 35 journal articles written in Standard Arabic in Jordanian public and open-access media. The analysis involves the qualitative analysis of the argument, processes, and themes used to represent homosexuality and homosexuals by the discourse producers. The analysis reveals that the question of homosexuality and homosexuals in Jordan can be addressed in terms of seven angles: the public anti-homosexuality and anti-homosexuals’ calls, the (Islamic religious argument, protecting and reinforcing law and order, the argument of (homosexually-transmitted diseases, the calls of pro-homosexuality and pro-homosexuals and LGBTQIA’s rights activists, the homosexuals’ own self-representation, and the neutral scientific account and representation.

  19. Technology and Power. A Foucauldian Analysis of Electronic Monitoring Discourses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Vitores

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to show the importance of FOUCAULT within social studies of science and technology. It also illustrates how a Foucauldian analysis can be useful for studies of science, technology and society focused on power effects. To accomplish these objectives we analyze the emergence of a specific techno-scientific innovation: the electronic monitoring of offenders. We map the discontinuities and discourse dispersions linked to those practices that constitute different materializations of this electronic device. Because we start from questions concerning power technologies, rather than simply analyzing the ideologies and knowledges that legitimate electronic monitoring and its technical reliability, we attend to the assemblage of discourses, rhetorics, vocabularies, techniques and procedures by which knowledge is intertwined and joins with the exercise of power. In this way, we show how one of FOUCAULT's technologies of power—disciplinary technology—is articulated, nourished and contradicted by other emergent logics drawing on new forms of regulation and social control. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs070225

  20. Top-selling childbirth advice books: a discourse analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Holly Powell; Nardini, Katrina; McLeod-Waldo, Rebecca; Ennis, Linda

    2009-12-01

    Recent evidence suggests that one-third of women receive information about pregnancy and childbirth through books. Messages about what characteristics are normal (or expected) in childbirth are disseminated in a variety of ways, including popular childbirth education books, but little study of them has been conducted. The purpose of this investigation is to address that gap by examining the discussions about childbirth in the 10 top-selling books in the United States. Discourse analysis (relating to the public, personal, and political discussions about a specific phenomenon) was used to study 10 best-selling United States childbirth advice books marketed to childbearing women during the first week of November 2007. Book styles ranged from clinical descriptions of pregnancy and birth primarily offering reassurance, self-help information, and danger signs to more folksy and humorous commentaries. Presentation of scientific evidence to support recommendations was uneven and at times inaccurate. Five focal areas of discourse included body image, labor and birth, pain, power and control, and life preparation for motherhood. Top-selling books shine an interesting light on the current state of United States maternity practices. Women and health professionals should assess them carefully and engage with each other about their recommendations and implications for childbirth.

  1. Promoting Elementary Students' Epistemology of Science through Computer-Supported Knowledge-Building Discourse and Epistemic Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Feng; Chan, Carol K. K.

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the role of computer-supported knowledge-building discourse and epistemic reflection in promoting elementary-school students' scientific epistemology and science learning. The participants were 39 Grade 5 students who were collectively pursuing ideas and inquiry for knowledge advance using Knowledge Forum (KF) while studying a…

  2. Discourse, Complexity, Normativity: Tracing the Elaboration of Foucault's Materialist Concept of Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olssen, Mark

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I want to suggest that it is through the elaboration of the concept of discourse that the differences between Foucault and thinkers like Habermas, Hegel and Marx can best be understood. Foucault progressively develops a conception of discourse as a purely historical category that resists all reference to transcendental principles…

  3. FRAMING OF JOURNALISM DISCOURSE TO IMPROVE DISCOURSE COMPETENCE OF SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dadang S. Anshori

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to describe the analysis model of framing on journalism discourse in Indonesian textbooks in Senior High School to be used in language learning. This research used qualitative method with framing theory from Pan and Kosicki as an tool of analysis. The research data is journalism discourse in textbook amounted to 30 pieces of discourse taken from 10 text books of class X, XI, and XII in Senior High School. The results show the following: (1 The discourse of journalism has received acceptance in the world of education, especially in textbooks. The use of journalism discourse in 10 textbooks is very high and very diverse in terms of number, topic, source, and usage. (2 The journalism discourse in the textbook meets the criteria of reporting value, even if not all reporting value is fulfilled. (3 The frame construction of the journalism discourse in Indonesian textbooks is packaged in different angles according to news topics and facts. (4 The analysis model of journalism discourse framing is developed by focusing on the structural analysis of category, syntax, script, thematic, diction/phrase, and rhetoric.

  4. Discourse of power as a subject of philosophical inquiry: between discursive practices and linguistic discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Karpenko

    2014-07-01

    Demonstrated the discrepancy between verbal and textual content of discussions between public and non­public meaning of utterances government entities, which serves a key feature of the power discourse regarding mass consciousness and pragmatic discourse in practical situations of the masses being.

  5. Survivorship and discourses of identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Miles; Paul, Kim; Jordens, Christopher F C; Sayers, Emma-Jane

    2002-01-01

    Personal identity is self-evidently important to us all. Identity is a philosophically complex subject, but there is some agreement that memory, embodiment and continuity are essential components. The sense of memory includes 'future memory', the kind of memory we would like to construct for ourselves as our lives proceed. While the sense of personal identity is internal to the individual, a sense of that person's identity exists in the minds of others. Extreme experiences threaten the element of continuity, because they may bring bodily changes as well as cognitive changes that challenge central values. Restoring or preserving continuity is a major task for survivors. The ways in which people experience discontinuity because of cancer illness, and the ways in which they manage this experience emerges from the narratives of the survivors of cancer and in the narratives of health care workers who look after them. People manage discontinuity by reference to stable 'anchor points' in their beliefs and values; by re-constructing versions of their pre-experience identities, drawing on past memory and finding ways to preserve a continuity between past memory, present experience and constructions of the future; by using the experience to develop established facets of identity; and by imbuing the experience with meaning and recognising the enlarged identity made possible by survival. Those who cannot achieve a sense of continuity may feel alienated from themselves, their friends and family. All these methods of management may be used by one person to negotiate the post-experience identity in its different social interactions. The experience of the survivor can be further understood by recognising the challenge posed by extreme experience to the sense of continuity of both embodied self and memory. A satisfactory discourse of survival has yet to enter the public domain. This lack adds to the burdens of survivors, including those who have survived cancer. Copyright 2002 John

  6. Analyzing Explicitly-Structured Discourse in a Limited Domain: Trouble and Failure Reports

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ball, Catherine N

    1989-01-01

    Recent theories of focusing and reference rely crucially on discourse structure to constrain the availability of discourse entities for reference, but deriving the structure of an arbitrary discourse...

  7. Anthropology of health in Brazil: a border discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, Esther Jean; Follér, Maj-Lis

    2012-01-01

    This article traces the development of anthropological research on health in Brazil in light of discussions on modernity/coloniality and world anthropologies. Originating in the 1970s, stimulated by external and internal pressures for scientific production and along with the expansion of graduate programs, a network of anthropologists has consolidated and multiplied in Brazil. We describe the development of research groups, meetings, and publications in order to characterize Brazilian anthropology of health as a research program that distinguishes itself from North Atlantic medical anthropology. We examine the visibility and circulation of references in academic publications to explore the participation of Brazilians in the global discourse and, more specifically, in the North-South dialogue. From a comparative perspective, we argue that anthropological investigations of health reflect a perspective and ethos distinctive to Brazil and its historical and political processes.

  8. MASS MEDIA''S MANIPULATIVE POTENTIAL IN POLITICAL DISCOURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUSHCHINA L.V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the invention of telegraph, radio and television which enable contacts with a large audience, the social impact of communication via the mass media has been a subject of intense research by political and social scientists. Thus the paper discusses the nature of manipulation in political discourse and its ambivalent role in the modern society. The solution of the research tasks is carried out on the basis of the complex methodological base which defines the general orientation and the principles of research, as well as its scientific results, including the general philosophical methodological concept of dialectic materialism in accordance with the principles of unity of form and content, cause and effect, general communication of the phenomena. In conclusion, it summarizes that mentioned above phenomenon is both serious and dangerous, being capable to influence people’s consciousness, depriving them of their critical thinking, and even dooming them to the passivity of life.

  9. An investigation of environmental and sustainability discourses associated with the substantive purposes of environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozema, Jaap G., E-mail: j.rozema@uea.ac.uk [Science, Society and Sustainability Research Group, School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia (UEA), Norwich, NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom); Bond, Alan J., E-mail: alan.bond@uea.ac.uk [Science, Society and Sustainability Research Group, School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia (UEA), Norwich, NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom); Cashmore, Matthew, E-mail: cashmore@plan.aau.dk [Danish Centre for Environmental Assessment, Department of Development and Planning, Aalborg University, Fibigerstraede 13, 9220 Aalborg O (Denmark); Chilvers, Jason, E-mail: jason.chilvers@uea.ac.uk [Science, Society and Sustainability Research Group, School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia (UEA), Norwich, NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom)

    2012-02-15

    This paper investigates the discursive construction of the substantive purposes of environmental assessment (EA). It addresses these purposes by exploring the complex and often multifaceted linkages between political factors and plural views of democracy, public participation, and the role of science that are embedded in environmental and sustainability discourses. The interaction between policy-making and public actors leads to the formulation of divergent and potentially competing rationales for public participation, and for social appraisal more generally. Participatory approaches have also given impetus to the development of several interpretations on the role of science in assessment procedures. Science is important in mediating public participation and the two are therefore reciprocally linked. This leads to discourses that become manifest in the construction of substantive purposes. Discourse analysis in EA is a relevant method for examining trends and patterns in sustainable development. It is argued that public participation is an important, if not decisive, variable in the articulation and civil legitimacy of certain purposes. A general proposition that results from this paper is that EA, although typically presented as an objective scientific tool, is an intrinsically normative process. Enhanced knowledge on the construction, and reconstruction over time, of substantive purposes is required if environmental and sustainability discourses are to be used and understood as meaningful analytical instruments to assess the socio-political implications of EA. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Substantive purposes related to environmental assessment may be best analyzed through discourse analysis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmental and sustainability discourses are contingent on the level of participatory democracy and civic science. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Public participation is a decisive variable in the construction of the substantive

  10. An investigation of environmental and sustainability discourses associated with the substantive purposes of environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozema, Jaap G.; Bond, Alan J.; Cashmore, Matthew; Chilvers, Jason

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the discursive construction of the substantive purposes of environmental assessment (EA). It addresses these purposes by exploring the complex and often multifaceted linkages between political factors and plural views of democracy, public participation, and the role of science that are embedded in environmental and sustainability discourses. The interaction between policy-making and public actors leads to the formulation of divergent and potentially competing rationales for public participation, and for social appraisal more generally. Participatory approaches have also given impetus to the development of several interpretations on the role of science in assessment procedures. Science is important in mediating public participation and the two are therefore reciprocally linked. This leads to discourses that become manifest in the construction of substantive purposes. Discourse analysis in EA is a relevant method for examining trends and patterns in sustainable development. It is argued that public participation is an important, if not decisive, variable in the articulation and civil legitimacy of certain purposes. A general proposition that results from this paper is that EA, although typically presented as an objective scientific tool, is an intrinsically normative process. Enhanced knowledge on the construction, and reconstruction over time, of substantive purposes is required if environmental and sustainability discourses are to be used and understood as meaningful analytical instruments to assess the socio-political implications of EA. - Highlights: ► Substantive purposes related to environmental assessment may be best analyzed through discourse analysis. ► Environmental and sustainability discourses are contingent on the level of participatory democracy and civic science. ► Public participation is a decisive variable in the construction of the substantive purpose of environmental assessment.

  11. `All We Did was Things Like Forces and Motion …': Multiple Discourses in the development of primary science teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsson, Anna; Warwick, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has highlighted challenges associated with embracing an inquiry approach to science teaching for primary teachers, often associating these challenges with insecurity linked to the lack of content knowledge. We argue that in order to understand the extent to which primary student teachers are able to embrace science teaching informed by scientific literacy for all, it is important to take into account various, sometimes competing, science teacher and primary teacher Discourses. The aim of this paper is to explore how such Discourses are constituted in the context of learning to teach during a 1-year university-based Post Graduate Certificate of Education course. The empirical data consist of semi-structured interviews with 11 student teachers. The analysis identifies 5 teacher Discourses and we argue that these can help us to better understand some of the tensions involved in becoming a primary teacher with a responsibility for teaching science: for example, in terms of the interplay between the student teachers' own educational biographies and institutionally sanctioned Discourses. One conclusion is that student teachers' willingness and ability to embrace a Discourse of science education, informed by the aim of scientific literacy for all, may be every bit as constrained by their experience of learning science through 'traditional schooling' as it is by their confidence with respect to their own subject knowledge. The 5 Discourses, with their complex interrelations, raise questions about which identity positions are available to students in the intersections of the Discourses and which identity positions teacher educators may seek to make available for their students.

  12. Discourse with Visual Health Data: Design of Human-Data Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwakemi Ola

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous work has suggested that large repositories of data can revolutionize healthcare activities; however, there remains a disconnection between data collection and its effective usage. The way in which users interact with data strongly impacts their ability to not only complete tasks but also capitalize on the purported benefits of such data. Interactive visualizations can provide a means by which many data-driven tasks can be performed. Recent surveys, however, suggest that many visualizations mostly enable users to perform simple manipulations, thus limiting their ability to complete tasks. Researchers have called for tools that allow for richer discourse with data. Nonetheless, systematic design of human-data interaction for visualization tools is a non-trivial task. It requires taking into consideration a myriad of issues. Creation of visualization tools that incorporate rich human-data discourse would benefit from the use of design frameworks. In this paper, we examine and present a design process that is based on a conceptual human-data interaction framework. We discuss and describe the design of interaction for a visualization tool intended for sensemaking of public health data. We demonstrate the utility of systematic interaction design in two ways. First, we use scenarios to highlight how our design approach supports a rich and meaningful discourse with data. Second, we present results from a study that details how users were able to perform various tasks with health data and learn about global health trends.

  13. Emotions in political discourse. Kirchnerism's"Phatogram"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolás Bermúdez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article relies on a broader research on the kirchnerista discourse operations. Nowadays, Argentinean political language is full of terms that designate emotions and full of thrill seeking resources. This indicates the intensity of the emotional dimension of political discourse. Therefore, it seems important to analyze what are the emotions that kirchnerista discourse really develops. Concretely, the objective of this paper is to present an analysis about discursive procedures developed by the presidential speaker in order to produce certain emotion in the audience. Although the main thesis of the research is that there are determinable emotional cycles in the history of kirchnerista presidential discourse, in this article the analysis is limited to a corpus of commemoration messages pronounced between 2003 and 2007. This election demonstrates the importance to be given to genre between restrictions affecting the formation of the sense. This analysis was made according to the theoretical and methodological foundations of the social discourses theory. However, the descriptive phase calls for the contributions of rhetoric and philosophy, disciplines that long ago think about the emotions.

  14. Examining emotional expressions in discourse: methodological considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hufnagel, Elizabeth; Kelly, Gregory J.

    2017-10-01

    This methodological paper presents an approach for examining emotional expressions through discourse analysis and ethnographic methods. Drawing on trends in the current literature in science education, we briefly explain the importance of emotions in science education and examine the current research methodologies used in interactional emotion studies. We put forth and substantiate a methodological approach that attends to the interactional, contextual, intertextual, and consequential aspects of emotional expressions. By examining emotional expressions in the discourse in which they are constructed, emotional expressions are identified through semantics, contextualization, and linguistic features. These features make salient four dimensions of emotional expressions: aboutness, frequency, type, and ownership. Drawing on data from a large empirical study of pre-service elementary teachers' emotional expressions about climate change in a science course, we provide illustrative examples to describe what counts as emotional expressions in situ. In doing so we explain how our approach makes salient the nuanced nature of such expressions as well as the broader discourse in which they are constructed and the implications for researching emotional expressions in science education discourse. We suggest reasons why this discourse orientated research methodology can contribute to the interactional study of emotions in science education contexts.

  15. CONSTRUCTING ORGANIZATIONAL DISCOURSE. A SYMBOLIC ACTION IN IMPROVING WORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra GALBIN

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Social constructionism, a postmodern approach with epistemological assumptions, brings new resources for organizational interventions. A key element in organizational development, the discourse plays an important role in fashioning the future of this. This article presents the organizational discourse as a symbolic action in which discourse influence behavior of members and reinforces mindsets. Discourse shapes the relations between individuals, and creates mental frames. Create change by changing the discourse generates fresh new possibilities and innovative forms to look at a situation. Constructing a positive organizational discourse offers a great potential for social change and address challenges and advances thinking in the organizational field.

  16. Mapping Science in Discourse-based Inquiry Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeneayhu, Demeke Gesesse

    of the science thematic patterns in the lessons were not only developed by the students but also resemble the standard thematics. Similarly, in the open-ended inquiry classroom, True Dialogue and Cross-discussion were the two most common communicative patterns and students did most of the science thematic patterns in the lessons but most of the student thematics were commonsense than resembling the standard thematics on the topic. This research showed that if teachers are to help students participate in classroom discourse that would enable them meaningfully connects core ideas and concepts in science, teachers could use various discourse tools and pedagogic resources that could fit into their particular classroom realities and contexts. This study demonstrated that when given the opportunity, students in challenging contexts such in typical inner city schools are able to engage in scientific processes and develop nuanced understandings of scientific phenomena.

  17. Phonological Analysis of University Students’ Spoken Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Herlina

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The study of discourse is the study of using language in actual use. In this article, the writer is trying to investigate the phonological features, either segmental or supra-segmental, in the spoken discourse of Indonesian university students. The data were taken from the recordings of 15 conversations by 30 students of Bina Nusantara University who are taking English Entrant subject (TOEFL –IBT. Finally, the writer is in opinion that the students are still influenced by their first language in their spoken discourse. This results in English with Indonesian accent. Even though it does not cause misunderstanding at the moment, this may become problematic if they have to communicate in the real world.  

  18. Climate change discourses and citizen participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Inger; Horsbøl, Anders; Bonnen, Kersten

    2011-01-01

    of Denmark. We analyze how central actors are called upon to act, and how citizens are addressed in the call for action in the two sets of data. Paving the way for the empirical analysis, the first part of the article gives a review of contemporary literature on climate change typologies and discourses......Citizen participation is a recurrent and democratically important issue in the ongoing debate about climate change. However, different meanings are ascribed to citizen participation in different contexts and discourses, ranging from top-down involvement to bottom-up engagement. This article...... within different research fields, assessing how citizen participation is articulated within these discourses. Finally, we address some needs for increased citizen participation in the climate change debate....

  19. Competing Wind Energy Discourses, Contested Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Otto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The impairment of landscapes is a concern constantly raised against wind energy developments in Germany as in other countries. Often, landscapes or landscape types are treated in the literature as essentialist or at least as uncontested categories. We analyse two examples of local controversies about wind energy, in which “landscape” is employed by supporters and opponents alike, from a poststructuralist and discourse theoretical angle. The aim is to identify and compare landscape constructs produced in the micro discourses of wind energy objectors and proponents at local level (a within each case, (b between the two cases and (c with landscape constructs that were previously found in macro discourses. One major finding is that several different landscapes can exist at one and the same place. Furthermore there seems to be a relatively stable set of competing landscape concepts which is reproduced in specific controversies. The paper concludes by highlighting practical consequences and by identifying promising avenues of further research.

  20. The multimodal argumentation of persuasive counter discourses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maier, Carmen Daniela

    The continuous interest in and concern with business communication can be detected in the way critical aspects of this kind of communication are represented and debated in a wide range of discourses in a wide range of contexts. Drawing upon a social semiotic perspective, this paper explores...... the persuasive counter discourse of Media Bites videos: http://griid.org/category/media-bites/. The videos are a part of GRIID organization’s efforts directed at revealing misleading communicative strategies employed in various business contexts. In these instructive videos, the viewers are made familiar...... the misleading strategies employed. The viewers are also instructed where else they can find information about these strategies and the consequences of misleading advertising discourse. The argumentation framework of the Media Bites videos is also persuasively articulated for engaging the viewers as active...

  1. Discourse Functions of Kama in Arabic Journalistic Discourse from the Perspective of Rhetorical Structure Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asem Ayed Al-Khawaldeh

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The study aims at examining the functions of the discourse marker Kama in the Arabic journalistic discourse in the light of Rhetorical Structure Theory (RST proposed by Mann and Thompson (1987. To this end, the study compiled a small-scale corpus of journalistic discourse taken from two prominent Arabic news websites:  Aljazeera.net and Alarabia.net. The corpus covers three distinct sub-genres of journalistic discourse: opinion articles, news reports, and sport reports. The journalistic discourse is chosen on the basis that it is considered as the best representative of the contemporary written Arabic and it receives a wide readership in the Arabic-speaking countries. The motivation for the study is that although it is frequently used in the written form of Arabic (particularly in the language of Arabic media, the discourse marker kama is largely neglected and very few has been said about it in the present literature on Arabic discourse markers. The current findings show that kama is found to achieve 290 occurrences in the corpus under investigation. This obviously indicates that kama is commonly used in the language of Arabic journalistic discourse, which calls for paying attention to its usage in such a type of discourse. In the light of Rhetorical Structure Theory (RST proposed by Mann and Thompson (1987, kama was found to serve four common functions: elaboration (around 50 %, similarity (around 19 %, evidence (16 %, and exemplification (13 %. Two functions of kama (similarity and   exemplification are listed in RST while the other two are incorporated.

  2. Mediating argumentative deconstruction of advertising discourses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maier, Carmen Daniela

    exposes how the advertising discourse of various companies is articulated when promoting well known products and services in their commercials. The original advertising discourse is deconstructed and reconstructed with additional visual material in front of the viewers' eyes who are instructed by a voice...... the meaning making relations between the semiotic modes also change the prescribed roles of the viewers who are transformed from prospective consumers into critical learners. Thus, the paper is meant to highlight the multimodal strategies employed to enhance the viewers' abilities "to read" and comprehend...

  3. Digital methods for mediated discourse analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Malene; Larsen, Malene Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    , restrictions or privately mediated settings. Having used mediated discourse analysis (Scollon 2002, Scollon & Scollon, 2004) as a framework in two different research projects, we show how the framework, in correlation with digital resources for data gathering, provides new understandings of 1) the daily......In this paper we discuss methodological strategies for collecting multimodal data using digital resources. The aim is to show how digital resources can provide ethnographic insights into mediated actions (Scollon, 2002) that can otherwise be difficult to observe or engage in, due to, for instance......) and online questionnaire data in order to capture mediated actions and discourses in practice....

  4. The Psi colonization of educational discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Solé Blanch

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the role of psychological discourse in education. On the one hand, the authors criticize the abuse of the mental health diagnosis in the field of education. On the other hand, analyze the effects of the expansion of the neurosciences in the conditions of production of pedagogical knowledge. Finally, examine the role of the neuroeducation and the development of emotional psychology in the construction of enterprising subjectivities. Against these colonizing tendencies of educational discourse, the authors advocate the establishment of a new pedagogical contract that allows rethink the exercise of the educational function of teachers and educators.

  5. The literary critical discourse analysis as a useful tool for cultural learning in an L2 classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Asín-Cabrera

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The L2 teaching is an area very prone to the influences of different ideologies from other cultures. Due to this, the present article will be focused on the useful application of critical discourse analysis (CDA in L2 teaching to identify, interpret and understand such cultural elements, specifically, through the critical analysis of literary discourse. The scientific methods to be employed will be analysis-synthesis and induction-deduction in the processing and systematization of the information that leads to interpretations and generalizations of the main theoretical concepts this article deals with; and the theoretical premises CDA hinges on.

  6. Meaning contents of radiographers' professional identity as illustrated in a professional journal - A discourse analytical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemi, Antti; Paasivaara, Leena

    2007-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of the present study is to describe and understand the meaning contents of radiographers' professional identity. Background: The conceptualisation of professional identity in terms of radiographers' perceptions of their role focuses on their preferred role-content and perception of the professional self. Professional identity defines values and beliefs that guide the radiographer's thinking, actions and interaction. Method: The present study employs the method of discourse analysis to gain a profound understanding of the cultural meaning contents related to the formation of the professional identity of radiographers. Material for the study was gathered from articles published in the professional journal of the Society of Radiographers in Finland between the years 1987 and 2003. Findings: Technical discourse emphasised the importance of responding to the changes in radiology in the 1990s. Safety discourse emerged as the second content of meaning describing the formation of professional identity. The third content of meaning in professional identity was professional discourse, a central aspect being to promote the esteem of one's profession and emphasise professional identity. Conclusions: The results suggest that the professional identity of a radiographer is dual in nature. On one hand, the professional identity of a radiographer is based on solid command of scientific-mechanic technology in a technical working environment; while on the other hand, it consists of mastering the humane, humanistic nursing work

  7. A discourse-analytical approach to intertextual advertisements: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A discourse-analytical approach to intertextual advertisements: a model to describe a dominant world-view. ... The intertextual messages in advertising discourse can be regarded as generallyaccepted shared ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  8. The CBM RICH project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamczewski-Musch, J. [GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Becker, K.-H. [University Wuppertal (Germany); Belogurov, S. [ITEP Moscow (Russian Federation); Boldyreva, N. [PNPI Gatchina (Russian Federation); Chernogorov, A. [ITEP Moscow (Russian Federation); Deveaux, C. [University Gießen (Germany); Dobyrn, V. [PNPI Gatchina (Russian Federation); Dürr, M. [University Gießen (Germany); Eom, J. [Pusan National University (Korea, Republic of); Eschke, J. [GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Höhne, C. [University Gießen (Germany); Kampert, K.-H. [University Wuppertal (Germany); Kleipa, V. [GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Kochenda, L. [PNPI Gatchina (Russian Federation); Kolb, B. [GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Kopfer, J. [University Wuppertal (Germany); Kravtsov, P. [PNPI Gatchina (Russian Federation); Lebedev, S.; Lebedeva, E. [University Gießen (Germany); Leonova, E. [PNPI Gatchina (Russian Federation); and others

    2014-12-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment will study the properties of super dense nuclear matter by means of heavy ion collisions at the future FAIR facility. An integral detector component is a large Ring Imaging Cherenkov detector with CO{sub 2} gas radiator, which will mainly serve for electron identification and pion suppression necessary to access rare dileptonic probes like e{sup +}e{sup −} decays of light vector mesons or J/Ψ. We describe the design of this future RICH detector and focus on results obtained by building a CBM RICH detector prototype tested at CERN-PS.

  9. Video Game Discourses and Implications for Game-Based Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitton, Nicola; Maclure, Maggie

    2017-01-01

    Increasingly prevalent educational discourses promote the use of video games in schools and universities. At the same time, populist discourses persist, particularly in print media, which condemn video games because of putative negative effects on behaviour and socialisation. These contested discourses, we suggest, influence the acceptability of…

  10. Analyzing Counsel/Witness Discourse in Nnewi, Anambra State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper analyzed counsel/witness discourse using the High Court in. Nnewi Municipal Council. Specifically, it described the structure and organization of counsel/witness discourse in the courtroom context highlighting some discourse features inherent in them, and observed the communication strategies and motivation ...

  11. Discourse Connectives in L1 and L2 Argumentative Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chunyu; Li, Yuanyuan

    2015-01-01

    Discourse connectives (DCs) are multi-functional devices used to connect discourse segments and fulfill interpersonal levels of discourse. This study investigates the use of selected 80 DCs within 11 categories in the argumentative essays produced by L1 and L2 university students. The analysis is based on the International Corpus Network of Asian…

  12. A Sexuality Education Discourses Framework: Conservative, Liberal, Critical, and Postmodern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Tiffany

    2011-01-01

    Sexuality education debates are layered with discourses based on markedly different constructions of sexuality. Rather than seeing these discourses as purely oppositional, this article frames them as complex and varied. It provides a new framework for understanding sexuality education which differentiates 28 discourses by orientation to education,…

  13. The acquisition of the Dutch discourse particle wel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogeweg, L.; Gerrevink, R.

    2015-01-01

    Dutch is known for its large inventory of discourse particles. Discourse particles are very frequent and highly important in conversation. Yet, not much research has been conducted on how children acquire them. In this paper we focus on the acquisition of the Dutch discourse particle wel. In earlier

  14. Factors influencing the implicitation of discourse relations across languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, Jet; Zufferey, Sandrine

    2015-01-01

    Relations that hold between discourse segments can, but need not, be made explicit by means of discourse connectives. Even though the explicit signaling of discourse relations is optional, not all relations can be easily conveyed implicitly. It has been proposed that readers and listeners have

  15. Discourse Analysis and the Study of Educational Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Gary; Mungal, Angus Shiva

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the current and past work using discourse analysis in the field of educational administration and of discourse analysis as a methodology. Design/Methodology/Approach: Authors reviewed research in educational leadership that uses discourse analysis as a methodology. Findings: While…

  16. Neutron rich nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foucher, R.

    1979-01-01

    If some β - emitters are particularly interesting to study in light, medium, and heavy nuclei, another (and also) difficult problem is to know systematically the properties of these neutron rich nuclei far from the stability line. A review of some of their characteristics is presented. How far is it possible to be objective in the interpretation of data is questioned and implications are discussed

  17. Human discourses, animal geographies: Imagining Umfolozi's White ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Current Writing: Text and Reception in Southern Africa ... The paper reviews recent literature in the field of animal geographies, a scholarship that reflects a developing interest in the way discursive orderings shape human attitudes to animals, as well as a concern with the spatial outcomes for animals of these discourses.

  18. Phrasal alignment in Functional Discourse Grammar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, M.

    2011-01-01

    Although the term is alignment is typically associated with morphosyntactic expression of arguments of the Clause, alignment is also relevant to units of the Phrase. In Functional Discourse Grammar a basic distinction is made between two kinds of dependency relations obtaining both within Phrases

  19. Coaching Discourse: Supporting Teachers' Professional Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heineke, Sally F.

    2013-01-01

    Although coaching is used in many schools to facilitate teachers' professional learning, few studies look closely at coaching discourse. Exploring how coaching facilitates teachers' professional development, this study used tape-recorded coaching sessions and individual post-interviews to examine the one-on-one coaching interactions of 4…

  20. Image Repair Discourse and Crisis Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, William L.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the theory of image restoration discourse as an approach for understanding corporate crisis situations. States this theory can be used by practitioners to help design messages during crises and by critics or educators to critically evaluate such messages. Describes and illustrates the theory's basic concepts. Offers suggestions for…

  1. Discourses on Employability: Constituting the Responsible Citizen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fejes, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    In the last couple of decades, there has been a shift from speaking about employment to speaking about employability. The interest in this article is directed at how discourses on employability are mobilised in the wider discursive terrain of governance. How does governance operate, what subject is produced and, more specifically, who is…

  2. Structuring Conversation: Discourse Markers in Cervantes's "Entremeses"

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    Due to the recent shift in the linguistic pragmatics literature from the analysis of isolated speech acts to the focus on phenomena which affect the global meaning of a message, discourse markers (DMs) have become a frequent research topic. Despite their popularity, the evolution and development of these forms is often neglected in investigations…

  3. The EU Sustainable Development Discourse - An Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boissiere, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    Sustainable development seems now clearly defined, as a concept and for its policies implications. Its use in political discourse has developed over the years to such an extent that some do not hesitate to abuse the word 'sustainable', without giving up the productivist dogma. The analysis of significant discourses of the institutions of the European Union on sustainable development shows that the evolution of the concept itself has changed the decision-making process of the European institutions, since the?rst strategy defined at the Gothenburg European Council (June 2001). However, if the concept is well introduced into the discourses of the institutions, its operationalisation and the adaptation of organisational structures appear extremely slow and often incomplete. It is far from an overhaul of the general functioning in accordance with what was announced as a political priority, including the 3 main areas: economic, social and environmental. But the coherence between discourses and practice appears at the level of the Commission, where coordination and supervision of sustainable development have been entrusted to the General Secretariat in direct contact with the President of the Commission

  4. Blackness: faith, culture, ideology and discourse*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crowther, West Africa's first black bishop, who grovelled before his white missionary .... African-American profane discourse is the Signifying Monkey, then "Tar Baby is as ... racism and sexism, systems described by Christian as "societal and psychological... ..... When the inner conflict and tension occasioned by culture theo-.

  5. Discourse of transformation in organizational change management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Della Christiantine

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the discursive construction of ideological change and identity within the practice of organisational control in organisational change management. The focus of the study was to examine how the organisation through its large-scale reengineering process to implement organisational change initiatives appropriated discourse of transformation to effect change among its organisational members. The organisation’s focus is to change mindsets and persuade members to embrace characteristics, traits, attitudes and behaviour that are deemed to be beneficial to the organisation. Discourse of transformation is used as an object of discursive construction of reality in the construction of an ‘ideal’ member identity and ideological change. The theoretical framework for the study is informed by theories of identity and ideology in discourse, theories of power and language as articulated in the field of critical discourse analysis. The data consist of transcripts of ‘Sharing Sessions’ which were transcribed verbatim. The analytical framework for the textual analysis of identity and ideology is developed on a basis of a combination of concepts and methods namely, [1] analysis, intertextual analysis, Antaki and Widdicombe’s principles for analysing identity in talk and [2] modes of identity regulation.

  6. Superintendent Leadership Style: A Gendered Discourse Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, Dawn C.; Crippen, Carolyn

    2007-01-01

    Using a blend of social constructionism, critical feminism, and dialogue theory, the discourse of nine Manitoba superintendents is examined to determine if it illustrates particular gendered assumptions regarding superintendents' leadership style. Qualitative inquiry and analysis methods were utilized to identify emerging themes, or topics of…

  7. Talking Science: Developing a Discourse of Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackling, Mark; Smith, Pru; Murcia, Karen

    2010-01-01

    A key principle of inquiry-based science education is that the process of inquiry must include opportunities for the exploration of questions and ideas, as well as reasoning with ideas and evidence. Teaching and learning Science therefore involves teachers managing a discourse that supports inquiry and students engaging in talk that facilitates…

  8. Discourses of Disability in the "Digest."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Ellen

    2001-01-01

    Presents an account of the discourse of disability in the "Reader's Digest" during its first 30 years (1922-1952). Concludes that the construction of disability in the "Digest" raises important questions that should enter the field of disability studies. (PM)

  9. Promoting Civil Discourse in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnie, Billie F.

    2016-01-01

    Teachers are responsible for what happens in their classrooms, and promoting civil discourse should be among their top priorities. Not only should they model civil speech and behavior, but they also should establish clear boundaries for students, create a climate that nourishes courteous exchange, and help students build vocabularies that enable…

  10. Girls' Education: The Power of Policy Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monkman, Karen; Hoffman, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Girls' education has been a focus of international development policy for several decades. The discursive framing of international organizations' policy initiatives relating to girls' education, however, limits the potential for discussing complex gender issues that affect the possibilities for gender equity. Because discourse shapes our…

  11. Discourse Memory and Reading Comprehension Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfetti, Charles A.; Goldman, Susan R.

    1976-01-01

    A study is reported in which short-term memory capacity, estimated by a probe digit task, and memory for structured language, measured by a probe discourse task, were investigated in an experiment with third and fifth grade IQ-matched children representing two levels of reading comprehension skill. (Author/RM)

  12. Asian Educational Discourse: Construction of Ontological Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalina, Natalya V.; Kovaleva, Alla V.; Voronin, Maksim S.; Anikin, Denis V.; Valyulina, Ekaterina V.

    2018-01-01

    This article considers the problem of ontology security through Asian educational discourse, which is structurally determined by the process of moral self-improvement. Considered are trends in improving the management of educational system by developing the culture of quality, which is considered as the next stage of the Asian education systems…

  13. Partnering for Research: A Critical Discourse Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, Catherine J.; English, Leona M.

    2008-01-01

    Using a critical discourse analysis, informed by poststructuralist theory, we explore the research phenomenon of coerced partnership. This lens allows us to pay attention to the social relations of power operating in knowledge generation processes, especially as they affect feminist researchers in adult education. We propose an alternative vision…

  14. Challenging conflicting discourses of climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleming, Aysha; Vanclay, Frank; Hiller, Claire; Wilson, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The influence of language on communication about climate change is well recognised, but this understanding is under-utilised by those seeking to increase uptake of action for climate change. We discuss the terms, discourse, resistance, and agency, to assist in developing ways to progress social

  15. Political Discourse and Its Sociolinguistic Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Rodriguez, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Linguistically, political discourses have generally been discussed within qualitative approaches (e.g., Blackledge, 2005; Chilton, 2004; Chomsky, 2004; van Dijk, 2005; Wodak, 2002). This paper presents tools to design a quantitative research relating political speech with sociolinguistic variables. Notions such as Accommodation Theory (Giles &…

  16. The peculiarities of the English ironic discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Анна Алексеевна Горностаева

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with irony as a discourse category in the English communicative culture. Optimization of interpersonal relations is singled out as the hyperstrategy of the English irony. It suggests that irony may be included into the range of politeness strategies.

  17. A dynamic discourse approach to classroom research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bannink, A.; Van Dam, J.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we propose a theoretical reassessment of the discourse-analytic tools that are used in classroom research and of the data that are addressed. To that end we present in-depth analyses of 1) an IRE structure in a first English (EFL) lesson in a Dutch secondary school; 2) episodes from

  18. European dimensions in Romanian Theological Discourse | Chirila ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article underlines particularly those aspects of Romanian theology that distinguish it from other theological refl ections. By making use of liturgical discourse, Romanian theology refl ects the ecumenical dimension of the prayers of the Divine Liturgy. It is this specifi city that provides Romanian theology's missionary ...

  19. Race Discourse and the US Confederate Flag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holyfield, Lori; Moltz, Matthew Ryan; Bradley, Mindy S.

    2009-01-01

    Research reveals that racial hierarchies and "color-blind" racism is maintained through discourse. The current study utilizes exploratory data from focus groups in a predominantly white southern university in the United States to examine race talk, the Confederate Flag, and the construction of southern white identity. Drawing from…

  20. Discourse, the Moral Imperative and Faraday's Candle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melville, Wayne

    2013-01-01

    This commentary considers two lines of inquiry into the work of Ideland and Malmberg: the role of discourse in shaping teachers' responses to Roberts' (2011) Visions of Science and the moral imperatives that will accompany any shifts between Vision I and II. Vision I of science has accreted to itself great power and prestige, both of which shape…

  1. Discourse analysis: making complex methodology simple

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bondarouk, Tatiana; Ruel, Hubertus Johannes Maria; Leino, T.; Saarinen, T.; Klein, S.

    2004-01-01

    Discursive-based analysis of organizations is not new in the field of interpretive social studies. Since not long ago have information systems (IS) studies also shown a keen interest in discourse (Wynn et al, 2002). The IS field has grown significantly in its multiplicity that is echoed in the

  2. A Uniform Syntax and Discourse Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hardt, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    I present arguments in favor of the Uniformity Hypothesis: the hypothesis that discourse can extend syntax dependencies without conflicting with them. I consider arguments that Uniformity is violated in certain cases involving quotation, and I argue that the cases presented in the literature...

  3. [Review of Talking voices: Repetition, dialogue, and imagery in conversational discourse. 2nd edition. By Deborah Tannen

    OpenAIRE

    Dingemanse, M.

    2010-01-01

    Reviews the book, Talking voices: Repetition, dialogue, and imagery in conversational discourse. 2nd edition by Deborah Tannen. This book is the same as the 1989 original except for an added introduction. This introduction situates TV in the context of intertextuality and gives a survey of relevant research since the book first appeared. The strength of the book lies in its insightful analysis of the auditory side of conversation. Yet talking voices have always been embedded in richly context...

  4. TEACHER-STUDENTS DISCOURSE IN ENGLISH TEACHING AT HIGH SCHOOL (CLASSROOM DISCOURSE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alamsyah Harahap

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available English classroom's process of teaching and learning is an important aspect of successful English teaching and learning. The analysis of classroom discourse is a very important form which the classroom process research has taken place. The present study focuses on SMA (high school English classroom discourse. The microethnography of Spradley was the research method deployed. Through a detailed description and analysis of the collected data referring to Sinclair and Coulthard’s classroom discourse analysis model, the problem of patterns of the classroom discourse is made clear. On the basis of the discourse patterns' problem found, a few strategies for high school English teachers are put forward through the teacher training in order to improve English teaching and learning at high school in Indonesia. The research results showed that teacher talk highly dominated the English classroom discourse; 94% of teacher-students talk. IRF Model of Sinclair and Coulthard was not found in the English classroom (only IF pattern and no lesson achieved.

  5. A discourse analysis methodology based on semantic principles - an application to brands, journalists and consumers discourses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Grivel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This is a R&D Paper. It describes an analysis coming from a research project about opinion measurement and monitoring on the Internet. This research is realized within "Paragraphe" laboratory, in partnership with the market research institute Harris Interactive (CIFRE grant beginning July 2010. The purpose of the study was to define CRM possibilities. The targets of the study were self-employed workers and very small businesses. The discourses analysis is linked to a qualitative study. It turns around three types of discourses: brands, journalists and clients’ discourses. In the brand discourses analysis we benchmarked brand websites belonging to several businesses. In this first step, we tried to identify the most used words and promises by brands to the target we were studying. For that benchmark, we downloaded "Professionals" sections of the websites. Clients’ discourses analysis is based on opened answers coming from satisfaction questionnaires. The questions we are studying have been asked after a call to a hot line or after a technician intervention. Journalists’ discourses analysis is based on articles, published on information websites specialized in Harris Interactive's client sector. These websites were chosen because we considered them to be representative of information sources, which the target could consult.

  6. Constructing Israeli and Palestinian Identity: A Multimodal Critical Discourse Analysis of World History Textbooks and Teacher Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    This research critically evaluates the depiction of Israelis and Palestinians in World History textbooks and World History teachers' instructional discourse. Employing a Multimodal Critical Discourse Analysis methodology, this study offers a comparison between written narratives and spoken discourse in order to analyze the portrayals found in…

  7. Gender Diversity in a STEM Subfield - Analysis of a Large Scientific Society and Its Annual Conferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishkova, Evgenia; Kwiecien, Nicholas W.; Hebert, Alexander S.; Westphall, Michael S.; Prenni, Jessica E.; Coon, Joshua J.

    2017-12-01

    Speaking engagements, serving as session chairs, and receiving awards at national meetings are essential stepping stones towards professional success for scientific researchers. Studies of gender parity in meetings of national scientific societies repeatedly uncover bias in speaker selection, engendering underrepresentation of women among featured presenters. To continue this dialogue, we analyzed membership data and annual conference programs of a large scientific society (>7000 members annually) in a male-rich ( 70% males), technology-oriented STEM subfield. We detected a pronounced skew towards males among invited keynote lecturers, plenary speakers, and recipients of the society's Senior Investigator award (15%, 13%, and 8% females, respectively). However, the proportion of females among Mid-Career and Young Investigator award recipients and oral session chairs resembled the current gender distribution of the general membership. Female members were more likely to present at the conferences and equally likely to apply and be accepted for oral presentations as their male counterparts. The gender of a session chair had no effect on the gender distribution of selected applicants. Interestingly, we identified several research subareas that were naturally enriched (i.e., not influenced by unequal selection of presenters) for either female or male participants, illustrating within a single subfield the gender divide along biology-technology line typical of all STEM disciplines. Two female-enriched topics experienced a rapid growth in popularity within the examined period, more than doubling the number of associated researchers. Collectively, these findings contribute to the contemporary discourse on gender in science and hopefully will propel positive changes within this and other societies. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  8. The degree of certainty in brain death: probability in clinical and Islamic legal discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qazi, Faisal; Ewell, Joshua C; Munawar, Ayla; Asrar, Usman; Khan, Nadir

    2013-04-01

    The University of Michigan conference "Where Religion, Policy, and Bioethics Meet: An Interdisciplinary Conference on Islamic Bioethics and End-of-Life Care" in April 2011 addressed the issue of brain death as the prototype for a discourse that would reflect the emergence of Islamic bioethics as a formal field of study. In considering the issue of brain death, various Muslim legal experts have raised concerns over the lack of certainty in the scientific criteria as applied to the definition and diagnosis of brain death by the medical community. In contrast, the medical community at large has not required absolute certainty in its process, but has sought to eliminate doubt through cumulative diagnostic modalities and supportive scientific evidence. This has recently become a principal model, with increased interest in data analysis and evidence-based medicine with the intent to analyze and ultimately improve outcomes. Islamic law has also long employed a systematic methodology with the goal of eliminating doubt from rulings regarding the question of certainty. While ample criticism of the scientific criteria of brain death (Harvard criteria) by traditional legal sources now exists, an analysis of the legal process in assessing brain death, geared toward informing the clinician's perspective on the issue, is lacking. In this article, we explore the role of certainty in the diagnostic modalities used to establish diagnoses of brain death in current medical practice. We further examine the Islamic jurisprudential approach vis-à-vis the concept of certainty (yaqīn). Finally, we contrast the two at times divergent philosophies and consider what each perspective may contribute to the global discourse on brain death, understanding that the interdependence that exists between the theological, juridical, ethical, and medical/scientific fields necessitates an open discussion and active collaboration between all parties. We hope that this article serves to continue the

  9. Learning scientific programming with Python

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Learn to master basic programming tasks from scratch with real-life scientifically relevant examples and solutions drawn from both science and engineering. Students and researchers at all levels are increasingly turning to the powerful Python programming language as an alternative to commercial packages and this fast-paced introduction moves from the basics to advanced concepts in one complete volume, enabling readers to quickly gain proficiency. Beginning with general programming concepts such as loops and functions within the core Python 3 language, and moving onto the NumPy, SciPy and Matplotlib libraries for numerical programming and data visualisation, this textbook also discusses the use of IPython notebooks to build rich-media, shareable documents for scientific analysis. Including a final chapter introducing challenging topics such as floating-point precision and algorithm stability, and with extensive online resources to support advanced study, this textbook represents a targeted package for students...

  10. The CBM RICH project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamczewski-Musch, J. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Akishin, P. [Laboratory of Information Technologies, Joint Institute for Nuclear research (JINR-LIT), Dubna (Russian Federation); Becker, K.-H. [Department of Physics, University of Wuppertal, D-42097 Wuppertal (Germany); Belogurov, S. [SSC RF ITEP, 117218 Moscow (Russian Federation); Bendarouach, J. [Institute of Physics II and Institute of Applied Physics, Justus Liebig University Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Boldyreva, N. [National Research Centre “Kurchatov Institute” B.P. Konstantinov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, 188300 Gatchina (Russian Federation); Chernogorov, A. [SSC RF ITEP, 117218 Moscow (Russian Federation); Deveaux, C. [Institute of Physics II and Institute of Applied Physics, Justus Liebig University Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Dobyrn, V. [National Research Centre “Kurchatov Institute” B.P. Konstantinov Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, 188300 Gatchina (Russian Federation); Dürr, M. [Institute of Physics II and Institute of Applied Physics, Justus Liebig University Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Eschke, J. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Förtsch, J. [Department of Physics, University of Wuppertal, D-42097 Wuppertal (Germany); Heep, J.; Höhne, C. [Institute of Physics II and Institute of Applied Physics, Justus Liebig University Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Kampert, K.-H. [Department of Physics, University of Wuppertal, D-42097 Wuppertal (Germany); and others

    2017-02-11

    The CBM RICH detector is an integral component of the future CBM experiment at FAIR, providing efficient electron identification and pion suppression necessary for the measurement of rare dileptonic probes in heavy ion collisions. The RICH design is based on CO{sub 2} gas as radiator, a segmented spherical glass focussing mirror with Al+MgF{sub 2} reflective coating, and Multianode Photomultipliers for efficient Cherenkov photon detection. Hamamatsu H12700 MAPMTs have recently been selected as photon sensors, following an extensive sensor evaluation, including irradiation tests to ensure sufficient radiation hardness of the MAPMTs. A brief overview of the detector design and concept is given, results on the radiation hardness of the photon sensors are shown, and the development of a FPGA-TDC based readout chain is discussed.

  11. The CLEO RICH detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artuso, M.; Ayad, R.; Bukin, K.; Efimov, A.; Boulahouache, C.; Dambasuren, E.; Kopp, S.; Li, Ji; Majumder, G.; Menaa, N.; Mountain, R.; Schuh, S.; Skwarnicki, T.; Stone, S.; Viehhauser, G.; Wang, J.C.; Coan, T.E.; Fadeyev, V.; Maravin, Y.; Volobouev, I.; Ye, J.; Anderson, S.; Kubota, Y.; Smith, A.

    2005-01-01

    We describe the design, construction and performance of a Ring Imaging Cherenkov Detector (RICH) constructed to identify charged particles in the CLEO experiment. Cherenkov radiation occurs in LiF crystals, both planar and ones with a novel 'sawtooth'-shaped exit surface. Photons in the wavelength interval 135-165nm are detected using multi-wire chambers filled with a mixture of methane gas and triethylamine vapor. Excellent π/K separation is demonstrated

  12. Same Principles, Different Worlds: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Medical Ethics and Nursing Ethics in Finnish Professional Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxén, Salla

    2018-03-01

    This qualitative social scientific study explores professional texts of healthcare ethics to understand the ways in which ethical professionalism in medicine and nursing are culturally constructed in Finland. Two books in ethics, published by Finnish national professional organizations-one for nurses and one for physicians-were analyzed with the method of critical discourse analysis. Codes of ethics for each profession were also scrutinized. Analysis of the texts sought to reveal what is taken for granted in the texts as well as to speculate what appeared to be relegated to the margins of the texts or left entirely invisible. Physicians' ethics was discovered to emphasize objectivity and strong group membership as a basis for ethical professionalism. The discourses identified in the physicians' ethics guidebook were universal ethics, reductionism, non-subjectivity, and threat. Nursing ethics was discovered to highlight reflectivity as its central focus. This idea of reflectivity was echoed in the identified discourses: local ethics, enlightenment, and moral agency. The analysis exposes a cultural gap between the ethics discourses of medicine and nursing. More work is needed to bridge ethics discourses in Finland in a way that can support healthcare professionals to find common ground and to foster inclusivity in ethical dialogue. Further development of bioethical practices is suggested as a potential way forward.

  13. CBM RICH geometry optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoud, Tariq; Hoehne, Claudia [II. Physikalisches Institut, Giessen Univ. (Germany); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at the future FAIR complex will investigate the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter at high baryon density and moderate temperatures in A+A collisions from 2-11 AGeV (SIS100) beam energy. The main electron identification detector in the CBM experiment will be a RICH detector with a CO{sub 2} gaseous-radiator, focusing spherical glass mirrors, and MAPMT photo-detectors being placed on a PMT-plane. The RICH detector is located directly behind the CBM dipole magnet. As the final magnet geometry is now available, some changes in the RICH geometry become necessary. In order to guarantee a magnetic field of 1 mT at maximum in the PMT plane for effective operation of the MAPMTs, two measures have to be taken: The PMT plane is moved outwards of the stray field by tilting the mirrors by 10 degrees and shielding boxes have been designed. In this contribution the results of the geometry optimization procedure are presented.

  14. Empowering the crowd: faculty discourse strategies for facilitating student reasoning in large lecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaree, Dedra

    2012-02-01

    Oregon State University (OSU) has restructured its introductory calculus-based sequence including reformed curriculum modeled after the Interactive Science Learning Environment (ISLE). ISLE is driven by an experimental cycle roughly summarized as: observe phenomena, find patterns and devise explanations, test explanations, develop a model, apply the model to new observations. In implementing ISLE at OSU we have chosen to focus on student scientific reasoning, specifically student ability to develop and test models, make explicit judgments on how to approach open-ended tasks, and take an authoritative role in knowledge development. In order to achieve these goals, the lecture course heavily utilizes social engagement. During large-lecture group work, emphasis is placed on facilitating student discourse about issues such as what systems to choose or how to define an open-ended problem. Instructional strategies are aimed at building off the group discourse to create a full-class community where knowledge is developed through collaboration with peers. We are achieving these goals along with an increase in measured student conceptual knowledge and traditional problem solving abilities, and no loss of content coverage. It is an ongoing effort to understand ``best'' instructional strategies and to facilitate new faculty when they teach the curriculum. Our research has focused on understanding how to facilitate activities that promote this form of discourse. We have quantitative analysis of engagement based on video data, qualitative analysis of dialogue from audio data, classroom observations by an external researcher, and survey data. In this session we share a subset of what we have learned about how to engage students in scientific reasoning discourse during large lecture, both at the group-work and full-class level.

  15. Epistemological pluralism and scientific development: an argument against authoritative nosologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markon, Kristian E

    2013-10-01

    The author examines the influence of authoritative nosological systems--those developed by an authoritative body or organization (e.g., the DSM, ICD, RDoC)--on the development of scientific theory and research. Although there has been extensive discussion of how such systems should be organized, and of the historical role of such systems, little focus has been placed on whether these systems impede or facilitate scientific progress. The author reviews the nature and role of constructs in scientific theory and the role of authoritative taxonomy in science. He presents an argument that, although authoritative classification systems clearly have value for nonscientific purposes, or for specific scientific purposes, the systems themselves, at least as they have been constructed thus far, likely impede scientific development by constraining competitive discourse. Implications and recommendations are discussed.

  16. Teoria do Design Inteligente: teoria científica ou discurso religioso? Apontamentos sobre uma controvérsia atual (Intelligent Design: scientific theory or religious discourse? Remarks about an actual controversy - DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2013v11n30p709

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roney Seixas Andrade

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem com pano de fundo a controvérsia entre criacionismo e evolucionismo que ainda captura a imaginação de amplos segmentos religiosamente orientados, sobretudo nos Estados Unidos. Aqui destacamos as proposições elaboradas pela chamada Teoria do Design Inteligente (TDI. Essa teoria, que se apresenta como científica e desprovida de qualquer compromisso religioso, propõe demonstrar empiricamente que a complexidade observada na natureza, no universo e na vida, é resultante de um design genuíno, ou seja, produto de uma inteligência organizadora, e não produto de processos puramente materiais e aleatórios, isto é, decorrentes do acaso, ou da seleção natural, tal como sugere o darwinismo. Neste artigo trataremos da emergência da Teoria do Design Inteligente e de seus principais argumentos, tal como elaborados por seus proponentes, estudados pelos seus analistas e confrontados pelos seus críticos, a fim de verificar se ela é considerada teoria científica ou uma variante mais sofisticada e atual do criacionismo cristão. Palavras-chave: Religião; Ciência; Criacionismo; Design Inteligente.   Abstract This article has as a backdrop the controversy between creationism and evolutionism that still captures the imagination of large religious segments, especially in the USA. This text highlights the propositions drawn up by the so called Intelligent Design Theory. Such theory, which is presented as scientific and devoid of any religious commitment aims to demonstrate empirically that the complexity observed in nature, in the universe and in the life, is a the result of a genuine design. In this sense, it would be a product of an organizing intelligence and not a product of purely material and random processes resulting from chance, or from natural selection, as suggested by Darwinism. In this article, we will deal with the emergence of Intelligent Design and its main arguments, such as elaborated by its proponents, studied by

  17. Documents and power: orders of the discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Delgado Gómez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is a reviewed version of a lecture read in 2008 in Argentina. It tries to explore the archival process of appraisal, from the point of view of its underlying interactions with the power systems interests. First, we outline a short definition of the notions of power and system, and tentatively explore how power systems and documents systems could interact. However, the core of the article is to re-visit the French philosopher Michel Foucault’s classic text The Order of Discourse, where the author articulated a reflection on interrelationships between power and discourse. We try to apply the Foucault’s template to current archival practice and theory in Spain, basically by suggesting reasons underlying old practices and understandings. We propose a different, Foucaldian approach to contemporary archival practice and theory. Finally, we propose some conclusions, for further research.

  18. Theoretical and methodological approaches in discourse analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Chris

    2004-01-01

    Discourse analysis (DA) embodies two main approaches: Foucauldian DA and radical social constructionist DA. Both are underpinned by social constructionism to a lesser or greater extent. Social constructionism has contested areas in relation to power, embodiment, and materialism, although Foucauldian DA does focus on the issue of power Embodiment and materialism may be especially relevant for researchers of nursing where the physical body is prominent. However, the contested nature of social constructionism allows a fusion of theoretical and methodological approaches tailored to a specific research interest. In this paper, Chris Stevenson suggests a framework for working out and declaring the DA approach to be taken in relation to a research area, as well as to aid anticipating methodological critique. Method, validity, reliability and scholarship are discussed from within a discourse analytic frame of reference.

  19. Users’ encounter with normative discourses on Facebook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathieu, David

    2016-01-01

    This study asks whether users’ encounter with normative discourses of lifestyle, consumption, and health on social media such as Facebook gives rise to agency. The theoretical framework draws on reception analysis, for its implied, but central interest in agency that lies at the intersection...... of texts and audiences. Based on a critique of the “participatory paradigm,” a paradigm that situates the locus of agency in the structural opposition between senders and users, in the norms of rational deliberation or in the figure of the activist, gaps are identified which can be filled by adopting...... an explicit focus on the socio-cultural practices of ordinary audiences in their encounters with media discourses. The study investigates user agency on seven Facebook groups and pages with the help of a three-pronged perspective based on the notion of the media–audience relationship as (1) power structure...

  20. THE NARRATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF ISLAMIC TERRORISM DISCOURSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridwan Rosdiawan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available While polemics is still shadowing the internationally accepted definition, the word “Terrorism” becomes more controversial when it is paralleled with “Islam”. The Islamic Terrorism discourse is more likely to be an elusive concept if not a Fata Morgana. Its very existence appears as a real entity but its form can hardly be described. It would be always be problematic to posterize such a terrible notion as “terrorism” and put it side by side with a noble concept as in “Islam”. The fact, however, shows that the two-word has been widely discussed in global arena. “Islamic Terrorism” has become a trending topic in global politics and academic discourses in the first decade of the millennium.

  1. Ethnographic Discourse Analysis and Social Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicitas Macgilchrist

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on the perspectives of ethnography and discourse analysis, this paper first gives an overview of the emerging body of research bringing together the epistemologies and the methods of these two perspectives. It then presents a novel analytical framework for computer-assisted ethnographic discourse analysis. The paper outlines how close analysis of discursive practices—in this case journalistic writing practices—can provide insights into struggles over meaning and hegemony in contemporary knowledge work. The case study explores the production of a financial news story about the supply of gas to French consumers, and the way the practices in question subtly write Russia as a threat. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1101183

  2. Theoretical and methodological approaches in discourse analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Chris

    2004-10-01

    Discourse analysis (DA) embodies two main approaches: Foucauldian DA and radical social constructionist DA. Both are underpinned by social constructionism to a lesser or greater extent. Social constructionism has contested areas in relation to power, embodiment, and materialism, although Foucauldian DA does focus on the issue of power. Embodiment and materialism may be especially relevant for researchers of nursing where the physical body is prominent. However, the contested nature of social constructionism allows a fusion of theoretical and methodological approaches tailored to a specific research interest. In this paper, Chris Stevenson suggests a frame- work for working out and declaring the DA approach to be taken in relation to a research area, as well as to aid anticipating methodological critique. Method, validity, reliability and scholarship are discussed from within a discourse analytic frame of reference.

  3. School mathematical discourse in a learning landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valero, Paola; Meaney, Tamsin; Alrø, Helle

    By bringing our research work together, we are able to discuss the potential of combining the notions of the learning landscape and school mathematical discourse. We do so in a search for concepts and methodological tools to challenge the simplification of issues in regard to mathematics learning...... in multicultural settings, when adopting restricted perspectives on issues of bilingualism. In the paper we discuss the relationship between the learning landscape and school mathematical discourse. We then use these notions to analyse two case studies in Danish and New Zealand schools. Our conclusion raises...... possibilities about how these notions can be used when researching mathematics education in multicultural settings....

  4. Exploring Participatory Methodologies in Organizational Discourse Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plotnikof, Mie

    2014-01-01

    Recent debates in the field of organizational discourse analysis stress contrasts in approaches as single-level vs. multi-level, critical vs. participatory, discursive vs. material methods. They raise methodological issues of combining such to embrace multimodality in order to enable new contribu......Recent debates in the field of organizational discourse analysis stress contrasts in approaches as single-level vs. multi-level, critical vs. participatory, discursive vs. material methods. They raise methodological issues of combining such to embrace multimodality in order to enable new...... contributions. As regards conceptual efforts are made but further exploration of methodological combinations and their practical implications are called for. This paper argues 1) to combine methodologies by approaching this as scholarly subjectification processes, and 2) to perform combinations in both...

  5. DIVERGING DISCOURSES ON THE SYR DARYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eelke Kraak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydraulic mission of the Soviet Union has transformed Central Asia’s Syr Darya River into a governable entity. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union the river system disintegrated and conflict arose over the operation of the main dam and reservoir of the river: the Toktogul. Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan have widely different and diverging sanctioned discourses on how the dam should be operated and on the nature of the water itself. These discourses have had a significant impact on the hydro-politics of the river basin and the operation of the dam. The central argument of this paper is that both the decline of the Aral Sea, and the potential conflict between the states are driven by the same modernist governmentality of the river.

  6. Declarations, accusations and judgement: examining conflict of interest discourses as performative speech-acts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Christopher; Lipworth, Wendy; Kerridge, Ian

    2016-09-01

    Concerns over conflicts of interest (COI) in academic research and medical practice continue to provoke a great deal of discussion. What is most obvious in this discourse is that when COIs are declared, or perceived to exist in others, there is a focus on both the descriptive question of whether there is a COI and, subsequently, the normative question of whether it is good, bad or neutral. We contend, however, that in addition to the descriptive and normative, COI declarations and accusations can be understood as performatives. In this article, we apply J.L. Austin's performative speech-act theory to COI discourses and illustrate how this works using a contemporary case study of COI in biomedical publishing. We argue that using Austin's theory of performative speech-acts serves to highlight the social arrangements and role of authorities in COI discourse and so provides a rich framework to examine declarations, accusations and judgements of COI that often arise in the context of biomedical research and practice.

  7. The EC discourse on vocational training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cort, Pia

    2009-01-01

    This article traces the EC vocational training policy historically and describes the discursive alignments which brought the policy from a ‘common vocational training policy' as laid down in Article 128, in the Treaty of Rome to the Lisbon Lifelong Learning strategy. The argument is that vocational...... EC vocational training policy (Ball, What is policy? Texts, trajectories and toolboxes. Discourse, 13(2), 1993)....

  8. Construction of Gender Identity in Political Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizaveta D. Butsyk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article regards the phenomenon of political communication from the perspective of the particularities of constructing gender identity by politicians. As far as the influence of the gender factor on politicians' speech is concerned, the most relevant approach among many others is the discourse approach formed within the paradigm of cognitive linguistics, which considers political discourse as the object of study. The paper deals with the notion of political discourse and examines a hypothesis that gender factor might have a number of manifestations in political communication. It is noted that studying the specificity of constructing gender identity by politicians in discursive practices is becoming a highly topical issue as the importance of female participation in public and political life is growing. Political decision-making has long been considered the prerogativeofmen, but now the necessity of studying the female factor in this sphere is obvious. The author dwells upon the historical background of linguistic gender studies and summarizes the main stages of their development focusing mainly on the theory of the social construction of gender. The founders of this theory advance the thesis that an individual's gender identity is shaped in the process of constructing gender relations in communicative interaction. Further in the article we analyse a few devices of creating the images of masculinity and femininity by famous English and American politicians. As structural components of gender identity, masculinity and femininity turn out to be modifiable parameters depending on the pragmatic attitudes of communicators. Traditional androcentrism of political discourse may account for modifying the female speech style towards masculinity to achieve certain communicative aims.

  9. SPEECH TACTICS IN MASS MEDIA DISCOURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Kaptiurova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the basic speech tactics used in mass media discourse. It has been stated that such tactics as contact establishment and speech interaction termination, yielding up initiative or its preserving are compulsory for the communicative situation of a talk show. Language personalities of television talk shows anchors and linguistic ways of the interview organisation are stressed. The material is amply illustrated with relevant examples.

  10. Archaeology of Human Sciences in Postcolonial Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moslem Abbasi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In 1985 Gayatri Spivak, criticizing western academic communities, proposed this question that “Can the subaltern speak? “ The answer to this question necessitates the consideration of humanities and any kinds of discourse which bring about subalterns. Postcolonial discourse as a critical, liberal, and anticolonial criticizes this discourse. Postcolonial thinker seeks a period during which an eastern person was defined against a western person. Identification modern subject is the topic that the postcolonial thinker like Michael Foucault questions about while dealing with archaeology. The appearance of a person as an eastern dates back to the time when the existence of the outside world resulted from the subject. An eastern can speak when s/he criticizes the subject based on which the humanities are constructed. Obtaining a definition of human being and the way s/she faces the world in order to understand it, is the primary step of introducing an alternative for authoritative humanities. Postcolonial thinker‘s method in understanding other and the outside world based on intersubjectivity. By establishing human studies instead of western humanities and local humanities and by critical view on spivak’s intellectual paradigm, this method of understanding provides spivak’s question with a positive answer contrary to his own negative answer.

  11. Memes: discourse formations echoing in cyberspace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Fabiano de Souza

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes discourse formations acting as “memes” in social networks based on the writings of Fiorin (1998 and the Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA as theoretical support. According to the conceptions of Fairclough (2001a, 2001b; 2003, CDA is a theory of discourse that aims to investigate language as a social and ideological practice. Thus, the study opens with considerations about the appearance of the term coined by Richard Dawkins in his book The Selfish Gene (1976, in which the author postulates the idea of “meme” – unity of cultural information that is replicated from person to person – in analogy to genes. Another theoretical perspective considered in the investigation are the conceptions of Susan Blackmore (1999 on the role of “memes” as a powerful force shaping our cultural evolution through ideas copied from individual to individual by imitation. The work closes with discussions on the implications of the role played by memetic components in virtual environments as an ideological representation of voices of characters from the real world that post comments in social networks, thus fostering discussions that cooperate to the dissemination of “memes”.

  12. Design methods as discourse on practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cohn, Marisa

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present a view of design methods as discourse on practice. We consider how the deployment of a particular set of design methods enables and constrains not only practical action but also discursive action within the design practice. A case study of agile software development meth...... of practices. We then discuss implications of this view on methods for CSCW research on the relationship between methods and practice as well as implications for participation in the design process.......In this paper, we present a view of design methods as discourse on practice. We consider how the deployment of a particular set of design methods enables and constrains not only practical action but also discursive action within the design practice. A case study of agile software development...... methods illustrates the ways that methods establish conditions for who can speak in the design process and how. We indentify three main kinds of discourse work performed in the invoking of design methods. These are the establishing of ontologies, the authorizing of voices, and the legitimizing...

  13. Ma Ying-jeou’s Presidential Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Sullivan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the substantial advances made in cross-Strait relations during Ma Ying-jeou’s (Ma Yingjiu first term, the ROC president’s rhetoric varied considerably as he grappled with the difficult reality of implementing campaign and inauguration pledges to establish better relations with China while striving to maintain national respect and sovereignty. In this article, we put forward a framework for measuring, analysing and explaining this variation in President Ma’s first-term discourse. Analysing a very large number of Ma’s speeches, addresses, etc., we provide empirical assessments of how the content of Ma’s public pronouncements has developed over time, how his rhetoric varies according to the strategic context and timing of a speech, and how his discourse compares to that of his predecessor, Chen Shui-bian (Chen Shuibian. In addressing these questions, the article contributes a quantitative perspective to existing work on political discourse in Taiwan and to the growing methodological and applied literature on how to systematically analyse Chinese political text.

  14. Net Neutrality: Media Discourses and Public Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Quail

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes media and public discourses surrounding net neutrality, with particular attention to public utility philosophy, from a critical perspective. The article suggests that further public education about net neutrality would be beneficial. The first portion of this paper provides a survey of the existing literature surrounding net neutrality, highlighting the contentious debate between market-based and public interest perspectives. In order to contextualize the debate, an overview of public utility philosophy is provided, shedding light on how the Internet can be conceptualized as a public good. Following this discussion, an analysis of mainstream media is presented, exploring how the media represents the issue of net neutrality and whether or not the Internet is discussed through the lens of public utility. To further examine how the net neutrality debate is being addressed, and to see the potential impacts of media discourses on the general public, the results of a focus group are reported and analyzed. Finally, a discussion assesses the implications of the net neutrality debate as presented through media discourses, highlighting the future of net neutrality as an important policy issue.

  15. Advocates or cartographers? Scientific advisors and the narratives of German energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leipprand, Anna; Flachsland, Christian; Pahle, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Political debate on energy in Germany has been shaped by two historically opposed discourses, one pushing for a transition to renewables, the other holding on to the status quo. Scientific policy advice (SPA) has been involved in their evolution from the beginning. This paper draws on the Advocacy Coalition Framework and on discourse and narrative theory to study the role of SPA in recent German energy policy. We explore 1) whether scientific advisors have been members of advocacy coalitions, and 2) how their contributions may have interacted with the evolution of the discourses and major narratives. We perform a qualitative text analysis of 50 SPA reports published between 2000 and 2015. We find that the majority of studies clearly take sides in the debate, and that in most cases the reports’ positions are fully transparent. Despite the polarization, SPA provides differentiated information on key aspects of the discourses, and alternative design options for policy instruments. We conclude that SPA contributions have improved the conditions for political consensus and compromise. Collectively, SPA studies provide a basis for mapping different policy pathways and their consequences. In the future, SPA should address additional critical issues such as coal phase-out and international leadership. - Highlights: • We explore the role of scientific policy advice in Germany's energy transition. • There is widespread, mostly transparent advocacy in scientific advisory reports. • We conclude that scientific policy advice has facilitated dialogue and compromise. • We discuss implications for future advisory activity and further improvements.

  16. Scientific instruments, scientific progress and the cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baird, David; Faust, Thomas

    1990-01-01

    Philosophers speak of science in terms of theory and experiment, yet when they speak of the progress of scientific knowledge they speak in terms of theory alone. In this article it is claimed that scientific knowledge consists of, among other things, scientific instruments and instrumental techniques and not simply of some kind of justified beliefs. It is argued that one aspect of scientific progress can be characterized relatively straightforwardly - the accumulation of new scientific instruments. The development of the cyclotron is taken to illustrate this point. Eight different activities which promoted the successful completion of the cyclotron are recognised. The importance is in the machine rather than the experiments which could be run on it and the focus is on how the cyclotron came into being, not how it was subsequently used. The completed instrument is seen as a useful unit of scientific progress in its own right. (UK)

  17. Promotional discourse in the websites of two Australian universities: A discourse analytic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Van Yen Hoang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article shows how universities represent themselves through the use of language on their institutional websites. Specifically, it compares and contrasts how a long established university, the University of Melbourne and a young university, Macquarie University construct their institutional identities and build up a relationship with potential students. A three-dimensional framework developed by Fairclough is utilised for three stages of discourse analysis. The analysis reveals that the websites of the two universities exhibit a promotional discourse which reflects the impacts of globalisation and the trend of academic marketing on higher education. This type of discourse is utilised by the universities to promote themselves in order attract more students and other resources. A comparison and contrast of the two university websites show that the representation of the two universities is not only determined by the social trends, but also their own tradition and reputation.

  18. Discourse(s) of emotion within medical education: the ever-present absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Emotion in medical education rests between the idealised and the invisible, sitting uneasily at the intersection between objective fact and subjective values. Examining the different ways in which emotion is theorised within medical education is important for a number of reasons. Most significant is the possibility that ideas about emotion can inform a broader understanding of issues related to competency and professionalism. The current paper provides an overview of three prevailing discourses of emotion in medical education and the ways in which they activate particular professional expectations about emotion in practice. A Foucauldian critical discourse analysis of the medical education literature was carried out. Keywords, phrases and metaphors related to emotion were examined for their effects in shaping medical socialisation processes. Despite the increasing recognition over the last two decades of emotion as 'socially constructed', the view of emotion as individualised is deeply embedded in our language and conceptual frameworks. The discourses that inform our emotion talk and practice as teachers and health care professionals are important to consider for the effects they have on competence and professional identity, as well as on practitioner and patient well-being. Expanded knowledge of how emotion is 'put to work' within medical education can make visible the invisible and unexamined emotion schemas that serve to reproduce problematic professional behaviours. For this discussion, three main discourses of emotion will be identified: a physiological discourse in which emotion is described as located inside the individual as bodily states which are universally experienced; emotion as a form of competence related to skills and abilities, and a socio-cultural discourse which calls on conceptions from the humanities and social sciences and directs our attention to emotion's function in social exchanges and its role as a social, political and cultural mediator

  19. The affective discourse dynamics of metaphor clustering The affective discourse dynamics of metaphor clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne Cameron

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Metaphor is examined in the very different iscourse contexts of the classroom and of reconciliation talk to highlight the neglected affective dimension. The distribution of metaphors across discourse shows clustering at certain points, often where speakers are engaged in critical interpersonal discourse activity. Clusters in classroom talk co-occur with sequences of agenda management where teachers prepare students for upcoming lessons and with giving feedback to students, both of which require careful management of interpersonal and affective issues. Clusters in reconciliation talk co-occur with discourse management and with two situations with significant affective dynamics: appropriation of metaphor and exploration of alternative scenarios.

    Metaphor is examined in the very different iscourse contexts of the classroom and of reconciliation talk to highlight the neglected affective dimension. The distribution of metaphors across discourse shows clustering at certain points, often where speakers are engaged in critical interpersonal discourse activity. Clusters in classroom talk co-occur with sequences of agenda management where teachers prepare students for upcoming lessons and with giving feedback to students, both of which require careful management of interpersonal and affective issues. Clusters in reconciliation talk co-occur with discourse management and with two situations with significant affective dynamics: appropriation of metaphor and exploration of alternative scenarios.

  20. Mediated intimacy and postfeminism: A discourse analytic examination of sex and relationships advice in a women's magazine

    OpenAIRE

    Gill, R.

    2009-01-01

    This article uses a discourse analytic perspective to analyse sex and relationship advice in a best-selling women’s magazine. It identifies three different interpretative repertoires which together structure constructions of sexual relationships: the intimate entrepreneurship repertoire, organized around plans, goals and the scientific management of relationships; men-ology, in which women are instructed in how to learn to please men; and transforming the self, which calls on women to remodel...

  1. The Field of Foucaultian Discourse Analysis: Structures, Developments and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Diaz-Bone

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines the field of FOUCAULTian discourse analysis. The FOUCAULTian concept of discourse is introduced, and methodological positions and methodological developments are sketched. Compared to other qualitative social research approaches, the different researchers and research groups that have adopted the FOUCAULTian concept of discourse are not linked by a fully integrated common research paradigm. However, they share common methodological problems and areas of methodological research resulting from various references to FOUCAULTian positions. In the last decade, different research groups have become aware of these shared commonalities, so that one can speak of an emerging field of FOUCAULTian discourse analysis rather than an emerging paradigm. The article gives insight into the discourse analytic research in selected countries, discusses the internationalisation of FOUCAULTian discourse analysis and highlights current trends and perspectives. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0702305

  2. The Educational System as a Monument of Functionalism in Educational Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Uryga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The theme of the article is the concept of the educational system—its origin and relationship with a specific strand of scientific thought, which is functionalism. “The education system,” the key term for education in Poland, is saturated with content that less and less corresponds to the needs and expectations of society. The author carries out an analysis of the content, referring to some currents of pedagogical thought and pointing at the traps in the educational discourse, dangerous to its thoughtless participants.

  3. The Role of Geophysics/Geology in the Environmental Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfannkuch, H. O.

    2013-12-01

    Environmental problems are created by interaction between the Anthroposphere and Geosphere. Principles and laws governing behavior and interaction between them have to be fully understood to properly address environmental problems. A particular problem arises by inadequate communication between practitioners and/or decision makers in each sphere. A perfect analysis or solution in the Geosphere based solely on geophysical, geochemical principles will go nowhere if institutional, socio economic principles are ignored, or vice versa: no matter how well socio-economic relations are used in the Anthroposphere if they violate basic laws of physics . Two conceptual representations of the environment system are: Nöosphere with three domains: Physical, Institutional, Symbolic and their interactions. It is where environmental problems arise, decisions are made and implemented. The Physical Domain comprises physical, chemical, biological, geopsphere realities. Problems are treated by the scientific method. The Institutional Domain with economy, sociology, administration and political institutions, solves by negotiation (vote, ballot). The elements of the Symbolic Domain. spiritual, moral, religious, esthetic principles are revealed. All are intimately connected and interdependent. Activity in one affects the state of the others. A particularly strong and effective interactive relation exists between the Physical and the Institutional domains with regards to environmental problem definition, analysis and resolution. Hierarchic structure of interaction pyramid. Geosphere, Biosphere and Anthroposphere are open systems and are organized in successive levels forming a pyramid shape or aspect. The Geosphere forms the bottom level, the Anthroposphere the top. One fundamental attribute is that level (n) is limited by the restrictions obtaining in level (n-1), and conversely, level (n) represents the restrictions and limitations for level (n+1). In the environmental discourse this

  4. A study of identity construction in political discourse

    OpenAIRE

    Qaiwer, Shatha Naiyf

    2016-01-01

    This thesis interrogates the construction of identity and self-presentation strategies in the discourse of the current President of the United States of America, Barack Hussein Obama. The study seeks to answer questions about how the President constructs the various identities evident in his discourse, what kinds of resources are drawn upon, and how the resulting identities contribute to gain the support of the audience and the progression of political discourse in general. The present s...

  5. The making of `American': race and nation in neurasthenic discourse

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Abstract This paper considers the underexamined racial and nationalistic components of late nineteenth- and early twentieth-centur y neurasthenic discourse to propose that neurasthenia was as much a discourse of moder n American identity as it was a discourse of disease. By closely reading the medical and general texts which helped to popularize it, and by scr utinizing the context of its vogue and supposed subsequent decline, this paper shows how neurasthenia was int...

  6. Successful online course design: Virtual frameworks for discourse construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Pincas

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available A mental representation of the virtual context is a necessary basis of successful online conversations. Such a representation is impossible to create without a method of reference back to previous parts of the discussion in order to develop cohesive discourse. The paper surveys the way two different groups of students in recent online courses handled referencing conventions in asynchronous discourse and suggests a way of providing the scaffolding for virtual discourse construction.

  7. SALTON SEA SCIENTIFIC DRILLING PROJECT: SCIENTIFIC PROGRAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sass, J.H.; Elders, W.A.

    1986-01-01

    The Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project, was spudded on 24 October 1985, and reached a total depth of 10,564 ft. (3. 2 km) on 17 March 1986. There followed a period of logging, a flow test, and downhole scientific measurements. The scientific goals were integrated smoothly with the engineering and economic objectives of the program and the ideal of 'science driving the drill' in continental scientific drilling projects was achieved in large measure. The principal scientific goals of the project were to study the physical and chemical processes involved in an active, magmatically driven hydrothermal system. To facilitate these studies, high priority was attached to four areas of sample and data collection, namely: (1) core and cuttings, (2) formation fluids, (3) geophysical logging, and (4) downhole physical measurements, particularly temperatures and pressures.

  8. Precarious beginnings: Gendered risk discourses in psychiatric research literature about postpartum depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godderis, Rebecca

    2010-09-01

    The transition to motherhood in western society is particularly informed by risk-based scientific and medical discourses and, as a result, women are especially subject to rationalities and practices that are employed in the name of risk. The aim of this article is to examine the gendered risk discourses that are embedded in one aspect of medicalized mothering - the postpartum period. This article interrogates three key elements of the discursive construction of postpartum depression (PPD) in contemporary psychiatric research literature (approximately 1980-2007). Specifically, I examine how risk-based reasoning is incorporated into the concepts of the postpartum triad and the high-risk mother, and how arguments about why PPD is a 'significant social problem' create a tension between the rights of the mother and those of the child. By placing women in a position to manage certain types of risks related to the postpartum period, these discourses serve to responsibilize women and structure their subjectivities in gendered ways.This analysis contributes to a growing literature that investigates how assumptions about gender, race, class and sexuality are produced and re-produced through the notion of risk.

  9. The Grand Challenges Discourse: Transforming Identity Work in Science and Science Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaldewey, David

    2018-01-01

    This article analyzes the concept of "grand challenges" as part of a shift in how scientists and policymakers frame and communicate their respective agendas. The history of the grand challenges discourse helps to understand how identity work in science and science policy has been transformed in recent decades. Furthermore, the question is raised whether this discourse is only an indicator, or also a factor in this transformation. Building on conceptual history and historical semantics, the two parts of the article reconstruct two discursive shifts. First, the observation that in scientific communication references to "problems" are increasingly substituted by references to "challenges" indicates a broader cultural trend of how attitudes towards what is problematic have shifted in the last decades. Second, as the grand challenges discourse is rooted in the sphere of sports and competition, it introduces a specific new set of societal values and practices into the spheres of science and technology. The article concludes that this process can be characterized as the sportification of science, which contributes to self-mobilization and, ultimately, to self-optimization of the participating scientists, engineers, and policymakers.

  10. Assessing the validity of discourse analysis: transdisciplinary convergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaipal-Jamani, Kamini

    2014-12-01

    Research studies using discourse analysis approaches make claims about phenomena or issues based on interpretation of written or spoken text, which includes images and gestures. How are findings/interpretations from discourse analysis validated? This paper proposes transdisciplinary convergence as a way to validate discourse analysis approaches to research. The argument is made that discourse analysis explicitly grounded in semiotics, systemic functional linguistics, and critical theory, offers a credible research methodology. The underlying assumptions, constructs, and techniques of analysis of these three theoretical disciplines can be drawn on to show convergence of data at multiple levels, validating interpretations from text analysis.

  11. Discourse Markers s Sentence Openers in Legal English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onorina Botezat

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Discourse markers can be defined as linguistic expressions of different length which carry pragmatic and propositional meaning, they are used to combine clauses or to connect sentence elements andthey appear in both speech and writing, and facilitate the discourse. Each discourse marker indicates a particular meaning relationship between two or more clauses. English is predominantly the language ofinternational legal practice and its importance to lawyers cannot be over-emphasized. The way in which one uses legal English can therefore be crucial to professional success. This paper stresses the importance of good usage of discourse markers in legal English.

  12. IDEOLOGY REPRESENTATION ON MEDIA: A DISCOURSE ANALYSIS IN CCU CLASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrawati Indrawati

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cross Culture Understanding (CCU course is described as the process by which students acquire knowledge and skills of aspects of culture of subjective nature such as norms, values and perceptions; of objective nature such as cultural artifacts and ways of life of people of certain cultural backgrounds. This is revealed through analyzing various discourses of oral, written, visual and other media. Learners of this course are exposed to activities of conceptualizing ideas, discussing forms of social phenomena realization and building cultural relativity through which learners grow attitude of appreciation and toleration and eventually build cross cultural communication with people of different backgrounds. A film perpetuating ideology of certain social class in America is discussed by learners in class to reveal prevailing value of being white Anglo-Saxon protestant. Then this is examined in relation to the existing American Dream as people‘s philosophy. The class reports the findings after studying their own national ideology and makes comparison and contradiction between the two ideologies. Learners report the findings in their weekly log book to document the data for further use and to be uploaded in an on-line academic-scientific journal. A qualitative textual analysis method is done to formulate a meaning interpretively. Textual analysis is an appropriate method for analyzing film as it emphasizes on genre of organizational style.

  13. DISCOURSE SPACE OF THE LINGUOCULTURAL CHARACTER TYPE PROFESSOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Sinelnikova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article offers an analysis of the linguocultural character type professor taking into consideration both traditional set of signs and those transformations that indicate accumulation of evolutionary changes. The methodological base for the systematic description were the achievements of such areas of scientific knowledge as personology, linguopersonology and discourseology. The linguocultural character type (LCCT is a generalised image of persons, whose behaviour and value orientations influence culture, language and show social originality of the society. The peculiarity of the studied linguocultural character type is in its interrelation with the linguocultural character types intellectual and teacher as well as in the fact of the traditional connection with the concept elite. The exposure of such kind of multidimensional relations allowed to focus attention on the qualities of the LCCT professor that ensure its relative self-sufficiency. The sign of elitism and belonging to the intellectuals of the LCCT professor is asserted by the high social status recognised by the society, which is based on professionalism and compliance with moral principles. The axiological generality of the LCCT professor and teacher is ensured by the peculiarities of the modern pedagogical discourse with its typical image settings. One of the main features of the image of a professor is its belonging to the elite language person. The transformational processes in the contents of the LCCT professor are connected with the globalisation: including the international dimension in the evaluation of the professional activity, complication of the language environment, marketisation of the university sphere.

  14. Healthy nutrition and health-washing corporate discourses across three organizations in the fast food and soft drinks industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Stan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The study inquires about the means by which corporate discourse formulates, invokes and challenges scientific research by examining three case studies of organizations in the fast food and soft drinks industry. Critical discourse analysis carried out on corporate sections dedicated to healthy lifestyles reveals all three explored discursive streams acknowledge customers’ changing needs and consumption patterns. They introduce healthy lifestyles up on the corporate agenda, as cornerstone for their identity and governance strategy of fast-food and soft drinks producers. As overall discursive pattern, corporate public relations jargon constantly employs disclaimers and generic terms such as “evolution”, “development”, “strategy”, “partnership”, “transparency”, without providing specific assessment criteria to map down the intended intervention. The article provides rhetoric illustrations enacted through omission, disclaimers, backgrounding and reframing effects. The overriding discursive rationale implies that healthy diets are still low-priority for leading food and drinks producers. The documented companies indicate in their PR communication two strategies of fighting against the scientifically proven negative impact of their traded products: the individual choice paradigm and the social compensation strategy or health-washing. The article highlights some of the inconsistencies of discourses on healthy food that apparently are counter-intuitive enough to undermine corporate interests, while such discourses peddle on the idea of sincerity, transparency and ethical conduct. All three case studied corporations strive to safeguard their threatened reputation across discursive practices by acknowledging their weaknesses as sign of honesty. Further reflection on critical discourse analysts’ mandate and implications for practice are explored.

  15. Scientific Story Telling & Social Media The role of social media in effectively communicating science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkhuis, D.; Peart, L.

    2012-12-01

    Scientific discourse generally takes place in appropriate journals, using the language and conventions of science. That's fine, as long as the discourse remains in scientific circles. It is only outside those circles that the rules and techniques of engaging social media tools gain importance. A young generation of scientists are eager to share their experiences by using social media, but is this effective? And how can we better integrate all outreach & media channels to engage general audiences? How can Facebook, Twitter, Skype and YouTube be used as synergy tools in scientific story telling? Case: during IODP Expedtion 342 (June-July 2012) onboard the scientific drillship JOIDES Resolution an onboard educator and videographer worked non-stop fort two months on an integrated outreach plan that tried and tested the limits of all social media tools available to interact with an international public while at sea. The results are spectacular!

  16. Scientific literacy and academic identity: Creating a community of practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveles, John Michael

    2005-07-01

    This one-year ethnographic study of a third grade classroom examined the construction of elementary school science. The research focused on the co-development of scientific literacy and academic identity. Unlike much research in science education that views literacy as merely supportive of science; this dissertation research considers how students learned both disciplinary knowledge in science as well as about themselves as learners through language use. The study documented and analyzed how students came to engage with scientific knowledge and the impact this engagement had upon their academic identities over time. Ethnographic and discourse analytic methods were employed to investigate three research questions: (a) How were the students in a third grade classroom afforded opportunities to acquire scientific literate practices through the spoken/written discourse and science activities? (b) In what ways did students develop and maintain academic identities taken-up over time as they discursively appropriated scientific literate practices via classroom discourse? and (c) How did students collectively and individually inscribe their academic identities and scientific knowledge into classroom artifacts across the school year? Through multiple forms of analyses, I identified how students' communication and participation in science investigations provided opportunities for them to learn specific scientific literate practices. The findings of this empirical research indicate that students' communication and participation in science influenced the ways they perceived themselves as active participants within the classroom community. More specifically, students were observed to appropriate particular discourse practices introduced by the teacher to frame scientific disciplinary knowledge and investigations. Thus, emerging academic identities and developing literate practices were documented via analysis of discursive (spoken, written, and enacted) classroom interactions. A

  17. East African discourses on khat and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckerleg, Susan

    2010-12-01

    The study aims to review and analyse the varied East African discourses on the effects of khat use on libido, fertility, transmission of HIV, prostitution and rape. The data were gathered between 2004 and 2009 in Kenya and Uganda. Between 2004 and 2005 across Kenya and Uganda a broad survey approach was adopted, involving identification of and travel to production areas, interviews with producers and consumers in rural and urban settings. In addition, a survey of 300 Ugandan consumers was carried out in late 2004. Between 2007 and 2009, an in-depth study of khat production, trade and consumption was conducted in Uganda. This study also employed a mixture of methods, including key informant interviews participant-observation and a questionnaire survey administered to 210 khat consumers. Khat is associated, by consumers and its detractors alike, with changes in libido and sexual performance. Although there is no evidence to support their claims, detractors of khat use argue that khat causes sexual violence, causes women to enter sex work, and that chewing causes the spread of sexually transmitted diseases, including the HIV virus. In East Africa the discourse on khat and sex has led to consumption of the substances being associated by many people with uncontrolled sexual behaviour. There is no evidence that khat use fuels promiscuity, commercial sex, sexually transmitted diseases or rape. The current discourse on khat and sex touches on all these topics. Local religious and political leaders invoke khat use as a cause of what they argue is a breakdown of morals and social order. In Kenya and Uganda it is women khat consumers who are seen as sexually uncontrolled. In Uganda, the argument is extended even to men: with male khat chewers labelled as prone to commit rape. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Scientific integrity in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins, Liliane; Carvalho, Fernando Martins

    2014-09-01

    This article focuses on scientific integrity and the identification of predisposing factors to scientific misconduct in Brazil. Brazilian scientific production has increased in the last ten years, but the quality of the articles has decreased. Pressure on researchers and students for increasing scientific production may contribute to scientific misconduct. Cases of misconduct in science have been recently denounced in the country. Brazil has important institutions for controlling ethical and safety aspects of human research, but there is a lack of specific offices to investigate suspected cases of misconduct and policies to deal with scientific dishonesty.

  19. An Ethico-Aesthetic Paradigm as an Alternative Discourse to the Quality Assurance Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlberg, Gunilla

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses the discourse and practices of quality assurance and quality control through the lens of neo-liberal governing as expressed in economic rationalities such as new public management, total quality management, public choice and human capital. As an alternative to this form of governing, an ethico-aesthetic paradigm is enacted,…

  20. Discourse Interpretation: A Deconstructive, Reader-oriented Approach to Critical Discourse Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Farid Khafaga

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on the premise that discourse is always under the influence of different ideological readings which not only formulate its meaning but inspire various interpretations as well; hence, it needs a theoretical cover that could justify its multiplicity of meaning. This paper, therefore, discusses the possibility of introducing a deconstructive, reader-oriented approach (DRA to Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA as a model of discourse interpretation. The paper tries to appraise the theoretical framework of CDA and to offer an overview of the fundamental propels of its interpretative task in the light of two poststructuralist literary theories: the deconstruction theory and the reception theory. The paper also endeavours to emphasize the deconstructive nature of CDA by shedding lights on its relationship with the above mentioned theories. The conclusion drawn from this paper shows that introducing a deconstructive, reader-oriented approach to CDA is relevant to the latter's interpretative nature enough to diminish a part of the criticism levelled against its interpretative framework concerning plurality of meaning; and to establish some sort of exoneration for its theoretical shortcomings. The paper recommends that DRA will bridge the gap between theory and practice as it offers a theoretical base to discourse which could advocate its critiques regarding diversity of interpretation.

  1. The Expositive Discourse as Pedagogical Discourse: Studying Recontextualization in the Production of a Science Museum Exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marandino, Martha

    2016-01-01

    In this paper I report on the sociological and educational particulars of "The Biodiscovery Space" exhibition of the Life Museum of the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, using Basil Bernstein's framework of pedagogic discourse and recontextualization. Data for analysis was obtained from interviews with the exhibition…

  2. Queer Theory and Discourses of Desire

    OpenAIRE

    Vasvári, Louise O.

    2006-01-01

    In her paper "Queer Theory and Discourses of Desire," Louise O. Vasvári proposes that the multiplicity of ways that language constructs -- or silences -- the socially constructed expression of erotic desire is a necessary complement to the study of gendered and of sexual identity. Vasvári contributes to queer theory and its subfield, queer linguistics, with the term "queer" understood as more inclusive and less male-oriented than "gay" where queer theory seeks to read between and outside the ...

  3. ERP Systems and Technological Discourse Shift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jeremy; Kraemmergaard, Pernille

    2006-01-01

    the organisational actors to perceive value in what they were doing. The research form is a interpretive case study, which has different philosophical roots, methods and modes of presentation than the functionalist tradition dominant in AIS research. Both the research mode and the research conclusions challenge...... about the project and project management both in industry and academia); however, the experience of the project changed the sense-making of the participants and the implementation later came to be regarded as a technology-driven organisational change initiative. The new technological discourse helped...

  4. Managerial and Organizational Discourses of Workplace Bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Susan L; Boutain, Doris M; Tsai, Jenny H-C; de Castro, Arnold B

    2015-09-01

    To explore how workplace bullying is addressed by hospital nursing unit managers and organizational policies. Although workplace bullying is costly to organizations, nurses report that managers do not consistently address the issue. This study used discourse analysis to analyze interview data and policy documents. There were differences in the manner in which managers and the policy documents labeled bullying-type behaviors and discussed the roles and responsibilities of staff and managers. Policies did not clearly delineate how managers should respond to workplace bullying. These differences can allow management variation, not sanctioned by policy. Unclear policy language can also offer insufficient guidance to managers, resulting in differential enforcement of policies.

  5. Social keywords in postcolonial melanesian discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levisen, Carsten; Priestley, Carol

    2017-01-01

    In postcolonial Melanesia, cultural discourses are increasingly organised around creole words, i.e. keywords of Bislama (Vanuatu) and Tok Pisin (Papua New Guinea). These words constitute (or represent) important emerging ethnolinguistic worldviews, which are partly borne out of the colonial era......, and partly out of postcolonial ethno-rhetoric. This chapter explores the word kastom ‘traditional culture’ in Bislama and pasin bilong tumbuna ‘the ways of the ancestors’ in Tok Pisin. Specific attention is paid to the shift from “negative “ to “positive” semantics, following from the re...

  6. Captain America, Tuskegee, Belmont, and Righteous Guinea Pigs: Considering Scientific Ethics through Official and Subaltern Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    With an eye towards a potential scientific ethics curriculum, this paper examines four contrasting discourses regarding the ethics of using human subjects in science. The first two represent official statements regarding ethics. These include the U.S.'s National Science Education Standards, that identify ethics with a professional code, and the…

  7. From Comparison between Scientists to Gaining Cultural Scientific Knowledge: Leonardo and Galileo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galili, Igal

    2016-01-01

    Physics textbooks often present items of disciplinary knowledge in a sequential order of topics of the theory under instruction. Such presentation is usually univocal, that is, isolated from alternative claims and contributions regarding the subject matter in the pertinent scientific discourse. We argue that comparing and contrasting the…

  8. Teaching for Scientific Literacy? An Examination of Instructional Practices in Secondary Schools in Barbados

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer-Bradshaw, Ramona E.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which the instructional practices of science teachers in Barbados are congruent with best practices for teaching for scientific literacy. Additionally, through observation of practice, it sought to determine the teachers' demonstrated role in the classroom, their demonstration of learning through discourse,…

  9. A Scientific Framework for Social Work Doctoral Education in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Erick G.; Moore, Hadass; Pitt-Catsouphes, Marcie

    2018-01-01

    The emerging discourse about the science of social work has urged doctoral social work programs to reexamine assumptions about conducting research and responding to new expectations for scholarship. This article examines three promising models to guide scientific research in social work (evidence-based practice, team science, and multi- and…

  10. What's Natural about Nature? Deceptive Concepts in Socio-Scientific Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Mats Gunnar; Linder, Cedric

    2015-01-01

    The conflicts between nature and nurture are brought to the fore and challenges socio-scientific decision-making in science education. The multitude of meanings of these concepts and their roles in societal discourses can impede students' development of understanding for different perspectives, e.g. on gene technology. This study problematizes…

  11. Playing science? Environmentally focused think tanks and the new scientific paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Douglass, Kimberly L.; Tanner, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Although research published by think tanks is generally studied for its contributions to policy discourses, this study finds that think tank–authored studies also affect scientific scholarly communications. Think tanks clearly represent political interests. However, this study shows that their exclusion from scientific rhetoric is not a matter of their failing to meet the community’s standards; it is a matter of ideology, which helps maintain a socially constructed boundary betwee...

  12. Measuring prosodic deficits in oral discourse by speakers with fluent aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Lee

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Prosody refers to the part of phonology that includes speech rhythm, stress, and intonation (Gandour, 1998. Proper intonation is crucial for expressing one’s emotion and linguistic meaning. Most studies examining prosodic deficits have been primarily focused on Broca’s aphasia (e.g., Danly & Shapiro, 1982. The current study proposed a computer-assisted method for systematic and objective examination of intonation patterns in aphasic oral discourse. The speech materials were in Hong Kong Cantonese, which is known of being rich in tones. Since surface F0 contour is the result of complicated interplay between sentence-level intonation and syllable-level lexical tones, the challenge is on how to extract meaningful representations of intonation from acoustic signals. Methods Four individuals with fluent aphasia (two anomic and two transcortical sensory and four gender-, age-, and education-matched controls participated. Based on the Cantonese AphasiaBank protocol (Kong, Law, & Lee, 2009, narrative samples and corresponding audio recordings were collected using discourse tasks of personal monologue, picture and sequential description, and story-telling. There were eight recordings for each subject. Each oral discourse was divided into sentences by manual inspection of the orthographic transcription and the respective acoustic signal. A sentence was defined as a sequence of words that in principle covers a complete thought. However, it was common in spontaneous oral discourse, especially in aphasia, that some of the sentences did not end with a completed expression but switched to a new topic. Occasionally, an obvious interjection was observed during an attempt of restarting a statement. Phoneme-level automatic time alignment was performed on each audio recording using hidden Markov model (HMM based forced alignment technique (Lee, Kong, Chan, & Wang, 2013. F0 was estimated from the acoustic signal at intervals of 0.01 second by

  13. The discourses on induced abortion in Ugandan daily newspapers: a discourse analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Sofia; Eliasson, Miriam; Klingberg Allvin, Marie; Faxelid, Elisabeth; Atuyambe, Lynn; Fritzell, Sara

    2015-06-25

    Ugandan law prohibits abortion under all circumstances except where there is a risk for the woman's life. However, it has been estimated that over 250 000 illegal abortions are being performed in the country yearly. Many of these abortions are carried out under unsafe conditions, being one of the most common reasons behind the nearly 5000 maternal deaths per year in Uganda. Little research has been conducted in relation to societal views on abortion within the Ugandan society. This study aims to analyze the discourse on abortion as expressed in the two main daily Ugandan newspapers. The conceptual content of 59 articles on abortion between years 2006-2012, from the two main daily English-speaking newspapers in Uganda, was studied using principles from critical discourse analysis. A religious discourse and a human rights discourse, together with medical and legal sub discourses frame the subject of abortion in Uganda, with consequences for who is portrayed as a victim and who is to blame for abortions taking place. It shows the strong presence of the Catholic Church within the medial debate on abortion. The results also demonstrate the absence of medial statements related to abortion made by political stakeholders. The Catholic Church has a strong position within the Ugandan society and their stance on abortion tends to have great influence on the way other actors and their activities are presented within the media, as well as how stakeholders choose to convey their message, or choose not to publicly debate the issue in question at all. To decrease the number of maternal deaths, we highlight the need for a more inclusive and varied debate that problematizes the current situation, especially from a gender perspective.

  14. The Scientific Enterprise

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 9. The Scientific Enterprise - Assumptions, Problems, and Goals in the Modern Scientific Framework. V V Raman. Reflections Volume 13 Issue 9 September 2008 pp 885-894 ...

  15. Extensional scientific realism vs. intensional scientific realism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seungbae

    2016-10-01

    Extensional scientific realism is the view that each believable scientific theory is supported by the unique first-order evidence for it and that if we want to believe that it is true, we should rely on its unique first-order evidence. In contrast, intensional scientific realism is the view that all believable scientific theories have a common feature and that we should rely on it to determine whether a theory is believable or not. Fitzpatrick argues that extensional realism is immune, while intensional realism is not, to the pessimistic induction. I reply that if extensional realism overcomes the pessimistic induction at all, that is because it implicitly relies on the theoretical resource of intensional realism. I also argue that extensional realism, by nature, cannot embed a criterion for distinguishing between believable and unbelievable theories. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Self construction in schizophrenia: a discourse analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, Trudy; MacLachlan, Malcolm

    2008-06-01

    Lysaker and Lysaker (Theory and Psychology, 12(2), 207-220, 2002) employ a dialogical theory of self in their writings on self disruption in schizophrenia. It is argued here that this theory could be enriched by incorporating a discursive and social constructionist model of self. Harr's model enables researchers to use subject positions to identify self construction in people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia that the dialogical model, using analysis of narrative, does not as easily recognize. The paper presents a discourse analysis of self construction in eight participants with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Transcripts from semi-structured interviews are analysed, wherein focus falls on how participants construct self in talk through the use of subject positioning. The findings indicate that Harr's theory of self and the implied method of discourse analysis enables more subtle and nuanced constructions of self to be identified than those highlighted by Lysaker and Lysaker (Theory and Psychology, 12(2), 207-220, 2002). The analysis of subject positions revealed that participants constructed self in the form of Harr's (The singular self: An introduction to the psychology of personhood, 1998, London: Sage) self1, self2, and self3. The findings suggest that there may be constructions of self used by people diagnosed with schizophrenia that are not recognized by the current research methods focusing on narrative. The paper argues for the recognition of these constructions and by implication a model of self that takes into account different levels of visibility of self construction in talk.

  17. Cohesion as interaction in ELF spoken discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Christiansen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Hitherto, most research into cohesion has concentrated on texts (usually written only in standard Native Speaker English – e.g. Halliday and Hasan (1976. By contrast, following on the work in anaphora of such scholars as Reinhart (1983 and Cornish (1999, Christiansen (2011 describes cohesion as an interac­tive process focusing on the link between text cohesion and discourse coherence. Such a consideration of cohesion from the perspective of discourse (i.e. the process of which text is the product -- Widdowson 1984, p. 100 is especially relevant within a lingua franca context as the issue of different variations of ELF and inter-cultural concerns (Guido 2008 add extra dimensions to the complex multi-code interaction. In this case study, six extracts of transcripts (approximately 1000 words each, taken from the VOICE corpus (2011 of conference question and answer sessions (spoken interaction set in multicultural university con­texts are analysed in depth by means of a qualitative method.

  18. Means of Harmonization in Religious Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Ščukina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Means of harmonization of religious discourse are considered by studying communicational behaviour (verbal and nonverbal between the religion institution and believers. The following factors defining specificity of realization of harmonization in Orthodox and other religious texts are taken into account: the communication channel between the author and the reader, a defining speech genre, the command of language (communication code, and extra-linguistic factors. It is shown that sharing the general social, historical and national experience, as well as a lexical overlapping of actors on both sides of the communication channel are the deciding elements of the harmonization process. The analysis also shows that usage of rational argumentation is more likely to lead to harmonisation in comparison to other rhetoric tools (i. e. affective ones or story-telling. Rational and unemotional sermonic discourse is perceived as a sign of respect (namely, for the listener's intelligence. Another successful and much-applied way seems to be evoking a feeling of equality, unity and/or identity between clerics and their flocks.

  19. Asian educational discourse: construction of ontological security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya V. Khalina

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the problem of ontology security through Asian educational discourse, which is structurally determined by the process of moral self-improvement. Considered are trends in improving the management of educational system by developing the culture of quality, which is considered as the next stage of the Asian education systems development after the “quality of education” stage. We suggest an approach for assessing the vitality of educational process and its product based on monitoring trainees’ aptitudes system and school capabilities in developing and maintaining this system. In this study we refer to the concept of vitality and viability when describing the general theory of viability in connection with the core principles of Asian educational discourse. We outline main trends in the development of modern educational system in Asian university given the process of globalization and its impact on educational reforms in the Asia-Pacific region. Thus, the category of education quality in Asian system of higher education and narrative monitoring of Chinese students’ cognitive structures viability at Altai State University are introduced.

  20. Information packaging in Functional Discourse Grammar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Smit

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available

    The paper addresses the modelling of information packaging in Functional Discourse Grammar (FDG, in particular the treatment of Topic, Comment and Focus. Current FDG has inherited the traditional Functional Grammar (FG representation of these categories as functions, which attach to Subacts of evocation. However, arguments of a formal, notional and descriptive nature can be advanced against pragmatic function assignment and in favour of an alternative analysis in which informational and evocational structures are dissociated so as to command their own primitives. In the context of a model of discourse knowledge organisation in which communicated contents are associated with packaging instructions that tell the Addressee how to treat the evoked knowledge, it is argued that focality can be modelled by means of a Focus operator that can attach to various constituents at the Interpersonal Level. Topicality, on the other hand, concerns binomial and monomial modes of presenting communicated contents. This can be rendered by means of the dedicated informational units Topic (Top and Comment (Cm, that interact in frames.

  1. Mixing English in Persian Print Advertising Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Gooniband Shooshtari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article intended to illustrate a profile of the role and impact of English in magazine print advertising in Iran, by examining the quantitative results obtained from discourse analysis. Three issues of Khanevadeh Sabz and two issues of Zendegi Ideal were collected and a total of 261 advertisements were analyzed. Results indicated that English has consistently been utilized in Persian magazine advertisements, representing attention-getting, persuasion, international brands, prestige, modernity, globalization, premium quality, fun, innovation and creativity. However, using English in Persian magazine advertisements is culturally and linguistically constrained. Culturally, in advertising traditional products English is only employed to introduce the name and e-mail address. Linguistically, although some English written slogans in Persian magazines had puns in them; the English used in Persian magazine advertisements mostly consists of easy-to-read vocabulary. Overall, in spite of the public’s generally low proficiency in English, it is predicted that English mixing will continue to thrive in magazine advertising discourse in Iran.

  2. Nightingale Discourse and “Author-ity”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet L. Larson

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay considers current discourses circulated by what I call the Spiritual School of Nightingale production that enlarge her authority through religious authorship. Since the 1990s, this School’s distinctive populist and academic wings have been bringing out editions of her (mostly unpublished manuscripts on religion along with their own commentaries, which construct Nightingale as a deeply spiritual author and inspirational role model by reading her writings as proofs of the “faith [. . .] central to her life, work, and thought,” rather than as textual evidences that require nonpartisan sifting. This School, which is positioned to take over Nightingale studies, can be credited with reviving interest in her work; and religious ideas could hardly have been more important for her sense of vocation. Despite the value of these efforts, especially the recently-arrived Collected Works, taking her equivocal writing about “faith” on faith of their own is problematic because it generally forecloses probing more deeply into what else these expressions might have meant or been intended to signify. What this School’s under- and over-readings miss, I argue, is the tangled “more is less” problem with the exalted terms of Nightingale’s self-authoring and the high discourses of “author-ity” that she adopted in writing on religious subjects.

  3. Contemporary Feminist Discourse, an Interdisciplinary Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowadays, feminist discourse requires an interdisciplinary approach, through the sociology or media studies. Comparing with other periods of time, the new feminists understood the inherent power of New Media and tend to use it as a tool, for making their

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, feminist discourse requires an interdisciplinary approach, through the sociology ormedia studies. Comparing with other periods of time, the new feminists understood the inherent power ofNew Media and tend to use it as a tool, for making their message more popular. Is it effective? Is it a waste oftime? Although, it is premature to draw conclusions, the social facts that are to be used in this research (news,specific blogs and sites, feedback on social networks seem to tilt the balance towards a positive impactcreated by recent feminist discourse. The aim of this research is to draw the features of the communicationestablished between feminist organizations, media institutions and media consumers, as it will be revealedduring the three case studies proposed. The pattern can be designed as follows: feminist organizations launcha message; media institutions ignore it or transform it into a piece of news; readers or listeners reach themessage, giving their immediate feedback on social networks, blogs and sites belonging to feministorganizations or media institutions. Feminist organizations are new comers in Romania, since the oldest ofthem being launched 10 years ago, comparing with European Women's Lobby, socially active for decades.Among the current Romanian feminist organizations Centrul Filia (Filia Center, Mame pentru Mame(Mothers for Mothers and Pro Women will be analyzed. The novelty of this paper consists mostly inrevealing their online impact on Romanian audience.

  4. LHCB RICH gas system proposal

    CERN Document Server

    Bosteels, Michel; Haider, S

    2001-01-01

    Both LHCb RICH will be operated with fluorocarbon as gas radiator. RICH 1 will be filled with 4m^3 of C4F10 and RICH 2 with 100m^3 of CF4. The gas systems will run as a closed loop circulation and a gas recovery system within the closed loop is planned for RICH 1, where the recovery of the CF4 will only be realised during filling and emptying of the detector. Inline gas purification is foreseen for the gas systems in order to limit water and oxygen impurities.

  5. WWW: The Scientific Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blystone, Robert V.; Blodgett, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    The scientific method is the principal methodology by which biological knowledge is gained and disseminated. As fundamental as the scientific method may be, its historical development is poorly understood, its definition is variable, and its deployment is uneven. Scientific progress may occur without the strictures imposed by the formal…

  6. Opening Discourses of Citizenship Education: A Theorization with Foucault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicoll, Katherine; Fejes, Andreas; Olson, Maria; Dahlstedt, Magnus; Biesta, Gert

    2013-01-01

    We argue two major difficulties in current discourses of citizenship education. The first is a relative masking of student discourses of citizenship by positioning students as lacking citizenship and as outside the community that acts. The second is in failing to understand the discursive and material support for citizenship activity. We, thus,…

  7. Media discourse on women and political participation in Nigeria in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Media discourse on women and political participation in Nigeria in the context of ... of social relations between men and women and how this inform power, ... As a social issue, discourse on gender within the media (print, electronic and social ...

  8. Discourses on Disconnectivity and the Right to Disconnect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesselberth, Pepita

    2017-01-01

    Taking the “right to disconnect” discussion as a starting point, this article considers how the im/possibility of “opting out” is ruminated in scholarly discourses on technology non-use, media resistance, and media disruption. I argue that while very different in scope, these discourses converge ...

  9. Discourse Integration Guided by the "Question under Discussion"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, Charles, Jr.; Frazier, Lyn

    2012-01-01

    What makes a discourse coherent? One potential factor has been discussed in the linguistic literature in terms of a Question under Discussion (QUD). This approach claims that discourse proceeds by continually raising explicit or implicit questions, viewed as sets of alternatives, or competing descriptions of the world. If the interlocutor accepts…

  10. Discourse-Level Implicature: A Case for QUD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasinskaja, Katja; Salfner, Fabienne; Freitag, Constantin

    2017-01-01

    This article argues that multisentence discourses give rise to Gricean quantity implicatures that go beyond the mere sum of the implicatures of the sentences they consist of. We formulate two theories of discourse-level implicature: the null theory, which only has a mechanism for sentence-level implicature and does not rely on any specific notion…

  11. A Multimodal Discourse Analysis of Tmall's Double Eleven Advertisement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chunyu; Luo, Mengxi

    2016-01-01

    From the 1990s, the multimodal turn in discourse studies makes multimodal discourse analysis a popular topic in linguistics and communication studies. An important approach to applying Systemic Functional Linguistics to non-verbal modes is Visual Grammar initially proposed by Kress and van Leeuwen (1996). Considering that commercial advertisement…

  12. "Finding Foucault": Orders of Discourse and Cultures of the Self

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besley, A. C.

    2015-01-01

    The idea of finding Foucault first looks at the many influences on Foucault, including his Nietzschean acclamations. It examines Foucault's critical history of thought, his work on the orders of discourse with his emphasis on being a pluralist: the problem he says that he has set himself is that of the individualization of discourses. Finally, it…

  13. The Notion of Ubuntu and Communalism in African Educational Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, Elza

    2004-01-01

    The notion of "ubuntu" and "communalism" is of great importance in an African educational discourse, as well as in African Philosophy of Education and in African philosophical discourse. "Ubuntu" is a philosophy that promotes the common good of society and includes humanness as an essential element of human growth. In…

  14. A Cognitive Study of English Loan Words in Japanese Discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Takuo; Hayashi, Reiko

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the use of English loanwords in Japanese discourse from a cognitive perspective and reveals how the world knowledge of English loanwords is applied to a text and constitutes an integral component of the discourse production process both within and beyond the sentence level. (40 references) (MDM)

  15. Challenging Anti-Immigration Discourses in School and Community Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allexsaht-Snider, Martha; Buxton, Cory A.; Harman, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Rapid migration shifts, anti-immigrant discourses in the public sphere, and harsh immigration policies have posed daunting challenges for immigrant students, their families, their teachers, and their communities in the 21st century. Trends in public discourse and law enforcement in the United States mirror developments in European countries with…

  16. Against the Dark: Antiblackness in Education Policy and Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    I argue that analyses of racial(ised) discourse and policy processes in education must grapple with cultural disregard for and disgust with blackness. This article explains how a theorization of antiblackness allows one to more precisely identify and respond to racism in education discourse and in the formation and implementation of education…

  17. Ideology, Rationality and Reproduction in Education: A Critical Discourse Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Leonel

    2014-01-01

    In undertaking a critical discourse analysis of the professed aims and objectives of one of the most influential curricula in the teaching of thinking, this article foregrounds issues of power and ideology latent in curricular discourses of rationality. Specifically, it documents the subtle but powerful ways in which political and class…

  18. On temporality in discourse annotation : Theoretical and practical considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers-Vermeul, J.; Hoek, J.; Scholman, M.C.J.

    2017-01-01

    Temporal information is one of the prominent features that determine the coherence in a discourse. That is why we need an adequate way to deal with this type of information during discourse annotation. In this paper, we will argue that temporal order is a relational rather than a segment-specific

  19. Critical Discourse Analysis of Advertising: Implications for Language Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turhan, Burcu; Okan, Zuhal

    2017-01-01

    Advertising is a prominent discourse type which is inevitably linked to a range of disciplines. This study examines the language of a non-product advertisement, not isolating it from its interaction with other texts that surrounds it. It is based on Norman Fairclough's Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) framework in which there are three levels of…

  20. Art Education and Disability Studies Perspectives on Mental Illness Discourses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derby, John K.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation critically examines mental illness discourses through the intersecting disciplinary lenses of art education and disability studies. Research from multiple disciplines is compared and theorized to uncover the ways in which discourses, or language systems, have oppressively constructed and represented "mental illness." To establish…

  1. Book review: Unveiling the Whale: Discourses on Whales and Whaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Schelhas

    2012-01-01

    Whaling represents one of the most internationally controversial and highly polarized environmental issues of recent times. Arne Kalland, in Unveiling the Whale: Discourses on Whales and Whaling, examines the whaling issue from the perspective of a pro-whaling country with an emphasis on analysis of discourse in international arenas, primarily the International Whaling...

  2. Social Class Matters: Class Identities and Discourses in Educational Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Carolyn S.; Seiver, Machele

    2018-01-01

    In this conceptual literature review, the authors analyze research from the last 20 years to explore how social class discourses are reproduced, resisted, and appropriated within Kindergarten through Grade 12 classrooms in the United States. The findings challenge commonly held deficit discourses about students and families from economically…

  3. Perspectives on contextual vulnerability in discourses of climate conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okpara, U. T.; Stringer, L. C.; Dougill, A. J.

    2016-02-01

    The science of climate security and conflict is replete with controversies. Yet the increasing vulnerability of politically fragile countries to the security consequences of climate change is widely acknowledged. Although climate conflict reflects a continuum of conditional forces that coalesce around the notion of vulnerability, how different portrayals of vulnerability influence the discursive formation of climate conflict relations remains an exceptional but under-researched issue. This paper combines a systematic discourse analysis with a vulnerability interpretation diagnostic tool to explore (i) how discourses of climate conflict are constructed and represented, (ii) how vulnerability is communicated across discourse lines, and (iii) the strength of contextual vulnerability against a deterministic narrative of scarcity-induced conflict, such as that pertaining to land. Systematically characterising climate conflict discourses based on the central issues constructed, assumptions about mechanistic relationships, implicit normative judgements and vulnerability portrayals, provides a useful way of understanding where discourses differ. While discourses show a wide range of opinions "for" and "against" climate conflict relations, engagement with vulnerability has been less pronounced - except for the dominant context centrism discourse concerned about human security (particularly in Africa). In exploring this discourse, we observe an increasing sense of contextual vulnerability that is oriented towards a concern for complexity rather than predictability. The article concludes by illustrating that a turn towards contextual vulnerability thinking will help advance a constructivist theory-informed climate conflict scholarship that recognises historicity, specificity, and variability as crucial elements of contextual totalities of any area affected by climate conflict.

  4. U Suk! Participatory Media and Youth Experiences with Political Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middaugh, Ellen; Bowyer, Benjamin; Kahne, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    In light of evidence that the Internet, participatory media, and online communities are increasingly central to civic and political life, this article investigates online political discourse as a context of youth civic development. Drawing on a national survey of 2,519 youth, ages 15 to 24, we find that exposure to conflict in online discourse is…

  5. Competing Discourses in the Ongoing Identity Construction of Adult Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbach, Marilyn

    2014-01-01

    Based on interviews with eight adult immigrants to Montreal, this article explores how discourses from their cultures of origin interact with discourses in the host culture to influence the process of identity construction during their acculturation to the host society. Drawing on sociocultural theory and psychological concepts of identity…

  6. Exploring stance and listener alignment in public discourse | Thuube ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses public speakers' discursive use of modality markers to persuade their audiences in political discourse. Although modality has been a subject of much investigation in different research areas recently, there has been no empirical examination of their role or functions in political discourse in Lesotho.

  7. Concluding Essay: On Applied Linguistics and Discourse Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Robert B.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses trends and problems in regarding discourse analysis as a viable paradigm that can govern research, focusing on such issues as the wide diversity and variety of research that can be considered discourse analysis, the predominant focus on English language, research approaches, and undefined variables affecting research outcomes. (seven…

  8. Discourse-Centric Learning Analytics: Mapping the Terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Simon; Littleton, Karen

    2015-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in developing learning analytic techniques for the analysis, and support of, high-quality learning discourse. This paper maps the terrain of discourse-centric learning analytics (DCLA), outlining the distinctive contribution of DCLA and outlining a definition for the field moving forwards. It is our claim that DCLA…

  9. Pluralist Discourses of Bilingualism and Translanguaging Talk in Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, Leah; Palmer, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines student and teacher talk in a first grade classroom in a two-way immersion school in Central Texas. Drawing on audio and video data from a year-long study in a first grade two-way classroom and using a methodology that fuses ethnography and discourse analysis, the authors explore how pluralist discourses are constructed and…

  10. Teaching Mathematics to Lower Attainers: Dilemmas and Discourses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderton, Julie; Gifford, Sue

    2018-01-01

    This article draws on Foucault's concepts of power and discourse to explore the issues of teaching mathematics to low attainers in primary schools in England. We analyse a data set of interviews, from a larger study, with the mathematics teachers of one child across three years, showing how accountability practices, discourses of ability and…

  11. Objects of English Colonial Discourse: The Irish and Native Americans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harding, David

    2005-01-01

    Upon embarking on the colonial project of the First British Empire, it was necessary to develop a discourse of empire. This discourse served the purpose of legitimizing imperial conquest by demonizing peoples targeted for colonization. The demonization was accomplished by caricaturing colonized...

  12. Exploring the Relationship between Mathematical Modelling and Classroom Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Trevor; Sheehy, Joanne; Brown, Raymond

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the notion that the discourse of the mathematics classroom impacts on the practices that students engage when modelling mathematics. Using excerpts of a Year 12 student's report on modelling Newton's law of cooling, this paper argues that when students engage with the discourse of their mathematics classroom in a manner that…

  13. Re-establishing an ecological discourse in the policy debate over how to value ecosystems and biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spash, Clive L; Aslaksen, Iulie

    2015-08-15

    In this paper we explore the discourses of ecology, environmental economics, new environmental pragmatism and social ecological economics as they relate to the value of ecosystems and biodiversity. Conceptualizing biodiversity and ecosystems as goods and services that can be represented by monetary values in policy processes is an economic discourse being increasingly championed by ecologists and conservation biologists. The latter promote a new environmental pragmatism internationally as hardwiring biodiversity and ecosystems services into finance. The approach adopts a narrow instrumentalism, denies value pluralism and incommensurability, and downplays the role of scientific knowledge. Re-establishing an ecological discourse in biodiversity policy implies a crucial role for biophysical indicators as independent policy targets, exemplified in this paper by the Nature Index for Norway. Yet, there is a recognisable need to go beyond a traditional ecological approach to one recognising the interconnections of social, ecological and economic problems. This requires reviving and relating to a range of alternative ecologically informed discourses, including an ecofeminist perspective, in order to transform the increasingly dominant and destructive relationship of humans separated from and domineering over Nature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Meaning contents of radiographers' professional identity as illustrated in a professional journal - A discourse analytical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemi, Antti [University of Oulu, Department of Nursing Science and Health Administration, P.O. Box 5000, 90014 Oulu (Finland)], E-mail: antti.niemi@oulu.fi; Paasivaara, Leena [University of Oulu, Department of Nursing Science and Health Administration, P.O. Box 5000, 90014 Oulu (Finland)], E-mail: leena.paasivaara@oulu.fi

    2007-11-15

    Aim: The purpose of the present study is to describe and understand the meaning contents of radiographers' professional identity. Background: The conceptualisation of professional identity in terms of radiographers' perceptions of their role focuses on their preferred role-content and perception of the professional self. Professional identity defines values and beliefs that guide the radiographer's thinking, actions and interaction. Method: The present study employs the method of discourse analysis to gain a profound understanding of the cultural meaning contents related to the formation of the professional identity of radiographers. Material for the study was gathered from articles published in the professional journal of the Society of Radiographers in Finland between the years 1987 and 2003. Findings: Technical discourse emphasised the importance of responding to the changes in radiology in the 1990s. Safety discourse emerged as the second content of meaning describing the formation of professional identity. The third content of meaning in professional identity was professional discourse, a central aspect being to promote the esteem of one's profession and emphasise professional identity. Conclusions: The results suggest that the professional identity of a radiographer is dual in nature. On one hand, the professional identity of a radiographer is based on solid command of scientific-mechanic technology in a technical working environment; while on the other hand, it consists of mastering the humane, humanistic nursing work.

  15. Advertising Discourse Analysis of FES stores: Killing Love, Cowards Show

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Venegas Ahumada

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective is to analyze the structural and photographic discourse of the Autumn-Winter campaign 2008 of FES stores for young people. This was done by a semiotic theory and a critical-structural methodology of discourse. An analysis of 4 advertising photographs was done, and at once an analysis of the discourse “FES says no to violence against Women”, which explains the campaign’s target. The result is: The discourse was subjected to production condition (society of control and makes advertising a way to homogenize subjectivity of masses to consume. Recognition conditions demonstrate that this advertising discourse of symbolic violence means a type of violation of Men and Women Rights. An action like this requires commitment of Psychology in order to promote the social humanizing change, by means of university teaching and professional tasks.

  16. Competing discourses of the “Maya Past”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Fay Brown

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of the "Maya past" for tourism marketing purposes has been a successful tool for attracting international visitors to Mexico for decades. Images of the Maya zone emerge, in part, from an academic focus on the "Maya past" that includes curiosity about the so-called "collapse" of the Classic Maya civilization. The Ancient Maya are seen as “mysterious" and their society as "enigmatic". But the voices of the almost thirty million Maya people who live in Mexico and Guatemala are only vaguely heard in the discourses of tourism and of academia. This paper examines three competing discourses of the Maya and proposes that these discourses represent epistemologies that are nested in relationships of power, such that the Maya discourse is silenced. As such, the dominant discourses of the Maya past can undermine the Maya understanding of their own past, and become a self-fulfilling prophecy regarding the “collapse” of the contemporary Maya.

  17. National Identity: Conceptual models, discourses and political change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Peter

    2014-01-01

    of conceptual models or discourses. This is especially important in cases that involve conflictive political issues such as national and ethnic identity. The article reports on a historical project with a linguistic dimension in my department (PI Stuart Ward, cf. Ward 2004), which aims to throw light......Cognitive Linguistics has demonstrated the applicability of a conceptual approach to the understanding of political issues, cf. Lakoff (2008) and many others. From a different perspective, critical discourse analysis has approached political concepts with a focus on issues involving potentially...... divisive features such as race, class, gender and ethnic identity. Although discourses are not identical to conceptual models, conceptual models are typically manifested in discourse, and discourses are typically reflections of conceptualizations, a theme explored e.g. in Hart and Lukes (2007). As argued...

  18. Navigating contextual constraints in discourse: Design explications in institutional talk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herijgers, MLC (Marloes); Maat, HLW (Henk) Pander

    2017-01-01

    Although institutional discourse is subject to a vast ensemble of constraints, its design is not fixed beforehand. On the contrary, optimizing the satisfaction of these constraints requires considerable discourse design skills from institutional agents. In this article, we analyze how Dutch banks’ mortgage advisors navigate their way through the consultations context. We focus on what we call discourse design explications, that is, stretches of talk in which participants refer to conflicting constraints in the discourse context, at the same time proposing particular discourse designs for dealing with these conflicts. We start by discussing three forms of design explication. Then we will examine the various resolutions they propose for constraint conflicts and show how advisors seek customer consent or cooperation for the proposed designs. Thus our analysis reveals how institutional agents, while providing services, work on demonstrating how the design of these services is optimized and tailored to customers. PMID:28781580

  19. Information rich display design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, Robin; Braseth, Alf Ove; Veland, Oeystein

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the concept Information Rich Displays. The purpose of Information Rich Displays (IRDs) is to condensate prevailing information in process displays in such a way that each display format (picture) contains more relevant information for the user. Compared to traditional process control displays, this new concept allows the operator to attain key information at a glance and at the same time allows for improved monitoring of larger portions of the process. This again allows for reduced navigation between both process and trend displays and ease the cognitive demand on the operator. This concept has been created while working on designing display prototypes for the offshore petroleum production facilities of tomorrow. Offshore installations basically consist of wells, separation trains (where oil, gas and water are separated from each other), an oil tax measurement system (where oil quality is measured and the pressure increased to allow for export), gas compression (compression of gas for export) and utility systems (water treatment, chemical systems etc.). This means that an offshore control room operator has to deal with a complex process that comprises several functionally different systems. The need for a new approach to offshore display format design is in particular based on shortcomings in today's designs related to the keyhole effect, where the display format only reveals a fraction of the whole process. Furthermore, the upcoming introduction of larger off- and on-shore operation centres will increase the size and complexity of the operators' work domain. In the light of the increased demands on the operator, the proposed IRDs aim to counter the negative effects this may have on the workload. In this work we have attempted to classify the wide range of different roles an operator can have in different situations. The information content and amount being presented to the operator in a display should be viewed in context of the roles the

  20. Ross-Cultural Aspects of Metaphorical Framing in Political Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana V. Andryukhina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines cross-cultural aspects of metaphorical framing in political discourse. The author notes the importance of conceptual metaphor in framing the conceptual domain of politics, political discourse as a whole, its perception as well as political reality itself. The author shares an opinion that the metaphorical structure of basic concepts of a nation always correlates with its fundamental cultural values. However, the examination of political discourse from the cross-cultural perspective reveals the cases of metaphor uses that don't meet the requirements of cultural coherence and may lead to negative cognitive and communicative consequences. Along with admitting a wide discrepancy between metaphorical models in western and oriental political discourse, the author gives some examples of metaphorical coherence as well as its violation in a number of basic metaphors in American, British and Russian political discourse. To illustrate how cross-cultural factors determine the specific character of metaphorical framing, the article analyses the dynamic character of metaphorical models that can realize diverse scenarios in different national varieties of political discourse. An observation is made about the dependence of metaphoric scenarios in different national varieties of political discourse on the cultural, historical, social and political components of the national cultural cognitive map. The latter is heterogeneous as it is structured by the objectified individual, group, and national verbal and nonverbal experience. This explains, for instance, why there are examples of similarity as well as discrepancy between metaphorical framing in ideologically different party varieties of political discourse within the national political discourse as well as in the rhetoric of politicians belonging to different generations. The observations are illustrated by cross-linguistic data proving the dynamic character of metaphorical models, their

  1. The problem of disenchantment: scientific naturalism and esoteric discourse, 1900-1939

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asprem, E.

    2013-01-01

    De moderne natuurwetenschappen worden niet makkelijk beschreven als de aanstichters van ‘de onttovering van de wereld’. Dit laat Egil Asprem zien in zijn onderzoek. In plaats daarvan vindt Asprem juist een aantal belangrijke punten van overlap tussen wetenschap, theologie en breed genomen

  2. Heterodox journals networks and ranking: journals as constituents of scientific discourse: economic heterodoxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolfsma, W.; Leydesdorff, L.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - This paper aims to provide a view and analysis of the immediate field of journals that surround a number of key heterodox economics journals. Design/methodology/approach - Using citation data from the Science and Social Science Citation Index, the individual and collective networks of a

  3. Public Communication of Science in Blogs: Recontextualizing Scientific Discourse for a Diversified Audience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzón, María José

    2013-01-01

    New media are having a significant impact on science communication, both on the way scientists communicate with peers and on the dissemination of science to the lay public. Science blogs, in particular, provide an open space for science communication, where a diverse audience (with different degrees of expertise) may have access to science…

  4. The Discursive Dynamics in Teacher Education: Authoritative Discourse or Internally Persuasive Discourse?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Otilia Guimarães Ninin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article, based on the socio-cultural-historical theoretical perspective, discusses the activity in which individuals engage as constitutive of the social roles they occupy. It aims to trigger discussion of discursive dynamics in the context of critical-collaborative teacher education, focusing on internally persuasive and authoritative discourse (BAKHTIN, 1981 and their co-occurrence in situations of negotiation of meanings. This distinction is relevant because it is possible to understand different argumentative enunciations or not, conducted by educators in training, which approach or distance themselves from those cast by their trainers or isolated voices of theoretical practice, indicating possibilities of creation or reduction of dialogic expansion. From the emphasis on internally persuasive discourse, this article highlights the critical - collaborative argumentation role in training educators. Examples selected from a corpus of research collected in public school in São Paulo subsidize the discussion supported by Bakhtin (1981 and Vygotsky (1998; 2001.

  5. "Balkanism" as discourse(s) of power(lessness): towards the questionability of narrativism

    OpenAIRE

    Koprivitsa, Chaslav D.

    2016-01-01

    The intention of this paper is to review the historical presuppositions of the absence of the indigenous self-naming of the Balkans, and to illuminate the consequences of external practices, mainly western of "producing" of Balkan identity - through Balkanist discourse of power. But to achieve this it is not enough to point out that the external construction of the narrative of the Balkans is often motivated by the domination interests, which is why we try to understand, and partly to bring i...

  6. Promoting proximal formative assessment with relational discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Close, Hunter G.; McKagan, Sarah B.

    2012-02-01

    The practice of proximal formative assessment - the continual, responsive attention to students' developing understanding as it is expressed in real time - depends on students' sharing their ideas with instructors and on teachers' attending to them. Rogerian psychology presents an account of the conditions under which proximal formative assessment may be promoted or inhibited: (1) Normal classroom conditions, characterized by evaluation and attention to learning targets, may present threats to students' sense of their own competence and value, causing them to conceal their ideas and reducing the potential for proximal formative assessment. (2) In contrast, discourse patterns characterized by positive anticipation and attention to learner ideas increase the potential for proximal formative assessment and promote self-directed learning. We present an analysis methodology based on these principles and demonstrate its utility for understanding episodes of university physics instruction.

  7. Female identity discourse in automobile advertisements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat López Díaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the way in which the modern car-advertisement defines the identity of women as potential purchasers – to whom it is designed to get through. The research includes language and iconic instruments by which this type of advertisement aims to create a feminized market of products formerly recognized as traditionally masculine. The identification of the addressee of each publicity material might be subsumed under a set of stereotypes, thus enabling advertisers to get across their message using the code of addressee’s own values. The present paper concentrates on the linguistic specifity of the ads for high-tech goods (automobiles targeting the feminine public and eventually points out their high degree of markedness according to the sex of addressees. Discourse analysis and a closer look at linguistic means appearing in French, Spanish and Polish automotive commercials both reveals a stereotyped woman’s image and shows how they happen to perpetutate it.

  8. Advertising Radio Discourse – Lexical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitrascu Elena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Radio advertising, although it seems to be the "poor relative" on the advertising market, is avery interesting topic of study, because it uses language to a very large extent. In a relatively shorttime, a maximum of information is transmitted that causes emotions and raises the interest of asmany people as possible for a product or brand, all wrapped up in a coherent text of 60 to 100words . In radio advertising, the text is the one that has priority, being the star because themessage is based on the text. For this reason, radio discourse may be a research object of interestto linguists, and this has led us to pay close attention to it.

  9. Blogging 9/11 and Memory Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Paganoni

    2011-09-01

    This article highlights a few of the salient discursive and linguistic patterns that recur in the 9/11 narratives that have multiplied online on several dedicated websites and investigates the evolution of 9/11 cultural memory practices, torn between the discourse of the unrepresentable and the imperative to remember. It claims that blogging 9/11, immediately after the attacks and over the years, well illustrates how the logic of memory and its interpretation of the past follow different criteria from history writing. It shows how memorialization practices, dictated by the fear of forgetting the vanishing present, contribute to that excess of memory that lies at the core of the instability and mutual competition of sources retrieved on the Internet and that might ultimately lead to a rethinking of what is the contribution of collective memory to historiography.

  10. Discourse of 'transformational leadership' in infection control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koteyko, Nelya; Carter, Ronald

    2008-10-01

    The article explores the impact of the ;transformational leadership' style in the role of modern matron with regards to infection control practices. Policy and guidance on the modern matron role suggest that it is distinctive in its combination of management and clinical components, and in its reliance on transformational leadership. Senior nurses are therefore expected to motivate staff by creating high expectations, modelling appropriate behaviour, and providing personal attention to followers by giving respect and responsibility. In this article, we draw on policy documents and interview data to explore the potential impact of this new management style on infection control practices. Combining the techniques of discourse analysis and corpus linguistics, we identify examples where matrons appear to disassociate themselves from the role of ;an empowered manager' who has control over human and financial resources to resolve problems in infection control efficiently.

  11. Constructing Realities: Bullying Usages in Chilean Discourses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Bassaletti-Contreras

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The article reports an exploratory research on the uses given in Chile to the Anglicism bullying. In order to do so, its evolution is reviewed from the early studies in the Nordic countries, to the treatment of the topic in the Chilean context. The focus of this work is based on socioconstructionism and in turn promotes the consideration of the characteristics of the socio-cultural and historical context of knowledge production with a postcolonial intention. To review the constructions on the subject, we selected Chilean videos at the YouTube virtual platform, using as methodology discourse analysis and dense description. In results can be observed two meanings of bullying: (i to refer to any kind of aggression and (ii as a homologous of abuse among schoolchildren. In response, it is realized the discrepancy with the proposed definitions from general academia and those used in the local environment in investigations, interventions, public policy and mass media in Chile.

  12. Punning Wordplay in Czech Advertising Discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Věra Sládková

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This account of punning wordplay in Czech advertising discourse draws on the recent popularity of pun and the research, for which the theory of lexical priming provides lexico-grammatical framework. The corpus-based evidence of combinatorial behaviour of linguistic features, and the processes behind reinterpretations and sense selections aid an analysis of the reasons why many pun attempts failed to achieve the desired effect, and at the same time explain which features are successful in generating amusement in Czech puns. The processes of relexicalisation and reworking were observed in a considerable number of instances in older and more recent advertising puns, the sources of ambiguity identified, and puns were compared, contrasted and classified. At the same time a shift from reliance on one ambiguous feature to employing multiple psycholinguistic phenomena and their combinations has been identified.

  13. Mediatized Extreme Right Activism and Discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Rikke Alberg

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of the German neo-fascist network The Immortals (Die Unsterblichen) who in 2011 performed a flash-mob disseminated on YouTube for the so- called ‘Become Immortal’ campaign. The street protest was designed for and adapted to the specific characteristics of online...... activism. It is a good example of how new contentious action repertoires in which online and street activism intertwine have also spread to extreme right groups. Despite its neo-fascist and extreme right content the ‘Become Immortal’ campaign serves as an illustrative case for the study of mediated...... and mediatized activism. In order to analyse of the protest form, the visual aesthetics and the discourse of ‘The Immortals’, the paper mobilises two concepts from media and communication studies: mediation and mediatization. It will be argued that that the current transformation of the extreme right: that is...

  14. Generation and discourse in working life stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Karen

    2013-06-01

    Following Mannheim's (1970) Problem of Generations, many scholars have warned of the analytical and political risks of conflating generation with cohort. Yet the temptation persists, as relying on cohort is a convenient method of dividing a population to study it. This article proposes that cohort is only convenient if the objective is understanding generations as definitive groups of people. It suggests a supplementary objective: understanding generation as a matter of discourse. Qualitative data from interviews with 52 Canadians illustrates how the discursive forms of generation in their stories render difference, human agency and social change in atomistic or voluntaristic terms. The most extreme manifestations of this theme appear related to the perception of generational conflict. Guided by James' principle of pragmatism, this article maintains that understanding generation as a discursive, historically contingent 'thought' with 'effects' is as important as understanding its structural form and contents. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2013.

  15. (Emerging Discourses: Architecture and Cultural Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah McGaughey

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Three recent works, Rosalind Galt’s Pretty, Anne Cheng’s Second Skin, and Daniel Purdy’s On the Ruins of Babel incorporate architectural history and architectural discourse into their analyses in ways that are new to their respective fields ranging from studies of film, gender, and race to intellectual history. Placing these three works in one essay allows for a detailed review of the ways in which each author employs architecture, at the same time as it reveals the benefits and challenges of incorporating architecture into cultural studies. The essay discusses the contributions of each work to their fields and also takes advantage of the different approaches to culture and architecture to explore the ways in which this relationship might continue to inform and generate productive studies.

  16. Learning as discourse change: A sociocultural mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickman, Per-Olof; Östman, Leif

    2002-09-01

    This paper deals with a theoretical mechanism for learning and a methodological approach for analyzing meaning making in classroom talk and action. It examines the potential of the approach for illuminating learning on a discursive level, i.e., how discourses change and how individuals become participants of new practices. Our approach involves a high-resolution analysis of how meaningful relations are built in encounters between individuals and between individuals and the world. The approach is based mainly on the work of the later Wittgenstein, but also on pragmatism and sociocultural research. To demonstrate how our approach can be used, we analyze what university students learn during a practical on insects. We specifically demonstrate how the encounters with physical pinned insects contribute to the meaning students make and how these encounters interact with other experiences during laboratory work.

  17. The practices of competing discourses revised

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Charlotte Marie Bisgaard

    and studied in everyday interaction in the context of health communication? I will discuss 1) the order of competing discourses with examples drawn from a modern practice study at the nursing home which specialize in persons with aquired brain damage. Since some of the participants have severe brain damage I...... perspective which I have been working on alongside the project may be probed in an intervention study (The author, 2015). The goal is to study unique situations as they arise in order to engage in the ongoing discussions with the organizational stakeholders. At a more general level my interests are to examine...... how ’sense-making’ may be approached as real persons experienced understandings’. Getting closer to the people communicating and their experienced understandings seem crucial when working with organizational intervention. May a new analytical perspective help distinguish the experienced communication...

  18. Possibilities of consensus: toward democratic moral discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, B

    1991-08-01

    The concept of consensus is often appealed to in discussions of biomedical ethics and applied ethics, and it plays an important role in many influential ethical theories. Consensus is an especially influential notion among theorists who reject ethical realism and who frame ethics as a practice of discourse rather than a body of objective knowledge. It is also a practically important notion when moral decision making is subject to bureaucratic organization and oversight, as is increasingly becoming the case in medicine. Two models of consensus are examined and criticized: pluralistic consensus and overlapping consensus. As an alternative to these models, the paper argues that consensus refers to the dialogic aspects of a broader normative conception of democratic moral agency. When the preconditions for that dialogic democratic practice are met, consensus has a justificatory role in ethics; when they are not, consensus, as distinct from mere agreement, does not emerge and can have no moral authority.

  19. The Power of Photographs of Buildings in the Dresden Urban Discourse. Towards a Visual Discourse Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela B. Christmann

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available "Old Dresden" which is known worldwide as a symbol for inept destruction in World War II stopped existing in its physical form in February 1945. The image of "old Dresden," however, has been maintained in the minds of its citizens. This is as results of the visualization of historical buildings. Buildings are artifacts that can be experienced visually and aesthetically. Thus, it is not surprising that in the context of public discourses they "demand" an appropriate representation in a visual and in an aesthetic respect. In the urban discourse of Dresden the visualization of buildings plays an important role. In the article the author exemplifies her methodical approach to visual discourse analysis. She acts on the assumption that three levels of analyzing images must be taken into consideration: 1. the composition of the image, with its content and design, 2. the context of production and publication, including the horizon of historic events, and 3. the mode of reception, with respect to communicative processes. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0803115

  20. Analyzing the Advertising Discourse- A Journey from Sight to Mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahrukh Baig

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research paper sets out to project an in-depth study of the advertising discourse by applying methodological approaches of Discourse Analysis and Critical Discourse Analysis to the chosen “advertisements”. It aims at examining the ‘power relations and struggles’ among product-producers and product-consumers, to gauge the level of psychological dominance exercised through the advertising discourse. The study, fundamentally, presents a counter-analysis of ‘advertising strategies’, as to how far they influence the consumers’ attitudes and to what extent the consumers direct their ‘discourse’. In other words, this research attempts to answer the question: ‘who turns out to be more powerful by controlling the other’s mind, in advertiser-consumer relationship?’, whether it is the consumer who shapes the discourse of advertisements through their demands, or the advertiser who affects the consumers’ beliefs through their ‘discourse’! Thus, the current paper presents a comprehensive review of the relevant literature leading towards a theoretical framework of preferred DA and CDA approaches to be further applied on the discourse of advertisements. And towards the end, it states the final remarks concluding the entire discussion and reflecting upon the effectiveness of Critical Discourse Analysis in its application on the advertising phenomena.

  1. Is prophetic discourse adequate to address global economic justice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piet J. Naudé

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article outlined key features of prophetic discourse and investigated whether this form of moral discourse adequately addresses issues of economic injustice. It is shown that the strength of prophetic discourse is its ability to denounce instances of injustice whilst at the same time announcing a God-willed alternative future. The ‘preferential option for the poor’ in Latin American liberation theologies is treated as a case study of the influence of prophetic discourse in contexts of perceived economic injustice. Also the core weaknesses of prophetic discourse are investigated, specifically its incomplete moral argument, weak moral analyses, silence on transition measures, and its inability to take a positive stance on reforms in the system from which itself benefits. In the final section it is concluded that prophetic discourse plays an indispensable role in addressing issues of global economic justice, but – taken by itself – it is not an adequate form of moral discourse to address concrete matters of justice.

  2. Discourses of Consumption in US-American Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Turner

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores varieties and examples of discourses of consumption, focusing primarily on US-American cultural discourses. The international community has in recent years developed an extremely valuable body of literature examining strategies for facilitating sustainable consumption; economic ramifications of varying consumption behaviors; attitudes and social structures that encourage or discourage sustainable consumption; approaches to consumption as a component of a sustainable or “green” lifestyle; and considerations of consumption practices in relation to inequities between North and South. The United States has made relatively few contributions to this body of literature thus far. But although the U.S. has not been one of the primary sources of academic literature on sustainable consumption, several types of discourses on consumption have become prominent in U.S. popular culture. These types of discourses include examinations of the moral status of consumption; investigations of the environmental or health consequences of modern consumption behaviors; explorations and critiques of green consumerism; and discourses that either construct or critique the commodification of the nonhuman world to produce objects for consumption. Throughout this paper I outline and offer examples of these strains of popular discourse, drawing on a newly-emerging body of U.S. literature and critically analyzing instances of discourse about sustainable consumption in film, television, internet, and print media. I conclude by examining new perspectives on sustainable coexistence that offer transformative possibilities for establishing relationships with the more-than-human world that are not based primarily on consumption.

  3. [The two (and more) cultures of the "clone". Utopia and fiction in post-war discourses of life sciences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Christina

    2009-01-01

    Since the late 1950s, "two cultures" has become a catch phrase for describing a deep divide between science and literature. When Charles P. Snow, who initiated this discussion, introduced the notion of "two cultures" in a lecture at the University in Cambridge in 1959, he referred to an incompatibility of scientific and literary worldviews in Western Societies. His thesis of two contradicting cultures immediately received a huge variety of different responses from philosophers, scientists, novelists and literary scholars. However, this article argues that this widespread debate was part of a broader post-war discourse on the impact of modern science on society, in which especially the idea of "scientific progress" was at stake. Central to this debate was the question of how scientific and technological progress could affect the notion of the "human" itself. The paper analyses the emerging discourse on cloning against this background. The constitutive role of fiction and imagination in both fields, science and literature, is explored by tracing the scientific, utopian and literary cultures in which figures of human clones have taken different shapes since the 1960s. At that time, scientists developed utopian views in which the "clone" became a metaphor for future possibilities of transcending and reshaping the human nature. Science fiction writers reacted to this by portraying the human clone as an individual and by depicting human clone figures in a psychological way

  4. Self Representation Among Dark Skin People Concerning Discourse of Beauty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasty Larasati

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to see how’s dark skin people perceive the color of their skin either it’s beautiful or ugly. Up until now, being beautiful categorized as those with fair skin, including Indonesian. This is important to be seen because how you represent yourself related to your identity− who you are or how do you want to be seen. Either they are confident with their skin or not, it is their way of self representation which they got from identity negotiation. But, among dark skin people there always be people who confidently represents their identity against the beauty discourse or counter-discourse. Previous literature reviews show there are two reason can cause counter-discourse: recognition and negotiation. Recognition is an act actor does to fight the mainstream discourse, meanwhile negotiation is about negotiating about what they have. My argument here is women can counter the discourse because of negotiation, they have free choice and body autonomy. Also, they have power to counter the discourse by bargaining power. This article uses qualitative research with in-depth interview towards nine female informants with spesific range of age: 16 – 24 because those ages are ages with huge internet usage. Skin tone classification for informant selection is based on Fitzpatrick skin type scale. Research findings show seven from nine informants have done counter the beauty discourse. Informants also explained how their personality or skills could be their bargaining power which made them easier to counter the beauty discourse. Beside that, informant also have done negotiate their identity from accepted the beauty discourse about desirable skin tones, into counter it. The process did not come out of the blue, but also it need both internal and external factors role. Internal factor is self-consciousness about beauty itself while external factors from family, peer or media socialization.

  5. Risk in Postgraduate Writing: Voice, Discourse and Edgework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Thesen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper brings writing into the contested space of research and knowledge-making in South Africa. An often hidden dimension of research is that it has to find expression in a written product, increasingly in English. This creates challenges for both students, who have developed writing identities in other domains, disciplines and languages, and also supervisors and journal editors who are gatekeepers for the making of new knowledge. In a competitive and uncertain climate where discourses of risk management play an increasingly important part, people tend to play it safe when it comes to writing, conforming to a narrow image of scientific writing. This has consequences for knowledge-making as students often set aside the experiences, allegiances and styles they have developed along the way. Drawing on data from an international publishing project on risk in academic writing, the paper explores dilemmas around the process of research writing. These instances make the contradictions and tensions faced by writers and gatekeepers central, highlighting the importance of voice and risk. Both voice and risk are explored experientially and theoretically, with the emphasis on the potentials of risk. The concept of risk, not as risk management, but as risk-taking, offers new ways of thinking about writing that brings the decisions that writers and readers make to the fore. A focus on risk has the potential to offer new understandings about the changing landscapes in which writers and readers weigh up their options against notions of what is ‘normal’.  Finally I suggest edgework as a productive concept that can take work on risk forward in both research and pedagogy.

  6. Platelet Rich Plasma and Knee Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikel Sánchez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In orthopaedic surgery and sports medicine, the knee joint has traditionally been considered the workhorse. The reconstruction of every damaged element in this joint is crucial in achieving the surgeon’s goal to restore the knee function and prevent degeneration towards osteoarthritis. In the last fifteen years, the field of regenerative medicine is witnessing a boost of autologous blood-derived platelet rich plasma products (PRPs application to effectively mimic and accelerate the tissue healing process. The scientific rationale behind PRPs is the delivery of growth factors, cytokines, and adhesive proteins present in platelets and plasma, as well as other biologically active proteins conveyed by the plasma such as fibrinogen, prothrombin, and fibronectin; with this biological engineering approach, new perspectives in knee surgery were opened. This work describes the use of PRP to construct and repair every single anatomical structure involved in knee surgery, detailing the process conducted in ligament, meniscal, and chondral surgery.

  7. Platelet-rich plasma: applications in dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde Montero, E; Fernández Santos, M E; Suárez Fernández, R

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, the use of platelet-rich plasma has increased notably in a range of diseases and settings. Uses of these products now go beyond skin rejuvenation therapy in patients with facial ageing. Good outcomes for other dermatological indications such as skin ulcers and, more recently, alopecia have been reported in case series and controlled studies. However, these indications are not currently included in the labeling given that stronger scientific evidence is required to support their real benefits. With the increased use of these products, dermatologists need to become familiar with the underlying biological principles and able to critically assess the quality and outcomes of the studies of these products in different skin diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  8. Opening up animal research and science-society relations? A thematic analysis of transparency discourses in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Carmen; Hobson-West, Pru

    2016-10-01

    The use of animals in scientific research represents an interesting case to consider in the context of the contemporary preoccupation with transparency and openness in science and governance. In the United Kingdom, organisations critical of animal research have long called for more openness. More recently, organisations involved in animal research also seem to be embracing transparency discourses. This article provides a detailed analysis of publically available documents from animal protection groups, the animal research community and government/research funders. Our aim is to explore the similarities and differences in the way transparency is constructed and to identify what more openness is expected to achieve. In contrast to the existing literature, we conclude that the slipperiness of transparency discourses may ultimately have transformative implications for the relationship between science and society and that contemporary openness initiatives might be sowing the seeds for change to the status quo. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Opening up animal research and science–society relations? A thematic analysis of transparency discourses in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Carmen; Hobson-West, Pru

    2015-01-01

    The use of animals in scientific research represents an interesting case to consider in the context of the contemporary preoccupation with transparency and openness in science and governance. In the United Kingdom, organisations critical of animal research have long called for more openness. More recently, organisations involved in animal research also seem to be embracing transparency discourses. This article provides a detailed analysis of publically available documents from animal protection groups, the animal research community and government/research funders. Our aim is to explore the similarities and differences in the way transparency is constructed and to identify what more openness is expected to achieve. In contrast to the existing literature, we conclude that the slipperiness of transparency discourses may ultimately have transformative implications for the relationship between science and society and that contemporary openness initiatives might be sowing the seeds for change to the status quo. PMID:26009149

  10. Multidisciplinary critical discourse analysis: a plea for diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teun A. van Dijk

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This text is a Brazilian Portuguese version of the chapter from the book “Methods of Critical Discourse Analysis”. The author outlines a Critical Discourse Analysis framework while presents a synthesis of its thinking about the some possible relations between Discourse and Society. The author’s theorical horizon embraces features since the structuralist paradigm to the socio-cognitivo one. At last, the reader can realize an early presentation of the author’s Theory of Context (2001 categories of a theory of context which was published seven years later.

  11. Let's talk about society: A Critical Discourse Analysis of sociology courses in pre-registration nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Tomas F; Leal, Valentina J; Ayala, Ricardo A

    2016-01-01

    The discussion of teaching and learning in nursing has been prolific. Whereas most of the debate tends to focus on core contents of nursing programmes, little has been discussed about the teaching in 'supporting subjects' with relevance to both nursing education and nursing practice. This article offers a perspective on sociology scholarship for applied professions by using the case of nursing programmes. Syllabus is a rich source of data, and in its representational capacity it becomes both a discursive construction and a vehicle of ideology. Accordingly, we present a Critical Discourse Analysis of syllabi of nursing schools in Chile as to identify core contents and ideologies, and implied challenges for nursing education. We argue that while the syllabus as a discourse discloses a significant cleavage, the biggest challenge is precisely to challenge the ideologies constructed by and embedded in the syllabi. Our reflection thus points to a better interdisciplinary dialogue as to enhance the actual contribution of sociology to nursing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sports medicine applications of platelet rich plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Allan; Harmon, Kimberly; Woodall, James; Vieira, Amy

    2012-06-01

    Platelet rich plasma (PRP) is a powerful new biologic tool in sports medicine. PRP is a fraction of autologous whole blood containing and increased number of platelets and a wide variety of cytokines such as platelet derived growth factor (PDGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-B1), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) among many others. Worldwide interest in this biologic technology has recently risen sharply. Basic science and preclinical data support the use of PRP for a variety of sports related injuries and disorders. The published, peer reviewed, human data on PRP is limited. Although the scientific evaluation of clinical efficacy is in the early stages, elite and recreational athletes already use PRP in the treatment of sports related injuries. Many questions remain to be answered regarding the use of PRP including optimal formulation, including of leukocytes, dosage and rehabilitation protocols. In this review, a classification for platelet rich plasma is proposed and the in-vitro, preclinical and human investigations of PRP applications in sports medicine will be reviewed as well as a discussion of rehabilitation after a PRP procedure. The regulation of PRP by the World Anti-Doping Agency will also be discussed. PRP is a promising technology in sports medicine; however, it will require more vigorous study in order to better understand how to apply it most effectively.

  13. A content analysis of depression-related discourses on Sina Weibo: attribution, efficacy, and information sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jiabao; Liu, Bingjie; Kreps, Gary L

    2018-06-20

    Depression is a mood disorder that may lead to severe outcomes including mental breakdown, self-injury, and suicide. Potential causes of depression include genetic, sociocultural, and individual-level factors. However, public understandings of depression guided by a complex interplay of media and other societal discourses might not be congruent with the scientific knowledge. Misunderstandings of depression can lead to under-treatment and stigmatization of depression. Against this backdrop, this study aims to achieve a holistic understanding of the patterns and dynamics in discourses about depression from various information sources in China by looking at related posts on social media. A content analysis was conducted with 902 posts about depression randomly selected within a three-year period (2014 to 2016) on the mainstream social media platform in China, Sina Weibo. Posts were analyzed with a focus on attributions of and solutions to depression, attitudes towards depression, and efficacy indicated by the posts across various information sources. Results suggested that depression was most often attributed to individual-level factors. Across all the sources, individual-level attributions were often adopted by state-owned media whereas health and academic experts and organizations most often mentioned biological causes of depression. Citizen journalists and unofficial social groups tended to make societal-level attributions. Overall, traditional media posts suggested the lowest efficacy in coping with depression and the most severe negative outcomes as compared with other sources. The dominance of individual-level attributions and solutions regarding depression on Chinese social media on one hand manifests the public's limited understanding of depression and on the other hand, may further constrain adoption of scientific explanations about depression and exacerbate stigmatization towards depressed individuals. Mass media's posts centered on description of severe

  14. Age and Scientific Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Stephen

    1979-01-01

    The long-standing belief that age is negatively associated with scientific productivity and creativity is shown to be based upon incorrect analysis of data. Studies reported in this article suggest that the relationship between age and scientific performance is influenced by the operation of the reward system. (Author)

  15. Scientific Notation Watercolor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linford, Kyle; Oltman, Kathleen; Daisey, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    (Purpose) The purpose of this paper is to describe visual literacy, an adapted version of Visual Thinking Strategy (VTS), and an art-integrated middle school mathematics lesson about scientific notation. The intent of this lesson was to provide students with a real life use of scientific notation and exponents, and to motivate them to apply their…

  16. Scientific rigor through videogames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treuille, Adrien; Das, Rhiju

    2014-11-01

    Hypothesis-driven experimentation - the scientific method - can be subverted by fraud, irreproducibility, and lack of rigorous predictive tests. A robust solution to these problems may be the 'massive open laboratory' model, recently embodied in the internet-scale videogame EteRNA. Deploying similar platforms throughout biology could enforce the scientific method more broadly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Rediscovering the scientific ethos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Djørup, Stine

    The doctoral dissertation discusses some of the moral standards of good scientific practice that areunderexposed in the literature. In particular, attempts are made to correct the conceptual confusionsurrounding the norm of 'disinterestedness' in science (‘uhildethed’), and the norm of scientific...

  18. An Improved Cluster Richness Estimator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozo, Eduardo; /Ohio State U.; Rykoff, Eli S.; /UC, Santa Barbara; Koester, Benjamin P.; /Chicago U. /KICP, Chicago; McKay, Timothy; /Michigan U.; Hao, Jiangang; /Michigan U.; Evrard, August; /Michigan U.; Wechsler, Risa H.; /SLAC; Hansen, Sarah; /Chicago U. /KICP, Chicago; Sheldon, Erin; /New York U.; Johnston, David; /Houston U.; Becker, Matthew R.; /Chicago U. /KICP, Chicago; Annis, James T.; /Fermilab; Bleem, Lindsey; /Chicago U.; Scranton, Ryan; /Pittsburgh U.

    2009-08-03

    Minimizing the scatter between cluster mass and accessible observables is an important goal for cluster cosmology. In this work, we introduce a new matched filter richness estimator, and test its performance using the maxBCG cluster catalog. Our new estimator significantly reduces the variance in the L{sub X}-richness relation, from {sigma}{sub lnL{sub X}}{sup 2} = (0.86 {+-} 0.02){sup 2} to {sigma}{sub lnL{sub X}}{sup 2} = (0.69 {+-} 0.02){sup 2}. Relative to the maxBCG richness estimate, it also removes the strong redshift dependence of the richness scaling relations, and is significantly more robust to photometric and redshift errors. These improvements are largely due to our more sophisticated treatment of galaxy color data. We also demonstrate the scatter in the L{sub X}-richness relation depends on the aperture used to estimate cluster richness, and introduce a novel approach for optimizing said aperture which can be easily generalized to other mass tracers.

  19. Sustainable Development for Whom and How? Exploring the Gaps between Popular Discourses and Ground Reality Using the Mexican Jatropha Biodiesel Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Aparajita; Halvorsen, Kathleen E.; Eastmond-Spencer, Amarella; Sweitz, Sam R.

    2017-06-01

    In the last decade, jatropha-based bioenergy projects have gotten significant attention as a solution to various social, economic, and environmental problems. Jatropha's popularity stemmed out from different discourses, some real and some perceived, in scientific and non-scientific literature. These discourses positioned jatropha as a crop helpful in producing biodiesel and protecting sustainability by reducing greenhouse gas emissions compared to fossil fuels and increasing local, rural development by creating jobs. Consequently, many countries established national policies that incentivized the establishment of jatropha as a bioenergy feedstock crop. In this paper, we explore the case of jatropha bioenergy development in Yucatan, Mexico and argue that the popular discourse around jatropha as a sustainability and rural development tool is flawed. Analyzing our results from 70 semi-structured interviews with community members belonging to a region where plantation-scale jatropha projects were introduced, we found that these projects did not have many significant social sustainability benefits. We conclude from our case that by just adding bioenergy projects cannot help achieve social sustainability in rural areas alone. In ensuring social sustainability of bioenergy projects, future policymaking processes should have a more comprehensive understanding of the rural socioeconomic problems where such projects are promoted and use bioenergy projects as one of the many solutions to local problems rather than creating such policies based just on popular discourses.

  20. Sustainable Development for Whom and How? Exploring the Gaps between Popular Discourses and Ground Reality Using the Mexican Jatropha Biodiesel Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Aparajita; Halvorsen, Kathleen E; Eastmond-Spencer, Amarella; Sweitz, Sam R

    2017-06-01

    In the last decade, jatropha-based bioenergy projects have gotten significant attention as a solution to various social, economic, and environmental problems. Jatropha's popularity stemmed out from different discourses, some real and some perceived, in scientific and non-scientific literature. These discourses positioned jatropha as a crop helpful in producing biodiesel and protecting sustainability by reducing greenhouse gas emissions compared to fossil fuels and increasing local, rural development by creating jobs. Consequently, many countries established national policies that incentivized the establishment of jatropha as a bioenergy feedstock crop. In this paper, we explore the case of jatropha bioenergy development in Yucatan, Mexico and argue that the popular discourse around jatropha as a sustainability and rural development tool is flawed. Analyzing our results from 70 semi-structured interviews with community members belonging to a region where plantation-scale jatropha projects were introduced, we found that these projects did not have many significant social sustainability benefits. We conclude from our case that by just adding bioenergy projects cannot help achieve social sustainability in rural areas alone. In ensuring social sustainability of bioenergy projects, future policymaking processes should have a more comprehensive understanding of the rural socioeconomic problems where such projects are promoted and use bioenergy projects as one of the many solutions to local problems rather than creating such policies based just on popular discourses.

  1. Is prophetic discourse adequate to address global economic justice?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    2011-02-15

    Feb 15, 2011 ... of moral discourse adequately addresses issues of economic injustice. ... plays an indispensable role in addressing issues of global economic justice, but ...... governance in their business practices, to provide a tool for a.

  2. Personification in discourse: linguistic forms, conceptual structures and communicative functions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorst, A.G.

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on examples from a corpus of 14 excerpts from novels, this article aims to present a systematic investigation of the different linguistic forms, conceptual structures and communicative functions of personification in discourse. The Metaphor Identification Procedure (Pragglejaz Group, 2007)

  3. Forum-ing: Signature practice for public theological discourse

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-14

    May 14, 2014 ... response to the problems of poverty, homelessness, and the 'missing and murdered children' ... virtual poor: Reimaging a discourse of reconciliation and social cohesion in South Africa', .... The reality is that God is engaged.

  4. Toward a computer-aided methodology for discourse analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aided methods to discourse analysis”. This project aims to develop an e-learning environment dedicated to documenting, evaluating and teaching the use of corpus linguistic tools suitable for interpretative text analysis. Even though its roots are in ...

  5. Cognitive Models of Professional Communication Discourse on Teaching the Interpreters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moshchanskaya Y. Y.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the discourse on professional institutional communication and its modeling for training the interpreters. The aim of the study is the analysis of the cognitive models of the above discourse relating to the present development stage of the cognitive linguistics. The author makes the conclusion emphasizing the paradigmatic and syntagmatic orientation of the selected cognitive models and outlines the constant and variable factors for developing the didactic model of the professional communication discourse. The paper presents the discourse-analysis model of professional communication based on the systematic approach and designed for the case study of the mediated communication. The obtained results can be used for training both the interpreters and other professionals for whom the discursive competence is the key one. 

  6. Argumentation and acts of language in political discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Aguiar Mendes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the relations between speech acts and argumentation in political discourse, considering the relevance of the dimensions of ethos, logos and pathos in engendering the most typical enunciative processes of that discursive domain.

  7. POLITICAL DISCOURSE – A SYNTACTIC AND SEMANTIC ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miodarka Tepavcevic

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The language of politics is commonly studied within discourse analysis, whereby its linguistic features relating to vocabulary, grammar structures, textual and intertextual aspects are investigated using various methodologies. This paper presents an analysis of political discourse from a syntactic-semantic point of view. The corpus studied has been extracted from five. Montenegrin dailies and the analysis attempts to describe the genre as effectuated in the Montenegrin political discourse. As a result, the functions of political language are extrapolated and illustrated and its style is described in terms of intertextuality and other linguistic strategies commonly employed in political discourse. The paper aims to give a contribution to the understanding and linguistic profiling of political language.

  8. Ghetto-Society-Problem: A Discourse Analysis of Nationalist Othering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kristina Bakkær

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the role of the ghetto in Danish political discourse. While ghetto studies have previously been conducted within the field of urban sociology, the article departs from this tradition in offering a discourse analytical perspective on the former Danish government’s strategy...... against ghettoization (The Ghetto Plan). Integrating perspectives from the literature on nationalism with Laclau and Mouffe’s discourse analytical framework, the analysis argues that the ghetto marks an antagonistic anti-identity to Danish society. This discursive construction of the ghetto against...... society has the effect of confirming Danish identity, while at the same time precluding possibilities of the ghetto’s integration in society. Highlighting these implications, the study feeds into societal debates on integration, and suggests a framework for studying nationalist othering in a discourse...

  9. The making of 'American': race and nation in neurasthenic discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Brad

    2007-06-01

    This paper considers the underexamined racial and nationalistic components of late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century neurasthenic discourse to propose that neurasthenia was as much a discourse of modern American identity as it was a discourse of disease. By closely reading the medical and general texts which helped to popularize it, and by scrutinizing the context of its vogue and supposed subsequent decline, this paper shows how neurasthenia was intimately bound up with the era's politics of race, nationalism and citizenship. Countering traditional understandings of the disease, this study suggests that neurasthenia did not simply anticipate but was pre-eminently preoccupied with the questions and crises of modernity; that it was not, after all, a quintessentially Victorian but a fundamentally modernist discourse, and a paradigmatic example of how the construction of a neurotic American subject was necessarily and inevitably a construction of a modern American subject.

  10. Exploring voices, exploring appropriate education. A practitioners’ discourse'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grol, C.E.J.

    2012-01-01

    My thesis describes an exploratory process into a practitioners’ discourse on appropriate education. Chapter one: Appropriate Education is about the Dutch educational policy called Passend onderwijs. The chapter positions the appropriate education in national and international educational and

  11. THE WRITTEN DISCOURSE OF INTERVIEWING STYLE FOR A MAGAZINE INTERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie Barrot

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper examines the written discourse of interviewing style for the purpose of print publication. Specifically, this paper sought to describe and explain the phases of interviewing procedures, the typology of the questions, and the transitional strategies executed by Oprah Winfrey during her interviews for O Magazine. One hundred and ten (110 response-soliciting statements were subjected to discourse analytic procedure to determine the features of such utterances. The results showed that her interview procedure follows a certain pattern that contributes to her ability to maintain the intimacy, familiarity, and dynamics of conversation. Further, results revealed that the interviewer employs a variety of response-soliciting strategies and transitional strategies that unconsciously put the control and authority in the conversation to the interviewees. Finally, some pedagogical implications were also presented for classroom use. Keywords: discourse analysis, interviewing style, interview questions, written discourse

  12. Specifics of computer discourse translation from English into Russian

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Specifics of computer discourse translation from English into Russian. ... of further development of science and technology in Russia and abroad and it inevitably ... The article may be useful for IT teachers when preparing teaching aids and ...

  13. The discourse of causal explanations in school science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Tammy Jayne Anne

    Researchers and educators working from a systemic functional linguistic perspective have provided a body of work on science discourse which offers an excellent starting point for examining the linguistic aspects of the development of causal discourse in school science, discourse which Derewianka (1995) claimed is critical to success in secondary school. No work has yet described the development of causal language by identifying the linguistic features present in oral discourse or by comparing the causal discourse of native and non-native (ESL) speakers of English. The current research responds to this gap by examining the oral discourse collected from ESL and non-ESL students at the primary and high school grades. Specifically, it asks the following questions: (1) How do the teachers and students in these four contexts develop causal explanations and their relevant taxonomies through classroom interactions? (2) What are the causal discourse features being used by the students in these four contexts to construct oral causal explanations? The findings of the social practice analysis showed that the teachers in the four contexts differed in their approaches to teaching, with the primary school mainstream teacher focusing largely on the hands-on practice , the primary school ESL teacher moving from practice to theory, the high school mainstream teacher moving from theory to practice, and the high school ESL teacher relying primarily on theory. The findings from the quantitative, small corpus approach suggest that the developmental path of cause which has been identified in the writing of experts shows up not only in written texts but also in the oral texts which learners construct. Moreover, this move appears when the discourse of high school ESL and non-ESL students is compared, suggesting a developmental progression in the acquisition of these features by these students. The findings also reveal that the knowledge constructed, as shown by the concept maps created

  14. Modern Scientific Literacy: A Case Study of Multiliteracies and Scientific Practices in a Fifth Grade Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Elizabeth; Goldston, M. Jenice

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the convergence of multiliteracies and scientific practices in a fifth grade classroom. As students' lives become increasingly multimodal, diverse, and globalized, the traditional notions of literacy must be revisited (New London Group 1996). With the adoption of the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS Lead States 2013a) in many states, either in their entirety or in adapted forms, it becomes useful to explore the interconnectedness multiliteracies and scientific practices and the resulting implications for scientific literacy. The case study included a fifth grade classroom, including the students and teacher. In order to create a rich description of the cases involved, data were collected and triangulated through teacher interviews, student interviews and focus groups, and classroom observations. Findings reveal that as science activities were enriched with multiliteracies and scientific practices, students were engaged in developing skills and knowledge central to being scientifically literate. Furthermore, this study establishes that characteristics of scientific literacy, by its intent and purpose, are a form of multiliteracies in elementary classrooms. Therefore, the teaching and learning of science and its practices for scientific literacy are in turn reinforcing the development of broader multiliteracies.

  15. Discourse analysis in general practice: a sociolinguistic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessa, J; Malterud, K

    1990-06-01

    It is a simple but important fact that as general practitioners we talk to our patients. The quality of the conversation is of vital importance for the outcome of the consultation. The purpose of this article is to discuss a methodological tool borrowed from sociolinguistics--discourse analysis. To assess the suitability of this method for analysis of general practice consultations, the authors have performed a discourse analysis of one single consultation. Our experiences are presented here.

  16. Discourse Analysis of Dr. Mahathir’s Business Speech

    OpenAIRE

    Aliakbar Imani; Hadina Habil

    2015-01-01

    Discourse analysis is one of the methods of identifying ideologies reflected in text as well as the communication strategies used to convey those ideologies effectively to the addressed audience. Political business speeches defined as ‘a relatively autonomous discourse produced orally by a politician in front of an audience with the main purpose of persuading the audience into accepting a business proposition’ can be a good source to understand (a) the dominant business ideologies in a countr...

  17. Empowering Kinship to Counter Control on Family Discourse in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanovich Agusta

    2009-01-01

    Indonesian government constructs a discourse on family duringmodernizing Indonesia. A conceptual “father” used to legitimate control of the regime, as well as “state ibuism” (“state mothering”) to control especially women. A controlled family discourse is used around political sphere on national election, public administration, family planning, school, etc. State bureaucrats placed at national, provincial, regency, and village levels to control a nuclear family (Westernized type of family pus...

  18. Nike's "Find Your Greatness Campaign" a Discourse Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Maržić, Dea

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this B.A. thesis is the discourse analysis of Nikes Find Your Greatness advertising campaign, released at the time of the 2012 Olympics in London. The analysis is preceded by a brief overview of important theories, findings and terminology in the fields of discourse analysis, visual analysis, and advertising. Of a total of twenty individual adverts, the first and last released advertisements were chosen as representative of the main approaches and methods used throughout the ca...

  19. Corporate social responsibility's discourse in lithuanian business press

    OpenAIRE

    Marčenkovas, Marius

    2014-01-01

    The object of this master work is corporate social responsibility's (CSR) discourse. The purpose of this work is to analyze how Lithuanian business press presents CSR topic. The main tasks to reach this purpose are: overview and compare CSR definitions; analyze media impact to CSR; analyze and summarize CSR discourse in Lithuanian business press. Literature analysis, synthesis and comparative methods were used to drawn conclusions. After the literature analysis of such scientists as Ph. Kotle...

  20. Constructing Madness. Discourse analysis of changes in the DSM

    OpenAIRE

    Böröndi, Anita

    2014-01-01

    Understandings of mental disorders have changed over time and related concepts are often contested and definitions. This project used discourse analysis to analyse how the official definition of substance related disorders have changed in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders in comparison with the previous fourth edition (APA, 2000, 2013a). In particular, the analysis focused on how the changes are presented as justified in academic discourse. Three r...