WorldWideScience

Sample records for rice university benefits

  1. University Benefits Survey. Part 1 (All Benefits Excluding Pensions).

    Science.gov (United States)

    University of Western Ontario, London.

    Results of a 1983 survey of benefits, excluding pensions, for 17 Ontario, Canada, universities are presented. Information is provided on the following areas: whether the university self-administers insurance plans, communication of benefits, proposed changes in benefits, provision of life and dismemberment insurance, maternity leave policy,…

  2. Comparing the costs and benefits of floating rice-based and intensive rice-based farming systems in the Mekong delta

    OpenAIRE

    Van Kien Nguyen; Oc Van Vo; Duc Ngoc Huynh

    2015-01-01

    This paper compares financial costs and benefits of floating rice-based and intensive rice farming systems using data from focus group discussions and household survey in four locations in the Mekong Delta. We argue that the net financial benefit per 1000m2 of integrated floating rice-based farming systems is greater than the net financial benefit of intensive rice farming system. The total net benefit of floating rice-leeks shows the highest net benefit (VND 24.8 mil./1000 m2), followed by f...

  3. Economic Benefits of Aerobic Rice Grown Using Integrated Nitrogen Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyle A. Pardillo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses in the effect of integrated nitrogen management to the yield and economic benefits of aerobic rice. This will help farmers to identify which of the two management technique to use to save costs while profit is high. A split plot experiment in Randomized Complete Block design is used with two main treatments and four sub treatments. Main treatments are the use of integrated nitrogen management and an application of synthetic nitrogen fertilizer. Sub treatments are the different rates of nitrogen fertilizer from 0 as control, 90, 120 and 150 kg N ha-1 . Data are consolidated and analyzed using the ANOVA of SAS 9.3 statistical tool and comparison means at 5% significance level in Duncan Multiple Range Test. Grain yield, income, costs, profit and return on expenses are the data gathered. There is an increasing yield from control to 120 kg N ha-1 and started to decline at 150 kg N ha-1 because optimum level reached at 120 kg N ha-1 . Significant increased in yield was observed in plants applied with integrated nitrogen management at 120 kg N ha-1 compared to plants applied with synthetic nitrogen due to release of nitrogen that contributed to the yield of aerobic rice. However, plants applied of 90 kg N ha-1 synthetic nitrogen gives significant yield increased compared to plants with integrated nitrogen management. Yield was subjected to economic analysis using gross income, costs and profit and return on expenses. Plants applied with synthetic nitrogen at 90 kg N ha-1 resulted to high income due to lower costs of fertilizer inputs and only treatment that has a positive return on expenses at 3.2% while other treatments have a negative remarks. This will lead to a conclusion that 90 kg N ha-1 is the optimum level of nitrogen that can give high yield and positive return on expenses that farmers will benefited.

  4. Global value of GM rice: a review of expected agronomic and consumer benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demont, Matty; Stein, Alexander J

    2013-06-25

    Unlike the other major crops, no genetically modified (GM) varieties of rice have been commercialized at a large scale. Within the next 2-3 years new transgenic rice varieties could be ready for regulatory approval and subsequent commercialization, though. Given the importance of rice as staple crop for many of the world's poorest people, this will have implications for the alleviation of poverty, hunger and malnutrition. Thus, policy-makers need to be aware of the potential benefits of GM rice. We provide an overview of the literature and discuss the evidence on expected agronomic and consumer benefits of genetically engineered rice. We find that while GM rice with improved agronomic traits could deliver benefits similar to already commercialized biotechnology crops, expected benefits of consumer traits could be higher by an order of magnitude. By aggregating the expected annual benefits, we estimate the global value of GM rice to be US$64 billion per year. This is only an indicative value, as more GM varieties will become available in future. Nevertheless, such a figure can help guide policy-makers when deciding on the approval or funding of biotechnology crops and it may also raise awareness among consumers about what is at stake for their societies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Ontario Universities Benefits Survey, 1990-91: Part I, Benefits Excluding Pensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto.

    The report details, in tabular form, non-pension benefits offered by each of 17 Ontario universities. These include: supplementary health insurance; long term disability; sick leave entitlement; sick leave-benefits continuance; long term disability-benefits continuance; life insurance; survivor benefit; dental plan; post-retirement benefits;…

  6. Electricity production potential and social benefits from rice husk, a case study in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obaidullah Mohiuddin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan has been experiencing energy crisis owing to its sole dependence on fossil fuels. Reduction in local fossil fuel reserves has led to an increase in their prices, thereby increasing the cost of electricity. Since the tariff remains the same, Pakistan is over-burdened with circular debts and observes a daily power shortfall of about 12–14 h. Being an Agra-economic country, many major and minor crops are produced and exported in large quantities. This results in a bulk of the agricultural waste which are not utilized. The waste can be utilized to meet the country’s energy demand while mitigating climate change and its impact. The study examines the electricity production potential and social benefits of rice husk in Pakistan. It is estimated in this study that if 70% of rice husk residues are utilized, there will be annual electricity production of 1,328 GWh and the cost of per unit electricity by rice husk is found at 47.36 cents/kWh as compared to 55.22 cents/kWh of electricity generated by coal. Importantly, the study will increase the awareness of the benefits of utilizing agricultural waste for useful products such as silica, with several social and environmental benefits such as a reduction of 36,042 tCO2e/yr of methane, reducing carbon dioxide emissions, improving the air quality, and providing 4.5 k new jobs. The paper concludes with the policy recommendations based on this study.

  7. Exploiting Co-Benefits of Increased Rice Production and Reduced Greenhouse Gas Emission through Optimized Crop and Soil Management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning An

    Full Text Available Meeting the future food security challenge without further sacrificing environmental integrity requires transformative changes in managing the key biophysical determinants of increasing agronomic productivity and reducing the environmental footprint. Here, we focus on Chinese rice production and quantitatively address this concern by conducting 403 on-farm trials across diverse rice farming systems. Inherent soil productivity, management practices and rice farming type resulted in confounded and interactive effects on yield, yield gaps and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions (N2O, CH4 and CO2-equivalent with both trade-offs and compensating effects. Advances in nitrogen, water and crop management (Best Management Practices-BMPs helped closing existing yield gaps and resulted in a substantial reduction in CO2-equivalent emission of rice farming despite a tradeoff of increase N2O emission. However, inherent soil properties limited rice yields to a larger extent than previously known. Cultivating inherently better soil also led to lower GHG intensity (GHG emissions per unit yield. Neither adopting BMPs only nor improving soils with low or moderate productivity alone can adequately address the challenge of substantially increasing rice production while reducing the environmental footprint. A combination of both represents the most efficient strategy to harness the combined-benefits of enhanced production and mitigating climate change. Extrapolating from our farm data, this strategy could increase rice production in China by 18%, which would meet the demand for direct human consumption of rice by 2030. It would also reduce fertilizer nitrogen consumption by 22% and decrease CO2-equivalent emissions during the rice growing period by 7% compared with current farming practice continues. Benefits vary by rice-based cropping systems. Single rice systems have the largest food provision benefits due to its wider yield gap and total cultivated area, whereas double-rice

  8. Rice Creek Elementary School and the University of South Carolina: A Shared Vision for Excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Kathy; Holley, Jessica; Richburg-Sellers, Felicia; Robey, Susan; Suber, Shawn; Burton, Megan; Field, Bruce E.

    2012-01-01

    The 2011 Professional Development Schools National Conference recognized Rice Creek Elementary School for its outstanding collaborative accomplishments with the University of South Carolina, naming it as a recipient of the National Association for Professional Development School's Award for Exemplary Professional Development School Achievement.…

  9. A university in a small city: Discovering which sectors benefit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Dyason

    2017-11-01

    Contribution or value-add: This approach provided exceptional value in identifying the sectors that benefit and provide important trend analyses that will be combined with input–output models to improve the accuracy of measuring university impact assessment on a local level.

  10. Rice University: Building an Academic Center for Nonprofit Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaworth, Angela

    2012-01-01

    According to the author, the setting for their nonprofit education center was close to ideal: Support from a dean who cares deeply about nonprofit organizations; encouragement from the university and its renewed focus on reaching beyond its walls on the eve of its centennial; and a generous gift from alumni who have been affiliated with the…

  11. Should governments subsidize tuition at public universities? Assessing the benefits of tuition subsidies provided by the University of Minnesota and the Minnesota State Colleges and Universities system.

    OpenAIRE

    Damon, Amy L.; Glewwe, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Chapter titles: Introduction; Higher education in Minnesota; Private benefits from a university education; Public benefits of university education-conceptual and practical issues; Distribution of private and public benefits; An assessment of the private and public benefits of subsidies of higher education in Minnesota; Conclusions and suggestions for further research; References.

  12. The Role of University Partners in the Innovation Adoption Process to Rice Seed Farmers in Aceh Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setia Budi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The role of university partners in the innovation adoption process in the implementation of agricultural extension is very necessary to get attention to realize the success of empowering rice seed farmers. The purpose of this research is (1 to know the role of universities in the process of adopting innovation in IPB 3S seedling in Aceh Province, (2 to know the perception of farmers toward the characteristics of the innovation of IPB 3S varieties, and (3 to know the role of universities in the implementation process of extension agriculture to rice seed farmers. This research uses qualitative descriptive approach with data measurement using Likert scale. The results showed that in general the universities play significant role in innovation adoption process to rice seed farmers. The role is arranged by sequence; (1 implementing cultivation skill (2 strengthening farmer institution, (3 liaison with the government (4 guidance of transfer of technology, and (5 liaison with production market. Farmers perception on the characteristics of innovation optimum production technology package (IPB-Prima IPB 3S (1 has a relative profitability, (2 easy to try, (3 conformity, (4 observable, and (5 innovation subtly level. The role of partners in the implementation of agricultural extension in sequence (1 conformity of extension materials, (2 intensity of extension, (3 appropriateness of extension method and (4 accuracy of media usage. The university should pay attention on the mechanism of facilitating technology transfer with the use of media and appropriate extension methods to rice seed farmers. The university also should build good communication with private organizations to help farmers in terms of seed price certainty produced by rice seed farmers in Aceh Province, Indonesia.

  13. Water reuse and cost-benefit of pumping at different spatial levels in a rice irrigation system in UPRIIS, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafeez, M. M.; Bouman, B. A. M.; Van de Giesen, N.; Mushtaq, S.; Vlek, P.; Khan, S.

    As agricultural water resources in Asia become increasingly scarce, the irrigation efficiency of rice must be improved. However, in this region there is very limited information available about water use efficiency across spatial levels in irrigation systems. This study quantifies the volume of water reuse and its related cost-benefits at five different spatial levels, ranging from 1500 ha to 18,000 ha, under gravity-fed irrigation system in Upper Pumpanga River Integrated Irrigation System (UPRIIS), Philippines. The major sources of water reuse are considered, namely groundwater pumping, pumping from creeks, combined use and irrigation supplies from check dams. The volume of water available from all four sources of water reuse was quantified through extensive measurements. Production functions were developed to quantify water-yield relationships and to measure the economic value of water reuse. This study was conducted during the dry season of 2001, which existed from 19 November 2000 until 18 May 2001. The water reuse by pumping and check dams was 7% and 22% of the applied surface water at District 1 level. The reuse of surface water through check dams increased linearly with 4.6 Mm 3 per added 1000 ha. Similarly, the total amount of reused water from pumping is equivalent to 30% of the water lost through rice evapotranspiration during the dry season 2001. The results showed that water reuse plays a dominant role in growing a rice crop during the dry season. The result showed no difference in pumping costs between the creek (US0.011/m 3) and shallow pumps (US0.012/m 3). The marginal value of productivity (MVP) of water reuse from creek (US0.044/m 3) was slightly higher than the water reuse through the pumping ground water (US0.039/m 3). Results also indicated that the total volume pumped per ha (m 3/ha) was ranging from 0.39 to 6.93 m 3/ha during the dry season. The results clearly indicate that the quantification of amount of water reuse is very crucial for

  14. Long-Run Benefits from Universal High-Quality Preschooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauchmüller, Robert; Gørtz, Mette; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of preschool quality for children's school performance at the end of primary school. We construct five structural quality indicators based on unique Danish administrative register data. 30,444 children finishing primary school's 9th grade in 2008 and who attended ...... in children's test results in Danish. Boys benefit more from preschool quality than girls. Ethnic minority children benefit from higher staff stability....

  15. Governing risks and benefits: Mobile communication technologies in British universities

    OpenAIRE

    Howarth, Anita; Fernández, Gemma Martínez

    2014-01-01

    Mobile communication technologies (MCTs) pose new opportunities and challenges to university governance. Not only are the devices widespread, they have particular capabilities and constantly changing uses which makes any governing of them difficult. Furthermore most devices are individually owned. Thus universities are unable to directly control how they are used but do have a duty of care towards those learning and teaching within their spaces. This article outlines preliminary findings on h...

  16. A Cost-Benefit Analysis of Universal Preschool Education: Evidence from a Spanish Reform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Huizen, T.M.; Dumhs, E.; Plantenga, J.

    2016-01-01

    This study provides a cost-benefit analysis of expanding access to universal preschool education. We focus on a Spanish reform that lowered the age of eligibility for publicly provided universal preschool from age 4 to age 3. We extrapolate the benefits in terms of maternal employment and child

  17. Is Job Sharing Worthwhile? A Cost-Benefit Analysis in UK Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Geoff

    1997-01-01

    Data from a survey of personnel directors in United Kingdom universities were used to conduct a cost-benefit analysis of job sharing from the institutions' perspective. Results show a 5% rise in productivity would raise the ratio of benefits to cost to 14.3 to 1. Retention of staff, reduction of stress, and reduced unemployment are also benefits.…

  18. University-Industry Strategic Partnerships. Benefits and Impediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Eugene H.

    1997-01-01

    University-industry partnership give companies opportunities to observe prospective employees and access to research innovations at lower cost. Faculty increase their familiarity with the state of the art and gain additional funding sources. Barriers include intellectual property issues, publication of proprietary information, and conflicting…

  19. SCHOOL FEEDING PROGRAM USING RICE-PEA BEVERAGE IN SOME PRIMARY SCHOOLS: DOES IT HAVE BENEFIT?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoto Satoto

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT School feeding program is believed to be one effort among others to improve attendance rate, nutritional status and cognitive function of school children, which in turn improve academic performance of them. A study was conducted to evaluate a school feeding program using rice-pea beverage in Bandung, Indonesia. Its objective is to measure effect of the program on attendance rate, nutritional status, cognitive function and academic performance of the children joining the program. A control group design was administered. A number of students of class 3,4 and 5 from schools joining the feeding program were selected as program group, and more or less same number of school children in other schools with similar socio-economic situation were selected as control group. The feeding program was organized for 6 months. Attendance rate was measured by number of absentees, total and due to sickness in one semester. Nutritional status was standardized using WHO-NCHS z-score for weight-for-age (WAZ and height-for-age (HAZ. Cognitive function was measured by Coloured Progressive Matrices (CPM, and score of Mathematics and Indonesian Language (Bahasa Indonesia were measured using specific scholastic testings. School and home learning environment, certain food consumption frequencies were collected as covariates. GLM analyses were administered. The study found that after being controlled by some covariates, at the end of the study children in the program group showed better attendance rate, nutritional status, cognitive function and school performance. It is assumed that the improvement was due to better attendance rate as the program attracted the children to attend more days in the schools and due to improvement of food consumption provided by the program and at home. More in-depth, more specific and longer study, administering randomized case-control trial is recommended. Comparison of the use of foodstuffs for the purpose is also interesting to be

  20. Space Surveillance Tech Area Benefits From University Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, K.; Voss, D.; Pietruszewski, A.; King, L.; Hohnstadt, P.; Feirstine, K.; Crassidis, J.; D'Angelo, M.; Linares, R.

    2011-09-01

    The University Nanosat Program (UNP) is a two year small satellite competition held among leading universities across the nation. In the past 12 years UNP has involved 27 universities and over 5000 students in a variety of engineering fields and other disciplines, in the process of designing and managing the development of a satellite. The UNP is a partnership between the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR), the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), and the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA). The program’s primary purpose is to help train engineering students in satellite design, fabrication, and testing by requiring them to build the satellite themselves through the mentorship of their Principle Investigator, industry mentors, and a series of six program reviews managed by the AFRL Program Office. Each university-built satellite attempts to further a specific technology or perform a scientific mission. Technologies advanced through the program include all aspects of small satellite designs including structures, propulsion, imaging, navigation and have helped further science payloads such as energetic particle detectors, plasma probes, photometers, and many others. This paper will discuss the educational impact on students involved in a hands-on, hardware focused program, with emphasis given to two UNP satellites relevant to Space Surveillance Technologies. The most recent winner of the UNP competition, Michigan Technological University’s Oculus-ASR, is a calibration instrument for AMOS’ telescopic non-resolved object characterization program. Another example is the University of Buffalo, which is calibrating with the AFRL MESSA program in the current competition cycle. The University of Buffalo’s nanosatellite is being designed to collect multi-band photometric data of glinting geostationary space objects. Both these satellites are excellent examples of the relevance and quality of innovation and technology that can be

  1. Benefits and challenges of incorporating citizen science into university education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Nicola; Triska, Maggie; Liberatore, Andrea; Ashcroft, Linden; Weatherill, Richard; Longnecker, Nancy

    2017-01-01

    A common feature of many citizen science projects is the collection of data by unpaid contributors with the expectation that the data will be used in research. Here we report a teaching strategy that combined citizen science with inquiry-based learning to offer first year university students an authentic research experience. A six-year partnership with the Australian phenology citizen science program ClimateWatch has enabled biology students from the University of Western Australia to contribute phenological data on plants and animals, and to conduct the first research on unvalidated species datasets contributed by public and university participants. Students wrote scientific articles on their findings, peer-reviewed each other's work and the best articles were published online in a student journal. Surveys of more than 1500 students showed that their environmental engagement increased significantly after participating in data collection and data analysis. However, only 31% of students agreed with the statement that "data collected by citizen scientists are reliable" at the end of the project, whereas the rate of agreement was initially 79%. This change in perception was likely due to students discovering erroneous records when they mapped data points and analysed submitted photographs. A positive consequence was that students subsequently reported being more careful to avoid errors in their own data collection, and making greater efforts to contribute records that were useful for future scientific research. Evaluation of our project has shown that by embedding a research process within citizen science participation, university students are given cause to improve their contributions to environmental datasets. If true for citizen scientists in general, enabling participants as well as scientists to analyse data could enhance data quality, and so address a key constraint of broad-scale citizen science programs.

  2. An assessment of emergy, energy, and cost-benefits of grain production over 6 years following a biochar amendment in a rice paddy from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Li, Lianqing; Cheng, Kun; Ji, Chunying; Yue, Qian; Bian, Rongjun; Pan, Genxing

    2018-04-01

    Biochar soil amendment had been increasingly advocated for improving crop productivity and reducing carbon footprint in agriculture worldwide. However, the long-term benefits of biochar application with farming systems had not been thoroughly understood. This study quantified and assessed emergy, energy, and economic benefits of rice and wheat production throughout 6 rotation years following a single biochar amendment in a rice paddy from Southeastern China. Using the data from farm inventory, the quantified emergy indices included grain outputs, unit emergy value, and relative percentage of free renewable resources, environmental loading ratio, emergy yield ratio, and emergy sustainability index (ESI). The results indicated contrasting differences in these emergy values between biochar-amended and unamended production systems over the 6 years. The overall emergy efficiency of rice and wheat productions in biochar-amended system were higher by 11-28 and 15-47%, respectively, than that of unamended one of which the production being highly resource intensive. Moreover, ESI on average was 0.46 for rice and 0.63 for wheat in amended system, compared to 0.35 for rice and 0.39 for wheat in unamended one. Furthermore, over the 6 years following a single application, the ESI values showed considerable variation in the unamended system but consistently increasing in the amended system. Again, the biochar-amended system exerted significantly higher energy and economic return than the unamended one. Nonetheless, there was a tradeoff between rice and wheat in grain yield and net economic gain. Overall, biochar amendment could be a viable measure to improve the resilience of grain production while to reduce resource intensity and environment impacts in paddy soil from China.

  3. Programs with societal benefits at the Cornell University TRIGA reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.D.; Aderhold, H.C.; Hossain, T.Z.

    1993-01-01

    In its 30 yr of operation, the Cornell TRIGA reactor has been used for many educational and research programs that provide general benefits to society. In addition to supporting graduate-level education of nuclear scientists and engineers, it has been extensively used in undergraduate and graduate courses and research by nonspecialists and, through the medium of tours, in education of the general public. Some educational functions have been described previously. In this paper, examples are presented of research of societal interest in nonnuclear fields. The first two rely mainly on radiography, and the remaining five on neutron activation analysis (NAA)

  4. Collaborative Learning at Engineering Universities: Benefits and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga V. Sumtsova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns the cutting edge educational approaches incorporated into syllabuses of the most progressive Russian higher technical schools. The authors discuss one of the active methods in teaching foreign languages – collaborative learning implemented in e-courses. Theoretical and historical aspects of this approach are addressed, as are its suitability for engineering education and possible ways of introducing collaborative learning into e-courses. Collaborative learning technology offers wide prospects for teachers of foreign languages as it enables the use of various patterns of interaction, promotes discussion, opinion exchange, peer assessment and building an e-learning community, fosters the development of e-culture and netiquette, and prepares future specialists for work in their professional sphere under the new conditions imposed by society’s technological and cultural development. This paper describes real pedagogical experience of teaching English to students using the platform Moodle, focusing on the capacity of different Moodle instruments for designing group work tasks. Recommendations are given for their usage and the results of implementing a collaborative learning approach into certain e-courses offered at Tomsk Polytechnic University (TPU are presented.

  5. The Costs and Benefits of Investing in Universal Preschool: Evidence From a Spanish Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Huizen, Thomas; Dumhs, Lisa; Plantenga, Janneke

    2017-11-20

    This study provides a cost-benefit analysis of expanding access to universal preschool education, focusing on a Spanish reform that lowered the age of eligibility for publicly provided universal preschool from age 4 to age 3. Benefits in terms of child development and maternal employment are estimated using evidence on the causal effects of this reform. In the baseline estimation the benefit-cost ratio is over 4, indicating sizeable net societal benefits of the preschool investment. The results show that the child development effects are the major determinant of the cost-benefit ratio; the employment gains for parents appear to play a relatively minor role. Overall, the cost-benefit analysis provides support for investing in high-quality preschool education. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  6. Benefits of a Graduate Business Degree: Students' Perspectives and Universities' Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Marion Stanton; Allen, Lida Cherie

    1995-01-01

    A survey of 1,499 graduate business students at 7 colleges and universities investigated perceptions of potential benefits of an advanced degree, and their relationships with degree type, school size/type, and student characteristics. Five perceived benefits included research and analytical skills, competitive advantage, monetary reward, career…

  7. The Attainability of University Degrees and Their Labour Market Benefits for Young Australians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Sook

    2014-01-01

    I used data from the 1995 cohort of the Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth to investigate the factors associated with the attainment of Australian university degrees and estimate their domestic labour market benefits. I considered vertical and horizontal stratification in education and examined monetary and non-monetary benefits. The…

  8. On Assessing the Costs and Benefits of Universal Design of ICT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbach, Till; Fuglerud, Kristin Skeide

    2016-01-01

    In the ICT and IT domains, Universal Design is typically viewed as a burden and an expense, and its application is often justified only by ethics and/or legislation. Advocates for Universal Design (UD) are arguing that it is cost-effective, but so far there are few studies that document this in a detailed way. In this work, we discuss related research and studies dealing with the costs and benefits of accessible and usable ICT solutions. In particular, we discuss the findings regarding what is a universally designed solution, what is needed to make such a solution, how much does it cost, what impact can be anticipated by the extra effort, and how it can be measured. Finally, we suggest an approach for carrying out cost-benefit analyses of developing universally designed solutions. There is a weak indication that the economical benefits of UD solutions are much higher than the initial and running costs.

  9. Global costs and benefits of reaching universal coverage of sanitation and drinking-water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Guy

    2013-03-01

    Economic evidence on the cost and benefits of sanitation and drinking-water supply supports higher allocation of resources and selection of efficient and affordable interventions. The study aim is to estimate global and regional costs and benefits of sanitation and drinking-water supply interventions to meet the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target in 2015, as well as to attain universal coverage. Input data on costs and benefits from reviewed literature were combined in an economic model to estimate the costs and benefits, and benefit-cost ratios (BCRs). Benefits included health and access time savings. Global BCRs (Dollar return per Dollar invested) were 5.5 for sanitation, 2.0 for water supply and 4.3 for combined sanitation and water supply. Globally, the costs of universal access amount to US$ 35 billion per year for sanitation and US$ 17.5 billion for drinking-water, over the 5-year period 2010-2015 (billion defined as 10(9) here and throughout). The regions accounting for the major share of costs and benefits are South Asia, East Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Improved sanitation and drinking-water supply deliver significant economic returns to society, especially sanitation. Economic evidence should further feed into advocacy efforts to raise funding from governments, households and the private sector.

  10. Universalism under siege? Exploring the association between targeting, child benefits and child poverty across 26 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lancker, Wim; Van Mechelen, Natascha

    2015-03-01

    The long-standing wisdom that universally designed benefits outperform targeted benefits in terms of poverty reduction has come under siege. Recent empirical studies tend to find that targeting is not necessarily associated anymore with lower levels of poverty reduction. In this study, we investigate for a broad set of European countries (1) the relationship between child benefits and child poverty reduction; (2) whether a universal or targeted approach is more effective in reducing child poverty; and (3) the causal mechanisms explaining the link between (1) and (2). In doing so, we take into account the general characteristics of the child benefit system, the size of the redistributive budget and the generosity of benefit levels. In contrast to previous studies, we construct an indicator of targeting that captures the design instead of the outcomes of child benefit systems. We find that targeting towards lower incomes is associated with higher levels of child poverty reduction, conditional on the direction of targeting and the characteristics of the benefit system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Investment Evaluation of Higher Education through Cost-Benefit Analysis: Evidence from Adrar University-Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocine, Benlaria; Sofiane, Mostéfaoui

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to measure the social and individual rates of return for investment in higher education at Adrar University. The approach adopted looks for investigating the costs and benefits of the human capital. The study found that the economic feasibility of investment in higher education exists at both the individual and social levels, where…

  12. College and University Employee Retirement and Insurance Benefits Cost Survey, 1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teachers Insurance and Annuity Association, New York, NY. College Retirement Equities Fund.

    This report, the eighth in a regular biennial survey series, provides standardized comparative information on expenditures by colleges and universities for employee retirement and insurance benefits in 26 tables and 5 charts. The data, collected in 1992 from 577 institutions, reflect information supplied for either fiscal or calendar year 1981.…

  13. College and University Employee Retirement and Insurance Benefits Cost Survey, 1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teachers Insurance and Annuity Association, New York, NY. College Retirement Equities Fund.

    This report, the seventh in a regular biennial survey series, provides standardized comparative information on expenditures by colleges and universities for employee retirement and insurance benefits in 25 tables and 5 charts. The data, collected in 1990 from 634 institutions, reflect information supplied for either fiscal or calendar year 1989.…

  14. Colorectal Cancer Screening: Knowledge, Perceived Benefits and Barriers, and Intentions among College and University Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajracharya, Srijana M.; Wigglesworth, Janet K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Early detection through routine screening is critical in reducing the incidence rate of colorectal cancer (CRC). Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine college and university employees' knowledge of CRC issues, their perceptions of the benefits of and barriers to CRC screening, and their intentions toward it. Methods: This…

  15. Perceived Exercise Benefits and Barriers of Non-Exercising Female University Students in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John K. Parker

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Many individuals do not engage in sufficient physical activity due to low perceived benefits and high perceived barriers to exercise. Given the increasing incidence of obesity and obesity related health disorders, this topic requires further exploration. We used the Exercise Benefits/Barriers Scale to assess perceived benefit and barrier intensities to exercise in 200 non-exercising female university students (mean age 19.3 years, SD = 1.06 in the UK. Although our participants were selected because they self reported themselves to be non-exercising, however they reported significantly higher perceived benefits from exercise than perceived barriers to exercise [t(199 = 6.18, p < 0.001], and their perceived benefit/barrier ratio was 1.33. The greatest perceived benefit from exercise was physical performance followed by the benefits of psychological outlook, preventive health, life enhancement, and then social interaction. Physical performance was rated significantly higher than all other benefits. Psychological outlook and preventive health were not rated significantly different, although both were significantly higher than life enhancement and social interaction. Life enhancement was also rated significantly higher than social interaction. The greatest perceived barrier to exercise was physical exertion, which was rated significantly higher than time expenditure, exercise milieu, and family discouragement barriers. Implications from this investigation for the design of physical activity programmes include the importance, for females, of a perception of high benefit/barrier ratio that could be conducive to participation in exercise. Applied interventions need to assist female students to ‘disengage’ from or overcome any perceived ‘unpleasantness’ of physical exertion during physical activity (decrease their perceived barriers, and to further highlight the multiple health and other benefits of regular exercising (increase their perceived

  16. Perceived exercise benefits and barriers of non-exercising female university students in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Geoff P; El Ansari, Walid; Parker, John K

    2010-03-01

    Many individuals do not engage in sufficient physical activity due to low perceived benefits and high perceived barriers to exercise. Given the increasing incidence of obesity and obesity related health disorders, this topic requires further exploration. We used the Exercise Benefits/Barriers Scale to assess perceived benefit and barrier intensities to exercise in 200 non-exercising female university students (mean age 19.3 years, SD = 1.06) in the UK. Although our participants were selected because they self reported themselves to be non-exercising, however they reported significantly higher perceived benefits from exercise than perceived barriers to exercise [t(199) = 6.18, p exercise was physical performance followed by the benefits of psychological outlook, preventive health, life enhancement, and then social interaction. Physical performance was rated significantly higher than all other benefits. Psychological outlook and preventive health were not rated significantly different, although both were significantly higher than life enhancement and social interaction. Life enhancement was also rated significantly higher than social interaction. The greatest perceived barrier to exercise was physical exertion, which was rated significantly higher than time expenditure, exercise milieu, and family discouragement barriers. Implications from this investigation for the design of physical activity programmes include the importance, for females, of a perception of high benefit/barrier ratio that could be conducive to participation in exercise. Applied interventions need to assist female students to 'disengage' from or overcome any perceived 'unpleasantness' of physical exertion during physical activity (decrease their perceived barriers), and to further highlight the multiple health and other benefits of regular exercising (increase their perceived benefits).

  17. Problems, Challenges and Benefits of Implementing E-learning in Nigerian Universities: An Empirical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manir Abdullahi Kamba

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to examine and discuss the problems, challenges and Benefits of implementing E-Learning in Nigeria by reviewing the consciousness and willingness of the selected Universities. This study also identifies the enabling factors, the traffic-jam and, forecasts the future growth of E-learning in Nigeria. Survey research method was adopted for the study, and questionnaire was the only instrument used for the data collection. The findings of the study show that out of the 18 universities selected from different specialization areas, i.e three universities from each Geopolitical zone, only 12 responded with usable answers. The response rate was 67%, which is an expected rate for such surveys. Awareness of e-learning among the Universities is very high but investment and commitment to develop an e-learning application is very poor and below expectation according to the study. Most of the staff and students in the universities only use Internet related e- learning site just for the sake of finding related information for their researches, since their libraries cannot afford to provide them with adequate and current materials but not for the sake of real online learning. The study also found out that some of the universities have web page and others are in the trend of creating a web page, which is usually for advertisement of the universities but not for the e-leaning activities. Furthermore, the findings also reveal that staff and the students have also been using e-mail and Internet in addition to developing web pages for transaction of students. The Universities are planning to invest number of funds in future in the selected areas of the e-learning application. The Statistical analysis result shows that there are significant differences across both forms of e-learning activities and type of universities in Nigeria.

  18. Molecular Basis on Nitrogen Utilization in Rice(Recent Topics of the Agricultunal Biological Science in Tohoku University)

    OpenAIRE

    Toshihiko, HAYAKAWA; Soichi, KOJIMA; Mayumi, TABUCHI; Toru, KUDO; Tomoyuki, YAMAYA; Laboratory of Plant Cell Biochemistry, Department of Applied Plant Science, Division of Life Science, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University; Laboratory of Plant Cell Biochemistry, Department of Applied Plant Science, Division of Life Science, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University; Laboratory of Plant Cell Biochemistry, Department of Applied Plant Science, Division of Life Science, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University; Laboratory of Plant Cell Biochemistry, Department of Applied Plant Science, Division of Life Science, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University; Laboratory of Plant Cell Biochemistry, Department of Applied Plant Science, Division of Life Science, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University

    2008-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is the major provision for half of the world population and is the important model crop in terms of synteny. Nitrogen is a massive prerequisite element for rice during its life span. During evolutionary processes, rice has acquired strategic systems of nitrogen metabolism for the survival, i.e., the highly efficient ammonium assimilation in roots and nitrogen remobilization (nitrogen recycling). In our laboratory, research is underway to elucidate molecular mechanisms, ...

  19. A Benefit-Cost Analysis of the Tulsa Universal Pre-K Program. Upjohn Institute Working Paper 16-261

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartik, Timothy J.; Belford, Jonathan A.; Gormley, William T.; Anderson, Sara

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, benefits and costs are estimated for a universal pre-K program, provided by Tulsa Public Schools. Benefits are derived from estimated effects of Tulsa pre-K on retention by grade 9. Retention effects are projected to dollar benefits from future earnings increases and crime reductions. Based on these estimates, Tulsa pre-K has…

  20. Nicaragua - Rice and Banana Farmers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — This report is an impact evaluation of two components of the Rural Business Development Program (RBD) in Nicaragua, specifically the components benefitting rice and...

  1. Cost-Benefit Analysis and Emission Reduction of Energy Efficient Lighting at the Universiti Tenaga Nasional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganandran, G. S. B.; Mahlia, T. M. I.; Ong, Hwai Chyuan; Rismanchi, B.; Chong, W. T.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the result of an investigation on the potential energy saving of the lighting systems at selected buildings of the Universiti Tenaga Nasional. The scope of this project includes evaluation of the lighting system in the Library, Admin Building, College of Engineering, College of Information Technology, Apartments, and COE Food court of the university. The main objectives of this project are to design the proper retrofit scenario and to calculate the potential electricity saving, the payback period, and the potential environmental benefits. In this survey the policy for retrofitting the old lighting system with the new energy saving LEDs starts with 10% for the first year and continues constantly for 10 years until all the lighting systems have been replaced. The result of the life cycle analysis reveals that after four years, the selected buildings will bring profit for the investment. PMID:25133258

  2. Cost-Benefit Analysis and Emission Reduction of Energy Efficient Lighting at the Universiti Tenaga Nasional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. B. Ganandran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the result of an investigation on the potential energy saving of the lighting systems at selected buildings of the Universiti Tenaga Nasional. The scope of this project includes evaluation of the lighting system in the Library, Admin Building, College of Engineering, College of Information Technology, Apartments, and COE Food court of the university. The main objectives of this project are to design the proper retrofit scenario and to calculate the potential electricity saving, the payback period, and the potential environmental benefits. In this survey the policy for retrofitting the old lighting system with the new energy saving LEDs starts with 10% for the first year and continues constantly for 10 years until all the lighting systems have been replaced. The result of the life cycle analysis reveals that after four years, the selected buildings will bring profit for the investment.

  3. Benefits and Barriers of E-Learning for Staff Training in a Medical University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Stefan; Behrends, Marianne; Haack, Claudia; Marschollek, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Learning Management Systems (LMS) are a feasible solution to fulfill the various requirements for e-learning based training in a medical university. Using the LMS ILIAS, the Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology has designed an e-learning unit about data protection, which has been used by 73% of the department's employees in the first three months. To increase the use of e-learning for staff training, it is necessary to identify barriers and benefits, which encourage the use of e-learning. Therefore, we started an online survey to examine how the employees evaluate this learning opportunity. The results show that 87% of the employees had no technical problems and also competence of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) was no barrier. If anything, reported issues were time shortages and tight schedules. Therefore, short learning modules (less than 20 minutes) are preferred. Furthermore, temporal flexibility for learning is important for 83% of employees.

  4. Accrediting the MD Programme in Sultan Qaboos University: Process, Earned Benefits, and Lessons Learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulayma Albarwani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The MD Programme of the College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, has been accredited recently. The College has been preparing for this event for more than ten years and wishes to share its experience with other regional medical colleges. The process of accreditation per se took less than three years to complete and most of the time was spent to prepare for the process; to build-up capacity in addition to implementing curricular reforms and other requirements that were needed to comply with accreditation standards. In the end of this exercise, the College has earned many benefits as well as learned some lessons. This article describes the most notable activities and events and discusses how the College responded to the challenges posed.

  5. Income and the mental health of Canadian mothers: Evidence from the Universal Child Care Benefit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Daley

    2017-12-01

    I find the income transfer improved mental health and life satisfaction regardless of family structure, albeit not necessarily for a given individual. Rather, average scores were higher for mothers with young children after implementation of the Universal Child Care Benefit. For example, they were more likely to report ‘excellent’ mental health and less likely to be in each of the other categories. The transfer also reduced stress among lone mothers with young children. Specifically, they were less likely to be ‘quite a bit’ or ‘extremely’ stressed on a daily basis, and more likely to be ‘not at all’ or ‘not very’ stressed. I argue that assumptions of the model are plausible and show that results are consistent across several robustness checks.

  6. The Benefits of Peer-Mentoring in Undergraduate Group Research Projects at The University of Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardegree-Ullman, Kevin; McGraw, A. M.; Towner, A. P.; Walker-LaFollette, A.; Robertson, A.; Smith, C.; Turner, J.; Biddle, L. I.; Thompson, R.

    2013-06-01

    According to the American Institute of Physics, the number of graduate students enrolled in astronomy programs in the US has been steadily increasing in the past 15 years. Research experience is one of the key factors graduate admissions committees look for when choosing students. The University of Arizona Astronomy Club is setting a new precedent in research by having students introduce other students to research. This eases the transition to research projects, and allows students to work in a comfortable setting without the sometimes-overwhelming cognitive disconnect between a professor and their students. The University of Arizona's research projects have many benefits to all students involved. It is well established that people learn a subject best when they have to teach it to others. Students leading the projects learn alongside their peers in a peer-mentoring setting. When project leaders move on in their academic career, other project members can easily take the lead. Students learn how to work in teams, practice effective communication skills, and begin the processes of conducting a full research project, which are essential skills for all budding scientists. These research projects also give students hands-on research experience that supplement and greatly expand on concepts taught in the classroom, and make them more attractive to graduate schools and REU programs.

  7. Why are there failures of systematicity? The empirical costs and benefits of inducing universal constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Phillips

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Systematicity is a property of cognition where capacity for certain cognitive abilities implies capacity for certain other (structurally related cognitive abilities. This property is thought to derive from a capacity to represent/process common structural relations between constituents of cognizable entities, however, systematicity may not always materialize in such admissible contexts. A theoretical challenge is to explain why systematicity fails to materialize in contexts that allow the realization (e.g., by induction of common structure (universal construction. We hypothesize that one cause of failure arises when the potential gain afforded by induction of common structure is overshadowed by the immediate benefit of learning the task as independent stimulus-response associations. This hypothesis was tested in an experiment that required learning two series of pair maps that involved products (universal construction, or non-products (control of varied size: the number of unique cue/target elements (three to six constituting pairs. Each series was learned in either ascending or descending order of size. Only performance on the product series was affected by order: systematicity was obtained universally in the descend group, but only on large sets in the ascend group, as revealed by the significant order x size interaction for errors in the product condition, F(3, 87 = 3.38, p < .05. Smaller maps are more easily learned without inducing the common product structure, which is more readily observable with larger maps: larger maps provide more evidence for relationships between stimulus dimensions that facilitate the discovery of the common structure. The new challenge, then, is to explain the systematic learnability of stimulus-response maps, i.e. second-order systematicity.

  8. Pay Benefits and Workplace Milieu Effecting Job Satisfaction Level of University Teachers: A Case Study of Punjab University

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Nisar; Muhammad Iqbal Zafar; Babak Mahmood; Malik Muhammad Sohail; Falak Sher; Muhammad Rizwan Safdar

    2012-01-01

    The major concern of the study was to examine the influence of pay satisfaction and workplace milieu on job satisfaction levels in the teaching faculty members of University of Punjab. There were three major objectives of this study. First one was to examine the pay satisfaction level of teaching faculty members of University of the Punjab. Second objective was to examine the effect of workplace milieu on job satisfaction level of teaching faculty members of University of the Punjab. And the ...

  9. Energy drinks consumption pattern, perceived benefits and associated adverse effects amongst students of University of Dammam, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsunni, Ahmed A; Badar, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    There are safety concerns about energy drinks alongside marketing claims of physiological and behavioural benefits. There is no scientific data about usage of energy drinks in Saudi Arabia. This study determined consumption patterns of energy drinks as well as perceived benefits and side effects amongst students at a Saudi university. This study was carried out in students of University of Dammam from October to December 2010. A questionnaire about energy drink use, reasons for use, benefits and side effects experienced was distributed amongst the university students. Frequencies of responses and differences between male and female students were analysed. A total of 412 students (282 males and 130 females) responded, out of whom 54.60% males and 26.15% female students were energy drink users. Mean age at first use was significantly (pcompany of friends, to keep awake, for more energy and for better performance in driving, sports or exams. Amongst many the commonest (p<0.05) benefit reported was ability to stay awake longer. The students reported a number of adverse effects. Increased urination and insomnia were the commonest in males and females respectively. Only 36.70% males and 14.28% females never experienced an adverse effect. A significant proportion of students at university of Dammam use energy drinks, they have reported a number of effects (perceived as benefits) along with a variety of adverse effects.

  10. There is no benefit to universal carotid artery duplex screening before a major cardiac surgical procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Brian C; Clark, Ross M; Paap, Christina; Goff, James M

    2014-01-01

    Perioperative stroke is a devastating complication after cardiac surgery. In an attempt to minimize this complication, many cardiac surgeons routinely preoperatively order carotid artery duplex scans to assess for significant carotid stenosis. We hypothesize that the routine screening of preoperative cardiac surgery patients with carotid artery duplex scans detects few patients who would benefit from carotid intervention or that a significant carotid stenosis reliably predicts stroke risk after cardiac surgery. A retrospective review identified 1,499 patients who underwent cardiac surgical procedures between July 1999 and September 2010. Data collected included patient demographics, comorbidities, history of previous stroke, preoperative carotid artery duplex scan results, location of postoperative stroke, and details of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) procedures before, in conjunction with, or after cardiac surgery. Statistical methods included univariate analysis and Fisher's exact test. Twenty-six perioperative strokes were identified (1.7%). In the 21 postoperative stroke patients for whom there is complete carotid artery duplex scan data, 3 patients had a hemodynamically significant lesion (>70%) and 1 patient underwent unilateral carotid CEA for bilateral disease. Postoperative strokes occurred in the anterior cerebral circulation (69.2%), posterior cerebral circulation (15.4%), or both (15.4%). Patient comorbidities, preoperative carotid artery duplex scan screening velocities, or types of cardiac surgical procedure were not predictive for stroke. Thirteen patients (0.86%) underwent CEA before, in conjunction with, or after cardiac surgery. Two of these patients had symptomatic disease, 1 of whom underwent CEA before and the other after his cardiac surgery. Of the 11 asymptomatic patients, 2 underwent CEA before, 3 concurrently, and 6 after cardiac surgery. Left main disease (≥50% stenosis), previous stroke, and peripheral vascular disease were found to be

  11. What Challenges and Benefits Can Non-Formal Law and Language Integrated Learning Bring to University Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atabekova, Atabekova; Gorbatenko, Rimma; Belousov, Aleksandr; Grebnev, Ruslan; Sheremetieva, Olga

    2016-01-01

    The paper explores the ways in which non-formal content and language integrated learning within university studies can affect students' academic progress. The research has included theoretical and empirical studies. The article focuses on the observation of students' learning process, draws attention to challenges and benefits students experienced…

  12. Benefit Incidence Analysis of Government Spending on Public-Private Partnership Schooling under Universal Secondary Education Policy in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wokadala, J.; Barungi, M.

    2015-01-01

    The study establishes whether government spending on private universal secondary education (USE) schools is equitable across quintiles disaggregated by gender and by region in Uganda. The study employs benefit incidence analysis tool on the Uganda National Panel Survey (UNPS 2009/10) data to establish the welfare impact of public subsidy on…

  13. Sustainable rice production in Malaysia beyond 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nashriyah Mat; Ho Nai Kin; Ismail Sahid; Ahyaudin Ali; Lum Keng Yeang; Mashhor Mansor

    2002-01-01

    This book is a compendium of works carried out by various institutions on subjects related to sustainable rice production. The institutions comprise Department of Agriculture, Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute, Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research, Muda Agricultural Development Authority, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Universiti Sains Malaysia, International Islamic University of Malaysia and the Agrochemical Company Mosanto. Integrated Biodiversity Management parallel with the Integrated Weed / Pest / Disease Management, rice-fish farming networking, agrochemical residue monitoring in rice and marine ecosystems, and application of biotechnology in rice productivity are taken as the future direction towards achieving sustainable rice production beyond 2000. Challenges from social and technical agroecosystem constraints, agricultural input management and maintenance of agroecosystem biodiversity are highlighted. It is imperative that the challenges are surmounted to attain the target that would be reflected by tangible rice output of 10 t/ha, and at the same time maintaining the well-being of rice-farmers. (Author)

  14. The economic power of the Golden Rice opposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesseler, J.H.H.; Zilberman, D.

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin A enriched rice (Golden Rice) is a cost-efficient solution that can substantially reduce health costs. Despite Golden Rice being available since early 2000, this rice has not been introduced in any country. Governments must perceive additional costs that overcompensate the benefits of the

  15. Unexpected Benefits of Pre-University Skills Training for A-Level Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, H. L.; Gaskell, E. H.; Prendergast, J. R.; Bavage, A. D.

    2017-01-01

    First-year undergraduates can find the transition from the prescriptive learning environment at school to one of self-directed learning at university, a considerable challenge. A Pre-university Skills Course (PSC) was developed to address this issue by preparing sixth formers for the university learning style. It was piloted with students in the…

  16. Benefits and Barriers of University Industry Collaborations from a Researcher's Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilian, Thomas; Schubert, Petra; Bjørn-Andersen, Niels

    2015-01-01

    parsimonious formative measures for the benefits and barriers of UIC and we found that academic and economic benefits positively influence the intention to conduct UIC in the future, while economic barriers negatively influence the intention to engage in UIC. A cluster analysis found five clusters (groups...... of researchers) that differ in their perception of benefits and barriers and the future intention to conduct UIC. However, the majority of the researchers have a very high intention to conduct UIC in the future....

  17. Rice microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    An understanding of plant structure is desirable to obtain a clear idea of the overall impact of a crop. A mature rice plant consists of leafy components (left in the field post-harvest) and paddy rice (collected). The rice plant is supported by a hollow stem (culm) with leaf sheaths attached to nod...

  18. Sharing Resources: Benefits of University Partnerships to Improve Teaching, Learning and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliard, Ann

    2012-01-01

    Today, many higher educational institutions are forward thinking about promoting strategic initiatives by establishing partnerships with other universities nationally and internationally. Being financial and academically savvy, universities are reaching out to meet the demands of public interests in different types of college programs and…

  19. Multitasking, but for What Benefit? The Dilemma Facing Nigerian University Students Regarding Part-Time Working

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbadamosi, Gbolahan; Evans, Carl; Obalola, Musa Adebayo

    2016-01-01

    Students working part-time while studying for a full-time university degree are commonplace in many Western countries. This paper, however, examines the historically uncommon part-time working activities and career aspirations among Nigerian university students. In particular, how working is perceived to contribute to developing employability…

  20. Effects of Extraction Methods on Phytochemicals of Rice Bran Oils Produced from Colored Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingyai, Sukanya; Srikaeo, Khongsak; Kettawan, Aikkarach; Singanusong, Riantong; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Kimura, Fumiko; Ito, Junya

    2018-02-01

    Rice bran oil (RBO) especially from colored rice is rich in phytochemicals and has become popular in food, cosmetic, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical applications owing to its offering health benefits. This study determined the contents of phytochemicals including oryzanols, phytosterols, tocopherols (Toc) and tocotrienols (T3) in RBOs extracted using different methods namely cold-press extraction (CPE), solvent extraction (SE) and supercritical CO 2 extraction (SC-CO 2 ). Two colored rice, Red Jasmine rice (RJM, red rice) and Hom-nin rice (HN, black rice), were studied in comparison with the popular Thai fragrant rice Khao Dawk Mali 105 (KDML 105, white rice). RBOs were found to be the rich source of oryzanols, phytosterols, Toc and T3. Rice varieties had a greater effect on the phytochemicals concentrations than extraction methods. HN rice showed the significantly highest concentration of all phytochemicals, followed by RJM and KDML 105 rice, indicating that colored rice contained high concentration of phytochemicals in the oil than non-colored rice. The RBO samples extracted by the CPE method had a greater concentration of the phytochemicals than those extracted by the SC-CO 2 and SE methods, respectively. In terms of phytochemical contents, HN rice extracted using CPE method was found to be the best.

  1. Is there a need for a universal benefit-risk assessment framework for medicines? Regulatory and industry perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, James; McAuslane, Neil; Walker, Stuart; Salek, Sam

    2013-09-01

    To explore the current status and need for a universal benefit-risk framework for medicines in regulatory agencies and pharmaceutical companies. A questionnaire was developed and sent to 14 mature regulatory agencies and 24 major companies. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics, for a minority of questions preceded by manual grouping of the responses. Overall response rate was 82%, and study participants included key decision makers from agencies and companies. None used a fully quantitative system, most companies preferring a qualitative method. The major reasons for this group not using semi-quantitative or quantitative systems were lack of a universal and scientifically validated framework. The main advantages of a benefit-risk framework were that it provided a systematic standardised approach to decision-making and that it acted as a tool to enhance quality of communication. It was also reported that a framework should be of value to both agencies and companies throughout the life cycle of a product. They believed that it is possible to develop an overarching benefit-risk framework that should involve relevant stakeholders in the development, validation and application of a universal framework. The entire cohort indicated common barriers to implementing a framework were resource limitations, a lack of knowledge and a scientifically validated and acceptable framework. Stakeholders prefer a semi-quantitative, overarching framework that incorporates a toolbox of different methodologies. A coordinating committee of relevant stakeholders should be formed to guide its development and implementation. Through engaging the stakeholders, these outcomes confirm sentiments and need for developing a universal benefit-risk assessment framework. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. A benefit segmentation approach for innovation-oriented university-business collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesting, Tobias; Gerstlberger, Wolfgang; Baaken, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    to deal with this situation by academic engagement, hereby providing external research support for businesses. Relying on the market segmentation approach, promoting beneficial exchange relations between academia and businesses enables the integration of both perspectives and may contribute to solving......Increasing competition in the light of globalisation imposes challenges on both academia and businesses. Universities have to compete for additional financial means, while companies, particular in high technology business environments, are facing a stronger pressure to innovate. Universities seek...

  3. Long-Run Benefits from Universal High-Quality Pre-Schooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauchmüller, Robert; Gørtz, Mette; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    of staff with a pedagogic education, and a higher share of teachers with non-Danish ethnic background lead to significant improvements in children’s test results in Danish at the end of the 9th grade. Boys benefit more from pre-school quality than girls. We address possible selectivity by using...

  4. Who benefits from public health financing in Zimbabwe? Towards universal health coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamu, Shepherd; January, James; Rusakaniko, Simbarashe

    2017-09-01

    Zimbabwe's public health financing model is mostly hospital-based. Financing generally follows the bigger and higher-level hospitals at the expense of smaller, lower-level ones. While this has tended to perpetuate inequalities, the pattern of healthcare services utilisation and benefits on different levels of care and across different socioeconomic groups remains unclear. The purpose of this study was therefore to assess the utilisation of healthcare services and benefits at different levels of care by different socioeconomic groups. We conducted secondary data analysis of the 2010 National Health Accounts survey, which had 7084 households made up of 26,392 individual observations. Results showed significant utilisation of health services by poorer households at the district level (concentration index of -0.13 [CI:-0.2 to -0.06; p < .05]), but with mission hospitals showing equitable utilisation by both groups. Provincial and higher levels showed greater utilisation by richer households (0.19; CI: 0.1-0.29; p < .05). The overall results showed that richer households benefited significantly more from public health funds than poorer households (0.26; CI: 0.2-0.4; p < .05). Richer households disproportionately benefited from public health subsidies overall, particularly at secondary and tertiary levels, which receive more funding and provide a higher level of care.

  5. Universal newborn screening for congenital CMV infection: what is the evidence of potential benefit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Michael J; Griffiths, Paul D; Aston, Van; Rawlinson, William D

    2014-09-01

    Congenital CMV infection is a leading cause of childhood disability. Many children born with congenital CMV infection are asymptomatic or have nonspecific symptoms and therefore are typically not diagnosed. A strategy of newborn CMV screening could allow for early detection and intervention to improve clinical outcomes. Interventions might include antiviral drugs or nonpharmaceutical therapies such as speech-language therapy or cochlear implants. Using published data from developed countries, we analyzed existing evidence of potential benefit that could result from newborn CMV screening. We first estimated the numbers of children with the most important CMV-related disabilities (i.e. hearing loss, cognitive deficit, and vision impairment), including the age at which the disabilities occur. Then, for each of the disabilities, we examined the existing evidence for the effectiveness of various interventions. We concluded that there is good evidence of potential benefit from nonpharmaceutical interventions for children with delayed hearing loss that occurs by 9 months of age. Similarly, we concluded that there is fair evidence of potential benefit from antiviral therapy for children with hearing loss at birth and from nonpharmaceutical interventions for children with delayed hearing loss occurring between 9 and 24 months of age and for children with CMV-related cognitive deficits. We found poor evidence of potential benefit for children with delayed hearing loss occurring after 24 months of age and for children with vision impairment. Overall, we estimated that in the United States, several thousand children with congenital CMV could benefit each year from newborn CMV screening, early detection, and interventions. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Universal newborn screening for congenital CMV infection: what is the evidence of potential benefit?†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Michael J.; Griffiths, Paul D.; Aston, Van; Rawlinson, William D.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Congenital CMV infection is a leading cause of childhood disability. Many children born with congenital CMV infection are asymptomatic or have nonspecific symptoms and therefore are typically not diagnosed. A strategy of newborn CMV screening could allow for early detection and intervention to improve clinical outcomes. Interventions might include antiviral drugs or nonpharmaceutical therapies such as speech-language therapy or cochlear implants. Using published data from developed countries, we analyzed existing evidence of potential benefit that could result from newborn CMV screening. We first estimated the numbers of children with the most important CMV-related disabilities (i.e. hearing loss, cognitive deficit, and vision impairment), including the age at which the disabilities occur. Then, for each of the disabilities, we examined the existing evidence for the effectiveness of various interventions. We concluded that there is good evidence of potential benefit from nonpharmaceutical interventions for children with delayed hearing loss that occurs by 9 months of age. Similarly, we concluded that there is fair evidence of potential benefit from antiviral therapy for children with hearing loss at birth and from nonpharmaceutical interventions for children with delayed hearing loss occurring between 9 and 24 months of age and for children with CMV-related cognitive deficits. We found poor evidence of potential benefit for children with delayed hearing loss occurring after 24 months of age and for children with vision impairment. Overall, we estimated that in the United States, several thousand children with congenital CMV could benefit each year from newborn CMV screening, early detection, and interventions. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24760655

  7. Cost–benefit analysis of intellectual capital disclosure: University stakeholders’ view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Ramírez Córcoles

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The reporting of intellectual capital in higher education institutions becomes of vital importance mainly due to the fact that knowledge is the main output and input in these institutions. Also, the increasing social concern about establishing procedures of accountability and ensuring information transparency in public universities prompted us to raise the need to disclose information on their intellectual capital. This paper aims to know the main reasons why Spanish universities do not disclose information about their intellectual capital in the current accounting information model and the positive consequences that may result from such disclosure. To this end a questionnaire was designed and sent to all the members of the Social Councils of Spanish public universities. The obtained results show that intellectual capital disclosure results in a higher transparency of the institution, increased user satisfaction and improved credibility, image and reputation of the University, while it is the lack of internal systems of identification and measurement of intangible elements the main reason for not disclosing information on intellectual capital.

  8. Québec's Childcare Universal Low Fees Policy 10 Years After: Effects, Costs and Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Pierre Lefebvre; Philip Merrigan; Francis Roy-Desrosiers

    2011-01-01

    More than ten years ago the province of Québec implemented a universal early childhood education and care policy. This paper examines if the two objectives pursued, to increase mothers’ participation in the labour market (balance the needs of workplace and home) and to enhance child development and equality of opportunity for children, were reasonable meet. A non-experimental evaluation framework based on multiple pre- and post-treatment periods is used to estimate the policy effects. First, ...

  9. Rice production in relation to soil quality under different rice-based cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran Ba, Linh; Sleutel, Steven; Nguyen Van, Qui; Thi, Guong Vo; Le Van, Khoa; Cornelis, Wim

    2016-04-01

    Soil quality of shallow paddy soils may be improved by introducing upland crops and thus a more diverse crop cultivation pattern. Yet, the causal relationship between crop performance and enhanced soil traits in rice-upland crop rotations remains elusive. The objectives of this study were to (i) find correlations among soil properties under different rice-upland crop systems and link selected soil properties to rice growth and yield, (ii) present appropriate values of soil parameters for sustainable rice productivity in heavy clay soil, (iii) evaluate the effect of rotating rice with upland crops on rice yield and economic benefit in a long-term experiment. A rice-upland crop rotational field experiment in the Vietnamese Mekong delta was conducted for 10 years using a randomized complete block design with four treatments and four replications. Treatments were: (i) rice-rice-rice (control - conventional system as farmers' practice), (ii) rice-maize-rice, (iii) rice-mung bean-rice, and (iv) rice-mung bean-maize. Soil and plant sampling were performed after harvest of the rice crop at the end of the final winter-spring cropping season (i.e. year 10). Results show differences in rice growth and yield, and economic benefit as an effect of the crop rotation system. These differences were linked with changes in bulk density, soil porosity, soil aggregate stability index, soil penetration resistance, soil macro-porosity, soil organic carbon, acid hydrolysable soil C and soil nutrient elements, especially at soil depth of 20-30 cm. This is evidenced by the strong correlation (P < 0.01) between rice plant parameters, rice yield and soil properties such as bulk density, porosity, penetration resistance, soil organic carbon and Chydrolysable. It turned out that good rice root growth and rice yield corresponded to bulk density values lower than 1.3 Mg m-3, soil porosity higher than 50%, penetration resistance below 1.0 MPa, and soil organic carbon above 25 g kg-1. The optimal

  10. Universal tumor screening for Lynch syndrome: Assessment of the perspectives of patients with colorectal cancer regarding benefits and barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Jessica Ezzell; Zepp, Jamilyn M; Gilmore, Mari J; Davis, James V; Esterberg, Elizabeth J; Muessig, Kristin R; Peterson, Susan K; Syngal, Sapna; Acheson, Louise S; Wiesner, Georgia L; Reiss, Jacob A; Goddard, Katrina A B

    2015-09-15

    Universal tumor screening for Lynch syndrome, the most common form of hereditary colorectal cancer (CRC), has been recommended among all patients newly diagnosed with CRC. However, there is limited literature regarding patient perspectives of tumor screening for Lynch syndrome among patients with CRC who are not selected for screening based on family history criteria. A total of 145 patients aged 39 to 87 years were administered surveys assessing perceived risk, patient perspectives, and potential benefits of and barriers to tumor screening for Lynch syndrome. Associations between patient-specific and cancer-specific factors and survey responses were analyzed. The majority of participants perceived their risk of developing Lynch syndrome as being low, with 9 participants (6.2%) anticipating an abnormal screening result. However, most participants endorsed the potential benefits of screening for themselves and their families, with 84.8% endorsing ≥6 benefits and 50.3% endorsing all 8 benefits. Participants also endorsed few potential barriers to screening, with 89.4% endorsing ≤4 of 9 potential barriers. A common barrier was worry about the cost of additional testing and surveillance, which was endorsed by 54.5% of participants. The level of distress associated with tumor screening for Lynch syndrome, which was very low, was not associated with age or CRC stage. The results of the current study indicate that patients with CRC overall have a positive attitude toward tumor screening for Lynch syndrome, endorse the benefits of screening, and experience low levels of distress. These findings provide insight into patient attitudes toward tumor screening for Lynch syndrome among unselected patients with CRC to inform educational approaches that assist in patient decision-making and guide the successful implementation of screening programs. © 2015 The Authors. Cancer published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Cancer Society.

  11. Clinical Benefit of Ablating Localized Sources for Human Atrial Fibrillation: The Indiana University FIRM Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, John M; Kalra, Vikas; Das, Mithilesh K; Jain, Rahul; Garlie, Jason B; Brewster, Jordan A; Dandamudi, Gopi

    2017-03-14

    Mounting evidence shows that localized sources maintain atrial fibrillation (AF). However, it is unclear in unselected "real-world" patients if sources drive persistent atrial fibrillation (PeAF), long-standing persistent atrial fibrillation (LPeAF), or paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF); if right atrial sites are important; and what the long-term success of source ablation is. The aim of this study was to analyze the role of rotors and focal sources in a large academic registry of consecutive patients undergoing source mapping for AF. One hundred seventy consecutive patients (mean age 59 ± 12 years, 79% men) with PAF (37%), PeAF (31%), or LPeAF (32%). Of these, 73 (43%) had undergone at least 1 prior ablation attempt (mean 1.9 ± 0.8; range: 1 to 4). Focal impulse and rotor modulation (FIRM) with an endocardial basket catheter was used in all cases. FIRM analysis revealed sources in the right atrium in 85% of patients (1.8 ± 1.3) and in the left atrium in 90% of patients (2.0 ± 1.3). FIRM ablation terminated AF to sinus rhythm or atrial flutter or tachycardia in 59% (PAF), 37% (PeAF), and 19% (LPeAF) of patients, with 15 of 67 terminations due to right atrial ablation. On follow-up, freedom from AF after a single FIRM procedure for the entire series was 95% (PAF), 83% (PeAF), and 82% (LPeAF) at 1 year and freedom from all atrial arrhythmias was 77% (PAF), 75% (PeAF), and 57% (LPeAF). In the Indiana University FIRM registry, FIRM-guided ablation produced high single-procedure success, mostly in patients with nonparoxysmal AF. Data from mapping, acute terminations, and outcomes strongly support the mechanistic role of biatrial rotors and focal sources in maintaining AF in diverse populations. Randomized trials of FIRM-guided ablation and mechanistic studies to determine how rotors form, progress, and regress are needed. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Benefits of a Quality Management System in a University Merger--A Case Study of the Merger of Two Finnish Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saarti, Jarmo; Suntioinen, Sirpa; Karjalainen, Kirsi; Tirronen, Jarkko

    2012-01-01

    At the turn of the century the higher education legislation and structure was reorganized in Finland. The number of universities was reduced by merging seven existing universities into three new universities. One of these new universities is the University of Eastern Finland, which was formed from the Universities of Joensuu and Kuopio. The merger…

  13. Normative foundations of technology transfer and transnational benefit principles in the UNESCO Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faunce, Thomas Alured; Nasu, Hitoshi

    2009-06-01

    The United Nations Scientific, Education, and Cultural Organization Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights (UDBHR) expresses in its title and substance a controversial linkage of two normative systems: international human rights law and bioethics. The UDBHR has the status of what is known as a "nonbinding" declaration under public international law. The UDBHR's foundation within bioethics (and association, e.g., with virtue-based or principlist bioethical theories) is more problematic. Nonetheless, the UDBHR contains socially important principles of technology transfer and transnational benefit (articles 14, 15, and 21). This paper is one of the first to explore how the disciplines of bioethics and international human rights law may interact in the UDBHR to advance the policy relevance and health impact of such principles. It investigates their normative ancestry in the UDBHR, as well as relevant conceptual differences between bioethics and public international law in this respect, and how these may be relevant to their conceptual evolution and application.

  14. Ricebase: a breeding and genetics platform for rice, integrating individual molecular markers, pedigrees and whole-genome-based data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, J D; Baldo, A M; Mueller, L A

    2016-01-01

    Ricebase (http://ricebase.org) is an integrative genomic database for rice (Oryza sativa) with an emphasis on combining datasets in a way that maintains the key links between past and current genetic studies. Ricebase includes DNA sequence data, gene annotations, nucleotide variation data and molecular marker fragment size data. Rice research has benefited from early adoption and extensive use of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers; however, the majority of rice SSR markers were developed prior to the latest rice pseudomolecule assembly. Interpretation of new research using SNPs in the context of literature citing SSRs requires a common coordinate system. A new pipeline, using a stepwise relaxation of stringency, was used to map SSR primers onto the latest rice pseudomolecule assembly. The SSR markers and experimentally assayed amplicon sizes are presented in a relational database with a web-based front end, and are available as a track loaded in a genome browser with links connecting the browser and database. The combined capabilities of Ricebase link genetic markers, genome context, allele states across rice germplasm and potentially user curated phenotypic interpretations as a community resource for genetic discovery and breeding in rice. Published by Oxford University Press 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the United States.

  15. Can Universal SEL Programs Benefit Universally? Effects of the Positive Action Program on Multiple Trajectories of Social-Emotional and Misconduct Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Robert; Washburn, Isaac J; Lewis, Kendra M; Bavarian, Niloofar; DuBois, David L; Acock, Alan C; Vuchinich, Samuel; Flay, Brian R

    2017-02-01

    Behavioral trajectories during middle childhood are predictive of consequential outcomes later in life (e.g., substance abuse, violence). Social and emotional learning (SEL) programs are designed to promote trajectories that reflect both growth in positive behaviors and inhibited development of negative behaviors. The current study used growth mixture models to examine effects of the Positive Action (PA) program on behavioral trajectories of social-emotional and character development (SECD) and misconduct using data from a cluster-randomized trial that involved 14 schools and a sample of predominately low-income, urban youth followed from 3rd through 8th grade. For SECD, findings indicated that PA was similarly effective at improving trajectories within latent classes characterized as "high/declining" and "low/stable". Favorable program effects were likewise evident to a comparable degree for misconduct across observed latent classes that reflected "low/rising" and "high/rising" trajectories. These findings suggest that PA and perhaps other school-based universal SEL programs have the potential to yield comparable benefits across subgroups of youth with differing trajectories of positive and negative behaviors, making them promising strategies for achieving the intended goal of school-wide improvements in student outcomes.

  16. (PGMS) rice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-04-18

    Apr 18, 2011 ... tics, led us to predict that pollen cell abortion in this type of rice when ... averages of natural day-light-lengths and temperatures were used. A natural long ... blocks were allowed to grow under natural growth conditions (which.

  17. Analysis of the Economic Potential for a Mercosur Rice Futures Market

    OpenAIRE

    Waldemar Antonio da Rocha de Souza; João Gomes Martines-Filho; Claudio Zancan; Antonio Carlos Silva Costa; Andreza Galindo Alves de Queiróz

    2015-01-01

    World rice production reached 488.4 thousand tons, in 2012. Asian countries are the world’s largest rice producers, followed by Latinamerica, particularly Brazil, where rice is a basic food item. In spite of the clear economic benefits bestowed by commodity futures markets, neither Asia nor Mercosur have implemented a regional rice futures market. In sum, we propose to investigate the feasibility of a Brazilian rice futures contract to serve the Mercosur region by estimating Me...

  18. Enzymatic hydrolsis of pretreated rice straw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlasenko, E.Y.; Shoemaker, S.P. [California Inst. of Food and Agricultural Research, Davis, CA (United States); Ding, H. [California Univ., Davis (Canada). Dept. of Food Science and Technology; Labavitch, J.M. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Dept. of Pomology

    1997-02-01

    California rice straw is being evaluated as a feedstock for production of power and fuel. This paper examines the initial steps in the process: pretreatment of rice straw and enzymatic hydrolysis of the polysaccharides in the pretreated material to soluble sugars. Rice straw was subjected to three distinct pretreatment procedures: acid-catalyzed steam explosion (Swan Biomass Company), acid hydrolysis (U.S. DOE National Renewable Energy Laboratory), and ammonia fiber explosion or AFEX (Texas A and M University). Standard conditions for each pretreatment were used, but none was optimized for rice straw specifically. Six commercial cellulases, products of Genencor International (USA), Novo (Denmark), Iogen (Canada) and Fermtech (Russia) were used for hydrolysis. The Swan- and the acid-pretreatments effectively removed hemicellulose from rice straw, providing high yields of fermentable sugars. The AFEX-pretreatment was distinctly different from other pretreatments in that it did not significantly solubilize hemicellulose. All three pretreatment procedures substantially increased enzymatic digestibility of rice straw. Three commercial Trichoderma-reesei-derived enzyme preparations: Cellulase 100L (Iogen), Spezyme CP (Genencor), and Al (Fermtech), were more active on pretreated rice straw compared than others tested. Conditions for hydrolysis of rice straw using Cellulase 100L were evaluated. The supplementation of this enzyme preparation with cellobiase (Novozyme 188) significantly improved the parameters of hydrolysis for the Swan- and the acid-pretreated materials, but did not affect the hydrolysis of the AFEX-pretreated rice straw. (Author)

  19. RPAN: rice pan-genome browser for ∼3000 rice genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chen; Hu, Zhiqiang; Zheng, Tianqing; Lu, Kuangchen; Zhao, Yue; Wang, Wensheng; Shi, Jianxin; Wang, Chunchao; Lu, Jinyuan; Zhang, Dabing; Li, Zhikang; Wei, Chaochun

    2017-01-25

    A pan-genome is the union of the gene sets of all the individuals of a clade or a species and it provides a new dimension of genome complexity with the presence/absence variations (PAVs) of genes among these genomes. With the progress of sequencing technologies, pan-genome study is becoming affordable for eukaryotes with large-sized genomes. The Asian cultivated rice, Oryza sativa L., is one of the major food sources for the world and a model organism in plant biology. Recently, the 3000 Rice Genome Project (3K RGP) sequenced more than 3000 rice genomes with a mean sequencing depth of 14.3×, which provided a tremendous resource for rice research. In this paper, we present a genome browser, Rice Pan-genome Browser (RPAN), as a tool to search and visualize the rice pan-genome derived from 3K RGP. RPAN contains a database of the basic information of 3010 rice accessions, including genomic sequences, gene annotations, PAV information and gene expression data of the rice pan-genome. At least 12 000 novel genes absent in the reference genome were included. RPAN also provides multiple search and visualization functions. RPAN can be a rich resource for rice biology and rice breeding. It is available at http://cgm.sjtu.edu.cn/3kricedb/ or http://www.rmbreeding.cn/pan3k. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  20. University Students' Views on the Perceived Benefits and Drawbacks of Seeking Help for Mental Health Problems on the Internet: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jade Ky; Farrer, Louise M; Gulliver, Amelia; Bennett, Kylie; Griffiths, Kathleen M

    2016-01-19

    University students experience high levels of mental health problems yet very few seek professional help. Web-based mental health interventions may be useful for the university student population. However, there are few published qualitative studies that have examined the perceived benefits and drawbacks of seeking help for mental health problems on the Internet from the perspective of university students. To investigate the attitudes of university students on mental health help-seeking on the Internet. A total of 19 university students aged 19-24 years participated in 1 of 4 focus groups to examine their views toward help-seeking for mental health problems on the Internet. Perceived concerns about Web-based help-seeking included privacy and confidentiality, difficulty communicating on the Internet, and the quality of Web-based resources. Potential benefits included anonymity/avoidance of stigma, and accessibility. Participants reported mixed views regarding the ability of people with similar mental health issues to interact on the Internet. These factors should be considered in the development of Web-based mental health resources to increase acceptability and engagement from university students.

  1. High prevalence of sedentary risk factors amongst university employees and potential health benefits of campus workplace exercise intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhatib, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Sedentariness and physical inactivity are often reported within white-collar workers, including university campus employees. However, the prevalence of the associated sedentary risk factors and risk reduction intervention strategies within a university campus workplace are less known. This study investigates whether the prevalence of sedentary risk factors within university campus employees could be reduced with a campus based exercise intervention. 56 UK university employees (age = 50.7 ± 10.2, stature = 1.68.8 ± 8.6, body mass = 73.9 ± 15.1) were tested for body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and maximal cardiorespiratory capacity (V̇O2max). The prevalence was analyzed across genders and job roles. An exercise intervention followed for the sedentary employees involving walking and running for 25 min twice/week for 10 weeks at an intensity corresponding to individual's ventilatory threshold (VT). The university workplace demonstrated a prevalence of higher BMI, SBP and DBP than the recommended healthy thresholds, with gender having a significant effect. Males' BMI, SBP and DBP were higher than in females (p employees have a high prevalence of sedentary risk factors across different genders and job roles. These risks can be reduced by an exercise-based intervention administered within the campus workplace, which should be considered in university workplace policies.

  2. Efficacy of Selected Insecticides Applied to Hybrid Rice Seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, A.; Gore, J.; Musser, F.; Cook, D.; Walker, T.; Dobbins, C.

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid rice and insecticide seed treatments targeting rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel, have altered the landscape of rice production. The effect of reduced seeding rates on seed treatment efficacy in hybrid rice has not been studied. During 2011 and 2012, an experiment was conducted at seven locations to determine the relationship between low seeding rates used in hybrid rice and efficacy of selected insecticidal seed treatments as measured by rice water weevil densities and yield. Labeled rates of thiamethoxam, chlorantraniliprole, and clothianidin were compared with higher rates of these products to determine if labeled rates provide an acceptable level of control of the rice water weevil. Study locations were divided into low, moderate, and high groups based on rice water weevil larval densities. All seed treatments and seed treatment rates reduced rice water weevil densities. However, there was no observed yield or economic benefit from the use of an insecticidal seed treatment in areas of low pressure. Differences in yield were observed among seed treatments and seed treatment rates in moderate and high pressure locations, and all seed treatments yielded better than the untreated plots, but these differences were not always economical. All seed treatments showed an economic advantage in areas of high weevil pressure, and there were no differences among seed treatment products or rates, suggesting that currently labeled seed treatment rates in hybrid rice are effective for rice water weevil management. PMID:26537671

  3. Effect of Red Yeast Rice and Coconut, Rice Bran or Sunflower Oil Combination in Rats on Hypercholesterolemic Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Sumitra; Vellingiri, Kishore

    2016-04-01

    Dietary supplements provide a novel population based health approach for treating hyperlipidemias. Red yeast rice is known to have lipid lowering effects. Combination of red yeast rice with various oils is taken by different population around the world. In this present work, we aimed to compare the effects of red yeast rice with different oil (coconut, rice bran and sunflower oil) supplementations on lipid levels and oxidative stress in rats fed on hypercholesterolemic diet. A Randomized controlled study was conducted on 28 male Sprague Dawley rats. It included 4 arms-Control arm (hypercholesterolemic diet), Test arm A (hypercholesterolemic diet +Red yeast rice + Rice bran oil), arm B (hypercholesterolemic diet +Red yeast rice + Coconut oil) and arm C (hypercholesterolemic diet +Red yeast rice + Sunflower oil). At the end of one month, serum cholesterol, triglycerides, MDA and paraoxonase was measured. The mean values of analytes between the different groups were compared using student 't-' test. The rats fed with red yeast rice and rice bran oil combination showed significantly lower levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides and MDA when compared to the controls. The serum paraoxonase levels were significantly higher in this group when compared to the controls. The rats fed with red yeast rice and coconut oil combination showed significantly lower serum cholesterol and MDA levels when compared to the controls. The mean triglyceride and paraoxonase levels did not show any statistically significant difference from the controls. The rats on red yeast rice and sunflower oil combination did not show any statistically significant difference in the lipid levels and oxidative stress parameters. The food combination which had best outcome in preventing the development of hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress in rats fed with hypercholesterolemic diet was red yeast rice and rice bran oil. Combining red yeast rice with coconut oil and sunflower oil gave suboptimal benefits.

  4. MULTI-COUNTRY ASSESSMENT OF BARRIERS TO ACCEPTANCE OF GM RICE

    OpenAIRE

    Durand-Morat, Alvaro; Wailes, Eric; Alam, MJ; Mwaijande, Francis; Tsiboe, Francis

    2015-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) rice has been developed to confer pest resistance, herbicide tolerance and health benefits, yet regulatory, policy and market barriers prevent commercialization of GM rice. This study assesses factors based on consumer survey results that assess acceptance of GM rice in 5 selected countries, namely, Bangladesh, Colombia, Ghana, Honduras, and Tanzania.

  5. Variation in levels of the flavone tricin in bran from rice genotypes varying in pericarp color

    Science.gov (United States)

    The flavone tricin has recently been shown to have numerous health benefits and has been proposed as a safe candidate for clinical trials of cancer prevention. One dietary source of tricin is rice bran. Rice bran, which is removed from polished rice, consists of the pericarp, testa, and aleurone (t...

  6. Impact of a Universal School-Based Violence Prevention Program on Violent Delinquency: Distinctive Benefits for Youth with Maltreatment Histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooks, Claire V.; Scott, Katreena; Ellis, Wendy; Wolfe, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Child maltreatment constitutes a strong risk factor for violent delinquency in adolescence, with cumulative experiences of maltreatment creating increasingly greater risk. Our previous work demonstrated that a universal school-based violence prevention program could provide a protective impact for youth at risk for violent delinquency…

  7. The dynamics of rice production in Indonesia 1961–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah R. Panuju

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice is one of the important agricultural products in Indonesia. The production has been fully supported by infrastructure including research and development as well as government regulations in pricing. Its vulnerability to climate change requires adaptation strategies on irrigation, biotechnology and selection of alternative crops. The primary goal of this paper was to evaluate the historical perspective of the dynamics of rice production, technologies particularly in seed inventions, labour in farming and consumption of rice from 1961 to 2009 in conjunction with land capability. The study of historical rice production could be a benefit for future agricultural planning in Indonesia.

  8. Universe

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    The Universe, is one book in the Britannica Illustrated Science Library Series that is correlated to the science curriculum in grades 5-8. The Britannica Illustrated Science Library is a visually compelling set that covers earth science, life science, and physical science in 16 volumes.  Created for ages 10 and up, each volume provides an overview on a subject and thoroughly explains it through detailed and powerful graphics-more than 1,000 per volume-that turn complex subjects into information that students can grasp.  Each volume contains a glossary with full definitions for vocabulary help and an index.

  9. Rice Water: A Traditional Ingredient with Anti-Aging Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Marto

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The skin healing benefits of rice have been known for centuries. Rice (Oryza sativa water is a food processing waste that can potentially be incorporated into cosmetic formulations. However, no scientific evidence supports their role in skincare products. The aim of this project is to design and develop a topical gel formulation containing rice water and to evaluate its biological properties, namely, the anti-aging and antioxidant rice water properties. Rice water was evaluated in terms of physico-chemical composition and in terms of in vitro biological antioxidant activity and elastase inhibitory effect. Rice water was incorporated into a hydrogel and the developed formulation was subjected to pharmacotechnical tests such as pH and viscosity. Biological and sensory effects were evaluated on a panel of 12 volunteers for 28 days. The safety evaluation study was performed on rice water gel, using the Human Repeat Insult Patch test protocol. Rice water presented in vitro biological antioxidant activity and elastase inhibitory effect. The gel formulation containing 96% rice water was biocompatible with the human skin and presented suitable cosmetic properties. Rice water should be thus considered as an anti-aging ingredient to be used as raw material for skincare applications.

  10. Analysis of the Survey Results About University Students' Perception of Benefits of Supporting E-Learning Education

    OpenAIRE

    Michal Stričík; Monika Čonková

    2017-01-01

    The paper deals with the analysis of the answers to the results of the questionnaire survey on the e-learning system used at the Faculty of Business Economics of the University of Economics in Bratislava with seat in Košice, used at the Faculty in Košice and the workplace in Michalovce. The results of the survey point to the fact that respondents appreciate the use of e-learning form of education compared to its classical form (78 % of respondents) and the possibility of studying at any time ...

  11. Rice peasants and rice research in Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijkers, P.A.N.M.

    1983-01-01

    Rice has been grown as a food crop in Latin America from early colonial times. In Colombia rice became a prominent subsistence crop especially on the north coast where it has been grown since the 17th century, sometimes also as a commercial crop. During the last twenty years there has been a sharp

  12. Induced Mutations in Thai Rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klakhaeng, Kanchana

    2014-01-01

    Rice is the primary source of food for more than half of the world's population. It benefits greatly from technological inputs in the area of breeding such as induced mutation. Induced mutation can produce mutants with significant improvement in plant type, maturity, yields and protein ratio when compared to the parent. These improved traits enable the mutants to fit into farming systems with either shorter or longer growing seasons. Three induced mutant rice varieties, including RD6, RD10 and RD15, are well accepted by farmers and consumers in Thailand. RD6 and RD15 were aromatic, photosensitive varieties which were derived from KDML105 by acute irradiation of 20 and 15 kilorad gamma ray, respectively. After induced mutation, pedigree selection was applied. RD6 showed drought tolerance and also good grain quality including softness and good aroma with a higher average yield than the famous glutinous variety, San-Pah-Tong. Additionally, it was resistant to blast and brown spot diseases with an average yield of 4.19 tons/ha. RD15 showed drought tolerance and resistance to brown spot disease with the highest yield of 3.5 tons/ha. These two mutant varieties are currently the most famous aromatic rice varieties in Thailand. On the other hand, RD10 is a glutinous, photoperiod insensitive rice variety which was derived from RD1 by irradiation of 1 kilorad fast neutrons. RD10 showed good grain quality such as softness and stickiness with the yield of 4.25 tons/ha. As an on-going project, recommended rice varieties were irradiated with electron beam for anaerobic germination ability, submergence tolerance, stagnant-flood tolerance and also internode elongation.

  13. Optimism is universal: exploring the presence and benefits of optimism in a representative sample of the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Matthew W; Lopez, Shane J; Pressman, Sarah D

    2013-10-01

    Current theories of optimism suggest that the tendency to maintain positive expectations for the future is an adaptive psychological resource associated with improved well-being and physical health, but the majority of previous optimism research has been conducted in industrialized nations. The present study examined (a) whether optimism is universal, (b) what demographic factors predict optimism, and (c) whether optimism is consistently associated with improved subjective well-being and perceived health worldwide. The present study used representative samples of 142 countries that together represent 95% of the world's population. The total sample of 150,048 individuals had a mean age of 38.28 (SD = 16.85) and approximately equal sex distribution (51.2% female). The relationships between optimism, subjective well-being, and perceived health were examined using hierarchical linear modeling. Results indicated that most individuals and most countries worldwide are optimistic and that higher levels of optimism are associated with improved subjective well-being and perceived health worldwide. The present study provides compelling evidence that optimism is a universal phenomenon and that the associations between optimism and improved psychological functioning are not limited to industrialized nations. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Analysis of the Economic Potential for a Mercosur Rice Futures Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Antonio da Rocha de Souza

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available World rice production reached 488.4 thousand tons, in 2012. Asian countries are the world’s largest rice producers, followed by Latinamerica, particularly Brazil, where rice is a basic food item. In spite of the clear economic benefits bestowed by commodity futures markets, neither Asia nor Mercosur have implemented a regional rice futures market. In sum, we propose to investigate the feasibility of a Brazilian rice futures contract to serve the Mercosur region by estimating Mercosur rice price dynamics and analyze basis risk and hedging effectiveness for rice market agents in the region, in a simulation framework using a hypothetical regional contract price. Sample data and period was non-probabilistic, for accessibility and convenience. Mercosur rice price dynamics expressed Argentina and Uruguay rice prices moving in synchrony. Brazil rice prices were on lower levels. Also, all three pairs of rice price series are cointegrated, with one cointegrating equation. Again, results can be largely attributed to the different price data used, in Brazil was rough rice, while in Uruguay and Argentina milled white rice with 5%. Despite that, there are preliminary evidences that a Mercosur rice futures market could be feasible.

  15. Integrated rice-duck farming mitigates the global warming potential in rice season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guochun; Liu, Xin; Wang, Qiangsheng; Yu, Xichen; Hang, Yuhao

    2017-01-01

    Integrated rice-duck farming (IRDF), as a mode of ecological agriculture, is an important way to realize sustainable development of agriculture. A 2-year split-plot field experiment was performed to evaluate the effects of IRDF on methane (CH 4 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions and its ecological mechanism in rice season. This experiment was conducted with two rice farming systems (FS) of IRDF and conventional farming (CF) under four paddy-upland rotation systems (PUR): rice-fallow (RF), annual straw incorporating in rice-wheat rotation system (RWS), annual straw-based biogas residues incorporating in rice-wheat rotation system (RWB), and rice-green manure (RGM). During the rice growing seasons, IRDF decreased the CH 4 emission by 8.80-16.68%, while increased the N 2 O emission by 4.23-15.20%, when compared to CF. Given that CH 4 emission contributed to 85.83-96.22% of global warming potential (GWP), the strong reduction in CH 4 emission led to a significantly lower GWP of IRDF as compared to CF. The reason for this trend was because IRDF has significant effect on dissolved oxygen (DO) and soil redox potential (Eh), which were two pivotal factors for CH 4 and N 2 O emissions in this study. The IRDF not only mitigates the GWP, but also increases the rice yield by 0.76-2.43% compared to CF. Moreover, compared to RWS system, RF, RWB and RGM systems significantly reduced CH 4 emission by 50.17%, 44.89% and 39.51%, respectively, while increased N 2 O emission by 10.58%, 14.60% and 23.90%, respectively. And RWS system had the highest GWP. These findings suggest that mitigating GWP and improving rice yield could be simultaneously achieved by the IRDF, and employing suitable PUR would benefit for relieving greenhouse effect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Radiocarbon ages of Sorori ancient rice of Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyeong Ja, E-mail: kjkim@kigam.re.kr [Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yung-Jo; Woo, Jong-Yoon [Institute of Korean Prehistory, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Jull, A.J. Timothy [NSF Arizona AMS Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Samples of Sorori ancient rice were excavated in 1998 from the Sorori Paleolithic site located at Sorori, Oksan-myeon, Cheong-won County in Chungcheongbuk-do, Korea. We have made new radiocarbon measurements for Sorori samples in 2009 at the NSF Arizona AMS Laboratory. Both ancient rice samples and surrounded peat from the Sorori site were dated. The AMS results confirmed that the ages of the rice and peat soil were 12,520 {+-} 150 and 12,552 {+-} 90 BP, respectively. These radiocarbon ages are consistent with the previously published data of quasi rice measured at Seoul National University and confirm that the Sorori rice is the oldest ancient rice currently reported.

  17. Learning About and Benefiting From Peer Review: A Course Assignment for Doctoral Students at Two Different Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethares, Kristen A; Morris, Nancy S

    2016-06-01

    Peer review is an expectation of PhD-prepared nurses but a lack of evidence in the best methods to train students is of concern. Guided by the ADDIE (Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation) model, faculty at two universities developed, implemented, and evaluated a peer review assignment for 22 second-year PhD nursing students. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected and analyzed using descriptive statistics and content analysis. Students reported the process of peer review was beneficial (82%) because it informed their own writing (59%), assisted them to read more critically (73%), and increased their appreciation of the role of peer review in the revision process (77%). Giving constructive feedback was difficult for students, but the feedback they received was helpful. Peer review is important to the development of science and an expectation of PhD-prepared nurses. Methods to include peer review in education are needed. [J Nurs Educ. 2016;55(6):342-344.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. Analysis of the Survey Results About University Students' Perception of Benefits of Supporting E-Learning Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Stričík

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the analysis of the answers to the results of the questionnaire survey on the e-learning system used at the Faculty of Business Economics of the University of Economics in Bratislava with seat in Košice, used at the Faculty in Košice and the workplace in Michalovce. The results of the survey point to the fact that respondents appreciate the use of e-learning form of education compared to its classical form (78 % of respondents and the possibility of studying at any time (64 % of respondents. Part of the survey was focused on the analysis of the areas in which students have learned to improve their skills and knowledge on the basis of working with the e-learning system. Improvements were felt by respondents mainly in the field of the subject, communication area and informatics. As part of e-learning, respondents particularly saw room for improvement in expanding the e-learning portal content, for example, by lectures, more volumes, and by compilation of study materials requiring inclusion of other subjects into the system. Proper use of e-learning education will help to increase the quality and competitiveness of the provision of education more effectively, thereby increasing the satisfaction of students and meeting their commitments to society.

  19. physico-chemical and grain cooking characteristics of selected rice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    Sokoine University of Agriculture, Department of Food Science and Technology,. P.O. Box 3006 ... improve the cooking quality parameters, improve production of the local rice cultivars and increase the ... Sample collection and preparation.

  20. Determinants of molecular marker based classification of rice (Oryza ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mr devi singh

    2015-01-07

    Jan 7, 2015 ... 1Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, SVP University of Agriculture and ... Basmati and non-Basmati rice adapted to different agro- ecological ..... acid soils in southern New South Wales?

  1. Consumer Acceptance and Preference Study (CAPS) on brown and undermilled Indian rice varieties in Chennai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudha, Vasudevan; Spiegelman, Donna; Hong, Biling; Malik, Vasanti; Jones, Clara; Wedick, Nicole M; Hu, Frank B; Willett, Walter; Bai, Mookambika Ramya; Ponnalagu, Muthu Mariyammal; Arumugam, Kokila; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2013-01-01

    To study consumer acceptance of unmilled brown and undermilled rice among urban south Indians. Overweight and normal weight adults living in slum and nonslum residences in Chennai participated (n = 82). Bapatla (BPT) and Uma (red pigmented) rice varieties were chosen. These rice varieties were dehusked (unmilled, 0% polish) and further milled to 2.3% and 4.4% polishing (undermilled). Thus, 9 rice samples in both raw and parboiled forms were provided for consumer tasting over a period of 3 days. A 7-point hedonic scale was used to rate consumer preferences. A validated questionnaire was used to collect demographic, anthropometric, medical history, physical activity, dietary intake data, and willingness of the consumers to switch over to brown rice. Consumers reported that the color, appearance, texture, taste, and overall quality of the 4.4% polished rice was strongly preferred in both varieties and forms. Ratings for 0% polished (brown rice) were substantially lower than those of 2.3% polished rice, which were intermediate in ratings between 0% and 4.4% polishing. However, most of the consumers (93%) expressed a willingness to substitute brown or 2.3% polished rice, if affordable, after the taste tests and education on nutritional and health benefits of whole grains. Though most consumers preferred polished white rice, education regarding health benefits may help this population switch to brown or undermilled rice. Cooking quality and appearance of the grains were perceived as the most important factors to consider when purchasing rice among Chennai urban adults.

  2. Avian foods, foraging and habitat conservation in world rice fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, J.D.; Kaminski, R.M.; Reinecke, K.J.

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide, rice (Oryza sativa) agriculture typically involves seasonal flooding and soil tillage, which provides a variety of microhabitats and potential food for birds. Water management in rice fields creates conditions ranging from saturated mud flats to shallow (seed mass from North America ranging from 66672 kg/ha. Although initially abundant after harvest, waste rice availability can be temporally limited. Few abundance estimates for other foods, such as vertebrate prey or forage vegetation, exist for rice fields. Outside North America, Europe and Japan, little is known about abundance and importance of any avian food in rice fields. Currently, flooding rice fields after harvest is the best known management practice to attract and benefit birds. Studies from North America indicate specific agricultural practices (e.g. burning stubble) may increase use and improve access to food resources. Evaluating and implementing management practices that are ecologically sustainable, increase food for birds and are agronomically beneficial should be global priorities to integrate rice production and avian conservation. Finally, land area devoted to rice agriculture appears to be stable in the USA, declining in China, and largely unquantified in many regions. Monitoring trends in riceland area may provide information to guide avian conservation planning in rice-agriculture ecosystems.

  3. Impact of a universal school-based violence prevention program on violent delinquency: distinctive benefits for youth with maltreatment histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooks, Claire V; Scott, Katreena; Ellis, Wendy; Wolfe, David A

    2011-06-01

    Child maltreatment constitutes a strong risk factor for violent delinquency in adolescence, with cumulative experiences of maltreatment creating increasingly greater risk. Our previous work demonstrated that a universal school-based violence prevention program could provide a protective impact for youth at risk for violent delinquency due to child maltreatment history. In this study we conducted a follow-up to determine if participation in a school-based violence prevention program in grade 9 continued to provide a buffering effect on engaging in acts of violent delinquency for maltreated youth, 2 years post-intervention. Secondary analyses were conducted using data from a cluster randomized controlled trial of a comprehensive school-based violence prevention program. Students (N=1,722; 52.8% female) from 20 schools participated in 21 75-min lessons in grade 9 health classes. Individual data (i.e., gender, child maltreatment experiences, and violent delinquency in grade 9) and school-level data (i.e., student perception of safety averaged across students in each school) were entered in a multilevel model to predict violent delinquency at the end of grade 11. Individual- and school-level factors predicting violent delinquency in grade 11 replicated previous findings from grade 9: being male, experiencing child maltreatment, being violent in grade 9, and attending a school with a lower perceived sense of safety among the entire student body increased violent delinquency. The cross-level interaction of individual maltreatment history and school-level intervention was also replicated: in non-intervention schools, youth with more maltreatment in their background were increasingly likely to engage in violent delinquency. The strength of this relationship was significantly attenuated in intervention schools. Follow-up findings are consistent with the buffering effect of the prevention program previously found post-intervention for the subsample of youth with maltreatment

  4. Allelopathic potential of selected rice varieties

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl10

    2012-11-01

    Nov 1, 2012 ... 1Faculty of Agro Based Industry, Universiti Malaysia Kelantan, 17600 Jeli, Kelantan, Malaysia. ... experiment was laid out in completely randomized design. ..... Mixed-Cultures. PLoS ONE 7(5):e37201. Islam M (2010). Allelopathic effects of rice varieties on seed germination and seedling growth of lettuce.

  5. Making Rice Production More Environmentally-Friendly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Uphoff

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Irrigated rice production is one of the most essential agricultural activities for sustaining our global population, and at the same time, one of the agricultural sectors considered most eco-unfriendly. This is because it consumes a larger share of available freshwater resources, competing with varied ecosystems as well as other economic sectors; its paddy fields are responsible for significant emission of greenhouse gases; and the reliance on chemical fertilizers and various agrochemicals contributes to pollution of soils and water systems. These stresses on soils, hydrology and atmosphere are actually not necessary for rice production, which can be increased by modifying agronomic practices though more agroecologically-sound management practices. These, combined under the rubric of the System of Rice Intensification (SRI, can reduce requirements of irrigation water, chemical fertilizer and agrochemicals while increasing paddy yields and farmer’s net incomes. Here we discuss how irrigated rice production can be made more eco-friendly for the benefit of farmers, consumers and the environment. This is achieved by introducing practices that improve the growth and functioning of rice plants’ root systems and enhance the abundance, diversity and activity of beneficial soil organisms that live around plant roots and within the plants themselves as symbiotic endophytes.

  6. Rice (Oryza) hemoglobins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemoglobins (Hbs) corresponding to non-symbiotic (nsHb) and truncated (tHb) Hbs have been identified in rice (Oryza). This review discusses the major findings from the current studies on rice Hbs. At the molecular level, a family of the nshb genes, consisting of hb1, hb2, hb3, hb4 and hb5, and a sin...

  7. Senior Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information Medicaid Public Health Centers Temporary "Cash" Assistance Senior Benefits Program GovDelivery Skip Navigation Links Health and Social Services > Public Assistance > Senior Benefits Page Content Senior Benefits Senior Benefits Logo Senior Benefits Fact Sheet - June, 2016 Reduction Information

  8. ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF SMALL HOLDER RICE PRODUCTION SYSTEMS IN EBONYI STATE SOUTH EAST, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwaobiala C.U.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Economic analysis of Upland and Swamp rice production in Ebonyi State, South east Nigeria was studied and analyzed in 2011 farming season. Purposive and multistage random sampling technique was used to select agricultural blocks, circles and rice farmers. The sample size was 240 rice farmers (120 Agricultural Development Programme (ADP Upland rice contact farmers and 120 Agricultural Development Programme (ADP Swamp contact rice farmers. Data for the analysis were collected from a structured questionnaire. The result indicates that mean ages of upland rice farmers was 37.3 years while swamp rice farmers had 39.2 years. The mean farming experience for both farmers were 8.5 years (upland rice farmers and 8.8 years (swamp rice farmers with farm sizes of 1.2 and 1.1 hectares for upland rice farmers and swamp rice farmers respectively. Upland rice farmers had an annual farm income of 189,410.00 NGN (1,222USD as against 201,166.00 NGN (1,297.85USD for Swamp rice farmers. The multiple regression (Cobb Douglas estimates of the determinants of output of upland rice showed that coefficients age, farming experience, farm size, variable inputs and farm income were positively signed at given levels of probability while capital inputs was negative. The Cobb Douglas regression estimates of the determinants of output of Swamp rice showed that the coefficients of education, labour cost, farm size, variable inputs and farm income were positively signed and significant at given levels of probability as well as capital inputs which was negative. The result indicates that net profit from Upland rice cultivation was 92,800.00 NGN (598.71USD with a Benefit Cost Ratio of N1.55 (1.56USD. The net profit from Swamp rice cultivation was 132,090.00 NGN (852.19USD and a Benefit Cost Ratio of 1.75 NGN (1.75USD. Access to credit to rice farmers, subsidy on farm inputs, dissemination of improved rice technologies by extension agents and formation of farmer groups were advocated

  9. Generating a positive energy balance from using rice straw for anaerobic digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.H. Nguyen

    2016-11-01

    The net energy of the rice straw supply chain for biogas generation through AD is 3,500 MJ per ton of straw. This rice straw management option can provide a 70% net output energy benefit. The research highlighted the potential of rice straw as a clean fuel source with a positive energy balance, helping to reduce greenhouse gas emissions compared with the existing practice of burning it in the field.

  10. Improving Yield of Transplanted Aman and Boro Rice Through Tegra Package of Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Kader, MSR Mia, MA Kafi, MS Hossain, N Islam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the yield performance of transplant aman rice cv. BRRI dhan49 and boro rice cv. BRRI dhan29 under improved package of cultivation (TEGRA as compared to farmers’ practice. TEGRA is a rice farming practice which includes use of quality seeds and healthy seedlings, transplanting with rice transplanter, use of herbicide, use of balanced fertilization and micronutrients, and preventive plant protection measures. The study during transplant aman season included two treatments on rice cultivation method viz. TEGRA package and farmers’ practice while in boro rice four treatments viz. TEGRA package, farmers’ practice with high inputs, farmers’ practice with medium inputs and farmers’ practice with low inputs. The yield and plant characters of both transplant aman and boro rice were significantly influenced by the TEGRA package of cultivation as compared to farmers’ practice. TEGRA package of cultivation as compared to farmers’ practice increased the grain yield by 18.3% in transplant aman rice and by 80% in boro rice with less cost of production as compared to farmers’ practice, which eventually resulted 23% increase in gross return and 400% in net return. As a result, the benefit cost ratio of TEGRA package was much higher (1.35 and 2.20 during transplant aman rice and boro rice, respectively compared to that of farmers’ practice (1.07 and 1.30.

  11. Multi-approach model for improving agrochemical safety among rice farmers in Pathumthani, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siriwong W

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Buppha Raksanam,1,2 Surasak Taneepanichskul,2 Wattasit Siriwong,2 Mark Robson3,41Sirindhorn College of Public Health, Trang, 2College of Public Health Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand; 3School of Environmental and Biological Sciences, Rutgers University, 4School of Public Health, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ, USAAbstract: The large-scale use of agrochemicals has raised environmental and human health concerns. A comprehensive intervention strategy for improving agrochemical safety among rice farmers in Thailand is lacking. The objective of this study is to develop a model in order to improve farmers’ health and prevent them from being exposed to agrochemical hazards, in addition to evaluating the effectiveness of the intervention in terms of agrochemical safety. This study was conducted between October 2009 and January 2011. It measures changes in the mean scores of agrochemical knowledge, health beliefs, agrochemical use behaviors, and in-home pesticide safety. Knowledge of agrochemical use constitutes a basic knowledge of agrochemicals and agrochemical safety behaviors. Health beliefs constitute perceived susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers to using agrochemicals. Agrochemical use behaviors include self-care practices in terms of personal health at specific times including before spraying, while spraying, during storage, transportation, waste management, and health risk management. Fifty rice farmers from Khlong Seven Community (study group and 51 rice farmers from Bueng Ka Sam community (control group were randomly recruited with support from community leaders. The participants were involved in a combination of home visits (ie, pesticide safety assessments at home and community participatory activities regarding agrochemical safety. This study reveals that health risk behaviors regarding agrochemical exposure in the study area are mainly caused by lack of attention to

  12. Development of Rice Reprocessing to Strengthen Small Scale Rice Mills in Indramayu West Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdaus, Y. R.; Hasbullah, R.; Djohar, S.

    2018-05-01

    Small Rice Mill (SRM) has a very important role in rice production of strong institutional relationships to farmers and rice markets. Nevertheless, the rice produced in low quality and changing consumer preferences cause SRM to have difficulty in maintaining the role. Development of a reprocessing business - called Rice to Rice Processing Plant (R2RP) - as a separate business unit will support their role and existence. This study aimed at analyzing the feasibility of R2RP business that integrates SRM and market as an independent business unit and determines mutual partnership pattern. The study was conducted with special reference to West Java Province. The qualitative method used for non-financial aspects analysis includes raw material, market, technical-technological, management and regulation and partnership pattern. The financial aspect used the quantitative method of Net Present Value (NPV), Net Benefit Cost Ratio (Net B/C), Internal Rate of Return (IRR), Payback Period (PP) and Switching Value to check their sensitivity.The results showed R2R business is feasible for non-financially, technical-technological and financial aspects. Technology has evolved to produce various qualities (premium or medium) after the quality of raw materials (low quality or off-grade rice) using profit optimization. Value of the financial parameters was NPV of Rp 137 billion, Net B/C of 5.80, IRR of 84.27 percent and PP of 2.18 years at capacity of 19,800 tons/year with total investment of Rp 30 billion (Rp 13,500/USD). The switching value analysis showed that a decrease in product prices is sensitively influencing the financial feasibility. To strengthen cooperation that enhancing mutually beneficial relationship, R2R assists equipment investment in and buy raw material from SRM at a rational agreed price.

  13. Screening for Osmotic Stress Responses in Rice Varieties under Drought Condition

    OpenAIRE

    Simon Swapna; Korukkanvilakath Samban Shylaraj

    2017-01-01

    Drought is the major abiotic stress factor that limits rice production worldwide. To evaluate the osmotic stress responses in rice varieties under drought condition, a total of 42 high-yielding rice varieties were collected from various research stations of Kerala Agricultural University in India. The experimental setup comprises of initial hydroponic treatments at different osmotic potentials, artificially induced by desired strengths of polyethylene glycol (PEG6000), and followed by the pot...

  14. Newborn health benefits or financial risk protection? An ethical analysis of a real-life dilemma in a setting without universal health coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onarheim, Kristine Husøy; Norheim, Ole Frithjof; Miljeteig, Ingrid

    2018-03-30

    High healthcare costs make illness precarious for both patients and their families' economic situation. Despite the recent focus on the interconnection between health and financial risk at the systemic level, the ethical conflict between concerns for potential health benefits and financial risk protection at the household level in a low-income setting is less understood. Using a seven-step ethical analysis, we examine a real-life dilemma faced by families and health workers at the micro level in Ethiopia and analyse the acceptability of limiting treatment for an ill newborn to protect against financial risk. We assess available evidence and ethical issues at stake and discuss the dilemma with respect to three priority setting criteria: health maximisation, priority to the worse-off and financial risk protection. Giving priority to health maximisation and extra priority to the worse-off suggests, in this particular case, that limiting treatment is not acceptable even if the total well-being gain from reduced financial risk is taken into account. Our conclusion depends on the facts of the case and the relative weight assigned to these criteria. However, there are problematic aspects with the premise of this dilemma. The most affected parties-the newborn, family members and health worker-cannot make free choices about whether to limit treatment or not, and we thereby accept deprivations of people's substantive freedoms. In settings where healthcare is financed largely out-of-pocket, families and health workers face tragic trade-offs. As countries move towards universal health coverage, financial risk protection for high-priority services is necessary to promote fairness, improve health and reduce poverty. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Harvest season and head rice yield of upland rice cultivars submitted to parboiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diva Mendonça Garcia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false PT-BR X-NONE X-NONE This work aimed to evaluate the effects of parboiling on the yield of upland rice cultivars harvested at different times. The cultivars were BRS Primavera and BRS Sertaneja, harvested at 30 and 47 days after flowering (DAF. For parboiling, samples were soaked in water bath at 65 °C in grain: water ratio of 1:1.6 in order to reach 25% and 30% moisture, and then were autoclaved for 10 minutes at 120 °C and 1.1 kg/cm2 of pressure. After drying up to 13% moisture in a greenhouse with forced air at 40 °C, samples were benefited, followed by separation using the trieur equipment and weighing to obtain the head rice yield. The results showed a higher yield for head rice harvested at 30 DAF than at 47 DAF (BRS Primavera 63.2 and 38.7%; BRS Sertaneja 68.5 and 55.7%, respectively. Parboiling increased the head rice yield, regardless of harvest season, but partly reflected the potential of the cultivar origin: BRS Primavera 70.06%, BRS Sertaneja 74.94%. It is concluded that the harvest season is one of the factors that most influence the quality of industrial rice and the effect of parboiling also depends on the potential of the material source.

  16. Transfer of gaseous iodine from atmosphere to rough rice, brown rice and polished rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumiya, Misako; Uchida, Shigeo; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Ohmomo, Yoichiro; Yamaguchi, Shuho; Obata, Hitoshi.

    1987-01-01

    Experiments were carried out in order to obtain information required for establishing transfer coefficients of gaseous iodine (I 2 ) to rough rice, brown rice and polished rice. The gaseous iodine deposited on young rice plants before the heading period was scarcely found in the rough rice harvested at the full ripe stage. The biological half life of iodine in hull, however, was much slower than that in leaves of 14 days. The translocation of iodine from leaves and stalks to rough rice was not clearly recognized. Therefore, it was deduced that iodine found in brown rice mainly should originate from that deposited on the hull. The distribution ratios of iodine between rough rice and brown rice, and between brown rice and polished rice were 100:4 and 100:30 on 100 grains basis, respectively. If average normalized deposition velocity (V d(m) ) or derived deposition velocity (V s ) are given, the transfer coefficients of gaseous iodine to rough rice (TF r ), brown rice (TF b ) and polished rice (TF p ) could be calculated. (author)

  17. Rice Combine Harvester: Its Effects to the Livelihood of Rice-Field Tenants in a Second Class Municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesrael Medrano

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years, the advancement of modern technology has intensely overhauled society. People use and benefit from modern technology, and the tremendous opportunities it provides play a significant role in almost all aspects of human life. However, too much usage of this has its repercussions as well. Technological and mechanical change in agricultural sector and its impact on the work force have already become one of the neglected concerns of farmers in Amulung, a second class municipality of Cagayan. The newly introduced rice combine harvesters are already dominating the rice fields in Amulung during harvesting seasons. Thus, it replaces the conventional system of harvesting using human labor and sickles. This study is conducted to determine the effects of rice combine harvesters to the livelihood of rice field tenants in Amulung, Cagayan. Using purposive sampling through site selection approach and networking, 25 rice field tenants were selected as participants of this study. In–depth conversations and guided interview had served as the main instruments used by the researchers to gather the needed data. The results showed that rice combine harvesters cause unemployment and migration among the participants and degrade their sense of solidarity and camaraderie. As a result, the participants sought alternative activities which they can be paid off. Also, they engage themselves in livestock and poultry production, and even in informal sector economy just to cope with the prevalence of rice combine harvesters.

  18. Association Analysis in Rice: From Application to Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Association analysis based on linkage disequilibrium (LD is an efficient way to dissect complex traits and to identify gene functions in rice. Although association analysis is an effective way to construct fine maps for quantitative traits, there are a few issues which need to be addressed. In this review, we will first summarize type, structure and LD level of populations used for association analysis of rice, and then discuss the genotyping methods and statistical approaches used for association analysis in rice. Moreover, we will review current shortcomings and benefits of association analysis as well as specific types of future research to overcome these shortcomings. Furthermore, we will analyze the reasons for the underutilization of the results within association analysis in rice breeding.

  19. Prevalence of Rice Yellow Mottle Virus (RYMV) on Rice Plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Incidence of Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV) on rice plants (ofada) grown in two local government areas (LGAs) of Ogun State had been evaluated during a two year field survey. Six month old rice plants were observed for symptom expression and leaf samples collected for serological indexing. Of the 60 leaf ...

  20. Cobalt-60 gamma radiation effects on degradation of pesticides used in stored rice and beans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groppo, Gerson A.

    1988-02-01

    The present work, carried out at CENA, an agriculture nuclear energy center - University of Sao Paulo - Brazil, investigates the Cobalt-60 gamma radiation effects on insecticides applied to stored rice and beans. The radiation dose applied - 200 Gy - to the stored rice and beans treated with insecticides was not sufficient to cause a noticeable chemical degradation through insect mortality. (author). 31 refs., 23 tabs

  1. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â... Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.310 Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice...

  2. Mapping suitability of rice production systems for mitigation: Strategic approach for prioritizing improved irrigation management across scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassmann, Reiner; Sander, Bjoern Ole

    2016-04-01

    After the successful conclusion of the COP21 in Paris, many developing countries are now embracing the task of reducing emissions with much vigor than previously. In many countries of South and South-East Asia, the agriculture sector constitutes a vast share of the national GHG budget which can mainly be attributed to methane emissions from flooded rice production. Thus, rice growing countries are now looking for tangible and easily accessible information as to how to reduce emissions from rice production in an efficient manner. Given present and future food demand, mitigation options will have to comply with aim of increasing productivity. At the same time, limited financial resources demand for strategic planning of potential mitigation projects based on cost-benefit ratios. At this point, the most promising approach for mitigating methane emissions from rice is an irrigation technique called Alternate Wetting and Drying (AWD). AWD was initially developed for saving water and subsequently, represents an adaptation strategy in its own right by coping with less rainfall. Moreover, AWD also reduces methane emissions in a range from 30-70%. However, AWD is not universally suitable. It is attractive to farmers who have to pump water and may save fuel under AWD, but renders limited incentives in situations where there is no real pressing water scarcity. Thus, planning for AWD adoption at larger scale, e.g. for country-wide programs, should be based on a systematic prioritization of target environments. This presentation encompasses a new methodology for mapping suitability of water-saving in rice production - as a means for planning adaptation and mitigation programs - alongside with preliminary results. The latter comprises three new GIS maps on climate-driven suitability of AWD in major rice growing countries (Philippines, Vietnam, Bangladesh). These maps have been derived from high-resolution data of the areal and temporal extent of rice production that are now

  3. Influence of sensory and cultural perceptions of white rice, brown rice and beans by Costa Rican adults in their dietary choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge-Rojas, Rafael; Mattei, Josiemer; Fuster, Tamara; Willett, Walter; Campos, Hannia

    2014-10-01

    Little is known about the distinct perceptions towards rice and beans that may shape the consumption of these main staple foods among Costa Ricans. We aimed to identify barriers and motivators that could change the current staple into a healthier one, and assess the sensory perceptions of these foods in this population. Focus group discussions and sensory tastings of 8 traditional white or brown rice and beans preparations were conducted in 98 Costa Ricans, aged 40-65 years. Traditional habits and family support emerged as the two main drivers for current consumption. Consuming similar amounts of rice and beans, as well as unfamiliarity with brown rice, are habits engrained in the Costa Rican culture, and are reinforced in the family and community environment. Suggested strategies for consuming more brown rice and more beans included introducing them during childhood, disseminating information of their health benefits that take into account the importance of tradition, lowering the cost, increasing availability, engaging women as agents of change and for brown rice masking the perceived unpleasant sensory characteristics by incorporating them into mixed dishes. Plain brown rice received the lowest mean hedonic liking scores. The preparations rated highest for pleasant were the beans: rice 1:1 ratio regardless of the type of rice. This study identified novel strategies to motivate Costa Rican adults to adapt their food choices into healthier ones within their cultural and sensory acceptability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Extraction of rice bran oil from local rice husk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, J.; Zaman, W.; Salman, M.; Jabeen, N.

    2006-01-01

    Rice Bran Oil is widely used in pharmaceutical, food and chemical industries due to its unique properties and high medicinal value. In the present work, extraction of rice bran oil from different samples of rice husk collected from local rice shellers by solvent extraction method has been studied. Experiments were conducted using a soxhelt apparatus, to extract rice bran oil using hexane, petroleum ether, ethanol and methanol as the solvents and the yields obtained under different conditions were compared. Batch extraction tests showed that the rate of extraction decreases with time and the solution approaches saturation at an exponential rate. (author)

  5. Resistance of Rice Varieties to the Stored-Product Insect, Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Catarina; Mendes, Raquel; Lima, Arlindo; Barros, Graça; Fields, Paul; Da Costa, Luísa Beirão; Rodrigues, José Carlos; Silva, Maria José; Correia, Augusto Manuel; Carvalho, Maria Otilia

    2016-02-01

    Four common Portuguese rice varieties--Thaibonnet, Gladio, Albatros, and Eurosis--were tested for their relative susceptibility to Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky, a common pest of stored rice in Portugal and in tropical countries. Physical (moisture content, hardness, length, and width) and chemical (by attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) properties of rice kernels were measured. Insect bioassays measured median developmental time, Dobie's index of susceptibility, percentage of damaged grains and weight loss, and progeny developed. This was done for paddy, brown rice, and polished rice for each variety. There were small, but significant, differences in insect resistance among the varieties. However, it was different for paddy and polished rice. In paddy, these differences were correlated with hull damage, and Eurosis was the most susceptible variety. In polished rice, resistance was correlated with hardness, and Thaibonnet was the most susceptible variety. In general, paddy rice was more resistant to insect attack, followed by polished rice and then brown rice. Paddy kernels selected with undamaged hull were completely resistant to attack. Implications for IPM and breeding for resistant varieties are discussed. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Gasification of rice husks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzetti, P. (ENEA, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Fonti Alternative e Risparmio Energetico)

    The paper outlines the thermochemical processes and equipment involved in the gasification of rice husks. An assessment is made of the feasibility (availability, technology requirements, economics of production and marketing) of this renewable energy source. Results, reported here in tabular form, of experimental trials at an Italian pilot plant (producing, with the use of 165 kg/h of rice husks, 350,000 kcal/h of gas with a conversion yield of 70%) indicated good feasibility. More research is required to improve the combustion qualities of the final product.

  7. Time to revisit arsenic regulations: comparing drinking water and rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvé, Sébastien

    2014-05-17

    Current arsenic regulations focus on drinking water without due consideration for dietary uptake and thus seem incoherent with respect to the risks arising from rice consumption. Existing arsenic guidelines are a cost-benefit compromise and, as such, they should be periodically re-evaluated. Literature data was used to compare arsenic exposure from rice consumption relative to exposure arising from drinking water. Standard risk assessment paradigms show that arsenic regulations for drinking water should target a maximum concentration of nearly zero to prevent excessive lung and bladder cancer risks (among others). A feasibility threshold of 3 μg As l(-1) was determined, but a cost-benefit analysis concluded that it would be too expensive to target a threshold below 10 μg As l(-1). Data from the literature was used to compare exposure to arsenic from rice and rice product consumption relative to drinking water consumption. The exposure to arsenic from rice consumption can easily be equivalent to or greater than drinking water exposure that already exceeds standard risks and is based on feasibility and cost-benefit compromises. It must also be emphasized that many may disagree with the implications for their own health given the abnormally high cancer odds expected at the cost-benefit arsenic threshold. Tighter drinking water quality criteria should be implemented to properly protect people from excessive cancer risks. Food safety regulations must be put in place to prevent higher concentrations of arsenic in various drinks than those allowed in drinking water. Arsenic concentrations in rice should be regulated so as to roughly equate the risks and exposure levels observed from drinking water.

  8. Introduction and Utilization of INGER Rice Germplasm in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANGSheng-xiang; WEIXing-hua; ELJavier

    2004-01-01

    The International Network for Genetic Evaluation of Rice (INGER) is a global partnership between international and national agricultural research institutions. INGER focuses on worldwide exchange, evaluation and utilization of improved varieties and elite breeding lines of rice. China has actively participated in the activities of INGER since 1980.During the pasted years, 26 500 INGER entries with diversity genetic background have been introduced and evaluated by Chinese scientists. Among of them, 37 commercial varieties directly from elite INGER entries and 27 rice hybrids using INGER lines as their restorer lines/donors have been released to farmers in China. About 1 900 INGER entries were indirectly utilized as cross parents or pest resistant donors in various national and provincial rice breeding programs. Based on the incomplete statistics, there were 14.5 million cumulated hectares planting these varieties and hybrids, from which 5.44 MT of increased rough rice has been received by farmers. INGER accelerates the transfer of adapted varieties and hybrids to farmers, and increases the diversity of rice germplasm in cultivation. Therefore, INGER cooperation has made great benefit both in economy and society in China.

  9. Introduction and Utilization of INGER Rice Germplasm in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Sheng-xiang; WEI Xing-hua; E L Javier

    2004-01-01

    The International Network for Genetic Evaluation of Rice (INGER) is a global partnership between international and national agricultural research institutions. INGER focuses on worldwide exchange, evaluation and utilization of improved varieties and elite breeding lines of rice. China has actively participated in the activities of INGER since 1980.During the pasted years, 26 500 INGER entries with diversity genetic background have been introduced and evaluated by Chinese scientists. Among of them, 37 commercial varieties directly from elite INGER entries and 27 rice hybrids using INGER lines as their restorer lines/donors have been released to farmers in China. About 1 900 INGER entries were indirectly utilized as cross parents or pest resistant donors in various national and provincial rice breeding programs. Based on the incomplete statistics, there were 14.5million cumulated hectares planting these varieties and hybrids, from which 5.44 MT of increased rough rice has been received by farmers. INGER accelerates the transfer of adapted varieties and hybrids to farmers, and increases the diversity of rice germplasm in cultivation. Therefore, INGER cooperation has made great benefit both in economy and society in China.

  10. Semi-dwarf mutants for rice improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, Ramli; Osman, Mohammad; Ibrahim, Rusli

    1990-01-01

    Full text: MARDI and the National University of Malaysia embarked on a programme to induce resistance against blast in rice in 1978. MARDI also obtained semi dwarf mutants of cvs 'Mahsuri', 'Muda', 'Pongsu seribu' and 'Jarum Mas', which are under evaluation. The popular local rice variety 'Manik' was subjected to gamma irradiation (15-40 krad) and 101 promising semidwarf mutants have been obtained following selection in M 2 -M 6 . 29 of them show grain yields of 6.0-7.3 t/ha, compared with 5.7t for 'Manik'. Other valuable mutants were found showing long grain, less shattering, earlier maturity, and glutinous endosperm. One mutant, resistant to brown plant hopper yields 6.3t/ha. (author)

  11. Determining Optimum Rates of Mineral Fertilizers for Economic Rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    komla

    Rice may benefit from the use of fertilizer to compensate exported nutrients. It is estimated ... Each replicate was then divided (use of smaller bunds) ..... In Ghana, a similar case may arise as both P and K fertilization are given less attention.

  12. Determinants and Profitability of Rice production in Cyabayaga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Findings from the Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA) indicated that only one category of farmers, among the three sampled, had positive Net Present Value (NPV). The implication for negative NPVs is that rice growers do not invest appropriately, leading to lower returns. The two analytical approaches led to a similar conclusion ...

  13. Whole grain rice flavor asssociated with assorted bran colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recognition of the health benefits of whole grain and pigmented bran rice has resulted in their increased consumption. The bran contributes fiber, minerals, vitamins, and an array of phytonutrients to the diet. Understanding flavor differences arising from bran pigmentation helps consumers choose ...

  14. Rice as commodity and anti-commodity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richards, P.

    2016-01-01

    On the Upper West Africa coast rice belongs to two species — African rice (Oryza glaberrima Steud.) and Asian rice (Oryza sativa L.). African rice was domesticated in the region, perhaps three millennia ago, from a presumed wild ancestor, O. barthii. Asian rice was introduced via trans-Saharan

  15. Diseases of wild rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diseases are much more pronounced in cultivated wild rice than in natural stands, most likely due to the narrower genetic base of the populations, plant stress due to high planting density and floodwater removal prior to harvest, and high relative humidity in the plant canopy. Yield losses occur as ...

  16. Promising rice mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakim, L.; Azam, M.A.; Miah, A.J.; Mansur, M.A.; Akanda, H.R.

    1988-01-01

    Two induced mutants namely, Mut NS 1 (tall) and Mut NS 5 (semi-dwarf) derived from rice variety Nizersail were evaluated for various agronomic characters at four locations in Bangladesh. Both the mutants matured about three weeks earlier and yielded significantly higher than the parent variety Nizersail. (author). 3 tabs., 9 refs

  17. Rice Transcriptome Analysis to Identify Possible Herbicide Quinclorac Detoxification Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenying eXu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Quinclorac is a highly selective auxin-type herbicide, and is widely used in the effective control of barnyard grass in paddy rice fields, improving the world’s rice yield. The herbicide mode of action of quinclorac has been proposed and hormone interactions affect quinclorac signaling. Because of widespread use, quinclorac may be transported outside rice fields with the drainage waters, leading to soil and water pollution and environmental health problems.In this study, we used 57K Affymetrix rice whole-genome array to identify quinclorac signaling response genes to study the molecular mechanisms of action and detoxification of quinclorac in rice plants. Overall, 637 probe sets were identified with differential expression levels under either 6 or 24 h of quinclorac treatment. Auxin-related genes such as GH3 and OsIAAs responded to quinclorac treatment. Gene Ontology analysis showed that genes of detoxification-related family genes were significantly enriched, including cytochrome P450, GST, UGT, and ABC and drug transporter genes. Moreover, real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that top candidate P450 families such as CYP81, CYP709C and CYP72A genes were universally induced by different herbicides. Some Arabidopsis genes for the same P450 family were up-regulated under quinclorac treatment.We conduct rice whole-genome GeneChip analysis and the first global identification of quinclorac response genes. This work may provide potential markers for detoxification of quinclorac and biomonitors of environmental chemical pollution.

  18. Investigating differences in light stable isotopes between Thai jasmine rice and Sungyod rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukusamude, C.; Kongsri, S.

    2017-10-01

    We report the differences in light stable isotopes between two kinds of Thai rice (Thai jasmine and Sungyod rice). Thai jasmine rice and Sungyod rice were cultivated in the northeast and the south of Thailand. Light isotopes including 13C, 15N and 18O of Thai jasmine rice and Sungyod rice samples were carried out using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). Thai jasmine rice (Khao Dawk Mali 105) was cultivated from Thung Kula Rong Hai area, whereas Sungyod rice was cultivated from Phathalung province. Hypothesis testing of difference of each isotope between Thai jasmine rice and Sungyod rice was also studied. The study was the feasibility test whether the light stable isotopes can be the variables to identify Thai jasmine rice and Sungyod rice. The result shows that there was difference in the isotope patterns of Thai jasmine rice and Sungyod rice. Our results may provide the useful information in term of stable isotope profiles of Thai rice.

  19. Radiation disinfestation of Basmati rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, V.S.; Gholap, A.S.; Adhikari, H.R.; Nair, P.M.

    1994-01-01

    Effect of low dose γ-radiation on prepackaged Basmati rice was studied in order to achieve disinfestation of rice. Basmati rice procured from local market was repacked in 1 kg pouches made from high density polyethylene (HDP) and biaxially oriented polypropylene: low density polyethylene (BOPP/LDP) laminate and irradiated at doses from 0.25-1.0 kGy. Within one month of storage at room temperature, unirradiated (control) Basmati rice developed heavy infestation. No infestation was observed in any of the irradiated samples even at 0.25 kGy and the rice could be stored for 6 months in a clean state. Irradiation (at 0.25 kGy) did not alter the moisture content of the rice. Likewise, no significant change was noted due to irradiation in the functional properties of rice such as swelling index and water absorption and in total volatile components responsible for flavour of Basmati rice. In organoleptic evaluation, no significant difference was found between the acceptability of irradiated (0.25 kGy) and control rice. These results are significant in view of the high export potential of Basmati rice and the transit losses at present due to infestation. (author). 24 refs., 5 tabs., 1 fig

  20. Mediators of the effects of rice intake on health in individuals consuming a traditional Japanese diet centered on rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Minori; Toyomaki, Atsuhito; Miyazaki, Akane; Nakai, Yukiei; Yamaguchi, Atsuko; Kubo, Chizuru; Suzuki, Junko; Ohkubo, Iwao; Shimizu, Mari; Musashi, Manabu; Kiso, Yoshinobu; Kusumi, Ichiro

    2017-01-01

    Although the Japanese diet is believed to be balanced and healthy, its benefits have been poorly investigated, especially in terms of effects on mental health. We investigated dietary patterns and physical and mental health in the Japanese population using an epidemiological survey to determine the health benefits of the traditional Japanese diet. Questionnaires to assess dietary habits, quality of life, sleep quality, impulsivity, and depression severity were distributed to 550 randomly selected middle-aged and elderly individuals. Participants with any physical or mental disease were excluded. Two-hundred and seventy-eight participants were selected for the final statistical analysis. We determined rice to be one of the most traditional foods in Japanese cuisine. Scores for each questionnaire were computed, and the correlations between rice intake and health indices were assessed. When analyzing the direct correlations between rice intake and health indices, we found only two correlations, namely those with quality of life (vitality) and sleep quality. Path analysis using structural equation modeling was performed to investigate the association between rice intake and health, with indirect effects included in the model. Additional associations between rice intake and health were explained using this model when compared to those using direct correlation analysis. Path analysis was used to identify mediators of the rice-health association. These mediators were miso (soybean paste) soup, green tea, and natto (fermented soybean) intake. Interestingly, these mediators have been major components of the Japanese diet since 1975, which has been considered one of the healthiest diets since the 1960s. Our results indicate that the combination of rice with other healthy foods, which is representative of the traditional Japanese diet, may contribute to improvements in physical and mental health.

  1. Mediators of the effects of rice intake on health in individuals consuming a traditional Japanese diet centered on rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minori Koga

    Full Text Available Although the Japanese diet is believed to be balanced and healthy, its benefits have been poorly investigated, especially in terms of effects on mental health. We investigated dietary patterns and physical and mental health in the Japanese population using an epidemiological survey to determine the health benefits of the traditional Japanese diet. Questionnaires to assess dietary habits, quality of life, sleep quality, impulsivity, and depression severity were distributed to 550 randomly selected middle-aged and elderly individuals. Participants with any physical or mental disease were excluded. Two-hundred and seventy-eight participants were selected for the final statistical analysis. We determined rice to be one of the most traditional foods in Japanese cuisine. Scores for each questionnaire were computed, and the correlations between rice intake and health indices were assessed. When analyzing the direct correlations between rice intake and health indices, we found only two correlations, namely those with quality of life (vitality and sleep quality. Path analysis using structural equation modeling was performed to investigate the association between rice intake and health, with indirect effects included in the model. Additional associations between rice intake and health were explained using this model when compared to those using direct correlation analysis. Path analysis was used to identify mediators of the rice-health association. These mediators were miso (soybean paste soup, green tea, and natto (fermented soybean intake. Interestingly, these mediators have been major components of the Japanese diet since 1975, which has been considered one of the healthiest diets since the 1960s. Our results indicate that the combination of rice with other healthy foods, which is representative of the traditional Japanese diet, may contribute to improvements in physical and mental health.

  2. Disaggregating the Truth: A Re-Analysis of the Costs and Benefits of Michigan's Public Universities. Professional File. Number 125, Summer 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daun-Barnett, Nathan J.

    2012-01-01

    For more than 50 years, human capital theory has been the cornerstone for understanding the value of investing in individuals' productive capacities in terms of both personal social and economic gain and the collective benefits that accrue to society. Vedder and Denhart (2007) challenge the hypothesis that public investment in higher education…

  3. Overexpression of rice serotonin N-acetyltransferase 1 in transgenic rice plants confers resistance to cadmium and senescence and increases grain yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyungjin; Back, Kyoungwhan

    2017-04-01

    While ectopic overexpression of serotonin N-acetyltransferase (SNAT) in plants has been accomplished using animal SNAT genes, ectopic overexpression of plant SNAT genes in plants has not been investigated. Because the plant SNAT protein differs from that of animals in its subcellular localization and enzyme kinetics, its ectopic overexpression in plants would be expected to give outcomes distinct from those observed from overexpression of animal SNAT genes in transgenic plants. Consistent with our expectations, we found that transgenic rice plants overexpressing rice (Oryza sativa) SNAT1 (OsSNAT1) did not show enhanced seedling growth like that observed in ovine SNAT-overexpressing transgenic rice plants, although both types of plants exhibited increased melatonin levels. OsSNAT1-overexpressing rice plants did show significant resistance to cadmium and senescence stresses relative to wild-type controls. In contrast to tomato, melatonin synthesis in rice seedlings was not induced by selenium and OsSNAT1 transgenic rice plants did not show tolerance to selenium. T 2 homozygous OsSNAT1 transgenic rice plants exhibited increased grain yield due to increased panicle number per plant under paddy field conditions. These benefits conferred by ectopic overexpression of OsSNAT1 had not been observed in transgenic rice plants overexpressing ovine SNAT, suggesting that plant SNAT functions differently from animal SNAT in plants. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Rice Varieties in Archaic East Asia: Reduction of Its Diversity from Past to Present Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Masahiko; Kanehara, Masaaki; Shoda, Shin'ya; Fujita, Saburo; Onuki, Shizuo; Ueda, Shintaroh; Wang, Li

    2016-10-01

    The Asian cultivated rice, Oryza sativa, is one of the most important crops feeding more than a third of global population. In spite of the studies for several decades, the origin and domestication history of rice varietal groups, japonica and indica, have not been fully unveiled. Genetic information of ancient rice remains is essential for direct and exclusive insight into the domestication history of rice. We performed ancient DNA analysis of 950- to 2,800-year-old rice remains excavated from Japan and Korea. We found the presence of both japonica- and indica-type varieties in the Yayoi period and the middle ages of Japan and the middle part of Korea Peninsula 2,000 years ago. It is popularly considered that japonica has been exclusively cultivated in northern part of East Asia including Japan and Korea. Our result disclosed unexpectedly wide diversity of rice varieties in archaic East Asia. The present results from ancient rice DNA reveal an exclusive insight for the domestication history of rice which is not provided as far as contemporary rice. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Screening for Osmotic Stress Responses in Rice Varieties under Drought Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Swapna

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Drought is the major abiotic stress factor that limits rice production worldwide. To evaluate the osmotic stress responses in rice varieties under drought condition, a total of 42 high-yielding rice varieties were collected from various research stations of Kerala Agricultural University in India. The experimental setup comprises of initial hydroponic treatments at different osmotic potentials, artificially induced by desired strengths of polyethylene glycol (PEG6000, and followed by the pot planted experiments in the rain-out-zone. The activities of antioxidant enzymes, relative water content, cell membrane stability, photosynthetic pigments, proline content, along with plant growth parameters of the varieties under drought condition were evaluated. Moreover, the standard scores of these rice varieties were assessed under stress and recovery conditions based on the scoring scale of the Standard Evaluation System for rice. Among the 42 rice varieties, we identified 2 rice varieties, Swarnaprabha and Kattamodan, with less leaf rolling, better drought recovery ability as well as relative water content, increased membrane stability index, osmolyte accumulation, and antioxidant enzyme activities pointed towards their degree of tolerance to drought stress. The positive adaptive responses of these rice varieties towards drought stress can be used in the genetic improvement of rice drought resistance breeding program.

  6. Utilisation of rice residues for decentralised electricity generation in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramamurthi, Pooja Vijay; Fernandes, Maria Cristina; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    2016-01-01

    Developing countries, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa, face large challenges to achieve universal electrification. Using the case of Ghana, this study explores the role that rice residues can play to help developing countries meet their electrification needs. In Ghana, Levelised Electricity Costs...

  7. Assessment of genetic diversity in Indian rice germplasm (Oryza ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-12-11

    Dec 11, 2013 ... 3Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Rice Breeding and Genetics Research Centre, Aduthurai 612 101, India ..... Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture and Technology; IRRI, Inter- ..... 83–91, Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station, ... Temnykh S., Park D. W., Ayres N., Cartinhour S., Hauck N.,.

  8. Influence of composted organic waste and urea fertilization on rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The field experiment was conducted at the University of Ghana's Soil and Irrigation Research Centre - Kpong during 2014 and 2015 cropping seasons to evaluate the influence of composted organic waste and urea fertilization on rice yield, Nitrogen-use efficiency and soil chemical characteristics. The study was laid out in a ...

  9. Study of Rice Marketing System in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Feizabadi, Yaser

    2011-01-01

    Rice comes second after wheat in Iran`s food consumption economy. Rising population and recent growth in GDP has made Iran one of the greatest rice importer countries all over the world. That is why rice marketing has always been a controversial issue in Iran`s agricultural economics. To study rice marketing system in Iran, this paper aims to calculate rice marketing margin, market efficiency and marketing cost coefficient in seaside Mazandaran province( where 70 percent of domestic rice prod...

  10. Resistant Starch: Variation among High Amylose Rice Varieties and Its Relationship with Apparent Amylose Content, Pasting Properties and Cooking Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resistant starch (RS), which is not hydrolyzed in the small intestines, has proposed health benefits. We evaluated a set of 40 high amylose rice varieties for RS levels in cooked rice and approximately a 1.9-fold difference was found. The highest ones had more than two-fold greater RS concentration ...

  11. Benefits and Challenges in Globalization in Christian Higher Education: A Comparative Case Study of English Medium Instruction of Two Universities in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minho

    2017-01-01

    Many Christian universities in Korea are pursuing the globalization of Christian higher education to promote maximization of institutional competition, improvement of students' English skills, and enhancement of professors' research development through English Medium Instruction (EMI). EMI's flaws in application are not at all uncommon, as many of…

  12. Why health visiting? Examining the potential public health benefits from health visiting practice within a universal service: a narrative review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Sarah; Whittaker, Karen; Malone, Mary; Donetto, Sara; Grigulis, Astrida; Maben, Jill

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing international interest in universal, health promoting services for pregnancy and the first three years of life and the concept of proportionate universalism. Drawing on a narrative review of literature, this paper explores mechanisms by which such services might contribute to health improvement and reducing health inequalities. Through a narrative review of empirical literature, to identify: (1) What are the key components of health visiting practice? (2) How are they reflected in implementing the universal service/provision envisaged in the English Health Visitor Implementation Plan (HVIP)? The paper draws upon a scoping study and narrative review. We used three complementary approaches to search the widely dispersed literature: (1) broad, general search, (2) structured search, using topic-specific search terms, (3) seminal paper search. Our key inclusion criterion was information about health visiting practice. We included empirical papers from United Kingdom (UK) from 2004 to February 2012 and older seminal papers identified in search (3), identifying a total of 348 papers for inclusion. A thematic content analysis compared the older (up to 2003) with more recent research (2004 onwards). The analysis revealed health visiting practice as potentially characterized by a particular 'orientation to practice.' This embodied the values, skills and attitudes needed to deliver universal health visiting services through salutogenesis (health creation), person-centredness (human valuing) and viewing the person in situation (human ecology). Research about health visiting actions focuses on home visiting, needs assessment and parent-health visitor relationships. The detailed description of health visitors' skills, attitudes, values, and their application in practice, provides an explanation of how universal provision can potentially help to promote health and shift the social gradient of health inequalities. Identification of needs across an

  13. Sorghum and rice: Mali

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Agriculture is the mainstay of the Malian economy and yet cereal imports absorb 6.5% of GDP. Food self-sufficiency is therefore a national priority. The Joint FAO/IAEA Division is supporting a programme to improve local varieties of sorghum and rice by using nuclear techniques to develop new cultivars that will produce higher yields under Mali's semi-arid climatic conditions. (IAEA)

  14. Diversity of some endophytic fungi associated with rice black bug Paraeucosmetus pallicornis on rice plant

    OpenAIRE

    Nur, Amin; La Daha; Nurariaty, Agus; Ade, Rosmana; Muh., Fadlan

    2015-01-01

    A new rice insect pest was sighted in some rice producing areas of South Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. This pest is rice black bugs Paraeucosmetus pallicornis. The research aimed to isolation of fungi associated with rice black bugs Paraeucosmetus pallicornis, so as to know the cause of a bitter taste to the rice. The isolation of the fungi consist of three kinds of treatment, namely rice black bugs without sterilization, with sterilization and rice black bugs cut and sterilized. The resul...

  15. Characteristics of nitrogen fixation of mixed diazotrophs associated with rice plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling Fan; Wang Zhengfang; Wang Yaodong; Song Wei

    1997-01-01

    Characteristics of N 2 fixation of diazotrophs associated with rice plant in paddy soils in Nanjing was studied by 15 N tracing technique. The results showed that amount of N fixed by rice plant was 1.03 kg/666.7 m 2 and the rate of fixed N was 6.7%. The maximum N fixed was occurred during jointing-complete heading stage. The daily average amount of N fixed reached to 24.31 mg/m 2 ·day. The fixed N of jointing-complete heading stage was 40.9% of that whole rice growth stage. The amount of fixed N during jointing-maturing stage was over 70% of whole rice growth stage. The economic benefits for fertilizer saving was 13.3 kg/666.7 m 2 of ammonium sulphate. The yield of rice grain was increased by 4.14% after inoculation with the mixed diazotrophs

  16. Tailoring Grain Storage Reserves for a Healthier Rice Diet and its Comparative Status with Other Cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butardo, Vito M; Sreenivasulu, Nese

    2016-01-01

    A global rise of diet-related noncommunicable diseases calls for a focus on diet-based nutritional intervention across the entire socioeconomic consumer spectrum. We review recent reports in the area of healthier rice aimed at developing rice grains with improved dietary fiber compositions (increased amounts of nonstarch polysaccharides and resistant starch), and less digestible starch (higher amylose and phospholipid complex in the endosperm) resulting in reduced glycemic impact upon grain consumption. We furthermore elaborate on the interconnections of elevated amounts of protein and a balanced composition of essential amino acids. The importance of a nutritious aleurone layer and its role in lipid storage and micronutrient composition is discussed briefly in the context of brown rice benefits. We identify gene targets for precision breeding that will facilitate the production of rice grains and rice-based products to mitigate the impact of nutrition-related preventable diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Broken rice kernels and the kinetics of rice hydration and texture during cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Mohammed; Meullenet, Jean-Francois

    2013-05-01

    During rice milling and processing, broken kernels are inevitably present, although to date it has been unclear as to how the presence of broken kernels affects rice hydration and cooked rice texture. Therefore, this work intended to study the effect of broken kernels in a rice sample on rice hydration and texture during cooking. Two medium-grain and two long-grain rice cultivars were harvested, dried and milled, and the broken kernels were separated from unbroken kernels. Broken rice kernels were subsequently combined with unbroken rice kernels forming treatments of 0, 40, 150, 350 or 1000 g kg(-1) broken kernels ratio. Rice samples were then cooked and the moisture content of the cooked rice, the moisture uptake rate, and rice hardness and stickiness were measured. As the amount of broken rice kernels increased, rice sample texture became increasingly softer (P hardness was negatively correlated to the percentage of broken kernels in rice samples. Differences in the proportions of broken rice in a milled rice sample play a major role in determining the texture properties of cooked rice. Variations in the moisture migration kinetics between broken and unbroken kernels caused faster hydration of the cores of broken rice kernels, with greater starch leach-out during cooking affecting the texture of the cooked rice. The texture of cooked rice can be controlled, to some extent, by varying the proportion of broken kernels in milled rice. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. The Haitian Rice Tariff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Lundahl

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Se ha argumentado que los problemas agríco-las de Haití derivan de la tarifa del arroz de a mediados de los años noventa. Antes, supues-tamente, Haití fue autosuficiente, abastecida por su producción doméstica. Después de la reducción, el mercado haitiano se inundó en importaciones de arroz barato de los EEUU, lo cual despojó a los campesinos de sus fincas, convirtiendolos en migrantes internos, hacia los empleos de bajo pago de las ciudades. El artículo rechaza ese argumento y demuestra que es falso. La malnutrición fue un fenómeno extendido en Haití mucho antes de la reducción de la tarifa del arroz, la cual tampoco tuvo un gran impacto en la importación y la producción doméstica del arroz. Lo que sí impulsó el aumento de las importaciones fue el crecimiento de la población. También el artículo argumenta que un aumento de la tarifa del arroz no solucionará el problema de la alimentación que sufre Haití. English: It has been argued that Haiti’s agricultural problems derive from the reduction of the rice tariff in the mid-1990s. Before that Haiti was allegedly able to meet its food needs by domestic production. After the reduction the Haitian market was swamped by imports of cheap American rice which drove the farmers off their lands and forced them to migrate to low-wage industrial jobs in the cities. The article demonstrates that the argument is false. Malnutrition was widespread in Haiti long before the rice tariff reduction, and the latter did not have much of an impact on rice imports and domestic production. Instead, the main driving force behind imports appears to be population growth. It is also shown that an increase of the rice tariff will not solve Haiti’s food problem.

  19. Socioeconomic benefits

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    **Department of Biology, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 3434, Addis Ababa,. Ethiopia. ***Department of ... a fundamental role both in the cultural and .... shade tree management, 5) intercropping, ...... Doctoral Thesis, University of Bonn ...

  20. Nutritional test of rice in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horii, Masaji; Yoshikawa, Seiji

    1980-01-01

    Behaviors on N derived from rice were followed up by means of 15 N-labeled rice. In the first test, the single unpolished rice diet and the diet of rice and bean lecithin (4.5%) produced urinary excretion of 10 - 12% of 15 N, and that of rice and mannan from devil's tongue (3%), 16 - 20%. The single unpolished rice diet showed slightly more urinary excretion of 15 N, and the other 2 diets showed a similar proportion of 15 N in 3 days. The results indicated that the diet containing mannan from devil's tongue resulted in a poor N absorption by rice, a large quantity of N being excreted over a long period of time. This suggested differences and time lags in the excretion of rice N into the stool and urine depending on the diet constitution. With the unpolished rice diet, a small quantity of rice protein was not absorbed, but was excreted. In the 2nd test with 15 N-polished rice, the urinary excretion rate was 11.44% for a single rice diet, 11.16% for a mixed diet of rice and bean (1:1 in protein), 10.99% for rice and egg yolk, 9.66% for rice, bean and egg yolk and 8.10% for rice and bean lecithin. This decrease in urinary excretion indicated a corresponding increase in absorption of rice protein. (Chiba, N.)

  1. Phytochemical profile of a Japanese black-purple rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-Caro, Gema; Watanabe, Shin; Crozier, Alan; Fujimura, Tatsuhito; Yokota, Takao; Ashihara, Hiroshi

    2013-12-01

    Black-purple rice is becoming popular with health conscious food consumers. In the present study, the secondary metabolites in dehulled black-purple rice cv. Asamurasaki were analysed using HPLC-PDA-MS(2). The seeds contained a high concentration of seven anthocyanins (1400 μg/g fresh weight) with cyanidin-3-O-glucoside and peonidin-3-O-glucoside predominating. Five flavonol glycosides, principally quercetin-3-O-glucoside and quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, and flavones were detected at a total concentration of 189 μg/g. The seeds also contained 3.9 μg/g of carotenoids consisting of lutein, zeaxanthin, lycopene and β-carotene. γ-Oryzanol (279 μg/g) was also present as a mixture of 24-methylenecycloartenol ferulate, campesterol ferulate, cycloartenol ferulate and β-sitosterol ferulate. No procyanidins were detected in this variety of black-purple rice. The results demonstrate that the black-purple rice in the dehulled form in which it is consumed by humans contains a rich heterogeneous mixture of phytochemicals which may provide a basis for the potential health benefits, and highlights the possible use of the rice as functional food. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Improving the phenotypic expression of rice genotypes: Rethinking “intensification” for production systems and selection practices for rice breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Uphoff

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Intensification in rice crop production is generally understood as requiring increased use of material inputs: water, inorganic fertilizers, and agrochemicals. However, this is not the only kind of intensification available. More productive crop phenotypes, with traits such as more resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses and shorter crop cycles, are possible through modifications in the management of rice plants, soil, water, and nutrients, reducing rather than increasing material inputs. Greater factor productivity can be achieved through the application of new knowledge and more skill, and (initially more labor, as seen from the System of Rice Intensification (SRI, whose practices are used in various combinations by as many as 10 million farmers on about 4 million hectares in over 50 countries. The highest yields achieved with these management methods have come from hybrids and improved rice varieties, confirming the importance of making genetic improvements. However, unimproved varieties are also responsive to these changes, which induce better growth and functioning of rice root systems and more abundance, diversity, and activity of beneficial soil organisms. Some of these organisms as symbiotic endophytes can affect and enhance the expression of rice plants' genetic potential as well as their phenotypic resilience to multiple stresses, including those of climate change. SRI experience and data suggest that decades of plant breeding have been selecting for the best crop genetic endowments under suboptimal growing conditions, with crowding of plants that impedes their photosynthesis and growth, flooding of rice paddies that causes roots to degenerate and forgoes benefits derived from aerobic soil organisms, and overuse of agrochemicals that adversely affect these organisms as well as soil and human health. This review paper reports evidence from research in India and Indonesia that changes in crop and water management can improve the

  3. Subjective and psychological well-being of students of a University of the Third Age: Benefits of continuing education for psychological adjustment in the elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordonez, Tiago Nascimento; Lima-Silva, Thaís Bento; Cachioni, Meire

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The present study sought to characterize the degree of general satisfaction with life and degree of satisfaction on four domains: health, physical capacity, mental capacity and social involvement, and to determine the characteristics of self-reports of individuals enrolled on the program in relation to their psychological well-being focusing on the dimensions: autonomy, personal growth, control, positive relationships with others, purpose, personal acceptance and generativity, and to analyse the effect of time studying on level of well-being. Method A total of 140 elderly students of a University for the Third Age took part in the study. The Global Satisfaction With Life Scale and the Self Development Scale (with six psychological well-being subscales) were applied. Continuous variables for the two groups were compared using the Mann-Whitney test. Spearman’s correlation coefficient was used to analyze the relationship among numeric variables. Internal consistency of the instrument scales was analysed by calculating Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. Results Results showed that students who had attended the University of the Third Age for six months or longer had a higher level of satisfaction with life and greater psychological adjustment compared with new entrants to the same institution. Conclusion The study results confirmed the positive effects of continuing education on the well-being of elderly and its contribution to successful aging. PMID:29213747

  4. Dose-dependent response of Trichoderma harzianum in improving drought tolerance in rice genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Veena; Ansari, Mohammad W; Tula, Suresh; Yadav, Sandep; Sahoo, Ranjan K; Shukla, Nandini; Bains, Gurdeep; Badal, Shail; Chandra, Subhash; Gaur, A K; Kumar, Atul; Shukla, Alok; Kumar, J; Tuteja, Narendra

    2016-05-01

    This study demonstrates a dose-dependent response of Trichoderma harzianum Th-56 in improving drought tolerance in rice by modulating proline, SOD, lipid peroxidation product and DHN / AQU transcript level, and the growth attributes. In the present study, the effect of colonization of different doses of T. harzianum Th-56 strain in rice genotypes were evaluated under drought stress. The rice genotypes treated with increasing dose of T. harzianum strain Th-56 showed better drought tolerance as compared with untreated control plant. There was significant change in malondialdehyde, proline, higher superoxide dismutase level, plant height, total dry matter, relative chlorophyll content, leaf rolling, leaf tip burn, and the number of scorched/senesced leaves in T. harzianum Th-56 treated rice genotypes under drought stress. This was corroborated with altered expression of aquaporin and dehydrin genes in T. harzianum Th-56 treated rice genotypes. The present findings suggest that a dose of 30 g/L was the most effective in improving drought tolerance in rice, and its potential exploitation will contribute to the advancement of rice genotypes to sustain crop productivity under drought stress. Interaction studies of T. harzianum with three aromatic rice genotypes suggested that PSD-17 was highly benefitted from T. harzianum colonization under drought stress.

  5. Consumer Acceptance and Preference Study [CAPS] on Brown and Under Milled Indian Rice Varieties in Chennai, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudha, Vasudevan; Spiegelman, Donna; Hong, Biling; Malik, Vasanti; Jones, Clara; Wedick, Nicole M.; Hu, Frank B.; Willett, Walter; Bai, Mookambika Ramya; Ponnalagu, Muthu Mariyammal; Arumugam, Kokila; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To study consumer acceptance of unmilled brown and under milled rice among urban south Indians. Methods Overweight and normal weight adults living in slum and non-slum residences in Chennai participated (n=82). Bapatla (BPT) and Uma (red pigmented) rice varieties were chosen. These rice varieties were dehusked (unmilled, 0% polish) and further milled to 2.3% and 4.4% polishing (under milled). Thus nine rice samples in both raw and parboiled forms were provided for consumer tasting over a period of three days. A hedonic 7-point scale was used to rate the consumer preferences. A validated questionnaire was used to collect demographic, anthropometric, medical history, physical activity, dietary intake data and willingness of the consumers to switch over to brown rice. Results Consumers reported that the color, appearance, texture, taste and overall quality of the 4.4% polished rice was strongly preferred in both varieties and forms. Ratings for 0% polished (brown rice) were substantially lower than those of 2.3% polished rice, which were intermediate in ratings between 0% and 4.4% polishing. However, most of the consumers (93%) expressed willingness to substitute brown or 2.3% polished rice if affordable after the taste tests and education on nutritional and health benefits of whole grains. Conclusion While most consumers’ preferred polished white rice, education regarding health benefits may help this population switch to brown or under milled rice. Cooking quality and appearance of the grains were perceived as the most important factors to consider when purchasing rice among Chennai urban adults. PMID:24015699

  6. The New Transgenic cry1Ab/vip3H Rice Poses No Unexpected Ecological Risks to Arthropod Communities in Rice Agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zengbin; Dang, Cong; Han, Naishun; Shen, Zhicheng; Peng, Yufa; Stanley, David; Ye, Gongyin

    2016-04-01

    The ecological risks to nontarget organisms should be rigorously assessed before Bt crops are released. Here, the impacts of a new Cry1Ab/Vip3H rice line on arthropod communities in rice agroecosystems were evaluated across 3 yr. Arthropods collected via vacuum were sorted into five guilds. The abundance and proportion of each guild as well as community-level parameters were determined in Cry1Ab/Vip3H and control rice fields. Changes in arthropod species assemblage over sampling dates were investigated by principal response curves (PRCs). Cry1Ab/Vip3H rice did not exert significant impacts on the seasonal density and proportion of each guild, except parasitoids. Detritivore seasonal density, but not its relative abundance, was significantly affected by Cry1Ab/Vip3H rice. Four community indices (species richness S, Shannon-Wiener index H', Simpson index D, and evenness index J') were similar between rice types. PRCs revealed a slight community difference between rice types in the past two tested years, with rice types accounting for 1.0-3.5% of the variance among arthropod communities. However, sampling dates explain 32.1-67.6% for these community differences. Of the 46 taxa with higher species weights, 26.1% of the taxa were significantly different, including seven taxa with higher abundance and five with lower density in Cry1Ab/Vip3H rice fields. These differences may be attributed to change in abundance of prey or hosts but not to direct effects of Bt proteins. We infer that this new Cry1Ab/Vip3H rice line poses no unintended ecological risks to the arthropod community. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Mechanism and capacities of reducing ecological cost through rice-duck cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Pan; Huang, Huang; Liao, Xiaolan; Fu, Zhiqiang; Zheng, Huabin; Chen, Aiwu; Chen, Can

    2013-09-01

    Rice-duck cultivation is the essence of Chinese traditional agriculture. A scientific assessment of the mechanism and its capacity is of theoretical significance and practical value in improving modern agricultural technology. The duck's secretions, excreta and their treading, pecking and predation decrease the occurrence of plant diseases, pests and weeds, enrich species diversity and improve the field environment. The rice-duck intergrowth system effectively prevents rice planthoppers and rice leafhoppers. The control effects can be up to 98.47% and 100% respectively; it also has effects on the control of Chilo suppressalis, Tryporyza incertulas and the rice leafrollers. Notable control results are found on sheath blight, while the effects on other diseases are about 50%. Harm from weeds is placed under primary control; prevention of weeds is sequenced by broadleaf weeds > sedge weeds > Gramineae weeds. Contents of soil organic matter, N, P and K are improved by the system; nutrient utilization is accelerated, resulting in decreased fertilizer application. Greenhouse gas emissions are reduced by 1-2% and duck fodder is saved in this system. There is also an obvious economic benefit. Compared to conventional rice cultivation, rice-duck cultivation shows great benefits to ecologic cost and economic income. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Kinetic parameters of silicon uptake by rice cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Oliveira Martins

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Silicon is considered an important chemical element for rice, because it can improve tolerance to biotic and abiotic stress. However, in many situations no positive effect of silicon was observed, probably due to genetic factors. The objective of this research was to monitor Si uptake kinetics and identify responses of rice cultivars in terms of Si uptake capacity and use. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse of the São Paulo State University (UNESP, Brazil. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized, factorial design with three replications. that consisted of two rice cultivars and two Si levels. Kinetic parameters (Vmax, Km, and Cmin, root morphology variables, dry matter yield, Si accumulation and levels in shoots and roots, uptake efficiency, utilization efficiency, and root/shoot ratio were evaluated. Higher Si concentrations in the nutrient solution did not increase rice dry matter. The development of the low-affinity silicon uptake system of the rice cultivar 'Caiapó' was better than of 'Maravilha'.

  9. Evaluation of weather-based rice yield models in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudharsan, D.; Adinarayana, J.; Reddy, D. Raji; Sreenivas, G.; Ninomiya, S.; Hirafuji, M.; Kiura, T.; Tanaka, K.; Desai, U. B.; Merchant, S. N.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare two different rice simulation models—standalone (Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer [DSSAT]) and web based (SImulation Model for RIce-Weather relations [SIMRIW])—with agrometeorological data and agronomic parameters for estimation of rice crop production in southern semi-arid tropics of India. Studies were carried out on the BPT5204 rice variety to evaluate two crop simulation models. Long-term experiments were conducted in a research farm of Acharya N G Ranga Agricultural University (ANGRAU), Hyderabad, India. Initially, the results were obtained using 4 years (1994-1997) of data with weather parameters from a local weather station to evaluate DSSAT simulated results with observed values. Linear regression models used for the purpose showed a close relationship between DSSAT and observed yield. Subsequently, yield comparisons were also carried out with SIMRIW and DSSAT, and validated with actual observed values. Realizing the correlation coefficient values of SIMRIW simulation values in acceptable limits, further rice experiments in monsoon (Kharif) and post-monsoon (Rabi) agricultural seasons (2009, 2010 and 2011) were carried out with a location-specific distributed sensor network system. These proximal systems help to simulate dry weight, leaf area index and potential yield by the Java based SIMRIW on a daily/weekly/monthly/seasonal basis. These dynamic parameters are useful to the farming community for necessary decision making in a ubiquitous manner. However, SIMRIW requires fine tuning for better results/decision making.

  10. 21 CFR 137.350 - Enriched rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enriched rice. 137.350 Section 137.350 Food and... Related Products § 137.350 Enriched rice. (a) The foods for which definitions and standards of identity are prescribed by this section are forms of milled rice (except rice coated with talc and glucose and...

  11. The Benefits of Adding SETI to the University Curriculum and What We Have Learned from a SETI Course Recently Offered at UCLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesyna, Larry; Margot, Jean-Luc; Greenberg, Adam; Shinde, Akshay; Alladi, Yashaswi; Prasad MN, Srinivas; Bowman, Oliver; Fisher, Callum; Gyalay, Szilard; McKibbin, William; Miles, Brittany E.; Nguyen, Donald; Power, Conor; Ramani, Namrata; Raviprasad, Rashmi; Santana, Jesse

    2017-01-01

    We advocate for the inclusion of a full-term course entirely devoted to SETI in the university curriculum. SETI usually warrants only a few lectures in a traditional astronomy or astrobiology course. SETI’s rich interdisciplinary character serves astronomy students by introducing them to scientific and technological concepts that will aid them in their dissertation research or later in their careers. SETI is also an exciting topic that draws students from other disciplines and teaches them astronomical concepts that they might otherwise never encounter in their university studies. We have composed syllabi that illustrate the breadth and depth that SETI courses provide for advanced undergraduate or graduate students. The syllabi can also be used as a guide for an effective SETI course taught at a descriptive level.After a pilot course in 2015, UCLA formally offered a course titled "EPSS C179/279 - Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence: Theory and Applications" in Spring 2016. The course was designed for advanced undergraduate students and graduate students in the science, technical, engineering, and mathematical fields. In 2016, 9 undergraduate students and 5 graduate students took the course. Students designed an observing sequence for the Arecibo and Green Bank telescopes, observed known planetary systems remotely, wrote a sophisticated and modular data processing pipeline, analyzed the data, and presented the results. In the process, they learned radio astronomy fundamentals, software development, signal processing, and statistics. The instructor believes that the students were eager to learn because of the engrossing nature of SETI. The students rated the course highly, in part because of the observing experience and the teamwork approach. The next offering will be in Spring 2017.See lxltech.com and seti.ucla.edu

  12. Burden of paediatric Rotavirus Gastroenteritis (RVGE and potential benefits of a universal Rotavirus vaccination programme with a pentavalent vaccine in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diez-Domingo Javier

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rotavirus is the most common cause of gastroenteritis in young children worldwide. The aim of the study was to assess the health outcomes and the economic impact of a universal rotavirus vaccination programme with RotaTeq, the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine, versus no vaccination programme in Spain. Methods A birth cohort was followed up to the age of 5 using a cohort model. Epidemiological parameters were taken from the REVEAL study (a prospective epidemiological study conducted in Spain, 2004-2005 and from the literature. Direct and indirect costs were assessed from the national healthcare payer and societal perspectives by combining health care resource utilisation collected in REVEAL study and unit costs from official sources. RotaTeq per protocol efficacy data was taken from a large worldwide rotavirus clinical trial (70,000 children. Health outcomes included home care cases, General Practioner (GP/Paediatrician, emergency department visits, hospitalisations and nosocomial infections. Results The model estimates that the introduction of a universal rotavirus vaccination programme with RotaTeq (90% coverage rate would reduce the rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE burden by 75% in Spain; 53,692 home care cases, 35,187 GP/Paediatrician visits, 34,287 emergency department visits, 10,987 hospitalisations and 2,053 nosocomial infections would be avoided. The introduction of RotaTeq would avoid about 76% of RVGE-related costs from both perspectives: €22 million from the national health system perspective and €38 million from the societal perspective. Conclusions A rotavirus vaccination programme with RotaTeq would reduce significantly the important medical and economic burden of RVGE in Spain.

  13. Effect of Azolla Based - Organic Fertilizer, Rock Phosphate and Rice Hull Ash on Rice Yield and Chemical Properties of Alfisols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudadi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The application of chemical fertilizer for long time may adverse soil environment. Organic agriculture, for example combination use of azolla based-organic fertilizer, phosphate rock and rice hull ash, was one of ways that able to recover it. Research was conducted in Sukosari, Jumantono, Karanganyar while soi chemical properties analysis was analysed in Soil Chemistry and Fertility Laboratory, Fac. of Agriculture, Sebelas Maret University April to November 2013. Research design used was RAKL with 5 treatments, each repeated 5 times. The treatments applied were P0 (control, P1 ( azola inoculum dosage 250 g/m2 + phosphate rock + rice hull ash equal to 150 kg/ha KCl, P2 (azola inoculum dosage 500 g/m2 + phosphate rock equal to 150kg/ha, SP-36 + rice hull ash equal to 100 kg/ha KCl, P3 (manure dosage of 5 ton/ha,P4 (Urea 250 kg/ha + SP-36 150 kg/ha + KCl 100 kg/ha. Data analysed statistically by F test (Fisher test with level of confident 95% followed by DMRT (Duncan Multiple Range Test if any significant differences. The result showed that the treatment combination of azolla, phosphate rock and rice hull ash increase soil organic matter content, cation exchange capacity, available-P and exchangeable-K as well as rice yield ( (at harvest-dry grain weight and milled-dry grain weight.

  14. Performance, Economics and Potential Impact of Perennial Rice PR23 Relative to Annual Rice Cultivars at Multiple Locations in Yunnan Province of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangfu Huang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Perennial grain crops hold the promise of stabilizing fragile lands, while contributing grain and grazing in mixed farming systems. Recently, perennial rice was reported to successfully survive, regrow, and yield across a diverse range of environments in Southern China and Laos, with perennial rice PR23 being identified as a prime candidate for release to farmers. This paper reports the evaluation of PR23 for release, by (1 comparing its survival, regrowth, performance, and adaptation with preferred annual rices across nine ecological regions in southern Yunnan Province of China; (2 examining the economic costs and benefits of perennial versus annual rice there; and (3 discussing the evidence for the release of PR23 as a broadly adapted and acceptable cultivar for farmers. Overall, the grain yield of PR23 was similar to those of the preferred annual rice cultivars RD23 and HXR7, but the economic analysis indicated substantial labour savings for farmers by growing the perennial instead of the annual. PR23 was comparable to the annuals in phenology, plant height, grain yield, and grain size, and was acceptable in grain and cooking quality. Farmers were keen to grow it because of reduced costs and especially savings in labour. PR23 is proposed for release to farmers because of its comparable grain yields to annual rices, its acceptable grain and milling quality, its cost and labour savings, and the likely benefits to soil stability and ecological sustainability, along with more flexible farming systems.

  15. Asian wild rice is a hybrid swarm with extensive gene flow and feralization from domesticated rice

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hongru; Garrett Vieira, Filipe Jorge; Crawford, Jacob E.; Chu, Chengcai; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    The domestication history of rice remains controversial, with multiple studies reaching different conclusions regarding its origin(s). These studies have generally assumed that populations of living wild rice, O. rufipogon, are descendants of the ancestral population that gave rise to domesticated rice, but relatively little attention has been paid to the origins and history of wild rice itself. Here, we investigate the genetic ancestry of wild rice by analyzing a diverse panel of rice genome...

  16. Multiple Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreider, Beth

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the benefits of dome architecture for a community's middle- and high-school multi-purpose facility. The dome construction is revealed as being cost effective in construction and in maintenance and energy costs. (GR)

  17. Zinc fertilization of flooded rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-02-01

    Local scientists studied Zn fertilization of flooded rice soils in Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, Egypt, the Philippines, Thailand and Turkey. Diagnosis of Zn deficiency was carried out for submerged rice soils. Soil maps were prepared, designating areas as low, medium and high in Zn, based on Zn extraction with DTPA and HCl solutions and on rice leaf analysis. The effectiveness of various Zn fertilizer sources and methods of application in field and greenhouse experiments was measured, using 65 Zn. The percent Zn derived from fertilizer was shown to be a much more sensitive measure of efficiency than yield or total uptake

  18. Response of rice to nitrogenous fertilizer and irradiated sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azam, F.; Lodhi, A.; Sajjad, M.H.

    2003-01-01

    A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to study the effect of Gamma-irradiated sewage sludge, applied alone or along with /sup 15/N-labelled ammonium sulphate (1.0 atom % /sup 15/N excess), on rice yield and N uptake. Six-kg portions of a clay loam were amended wit sewage sludge to obtain N addition rates of 30, 60, 90 and 120 mg kg/sub -1/ soil. In other treatments nitrogen was applied at 120 mg kg/sup -1/ as /sup 15/N-labelled ammonium sulphate or 120 mg kg/sub -1/ as /sup 15/NH/sub 4/-N + sludge-N in the ratios of 1:3, 1:1, or 3:1. All the treatments were given before transplanting rice. Three healthy seedlings (4-week old) of rice (Oryza sativa L., var. Bas-Pak) were transplanted pot/sup -1/ and the plants harvested at maturity. Application of sewage sludge caused a significant improvement in rice yield. Grain yield increased by 188% at sludge-N of 120 mg N kg/sup -1/. The yield benefit at similar rate of fertilizer N was 304%, the increase being more at higher rates of application. The increase in rice yield was dependent on uptake of N and sewage sludge significantly improved the availability of N to the plants. The additional plant N in sludge treated soil was partially attributable to enhanced mineralization of soil N and N/sub 2/ fixation by free living microorganisms. Application of inorganic N led to a significant increase in the availability of N to plants from soil organic matter and sewage sludge. Results of combined application suggested that substantial savings of fertilizer N can be made by using sewage sludge on rice-fields. (author)

  19. Climate Change Implications to Irrigated Rice Production in Southern Brazil: A Modelling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Thiago

    change on rice phenology, productivity and irrigation demand in southern Brazil during the 21st century. The results suggest that rice yields in southern Brazil can increase in average by 10-30%, but by up to 80% in regions where the current temperature is below optimum for rice growth and therefore will be benefited by warming. However, the same region might experience higher water demand for rice irrigation, which might pose a challenge for rice production in that region.

  20. SAR Agriculture Rice Production Estimation (SARPE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimadoya, M.

    2013-12-01

    The study of SAR Agriculture Rice Production Estimation (SARPE) was held in Indonesia on 2012, as part of Asia-Rice Crop Estimation & Monitoring (Asia-RiCE), which is a component for the GEO Global Agricultural Monitoring (GEOGLAM) initiative. The study was expected to give a breakthrough result, by using radar technology and paradigm shift of the standard production estimation system from list frame to area frame approach. This initial product estimation system is expected to be refined (fine tuning) in 2013, by participating as part of Technical Demonstration Site (Phase -1A) of Asia-RICE. The implementation period of this initial study was from the date of March 12 to December 10, 2012. The implementation of the study was done by following the approach of the BIMAS-21 framework, which has been developed since 2008. The results of this study can be briefly divided into two major components, namely: Rice-field Baseline Mapping (PESBAK - Peta Sawah Baku) and Crop Growth Monitoring. Rice-fields were derived from the mapping results of the Ministry of Agriculture (Kemtan), and validated through Student Extension Campaign of the Faculty of Agriculture, Bogor Agricultural University (IPB). While for the crop growth, it was derived from the results of image analysis process. The analysis was done, either on radar/Radarsat-2 (medium resolution) or optical/ MODIS (low resolution), based on the Planting Calendar (KATAM) of Kemtan. In this case, the planting season II/2012-2013 of rice production centers in West Java Province (Karawang, Subang and Indramayu counties). The selection of crop season and county were entirely dependent on the quality of the available PESBAK and procurement process of radar imagery. The PESBAK is still in the form of block instead of fields, so it can not be directly utilized in this study. Efforts to improve the PESBAK can not be optimal because the provided satellite image (ECW format) is not the original one. While the procurement process of

  1. Identification of major rice allergen and their clinical significance in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Hoon Jeon

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Recently, an increase in the number of patients sensitized to rice allergen with or without clinical symptoms has been reported. This study was designed to determine the major allergens in rice and their clinical significance. Methods : Twenty-four children (15 boys and 9 girls; mean age, 16.3 months with allergic disease, who were sensitized to rice antigen (by UniCAP in the Pediatric Allergy Respiratory Center at Soonchunhyang University Hospital, were enrolled in this study. The allergenicity of various types of rice (raw, cooked, and heat-treated, simulated gastric fluid [SGF], and simulated intestinal fluid [SIF] was investigated using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE and immunoglobulin E (IgE immunoblots. The patients’ medical records, including laboratory data and allergy symptoms after ingestion of rice were reviewed. Results : Patients were sensitized to an average of 13.5 food antigens and their mean total IgE was 6,888.7 kU/L. In SDS-PAGE, more than 16 protein bands were observed in the raw rice, whereas only 14-16 kDa and 31-35 kDa protein bands were observed in cooked rice. The common SDS-PAGE protein bands observed in SGF-, SIF-, and heattreated rice were 9, 14, and 31 kDa. In a heated-rice IgE immunoblot, protein bands of 9, 14, and 31-33 kDa were found in 27.8%, 38.9%, and 38.9% of all sera, respectively, and in 50%, 50%, and 75%, of ser a from the 4 symptomatic patients, respectively. Conclusion : The 9-, 14-, and 31-kDa protein bands appeared to be the major allergens responsible for rice allergy symptoms.

  2. Rice vaikib salavanglaist / Tõnis Erilaid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Erilaid, Tõnis, 1943-

    2005-01-01

    Euroopasse visiidile sõitev USA välisminister Condoleezza Rice külastab Saksamaad, Rumeeniat, Ukrainat ja Belgiat. Süüdistusi CIA lennukite maandumiste ja salavanglate kohta ei olevat tal kavas kommenteerida

  3. Red Yeast Rice: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rice are used in food products in Chinese cuisine, including Peking duck. Others have been sold as ... Medicine . 2010;170(19):1722–1727. Halbert SC, French B, Gordon RY, et al. Tolerability of red ...

  4. indica rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-18

    Jul 18, 2011 ... fresh weight, regeneration, proline level and total protein content in salt sensitive indica rice cv. IR 64. For callus ... INTRODUCTION. Salinity is one of the ... Proline is reported to reduce the enzyme denaturation caused due.

  5. Mutant heterosis in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    In the variety TKM6 a high yielding semidwarf mutant has been induced. This TKM6 mutant was used in test crosses with a number of other varieties and mutants to examine the extent of heterosis of dwarfs in rice and to select superior crosses. An excerpt of the published data is given. It appears from the backcross of the mutant with its original variety, that an increase in number of productive tillers occurs in the hybrid, leading to a striking grain yield increase, while the semi-dwarf culm length (the main mutant character) reverts to the normal phenotype. In the cross with IR8 on the other hand, there is only a minimal increase in tiller number but a substantial increase in TGW leading to more than 30% yield increase over the better parent

  6. Application of induced mutations and modern technologies for rice improvement at the Philippine Rice Research Institute (PhilRice)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padolina, Thelma F.

    2015-01-01

    The application of mutation techniques, i.e. gamma rays and other physical and chemical mutagens has generated a vast amount of genetic variability and has played a significant role in plant breeding and genetics. The widespread use of mutation techniques in plant breeding programs throughout the world has led to the official release of more than 3000 mutant varieties from different plant species. These varieties provide higher yields, better quality, resistance to diseases and resilience to climate change and variability. In the Philippine Rice Research Institute (PhilRice), classical induced mutagenesis and/or in combination with modern technologies as an important tool in rice breeding have been widely utilized by breeders. These recent advances offered new and exciting challenges for the development of new varieties. Moreover, it has the advantage of free regulatory restrictions imposed on genetically modified organisms. To date, high generation of new varieties, elite lines and pre-breeding materials have been derived from chemical and physical mutagenesis, another culture, in vitro mutagenesis, and molecular marker technologies. Directly benefitting the farmers are three Philippine released varieties: PSB Rc78 developed through gamma ray induction in year 2000; and NSIC Rc272 (2011) and Rc346 (2013) developed by combination of Co60 induction and another culture technology. These varieties are intended for the lowlands. In the current works, diverse mutant lines and pre-breeding materials of different target traits were generated and are now under evaluation as potential varieties and/or for use in the inbred and hybrid breeding programs. These genetic materials are in the background of traditional and modern rice varieties. Accordingly, for inbreds, mutated traits ranged from changes in morphological traits, yield, maturity, grain quality, nutritional traits, abiotic resistance such as heat, salinity, and drought tolerance, biotic resistance such as bacterial

  7. Realistic Simulation of Rice Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-long DING

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The existing research results of virtual modeling of rice plant, however, is far from perfect compared to that of other crops due to its complex structure and growth process. Techniques to visually simulate the architecture of rice plant and its growth process are presented based on the analysis of the morphological characteristics at different stages. Firstly, the simulations of geometrical shape, the bending status and the structural distortion of rice leaves are conducted. Then, by using an improved model for bending deformation, the curved patterns of panicle axis and various types of panicle branches are generated, and the spatial shape of rice panicle is therefore created. Parametric L-system is employed to generate its topological structures, and finite-state automaton is adopted to describe the development of geometrical structures. Finally, the computer visualization of three-dimensional morphologies of rice plant at both organ and individual levels is achieved. The experimental results showed that the proposed methods of modeling the three-dimensional shapes of organs and simulating the growth of rice plant are feasible and effective, and the generated three-dimensional images are realistic.

  8. Stomatal conductance, mesophyll conductance, and transpiration efficiency in relation to leaf anatomy in rice and wheat genotypes under drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Wenjing; Struik, Paul C; Yin, Xinyou; Yang, Jianchang

    2017-11-02

    Increasing leaf transpiration efficiency (TE) may provide leads for growing rice like dryland cereals such as wheat (Triticum aestivum). To explore avenues for improving TE in rice, variations in stomatal conductance (gs) and mesophyll conductance (gm) and their anatomical determinants were evaluated in two cultivars from each of lowland, aerobic, and upland groups of Oryza sativa, one cultivar of O. glaberrima, and two cultivars of T. aestivum, under three water regimes. The TE of upland rice, O. glaberrima, and wheat was more responsive to the gm/gs ratio than that of lowland and aerobic rice. Overall, the explanatory power of the particular anatomical trait varied among species. Low stomatal density mostly explained the low gs in drought-tolerant rice, whereas rice genotypes with smaller stomata generally responded more strongly to drought. Compared with rice, wheat had a higher gm, which was associated with thicker mesophyll tissue, mesophyll and chloroplasts more exposed to intercellular spaces, and thinner cell walls. Upland rice, O. glaberrima, and wheat cultivars minimized the decrease in gm under drought by maintaining high ratios of chloroplasts to exposed mesophyll cell walls. Rice TE could be improved by increasing the gm/gs ratio via modifying anatomical traits. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  9. Multi Stakeholders' Attitudes toward Bt rice in Southwest, Iran: Application of TPB and Multi Attribute Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoochani, Omid M; Ghanian, Mansour; Baradaran, Masoud; Azadi, Hossein

    2017-03-01

    Organisms that have been genetically engineered and modified (GM) are referred to as genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Bt crops are plants that have been genetically modified to produce certain proteins from the soil bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), which makes these plants resistant to certain lepidopteran and coleopteran species. Genetically Modified (GM) rice was produced in 2006 by Iranian researchers from Tarom Mowla'ii and has since been called 'Bt rice'. As rice is an important source of food for over 3 billion inhabitants on Earth, this study aims to use a correlational survey in order to shed light on the predicting factors relating to the extent of stakeholders' behavioral intentions towards Bt rice. It is assumed and the results confirm that "attitudes toward GM crops" can be used as a bridge in the Attitude Model and the Behavioral Intention Model in order to establish an integrated model. To this end, a case study was made of the Southwest part of Iran in order to verify this research model. This study also revealed that as a part of the integrated research framework in the Behavior Intention Model both constructs of attitude and the subjective norm of the respondents serve as the predicting factors of stakeholders' intentions of working with Bt rice. In addition, the Attitude Model, as the other part of the integrated research framework, showed that the stakeholders' attitudes toward Bt rice can only be determined by the perceived benefits (e.g. positive outcomes) of Bt rice.

  10. Increasing rice plant growth by Trichoderma sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doni, Febri; Isahak, Anizan; Zain, Che Radziah Che Mohd; Sulaiman, Norela; Fathurahman, F.; Zain, Wan Nur Syazana Wan Mohd.; Kadhimi, Ahsan A.; Alhasnawi, Arshad Naji; Anhar, Azwir; Yusoff, Wan Mohtar Wan

    2016-11-01

    Trichoderma sp. is a plant growth promoting fungi in many crops. Initial observation on the ability to enhance rice germination and vigor have been reported. In this study, the effectiveness of a local isolate Trichoderma asprellum SL2 to enhance rice seedling growth was assessed experimentally under greenhouse condition using a completely randomized design. Results showed that inoculation of rice plants with Trichoderma asprellum SL2 significantly increase rice plants height, root length, wet weight, leaf number and biomass compared to untreated rice plants (control). The result of this study can serve as a reference for further work on the application of beneficial microorganisms to enhance rice production.

  11. Storage stability of flour-blasted brown rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown rice was blasted with rice flour rather than sand in a sand blaster to make microscopic nicks and cuts so that water can easily penetrate into the brown rice endosperm and cook the rice in a shorter time. The flour-blasted American Basmati brown rice, long grain brown rice, and parboiled long...

  12. Benefits | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    flexible work environment that enables and encourages a good work/life balance A growing, changing exceptional work. A woman riding her bike past the NREL entrance sign. Hundreds of NREL employees opt out of their cars, cycling to work, to take part in Bike To Work Day each year. Benefits Package NREL's

  13. Fringe Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgursky, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Uses statistics from the National Center for Education Statistics and the Bureau of Labor Statistics to examine teacher salaries and benefits. Discusses compensation of teachers compared with nonteachers. Asserts that statistics from the American Federation of Teachers and the National Education Association underestimate teacher compensation…

  14. Antidiabetic Properties of Germinated Brown Rice: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustapha Umar Imam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diet is an important variable in the course of type 2 diabetes, which has generated interest in dietary options like germinated brown rice (GBR for effective management of the disease among rice-consuming populations. In vitro data and animal experiments show that GBR has potentials as a functional diet for managing this disease, and short-term clinical studies indicate encouraging results. Mechanisms for antidiabetic effects of GBR due to bioactive compounds like γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA, γ-oryzanol, dietary fibre, phenolics, vitamins, acylated steryl β-glucoside, and minerals include antihyperglycemia, low insulin index, antioxidative effect, antithrombosis, antihypertensive effect, hypocholesterolemia, and neuroprotective effects. The evidence so far suggests that there may be enormous benefits for diabetics in rice-consuming populations if white rice is replaced with GBR. However, long-term clinical studies are still needed to verify these findings on antidiabetic effects of GBR. Thus, we present a review on the antidiabetic properties of GBR from relevant preclinical and clinical studies, in order to provide detailed information on this subject for researchers to review the potential of GBR in combating this disease.

  15. Processing Conditions, Rice Properties, Health and Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobutaka Nakamura

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Rice is the staple food for nearly two-thirds of the world’s population. Food components and environmental load of rice depends on the rice form that is resulted by different processing conditions. Brown rice (BR, germinated brown rice (GBR and partially-milled rice (PMR contains more health beneficial food components compared to the well milled rice (WMR. Although the arsenic concentration in cooked rice depends on the cooking methods, parboiled rice (PBR seems to be relatively prone to arsenic contamination compared to that of untreated rice, if contaminated water is used for parboiling and cooking. A change in consumption patterns from PBR to untreated rice (non-parboiled, and WMR to PMR or BR may conserve about 43–54 million tons of rice and reduce the risk from arsenic contamination in the arsenic prone area. This study also reveals that a change in rice consumption patterns not only supply more food components but also reduces environmental loads. A switch in production and consumption patterns would improve food security where food grains are scarce, and provide more health beneficial food components, may prevent some diseases and ease the burden on the Earth. However, motivation and awareness of the environment and health, and even a nominal incentive may require for a method switching which may help in building a sustainable society.

  16. Elemental composition of Malawian rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, Edward J M; Louise Ander, E; Broadley, Martin R; Young, Scott D; Chilimba, Allan D C; Hamilton, Elliott M; Watts, Michael J

    2017-08-01

    Widespread potential dietary deficiencies of calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), iodine (I), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) have been identified in Malawi. Several deficiencies are likely to be compounded by high phytic acid (PA) consumption. Rice (Oryza sativa) is commonly consumed in some Malawian populations, and its mineral micronutrient content is important for food security. The considerable irrigation requirements and flooded conditions of paddy soils can also introduce or mobilise potentially toxic elements including arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb). The aim of this study was to determine the mineral composition of rice sampled from farmers' fields and markets in Malawi. Rice was sampled from 18 extension planning areas across Malawi with 21 white (i.e. polished) and 33 brown samples collected. Elemental composition was determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Arsenic speciation was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-ICP-MS. Concentration of PA was determined using a PA-total phosphorus assay. Median total concentrations (mg kg -1 , dry weight) of elements important for human nutrition in brown and white rice, respectively, were: Ca = 66.5 and 37.8; Cu = 3.65 and 2.49; Fe = 22.1 and 7.2; I = 0.006 and rice samples, respectively, median PA concentrations were 5438 and 1906 mg kg -1 , and median PA:Zn molar ratios were 29 and 13. Concentrations of potentially toxic elements (mg kg -1 , dry weight) in brown and white rice samples, respectively, were: As = 0.030 and 0.006; Cd  ≤ 0.002 and 0.006; Pb = 0.008 and 0.008. Approximately 95 % of As was found to be inorganic As, where this could be quantified. Malawian rice, like the more widely consumed staple grain maize, contains inadequate Ca, I, Se or Zn to meet dietary requirements. Biofortification strategies could significantly increase Se and Zn concentrations and require further investigation. Concentrations of Fe in rice grain varied

  17. 75 FR 56911 - Request for Public Comment on the United States Standards for Rough Rice, Brown Rice for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... for Rough Rice, Brown Rice for Processing, and Milled Rice AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and... reviewing the United States Standards and grading procedures for Rough Rice, Brown Rice for Processing, and Milled Rice under the Agriculture Marketing Act of 1946 (AMA). Since the standards were last revised...

  18. Optimizing Greenhouse Rice Production: What Is the Best Pot Size?

    OpenAIRE

    Eddy, Robert; Acosta, Kevin; Liu, Yisi; Russell, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This publication describes our studies to determine the best pot size to optimize greenhouse rice production. We recommend 9-cm (4-inch) diameter square pot. Pots as small as 7-cm diameter yielded seed. This version is updated to include observations of larger pots with multiple plants. Photos of the plants growing under differing pot sizes are provided. This document is one entry in a series of questions and answers originally posted to the Purdue University Department of Horticulture & L...

  19. Evaluation of Upland Rice Genotypes for Efficient Uptake of Nitrogen and Phosphorus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaharah, A. R.; Hanafi, M. M. [Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2013-11-15

    Upland rice grown by subsistence farmers in the tropics and subtropics is known to produce very low yields due to it being planted on low fertility soils and under drought-prone conditions. Little information is available on upland rice cultivar differences in response to N and P fertilization in Asia, thus screening for P (PUE) and N use efficiency (NUE) of upland rice genotypes is a necessary first step. The objectives of the study were: (i) to identify upland rice genotypes with root characteristics favorable for efficient N and P uptake and utilization, (ii) to evaluate the selected genotypes for their grain yield, and (iii) to assess the variability of N and P use efficiency in upland rice genotypes grown under field conditions. Several laboratory, glasshouse and field experiments were carried out from 2007 to 2011 at Universiti Putra Malaysia to achieve the above objectives. Fifteen local and 15 upland rice genotypes from WARDA were identified to have long roots, and it was observed that some of the WARDA lines showed longer root length than the local landraces. This is a good trait since it is known that longer root length will enhance the absorption of easily mobile nutrients such as nitrate and potassium. Glasshouse and field evaluation of N use efficiency by these upland rice genotypes showed that high N is utilized (40-80% of applied N), with good grain yield, and P use efficiency is similar to other crops (4-8%). (author)

  20. Efficacy of ferterra 0.4% GR (chlorantraniliprole) against stem borers and leaffolder insect-pests of basmati rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarao, P S; Kaur, H

    2014-09-01

    Field experiments were conducted during three kharif seasons from 2009 to 2011 at Sudhar village, Ludhiana and Rice Research Area of Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana. Four doses of Ferterra 0.4% GR (chlorantraniliprole) a new chemistry @ 20, 30, 40 and 50 g a.i. ha(-1) and standard check Cartap hydrochloride 4 G @ 1000 g a.i. ha(-1) was tested against stem borers and leaffolder infesting basmati rice. Over the years, dead heart in all the Ferterra doses and standard check (1.01-1.80%) were at par70 DAT, whereas, at 80 DAT doses @ 40, 50 and standard check were at par (1.04-1.13%) but significantly better than lower doses and untreated control. Similarly, over the years, Ferterra doses @ 40 and 50 g a.i. ha(-1) was significantly better than control in reducing white ear incidence, whereas, at 30 g a.i. ha(-1) and standard check intermediately reduced the white ears incidence. Leaffolder infestation at all the Ferterra doses were at par with standard check 70 DAT (2.69-3.87%), whereas, 80 DAT, Ferterra doses @ 30, 40, 50 and standard check were at par (2.95-3.49%) but significantly better than lower dose and untreated control. Over the years the cost : benefit ratio was maximum (1 : 23.67) in the Ferterra @40 g a.i. ha(-1) dose followed by 50 g a.i. ha(-1) dose.

  1. Modified Rice Straw as Adsorbent Material to Remove Aflatoxin B1 from Aqueous Media and as a Fiber Source in Fino Bread

    OpenAIRE

    Sherif R. Mohamed; Tarek A. El-Desouky; Ahmed M. S. Hussein; Sherif S. Mohamed; Khayria M. Naguib

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the current work are in large part the benefit of rice straw to be used as adsorbent material and natural source of fiber in Fino bread. The rice straw was subjected to high temperature for modification process and the chemical composition was carried out and the native rice straw contained about 41.15% cellulose, 20.46% hemicellulose, and 3.91% lignin while modified rice straw has 42.10, 8.65, and 5.81%, respectively. The alkali number was tested and showed an increase in the alk...

  2. Effects of White Rice, Brown Rice and Germinated Brown Rice on Antioxidant Status of Type 2 Diabetic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Imam, Mustapha Umar; Musa, Siti Nor Asma; Azmi, Nur Hanisah; Ismail, Maznah

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications, and can be increased by diet like white rice (WR). Though brown rice (BR) and germinated brown rice (GBR) have high antioxidant potentials as a result of their bioactive compounds, reports of their effects on oxidative stress-related conditions such as type 2 diabetes are lacking. We hypothesized therefore that if BR and GBR were to improve antioxidant status, they would be better for rice consuming populations inst...

  3. Diversity of global rice markets and the science required for consumer-targeted rice breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the ever-increasing global demand for high quality rice in both local production regions and with Western consumers, we have a strong desire to understand better the importance of different quality traits that make up the rice grain and obtain a full picture of rice quality demographics. Rice ...

  4. Rice varieties in relation to rice bread quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hye Min; Cho, Jun Hyeon; Kang, Hang Won; Koh, Bong Kyung

    2012-05-01

    It is difficult to predict rice bread quality only from the amylose content (AC) or dough characteristics of new lines produced by rice breeding programmes. This study investigated the AC relative to bread baking quality of rice varieties developed in Korea, and identified specific characteristics that contribute to rice bread quality. Manmibyeo, Jinsumi, Seolgaeng and Hanareumbyeo were classified as low AC, YR24088 Acp9, Suweon517, Chenmaai and Goamibyeo as intermediate AC and Milyang261 as high AC. Suweon517, Milyang261 and Manmibyeo had a high water absorption index (WAI), while Goamibyeo, YR24088 Acp9, Jinsumi, Seolgaeng, Hanareumbyeo and Chenmaai had a low WAI. The gelatinisation enthalpy of flour varied from 9.2 J g(-1) in Milyang261 to 14.8 J g(-1) in YR24088 Acp9. After 7 days of storage the rate of flour retrogradation and crumb firmness were weakly correlated, with the exception of Jinsumi. Bread volumes of Jinsumi, Chenmaai, YR24088 Acp9 and Goamibyeo were comparable to that of wheat flour, but the rest were unsuited to bread making because of their low volume and hard crumb texture. Based on volume, texture and crumb firmness ratio, Chenmaai and Goamibyeo were the most appropriate varieties for making bread. An intermediate AC and low WAI were the primary indicators of rice bread flour quality. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Impacts of climate change on rice production in Africa and causes of simulated yield changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oort, Pepijn A J; Zwart, Sander J

    2018-03-01

    This study is the first of its kind to quantify possible effects of climate change on rice production in Africa. We simulated impacts on rice in irrigated systems (dry season and wet season) and rainfed systems (upland and lowland). We simulated the use of rice varieties with a higher temperature sum as adaptation option. We simulated rice yields for 4 RCP climate change scenarios and identified causes of yield declines. Without adaptation, shortening of the growing period due to higher temperatures had a negative impact on yields (-24% in RCP 8.5 in 2070 compared with the baseline year 2000). With varieties that have a high temperature sum, the length of the growing period would remain the same as under the baseline conditions. With this adaptation option rainfed rice yields would increase slightly (+8%) but they remain subject to water availability constraints. Irrigated rice yields in East Africa would increase (+25%) due to more favourable temperatures and due to CO2 fertilization. Wet season irrigated rice yields in West Africa were projected to change by -21% or +7% (without/with adaptation). Without adaptation irrigated rice yields in West Africa in the dry season would decrease by -45% with adaptation they would decrease significantly less (-15%). The main cause of this decline was reduced photosynthesis at extremely high temperatures. Simulated heat sterility hardly increased and was not found a major cause for yield decline. The implications for these findings are as follows. For East Africa to benefit from climate change, improved water and nutrient management will be needed to benefit fully from the more favourable temperatures and increased CO2 concentrations. For West Africa, more research is needed on photosynthesis processes at extreme temperatures and on adaptation options such as shifting sowing dates. © 2017 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Who benefits?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Frederik Georg

    2016-01-01

    Cross-border welfare rights for citizens of European Union member states are intensely contested, yet there is limited research into voter opposition to such rights, sometimes denoted ‘welfare chauvinism’. We highlight an overlooked aspect in scholarly work: the role of stereotypes about benefici...... recipient identity. These effects are strongest among respondents high in ethnic prejudice and economic conservatism. The findings imply that stereotypes about who benefits from cross-border welfare rights condition public support for those rights....

  7. Veterans Education Benefits | Nova Southeastern University

    Science.gov (United States)

    some of the best you will ever have. Go Sharks! Admissions Discover exactly what you need and when to , faculty and staff members. NSU Art Museum Provides arts curriculum and the best in visual arts exhibits Core Values Learn more about NSU's plan for the future. NSU History Learn more about NSU's 50 year

  8. A Non-destructive and Continuous Measurement of Gelatinization of Rice in Rice Cooking Process

    OpenAIRE

    Hagura, Yoshio; Suzuki, Kanichi

    2002-01-01

    A non-destructive and continuous method to measure gelatinization of rice samples in a rice-water system during rice cooking process was examined. An aluminum pot and a lid of a rice cooker were used as two electrode plates, and changes in dielectric properties (capacitance : C, and dielectric dissipation factor : tan δ) of the samples in the rice cooking process were measured by a capacitance meter. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to measure gelatinization enthalpy and to de...

  9. Effect of Rice bran on the Quality of Rice Flour Breads (Gluten-free)

    OpenAIRE

    仲上, 晴世; 矢部, えん; Haruyo, Nakagami; En, Yabe

    2016-01-01

    Over recent years progress has been made in the development of substitute foods for allergy patients. One such is rice flour bread. However, typically rice flour bread uses polysaccharide thickener in substitution for the gluten in wheat. Most polysaccharide thickeners are of dietary fiber origin, and the nutritive value is poor. Therefore, in this study, I made rice flour bread adding rice bran in place of polysaccharide thickener. Various nutrients are included in rice bran, including vitam...

  10. The yield and quality of black rice varieties in different altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwanto, E.; Hidayati, W.; Nandariyah

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to determine the optimal environmental conditions and corresponding black rice varieties in order to produce high production and optimum quality rice. The study using nested design, first was location (2 levels: the highlands and lowland), second was varieties (3 levels: Cempo Ireng, IPB, and Gagak) the study was conducted from November 2015 until May 2016 in Karanglo and Gutanon village, Karanganyar. Anthocyanin analysis conducted in laboratory of Nutrition and Food, Faculty of Agriculture, Sebelas Maret University. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance and significant difference continued with DMRT (Duncan Multiple Range Test) level of 5%. Results showed that cultivation in highlands and use of diverse varieties showed different quantity of rice that can be seen on panicle length, and weight of grain crops. Improved quality of results showed same things, anthocyanin content and iron increased on black rice which cultivated in highlands.

  11. Improving rice production sustainability by reducing water demand and greenhouse gas emissions with biodegradable films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhisheng; Zheng, Xunhua; Liu, Chunyan; Lin, Shan; Zuo, Qiang; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    In China, rice production is facing unprecedented challenges, including the increasing demand, looming water crisis and on-going climate change. Thus, producing more rice at lower environmental cost is required for future development, i.e., the use of less water and the production of fewer greenhouse gas (GHG) per unit of rice. Ground cover rice production systems (GCRPSs) could potentially address these concerns, although no studies have systematically and simultaneously evaluated the benefits of GCRPS regarding yields and considering water use and GHG emissions. This study reports the results of a 2-year study comparing conventional paddy and various GCRPS practices. Relative to conventional paddy, GCRPSs had greater rice yields and nitrogen use efficiencies (8.5% and 70%, respectively), required less irrigation (-64%) and resulted in less total CH4 and N2O emissions (-54%). On average, annual emission factors of N2O were 1.67% and 2.00% for conventional paddy and GCRPS, respectively. A cost-benefit analysis considering yields, GHG emissions, water demand and labor and mulching costs indicated GCRPSs are an environmentally and economically profitable technology. Furthermore, substituting the polyethylene film with a biodegradable film resulted in comparable benefits of yield and climate. Overall, GCRPSs, particularly with biodegradable films, provide a promising solution for farmers to secure or even increase yields while reducing the environmental footprint.

  12. Little White Lies: Pericarp Color Provides Insights into the Origins and Evolution of Southeast Asian Weedy Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yongxia; Song, Beng Kah; Li, Lin-Feng; Li, Ya-Ling; Huang, Zhongyun; Caicedo, Ana L.; Jia, Yulin; Olsen, Kenneth M.

    2016-01-01

    Weedy rice is a conspecific form of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) that infests rice fields and results in severe crop losses. Weed strains in different world regions appear to have originated multiple times from different domesticated and/or wild rice progenitors. In the case of Malaysian weedy rice, a multiple-origin model has been proposed based on neutral markers and analyses of domestication genes for hull color and seed shattering. Here, we examined variation in pericarp (bran) color and its molecular basis to address how this trait evolved in Malaysian weeds and its possible role in weed adaptation. Functional alleles of the Rc gene confer proanthocyanidin pigmentation of the pericarp, a trait found in most wild and weedy Oryzas and associated with seed dormancy; nonfunctional rc alleles were strongly favored during rice domestication, and most cultivated varieties have nonpigmented pericarps. Phenotypic characterizations of 52 Malaysian weeds revealed that most strains are characterized by the pigmented pericarp; however, some weeds have white pericarps, suggesting close relationships to cultivated rice. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that the Rc haplotypes present in Malaysian weeds likely have at least three distinct origins: wild O. rufipogon, white-pericarp cultivated rice, and red-pericarp cultivated rice. These diverse origins contribute to high Rc nucleotide diversity in the Malaysian weeds. Comparison of Rc allelic distributions with other rice domestication genes suggests that functional Rc alleles may confer particular fitness benefits in weedy rice populations, for example, by conferring seed dormancy. This may promote functional Rc introgression from local wild Oryza populations. PMID:27729434

  13. FLUORIDE LEVELS IN COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE RICE IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    2013-05-05

    May 5, 2013 ... Rice is one of the commonly consumed cereals for more than half of the ... also used as flour, for making rice wine, as ingredient for beer and liquor, ... Fluoride is a necessary element to human health, and a moderate amount of fluoride intake ... For Ethiopian red rice (ERR) Fogera was selected to collect.

  14. Impact of bio-processing on rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANCA NICOLAU

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The usual way of preparing rice is boiling, thermal process that gives it a lower digestibility as compared to instantiation, extrusion or expandation. Having in view this fact, the possibility to biotechnologically improve the boiled rice digestibility was investigated in a laboratory study. In this respect, boiled rice wassolid state fermented using a strain of Saccharomycopsis fibuligera, an amylase producing yeast originating from ragi. Fermented rice was then analyzed from the point of view of its content in easily assimilable sugars, protein, amino-acids, phosphorus and vitamins from B group. Biochemical analyses revealed that the fermented rice has a ten times higher content of reducing sugars than boiled rice, due to starch hydrolysis, while chromatographic studies proved that the fermented rice contains glucose, maltose, maltotriose and maltotetrose that are easily assimilable carbohydrates.Fermented rice has a protein content that is two times higher than that of boiled rice because it contains the yeast biomass, and is enriched in vitamins from B group (B1, B2, and B6 that are synthesized by the yeast. Inorganic phosphorus present in rice doubles its concentration in fermented rice, which means thatphosphorus bioavailability is increased.The sensorial profile of boiled rice is also improved by fermentation.This study proves the possibility to have a processing method which is relatively cheap, practical and of which the resulting product has good nutritive qualities and does not pose safety problems due to pure culture utilization as starter.

  15. PICTORIAL INTERLUDES Flake-shaped rice bodies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    removing the rice bodies and the bursa.3. In summary: rice bodies can occur without underlying systemic disorder, have different shapes and sizes, and have specific signal characteristics on. MRI that allow discrimination from synovial chondromatosis. 1. Cheung HS, Ryan LM, Kozin F, McCarty DJ. Synovial origins of rice ...

  16. New market opportunities for rice grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeding efforts for rice have been focusing on increasing yield and improving quality (milling yield and grain quality), while maintaining cooked rice sensory properties to meet consumer preferences. These breeding targets will no doubt continue as the main foci for the rice industry. However, the ...

  17. Arsenic in rice: A cause for concern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hojsak, Iva; Braegger, Christian; Bronsky, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic intake is likely to affect long-term health. High concentrations are found in some rice-based foods and drinks widely used in infants and young children. In order to reduce exposure we recommend avoidance of rice drinks for infants and young children. For all rice products, stri...

  18. Consumer preference mapping for rice product concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suwannaporn, P.; Linnemann, A.R.; Chaveesuk, R.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - Rice consumption per capita in many Asian countries is decreasing constantly, but American and European citizens are eating more rice nowadays. A preference study among consumers was carried out with the aim of determining new rice product characteristics in order to support export of Thai

  19. Asian wild rice is a hybrid swarm with extensive gene flow and feralization from domesticated rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongru; Vieira, Filipe G; Crawford, Jacob E; Chu, Chengcai; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2017-06-01

    The domestication history of rice remains controversial, with multiple studies reaching different conclusions regarding its origin(s). These studies have generally assumed that populations of living wild rice, O. rufipogon , are descendants of the ancestral population that gave rise to domesticated rice, but relatively little attention has been paid to the origins and history of wild rice itself. Here, we investigate the genetic ancestry of wild rice by analyzing a diverse panel of rice genomes consisting of 203 domesticated and 435 wild rice accessions. We show that most modern wild rice is heavily admixed with domesticated rice through both pollen- and seed-mediated gene flow. In fact, much presumed wild rice may simply represent different stages of feralized domesticated rice. In line with this hypothesis, many presumed wild rice varieties show remnants of the effects of selective sweeps in previously identified domestication genes, as well as evidence of recent selection in flowering genes possibly associated with the feralization process. Furthermore, there is a distinct geographical pattern of gene flow from aus , indica , and japonica varieties into colocated wild rice. We also show that admixture from aus and indica is more recent than gene flow from japonica , possibly consistent with an earlier spread of japonica varieties. We argue that wild rice populations should be considered a hybrid swarm, connected to domesticated rice by continuous and extensive gene flow. © 2017 Wang et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  20. Isotope studies on rice fertilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The aim of the report is to provide practical information on the efficient utilization of nitrogen fertilizers in rice production. Results obtained from field investigations during the years 1970 to 1974 in ten countries (Bangladesh, Burma, Indonesia, Republic of Korea, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam, India, Philippines), using 15 N-labelled nitrogen fertilizers (ammonium sulfate, urea) are given. The experiments, which were conducted both during the dry and wet seasons, included comparison of varieties, effect of placement, source and time of nitrogen fertilizer application on the yield and quality of rice. The data from the project is presented in table form. In most of the experiments, the addition of nitrogen increased the rice grain yield. The role of soil nitrogen vs. fertilizer nitrogen is compared, and it is concluded that the physiological growth stage at which fertilizer-derived nitrogen is absorbed is of great importance

  1. Iron biofortification of Myanmar rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May Sann Aung

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Iron (Fe deficiency causes elevates human mortality rates, especially in developing countries. In Myanmar, the prevalence of Fe-deficient anemia in children and pregnant women are 75% and 71%, respectively. Myanmar people have one of the highest per capita rice consumption rates globally. Consequently, production of Fe-biofortified rice would likely contribute to solving the Fe-deficiency problem in this human population. To produce Fe-biofortified Myanmar rice by transgenic methods, we first analyzed callus induction and regeneration efficiencies in 15 varieties that are presently popular because of their high yields and/or qualities. Callus formation and regeneration efficiency in each variety was strongly influenced by types of culture media containing a range of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid concentrations. The Paw San Yin variety, which has a high Fe content in polished seeds, performed well in callus induction and regeneration trials. Thus, we transformed this variety using a gene expression cassette that enhanced Fe transport within rice plants through overexpression of the nicotianamine synthase gene HvNAS1, Fe flow to the endosperm through the Fe(II-nicotianamine transporter gene OsYSL2, and Fe accumulation in endosperm by the Fe storage protein gene SoyferH2. A line with a transgene insertion was successfully obtained. Enhanced expressions of the introduced genes OsYSL2, HvNAS1, and SoyferH2 occurred in immature T2 seeds. The transformants accumulated 3.4-fold higher Fe concentrations, and also 1.3-fold higher zinc concentrations in T2 polished seeds compared to levels in non-transgenic rice. This Fe-biofortified rice has the potential to reduce Fe-deficiency anemia in millions of Myanmar people without changing food habits and without introducing additional costs.

  2. Study on creation and utilization of induced mutation rice materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang Aijun; Peng Weizheng; Pang Boliang; Peng Xuanming; Yang Zhen; Zhang Xianxin; Zhang Yuanhai

    2011-01-01

    60 Co γ-ray, spaceflight, laser were respectively or combinedly used to treat rice lines or hybrid materials. Many special type of seed breed lines, including high yielding ones, top quality ones, stunt stem ones, disease/pest resistent ones, colourful rices, big size of grain ones etc. were selected from the mutation materials, some were directly used as new varieties and some were indirectly used to breed hybrid varieties. All the new varieties such as 'xiangzaonuo No.1', 'xiangzaoxian No.20', 'xiangzaoxian No.21', 'xiangfu 994', 'peiliangyou 721', 'zhuliangyou 124' were popularly planted and great social and economical benefit was obtained. (authors)

  3. Mapping regional risks from climate change for rainfed rice cultivation in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kuntal; McClean, Colin J; Büker, Patrick; Hartley, Sue E; Hill, Jane K

    2017-09-01

    Global warming is predicted to increase in the future, with detrimental consequences for rainfed crops that are dependent on natural rainfall (i.e. non-irrigated). Given that many crops grown under rainfed conditions support the livelihoods of low-income farmers, it is important to highlight the vulnerability of rainfed areas to climate change in order to anticipate potential risks to food security. In this paper, we focus on India, where ~ 50% of rice is grown under rainfed conditions, and we employ statistical models (climate envelope models (CEMs) and boosted regression trees (BRTs)) to map changes in climate suitability for rainfed rice cultivation at a regional level (~ 18 × 18 km cell resolution) under projected future (2050) climate change (IPCC RCPs 2.6 and 8.5, using three GCMs: BCC-CSM1.1, MIROC-ESM-CHEM, and HadGEM2-ES). We quantify the occurrence of rice (whether or not rainfed rice is commonly grown, using CEMs) and rice extent (area under cultivation, using BRTs) during the summer monsoon in relation to four climate variables that affect rice growth and yield namely ratio of precipitation to evapotranspiration ( PER ), maximum and minimum temperatures ( T max and T min ), and total rainfall during harvesting. Our models described the occurrence and extent of rice very well (CEMs for occurrence, ensemble AUC = 0.92; BRTs for extent, Pearson's r = 0.87). PER was the most important predictor of rainfed rice occurrence, and it was positively related to rainfed rice area, but all four climate variables were important for determining the extent of rice cultivation. Our models project that 15%-40% of current rainfed rice growing areas will be at risk (i.e. decline in climate suitability or become completely unsuitable). However, our models project considerable variation across India in the impact of future climate change: eastern and northern India are the locations most at risk, but parts of central and western India may benefit from increased

  4. Bran data of total flavonoid and total phenolic contents, oxygen radical absorbance capacity, and profiles of proanthocyanidins and whole grain physical traits of 32 red and purple rice varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hsuan Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemicals in red and purple bran rice have potential health benefit to humans. We determined the phytochemicals in brans of 32 red and purple global rice varieties. The description of the origin and physical traits of the whole grain (color, length, width, thickness and 100-kernel weight of this germplasm collection are provided along with data of total flavonoid and total phenolic contents, oxygen radical absorbance capacity and total proanthocyanidin contents. The contents and proportions of individual oligomers, from degree of polymerization of monomers to 14-mers, and polymers in bran of these 32 rice varieties are presented (DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.04.004 [1]. Keywords: Purple rice, Red rice, Black rice, Proanthocyanidins, Tannins, Flavonoids, Rice bran

  5. Integrated emergy, energy and economic evaluation of rice and vegetable production systems in alluvial paddy fields: implications for agricultural policy in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hongfang; Bai, Yu; Ren, Hai; Campbell, Daniel E

    2010-12-01

    China is the largest rice producing and consuming country in the world, but rice production has given way to the production of vegetables during the past twenty years. The government has been trying to stop this land-use conversion and increase the area in rice-vegetable rotation. Important questions that must be answered to determine what strategy is best for society are, "What is the reason behind this conversion?"; "Which system is more productive and which is more sustainable?"; and "How can economic policy be used to adjust the pattern of farmland use to attain sustainable development?" To answer these questions, a combined evaluation of these agricultural production systems was done using emergy, energy and economic methods. An economic analysis clearly showed that the reason for this conversion was simply that the economic output/input ratio and the benefit density of the vegetable production system were greater than that of rice. However, both energy and emergy evaluations showed that long-term rice was the best choice for sustainable development, followed by rotation systems. The current price of rice is lower than the em-value of rice produced from the long-term rice system, but higher than that of rice produced from the rotation system. Scenario analysis showed that if the government increases the price of rice to the em-value of rice produced from the long-term rice system, US$0.4/kg, and takes the value of soil organic matter into account, the economic output/input ratios of both the rice and rotation systems will be higher than that of the vegetable system. The three methods, energy, emergy and economics, are different but complementary, each revealing a different aspect of the same system. Their combined use shows not only the reasons behind a system's current state or condition, but also the way to adjust these systems to move toward more sustainable states. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Establishing a University Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemish, Donald L.

    A handbook on how to establish a university foundation is presented. It presupposes that a foundation will be used as the umbrella organization for receiving all private gifts, restricted and unrestricted, for the benefit of a public college or university; and hence it chiefly addresses readers from public colleges and universities. Information is…

  7. Dolce Vita in the Rice Paddy - Characterization of weedy rice groups in Northern Italy and investigation of their evolutionary origins

    OpenAIRE

    Grimm, Annabelle

    2014-01-01

    The thesis deals with the topic of the invasive rice form called weedy rice or red rice. Studies focused on the geographical area of Italy. Different populations of weedy rice in Italy were genetically characterized. The evolutionary origins of different weedy rice groups were investigated using molecular, morphological and physiological methods. Invasion of wild rice as well as de-domestication of cultivars could be identified as evolutionary sources of weedy rice in Northern Italy.

  8. Objective evaluation of whiteness of cooked rice and rice cakes using a portable spectrophotometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Hajime; Asanome, Noriyuki; Suzuki, Keitaro; Sano, Tomoyoshi; Saito, Hiroshi; Abe, Yohei; Chuba, Masaru; Nishio, Takeshi

    2014-03-01

    The whiteness of cooked rice and rice cakes was evaluated using a portable spectrophotometer with a whiteness index (WI). Also, by using boiled rice for measurement of Mido values by Mido Meter, it was possible to infer the whiteness of cooked rice without rice cooking. In the analysis of varietal differences of cooked rice, 'Tsuyahime', 'Koshihikari' and 'Koshinokaori' showed high whiteness, while 'Satonoyuki' had inferior whiteness. The whiteness of rice cakes made from 'Koyukimochi' and 'Dewanomochi' was higher than the whiteness of those made from 'Himenomochi' and 'Koganemochi'. While there was a significant correlation (r = 0.84) between WI values and whiteness scores of cooked rice by the sensory test, no correlation was detected between the whiteness scores and Mido values, indicating that the values obtained by a spectrophotometer differ from those obtained by a Mido Meter. Thus, a spectrophotometer may be a novel device for measurement of rice eating quality.

  9. RiceAtlas, a spatial database of global rice calendars and production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laborte, Alice G; Gutierrez, Mary Anne; Balanza, Jane Girly; Saito, Kazuki; Zwart, Sander J; Boschetti, Mirco; Murty, M V R; Villano, Lorena; Aunario, Jorrel Khalil; Reinke, Russell; Koo, Jawoo; Hijmans, Robert J; Nelson, Andrew

    2017-05-30

    Knowing where, when, and how much rice is planted and harvested is crucial information for understanding the effects of policy, trade, and global and technological change on food security. We developed RiceAtlas, a spatial database on the seasonal distribution of the world's rice production. It consists of data on rice planting and harvesting dates by growing season and estimates of monthly production for all rice-producing countries. Sources used for planting and harvesting dates include global and regional databases, national publications, online reports, and expert knowledge. Monthly production data were estimated based on annual or seasonal production statistics, and planting and harvesting dates. RiceAtlas has 2,725 spatial units. Compared with available global crop calendars, RiceAtlas is nearly ten times more spatially detailed and has nearly seven times more spatial units, with at least two seasons of calendar data, making RiceAtlas the most comprehensive and detailed spatial database on rice calendar and production.

  10. Labelling of rice seedlings and rice plants with 32P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achmad Nasroh, K.

    1989-01-01

    Labelling of rice seedlings and rice plants with 32 P. Labelled rice seedlings can be used to tag insect pests that feed on. Radioactivity counting of 32 P in the endosperm and in the shoot of rice seeds that soaked for 72 hours in KH 2 32 PO 4 solution of 1 μCi/ml were 29,300 and 9,500 cpm respectively. When these labelled seedlings were grown in unlabelled medium the radioactivity in the shoot increased. It was due to the 32 P that was translocated to the shoot from the endosperm. The 32 P translocation reached maximum about one week after the seedling were grown in the unlabelled medium. Labelled seedlings could also be produced by growing 5, 10 and 15 days old seedlings hydroponically in Kimura B solution containing 32 P. Ten days after growing, the radioactivity concentration of the seedlings stem reached about 115,000; 85,000 and 170,000 cpm/mg dry weight for the 5, 10 and 15 days old seedlings respectively. For the implementation of this method, 20 ml labelled Kimura B was needed for labelling of one seedling. The seedlings should be prepared in tap water. During the growth the 32 P in the labelled seedlings was distributed throughout the plant, so that new leaves and tillers became also radioactive. (author). 5 refs

  11. Response of Transplanted Aman Rice Varieties to Herbicides in Strip-Tilled Non-Puddled Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taslima Zahan1

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sensitivity of crop cultivars may vary to commonly used herbicides resulting in potential yield loss and reduce farm profit. Transplanting of rice seedlings in strip-tilled non-puddled field is a new practice for which herbicide tolerant varieties need to select. Therefore, a study was executed at the Agronomy Field Laboratory of Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh during 2013 to evaluate the response of some popular transplanted aman rice varieties to different herbicides at their recommended rate and to select most tolerant aman rice variety or varieties for strip-tilled non-puddled transplanting. METHODOLOGY: Twelve aman rice varieties (BR11, BRRI dhan33, BRRI dhan39, BRRI dhan44, BRRI dhan46, BRRI dhan49, BRRI dhan51, BRRI dhan52, BRRI dhan56, BRRI dhan57, BRRI hybrid dhan-4 and BINA dhan7 were examined in the study against six herbicides (2 pre-emergence: pyrazosulfuron-ethyl and butachlor; 1 early post-emergence: orthosulfamuron and 3 late post-emergence: acetochlor + bensulfuron methyl, butachlor + propanil and 2,4-D amine along with one untreated manually weed-free control. KEY FINDINGS: The study revealed that aman rice varieties responded differentially to different herbicides. All rice varieties performed better in pyrazosulfuron-ethyl treated plots relative to the other herbicide treated plots and even than the control plots. Pyrazosulfuron-ethyl increased grain yield of all aman rice varieties by 0.6-32.6% over control and butachlor + propanil provided increased grain yield in all rice varieties by 2.0-25.5% except BRRI hybrid dhan-4. The study also disclosed that BRRI dhan57 and BRRI hybrid dhan-4 gone through the yield loss by application of 2,4-D amine and BRRI dhan56 by application of butachlor and orthosulfamuron. Moreover, acetochlor + bensulfuron methyl produced shorter plants and caused yield loss by 7.8-27.1% in all aman rice varieties compared to the control and BRRI dhan39 was the most susceptible

  12. Community-wise evaluation of rice beer prepared by some ethnic tribes of Tripura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushanta Ghosh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tripura is inhabited by many indigenous communities having unique ethno-socio-cultural lifestyle with age-old rice beer brewing techniques using wild herbs and local rice varieties popularly known as chuwak or zu. The present study is focused on comparative evaluation of brewing methods and nutritional aspects of rice beer among Debbarma, Jamatia, Koloi, and Molsom tribes of Tripura. Sample ingredients and plant species are properly identified before reporting. Rice beer is also prepared in laboratory conditions for comparative studies of qualitative and quantitative aspects. Thirteen different plant species are used by these four tribes for preparation of starter cultures using soaked rice flour. Markhamia stipulate (Wall. Seem. is common to all communities for starter cake preparation. Litsea monopetala (Roxb. Pers. is used by all three communities except Jamatia. The use of Ananus comosus Mill. is common among Debbarma and Jamatia tribes, whereas that of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. is common among Molsom and Koloi tribes. However, Aporusa diocia (Roxb. Muell., Combretum indicum (L. DeFilipps., and Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck. are used only by Debbarma tribe for unique tangy flavor. The physicochemical properties of rice beer varied within tribes for its moisture content, carbohydrate content, reducing sugar, and alcohol percentage. The concentration of alcohol increases with aging and prolonged fermentation. The plants reported here are also reported for having nutritional and medicinal benefits for the metabolic stability in humans, which make the process more prospective for commercialization if a standard for maintaining a quality and associated risk can be determined.

  13. GIS-based biomass resource utilization for rice straw cofiring in the Taiwanese power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Ming-Che; Huang, An-Lei; Wen, Tzai-Hung

    2013-01-01

    Rice straw, a rich agricultural byproduct in Taiwan, can be used as biomass feedstock for cofiring systems. In this study, we analyzed the penetration of rice straw cofiring systems in the Taiwanese power market. In the power generation system, rice straw is cofired with fossil fuel in existing electricity plants. The benefits of cofiring systems include increasing the use of renewable energy, decreasing the fuel cost, and lowering greenhouse gas emissions. We established a linear complementarity model to simulate the power market equilibrium with cofiring systems in Taiwan. GIS-based analysis was then used to analyze the geospatial relationships between paddy rice farms and power plants to assess potential biomass for straw-power generation. Additionally, a sensitivity analysis of the biomass feedstock supply system was conducted for various cofiring scenarios. The spatial maps and equilibrium results of rice straw cofiring in Taiwanese power market are presented in the paper. - Highlights: ► The penetration of straw cofiring systems in the power market is analyzed. ► GIS-based analysis assesses potential straw-power generation. ► The spatial maps and equilibrium results of rice straw cofiring are presented

  14. Transgene Flow from Glufosinate-Resistant Rice to Improved and Weedy Rice in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-liang LU

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of transgenic rice with novel traits in China can increase rice productivity, but transgene flow to improved or weedy rice has become a major concern. We aimed to evaluate the potential maximum frequencies of transgene flow from glufosinate-resistant rice to improved rice cultivars and weedy rice. Treatments were arranged in randomized complete blocks with three replicates. Experiments were conducted between 2009 and 2010 at the Center for Environmental Safety Supervision and Inspection for Genetically Modified Plants, China National Rice Research Institute, Hangzhou, China. Glufosinate-resistant japonica rice 99-1 was the pollen donor. The pollen recipients were two inbred japonica rice (Chunjiang 016 and Xiushui 09, two inbred indica rice (Zhongzu 14 and Zhongzao 22, two indica hybrid rice (Zhongzheyou 1 and Guodao 1, and one weedy indica rice (Taizhou weedy rice. The offspring of recipients were planted in the field and sprayed with a commercial dose of glufosinate. Leaf tissues of survivors were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction to detect the presence of the transgene. The frequency of gene flow ranged from 0 to 0.488%. In 2009, the order of gene flow frequency was as follows: weedy rice > Chunjiang 016 > Xiushui 09 and Zhongzu 14 > Guodao 1, Zhongzheyou 1 and Zhongzao 22. Gene flow frequencies were generally higher in 2009 than in 2010, but did not differ significantly among rice materials. Gene flow frequency was the highest in weedy rice followed by the inbred japonica rice. The risk of gene flow differed significantly between years and year-to-year variance could mask risk differences among pollen recipients. Gene flow was generally lesser in taller pollen recipients than in shorter ones, but plant height only accounted for about 30% of variation in gene flow. When flowering synchrony was maximized, as in this study, low frequencies of gene flow occurred from herbicide-resistant japonica rice to other cultivars and

  15. Evaluation of tall rice mutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakim, L.; Azam, M.A.; Miah, A.J.; Mansur, M.A.; Akanda, H.R.

    1989-01-01

    One tall mutant (Mut NS1) of rice variety Nizersail was put to multilocation on-farm trial. It showed improvement over the parent in respect of by earlier maturity and higher grain yield at all locations and thus it appears as an improved mutant of Nizersail. (author). 6 refs

  16. Comparison of Rice Direct Seeding Methods (Mechanical and Manual with Transplanting Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Eyvani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The main method of rice planting in Iran is transplanting. Due to poor mechanization of rice production, this method is laborious and costly. The other method is direct seeding in wet lands which is performed in the one third of rice cultivation area of the world. The most important problem in this method is high labor requirement of weed control. In order to compare the different rice planting methods (direct drilling, transplanting, and seed broadcasting a manually operated rice direct seeder (drum seeder was designed and fabricated. The research was conducted using a randomized complete block design with three treatments and three replications. Required draft force, field efficiency, effective field capacity, yield, and yield components were measured and the treatments were compared economically. Results showed that there were significant differences among the treatments from the view point of rice yield at the confidence level of 95% i.e. the transplanting method had the maximum yield. A higher rice yield was obtained from the direct seeder compared to the manual broadcasting method but, the difference between these two methods for crop yield was not significant even at the confidence level of the 95%. The coefficient of variation of seed distribution with direct seeding was more than 20%. The labor and time requirements per hectare reduced to 7 and 20 times, respectively when comparing the newly designed direct seeder with the transplanting method. The direct seeding method had the highest benefit to cost ratio in spite of its lower yield. Therefore, this method could be recommended in the rice growing regions.

  17. Jasmine rice panicle: A safe and efficient natural ingredient for skin aging treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanlayavattanakul, Mayuree; Lourith, Nattaya; Chaikul, Puxvadee

    2016-12-04

    While rice is one of the most important global staple food sources its extracts have found many uses as the bases of herbal remedies. Rice extracts contain high levels of phenolic compounds which are known to be bioactive, some of which show cutaneous benefits and activity towards skin disorders. This study highlights an assessment of the cellular activity and clinical efficacy of rice panicle extract, providing necessary information relevant to the development of new cosmetic products. Jasmine rice panicle extract was standardized, and the level of phenolics present was determined. In vitro anti-aging, and extract activity towards melanogenesis was conducted in B16F10 melanoma cells, and antioxidant activity was assessed in human skin fibroblast cell cultures. Topical product creams containing the extract were developed, and skin irritation testing using a single application closed patch test method was done using 20 Thai volunteers. Randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled efficacy evaluation was undertaken in 24 volunteers over an 84d period, with the results monitored by Corneometer ® CM 825, Cutometer ® MPA 580, Mexameter ® MX 18 and Visioscan ® VC 98. Jasmine rice panicle extract was shown to have a high content of p-coumaric, ferulic and caffeic acids, and was not cytotoxic to the cell lines used in this study. Cells treated with extract suppressed melanogenesis via tyrosinase and TRP-2 inhibitory effects, which protect the cell from oxidative stress at doses of 0.1mg/ml or lower. The jasmine rice panicle preparations (0.1-0.2%) were safe (MII=0), and significantly (p0.05). Jasmine rice panicle extract having high levels of phenolics shows cutaneous benefits as the basis for skin aging treatments, as indicated through in vitro cytotoxicity assessments and skin testing in human subjects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Genetic analysis of basmati and non-basmati Pakistani rice (oryza sativa l.) cultivars using microsatellite markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabbani, M.A.; Masood, M.A.; Shinwari, Z.K.

    2010-01-01

    Information of genetic variability and relatedness among rice genotypes is essential for future breeding programmes and derivation of superior cultivars. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the genetic relationship among traditional and improved cultivars of Pakistani rice and to determine differences in the patterns of variation between two indica rice groups: basmati and nonbasmati. Forty-one cultivars were evaluated by means of 30 microsatellite markers distributed over the whole rice genome. A total of 104 alleles were detected by 30 markers, all of them (100%) were polymorphic. The number of alleles generated by each marker ranged from 2 to 6 with an average of 3.5 alleles marker-1. Polymorphism information content (PIC) varied from 0.259 to 0.782 with an average of 0.571. A significant positive correlation (r = 0.71) was found between the number of alleles at SSR locus and the PIC values. Pair-wise Nei and Li's similarity coefficients ranged from 0.10 to 0.99. A dendrogram based on cluster analysis by microsatellite polymorphism grouped 41 rice cultivars into 2 major groups effectively differentiating the late maturing, tall and slender-grain basmati and other aromatic rice cultivars from the early, short statured, short bold and long bold grain non-aromatic cultivars. Higher level of genetic diversity between basmati and non-basmati support the concept that former had a long history of independent evolution and diverged from nonbasmati rice a long time ago through human selection and patronage. Present investigation further indicated that genetically basmati rice is different from that of coarse indica and japonica type. The results suggested that microsatellite markers could efficiently be utilized for diversity analysis, and differentiation of basmati and non-basmati rice cultivars. In addition, marker-based identification of traditional basmati rice may help in maintaining the integrity of this high quality product to the benefit of both

  19. [Effects of fish on field resource utilization and rice growth in rice-fish coculture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Hu, Liang Liang; Ren, Wei Zheng; Guo, Liang; Wu, Min Fang; Tang, Jian Jun; Chen, Xin

    2017-01-01

    Rice field can provide habitat for fish and other aquatic animals. Rice-fish coculture can increase rice yield and simultaneously reduce the use of chemicals through reducing rice pest occurrence and nutrient complementary use. However, how fish uses food sources (e.g. phytoplankton, weeds, duckweed, macro-algal and snail) from rice field, and whether the nutrients releasing from those food sources due to fish transforming can improve rice growth are still unknown. Here, we conducted two field experiments to address these questions. One was to investigate the pattern of fish activity in the field using the method of video recording. The other was to examine the utilization of field resources by fish using stable isotope technology. Rice growth and rice yield were also exa-mined. Results showed that fish tended to be more active and significantly expanded the activity range in the rice-fish coculture compared to fish monoculture (fish not living together with rice plants). The contributions of 3 potential aquatic organisms (duckweed, phytoplankton and snail) to fish dietary were 22.7%, 34.8% and 30.0% respectively under rice-fish coculture without feed. Under the treatment with feed, however, the contributions of these 3 aquatic organisms to the fish die-tary were 8.9%, 5.9% and 1.6% respectively. The feed contribution was 71.0%. Rice-fish coculture significantly increased the nitrogen concentration in rice leaves, prolonged tillering stage by 10-12 days and increased rice spike rate and yield. The results suggested that raising fish in paddy field may transform the nutrients contained in field resources to bioavailable for rice plants through fish feeding activity, which can improve rice growth and rice yield.

  20. [Nitrogen cycling in rice-duck mutual ecosystem during double cropping rice growth season].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Chen, Yuan-Quan; Sui, Peng; Gao, Wang-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Raising duck in paddy rice field is an evolution of Chinese traditional agriculture. In May-October 2010, a field experiment was conducted in a double cropping rice region of Hunan Province, South-central China to study the nitrogen (N) cycling in rice-duck mutual ecosystem during early rice and late rice growth periods, taking a conventional paddy rice field as the control. Input-output analysis method was adopted. The N output in the early rice-duck mutual ecosystem was 239.5 kg x hm(-2), in which, 12.77 kg x hm(-2) were from ducks, and the N output in the late rice-duck mutual ecosystem was 338.7 kg x hm(-2), in which, 23.35 kg x hm(-2) were from ducks. At the present N input level, there existed soil N deficit during the growth seasons of both early rice and late rice. The N input from duck sub-system was mainly from the feed N, and the cycling rate of the duck feces N recycled within the system was 2.5% during early rice growth season and 3.5% during late rice growth season. After late rice harvested, the soil N sequestration was 178.6 kg x hm(-2).

  1. A comparative study of competitiveness between different genotypes of weedy rice (Oryza sativa) and cultivated rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lei; Dai, Weimin; Song, Xiaoling; Lu, Baorong; Qiang, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Competition from weedy rice can cause serious yield losses to cultivated rice. However, key traits that facilitate competitiveness are still not well understood. To explore the mechanisms behind the strong growth and competitive ability, replacement series experiments were established with six genotypes of weedy rice from different regions and one cultivated rice cultivar. (1) Weedy rice from southern China had the greatest impact on growth and yield of cultivated rice throughout the entire growing season. Weedy rice from the northeast was very competitive during the early vegetative stage while the competitive effects of eastern weedy rice were more detrimental at later crop-growth stages. (2) As the proportion of weedy rice increased, plant height, tillers, above-ground biomass, and yield of cultivated rice significantly declined; the crop always being at disadvantage regardless of proportion. (3) Weedy biotypes with greater diversity as estimated by their Shannon indexes were more detrimental to the growth and yield of cultivated rice. Geographic origin (latitude) of weedy rice biotype, its mixture proportion under competition with the crop and its genetic diversity are determinant factors of the outcome of competition and the associated decline in the rice crop yield. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Aerobic rice mechanization: techniques for crop establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khusairy, K. M.; Ayob, H.; Chan, C. S.; Fauzi, M. I. Mohamed; Mohamad Fakhrul, Z. O.; Shahril Shah, G. S. M.; Azlan, O.; Rasad, M. A.; Hashim, A. M.; Arshad, Z.; E, E. Ibrahim; Saifulizan, M. N.

    2015-12-01

    Rice being the staple food crops, hundreds of land races in it makes the diversity of rice crops. Aerobic rice production was introduced which requires much less water input to safeguard and sustain the rice production and conserve water due to decreasing water resources, climatic changes and competition from urban and industrial users. Mechanization system plays an important role for the success of aerobic rice cultivation. All farming activities for aerobic rice production are run on aerobic soil conditions. Row seeder mechanization system is developed to replace conventional seeding technique on the aerobic rice field. It is targeted for small and the large scale aerobic rice farmers. The aero - seeder machine is used for the small scale aerobic rice field, while the accord - seeder is used for the large scale aerobic rice field. The use of this mechanization machine can eliminate the tedious and inaccurate seeding operations reduce labour costs and increases work rate. The machine is easy to operate and it can increase crop establishment rate. It reduce missing hill, increasing planting and crop with high yield can be produce. This machine is designed for low costs maintenance and it is easy to dismantle and assemble during maintenance and it is safe to be used.

  3. Rice agroecosystem and the maintenance of biodiversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahyaudin Ali

    2002-01-01

    Rice fields are a special type of wetland. They are shallow, constantly disturbed and experience extremes in temperature and dissolved oxygen content. They receive nutrients in the form of fertilizers during rice cultivation. Rice fields; support a variety of flora and fauna that have adapted and adjusted themselves to the extreme conditions. Since rice fields also support populations of wild fish, rice?fish integration should be done in order to optimize land use and provide supplementary income to farmers. Rice?fish farming encourages farmers to judiciously apply pesticides and herbicides in their fields thus helping to control excessive and unwarranted use of these chemicals. Rice fields also support many migratory and nonmigratory bird species and provides habitat for small mammals. Thus the rice agroecosystem helps to maintain aquatic biodiversity. The Muda rice agroecosystem consists of a troika of interconnected ecosystems. The troika consisting of reservoirs, the connecting network of canals and the rice fields; should be investigated further. This data is needed for informed decision-making concerning development and management of the system so that productivity and biodiversity can be maintained and sustained. (Author)

  4. Determining the Optimum Concentration of Pretilachlor and Sunrice plus Herbicides for Weed control in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ebrahimpour Lish

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the optimal rates of Pertilachlor and Sunrice­-plus herbicides for weed control of rice (Oryza sativa Var.Tarom Hashemi, a factorial experiment was conducted with a randomized complete block design with four replications in Rice Research Farm of Faculty of Agriculture, University of Guilan, Rasht, northern Iran. The first factor was weed control treatment which   consisted of lower than, equal, and more than recommended levels of Pertilachlor (i.e. 0.5, 0.75, 1 kg a.i ha-1 and Sun­rice plus (0.45, 0.9, 1.35 kg a.i ha-1 herbicides, along with unweeded and twice hand-weeded controls. The second factor consisted of two levels of nitrogen fertilizer (N application (i.e. 0 and 90 kg ha-1 of N. Barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli L. and Purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotandus L. were the most dominant weeds of the experimental plots. The highest number of filled panicles per plant, number of grains per panicle, and grain yield were found in recommended rate of Pertilachlor, Sun­rice plus and more than recommended rate of Sun­rice plus due to adequate weed control (>70% at the presence of 90 kg ha-1 of N. The lowest number of grains per panicle, number of panicles per plant and grain yield were observed in unweeded treatment, at both levels of nitrogen fertilizer application.  It was concluded that application of N is effective in increasing grain yield of the examined rice genotype only if weeds are effectively controlled by herbicides. Hence, application of N in the unweeded conditions does not lead to an increase in grain yield of rice, because the consumption of N by weeds decreased the effect of nitrogen on rice grain production.

  5. Assessment of Rice Associated Bacterial Ability to Enhance Rice Seed Germination and Rice Growth Promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gholamalizadeh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The application of beneficial bacteria has recently been used for sustainable agriculture. In current research, 71 bacterial isolates were obtained from rice plant and the rhizosphere soil of different paddy fields in Guilan province, Iran. After primitive investigation, 40 bacteria with typical predominant characteristics were selected. By PCR-RFLP of their 16S r-DNA gene, 8 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs totally consisted of 33 isolates were obtained. From all of them, 8 isolates were selected for rice seed germination experiment, then, effective isolates were used for pot experiment to evaluate their ability for promoting rice growth. All of them were able to increase rice growth and yield, but in different potential. These tested isolates were identified as Alcaligenes faecalis (DEp8, O1R4, Pantoea ananatis (AEn1, Bacillus vietnamensis (MR5, Bacillus idriensis (MR2 and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia by partial sequencing of their 16S r-DNA gene. Among them, AEn1 and MR5 produced indole-3- acetic acid (IAA in larger amounts than the other isolates and the isolates AEn1 and O1R4 were able to solubilize phosphate in higher amounts. According to the results obtained, it can be concluded that AEn1, O1R4 and MR5 can be considered as bacterial inoculants to use as alternatives for chemical fertilizers.

  6. Tier I Rice Model - Version 1.0 - Guidance for Estimating Pesticide Concentrations in Rice Paddies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes a Tier I Rice Model (Version 1.0) for estimating surface water exposure from the use of pesticides in rice paddies. The concentration calculated can be used for aquatic ecological risk and drinking water exposure assessments.

  7. Adapting rice production to climate change for sustainable blue water consumption: an economic and virtual water analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darzi-Naftchali, Abdullah; Karandish, Fatemeh

    2017-12-01

    Sustainable utilization of blue water resources under climate change is of great significance especially for producing high water-consuming crops in water-scarce regions. Based on the virtual water concept, we carried out a comprehensive field-modeling research to find the optimal agricultural practices regarding rice blue water consumption under prospective climate change. The DSSAT-CERES-Rice model was used in combination with 20 GCMs under three Representative Concentration Pathways of low (RCP2.6), intermediate (RCP4.6), and very high (RCP8.5) greenhouse concentrations to predict rice yield and water requirement and related virtual water and economic return for the base and future periods. The crop model was calibrated and validated based on the 2-year field data obtained from consolidated paddy fields of the Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University during 2011 and 2012 rice cropping cycles. Climate change imposes an increase of 0.02-0.04 °C in air temperature which consequently shifts rice growing seasons to winter season, and shorten the length of rice physiological maturity period by 2-15 days. While rice virtual water reduces by 0.1-20.6% during 2011-2070, reduced rice yield by 3.8-22.6% over the late twenty-first century results in a considerable increase in rice virtual water. By increasing the contribution of green water in supplying crop water requirement, earlier cropping could diminish blue water consumption for rice production in the region while cultivation postponement increases irrigation water requirement by 2-195 m3 ha-1. Forty days delay in rice cultivation in future will result in 29.9-40.6% yield reduction and 43.9-60% increase in rice virtual water under different scenarios. Earlier cropping during the 2011-2040 and 2041-2070 periods would increase water productivity, unit value of water, and economic value of blue water compared to the base period. Based on the results, management of rice cultivation calendar is a

  8. significance of rice sheath photosynthesis: yield determination by c ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    1State Key Laboratory of Hybrid Rice, Hunan Hybrid Rice Research Center, Changsha 410125, P.R. China. 2School of ... for contribution rates of sheath photosynthesis to economical yield. ..... related processes during ripening in rice plants.

  9. Perceived factors limiting rice production in Pategi Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    perceived limiting factors in rice production include lack of rice processing ... This production increase has not been enough to meet the consumption demand of ... of Kwara State, Nigeria seeks to determine some of the factors limiting rice ...

  10. potential for biological control of rice yellow mottle virus vectors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Insect pests and disease infestations are the primary constraints in rice (Oryza sativa) production .... Asia. Of all the rice diseases, the one caused by the rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV), first reported ..... yellow mottle virus in Central Africa.

  11. Effect of Interplanting with Zero Tillage and Straw Manure on Rice Growth and Rice Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-ping LIU

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The interplanting with zero-tillage of rice, i.e. direct sowing rice 10–20 days before wheat harvesting, and remaining about 30-cm high stubble after cutting wheat or rice with no tillage, is a new cultivation technology in wheat-rice rotation system. To study the effects of interplanting with zero tillage and straw manure on rice growth and quality, an experiment was conducted in a wheat-rotation rotation system. Four treatments, i.e. ZIS (Zero-tillage, straw manure and rice interplanting, ZI (Zero-tillage, no straw manure and rice interplanting, PTS (Plowing tillage, straw manure and rice transplanting, and PT (Plowing tillage, no straw manure and rice transplanting, were used. ZIS reduced plant height, leaf area per plant and the biomass of rice plants, but the biomass accumulation of rice at the late stage was quicker than that under conventional transplanting cultivation. In the first year (2002, there was no significant difference in rice yield among the four treatments. However, rice yield decreased in interplanting with zero-tillage in the second year (2003. Compared with the transplanting treatments, the number of filled grains per panicle decreased but 1000-grain weight increased in interplanting with zero-tillage, which were the main factors resulting in higher yield. Interplanting with zero-tillage improved the milling and appearance qualities of rice. The rates of milled and head rice increased while chalky rice rate and chalkiness decreased in interplanting with zero-tillage. Zero-tillage and interplanting also affected rice nutritional and cooking qualities. In 2002, ZIS showed raised protein content, decreased amylose content, softer gel consistency, resulting in improved rice quality. In 2003, zero-tillage and interplanting decreased protein content and showed similar amylose content as compared with transplanting treatments. Moreover, protein content in PTS was obviously increased in comparison with the other three treatments

  12. Rice crop risk map in Babahoyo canton (Ecuador)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde Arias, Omar; Tarquis, Ana; Garrido, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    determinate which level of rice crop requirement is met. Finally we have established rice crop zones classified as: suitable, moderate suitable, marginal suitable and unsuitable. Several methods have been used to estimate the degree with which crop requirements are satisfied, pondering weights of limiting factors to adequate crop conditions. Better conditions for cropping in a specific area imply less risk in production. In this case, crop will be less affected by pests and disease, although this closely depends on crop management. Farmers have to invest less money to produce and could increase their benefit. Results are showed and discussed with the aim to study the efficiency and potential of this risk map.

  13. Assessing the impacts of climate change on rice yields in the main rice areas of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Fengmei [College of Earth Sciences, The Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19A, Yuquan Road, Beijing, 100049 (China); Xu, Yinglong; Lin, Erda [Agricultural Environment and Sustainable Development Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, 100081 (China); Yokozawa, Masayuki [National Institute for Agro-environmental Sciences, Tsukuba 305-8604 (Japan); Zhang, Jiahua [Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing, 100081 (China)

    2007-02-15

    This paper assesses the impact of climate change on irrigated rice yield using B2 climate change scenario from the Regional Climate Model (RCM) and CERES-rice model during 2071--2090. Eight typical rice stations ranging in latitude, longitude, and elevation that are located in the main rice ecological zones of China are selected for impact assessment. First, Crop Estimation through Resource and Environment Synthesis (CERES)-rice model is validated using farm experiment data in selected stations. The simulated results represent satisfactorily the trend of flowering duration and yields. The deviation of simulation within {+-} 10% of observed flowering duration and {+-} 15% of observed yield. Second, the errors of the outputs of RCM due to the difference of topography between station point and grid point is corrected. The corrected output of the RCM used for simulating rice flowering duration and yield is more reliable than the not corrected. Without CO2 direct effect on crop, the results from the assessment explore that B2 climate change scenario would have a negative impact on rice yield at most rice stations and have little impacts at Fuzhou and Kunming. To find the change of inter-annual rice yield, a preliminary assessment is made based on comparative cumulative probability at low and high yield and the coefficient variable of yield between the B2 scenario and baseline. Without the CO2 direct effect on rice yield, the result indicates that frequency for low yield would increase and it reverses for high yield, and the variance for rice yield would increase. It is concluded that high frequency at low yield and high variances of rice yield could pose a threat to rice yield at most selected stations in the main rice areas of China. With the CO2 direct effect on rice yield, rice yield increase in all selected stations.

  14. Assessing the impacts of climate change on rice yields in the main rice areas of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Fengmei; Xu, Yinglong; Lin, Erda; Yokozawa, Masayuki; Zhang, Jiahua

    2007-01-01

    This paper assesses the impact of climate change on irrigated rice yield using B2 climate change scenario from the Regional Climate Model (RCM) and CERES-rice model during 2071--2090. Eight typical rice stations ranging in latitude, longitude, and elevation that are located in the main rice ecological zones of China are selected for impact assessment. First, Crop Estimation through Resource and Environment Synthesis (CERES)-rice model is validated using farm experiment data in selected stations. The simulated results represent satisfactorily the trend of flowering duration and yields. The deviation of simulation within ± 10% of observed flowering duration and ± 15% of observed yield. Second, the errors of the outputs of RCM due to the difference of topography between station point and grid point is corrected. The corrected output of the RCM used for simulating rice flowering duration and yield is more reliable than the not corrected. Without CO2 direct effect on crop, the results from the assessment explore that B2 climate change scenario would have a negative impact on rice yield at most rice stations and have little impacts at Fuzhou and Kunming. To find the change of inter-annual rice yield, a preliminary assessment is made based on comparative cumulative probability at low and high yield and the coefficient variable of yield between the B2 scenario and baseline. Without the CO2 direct effect on rice yield, the result indicates that frequency for low yield would increase and it reverses for high yield, and the variance for rice yield would increase. It is concluded that high frequency at low yield and high variances of rice yield could pose a threat to rice yield at most selected stations in the main rice areas of China. With the CO2 direct effect on rice yield, rice yield increase in all selected stations

  15. Perceived Benefits of an Undergraduate Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Cole; Martini, Tanya

    2017-01-01

    Canadian university students tend to endorse employment-related reasons for attending university ahead of other reasons such as personal satisfaction or intellectual growth. In the present study, first- and fourth-year students from a mid-sized Canadian university reported on the benefits they expected to receive from their degree and rated their…

  16. Rice Seedling Substrate Produced by Coal Gangue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHAO Yu-fei

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Peats are the mostly used material in making rice seedling substrate. However, mining peats could cause environmental problems. In order to reduce or replace peats in rice seedling substrate industry, this paper studied suitable way to configure rice seedling. The coal gangue was used to experiment cultivating rice. Four rice seeding experiments were carried out based on physical and chemical properties of materials attributes. The results showed:(1 Coal gangue was feasible for rice seedling; (2 The maximum adding amount of coal gangue was 80%(volume ratio though the coal gangue need to be activated; (3 In the case of no activated treatment only 38%(volume ratio of coal gangue could be added to the substrate.

  17. Improvement of rice starch by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Zhiying; Wu Dianxing; Shen Shengquan; Han Juanying; Xia Yingwu

    2003-01-01

    Three types of rice cultivars, Indica, Japonica and hybrid rice, with similar intermediate apparent amylose content (AAC) as well as early Indica rice cultivars with different amounts of AAC were selected for studying the effects of gamma irradiation on starch viscosity, physico-chemical properties and starch granule structure. Four major parameters of RVA profile, peak viscosity (PKV), hot paste viscosity (HPV), cool paste viscosity (CPV), setback viscosity (SBV) and consistence viscosity (CSV) were considerably decreased with increasing dose levels. Gamma irradiation reduced the amylose contents in the cultivars with low AAC, intermediate AAC, and glutinous rice, but had no effects on the high AAC cultivar. No visible changes in alkali spreading value (ASV) were detected after irradiation, but the peak time (PKT) were reduced with the dose level. Gel consistency (GC) were significantly increased in the tested cultivars, especially in the high AAC Indica rice, suggesting that it is promising to use gamma irradiation to improve eating and cooking quality of rice

  18. the suitability of lime rice husk ash cement as construction material

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NIJOTECH

    Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Enugu, Nigeria. ... It was therefore concluded that high percentage contents of silica, ... the Lime Rice Husk Ash cement when used as a construction material would depend ... thermal treatment of the silica in the husk .... test specimen in their moulds were stored in a.

  19. Rice MYC2 (OsMYC2) modulates light-dependent seedling ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mrunmay Kumar Giri

    2017-08-03

    Aug 3, 2017 ... 1School of life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110 067, India. 2Department of ... MYC2 orthologues from several crop plants have been characterized. The rice .... AtMYC2 over-expression and mutants were described by us ... The seeds were screened on MS media plates supplemented.

  20. RiceAtlas, a spatial database of global rice calendars and production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laborte, Alice G.; Gutierrez, Mary Anne; Balanza, Jane Girly; Saito, Kazuki; Zwart, Sander; Boschetti, Mirco; Murty, M. V.R.; Villano, Lorena; Aunario, Jorrel Khalil; Reinke, Russell; Koo, Jawoo; Hijmans, Robert J.; Nelson, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Knowing where, when, and how much rice is planted and harvested is crucial information for understanding the effects of policy, trade, and global and technological change on food security. We developed RiceAtlas, a spatial database on the seasonal distribution of the world's rice production. It

  1. DETERMINATION OF SPATIAL INTEGRATION AND SUBSTITUTION OF FOREIGN RICE FOR LOCAL RICE IN GHANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Kofi ADOM

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study tested for spatial integration in the rice market and the substitution of imported rice for local rice in Ghana. It is established that the markets for domestic imported rice are well-integrated, but not complete. The imperfect spatial integration of domestic foreign rice markets implies that the market provides opportunities for arbitrage. Price leadership roles are found to be determined by the kind of sub-inter-regional-trade network defined. However, in all, the Accra market emerged as a dominant market leader in the domestic foreign rice market. There is evidence of significant regional substitution of foreign rice for local rice in the long run, but the result is mixed in the short run. The result that local rice is not a perfect substitute for imported rice implies that price disincentive measures such as increasing the import tariffs on foreign rice will only produce a mild effect on increasing the producer price faced by local rice farmers, but aggravate the burden on households’ budget.

  2. Soil to rice transfer factors for 210Pb: a study on rice grown in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karunakara, N.; Rao, Chetan; Ujwal, P.; Yashodhara, I.; Sudeep Kumara; Somashekarappa, H.M.; Bhaskara Shenoy, K.; Ravi, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    India is the second largest producer of rice (Oryza sativa L.) in the world and rice is the essential component of the diet for the majority of the population of India. However, detailed studies aimed at evaluation of radionuclide transfer factors (F v ) for rice grown in India are almost non-existent. This paper presents soil to rice transfer factors for 210 Pb for rice grown in natural field conditions on the West Coast of India. A rice field was developed very close to the Kaiga nuclear power plant for the field studies. For a comparative study of radionuclide transfer factors, rice samples were also collected from the rice fields of nearby villages. The soil to un-hulled rice grain 210 Pb varied in the range <1.2 x10 -2 to 8.1 x 10 -1 with a mean of 1.4 x 10 -1 . The mean values of un-hulled grain to white rice processing retention factors (F r ) was 0.03 for 210 Pb. Using the processing retention factors the soil to white rice transfer factor was estimated and found to have the mean value of 4.2 x 10 -3 . The study has shown that the transfer of 210 Pb was retained in the root and its transfer to above ground organs of rice plant is significantly lower. (author)

  3. An Economic Risk Analysis of Weed Suppressive Rice Cultivars in Rice Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeds are a major constraint to rice production. In the United States, most rice cultivars are not inherently weed-suppressive and require substantial herbicide inputs to achieve agronomic and economic viability. Intensive herbicide application in rice also has many potential drawbacks, resulting in...

  4. Salinity alters the protein composition of rice endosperm and the physicochemical properties of rice flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Graeme; Zhao, Jian; Blanchard, Christopher

    2011-09-01

    Salinity is one of the major threats to production of rice and other agricultural crops worldwide. Although numerous studies have shown that salinity can severely reduce rice yield, little is known about its impact on the chemical composition, processing and sensory characteristics of rice. The objective of the current study was to investigate the effect of salinity on the pasting and textural properties of rice flour as well as on the protein content and composition of rice endosperm. Rice grown under saline conditions had significantly lower yields but substantially higher protein content. The increase in protein content was mainly attributed to increases in the amount of glutelin, with lesser contributions from albumin. Salinity also altered the relative proportions of the individual peptides within the glutelin fraction. Flours obtained from rice grown under saline conditions showed significantly higher pasting temperatures, but lower peak and breakdown viscosities. Rice gels prepared from the flour showed significantly higher hardness and adhesiveness values, compared to the freshwater controls. Salinity can significantly affect the pasting and textural characteristics of rice flour. Although some of the effects could be attributed to changes in protein content of the rice flour, especially the increased glutelin level, the impact of salinity on the physicochemical properties of rice is rather complex and may involve the interrelated effects of other rice components such as starch and lipids. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Medicinal and nutritional importance of rice bran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, R.; Salim, M.; Rauf, R.; Baloach, M.K.

    2005-01-01

    Rice-bran is produced from the outer layer of brown rice and is stabilized through steam-heating. The rice-bran and its products are safe for human and animal consumption. The microbiological safety and rigorous quality-control practices merits its use as nutritional and dietary supplement for overall health-maintenance and as a part of a healthy diet and life-style, as it contributes to the reduction of certain diseases and health-related conditions. Stabilized rice-barn contain 15% of high nutritional- value protein, 20% of high-quality fat with Omega-3 and Omega-6 fatty acids, and nutritional dietary fiber. In addition to several phytonutrients, rice-bran contains vitamins and minerals, while over 100 potent antioxidants have been identified to date. Several scientific papers have reported the analysis and bioavailibility of rice-bran nutrients. Various chemical studies demonstrated the biological effects of the nutrients found in rice-bran. So far, more than 250 scientific publications are available on rice-bran, establishing the striking medicinal properties of rice-bran products. The oil-fraction of rice-bran has concentrated all tire fat-soluble phytonutrient in it, making itself an excellent health-promoting edible oil, as well as message oil The fiber-fraction of rice-bran has a profound effect on the gastrointestinal health, and improves bowel function. Rice-bran fiber along with phytonutrients was found to reduce cholesterol and lipid levels and maintain cardiovascular function. It has beneficial effect on tire kidney and urinary tract health and is helpful in weight-management and fiber replacement diets. (author)

  6. Rice breeding with induced mutations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1968-06-01

    The Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture decided in 1964 to organize a co-ordinated research programme on the use of induced mutations in rice breeding. The programme was organized within the framework of activities of the International Rice Commission. This is a report of the Third Co-ordination Meeting of the participants, which was held in Taipei, 5-9 June 1967. As the projects, which together make up the co-ordinated programme, are at different stages of progress, the report contains a variety of papers including completed studies, field and progress reports, and highlights of the discussions with some additional recommendations prepared by the participants. Refs, figs and tabs.

  7. Bioethanol production from rice straw residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsayed B. Belal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A rice straw -cellulose utilizing mold was isolated from rotted rice straw residues. The efficient rice straw degrading microorganism was identified as Trichoderma reesei. The results showed that different carbon sources in liquid culture such as rice straw, carboxymethyl cellulose, filter paper, sugar cane bagasse, cotton stalk and banana stalk induced T. reesei cellulase production whereas glucose or Potato Dextrose repressed the synthesis of cellulase. T. reesei cellulase was produced by the solid state culture on rice straw medium. The optimal pH and temperature for T. reesei cellulase production were 6 and 25 ºC, respectively. Rice straw exhibited different susceptibilities towards cellulase to their conversion to reducing sugars. The present study showed also that, the general trend of rice straw bioconversion with cellulase was more than the general trend by T. reesei. This enzyme effectively led to enzymatic conversion of acid, alkali and ultrasonic pretreated cellulose from rice straw into glucose, followed by fermentation into ethanol. The combined method of acid pretreatment with ultrasound and subsequent enzyme treatment resulted the highest conversion of lignocellulose in rice straw to sugar and consequently, highest ethanol concentration after 7 days fermentation with S. cerevisae yeast. The ethanol yield in this study was about 10 and 11 g.L-1.

  8. Response Of Lowland Rice To Soil Compaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idawati; Haryanto

    2000-01-01

    Soil compaction, as a new tillage practice for paddy soil, is to substitute pudding in order to reduce land preparation cost. To study response of lowland rice to soil compaction, a pot experiment has been conducted which took place in the greenhouse of P3TIR-BATAN. Soil for experiment was taken from pusakanegara. Two factors (degree of soil compaction and rice variety) were combined. Degree of compaction was split into 3 levels (DI = normal; D215% more compact than normal; 30 % more compact than normal), and rice variety into 2 levels (IR64 and Atomita IV). KH 2 32 PO 4 solution was injected into the soil surrounding rice clump to test the root activity at blooming stage of rice plant. Data resulted from this experiment is presented together with additional data from some other experiments of fertilization in the research s erie to study soil compaction. Some information's from experiment results are as following. Both rice varieties tested gave the same response to soil compaction. Root activity, according to data of 32 P absorbed by plant, was not harmed by soil compaction at the degree tested in the experiment. This prediction is supported by the growth by rice observed at generative growth stage, in pot experiment as well as in field experiment, which showed that soil compaction tested did not decrease rice yield but in opposite in tended to increase the yield. In practising soil compaction in land preparation, fertilizers should be applied by deep placement to have higher increasing is rice yield

  9. Compressive Load Resistance Characteristics of Rice Grain

    OpenAIRE

    Sumpun Chaitep; Chaiy R. Metha Pathawee; Pipatpong Watanawanyoo

    2008-01-01

    Investigation was made to observe the compressive load property of rice gain both rough rice and brown grain. Six rice varieties (indica and japonica) were examined with the moisture content at 10-12%. A compressive load with reference to a principal axis normal to the thickness of the grain were conducted at selected inclined angles of 0°, 15°, 30°, 45°, 60° and 70°. The result showed the compressive load resistance of rice grain based on its characteristic of yield s...

  10. Unravelling trophic subsidies of agroecosystems for biodiversity conservation: Food consumption and nutrient recycling by waterbirds in Mediterranean rice fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navedo, Juan G.; Hahn, Steffen; Parejo, Manuel; Abad-Gómez, José M.; Gutiérrez, Jorge S.; Villegas, Auxiliadora; Sánchez-Guzmán, Juan M.; Masero, José A.

    2015-01-01

    Waterbirds can reallocate a considerable amount of nutrients within agricultural fields and between agriculture sites and wetlands. However their effects on biogeochemical cycles have rarely been quantified. We estimated bird numbers, diet (from stable isotope analysis), food supply, and the food consumption on rice fields by overwintering waterbirds in one of the most important areas for rice production in southwestern Europe and a key area for various migrating and resident waterbird species. Herein, we modelled the nutrient (N and P) recycling in rice fields, and their transport to reservoirs. The energy consumption by waterbirds (96,605 ± 18,311 individuals) on rice fields during winter averaged at 89.9 ± 39.0 kJ·m −2 , with its majority (89.9%) belonging to foraging on rice seeds. Thus, the birds removed about 26% of rice seeds leftover after harvest (estimated in 932.5 ± 504.7 seeds·m −2 in early winter) wherein common cranes and dabbling ducks (four species) were the most important consumers. Waterbirds foraging and roosting in the rice fields recycled more than 24.1 (1.0 kg·ha −1 ) of N and an additional 5.0 tons (0.2 kg·ha −1 ) of P in the Extremadura's rice fields during winter. Additionally, we estimated that 2.3 tons of N and 550 kg of P were removed from rice fields and transported to reservoirs. The seasonal foraging of wildlife should result in a direct benefit for rice farmers by improving nutrient recycling through defecation by waterbirds with respect to artificial fertilisation. Additionally, rice fields located in the cranes' core wintering areas can provide sufficient food supply to induce habitat shift from their traditional wintering habitat in ‘dehesas’ to rice fields, which causes indirect socioeconomic benefit through reduced acorn consumption by cranes. Our modelling approach may thus be especially helpful for management decisions regarding rice agroecosystems in areas which are also important for the

  11. Unravelling trophic subsidies of agroecosystems for biodiversity conservation: Food consumption and nutrient recycling by waterbirds in Mediterranean rice fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navedo, Juan G., E-mail: jgnavedo@uach.cl [Instituto de Ciencias Marinas y Limnológicas, Universidad Austral de Chile, Facultad de Ciencias, Campus Isla Teja, 5090000 Valdivia (Chile); Conservation Biology Research Group, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. Elvas s/n, 06002 Badajoz (Spain); Hahn, Steffen [Department Bird Migration, Swiss Ornithological Institute, Seerose 1, 6204 Sempach (Switzerland); Parejo, Manuel; Abad-Gómez, José M. [Conservation Biology Research Group, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. Elvas s/n, 06002 Badajoz (Spain); Gutiérrez, Jorge S. [Conservation Biology Research Group, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. Elvas s/n, 06002 Badajoz (Spain); Department of Marine Ecology, Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ), PO Box 59, 1790 AB Den Burg, Texel (Netherlands); Villegas, Auxiliadora; Sánchez-Guzmán, Juan M.; Masero, José A. [Conservation Biology Research Group, Universidad de Extremadura, Avda. Elvas s/n, 06002 Badajoz (Spain)

    2015-04-01

    Waterbirds can reallocate a considerable amount of nutrients within agricultural fields and between agriculture sites and wetlands. However their effects on biogeochemical cycles have rarely been quantified. We estimated bird numbers, diet (from stable isotope analysis), food supply, and the food consumption on rice fields by overwintering waterbirds in one of the most important areas for rice production in southwestern Europe and a key area for various migrating and resident waterbird species. Herein, we modelled the nutrient (N and P) recycling in rice fields, and their transport to reservoirs. The energy consumption by waterbirds (96,605 ± 18,311 individuals) on rice fields during winter averaged at 89.9 ± 39.0 kJ·m{sup −2}, with its majority (89.9%) belonging to foraging on rice seeds. Thus, the birds removed about 26% of rice seeds leftover after harvest (estimated in 932.5 ± 504.7 seeds·m{sup −2} in early winter) wherein common cranes and dabbling ducks (four species) were the most important consumers. Waterbirds foraging and roosting in the rice fields recycled more than 24.1 (1.0 kg·ha{sup −1}) of N and an additional 5.0 tons (0.2 kg·ha{sup −1}) of P in the Extremadura's rice fields during winter. Additionally, we estimated that 2.3 tons of N and 550 kg of P were removed from rice fields and transported to reservoirs. The seasonal foraging of wildlife should result in a direct benefit for rice farmers by improving nutrient recycling through defecation by waterbirds with respect to artificial fertilisation. Additionally, rice fields located in the cranes' core wintering areas can provide sufficient food supply to induce habitat shift from their traditional wintering habitat in ‘dehesas’ to rice fields, which causes indirect socioeconomic benefit through reduced acorn consumption by cranes. Our modelling approach may thus be especially helpful for management decisions regarding rice agroecosystems in areas which are also important

  12. Varietal improvement of irrigated rice under minimal water conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Rahim Harun; Marziah Mahmood; Sobri Hussein

    2010-01-01

    Varietal improvement of irrigated rice under minimal water condition is a research project under Program Research of Sustainable Production of High Yielding Irrigated Rice under Minimal Water Input (IRPA- 01-01-03-0000/ PR0068/ 0504). Several agencies were involved in this project such as Malaysian Nuclear Agency (MNA), Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI), Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) and Ministry of Agriculture (MOA). The project started in early 2004 with approved IRPA fund of RM 275,000.00 for 3 years. The main objective of the project is to generate superior genotypes for minimal water requirement through induced mutation techniques. A cultivated rice Oryza sativa cv MR219 treated with gamma radiation at 300 and 400 Gray were used in the experiment. Two hundred gm M2 seeds from each dose were screened under minimal water stress in greenhouse at Mardi Seberang Perai. Five hundred panicles with good filled grains were selected for paddy field screening with simulate precise water stress regime. Thirty eight potential lines with required adaptive traits were selected in M3. After several series of selection, 12 promising mutant line were observed tolerance to minimal water stress where two promising mutant lines designated as MR219-4 and MR219-9 were selected for further testing under several stress environments. (author)

  13. Elemental composition of Malawian rice.

    OpenAIRE

    Joy, EJM; Louise Ander, E; Broadley, MR; Young, SD; Chilimba, AD; Hamilton, EM; Watts, MJ

    2016-01-01

    Widespread potential dietary deficiencies of calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), iodine (I), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) have been identified in Malawi. Several deficiencies are likely to be compounded by high phytic acid (PA) consumption. Rice (Oryza sativa) is commonly consumed in some Malawian populations, and its mineral micronutrient content is important for food security. The considerable irrigation requirements and flooded conditions of paddy soils can also introduce or mobilise potentially toxic...

  14. Gamma irradiation of rice grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, M.K.; Ghosh, S.K.; Chatterjee, S.R.

    1991-01-01

    Rice grains of the variety, Pusa-33, at 12.0% moisture, were irradiated with doses of 0-150 kGy. The crystallinity of starch, soluble amylose and yellowness of treated grains increased with increment in the dose of radiation but water absorption and volume expansion on cooling decreased. irradiation at doses of 3-5 kGy increased imperceptibly the hardening of rice cooled after cooking, but had no effect on edibility. The off-aroma in irradiated grains was perceptible at doses higher than 5 kGy. The changes in colour and aroma persisted also on cooking. Upto a dose of 5 kGy, the sensory scores of rice, both cooked and uncooked, were at or above acceptable limit of score (5,5). The doses of 3 and 5 kGy were highly effective in reducing fungal population in irradiated grains, but in view of the changes in colour and cooking qualities, 3 kGy is the preferred dose-limit of irradiation. (author). 17 refs., 5 tabs., 1 fig

  15. Proteomics of Rice Seed Germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongli eHe

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Seed is a condensed form of plant. Under suitable environmental conditions, it can resume the metabolic activity from physiological quiescent status, and mobilize the reserves, biosynthesize new proteins, regenerate organelles and cell membrane, eventually protrude the radicle and enter into seedling establishment. So far, how these activities are regulated in a coordinated and sequential manner is largely unknown. With the availability of more and more genome sequence information and the development of mass spectrometry (MS technology, proteomics has been widely applied in analyzing the mechanisms of different biological processes, and proved to be very powerful. Regulation of rice seed germination is critical for rice cultivation. In recent years, a lot of proteomic studies have been conducted in exploring the gene expression regulation, reserves mobilization and metabolisms reactivation, which brings us new insights on the mechanisms of metabolism regulation during this process. Nevertheless, it also invokes a lot of questions. In this mini-review, we summarized the progress in the proteomic studies of rice seed germination. The current challenges and future perspectives were also discussed, which might be helpful for the following studies.

  16. Clustering of 18 Local Black Rice Base on Total Anthocyanin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristamtini Kristamtini

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Black rice has a high anthocyanin content in the pericarp layer, which provides a dark purple color. Anthocyanin serve as an antioxidant that control cholesterol level in the blood, prevent anemia, potentially improve the body's resistance to disease, improve damage to liver cells (hepatitis and chirrosis, prevent impaired kidney function, prevent cancer/tumors, slows down antiaging, and prevent atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Exploration results at AIAT Yogyakarta, Indonesia from 2011 to 2014 obtained 18 cultivar of local black rice Indonesia. The names of the rice are related to the color (black, red or purple formed by anthocyanin deposits in the pericarp layer, seed coat or aleuron. The objective of the study was to classify several types of local black rice from explorations based on the total anthocyanin content. The study was conducted by clustering analyzing the total anthocyanin content of 18 local black rice cultivars in Indonesia. Cluster analysis of total anthocyanin content were done using SAS ver. 9.2. Clustering dendogram shows that there were 4 groups of black rice cultivars based on the total anthocyanin content. Group I consists of Melik black rice, Patalan black rice, Yunianto black rice, Muharjo black rice, Ngatijo black rice, short life of Tugiyo black rice, Andel hitam 1, Jlitheng, and Sragen black rice. Group II consists of Pari ireng, Magelang black hairy rice, Banjarnegara-Wonosobo black rice, and Banjarnegara black rice. Group III consists of NTT black rice, Magelang non hairy black rice, Sembada hitam, and longevity Tugiyo black rice. Group IV consist only one type of black rice namely Cempo ireng. The grouping result indicate the existence of duplicate names among the black rice namely Patalan with Yunianto black rice, and short life Tugiyo with Andel hitam 1 black rice.

  17. Genomic evolution of Saccharomyces cerevisiae under Chinese rice wine fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yudong; Zhang, Weiping; Zheng, Daoqiong; Zhou, Zhan; Yu, Wenwen; Zhang, Lei; Feng, Lifang; Liang, Xinle; Guan, Wenjun; Zhou, Jingwen; Chen, Jian; Lin, Zhenguo

    2014-09-10

    Rice wine fermentation represents a unique environment for the evolution of the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To understand how the selection pressure shaped the yeast genome and gene regulation, we determined the genome sequence and transcriptome of a S. cerevisiae strain YHJ7 isolated from Chinese rice wine (Huangjiu), a popular traditional alcoholic beverage in China. By comparing the genome of YHJ7 to the lab strain S288c, a Japanese sake strain K7, and a Chinese industrial bioethanol strain YJSH1, we identified many genomic sequence and structural variations in YHJ7, which are mainly located in subtelomeric regions, suggesting that these regions play an important role in genomic evolution between strains. In addition, our comparative transcriptome analysis between YHJ7 and S288c revealed a set of differentially expressed genes, including those involved in glucose transport (e.g., HXT2, HXT7) and oxidoredutase activity (e.g., AAD10, ADH7). Interestingly, many of these genomic and transcriptional variations are directly or indirectly associated with the adaptation of YHJ7 strain to its specific niches. Our molecular evolution analysis suggested that Japanese sake strains (K7/UC5) were derived from Chinese rice wine strains (YHJ7) at least approximately 2,300 years ago, providing the first molecular evidence elucidating the origin of Japanese sake strains. Our results depict interesting insights regarding the evolution of yeast during rice wine fermentation, and provided a valuable resource for genetic engineering to improve industrial wine-making strains. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  18. Leaf development of cultivated rice and weedy red rice under elevated temperature scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Streck,Nereu A.; Uhlmann,Lilian O.; Gabriel,Luana F.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to simulate leaf development of cultivated rice genotypes and weedy red rice biotypes in climate change scenarios at Santa Maria, RS, Brazil. A leaf appearance (LAR) model adapted for rice was used to simulate the accumulated leaf number, represented by the Haun Stage, from crop emergence to flag leaf appearance (EM-FL). Three cultivated rice genotypes and two weedy red rice biotypes in six emergence dates were used. The LAR model was run for each emergence dat...

  19. Effect of increased plant density and fertilizer dose on the yield of rice variety IR-6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, M.; Khan, M.A.; Khan, E.A.; Ramazan, M.

    2004-01-01

    An experiment to evaluate the effect of increased plant density and fertilizer dose on yield of rice variety IR-6 was conducted at the farm of Faculty of Agriculture, Gomal University Dera Ismail Khan. Increase plant density significantly increase number of panicles per square meter, sterility and straw yield while increased fertilizer dose of NPK increase plant height, sterility, normal kernels, and 1000 grain weight. Interaction of increased plant density and fertilizer dose was found to be non significant except sterility percentage and straw yield. However efforts are required for increasing yield per unit area of rice. (author)

  20. Productivity, Profitability and Resource Use Efficiency: A Comparative Analysis between Conventional and High Yielding Rice in Rajbari District, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Yahia Bapari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was analyzed the determinants, costs and benefits and resources allocation of both conventional and high yielding rice cultivation over the Rajbari district of Bangladesh. Data were accumulated from 300 regular rice growers of conventional and high yielding varieties and random sampling technique was applied for selecting the respondents from the study area from which information was collected through pre-tested questionnaire. Cobb – Douglas production function and gross margin were mainly used to determine the productivities and profits of both rice and the marginal value of the product was highly recommended to derive the optimal use of the resources. Results obtained by applying ordinary least square method showed that the most important factors of production in the study area were irrigation, labor, fertilizer and insecticide costs whose elasticities were 0.904, 0.048, 0.045 and 0.044 respectively and insignificant factors were seed and ploughing costs whose elasticities were – 0.009 and 0.030 respectively for high yielding rice. On the other hand, irrigation, insecticide, seed and ploughing costs of elasticities 0.880, 0.589, 0.116 and – 0.127 respectively were the important factors and minor role playing factors were labor and fertilizer costs whose elasticities were 0.098 and 0.077 respectively for conventional yielding rice. The core message from productivity analysis was that the irrigation was key variable which played a positive and vital role in producing rice of both varieties. All variables (resources were economically misallocated in the production activities of both varieties along the study area but high yielding rice was more profitable than conventional one. Results also showed that the farmers of the study area produced rice of both varieties in the inefficient range of production. Continuous supply of electricity, flexible credit and improving the existing resources were the prime policy recommendations of

  1. Micronutrient-fortified rice can increase hookworm infection risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Gier, Brechje; Campos Ponce, Maiza; Perignon, Marlene

    2016-01-01

    or inflammation after iron supplementation. OBJECTIVE: To study effects of micronutrient-fortified rice on hookworm infection in Cambodian schoolchildren. METHODS: A double-blinded, cluster-randomized trial was conducted in 16 Cambodian primary schools partaking in the World Food Program school meal program....... Three types of multi-micronutrient fortified rice were tested against placebo rice within the school meal program: UltraRice_original, UltraRice_improved and NutriRice. Four schools were randomly assigned to each study group (placebo n = 492, UltraRice_original n = 479, UltraRice_improved n = 500, NutriRice.......6%, but differed considerably among schools (range 0%- 48.1%).Micronutrient-fortified rice significantly increased risk of new hookworm infection. This effect was modified by baseline hookworm prevalence at the school; hookworm infection risk was increased by all three types of fortified rice in schools where...

  2. Nutrient management for rice production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.R.; Chandra, D.; Nanda, P.; Singh, S.S.; Singh, S.R.; Ghorai, A.K.

    2002-06-01

    The nutrient removed by the crops far exceeds the amounts replenished through fertilizer, causing a much greater strain on the native soil reserves. The situation is further aggravated in countries like India, where sub-optimal fertilizer used by the farmers is a common phenomenon rather than an exception. The total consumption of nutrients of all crops in India, even though reached 15 million tons in 1997, remains much below the estimated nutrient removal of 25 million tons (Swarup and Goneshamurthy, 1998). The gap between nutrient removal supplied through fertilizer has widened further in 2000 to 34 million tons of plant nutrients from the soil against an estimated fertilizer availability of 18 million tons (Singh and Dwivedi, 1996). Nitrogen is the nutrient which limits the most the rice production worldwide. In Asia, where more than 90 percent of the world's rice is produced, about 60 percent of the N fertilizer consumed is used on rice (Stangel and De Dutta, 1985). Conjunctive use of organic material along with fertilizer has been proved an efficient source of nitrogen. Organic residue recycling is becoming an increasingly important aspect of environmentally sound sustainable agriculture. Returning residues like green manure to the soil is necessary for maintaining soil organic matter, which is important for favourable soil structure, soil water retention and soil microbial flora and fauna activities. Use of organic manures in conjunction or as an alternative to chemical fertilizer is receiving attention. Green manure, addition to some extent, helps not only in enhancing the yield but also in improving the physical and chemical nature of soils. The excessive application of chemical fertilizers made it imperative that a part of inorganic fertilizer may be substituted with the recycling of organic wastes. Organic manure has been recorded to enhance the efficiency and reduce the requirement of chemical fertilizers. Partial nitrogen substitution through organic

  3. Benthic macroinvertebrates in Italian rice fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Lupi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Rice fields can be considered man-managed temporary wetlands. Five rice fields handled with different management strategies, their adjacent channels, and a spring were analysed by their benthic macroinvertebrate community to i evaluate the role of rice agroe- cosystem in biodiversity conservation; ii find indicator species which can be used to compare the ecological status of natural wetlands with rice agroecosystems; and iii find the influence of environmental variables on biodiversity. Different methods of data analysis with increasing degree of complexity – from diversity index up to sophisticated multivariate analysis – were used. The investigation provided a picture of benthic macroinvertebrates inhabiting rice agroecosystems where 173 taxa were identified, 89 of which detected in rice paddies. Among them, 4 phyla (Mollusca, Annelida, Nematomorpha, and Arthropoda, 8 classes (Bivalvia, Gastropoda, Oligochaeta, Hirudinea, Gordioida, Insecta, Branchiopoda, and Malacostraca, 24 orders, 68 families, 127 genera and 159 species have been found. Ten threatened and 3 invasive species were detected in the habitats examined. The information obtained by the different methods of data analysis allowed a more comprehensive view on the value of the components of rice agroecosystems. Data analyses highlighted significant differences between habitats (feeding channel and rice field, with higher diversity observed in channels, and emphasised the role of the water chemical-physical parameters. The period of water permanence in rice fields resulted to be only one of the factors influencing the community of benthic macroinvertebrates. The presence of rare/endangered species allowed characterising some stations, but it was less informative about management strategies in rice paddies because most of these species were absent in rice fields.

  4. Arsenic accumulation in rice: Consequences of rice genotypes and management practices to reduce human health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Shofiqul; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Islam, M R; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-11-01

    Rice is an essential staple food and feeds over half of the world's population. Consumption of rice has increased from limited intake in Western countries some 50years ago to major dietary intake now. Rice consumption represents a major route for inorganic arsenic (As) exposure in many countries, especially for people with a large proportion of rice in their daily diet as much as 60%. Rice plants are more efficient in assimilating As into its grains than other cereal crops and the accumulation may also adversely affect the quality of rice and their nutrition. Rice is generally grown as a lowland crop in flooded soils under reducing conditions. Under these conditions the bioavailability of As is greatly enhanced leading to excessive As bioaccumulation compared to that under oxidizing upland conditions. Inorganic As species are carcinogenic to humans and even at low levels in the diet pose a considerable risk to humans. There is a substantial genetic variation among the rice genotypes in grain-As accumulation as well as speciation. Identifying the extent of genetic variation in grain-As concentration and speciation of As compounds are crucial to determining the rice varieties which accumulate low inorganic As. Varietal selection, irrigation water management, use of fertilizer and soil amendments, cooking practices etc. play a vital role in reducing As exposure from rice grains. In the meantime assessing the bioavailability of As from rice is crucial to understanding human health exposure and reducing the risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. An overview of the sustainability of rice agroecosystem through rice-fish integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahyaudin Ali

    2002-01-01

    Rice-fish integration in the rice agroecosystem has been introduced and is expanding in Malaysia. This type of farm integration has resulted in land optimization, thus enabling farmers to grow both fish and rice in one farming system. Introducing fish into the ricefield has also increased seasonal income as well as reduced pesticide use. Although basic ecological knowledge on rice-fish integration has allowed rice-fish integration to be introduced, further research is required to allow for fine tuning of the methodologies used. Thus research on the ecology, management, production methods and the characterization of rice-fish farming system of Malaysia is needed. Further characterization and description is needed on the ecology of the rice-fish farming system of Malaysia in terms of production, food webs, nutrient flow and system diversity. To increase the sustainability efficiency and productivity of the system, implementation of management techniques formulated through research is required. (Author)

  6. Residues and accumulation of molinate in rice crops and aquatic weeds in the MUDA rice agroecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nashriyah Mat; Sabri Junoh; Nuriati Nurdin; Ramli Ishak

    2002-01-01

    Plant and soil residue levels and its accumulation in rice crops and rice aquatic weed plants were studied. Molinate residue levels in rice, weeds and soil were not significantly different between the recycled and the non-recycled area, even though they were higher in the non-recycled area. In the rice plant, the residue level at 10 DAT (days after treatment) was significantly higher than 30 DAT in the recycled area. In rice aquatic weed plants, the residue level was significantly higher at 10 DAT as compared to 30 DAT in the non-recycled area. Molinate residue levels in soil at 10 DAT and 30 DAT were similar. Molinate accumulated (ratio of molinate concentration in plant over soil) more in the rice crop as compared to rice aquatic weeds at 10 DAT, in both the recycled and the non-recycled areas. (Author)

  7. Understanding University Technology Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of American Universities, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Federal government agencies provide about $33 billion a year to universities to conduct scientific research. That continuing investment expands human knowledge and helps educate the next generation of science and technology leaders. New discoveries from university research also form the basis for many new products and processes that benefit the…

  8. Methylmercury Exposure and Health Effects from Rice and Fish Consumption: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Li

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Methylmercury (MeHg is highly toxic, and its principal target tissue in humans is the nervous system, which has made MeHg intoxication a public health concern for many decades. The general population is primarily exposed to MeHg through consumption of contaminated fish and marine mammals, but recent studies have reported high levels of MeHg in rice and confirmed that in China the main human exposure to MeHg is related to frequent rice consumption in mercury (Hg polluted areas. This article reviews the progress in the research on MeHg accumulation in rice, human exposure and health effects, and nutrient and co-contaminant interactions. Compared with fish, rice is of poor nutritional quality and lacks specific micronutrients identified as having health benefits (e.g., n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid, selenium, essential amino acids. The effects of these nutrients on the toxicity of MeHg should be better addressed in future epidemiologic and clinical studies. More emphasis should be given to assessing the health effects of low level MeHg exposure in the long term, with appropriate recommendations, as needed, to reduce MeHg exposure in the rice-eating population.

  9. Significance, progress and prospects for research in simplified cultivation technologies for rice in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, M; Ibrahim, Md; Xia, B; Zou, Y

    2011-08-01

    Simplified cultivation technologies for rice have become increasingly attractive in recent years in China because of their social, economical and environmental benefits. To date, several simplified cultivation technologies, such as conventional tillage and seedling throwing (CTST), conventional tillage and direct seeding (CTDS), no-tillage and seedling throwing (NTST), no-tillage and direct seeding (NTDS) and no-tillage and transplanting (NTTP), have been developed in China. Most studies have shown that rice grown under each of these simplified cultivation technologies can produce a grain yield equal to or higher than traditional cultivation (conventional tillage and transplanting). Studies that have described the influences of agronomic practices on yield formation of rice under simplified cultivation have demonstrated that optimizing agronomy practices would increase the efficiencies of simplified cultivation systems. Further research is needed to optimize the management strategies for CTST, CTDS and NTST rice which have developed quickly in recent years, to strengthen basic research for those simplified cultivation technologies that are rarely used at present (such as NTTP and NTDS), to select and breed cultivars suitable for simplified cultivation and to compare the practicability and effectiveness of different simplified cultivation technologies in different rice production regions.

  10. Boron Application Improves Growth, Yield and Net Economic Return of Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mubshar HUSSAIN

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A field trial was conducted to evaluate the role of boron (B application at different growth stages in improving the growth, yield and net economic return of rice at farmer's fields during summer season, 2009. Boron was soil applied (1.5 kg/hm2 at the transplanting, tillering, flowering and grain formation stages of rice; foliar applied (1.5% B solution at the tillering, flowering and grain formation stages of rice, and dipped seedling roots in 1.5% B solution before transplanting; while control plots did not apply any B. Boron application (except dipping of seedling roots in B solution, which caused toxicity and reduced the number of tillers and straw yield than control substantially improved the rice growth and yield. However, soil application was better in improving the number of grains per panicle, 1000-grain weight, grain yield, harvest index, net economic income and ratio of benefit to cost compared with the rest of treatments. Overall, for improving rice performance and maximizing the net economic returns, B might be applied as soil application at flowering.

  11. Economic assessment of different mulches in conventional and water-saving rice production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabran, Khawar; Hussain, Mubshar; Fahad, Shah; Farooq, Muhammad; Bajwa, Ali Ahsan; Alharrby, Hesham; Nasim, Wajid

    2016-05-01

    Water-saving rice production systems including alternate wetting and drying (AWD) and aerobic rice (AR) are being increasingly adopted by growers due to global water crises. Application of natural and artificial mulches may further improve water economy of water-saving rice production systems. Conventionally flooded rice (CFR) system has been rarely compared with AWD and AR in terms of economic returns. In this 2-year field study, we compared CFR with AWD and AR (with and without straw and plastic mulches) for the cost of production and economic benefits. Results indicated that CFR had a higher production cost than AWD and AR. However, application of mulches increased the cost of production of AWD and AR production systems where plastic mulch was expensive than straw mulch. Although the mulching increased the cost of production for AWD and AR, the gross income of these systems was also improved significantly. The gross income from mulched plots of AWD and AR was higher than non-mulched plots of the same systems. In conclusion, AWD and AR effectively reduce cost of production by economizing the water use. However, the use of natural and artificial mulches in such water-saving environments further increased the economic returns. The maximized economic returns by using straw mulch in water-saving rice production systems definitely have pragmatic implications for sustainable agriculture.

  12. Tailoring rice flour structure by rubbery milling for improved gluten-free baked goods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brütsch, Linda; Tribolet, Liliane; Isabettini, Stéphane; Soltermann, Patrick; Baumann, Andreas; Windhab, Erich J

    2018-05-10

    Ever-growing demand for gluten-free products calls for the development of novel food processing techniques to widen the range of existing baked goods. Extensive research has been targeted towards recipe optimization, widely neglecting the tailoring potential of process-induced structuring of gluten-free raw materials. Herein, we address this shortcoming by demonstrating the potential of rubbery milling for the generation of structure and techno-functionality in breads obtained from a variety of rice flour types. Moisture and temperature induced state transitions during milling were exploited to tailor the physicochemical properties of the flour. Moisture addition during conditioning of the different rice varieties and milling in the rubbery state considerably decreased starch damage due to more gentle disintegration. The degree of starch damage dictated the water absorption capacity of the rice flour types. Flour types with reduced starch damage upon milling offered lower dough densities, yielding bread loafs with a higher volume and better appearance. The choice of rice variety enables fine-tuning of the final product quality by influencing the dough viscoelasticity, which defines the final loaf volume. Whole grain rice flour dramatically increased the loaf volume, whilst simultaneously offering nutritional benefits. Combining the proposed functionalised flour types with current and future advances in product recipes paves the way towards optimised gluten-free goods.

  13. Australian wild rice reveals pre-domestication origin of polymorphism deserts in rice genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopala Krishnan S

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rice is a major source of human food with a predominantly Asian production base. Domestication involved selection of traits that are desirable for agriculture and to human consumers. Wild relatives of crop plants are a source of useful variation which is of immense value for crop improvement. Australian wild rices have been isolated from the impacts of domestication in Asia and represents a source of novel diversity for global rice improvement. Oryza rufipogon is a perennial wild progenitor of cultivated rice. Oryza meridionalis is a related annual species in Australia. RESULTS: We have examined the sequence of the genomes of AA genome wild rices from Australia that are close relatives of cultivated rice through whole genome re-sequencing. Assembly of the resequencing data to the O. sativa ssp. japonica cv. Nipponbare shows that Australian wild rices possess 2.5 times more single nucleotide polymorphisms than in the Asian wild rice and cultivated O. sativa ssp. indica. Analysis of the genome of domesticated rice reveals regions of low diversity that show very little variation (polymorphism deserts. Both the perennial and annual wild rice from Australia show a high degree of conservation of sequence with that found in cultivated rice in the same 4.58 Mbp region on chromosome 5, which suggests that some of the 'polymorphism deserts' in this and other parts of the rice genome may have originated prior to domestication due to natural selection. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of genes in the 'polymorphism deserts' indicates that this selection may have been due to biotic or abiotic stress in the environment of early rice relatives. Despite having closely related sequences in these genome regions, the Australian wild populations represent an invaluable source of diversity supporting rice food security.

  14. Australian wild rice reveals pre-domestication origin of polymorphism deserts in rice genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan S, Gopala; Waters, Daniel L E; Henry, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    Rice is a major source of human food with a predominantly Asian production base. Domestication involved selection of traits that are desirable for agriculture and to human consumers. Wild relatives of crop plants are a source of useful variation which is of immense value for crop improvement. Australian wild rices have been isolated from the impacts of domestication in Asia and represents a source of novel diversity for global rice improvement. Oryza rufipogon is a perennial wild progenitor of cultivated rice. Oryza meridionalis is a related annual species in Australia. We have examined the sequence of the genomes of AA genome wild rices from Australia that are close relatives of cultivated rice through whole genome re-sequencing. Assembly of the resequencing data to the O. sativa ssp. japonica cv. Nipponbare shows that Australian wild rices possess 2.5 times more single nucleotide polymorphisms than in the Asian wild rice and cultivated O. sativa ssp. indica. Analysis of the genome of domesticated rice reveals regions of low diversity that show very little variation (polymorphism deserts). Both the perennial and annual wild rice from Australia show a high degree of conservation of sequence with that found in cultivated rice in the same 4.58 Mbp region on chromosome 5, which suggests that some of the 'polymorphism deserts' in this and other parts of the rice genome may have originated prior to domestication due to natural selection. Analysis of genes in the 'polymorphism deserts' indicates that this selection may have been due to biotic or abiotic stress in the environment of early rice relatives. Despite having closely related sequences in these genome regions, the Australian wild populations represent an invaluable source of diversity supporting rice food security.

  15. Novel gene expression tools for rice biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biotechnology is an effective and important method of improving both quality and agronomic traits in rice. We are developing novel molecular tools for genetic engineering, with a focus on developing novel transgene expression control elements (i.e. promoters) for rice. A suite of monocot grass promo...

  16. Recent advances on bioactivities of black rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Aécio L de S; Pachikian, Barbara; Larondelle, Yvan; Quetin-Leclercq, Joëlle

    2017-11-01

    Black rice has been consumed for centuries in Asian countries such as China, Korea or Japan. Nowadays, extracts and derivatives are considered as beneficial functional foods because of their high content in several bioactive molecules such as anthocyanins, other phenolics and terpenoids. The purpose of this review is to summarize and discuss recent developments on black rice bioactivities. Some sterols and triterpenoids with potential anticancer properties already tested in vitro and in vivo have been isolated and identified from bran extracts of black rice. Protection against osteoporosis has been suggested for the first time for black rice extracts. Because of its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, black rice also protects liver and kidney from injuries. One clinical study reported the interest of black rice in case of alcohol withdrawal. Several advances have been recently achieved on the understanding of the potential biological effects of black rice and its derivatives. They further confirm that black rice should be considered as a promising source of health-promoting functional foods targeting a large set of noninfectious diseases. However, more clinical studies are needed to support the findings highlighted in this review.

  17. Functional genomics strategies with transposons in rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greco, R.

    2003-01-01

    Rice is a major staple food crop and a recognizedmonocotylenedousmodel plant from which gene function discovery is projected to contribute to improvements in a variety of cereals like wheat and maize. The recent release of rough drafts of the rice genome sequence for public

  18. Grain Unloading Of Arsenic Species In Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is the staple food for over half the world's population yet may represent a significant dietary source of inorganic arsenic (As), a nonthreshold, class 1 human carcinogen. Rice grain As is dominated by the inorganic species, and the organic species dim...

  19. 33 CFR 117.324 - Rice Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rice Creek. 117.324 Section 117.324 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.324 Rice Creek. The CSX Railroad Swingbridge, mile...

  20. Soil quality assessment in rice production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues de Lima, A.C.

    2007-01-01

    In the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, rice production is one of the most important regional activities. Farmers are concerned that the land use practices for rice production in the Camaquã region may not be sustainable because of detrimental effects on soil quality. The study presented in this

  1. Land Titles and Rice Production in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Den Broeck, Katleen; Newman, Carol; Tarp, Finn

    analysis of plot level rice yields that land titles are indeed important. Only exclusively held titles have the expected positive effects, and the positive effect on yields is found in male headed households. Furthermore, a household level rice yield function reveals that exclusive user rights...

  2. Adoption of Recommended Rice Production Practices among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    rice production practices by women farmers in Nasarawa State. A total of 203 women rice farmers were selected for the study using multi- ... RRPPs were unavailability of credit facilities, poor marketing system and ... economy which provides employment opportunity for about 70-80 percent of the total ..... shown in Table 1.

  3. A New Strategy for Utilizing Rice Forage Production Using a No-Tillage System to Enhance the Self-Sufficient Feed Ratio of Small Scale Dairy Farming in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Windi Al Zahra

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Rice forage systems can increase the land use efficiency in paddy fields, improve the self-sufficient feed ratio, and provide environmental benefits for agro-ecosystems. This system often decreased economic benefits compared with those through imported commercial forage feed, particularly in Japan. We observed the productivities of winter forage after rice harvest between conventional tillage (CT and no-tillage (NT in a field experiment. An on-farm evaluation was performed to determine the self-sufficient ratio of feed and forage production costs based on farm evaluation of the dairy farmer and the rice grower, who adopted a rice forage system. The field experiment detected no significant difference in forage production and quality between CT and NT after rice harvest. However, the production cost was dramatically decreased by 28.1% in NT compared with CT. The self-sufficient ratio was 5.4% higher when dairy farmers adopted the rice forage system compared with those using the current management system. Therefore, this study demonstrated the positive benefits for dairy farmers and rice growers in Japan when adopting a rice forage system with NT, which could improve the self-sufficient feed ratio and reduce production costs.

  4. Comparative proteomics and protein profile related to phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in germinated Oryza sativa 'KDML105' and Thai brown rice 'Mali Daeng' for better nutritional value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksup, Sarunyaporn; Pongpakpian, Sarintip; Roytrakul, Sittiruk; Cha-Um, Suriyan; Supaibulwatana, Kanyaratt

    2018-01-01

    Brown rice (BR) and germinated brown rice (GBR) are considered as prime sources of carbohydrate and bioactive compounds for more than half of the populations worldwide. Several studies have reported on the proteomics of BR and GBR; however, the proteomic profiles related to the synthesis of bioactive compounds are less well documented. In the present study, BR and GBR were used in a comparative analysis of the proteomic and bioactive compound profiles for two famous Thai rice varieties: Khao Dawk Mali 105 (KDML) and Mali Daeng (MD). The proteomes of KDML and MD revealed differences in the expression patterns of proteins after germination. Total phenolic compound content, anthocyanin contents and antioxidant activity of red rice MD was approximately 2.6-, 2.2- and 9.2-fold higher, respectively, compared to that of the white rice KDML. Moreover, GBR of MD showed higher total anthocyanin content and greater antioxidant activity, which is consistent with the increase expression of several proteins involved in the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds and protection against oxidative stress. Red rice MD exhibits higher nutrient values compared to white rice KDML and the appropriate germination of brown rice could represent a method for improving health-related benefits. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Tillering and panicle branching genes in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wei-hong; Shang, Fei; Lin, Qun-ting; Lou, Chen; Zhang, Jing

    2014-03-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most important staple food crops in the world, and rice tillering and panicle branching are important traits determining grain yield. Since the gene MONOCULM 1 (MOC 1) was first characterized as a key regulator in controlling rice tillering and branching, great progress has been achieved in identifying important genes associated with grain yield, elucidating the genetic basis of yield-related traits. Some of these important genes were shown to be applicable for molecular breeding of high-yielding rice. This review focuses on recent advances, with emphasis on rice tillering and panicle branching genes, and their regulatory networks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A spectral analysis of rice grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIlvaine, M.S.; Cua, F.T.; Navarro, E.F.

    1976-06-01

    With the advent of extensive nuclear testing and the development and use of highly potent pesticides and fertilizers, the hazardous threats of radioactive contamination due to fallout and to the absorption of pesticide residues have been given due consideration. Among the many forms of life exposed to these threats are food crops and among these is rice. Several rice grain samples - Japanese rice samples ''A'' and ''B'' submitted by the National Grains Authority (NGA) for analysis, random samples of rice being sold to the public at local markets, and ''black rice'' which were picked from along the shores of a Mindoro town were subjected to spectral analysis. Results revealed the presence of trace elements normally found in plants, such as; K-42, I-124, Cl-38, Na-24, Br-82, and Mn-56. No mercury was detected in the sample specimen analyzed

  7. Rice epigenomics and epigenetics: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangsong; Zhou, Dao-Xiu

    2013-05-01

    During recent years rice genome-wide epigenomic information such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, which are important for genome activity has been accumulated. The function of a number of rice epigenetic regulators has been studied, many of which are found to be involved in a diverse range of developmental and stress-responsive pathways. Analysis of epigenetic variations among different rice varieties indicates that epigenetic modification may lead to inheritable phenotypic variation. Characterizing phenotypic consequences of rice epigenomic variations and the underlining chromatin mechanism and identifying epialleles related to important agronomic traits may provide novel strategies to enhance agronomically favorable traits and grain productivity in rice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Rice University: Innovation to Increase Student College Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigliotti, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    "College readiness" means that a student can enter a college classroom without remediation and successfully complete entry-level college requirements (Conley, 2012). In order for students to be considered college ready, they must acquire skills, content knowledge, and behaviors before leaving high school. Research on high-school performance…

  9. Cis-12-oxo-phytodienoic acid stimulates rice defense response to a piercing-sucking insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hui-Min; Li, Hai-Chao; Zhou, Shi-Rong; Xue, Hong-Wei; Miao, Xue-Xia

    2014-11-01

    The brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens) is a destructive, monophagous, piercing-sucking insect pest of rice. Previous studies indicated that jasmonic acid (JA) positively regulates rice defense against chewing insect pests but negatively regulates it against the piercing-sucking insect of BPH. We here demonstrated that overexpression of allene oxide cyclase (AOC) but not OPR3 (cis-12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA) reductase 3, an enzyme adjacent to AOC in the JA synthetic pathway) significantly increased rice resistance to BPH, mainly by reducing the feeding activity and survival rate. Further analysis revealed that plant response to BPH under AOC overexpression was independent of the JA pathway and that significantly higher OPDA levels stimulated rice resistance to BPH. Microarray analysis identified multiple candidate resistance-related genes under AOC overexpression. OPDA treatment stimulated the resistance of radish seedlings to green peach aphid Myzus persicae, another piercing-sucking insect. These results imply that rice resistance to chewing insects and to sucking insects can be enhanced simultaneously through AOC-mediated increases of JA and OPDA and provide direct evidence of the potential application of OPDA in stimulating plant defense responses to piercing-sucking insect pests in agriculture. © The Author 2014. Published by the Molecular Plant Shanghai Editorial Office in association with Oxford University Press on behalf of CSPB and IPPE, SIBS, CAS.

  10. Fluoride levels in commercially available rice in Ethiopia | Tegegne ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alkaline fusion was used for sample preparation of six varieties for both the raw rice and rice cooked with tap water and fluoridated water. Fluoride levels ranged from 0.1-5.5 mg/kg in raw rice sample. Rice which was cooked with different fluoride levels of water showed increment depending on the method of cooking.

  11. Signatures of adaptation in the weedy rice genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weedy rice is a common problem of by product of domestication that has evolved multiple times from cultivated and wild rice relatives. Here we use whole genome sequences to examine the origin and adaptation of the two major US weedy red rice strains, with a comparison to Chinese weedy red rice. We f...

  12. Significance of rice sheath photosynthesis: Yield determination by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using high-yielding hybrid rice Liangyopeijiu (LYP9), its male parent 9311 and hybrid rice Shanyou 63 (SY63) as the experimental materials, the photosynthesis of rice sheath was studied by 14C radio-autography. The results showed that rice sheath could trap sunlight and produce photosynthates, and these ...

  13. Genomic diversity among Basmati rice ( Oryza sativa L) mutants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mutation breeding can be considered successful in obtaining new cultivars and broadening the genetic base of rice crop. In order to obtain new varieties of rice with improved agronomic and grain characteristics, gamma radiation (60Co) has been used to generate novel mutants of the Basmati rice. In this study rice cultivars ...

  14. 7 CFR 868.301 - Definition of milled rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of milled rice. 868.301 Section 868.301... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Milled Rice Terms Defined § 868.301 Definition of milled rice. Whole or broken kernels of rice (Oryza sativa L.) from which the hulls and at...

  15. 7 CFR 868.201 - Definition of rough rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of rough rice. 868.201 Section 868.201... FOR CERTAIN AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES United States Standards for Rough Rice Terms Defined § 868.201 Definition of rough rice. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) which consists of 50 percent or more of paddy kernels (see...

  16. 21 CFR 573.160 - Ammoniated rice hulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ammoniated rice hulls. 573.160 Section 573.160... Additive Listing § 573.160 Ammoniated rice hulls. The food additive ammoniated rice hulls may be safely... obtained by the treatment of ground rice hulls with monocalcium phosphate and anhydrous ammonia at a...

  17. Rice field for the treatment of pond aquaculture effluents | Wang ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We conducted an experiment to evaluate the efficiency of rice fields in treating pond aquaculture effluent and its responses to different fertilizer treatments. Four treatments was considered in the experiment: no rice planted as the control (CT); rice planted and no fertilizer input (RE); rice planted and a rate of approximately ...

  18. Questioning triple rice intensification on the Vietnamese mekong delta floodplains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, Dung Duc; Halsema, van Gerardo; Hellegers, Petra J.G.J.; Ludwig, Fulco; Wyatt, Andrew

    2018-01-01

    Large areas of the Vietnamese Mekong Delta floodplains (VMDF) are protected by high dikes to facilitate three rice crops per year. While this has increased rice production, there is evidence that triple rice systems have negative long-term effects, both environmental and economic. Double rice

  19. Does African catfish ( Clarias gariepinus ) affect rice in integrated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted for 98 days in the Lake Victoria Basin to investigate the interactions of fish and rice growth performance in rice paddies. The experiment was laid out in a split-plot design, with rice cultivar as the main plot and method of rice-fish culture as the sub-plot. Treatments consisted of two levels of ...

  20. Integration of Agronomic Practices with Herbicides for Sustainable Weed Management in Aerobic Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, M. P.; Juraimi, A. S.; Mohamed, M. T. M.; Uddin, M. K.; Samedani, B.; Puteh, A.; Man, Azmi

    2013-01-01

    Till now, herbicide seems to be a cost effective tool from an agronomic view point to control weeds. But long term efficacy and sustainability issues are the driving forces behind the reconsideration of herbicide dependent weed management strategy in rice. This demands reappearance of physical and cultural management options combined with judicious herbicide application in a more comprehensive and integrated way. Keeping those in mind, some agronomic tools along with different manual weeding and herbicides combinations were evaluated for their weed control efficacy in rice under aerobic soil conditions. Combination of competitive variety, higher seeding rate, and seed priming resulted in more competitive cropping system in favor of rice, which was reflected in lower weed pressure, higher weed control efficiency, and better yield. Most of the herbicides exhibited excellent weed control efficiency. Treatments comprising only herbicides required less cost involvement but produced higher net benefit. On the contrary, treatments comprising both herbicide and manual weeding required high cost involvement and thus produced lower net benefit. Therefore, adoption of competitive rice variety, higher seed rate, and seed priming along with spraying different early-postemergence herbicides in rotation at 10 days after seeding (DAS) followed by a manual weeding at 30 DAS may be recommended from sustainability view point. PMID:24223513

  1. Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Rice Bran Oils Produced from Colored Rice Using Different Extraction Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingyai, Sukanya; Kettawan, Aikkarach; Srikaeo, Khongsak; Singanusong, Riantong

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of rice bran oil (RBO) produced from the bran of three rice varities; Khao Dawk Mali 105 (white rice), Red Jasmine rice (red rice) and Hom-nin rice (black rice) using three extraction methods including cold-press extraction (CPE), solvent extraction (SE) and supercritical CO 2 extraction (SC-CO 2 ). Yields, color, acid value (AV), free fatty acid (FFA), peroxide value (PV), iodine value (IV), total phenolic compound (TPC), γ-oryzanol, α-tocopherol and fatty acid profile were analyzed. It was found that the yields obtained from SE, SC-CO 2 and CPE extractions were 17.35-20.19%, 14.76-18.16% and 3.22-6.22%, respectively. The RBO from the bran of red and black rice samples exhibited high antioxidant activities. They also contained higher amount of γ-oryzanol and α-tocopherol than those of white rice sample. In terms of extraction methods, SC-CO 2 provided better qualities of RBO as evidenced by their physicochemical and antioxidant properties. This study found that RBO produced from the bran of black rice samples using SC-CO 2 extraction method showed the best physicochemical and antioxidant properties.

  2. QUANTIFYING BENEFITS FOR COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Attila GYORGY; Nicoleta VINTILA; Florian GAMAN

    2014-01-01

    Cost Benefit Analysis is one of the most widely used financial tools to select future investment projects in public and private sector. This method is based on comparing costs and benefits in terms of constant prices. While costs are easier to predict and monetize, the benefits should be identified not only in direct relation with the investment, but also widening the sphere of analysis to indirect benefits experienced by the community from the neighbourhood or the whole society. During finan...

  3. Isotopic tracer aided studies of fenvalerate residues in stored rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varca, L.M.; Sanchez, T.E.; Magallona, E.D.

    1990-01-01

    Following application of 14 C-fenvalerate to milled rice and paddy rice at a concentration of 0.33 mg/kg, only insignificant losses were measured after 9 months. Distribution patterns in surface, methanol extractable and bound residues were studied. Paddy rice contained less extractable residues than milled rice, with the major part being found in the husk. Bound residues in both milled and paddy rice decreased also with length of storage; as much as 30% was found as bound residues after nine months. Cooking reduced the insecticide residues in milled rice by 33-40% and residues in paddy rice by 58%. (author). 8 refs, 1 fig., 4 tabs

  4. Engineered Dwarf Male-Sterile Rice: A Promising Genetic Tool for Facilitating Recurrent Selection in Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Afsana; Wang, Chunlian; Wang, Jian; Wang, Fujun; Liu, Piqing; Gao, Ying; Tang, Yongchao; Zhao, Kaijun

    2017-01-01

    Rice is a crop feeding half of the world's population. With the continuous raise of yield potential via genetic improvement, rice breeding has entered an era where multiple genes conferring complex traits must be efficiently manipulated to increase rice yield further. Recurrent selection is a sound strategy for manipulating multiple genes and it has been successfully performed in allogamous crops. However, the difficulties in emasculation and hand pollination had obstructed efficient use of recurrent selection in autogamous rice. Here, we report development of the dwarf male-sterile rice that can facilitate recurrent selection in rice breeding. We adopted RNAi technology to synergistically regulate rice plant height and male fertility to create the dwarf male-sterile rice. The RNAi construct pTCK-EGGE, targeting the OsGA20ox2 and OsEAT1 genes, was constructed and used to transform rice via Agrobacterium -mediated transformation. The transgenic T0 plants showing largely reduced plant height and complete male-sterile phenotypes were designated as the dwarf male-sterile plants. Progenies of the dwarf male-sterile plants were obtained by pollinating them with pollens from the wild-type. In the T1 and T2 populations, half of the plants were still dwarf male-sterile; the other half displayed normal plant height and male fertility which were designated as tall and male-fertile plants. The tall and male-fertile plants are transgene-free and can be self-pollinated to generate new varieties. Since emasculation and hand pollination for dwarf male-sterile rice plants is no longer needed, the dwarf male-sterile rice can be used to perform recurrent selection in rice. A dwarf male-sterile rice-based recurrent selection model has been proposed.

  5. 76 FR 36151 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ... made by Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, professional staff in consultation with... picked up on the plains near Fort Rice Dakota.'' No known individual was identified. No associated...

  6. Consumer Preferences and Buying Criteria in Rice: A Study to Identify Market Strategy for Thailand Jasmine Rice Export

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suwannaporn, P.; Linnemann, A.R.

    2008-01-01

    Rice consumption per capita in many Asian countries decreased, but it is consumed more in non-rice-eating countries. This study aimed to investigate consumer preferences and attitudes toward Jasmine rice among consumers in target rice export countries to identify opportunities and strategic

  7. Effects of an injury and illness prevention program on occupational safety behaviors among rice farmers in Nakhon Nayok Province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santaweesuk S

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sapsatree Santaweesuk,1,2 Robert S Chapman,1 Wattasit Siriwong1,3 1College of Public Health Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand; 2Srinakarinwirot University Ongkharak Campus, Nakhon Nayok, Thailand; 3Thai Fogarty ITREOH Center, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of an Injury and Illness Prevention (IIP program intervention on occupational safety behavior among rice farmers in Nakhon Nayok province, Thailand. This was a quasi-experimental study in an intervention group and a control group. It was carried out in two rice farming communities, in which most people are rice farmers with similar socio-demographic characteristics. Multistage sampling was employed, selecting one person per rice farming household. The intervention group was 62 randomly selected rice farmers living in a rural area; another 55 rice farmers served as the control group. A structured face-to-face interview questionnaire was administered to participants to evaluate their safety behaviors in four areas: equipment use, pesticide use, ergonomics, and working conditions. The 2-week intervention program consisted of four elements: 1 health education, 2 safety inspection, 3 safety communication, and 4 health surveillance. Data were collected at baseline and 4 months after the intervention (follow-up. We used a general linear model repeated-measures analysis of variance to assess the mean difference between baseline and follow-up occupational safety behavior points between the intervention and control groups. Pesticide safety behaviors significantly increased in the intervention group compared with the control group. Ergonomics and working conditions points also increased in the intervention group, but not significantly so. The equipment use score decreased in the intervention group. It is necessary to identify and develop further measures to improve occupational safety behaviors. Some

  8. Mutant-inducing effect of γ-ray irradiation for hybrid rice F1 derived from cross of black glutinous rice x wild rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Dezhi; Tang Yilan

    1998-01-01

    The hybrid rice F 1 plant derived from the back crossing of glutinous rice x wild rice was irradiated with γ-ray. The result of investigation to the induced mutant showed that through the selection and backcross, a black glutinous rice strain with the short stem, cold tolerance and high yield was developed. The analysis of the ability of heredity variance showed that the selection was effective for the husk colour, black glutinous and black Indica rice, but ineffective for the white Indica rice and seed setting

  9. Effect of Farming, Social, Economical and Extension Characteristics of Rice Farmers on Land Consolidation in Sari County, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Dinpanah

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine effect of farming, social, economical and extension characteristics of rice farmer on land consolidation. The research population consisted of 329, farmers who were selected randomly by using randomized stratified sampling method. The methodological approach of this study was causal- comparative. Validity of the instrument was established by a panel of experts consisting of senior faculty members in agricultural extension and education department, and research committee advisors. Reliability analysis was conducted by using and Cronbach alpha formula and result was found to be 0.82. The results showed that means of farmers age, rice farming experience and rice-cultivated land acreage of rice were highly effective in land. Results also showed that factors like means for farm acreage, social influence, social participation, attitude of rice farmers toward land consolidation, yield, income, cost-benefit, mass media, information sources extension courses and education levels of rice farmers were very effective on land consolidation.

  10. Coverage of Adequately Iodized Salt Is Suboptimal and Rice Fortification Using Public Distribution Channels Could Reach Low-Income Households: Findings from a Cross-Sectional Survey of Anganwadi Center Catchment Areas in Telangana, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, James P; Leyvraz, Magali; Sodani, Prahlad R; Aaron, Grant J; Sharma, Narottam D; Woodruff, Bradley A

    2016-01-01

    Food fortification is a cost-effective approach to prevent and control of micronutrient deficiencies in India. A cross-sectional survey of children 0-35 months of age residing in the catchment areas of anganwadi centers in the state of Telangana was conducted to assess the coverage of adequately iodized salt and the potential for rice fortification. Salt samples were collected and tested for iodine concentration using iodometric titration. Information on demographics, household rice consumption, and Telangana's rice sector was collected and interpreted. In households of selected children, 79% of salt samples were found to be adequately iodized. Salt brand and district were significant predictors of inadequately iodized salt. Daily rice consumption among children and women averaged 122 grams and 321 grams per day, respectively. Approximately 28% of households reported consuming rice produced themselves or purchased from a local farmer, 65% purchased rice from a market or shop, 6% got rice from a public distribution system site, and 2% obtained it from a rice mill. In the catchment areas of Telangana's anganwadi centers, there is significant variation in the coverage of adequately iodized salt by district. Future surveys in Telangana should measure the coverage of salt iodization in the general population using quantitative methods. Nonetheless, increasing the adequacy of iodization of smaller salt manufacturers would help achieve universal salt iodization in Telangana. Despite high consumption of rice, our findings suggest that large-scale market-based rice fortification is not feasible in Telangana due to a large proportion of households producing their own rice and highly fragmented rice distribution. Distributing fortified rice via Telangana's public distribution system may be a viable approach to target low-income households, but would only reach a small proportion of the population in Telangana.

  11. Coverage of Adequately Iodized Salt Is Suboptimal and Rice Fortification Using Public Distribution Channels Could Reach Low-Income Households: Findings from a Cross-Sectional Survey of Anganwadi Center Catchment Areas in Telangana, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P Wirth

    Full Text Available Food fortification is a cost-effective approach to prevent and control of micronutrient deficiencies in India. A cross-sectional survey of children 0-35 months of age residing in the catchment areas of anganwadi centers in the state of Telangana was conducted to assess the coverage of adequately iodized salt and the potential for rice fortification. Salt samples were collected and tested for iodine concentration using iodometric titration. Information on demographics, household rice consumption, and Telangana's rice sector was collected and interpreted. In households of selected children, 79% of salt samples were found to be adequately iodized. Salt brand and district were significant predictors of inadequately iodized salt. Daily rice consumption among children and women averaged 122 grams and 321 grams per day, respectively. Approximately 28% of households reported consuming rice produced themselves or purchased from a local farmer, 65% purchased rice from a market or shop, 6% got rice from a public distribution system site, and 2% obtained it from a rice mill. In the catchment areas of Telangana's anganwadi centers, there is significant variation in the coverage of adequately iodized salt by district. Future surveys in Telangana should measure the coverage of salt iodization in the general population using quantitative methods. Nonetheless, increasing the adequacy of iodization of smaller salt manufacturers would help achieve universal salt iodization in Telangana. Despite high consumption of rice, our findings suggest that large-scale market-based rice fortification is not feasible in Telangana due to a large proportion of households producing their own rice and highly fragmented rice distribution. Distributing fortified rice via Telangana's public distribution system may be a viable approach to target low-income households, but would only reach a small proportion of the population in Telangana.

  12. Evaluation of Heavy Metals Contamination from Environment to Food Matrix by TXRF: The Case of Rice and Rice Husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabjola Bilo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the chemical analysis of contaminated soils of India and the rice grown in the same area. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy is a well-established technique for elemental chemical analysis of environmental samples, and it can be a useful tool to assess food safety. Metals uptake in rice crop grown in soils from different areas was studied. In this work soil, rice husk and rice samples were analyzed after complete solubilization of samples by microwave acid digestion. Heavy metals concentration detected in rice samples decreases in the following order: Mn > Zn > Cu > Ni > Pb > Cr. The metal content in rice husk was higher than in rice. This study suggests, for the first time, a possible role of heavy metals filter played by rice husk. The knowledge of metals sequestration capability of rice husk may promote some new management practices for rice cultivation to preserve it from pollution.

  13. Characteristics of siRNAs derived from Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus in infected rice and their potential role in host gene regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Donglin; Zhou, Guohui

    2017-02-10

    Virus-derived siRNAs (vsiRNAs)-mediated RNA silencing plays important roles in interaction between plant viruses and their hosts. Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) is a newly emerged devastating rice reovirus with ten dsRNA genomic segments. The characteristics of SRBSDV-derived siRNAs and their biological implications in SRBSDV-rice interaction remain unexplored. VsiRNAs profiling from SRBSDV-infected rice samples was done via small RNA deep sequencing. The putative rice targets of abundantly expressed vsiRNAs were bioinformatically predicted and subjected to functional annotation. Differential expression analysis of rice targets and RNA silencing components between infected and healthy samples was done using RT-qPCR. The vsiRNA was barely detectable at 14 days post infection (dpi) but abundantly present along with elevated expression level of the viral genome at 28 dpi. From the 28-dpi sample, 70,878 reads of 18 ~ 30-nt vsiRNAs were recognized (which mostly were 21-nt and 22-nt), covering 75 ~ 91% of the length of the ten genomic segments respectively. 86% of the vsiRNAs had a rice genes, including several types of host resistance or pathogenesis related genes encoding F-box/LRR proteins, receptor-like protein kinases, universal stress proteins, tobamovirus multiplication proteins, and RNA silencing components OsDCL2a and OsAGO17 respectively, some of which showed down regulation in infected plants in RT-qPCR. GO and KEGG classification showed that a majority of the predicted targets were related to cell parts and cellular processes and involved in carbohydrate metabolism, translation, and signal transduction. The silencing component genes OsDCL2a, OsDCL2b, OsDCL4, and OsAGO18 were down regulated, while OsAGO1d, OsAGO2, OsRDR1 and OsRDR6 were up regulated, significantly, upon SRBSDV infection. SRBSDV can regulate the expression of rice RNA silencing pathway components and the virus might compromise host defense and influence host

  14. [Quality of pastas supplemented with rice bran].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangronis, E; Rebolledo, M A

    1997-06-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate the potential of using rice bran as an ingredient in pastas spaghetti type. Two of the pastas were made with semolina from durum as raw material, supplemented with 10 and 20% rice bran. The other two were made with granular flour and the same percentage of rice bran. Proximate composition of raw material was analyzed. Pastas were elaborated in a local industry. Composition, proximal, color, texture, and sensorial quality of pastas were determined. Protein content (13.9-15.0%), ash (1.47-3.09%) and dietary fiber (6.71-8.45%) of pastas increased according to the percentage of rice bran added. The hardest pastas were those elaborated with semolina from durum wheat and with a 10% of substitution. Also, they were the most yellow. The sensory panel found differences in quality among the pastas evaluated. Pastas with 10% rice bran had the best quality. The results demonstrated that is possible to elaborate pastas with 20% as maximum of rice bran resulting products with high protein, ash and dietetic fiber content, but some undesirable characteristics were given by the rice bran as white spots, wrinkles and color changes.

  15. Using rice straw to manufacture ceramic bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorbunov German Ivanovich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the co-authors offer their advanced and efficient methodologies for the recycling of the rice straw, as well as the novel approaches to the ceramic brick quality improvement through the application of the rice straw as the combustible additive and through the formation of amorphous silica in the course of the rice straw combustion. The co-authors provide characteristics of the raw materials, production techniques used to manufacture ceramic bricks, and their basic properties in the article. The co-authors describe the simulated process of formation of amorphous silica. The process in question has two independent steps (or options: 1 rice straw combustion and ash formation outside the oven (in the oxidizing medium, and further application of ash as the additive in the process of burning clay mixtures; 2 adding pre-treated rice straw as the combustible additive into the clay mixture, and its further burning in compliance with the pre-set temperature mode. The findings have proven that the most rational pre-requisite of the rice straw application in the manufacturing of ceramic bricks consists in feeding milled straw into the clay mixture to be followed by molding, drying and burning. Brick samples are highly porous, and they also demonstrate sufficient compressive strength. The co-authors have also identified optimal values of rice straw and ash content in the mixtures under research.

  16. A rice husk gasifier for paddy drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirani, A.A.; Kalwar, S.A.; Ahmad, M.

    2013-01-01

    Due to energy crisis and constant increase in the price of fossil fuels, the world's trend changes to renewable sources of energy like solar, wind and biomass gasification. Substantial biomass potential is available in Pakistan in the form of agriculture or forest residue (rice straw, rice husk, cotton stalks, corn cobs, wood chips, wood saw, etc.). These can be best utilised for the production of producer gas or synthetic gas that can be used for drying of agricultural crops. The drying process is an important activity of post harvest processing for long-term storage. Rice husk is nowadays commonly used for biomass gasification and its heat content value is about 15MJ/kg. It constitutes about 30 percent of rice production. A rice husk gasifier was developed and evaluated on paddy drying at Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), Tsukuba International Center (TBIC), Japan. Rice husk gasifier has following major components; husk feeding system, ash chamber, burner, centrifugal fan, drying chamber, gasifier reactor, air duct and an electric motor of 0.37kW. The average drying plenum air temperature was recorded as 45 degree C during the drying process. The paddy 'IR 28' from initial moisture content of 24% was dried up to 14% moisture content for about 3.33h consuming 3kg/h of rice husk. The efficiency was found to be 58%. The rice husk gasifier can also be used for drying the fruits and vegetables, provided that heat exchanger should be attached with it. The overall performance of rice husk gasifier was satisfactory and will be beneficial for small scale farmers, food processors and millers as well. (author)

  17. Phenolic content, anthocyanins and antiradical capacity of diverse purple bran rice genotypes as compared to other bran colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenolic compounds reportedly may reduce the risk of developing chronic disease and their risk factors. Anthocyanins are flavonoids, a subgroup of phenolic compounds in purple colored whole grain rice that have shown these health benefits in animal studies and human clinical trials. We studied the g...

  18. Analysis of rice purchase decision on rice consumer in Bandung city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusno, K.; Imannurdin, A.; Syamsiyah, N.; Djuwendah, E.

    2018-03-01

    This study was conducted at three kinds of purchase location which were traditional market, rice kiosk, and supermarket in Bandung City, with survey data of 108 respondents which were selected by systematic random sampling. The aim of this study is to (1) identify consumer characteristics, (2) identify which atribute is considered by consumer in buying rice, and (3) analyze the relationship between purchase decision and income class. Data were analyzed by descriptive analysis and Chi Square test. The results showed most consumers in the traditional market were middle-educated and lower middle-income, at the rice kiosk, the consumer were generally middle-educated and middle-income, and in the supermarkets, the majority were high-educated and upper middle-income consumers. “Kepulenan” be the first priority of most consumers, but for the lower-middle class, the main priority was price. Thus, in case of scarcity and rice price increase, the government should immediately arrange market operations which targeting to lower-middle class consumers. There was a significant relationship between (1) the quality of rice consumed, (2) the frequency of rice purchase per month, and (3) attitudes toward rice price increase; each with the income class. Although the price of rice increase, consumers of middle and upper-middle were remain loyal to the quality of rice they consumed. This indicates rice market in Bandung city is an ideal market for premium rice so that traders and producers are expected to maintain the quality of rice, such as keep using superior seeds and applying good cultivation based on Good Agricultural Practice (GAP) rules.

  19. Benefits of Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Wellness Preventing Illness Benefits of Coffee Print Email Benefits of Coffee Reviewed by Taylor Wolfram, MS, RDN, ... your daily cup (or three) provides some health benefits as well. Drinking moderate amounts of coffee (including ...

  20. Benefits of quitting tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your risk of many serious health problems . THE BENEFITS OF QUITTING You may enjoy the following when ... about $2,000 a year on cigarettes. HEALTH BENEFITS Some health benefits begin almost immediately. Every week, ...

  1. Low Temperature Storage of Southern Rice Black-Streaked Dwarf Virus-Infected Rice Plants Cannot Sustain Virus Transmission by the Vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Danfeng; Li, Pei; Han, Yongqiang; Lei, Wenbin; Hou, Maolin

    2016-02-01

    Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) is a novel virus transmitted by white-backed planthopper Sogatella furcifera (Hováth) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae). Due to low virus transmission efficiency by the planthopper, researchers are frequently confronted with shortage of viruliferous vectors or infected rice plants, especially in winter and the following spring. To find new ways to maintain virus-infected materials, viral rice plants were stored at -80°C for 45 or 140 d and evaluated as virus sources in virus transmission by the vector. SRBSDV virions were not degraded during storage at -80°C as indicated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and reverse transcription real-time PCR detection. The planthopper nymphs fed on the infected thawed plants for 48 h survived at about 40% and showed positive detection of SRBSDV, but they lost the virus after feeding for another 20 d (the circulative transmission period) on noninfected plants. Transmission electron microscope images indicated broken capsid of virions in infected thawed leaves in contrast to integrity capsid of virions in infected fresh leaves. These results show that low temperature storage of SRBSDV-infected rice plants cannot sustain virus transmission by white-backed planthopper. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Development and appraisal of economical and sustainable approach for weed management in drill seeded aerobic rice (oryza sativa l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saqib, M.; Akbar, N.; Ehsanullah, A.; Ghafoor, A.

    2012-01-01

    Conventional rice cultivation by puddling and transplanting is a labor intensive activity. Water scarcity is a threat for the sustain ability of transplanted rice. In many areas of Asia, rice transplantation of rice is being replaced by direct seeding as farmers tried to solve the problems of labor cost and water scarcity but weed control is one of the major constraints to direct seeding. So, to control weeds in direct seeded rice present studies were designed. A two years study was conducted to develop sustainable and economical methods for managing weeds in aerobic rice grown by dry direct-seeding at Student's Farm, Department of Agronomy, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad during the years 2008 and 2009. Experiment was laid out in RCBD with five weed management strategies: hand weeding, hoeing with kasula, inter-row cultivation with tine cultivator, inter-row cultivation with spike hoe and chemical control with Nominee 100 SC along with control (no weeding). Weed dry weight was 300 g m/sup -2/, 257 g m/sup -2/, 225 g m/sup -2/ and 157 g m/sup -2/ less in hand weeding, hoeing, tine cultivator and Nominee 100 SC respectively than no weeding. Paddy yield was 221%, 203%, 181% and 105% more in hand weeding, hoeing, tine cultivator and Nominee 100 SC respectively than no weeding. (author)

  3. Laboratory Screening for Resistance in Rice to Rice Stem Borer Chilo Suppressalis Walker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singgih Sutrisno

    2004-01-01

    Rice stem borer Chilo suppressalis Walker is one of the major insect pests in rice in Indonesia. The use of insect pest resistant variety of rice is one of the effective techniques against pests. Breeding of resistance to insect pests rice crops often faced difficulties in obtaining a lot of insect amounts due to the unavailability of enough number insects pests in the field so that a laboratory bioassay is needed. In this experiments five rice varieties were used: a Pelita I/1, Atomita I, Cisadane, Cisanggarung, and IR 36. Rice seedling 7 days of age were put in 1 liter plastic vials for rice resistance test against the attack of insect pest C. suppressalis. The parameters observed were larval and pupal viability, pupal weight, and eggs production. The larval and pupal viability which were reared on of Pelita I/1 and Atomita I rice seedlings were 68.5 % - 55.5 % and 57.3 % - 46.7 % respectively. The respective lowest percentages were found in IR 36 which was about 41.3 % - 29.8 % .The experiment results on the parameters of pupal weight and egg production showed similar results to that on the parameters of larval and pupal viability. Rice variety of IR 36 showed more resistance to the other varieties, while Pelita I/1 and Atomita I showed the most susceptible to the attack of insect pest C. suppressalis. (author)

  4. Understanding the evolution of rice technology in China - from traditional agriculture to GM rice today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaobai

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an historical survey of the evolution of rice technology in China, from the traditional farming system to genetically modified rice today. Using sociotechnological analytical framework, it analyses rice technology as a socio-technical ensemble - a complex interaction of material and social elements, and discusses the specificity of technology development and its socio-technical outcomes. It points to two imperatives in rice variety development: wholesale transporting agricultural technology and social mechanism to developing countries are likely lead to negative consequences; indigenous innovation including deploying GM technology for seed varietal development and capturing/cultivating local knowledge will provide better solutions.

  5. PhosphoRice: a meta-predictor of rice-specific phosphorylation sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Que Shufu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As a result of the growing body of protein phosphorylation sites data, the number of phosphoprotein databases is constantly increasing, and dozens of tools are available for predicting protein phosphorylation sites to achieve fast automatic results. However, none of the existing tools has been developed to predict protein phosphorylation sites in rice. Results In this paper, the phosphorylation site predictors, NetPhos 2.0, NetPhosK, Kinasephos, Scansite, Disphos and Predphosphos, were integrated to construct meta-predictors of rice-specific phosphorylation sites using several methods, including unweighted voting, unreduced weighted voting, reduced unweighted voting and weighted voting strategies. PhosphoRice, the meta-predictor produced by using weighted voting strategy with parameters selected by restricted grid search and conditional random search, performed the best at predicting phosphorylation sites in rice. Its Matthew's Correlation Coefficient (MCC and Accuracy (ACC reached to 0.474 and 73.8%, respectively. Compared to the best individual element predictor (Disphos_default, PhosphoRice archieved a significant increase in MCC of 0.071 (P Conclusions PhosphoRice is a powerful tool for predicting unidentified phosphorylation sites in rice. Compared to the existing methods, we found that our tool showed greater robustness in ACC and MCC. PhosphoRice is available to the public at http://bioinformatics.fafu.edu.cn/PhosphoRice.

  6. International tourist preference of Lodok Rice Field natural elements, the cultural rice field from Manggarai - Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    March Syahadat, Ray; Trie Putra, Priambudi; Nuraini; Nailufar, Balqis; Fatmala Makhmud, Desy

    2017-10-01

    Lodok Rice Field or usually known as spiderweb rice field is a system of land division. It cultural rice field only found on Manggarai, Province of East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. The landscape of Lodok Rice Field was aesthetic and it has big potential for tourism development. The aim of this study was to know the perception of natural elements of Lodok Rice Field landscape that could influence international tourist to visited Lodok Rice Field. If we know the elements that could influenced the international tourist, we could used the landscape image for tourism media promotion. The methods of this study used scenic beauty estimation (SBE) by 85 respondents from 34 countries and Kruskal Wallis H test. The countries grouped by five continents (Asia, America, Europe, Africa, and Oceania). The result showed that the Asian respondents liked the elements of sky, mountain, and the rice field. Then, the other respondent from another continent liked the elements of sunshine, mountain, and the rice field. Although the Asian had different perception about landscape elements of rice field’s good view, it’s not differ significantly by Kruskal Wallis H test.

  7. Creation of transgenic rice plants producing small interfering RNA of Rice tungro spherical virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Dung Tien; Chu, Ha Duc; Sasaya, Takahide

    2015-01-01

    Rice tungro spherical virus (RTSV), also known as Rice waika virus, does not cause visible symptoms in infected rice plants. However, the virus plays a critical role in spreading Rice tungro bacilliform virus (RTBV), which is the major cause of severe symptoms of rice tungro disease. Recent studies showed that RNA interference (RNAi) can be used to develop virus-resistance transgenic rice plants. In this report, we presented simple procedures and protocols needed for the creation of transgenic rice plants capable of producing small interfering RNA specific against RTSV sequences. Notably, our study showed that 60 out of 64 individual hygromycin-resistant lines (putative transgenic lines) obtained through transformation carried transgenes designed for producing hairpin double-stranded RNA. Northern blot analyses revealed the presence of small interfering RNA of 21- to 24-mer in 46 out of 56 confirmed transgenic lines. Taken together, our study indicated that transgenic rice plants carrying an inverted repeat of 500-bp fragments encoding various proteins of RTSV can produce small interfering RNA from the hairpin RNA transcribed from that transgene. In light of recent studies with other viruses, it is possible that some of these transgenic rice lines might be resistant to RTSV.

  8. Lead in rice: analysis of baseline lead levels in market and field collected rice grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Gareth J; Williams, Paul N; Adomako, Eureka E; Price, Adam H; Zhu, Yongguan; Zhao, Fang-Jie; McGrath, Steve; Deacon, Claire M; Villada, Antia; Sommella, Alessia; Lu, Ying; Ming, Lei; De Silva, P Mangala C S; Brammer, Hugh; Dasgupta, Tapash; Islam, M Rafiqul; Meharg, Andrew A

    2014-07-01

    In a large scale survey of rice grains from markets (13 countries) and fields (6 countries), a total of 1578 rice grain samples were analysed for lead. From the market collected samples, only 0.6% of the samples exceeded the Chinese and EU limit of 0.2 μg g(-1) lead in rice (when excluding samples collected from known contaminated/mine impacted regions). When evaluating the rice grain samples against the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) provisional total tolerable intake (PTTI) values for children and pregnant women, it was found that only people consuming large quantities of rice were at risk of exceeding the PTTI from rice alone. Furthermore, 6 field experiments were conducted to evaluate the proportion of the variation in lead concentration in rice grains due to genetics. A total of 4 of the 6 field experiments had significant differences between genotypes, but when the genotypes common across all six field sites were assessed, only 4% of the variation was explained by genotype, with 9.5% and 11% of the variation explained by the environment and genotype by environment interaction respectively. Further work is needed to identify the sources of lead contamination in rice, with detailed information obtained on the locations and environments where the rice is sampled, so that specific risk assessments can be performed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterization of Volatile Flavor Compounds in Chinese Rice Wine Fermented from Enzymatic Extruded Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Enbo; Long, Jie; Wu, Zhengzong; Li, Hongyan; Wang, Fang; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu; Jiao, Aiquan

    2015-07-01

    Enzymatic extrusion, instead of traditional steam cooking, to treat rice is an efficient and alternative pretreatment for Chinese rice wine fermentation. In order to determine the formation of volatiles in enzymatic extrusion-processed rice wine (EE), and to confirm its characteristic flavor compounds, headspace solid-phase micro-extraction followed by GC-MS was used. A total of 66 volatile compounds were identified in EE. During fermentation, most volatiles generated from enzymatic extruded rice had the similar trends with those from steam-cooked rice, but the differences in the concentration of volatiles indicated a changed balance of flavors release caused by enzymatic extrusion. Besides, the concentrations and sorts of volatiles in EEs fermented from different rice particle sizes, were not dramatically different. By principal component analysis, EE could be distinctly separated from other traditional Chinese rice wines according to its characteristic volatiles, namely, 2-heptanol, 1-octen-3-ol, ethyl 4-hydroxybenzoate, methylpentyl 2-propenoate, γ-hexalactone, and 4-vinylguaiacol. Enzymatic extrusion liquefaction has been a popular thermal treatment for cereals, and gradually being applied in fermentation and liquor-making industry all over the world. The characterization of volatile flavor compounds in Chinese rice wine processed by enzymatic extrusion liquefaction pretreatment, might be made use not only for a better understanding of this new-type rice wine, but for the further utilization of enzymatic extrusion in other wine or alcohol production as well. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. An update on the use of co-products from the milling of rice in value added food products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because of the huge quantity of rice produced annually, milled-rice co-products; such as, rice bran, rice oil, rice wax, rice flour, and rice hull are plentiful and readily available. These co-products could be valuable sources of food ingredients, but they have been vastly under-utilized. Rice bra...

  11. Effects of screenhouse cultivation and organic materials incorporation on global warming potential in rice fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guochun; Liu, Xin; Wang, Qiangsheng; Xiong, Ruiheng; Hang, Yuhao

    2017-03-01

    Global rice production will be increasingly challenged by providing healthy food for a growing population at minimal environmental cost. In this study, a 2-year field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of a novel rice cultivation mode (screenhouse cultivation, SHC) and organic material (OM) incorporation (wheat straw and wheat straw-based biogas residue) on methane (CH 4 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions and rice yields. In addition, the environmental factors and soil properties were also determined. Relative to the traditional open-field cultivation (OFC), SHC decreased the CH 4 and N 2 O emissions by 6.58-18.73 and 2.51-21.35%, respectively, and the global warming potential (GWP) was reduced by 6.49-18.65%. This trend was mainly because of lower soil temperature and higher soil redox potential in SHC. Although the rice grain yield for SHC were reduced by 2.51-4.98% compared to the OFC, the CH 4 emissions and GWP per unit of grain yield (yield-scaled CH 4 emissions and GWP) under SHC were declined. Compared to use of inorganic fertilizer only (IN), combining inorganic fertilizer with wheat straw (WS) or wheat straw-based biogas residue (BR) improved rice grain yield by 2.12-4.10 and 4.68-5.89%, respectively. However, OM incorporation enhanced CH 4 emissions and GWP, leading to higher yield-scaled CH 4 emissions and GWP in WS treatment. Due to rice yield that is relatively high, there was no obvious effect of BR treatment on them. These findings suggest that apparent environmental benefit can be realized by applying SHC and fermenting straw aerobically before its incorporation.

  12. Electronics Environmental Benefits Calculator

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Electronics Environmental Benefits Calculator (EEBC) was developed to assist organizations in estimating the environmental benefits of greening their purchase,...

  13. Ability of Arkansas LaKast and LaKast Hybrid Rice Bran to Reduce Salmonella Typhimurium in Chicken Cecal Incubations and Effects on Cecal Microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Ae Kim

    2018-02-01

    production, its use as a prebiotic in chicken feed may add economic value benefiting both the rice and poultry industries.

  14. Mapping paddy rice planting area in rice-wetland coexistent areas through analysis of Landsat 8 OLI and MODIS images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuting; Xiao, Xiangming; Qin, Yuanwei; Dong, Jinwei; Zhang, Geli; Kou, Weili; Jin, Cui; Wang, Jie; Li, Xiangping

    2016-04-01

    Accurate and up-to-date information on the spatial distribution of paddy rice fields is necessary for the studies of trace gas emissions, water source management, and food security. The phenology-based paddy rice mapping algorithm, which identifies the unique flooding stage of paddy rice, has been widely used. However, identification and mapping of paddy rice in rice-wetland coexistent areas is still a challenging task. In this study, we found that the flooding/transplanting periods of paddy rice and natural wetlands were different. The natural wetlands flood earlier and have a shorter duration than paddy rice in the Panjin Plain, a temperate region in China. We used this asynchronous flooding stage to extract the paddy rice planting area from the rice-wetland coexistent area. MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) data was used to derive the temperature-defined plant growing season. Landsat 8 OLI imagery was used to detect the flooding signal and then paddy rice was extracted using the difference in flooding stages between paddy rice and natural wetlands. The resultant paddy rice map was evaluated with in-situ ground-truth data and Google Earth images. The estimated overall accuracy and Kappa coefficient were 95% and 0.90, respectively. The spatial pattern of OLI-derived paddy rice map agrees well with the paddy rice layer from the National Land Cover Dataset from 2010 (NLCD-2010). The differences between Rice Landsat and Rice NLCD are in the range of ±20% for most 1-km grid cell. The results of this study demonstrate the potential of the phenology-based paddy rice mapping algorithm, via integrating MODIS and Landsat 8 OLI images, to map paddy rice fields in complex landscapes of paddy rice and natural wetland in the temperate region.

  15. Rice saabus Euroopat taltsutama / Tõnu Prei

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Prei, Tõnu, 1950-

    2005-01-01

    USA välisminister Condolezza Rice alustas ringreisi Euroopas, eesmärgiks anda vastulöök USA-d tabanud kriitikale sõjavangide kohtlemise ja teistes riikides oma luuretalituse salavanglate pidamise pärast

  16. USING RICE BRAN IN LAYING HEN DIETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H ERSIN SAMLI

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Rice bran is an energy and protein rich ingredient used in poultry feeding. To balance energy and protein requirements. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of rice bran on performance and egg quality during peak production of a commercial White laying strain of 22 week of age. Dietary treatments were consisted by inclusion of rice bran at 0, 5, 10 and 15% levels. Each treatment had 6 reps in which 12 birds were randomly assigned in wired fl oor battery cages equipped with nipple drinkers and through feeders. Layers accessed to feed and water freely. Lighting regimen was adjusted to 16h light/8h dark. The experiment lasted for 10 weeks. Overall results of the present experiment indicated that rice bran could be included up to 10% without any adverse affect on laying performance, egg quality and digestive organs.

  17. Value added products with popular low grade rice varieties of Andhra Pradesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitha, G; Rajyalakshmi, P

    2014-12-01

    Eight Popular Low Grade Rice Varieties (PLRVs) MTU 3626, MTU 1001, MTU 1010, MTU 4870 and NLR 145, NLR 34242, NLR 30491, NLR 34449, (developed and released by ANGR agricultural University, Andhra Pradesh) having poor cooking quality were selected for the study. ANGRAU variety BPT 5204 popularly consumed as staple rice was used as check. Eight products of traditional/commercial importance were standardized incorporating PLRVs as a major ingredient in the form of rice flour (burfi, noodles and extruded snack product and vennaundalu (butter coated balls), palathalikalu (dough rolled into strips, steamed/cooked in milk); rice semolina (instant kheer mix and instant upma mix), and flaked rice (nutritious bar). The products were evaluated for nutritional, cooking quality characteristics, consumer acceptability and shelf-life. Consumer acceptability of the PLR products was carried out with 60 farm women based on 9 point hedonic scale. Shelf-life of the products (packed in both metalized PP and PE pouches) was evaluated monthly for chemical, microbiological and sensory parameters. Energy values of control and PLR products showed no significant difference. Upon cooking, PLR Noodles showed no significant difference with water absorption and volume but more (p instant kheer mix (92%) and extruded product (88%). As per sensory scores, all the PLR products were well accepted with no observable changes in flavor or taste upon storage. PLR products showed increased (P noodles and highest for burfi (though in safe limits). Extruded snacks (control and PLR) showed no microbial growth during the entire storage period. Considering the poor marketability of PLRVs for consumption as staple rice, the study signifies the utilitarian value of PLRVs in making products of convenience/commercial importance.

  18. OsWRKY74, a WRKY transcription factor, modulates tolerance to phosphate starvation in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Wen-Hao

    2016-02-01

    The WRKY transcription factor family has 109 members in the rice genome, and has been reported to be involved in the regulation of biotic and abiotic stress in plants. Here, we demonstrated that a rice OsWRKY74 belonging to group III of the WRKY transcription factor family was involved in tolerance to phosphate (Pi) starvation. OsWRKY74 was localized in the nucleus and mainly expressed in roots and leaves. Overexpression of OsWRKY74 significantly enhanced tolerance to Pi starvation, whereas transgenic lines with down-regulation of OsWRKY74 were sensitive to Pi starvation. Root and shoot biomass, and phosphorus (P) concentration in rice OsWRKY74-overexpressing plants were ~16% higher than those of wild-type (WT) plants in Pi-deficient hydroponic solution. In soil pot experiments, >24% increases in tiller number, grain weight and P concentration were observed in rice OsWRKY74-overexpressing plants compared to WT plants when grown in P-deficient medium. Furthermore, Pi starvation-induced changes in root system architecture were more profound in OsWRKY74-overexpressing plants than in WT plants. Expression patterns of a number of Pi-responsive genes were altered in the OsWRKY74-overexpressing and RNA interference lines. In addition, OsWRKY74 may also be involved in the response to deficiencies in iron (Fe) and nitrogen (N) as well as cold stress in rice. In Pi-deficient conditions, OsWRKY74-overexpressing plants exhibited greater accumulation of Fe and up-regulation of the cold-responsive genes than WT plants. These findings highlight the role of OsWRKY74 in modulation of Pi homeostasis and potential crosstalk between P starvation and Fe starvation, and cold stress in rice. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  19. Impacts of climate change on paddy rice yield in a temperate climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Han-Yong; Ko, Jonghan; Kang, Suchel; Tenhunen, John

    2013-02-01

    The crop simulation model is a suitable tool for evaluating the potential impacts of climate change on crop production and on the environment. This study investigates the effects of climate change on paddy rice production in the temperate climate regions under the East Asian monsoon system using the CERES-Rice 4.0 crop simulation model. This model was first calibrated and validated for crop production under elevated CO2 and various temperature conditions. Data were obtained from experiments performed using a temperature gradient field chamber (TGFC) with a CO2 enrichment system installed at Chonnam National University in Gwangju, Korea in 2009 and 2010. Based on the empirical calibration and validation, the model was applied to deliver a simulated forecast of paddy rice production for the region, as well as for the other Japonica rice growing regions in East Asia, projecting for years 2050 and 2100. In these climate change projection simulations in Gwangju, Korea, the yield increases (+12.6 and + 22.0%) due to CO2 elevation were adjusted according to temperature increases showing variation dependent upon the cultivars, which resulted in significant yield decreases (-22.1% and -35.0%). The projected yields were determined to increase as latitude increases due to reduced temperature effects, showing the highest increase for any of the study locations (+24%) in Harbin, China. It appears that the potential negative impact on crop production may be mediated by appropriate cultivar selection and cultivation changes such as alteration of the planting date. Results reported in this study using the CERES-Rice 4.0 model demonstrate the promising potential for its further application in simulating the impacts of climate change on rice production from a local to a regional scale under the monsoon climate system. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Genetic Diversity of Wild Rice Species in Yunnan Province of China

    OpenAIRE

    Zai-quan CHENG; Fu-you YING; Ding-qing LI; Teng-qiong YU; Jian FU; Hui-jun YAN; Qiao-fang ZHONG; Dun-yu ZHANG; Wei-jiao LI; Xing-qi HUANG

    2012-01-01

    Yunnan Province of China is one of the important centers for origin and evolution of cultivated rice worldwide. Wild rice is the ancestor of the cultivated rice. Many elite traits of wild rice have widened the genetic basis in cultivated rice. However, many populations of wild rice species have disappeared in the past few years. Therefore, the current status of wild rice resources should be updated and the genetic diversity of wild rice species should be examined for further germplasm preserv...

  1. Characterization of paralogous protein families in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Wei

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High gene numbers in plant genomes reflect polyploidy and major gene duplication events. Oryza sativa, cultivated rice, is a diploid monocotyledonous species with a ~390 Mb genome that has undergone segmental duplication of a substantial portion of its genome. This, coupled with other genetic events such as tandem duplications, has resulted in a substantial number of its genes, and resulting proteins, occurring in paralogous families. Results Using a computational pipeline that utilizes Pfam and novel protein domains, we characterized paralogous families in rice and compared these with paralogous families in the model dicotyledonous diploid species, Arabidopsis thaliana. Arabidopsis, which has undergone genome duplication as well, has a substantially smaller genome (~120 Mb and gene complement compared to rice. Overall, 53% and 68% of the non-transposable element-related rice and Arabidopsis proteins could be classified into paralogous protein families, respectively. Singleton and paralogous family genes differed substantially in their likelihood of encoding a protein of known or putative function; 26% and 66% of singleton genes compared to 73% and 96% of the paralogous family genes encode a known or putative protein in rice and Arabidopsis, respectively. Furthermore, a major skew in the distribution of specific gene function was observed; a total of 17 Gene Ontology categories in both rice and Arabidopsis were statistically significant in their differential distribution between paralogous family and singleton proteins. In contrast to mammalian organisms, we found that duplicated genes in rice and Arabidopsis tend to have more alternative splice forms. Using data from Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing, we show that a significant portion of the duplicated genes in rice show divergent expression although a correlation between sequence divergence and correlation of expression could be seen in very young genes. Conclusion

  2. The Potency of White Rice (Oryza sativa), Black Rice (Oryza sativa L. indica), and Red Rice (Oryza nivara) as Antioxidant and Tyrosinase Inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batubara, I.; Maharni, M.; Sadiah, S.

    2017-04-01

    Rice is known to have many beneficial biological activities and is often used as “bedak dingin”, a face powder. The content of vitamins, minerals, fiber, and several types of antioxidants, such as ferulic acid, phytic acid, tocopherol, and oryzanols [1-2] are predicted to be potential as a tyrosinase inhibitor. The purpose of this study is to determine the potency of extracts from there types of rice, namely white, red, and black rice as an antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitor. The rice was extracted with three different solvents, n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol. The results showed that the highest antioxidant activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl method was found in the methanol extract of black rice (IC50 290 μg/mL). Meanwhile, ethyl acetate extract of white rice has the highest antioxidant activity withphosphomolybdic acid method (41 mmol α-tocopherol equivalents/g sample). Thus, methanol extract of black rice and ethyl acetate extract of white rice are potential as an antioxidant. For tyrosinase inhibitor, n-hexane extract of red rice (IC50 3156 μg/mL) was the most active extract. The active component for radical scavenging is polar compound and for antioxidant by phosphomolybdate method is less polar compounds in black rice methanol extract based on TLC bioautogram. In conclusion, the black rice is the most potent in antioxidant while red rice is for tyrosinase inhibition.

  3. [Effects of rice cleaning and cooking process on the residues of flutolanil, fenobucarb, silafluofen and buprofezin in rice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Motoaki; Sakaguchi, Masayuki; Kobata, Masakazu; Sakaguchi, Yoko; Tanizawa, Haruna; Miura, Yuri; Sasano, Ryoichi; Nakanishi, Yutaka

    2003-02-01

    We studied the effect of cleaning and cooking on the residues of flutolanil, fenobucarb, silafluofen and buprofezin in rice. The rice had been sprayed in a paddy field in Wakayama city, with 3 kinds of pesticide application protocols: spraying once at the usual concentration of pesticides, repeated spraying (3 times) with the usual concentration of pesticides and spraying once with 3 times the usual concentration of pesticides. The residue levels of pesticide decreased during the rice cleaning process. Silafluofen, which has a higher log Pow value, remained in the hull of the rice. Fenobucarb, which has a lower log Pow value, penetrated inside the rice. The residue concentration of pesticide in polished rice was higher than that in pre-washed rice processed ready for cooking. During the cooking procedure, the reduction of pesticides in polished rice was higher than that in brown rice.

  4. Valorization of rice straw waste: production of porcelain tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Guzmán A

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The rice industry generates huge amounts of rice straw ashes (RSA. This paper presents the results of an experimental research work about the incorporation of RSA waste as a new alternative raw material for production of porcelain tiles. The RSA replaces, partially or completely, the non-plastic raw materials (quartz (feldspathic sand in this research and feldspar, that together with the clays, constitute the major constituents of formulations of porcelain tiles. A standard industrial composition (0% RSA and two more compositions in which feldspar and feldspathic sand were replaced with two percentages of RSA (12.5% RSA and 60% RSA were formulated, keeping the clay content constant. The mixtures were processed, reproducing industrial porcelain tile manufacturing conditions by the dry route and fired at peak temperatures varying from 1140-1260 ºC. The results showed that additions of 12.5% RSA in replacement of feldspar and feldspathic sand allowed producing porcelain tiles that did not display marked changes in processing behaviour, in addition to obtain a microstructure and the typical mineralogical phases of porcelain tile. Thus, an alternative use of an agricultural waste material is proposed, which can be translated into economic and environmental benefits.

  5. Biophysical and Mechanical properties of rice varieties: attributes to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It requires about 25N for the rice grain (IITA306) to fail at 0.7mm at horizontal and 150N to crack the rice grain in vertical position at 21.0mm, it takes 60N for the rice grain (MAS) to fail at 1.4mm and 150N to crack the rice grain at 22.5mm as well as 58N for the rice grain (R18) to fail at 1.2mm and 125N to crack the rice grain ...

  6. Effect of gamma irradiation on rice and its food products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, W.-C.

    2005-01-01

    Two milled indica rice varieties were exposed to gamma radiation with doses ranging from 0 to 1.0 kGy. The effects of gamma irradiation on rice flour pasting properties and the qualities of its food product, rice curd, were compared to the effects of storage. A dose of 1 kGy can decrease the flour paste viscosity and tenderize the texture of the rice curd to similar levels as those obtained after 12 months of storage. It was thus shown that gamma irradiation could shorten the indica rice aging time and improve the processing stability and quality of rice products

  7. Effect of gamma irradiation on rice and its food products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, W.-C. [Department of Hotel and Restaurant Management, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, 60 Erh-Jen Road, Sec. 1, Pao-An, Jen-Te Hsiang, Tainan 717, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: sungwilliam2001@yahoo.com.tw

    2005-07-01

    Two milled indica rice varieties were exposed to gamma radiation with doses ranging from 0 to 1.0 kGy. The effects of gamma irradiation on rice flour pasting properties and the qualities of its food product, rice curd, were compared to the effects of storage. A dose of 1 kGy can decrease the flour paste viscosity and tenderize the texture of the rice curd to similar levels as those obtained after 12 months of storage. It was thus shown that gamma irradiation could shorten the indica rice aging time and improve the processing stability and quality of rice products.

  8. A GAME THEORETIC ANALYSIS OF U.S. RICE EXPORT POLICY: THE CASE OF JAPAN AND KOREA

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Dae-Seob; Kennedy, P. Lynn

    2002-01-01

    As a result of the Uruguay Round (UR), the impact on the international rice market is dramatic.The major U.S. benefit of the UR has been the access to the Japanese market. However, the U.S. share of this import market has been unstable and the share of Korean rice market is nearly zero prior to February 2002. Econometric estimation and Political Preference Function (PPF) approach are incorporated into a game theoretic analysis to analyze U.S. export potential to Japan and Korea.

  9. An update on the use of rice in value-added food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because of the huge quantity of rice produced annually, milled-rice co-products; such as, rice flour, rice bran, rice wax, and rice hull are plentiful and readily available. These co-products could be valuable sources of food ingredients, but they have been vastly under-utilized. This is a report ...

  10. Evaluation of some mutant lines of rice induced by gamma radiation treatment 1. mean performance of rice mutants in M4 generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Banna, M.N.; El-Wakil, H.M.F.; Ebaid, R.A.; Sallam, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    Grains of eight rice mutants; SC 1, SC 6, RTY 1, RTY 3, HY 14, HYI 17, EH 4 and HYPI 22 were secured from Botany Department Faculty of Agriculture Cairo university. The procedures and the methodology for induction these mutants as well as the original mean performance of such mutants are presented else where; Sabbour, (1989) and Sabbour etal. (2002). Grains were sown (M4 generation) at the experimental farm in Itai EI-Baroud Agricultural Research Station Behaira Governorate Agricultural Research Center (ARC) in the summer season (2007). The mean performance of such mutants was studied during M4 generation. The most exciting results were as follows: the selected line SC 1 showed in M4 generation superior agronomic and yield traits. Sc 1 mutant line is not bred truly and it need more generations to reach stability. SC 6 in M4 generation showed considerable number of individuals scored low mean values toward the negative direction and lowering the overall trait mean performance. The rice lines RTY 1 and RTY 3 proved that, the average number of fertile tillers per plant of the selected lines maintained previously recorded mean values of M3 generation in M4. The traits showed significant differences among their progeny that recorded high CV% values as compared with those showed no significant differences. The rice lines HY 14 and HYI 17 showed a true breeding signs and no more breeding generations are required. Rice lines EH 4, showed a considerable reduction in number of days elapsed from date of cultivation till harvest. As, this mutant maintained 86.58 days till heading. Rice mutant line HYPI 22 did not bred truly for the original selected traits (high yield and high protein content) and it still need more generations of selection to reach considerable stability

  11. Magnesiothermic reduction of rice husk ash for electromagnetic wave adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Shu-Ting; Yan, Kang-kang; Zhang, Yuan hu; Jin, Shi-di; Ye, Ying; Chen, Xue-Gang, E-mail: chenxg83@zju.edu.cn

    2015-11-15

    The increase in electromagnetic pollution due to the extensive exploitation of electromagnetic (EM) waves in modern technology creates correspondingly urgent need for developing effective EM wave absorbers. In this study, we carried out the magnesiothermic reduced the rice husk ash under different temperatures (400–800 °C) and investigated the electromagnetic wave adsorption of the products. The EM absorbing for all samples are mainly depend on the dielectric loss, which is ascribed to the carbon and silicon carbide content. RA samples (raw rice husk ashed in air and was magesiothermic reduced in different temperatures) exhibit poor dielectric properties, whereas RN samples (raw rice husk ashed in nitrogen and was magesiothermic reduced in different temperatures) with higher content of carbon and silicon carbide display considerable higher dielectric loss values and broader bandwidth for RL<−5 dB and −10 dB. For RN samples, the maximum bandwidth for −5 dB and −10 dB decrease with carbon contents, while the optimum thickness decrease with increasing SiC content. The optimum thickness of RN400–800 for EM absorption is 1.5–2.0 mm, with maximum RL of between −28.9 and −68.4 dB, bandwidth of 6.7–13 GHz for RL<−5 dB and 3.2–6.2 GHz for RL<−10 dB. The magnesiothermic reduction will enhance the potential application of rice husk ash in EM wave absorption and the samples benefited from low bulk density and low thickness. With the advantages of light-weight, high EM wave absorption, low cost, RN400–800 could be promising candidates for light-weight EM wave absorption materials over many conventional EM wave absorbers. - Highlights: • RN400–800 samples are potential light-weight electromagnetic absorbers. • Carbon and SiC are considered as dominating contributions for the dielectric loss. • Magnesiumothermic reduction extends the EM wave absorption potential of RHN.

  12. Rice is the seed of the monocot plants Oryza sativa (Asian rice) or ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BIOTECH

    2013-10-16

    Oct 16, 2013 ... of culture. The regenerated plantlets were transferred to pots for acclimatization. About 80% of plants were survived in the greenhouse condition. Key words: Somatic embryogenesis, immature zygotic embryos, Indica rice, plant regeneration. INTRODUCTION. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most ...

  13. Genomic dissection of small RNAs in wild rice (Oryza rufipogon): lessons for rice domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Bai, Xuefei; Yan, Chenghai; Gui, Yiejie; Wei, Xinghua; Zhu, Qian-Hao; Guo, Longbiao; Fan, Longjiang

    2012-11-01

    The lack of a MIRNA set and genome sequence of wild rice (Oryza rufipogon) has prevented us from determining the role of MIRNA genes in rice domestication. In this study, a genome, three small RNA populations and a degradome of O. rufipogon were sequenced by Illumina platform and the expression levels of microRNAs (miRNAs) were investigated by miRNA chips. A de novo O. rufipogon genome was assembled using c. 55× coverage of raw sequencing data and a total of 387 MIRNAs were identified in the O. rufipogon genome based on c. 5.2 million unique small RNA reads from three different tissues of O. rufipogon. Of these, O. rufipogon MIRNAs, 259 were not found in the cultivated rice, suggesting a loss of these MIRNAs in the cultivated rice. We also found that 48 MIRNAs were novel in the cultivated rice, suggesting that they were potential targets of domestication selection. Some miRNAs showed significant expression differences between wild and cultivated rice, suggesting that expression of miRNA could also be a target of domestication, as demonstrated for the miR164 family. Our results illustrated that MIRNA genes, like protein-coding genes, might have been significantly shaped during rice domestication and could be one of the driving forces that contributed to rice domestication. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  14. Ethanol production from rice on radioactively contaminated field toward sustainable rice farming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Shinya; Izumi, Bintaro; Oki, Kazuo

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive species such as 137 Cs were discharged from Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant which was severely damaged by the enormous earthquake and tsunami. Cropland has been radioactively contaminated by 137 Cs etc. and it seems impossible to plant rice due to the non-suitability for food. According to the reports, 137 Cs transferred into the rice from soil is less than 1% on the average. Therefore, it is expected that the concentration of 137 Cs in bioethanol will be well below the tentative restriction value even if bioethanol could be produced from the rice. It is proposed that the rice field should be filled with water to avoid the flow of runoff contaminated by radioactive cesium compounds because they are insoluble in aqueous phase and that bioethanol should be produced from the rice in order to maintain the multifunction of rice field and to continue the agriculture. If rice farming is halted and neglected, agricultural function of rice field as well as local community will be permanently destroyed. (author)

  15. Development and characterization of emulsions containing purple rice bran and brown rice oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aims of this study were to characterize purple rice bran oil (PRBO) as extracted from the bran, and to produce and characterize a nano-emulsion containing purple rice bran oil. An emulsion was prepared using PRBO (10%), sodium caseinate (5%) and water (85%). The mixture was sonicated followed ...

  16. Do rice water weevils and rice stem borers compete when sharing a host plant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Sheng-Wei; He, Yan; Ji, Xiang-Hua; Jiang, Ming-Xing; Cheng, Jia-An

    2008-07-01

    The rice water weevil (RWW) Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an invasive insect pest of rice Oryza sativa L. in China. Little is known about the interactions of this weevil with indigenous herbivores. In the present study, adult feeding and population density of the weevil, injury level of striped stem borer Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and pink stem borer Sesamia inferens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to rice, as well as growth status of their host plants were surveyed in a rice field located in Southeastern Zhejiang, China, in 2004 with the objective to discover interspecific interactions on the rice. At tillering stage, both adult feeding of the weevil and injury of the stem borers tended to occur on larger tillers (bearing 5 leaves) compared with small tillers (bearing 2~4 leaves), but the insects showed no evident competition with each other. At booting stage, the stem borers caused more withering/dead hearts and the weevil reached a higher density on the plants which had more productive tillers and larger root system; the number of weevils per tiller correlated negatively with the percentage of withering/dead hearts of plants in a hill. These observations indicate that interspecific interactions exist between the rice water weevil and the rice stem borers with negative relations occurring at booting or earlier developmental stages of rice.

  17. Do rice water weevils and rice stem borers compete when sharing a host plant?*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Sheng-wei; He, Yan; Ji, Xiang-hua; Jiang, Ming-xing; Cheng, Jia-an

    2008-01-01

    The rice water weevil (RWW) Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an invasive insect pest of rice Oryza sativa L. in China. Little is known about the interactions of this weevil with indigenous herbivores. In the present study, adult feeding and population density of the weevil, injury level of striped stem borer Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and pink stem borer Sesamia inferens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to rice, as well as growth status of their host plants were surveyed in a rice field located in Southeastern Zhejiang, China, in 2004 with the objective to discover interspecific interactions on the rice. At tillering stage, both adult feeding of the weevil and injury of the stem borers tended to occur on larger tillers (bearing 5 leaves) compared with small tillers (bearing 2~4 leaves), but the insects showed no evident competition with each other. At booting stage, the stem borers caused more withering/dead hearts and the weevil reached a higher density on the plants which had more productive tillers and larger root system; the number of weevils per tiller correlated negatively with the percentage of withering/dead hearts of plants in a hill. These observations indicate that interspecific interactions exist between the rice water weevil and the rice stem borers with negative relations occurring at booting or earlier developmental stages of rice. PMID:18600788

  18. Simultaneous rough rice drying and rice bran stabilization using infrared radiation heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to develop a new rice drying method by using IR heating followed by tempering. Freshly harvested medium grain rice (M206) samples with different initial moisture contents (IMCs) were used in this study. The samples were dried for one- and two-passes by using a catalyt...

  19. Rice-eating quality among consumers in different rice grain preference countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suwannaporn, P.; Linnemann, A.R.

    2008-01-01

    More rice is eaten nowadays in traditionally nonrice-eating countries. This study investigated consumer eating quality preferences among consumers in target rice export countries to identify opportunities and strategic implications. A quantitative study with 1,128 consumers of target nationalities

  20. Characterization of rice bran wax policosanol and its nanoemulsion formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishaka A

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aminu Ishaka,1,2 Mustapha Umar Imam,1 Rozi Mahamud,3 Abu Bakar Zakaria Zuki,4 Ismail Maznah1 1Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Bioscience, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; 2Department of Medical Biochemistry, College of Health Sciences, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria; 3Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, 4Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia Abstract: Policosanol, a mixture of long-chain alcohols found in animal and plant waxes, has several biological effects; however, it has a bioavailability of less than 10%. Therefore, there is a need to improve its bioavailability, and one of the ways of doing this is by nanoemulsion formulation. Different droplet size distributions are usually achieved when emulsions are formed, which solely depends on the preparation method used. Mostly, emulsions are intended for better delivery with maintenance of the characteristics and properties of the leading components. In this study, policosanol was extracted from rice bran wax, its composition was determined by gas chromatography mass spectrophotometry, nanoemulsion was made, and the physical stability characteristics were determined. The results showed that policosanol nanoemulsion has a nanosize particle distribution below 100 nm (92.56–94.52 nm, with optimum charge distribution (-55.8 to -45.12 mV, pH (6.79–6.92 and refractive index (1.50; these were monitored and found to be stable for 8 weeks. The stability of policosanol nanoemulsion confers the potential to withstand long storage times. Keywords: rice bran wax, policosanol, nanoemulsion, characterization

  1. Instrumental neutron activation analysis to determine inorganic elements in paddy soil and rice and evaluate bioconcentration factors in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prapamon Seeprasert

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Increased anthropogenic activity, especially in thriving industries and mining activity, has led to the accumulation of inorganic elements in the soil. This study applied neutron activation analysis for the determination of inorganic element concentrations in paddy soils and quantified the nutrient value of paddy rice cultivated on various agricultural sites throughout Thailand. The determination accuracy of the elements—U, As, Sb, W, Mn, K, La, Cr, Hf, Cs, Sc, Fe, Co, Cd and Zn was assessed using National Institute of Standards and Technology standard reference materials; the results were satisfactory, showing low relative error. High analytical precision was also observed. Cadmium was selected to check the linearity of the calibration curve against a Cd standard. For a calibration curve in the range 1–9 μg, a correlation coefficient of 0.997 was found. Trace amounts of U, As, Sb, W, Mn, K, La, Cr, Hf, Cs, Sc, Fe, Co, Zn and Cd were also found in the soil samples. However, the Co, Cd, and Zn concentrations were especially high in agricultural sites in Tak province. The elemental concentrations in rice followed the order K > Zn > Mn. The data obtained are of potential benefit for the development of trace element supplementation in food.

  2. Development of Nutritious Snack from rice industry waste using twin screw extrusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Renu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Deoiled rice bran, a byproduct of rice milling industry was transformed into highly nutritious snack by the application of twin screw extrusion process. Response Surface Methodology (RSM with four- factor- five level central composite rotatable design (CCRD was employed to investigate the effects of extrusion conditions including moisture content of different raw flours, feed composition, barrel temperature and screw speed of extruder on properties of extrudates was studied. Second order quadratic regression model fitted adequately in the variation. The significance was established at P ≤ 0.05. The regression models can be used to interpret the effect of feed composition, moisture content, screw speed and barrel temperature on the properties of the final product. It was shown that higher rice bran in feed composition showed in minimum water absorption index and maximum water solubility index. Numerical optimization technique resulted in 123.83°C of barrel temperature, 294.68 rpm of screw speed, 13.94 % of feed moisture and 17.73 % of deoiled rice bran. The responses predicted for these optimum process conditions resulted water absorption index, 5.91468 g/g and water solubility index of 18.5553 % for the development of value added product with health benefits.

  3. Variation in Grain Quality of Upland Rice from Luang Prabang Province, Lao PDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vua Xiongsiyee

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Luang Prabang Province is located within the area recognized as the center of rice (Oryza sativa L. diversity in Lao PDR. This study reported on grain quality characteristics of 60 upland rice seed samples sharing 49 variety names collected from 6 villages in Luang Prabang in 2015. Most of the samples has non-pigmented pericarp, while red pericarp was found in four samples and purple in five samples. Almost all of the samples were of large grain type, with glutinous endosperm in 70% and non-glutinous endosperm in 30%. The brown (unpolished rice was found with a wide range of grain nutritional quality, including protein (9.2% ± 0.9%, Fe (15.9 ± 6.9 mg/kg, Zn (19.6 ± 2.1 mg/kg, anthocyanin (0.774 ± 0.880 mg/g, and anti-oxidative capacity (2.071 ± 1.373 mg/g. The varieties sharing similar names had similar morphological characteristics but varied in nutritional concentration, with required confirmation in genetic variation analysis. This study found that some rice varieties with high grain quality may benefit the farmers directly or could be used in varietal improvement programs.

  4. Electricity generation from rice husk in Indian rice mills: potential and financial viability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapur, T.; Kandpal, T.C.; Garg, H.P.

    1998-01-01

    Rice husk generated as a by-product of rice processing is an important energy resource. The availability of this resource in India has been assessed and the technologies for exploitation of its energy potential in the rice processing industry discussed. Nomographs have been developed for estimation of the husk required to meet the energy of parboiling, drying and milling operations. The unit cost of electricity using rice husk gasifier-based power generation systems has been calculated and its financial feasibility assessed in comparison with utility-supplied and diesel-generated electricity. With the cost and efficiency data assumed here, the unit cost of electricity produced by rice husk gasifier-dual fuel engine-generator system varies between Rs 2/kWh and Rs 7/kWh. (35 Rs approximates to SUS 1.). (author)

  5. Electricity generation from rice husk in Indian rice mills: potential and financial viability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapur, T.; Kandpal, T.C.; Garg, H.P. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Centre for Energy Studies, New Delhi (India)

    1998-12-31

    Rice husk generated as a by-product of rice processing is an important energy resource. The availability of this resource in India has been assessed and the technologies for exploitation of its energy potential in the rice processing industry discussed. Nomographs have been developed for estimation of the husk required to meet the energy of parboiling, drying and milling operations. The unit cost of electricity using rice husk gasifier-based power generation systems has been calculated and its financial feasibility assessed in comparison with utility-supplied and diesel-generated electricity. With the cost and efficiency data assumed here, the unit cost of electricity produced by rice husk gasifier-dual fuel engine-generator system varies between Rs 2/kWh and Rs 7/kWh. (35 Rs approximates to SUS 1.). (author)

  6. Evidence for Non-Transmission of Rice Yellow Mottle Virus (RYMV through Rice Seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sy, AA.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An indexing of the organs (radicle and plumule and components (husk, endosperm and embryo of rice seeds using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA was carried out to detect Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV and establish the exact location of the virus in the rice seed. RYMV was detected only in the husk (seed coat but not in the endosperm, plumule, radicle, nor embryo. None of the seedlings raised from the seeds expressed RYMV symptoms. No virus particle was detected by the ELISA test in the leaves of the screenhouse-reared plants obtained from seeds of infected plants. The results indicate that RYMV is apparently not transmitted through rice seed probably because the virus is seed-borne in the husk (seed coat of mature rice seeds.

  7. Effect of Temperature on Chinese Rice Wine Brewing with High Concentration Presteamed Whole Sticky Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dengfeng Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of high quality Chinese rice wine largely depends on fermentation temperature. However, there is no report on the ethanol, sugars, and acids kinetics in the fermentation mash of Chinese rice wine treated at various temperatures. The effects of fermentation temperatures on Chinese rice wine quality were investigated. The compositions and concentrations of ethanol, sugars, glycerol, and organic acids in the mash of Chinese rice wine samples were determined by HPLC method. The highest ethanol concentration and the highest glycerol concentration both were attained at the fermentation mash treated at 23°C. The highest peak value of maltose (90 g/L was obtained at 18°C. Lactic acid and acetic acid both achieved maximum values at 33°C. The experimental results indicated that temperature contributed significantly to the ethanol production, acid flavor contents, and sugar contents in the fermentation broth of the Chinese rice wines.

  8. Effect of Temperature on Chinese Rice Wine Brewing with High Concentration Presteamed Whole Sticky Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Tao; Xiong, Weili; Hu, Jianhua; Xu, Baoguo; Lin, Chi-Chung; Xu, Ling; Jiang, Lihua

    2014-01-01

    Production of high quality Chinese rice wine largely depends on fermentation temperature. However, there is no report on the ethanol, sugars, and acids kinetics in the fermentation mash of Chinese rice wine treated at various temperatures. The effects of fermentation temperatures on Chinese rice wine quality were investigated. The compositions and concentrations of ethanol, sugars, glycerol, and organic acids in the mash of Chinese rice wine samples were determined by HPLC method. The highest ethanol concentration and the highest glycerol concentration both were attained at the fermentation mash treated at 23°C. The highest peak value of maltose (90 g/L) was obtained at 18°C. Lactic acid and acetic acid both achieved maximum values at 33°C. The experimental results indicated that temperature contributed significantly to the ethanol production, acid flavor contents, and sugar contents in the fermentation broth of the Chinese rice wines. PMID:24672788

  9. Designing Human and Kitchen Waste Based Biogas & Solar Plant for PabnaUniversity of Science & Technology (PUST)Campus and Cost Benefit Analysis after Renewable Energy Interconnection on PUST Campus’s Grid Network

    OpenAIRE

    M. F. Ali; Rabiul Islam

    2014-01-01

    Bangladesh is facing serious energy crisis which is a great barrier for development and poverty alleviation. Shortage of electric power generation causes a significant amount of load shedding and which causes a great loss, discomfort and inconvenience in Domestic life. Students suffer most as it hampers their studies, examination and regular activities. Important University activities remain halted during load shedding, which have a severe effect in overall national development. Some of th...

  10. WRKY transcription factor genes in wild rice Oryza nivara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hengjian; Watanabe, Kenneth A; Zhang, Liyuan; Shen, Qingxi J

    2016-08-01

    The WRKY transcription factor family is one of the largest gene families involved in plant development and stress response. Although many WRKY genes have been studied in cultivated rice (Oryza sativa), the WRKY genes in the wild rice species Oryza nivara, the direct progenitor of O. sativa, have not been studied. O. nivara shows abundant genetic diversity and elite drought and disease resistance features. Herein, a total of 97 O. nivara WRKY (OnWRKY) genes were identified. RNA-sequencing demonstrates that OnWRKY genes were generally expressed at higher levels in the roots of 30-day-old plants. Bioinformatic analyses suggest that most of OnWRKY genes could be induced by salicylic acid, abscisic acid, and drought. Abundant potential MAPK phosphorylation sites in OnWRKYs suggest that activities of most OnWRKYs can be regulated by phosphorylation. Phylogenetic analyses of OnWRKYs support a novel hypothesis that ancient group IIc OnWRKYs were the original ancestors of only some group IIc and group III WRKYs. The analyses also offer strong support that group IIc OnWRKYs containing the HVE sequence in their zinc finger motifs were derived from group Ia WRKYs. This study provides a solid foundation for the study of the evolution and functions of WRKY genes in O. nivara. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Kazusa DNA Research Institute.

  11. Critical Period of Weed Control in Aerobic Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, M. P.; Juraimi, A. S.; Samedani, B.; Puteh, A.; Man, A.

    2012-01-01

    Critical period of weed control is the foundation of integrated weed management and, hence, can be considered the first step to design weed control strategy. To determine critical period of weed control of aerobic rice, field trials were conducted during 2010/2011 at Universiti Putra Malaysia. A quantitative series of treatments comprising two components, (a) increasing duration of weed interference and (b) increasing length of weed-free period, were imposed. Critical period was determined through Logistic and Gompertz equations. Critical period varied between seasons; in main season, it started earlier and lasted longer, as compared to off-season. The onset of the critical period was found relatively stable between seasons, while the end was more variable. Critical period was determined as 7–49 days after seeding in off-season and 7–53 days in main season to achieve 95% of weed-free yield, and 23–40 days in off-season and 21–43 days in main season to achieve 90% of weed-free yield. Since 5% yield loss level is not practical from economic view point, a 10% yield loss may be considered excellent from economic view point. Therefore, aerobic rice should be kept weed-free during 21–43 days for better yield and higher economic return. PMID:22778701

  12. Development of Ozone Technology Rice Storage Systems (OTRISS) for Quality Improvement of Rice Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur, M; Kusdiyantini, E; Wuryanti, W; Winarni, T A; Widyanto, S A; Muharam, H

    2015-01-01

    This research has been carried out by using ozone to address the rapidly declining quality of rice in storage. In the first year, research has focused on the rice storage with ozone technology for small capacity (e.g., household) and the medium capacity (e.g., dormitories, hospitals). Ozone was produced by an ozone generator with Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma (DBDP). Ozone technology rice storage system (OTRISS) is using ozone charateristic which is a strong oxidizer. Ozone have a short endurance of existence and then decompose, as a result produce oxygen and radicals of oxygen. These characteristics could kill microorganisms and pests, reduce air humidity and enrich oxygen. All components used in SPBTO assembled using raw materials available in the big cities in Indonesia. Provider of high voltage (High Voltage Power Supply, 40-70 kV, 23 KH, AC) is one of components that have been assembled and tested. Ozone generator is assembled with 7 reactors of Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma (DBDP). Rice container that have been prepared for OTRISS have adjusted so can be integrated with generator, power supply and blower to blow air. OTRISS with a capacity of 75 kg and 100 kg have been made and tested. The ability of ozone to eliminate bacteria and fungi have been tested and resulted in a decrease of microorganisms at 3 log CFU/g. Testing in food chemistry showed that ozone treatment of rice had not changed the chemical content that still meet the standard of chemical content and nutritional applicable to ISO standard milled rice. The results of this study are very likely to be used as an alternative to rice storage systems in warehouse. Test and scale-up is being carried out in a mini warehouse whose condition is mimicked to rice in National Rice Storage of Indonesia (Bulog) to ensure quality. Next adaptations would be installed in the rice storage system in the Bulog. (paper)

  13. Stanford, Duke, Rice,... and Gates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an open letter to Bill Gates. In his letter, the author suggests that Bill Gates should build a brand-new university, a great 21st-century institution of higher learning. This university will be unlike anything the world has ever seen. He asks Bill Gates not to stop helping existing colleges create the higher-education system…

  14. Genome-wide analysis of Dongxiang wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) to investigate lost/acquired genes during rice domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fantao; Xu, Tao; Mao, Linyong; Yan, Shuangyong; Chen, Xiwen; Wu, Zhenfeng; Chen, Rui; Luo, Xiangdong; Xie, Jiankun; Gao, Shan

    2016-04-26

    It is widely accepted that cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) was domesticated from common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.). Compared to other studies which concentrate on rice origin, this study is to genetically elucidate the substantially phenotypic and physiological changes from wild rice to cultivated rice at the whole genome level. Instead of comparing two assembled genomes, this study directly compared the Dongxiang wild rice (DXWR) Illumina sequencing reads with the Nipponbare (O. sativa) complete genome without assembly of the DXWR genome. Based on the results from the comparative genomics analysis, structural variations (SVs) between DXWR and Nipponbare were determined to locate deleted genes which could have been acquired by Nipponbare during rice domestication. To overcome the limit of the SV detection, the DXWR transcriptome was also sequenced and compared with the Nipponbare transcriptome to discover the genes which could have been lost in DXWR during domestication. Both 1591 Nipponbare-acquired genes and 206 DXWR-lost transcripts were further analyzed using annotations from multiple sources. The NGS data are available in the NCBI SRA database with ID SRP070627. These results help better understanding the domestication from wild rice to cultivated rice at the whole genome level and provide a genomic data resource for rice genetic research or breeding. One finding confirmed transposable elements contribute greatly to the genome evolution from wild rice to cultivated rice. Another finding suggested the photophosphorylation and oxidative phosphorylation system in cultivated rice could have adapted to environmental changes simultaneously during domestication.

  15. Cytoplasmic-genetic male sterility gene provides direct evidence for some hybrid rice recently evolving into weedy rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingxu; Lu, Zuomei; Dai, Weimin; Song, Xiaoling; Peng, Yufa; Valverde, Bernal E.; Qiang, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Weedy rice infests paddy fields worldwide at an alarmingly increasing rate. There is substantial evidence indicating that many weedy rice forms originated from or are closely related to cultivated rice. There is suspicion that the outbreak of weedy rice in China may be related to widely grown hybrid rice due to its heterosis and the diversity of its progeny, but this notion remains unsupported by direct evidence. We screened weedy rice accessions by both genetic and molecular marker tests for the cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) genes (Wild abortive, WA, and Boro type, BT) most widely used in the production of indica and japonica three-line hybrid rice as a diagnostic trait of direct parenthood. Sixteen weedy rice accessions of the 358 tested (4.5%) contained the CMS-WA gene; none contained the CMS-BT gene. These 16 accessions represent weedy rices recently evolved from maternal hybrid rice derivatives, given the primarily maternal inheritance of this trait. Our results provide key direct evidence that hybrid rice can be involved in the evolution of some weedy rice accessions, but is not a primary factor in the recent outbreak of weedy rice in China. PMID:26012494

  16. Cytoplasmic-genetic male sterility gene provides direct evidence for some hybrid rice recently evolving into weedy rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingxu; Lu, Zuomei; Dai, Weimin; Song, Xiaoling; Peng, Yufa; Valverde, Bernal E; Qiang, Sheng

    2015-05-27

    Weedy rice infests paddy fields worldwide at an alarmingly increasing rate. There is substantial evidence indicating that many weedy rice forms originated from or are closely related to cultivated rice. There is suspicion that the outbreak of weedy rice in China may be related to widely grown hybrid rice due to its heterosis and the diversity of its progeny, but this notion remains unsupported by direct evidence. We screened weedy rice accessions by both genetic and molecular marker tests for the cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) genes (Wild abortive, WA, and Boro type, BT) most widely used in the production of indica and japonica three-line hybrid rice as a diagnostic trait of direct parenthood. Sixteen weedy rice accessions of the 358 tested (4.5%) contained the CMS-WA gene; none contained the CMS-BT gene. These 16 accessions represent weedy rices recently evolved from maternal hybrid rice derivatives, given the primarily maternal inheritance of this trait. Our results provide key direct evidence that hybrid rice can be involved in the evolution of some weedy rice accessions, but is not a primary factor in the recent outbreak of weedy rice in China.

  17. Breeding of a new early season indica rice variety Ganzaoxian 56 by irradiation, anther culture and hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yingjin; Liu Yibai; Kuang Huiyun; Xu Zhengjin

    2005-01-01

    Ganzaoxian 56 is a new early season indica rice variety, which was bred in the College of Agronomy of Jiangxi Agricultural University by the integrative breeding techniques of radiation, anther culture and hybridization. Its main characteristics were as follows: super quality, high yield, high tolerance to heat-forced maturity, suitable maturity and high resistance to rice blast. It was registered by Crop Cultivar Registration Committee of Jiangxi Province on March 19, 2004. The breeding process of Ganzaoxian 56, main characteristics and the value of its exploitation and application were described in this paper. (authors)

  18. Efficacy and economics of different herbicides in aerobic rice system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-03

    Aug 3, 2011 ... options for effective and economic weed control in rice under aerobic system ... constraint to aerobic rice production and therefore, ... Herbicide has become an attractive alternative to manual ... MATERIALS AND METHODS.

  19. Water culture of the rice containing Cs-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yong Ho; Keum, Dong Kwon; Lim, Kwang Muk; Jun, In; Park, Doo Won

    2008-10-01

    Pot experiments were carried out in a greenhouse in order to produce Cs-137-containing rice seeds as a source material for use in manufacturing reference rice samples of a high Cs-137 activity. Two kinds of soil were used and two pots were prepared for each kind of soil. Rice plants were water-cultured in the pots and Cs-137 was applied to the surface water to induce a Cs-137 contamination of rice seeds via a plant uptake of Cs-137. Mature rice plants were harvested and Cs-137-containing rice seeds were obtained after some treatment of the harvested plants. These produced rice seeds are going to be provided for the KRISS so as to be used in manufacturing reference rice samples for Cs-137

  20. Identification of quantitative trait loci for salinity tolerance in rice ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-12-05

    Dec 5, 2016 ... most serious biophysical constraints of rice production in many rice-producing areas ..... Thus, the large gaps in the chromosomal regions without ..... an elite maize population: I. Linkage analysis and determination of QTLs for.

  1. Production Cost Efficiency and Profitability of Abakaliki Rice in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    2014-11-17

    Nov 17, 2014 ... positive and significant effect on the total cost of rice production. They were all significant ... failure is experienced due to the flooded rice field. In addition ... for random effects on production beyond the control .... Standard error.

  2. Systemic induced tolerance against root-knot nematodes in rice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Rice plantlets were randomly grown in laboratory, sprayed with hormones and riboflavin .... between riboflavin, SA, JA and ET pathways in rice-nematodes interaction, ..... oxidative damage caused by aging as well as biotic and abiotic stress.

  3. greenhouse gaseous emission and energy analysis in rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Agriculture in Africa is associated with low food production. The attempt ... objective of this study was to assess greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy impacts of rice production in. Ghana. .... Assessment (LCA) techniques, tropical rice.

  4. 10559 A NATIONAL SURVEY OF RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.) GRAIN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    The study provided quantitative measures of the quality status of rice grains available in Sierra ... using the most convenient methods at their disposal. ... rice, moisture content of grains and percentages of foreign matter, chalky immature grains ...

  5. Cost of influenza hospitalization at a tertiary care children's hospital and its impact on the cost-benefit analysis of the recommendation for universal influenza immunization in children age 6 to 23 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jennifer L; Katz, Ben Z

    2005-12-01

    To calculate the costs of influenza hospitalization at a tertiary care children's hospital as the basis of a cost-benefit analysis of the new influenza vaccine recommendation for children age 6 to 23 months. We reviewed the medical records of all patients admitted to Children's Memorial Hospital (CMH) in 2002 diagnosed with influenza. Total hospital costs were obtained from the Business Development Office. Thirty-five charts were analyzed. Both of the 2 patients requiring mechanical ventilation and 4 of 6 patients admitted to the intensive care unit had high-risk underlying medical conditions. Nine children were age 6 to 23 months; 4 of these 9 had no preexisting medical conditions. Had all 18 high-risk children over age 6 months been protected from influenza, approximately $350,000 in hospital charges could have been saved. Preventing the additional 4 hospitalizations in the otherwise low-risk children age 6 to 23 months for whom vaccine is currently recommended would have cost approximately $281,000 ($46/child) more than the hospital charges saved. When all children age 6 to 23 months are considered, influenza vaccination is less costly than other prophylactic measures. Addition of indirect costs, deaths, outpatient costs, and the cost of secondary cases would favor the cost:benefit ratio for influenza vaccination of all children age 6 to 23 months.

  6. The Evolution of Scientific Trajectories in Rice: Mapping the Relation between Research and Societal Priorities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciarli, T.; Rafols, I.

    2016-07-01

    How do specific technologies emerge? How is the scientific research related to technologies prioritised, in governments, firms, universities, and other actors involved in research? Related to these questions is the question of how we investigate trajectories of science and technologies, and how to model their relation. In this paper we aim to answer the initial question for a case study, rice, proposing to use new data, methods, and indicators. We discuss a number of insights on the evolution of the research trajectory on rice since the 1980’s, worldwide and for a number of countries which dominate the world rankings in rice production and/or in rice publications. Using a number of socio-economic indicators at the country level, we relate priorities on the research side (publication topics) and on the societal side finding limited relations between supply and demand of research. In the paper we also discuss the combination of scientometric and socio-economic indicators, suggesting that they may be useful for future research on the relation between societal needs and research priorities. (Author)

  7. Elemental analysis of different varieties of rice samples using XRF technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Jaspreet, E-mail: gillpreet05051812@gmail.com; Kumar, Anil, E-mail: gilljaspreet06@gmail.com [Department of Basic and Applied Physics, Punjabi University, Patiala 147002 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Rice is most consumed staple food in the world providing over 21% of the calorie intake of world’s population having high yielding capacity. Elements detected in rice are Al, As, Br, Cd, Cl, Co, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Rb, Se and Zn by using Instrumental Neutron Activation with k0 standardization (R. Jayasekera etal,2004). Some of these trace elements are C, H, O, N, S, Ca, P, K, Na, Cl, Mn, Ti, Mg, Cu, Fe, Ni, Si and Zn are essential for growth of human physique The deficiency or excess of these elements in food is known to cause a variety of malnutrition or health disorders in the world. Every year, various varieties of rice are launched by Punjab Agriculture University, Ludhiana. The main purpose of which is to increases the yield to attain the maximum profit. But this leads to changing the elemental concentration in them, which may affect the human health according to variation in the nutrition values. The main objective is to study the presence of elemental concentration in various varieties of rice using EDXRF technique.

  8. Gain-of-function mutagenesis approaches in rice for functional genomics and improvement of crop productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moin, Mazahar; Bakshi, Achala; Saha, Anusree; Dutta, Mouboni; Kirti, P B

    2017-07-01

    The epitome of any genome research is to identify all the existing genes in a genome and investigate their roles. Various techniques have been applied to unveil the functions either by silencing or over-expressing the genes by targeted expression or random mutagenesis. Rice is the most appropriate model crop for generating a mutant resource for functional genomic studies because of the availability of high-quality genome sequence and relatively smaller genome size. Rice has syntenic relationships with members of other cereals. Hence, characterization of functionally unknown genes in rice will possibly provide key genetic insights and can lead to comparative genomics involving other cereals. The current review attempts to discuss the available gain-of-function mutagenesis techniques for functional genomics, emphasizing the contemporary approach, activation tagging and alterations to this method for the enhancement of yield and productivity of rice. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Elemental analysis of different varieties of rice samples using XRF technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Jaspreet; Kumar, Anil

    2016-01-01

    Rice is most consumed staple food in the world providing over 21% of the calorie intake of world’s population having high yielding capacity. Elements detected in rice are Al, As, Br, Cd, Cl, Co, Cs, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Rb, Se and Zn by using Instrumental Neutron Activation with k0 standardization (R. Jayasekera etal,2004). Some of these trace elements are C, H, O, N, S, Ca, P, K, Na, Cl, Mn, Ti, Mg, Cu, Fe, Ni, Si and Zn are essential for growth of human physique The deficiency or excess of these elements in food is known to cause a variety of malnutrition or health disorders in the world. Every year, various varieties of rice are launched by Punjab Agriculture University, Ludhiana. The main purpose of which is to increases the yield to attain the maximum profit. But this leads to changing the elemental concentration in them, which may affect the human health according to variation in the nutrition values. The main objective is to study the presence of elemental concentration in various varieties of rice using EDXRF technique.

  10. Field evidence for the potential of Rhodobacter capsulatus as Biofertilizer for flooded rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamal-Eldin, Hosny; Elbanna, Khaled

    2011-02-01

    In a previous study, we evaluated the effects of inoculating rice plants with the phototrophic purple nonsulfur bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus (Rc) on growth and yield of rice in pots and lysimeter experiments and the results obtained have been highly encouraging. In this study, we carried out two field experiments: one in the experimental farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, Fayoum University, and the second in a farmer's field in Kafr El-sheikh, to assess the effects of Rc on growth and yield of rice in comparison and in combination with chemical nitrogen fertilizer (CNF) and farmyard manure. The results indicated that both biological and grain yields in all the Rc inoculated treatments were significantly higher than those in the uninoculated corresponding treatments in both fields. With regard to grain yield, the major factor for determining the effectiveness of any agricultural treatment, inoculation with Rc in combination with 50% of the recommended CNF rate gave a grain yield that was statistically equivalent to that obtained with 100% of the recommended CNF rate. These results provide a clear evidence for the potential of Rc as biofertilizer for flooded rice under field conditions.

  11. High Temperature During Rice Grain Filling Enhances Aspartate Metabolism in Grains and Results in Accumulation of Aspartate-Family Amino Acids and Protein Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-gang LIANG

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Global warming causes the exacerbation of rice growing environment, which seriously affects rice growth and reproduction, and finally results in the decrease of rice yield and quality. We investigated the activities of aspartate metabolism enzymes in grains, and the contents of Aspartate-family amino acids and protein components to further understand the effects of high temperature (HT on rice nutritional quality during rice grain filling. Under HT, the average activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AAT and aspartokinase (AK in grains significantly increased, the amino acid contents of aspartate (Asp, lysine (Lys, threonine (Thr, methionine (Met and isoleucine (Ile and the protein contents of albumin, globulin, prolamin and glutelin also significantly increased. The results indicated that HT enhanced Asp metabolism during rice grain filling and the enhancement of Asp metabolism might play an important role in the increase of Asp-family amino acids and protein components in grains. In case of the partial appraisal of the change of Asp-family amino acids and protein components under HT, we introduced eight indicators (amino acid or protein content, ratio of amino acid or protein, amino acid or protein content per grain and amino acid or protein content per panicle to estimate the effects of HT. It is suggested that HT during rice grain filling was benefit for the accumulation of Asp-family amino acids and protein components. Combined with the improvement of Asp-family amino acid ratio in grains under HT, it is suggested that HT during grain filling may improve the rice nutritional quality. However, the yields of parts of Asp-family amino acids and protein components were decreased under HT during rice grain filling.

  12. Growth and Cd uptake by rice (Oryza sativa) in acidic and Cd-contaminated paddy soils amended with steel slag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Huaidong; Tam, Nora F Y; Yao, Aijun; Qiu, Rongliang; Li, Wai Chin; Ye, Zhihong

    2017-12-01

    Contamination of rice (Oryza sativa) by Cd is of great concern. Steel slag could be used to amend Cd-contaminated soils and make them safe for cereal production. This work was conducted to study the effects of steel slag on Cd uptake and growth of rice plants in acidic and Cd-contaminated paddy soils and to determine the possible mechanisms behind these effects. Pot (rhizobag) experiments were conducted using rice plants grown on two acidic and Cd-contaminated paddy soils with or without steel slag amendment. Steel slag amendment significantly increased grain yield by 36-45% and root catalase activity, and decreased Cd concentrations in brown rice by 66-77% compared with the control, in both soils. Steel slag amendment also markedly decreased extractable soil Cd, Cd concentrations in pore-water and Cd translocation from roots to above-ground parts. It also significantly increased soil pH, extractable Si and Ca in soils and Ca concentrations in roots. Significant positive correlations were found between extractable soil Cd and Cd concentrations in rice tissues, but it was negatively correlated with soil pH and extractable Si. Calcium in root tissues significantly and negatively correlated with Cd translocation factors from roots to straw. Overall, steel slag amendment not only significantly promoted rice growth but decreased Cd accumulation in brown rice. These benefits appear to be related to improvements in soil conditions (e.g. increasing pH, extractable Si and Ca), a reduction in extractable soil Cd, and suppression of Cd translocation from roots to above-ground parts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Integrated rice-duck farming decreases global warming potential and increases net ecosystem economic budget in central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Feng; Cao, Cou-Gui; Li, Cheng-Fang

    2018-05-31

    Over the past decades, many attempts have been made to assess the effects of integrated rice-duck farming on greenhouse gas emissions, use efficient of energy, soil fertility, and economic significance. However, very few studies have been focused on the effects of the farming on net ecosystem economic budget (NEEB). Here, a 2-year field experiment was conducted to comprehensively investigate the effects of ducks raised in paddy fields on CH 4 and N 2 O emissions, global warming potential (GWP), rice grain yield, and NEEB in central China. The experiment included two treatments: integrated rice-duck farming (RD) and conventional rice farming (R). The introduction of ducks into the paddy fields markedly increased the rice grain yield due to enhanced tiller number and root bleeding rate. RD treatment significantly elevated the N 2 O emissions (p < 0.05) but decreased CH 4 emissions (p < 0.05) during rice growing seasons compared with R treatment. Analysis of GWP based on CH 4 and N 2 O emissions showed that compared with R treatment, RD treatment significantly decreased the GWP by 28.1 and 28.0% and reduced the greenhouse gas intensity by 30.6 and 29.8% in 2009 and 2010, respectively. In addition, RD treatment increased NEEB by 40.8 and 39.7% respectively in 2009 and 2010 relative to R treatment. Taken together, our results suggest that the integrated rice-duck farming system is an effective strategy to optimize the economic and environmental benefits of paddy fields in central China.

  14. ?-Oryzanols of North American Wild Rice (Zizania palustris)

    OpenAIRE

    Aladedunye, Felix; Przybylski, Roman; Rudzinska, Magdalena; Klensporf-Pawlik, Dorota

    2013-01-01

    ?-Oryzanol, a natural mixture of ferulic acid esters of triterpene alcohols and sterols, are an important bioactive components present in rice bran oil. In light of the recent increase in the popularity of wild rice among consumers, and the possibility of a direct relationship between ?-oryzanol composition and its bioactivity, the oryzanol profile of major wild rice (Zizania palustris) grown in North America was studied and compared to regular brown rice (Oryza sativa L.). A total of twenty-...

  15. Rice Genome Research: Current Status and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Han

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Rice ( L. is the leading genomics system among the crop plants. The sequence of the rice genome, the first cereal plant genome, was published in 2005. This review summarizes progress made in rice genome annotations, comparative genomics, and functional genomics researches. It also maps out the status of rice genomics globally and provides a vision of future research directions and resource building.

  16. Organic rice of Bangladesh: focus on disease control

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain, Shaikh Tanveer

    2012-01-01

    Diseases play an important role in rice production. In modern agriculture, application of hazardous chemicals is a common practice allover the world. But organic rice production system does not allow synthetic agro-chemicals due to its adverse effect on environment as well as human health. Thirty six fungal, twenty one viral, six bacterial and six nematode diseases have been recorded in rice. In Bangladesh, 31 rice diseases have been so far identified of which ten are considered as major. She...

  17. Revisiting GMOs: Are There Differences in European Consumers' Acceptance and Valuation for Cisgenically vs Transgenically Bred Rice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Cécile Delwaide

    Full Text Available Both cisgenesis and transgenesis are plant breeding techniques that can be used to introduce new genes into plant genomes. However, transgenesis uses gene(s from a non-plant organism or from a donor plant that is sexually incompatible with the recipient plant while cisgenesis involves the introduction of gene(s from a crossable--sexually compatible--plant. Traditional breeding techniques could possibly achieve the same results as those from cisgenesis, but would require a much larger timeframe. Cisgenesis allows plant breeders to enhance an existing cultivar more quickly and with little to no genetic drag. The current regulation in the European Union (EU on genetically modified organisms (GMOs treats cisgenic plants the same as transgenic plants and both are mandatorily labeled as GMOs. This study estimates European consumers' willingness-to-pay (WTP for rice labeled as GM, cisgenic, with environmental benefits (which cisgenesis could provide, or any combination of these three attributes. Data were collected from 3,002 participants through an online survey administered in Belgium, France, the Netherlands, Spain and the United Kingdom in 2013. Censored regression models were used to model consumers' WTP in each country. Model estimates highlight significant differences in WTP across countries. In all five countries, consumers are willing-to-pay a premium to avoid purchasing rice labeled as GM. In all countries except Spain, consumers have a significantly higher WTP to avoid consuming rice labeled as GM compared to rice labeled as cisgenic, suggesting that inserting genes from the plant's own gene pool is more acceptable to consumers. Additionally, French consumers are willing-to-pay a premium for rice labeled as having environmental benefits compared to conventional rice. These findings suggest that not all GMOs are the same in consumers' eyes and thus, from a consumer preference perspective, the differences between transgenic and cisgenic

  18. Revisiting GMOs: Are There Differences in European Consumers' Acceptance and Valuation for Cisgenically vs Transgenically Bred Rice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delwaide, Anne-Cécile; Nalley, Lawton L; Dixon, Bruce L; Danforth, Diana M; Nayga, Rodolfo M; Van Loo, Ellen J; Verbeke, Wim

    2015-01-01

    Both cisgenesis and transgenesis are plant breeding techniques that can be used to introduce new genes into plant genomes. However, transgenesis uses gene(s) from a non-plant organism or from a donor plant that is sexually incompatible with the recipient plant while cisgenesis involves the introduction of gene(s) from a crossable--sexually compatible--plant. Traditional breeding techniques could possibly achieve the same results as those from cisgenesis, but would require a much larger timeframe. Cisgenesis allows plant breeders to enhance an existing cultivar more quickly and with little to no genetic drag. The current regulation in the European Union (EU) on genetically modified organisms (GMOs) treats cisgenic plants the same as transgenic plants and both are mandatorily labeled as GMOs. This study estimates European consumers' willingness-to-pay (WTP) for rice labeled as GM, cisgenic, with environmental benefits (which cisgenesis could provide), or any combination of these three attributes. Data were collected from 3,002 participants through an online survey administered in Belgium, France, the Netherlands, Spain and the United Kingdom in 2013. Censored regression models were used to model consumers' WTP in each country. Model estimates highlight significant differences in WTP across countries. In all five countries, consumers are willing-to-pay a premium to avoid purchasing rice labeled as GM. In all countries except Spain, consumers have a significantly higher WTP to avoid consuming rice labeled as GM compared to rice labeled as cisgenic, suggesting that inserting genes from the plant's own gene pool is more acceptable to consumers. Additionally, French consumers are willing-to-pay a premium for rice labeled as having environmental benefits compared to conventional rice. These findings suggest that not all GMOs are the same in consumers' eyes and thus, from a consumer preference perspective, the differences between transgenic and cisgenic products are

  19. Benefits of Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... activity into your life. To get the most benefit, you should try to get the recommended amount ... likely even live longer. What are the health benefits of exercise? Regular exercise and physical activity may ...

  20. Medicare Hospice Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    CENTERS for MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES Medicare Hospice Benefits This official government booklet includes information about Medicare hospice benefits: Who’s eligible for hospice care What services are included in hospice care How ...

  1. Induction and utilization of mutations in rice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viado, G B [Philippine Atomic Energy Commission, Manila (Philippines); Santos, I S [Philippine Atomic Research Center, Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines); Cada, E [Maligaya Rice Research and Training Center, Munoz, Nueva Ecija (Philippines); Escuro, P B [U.P. College of Agriculture, College, Laguna (Philippines); Soriano, J D [University of the Philippines, Diliman, Quezon City (Philippines)

    1970-03-01

    gamma rays, mixed radiations and EMS. All these lines were earlier and mostly shorter than the Peta check. They are now growing in a two-replicate preliminary test with the control. Work at the Maligaya Rice Research and Training Center has included (1) further selection of mutants in the M{sub 3} of several varieties after different mutagenic treatments, and (2) field tests and observations on 12 indica and 15 japonica mutants. From BPI-121, 140 non-seasonal lines were selected. The range of maturity of the selected lines was 120 - 125 days from sowing to harvesting. From BE-3, 547 lines were selected for non-seasonal characteristics with a range of maturity from 125 to 140 days. Of these selections 12 from BPI-121 and 28 from BE-3 were practically uniform and are now being tested for preliminary yield trials during the 1968 dry season. In the field trials four of the indica mutants gave higher yields than the check. All the indica mutants were non-lodging and relatively early. The japonica mutants did not perform as well as the indica mutants. All were non-lodging but only the irradiated Taichung 65 Mut. gave a higher yield than BPI-76 (check). A study on the selection for eating quality in M{sub 2} IR-8 rice at the College of Arts and Sciences, University of the Philippines indicated that improved eating quality may be induced in IR-8 by mutagenic agents. (author)

  2. Employee motivation and benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Březíková, Tereza

    2009-01-01

    The topic of my bachelor's thesis is the employee motivation and benefits. The thesis is divided in two parts, a theoretical one and a practical one. The theoretical part deals with the theory of motivation and individual employee benefits. The practical part describes employee benefits in ČSOB, where I did my research by questionnaires that were filled in by employees from different departments of ČSOB. These employees answered questions about their work motivation and benefits. The resultts...

  3. Novel uses of rice-husk-ash (a natural silica-carbon matrix) in low-cost water purification applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Chetan; Patil, Rajshree; Kausley, Shankar; Ahmad, Dilshad

    2013-06-01

    Rice-husk-ash is used as the base material for developing novel compositions to deal with the challenge of purifying drinking water in low-income households in India. For example, rice-husk-ash cast in a matrix of cement and pebbles can be formed into a filtration bed which can trap up to 95% of turbidity and bacteria present in water. This innovation was proliferated in villages across India as a do-it-yourself rural water filter. Another innovation involves embedding silver nanoparticles within the rice husk ash matrix to create a bactericidal filtration bed which has now been commercialized in India as a low-cost for-profit household water purifier. Other innovations include the impregnation of rice-husk-ash with iron hydroxide for the removal of arsenic from water and the impregnation of rice-husk ash with aluminum hydroxide for the removal of fluoride ions from water which together have the potential to benefit over 100 million people across India who are suffering from the health effects of drinking groundwater contaminated with arsenic and fluoride.

  4. Effect of waxy rice flour and cassava starch on freeze-thaw stability of rice starch gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoenrein, Sanguansri; Preechathammawong, Nutsuda

    2012-10-01

    Repeatedly frozen and thawed rice starch gel affects quality. This study investigated how incorporating waxy rice flour (WF) and cassava starch (CS) in rice starch gel affects factors used to measure quality. When rice starch gels containing 0-2% WF and CS were subjected to 5 freeze-thaw cycles, both WF and CS reduced the syneresis in first few cycles. However CS was more effective in reducing syneresis than WF. The different composite arrangement of rice starch with WF or CS caused different mechanisms associated with the rice starch gel retardation of retrogradation, reduced the spongy structure and lowered syneresis. Both swollen granules of rice starch and CS caused an increase in the hardness of the unfrozen and freeze-thawed starch gel while highly swollen WF granules caused softer gels. These results suggested that WF and CS were effective in preserving quality in frozen rice starch based products. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of germination on the physicochemical and antioxidant characteristics of rice flour from three rice varieties from Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinma, Chiemela Enyinnaya; Anuonye, Julian Chukwuemeka; Simon, Omotade Comfort; Ohiare, Raliat Ozavize; Danbaba, Nahemiah

    2015-10-15

    This study determined the effect of germination (48 h) on the physicochemical and antioxidant characteristics of rice flour from three rice varieties from Nigeria. Local rice varieties (Jamila, Jeep and Kwandala) were evaluated and compared to an improved variety (MR 219). Physicochemical and antioxidant properties of flours were determined using standard methods. Protein, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium and antioxidant properties of rice flours increased after germination while phytic acid and total starch contents decreased. Foaming capacity and stability of rice flours increased after germination. Germination resulted to changes in pasting and thermal characteristics of rice flours. Germinated rice flours had better physicochemical and antioxidant properties with reduced phytic acid and starch contents compared to MR 219, which can be utilized as functional ingredients in the preparation of rice-based products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Radiation disinfection of rice-straw products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Ishigaki, Isao; Ohki, Yumi.

    1991-01-01

    For the quarantine treatment of rice-straw products from foreign countries, irradiation effects of gamma-rays and electron beams on plant pathogenic microorganisms especially on fungi were investigated. The total aerobic bacteria in rice-straw was determined to be 3x10 7 - 3x10 8 per gram which consisted mainly of Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Arthrobacter and Erwinia. The principal bacteria in rice-straw could be eliminated with 5 kGy of gamma irradiation. Deinococcus proteolyticus and Pseudomonas radiora were the main survivors at 5 to 12 kGy of irradiation. Saprophytic fungus which belongs to Dimorphospora also survived up to 8 kGy of irradiation. The D 10 values of 26 strains of fungi isolated from rice-straw were 1.1 to 2.5 times higher in the dry condition compared to the values when irradiated in 0.067 M phosphate buffer solution. The induction dose in the dry condition also increased from 1.5 to 10 times than that in the wet condition. In the case of electron beam irradiation of fungi under dry conditions, D 10 values were about 1.3 times higher than that of gamma irradiation. From this study, the dose necessary to reduce the plant pathogenic fungi in rice-straw at a level below 10 -4 per gram was estimated to be as 7-8 kGy for gamma-irradiation and 10 kGy for electron beam irradiation. (author)

  7. Nuclear analytical methods on ancient Thai rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won-in, K.; Thongleurm, C.; Dararutana, P.

    2013-01-01

    For more than half of humanity, rice is life. Rice is a grain which has shaped the history, culture, diet and economy of billions of people in Asia. In Thailand, it is the essence of life. Archaeological evidence revealed that rice had been planted in northeastern area of Thailand more than 5,500 years ago which is earlier than in China and India. The ancient rice grains were found in various archaeological sites in Thailand such as Nakhon Nayok, Suphan Buri and Prachin Buri Provinces. In this work, the ancient black rice from Nakhon Nayok Province was elementally analyzed using scanning electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, proton induced X-ray emission spectroscopy and micro-beam energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. Infrared (IR) spectroscopy was also used to study the chemical composition and bio-molecular structure. The grains were oblique in shape with a rough surface. Three major elements (Si, Ca and Al) and other trace elements were detected. The IR spectra provided some information about the presence of molecular bonds. (author)

  8. Arsenic biotransformation and volatilization in transgenic rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiang-Yan; Qin, Jie; Wang, Li-Hong; Duan, Gui-Lan; Sun, Guo-Xin; Wu, Hui-Lan; Chu, Cheng-Cai; Ling, Hong-Qing; Rosen, Barry P.; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2011-01-01

    Summary Biotransformation of arsenic includes oxidation, reduction, methylation and conversion to more complex organic arsenicals. Members of the class of arsenite [As(III)] S-adenosylmethyltransferase enzymes catalyze As(III) methylation to a variety of mono-, di- and trimethylated species, some of which are less toxic than As(III) itself. However, no methyltransferase gene has been identified in plants. Here, an arsM gene from the soil bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris was expressed in Japonica rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivar Nipponbare, and the transgenic rice produced methylated arsenic species, which were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS). Both monomethylarsenate [MAs(V)] and dimethylarsenate [DMAs(V)] were detected in the root and shoot of transgenic rice. After 12-d exposure to As(III), the transgenic rice gave off 10-fold more volatile arsenicals. The present study demonstrates that expression of an arsM gene in rice induces arsenic methylation and volatilization, providing a potential stratagem for phytoremediation theoretically. PMID:21517874

  9. university students` perception and utilization of technology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-01

    Feb 1, 2018 ... university students` perceptions and utilization of technology for learning at Haramaya University in. Ethiopia (as a ... teaching and learning in classroom can greatly enhance the ..... benefits that it should be deliver. Looking at ...

  10. Comparative Demand Analysis for Rice in Three States of South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dauda Omoba

    2013-01-01

    Jan 1, 2013 ... The contribution of the effect of the price of rice on the budget share of rice in the study ...... it is a luxury in rural areas of Delta state. This may imply that ... between brands of rice in rural Lagos and urban. Edo was the highest ...

  11. Determinants of rice output among ADP contact farmers in mining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study analyzed factors affecting rice output among Agricultural Development Programme (ADP) contact farmers in the mining and non mining locations of IVO LGA of Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Multistage random sampling technique was used to select agricultural circles and rice farmers. The sample size was 120 rice ...

  12. Rice methylmercury exposure and mitigation: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg, Sarah E; Windham-Myers, Lisamarie; Creswell, Joel E

    2014-08-01

    Rice cultivation practices from field preparation to post-harvest transform rice paddies into hot spots for microbial mercury methylation, converting less-toxic inorganic mercury to more-toxic methylmercury, which is likely translocated to rice grain. This review includes 51 studies reporting rice total mercury and/or methylmercury concentrations, based on rice (Orzya sativa) cultivated or purchased in 15 countries. Not surprisingly, both rice total mercury and methylmercury levels were significantly higher in polluted sites compared to non-polluted sites (Wilcoxon rank sum, p<0.001). However, rice percent methylmercury (of total mercury) did not differ statistically between polluted and non-polluted sites (Wilcoxon rank sum, p=0.35), suggesting comparable mercury methylation rates in paddy soil across these sites and/or similar accumulation of mercury species for these rice cultivars. Studies characterizing the effects of rice cultivation under more aerobic conditions were reviewed to determine the mitigation potential of this practice. Rice management practices utilizing alternating wetting and drying (instead of continuous flooding) caused soil methylmercury levels to spike, resulting in a strong methylmercury pulse after fields were dried and reflooded; however, it is uncertain whether this led to increased translocation of methylmercury from paddy soil to rice grain. Due to the potential health risks, it is advisable to investigate this issue further, and to develop separate water management strategies for mercury polluted and non-polluted sites, in order to minimize methylmercury exposure through rice ingestion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Developing selection protocols for weed competitiveness in aerobic rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, D.L.; Atlin, G.N.; Bastiaans, L.; Spiertz, J.H.J.

    2006-01-01

    Aerobic rice production systems, wherein rice is dry-sown in non-puddled soil and grown as an upland crop, offer large water savings but are subject to severe weed infestation. Weed-competitive cultivars will be critical to the adoption of aerobic rice production by farmers. Breeding

  14. Physical and Chemical Properties of Some Selected Rice Varieties

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Physical and chemical properties of nine rice varieties grown and processed in Ebonyi .... Therefore, one tonne of a slender variety of rice will need more storage space than the ..... during washing and boiling of milled rice Starch 36:386-390.

  15. A mechanistic model on methane oxidation in the rice rhizosphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodegom, van P.M.; Leffelaar, P.A.; Goudriaan, J.

    2001-01-01

    A mechanistic model is presented on the processes leading to methane oxidation in rice rhizosphere. The model is driven by oxygen release from a rice root into anaerobic rice soil. Oxygen is consumed by heterotrophic and methanotrophic respiration, described by double Monod kinetics, and by iron

  16. Overwintering physiology of the rice stem borer larvae, Chilo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker), is a major rice pest around the world. A strong ability of the rice stem borer to adapt/resist cold temperature (cold hardiness) contributes to its survival through winter. However, the physiological mechanism of its cold hardiness is poorly understood. In this study, we ...

  17. simulating rice yields under climate change scenarios using

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    The effects of climate change on rice production and yield cannot be overlooked in finding measures to increase production and yield. The CERES-Rice (Ver. 4.0) model was calibrated and evaluated for use in simulating rice yields under different climate change scenarios in Ghana using data from the Anum Valley ...

  18. Physiology and productivity of rice crop influenced by drought stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rice is sensitive to moisture stress and in view of the water scarcity in the coming years, it is imperative to evaluate the performance of rice cultivar under moisture deficit. The present study aimed to evaluate the physiological responses of two rice cultivars under drought stress induced at panicle initiation and soft dough ...

  19. Upland rice yield as affected by Brachiaria coverage management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano S. Nascente

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An important point in no-tillage system is the time between cover crop glyphosate desiccation and rice sowing. This study aimed to verify the effect of Brachiaria ruziziensis management time before rice sowing on rice yield and its components. The experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions and consisted of four types of B. ruziziensis management: with Brachiaria and with herbicide (WBWH, without Brachiaria shoots and with herbicide (NBWH, without Brachiaria shoots and without herbicide (NBNH, and with Brachiaria and without herbicide (WBNH, at four times: 30, 20, 10, and 0 days, preceding the rice sowing. The amount of B. ruziziensis dry matter increased as the management was done closer to the rice sowing date. The WBWH and WBNH managements (this one causes the lowest rice grain yield must be done 30 days before rice sowing; while NBWH management must be done ten or more days before rice sowing. On the other hand, NBNH management (this one favors the best rice grain yield can be done until rice sowing day. Despite some reduction in rice yield caused by the B. ruziziensis management, when it was done at the proper time the rice grain yield was similar to the control (without Brachiaria sowing and without herbicide application.

  20. Extracting silica from rice husk treated with potassium permanganate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javed, S.H.; Naveed, S.

    2008-01-01

    As an agro-waste material the rice husk is abundantly available is rice growing areas. In many areas rice husk after burning involves disposal problems because of higher quantities of silica present in it. Rice husk contains about 20 per cent silica, which is present in hydrated amorphous form. On thermal treatment the silica converts into crystobalite, which is a crystalline form of silica. However amorphous silica can be produced under controlled conditions ensuring high reactivity and large surface area. Leaching the rice husk with organic acids and alkalies removes the metallic impurities from its surface. How a dilute solution of potassium permanganate affects the rice husk is the subject of this research paper. The rice husk was treated with the dilute solution of potassium permanganate at room temperature and then analyzed by SEM, TGA and the ash by analytical treatment after burning under controlled temperature. The SEM results revealed that the protuberances of the rice husk were eaten away by the solution of potassium permanganate. Pyrolysis of rice husks showed that the thermal degradation of the treated rice husk was faster than the untreated rice husk where as analytical results confirmed the presence of more amorphous silica than untreated rice husk. (author)

  1. An overview of global rice production, supply, trade, and consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthayya, Sumithra; Sugimoto, Jonathan D; Montgomery, Scott; Maberly, Glen F

    2014-09-01

    Rice is the staple food for over half the world's population. Approximately 480 million metric tons of milled rice is produced annually. China and India alone account for ∼50% of the rice grown and consumed. Rice provides up to 50% of the dietary caloric supply for millions living in poverty in Asia and is, therefore, critical for food security. It is becoming an important food staple in both Latin America and Africa. Record increases in rice production have been observed since the start of the Green Revolution. However, rice remains one of the most protected food commodities in world trade. Rice is a poor source of vitamins and minerals, and losses occur during the milling process. Populations that subsist on rice are at high risk of vitamin and mineral deficiency. Improved technologies to fortify rice have the potential to address these deficiencies and their associated adverse health effects. With the rice industry consolidating in many countries, there are opportunities to fortify a significant share of rice for distribution or for use in government safety net programs that target those most in need, especially women and children. Multisectoral approaches are needed for the promotion and implementation of rice fortification in countries. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  2. Economic survey of rice marketing in Anambra state, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study exploratorily surveyed the process of marketing of rice in Anambra State with particular reference to rice processing, storage and pricing. The results of the analysis show that old people who are mostly illiterate but highly experienced engaged in rice marketing business. Furthermore, there is a significant ...

  3. Rice value chain analysis in Tanzania: identification of constraints ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The importance of rice (Oryza sativa L.) as a food and cash crop in Eastern Africa, is increasing, but its value chain is becoming complex. In 2012/13, rice value chain analysis was conducted in rice farming systems of Lake, Eastern and Southern-Highlands zones of Tanzania. A sample of 240 producers, 60 traders and 30 ...

  4. Upland and lowland rice in the Netherlands Indies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maat, H.

    2016-01-01

    The global trade in rice is historically recent and its total quantity relatively small. Colonial explorations were the main incentive for its development, but only beginning in the 19th century did rice-producing countries in Asia export rice outside the continent in bulk. In previous centuries

  5. Global Rice Atlas: Disaggregated seasonal crop calendar and production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balanza, Jane Girly; Gutierrez, Mary Anne; Villano, Lorena; Nelson, A.D.; Zwart, S.J.; Boschetti, Mirco; Koo, Jawoo; Reinke, Russell; Murty, M. V.R.; Laborte, Alice G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Rice is an important staple crop cultivated in more than 163 million ha globally. Although information on the distribution of global rice production is available by country and, at times, at subnational level, information on its distribution within a year is often lacking in different rice

  6. Analysis of benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Kováříková, Kamila

    2012-01-01

    This master thesis deals with employee benefits in the current labour market, especially from the perspective of young employees. The first part is focused on the theory of motivation and employee benefits also with their tax impact on employee's income. Employee benefits in the current labour market, employee's satisfaction and employer's attitude to this issue are analyzed in the second part of this thesis.

  7. RICD: A rice indica cDNA database resource for rice functional genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Qifa

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Oryza sativa L. indica subspecies is the most widely cultivated rice. During the last few years, we have collected over 20,000 putative full-length cDNAs and over 40,000 ESTs isolated from various cDNA libraries of two indica varieties Guangluai 4 and Minghui 63. A database of the rice indica cDNAs was therefore built to provide a comprehensive web data source for searching and retrieving the indica cDNA clones. Results Rice Indica cDNA Database (RICD is an online MySQL-PHP driven database with a user-friendly web interface. It allows investigators to query the cDNA clones by keyword, genome position, nucleotide or protein sequence, and putative function. It also provides a series of information, including sequences, protein domain annotations, similarity search results, SNPs and InDels information, and hyperlinks to gene annotation in both The Rice Annotation Project Database (RAP-DB and The TIGR Rice Genome Annotation Resource, expression atlas in RiceGE and variation report in Gramene of each cDNA. Conclusion The online rice indica cDNA database provides cDNA resource with comprehensive information to researchers for functional analysis of indica subspecies and for comparative genomics. The RICD database is available through our website http://www.ncgr.ac.cn/ricd.

  8. Puffing of okara/rice blends using a rice cake machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, M; Huff, H; Hsieh, F; Mustapha, A

    2008-10-01

    Okara is the insoluble byproduct of soymilk and tofu manufactures. It is cheap, high in nutrients, and possesses great potential to be applied to functional human foods. In this study, a puffed okara/rice cake product was developed with blends of okara pellets and parboiled rice. Consumer preference and acceptance tests were conducted for the product. Okara pellets were prepared by grinding the strands obtained from extruding a mixture of dried okara and rice flour (3:2, w/w) with a twin-screw extruder. Okara pellets and parboiled rice were blended in 4 ratios, 90:10, 70:30, 40:60, and 0:100 (w/w), and tempered to 14% and 17% moisture. The blends were puffed at 221, 232, and 243 degrees C for 4, 5, or 6 s. The okara/rice cakes were evaluated for specific volume (SPV), texture, color, and percent weight loss after tumbling. Overall, the decrease in okara content and increase in moisture, heating temperature and time led to greater specific volume (SPV) and hardness, lighter color, and lower percent weight loss after tumbling. The consumer tests indicated that the okara/rice cake containing 70% okara pellets was preferred and the 90% one was liked the least. The possible drivers of liking for the puffed okara/rice cakes could be the okara content, hardness, SPV, bright color, and percent weight loss after tumbling.

  9. Contribution of rice straw carbon to CH4 emission from rice paddies using 13C-enriched rice straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Akira; Yoshida, Mariko; Kimura, Makoto

    1998-04-01

    It is generally recognized that the application of rice straw (RS) increases CH4 emission from rice paddies. To estimate the contribution of RS carbon to CH4 emission, a pot experiment was conducted using 13C-enriched RS. The percentage contributions of RS carbon to CH4 emission throughout the rice growth period were 10±1, 32±3, and 43±3% for the treatments with RS applied at the rates of 2, 4, and 6 g kg-1 soil, respectively. The increase in the rate of application of RS increased CH4 emission derived from both RS carbon and other carbon sources. The percentage contribution of RS carbon to CH4 emission was larger in the earlier period (maximum 96%) when the decomposition rate of RS was larger. After RS decomposition had slowed, CH4 emission derived from RS carbon decreased. However, the δ13C values of CH4 emitted from the pots with 13C-enriched RS applied at rates of 4 and 6 g kg-1 soil were significantly higher than those from the pots with natural RS until the harvesting stage. An increased atom-13C% of roots of rice plants growing in the pots with 6 g kg-1 of 13C-enriched RS at around the maximum tiller number stage and a decrease during the following 2 months suggested that rice plants assimilated RS carbon once and then released a portion of it. This supply of RS carbon from roots may be one of the sources of CH4 in the late period of rice growth.

  10. Reduced ABA Accumulation in the Root System is Caused by ABA Exudation in Upland Rice (Oryza sativa L. var. Gaoshan1) and this Enhanced Drought Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lu; Guo, Miaomiao; Ye, Nenghui; Liu, Yinggao; Liu, Rui; Xia, Yiji; Cui, Suxia; Zhang, Jianhua

    2015-05-01

    Lowland rice (Nipponbare) and upland rice (Gaoshan 1) that are comparable under normal and moderate drought conditions showed dramatic differences in severe drought conditions, both naturally occurring long-term drought and simulated rapid water deficits. We focused on their root response and found that enhanced tolerance of upland rice to severe drought conditions was mainly due to the lower level of ABA in its roots than in those of the lowland rice. We first excluded the effect of ABA biosynthesis and catabolism on root-accumulated ABA levels in both types of rice by monitoring the expression of four OsNCED genes and two OsABA8ox genes. Next, we excluded the impact of the aerial parts on roots by suppressing leaf-biosynthesized ABA with fluridone and NDGA (nordihydroguaiaretic acid), and measuring the ABA level in detached roots. Instead, we proved that upland rice had the ability to export considerably more root-sourced ABA than lowland rice under severe drought, which improved ABA-dependent drought adaptation. The investigation of apoplastic pH in root cells and root anatomy showed that ABA leakage in the root system of upland rice was related to high apoplastic pH and the absence of Casparian bands in the sclerenchyma layer. Finally, taking some genes as examples, we predicted that different ABA levels in rice roots stimulated distinct ABA perception and signaling cascades, which influenced its response to water stress. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Effects of Position of Rainfed Rice Field in a Toposequence on Water Availability and Rice Yield in Central Java, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    SUGANDA, HUSEIN; PANINGBATAN, E.P; GUERRA, L.C; TUONG, T.P

    2003-01-01

    The productivity of rainfed rice needs to be increased in order to support the Indonesian Food Security programs, especially rice. Rainfall is one of the main sources of the water availability on the rainfed rice field. This research was conducted from October 2000 to February 2001 at four sites in Central Java Province. The objectives of this research were to study thevariability of water availability that influenced by toposequen's position and to analyze the rice yields due to treatments o...

  12. Effects of fish and prawn culture on physico-chemical parameters of water and rice yield in rice fields

    OpenAIRE

    Razzak, M.A.; Nahar, A.; Mirhaj, M.; Becker, K.; Dewan, S.

    2009-01-01

    An experiment was conducted with five treatments i.e. rice combined with fish having regular urea fertilization (T1), rice combined with prawn having regular urea fertilization (T2), rice combined with fish with supplementary feeding (T3), rice combined with prawn with supplementary feeding (T4) and without fish and prawn (T5) was kept as control. The dissolved oxygen values obtained in treatments with fish both in morning and afternoon were lower than the values of prawn containing treatment...

  13. Characterization and evaluation of rice blast resistance of Chinese indica hybrid rice parental lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunyu Wu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of resistant varieties and hybrid combinations has been the most effective and economical strategy to control blast disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae. However, the distribution of major R genes and blast resistance characterization in hybrid rice parents has not been well investigated, resulting in their limited use in hybrid rice blast-resistance breeding. In the present study, 88 elite indica hybrid rice parental lines were evaluated with 30 isolates of M. oryzae collected from the main planting area of indica hybrid rice in China and were characterized for the presence of 11 major resistance genes using molecular markers. The pathogenicity assays showed that four types of hybrid rice parent line showed some resistance to M. oryzae. However, the proportions of highly resistant lines and the mean resistance frequency (RF varied among the four types, with resistance in decreasing order shown by three-line restorer lines, three-line maintainer lines, two-line sterile lines, and two-line restorer lines. All 88 hybrid rice parental lines carried more than one R gene, but none carried the R genes Pi1 and Pi2. Although Pid3 and Pi9 were present only in three-line restorer lines and Pigm only in three-line maintainer lines, the remaining six R genes (Pib, Pid2, Pi5, Pia, Pi54, and Pita were present in the four types of hybrid rice parent with significantly different distribution frequencies. The correlation between R genes and resistance reactions was investigated. The results are expected to provide useful information for rational utilization of major R genes in hybrid rice breeding programs. Keywords: Hybrid rice parental lines, Magnaporthe oryzae, Pi genes, Resistance evaluation, Molecular markers

  14. Biochar amendment changes jasmonic acid levels in two rice varieties and alters their resistance to herbivory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waqas, Muhammad; Shahzad, Raheem; Hamayun, Muhammad; Asaf, Sajjad; Khan, Abdul Latif; Kang, Sang-Mo; Yun, Sopheap; Kim, Kyung-Min; Lee, In-Jung

    2018-01-01

    Biochar addition to soil not only sequesters carbon for the long-term but enhances agricultural productivity. Several well-known benefits arise from biochar amendment, including constant provision of nutrients, increased soil moisture retention, decreased soil bulk density, and sometimes the induction of systemic resistance against foliar and soil borne plant pathogens. However, no research has investigated the potential of biochar to increase resistance against herbivory. The white-backed plant hopper (WBPH) (Sogatella furcifera Horváth) is a serious agricultural pest that targets rice (Oryza sativa L.), a staple crop that feeds half of the world's human population. Therefore, we investigated the (1) optimization of biochar amendment levels for two rice varieties ('Cheongcheong' and 'Nagdong') and (2) subsequent effects of different biochar amendments on resistance and susceptibility of these two varieties to WBPH infestation. Initial screening results for the optimization level revealed that the application of biochar 10% (w/w) to the rooting media significantly improved plant physiological characteristics of both rice varieties. However, levels of biochar amendment, mainly 1, 2, 3, and 20%, resulted in negative effects on plant growth characteristics. Cheongcheong and Nagdong rice plants grown with the optimum biochar level showed contrasting reactions to WBPH infestation. Specifically, biochar application significantly increased plant growth characteristics of Nagdong when exposed to WBPH infestation and significantly decreased these characteristics in Cheongcheong. The amount of WBPH-induced damage to plants was significantly lower and higher in Nagdong and Cheongcheong, respectively, compared to that in the controls. Higher levels of jasmonic acid caused by the biochar priming effect could have accumulated in response to WBPH infestation, resulting in a maladaptive response to stress, negatively affecting growth and resistance to WBPH in Cheongcheong. This

  15. Prospects of rice straw as a raw material for paper making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Daljeet; Bhardwaj, Nishi Kant; Lohchab, Rajesh Kumar

    2017-02-01

    Pulp and paper mills are indispensable for any nation as far as the growth of the nation is concerned. Due to fast growth in population, urbanization and industrialization, the demand and consumption of paper has increased tremendously. These put high load on our natural resources and force the industry to look for alternative raw material. Rice straw is a lignocellulosic material abundantly available in wood short countries like China, India, Bangladesh, etc. and can be used as raw material for this industry. Open burning of rice straw releases noxious green house gases to the air and poses serious threats to global air chemistry and human health. So, it is a dual benefit option (for farmers and industries) to use rice straw as a raw material in pulp and paper industry. Organosolv pulping using acids are the prominent choices of researchers to convert this residue into valuable pulp but in developed countries only. Developing world favours the soda and soda-AQ processes as these are economical. As a virtue of less lignin content in comparison to wood, rice straw requires less harsh conditions for cooking and can be easily pulped. Bleaching is a crucial step of paper making but also responsible for causing water pollution. Many studies revealed that during the process more than 500 chlorinated compounds are released that are highly toxic, bioaccumulative and carcinogenic in nature. Most of the industries over the globe switch on to the elemental chlorine free short sequence bleaching methods using chlorine dioxide, hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide. This paper presented the effective need of ecofriendly, economically reliable pulping and bleaching sequences in case of rice straw to eliminate the problems of chlorinated compounds in wastewater of paper mills. Such approach of using waste as a raw material with its environmentally safe processing for making paper can prove to be valuable towards sustainable growth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Influence of paddy rice-upland crop rotation of cold-waterlogged paddy field on crops produc- tion and soil characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Li, Qing-hua; Lin, Cheng; He, Chun-mei; Zhong, Shao-jie; Li, Yu; Lin, Xin-jian; Huang, Jian-cheng

    2015-05-01

    Two consecutive years (4-crop) experiments were conducted to study the influence of different paddy rice-upland crop rotation in cold-waterlogged paddy field on the growth of crops and soil characteristics. The result showed that compared with the rice-winter fallow (CK) pattern, the two-year average yield of paddy rice under four rotation modes, including rape-rice (R-R), spring corn-rice (C-R), Chinese milk vetch-rice (M-R) and bean-rice (B-R), were increased by 5.3%-26.7%, with significant difference observed in C-R and R-R patterns. Except for M-R pattern, the annual average total economic benefits were improved by 79.0%-392.4% in all rotation pattern compared with the CK, and the ration of output/input was enhanced by 0.06-0.72 unit, with the most significant effect found in the C-R pattern. Likewise, compared with the CK, the contents of chlorophyll and carotenoid, and net photosynthetic rate (Pn) of rice plant were all increased during the full-tillering stage of rice in all rotation patterns. The rusty lines and rusty spots of soils were more obvious compared with the CK during the rice harvest, particularly in R-R, C-R and B-R patterns. The ratio of water-stable soil macro aggregates of plough layer of soil (> 2 mm) decreased at different levels in all rotation patterns while the ratios of middle aggregate (0.25-2 mm, expect for M-R) and micro aggregate of soil (< 0.25 mm) were opposite. There was a decreasing trend for soil active reducing agents in all rotation patterns, whereas the available nutrient increased. The amounts of soil bacteria in C-R and B-R patterns, fungi in B-R rotation pattern, cellulose bacteria in R-R, C-R and B-R patterns and N-fixing bacteria in B-R pattern were improved by 285.7%-403.0%, 221.7%, 64.6-92.2% and 162.2%, respectively. Moreover, the differences in all microorganisms were significant. Thus, based on the experimental results of cold-waterlogged paddy field, it was concluded that changing from single cropping rice system

  17. Vinegar rice (Oryza sativa L.) produced by a submerged fermentation process from alcoholic fermented rice

    OpenAIRE

    Spinosa,Wilma Aparecida; Santos Júnior,Vitório dos; Galvan,Diego; Fiorio,Jhonatan Luiz; Gomez,Raul Jorge Hernan Castro

    2015-01-01

    Considering the limited availability of technology for the production of rice vinegar and also due to the potential consumer product market, this study aimed to use alcoholic fermented rice (rice wine (Oryza sativa L.)) for vinegar production. An alcoholic solution with 6.28% (w/v) ethanol was oxidized by a submerged fermentation process to produce vinegar. The process of acetic acid fermentation occurred at 30 ± 0.3°C in a FRINGS® Acetator (Germany) for the production of vineg...

  18. Genetic analysis of rice blast disease resistance genes using USDA rice mini-core and a mapping population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice blast disease caused by the fungal pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae (M. oryzae) is one of the most destructive diseases of cultivated rice, resulting in significant yield loss each year all over the world. Developing and utilizing blast resistant rice varieties is the most economical and effective m...

  19. Population genomics identifies the origin and signatures of selection of Korean weedy rice

    OpenAIRE

    He, Qiang; Kim, Kyu?Won; Park, Yong?Jin

    2016-01-01

    Summary Weedy rice is the same biological species as cultivated rice (Oryza sativa); it is also a noxious weed infesting rice fields worldwide. Its formation and population?selective or ?adaptive signatures are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the phylogenetics, population structure and signatures of selection of Korean weedy rice by determining the whole genomes of 30 weedy rice, 30 landrace rice and ten wild rice samples. The phylogenetic tree and results of ancestry infere...

  20. Effects of Variety and Hydration of Rice Flour on Cake Making Properties

    OpenAIRE

    長沼, 誠子; NAGANUMA, Seiko

    1993-01-01

    The pysicochemical characteristics and sensory attributes of rice layer cake were investigated to study the effects of rice variety and rice flour treatment on cake making properties. The rice layer cake were made from rice flour ground from 4 rice varieties (Sasanishiki, Akitakomachi, Kiyonishiki and Akihikari), water, sugar, oil, and baking powder. The treatment of rice frour with water before adding other ingredients improved appearance, texture and palatability of the baking products. The...

  1. Physicochemical Characteristics of Artificial Rice from Composite Flour: Modified Cassava Starch, Canavalia ensiformis and Dioscorea esculenta

    OpenAIRE

    Sumardiono Siswo; Pudjihastuti Isti; Abyor Handayani Noer; Kusumayanti Heny

    2018-01-01

    Indonesia is the third largest country on the global paddy rice production and also considered as a rice importer. Even, Indonesia has the biggest per capita consumption of paddy rice (140 kg of paddy rice per person per year). Product diversification using local commodities. Artificial rice is potential to be developed as a new value product using different types of grains. It is one of appropriate solutions for reducing imported rice rate. Artificial rice was produced using high nutrition c...

  2. Proximate Composition, Mineral Content and Fatty Acids Analyses of Aromatic and Non-Aromatic Indian Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Kumar Verma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Awareness on nutritive value and health benefits of rice is of vital importance in order to increase the consumption of rice in daily diet of the human beings. In this study, a total of six aromatic and two non-aromatic rice accessions grown in India were analysed for their nutritional quality attributes including proximate composition, mineral contents and fatty acids. Data with three replications were used to measure Pearson's simple correlation co-efficient in order to establish the relationship among various nutritional quality attributes. The result on proximate composition showed that Govind Bhog had the highest moisture (13.57% and fat (0.92% content, which signifies its tasty attribute. Badshah Bhog exhibited the highest fibre content (0.85%, carbohydrate content (82.70% and food energy (365.23 kCal per 100 g. Among the minerals, the higher Ca (98.75 mg/kg, Zn (17.00 mg/kg and Fe (31.50 mg/kg were in Gopal Bhog, whereas the highest Na (68.85 mg/kg was in Badshah Bhog, the highest K (500.00 mg/kg was in Swetganga, Khushboo and Sarbati. The highest contents of unsaturated fatty acids viz. oleic acid (49.14%, linoleic acid (46.99% and linolenic acid (1.27% were found in Sarbati, whereas the highest content of saturated fatty acids viz. myristic acid (4.60% and palmitic acid (31.91% were found in Govind Bhog and stearic acid (6.47% in Todal. The identified aromatic rice accessions Gopal Bhog, Govind Bhog and Badshah Bhog and non-aromatic rice accession Sarbati were found nutritionally superior among all eight tested accessions. The nutritional quality oriented attributes in this study were competent with recognized prominent aromatic and non-aromatic rice accessions as an index of their nutritional worth and recommend to farmers and consumers which may be graded as export quality rice with good unique nutritional values in international market.

  3. THE ANALYSIS OF ORGANIC RICE CONTRACT FARMING IN CAMBODIA: A LESSON LEARNED FOR INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betti Rosita Sari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available  This study examines organic rice contract farming inCambodiaand its impact on farmers’ livelihood. The study’s objective is to gain a better insight of the terms and conditions of rice contract farming scheme inCambodia, and determine under what conditions contract farming could bring improvements to farmers’ livelihoods. This study contributes new research findings on contract farming practices and farmers’ livelihood due to organic-rice contract farming with a case study in Kampong Speu province,Cambodia.Rice contract farming is not widespread inCambodiaat present, but is expected to expand significantly in the near future. Contract farming can increase investment into agricultural and infrastructure in rural areas. Contract farming can also enable farmers to access credit, inputs, technical advice and information about market condition and pricing trends. Yet, the disadvantages of contract farming include loss of farmer bargaining power and a potential reduction in profit margins, increased emphasis on improving production quality, land consolidation in favor of participating contract farmers, and less secure livelihoods.In this study, the contract farming arrangements of Angkor Kasekam Rongroeung (AKR Company is studied. A survey of 16 contract farmers and 20 non-contract farmers in Kampong Speu province has been undertaken to examine the AKR contract farming scheme arrangements and to identify farmer’s motivations to participate in contract farming and its impact on farmers’ livelihood.AKR rice contract farming improves farmers’ livelihood because they get a higher income and rice yields. Higher price, good rice seed, and access to market are the main reasons for farmers to participate in AKR contract farming. However, strict requirements, heavy penalties, poor extension services, and lack of information about the contract terms and conditions reduce farmers’ long-term participation in contract farming. In addition

  4. The interactive effects of elevated CO2, temperature and N supply on rice yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baysa, Marieta C.; Tremmel, David C.; Reynolds, James F.; Rivero, Gilda C.; Tabbada, Reynaldo A.

    2001-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. IR 72)was grown in growth chambers under combinations of two CO 2 (375 and 750 μL L -1 ), temperature(29/21 and 34/26 degrees centigrade day/night) and N (40 and 80 mg L -1 ) regimes from sowing until grain maturity. Panicle production was significantly enhanced by elevated CO 2 with more pronounced effects at high temperature and N. CO 2 -enriched plants grown at high temperatures had lower harvest indices due to reductions in the number of grains per panicle and grain mass. Any potential benefit of increased atmospheric CO 2 on rice grain yield and grain N content under optimal N supply may therefore be dampened by higher temperatures associated with possible future global warming conditions. (Author)

  5. Obtaining high purity silica from rice hulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José da Silva Júnior

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many routes for extracting silica from rice hulls are based on direct calcining. These methods, though, often produce silica contaminated with inorganic impurities. This work presents the study of a strategy for obtaining silica from rice hulls with a purity level adequate for applications in electronics. The technique is based on two leaching steps, using respectively aqua regia and Piranha solutions, which extract the organic matrix and inorganic impurities. The material was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, powder x-ray diffraction (XRD, x-ray fluorescence (XRF, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, particle size analysis by laser diffraction (LPSA and thermal analysis.

  6. Thermoplastic starch materials prepared from rice starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontes, Barbara R.B.; Curvelo, Antonio A.S.

    2009-01-01

    Rice starch is a source still little studied for the preparation of thermoplastic materials. However, its characteristics, such as the presence of proteins, fats and fibers may turn into thermoplastics with a better performance. The present study intends the evaluation of the viability of making starch thermoplastic from rice starch and glycerol as plasticizer. The results of X-ray diffraction and scanning electronic microscopy demonstrate the thermoplastic acquisition. The increase of plasticizer content brings on more hydrophilic thermoplastics with less resistance to tension and elongation at break. (author)

  7. Gene conversion in the rice genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Shuqing; Clark, Terry; Zheng, Hongkun

    2008-01-01

    -chromosomal conversions distributed between chromosome 1 and 5, 2 and 6, and 3 and 5 are more frequent than genome average (Z-test, P ... is not tightly linked to natural selection in the rice genome. To assess the contribution of segmental duplication on gene conversion statistics, we determined locations of conversion partners with respect to inter-chromosomal segment duplication. The number of conversions associated with segmentation is less...... involved in conversion events. CONCLUSION: The evolution of gene families in the rice genome may have been accelerated by conversion with pseudogenes. Our analysis suggests a possible role for gene conversion in the evolution of pathogen-response genes....

  8. The LANSCE RICE control system upgrade.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oothoudt, Michael; Schaller, S. (Stuart); Bjorklund, E. A. (Eric A.); Burns, M. J. (Mary J.); Carr, G. (Gary); Carr, G. (Gary); Faucett, John Allen,; Hayden, D. J. (David J.); Lusk, M. D. (Matthew D.); Merl, R. B. (Robert B.); Potter, J. M. (Jerry M.); Reynolds, J. A. (Jerome A.); Romero, D. B. (Dolores B.); Shelley, F. E. (Fred E.)

    2003-01-01

    The LANSCE (Los Alamos Neutron Science Center) control system upgrade program continues with the impending replacement of the RICE (Remote Instrumentation and Control Equipment) subsystem. The RICE subsystem upgrade is a challenge because of its technology (late 1960s), number of channels (>10,000), and unique characteristics (all-modules data takes, timed/flavored data takes). The plan is to replace at least the non-timed data and the command portions of the subsystem with Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs). We discuss motivations, technological challenges, proof-of-principle, and planning. The boundary condition, as usual, is that we must implement these major changes on a running accelerator.

  9. Radiation induced chlorophyll mutations in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bari, G.; Mustafa, G.; Soomro, A.M.; Baloch, A.W.

    1985-01-01

    Air dried grains of four local varieties of rice were treated with gamma-rays and fast neutrons for determining their mutagenic effectiveness through the occurence of chlorophyll mutations. Fast neutrons were more effective in inducing chlorophyll mutations and the rice variety Basmati 370 produced maximum number of mutations followed by varieties Sonahri Sugdasi, Jajai 77 and Sada Gulab. The highest frequency of chlorophyll mutations was that of albina types followed by striata types. The xantha, viridis and tigrina types of mutations were less frequent. (authors)

  10. The LANSCE RICE control system upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oothoudt, Michael; Schaller, S.; Bjorklund, E.A.; Burns, M.J.; Carr, G.; Faucett, John Allen; Hayden, D.J.; Lusk, M.D.; Merl, R.B.; Potter, J.M.; Reynolds, J.A.; Romero, D.B.; Shelley, F.E.

    2003-01-01

    The LANSCE (Los Alamos Neutron Science Center) control system upgrade program continues with the impending replacement of the RICE (Remote Instrumentation and Control Equipment) subsystem. The RICE subsystem upgrade is a challenge because of its technology (late 1960s), number of channels (>10,000), and unique characteristics (all-modules data takes, timed/flavored data takes). The plan is to replace at least the non-timed data and the command portions of the subsystem with Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs). We discuss motivations, technological challenges, proof-of-principle, and planning. The boundary condition, as usual, is that we must implement these major changes on a running accelerator.

  11. A comparison of rice chloroplast genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Jiabin; Xia, Hong'ai; Cao, Mengliang

    2004-01-01

    Using high quality sequence reads extracted from our whole genome shotgun repository, we assembled two chloroplast genome sequences from two rice (Oryza sativa) varieties, one from 93-11 (a typical indica variety) and the other from PA64S (an indica-like variety with maternal origin of japonica......), which are both parental varieties of the super-hybrid rice, LYP9. Based on the patterns of high sequence coverage, we partitioned chloroplast sequence variations into two classes, intravarietal and intersubspecific polymorphisms. Intravarietal polymorphisms refer to variations within 93-11 or PA64S...

  12. Managing flood prone ecosystem for rice production in Bihar plains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.R.; Singh, S.S.

    2002-06-01

    A large area of the eastern region especially Bihar (0.5 million hectare) faces flood submergence and/or drought every year which creates an unfavorable environment for crop production. In this ecosystem only flood prone rice is grown whose cultivation is entirely different than normal rice crop. Managing the flood prone ecosystem for rice production needs to evaluate the reasons and a comprehensive appropriate technology through research efforts for better rice production under such harsh ecology. An attempt was made to develop a suitable agronomic package for rice cultivation during and after flooding in flood prone plains of Bihar. (author)

  13. Cell fusion as a tool for rice improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Y; Kyozuka, J; Terada, R; Nishibayashi, S; Shimamoto, K [Plantech Research Institute, Kamoshida, Midori-ku, Yokohama (Japan)

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Cell fusion offers a unique opportunity to hybridize sexually incompatible species and to mix cytoplasmic genomes in higher plants. Recent progress in plant regeneration from rice protoplasts facilitates an evaluation of the cell fusion method for rice improvement. By using electrofusion of protoplasts, we obtained hybrid/cybrid plants of the following combinations: Hybrids of rice x barnyard grass (E. oryzicola); Hybrids of rice x wild Oryza species; Cybrids of rice with transferred cms cytoplasm. For the latter, protoplasts irradiated with 70 krad x-rays were used. (author)

  14. Defined fungal starter granules for purple glutinous rice wine

    OpenAIRE

    Ngo Thi Phuong Dung, N.T.P.

    2004-01-01

    The Mekong Delta region ofSouth Vietnamis particularly known as a production area of purple glutinous rice wine ( RuouNepThan ). The latter differs from regular rice wine for its sherry-like taste and flavour and its attractive brown-red colour. Wine is made from purple glutinous rice at home or by small cottage industries, by washing, soaking, steam-cooking, cooling and inoculation of the cooled rice with powdered rice-wine starter ( Men ). The fermentation takes place in two stages, i.e. an...

  15. Sensory acceptability evaluation of irradiated rice, oryza sativa indica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaharanu, S.; Sutantawong, M.; Ungsunanatawiwat, A.

    1971-01-01

    The non-glutinous and glutinous types of polished rice, Oryza sativa indica were subjected to gamma rays at ambient temperature and stored at 27+-1 0 C for one week. The irradiated rice was cooked and tasted by members of trained panel. Using Hedonic scale and Triangle test, the acceptability of irradiated rice was justified. Gamma irradiation up to 100 krads did not significantly cause off-color, off-odor and off flavor in irradiated non-glutino rice. Glutinous rice irradiated at 60 krads could not be significantly differentiated from non-irradiated sample

  16. Fermented Brown Rice Flour as Functional Food Ingredient

    OpenAIRE

    Ilowefah, Muna; Chinma, Chiemela; Bakar, Jamilah; Ghazali, Hasanah; Muhammad, Kharidah; Makeri, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    As fermentation could reduce the negative effects of bran on final cereal products, the utilization of whole-cereal flour is recommended, such as brown rice flour as a functional food ingredient. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of fermented brown rice flour on white rice flour, white rice batter and its steamed bread qualities. Brown rice batter was fermented using commercial baker?s yeast (Eagle brand) according to the optimum conditions for moderate acidity (pH 5.5) to...

  17. Improved short-stature rice created by radiation-induced mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A new mutant variety of rice, named Calrose 76, has recently been released to farmers in California. The mutant was the result of irradiating seeds of the rice variety Calrose with gamma rays from a cobalt-60 source. The variety is the result of co-operative research between Dr. J.N. Rutger, U.S. Department of Agriculture research geneticist at Davis, California, Prof. M.L. Peterson, University of California, and Dr. Chao-Hwa Hu, an IAEA fellow. The mutant that was ultimately released as a new variety was selected in the second generation following irradiation of the Calrose seeds. Selections were also made in a non-irradiated control population, but none proved to be desirable. After its selection in 1971, the mutant was subsequently tested for several years for agronomic performance, grain yield and quality characteristics. It was found to have the same yielding capacity as the widely grown check variety, CS-M3. It also did not differ in seedling vigour or in heading date, but its mature stem is about 35 cm shorter and less susceptible to lodging. Therefore, it yields more grain under conditions of high soil fertility. The short stature is inherited by a single recessive gene, allelic to the gene for short stature widely used in rice cultivars of the International Rice Research Institute in the Philippines (IRRI). The radiation-induced mutant has the advantage that the gene for short stature now exists in a genotype which is adapted to Californian conditions and which possesses the required cold tolerance and grain qualities. Attempts to transfer short stature from the tropical variety IR8 (produced by IRRI) have been complicated by sterility, cold susceptibility, and unacceptable grain quality. The radiation-induced mutant is used now also in crosses to confer the desired short stature to other rice varieties. (author)

  18. Improved short-stature rice created by radiation-induced mutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-06-15

    A new mutant variety of rice, named Calrose 76, has recently been released to farmers in California. The mutant was the result of irradiating seeds of the rice variety Calrose with gamma rays from a cobalt-60 source. The variety is the result of co-operative research between Dr. J.N. Rutger, U.S. Department of Agriculture research geneticist at Davis, California, Prof. M.L. Peterson, University of California, and Dr. Chao-Hwa Hu, an IAEA fellow. The mutant that was ultimately released as a new variety was selected in the second generation following irradiation of the Calrose seeds. Selections were also made in a non-irradiated control population, but none proved to be desirable. After its selection in 1971, the mutant was subsequently tested for several years for agronomic performance, grain yield and quality characteristics. It was found to have the same yielding capacity as the widely grown check variety, CS-M3. It also did not differ in seedling vigour or in heading date, but its mature stem is about 35 cm shorter and less susceptible to lodging. Therefore, it yields more grain under conditions of high soil fertility. The short stature is inherited by a single recessive gene, allelic to the gene for short stature widely used in rice cultivars of the International Rice Research Institute in the Philippines (IRRI). The radiation-induced mutant has the advantage that the gene for short stature now exists in a genotype which is adapted to Californian conditions and which possesses the required cold tolerance and grain qualities. Attempts to transfer short stature from the tropical variety IR8 (produced by IRRI) have been complicated by sterility, cold susceptibility, and unacceptable grain quality. The radiation-induced mutant is used now also in crosses to confer the desired short stature to other rice varieties. (author)

  19. Leaf density explains variation in leaf mass per area in rice between cultivars and nitrogen treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Dongliang; Wang, Dan; Liu, Xi; Peng, Shaobing; Huang, Jianliang; Li, Yong

    2016-05-01

    Leaf mass per area (LMA) is an important leaf trait; however, correlations between LMA and leaf anatomical features and photosynthesis have not been fully investigated, especially in cereal crops. The objectives of this study were (a) to investigate the correlations between LMA and leaf anatomical traits; and (b) to clarify the response of LMA to nitrogen supply and its effect on photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency (PNUE). In the present study, 11 rice varieties were pot grown under sufficient nitrogen (SN) conditions, and four selected rice cultivars were grown under low nitrogen (LN) conditions. Leaf anatomical traits, gas exchange and leaf N content were measured. There was large variation in LMA across selected rice varieties. Regression analysis showed that the variation in LMA was more closely related to leaf density (LD) than to leaf thickness (LT). LMA was positively related to the percentage of mesophyll tissue area (%mesophyll), negatively related to the percentage of epidermis tissue area (%epidermis) and unrelated to the percentage of vascular tissue area (%vascular). The response of LMA to N supplementation was dependent on the variety and was also mainly determined by the response of LD to N. Compared with SN, photosynthesis was significantly decreased under LN, while PNUE was increased. The increase in PNUE was more critical in rice cultivars with a higher LMA under SN supply. Leaf density is the major cause of the variation in LMA across rice varieties and N treatments, and an increase in LMA under high N conditions would aggravate the decrease in PNUE. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. The response of rice (Oryza sativa L. to elevated night temperature with application of Pyraclostobin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Y. Wahjanto

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Rice productivity is having a problem related with climate change phenomenon, mainly the global warming. The rising of temperature in some country threat the rice production. The increasing of temperature is a major limiting factor that affects yield through the growth and development of rice plant. This study was aimed to examine the response of rice (Oryza sativa L. to elevated night temperature with the application of Pyraclostobin. A glasshouse experiment that was conducted from March to August 2015 at Brawijaya University Research Station of Jatikerto – Malang, used nested plot design with three replications and two treatments. The first treatments were the night temperature level (normal temperature, increased 2oC, and increased 4oC. The second treatments were the concentration of Pyraclostrobin (0 ppm, 400 ppm and 800 ppm. Results of the study showed that the increase of temperature at night for about 2oC and 4oC, as well as application of Pyraclostrobin, affected growth and yield of rice. Application of Pyraclostrobin by concentrations of 400 ppm and 800 ppm effectively reduced yield loss by increasing night temperature of 2oC, which resulted in 20.20% and 24.93%, respectively, in comparison with the control; while the increase of night temperature by 4oC have resulted 26.86% and 33.33% in comparison with the control. Pyraclostrobin was effective in maintaining percentage of the filled spikelets by the increase of temperature at night for about 2oC and 4oC.

  1. Glufosinate herbicide-tolerant (LibertyLink) rice vs. conventional rice in diets for growing-finishing swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromwell, G L; Henry, B J; Scott, A L; Gerngross, M F; Dusek, D L; Fletcher, D W

    2005-05-01

    Genetically modified (GM) rice (LibertyLink, event LLRICE62) that is tolerant to glufosinate ammonium (Liberty) herbicide was compared with a near-isogenic (NI) conventional medium-grain brown rice (cultivar, Bengal) and a commercially milled long-grain brown rice in diets for growing-finishing pigs. The GM and NI rice were grown in 2000. The GM rice was from fields treated (GM+) or not treated (GM-) with glufosinate herbicide. The GM- and NI rice were grown using herbicide regimens typical of southern United States rice production practices. The four rice grains were similar in composition. Growing-finishing pigs (n = 96) were fed fortified rice-soybean meal diets containing the four different rice grains from 25 to 106 kg BW. Diets contained 0.99% lysine initially (growing phase), with lysine decreased to 0.80% (early finishing phase) and 0.65% (late finishing phase), when pigs reached 51 and 77 kg, respectively. The percentage of rice in the four diets was constant during each of the three phases (72.8, 80.0, and 85.8% for the growing, early-finishing, and late-finishing phases, respectively). There were six pen replicates (three pens of barrows and three pens of gilts) and four pigs per pen for each dietary treatment. All pigs were slaughtered at the termination of the study to collect carcass data. At the end of the 98-d experiment, BW gain, feed intake (as-fed basis), and feed:gain ratio did not differ (P > 0.05) for pigs fed the GM+ vs. conventional rice diets, but growth performance traits of pigs fed the GM+ rice diets were superior (P glufosinate herbicide-tolerant rice was similar in composition and nutritional value to conventional rice for growing-finishing pigs.

  2. The impact of herbicide-resistant rice technology on phenotypic diversity and population structure of United States weedy rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos, Nilda Roma; Singh, Vijay; Tseng, Te Ming; Black, Howard; Young, Nelson D; Huang, Zhongyun; Hyma, Katie E; Gealy, David R; Caicedo, Ana L

    2014-11-01

    The use of herbicide-resistant (HR) Clearfield rice (Oryza sativa) to control weedy rice has increased in the past 12 years to constitute about 60% of rice acreage in Arkansas, where most U.S. rice is grown. To assess the impact of HR cultivated rice on the herbicide resistance and population structure of weedy rice, weedy samples were collected from commercial fields with a history of Clearfield rice. Panicles from each weedy type were harvested and tested for resistance to imazethapyr. The majority of plants sampled had at least 20% resistant offspring. These resistant weeds were 97 to 199 cm tall and initiated flowering from 78 to 128 d, generally later than recorded for accessions collected prior to the widespread use of Clearfield rice (i.e. historical accessions). Whereas the majority (70%) of historical accessions had straw-colored hulls, only 30% of contemporary HR weedy rice had straw-colored hulls. Analysis of genotyping-by-sequencing data showed that HR weeds were not genetically structured according to hull color, whereas historical weedy rice was separated into straw-hull and black-hull populations. A significant portion of the local rice crop genome was introgressed into HR weedy rice, which was rare in historical weedy accessions. Admixture analyses showed that HR weeds tend to possess crop haplotypes in the portion of chromosome 2 containing the ACETOLACTATE SYNTHASE gene, which confers herbicide resistance to Clearfield rice. Thus, U.S. HR weedy rice is a distinct population relative to historical weedy rice and shows modifications in morphology and phenology that are relevant to weed management. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Food Service Quality Survey at the University of Zimbabwe Private Canteens

    OpenAIRE

    C. Benhura; S.F. Nyagura; V. Dakwa; P.E. Gombiro; P. Ngwenyama; R. Matanhire; A.Garamukanwa; N. Mudita; J. Zhangazha; W. Mashavira

    2012-01-01

    A quality survey was conducted at private food outlets at the University of Zimbabwe from June 2007 to October 2011. The objective of the study was to assess services offered in relation to customers’ expectations. The other objectives were to assess the reason for many food service providers on campus and weigh the advantages and limitations of such a system. Data collection was effected through observation and questionnaire interviews. Rice with chicken, rice and sadza with beef and beverag...

  4. Indica rice (Oryza sativa, BR29 and IR64).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Karabi; Datta, Swapan Kumar

    2006-01-01

    Rice is the world's most important food crop. Indica-type rice provides the staple food for more than half of the world population. To satisfy the growing demand of the ever-increasing population, more sustained production of indica-type rice is needed. In addition, because of the high per capita consumption of indica rice, improvement of any traits including its nutritive value may have a significant positive health outcome for the rice-consuming population. Rice yield productivity is greatly affected by different biotic stresses, like diseases and insect pests, and abiotic stresses like drought, cold, and salinity. Attempts to improve resistance in rice to these stresses by conventional breeding through introgression of traits have limited success owing to a lack of resistance germplasm in the wild relatives. Gene transfer technology with genes from other sources can be used to make rice plants resistant or tolerant to insect pests, diseases, and different environmental stresses. For improving the nutritional value of the edible endosperm part of the rice, genes for increasing iron, beta-carotene, or better quality protein can be introduced in rice plants by genetic engineering. Different crops have been transformed using various gene transfer methods, such as protoplast transformation, biolistic, and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. This chapter describes the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation protocol for indica-type rice. The selectable marker genes used are hygromycin phosphotransferase (hpt), neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII), or phosphomannose isomerase (pmi), and, accordingly, the selection agents are hygromycin, kanamycin (G418), or mannose, respectively.

  5. Econometric Model of Rice Policy Based On Presidential Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadi Sembiring, Surya; Hutauruk, Julia

    2018-01-01

    The objective of research is to build an econometric model based on Presidential Instruction rice policy. The data was monthly time series from March 2005 to September 2009. Rice policy model specification using simultaneous equation, consisting of 14 structural equations and four identity equation, which was estimated using Two Stages Least Squares (2SLS) method. The results show that: (1) an increase of government purchasing price of dried harvest paddy has a positive impact on to increase in total rice production and community rice stock, (2) an increase community rice stock lead to decrease the rice imports, (3) an increase of the realization of the distribution of subsidized ZA fertilizers and the realization of the distribution of subsidized NPK fertilizers has a positive impact on to increase in total rice production and community rice stock and to reduce rice imports, (4) the price of the dried harvest paddy is highly responsive to the water content of dried harvest paddy both the short run and long run, (5) the quantity of rice imported is highly responsive to the imported rice price, both short run and long run.

  6. Breeding of ozone resistant rice: Relevance, approaches and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frei, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone concentrations have been rising across Asia, and will continue to rise during the 21st century. Ozone affects rice yields through reductions in spikelet number, spikelet fertility, and grain size. Moreover, ozone leads to changes in rice grain and straw quality. Therefore the breeding of ozone tolerant rice varieties is warranted. The mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) using bi-parental populations identified several tolerance QTL mitigating symptom formation, grain yield losses, or the degradation of straw quality. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) demonstrated substantial natural genotypic variation in ozone tolerance in rice, and revealed that the genetic architecture of ozone tolerance in rice is dominated by multiple medium and small effect loci. Transgenic approaches targeting tolerance mechanisms such as antioxidant capacity are also discussed. It is concluded that the breeding of ozone tolerant rice can contribute substantially to the global food security, and is feasible using different breeding approaches. - Highlights: • Tropospheric ozone affects millions of hectares of rice land. • Ozone affects rice yield and quality. • Breeding approaches to adapt rice to high ozone are discussed. • Challenges in the breeding of ozone resistant rice are discussed. - This review summarizes the effects of tropospheric ozone on rice and outlines approaches and challenges in the breeding of adapted varieties

  7. Rice Hulls as a Renewable Complex Material Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Glushankova

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available As a result of rice grain processing, a big amount of waste (up to 20% is produced. It is mainly rice hulls. The main components of rice hulls are cellulose, lignin and mineral ash. The mineral ash quantity in rice hulls varies from 15 up to 20%, by weight of the rice hulls. The mineral ash consists of amorphous silica (opal-type. Due to the high content of silica in rice hulls, the material burns with difficulty under natural conditions, and it is biodegradably destroyed only with difficulty, when composted. Utilization of rice hulls then becomes an ecological problem due to huge rice production and its continuous growth. At the same time, the annual quantity of silica content in rice hulls is comparable with the quantity of amorphous silica produced as a mineral resource. The issue of manufacturing cellular glass silica construction materials from rice hulls as a renewable resource is discussed in this paper. The utilization technology is based on an amorphous silicon oxide with the use of energy from the combustion of the organic component of rice hulls.

  8. Effect of rice bran supplementation on cookie baking quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younis, A.; Bhatti, M.S.; Ahmed, A

    2011-01-01

    Rice bran, a by-product obtained during polishing of un-milled rice, contains a large quantity of essential nutrients such as minerals, vitamins, fiber, amino acids and antioxidants. Supplementation of rice bran in cookies can improve their nutritional value. In the present study, cookies were prepared from wheat flour with supplementation of rice bran at the rate of 5, 10, 15 and 20 percent. The rice bran was stabilized with acid and dry heat treatment before supplementation. Chemical analysis of the cookies revealed that there was no significant difference in chemical and physical properties of cookies supplemented with acid stabilized rice bran (ASRB) and heat stabilized rice bran (HSRB). The moisture, crude protein, fat and mineral contents were significantly increased with the increment of rice bran. Average width, thickness and spread factor of cookies also increased with the increase in percentage of rice bran. Sensory evaluation of cookies showed that scores for color of cookies decreased significantly with increase in level of rice bran and sensory scores were significantly higher in the cookies prepared with HSRB. However the decrease was non-significant at 10 percent level of substitution. Highest scores for overall acceptability of supplemented cookies was recorded at 15 percent level of substitution as compared to other treatments. Hence it is concluded from the results that supplementation of HSRB at the rate of 10 percent is more suitable for production of rice bran supplemented cookies. (author)

  9. Rice methylmercury exposure and mitigation: a comprehensive review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg, Sarah E.; Windham-Myers, Lisamarie; Creswell, Joel E.

    2014-01-01

    Rice cultivation practices from field preparation to post-harvest transform rice paddies into hot spots for microbial mercury methylation, converting less-toxic inorganic mercury to more-toxic methylmercury, which is likely translocated to rice grain. This review includes 51 studies reporting rice total mercury and/or methylmercury concentrations, based on rice (Orzya sativa) cultivated or purchased in 15 countries. Not surprisingly, both rice total mercury and methylmercury levels were significantly higher in polluted sites compared to non-polluted sites (Wilcoxon rank sum, price percent methylmercury (of total mercury) did not differ statistically between polluted and non-polluted sites (Wilcoxon rank sum, p=0.35), suggesting comparable mercury methylation rates in paddy soil across these sites and/or similar accumulation of mercury species for these rice cultivars. Studies characterizing the effects of rice cultivation under more aerobic conditions were reviewed to determine the mitigation potential of this practice. Rice management practices utilizing alternating wetting and drying (instead of continuous flooding) caused soil methylmercury levels to spike, resulting in a strong methylmercury pulse after fields were dried and reflooded; however, it is uncertain whether this led to increased translocation of methylmercury from paddy soil to rice grain. Due to the potential health risks, it is advisable to investigate this issue further, and to develop separate water management strategies for mercury polluted and non-polluted sites, in order to minimize methylmercury exposure through rice ingestion.

  10. Lead enrichment in different genotypes of rice grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Sun, Guo-rong; Liu, Ai-ping; Zhou, Wei-dong

    2008-03-01

    Using environmental scanning electron microscopy and X-ray electron probe microanalysis, the lead content was studied in inner and outer surface of rice glume, surface of caryopsis, center of caryopsis, near aleuronic layer and aleuronic layer in 21 genotypes of rice grains. The results showed that the lead content in different part of 21 genotypes of rice grains changed as inner surface of rice glume > aleuronic layer > near aleuronic layer > surface of caryopsis > outer surface of rice glume > center of caryopsis. There were genetic differences in lead enrichment in different genotypes of rice grains, which reflected as the differences of lead content in the same part and different part of rice grains. In different genotypes of rice grains, there were significant non-linear correlations between lead content in the inner surface of rice glume, center of caryopsis, aleuronic layer and that in the other parts of rice grain. The results also indicated that the lead enrichment in the center of caryopsis regulated by glume and aleuronic layer. In addition, in different genotypes of rice grains, there were differences in regulation of lead enrichment among different parts, which changed non-linearly.

  11. Water management, rice varieties and mycorrhizal inoculation influence arsenic concentration and speciation in rice grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Wu, Songlin; Ren, Baihui; Chen, Baodong

    2016-05-01

    A pot experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of water management and mycorrhizal inoculation on arsenic (As) uptake by two rice varieties, the As-resistant BRRI dhan 47 (B47) and As-sensitive BRRI dhan 29 (B29). Grain As concentration of B47 plants was significantly lower than that of B29, and grain As concentration of B47 was higher under flooding conditions than that under aerobic conditions. In general, mycorrhizal inoculation (Rhizophagus irregularis) had no significant effect on grain As concentrations, but decreased the proportion of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in grains of B47. The proportion of dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in the total grain As was dramatically higher under flooding conditions. Results demonstrate that rice variety selection and appropriate water management along with mycorrhizal inoculation could be practical countermeasures to As accumulation and toxicity in rice grains, thus reducing health risks of As exposure in rice diets.

  12. efficacy of rice husk ash against rice weevil and lesser grain borer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2017-05-05

    May 5, 2017 ... this study was to determine efficacy of RHA from “Mr. Harry” rice variety against Rhyzopertha dominica and. Sitophilus oryzae. ..... Spectroscopy, following lithium metaborate/ ..... feasibility of using RHA to treat grains meant.

  13. Production of glutinous rice flour from broken rice via ultrasonic assisted extraction of amylose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyawati, Yohana Dwi; Ahsan, Sitti Faika; Ong, Lu Ki; Soetaredjo, Felycia Edi; Ismadji, Suryadi; Ju, Yi-Hsu

    2016-07-15

    In this study, a modified aqueous leaching method by complex formation of amylose with glycerol was employed for reducing the amylose content of starch in broken white rice to less than 2%, so that the resulting starch can be classified to that of glutinous rice flour. By employing ultrasonication in alkaline condition, extraction of amylose could be performed by washing at lower temperature in shorter time compared to the existing aqueous leaching method. The effects of glycerol concentration, alkali concentration, ultrasonication and treatment time on the amylose content of the treated starch were systematically investigated. Under optimum condition, amylose content of broken white rice starch can be reduced from 27.27% to 1.43% with a yield of 80.42%. The changes in the physicochemical properties of the rice flour before and after treatment were studied. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Three-dimensional intracellular structure of a whole rice mesophyll cell observed with FIB-SEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oi, Takao; Enomoto, Sakiko; Nakao, Tomoyo; Arai, Shigeo; Yamane, Koji; Taniguchi, Mitsutaka

    2017-07-01

    Ultrathin sections of rice leaf blades observed two-dimensionally using a transmission electron microscope (TEM) show that the chlorenchyma is composed of lobed mesophyll cells, with intricate cell boundaries, and lined with chloroplasts. The lobed cell shape and chloroplast positioning are believed to enhance the area available for the gas exchange surface for photosynthesis in rice leaves. However, a cell image revealing the three-dimensional (3-D) ultrastructure of rice mesophyll cells has not been visualized. In this study, a whole rice mesophyll cell was observed using a focused ion beam scanning electron microscope (FIB-SEM), which provides many serial sections automatically, rapidly and correctly, thereby enabling 3-D cell structure reconstruction. Rice leaf blades were fixed chemically using the method for conventional TEM observation, embedded in resin and subsequently set in the FIB-SEM chamber. Specimen blocks were sectioned transversely using the FIB, and block-face images were captured using the SEM. The sectioning and imaging were repeated overnight for 200-500 slices (each 50 nm thick). The resultant large-volume image stacks ( x = 25 μm, y = 25 μm, z = 10-25 μm) contained one or two whole mesophyll cells. The 3-D models of whole mesophyll cells were reconstructed using image processing software. The reconstructed cell models were discoid shaped with several lobes around the cell periphery. The cell shape increased the surface area, and the ratio of surface area to volume was twice that of a cylinder having the same volume. The chloroplasts occupied half the cell volume and spread as sheets along the cell lobes, covering most of the inner cell surface, with adjacent chloroplasts in close contact with each other. Cellular and sub-cellular ultrastructures of a whole mesophyll cell in a rice leaf blade are demonstrated three-dimensionally using a FIB-SEM. The 3-D models and numerical information support the hypothesis that rice mesophyll

  15. Effect of vanadium application on the paddy rice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, T F

    1953-01-01

    The height, the root length and the weight of rice seedlings were increased by the application of ammonium vanadate. The nitrogen contents of seedlings were generally increased in proportion to the amounts of vanadate applied. Carbon contents of seedlings, however, show little difference. The best result was obtained when V/sub 2/O/sub 3/ 150 ppm was applied, but more than 500 ppm was toxic to rice seedlings, and at 1000 ppm all rice seedlings were killed. N, P, and K fertilizers were added to the rice after transplantation from the nursery, but vanadium was omitted. Little difference was found in growth and yield of the rice plants. Vanadium absorbed by younger rice seedlings has little influence on the latter growth and yields of rice plants.

  16. Recycling rice husks for high-capacity lithium battery anodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Dae Soo; Ryou, Myung-Hyun; Sung, Yong Joo; Park, Seung Bin; Choi, Jang Wook

    2013-07-23

    The rice husk is the outer covering of a rice kernel and protects the inner ingredients from external attack by insects and bacteria. To perform this function while ventilating air and moisture, rice plants have developed unique nanoporous silica layers in their husks through years of natural evolution. Despite the massive amount of annual production near 10(8) tons worldwide, so far rice husks have been recycled only for low-value agricultural items. In an effort to recycle rice husks for high-value applications, we convert the silica to silicon and use it for high-capacity lithium battery anodes. Taking advantage of the interconnected nanoporous structure naturally existing in rice husks, the converted silicon exhibits excellent electrochemical performance as a lithium battery anode, suggesting that rice husks can be a massive resource for use in high-capacity lithium battery negative electrodes.

  17. Automated rice leaf disease detection using color image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugoy, Reinald Adrian D. L.; Mariano, Vladimir Y.

    2011-06-01

    In rice-related institutions such as the International Rice Research Institute, assessing the health condition of a rice plant through its leaves, which is usually done as a manual eyeball exercise, is important to come up with good nutrient and disease management strategies. In this paper, an automated system that can detect diseases present in a rice leaf using color image analysis is presented. In the system, the outlier region is first obtained from a rice leaf image to be tested using histogram intersection between the test and healthy rice leaf images. Upon obtaining the outlier, it is then subjected to a threshold-based K-means clustering algorithm to group related regions into clusters. Then, these clusters are subjected to further analysis to finally determine the suspected diseases of the rice leaf.

  18. Exploring a suitable nitrogen fertilizer rate to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and ensure rice yields in paddy fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Yiming; Wang, Xiaopeng; Yang, Jingping, E-mail: jpyang@zju.edu.cn; Zhao, Xing; Ye, Xinyi

    2016-09-15

    The application rate of nitrogen fertilizer was believed to dramatically influence greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from paddy fields. Thus, providing a suitable nitrogen fertilization rate to ensure rice yields, reducing GHG emissions and exploring emission behavior are important issues for field management. In this paper, a two year experiment with six rates (0, 75, 150, 225, 300, 375 kg N/ha) of nitrogen fertilizer application was designed to examine GHG emissions by measuring carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) flux and their cumulative global warming potential (GWP) from paddy fields in Hangzhou, Zhejiang in 2013 and 2014. The results indicated that the GWP and rice yields increased with an increasing application rate of nitrogen fertilizer. Emission peaks of CH{sub 4} mainly appeared at the vegetative phase, and emission peaks of CO{sub 2}, and N{sub 2}O mainly appeared at reproductive phase of rice growth. The CO{sub 2} flux was significantly correlated with soil temperature, while the CH{sub 4} flux was influenced by logging water remaining period and N{sub 2}O flux was significantly associated with nitrogen application rates. This study showed that 225 kg N/ha was a suitable nitrogen fertilizer rate to minimize GHG emissions with low yield-scaled emissions of 3.69 (in 2013) and 2.23 (in 2014) kg CO{sub 2}-eq/kg rice yield as well as to ensure rice yields remained at a relatively high level of 8.89 t/ha in paddy fields. - Highlights: • Exploiting co-benefits of rice yield and reduction of greenhouse gas emission. • Global warming potential and rice yield increased with nitrogen fertilizer rate up. • Emission peaks of CH{sub 4,} CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O appeared at vegetative and reproductive phase. • 225 kg N/ha rate benefits both rice yields and GWP reduction.

  19. Rice straw as a feedstock for biofuels: Availability, recalcitrance, and chemical properties: Rice straw as a feedstock for biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satlewal, Alok [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering; Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Joint Inst. for Biological Sciences, Biosciences Division; Indian Oil Corporation Ltd, Faridabad (India), Dept. of Bioenergy, DBT-IOC Centre for Advanced Bioenergy Research, Research and Development Centre; Agrawal, Ruchi [Indian Oil Corporation Ltd, Faridabad (India), Dept. of Bioenergy, DBT-IOC Centre for Advanced Bioenergy Research, Research and Development Centre; Bhagia, Samarthya [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering; Das, Parthapratim [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering; Ragauskas, Arthur J. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering

    2017-10-17

    The surplus availability of rice straw, its limited usage and environment pollution caused by inefficient burning has fostered research for its valorization to biofuels. This review elucidates the current status of rice straw potential around the globe along with recent advances in revealing the critical factors responsible for its recalcitrance and chemical properties. The role and accumulation of high silica content in rice straw has been elucidated with its impact on enzymatic hydrolysis in a biorefinery environment. The correlation of different pretreatment approaches in modifying the physiochemical properties of rice straw and improving the enzymatic accessibility has also been discussed. This study highlights new challenges, resolutions and opportunities for rice straw based biorefineries.

  20. Low Carbon Rice Farming Practices in the Mekong Delta Yield Significantly Higher Profits and Lower Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudek, J.; Van Sanh, N.; Tinh, T. K.; Tin, H. Q.; Thu Ha, T.; Pha, D. N.; Cui, T. Q.; Tin, N. H.; Son, N. N.; Thanh, H. H.; Kien, H. T.; Kritee, K.; Ahuja, R.

    2014-12-01

    The Vietnam Low-Carbon Rice Project (VLCRP) seeks to significantly reduce GHG emissions from rice cultivation, an activity responsible for more than 30% of Vietnam's overall GHG emissions, while improving livelihoods for the rice farmer community by decreasing costs and enhancing yield as well as providing supplemental farmer income through the sale of carbon credits. The Mekong Delta makes up 12% of Vietnam's land area, but produces more than 50% of the country's rice, including more than 90% of the rice for export. Rice cultivation is the main source of income for 80% of farmers in the Mekong Delta. VLCRP was launched in late 2012 in the Mekong Delta in two major rice production provinces, Kien Giang and An Giang. To date, VLCRP has completed 11 crop seasons (in Kien Giang and An Giang combined), training over 400 farmer households in applying VLCRP's package of practices (known as 1 Must - 6 Reductions) and building technical capacity to its key stakeholders and rice farmer community leaders. By adopting the 1 Must- 6 Reductions practices (including reduced seeding density, reduced fertilizer and pesticide application, and alternative wetting and drying water management), rice farmers reduce their input costs while maintaining or improving yields, and decreasing greenhouse gas emissions. The VLCRP package of practices also deliver other environmental and social co-benefits, such as reduced water pollution, improved habitat for fishery resources and reduced health risks for farmers through the reduction of agri-chemicals. VLCRP farmers use significantly less inputs (50% reduction in seed, 30% reduction in fertilizer, 40-50% reduction in water) while improving yields 5-10%, leading to an increase in profit from 10% to as high as 60% per hectare. Preliminary results indicate that the 1 Must- 6 Reductions practices have led to approximately 40-65% reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, equivalent to 4 tons of CO2e/ha/yr in An Giang and 35 tons of CO2e/ha/yr in Kien