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Sample records for rice aldehyde dehydrogenase7

  1. Effects of Schiff Base Formation and Aldol Condensation on the Determination of Aldehydes in Rice Wine Using GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ji Hye; Lee, Sang Mi; Kim, Young-Suk

    2017-04-11

    The Schiff base reaction and aldol condensation that occur during sample preparation can lead to the reduction of aldehyde content in the analysis of traditional Korean rice wine, makgeolli. The contents of aldehydes were decreased, whereas those of hydroxy carbonyl compounds were increased by increasing the pH. In the presence of added amino acids, the levels of aldehydes in makgeolli were reduced as the amount of the amino acid alanine increased. Also, the contents of hydroxyl carbonyl compounds were reduced by alanine addition as compared to the control. Therefore, the determination of aldehydes can be affected by pH and the amount of amino acids, which can vary during fermentation and storage of alcoholic beverages because pH and amino acids affect Schiff base formation and aldol condensation.

  2. Deficiency in the amino aldehyde dehydrogenase encoded by GmAMADH2, the homologue of rice Os2AP, enhances 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline biosynthesis in soybeans (Glycine max L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arikit, Siwaret; Yoshihashi, Tadashi; Wanchana, Samart; Uyen, Tran T; Huong, Nguyen T T; Wongpornchai, Sugunya; Vanavichit, Apichart

    2011-01-01

    2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP), the volatile compound that provides the 'popcorn-like' aroma in a large variety of cereal and food products, is widely found in nature. Deficiency in amino aldehyde dehydrogenase (AMADH) was previously shown to be the likely cause of 2AP biosynthesis in rice (Oryza sativa L.). In this study, the validity of this mechanism was investigated in soybeans (Glycine max L.). An assay of AMADH activity in soybeans revealed that the aromatic soybean, which contains 2AP, also lacked AMADH enzyme activity. Two genes, GmAMADH1 and GmAMADH2, which are homologous to the rice Os2AP gene that encodes AMADH, were characterized. The transcription level of GmAMADH2 was lower in aromatic varieties than in nonaromatic varieties, whereas the expression of GmAMADH1 did not differ. A double nucleotide (TT) deletion was found in exon 10 of GmAMADH2 in all aromatic varieties. This variation caused a frame-shift mutation and a premature stop codon. Suppression of GmAMADH2 by introduction of a GmAMADH2-RNAi construct into the calli of the two nonaromatic wild-type varieties inhibited the synthesis of AMADH and induced the biosynthesis of 2AP. These results suggest that deficiency in the GmAMADH2 product, AMADH, plays a similar role in soybean as in rice, which is to promote 2AP biosynthesis. This phenomenon might be a conserved mechanism among plant species. © 2010 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2010 Society for Experimental Biology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. First general methods toward aldehyde enolphosphates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthes, Nicolas; Grison, Claude

    2012-02-01

    We herein report two innovative methods toward aldehyde enolphosphates and the first saccharidic aldehyde enolphosphates. Aldehyde enolphosphate function is worthwhile to be considered as a good phosphoenolpyruvate analogue. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Volatile Composition of Smoked and Non-Smoked Iranian Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leontina Lipan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the volatile profiles of smoked and non-smoked Iranian rice were identified, and their relative abundance was calculated and compared. Headspace solid-phase microextraction together with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS were used to extract and identify the volatile compounds. The main groups of volatiles in Iranian rice were aldehydes, ketones, phenol derivatives, furans, linear hydrocarbons, esters and terpenes. The chemical family aldehydes was the most abundant one in the profile of non-smoked rice, while phenol derivatives and furans predominated in smoked samples. This study is the first one reporting comparative data of volatile compounds between smoked and non-smoked Iranian rice.

  5. Enantioselective Addition of Grignard Reagents to Aldehydes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Nudelman

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The addition of Grignard reagents to aldehydes in the presence of chiral aminoalcohols shows a moderate enantioselectivity. The study carried out with a series of ligands allows the correlation between the structural characteristics and their reactivity.

  6. Efficient and Highly Aldehyde Selective Wacker Oxidation

    KAUST Repository

    Teo, Peili

    2012-07-06

    A method for efficient and aldehyde-selective Wacker oxidation of aryl-substituted olefins using PdCl 2(MeCN) 2, 1,4-benzoquinone, and t-BuOH in air is described. Up to a 96% yield of aldehyde can be obtained, and up to 99% selectivity can be achieved with styrene-related substrates. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  7. Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase isozymes of spinach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, A.D.; Weretilnyk, E.A.; Weigel, P.

    1986-04-01

    Betaine is synthesized in spinach chloroplasts via the pathway Choline ..-->.. Betaine Aldehyde ..-->.. Betaine; the second step is catalyzed by betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH). The subcellular distribution of BADH was determined in leaf protoplast lysates; BADH isozymes were separated by 6-9% native PAGE. The chloroplast stromal fraction contains a single BADH isozyme (number1) that accounts for > 80% of the total protoplast activity; the extrachloroplastic fraction has a minor isozyme (number2) which migrates more slowly than number1. Both isozymes appear specific for betaine aldehyde, are more active with NAD than NADP, and show a ca. 3-fold activity increase in salinized leaves. The phenotype of a natural variant of isozyme number1 suggests that the enzyme is a dimer.

  8. Rice Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter presents the symptoms of deficiency and toxicity of the major and minor mineral nutrients in rice, as well as a current synopsis of nutrient transporters and their regulation. The availability of sequences from the recently completed rice genome has furthered the knowledge of how plants...

  9. Palladium complexes of pyrrole-2-aldehyde thiosemicarbazone ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    pyrrole-2-aldehyde thiosemicarbazone with these pal- ladium compounds have afforded three complexes, in which the thiosemicarbazone ligand has been found to display two different modes of coordination. Herein we describe the chemistry of these three complexes, with special reference to their formation, structure and.

  10. Interaction of bacterial luciferase with aldehyde substrates and inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, W A; Abu-Soud, H M; Baldwin, T O; Raushel, F M

    1993-11-25

    Bacterial luciferase catalyzes the reaction of FMNH2, O2, and an aliphatic aldehyde to yield the carboxylic acid, FMN, water and blue-green light. The kinetics of the bacterial luciferase reaction were measured by stopped-flow spectrophotometry at pH 7 and 25 degrees C for the series of aldehydes from n-heptanal to n-undecanal. The rate of formation of the 4a-hydroperoxyflavin intermediate was dependent on the aldehyde concentration when mixtures of enzyme, FMNH2, and aldehyde were rapidly mixed with O2. At saturating aldehyde, the rate of formation of this intermediate was 100-fold slower than in the absence of aldehyde, demonstrating that an enzyme.FMNH2.aldehyde complex can be formed. Numerical simulation of the time courses for these experiments supported the formation of this intermediate and its direct reaction with O2. The kinetics of the light emitting reaction were dependent upon the chain length of the aldehyde substrate. Although the initial light intensity and the light emission decay rate were different for each aldehyde, the quantum yield for the reaction was independent of the aldehyde used. Luciferase was inhibited by high levels of the aldehyde substrate when the enzyme was assayed by mixing FMNH2 with an aerobic mixture of enzyme and aldehyde. The extent of inhibition was dependent on the particular aldehyde used, and the binding affinity of the aldehyde for the free enzyme increased in parallel with the aldehyde chain length. The kinetics of the formation and decay of the various intermediates were also studied in the presence of n-alkyladehyde analogs. These compounds decreased the rate of formation of the 4a-hydroperoxyflavin intermediate in much the same way as the aldehyde substrate, presumably by the formation of the enzyme.FMNH2.analog ternary complex.

  11. Biomarkers of exposure to endogenous oxidative and aldehyde stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, W Robert; Lee, Owen; Liu, Zhen; Marcon, Norman; Minkin, Salomon; O'Brien, Peter J

    2011-08-01

    We observed an unexpectedly strong association of three different endogenous aldehydes and noted that the association could be explained by multiple reactions in which oxidative stress increased the formation of endogenous aldehydes and endogenous aldehydes increased oxidative stress. These interactions make it reasonable to assess multiple exposures to endogenous oxidative and aldehyde stress with less specific measures such as advanced glycation end-products or protein carbonyls.

  12. 40 CFR 721.5762 - Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5762 Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance... aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (PMN P-01-573) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  13. Aldehyde decarbonylation catalysis under mild conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, C.M.; Rathmill, S.E.; Park, Y.J.; Chen, J.; Crabtree, R.H.; Liable-Sands, L.M.; Rheingold, A.L.

    1999-12-06

    Reaction of [RhCl(NBD)]{sub 2} with 2.0 equiv of triphos (triphos = bis(2-diphenylphosphinoethyl)phenylphosphine; NBD = bicyclo[2.2.1]hepta-2,5-diene) in THF solution at room temperature affords [Rh(NBD)(triphos)][Cl] (4a), which was isolated as [Rh(NBD)(triphos)][SbF{sub 6}] (4b) in 67% yield. Treatment of 4b with aqueous formaldehyde in THF solution at 80 C forms [Rh(CO)(triphos)][SbF{sub 6}] (2a), which reversibly binds a second equivalent of CO{sub (g)} to give [Rh(CO){sub 2}(triphos)][SbF{sub 6}] (2b). The complex [Rh(CO)(triphos)][SbF{sub 6}] has been found to be an effective aldehyde decarbonylation catalyst for primary and aryl aldehydes at temperatures as low as that of refluxing dioxane, with little or no undesirable side products resulting from {beta} elimination or radical rearrangement.

  14. An Efficient Chemoenzymatic Synthesis of Dihydroartemisinic Aldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiray, Melodi; Tang, Xiaoping; Wirth, Thomas; Faraldos, Juan A; Allemann, Rudolf K

    2017-04-03

    Artemisinin from the plant Artemisia annua is the most potent pharmaceutical for the treatment of malaria. In the plant, the sesquiterpene cyclase amorphadiene synthase, a cytochrome-dependent CYP450, and an aldehyde reductase convert farnesyl diphosphate (FDP) into dihydroartemisinic aldehyde (DHAAl), which is a key intermediate in the biosynthesis of artemisinin and a semisynthetic precursor for its chemical synthesis. Here, we report a chemoenzymatic process that is able to deliver DHAAl using only the sesquiterpene synthase from a carefully designed hydroxylated FDP derivative. This process, which reverses the natural order of cyclization of FDP and oxidation of the sesquiterpene hydrocarbon, provides a significant improvement in the synthesis of DHAAl and demonstrates the potential of substrate engineering in the terpene synthase mediated synthesis of high-value natural products. © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  15. SAXS fingerprints of aldehyde dehydrogenase oligomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. Tanner

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Enzymes of the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH superfamily catalyze the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent oxidation of aldehydes to carboxylic acids. ALDHs are important in detoxification of aldehydes, amino acid metabolism, embryogenesis and development, neurotransmission, oxidative stress, and cancer. Mutations in genes encoding ALDHs cause metabolic disorders, including alcohol flush reaction (ALDH2, Sjögren–Larsson syndrome (ALDH3A2, hyperprolinemia type II (ALDH4A1, γ-hydroxybutyric aciduria (ALDH5A1, methylmalonic aciduria (ALDH6A1, pyridoxine dependent epilepsy (ALDH7A1, and hyperammonemia (ALDH18A1. We previously reported crystal structures and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS analyses of ALDHs exhibiting dimeric, tetrameric, and hexameric oligomeric states (Luo et al., Biochemistry 54 (2015 5513–5522; Luo et al., J. Mol. Biol. 425 (2013 3106–3120. Herein I provide the SAXS curves, radii of gyration, and distance distribution functions for the three types of ALDH oligomer. The SAXS curves and associated analysis provide diagnostic fingerprints that allow rapid identification of the type of ALDH oligomer that is present in solution. The data sets provided here serve as a benchmark for characterizing oligomerization of ALDHs.

  16. A bioluminescence assay for aldehyde dehydrogenase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duellman, Sarah J; Valley, Michael P; Kotraiah, Vinayaka; Vidugiriene, Jolanta; Zhou, Wenhui; Bernad, Laurent; Osterman, Jean; Kimball, Joshua J; Meisenheimer, Poncho; Cali, James J

    2013-03-15

    The aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) family of enzymes is critical for cell survival and adaptation to cellular and environmental stress. These enzymes are of interest as therapeutic targets and as biomarkers of stem cells. This article describes a novel, homogeneous bioluminescence assay to study the activity of the ALDH enzymes. The assay is based on a proluciferin-aldehyde substrate that is recognized and utilized by multiple ALDH enzyme isoforms to generate luciferin. A detection reagent is added to inactivate ALDH and generate light from the luciferin product. The luminescent signal is dependent on the ALDH enzyme concentration and the incubation time in the ALDH reaction; moreover, the luminescent signal generated with the detection reagent is stable for greater than 2 h. This assay provides many advantages over standard NADH fluorescence assays. It is more sensitive and the signal stability provided allows convenient assay setup in batch mode-based high-throughput screens. The assay also shows an accurate pharmacological response for a common ALDH inhibitor and is robust, with a large assay window (S/B=64) and Z'=0.75. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Page 1 CONDENSATION OF ALDEHYDES WITH MALONIC ACID ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1945-10-02

    BY PREM NARAIN AGARVAL, KANTILAL C. PANDYA AND INDRA LAL TRIPATH. (Chemistry Laboratory, St. John's College, Agra). Received October 2, 1945. In this paper the influence of a methyl group on the aromatic ring of the aldehyde, in the aldehyde-malonic acid condensation, is investigated. The influence of such ...

  18. The oxidation of the aldehyde groups in dialdehyde starch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haaksman, I.K.; Besemer, A.C.; Jetten, J.M.; Timmermans, J.W.; Slaghek, T.M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the difference in relative reactivity of the aldehyde groups present in dialdehyde starch towards different oxidising agents. The oxidation of dialdehyde starch with peracetic acid and sodium bromide leads to only partial oxidation to give mono-aldehyde-carboxy starch, while

  19. Threshold responses in cinnamic-aldehyde-sensitive subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J D; Andersen, K E; Rastogi, Suresh Chandra

    1996-01-01

    usage concentrations in different kind of cosmetics. 72% (13/18) developed eczema in the use test performed with an alcoholic solution of cinnamic aldehyde on healthy upper arm skin. 6 of the 13 use-test-positive subjects (46%) reacted later than day 7, indicating that the standard exposure period of 7......Cinnamic aldehyde is an important fragrance material and contact allergen. The present study was performed to provide quantitative data on the eliciting capacity of cinnamic aldehyde, to be considered in assessment of clinical relevance and health hazard. The skin response to serial dilution patch...

  20. Silver-catalyzed synthesis of amides from amines and aldehydes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madix, Robert J; Zhou, Ling; Xu, Bingjun; Friend, Cynthia M; Freyschlag, Cassandra G

    2014-11-18

    The invention provides a method for producing amides via the reaction of aldehydes and amines with oxygen adsorbed on a metallic silver or silver alloy catalyst. An exemplary reaction is shown in Scheme 1: (I), (II), (III). ##STR00001##

  1. Deodorants: an experimental provocation study with cinnamic aldehyde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruze, Magnus; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Axillary dermatitis is common and overrepresented in individuals with contact allergy to fragrances. Many individuals suspect their deodorants to be the incriminating products. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate the significance of cinnamic aldehyde in deodorants for the developmen...

  2. Unsaturated aldehydes as alkene equivalents in the Diels-Alder reaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taarning, Esben; Madsen, Robert

    2008-01-01

    A one-pot procedure is described for using alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes as olefin equivalents in the Diels-Alder reaction. The method combines the normal electron demand cycloaddition with aldehyde dienophiles and the rhodium-catalyzed decarbonylation of aldehydes to afford cyclohexenes...... 53 and 88%. In these transformations, the three aldehydes serve as equivalents of ethylene, propylene and styrene, respectively....

  3. Rice peasants and rice research in Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijkers, P.A.N.M.

    1983-01-01

    Rice has been grown as a food crop in Latin America from early colonial times. In Colombia rice became a prominent subsistence crop especially on the north coast where it has been grown since the 17th century, sometimes also as a commercial crop. During the last twenty years there has been a sharp

  4. Reagent controlled addition of chiral sulfur ylides to chiral aldehydes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bi Jie

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The degree of reagent and substrate control in the reaction of chiral sulfur ylides with chiral aldehydes has been investigated. Specifically, the reactions of the two enantiomers of the chiral benzyl sulfonium salt 1 with glyceraldehyde acetonide were studied in detail. Of the two new stereogenic centers created, it was found that the C1 stereochemistry was largely controlled by the reagent, whereas control at the C2 center was dependent on the aldehyde used. In one case, the trans isomer was produced via reversible formation of the intermediate betaine, whereas in the alternative case, the C2 center was under Felkin Anh/Cornforth control through non-reversible formation of the betaine. Thus, the aldehyde stereocenter influenced the degree of reversibility in betaine formation, which impacted on the stereocontrol at the C2 position.

  5. Polyvinyl alcohol cross-linked with two aldehydes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheibley, D. W.; Rieker, L. L.; Hsu, L. C.; Manzo, M. A. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A film forming polyvinyl alcohol resin is admixed, in aqueous solution, with a dialdehyde crosslinking agent which is capable of crosslinking the polyvinyl alcohol resin and a water soluble acid aldehyde containing a reactive aldehyde group capable of reacting with hydroxyl groups in the polyvinyl alcohol resin and an ionizable acid hydrogen atom. The dialdehyde is present in an amount sufficient to react with from 1 to 20% by weight of the theoretical amount required to react with all of the hydroxyl groups of the polyvinyl alcohol. The amount of acid aldehyde is from 1 to 50% by weight, same basis, and is sufficient to reduce the pH of the aqueous admixture to 5 or less. The admixture is then formed into a desired physical shape, such as by casting a sheet or film, and the shaped material is then heated to simultaneously dry and crosslink the article.

  6. Cooked rice texture and rice flour pasting properties; impacted by rice temperature during milling

    OpenAIRE

    Saleh, Mohammed; Meullenet, Jean-Francois

    2013-01-01

    Rice milling plays a key factor in determining rice quality and value. Therefore accurate quality assessments are critical to the rice industry. This study was undertaken to assess the effect of exposing rice to elevated temperatures during milling, on cooked rice texture and rice flour pasting properties. Two long (Cybonnett and Francis) and one medium (Jupiter) rice (oryzae sativa L.) cultivars were milled using McGill laboratory mill for 30 and 40 s after warmed up the mill before milling....

  7. Rice choline monooxygenase (OsCMO) protein functions in enhancing glycine betaine biosynthesis in transgenic tobacco but does not accumulate in rice (Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Di; Niu, Xiangli; Yu, Jinde; Yan, Jun; Gou, Xiaojun; Lu, Bao-Rong; Liu, Yongsheng

    2012-09-01

    Glycine betaine (GB) is a compatible quaternary amine that enables plants to tolerate abiotic stresses, including salt, drought and cold. In plants, GB is synthesized through two-step of successive oxidations from choline, catalyzed by choline monooxygenase (CMO) and betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH), respectively. Rice is considered as a typical non-GB accumulating species, although the entire genome sequencing revealed rice contains orthologs of both CMO and BADH. Several studies unraveled that rice has a functional BADH gene, but whether rice CMO gene (OsCMO) is functional or a pseudogene remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we report the functional characterization of rice CMO gene. The OsCMO gene was isolated from rice cv. Nipponbare (Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica) using RT-PCR. Northern blot demonstrated the transcription of OsCMO is enhanced by salt stress. Transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing OsCMO results in increased GB content and elevated tolerance to salt stress. Immunoblotting analysis demonstrates that a functional OsCMO protein with correct size was present in transgenic tobacco but rarely accumulated in wild-type rice plants. Surprisingly, a large amount of truncated proteins derived from OsCMO was induced in the rice seedlings in response to salt stresses. This suggests that it is the lack of a functional OsCMO protein that presumably results in non-GB accumulation in the tested rice plant. Expression and transgenic studies demonstrate OsCMO is transcriptionally induced in response to salt stress and functions in increasing glycinebetaine accumulation and enhancing tolerance to salt stress. Immunoblotting analysis suggests that no accumulation of glycinebetaine in the Japonica rice plant presumably results from lack of a functional OsCMO protein.

  8. Copepod reproduction is unaffected by diatom aldehydes or lipid composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dutz, Jörg; Koski, Marja; Jonasdottir, Sigrun

    2008-01-01

    We investigated whether reduced reproductive success of copepods fed with diatoms was related to nutritional imbalances with regard to essential lipids or to the production of inhibitory aldehydes. In 10-d laboratory experiments, feeding, egg production, egg hatching success, and fecal pellet...

  9. Page 1 THE CONDENSATION OF ALDEHYDES witH MALONIC ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1938-05-18

    MALONIC ACID IN THE PRESENCE OF. ORGANIC BASES. Part X. The Condensation of 2 : 4-Resorcylaldehyde. BY KANTILAL C. PANDYA AND TEJPAL SINGH SODHI. (From the Department of Chemistry, St. John's College, Agra.) Received May 18, 1938. IN the condensation of aromatic aldehydes with malonic acid in ...

  10. Reaction of benzoxasilocines with aromatic aldehydes: Synthesis of homopterocarpans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Corral, Míriam; López-Sánchez, Cristóbal; Jiménez-González, Leticia; Rosales, Antonio; Muñoz-Dorado, Manuel; Rodríguez-García, Ignacio

    2007-01-01

    Condensation of 2H-benzo[g][1,2]oxasilocines with aromatic aldehydes in the presence of boron trifluoride affords mixtures of cis/trans 2-phenyl-3-vinylchromans with moderate yields. These can be transformed into homopterocarpans, a synthetic group of substances homologous to the natural isoflavonoid pterocarpans. PMID:17288601

  11. Reaction of benzoxasilocines with aromatic aldehydes: Synthesis of homopterocarpans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-García Ignacio

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Condensation of 2H-benzo[g][1,2]oxasilocines with aromatic aldehydes in the presence of boron trifluoride affords mixtures of cis/trans 2-phenyl-3-vinylchromans with moderate yields. These can be transformed into homopterocarpans, a synthetic group of substances homologous to the natural isoflavonoid pterocarpans.

  12. 40 CFR 721.639 - Amine aldehyde condensate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 721.639 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as an amine aldehyde condensate (PMN P-94-1810... part apply to this section except as modified by this paragraph. (1) Recordkeeping. Recordkeeping...

  13. Page 1 CONDENSATION OF ALDEHYDES WITH MALONIC ACID ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The highest yield obtained here was only 46%, in contrast with 64% obtained in the case of the mono-hydroxy aldehyde, salicylaldehyde. These observations are further corroborated in the present paper wherein the couldensations of protocatechuicaldehyde, vanillin and veratfaldehyde under couparable conditions have ...

  14. Molybdenum incorporation in tungsten aldehyde oxidoreductase enzymes from Pyrococcus furiosus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sevcenco, A.M.; Bevers, L.E.; Pinkse, M.W.H.; Krijger, G.C.; Wolterbeek, H.T.; Verhaert, P.D.E.M.; Hagen, W.R.; Hagedoorn, P.L.

    2010-01-01

    The hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus expresses five aldehyde oxidoreductase (AOR) enzymes, all containing a tungsto-bispterin cofactor. The growth of this organism is fully dependent on the presence of tungsten in the growth medium. Previous studies have suggested that molybdenum is

  15. 27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant from which distillates were... fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit. Distillates containing aldehydes which are received... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Wine § 24.183 Use of...

  16. Rice that Filipinos Grow and Eat

    OpenAIRE

    de Leon, John C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces rice to the reader and analyzes the changes it has gone through these past 100 years in the shaping hands of varietal improvement science. Here, the richness of the crop as a genetic material and resource is revealed. Landrace rice, pureline selection rice, crossbred rice, semidwarf rice, hybrid rice, new plant type rice, designer rice - from the traditional to modern to futuristic - rice becomes all of these while traversing time in the Philippines. There is rice for th...

  17. Comparison of cryofixation and aldehyde fixation for plant actin immunocytochemistry: aldehydes do not destroy F-actin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitha, S; Baluska, F; Braun, M; Samaj, J; Volkmann, D; Barlow, P W

    2000-08-01

    For walled plant cells, the immunolocalization of actin microfilaments, also known as F-actin, has proved to be much trickier than that of microtubules. These difficulties are commonly attributed to the high sensitivity of F-actin to aldehyde fixatives. Therefore, most plant studies have been accomplished using fluorescent phallotoxins in fresh tissues. Nevertheless, concerns regarding the questionable ability of phallotoxins to bind the whole complement of F-actin necessitate further optimization of actin immunofluorescence methods. We have compared two procedures: (1) formaldehyde fixation and (2) rapid freezing and freeze substitution (cryofixation), both followed by embedding in low-melting polyester wax. Actin immunofluorescence in sections of garden cress (Lepidium sativum L.) root gave similar results with both methods. The compatibility of aldehydes with actin immunodetection was further confirmed by the freeze-shattering technique that does not require embedding after aldehyde fixation. It appears that rather than aldehyde fixation, some further steps in the procedures used for actin visualization are critical for preserving F-actin. Wax embedding, combined with formaldehyde fixation, has proved to be also suitable for the detection of a wide range of other antigens.

  18. Determinants for grading Malaysian rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ChePa, Noraziah; Yusoff, Nooraini; Ahmad, Norhayati

    2016-08-01

    Due to un-uniformity of rice grading practices in Malaysia, zones which actively producing rice in Malaysia are using their own way of grading rice. Rice grading is important in determining rice quality and its subsequent price in the market. It is an important process applied in the rice production industry with the purpose of ensuring that the rice produced for the market meets the quality requirements of consumer. Two important aspects that need to be considered in determining rice grades are grading technique and determinants to be used for grading (usually referred as rice attributes). This article proposes the list of determinants to be used in grading Malaysian rice. Determinants were explored through combination of extensive literature review and series of interview with the domain experts and practitioners. The proposed determinants are believed to be beneficial to BERNAS in improving the current Malaysian rice grading process.

  19. On the origin of free and bound staling aldehydes in beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baert, Jeroen J; De Clippeleer, Jessika; Hughes, Paul S; De Cooman, Luc; Aerts, Guido

    2012-11-21

    The chemistry of beer flavor instability remains shrouded in mystery, despite decades of extensive research. It is, however, certain that aldehydes play a crucial role because their concentration increase coincides with the appearance and intensity of "aged flavors". Several pathways give rise to a variety of key flavor-active aldehydes during beer production, but it remains unclear as to what extent they develop after bottling. There are indications that aldehydes, formed during beer production, are bound to other compounds, obscuring them from instrumental and sensory detection. Because freshly bottled beer is not in chemical equilibrium, these bound aldehydes might be released over time, causing stale flavor. This review discusses beer aging and the role of aldehydes, focusing on both sensory and chemical aspects. Several aldehyde formation pathways are taken into account, as well as aldehyde binding in and release from imine and bisulfite adducts.

  20. Rice (Oryza) hemoglobins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemoglobins (Hbs) corresponding to non-symbiotic (nsHb) and truncated (tHb) Hbs have been identified in rice (Oryza). This review discusses the major findings from the current studies on rice Hbs. At the molecular level, a family of the nshb genes, consisting of hb1, hb2, hb3, hb4 and hb5, and a sin...

  1. economics of rice production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Local rice production is being promoted in Ghana to reduce the' dependence on im- ports, ensure stable low-prices food for the population and also create employment. This paper examines three rice production systems; Upland, Valley Bottom and Irri- gated, in the Upper East Region of Ghana with a view to ...

  2. One-pot oxidative esterification and amidation of aldehydes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekoue-Kovi, Kekeli; Wolf, Christian

    2008-01-01

    During recent years, the direct transformation of aldehydes into esters or amides has developed into a vigorous research area and powerful one-pot oxidative esterification and amidation procedures have been reported. Several concepts that are often complementary in substrate scope, functional group tolerance, and reaction outcome have emerged, thus providing a wide range of alternatives to classical ester and amide synthesis via carboxylic acid intermediates.

  3. In vitro assessment of human airway toxicity from major aldehydes in automotive emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grafstroem, R.C. [Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden). Inst. of Environmental Medicine

    1997-09-01

    Automotive exhausts can significantly contribute to the levels of reactive aldehydes, including formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein, in urban air. The use of alcohols as an alternative fuel for gasoline or diesel may further increase these emissions. Since it is unclear if aldehyde inhalation may induce pathological states, including cancer, in human airways, the toxic properties of the above-mentioned aldehydes were studied in cultured target cell types. Each aldehyde modified vital cellular functions in a dose-dependent manner, and invariably inhibited growth and induced abnormal terminal differentiation. Decreases of cellular thiols and increases of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} were observed, and moreover, variable types and amounts of short-lived or persistent genetic damage were induced. The concentrations required for specified levels of a particular type of injury varied up to 10000-fold among the aldehydes. Overall, distinctive patterns of cytopathological activity were observed, which differed both qualitatively and quantitatively among the aldehydes. Finally, aldehydes inhibited DNA repair processes and increased cytotoxicity and mutagenesis in synergy with other known toxicants, indicating that aldehydes may also enhance damage by other constituents in automotive exhausts. In summary, the aldehydes, notably {sup m}u{sup M}-mM formaldehyde, caused pathological effects and induced mechanisms that relate to acute toxicity and cancer development in airway epithelial cells. Since `no-effect` levels may not exist for carcinogenic agents, the overall results support a need for elimination of aldehydes in automotive exhausts. 41 refs

  4. Diabetes Impairs the Aldehyde Detoxifying Capacity of the Retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Rosemary E; McGahon, Mary K; Augustine, Josy; Chen, Mei; McGeown, J Graham; Curtis, Tim M

    2016-09-01

    We studied whether the accumulation of advanced lipoxidation end-products (ALEs) in the diabetic retina is linked to the impairment of lipid aldehyde detoxification mechanisms. Retinas were collected from nondiabetic and diabetic rats and processed for conventional and quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity assays. The effect of the ALDH1a1 inhibitor, NCT-501, on ALE accumulation and cell viability in cultured Müller glia also was investigated. The rat retina expressed a range of lipid aldehyde detoxifying ALDH and aldo-keto reductase (AKR) genes. In diabetes, mRNA levels were reduced for 5 of 9 transcripts tested. These findings contrasted with those in the lens and cornea where many of these enzymes were upregulated. We have reported previously accumulation of the acrolein (ACR)-derived ALE, FDP-lysine, in retinal Müller glia during diabetes. In the present study, we show that the main ACR-detoxifying ALDH and AKR genes expressed in the retina, namely, ALDH1a1, ALDH2, and AKR1b1, are principally localized to Müller glia. Diabetes-induced FDP-lysine accumulation in Müller glia was associated with a reduction in ALDH1a1 mRNA and protein expression in whole retina and a decrease in ALDH1a1-immunoreactivity specifically within these cells. No such changes were detected for ALDH2 or AKR1b1. Activity of ALDH was suppressed in the diabetic retina and blockade of ALDH1a1 in cultured Müller glia triggered FDP-lysine accumulation and reduced cell viability. These findings suggest that downregulation of ALDH and AKR enzymes, particularly ALDH1a1, may contribute ALE accumulation in the diabetic retina.

  5. Update on the aldehyde dehydrogenase gene (ALDH superfamily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Brian

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Members of the aldehyde dehydrogenase gene (ALDH superfamily play an important role in the enzymic detoxification of endogenous and exogenous aldehydes and in the formation of molecules that are important in cellular processes, like retinoic acid, betaine and gamma-aminobutyric acid. ALDHs exhibit additional, non-enzymic functions, including the capacity to bind to some hormones and other small molecules and to diminish the effects of ultraviolet irradiation in the cornea. Mutations in ALDH genes leading to defective aldehyde metabolism are the molecular basis of several diseases, including gamma-hydroxybutyric aciduria, pyridoxine-dependent seizures, Sjögren-Larsson syndrome and type II hyperprolinaemia. Interestingly, several ALDH enzymes appear to be markers for normal and cancer stem cells. The superfamily is evolutionarily ancient and is represented within Archaea, Eubacteria and Eukarya taxa. Recent improvements in DNA and protein sequencing have led to the identification of many new ALDH family members. To date, the human genome contains 19 known ALDH genes, as well as many pseudogenes. Whole-genome sequencing allows for comparison of the entire complement of ALDH family members among organisms. This paper provides an update of ALDH genes in several recently sequenced vertebrates and aims to clarify the associated records found in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI gene database. It also highlights where and when likely gene-duplication and gene-loss events have occurred. This information should be useful to future studies that might wish to compare the role of ALDH members among species and how the gene superfamily as a whole has changed throughout evolution.

  6. Cambodia Rice Sector Review

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    Cambodia’s rice harvests have been rising significantly since 2005, powered by improved and expanded irrigation and attractive farm gate prices. In 2010, the Cambodian government announced an export target of 1.0 million tons of milled rice by 2015. This analysis, which updates reports prepared in 2009 and 2011, seeks to identify short-term policy measures that can assist Cambodian exporte...

  7. Hydrogenations without Hydrogen: Titania Photocatalyzed Reductions of Maleimides and Aldehydes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Manley

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A mild procedure for the reduction of electron-deficient alkenes and carbonyl compounds is described. UVA irradiations of substituted maleimides with dispersions of titania (Aeroxide P25 in methanol/acetonitrile (1:9 solvent under dry anoxic conditions led to hydrogenation and production of the corresponding succinimides. Aromatic and heteroaromatic aldehydes were reduced to primary alcohols in similar titania photocatalyzed reactions. A mechanism is proposed which involves two proton-coupled electron transfers to the substrates at the titania surface.

  8. Application of heterocyclic aldehydes as components in Ugi–Smiles couplings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katelynn M. Mason

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Efficient one-pot Ugi–Smiles couplings are reported for the use of furyl-substituted aldehyde components. In the presence of these heterocyclic aldehydes, reactions tolerated variations in amine components and led to either isolated N-arylamide Ugi–Smiles adducts or N-arylepoxyisoindolines, products of tandem Ugi–Smiles Diels–Alder cyclizations, in moderate yields. A thienyl-substituted aldehyde was also a competent component for Ugi–Smiles adduct formation.

  9. [Pollution Characteristics of Aldehydes and Ketones Compounds in the Exhaust of Beijing Typical Restaurants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jing-chen; Cui, Tong; He, Wan-qing; Nie, Lei; Wang, Jun-ling; Pan, Tao

    2015-08-01

    Aldehydes and ketones compounds, as one of the components in the exhaust of restaurants, are a class of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with strong chemical reactivity. However, there is no systematic study on aldehydes and ketones compounds in the exhaust of restaurants. To further clarify the food source emission levels of aldehydes and ketones compounds and controlling measures, to access city group catering VOCs emissions control decision-making basis, this study selected 8 Beijing restaurants with different types. The aldehydes and ketones compounds were sampled using DNPH-silica tube, and then ultra performance liquid chromatography was used for quantitative measurement. The aldehydes and ketones concentrations of reference volume condition from 8 restaurants in descending order were Roasted Duck restaurant, Chinese Style Barbecue, Home Dishes, Western Fast-food, School Canteen, Chinese Style Fast-food, Sichuan Cuisine, Huaiyang Cuisine. The results showed that the range of aldehydes and ketones compounds (C1-C9) concentrations of reference volume condition in the exhaust of restaurants was 115.47-1035.99 microg x m(-3). The composition of aldehydes and ketones compounds in the exhaust of sampled restaurants was obviously different. The percentages of C1-C3 were above 40% in the exhaust from Chinese style restaurants. Fast food might emit more C4-C9 aldehydes and ketones compounds. From the current situation of existing aldehydes and ketones compounds control, the removal efficiency of high voltage electrostatic purifiers widely used in Beijing is limited.

  10. Iodine-Catalyzed Prins Cyclization of Homoallylic Alcohols and Aldehydes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz F. Silva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The iodine-catalyzed Prins cyclization of homoallylic alcohols and aldehydes was investigated under metal-free conditions and without additives. Anhydrous conditions and inert atmosphere are not required. The reaction of 2-(3,4-dihydronaphthalen-1-ylpropan-1-ol and 21 aldehydes (aliphatic and aromatic in CH2Cl2 in the presence of 5 mol % of iodine gave 1,4,5,6-tetrahydro-2H-benzo[f]isochromenes in 54%–86% yield. Under similar conditions, the Prins cyclization of six alcohols containing an endocyclic double bond (primary, secondary, or tertiary led to dihydropyrans in 52%–91% yield. The acyclic homoallylic alcohols gave 4-iodo-tetrahydropyran in 29%–41% yield in the presence of 50 mol % of iodine. This type of substrate is the main limitation of the methodology. The relative configuration of the products was assigned by NMR and X-ray analysis. The mechanism and the ratio of the products are discussed, based on DFT calculations.

  11. Characteristics and expression patterns of the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH gene superfamily of foxtail millet (Setaria italica L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Chen

    Full Text Available Recent genomic sequencing of the foxtail millet, an abiotic, stress-tolerant crop, has provided a great opportunity for novel gene discovery and functional analysis of this popularly-grown grass. However, few stress-mediated gene families have been studied. Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs comprise a gene superfamily encoding NAD (P +-dependent enzymes that play the role of "aldehyde scavengers", which indirectly detoxify cellular ROS and reduce the effect of lipid peroxidation meditated cellular toxicity under various environmental stresses. In the current paper, we identified a total of 20 ALDH genes in the foxtail millet genome using a homology search and a phylogenetic analysis and grouped them into ten distinct families based on their amino acid sequence identity. Furthermore, evolutionary analysis of foxtail millet reveals that both tandem and segmental duplication contributed significantly to the expansion of its ALDH genes. The exon-intron structures of members of the same family in foxtail millet or the orthologous genes in rice display highly diverse distributions of their exonic and intronic regions. Also, synteny analysis shows that the majority of foxtail millet and rice ALDH gene homologs exist in the syntenic blocks between the two, implying that these ALDH genes arose before the divergence of cereals. Semi-quantitative and real-time quantitative PCR data reveals that a few SiALDH genes are expressed in an organ-specific manner and that the expression of a number of foxtail millet ALDH genes, such as, SiALDH7B1, SiALDH12A1 and SiALDH18B2 are up-regulated by osmotic stress, cold, H2O2, and phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA. Furthermore, the transformation of SiALDH2B2, SiALDH10A2, SiALDH5F1, SiALDH22A1, and SiALDH3E2 into Escherichia coli (E.coli was able to improve their salt tolerance. Taken together, our results show that genome-wide identification characteristics and expression analyses provide unique opportunities for assessing

  12. Increased salivary aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 in non-reticular oral lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansourian, Arash; Shanbehzadeh, Najmeh; Kia, Seyed Javad; Moosavi, Mahdieh-Sadat

    2017-01-01

    Oral lichen planus is a potentially malignant disorder. One of the malignant transformation markers is cancer stem cells. One of the proposed marker for the detection of cancer stem cells's in head and neck cancer is aldehyde dehydrogenase. Recently it is shown that aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 expression in tissue samples is associated with oral lichen planus malignant transformation. This study evaluates salivary aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 in oral lichen planus. Thirty patients and 30 age and sex-matched healthy volunteers were recruited. Oral lichen planus was diagnosed based on the modified World Health Organization criteria. Subjects in the case group were divided into reticular and non-reticular forms. Unstimulated salivary samples were collected at 10-12 AM. Saliva concentrations of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 were measured by ELISA. The differences between aldehyde dehydrogenase levels in the oral lichen planus group compared with the control group were not significant but aldehyde dehydrogenase in non-reticular oral lichen planus was significantly higher than that of the reticular form. This is a cross-sectional study, thus longitudinal studies in oral lichen planus may present similar or different results. The mechanism of malignant transformation in oral lichen planus is not defined. Previous analyses revealed that the aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 expression is significantly correlated with increased risk of transformation. This finding is consistent with our results because in the erosive and ulcerative forms of oral lichen planus, which have an increased risk of transformation, salivary aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 was overexpressed. A higher salivary aldehyde dehydrogenase level in non-reticular oral lichen planus can be a defensive mechanism against higher oxidative stress in these groups. Aldehyde dehydrogenase may be one of the malignant transformation markers in oral lichen planus. Further studies are needed for introducing aldehyde dehydrogenase as a prognostic

  13. scale rice farmers in nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    of world rice, with China and India accounting for over half of the world's output. Worldwide, rice production has ... reported that rice indeed is no longer a luxury food in. Nigeria, and that it has become a major source of ... declined in China and Japan but this trend is not observed in other Asian countries; instead, the share ...

  14. Direct chemoselective synthesis of glyconanoparticles from unprotected reducing glycans and glycopeptide aldehydes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Mikkel Boas; Sørensen, Kasper Kildegaard; Cló, Emiliano

    2009-01-01

    Chemoselective oxime coupling was used for facile conjugation of unprotected, reducing glycans and glycopeptide aldehydes with core-shell gold nanoparticles carrying reactive aminooxy groups on the organic shell.......Chemoselective oxime coupling was used for facile conjugation of unprotected, reducing glycans and glycopeptide aldehydes with core-shell gold nanoparticles carrying reactive aminooxy groups on the organic shell....

  15. Branched chain aldehydes: production and breakdown pathways and relevance for flavour in foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, B.A.; Engels, W.J.M.; Smit, G.

    2009-01-01

    Branched aldehydes, such as 2-methyl propanal and 2- and 3-methyl butanal, are important flavour compounds in many food products, both fermented and non-fermented (heat-treated) products. The production and degradation of these aldehydes from amino acids is described and reviewed extensively in

  16. Threshold responses in cinnamic-aldehyde-sensitive subjects: results and methodological aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J D; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Rastogi, S C

    1996-01-01

    Cinnamic aldehyde is an important fragrance material and contact allergen. The present study was performed to provide quantitative data on the eliciting capacity of cinnamic aldehyde, to be considered in assessment of clinical relevance and health hazard. The skin response to serial dilution patc...

  17. Evaluating protective terpenoid aldehyde compounds in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) has epidermal glands containing terpenoid aldehyde (TA) compounds that help protect the cotton plant from pests and diseases. One terpenoid aldehyde called gossypol, is found predominantly in seed and roots and has two forms, plus (+) and minus (-) present in varying a...

  18. Site-specific chemical protein conjugation using genetically encoded aldehyde tags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabuka, David; Rush, Jason S; deHart, Gregory W; Wu, Peng; Bertozzi, Carolyn R

    2012-01-01

    We describe a method for modifying proteins site-specifically using a chemoenzymatic bioconjugation approach. Formylglycine generating enzyme (FGE) recognizes a pentapeptide consensus sequence, CxPxR, and it specifically oxidizes the cysteine in this sequence to an unusual aldehyde-bearing formylglyine. The FGE recognition sequence, or aldehyde tag, can be inserted into heterologous recombinant proteins produced in either prokaryotic or eukaryotic expression systems. The conversion of cysteine to formylglycine is accomplished by co-overexpression of FGE, either transiently or as a stable cell line, and the resulting aldehyde can be selectively reacted with α-nucleophiles to generate a site-selectively modified bioconjugate. This protocol outlines both the generation and the analysis of proteins aldehyde-tagged at their termini and the methods for chemical conjugation to the formylglycine. The process of generating aldehyde-tagged protein followed by chemical conjugation and purification takes 20 d. PMID:22576105

  19. Monolayer structures of alkyl aldehydes: Odd-membered homologues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, T.K. [BP Institute, Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Clarke, S.M., E-mail: stuart@bpi.cam.ac.u [BP Institute, Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Bhinde, T. [BP Institute, Department of Chemistry, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Castro, M.A.; Millan, C. [Instituto Ciencia de los Materiales de Sevilla, Departamento de Quimica Inorganica (CSIC-Universidad de Sevilla) (Spain); Medina, S. [Centro de Investigacion, Tecnologia e Innovacion de la Universidad de Sevilla (CITIUS), Sevilla (Spain)

    2011-03-01

    Crystalline monolayers of three aldehydes with an odd number of carbon atoms in the alkyl chain (C{sub 7}, C{sub 9} and C{sub 11}) at low coverages are observed by a combination of X-ray and neutron diffraction. Analysis of the diffraction data is discussed and possible monolayer crystal structures are proposed; although unique structures could not be ascertained for all molecules. We conclude that the structures are flat on the surface, with the molecules lying in the plane of the layer. The C{sub 11} homologue is determined to have a plane group of either p2, pgb or pgg, and for the C{sub 7} homologue the p2 plane group is preferred.

  20. Targeting aldehyde dehydrogenase: a potential approach for cell labeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaidyanathan, Ganesan [Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3808, Durham, NC 27710 (United States)], E-mail: ganesan.v@duke.edu; Song, Haijing; Affleck, Donna; McDougald, Darryl L. [Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3808, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Storms, Robert W. [Division of Cellular Therapy, Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Zalutsky, Michael R.; Chin, Bennett B. [Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Box 3808, Durham, NC 27710 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    Introduction: To advance the science and clinical application of stem cell therapy, the availability of a highly sensitive, quantitative and translational method for tracking stem cells would be invaluable. Because hematopoetic stem cells express high levels of the cytosolic enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase-1A1 (ALDH1), we sought to develop an agent that is specific to ALDH1 and thus to cells expressing the enzyme. Such an agent might be also helpful in identifying tumors that are resistant to cyclophosphomide chemotherapy because ALDH1 is known to be responsible for this resistance. Methods: We developed schemes for the synthesis of two radioiodinated aldehdyes - N-formylmethyl-5-[*I]iodopyridine-3-carboxamide ([*I]FMIC) and 4-diethylamino-3-[*I]iodobenzaldehyde ([*I]DEIBA)-at no-carrier-added levels from their respective tin precursors. These agents were evaluated using pure ALDH1 and tumor cells that expressed the enzyme. Results: The average radiochemical yields for the synthesis of [{sup 125}I]FMIC and [{sup 125}I]DEIBA were 70{+-}5% and 47{+-}14%, respectively. ALDH1 converted both compounds to respective acids suggesting their suitability as ALDH1 imaging agents. Although ability of ALDH1 within the cells to oxidize one of these substrates was shown, specific uptake in ALDH-expressing tumor cells could not be demonstrated. Conclusion: To pursue this approach for ALDH1 imaging, radiolabeled aldehydes need to be designed such that, in addition to being good substrates for ALDH1, the cognate products should be sufficiently polar so as to be retained within the cells.

  1. Idetification of the key flavor compounds from different aged chinese rice wines by using GC-MS and olfactometer conjunctively

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Xu,,

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the volatile flavor compounds of Jinse Nianhua—a famous Chinese rice wine,the aroma compounds in three different aged Jinse nianhua rice wines were extracted by solid phase micro-extraction (SPME and analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS.The olfactory thresholds of the volatile compounds were determined by AC′Scent International Olfactometer.Then the odour activity value (OAV of different odour compound were calculated.The results of SPME-GC-MS analysis indicated that the volatile flavor compounds in Chinese rice wine included esters (17,alcohols (10,acids (6,aldehydes (4,ketones (1,phenols (1 and lactones (2.The main volatile compounds in different aged rice wine can be identified according to OAV.The OVAs of most compounds confirmed by GC-MS were more than 1,which meant they can influence rice wine odor.2-Methyl-1-propanol had the largest OAV in each of the three different aged rice wines.Other main volatile compounds were isobutyric acid,ethyl acetate and phenethyl alcohol.

  2. Efficient delivery of long-chain fatty aldehydes from the Nostoc punctiforme acyl-acyl carrier protein reductase to its cognate aldehyde-deformylating oxygenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warui, Douglas M; Pandelia, Maria-Eirini; Rajakovich, Lauren J; Krebs, Carsten; Bollinger, J Martin; Booker, Squire J

    2015-02-03

    A two-step pathway consisting of an acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) reductase (AAR) and an aldehyde-deformylating oxygenase (ADO) allows various cyanobacteria to convert long-chain fatty acids into hydrocarbons. AAR catalyzes the two-electron, NADPH-dependent reduction of a fatty acid attached to ACP via a thioester linkage to the corresponding fatty aldehyde, while ADO transforms the fatty aldehyde to a Cn-1 hydrocarbon and C1-derived formate. Considering that heptadec(a/e)ne is the most prevalent hydrocarbon produced by cyanobacterial ADOs, the insolubility of its precursor, octadec(a/e)nal, poses a conundrum with respect to its acquisition by ADO. Herein, we report that AAR from the cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme is activated almost 20-fold by potassium and other monovalent cations of similar ionic radius, and that AAR and ADO form a tight isolable complex with a Kd of 3 ± 0.3 μM. In addition, we show that when the aldehyde substrate is supplied to ADO by AAR, efficient in vitro turnover is observed in the absence of solubilizing agents. Similarly to studies by Lin et al. with AAR from Synechococcus elongatus [Lin et al. (2013) FEBS J. 280, 4773-4781], we show that catalysis by AAR proceeds via formation of a covalent intermediate involving a cysteine residue that we have identified as Cys294. Moreover, AAR specifically transfers the pro-R hydride of NADPH to the Cys294-thioester intermediate to afford its aldehyde product. Our results suggest that the interaction between AAR and ADO facilitates either direct transfer of the aldehyde product of AAR to ADO or formation of the aldehyde product in a microenvironment allowing for its efficient uptake by ADO.

  3. Synthesis of carbon-13 labeled aldehydes, carboxylic acids, and alcohols via organoborane chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabalka, G.W.; Delgado, M.C.; Kunda, U.S.; Kunda, S.A.

    1984-01-13

    The carbonylation of organoboranes using carbon-13 enriched carbon monoxide to produce labeled aldehydes in excellent yields is described. This same synthesis technique was tested for the production of labeled carboxylic acids with the incorporation of direct oxidation of the initial organoborane adduct; however, yields were not as good as those obtained with silver oxide oxidation of the aldehydes to produce acids. Since higher yields of carbon-13 labeled alcohols were obtained by reduction of the aldehyde with a borane reagent rather than the direct hydrolysis of the initially formed organoborane, the former method is recommended for the production of carbon-13 labeled alcohols.

  4. Brain aldehyde dehydrogenase activity in rat strains with high and low ethanol preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, K; Rusi, M; Lindros, K O

    1981-01-01

    The activity of aldehyde dehydrogenase in subcellular fractions of whole brain homogenates from the AA and ANA rat strains developed respectively for high and low ethanol preferences has been studied. No significant strain or sex differences between naive AA and ANA rats were found. In ethanol-experienced rats some strain and sex differences were found, the most consistent being higher enzyme activity in AA females than in males both with aliphatic and aromatic aldehyde substrates. However, contrary to previous findings no relation between brain aldehyde dehydrogenase activity and drinking behavior was found in the AA and ANA rat strains.

  5. Azoreductase activity by purified rabbit liver aldehyde oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddart, A M; Levine, W G

    1992-05-28

    Our laboratory has investigated the azoreduction of dimethylaminoazobenzene (DAB) and its analogs by hepatic microsomal cytochrome P450. We have extended these studies to the cytosolic fraction of the mammalian liver using the molybdoflavoenzyme, aldehyde oxidase. Purified rabbit liver aldehyde oxidase readily reduced azo dyes which are mainly water soluble and contain charged groups. Lipophilic azo dyes, although readily reduced by microsomal cytochrome P450, were either poor substrates or not reduced at all. Kinetic measurements revealed no relationship between Vmax and Km for all dyes. More extensive studies were conducted on four azo dyes, o-methyl, red, 2'-pyridyl-DAB, sulfonazo III and Orange II, with characteristic functional groups. With each of these substrates, azoreductase activity was greatest when 2-hydropyrimidine (2-OHP) was the electron donor compared to N1-methylnicotinamide (N-MN), propionaldehyde and butyraldehyde. With 2-OHP as the electron donor, o-methyl red and 2'-pyridyl DAB exhibited maximal activity at pH 5.0 while sulfonazo III and Orange II showed maximal activity at pH 9.5 and 7.0, respectively. Km values for o-methyl red and 2'-pyridyl DAB were lower at their pH optima whereas that for sulfonazo III was higher at its pH optimum. There was also no correlation between maximal activity and Km; apparently Km is not a primary determinant for activity. The degree of ionization of function groups depends on pH. Since highest activity is seen at that pH in which maximal ionization of the substrate occurs, it can be concluded that rate of reduction is at least partially dependent on the charged state of the substrate. Azoreduction was inhibited by menadione and SKF 525-A. Sensitivity to inhibition by menadione was greatest at the pH where 2-OHP exhibited considerably higher activity than N-MN, but no differential was seen at the pH where activities with the two-electron donors were similar. On the other hand, sensitivity of azoreductase

  6. Accelerated Solvent Extraction of Insecticides from Rice Hulls, Rice Bran, and Polished Rice Grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teló, Gustavo Mack; Senseman, Scott Allen; Marchesan, Enio; Camargo, Edinalvo Rabaioli; Carson, Katherine

    2017-03-01

    Analysis of pesticide residues in irrigated rice grains is important for food security. In this study, we analyzed accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) conditions for the extraction of thiamethoxam and chlorantraniliprole insecticides from rice hulls, rice bran, and polished rice grains. Several variables, including extraction solvent, extraction temperature, extraction pressure, cell size, static extraction time, and sample concentration, were investigated. The average recoveries of the three matrixes were between 89.7 and 109.7% at the fortification level of 0.75 mg/kg. The optimum ASE operating conditions were acetonitrile (100%) as extraction solvent, extraction temperature of 75°C for rice hulls and 100°C for rice bran and polished rice grains, extraction cell pressure of 10.3 MPa, 22 mL cell size, and two extraction cycles. The total extraction time was approximately 25 min. The extracted volume was evaporated to dryness and the residues were redissolved in 2 mL acetonitrile after 1 min of vortex-shaking. Thiamethoxam and chlorantraniliprole were analyzed by ultra-HPLC with tandem MS. In conclusion, ASE in rice hulls, rice bran, and polished rice grains offers the possibility of a fast and simple method for obtaining a quantitative extraction of the studied pesticides.

  7. Coniferyl Aldehyde Ameliorates Radiation Intestine Injury via Endothelial Cell Survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Ye Ji; Jung, Myung Gu; Lee, Yoonjin; Lee, Haejune [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yunsil [Ewha Woman' s Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Younggyu [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Cancer treatments related gastrointestinal toxicity has also been recognized as a significant economic burden. Especially, extensive apoptosis of microvascular endothelial cell of the lamina propria is the primary lesion initiating intestinal radiation damage after abdominal radiation therapy. Coniferyl aldehyde (CA) is phenolic compounds isolated from cork stoppers, and one of the major pyrolysis products of lignin. Shi H. was support for the empirical use of CA as a medicinal food for cardiovascular diseases. CA has positive effect in broad way but there is no consequence in radiation induced intestine damage. Here, we investigate effect of CA on small intestine after abdominal IR to mice in this study. In this study, CA increased the survival rate in C3H mice against 13.5 Gy abdominal IR. We found CA protects small intestine via preventing endothelial cell apoptosis and enhancing their angiogenic activity. CA also showed protective effect on crypt cell survival. Endothelial cell survival may affect crypt cell protection against IR. From this data, we concluded that CA is effective for protection against abdominal radiation injury. CA could ameliorate side-effect of radiation therapy.

  8. nematicidal carboxylic acids and aldehydes from Melia azedarach fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntalli, Nikoletta G; Vargiu, Simona; Menkissoglu-Spiroudi, Urania; Caboni, Pierluigi

    2010-11-10

    Melia azedarach is a species gaining scientific interest mostly concerning its range of biological activities against agricultural target pests. The nematicidal melia methanol extract (MME) obtained from the fruits, acting against the phytonematode Meloidogyne incognita , is herein reported to contain hexadecanoic, acetic, and hexanoic acids as well as furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, 5-methylfurfural, and furfurol. All compounds were tested individually for nematicidal activity against the nematode second-stage juveniles, in paralysis experiments. The nematicidal activity was studied both after nematodes' immersion in treatment solutions and after exposure to test substance vapors. Clear dose and time response relationships were established at the dose ranges of 31.2-500 and 1-100 μg/mL, concerning the aldehydes and carboxylic acids, respectively, implementing analogous predominance of nematicidal activity. Nevertheless, no synergistic effects were observed in respective mixture interaction bioassays among furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, 5-methylfurfural, and furfurol. Furfural was the most active bionematicidal compound reported herein for the first time as a natural constituent of M. azedarach.

  9. Sodium borohydride removes aldehyde inhibitors for enhancing biohydrogen fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Richen; Cheng, Jun; Ding, Lingkan; Song, Wenlu; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2015-12-01

    To enhance biohydrogen production from glucose and xylose in the presence of aldehyde inhibitors, reducing agent (i.e., sodium borohydride) was in situ added for effective detoxification. The detoxification efficiencies of furfural (96.7%) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF, 91.7%) with 30mM NaBH4 were much higher than those of vanillin (77.3%) and syringaldehyde (69.3%). Biohydrogen fermentation was completely inhibited without detoxification, probably because of the consumption of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) by inhibitors reduction (R-CHO+2NADH→R-CH2OH+2NAD(+)). Addition of 30mM NaBH4 provided the reducing power necessary for inhibitors reduction (4R-CHO+NaBH4+2H2O→4R-CH2OH+NaBO2). The recovered reducing power in fermentation resulted in 99.3% recovery of the hydrogen yield and 64.6% recovery of peak production rate. Metabolite production and carbon conversion after detoxification significantly increased to 63.7mM and 81.9%, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Nicaragua - Rice and Banana Farmers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — This report is an impact evaluation of two components of the Rural Business Development Program (RBD) in Nicaragua, specifically the components benefitting rice and...

  11. Quantification of aldehydes emissions from alternative and renewable aviation fuels using a gas turbine engine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Hu; Altaher, Mohamed A; Wilson, Chris W; Blakey, Simon; Chung, Winson; Rye, Lucas

    2014-01-01

    .... The aim is to assess the impact of renewable and alternative aviation fuels on aldehydes emissions from aircraft gas turbine engines so as to provide informed knowledge for the future deployment...

  12. The Aldehyde Content of Luminous Bacteria and of an “Aldehydeless” Dark Mutant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimomura, Osamu; Johnson, Frank H.; Morise, Hiroshi

    1974-01-01

    Fatty aldehydes, present in the luminescent cells of Photobacterium phosphoreum and Achromobacter fischeri, and to a very slight extent in the cells of a visually dark, “aldehydeless” mutant of the latter species, were extracted, purified, and oxidized to the corresponding acids. The acids were analyzed by mass spectrometry. The results, in conjunction with various other lines of evidence, indicate that saturated fatty aldehydes, comprising mostly dodecanal, tetradecanal, and hexadecanal, function in the bioluminescent reaction in living cells of these luminous bacteria. The amount of these aldehydes in the cells was computed to be sufficient to sustain steady-state luminescence for a period of about 1 sec, and under such conditions the rate of oxidation of the aldehydes in the process of luminescence must be balanced by their rate of production. PMID:4531008

  13. Biooxidation of Primary Alcohols to Aldehydes through Hydrogen Transfer Employing Janibacter terrae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orbegozo, Thomas; Vries, Johannes G. de; Kroutil, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    Chemoselective oxidations still represent a challenge for chemists. Lyophilized cells of Janibacter terrae were employed for the chemoselective oxidation of primary alcohols to the corresponding aldehydes by hydrogen transfer with the use of acetaldehyde as the hydrogen acceptor. Secondary alcohol

  14. Microwave Assisted Solvent Free Synthesis of Azomethines from Aryl Aldehydes on Melamin Formaldehyde as Solid Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Rezaei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Various aryl aldehydes underwent prompt one pot conversion into the corresponding azomethines in high yields by reacting with hydroxylamine hydrochloride supported on melamine formaldehyde under microwave irradiation.

  15. [Aldehyde reductase activity and blood aldo-keto reductase spectrum in adolescents with neuroendocrine obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuleshova, D K; Davydov, V V; Shvets, V N

    2012-01-01

    Investigation of aldehyde-reductase activity and blood aldo-keto reductase spectrum has been performed in 13-15 and 16-18-years old adolescents with obesity to clear up the mechanisms of neuroendocrine obesity at the age of puberty. It has been established that basal aldehyde reductase activity and blood aldo-keto reductase spectrum of healthy adolescents in early puberty do not differ from those of healthy adolescents in late puberty. A decreased aldehyde reductase activity and some alterations in blood aldo-keto reductase spectrum have been observed in late puberty in adolescents with neuroendocrine obesity. In adolescents with obesity there have been registered some changes in blood aldo-keto reductase spectrum which are not accompanied by any alterations in its aldehyde reductase activity. The results obtained suggest that certain prerequisites are formed in late puberty to complicate the course of neuroendocrine obesity.

  16. Oxidative Esterification of Aldehydes with Urea Hydrogen Peroxide Catalyzed by Aluminum Chloride Hexahydrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sin-Ae; Kim, Yoon Mi; Lee, Jong Chan [Chung-Ang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    We have developed a new, environmentally benign and highly efficient oxidative preparation of methyl esters by the reaction of various aldehydes with UHP in methanol catalyzed by readily accessible aluminum(III) chloride hexahydrate. This new greener and cost effective direct esterification method can serve as a useful alternative to existing protocols. Esters are some of the most important functional groups in organic chemistry and have been found in the sub-structure of a variety of natural products, industrial chemicals, and pharmaceuticals. Numerous methods have been reported for the preparation of various esters. In particular, this method gives low yields for both aldehydes containing electron donating substituents in aromatic rings and heterocyclic aldehydes. Therefore, development of a more general, efficient, and greener protocol for the esterification of aldehydes with readily available catalyst is still desirable.

  17. Role of aldehydes in the toxic and mutagenic effects of nitrosamines

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, Lisa A.; Urban, Anna M.; Vu, Choua C.; Cummings, Meredith E.; Brown, Lee C.; Warmka, Janel K.; Li, Li; Wattenberg, Elizabeth V.; Patel, Yesha; Stram, Daniel O.; Pegg, Anthony E.

    2013-01-01

    α-Hydroxynitrosamine metabolites of nitrosamines decompose to a reactive diazohydroxide and an aldehyde. To test the hypothesis that the aldehydes contribute to the harmful effects of nitrosamines, the toxic and mutagenic activity of three model methylating agents were compared in Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing human O6-alkylguanine DNA alkyltransferase (AGT) or not. N-Nitrosomethylurethane (NMUr), acetoxymethylmethylnitrosamine (AMMN) and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-4-acetoxy-1-(3-pyridyl)...

  18. Oxidation of Group 8 transition-Metal Hydrides and Ionic Hydrogenation of Ketones and Aldehydes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Kjell-Tore

    1996-08-01

    Transition-metal hydrides have received considerable attention during the last decades because of their unusual reactivity and their potential as homogeneous catalysts for hydrogenation and other reactions of organic substrates. An important class of catalytic processes where transition-metal hydrides are involved is the homogeneous hydrogenation of alkenes, alkynes, ketones, aldehydes, arenes and nitro compounds. This thesis studies the oxidation of Group 8 transition-metal hydrides and the ionic hydrogenation of ketones and aldehydes.

  19. Prevalence of Rice Yellow Mottle Virus (RYMV) on Rice Plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Z. variegatus 1. 0.688. 1.037. Locust. L. migratoides. 1. 1.023. 1.037. Discussion. Viral disease due to RYMV had been a major challenge in rice production in Nigeria since 1976 when it was reported by Rossel et al. (1982). Areas of rice production in Nigeria where the virus had been detected included. Badeggi, Ibadan ...

  20. The Haitian Rice Tariff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Lundahl

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Se ha argumentado que los problemas agríco-las de Haití derivan de la tarifa del arroz de a mediados de los años noventa. Antes, supues-tamente, Haití fue autosuficiente, abastecida por su producción doméstica. Después de la reducción, el mercado haitiano se inundó en importaciones de arroz barato de los EEUU, lo cual despojó a los campesinos de sus fincas, convirtiendolos en migrantes internos, hacia los empleos de bajo pago de las ciudades. El artículo rechaza ese argumento y demuestra que es falso. La malnutrición fue un fenómeno extendido en Haití mucho antes de la reducción de la tarifa del arroz, la cual tampoco tuvo un gran impacto en la importación y la producción doméstica del arroz. Lo que sí impulsó el aumento de las importaciones fue el crecimiento de la población. También el artículo argumenta que un aumento de la tarifa del arroz no solucionará el problema de la alimentación que sufre Haití. English: It has been argued that Haiti’s agricultural problems derive from the reduction of the rice tariff in the mid-1990s. Before that Haiti was allegedly able to meet its food needs by domestic production. After the reduction the Haitian market was swamped by imports of cheap American rice which drove the farmers off their lands and forced them to migrate to low-wage industrial jobs in the cities. The article demonstrates that the argument is false. Malnutrition was widespread in Haiti long before the rice tariff reduction, and the latter did not have much of an impact on rice imports and domestic production. Instead, the main driving force behind imports appears to be population growth. It is also shown that an increase of the rice tariff will not solve Haiti’s food problem.

  1. Palladium-Catalyzed Anti-Markovnikov Oxidation of Allylic Amides to Protected β-Amino Aldehydes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jia Jia; Harvey, Emma C; Fañanás-Mastral, Martín; Browne, Wesley R; Feringa, Ben L

    2014-12-10

    A general method for the preparation of N-protected β-amino aldehydes from allylic amines or linear allylic alcohols is described. Here the Pd(II)-catalyzed oxidation of N-protected allylic amines with benzoquinone is achieved in tBuOH under ambient conditions with excellent selectivity toward the anti-Markovnikov aldehyde products and full retention of configuration at the allylic carbon. The method shows a wide substrate scope and is tolerant of a range of protecting groups. Furthermore, β-amino aldehydes can be obtained directly from protected allylic alcohols via palladium-catalyzed autotandem reactions, and the application of this method to the synthesis of β-peptide aldehydes is described. From a mechanistic perspective, we demonstrate that tBuOH acts as a nucleophile in the reaction and that the initially formed tert-butyl ether undergoes spontaneous loss of isobutene to yield the aldehyde product. Furthermore, tBuOH can be used stoichiometrically, thereby broadening the solvent scope of the reaction. Primary and secondary alcohols do not undergo elimination, allowing the isolation of acetals, which subsequently can be hydrolyzed to their corresponding aldehyde products.

  2. The Relevance of Oxygen for the Formation of Strecker Aldehydes during Beer Production and Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wietstock, Philip Ché; Kunz, Thomas; Methner, Frank-Juergen

    2016-10-08

    Off-flavor in beer is often associated with the appearance of staling aldehydes. In this study, the factors amino acid concentration, carbohydrate concentration, Fe2+ concentration, and oxygen concentration were investigated in terms of their effect on the formation of carbonyl compounds during storage using response surface methodology. From all factors tested, only amino acid concentration and oxygen concentration promoted Strecker aldehyde formation during storage while all other carbonyls measured were unaffected. A mixture of glucose/xylose, representing carbohydrate sources, as well as Fe2+ concentration were insignificant factors; though, carbohydrate additions exhibited a significant role for the formation of 2-furfural. De novo formation of phenylacetaldehyde from phenylalanine during beer storage was observed using labeling experiments and a linear relationship between Strecker aldehydes formed and total packaged oxygen was identified. Capping beers with oxygen barrier crown corks and addition of 10 mg/L EDTA to beers effectively diminished Strecker aldehyde formation. Oxygen was additionally shown to significantly promote Strecker aldehyde formation during sweet wort production. A pathway for the reactive oxygen species-induced degradation of amino acids yielding Strecker aldehydes was proposed and was further scrutinized in buffered model solutions. The insignificant role of Fe2+ in the response surface experiments is discussed.

  3. Nitroso-imidacloprid irreversibly inhibits rabbit aldehyde oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Ryan A; Kanne, David B; Casida, John E

    2007-12-01

    The major neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid (IMI) is used worldwide for crop protection and pest control on pets. IMI is extensively metabolized, oxidatively by cytochromes P450 and via aerobic nitroreduction by the molybdo-flavoenzyme aldehyde oxidase (AOX). Rabbit liver AOX is capable of reducing IMI to both its nitrosoguanidine (IMI-NO) and aminoguanidine (IMI-NH2) derivatives; however, when IMI-NO is used as a substrate, less than stoichiometric amounts of IMI-NH2 are detected while IMI-NO is completely consumed. The disappearance of IMI-NO requires both a source of AOX and an AOX-specific electron donor substrate and is not inhibited by the addition of catalase and superoxide dismutase. Experiments to evaluate IMI-NO as a possible time-dependent inactivator of AOX reveal the following four characteristics: First, partially purified AOX (ppAOX) is inactivated at a moderate rate by the electron donor substrate N-methylnicotinamide (NMN); second, AOX is inactivated by IMI-NO in an NMN-dependent manner at a 10-fold greater rate; third, IMI does not inactivate AOX; and finally, GSH protects AOX from inactivation but not to a degree greater than IMI-NO-deficient incubations. Values for the kinetic constants of KI and kinact are measured to be 1.3 mM and 0.35 min(-1), respectively. Ultrafiltration is used to establish that IMI-NO inactivation is not reversible and to determine a partition ratio of 1.6. [3H]IMI-NO labeling shows that significant amounts (19%) of this molecule covalently bind to protein following reduction by ppAOX. The addition of 10 mM GSH attenuates this binding almost completely. These findings demonstrate that IMI-NO is metabolically activated by rabbit AOX to form both an irreversible inhibitor and a reactive intermediate that is capable of covalently binding to protein.

  4. Health-Beneficial Phenolic Aldehyde in Antigonon leptopus Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanisree Mulabagal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tea prepared from the aerial parts of Antigonon leptopus is used as a remedy for cold and pain relief in many countries. In this study, A. leptopus tea, prepared from the dried aerial parts, was evaluated for lipid peroxidation (LPO and cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and COX-2 enzyme inhibitory activities. The tea as a dried extract inhibited LPO, COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes by 78%, 38% and 89%, respectively, at 100 g/mL. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the extract yielded a selective COX-2 enzyme inhibitory phenolic aldehyde, 2,3,4-trihydroxy benzaldehyde. Also, it showed LPO inhibitory activity by 68.3% at 6.25 g/mL. Therefore, we have studied other hydroxy benzaldehydes and their methoxy analogs for LPO, COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes inhibitory activities and found that compound 1 gave the highest COX-2 enzyme inhibitory activity as indicated by a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50 at 9.7 g/mL. The analogs showed only marginal LPO activity at 6.25 g/mL. The hydroxy analogs 6, 7 and 9 showed 55%, 61% and 43% of COX-2 inhibition at 100 g/mL. However, hydroxy benzaldehydes 3 and 12 showed selective COX-1 inhibition while compounds 4 and 10 gave little or no COX-2 enzyme inhibition at 100 g/mL. At the same concentration, compounds 14, 21 and 22 inhibited COX-1 by 83, 85 and 70%, respectively. Similarly, compounds 18, 19 and 23 inhibited COX-2 by 68%, 72% and 70%, at 100 g/mL. This is the first report on the isolation of compound 1 from A. leptopus tea with selective COX-2 enzyme and LPO inhibitory activities.

  5. Impact of volunteer rice infestation on yield and grain quality of rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vijay; Burgos, Nilda R; Singh, Shilpa; Gealy, David R; Gbur, Edward E; Caicedo, Ana L

    2017-03-01

    Volunteer rice (Oryza sativa L.) grains may differ in physicochemical traits from cultivated rice, which may reduce the quality of harvested rice grain. To evaluate the effect of volunteer rice on cultivated rice, fields were surveyed in Arkansas in 2012. Cropping history that included hybrid cultivars in the previous two years (2010 and 2011) had higher volunteer rice infestation (20%) compared with fields planted previously with inbred rice (5.5%). The total grain yield of rice was reduced by 0.4% for every 1% increase in volunteer rice density. The grain quality did not change in fields planted with the same cultivar for three years. Volunteer rice density of at least 7.6% negatively impacted the head rice and when infestation reached 17.7%, it also reduced the rice grain yield. The protein and amylose contents of rice were not affected until volunteer rice infestation exceeded 30%. Crop rotation systems that include hybrid rice are expected to have higher volunteer rice infestation than systems without hybrid rice. It is predicted that, at 8% infestation, volunteer rice will start to impact head rice yield and will reduce total yield at 18% infestation. It could alter the chemical quality of rice grain at >30% infestation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Red yeast rice for dysipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Shariq; Al Badarin, Firas J; DiNicolantonio, James J; Lavie, Carl J; O'Keefe, James H

    2013-01-01

    Red yeast rice is an ancient Chinese food product that contains monacolins, chemical substances that are similar to statins in their mechanisms of action and lipid lowering properties. Several studies have found red yeast rice to be moderately effective at improving the lipid profile, particularly for lowering the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. One large randomized controlled study from China found that red yeast rice significantly improved risk of major adverse cardiovascular events and overall survival in patients following myocardial infarction. Thus, red yeast rice is a potentially useful over-the-counter cholesterol-lowering agent. However, many red yeast rice formulations are non-standardized and unregulated food supplements, and there is a need for further research and regulation of production.

  7. Non-nutritive mineral effects on rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study of the responses of rice to non-nutritive minerals has numerous benefits. Rice is the current model plant for genomic studies of crops and with the sequencing of the rice genome, information obtained from rice can be extended to other organisms, which has been particularly valuable regard...

  8. Quantitative analysis of aldehydes in canned vegetables using static headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, María; Gallego, Mercedes; Silva, Manuel

    2017-11-17

    Volatile aldehydes appear in canned vegetables as constituents and some of them can also be present as disinfection by-products (DBPs) because of the contact between vegetables and treated water. This paper describes two static headspace-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SHS-GC-MS) methods to determine 15 aldehydes in both the solid and the liquid phases of canned vegetables. The treatment for both phases of samples was carried out simultaneously into an SHS unit, including the leaching of the aldehydes (from the vegetable), their derivatization and volatilization of the oximes formed. Detection limits were obtained within the range of 15-400μg/kg and 3-40μg/L for aldehydes in the solid and the liquid phases of the food, respectively. The relative standard deviation was lower than 7% -for the whole array of the target analytes-, the trueness evaluated by recovery experiments provided %recoveries between 89 and 99% and short- and long-term stability studies indicated there was no significant variation in relative peak areas of all aldehydes in both phases of canned vegetables after their storing at 4°C for two weeks. The study of the origin of the 15 aldehydes detected between both phases of canned vegetables showed that: i) the presence of 13 aldehydes -at average concentrations of 2.2-39μg/kg and 0.25-71μg/L for the solid and the liquid phases, respectively- is because they are natural constituents of vegetables; and ii) the presence of glyoxal and methylglyoxal -which are mainly found in the liquid phase (average values, 1.4-4.1μg/L)- is ascribed to the use of treated water, thereby being DBPs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Identification and characterization of an antennae-specific aldehyde oxidase from the navel orangeworm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Moo Choo

    Full Text Available Antennae-specific odorant-degrading enzymes (ODEs are postulated to inactivate odorant molecules after they convey their signal. Different classes of insect ODEs are specific to esters, alcohols, and aldehydes--the major functional groups of female-produced, hydrophobic sex pheromones from moth species. Esterases that rapidly inactive acetate and other esters have been well-studied, but less is known about aldehyde oxidases (AOXs. Here we report cloning of an aldehyde oxidase, AtraAOX2, from the antennae of the navel orangeworm (NOW, Amyelois transitella, and the first activity characterization of a recombinant insect AOX. AtraAOX2 gene spans 3,813 bp and encodes a protein with 1,270 amino acid residues. AtraAOX2 cDNA was expressed in baculovirus-infected insect Sf21 cells as a ≈280 kDa homodimer with 140 kDa subunits. Recombinant AtraAOX2 degraded Z11Z13-16Ald and plant volatile aldehydes as substrates. However, as expected for aldehyde oxidases, recombinant AtraAOX2 did not show specificity for Z11Z13-16Ald, the main constituent of the sex pheromone, but showed high activity for plant volatile aldehydes. Our data suggest AtraAOX2 might be involved in degradation of a diversity of aldehydes including sex pheromones, plant-derived semiochemicals, and chemical cues for oviposition sites. Additionally, AtraAOX2 could protect the insect's olfactory system from xenobiotics, including pesticides that might reach the sensillar lymph surrounding the olfactory receptor neurons.

  10. The rice genome project in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Sasaki, Takuji

    1998-01-01

    Since 1991, the Rice Genome Research Program in Japan has carried out rice genomics, such as large-scale cDNA analysis, construction of a fine-scale restriction fragment length polymorphism map, and physical mapping of the rice genome with yeast artificial chromosome clones. These studies have made a great impact on research into grass genomes and made rice a model plant for other cereal crop research. Starting in 1998, the Rice Genome Research Program will step in...

  11. Effects of water washing and torrefaction on the pyrolysis behavior and kinetics of rice husk through TGA and Py-GC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuping; Dong, Qing; Zhang, Li; Xiong, Yuanquan

    2016-01-01

    The effects of water washing and torrefaction on the pyrolysis behavior and kinetics of rice husk were investigated through TGA and Py-GC/MS in this study. Two iso-conversional methods, i.e. Starink and FWO methods were applied for determination of the activation energy of original and pretreated rice husk samples at three different heating rates. It was found that activation energy of water washed rice husk was lower than that of original rice husk. Whereas, the activation energy increased with the increase of torrefaction temperature. The result of Py-GC/MS analysis indicated that both water washing and torrefaction pretreatments decreased the contents of acids, ketones, aldehydes and furans, while significantly increased the contents of sugars, especially levoglucosan. The relative content of released levoglucosan from pyrolysis of rice husk sample with combined water washing and 280°C torrefaction pretreatment is almost 9 times of that from original rice husk, which is about 3%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Flavoring Compounds Dominate Toxic Aldehyde Production during E-Cigarette Vaping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlystov, Andrey; Samburova, Vera

    2016-12-06

    The growing popularity of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) raises concerns about the possibility of adverse health effects to primary users and people exposed to e-cigarette vapors. E-Cigarettes offer a very wide variety of flavors, which is one of the main factors that attract new, especially young, users. How flavoring compounds in e-cigarette liquids affect the chemical composition and toxicity of e-cigarette vapors is practically unknown. Although e-cigarettes are marketed as safer alternatives to traditional cigarettes, several studies have demonstrated formation of toxic aldehydes in e-cigarette vapors during vaping. So far, aldehyde formation has been attributed to thermal decomposition of the main components of e-cigarette e-liquids (propylene glycol and glycerol), while the role of flavoring compounds has been ignored. In this study, we have measured several toxic aldehydes produced by three popular brands of e-cigarettes with flavored and unflavored e-liquids. We show that, within the tested e-cigarette brands, thermal decomposition of flavoring compounds dominates formation of aldehydes during vaping, producing levels that exceed occupational safety standards. Production of aldehydes was found to be exponentially dependent on concentration of flavoring compounds. These findings stress the need for a further, thorough investigation of the effect of flavoring compounds on the toxicity of e-cigarettes.

  13. Aldehydes in Artic Snow at Barrow (AK) during the Barrow 2009 Field Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barret, Manuel; Houdier, Stephan; Gallet, Jean-Charles; Domine, Florent; Beine, Harry; Jacobi, Hans-Werner; Weibring, Petter; Walega, James; Fried, Alan; Richter, Dirk

    2010-05-01

    Aldehydes (RCHO) are key reactive intermediates in hydrocarbon oxidation and in OH cycling. They are also emitted and taken up by the snowpack and a combination of both physical and photochemical processes are likely involved. Since the photolysis of aldehydes is a source of HOx radicals, these exchanges can modify the oxidative capacity of the overlying air. Formaldehyde (HCHO), acetaldehyde (MeCHO), glyoxal (CHOCHO) and methylglyoxal (MeCOCHO) concentrations were measured in over 250 snow samples collected during the Barrow 2009 campaign between late February and mid April 2009. Both continental and marine snowpacks were studied as well as frost flowers on sea ice. We found that HCHO was the most abundant aldehyde (1 to 9 µg/L), but significant concentrations of dicarbonyls glyoxal and methylglyoxal were also measured for the first time in Arctic snow. Similar concentrations were measured for the continental and marine snowpacks but some frost flowers exhibited HCHO concentrations as high as 150 µg/L. Daily cycles in the surface snow were observed for HCHO and CH3CHO but also for the dicarbonyls and we concluded to a photochemical production of these species from organic precursors. Additional data such as gas phase concentrations for the measured aldehydes and snow physical properties (specific surface area, density …) will be used to discuss on the location of aldehydes in the snow. This is essential to identify and quantify the physical processes that occur during the exchange of trace gases between the snow and the atmosphere.

  14. Direct site-specific immobilization of protein A via aldehyde-hydrazide conjugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Berlin; Ren, Jun; Xu, Li; Jia, Lingyun

    2016-01-01

    Immobilization of affinity ligands on supporting matrices is a key step for the preparation of affinity chromatography resins, and an efficient coupling strategy can significantly improve the validity and cost of the affinity system, especially for systems that employ expensive recombinant proteins or antibodies as affinity ligands. This study described a simple method for obtaining site-specific immobilization of protein A (the ligand) via aldehyde-hydrazide conjugation and its application in antibody purification via protein A chromatography. An aldehyde group was generated at the N-terminus of protein A in vivo by co-expressing a formylglycine-generating enzyme (FGE) and recombinant protein A containing a FGE recognizing sequence (aldehyde tag) in Escherichia coli. The resulting aldehyde allowed direct immobilization of protein A onto the hydrazide-modified agarose matrices under mild condition. We found that 100mM aniline was most effective for catalyzing the coupling reaction, and the recombinant protein A could be coupled with high selectivity, directly from a crude cell extract. The site-specific immobilized protein A showed good capacity for antibody purification. The specificity of the aldehyde-hydrazide reaction not only allowed site-specific immobilization of affinity ligands, but also improved the cost of the process by employing unpurified ligands, a method that might be of great use to industrial applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Against the grain: safeguarding rice from rice blast disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skamnioti, Pari; Gurr, Sarah J

    2009-03-01

    Rice is the staple diet of more than three billion people. Yields must double over the next 40 years if we are to sustain the nutritional needs of the ever-expanding global population. Between 10% and 30% of the annual rice harvest is lost due to infection by the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. Evaluation of genetic and virulence diversity of blast populations with diagnostic markers will aid disease management. We review the M. oryzae species-specific and cultivar-specific avirulence determinants and evaluate efforts towards generating durable and broad-spectrum resistance in single resistant cultivars or mixtures. We consider modern usage of fungicides and plant defence activators, assess the usefulness of biological control and categorize current approaches towards blast-tolerant genetically modified rice.

  16. A novel label-free electrochemical immunosensor based on aldehyde-terminated ionic liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Youming; Shen, Guangyu; Zhang, Youyu; Zhang, Chunxiang; Li, Haitao

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, aldehyde-terminated ionic liquid was synthesized and used to fabricate a novel label-free electrochemical immunosensor for the determination of hepatitis B surface antigen. This sensor was formed from a gold electrode which was modified with a composite film containing the aldehyde-functionalized ionic liquid incorporated into nafion and anti-hepatitis B surface antigen antibody probes. Aldehyde-functionalized ionic liquid was used not only as a substrate for antibody immobilization, but also as a good material with high electrical conductivity, which greatly simplified the process of sensor fabrication. The proposed sensor exhibited a good performance in a linear range from 0.05 to 15ngmL(-1) with a detection limit of 20pgmL(-1) (S/N=3) and provided a novel strategy for clinical detection due to satisfying stability, selectivity and reproducibility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Rice Husk Filled Polymer Composites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arjmandi, Reza; Hassan, Azman; Majeed, Khaliq; Zakaria, Zainoha

    2015-01-01

      Natural fibers from agricultural wastes are finding their importance in the polymer industry due to the many advantages such as their light weight, low cost and being environmentally friendly. Rice husk (RH...

  18. Red Yeast Rice: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mg twice daily) in patients with previous statin intolerance . American Journal of Cardiology . 2010;105:198–204. ... to Avoid Red Yeast Rice Products Promoted on Internet as Treatments for High Cholesterol: Products Found to ...

  19. Rice vaikib salavanglaist / Tõnis Erilaid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Erilaid, Tõnis, 1943-

    2005-01-01

    Euroopasse visiidile sõitev USA välisminister Condoleezza Rice külastab Saksamaad, Rumeeniat, Ukrainat ja Belgiat. Süüdistusi CIA lennukite maandumiste ja salavanglate kohta ei olevat tal kavas kommenteerida

  20. Organic acids and aldehydes in rainwater in a northwest region of Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, R.M.; Garcia, S.; Herrero, C. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Lugo (Spain). Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia

    2002-11-01

    During a 1 year period, measurements of carboxylic acids and aldehydes were carried out in rainwater samples collected at nine different sites in NW Spain surrounding a thermal power plant in order to determine concentration levels and sources. In addition, certain major ions (Cl{sup -}, NO{sub 3}{sup -}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}, Na{sup +}, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, K{sup +}, Mg{sup 2+}, Ca{sup 2+}) were also determined. Aldehyde and carboxylic acid concentration patterns and their effects on rainwater composition concerning temporal, seasonal and spatial variations were evaluated. Among carboxylic acids, formic and acetic were predominant (VWA 7.0 and 8.3 {mu}M), while formaldehyde and acroleine were the dominant aldehydes (VWA 0.42 and 1.25 {mu}M). Carboxylic acids were estimated to account for 27.5% of the total free acidity (TFA), whereas sulphuric and nitric acid accounted for 46.2% and 26.2%, respectively. Oxalic acid was demonstrated to be an important contributing compound to the acidification in rainwater representing 7.1% of the TFA. The concentration of aldehydes and carboxylic acids, which originated mainly from biogenic emissions in the area studied, was strongly dependent on the season of the year (growing and non-growing). The ratios of formic to acetic acids are considerably different in the two seasons suggesting that there exist distinct sources in both growing and non-growing seasons. Principal component analysis was applied in order to elucidate the sources of aldehydes and organic acids in rainwater. The prevalence of natural vegetative origins for both of these compounds versus anthropogenic emissions was demonstrated and the importance of the oxidation of aldehydes as a relevant source of organic acids was also established. (author)

  1. Soil Incorporation of Silica-Rich Rice Husk Decreases Inorganic Arsenic in Rice Grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfferth, Angelia L; Morris, Andrew H; Gill, Rattandeep; Kearns, Kelli A; Mann, Jessica N; Paukett, Michelle; Leskanic, Corey

    2016-05-18

    Arsenic decreases rice yield, and inorganic grain As threatens human health; thus, strategies to decrease rice As are critically needed. Increased plant-available silica (Si) can decrease rice As, yet the source of Si matters. Rice husk, an underutilized and Si-rich byproduct of rice production that contains less labile C and an order of magnitude less As than rice straw, may be an economically viable Si resource to decrease rice As, yet the impact of rice husk incorporation on As in the rice-soil nexus has not been reported. This proof-of-concept study shows that rice husk incorporation to soil (1% w/w) decreases inorganic grain As by 25-50% without negatively affecting grain Cd, yield, or dissolved CH4 levels. Rice husk is a critical yet perhaps overlooked resource to improve soil quality through enhanced nutrient availability and attenuate human health risks through consumption of As-laden grain.

  2. Highly asymmetric rice genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jian-Qun

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals in the same species are assumed to share the same genomic set. However, it is not unusual to find an orthologous gene only in small subset of the species, and recent genomic studies suggest that structural rearrangements are very frequent between genomes in the same species. Two recently sequenced rice genomes Oryza sativa L. var. Nipponbare and O. sativa L. var. 93-11 provide an opportunity to systematically investigate the extent of the gene repertoire polymorphism, even though the genomic data of 93-11 derived from whole-short-gun sequencing is not yet as complete as that of Nipponbare. Results We compared gene contents and the genomic locations between two rice genomes. Our conservative estimates suggest that at least 10% of the genes in the genomes were either under presence/absence polymorphism (5.2% or asymmetrically located between genomes (4.7%. The proportion of these "asymmetric genes" varied largely among gene groups, in which disease resistance (R genes and the RLK kinase gene group had 11.6 and 7.8 times higher proportion of asymmetric genes than housekeeping genes (Myb and MADS. The significant difference in the proportion of asymmetric genes among gene groups suggests that natural selection is responsible for maintaining genomic asymmetry. On the other hand, the nucleotide diversity in 17 R genes under presence/absence polymorphism was generally low (average nucleotide diversity = 0.0051. Conclusion The genomic symmetry was disrupted by 10% of asymmetric genes, which could cause genetic variation through more unequal crossing over, because these genes had no allelic counterparts to pair and then they were free to pair with homologues at non-allelic loci, during meiosis in heterozygotes. It might be a consequence of diversifying selection that increased the structural divergence among genomes, and of purifying selection that decreased nucleotide divergence in each R gene locus.

  3. Development of a bioluminescence assay for aldehyde pheromones of insects : II. Analysis of pheromone glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, G G; Slessor, K N; Szittner, R B; Morse, D; Meighen, E A

    1982-06-01

    Pheromone levels in the glands of individual female moths of the spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana), the western spruce budworm (C. occidentalis), the navel orangeworm (Amyelois transitella), and the corn earworm (Heliothis zea) were quantitively measured by means of a new bacterial bioluminescence assay specific for aldehydes. The sensitivity and rapidity of the bioluminescent assay enabled studies to be conducted on the dependence of the pheromone levels in the spruce budworm on age and the effect of photoperiod on the pheromone levels in the corn earworm. The bioluminescence assay provides a rapid and sensitive approach for studying aldehyde pheromone levels and their regulation in insects.

  4. Protective vaccination against murine visceral leishmaniasis using aldehyde-containing Quillaja saponaria sapogenins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palatnik de Sousa, C B; Santos, W R; Casas, C P; Paraguai de Souza, E; Tinoco, L W; da Silva, B P; Palatnik, M; Parente, J P

    2004-06-23

    The presence of aldehyde groups at C-23 and C-24 of the triterpen aglycon moiety was disclosed in 1H NMR spectra of both the Riedel de Haen saponin (R) (delta 9.336) and Quillaja saponaria QuilA saponin (delta 9.348). The sign of the C-28 acylated linked moiety (delta 176) was present in both saponins, while the delta 171 at C-28 (carboxy group) corresponding to the deacylated saponin, was only detected in the QuilA preparation, indicating 50% of hydrolysis of the ester moiety, probably due to the storage in aqueous solution. The normoterpen moiety was present in both saponins (signals at delta 14-18). The chemical removal of saponin glicidic moieties gave rise to their sapogenin fractions. Their 1H NMR spectra showed the presence of two signals (delta 9.226 and 9.236) for sapogenin R and two signals (delta 9.338 and 9.352) for the QuilA sapogenin. The intensity of the signals suggested two conformational isomers of sapogenin R in the ratio 53% of equatorial aldehyde group to 47% of axial aldehyde group, and two conformational isomers of QuilA sapogenin in the ratio 76% of equatorial aldehyde group to 24% of axial aldehyde group. The chemical treatment abolished the saponin slight in vivo toxicity, reduced their hemolytic potential, did not affect their aldehyde contents, but gave rise to an enriched axial aldehyde-containing sapogenin R with enhanced potential on antibody humoral response (anti-IgM, IgG, IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b and IgG3) and to an enriched equatorial aldehyde-containing QuilA-sapogenin that induced a mainly cellular specific immune response (increased intradermal response to leishmanial antigen and IFNgamma sera levels) and effective protection against murine infection by L. donovani (77% reduction in liver parasitic load). Our results suggest that the Riedel de Haen saponin is probably a Quillaja saponaria saponin.

  5. Realistic Simulation of Rice Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-long DING

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The existing research results of virtual modeling of rice plant, however, is far from perfect compared to that of other crops due to its complex structure and growth process. Techniques to visually simulate the architecture of rice plant and its growth process are presented based on the analysis of the morphological characteristics at different stages. Firstly, the simulations of geometrical shape, the bending status and the structural distortion of rice leaves are conducted. Then, by using an improved model for bending deformation, the curved patterns of panicle axis and various types of panicle branches are generated, and the spatial shape of rice panicle is therefore created. Parametric L-system is employed to generate its topological structures, and finite-state automaton is adopted to describe the development of geometrical structures. Finally, the computer visualization of three-dimensional morphologies of rice plant at both organ and individual levels is achieved. The experimental results showed that the proposed methods of modeling the three-dimensional shapes of organs and simulating the growth of rice plant are feasible and effective, and the generated three-dimensional images are realistic.

  6. Supramolecular Control of Selectivity in Hydroformylation of Vinyl Arenes: Easy Access to Valuable β-​Aldehyde Intermediates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dydio, P.; Reek, J.N.H.

    2013-01-01

    A rationally designed regioselective formylation catalyst, in which noncovalent ligand-​substrate interactions allow the unprecedented reversal of selectivity from the typical α-​aldehyde to the otherwise unfavored β-​aldehyde, is reported. Thus, hydroformylation of o-​vinyl arene(or

  7. Aldehyde-Selective Wacker-Type Oxidation of Unbiased Alkenes Enabled by a Nitrite Co-Catalyst

    KAUST Repository

    Wickens, Zachary K.

    2013-09-13

    Breaking the rules: Reversal of the high Markovnikov selectivity of Wacker-type oxidations was accomplished using a nitrite co-catalyst. Unbiased aliphatic alkenes can be oxidized with high yield and aldehyde selectivity, and several functional groups are tolerated. 18O-labeling experiments indicate that the aldehydic O atom is derived from the nitrite salt.

  8. On the role of long-chain aldehydes in the light reaction in Photobacterium phosphoreum enzyme preparations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terpstra, Willemke

    1960-01-01

    1. (1) Active luciferase-DPNH-oxidase preparations from Photobacterium phosphoreum generally contain some aldehyde-attacking enzyme, probably ADH. Under the experimental conditions applied this enzyme appears to attack decanal, but not palmital. 2. (2) The presence of long-chain aldehydes in the

  9. 7 CFR 868.310 - Grades and grade requirements for the classes Long Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and objectionable seeds (number in 500 grams) Red rice and damaged kernels (singly or combined... Grain Milled Rice, Medium Grain Milled Rice, Short Grain Milled Rice, and Mixed Milled Rice. (See also Â... Milled Rice Principles Governing Application of Standards § 868.310 Grades and grade requirements for the...

  10. Differences in responses to flooding by germinating seeds of two contrasting rice cultivars and two species of economically important grass weeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estioko, Lucy P; Miro, Berta; Baltazar, Aurora M; Merca, Florinia E; Ismail, Abdelbagi M; Johnson, David E

    2014-10-20

    Crop productivity is largely affected by abiotic factors such as flooding and by biotic factors such as weeds. Although flooding after direct seeding of rice helps suppress weeds, it also can adversely affects germination and growth of rice, resulting in poor crop establishment. Barnyard grasses (Echinochloa spp.) are among the most widespread weeds affecting rice, especially under direct seeding. The present work aimed to establish effective management options to control these weeds. We assessed the effects of variable depths and time of submergence on germination, seedling growth and carbohydrate metabolism of (i) two cultivars of rice known to differ in their tolerance to flooding during germination and (ii) two barnyard grasses (Echinochloa colona and E. crus-galli) that commonly infest rice fields. Flooding barnyard grasses with 100-mm-deep water immediately after seeding was effective in suppressing germination and growth. Echinochloa colona showed greater reductions in emergence, shoot and root growth than E. crus-galli. Delaying flooding for 2 or 4 days was less injurious to both species. Echinochloa colona was also more susceptible to flooding than the flood-sensitive rice cultivar 'IR42'. The activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) in rice seedlings was increased by flooding after sowing but with greater increases in 'Khao Hlan On' compared with 'IR42'. The activity of ADH and PDC was enhanced to a similar extent in both barnyard grasses. Under aerobic conditions, the activity of ADH and PDC in the two barnyard grasses was downregulated, which might contribute to their inherently faster growth compared with rice. Aldehyde dehydrogenase activity was significantly enhanced in flood-tolerant 'Khao Hlan On' and E. crus-galli, but did not increase in flood-sensitive E. colona and 'IR42', implying a greater ability of the flood-tolerant types to detoxify acetaldehyde generated during anaerobic fermentation. Confirmation of this

  11. Modelling of the partial oxidation of {alpha}, {beta}-unsaturated aldehydes on Mo-V-oxides based catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehnke, H.; Petzoldt, J.C.; Stein, B.; Weimer, C.; Gaube, J.W. [Technische Univ. Darmstadt (Germany). Inst. fuer Chemische Technologie

    1998-12-31

    A kinetic model based on the Mars-van Krevelen mechanism that allows to describe the microkinetics of the heterogeneously catalysed partial oxidation of {alpha}, {beta}-unsaturated aldehydes is presented. This conversion is represented by a network, composed of the oxidation of the {alpha}, {beta}-unsaturated aldehyde towards the {alpha}, {beta}-unsaturated carboxylic acid and the consecutive oxidation of the acid as well as the parallel reaction of the aldehyde to products of deeper oxidation. The reaction steps of aldehyde respectively acid oxidation and catalyst reoxidation have been investigated separately in transient experiments. The combination of steady state and transient experiments has led to an improved understanding of the interaction of the catalyst with the aldehyde and the carboxylic acids as well as to a support of the kinetic model assumptions. (orig.)

  12. Supported Rh-phosphine complex catalysts for continuous gas-phase decarbonylation of aldehydes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malcho, Phillip; Garcia-Suarez, Eduardo J.; Mentzel, Uffe Vie

    2014-01-01

    Heterogeneous silica supported rhodium-phosphine complex catalysts are employed for the first time in the catalytic decarbonylation of aldehydes in continuous gas-phase. The reaction protocol is exemplified for the decarbonylation of p-tolualdehyde to toluene and further extended to other aromati...

  13. Mn(0)-mediated chemoselective reduction of aldehydes. Application to the synthesis of α-deuterioalcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Tania; Barea, Elisa; Oltra, J Enrique; Cuerva, Juan M; Justicia, José

    2010-10-15

    A mild, simple, safe, chemoselective reduction of different kinds of aldehydes to the corresponding alcohols mediated by the Mn dust/water system is described. In addition to this, the use of D(2)O leads to the synthesis of α-deuterated alcohols and constitutes an efficient, inexpensive alternative for the preparation of these compounds.

  14. Carbon-Carbon Bond Formation and Hydrogen Production in the Ketonization of Aldehydes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, Lina M; Renz, Michael; Corma, Avelino

    2016-09-08

    Aldehydes possess relatively high chemical energy, which is the driving force for disproportionation reactions such as Cannizzaro and Tishchenko reactions. Generally, this energy is wasted if aldehydes are transformed into carboxylic acids with a sacrificial oxidant. Here, we describe a cascade reaction in which the surplus energy of the transformation is liberated as molecular hydrogen for the oxidation of heptanal to heptanoic acid by water, and the carboxylic acid is transformed into potentially industrially relevant symmetrical ketones by ketonic decarboxylation. The cascade reaction is catalyzed by monoclinic zirconium oxide (m-ZrO2 ). The reaction mechanism has been studied through cross-coupling experiments between different aldehydes and acids, and the final symmetrical ketones are formed by a reaction pathway that involves the previously formed carboxylic acids. Isotopic studies indicate that the carboxylic acid can be formed by a hydride shift from the adsorbed aldehyde on the metal oxide surface in the absence of noble metals. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Analysis of aldehydes in human exhaled breath condensates by in-tube SPME-HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, ShuLing; Hu, Sheng; Xu, Hui

    2015-11-05

    In this paper, polypyrrole/graphene (PPy/G) composite coating was prepared by a facile electrochemical polymerization strategy on the inner surface of a stainless steel (SS) tube. Based on the coating tube, a novel online in-tube solid-phase microextraction -high performance liquid chromatography (IT-SPME-HPLC) was developed and applied for the extraction of aldehydes in the human exhaled breath condensates (EBC). The hybrid PPy/G nanocomposite exhibits remarkable chemical and mechanical stability, high selectivity, and satisfactory extraction performance toward aldehyde compounds. Moreover, the proposed online IT-SPME-HPLC method possesses numerous superiorities, such as time and cost saving, process simplicity, high precision and sensitivity. Some parameters related to extraction efficiency were optimized systematically. Under the optimal conditions, the recoveries of the aldehyde compounds at three spiked concentration levels varied in the range of 85%-117%. Good linearity was obtained with excellent correlation coefficients (R(2)) being larger than 0.994. The relative standard deviations (n = 5) of the method ranged from 1.8% to 11.3% and the limits of detection were between 2.3 and 3.3 nmol L(-1). The successful application of the proposed method in human EBC indicated that it is a promising approach for the determination of trace aldehyde metabolites in complex EBC samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The Molecular Cloning of Dihydroartemisinic Aldehyde Reductase and its Implication in Artemisinin Biosynthesis in Artemisia annua

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryden, Anna-Margareta; Ruyter-Spira, Carolien; Quax, Wim J.; Osada, Hiroyuki; Muranaka, Toshiya; Kayser, Oliver; Bouwmeester, Harro

    2010-01-01

    A key point in the biosynthesis of the antimalarial drug artemisinin is the formation of dihydroartemisinic aldehyde which represents the key difference between chemotype specific pathways. This key intermediate is the substrate for several competing enzymes, some of which increase the metabolic

  17. The molecular cloning of dihydroartemisinic aldehyde reductase and its implication in artemisinin biosynthesis in Artemisia annua

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryden, A.M.; Ruyter-Spira, C.P.; Quax, W.J.; Hiroyuki, O.; Toshiya, M.; Kayser, O.; Bouwmeester, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    A key point in the biosynthesis of the antimalarial drug artemisinin is the formation of dihydroartemisinic aldehyde which represents the key difference between chemotype specific pathways. This key intermediate is the substrate for several competing enzymes, some of which increase the metabolic

  18. A Highly Efficient Solvent-Free Acetalization of Aldehydes to 1,1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    Introduction. Protection of aldehydes is a frequently used and important method in organic chemistry. Many procedures have been developed for this aim. For the acetalization of carbonyl groups, acetic anhydride can be used in the presence of different cata- lysts such as sulphuric acid,1 NBS,2 ZrCl4,3 zinc(II) perchlorate,4.

  19. A Highly Efficient Solvent-Free Acetalization of Aldehydes to 1,1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1,1-Diacetates are prepared in excellent yields from aldehydes and acetic anhydride under solvent-free conditions at room temperature in short reaction times using catalytic amount of sulfonic acid functionalized silica (SiO2-Pr-SO3H) which could be easily handled and removed from the mixture of reaction. Keywords: 1 ...

  20. Aldehyde-functionalized porous nanocellulose for effective removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Yao; F. Wang; Z. Cai; X. Wang

    2016-01-01

    Nanoscale sorption is a promising strategy for catalyst and purification system design. In this paper, cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) were densely attached with aldehyde functional groups on the surface via a mild periodate oxidation process, and then applied as mesoporous sorbents to remove Cu(II) and Pb(II) from aqueous solutions. In the studied concentration range (0....

  1. Palladium-Catalyzed Anti-Markovnikov Oxidation of Allylic Amides to Protected beta-Amino Aldehydes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dong, Jiajia; Harvey, Emma C.; Fananas-Mastral, Martin; Browne, Wesley R.; Feringa, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    A general method for the preparation of N-protected beta-amino aldehydes from allylic amines or linear allylic alcohols is described. Here the Pd(II)-catalyzed oxidation of N-protected allylic amines with benzoquinone is achieved in tBuOH under ambient conditions with excellent selectivity toward

  2. Sorption kinetics for the removal of aldehydes from aqueous streams with extractant impregnated resins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babic, K.; van der Ham, Aloysius G.J.; de Haan, A.B.

    2008-01-01

    The sorption kinetics for the removal aldehydes from aqueous solutions with Amberlite XAD-16 and MPP particles impregnated with Primene JM-T was investigated. A model, accounting for the simultaneous mass transfer and chemical reaction, is developed to describe the process. It is based on the

  3. Aerobic oxidation of aldehydes under ambient conditions using supported gold nanoparticle catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsden, Charlotte Clare; Taarning, Esben; Hansen, David

    2008-01-01

    A new, green protocol for producing simple esters by selectively oxidizing an aldehyde dissolved in a primary alcohol has been established, utilising air as the oxidant and supported gold nanoparticles as catalyst. The oxidative esterifications proceed with excellent selectivities at ambient...

  4. Catalytic Oxidation of Lignins into the Aromatic Aldehydes: General Process Trends and Development Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery E. Tarabanko

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses principal patterns that govern the processes of lignins’ catalytic oxidation into vanillin (3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde and syringaldehyde (3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde. It examines the influence of lignin and oxidant nature, temperature, mass transfer, and of other factors on the yield of the aldehydes and the process selectivity. The review reveals that properly organized processes of catalytic oxidation of various lignins are only insignificantly (10–15% inferior to oxidation by nitrobenzene in terms of yield and selectivity in vanillin and syringaldehyde. Very high consumption of oxygen (and consequentially, of alkali in the process—over 10 mol per mol of obtained vanillin—is highlighted as an unresolved and unexplored problem: scientific literature reveals almost no studies devoted to the possibilities of decreasing the consumption of oxygen and alkali. Different hypotheses about the mechanism of lignin oxidation into the aromatic aldehydes are discussed, and the mechanism comprising the steps of single-electron oxidation of phenolate anions, and ending with retroaldol reaction of a substituted coniferyl aldehyde was pointed out as the most convincing one. The possibility and development prospects of single-stage oxidative processing of wood into the aromatic aldehydes and cellulose are analyzed.

  5. Versatile Scope of a Masked Aldehyde Nitrone in 1,3-Dipolar Cycloadditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, Jorin; Zuilhof, Han; Wennekes, Tom

    2015-01-01

    A new masked aldehyde-containing nitrone 1 that is easily available through a facile one-step procedure has been developed. It undergoes a [3 + 2]-thermal cycloaddition with a wide range of dipolarophiles, affording isoxazolidine cycloadducts that are suitable for versatile postcycloaddition

  6. Solvent-free oxidation of aldehydes to acids by TBHP using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    free oxidation of aldehydes to acids by TBHP using environmental-friendly MnO 4 − 1 -exchanged Mg-Al hydrotalcite catalyst. Vasant R Choudhary Deepa K Dumbre Vijay S Narkhede. Volume 124 Issue 4 July 2012 pp 835-839 ...

  7. Phenyl versus Ethyl Transfer in the Addition of Organozincs to Aldehydes: A Theoretical Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolph, Jens; Rasmussen, Torben; Bolm, Carsten

    2003-01-01

    The dramatic improvement in diphenylzinc addition to aldehydes that is obtained by adding diethylzinc was investigated by DFT methods. The strong preference for phenyl over ethyl transfer can be understood in terms of overlap with the phenyl 31 system in the transition state (see picture). Reasons...... for the high ee value in the presence of Et$-2$/Zn are discussed....

  8. Leukocyte recruitment to airways by aldehyde-carbon combinations that mimic cigarette smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilburn, K.H.; McKenzie, W.N.

    1978-02-01

    Exposure of Syrian golden hamsters to formaldehyde (3 to 250 ppM) evaporated onto carbon (21 to 805 mg per cu. m) recruited polymorphonuclear (PMN) leukocytes to the epithelium of tracheas and intrapulmonary airways which peaked at 24 to 48 hours. Acrolein (< 6 ppM) on carbon 593 mg per cu. m) caused PMN recruitment which was maximal at 12 hours. The vapor phase of cigarette smoke produced PMN leukocyte recruitment of the same magnitude and with the same time course. In contrast, exposure to formaldehyde at doses of 2 to 250 ppM and acrolein at 6 ppM was cytotoxic to airway cells and caused prompt and delayed exfoliation but no recruitment of PMN leukocytes. There was no difference in cytotoxicity when carbon was present. Leukocyte recruitment occurred only when carbon was present, either given simultaneously with aldehydes or with adsorbed aldehydes. Thus, aldehyde vapor simulates the cytotoxic effects of particle-free cigarette smoke vapor. Of greater significance is the finding that an aldehyde, formaldehyde or acrolein, inhaled adsorbed on carbon or simultaneously with carbon to hamster airways is chemotactic for PMN leukocytes just as is the vapor phase of cigarette smoke when given simultaneously with carbon particles.

  9. New HPLC methods to quantitate terpenoid aldehydes in foliage of cotton (Gossypium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cotton plant (Gossypium) produces protective terpenoid aldehydes in lysigenous pigment glands. These terpenoids include hemigossypolone, hemigossypolone-6-methyl ether, gossypol, gossypol-6-methyl ether, gossypol-6,6'-dimethyl ether, heliocides H1, H2, H3 and H4, and heliocides B1, B2, B3 and B4...

  10. Size-Selective Oxidation of Aldehydes with Zeolite Encapsulated Gold Nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højholt, Karen Thrane; Laursen, Anders Bo; Kegnæs, Søren

    2011-01-01

    Here, we report a synthesis and catalytic study of hybrid materials comprised of 1–3 nm sinter-stable Au nanoparticles in MFI-type zeolites. An optional post-treatment in aqua regia effectively remove Au from the external surfaces. The size-selective aerobic aldehyde oxidation verifies that the a...... that the active Au is accessible only through the zeolite micropores....

  11. Substituent effect of phenolic aldehyde inhibition on alcoholic fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui Xie; Maobing Tu; Thomas Elder

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic compounds significantly inhibit microbial fermentation of biomass hydrolysates. To understand thequantitative structure-inhibition relationship of phenolic aldehydes on alcoholic fermentation, the effect of 11 differentsubstituted benzaldehydes on the final ethanol yield was examined. The results showed that the degree of phenolic...

  12. An assessment of the role played by some oxidation-related aldehydes in wine aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culleré, Laura; Cacho, Juan; Ferreira, Vicente

    2007-02-07

    The levels of important oxidation-related aldehydes, such as methional, phenylacetaldehyde, (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-heptenal, (E)-2-octenal, (E)-2-nonenal, methylpropanal, 2-methylbutanal, and 3-methylbutanal, were determined in 41 different wines belonging to different types (young whites and reds, natural sparkling wines, oxidized young whites and reds, Sherry, aged red wines, Port wines). Except (E)-2-hexenal and (E)-2-heptenal, all of them could be found at levels above threshold. Different compositional patterns were identified: Sherry wines have large amounts of branched aldehydes but not of (E)-2-alkenals, wines exposed to oxygen can have large amounts of (E)-2-alkenals but not of branched aldehydes, while aged wine and Port have relatively large amounts of both classes of compounds. Different sensory tests confirmed the active sensory role of these compounds and revealed the existence of interactions (additive or synergic) between them and with other wine volatiles. (E)-2-Alkenals are related to flavor deterioration, while branched aldehydes enhance dried fruit notes and mask the negative role of (E)-2-alkenals.

  13. Page 1 The Condensation of Aldehydes with Amides—V/ 287 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cash, N.O., requires 7-22%.) From formamide-condensation, unchanged aldehyde and resin were obtained. p-Methoxybenzylidenc-bisacetamide.—3.4 g anisaldehyde and 4.5 g. acetamide (1 : 3 mol) were heated at 120–25° for 4 hours and the product treated as before. Recrystallised from hot alcohol or acetone, it melted.

  14. Reactions of CH-acids with α,β-unsaturated aldehydes in ionic liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kryshtal, G. V.; Zhdankina, G. M.; Astakhova, Irina Kira

    2004-01-01

    Metal carbonate-catalyzed reactions of CH-acids (diethyl malonate, ethyl acetoacetate, ethyl cyanoacetate, and ethyl 2-acetyl- and 2-ethoxycarbonyl-5,9- dimethyldeca-4,8-dienoates) with α,β-unsaturated aldehydes (acrolein, crotonaldehyde, citral) were studied in an ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3- methyl...

  15. An Efficient Synthesis of Milnacipran Hydrochloride via Reductive Amination of Aldehyde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Reddy Desireddy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient synthesis of milnacipran hydrochloride has been accomplished. The important application of this paper is the reductive amination of aldehyde to primary amine with water soluble reagents. This method provides a high yield of primary amine as the major product, reduces the number of steps, and discourages by-products.

  16. A novel protein modification generating an aldehyde group in sulfatases: its role in catalysis and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Figura, K; Schmidt, B; Selmer, T; Dierks, T

    1998-06-01

    In multiple sulfatase deficiency, a rare human lysosomal storage disorder, all known sulfatases are synthesized as catalytically poorly active polypeptides. Analysis of the latter has shown that they lack a protein modification that was detected in all members of the sulfatase family. This novel protein modification generates a 2-amino-3-oxopropanoic acid (C alpha-formylglycine) residue by oxidation of the thiol group of a cysteine that is conserved among all eukaryotic sulfatases. The oxidation occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum at a stage when the nascent polypeptide is not yet folded. The aldehyde is part of the catalytic site and is likely to act as an aldehyde hydrate. One of the geminal hydroxyl groups accepts the sulfate during sulfate ester cleavage leading to the formation of a covalently sulfated enzyme intermediate. The other hydroxyl is required for the subsequent elimination of the sulfate and regeneration of the aldehyde group. In some prokaryotic members of the sulfatase gene family, the DNA sequence predicts a serine residue, and not a cysteine. Analysis of one of these prokaryotic sulfatases, however, revealed the presence of the C alpha-formylglycine indicating that the aldehyde group is essential for all members of the sulfatase family and that it can be generated from either cysteine or serine.

  17. Parallel Kinetic Resolution of Racemic Aldehydes by Use of Asymmetric Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons Reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Torben Møller; Jensen, Jakob Feldthusen; Humble, Rikke Eva

    2000-01-01

    A racemic aldehyde can undergo parallel kinetic resolution (PKR) by simultaneous reaction with two different chiral phosphonates, differing either in the structure of the chiral auxiliary or in the structure of the phosphoryl group (i.e., one (E)- and one (Z)-selective reagent). This strategy all...

  18. (S)-Garner aldehyde derived Baylis-Hillman adduct: A potential ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A short, facile and efficient synthesis of D-lyxo-phytosphingosine analogue has been achieved. The key steps involved are the Baylis-Hillman reaction of (S)-Garner aldehyde with methyl acrylate to obtain the corresponding adduct as the potential substrate, to which was added decylmagnesium bromide to.

  19. Elemental composition of Malawian rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, Edward J M; Louise Ander, E; Broadley, Martin R; Young, Scott D; Chilimba, Allan D C; Hamilton, Elliott M; Watts, Michael J

    2017-08-01

    Widespread potential dietary deficiencies of calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), iodine (I), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) have been identified in Malawi. Several deficiencies are likely to be compounded by high phytic acid (PA) consumption. Rice (Oryza sativa) is commonly consumed in some Malawian populations, and its mineral micronutrient content is important for food security. The considerable irrigation requirements and flooded conditions of paddy soils can also introduce or mobilise potentially toxic elements including arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb). The aim of this study was to determine the mineral composition of rice sampled from farmers' fields and markets in Malawi. Rice was sampled from 18 extension planning areas across Malawi with 21 white (i.e. polished) and 33 brown samples collected. Elemental composition was determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Arsenic speciation was performed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-ICP-MS. Concentration of PA was determined using a PA-total phosphorus assay. Median total concentrations (mg kg-1, dry weight) of elements important for human nutrition in brown and white rice, respectively, were: Ca = 66.5 and 37.8; Cu = 3.65 and 2.49; Fe = 22.1 and 7.2; I = 0.006 and elements (mg kg-1, dry weight) in brown and white rice samples, respectively, were: As = 0.030 and 0.006; Cd  ≤ 0.002 and 0.006; Pb = 0.008 and 0.008. Approximately 95 % of As was found to be inorganic As, where this could be quantified. Malawian rice, like the more widely consumed staple grain maize, contains inadequate Ca, I, Se or Zn to meet dietary requirements. Biofortification strategies could significantly increase Se and Zn concentrations and require further investigation. Concentrations of Fe in rice grain varied greatly, and this was likely due to contamination of rice samples with soil. Risk of As, Cd or Pb toxicity due to rice consumption in Malawi appears to be minimal.

  20. Role of aldehydes in the toxic and mutagenic effects of nitrosamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Lisa A; Urban, Anna M; Vu, Choua C; Cummings, Meredith E; Brown, Lee C; Warmka, Janel K; Li, Li; Wattenberg, Elizabeth V; Patel, Yesha; Stram, Daniel O; Pegg, Anthony E

    2013-10-21

    α-Hydroxynitrosamine metabolites of nitrosamines decompose to a reactive diazohydroxide and an aldehyde. To test the hypothesis that the aldehydes contribute to the harmful effects of nitrosamines, the toxic and mutagenic activities of three model methylating agents were compared in Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing or not expressing human O⁶-alkylguanine DNA alkyltransferase (AGT). N-Nitrosomethylurethane (NMUr), acetoxymethylmethylnitrosamine (AMMN), and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-4-acetoxy-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK-4-OAc) are all activated by ester hydrolysis to methanediazohydroxide. NMUr does not form an aldehyde, whereas AMMN generates formaldehyde, and NNK-4-OAc produces 4-oxo-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (OPB). Since these compounds were likely to alkylate DNA to different extents, the toxic and mutagenic activities of these compounds were normalized to the levels of the most cytotoxic and mutagenic DNA adduct, O⁶-mG, to assess if the aldehydes contributed to the toxicological properties of these methylating agents. Levels of 7-mG indicated that the differences in cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of these compounds resulted from differences in their ability to methylate DNA. When normalized against the levels of O⁶-mG, there was no difference between these three compounds in cells that lacked AGT. However, AMMN and NNK-4-OAc were more toxic than NMUr in cells expressing AGT when normalized against O⁶-mG levels. In addition, AMMN was more mutagenic than NNK-4-OAc and MNUr in these cells. These findings demonstrate that the aldehyde decomposition products of nitrosamines can contribute to the cytotoxic and/or mutagenic activity of methylating nitrosamines.

  1. YLL056C from Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a novel protein with aldehyde reductase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Han-Yu; Xiao, Di-Fan; Zhou, Chang; Wang, Lin-Lu; Wu, Lan; Lu, Ya-Ting; Xiang, Quan-Ju; Zhao, Ke; Li, Xi; Ma, Meng -Gen

    2017-06-01

    The short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) family, the largest family in dehydrogenase/reductase superfamily, is divided into "classical," "extended," "intermediate," "divergent," "complex," and "atypical" groups. Recently, several open reading frames (ORFs) were characterized as intermediate SDR aldehyde reductase genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, no functional protein in the atypical group has been characterized in S. cerevisiae till now. Herein, we report that an uncharacterized ORF YLL056C from S. cerevisiae was significantly upregulated under high furfural (2-furaldehyde) or 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furaldehyde concentrations, and transcription factors Yap1p, Hsf1p, Pdr1/3p, Yrr1p, and Stb5p likely controlled its upregulated transcription. This ORF indeed encoded a protein (Yll056cp), which was grouped into the atypical subgroup 7 in the SDR family and localized to the cytoplasm. Enzyme activity assays showed that Yll056cp is not a quinone or ketone reductase but an NADH-dependent aldehyde reductase, which can reduce at least seven aldehyde compounds. This enzyme showed the best Vmax, Kcat, and Kcat/Km to glycolaldehyde, but the highest affinity (Km) to formaldehyde. The optimum pH and temperature of this enzyme was pH 6.5 for reduction of glycolaldehyde, furfural, formaldehyde, butyraldehyde, and propylaldehyde, and 30 °C for reduction of formaldehyde or 35 °C for reduction of glycolaldehyde, furfural, butyraldehyde, and propylaldehyde. Temperature and pH affected stability of this enzyme and this influence varied with aldehyde substrate. Metal ions, salts, and chemical protective additives, especially at high concentrations, had different influence on enzyme activities for reduction of different aldehydes. This research provided guidelines for study of more uncharacterized atypical SDR enzymes from S. cerevisiae and other organisms.

  2. Red Yeast Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thu Nguyen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Red yeast rice (RYR, produced by the fermentation of the Monascus purpureus mold, has been used for a long time in Asian cuisine and traditional medicine. It consists of multiple bioactive substances, including monacolins, which potentially can be used as a nutraceutical. Monacolin K, which is chemically identical to lovastatin, has been recognized as responsible for the cholesterolreducing effect of this compound. While the European Food Safety Authority maintains that the use of monacolin K from RYR preparations of at least 10 mg can produce a normal blood cholesterol level, the United States Food and Drug Administration considers monacolin K, due to its similarity with lovastatin, an unapproved drug, and therefore marketing of products that label the monacolin content is prohibited. This mini-review summarizes the benefit of RYR in hyperlipidemia, maintains RYR use as a food, and addresses the importance of regulation regarding RYR and the need for clinical data and clear label information for consumers with reference to a toxin-free, nonaugmented, standardized amount of monacolins.

  3. Red Yeast Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thu; Karl, Mitchell; Santini, Antonello

    2017-03-01

    Red yeast rice (RYR), produced by the fermentation of the Monascus purpureus mold, has been used for a long time in Asian cuisine and traditional medicine. It consists of multiple bioactive substances, including monacolins, which potentially can be used as a nutraceutical. Monacolin K, which is chemically identical to lovastatin, has been recognized as responsible for the cholesterolreducing effect of this compound. While the European Food Safety Authority maintains that the use of monacolin K from RYR preparations of at least 10 mg can produce a normal blood cholesterol level, the United States Food and Drug Administration considers monacolin K, due to its similarity with lovastatin, an unapproved drug, and therefore marketing of products that label the monacolin content is prohibited. This mini-review summarizes the benefit of RYR in hyperlipidemia, maintains RYR use as a food, and addresses the importance of regulation regarding RYR and the need for clinical data and clear label information for consumers with reference to a toxin-free, nonaugmented, standardized amount of monacolins.

  4. Arsenic in rice: A cause for concern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hojsak, Iva; Braegger, Christian; Bronsky, Jiri

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic intake is likely to affect long-term health. High concentrations are found in some rice-based foods and drinks widely used in infants and young children. In order to reduce exposure we recommend avoidance of rice drinks for infants and young children. For all rice products, strict...

  5. implications for smallholder rice production in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    backdrop of macro-economic policy framework of free market where trade liberalization allows for the free flow of goods and services will severe implication for the rice industry. This paper discusses trade liberalization policy effects on rice imports in. Ghana and the implications for smallholder rice. farmers in North-.

  6. 21 CFR 137.350 - Enriched rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 1,000 milligrams of calcium (Ca). Calcium carbonate derived from the use of this substance in milling rice, when present in quantities that furnish less than 500 milligrams of calcium (Ca) per pound... enriched rice unless such enriched rice is labeled to show it contains the optional ingredient calcium...

  7. Structural and functional analysis of rice genome

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 83; Issue 1. Structural and functional analysis of rice genome ... Abstract. Rice is an excellent system for plant genomics as it represents a modest size genome of 430 Mb. It feeds more than half the population of the world. Draft sequences of the rice genome, derived by ...

  8. Arsenic in rice: a cause for concern

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hojsak, Iva; Braegger, Christian; Bronsky, Jiri; Campoy, Cristina; Colomb, Virginie; Decsi, Tamas; Domellöf, Magnus; Fewtrell, Mary; Mis, Nataša Fidler; Mihatsch, Walter; Molgaard, Christian; van Goudoever, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic intake is likely to affect long-term health. High concentrations are found in some rice-based foods and drinks widely used in infants and young children. In order to reduce exposure, we recommend avoidance of rice drinks for infants and young children. For all of the rice products,

  9. Extent of oxidative mitogenesis does not correlate with the degree of aldehyde formation of the T lymphocyte membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roffman, E.; Wilchek, M.

    1986-07-01

    Chemical oxidation of T lymphocytes with periodate or the combined action of the enzymes neuraminidase and galactose oxidase (NAGO) results in T cell activation. The latter process includes the production of interleukin 2 (IL 2) and the induction of IL 2 receptors. Because membrane-bound aldehydes act in the transmission of the oxidative mitogenic signal, the authors designed a comparative study in human thymocytes and peripheral blood leukocytes in order to determine a possible correlation between the degree of the membrane aldehydes generated chemically or enzymatically and the extent of the resulting activation. The differences between periodate- and NAGO-induced aldehydes were demonstrated by flow cytometry of cells stained with a novel fluoresceinated hydraizde and by an electrophoretic procedure performed with biocytin hydrazide and /sup 125/I-streptavidin. In both cellular systems, periodate oxidation resulted in stronger formation of aldehydes than NAGO oxidation. However, the IL 2 receptor induced by NAGO formation and the resultant activation were significantly higher than those induced by periodate. The degree of aldehyde formation on peripheral blood leukocytes was also considerably higher than that of thymocytes, yet similar patterns of (/sup 3/H)thymidine uptake were observed in the mitogenic assays of both cellular systems. The data indicate that no correlation exists between the extent of aldehyde formation and the degree of oxidative mitogenesis. It is thus suggested that relatively few (or maybe only one) membrane-bound aldehyde-containing molecules act in the transmission of the oxidative mitogenic signal.

  10. Iron biofortification of Myanmar rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May Sann Aung

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Iron (Fe deficiency causes elevates human mortality rates, especially in developing countries. In Myanmar, the prevalence of Fe-deficient anemia in children and pregnant women are 75% and 71%, respectively. Myanmar people have one of the highest per capita rice consumption rates globally. Consequently, production of Fe-biofortified rice would likely contribute to solving the Fe-deficiency problem in this human population. To produce Fe-biofortified Myanmar rice by transgenic methods, we first analyzed callus induction and regeneration efficiencies in 15 varieties that are presently popular because of their high yields and/or qualities. Callus formation and regeneration efficiency in each variety was strongly influenced by types of culture media containing a range of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid concentrations. The Paw San Yin variety, which has a high Fe content in polished seeds, performed well in callus induction and regeneration trials. Thus, we transformed this variety using a gene expression cassette that enhanced Fe transport within rice plants through overexpression of the nicotianamine synthase gene HvNAS1, Fe flow to the endosperm through the Fe(II-nicotianamine transporter gene OsYSL2, and Fe accumulation in endosperm by the Fe storage protein gene SoyferH2. A line with a transgene insertion was successfully obtained. Enhanced expressions of the introduced genes OsYSL2, HvNAS1, and SoyferH2 occurred in immature T2 seeds. The transformants accumulated 3.4-fold higher Fe concentrations, and also 1.3-fold higher zinc concentrations in T2 polished seeds compared to levels in non-transgenic rice. This Fe-biofortified rice has the potential to reduce Fe-deficiency anemia in millions of Myanmar people without changing food habits and without introducing additional costs.

  11. Unveiling chemical defense in the rice stalk stink bug against the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Rodrigo Alves; Quintela, Eliane Dias; Mascarin, Gabriel Moura; Pedrini, Nicolás; Lião, Luciano Moraes; Ferri, Pedro Henrique

    2015-05-01

    Eggs, nymphs (1st-5th instar) and adults of Tibraca limbativentris were challenged by conidial suspensions of its major fungal pathogen Metarhizium anisopliae in order to assess their susceptibility. The role of chemical defensive compounds from exocrine secretions produced by both nymphs and adults were examined for their participation on M. anisopliae infection. Although insect susceptibility to M. anisopliae followed a dose-dependent manner, adults followed by older nymphs displayed the highest resistance. Eggs were highly susceptible showing >96% fungal infection. Crude extracts isolated from metathoracic scent gland and dorsal abdominal glands of adults and nymphs, respectively, showed fungistatic effects by impairing spore germination, vegetative growth and sporulation. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of these extracts revealed that the major components were short-chain hydrocarbons (C10-13) and unsaturated aldehydes. In vitro tests with the corresponding synthetic standards indicated compounds with greater antifungal activity including (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-octenal, and (E)-2-decenal, with the latter being the most deleterious to fungal fitness. We demonstrated that differential susceptibility of the rice stalk stink bug to M. anisopliae infection is age-specific and partly mediated by fungistatic properties of aldehydes, which are produced by scent glands of both nymphs and adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Objective evaluation of whiteness of cooked rice and rice cakes using a portable spectrophotometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Hajime; Asanome, Noriyuki; Suzuki, Keitaro; Sano, Tomoyoshi; Saito, Hiroshi; Abe, Yohei; Chuba, Masaru; Nishio, Takeshi

    2014-03-01

    The whiteness of cooked rice and rice cakes was evaluated using a portable spectrophotometer with a whiteness index (WI). Also, by using boiled rice for measurement of Mido values by Mido Meter, it was possible to infer the whiteness of cooked rice without rice cooking. In the analysis of varietal differences of cooked rice, 'Tsuyahime', 'Koshihikari' and 'Koshinokaori' showed high whiteness, while 'Satonoyuki' had inferior whiteness. The whiteness of rice cakes made from 'Koyukimochi' and 'Dewanomochi' was higher than the whiteness of those made from 'Himenomochi' and 'Koganemochi'. While there was a significant correlation (r = 0.84) between WI values and whiteness scores of cooked rice by the sensory test, no correlation was detected between the whiteness scores and Mido values, indicating that the values obtained by a spectrophotometer differ from those obtained by a Mido Meter. Thus, a spectrophotometer may be a novel device for measurement of rice eating quality.

  13. RiceAtlas, a spatial database of global rice calendars and production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laborte, Alice G; Gutierrez, Mary Anne; Balanza, Jane Girly; Saito, Kazuki; Zwart, Sander J; Boschetti, Mirco; Murty, M V R; Villano, Lorena; Aunario, Jorrel Khalil; Reinke, Russell; Koo, Jawoo; Hijmans, Robert J; Nelson, Andrew

    2017-05-30

    Knowing where, when, and how much rice is planted and harvested is crucial information for understanding the effects of policy, trade, and global and technological change on food security. We developed RiceAtlas, a spatial database on the seasonal distribution of the world's rice production. It consists of data on rice planting and harvesting dates by growing season and estimates of monthly production for all rice-producing countries. Sources used for planting and harvesting dates include global and regional databases, national publications, online reports, and expert knowledge. Monthly production data were estimated based on annual or seasonal production statistics, and planting and harvesting dates. RiceAtlas has 2,725 spatial units. Compared with available global crop calendars, RiceAtlas is nearly ten times more spatially detailed and has nearly seven times more spatial units, with at least two seasons of calendar data, making RiceAtlas the most comprehensive and detailed spatial database on rice calendar and production.

  14. The Glycemic Index of Rice and Rice Products: A Review, and Table of GI Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Bhupinder; Ranawana, Viren; Henry, Jeyakumar

    2016-01-01

    Rice is the principle staple and energy source for nearly half the world's population and therefore has significant nutrition and health implications. Rice is generally considered a high glycemic index (GI) food, however, this depends on varietal, compositional, processing, and accompaniment factors. Being a major contributor to the glycemic load in rice eating populations, there is increasing concern that the rising prevalence of insulin resistance is as a result of the consumption of large amounts of rice. Devising ways and means of reducing the glycemic impact of rice is therefore imperative. This review gathers studies examining the GI of rice and rice products and provides a critical overview of the current state of the art. A table collating published GI values for rice and rice products is also included.

  15. Weedy (red) rice: an emerging constraint to global rice production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ziska, L.H.; Gealy, D.R.; Burgos, N.; Caicedo, A.L.; Gressel, J.; Lawton-Rauh, A.L.; Avila, L.A.; Theisen, Giovani; Norsworthy, J.; Ferrero, A.; Vidotto, F.; Johnson, D.E.; Ferreira, F.G.; Marchesan, E.; Menezes, V.; Cohn, M.A.; Linscombe, S.; Carmona, L.; Tang, R.; Merotto, A.

    2015-01-01

    Ongoing increases in the human population necessitate that rice will continue to be a critical aspect of food security for the twenty-first century. While production must increase in the coming decades to meet demand, such increases will be accompanied by diminished natural resources and rising

  16. Can herbicide safeners allow selective control of weedy rice infesting rice crops?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busi, Roberto; Nguyen, Nghia K; Chauhan, Bhagirath S; Vidotto, Francesco; Tabacchi, Maurizio; Powles, Stephen B

    2017-01-01

    Rice is a major field crop of paramount importance for global food security. However, the increased adoption of more profitable and resource-efficient direct-seeded rice (DSR) systems has contributed to greater weed infestations, including weedy rice, which has become a severe problem in several Asian regions. In this study we have developed a conceptually novel method to protect rice plants at high doses of clomazone and triallate. The insecticide phorate applied to rice seeds provided a substantial level of protection against the herbicides clomazone or triallate. A quantity of 15 kg phorate ha(-1) significantly increased the LD50 values, which were more than twofold greater than for rice plants treated only with clomazone. A quantity of 20 kg phorate ha(-1) in combination with 2000 g triallate ha(-1) safened rice plants (80% survival) with LD50 >3.4-fold greater than in phorate-untreated rice. Weed control efficacy was not lowered by the presence of phorate-treated rice seeds. Weedy rice is one of the most damaging global weeds and a major threat to DSR systems. In this study we have developed a proof-of-concept method to allow selective weedy rice control in rice crops. We call for herbicide discovery programmes and research to identify candidate safener and herbicide combinations to achieve selective herbicide control of weedy rice and alleviate weed infestations in global rice crops. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. One-pot catalytic asymmetric borylation of unsaturated aldehyde-derived imines; functionalisation to homoallylic boronate carboxylate ester derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol, Alba; Calow, Adam D J; Batsanov, Andrei S; Whiting, Andrew

    2015-05-14

    The β-borylation reaction of α,β-unsaturated aldehyde-derived imines, formed in situ, has been studied using a one-pot methodology, as a route to β-boryl aldehydes. The instability of the β-boryl aldehydes meant that derivatisation was required and routes to both acetal derivatives and homoallylic boronates were examined. β-Boryl acetals were also found to be unstable, however, the formation of homoallylic boronate derivatives using an in situ imine hydrolysis-Wittig olefination protocol was found to be suitable, resulting in an efficient synthesis with high enantiomeric excesses.

  18. Easy access to aroma active unsaturated γ-lactones by addition of modified titanium homoenolate to aldehydes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frerot, Eric; Bagnoud, Alain

    2011-04-27

    The homo-Reformatsky reaction, in which a metal homoenolate of an ester is added to an aldehyde, was adapted to produce γ-lactones from unsaturated, enolizable aldehydes. By use of titanium homoenolate, 11 different γ-lactones were synthesized in one step with moderate to good yields from readily available aldehydes. In particular, this procedure allowed the rapid preparation of a series of C(12) unsaturated γ-lactones differing in the position and configuration of the double bond. These reference compounds will be used to identify previously unknown lactones in butter oil. The chromatographic, spectral, and sensory descriptions of the synthesized lactones are provided.

  19. Rice brans, rice bran oils, and rice hulls: composition, food and industrial uses, and bioactivities in humans, animals, and cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Mendel

    2013-11-13

    Rice plants produce bioactive rice brans and hulls that have been reported to have numerous health-promoting effects in cells, animals, and humans. The main objective of this review is to consolidate and integrate the widely scattered information on the composition and the antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and immunostimulating effects of rice brans from different rice cultivars, rice bran oils derived from rice brans, rice hulls, liquid rice hull smoke derived from rice hulls, and some of their bioactive compounds. As part of this effort, this paper also presents brief summaries on the preparation of health-promoting foods including bread, corn flakes, frankfurters, ice cream, noodles, pasta, tortillas, and zero-trans-fat shortening as well as industrial products such bioethanol and biodiesel fuels. Also covered are antibiotic, antiallergic, anticarcinogenic, antidiabetic, cardiovascular, allelochemical, and other beneficial effects and the mechanisms of the bioactivities. The results show that food-compatible and safe formulations with desirable nutritional and biological properties can be used to develop new multifunctional foods as well as bioethanol and biodiesel fuel. The overlapping aspects are expected to contribute to a better understanding of the potential impact of the described health-promoting potential of the rice-derived brans, oils, and hulls in food and medicine. Such an understanding will enhance nutrition and health and benefit the agricultural and industrial economies.

  20. Agriculture Education. Soybeans and Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuttgart Public Schools, AR.

    This curriculum guide is designed for group instruction of secondary students enrolled in one or two semester-long courses in agricultural education. The guide presents units of study in the following areas: (1) soybeans, (2) rice, and (3) orientation. Each of the 17 units of instruction follows a typical format: terminal objective, specific…

  1. Green Tea Polyphenols Decrease Strecker Aldehydes and Bind to Proteins in Lactose-Hydrolyzed UHT Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Therese; Rauh, Valentin; Danielsen, Bente P; Poojary, Mahesha M; Waehrens, Sandra S; Bredie, Wender L P; Sørensen, John; Petersen, Mikael A; Ray, Colin A; Lund, Marianne N

    2017-12-06

    The effect of epigallocatechin gallate enriched green tea extract (GTE) on flavor, Maillard reactions and protein modifications in lactose-hydrolyzed (LH) ultrahigh temperature (UHT) processed milk was examined during storage at 40 °C for up to 42 days. Addition of GTE inhibited the formation of Strecker aldehydes by up to 95% compared to control milk, and the effect was similar when GTE was added either before or after UHT treatment. Release of free amino acids, caused by proteolysis, during storage was also decreased in GTE-added milk either before or after UHT treatment compared to control milk. Binding of polyphenols to milk proteins was observed in both fresh and stored milk samples. The inhibition of Strecker aldehyde formation by GTE may be explained by two different mechanisms; inhibition of proteolysis during storage by GTE or binding of amino acids and proteins to the GTE polyphenols.

  2. Synthesis and Charaterization of Silica-Based Aldehyde Chitosan Hybrid Material for Biodiesel Purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Rodrigues da Silva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study concerns the development and charaterization of Silica-based aldehyde Chitosan hybrid material as an adsorbent for biodiesel purification. This biocomposite was prepared by sol-gel route and oxidation with periodate, and then characterized. FTIR experiments showed that the hybrid formed presents absorption bands similar to those of Chitosan-Silica, with the exception of the vibrations at 1480 cm−1 and 1570 cm−1 attributed to the symmetrical angular deformation in the N-H plane, and possess large N2 Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET surface areas. Thermogravimetric analysis (TG and scanning electron microscopy (SEM was also carried out. Adsorption studies of bioadsorbents involving the analysis of free glycerol, soap, acidity, diglycerides, triglycerides, and fluorescence spectroscopy showed that silica-based aldehyde chitosan has a good affinity for glycerol and a good purification process.

  3. Effects of herbal infusions, tea and carbonated beverages on alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sha; Gan, Li-Qin; Li, Shu-Ke; Zheng, Jie-Cong; Xu, Dong-Ping; Li, Hua-Bin

    2014-01-01

    Various alcoholic beverages containing different concentrations of ethanol are widely consumed, and excessive alcohol consumption may result in serious health problems. The consumption of alcoholic beverages is often accompanied by non-alcoholic beverages, such as herbal infusions, tea and carbonated beverages to relieve drunk symptoms. The aim of this study was to supply new information on the effects of these beverages on alcohol metabolism for nutritionists and the general public, in order to reduce problems associated with excessive alcohol consumption. The effects of 57 kinds of herbal infusions, tea and carbonated beverages on alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase activity were evaluated. Generally, the effects of these beverages on alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase activity are very different. The results suggested that some beverages should not be drank after excessive alcohol consumption, and several beverages may be potential dietary supplements for the prevention and treatment of problems related to excessive alcohol consumption.

  4. A Green Approach for Allylations of Aldehydes and Ketones: Combining Allylborate, Mechanochemistry and Lanthanide Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane P. de Souza

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Secondary and tertiary alcohols synthesized via allylation of aldehydes and ketones are important compounds in bioactive natural products and industry, including pharmaceuticals. Development of a mechanochemical method using potassium allyltrifluoroborate salt and water, to successfully perform the allylation of aromatic and aliphatic carbonyl compounds is reported for the first time. By controlling the grinding parameters, the methodology can be selective, namely, very efficient for aldehydes and ineffective for ketones, but by employing lanthanide catalysts, the reactions with ketones can become practically quantitative. The catalyzed reactions can also be performed under mild aqueous stirring conditions. Considering the allylation agent and its by-products, aqueous media, energy efficiency and use of catalyst, the methodology meets most of the green chemistry principles.

  5. Copper(I)/TEMPO Catalyzed Aerobic Oxidation of Primary Alcohols to Aldehydes with Ambient Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Jessica M.; Steves, Janelle E.; Stahl, Shannon S.

    2012-01-01

    This protocol describes a practical laboratory-scale method for aerobic oxidation of primary alcohols to aldehydes, using a chemoselective CuI/TEMPO catalyst system. The catalyst is prepared in situ from commercially available reagents, and the reactions are performed in a common organic solvent (acetonitrile) with ambient air as the oxidant. Three different reaction conditions and three procedures for the isolation and purification of the aldehyde product are presented. The oxidations of eight different alcohols, described here, include representative examples of each reaction condition and purification method. Reaction times vary from 20 min to 24 h, depending on the alcohol, while the purification methods each take about 2 h. The total time necessary for the complete protocol ranges from 3 – 26 h. PMID:22635108

  6. Synthesis and Charaterization of Silica-Based Aldehyde Chitosan Hybrid Material for Biodiesel Purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Sandra Rodrigues; de Albuquerque, Nilson J A; de Almeida, Rusiene M; de Abreu, Fabiane C

    2017-09-25

    This study concerns the development and charaterization of Silica-based aldehyde Chitosan hybrid material as an adsorbent for biodiesel purification. This biocomposite was prepared by sol-gel route and oxidation with periodate, and then characterized. FTIR experiments showed that the hybrid formed presents absorption bands similar to those of Chitosan-Silica, with the exception of the vibrations at 1480 cm-1 and 1570 cm-1 attributed to the symmetrical angular deformation in the N-H plane, and possess large N₂ Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface areas. Thermogravimetric analysis (TG) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was also carried out. Adsorption studies of bioadsorbents involving the analysis of free glycerol, soap, acidity, diglycerides, triglycerides, and fluorescence spectroscopy showed that silica-based aldehyde chitosan has a good affinity for glycerol and a good purification process.

  7. An Efficient Amide-Aldehyde-Alkene Condensation: Synthesis for the N-Allyl Amides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Zheng-Jun; Wang, Xi-Cun

    2016-02-01

    The allylamine skeleton represents a significant class of biologically active nitrogen compounds that are found in various natural products and drugs with well-recognized pharmacological properties. In this personal account, we will briefly discuss the synthesis of allylamine skeletons. We will focus on showing a general protocol for Lewis acid-catalyzed N-allylation of electron-poor N-heterocyclic amides and sulfonamide via an amide-aldehyde-alkene condensation reaction. The substrate scope with respect to N-heterocyclic amides, aldehydes, and alkenes will be discussed. This method is also capable of preparing the Naftifine motif from N-methyl-1-naphthamide or methyl (naphthalene-1-ylmethyl)carbamate, with paraformaldehyde and styrene in a one-pot manner. © 2016 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Mild and Efficient One Pot Synthesis of Imidazolinesand Benzimidazoles from Aldehydes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of some imidazolines and benzimidazoles were synthesizedfrom various aldehydes and 1,2-diamines in the presence of ceric(IVammonium nitrate (CAN. The title compounds were prepared via one stepsynthesis method. The simplicity of the reaction conditions with shorterreaction time and with out use of column chromatography to get the pureproducts in high yields makes this method more attractive for organic chemists.

  9. Aldehyde, Ketone and Methane Emissions from Motor Vehicle Exhaust: A Critical Review

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Sasi; Nayek, M.; A. Kumar; Tandon, A.; Mondal, P; Vijay, P.; Bhangale, U. D.; Tyagi, D.

    2011-01-01

    Recent data indicate that, in many countries, mobile sources are responsible for the largest portion of emissions of aldehydes, ketones and certain other air toxic pollutants. These air toxic pollutants along with methane are either carcinogenic or pose significant human health threat. These pollutants also add to global warming in a substantial way. This paper gives an overview of their properties, basic chemistry and conditions of formation in internal combustion engines. Again worldwide ma...

  10. Iridium-Catalyzed Allylation of Chiral β-Stereogenic Alcohols: Bypassing Discrete Formation of Epimerizable Aldehydes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Daniel C.; Dechert-Schmitt, Anne-Marie R.; Krische, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    The cyclometallated π-allyliridium 3,4-dinitro-C,O-benzoate complex modified by (R)- or (S)-Cl,MeO-BIPHEP promotes the transfer hydrogenative coupling of allyl acetate to β-stereogenic alcohols with good to excellent levels of catalyst-directed diastereoselectivity to furnish homoallylic alcohols. Remote electronic effects of the C,O-benzoate of the catalyst play a critical role in suppressing epimerization of the transient α-stereogenic aldehyde. PMID:23231774

  11. A modeling study of aldehyde inhibitors of human cathepsin K using partial least squares method

    OpenAIRE

    Shahlaei, M; Fassihi, A.; Saghaie, L; Arkan, E; Pourhossein, A

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative relationships between molecular structure of forty eight aldehyde compounds with their known Cathepsin K inhibitory effects were discovered by partial least squares (PLS) method. Evaluation of a test set of 10 compounds with the developed PLS model revealed that this model is reliable with a good predictability. Since the QSAR study was performed on the basis of theoretical descriptors calculated completely from the molecular structures, the proposed model could potentially provi...

  12. Aldehydes in Relation to Air Pollution Sources: A Case Study around the Beijing Olympics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altemose, Brent; Gong, Jicheng; Zhu, Tong; Hu, Min; Zhang, Liwen; Cheng, Hong; Zhang, Lin; Tong, Jian; Kipen, Howard M; Strickland, Pamela Ohman; Meng, Qingyu; Robson, Mark G; Zhang, Junfeng

    2015-05-01

    This study was carried out to characterize three aldehydes of health concern (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein) at a central Beijing site in the summer and early fall of 2008 (from June to October). Aldehydes in polluted atmospheres come from both primary and secondary sources, which limits the control strategies for these reactive compounds. Measurements were made before, during, and after the Beijing Olympics to examine whether the dramatic air pollution control measures implemented during the Olympics had an impact on concentrations of the three aldehydes and their underlying primary and secondary sources. Average concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein were 29.3±15.1 μg/m3, 27.1±15.7 μg/m3 and 2.3±1.0 μg/m3, respectively, for the entire period of measurements, all being at the high end of concentration ranges measured in cities around the world in photochemical smog seasons. Formaldehyde and acrolein increased during the pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic Games, followed the changing pattern of temperature, and were significantly correlated with ozone and with a secondary formation factor identified by principal component analysis (PCA). In contrast, acetaldehyde had a reduction in mean concentration during the Olympic air pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic period and was significantly correlated with several pollutants emitted from local emission sources (e.g., NO2, CO, and PM2.5). Acetaldehyde was also more strongly associated with primary emission sources including vegetative burning and oil combustion factors identified through the PCA. All three aldehydes were lower during the post-Olympic sampling period compared to the before and during Olympic periods, likely due to seasonal and regional effects. Our findings point to the complexity of source control strategies for secondary pollutants.

  13. Fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase multigene family involved in the assimilation of n-alkanes in Yarrowia lipolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwama, Ryo; Kobayashi, Satoshi; Ohta, Akinori; Horiuchi, Hiroyuki; Fukuda, Ryouichi

    2014-11-28

    In the n-alkane assimilating yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, n-alkanes are oxidized to fatty acids via fatty alcohols and fatty aldehydes, after which they are utilized as carbon sources. Here, we show that four genes (HFD1-HFD4) encoding fatty aldehyde dehydrogenases (FALDHs) are involved in the metabolism of n-alkanes in Y. lipolytica. A mutant, in which all of four HFD genes are deleted (Δhfd1-4 strain), could not grow on n-alkanes of 12-18 carbons; however, the expression of one of those HFD genes restored its growth on n-alkanes. Production of Hfd2Ap or Hfd2Bp, translation products of transcript variants generated from HFD2 by the absence or presence of splicing, also supported the growth of the Δhfd1-4 strain on n-alkanes. The FALDH activity in the extract of the wild-type strain was increased when cells were incubated in the presence of n-decane, whereas this elevation in FALDH activity by n-decane was not observed in Δhfd1-4 strain extract. Substantial FALDH activities were detected in the extracts of Escherichia coli cells expressing the HFD genes. Fluorescent microscopic observation suggests that Hfd3p and Hfd2Bp are localized predominantly in the peroxisome, whereas Hfd1p and Hfd2Ap are localized in both the endoplasmic reticulum and the peroxisome. These results suggest that the HFD multigene family is responsible for the oxidation of fatty aldehydes to fatty acids in the metabolism of n-alkanes, and raise the possibility that Hfd proteins have diversified by gene multiplication and RNA splicing to efficiently assimilate or detoxify fatty aldehydes in Y. lipolytica. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Enantioselective α-Vinylation of Aldehydes Via the Synergistic Combination of Copper and Amine Catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skucas, Eduardas; MacMillan, David W. C.

    2012-01-01

    The enantioselective α-vinylation of aldehydes using vinyl iodonium triflate salts has been accomplished via the synergistic combination of copper and chiral amine catalysis. These mild catalytic conditions provide a direct route for the enantioselective construction of enolizable α-formyl vinylic stereocenters without racemization or olefin transposition. These high-value coupling adducts are readily converted into a variety of useful olefin synthons. PMID:22616631

  15. Aldehydes in Relation to Air Pollution Sources: A Case Study around the Beijing Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altemose, Brent; Gong, Jicheng; Zhu, Tong; Hu, Min; Zhang, Liwen; Cheng, Hong; Zhang, Lin; Tong, Jian; Kipen, Howard M.; Strickland, Pamela Ohman; Meng, Qingyu; Robson, Mark G.; Zhang, Junfeng

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to characterize three aldehydes of health concern (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein) at a central Beijing site in the summer and early fall of 2008 (from June to October). Aldehydes in polluted atmospheres come from both primary and secondary sources, which limits the control strategies for these reactive compounds. Measurements were made before, during, and after the Beijing Olympics to examine whether the dramatic air pollution control measures implemented during the Olympics had an impact on concentrations of the three aldehydes and their underlying primary and secondary sources. Average concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein were 29.3±15.1 μg/m3, 27.1±15.7 μg/m3 and 2.3±1.0 μg/m3, respectively, for the entire period of measurements, all being at the high end of concentration ranges measured in cities around the world in photochemical smog seasons. Formaldehyde and acrolein increased during the pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic Games, followed the changing pattern of temperature, and were significantly correlated with ozone and with a secondary formation factor identified by principal component analysis (PCA). In contrast, acetaldehyde had a reduction in mean concentration during the Olympic air pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic period and was significantly correlated with several pollutants emitted from local emission sources (e.g., NO2, CO, and PM2.5). Acetaldehyde was also more strongly associated with primary emission sources including vegetative burning and oil combustion factors identified through the PCA. All three aldehydes were lower during the post-Olympic sampling period compared to the before and during Olympic periods, likely due to seasonal and regional effects. Our findings point to the complexity of source control strategies for secondary pollutants. PMID:25883528

  16. Synthesis and Charaterization of Silica-Based Aldehyde Chitosan Hybrid Material for Biodiesel Purification

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Rodrigues da Silva; de Albuquerque, Nilson J. A.; de Almeida, Rusiene M.; de Abreu, Fabiane C.

    2017-01-01

    This study concerns the development and charaterization of Silica-based aldehyde Chitosan hybrid material as an adsorbent for biodiesel purification. This biocomposite was prepared by sol-gel route and oxidation with periodate, and then characterized. FTIR experiments showed that the hybrid formed presents absorption bands similar to those of Chitosan-Silica, with the exception of the vibrations at 1480 cm−1 and 1570 cm−1 attributed to the symmetrical angular deformation in the N-H plane, and...

  17. Effects of aliphatic aldehydes on the growth and patulin production of Penicillium expansum in apple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Tomoyasu; Kozutsumi, Daisuke; Nakamura, Ruka; Sato, Yoshio; Ishihara, Atsushi; Nakajima, Hiromitsu

    2013-01-01

    The effects of 16 aliphatic aldehydes with 3-10 carbons on the growth and patulin production of Penicillium expansum were examined. When P. expansum spores were inoculated into apple juice broth, some alkenals, including 2-propenal, (E)-2-butenal, (E)-2-pentenal, and (E)-2-hexenal, inhibited fungal growth and patulin production. Their minimal inhibitory concentrations were 5, 50, 80, and 80 µg/mL respectively. Vital staining indicated that these alkenals killed mycelia within 4 h. Treatment of the spores with these aldehydes also resulted in rapid loss of germination ability, within 0.5-2 d. On the other hand, aliphatic aldehydes with 8-10 carbons significantly enhanced patulin production without affecting fungal growth: 300 µg/mL of octanal and 100 µg/mL of (E)-2-octenal increased the patulin concentrations in the culture broth by as much as 8.6- and 7.8-fold as compared to that of the control culture respectively. The expression of the genes involved in patulin biosynthesis in P. expansum was investigated in mycelia cultured in apple juice broth containing 300 µg/mL of octanal for 3.5, 5, and 7 d. Transcription of the msas gene, encoding 6-methylsalicylic acid synthase, which catalyzed the first step in the patulin biosynthetic pathway was remarkably high in the 3.5-d and 5-d-old cultures as compared with the control. However, octanal did not any increase the transcription of the msas in the 7-d-old culture or that of the other two genes, IDH and the peab1, in culture. Thus the enhanced patulin accumulation with supplementation with these aldehydes is attributable to the increased amount of the msas transcript.

  18. Aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 regulates nociception in rodent models of acute inflammatory pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambelli, Vanessa O; Gross, Eric R; Chen, Che-Hong; Gutierrez, Vanessa P; Cury, Yara; Mochly-Rosen, Daria

    2014-08-27

    Exogenous aldehydes can cause pain in animal models, suggesting that aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2), which metabolizes many aldehydes, may regulate nociception. To test this hypothesis, we generated a knock-in mouse with an inactivating point mutation in ALDH2 (ALDH2*2), which is also present in human ALDH2 of ~540 million East Asians. The ALDH2*1/*2 heterozygotic mice exhibited a larger response to painful stimuli than their wild-type littermates, and this heightened nociception was inhibited by an ALDH2-selective activator (Alda-1). No effect on inflammation per se was observed. Using a rat model, we then showed that nociception tightly correlated with ALDH activity (R(2) = 0.90) and that reduced nociception was associated with less early growth response protein 1 (EGR1) in the spinal cord and less reactive aldehyde accumulation at the insult site (including acetaldehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal). Further, acetaldehyde- and formalin-induced nociceptive behavior was greater in the ALDH2*1/*2 mice than in the wild-type mice. Finally, Alda-1 treatment was even beneficial when given after the inflammatory agent was administered. Our data in rodent models suggest that the mitochondrial enzyme ALDH2 regulates nociception and could serve as a molecular target for pain control, with ALDH2 activators, such as Alda-1, as potential non-narcotic, cardiac-safe analgesics. Furthermore, our results suggest a possible genetic basis for East Asians' apparent lower pain tolerance. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  19. Acrolein?an ?,?-Unsaturated Aldehyde: A Review of Oral Cavity Exposure and Oral Pathology Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Dror Aizenbud; Itay Aizenbud; Abraham Z. Reznick; Katia Avezov

    2016-01-01

    Acrolein is a highly reactive unsaturated aldehyde widely present in the environment, particularly as a product of tobacco smoke. Our previous studies indicated the adverse consequences of even short-term acrolein exposure and proposed a molecular mechanism of its potential harmful effect on oral cavity keratinocytic cells. In this paper we chose to review the broad spectrum of acrolein sources such as pollution, food, and smoking. Consequently, in this paper we consider a high level of oral ...

  20. Neurotrophic peptide aldehydes: Solid phase synthesis of fellutamide B and a simplified analog

    OpenAIRE

    Schneekloth, John S.; John L Sanders; Hines, John; Crews, Craig M.

    2006-01-01

    A combination of solid phase and solution phase synthetic methods have been used to complete the total synthesis of the neurotrophic lipopeptide aldehyde fellutamide B (2). The β-hydroxy aliphatic tail was prepared by regioselective reductive opening of a cyclic sulfate, and later coupled to a solid phase resin. The synthetic compound was then examined in cytotoxicity and nerve growth factor (NGF) induction assays. A simplified analog of fellutamide B also showed activity.

  1. Aldehydes in relation to air pollution sources: A case study around the Beijing Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altemose, Brent; Gong, Jicheng; Zhu, Tong; Hu, Min; Zhang, Liwen; Cheng, Hong; Zhang, Lin; Tong, Jian; Kipen, Howard M.; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Meng, Qingyu; Robson, Mark G.; Zhang, Junfeng

    2015-05-01

    This study was carried out to characterize three aldehydes of health concern (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein) at a central Beijing site in the summer and early fall of 2008 (from June to October). Aldehydes in polluted atmospheres come from both primary and secondary sources, which limits the control strategies for these reactive compounds. Measurements were made before, during, and after the Beijing Olympics to examine whether the dramatic air pollution control measures implemented during the Olympics had an impact on concentrations of the three aldehydes and their underlying primary and secondary sources. Average concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein were 29.3 ± 15.1 μg/m3, 27.1 ± 15.7 μg/m3 and 2.3 ± 1.0 μg/m3, respectively, for the entire period of measurements, all being at the high end of concentration ranges measured in cities around the world in photochemical smog seasons. Formaldehyde and acrolein increased during the pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic Games, followed the changing pattern of temperature, and were significantly correlated with ozone and with a secondary formation factor identified by principal component analysis (PCA). In contrast, acetaldehyde had a reduction in mean concentration during the Olympic air pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic period and was significantly correlated with several pollutants emitted from local emission sources (e.g., NO2, CO, and PM2.5). Acetaldehyde was also more strongly associated with primary emission sources including vegetative burning and oil combustion factors identified through the PCA. All three aldehydes were lower during the post-Olympic sampling period compared to the before and during Olympic periods, likely due to seasonal and regional effects. Our findings point to the complexity of source control strategies for secondary pollutants.

  2. Oxidative stress and the enzyme system of aldehyde catabolism in the muscle mitochondria of immobilized pubertal rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amjad Hamdallah

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work is to find out peculiarities in manifestation of oxidative stress and to determine activity of enzymes, responsible for utilization of endogenous aldehydes in the mitochondrial fraction of the skeletal (femoral muscle in pubertal rats during immobilization stress. Our study has shown that differently directed changes in the activity of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenases and aldehyde reductases occur in the pubertal immobilized rats, that limits the catabolism effectiveness as regards carbonyl products of free radical oxidation in the muscle cells. Corroboration of the effect under consideration is an increased level of protein free radical oxidation products in the mitochondria of the skeletal muscle. On the basis of the obtained data the authors draw a conclusion about an increased sensitivity of the skeletal muscle to the oxidative stress impact due to modulation in the state of enzyme system, responsible for utilization of endogenous aldehydes in the mitochondria.

  3. Determination of aldehydes in drinking water and river water by headspace GC/negative-ion chemical-ionization MS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Minako HADA; Masahiko TAKINO; Shigeki DAISHIMA

    2000-01-01

      A method for the analysis of 7 aldehydes in drinking water and river water was developed using an headspace sampler in combination with a GC/MS with negative-ion chemical ionization(NICI).A sample(15ml...

  4. Model Studies on the Effect of Aldehyde Structure on Their Selective Trapping by Phenolic Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Francisco J; Aguilar, Isabel; Zamora, Rosario

    2017-06-14

    The reaction among flavor-relevant saturated aldehydes (propanal, 2-methylpropanal, butanal, 2-methylbutanal, 3-methylbutanal, pentanal, hexanal, and glyoxal) and phenolic compounds (resorcinol, 2-methylresorcinol, 2,5-dimethylresorcinol, and orcinol) was studied both to identify and to characterize the formed carbonyl-phenol adducts and to understand the differences in the carbonyl-trapping abilities of phenolic compounds. The obtained results showed that carbonyl-trapping by phenolics is selective and that the formation of carbonyl-phenol adducts depends on the structures of both the phenol and aldehyde involved. In relation to the phenolic derivative, the presence of groups that increase the nucleophilicity of phenolic carbons will increase the carbonyl-trapping ability of these compounds. On the other hand, the presence of groups that increase the steric hindrance of these positions without affecting nucleophilicity will inhibit the reaction. Analogously, the presence of branching at position 2 of the aldehyde will also inhibit the reaction by steric hindrance. All of these results suggest that the addition of phenolics to foods may change food flavor not only because of their sensory properties but also because they can modify the ratio among food odorants by selective reaction of phenolics with determined carbonyl compounds.

  5. Aldehydes and sugars from evolved precometary ice analogs: importance of ices in astrochemical and prebiotic evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Marcellus, Pierre; Meinert, Cornelia; Myrgorodska, Iuliia; Nahon, Laurent; Buhse, Thomas; d'Hendecourt, Louis Le Sergeant; Meierhenrich, Uwe J

    2015-01-27

    Evolved interstellar ices observed in dense protostellar molecular clouds may arguably be considered as part of precometary materials that will later fall on primitive telluric planets, bringing a wealth of complex organic compounds. In our laboratory, experiments reproducing the photo/thermochemical evolution of these ices are routinely performed. Following previous amino acid identifications in the resulting room temperature organic residues, we have searched for a different family of molecules of potential prebiotic interest. Using multidimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry, we have detected 10 aldehydes, including the sugar-related glycolaldehyde and glyceraldehyde--two species considered as key prebiotic intermediates in the first steps toward the synthesis of ribonucleotides in a planetary environment. The presence of ammonia in water and methanol ice mixtures appears essential for the recovery of these aldehydes in the refractory organic residue at room temperature, although these products are free of nitrogen. We finally point out the importance of detecting aldehydes and sugars in extraterrestrial environments, in the gas phase of hot molecular clouds, and, more importantly, in comets and in primitive meteorites that have most probably seeded the Earth with organic material as early as 4.2 billion years ago.

  6. Efficient and Highly Selective Solvent-Free Oxidation of Primary Alcohols to Aldehydes Using Bucky Nanodiamond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yangming; Wu, Kuang-Hsu Tim; Yu, Linhui; Heumann, Saskia; Su, Dang Sheng

    2017-09-11

    Selective oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes is widely applicable to the synthesis of various green chemicals. The poor chemoselectivity for complicated primary aldehydes over state-of-the-art metal-free or metal-based catalysts represents a major obstacle for industrial application. Bucky nanodiamond is a potential green catalyst that exhibits excellent chemoselectivity and cycling stability for the selective oxidation of primary alcohols in diverse structures (22 examples, including aromatic, substituted aromatic, unsaturated, heterocyclic, and linear chain alcohols) to their corresponding aldehydes. The results are comparable to reported transition-metal catalysts including conventional Pt/C and Ru/C catalysts for certain substrates under solvent-free conditions. The possible activation process of the oxidant and substrates by the surface oxygen groups and defect species are revealed with model catalysts, ex situ electrochemical measurements, and ex situ attenuated total reflectance. The zigzag edges of sp(2) carbon planes are shown to play a key role in these reactions. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Drude polarizable force field for aliphatic ketones and aldehydes, and their associated acyclic carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Meagan C.; Aytenfisu, Asaminew H.; Lin, Fang-Yu; He, Xibing; MacKerell, Alexander D.

    2017-04-01

    The majority of computer simulations exploring biomolecular function employ Class I additive force fields (FF), which do not treat polarization explicitly. Accordingly, much effort has been made into developing models that go beyond the additive approximation. Development and optimization of the Drude polarizable FF has yielded parameters for selected lipids, proteins, DNA and a limited number of carbohydrates. The work presented here details parametrization of aliphatic aldehydes and ketones (viz. acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, butaryaldehyde, isobutaryaldehyde, acetone, and butanone) as well as their associated acyclic sugars ( d-allose and d-psicose). LJ parameters are optimized targeting experimental heats of vaporization and molecular volumes, while the electrostatic parameters are optimized targeting QM water interactions, dipole moments, and molecular polarizabilities. Bonded parameters are targeted to both QM and crystal survey values, with the models for ketones and aldehydes shown to be in good agreement with QM and experimental target data. The reported heats of vaporization and molecular volumes represent a compromise between the studied model compounds. Simulations of the model compounds show an increase in the magnitude and the fluctuations of the dipole moments in moving from gas phase to condensed phases, which is a phenomenon that the additive FF is intrinsically unable to reproduce. The result is a polarizable model for aliphatic ketones and aldehydes including the acyclic sugars d-allose and d-psicose, thereby extending the available biomolecules in the Drude polarizable FF.

  8. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements for determination of derivatized aldehydes in several matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Boumya

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A simple, selective and sensitive electrochemical method is described for the determination of different aldehydes at glassy carbon electrode using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. The measurements were performed after their derivatization with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH in acidic medium. The impedance measurements were investigated in the frequency range from 100 mHz to 100 kHz at a potential of 1.0 V versus Ag/AgCl. The Nyquist plots were modeled with a Randle’s equivalent circuit. The charge transfer resistance was identified as the dependent parameter on relevant concentration of aldehydes (determined as their hydrazones. Under the optimized conditions, the linearity was established over the concentration range of 1000–0.05 μmol L−1. The limits of detection (LODs obtained were from 0.097 to 0.0109 μmol L−1. Finally, the developed method has been applied to the determination of aldehydes in drinking water, orange juice and apple vinegar samples with relative standard deviations (RSDs < 3.1% and acceptable recovery rate (around of 80%. Keyword: Food analysis

  9. Purification and Properties of an NADPH-Aldose Reductase (Aldehyde Reductase) from Euonymus japonica Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negm, Fayek B.

    1986-01-01

    The enzyme aldose (aldehyde) reductase was partially purified (142-fold) and characterized from Euonymus japonica leaves. The reductase, a dimer, had an average molecular weight of 67,000 as determined by gel filtration on Sephadex G-100. The enzyme was NADPH specific and reduced a broad range of substrates including aldoses, aliphatic aldehydes, and aromatic aldehydes. Maximum activity was observed at pH 8 in phosphate and Tris-HCl buffers and at pH 8.6 to 9.0 in glycine-NaOH buffer using dl-glyceraldehyde or 3-pyridinecarboxaldehyde as substrate. NADP was a competitive inhibitor with respect to NADPH with a Ki of 60 micromolar. Glycerol was an uncompetitive inhibitor to dl-glyceraldehyde (K′i = 460 millimolar). The Euonymus enzyme was inhibited by sulfhydryl inhibitor, phenobarbital, and high concentrations of Li2SO4. Pyrazol and metal chelating agents inhibited the enzyme slightly. Enzyme activity was detected in the leaves and berries of Celastrus orbiculatus and several species of Euonymus. Probable function of this enzyme is to reduce d-galactose to galactitol, a characteristic metabolite in phloem sap of members of the Celastraceae family. Images Fig. 1 PMID:16664750

  10. Identification and characterization of aldehyde oxidases (AOXs) in the cotton bollworm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei; Liao, Yalin

    2017-12-01

    Aldehyde oxidases (AOXs) are a family of metabolic enzymes that oxidize aldehydes into carboxylic acids; therefore, they play critical roles in detoxification and degradation of chemicals. By using transcriptomic and genomic approaches, we successfully identified six putative AOX genes (HarmAOX1-6) from cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). In silico expression profile, reverse transcription (RT)-PCR, and quantitative PCR (qPCR) analyses showed that HarmAOX1 is highly expressed in adult antennae, tarsi, and larval mouthparts, so they may play an important role in degrading plant-derived compounds. HarmAOX2 is highly and specifically expressed in adult antennae, suggesting a candidate pheromone-degrading enzyme (PDE) to inactivate the sex pheromone components (Z)-11-hexadecenal and (Z)-9-hexadecenal. RNA sequencing data further demonstrated that a number of host plants they feed on could significantly upregulate the expression levels of HarmAOX1 in larvae. This study improves our understanding of insect aldehyde oxidases and insect-plant interactions.

  11. Enhancing the reaction rates of Morita-Baylis-Hillman reaction in heterocyclic aldehydes by substitutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunnikuruvan, Sooraj; Batra, Sanjay; Nair, Nisanth N

    2012-11-12

    The molecular origin of the experimentally observed pronounced difference in the rates of Morita-Baylis-Hillman (MBH) reaction in heterocyclic aldehydes, depending on the position of the formyl group, is investigated herein by using DFT-based mechanistic studies and free energy computations. These calculations are based on the 1,4-diazobicyclo[2.2.2]octane (DABCO)-catalyzed MBH reaction of methyl acrylate with substituted 4- and 5-isoxazolecarbaldehyde, which are slow- and fast-reacting substrates, respectively. As a result of this study, we propose that by tailoring ring substitutions the reactivity of the formyl group for MBH reactions may be enhanced in slow-reacting heterocyclic aldehydes. This proposition is demonstrated by enhancing the rate of the MBH reaction in 4-isoxazolecarbaldehyde more than 10(4) -fold by installing an ester substitution at the C-3 position. Similarly, the reactivity of the formyl group towards the MBH reaction in substituted 3-pyrazolecarbaldehyde and pyridinecarbaldehyde is shown to be increased several-fold by a halo substitution. We also confirm that the reasons for different reactivities of heterocyclic aldehydes and the proposed scheme for improving the reaction rates remains valid for all the three mechanisms proposed for the MBH reaction, namely, Hill-Isaacs, McQuade, and Aggarwal. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. NMR characterization of hydrate and aldehyde forms of imidazole-2-carboxaldehyde and derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázaro Martínez, Juan Manuel; Romasanta, Pablo Nicolás; Chattah, Ana Karina; Buldain, Graciela Yolanda

    2010-05-21

    The existence and stability of the aldehyde-hydrate form of imidazole-2-carboxaldehyde (4) were studied using FTIR together with solution- and solid-state NMR experiments. The results allowed us to conclude that the hydrate form was stable and precipitated at pH = 8.0 and that the aldehyde form was isolated at pH = 6.5 and 9.5. Moreover, the presence of the aldehyde-hydrate form was studied through NMR experiments in D(2)O at both alkaline and acidic pH. In addition, the tautomeric forms of the 2-substituted imidazole compounds were also analyzed to investigate the influence of the hybridization on the carbon adjacent to the imidazole ring, by (13)C NMR in DMSO-d(6), acetone-d(6), and CDCl(3). The presence of the syn- and anti-isomers of oxime 8 obtained from 4 were characterized by solid-state NMR and variable-temperature NMR experiments in acetone-d(6).

  13. Hydrazide and hydrazine reagents as reactive matrices for MALDI-MS to detect gaseous aldehydes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeri, Yasushi; Ikeda, Shinya; Yasuda, Akikazu; Ando, Masanori; Sato, Hiroaki; Kinumi, Tomoya

    2014-08-01

    The reagents 19 hydrazide and 14 hydrazine were examined to function as reactive matrices for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) to detect gaseous aldehydes. Among them, two hydrazide (2-hydroxybenzohydrazide and 3-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid hydrazide) and two hydrazine reagents [2-hydrazinoquinoline and 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH)] were found to react efficiently with carbonyl groups of gaseous aldehydes (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and propionaldehyde); these are the main factors for sick building syndrome and operate as reactive matrices for MALDI-MS. Results from accurate mass measurements by JMS-S3000 Spiral-TOF suggested that protonated ion peaks corresponding to [M + H](+) from the resulting derivatives were observed in all cases with the gaseous aldehydes in an incubation, time-dependent manner. The two hydrazide and two hydrazine reagents all possessed absorbances at 337 nm (wavelength of MALDI nitrogen laser), with, significant electrical conductivity of the matrix crystal and functional groups, such as hydroxy group and amino group, being important for desorption/ionization efficiency in MALDI-MS. To our knowledge, this is the first report that gaseous molecules could be derivatized and detected directly in a single step by MALDI-MS using novel reactive matrices that were derivatizing agents with the ability to enhance desorption/ionization efficiency. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. A comparative study of competitiveness between different genotypes of weedy rice (Oryza sativa) and cultivated rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Lei; Dai, Weimin; Song, Xiaoling; Lu, Baorong; Qiang, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Competition from weedy rice can cause serious yield losses to cultivated rice. However, key traits that facilitate competitiveness are still not well understood. To explore the mechanisms behind the strong growth and competitive ability, replacement series experiments were established with six genotypes of weedy rice from different regions and one cultivated rice cultivar. (1) Weedy rice from southern China had the greatest impact on growth and yield of cultivated rice throughout the entire growing season. Weedy rice from the northeast was very competitive during the early vegetative stage while the competitive effects of eastern weedy rice were more detrimental at later crop-growth stages. (2) As the proportion of weedy rice increased, plant height, tillers, above-ground biomass, and yield of cultivated rice significantly declined; the crop always being at disadvantage regardless of proportion. (3) Weedy biotypes with greater diversity as estimated by their Shannon indexes were more detrimental to the growth and yield of cultivated rice. Geographic origin (latitude) of weedy rice biotype, its mixture proportion under competition with the crop and its genetic diversity are determinant factors of the outcome of competition and the associated decline in the rice crop yield. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Differential Proteomic Analysis Using iTRAQ Reveals Alterations in Hull Development in Rice (Oryza sativa L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuzhen Wang

    Full Text Available Rice hull, the outer cover of the rice grain, determines grain shape and size. Changes in the rice hull proteome in different growth stages may reflect the underlying mechanisms involved in grain development. To better understand these changes, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitative (iTRAQ MS/MS was used to detect statistically significant changes in the rice hull proteome in the booting, flowering, and milk-ripe growth stages. Differentially expressed proteins were analyzed to predict their potential functions during development. Gene ontology (GO terms and pathways were used to evaluate the biological mechanisms involved in rice hull at the three growth stages. In total, 5,268 proteins were detected and characterized, of which 563 were differentially expressed across the development stages. The results showed that the flowering and milk-ripe stage proteomes were more similar to each other (r=0.61 than either was to the booting stage proteome. A GO enrichment analysis of the differentially expressed proteins was used to predict their roles during rice hull development. The potential functions of 25 significantly differentially expressed proteins were used to evaluate their possible roles at various growth stages. Among these proteins, an unannotated protein (Q7X8A1 was found to be overexpressed especially in the flowering stage, while a putative uncharacterized protein (B8BF94 and an aldehyde dehydrogenase (Q9FPK6 were overexpressed only in the milk-ripe stage. Pathways regulated by differentially expressed proteins were also analyzed. Magnesium-protoporphyrin IX monomethyl ester [oxidative] cyclase (Q9SDJ2, and two magnesium-chelatase subunits, ChlD (Q6ATS0, and ChlI (Q53RM0, were associated with chlorophyll biosynthesis at different developmental stages. The expression of Q9SDJ2 in the flowering and milk-ripe stages was validated by qRT-PCR. The 25 candidate proteins may be pivotal markers for controlling rice hull development

  16. Rice production in relation to soil quality under different rice-based cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran Ba, Linh; Sleutel, Steven; Nguyen Van, Qui; Thi, Guong Vo; Le Van, Khoa; Cornelis, Wim

    2016-04-01

    Soil quality of shallow paddy soils may be improved by introducing upland crops and thus a more diverse crop cultivation pattern. Yet, the causal relationship between crop performance and enhanced soil traits in rice-upland crop rotations remains elusive. The objectives of this study were to (i) find correlations among soil properties under different rice-upland crop systems and link selected soil properties to rice growth and yield, (ii) present appropriate values of soil parameters for sustainable rice productivity in heavy clay soil, (iii) evaluate the effect of rotating rice with upland crops on rice yield and economic benefit in a long-term experiment. A rice-upland crop rotational field experiment in the Vietnamese Mekong delta was conducted for 10 years using a randomized complete block design with four treatments and four replications. Treatments were: (i) rice-rice-rice (control - conventional system as farmers' practice), (ii) rice-maize-rice, (iii) rice-mung bean-rice, and (iv) rice-mung bean-maize. Soil and plant sampling were performed after harvest of the rice crop at the end of the final winter-spring cropping season (i.e. year 10). Results show differences in rice growth and yield, and economic benefit as an effect of the crop rotation system. These differences were linked with changes in bulk density, soil porosity, soil aggregate stability index, soil penetration resistance, soil macro-porosity, soil organic carbon, acid hydrolysable soil C and soil nutrient elements, especially at soil depth of 20-30 cm. This is evidenced by the strong correlation (P < 0.01) between rice plant parameters, rice yield and soil properties such as bulk density, porosity, penetration resistance, soil organic carbon and Chydrolysable. It turned out that good rice root growth and rice yield corresponded to bulk density values lower than 1.3 Mg m-3, soil porosity higher than 50%, penetration resistance below 1.0 MPa, and soil organic carbon above 25 g kg-1. The optimal

  17. A unified approach for the synthesis of symmetrical and unsymmetrical dibenzyl ethers from aryl aldehydes through reductive etherification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sembian Ruso

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe a simple and convenient conversion of aryl aldehydes to symmetrical dibenzyl ethers through reductive etherification. Similarly, unsymmetrical dibenzyl ether was obtained from aryl aldehyde and TES-protected benzyl alcohol. Triethyl silane with catalytic amount of InCl3 was found to be an efficient condition for the reductive etherification. Moreover, it exhibits remarkable functional group compatibility with yield ranging from good to excellent.

  18. Reaction of azides and enolisable aldehydes under the catalysis of organic bases and Cinchona based quaternary ammonium salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destro, Dario; Sanchez, Sandra; Cortigiani, Mauro; Adamo, Mauro F A

    2017-06-21

    Herein we report a two-step sequence for the preparation of amides starting from azides and enolisable aldehydes. The reaction proceeded via the formation of triazoline intermediates that were converted into amides via Lewis acid catalysis. Preliminary studies on the preparation of triazolines under chiral phase transfer catalysis are also presented, demonstrating that enantioenriched amides could be prepared from achiral aldehydes in moderate to low enantioselectivity.

  19. Stable isotope labeling-solid phase extraction-mass spectrometry analysis for profiling of thiols and aldehydes in beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shu-Jian; Wang, Ya-Lan; Liu, Ping; Zhang, Zheng; Yu, Lei; Yuan, Bi-Feng; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2017-12-15

    In this study, we developed a strategy for profiling of thiols and aldehydes in beer samples by stable isotope labeling-solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography-double precursor ion scan/double neutral loss scan-mass spectrometry analysis (SIL-SPE-LC-DPIS/DNLS-MS). A pair of isotope reagents (ω-bromoacetonylquinolinium bromide, BQB; ω-bromoacetonylquinolinium-d7 bromide, BQB-d7) were used to label thiols; while for the aldehydes, a pair of isotope reagents (4-(2-(trimethylammonio) ethoxy) benzenaminium halide, 4-APC; 4-(2-(trimethylammonio) ethoxy) benzenaminium halide-d4, 4-APC-d4) were used. The labeled thiols and aldehydes were extracted and purified with solid-phase extraction, respectively, followed by LC-MS analysis. Using the proposed SIL-SPE-LC-DPIS/DNLS-MS methods, 76 thiol and 25 aldehyde candidates were found in beer. Furthermore, we established SIL-SPE-LC-MRM-MS methods for the relative quantitation of thiols and aldehydes in different beer samples. The results showed that the contents of thiols and aldehydes are closely related to the brands and origins of beers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Tier I Rice Model - Version 1.0 - Guidance for Estimating Pesticide Concentrations in Rice Paddies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes a Tier I Rice Model (Version 1.0) for estimating surface water exposure from the use of pesticides in rice paddies. The concentration calculated can be used for aquatic ecological risk and drinking water exposure assessments.

  1. Distinct roles of jasmonates and aldehydes in plant-defense responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Wassim Chehab

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many inducible plant-defense responses are activated by jasmonates (JAs, C(6-aldehydes, and their corresponding derivatives, produced by the two main competing branches of the oxylipin pathway, the allene oxide synthase (AOS and hydroperoxide lyase (HPL branches, respectively. In addition to competition for substrates, these branch-pathway-derived metabolites have substantial overlap in regulation of gene expression. Past experiments to define the role of C(6-aldehydes in plant defense responses were biased towards the exogenous application of the synthetic metabolites or the use of genetic manipulation of HPL expression levels in plant genotypes with intact ability to produce the competing AOS-derived metabolites. To uncouple the roles of the C(6-aldehydes and jasmonates in mediating direct and indirect plant-defense responses, we generated Arabidopsis genotypes lacking either one or both of these metabolites. These genotypes were subsequently challenged with a phloem-feeding insect (aphids: Myzus persicae, an insect herbivore (leafminers: Liriomyza trifolii, and two different necrotrophic fungal pathogens (Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria brassicicola. We also characterized the volatiles emitted by these plants upon aphid infestation or mechanical wounding and identified hexenyl acetate as the predominant compound in these volatile blends. Subsequently, we examined the signaling role of this compound in attracting the parasitoid wasp (Aphidius colemani, a natural enemy of aphids. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study conclusively establishes that jasmonates and C(6-aldehydes play distinct roles in plant defense responses. The jasmonates are indispensable metabolites in mediating the activation of direct plant-defense responses, whereas the C(6-aldehyes are not. On the other hand, hexenyl acetate, an acetylated C(6-aldehyde, is the predominant wound-inducible volatile signal that mediates indirect defense responses by directing tritrophic

  2. The TIGR Rice Genome Annotation Resource: improvements and new features

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ouyang, Shu; Zhu, Wei; Hamilton, John; Lin, Haining; Campbell, Matthew; Childs, Kevin; Thibaud-Nissen, Françoise; Malek, Renae L; Lee, Yuandan; Zheng, Li; Orvis, Joshua; Haas, Brian; Wortman, Jennifer; Buell, C Robin

    2007-01-01

    In The Institute for Genomic Research Rice Genome Annotation project (http://rice.tigr.org), we have continued to update the rice genome sequence with new data and improve the quality of the annotation...

  3. The role of momilactones in rice allelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Peters, Reuben J

    2013-02-01

    Large field screening programs and laboratory experiments in many countries have indicated that rice is allelopathic and releases allelochemical(s) into its environment. A number of compounds, such as phenolic acids, fatty acids, phenylalkanoic acids, hydroxamic acids, terpenes, and indoles, have been identified as potential rice allelochemicals. However, the studies reviewed here demonstrate that the labdane-related diterpenoid momilactones are the most important, with momilactone B playing a particularly critical role. Rice plants secrete momilactone B from their roots into the neighboring environments over their entire life cycle at phytotoxic levels, and momilactone B seems to account for the majority of the observed rice allelopathy. In addition, genetic studies have shown that selective removal of the momilactones only from the complex mixture found in rice root exudates significantly reduces allelopathy, demonstrating that these serve as allelochemicals, the importance of which is reflected in the presence of a dedicated momilactone biosynthetic gene cluster in the rice genome.

  4. Novel transgenic rice-based vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azegami, Tatsuhiko; Itoh, Hiroshi; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Yuki, Yoshikazu

    2015-04-01

    Oral vaccination can induce both systemic and mucosal antigen-specific immune responses. To control rampant mucosal infectious diseases, the development of new effective oral vaccines is needed. Plant-based vaccines are new candidates for oral vaccines, and have some advantages over the traditional vaccines in cost, safety, and scalability. Rice seeds are attractive for vaccine production because of their stability and resistance to digestion in the stomach. The efficacy of some rice-based vaccines for infectious, autoimmune, and other diseases has been already demonstrated in animal models. We reported the efficacy in mice, safety, and stability of a rice-based cholera toxin B subunit vaccine called MucoRice-CTB. To advance MucoRice-CTB for use in humans, we also examined its efficacy and safety in primates. The potential of transgenic rice production as a new mucosal vaccine delivery system is reviewed from the perspective of future development of effective oral vaccines.

  5. Analysis and comparison of fragrant gene sequence in some rice cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karami Noushafarin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is known that the fragrant trait in rice (Oryza sativa L. is largely controlled by fgr gene on chromosome 8 and it has been specified that the existence of an 8 bp deletion and three single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP in exon 7 is effective on this trait. In this study, sequence alignment analysis of fgr exon7 on chromosome 8 for 11 different fragrant and non-fragrant cultivars revealed that 5 aromatic rice cultivars carried 3 SNPs and 8 bp deletion in exon7 which terminates prematurely at a TAA stop codon. However, 5 of the non-aromatics showed a sequence identical to the published Nipponbare, being non-fragrant Japonica variety sequence. An exception among them was Bejar, which had 8 bp deletion and 3SNPs but it was non-aromatic. Sequencing can determine nucleotide alignment of a gene and give beneficial information about gene function. In silico prediction showed proteins sequences alignment of fgr gene for Khazar and Domsiah genotypes were different. Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase complete enzyme belongs to Khazar non-fragrant genotype that has complete length and 503 amino acids while non-functional BADH2 enzyme for Domsiah fragrant genotype has 251 amino acids that result in accumulate 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP and produces aroma in fragrant genotypes.

  6. DETERMINATION OF SPATIAL INTEGRATION AND SUBSTITUTION OF FOREIGN RICE FOR LOCAL RICE IN GHANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Kofi ADOM

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study tested for spatial integration in the rice market and the substitution of imported rice for local rice in Ghana. It is established that the markets for domestic imported rice are well-integrated, but not complete. The imperfect spatial integration of domestic foreign rice markets implies that the market provides opportunities for arbitrage. Price leadership roles are found to be determined by the kind of sub-inter-regional-trade network defined. However, in all, the Accra market emerged as a dominant market leader in the domestic foreign rice market. There is evidence of significant regional substitution of foreign rice for local rice in the long run, but the result is mixed in the short run. The result that local rice is not a perfect substitute for imported rice implies that price disincentive measures such as increasing the import tariffs on foreign rice will only produce a mild effect on increasing the producer price faced by local rice farmers, but aggravate the burden on households’ budget.

  7. Relative competitive ability of rice with strawhull and blackhull red rice biotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed interference depends largely upon the species composition of the weed community and an ability to compete with the cultured crop. Weedy red rice is a major weed pest of rice in the southern U.S. The focus of this study was to evaluate the competitive ability of rice against common, genetically ...

  8. Characterizing irrigation water requirements for rice production from the Arkansas Rice Research Verification Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated rice irrigation water use in the University of Arkansas Rice Research Verification Program between the years of 2003 and 2011. Irrigation water use averaged 747 mm (29.4 inches) over the nine years. A significant 40% water savings was reported for rice grown under a zero gr...

  9. Reaction of rice cultivars to a virulent Rice Yellow Mottle Virus strain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    has long been an important food staple for many traditional rice growing communities. Key developments in efforts to improve rice ... Appropriate sources of resistance to RYMV should be identified and characterised in order to pyramid genes for both complete and partial resistance. In this study, reaction of nine (9) rice ...

  10. RiceAtlas, a spatial database of global rice calendars and production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laborte, Alice G.; Gutierrez, Mary Anne; Balanza, Jane Girly; Saito, Kazuki; Zwart, Sander J.; Boschetti, Mirco; Murty, M. V.R.; Villano, Lorena; Aunario, Jorrel Khalil; Reinke, Russell; Koo, Jawoo; Hijmans, Robert J.; Nelson, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Knowing where, when, and how much rice is planted and harvested is crucial information for understanding the effects of policy, trade, and global and technological change on food security. We developed RiceAtlas, a spatial database on the seasonal distribution of the world's rice production. It

  11. Effect of volunteer rice infestation on grain quality and yield of rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volunteer rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants arise from shattered seeds of the previous crop, which could reduce the yield of cultivated rice and the commercial value of harvested grain. Volunteer rice plants from a cultivar other than the current crop produce grains that may differ in physico-chemical t...

  12. Influences of aldehyde type and p-substituent type on structural characteristics of p-alkylphenol aldehyde resins using a molecular simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Sung Seen [Kumho Research and Development Center, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-01

    Structural characteristics of isotactic p-alkylphenol acetaldehyde novolak resins with methyl, t-butyl, and t-octyl as the p-substituent and p-t-butylphenol novolak resins with methylene, ethylidene, and propylidene as the linkage were calculated using molecular mechanics and molecular dynamics. The five p-alkylphenol aldehyde resins were found to have common structural characteristics that hydroxyl groups of the p-alkylphenols cluster in the center of the molecule by intramolecular hydrogen bonds of hydroxyl groups of the adjacent p-alkylphenols and the alkyl groups are extended out. Distances between oxygen atoms and between p-carbon atoms of the adjacent p-alkylphenols become longer as the size of the p-substituent increases from methyl to toctyl. Bond angles of the linkage built between the adjacent p-alkylphenols become wider by increasing the p-substituent size and by decreasing the linkage size.

  13. Mycotoxin Contamination of Rice in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiang Dong; Su, Ping; Shan, Hong

    2017-03-01

    Mycotoxin contamination in rice is generally lower than in other cereals such as corn or wheat. However, over 65% of the population in China consumes rice as a staple food. Due to the diversity of the climate across China, the southern region is characterized by high temperatures and humidities, especially in rainy season. Such conditions are optimal for the growth of fungi. The accumulative and transferrable characteristics of fungi mycotoxins pose a great potential threat as confirmed by high incidences of liver cancer in the Yangtze delta region. Major mycotoxins identified in China are aflatoxins and ochratoxin A, as well as fumonisins. The contents of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ) in rice are varied among different provinces and regions and generally less than 5 μg/kg. Although high incidences of positive aflatoxins samples have widely been detected, few samples were detected as exceeding the national's maximum residue limit (10 μg/kg). Limited information is available on risk assessment of human health hazards of mycotoxins in rice, children should be paid more attention to due to their having the highest mycotoxins exposure level, although the risks are generally at low levels from rice. Mycotoxins are mainly distributed in the outer layer of the paddy rice (also called rough rice, referring to whole rice grain with the hulls), and the AFB1 content in bran is 8.4 times greater than that in brown rice (hulled rice). Further investigation should focus on isolation and identification of mycotoxins-producing fungal strains, especially unknown mycotoxigenic fungal strains determination. Infection resistant rice breeding of mycotoxigenic fungal species may be a fundamental approach to guaranteeing rice safety in China. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  14. Guyana Rice Supply Chain Risk Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    This report is the outcome of assessment and is intended as an advisory note to the Ministry of Agriculture (MoA) and Guyana Rice Development Board (GRDB) to enable them to identify a strategy and potential public investments to improve current risk-management practices in the rice supply chain. This report identifies the major risks facing the rice supply chain, ranks them in terms of the...

  15. Cropping system diversification for food production in Mindanao rubber plantations: a rice cultivar mixture and rice intercropped with mungbean

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rosa Fe Hondrade; Edwin Hondrade; Lianqing Zheng; Francisco Elazegui; Jo-Anne Lynne Joy E Duque; Christopher C Mundt; Casiana M Vera Cruz; Karen A Garrett

    2017-01-01

    .... We evaluated the potential for planting rice, mungbean, rice cultivar mixtures, and rice intercropped with mungbean in young rubber plantations in experiments in the Arakan Valley of Mindanao in the Philippines...

  16. Study of rice. gamma. -irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lien, J.J.; Chau, R.S.; Chen, S.C.; Chu, S.L.; Fu, Y.K.; Fang, C.K.; Fu, Y.H.

    1981-03-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to investigate whether the /sup 60/Co gamma-irradiated milled rice packed in economic and practical sealed bags could be preserved in common granaries in Taiwan for more than one year rather than slightly over one month without quality deterioration. As a result of this experiment we found that during the preservation of over a period of 18 months, the contents, such as moisture, ash, protein and fiber, of Tainan-5 Bon-Lai (Japonica Type) rice irradiated with 20 and 40 krad doses were quite stable, whereas reducing sugar showed slight fluctuations but did not vary significantly either. The fat, vitamin B/sub 1/ and niacin contents were found being reduced, while the increase in fatty acid content was an inevitable phenomenon along with the proceeding of the preservation.

  17. Bioethanol production from rice straw residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsayed B. Belal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A rice straw -cellulose utilizing mold was isolated from rotted rice straw residues. The efficient rice straw degrading microorganism was identified as Trichoderma reesei. The results showed that different carbon sources in liquid culture such as rice straw, carboxymethyl cellulose, filter paper, sugar cane bagasse, cotton stalk and banana stalk induced T. reesei cellulase production whereas glucose or Potato Dextrose repressed the synthesis of cellulase. T. reesei cellulase was produced by the solid state culture on rice straw medium. The optimal pH and temperature for T. reesei cellulase production were 6 and 25 ºC, respectively. Rice straw exhibited different susceptibilities towards cellulase to their conversion to reducing sugars. The present study showed also that, the general trend of rice straw bioconversion with cellulase was more than the general trend by T. reesei. This enzyme effectively led to enzymatic conversion of acid, alkali and ultrasonic pretreated cellulose from rice straw into glucose, followed by fermentation into ethanol. The combined method of acid pretreatment with ultrasound and subsequent enzyme treatment resulted the highest conversion of lignocellulose in rice straw to sugar and consequently, highest ethanol concentration after 7 days fermentation with S. cerevisae yeast. The ethanol yield in this study was about 10 and 11 g.L-1.

  18. Wheat products as acceptable substitutes for rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, B H; Kies, C

    1993-07-01

    The objective of the study was to compare the acceptability to semi-trained US American and Asian palatability panelist, of four wheat products processed to be possible replacers of rice in human diets. Products evaluated using rice as the control standard of excellence were steamed whole wheat, couscous (steamed, extracted wheat flour semolina), rosamarina (rice shaped, extracted wheat flour pasta), and bulgar (steamed, pre-cooked partly debranned, cracked wheat). Using a ten point hedonic rating scale, both groups of panelists gave rosamarina closely followed by couscous, most favorable ratings although these ratings were somewhat lower than that of the positive control, steamed polished rice. Bulgar wheat was given the lowest evaluation and was, in general, found to be an unacceptable replacement for rice by both American and Asian judges because of its dark, 'greasy' color and distinctive flavor. In their personal dietaries, judges included rice from 0.25 to 18 times per week with the Asian judges consuming rice significantly more times per week than did the American judges (10.8 +/- 4.71 vs 1.75 +/- 1.65, p < 0.01). However, rice consumption patterns, nationality, race, or sex of the judges was not demonstrated to affect scoring of the wheat products as rice replacers.

  19. Rice Multi-Gene Analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    gdyang

    Maps of all the intronic MIR genes analyzed using MPSS database in rice. Click here for a legend that explains the icons and colors in the image below. Click here to jump in the page below to the specific gene. osa-MIR159f osa-MIR399i osa-MIR418 osa-MIR437 osa-MIR439b osa-MIR439j osa-MIR440 osa-MIR442.

  20. Virus-mediated chemical changes in rice plants impact the relationship between non-vector planthopper Nilaparvata lugens Stål and its egg parasitoid Anagrus nilaparvatae Pang et Wang.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochan He

    Full Text Available In order to clarify the impacts of southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV infection on rice plants, rice planthoppers and natural enemies, differences in nutrients and volatile secondary metabolites between infected and healthy rice plants were examined. Furthermore, the impacts of virus-mediated changes in plants on the population growth of non-vector brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens, and the selectivity and parasitic capability of planthopper egg parasitoid Anagrus nilaparvatae were studied. The results showed that rice plants had no significant changes in amino acid and soluble sugar contents after SRBSDV infection, and SRBSDV-infected plants had no significant effect on population growth of non-vector BPH. A. nilaparvatae preferred BPH eggs both in infected and healthy rice plants, and tended to parasitize eggs on infected plants, but it had no significant preference for infected plants or healthy plants. GC-MS analysis showed that tridecylic aldehyde occurred only in rice plants infected with SRBSDV, whereas octanal, undecane, methyl salicylate and hexadecane occurred only in healthy rice plants. However, in tests of behavioral responses to these five volatile substances using a Y-tube olfactometer, A. nilaparvatae did not show obvious selectivity between single volatile substances at different concentrations and liquid paraffin in the control group. The parasitic capability of A. nilaparvatae did not differ between SRBSDV-infected plants and healthy plant seedlings. The results suggested that SRBSDV-infected plants have no significant impacts on the non-vector planthopper and its egg parasitoid, A. nilaparvatae.

  1. Proteomics of Rice Seed Germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongli eHe

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Seed is a condensed form of plant. Under suitable environmental conditions, it can resume the metabolic activity from physiological quiescent status, and mobilize the reserves, biosynthesize new proteins, regenerate organelles and cell membrane, eventually protrude the radicle and enter into seedling establishment. So far, how these activities are regulated in a coordinated and sequential manner is largely unknown. With the availability of more and more genome sequence information and the development of mass spectrometry (MS technology, proteomics has been widely applied in analyzing the mechanisms of different biological processes, and proved to be very powerful. Regulation of rice seed germination is critical for rice cultivation. In recent years, a lot of proteomic studies have been conducted in exploring the gene expression regulation, reserves mobilization and metabolisms reactivation, which brings us new insights on the mechanisms of metabolism regulation during this process. Nevertheless, it also invokes a lot of questions. In this mini-review, we summarized the progress in the proteomic studies of rice seed germination. The current challenges and future perspectives were also discussed, which might be helpful for the following studies.

  2. Variability in contents of thiamine and riboflavin in brown rice, crude oil in brown rice and bran-polish, and silicon in hull of IR rices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villareal, C P; Juliano, B O

    1989-09-01

    Among 30 IR varieties, variety had greater effect on thiamine content of brown rice than season. Both season and variety affected riboflavin content. Purple- and red-pericarped Philippines rices had higher riboflavin and crude protein contents than IR rices. Crude oil contents of brown rice and bran-polish of 19 IR rices were significantly affected by variety, but only brown rice oil content was significantly affected by season. Bran-polish of waxy rice IR29 had the highest oil content. Silicon content of hull of 16 IR rices showed significant variation due to variety and season and tended to be higher in the dry season crop. Variety rankings in nutrient composition were not consistent for the two crops. The levels of nutrients of IR rices were within the range of values reported for other rices.

  3. Article Commentary: The Pivotal Role of Aldehyde Toxicity in Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Therapeutic Potential of Micronutrient Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Jurnak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is characterized by social and communication impairments as well as by restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior and interests. Genomic studies have not revealed dominant genetic errors common to all forms of ASD. So ASD is assumed to be a complex disorder due to mutations in hundreds of common variants. Other theories argue that spontaneous DNA mutations and/or environmental factors contribute to as much as 50% of ASD. In reviewing potential genetic linkages between autism and alcoholism, it became apparent that all theories of ASD are consistent with aldehyde toxicity, in which endogenous and exogenous aldehydes accumulate as a consequence of mutations in key enzymes. Aldehyde toxicity is characterized by cell-localized, micronutrient deficiencies in sulfur-containing antioxidants, thiamine (B1, pyridoxine (B6, folate, Zn 2+ , possibly Mg 2+ , and retinoic acid, causing oxidative stress and a cascade of metabolic disturbances. Aldehydes also react with selective cytosolic and membrane proteins in the cell of origin; then some types migrate to damage neighboring cells. Reactive aldehydes also form adducts with DNA, selectively mutating bases and inducing strand breakage. This article reviews the relevant genomic, biochemical, and nutritional literature, which supports the central hypothesis that most ASD symptoms are consistent with symptoms of aldehyde toxicity. The hypothesis represents a paradigm shift in thinking and has profound implications for clinical detection, treatment, and even prevention of ASD. Insight is offered as to which neurologically afflicted children might successfully be treated with micronutrients and which children are unlikely to be helped. The aldehyde toxicity hypothesis likely applies to other neurological disorders.

  4. Toxicity of algal-derived aldehydes to two invertebrate species: Do heavy metal pollutants have a synergistic effect?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Rebecca L. [School of Marine Science and Technology, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Ridley Building, Claremont Road, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: r.l.taylor@ncl.ac.uk; Caldwell, Gary S. [School of Marine Science and Technology, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Ridley Building, Claremont Road, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Bentley, Matthew G. [School of Marine Science and Technology, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Ridley Building, Claremont Road, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)

    2005-08-15

    The recent discovery of the production of anti-proliferative aldehydes in a variety of microalgal species has lead to considerable investigation into the effects of these toxins on aquatic invertebrates. Studies have, however, rarely considered the impact pollutants may have on grazer responses to algal toxins. In this study, the acute toxicities of five aldehydes to the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis and nauplii of the brine shrimp Artemia salina are examined using immersion assays. In addition, the effect of a representative of these aldehydes in the presence of sub-lethal levels of heavy metals was examined. B. plicatilis generally showed greater sensitivity to the aldehydes than A. salina. The polyunsaturated 2-trans,4-trans-decadienal was the most toxic to both species having 24 h LD{sub 50} values of 7 and 20 {mu}M for B. plicatilis and A. salina, respectively. The remaining aldehydes had different orders of toxicity for the two species with a stronger relationship observed between mortality and aldehyde carbon-chain length for A. salina whereas B. plicatilis mortality showed a stronger dependence on the presence of carbon-carbon double bonds in the aldehydes. The presence of 1 {mu}M of copper sulphate in solutions of decadienal resulted in the reduction of the 24 h LD{sub 50} of decadienal by approximately a third for both species. 1 {mu}M of copper chloride in solutions of decadienal reduced the 24 h LD{sub 50} of decadienal to A. salina nauplii by approximately 11% and 1 {mu}M zinc sulphate caused a reduction of only 3%. Pre-exposure of the organisms to 1 {mu}M copper sulphate had no significant impact on their subsequent mortality in decadienal. The ecological implications and the possible mechanisms for the action of copper sulphate on the response of organisms to decadienal are discussed.

  5. Benthic macroinvertebrates in Italian rice fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Lupi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Rice fields can be considered man-managed temporary wetlands. Five rice fields handled with different management strategies, their adjacent channels, and a spring were analysed by their benthic macroinvertebrate community to i evaluate the role of rice agroe- cosystem in biodiversity conservation; ii find indicator species which can be used to compare the ecological status of natural wetlands with rice agroecosystems; and iii find the influence of environmental variables on biodiversity. Different methods of data analysis with increasing degree of complexity – from diversity index up to sophisticated multivariate analysis – were used. The investigation provided a picture of benthic macroinvertebrates inhabiting rice agroecosystems where 173 taxa were identified, 89 of which detected in rice paddies. Among them, 4 phyla (Mollusca, Annelida, Nematomorpha, and Arthropoda, 8 classes (Bivalvia, Gastropoda, Oligochaeta, Hirudinea, Gordioida, Insecta, Branchiopoda, and Malacostraca, 24 orders, 68 families, 127 genera and 159 species have been found. Ten threatened and 3 invasive species were detected in the habitats examined. The information obtained by the different methods of data analysis allowed a more comprehensive view on the value of the components of rice agroecosystems. Data analyses highlighted significant differences between habitats (feeding channel and rice field, with higher diversity observed in channels, and emphasised the role of the water chemical-physical parameters. The period of water permanence in rice fields resulted to be only one of the factors influencing the community of benthic macroinvertebrates. The presence of rare/endangered species allowed characterising some stations, but it was less informative about management strategies in rice paddies because most of these species were absent in rice fields.

  6. Feasibility study on estimation of rice weevil quantity in rice stock using near-infrared spectroscopy technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puttinun Jarruwat

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Thai rice is favored by large numbers of consumers of all continents because of its excellent taste, fragrant aroma and fine texture. Among all Thai rice varieties, Thai Hommali rice is the most preferred. Classification of rice as premium quality requires that almost all grain kernels of the rice be perfectly whole with only a small quantity of foreign particles. Of all the foreign particles found in rice, rice weevils can wreck severest havoc on the quality and quantity of rice such that premium grade rice is transformed into low grade rice. It is widely known that rice millers adopt the "overdose" fumigation practice to control the birth and propagation of rice weevils, the practice of which inevitably gives rise to pesticide residues on rice which end up in the body of consumers. However, if population concentration of rice weevils could be approximated, right amounts of chemicals for fumigation would be applied and thereby no overdose is required. The objective of this study is thus to estimate the quantity of rice weevils in both milled rice and brown rice of Thai Hommali rice variety using the near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS technique. Fourier transforms near infrared (FT-NIR spectrometer was used in this research and the near-infrared wavelength range was 780–2500 nm. A total of 20 levels of rice weevil infestation with an increment of 10 from 10 to 200 mature rice weevils were applied to 1680 rice samples. The spectral data and quantity of weevils are analyzed by partial least square regression (PLSR to establish the model for prediction. The results show that the model is able to estimate the quantity of weevils in milled Hommali rice and brown Hommali rice with high $R_{\\rm val}^{2}$ of 0.96 and 0.90, high RPD of 6.07 and 3.26 and small bias of 2.93 and 2.94, respectively.

  7. Rice Blast Resistance of Transgenic Rice Plants with Pi-d2 Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-xi CHEN

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Resistance to rice blast of transgenic rice lines harboring rice blast resistance gene Pi-d2 transformed from three different expression vectors of pCB6.3kb, pCB5.3kb and pZH01-2.72kb were analyzed. Nine advanced-generation transgenic rice lines with Pi-d2 gene displayed various resistance to 39 rice blast strains, and the highest disease-resistant frequency reached 91.7%. Four early-generation homozygous transgenic lines with Pi-d2 gene exhibited resistance to more than 81.5% of 58 rice blast strains, showing the characteristic of wide-spectrum resistance. The transgenic embryonic calli selected by the crude toxin of rice blast fungus showed that the callus induction rate of immature embryo from transgenic rice plants decreased as the concentration of crude toxin in the culture medium increased. When the concentration of crude toxin reached 40%, the callus induction rate of immature embryo from transgenic lines was 49.3%, and that of the receptor control was 5%. The disease incidence of neck blast of the transgenic rice lines in fields under induction was 0% to 50%, indicating that the rice blast resistance of transgenic rice lines is much higher than that of the receptor control.

  8. "Juice Monsters": Sub-Ohm Vaping and Toxic Volatile Aldehyde Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talih, Soha; Salman, Rola; Karaoghlanian, Nareg; El-Hellani, Ahmad; Saliba, Najat; Eissenberg, Thomas; Shihadeh, Alan

    2017-10-16

    An emerging category of electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) is sub-Ohm devices (SODs) that operate at ten or more times the power of conventional ECIGs. Because carcinogenic volatile aldehyde (VA) emissions increase sharply with power, SODs may expose users to greater VAs. In this study, we compared VA emissions from several SODs and found that across device, VAs and power were uncorrelated unless power was normalized by coil surface area. VA emissions and liquid consumed were correlated highly. Analyzed in light of EU regulations limiting ECIG liquid nicotine concentration, these findings suggest potential regulatory levers and pitfalls for protecting public health.

  9. HIGH-PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY FOR DETERMINATION OF AROMATIC ALDEHYDES IN WINE DISTILLATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Nezalzova

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Quality control of alcoholic beverages, coming into the market, is a defining element in preventing the production and supplying of defective products. One of the main criteria for quality control of wine distillates is to estimate their age, and more precisely the period of maturation as the dominant factor in determining the quality of cognacs and, consequently, their market price. On the opinion of majority scientists, one of the main factors, which determines the age of wine distillates, is the content of aromatic aldehydes, mostly vanillin, and their ratio.

  10. Benzazole derivatives. IV. Reaction of 1,2,3-trimethylbenzimidazolium salts with aromatic aldehydes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CORINA CERNATESCU

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available 1,2,3-Trimethylbenzimidazolium iodide and its analogue salts with one or two substituents on benzene ring (X = NO2, Br,Cl, CH3 are, due to the reactivity of the 2-methyl group, able to react with para-substituted aromatic aldehydes (X = OH, OCH3, CH3, NMe2, NO2 using piperidine as a catalyst. 1-Methyl-2-styrylbenzimidazole iodomethylates were obtained and their structure elucidated by means of NMR and IR spectroscopy. The compounds are interesting as hemicyanine dyes. They lend themselves to studies based on electronic absorption spectroscopy and they have potential practical applications linked to their photosensitive properties.

  11. Fluorescence method for enzyme analysis which couples aromatic amines with aromatic aldehydes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R.E.; Dolbeare, F.A.

    1980-10-21

    Analysis of proteinases is accomplished using conventional amino acid containing aromatic amine substrates. Aromatic amines such as 4-methoxy-2-naphthylamine (4M2NA), 2-naphthylamine, aminoisophthalic acid dimethyl ester, p-nitroaniline, 4-methoxy-1-aminofluorene and coumarin derivatives resulting from enzymatic hydrolysis of the substrate couples with aromatic aldehydes such as 5-nitrosalicylaldehyde (5-NSA), benzaldehyde and p-nitrobenzaldehyde to produce Schiff-base complexes which are water insoluble. Certain Schiff-base complexes produce a shift from blue to orange-red (visible) fluorescence. Such complexes are useful in the assay of enzymes. No Drawings

  12. Revisiting the Reaction Between Diaminomaleonitrile and Aromatic Aldehydes: a Green Chemistry Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco León

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The reaction between diaminomaleonitrile (DAMN and aldehydes and the resulting monoimines are well known. Since the standard reaction conditions involve the use of toxic solvents (typically methanol, we have sought to apply green chemistry principles to this reaction by either using water as the solvent without any catalysts or employing “solvent-free” conditions. The monoimines derived from DAMN are of interest as precursors for obtaining different heterocyclic systems and linear polymers. The methodologies used have significant advantages with regards to cost and environmental considerations.

  13. Merging Photoredox Catalysis with Organocatalysis: The Direct Asymmetric Alkylation of Aldehydes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicewicz, David A.; MacMilla, David W. C.

    2009-01-01

    Photoredox catalysis and organocatalysis represent two powerful fields of molecule activation that have found widespread application in the areas of inorganic and organic chemistry, respectively. We merged these two catalysis fields to solve problems in asymmetric chemical synthesis. Specifically, the enantioselective intermolecular α-alkylation of aldehydes has been accomplished using an interwoven activation pathway that combines both the photoredox catalyst Ru(bpy)3Cl2 (where bpy is 2,2′-bipyridine) and an imidazolidinone organocatalyst. This broadly applicable, yet previously elusive, alkylation reaction is now highly enantioselective and operationally trivial. PMID:18772399

  14. Australian wild rice reveals pre-domestication origin of polymorphism deserts in rice genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan S, Gopala; Waters, Daniel L E; Henry, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    Rice is a major source of human food with a predominantly Asian production base. Domestication involved selection of traits that are desirable for agriculture and to human consumers. Wild relatives of crop plants are a source of useful variation which is of immense value for crop improvement. Australian wild rices have been isolated from the impacts of domestication in Asia and represents a source of novel diversity for global rice improvement. Oryza rufipogon is a perennial wild progenitor of cultivated rice. Oryza meridionalis is a related annual species in Australia. We have examined the sequence of the genomes of AA genome wild rices from Australia that are close relatives of cultivated rice through whole genome re-sequencing. Assembly of the resequencing data to the O. sativa ssp. japonica cv. Nipponbare shows that Australian wild rices possess 2.5 times more single nucleotide polymorphisms than in the Asian wild rice and cultivated O. sativa ssp. indica. Analysis of the genome of domesticated rice reveals regions of low diversity that show very little variation (polymorphism deserts). Both the perennial and annual wild rice from Australia show a high degree of conservation of sequence with that found in cultivated rice in the same 4.58 Mbp region on chromosome 5, which suggests that some of the 'polymorphism deserts' in this and other parts of the rice genome may have originated prior to domestication due to natural selection. Analysis of genes in the 'polymorphism deserts' indicates that this selection may have been due to biotic or abiotic stress in the environment of early rice relatives. Despite having closely related sequences in these genome regions, the Australian wild populations represent an invaluable source of diversity supporting rice food security.

  15. Progress in the preparation of peptide aldehydes via polymer supported IBX oxidation and scavenging by threonyl resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorg, Gerhard; Thern, Bernd; Mader, Oliver; Rademann, Jörg; Jung, Günther

    2005-03-01

    Peptide aldehydes are of interest due to their inhibitory properties toward numerous classes of proteolytic enzymes such as caspases or the proteasome. A novel access to peptide aldehydes is described using a combination of solid phase peptide synthesis with polymer-assisted solution phase synthesis based on the oxidation of peptide alcohols with a mild and selective polymer-bound IBX derivative. The oxidation is followed by selective purification via scavenging the peptide aldehyde in a capture-release procedure using threonine attached to an aminomethyl resin. Peptide aldehydes are obtained in excellent purity and satisfying yield. The optical integrity of the C-terminal residue is conserved in a high degree. The procedures are compatible with the use of common side-chain protecting groups. The potential for using the method in parallel approaches is very advantageous. A small collection of new and known peptide aldehydes has been tested for inhibitory activity against caspases 1 and 3. Copyright (c) 2004 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Functional genomics strategies with transposons in rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greco, R.

    2003-01-01

    Rice is a major staple food crop and a recognizedmonocotylenedousmodel plant from which gene function discovery is projected to contribute to improvements in a variety of cereals like wheat and maize. The recent release of rough drafts of the rice genome sequence for public

  17. PICTORIAL INTERLUDES Flake-shaped rice bodies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1. Cheung HS, Ryan LM, Kozin F, McCarty DJ. Synovial origins of rice bodies in joint fluid. Arthritis. Rheum 1980;23:72-76. 2. Popert AJ, Scott DL, Wainwright AC, Walton KW, Williamson N, Chapman JH. Frequency of occur- rence, mode of development, and significance of rice bodies in rheumatoid joints. Ann Rheum Dis.

  18. Influence of intermittent irrigation, red rice biotype, and rice grain type on outcrossing between red rice and imidazolinone-resistant rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whether outcrossing rates between red rice and imazethapyr resistant rice are affected as a function of irrigation management is unclear. Potentially, differences between conventionally-flooded (CNV) and intermittently flooded (INT) systems could affect plant water deficits, as well as vegetative a...

  19. Transgenic strategies for improving rice disease resistance

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-04

    May 4, 2009 ... Review. Transgenic strategies for improving rice disease resistance. Huijuan Zhang, Guojun Li, Wei Li and Fengming Song*. State Key Laboratory for Rice Biology, Institute of Biotechnology, Zhejiang University-Huajiachi Campus, Hangzhou,. Zhejiang 310029, P.R. .... In RTBV-ODs2 line, RTBV DNA.

  20. Adoption of Recommended Rice Production Practices among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    influenced adoption of recommended rice production practices by women rice farmers in the study area. Constraints hindering adoption of. RRPPs were unavailability of credit facilities, poor marketing system and unstable price, and inadequate extension contacts. It was recommended that government should ensure that ...

  1. Novel gene expression tools for rice biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biotechnology is an effective and important method of improving both quality and agronomic traits in rice. We are developing novel molecular tools for genetic engineering, with a focus on developing novel transgene expression control elements (i.e. promoters) for rice. A suite of monocot grass promo...

  2. FLUORIDE LEVELS IN COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE RICE IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    2013-05-05

    May 5, 2013 ... shattering-prone Oryza glaberrima. It contains 2% more protein than their African or Asian parents. It is taller than most rice, making harvesting easier, pest resistant and tolerant to drought and infertile soils better than Asian varieties [18]. Rice is a cereal foodstuff which forms an important part of the diet of ...

  3. Grain Unloading Of Arsenic Species In Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is the staple food for over half the world's population yet may represent a significant dietary source of inorganic arsenic (As), a nonthreshold, class 1 human carcinogen. Rice grain As is dominated by the inorganic species, and the organic species dim...

  4. Rice aroma and flavor: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descriptive sensory analysis has identified over a dozen different aromas and flavors in rice. Instrumental analyses have found over 200 volatile compounds present in rice. However, after over 30 years of research, little is known about the relationships between the numerous volatile compounds and a...

  5. Soil quality assessment in rice production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues de Lima, A.C.

    2007-01-01

    In the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, rice production is one of the most important regional activities. Farmers are concerned that the land use practices for rice production in the Camaquã region may not be sustainable because of detrimental effects on soil quality. The study presented in this

  6. Bioethanol production from rice straw: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binod, Parameswaran; Sindhu, Raveendran; Singhania, Reeta Rani; Vikram, Surender; Devi, Lalitha; Nagalakshmi, Satya; Kurien, Noble; Sukumaran, Rajeev K; Pandey, Ashok

    2010-07-01

    Rice straw is an attractive lignocellulosic material for bioethanol production since it is one of the most abundant renewable resources. It has several characteristics, such as high cellulose and hemicelluloses content that can be readily hydrolyzed into fermentable sugars. But there occur several challenges and limitations in the process of converting rice straw to ethanol. The presence of high ash and silica content in rice straw makes it an inferior feedstock for ethanol production. One of the major challenges in developing technology for bioethanol production from rice straw is selection of an appropriate pretreatment technique. The choice of pretreatment methods plays an important role to increase the efficiency of enzymatic saccharification thereby making the whole process economically viable. The present review discusses the available technologies for bioethanol production using rice straw. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Dinitrogen fixation of rice-Klebsiella associations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, I.D.; Fujii, T.; Sano, Y.; Komagata, K.; Yoneyama, T.; Iyama, S.; Hirota, Y.

    N/sub 2/ fixation by Klebsiella oxytoca strain NG13, isolated from the rhizosphere of a rice (Oryza sativa L.) plant, in association with Indica type rice strain, C5444 is reported. The C/sub 2/H/sub 2/-reduction assays, biomass measurements, N content determinations, and /sup 15/N isotopic dilution assays indicated that inoculation of C5444 with NG13 resulted in a 6% increase of total plant+soil N content, and a 19% /sup 15/N isotopic dilution of plant N after 120 days of cultivation. Our results demonstrated significant levels of N/sub 2/ fixation by K. oxytoca when associated with rice. By optimizing such rice plant-bacterial N/sub 2/ fixation capacity, the N uptake by rice could be enhanced.

  8. Rice epigenomics and epigenetics: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangsong; Zhou, Dao-Xiu

    2013-05-01

    During recent years rice genome-wide epigenomic information such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, which are important for genome activity has been accumulated. The function of a number of rice epigenetic regulators has been studied, many of which are found to be involved in a diverse range of developmental and stress-responsive pathways. Analysis of epigenetic variations among different rice varieties indicates that epigenetic modification may lead to inheritable phenotypic variation. Characterizing phenotypic consequences of rice epigenomic variations and the underlining chromatin mechanism and identifying epialleles related to important agronomic traits may provide novel strategies to enhance agronomically favorable traits and grain productivity in rice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Rice water in treatment of infantile gastroenteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, H B

    1981-07-11

    In Singapore the World Health Organization's (WHO's) oral electrolyte solution for the treatment of infantile gastroenteritis has been used for 6 years and rice water has been used for 8 years. The rice water is the water used in preparing boiled rice or congee and is a slightly starchy solution. As the impression was that rice water was as effective as or even better than the oral electrolyte solution, a trial was conducted of the 2 solutions in babies with gastroenteritis admitted to the Department of Pediatrics of the National University of Singapore. Alternate cases were assigned consecutively to the oral electrolyte solution or to rice water. There were 63 patients on oral electrolyte and 67 on rice water. Milk was totally withdrawn for 24 hours after admission and the babies were put on 1 or the other oral solution. Intravenous 3.75% glucose and 0.23% saline was given at the same time to babies considered to be more dehydrated. On day 2, quarter strength powdered milk was given, followed by half strength on day 3, three-quarters strength on day 4, and full strength on day 5. Electrolyte and urea values were compared, both for "drip" versus "no drip" within oral treatment groups and between electrolyte solution and rice water groups (20 comparisons altogether). There were only 3 significant differences, and these might be explained by the intravenous drip and by the better water absorption from rice water than from the oral electrolyte solution. The most obvious difference in the 2 groups was in the effect on diarrhea (stools/day). Rice water cut down the number of stools more effectively than did oral electrolyte solution. No patient died, and there were no pathological sequelae in any of the 130 patients. Rice water can be tried as a more practical alternative to oral electrolyte solutions since there are problems with providing oral elecrolyte solutions to all babies with diarrhea in the developing countries and ensuring sterility.

  10. Determinants of adoption and productivity of improved rice varieties ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examines the status of adoption of improved rice varieties and its impact on rice production among smallholder farmers in southwestern Nigeria. Data for this study were generated from a farm survey of rice farmers selected by multi-stage sampling technique in two of the rice producing states of the region.

  11. Signatures of adaptation in the weedy rice genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weedy rice is a common problem of by product of domestication that has evolved multiple times from cultivated and wild rice relatives. Here we use whole genome sequences to examine the origin and adaptation of the two major US weedy red rice strains, with a comparison to Chinese weedy red rice. We f...

  12. Rice Genome Research: Current Status and Future Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Bin Han; Qifa Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Rice ( L.) is the leading genomics system among the crop plants. The sequence of the rice genome, the first cereal plant genome, was published in 2005. This review summarizes progress made in rice genome annotations, comparative genomics, and functional genomics researches. It also maps out the status of rice genomics globally and provides a vision of future research directions and resource building.

  13. Cooking and Eating Quality of Rice Yellow Mottle Virus Resistant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    physico-chemical behaviour of the rice grain. Physical characteristics .... combined influence of the different rating parameters of the seven rice ... Cooking and Eating Quantity of Rice Yellow Mottle 197. Table 1: Grain quality characteristics of the tested rice genotypes. Line / Parent. Grain. Length/. Opacity. Amylose. Gel. Gel.

  14. Does African catfish ( Clarias gariepinus ) affect rice in integrated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted for 98 days in the Lake Victoria Basin to investigate the interactions of fish and rice growth performance in rice paddies. The experiment was laid out in a split-plot design, with rice cultivar as the main plot and method of rice-fish culture as the sub-plot. Treatments consisted of two levels of ...

  15. Economic survey of rice marketing in Anambra state, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of the analysis show that old people who are mostly illiterate but highly experienced engaged in rice marketing business. Furthermore, there is a significant difference in the marketing prices of processed and unprocessed rice as well as stored and unstored rice. However, a greater percentage of rice marketers ...

  16. Significance of rice sheath photosynthesis: Yield determination by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using high-yielding hybrid rice Liangyopeijiu (LYP9), its male parent 9311 and hybrid rice Shanyou 63 (SY63) as the experimental materials, the photosynthesis of rice sheath was studied by 14C radio-autography. The results showed that rice sheath could trap sunlight and produce photosynthates, and these ...

  17. Golden Rice is an effective source for vitamin A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetically engineered "Golden Rice" contains up to 35 ug Beta-carotene per gram of rice. It is important to determine the vitamin A equivalency of Golden Rice Beta-carotene to project the potential effect of this biofortified grain in rice-consuming populations that commonly exhibit low vitamin A s...

  18. Identification of Some Degradation Products of Golden Rice Beta- carotene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden Rice (GR2) is genetically modified rice, which can contain as high as 37 ug of beta-carotene per g of dry rice. It was developed to combat vitamin A deficiency (VAD), a major malnutrition problem in many parts of the developing world, especially in South and South Eastern Asia, where rice is ...

  19. The economic power of the Golden Rice opposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesseler, J.H.H.; Zilberman, D.

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin A enriched rice (Golden Rice) is a cost-efficient solution that can substantially reduce health costs. Despite Golden Rice being available since early 2000, this rice has not been introduced in any country. Governments must perceive additional costs that overcompensate the benefits of the

  20. Rice field for the treatment of pond aquaculture effluents | Wang ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We conducted an experiment to evaluate the efficiency of rice fields in treating pond aquaculture effluent and its responses to different fertilizer treatments. Four treatments was considered in the experiment: no rice planted as the control (CT); rice planted and no fertilizer input (RE); rice planted and a rate of approximately ...

  1. genetic analysis of resistance to rice bacterial blight in uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    Advances in rice genetics. Supplement to rice genetics IV. Proceedings of the Fourth. International Rice Genetics Symposium, 22-. 27 October 2000. IRRI. Los Baños, Philippines. Lee, K.S., Rasabandith, S., Angeles, E.R. and. Khush, G.S. 2003. Inheritance of resistance to bacterial blight in 21cultivars of rice. Phytopathology ...

  2. Identification and characterisation of Aedes aegypti aldehyde dehydrogenases involved in pyrethroid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumjuan, Nongkran; Wicheer, Jureeporn; Leelapat, Posri; Choochote, Wej; Somboon, Pradya

    2014-01-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides, especially permethrin and deltamethrin, have been used extensively worldwide for mosquito control. However, insecticide resistance can spread through a population very rapidly under strong selection pressure from insecticide use. The upregulation of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) has been reported upon pyrethroid treatment. In Aedes aegypti, the increase in ALDH activity against the hydrolytic product of pyrethroid has been observed in DDT/permethrin-resistant strains. The objective of this study was to identify the role of individual ALDHs involved in pyrethroid metabolism. Three ALDHs were identified; two of these, ALDH9948 and ALDH14080, were upregulated in terms of both mRNA and protein levels in a DDT/pyrethroid-resistant strain of Ae. aegypti. Recombinant ALDH9948 and ALDH14080 exhibited oxidase activities to catalyse the oxidation of a permethrin intermediate, phenoxybenzyl aldehyde (PBald), to phenoxybenzoic acid (PBacid). ALDHs have been identified in association with permethrin resistance in Ae. aegypti. Characterisation of recombinant ALDHs confirmed the role of this protein in pyrethroid metabolism. Understanding the biochemical and molecular mechanisms of pyrethroid resistance provides information for improving vector control strategies.

  3. The two faces of aldehyde oxidase: Oxidative and reductive transformations of 5-nitroquinoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paragas, Erickson M; Humphreys, Sara C; Min, Joshua; Joswig-Jones, Carolyn A; Jones, Jeffrey P

    2017-12-01

    Aldehyde oxidase (AOX) is a cytosolic enzyme responsible for the metabolism of some drugs and drug candidates. AOX catalyzes the oxidative hydroxylation of substrates including several aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes, and nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds. AOX is also reported to catalyze the reductive metabolism of nitro-compounds, N-oxides, sulfoxides, isoxazoles, isothiazoles, nitrite and hydroxamic acids. These reductive transformations are not well understood and are generally believed to only occur at low oxygen concentrations. In this study, we used 5-nitroquinoline (5NQ) as a substrate to further understand both the oxidative and the reductive transformations catalyzed by AOX. In vitro reaction of 5NQ with AOX under aerobic conditions generated the oxidized (2-oxo-5-nitroquinoline, 2-oxo-5NQ), the reduced (5-aminoquinoline, 5AQ) and the oxidized/reduced (2-oxo-5-aminoquinoline, 2-oxo-5AQ) metabolites. Interestingly, in human liver cytosol, co-incubation of 5NQ and known AOX oxidative substrates DACA and phthalazine significantly increased the yield of the reduced metabolite, while oxidized metabolites production decreased. These data indicate that 5NQ can be reduced at atmospheric oxygen concentrations and that the reductive transformation occurs at a second site that is kinetically distinct from the oxidative site. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Sensitive Determination of Volatile Organic Compounds and Aldehydes in Tattoo Inks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyun-Hee; Shin, Ho-Sang

    2017-02-01

    As the popularity of body art including tattoo ink has increased, the safety associated with it has become an important interest. In this study, twenty volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and two aldehydes in tattoo inks were identified and quantified. Headspace and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS GC-MS) for the VOCs and HS GC-MS based on derivatization with 2,2,2-trifluoroethylhydrazine (TFEH) for aldehydes was developed. Benzene, chloroform, toluene, ethylbenzene, m-xylene, p-xylene, o-xylene, propylbenzene, chlorobenzene, tert-butylbenzene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene, styrene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, 2-chlorotoluene, 4-chlorotoluene, 1,3-dichlorobenzene, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, 1,2-dichlorobenzene, 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene and isopropyl alcohol were detected with the concentration range of 0.02-207,000 mg/kg in 16 different tattoo inks. Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were detected with the concentration range of 0.4-308 mg/kg in the same samples. Our analytical results represent solvents used intentionally or non-intentionally in tattoo inks, and thus they may provide important information for national regulation. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Genome-Wide Identification and Functional Classification of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) Aldehyde Dehydrogenase (ALDH) Gene Superfamily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Lopez, Jose C; Lopez-Valverde, Francisco J; Robles-Bolivar, Paula; Lima-Cabello, Elena; Gachomo, Emma W; Kotchoni, Simeon O

    2016-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) is a protein superfamily that catalyzes the oxidation of aldehyde molecules into their corresponding non-toxic carboxylic acids, and responding to different environmental stresses, offering promising genetic approaches for improving plant adaptation. The aim of the current study is the functional analysis for systematic identification of S. lycopersicum ALDH gene superfamily. We performed genome-based ALDH genes identification and functional classification, phylogenetic relationship, structure and catalytic domains analysis, and microarray based gene expression. Twenty nine unique tomato ALDH sequences encoding 11 ALDH families were identified, including a unique member of the family 19 ALDH. Phylogenetic analysis revealed 13 groups, with a conserved relationship among ALDH families. Functional structure analysis of ALDH2 showed a catalytic mechanism involving Cys-Glu couple. However, the analysis of ALDH3 showed no functional gene duplication or potential neo-functionalities. Gene expression analysis reveals that particular ALDH genes might respond to wounding stress increasing the expression as ALDH2B7. Overall, this study reveals the complexity of S. lycopersicum ALDH gene superfamily and offers new insights into the structure-functional features and evolution of ALDH gene families in vascular plants. The functional characterization of ALDHs is valuable and promoting molecular breeding in tomato for the improvement of stress tolerance and signaling.

  6. Genome-Wide Identification and Functional Classification of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Aldehyde Dehydrogenase (ALDH Gene Superfamily.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose C Jimenez-Lopez

    Full Text Available Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs is a protein superfamily that catalyzes the oxidation of aldehyde molecules into their corresponding non-toxic carboxylic acids, and responding to different environmental stresses, offering promising genetic approaches for improving plant adaptation. The aim of the current study is the functional analysis for systematic identification of S. lycopersicum ALDH gene superfamily. We performed genome-based ALDH genes identification and functional classification, phylogenetic relationship, structure and catalytic domains analysis, and microarray based gene expression. Twenty nine unique tomato ALDH sequences encoding 11 ALDH families were identified, including a unique member of the family 19 ALDH. Phylogenetic analysis revealed 13 groups, with a conserved relationship among ALDH families. Functional structure analysis of ALDH2 showed a catalytic mechanism involving Cys-Glu couple. However, the analysis of ALDH3 showed no functional gene duplication or potential neo-functionalities. Gene expression analysis reveals that particular ALDH genes might respond to wounding stress increasing the expression as ALDH2B7. Overall, this study reveals the complexity of S. lycopersicum ALDH gene superfamily and offers new insights into the structure-functional features and evolution of ALDH gene families in vascular plants. The functional characterization of ALDHs is valuable and promoting molecular breeding in tomato for the improvement of stress tolerance and signaling.

  7. Selective deoxygenation of aldehydes and alcohols on molybdenum carbide (Mo{sub 2}C) surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Ke [Catalysis Center for Energy Innovation, Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Yu, Weiting [Chemical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Chen, Jingguang G., E-mail: jgchen@columbia.edu [Chemical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States)

    2014-12-30

    Highlights: • Mo{sub 2}C surface can deoxygenate propanal and 1-propanol to produce propene through a similar intermediate (propoxide or η{sup 2}(C,O)-propanal). • Mo{sub 2}C surface can deoxygenate furfural and furfuryl alcohol to make 2-methylfuran through a 2-methylfuran-like intermediate. • The presence of furan ring modifies the selectivity between deoxygenation and hydrogenation/dehydrogenation pathways. - Abstract: The selective deoxygenation of aldehydes and alcohols without cleaving the C-C bond is crucial for upgrading bio-oil and other biomass-derived molecules to useful fuels and chemicals. In this work, propanal, 1-propanol, furfural and furfuryl alcohol were selected as probe molecules to study the deoxygenation of aldehydes and alcohols on molybdenum carbide (Mo{sub 2}C) prepared over a Mo(1 1 0) surface. The reaction pathways were investigated using temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS). The deoxygenation of propanal and 1-propanol went through a similar intermediate (propoxide or η{sup 2}(C,O)-propanal) to produce propene. The deoxygenation of furfural and furfuryl alcohol produced a surface intermediate similar to adsorbed 2-methylfuran. The comparison of these results revealed the promising deoxygenation performance of Mo{sub 2}C, as well as the effect of the furan ring on the selective deoxygenation of the C=O and C-OH bonds.

  8. Defensome against toxic diatom aldehydes in the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Marrone

    Full Text Available Many diatom species produce polyunsaturated aldehydes, such as decadienal, which compromise embryonic and larval development in benthic organisms. Here newly fertilized Paracentrotus lividus sea urchins were exposed to low concentration of decadienal and the expression levels of sixteen genes, implicated in a broad range of functional responses, were followed by Real Time qPCR in order to identify potential decadienal targets. We show that at low decadienal concentrations the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus places in motion different classes of genes to defend itself against this toxic aldehyde, activating hsp60 and two proteases, hat and BP10, at the blastula stage and hsp56 and several other genes (14-3-3ε, p38 MAPK, MTase, and GS at the prism stage. At this latter stage all genes involved in skeletogenesis (Nec, uni, SM50 and SM30 were also down-expressed, following developmental abnormalities that mainly affected skeleton morphogenesis. Moreover, sea urchin embryos treated with increasing concentrations of decadienal revealed a dose-dependent response of activated target genes. Finally, we suggest that this orchestrated defense system against decadienal represents part of the chemical defensome of P. lividus affording protection from environmental toxicants.

  9. NADP-Dependent Aldehyde Dehydrogenase from Archaeon Pyrobaculum sp.1860: Structural and Functional Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Yu. Bezsudnova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the functional and structural characterization of the first archaeal thermostable NADP-dependent aldehyde dehydrogenase AlDHPyr1147. In vitro, AlDHPyr1147 catalyzes the irreversible oxidation of short aliphatic aldehydes at 60–85°С, and the affinity of AlDHPyr1147 to the NADP+ at 60°С is comparable to that for mesophilic analogues at 25°С. We determined the structures of the apo form of AlDHPyr1147 (3.04 Å resolution, three binary complexes with the coenzyme (1.90, 2.06, and 2.19 Å, and the ternary complex with the coenzyme and isobutyraldehyde as a substrate (2.66 Å. The nicotinamide moiety of the coenzyme is disordered in two binary complexes, while it is ordered in the ternary complex, as well as in the binary complex obtained after additional soaking with the substrate. AlDHPyr1147 structures demonstrate the strengthening of the dimeric contact (as compared with the analogues and the concerted conformational flexibility of catalytic Cys287 and Glu253, as well as Leu254 and the nicotinamide moiety of the coenzyme. A comparison of the active sites of AlDHPyr1147 and dehydrogenases characterized earlier suggests that proton relay systems, which were previously proposed for dehydrogenases of this family, are blocked in AlDHPyr1147, and the proton release in the latter can occur through the substrate channel.

  10. Potential polyunsaturated aldehydes in the Strait of Gibraltar under two tidal regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morillo-García, Soledad; Valcárcel-Pérez, Nerea; Cózar, Andrés; Ortega, María J; Macías, Diego; Ramírez-Romero, Eduardo; García, Carlos M; Echevarría, Fidel; Bartual, Ana

    2014-03-13

    Diatoms, a major component of the large-sized phytoplankton, are able to produce and release polyunsaturated aldehydes after cell disruption (potential PUAs or pPUA). These organisms are dominant in the large phytoplankton fraction (>10 µm) in the Strait of Gibraltar, the only connection between the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. In this area, the hydrodynamics exerts a strong control on the composition and physiological state of the phytoplankton. This environment offers a great opportunity to analyze and compare the little known distribution of larger sized PUA producers in nature and, moreover, to study how environmental variables could affect the ranges and potential distribution of these compounds. Our results showed that, at both tidal regimes studied (Spring and Neap tides), diatoms in the Strait of Gibraltar are able to produce three aldehydes: Heptadienal, Octadienal and Decadienal, with a significant dominance of Decadienal production. The PUA released by mechanical cell disruption of large-sized collected cells (pPUA) ranged from 0.01 to 12.3 pmol from cells in 1 L, and from 0.1 to 9.8 fmol cell⁻¹. Tidal regime affected the abundance, distribution and the level of physiological stress of diatoms in the Strait. During Spring tides, diatoms were more abundant, usually grouped nearer the coastal basin and showed less physiological stress than during Neap tides. Our results suggest a significant general increase in the pPUA productivity with increasing physiological stress for the cell also significantly associated to low nitrate availability.

  11. Aldehyde-functionalized chitosan-montmorillonite films as dynamically-assembled, switchable-chemical release bioplastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabbi, Jamal; Jennah, Oumayma; Katir, Nadia; Lahcini, Mohamed; Bousmina, Mosto; El Kadib, Abdelkrim

    2018-03-01

    Temporal release of synergistic and/or complementary chemicals (e.g.: drugs) is recognized as extremely challenging because of their frequently intertwined kinetic delivery and presently, straightforward concepts enabling to circumvent this bottleneck are missing in the open literature. In this framework, we report herein on aldehyde-functionalized, transparent and flexible chitosan-montmorillonite hybrid films that act as a new generation of eco-friendly, controlled-chemical release bioplastics. These dynamically-assembled nanomaterials are designed by a ternary assembly from biowaste derived chitin biopolymer, aromatic aldehydes and layered clay nanoparticles. On the basis of their geometrical and conformational properties, the oxygenated groups on the grafted aromatics interact preferentially with either the base Schiff belonging to the carbohydrate (via intramolecular CNHO-Ar known as "imine clip") or with the hydroxyl groups belonging to the clay surface (via intermolecular Si-OHO-Ar). The exfoliated clay nanoparticles within the carbohydrate polymer enables either accelerating or slowing down of the imine (CN) hydrolysis depending on the interaction of the conjugated aromatics. This provides the driving force for fine tuning host-guest interactions at the molecular level and constitutes an entry toward subtle discrimination of different chemicals (e.g. complementary fertilizers, synergistic drugs) during their sequential release. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Chirped Pulse-Fourier Transform Microwave Spectroscopy of Ethyl 3-METHYL-3-PHENYLGLYCIDATE (strawberry Aldehyde)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipman, Steven T.; Neill, Justin L.; Muckle, Matt T.; Suenram, Richard D.; Pate, Brooks H.

    2009-06-01

    Strawberry aldehyde (C_{12} O_3 H_{14}), a common artificial flavoring compound, has two non-interconvertible conformational families defined by the relative stereochemistry around its epoxide carbons. In one family, referred to as the trans because the two large substituents (a phenyl ring and an ethyl ester) are on opposite sides of the epoxide ring, these two substituents are unable to interact with each other. However, in the cis family, there is a long-range interaction that is difficult to accurately capture in electronic structure calculations. Three trans and two cis conformations have been assigned by broadband chirped pulse Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy, along with the C-13 isotopomers in natural abundance for one conformer from each of the families. The agreement of the rotational constants, relative dipole moments, and relative energies between theory and experiment is excellent, even at relatively crude levels of theory, for the trans family, but is quite poor for the cis conformers. In addition, due to the reactivity of strawberry aldehyde and the high temperature to which it must be heated to yield a suitable vapor pressure, several decomposition products have been assigned, and more, as of yet unassigned, are likely to be present. This project demonstrates some of the challenges in performing large-molecule rotational spectroscopy.

  13. Selective Production of Aromatic Aldehydes from Heavy Fraction of Bio-oil via Catalytic Oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yan; Chang, Jie; Ouyang, Yong; Zheng, Xianwei [South China Univ. of Technology, Guangzhou (China)

    2014-06-15

    High value-added aromatic aldehydes (e. g. vanillin and syringaldehyde) were produced from heavy fraction of bio-oil (HFBO) via catalytic oxidation. The concept is based on the use of metalloporphyin as catalyst and hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) as oxidant under alkaline condition. The biomimetic catalyst cobalt(II)-sulfonated tetraphenylporphyrin (Co(TPPS{sub 4})) was prepared and characterized. It exhibited relative high activity in the catalytic oxidation of HFBO. 4.57 wt % vanillin and 1.58 wt % syringaldehyde were obtained from catalytic oxidation of HFBO, compared to 2.6 wt % vanillin and 0.86 wt % syringaldehyde without Co(TPPS{sub 4}). Moreover, a possible mechanism of HFBO oxidation using Co(TPPS{sub 4})/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was proposed by the research of model compounds. The results showed that this is a promising and environmentally friendly method for production of aromatic aldehydes from HFBO under Co(TPPS{sub 4})/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} system.

  14. Observations of total peroxy nitrates and aldehydes: measurement interpretation and inference of OH radical concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Cleary

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe measurements of total peroxy nitrates (ΣPNs, NO2, O3 and several aldehydes at Granite Bay, California, during the Chemistry and Transport of the Sacramento Urban Plume-2001 (CATSUP 2001 campaign, from 19 July–16 September 2001. We observed a strong photochemically driven variation of ΣPNs during the day with the median of 1.2 ppb at noon. Acetaldehyde, pentanal, hexanal and methacrolein had median abundances in the daytime of 1.2 ppb, 0.093 ppb, 0.14 ppb, and 0.27 ppb, respectively. We compare steady state and time dependent calculations of the dependence of ΣPNs on aldehydes, OH, NO and NO2 showing that the steady state calculations are accurate to ±30% between 10:00 and 18:00 h. We use the steady state calculation to investigate the composition of ΣPNs and the concentration of OH at Granite Bay. We find that PN molecules that have never been observed before make up an unreasonably large fraction of the ΣPNs unless we assume that there exists a PAN source that is much larger than the acetaldehyde source. We calculate that OH at the site varied between 2 and 7×106 molecule cm−3 at noon during the 8 weeks of the experiment.

  15. Alda-1 is an agonist and chemical chaperone for the common human aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 variant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Miller, Samantha; Younus, Hina; Vanam, Ram; Chen, Che-Hong; Mochly-Rosen, Daria; Hurley, Thomas D. (Indiana-Med); (Stanford-MED)

    2010-04-19

    In approximately one billion people, a point mutation inactivates a key detoxifying enzyme, aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2). This mitochondrial enzyme metabolizes toxic biogenic and environmental aldehydes, including the endogenously produced 4-hydroxynonenal (4HNE) and the environmental pollutant acrolein, and also bioactivates nitroglycerin. ALDH2 is best known, however, for its role in ethanol metabolism. The accumulation of acetaldehyde following the consumption of even a single alcoholic beverage leads to the Asian alcohol-induced flushing syndrome in ALDH2*2 homozygotes. The ALDH2*2 allele is semidominant, and heterozygotic individuals show a similar but less severe phenotype. We recently identified a small molecule, Alda-1, that activates wild-type ALDH2 and restores near-wild-type activity to ALDH2*2. The structures of Alda-1 bound to ALDH2 and ALDH2*2 reveal how Alda-1 activates the wild-type enzyme and how it restores the activity of ALDH2*2 by acting as a structural chaperone.

  16. BTES and aldehydes analysis in PET-bottled water in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Rayes, L; Saliba, C O; Ghanem, A; Randon, J

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, styrene (BTES), formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and benzaldehyde in Lebanese polyethylene terephthalate (PET)-bottled water. Aldehydes were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet-visible detection (HPLC/UV-vis) after 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) derivatisation and solid phase extraction (SPE) concentration, whereas headspace trap gas chromatograph-flame ionisation detector (GC/FID) was used for BTES determination. Both methods were validated according to the NF XP 90-210 and showed good linearity ranging from 3 (limit of quantification [LOQ]) to 15 µg L⁻¹ for BTES and from 20 (LOQ) to 900 µg L⁻¹ for aldehydes. No quantified contamination with BTES, acetaldehyde and benzaldehyde was determined in all analysed fresh Lebanese PET-bottled waters. Formaldehyde was quantified in 3 of the 15 samples at concentrations lower than the maximum contaminant level set by the US Environmental Protection Agency and the World Health Organisation. The samples' exposure to sunlight during 5 months increases the migration of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Similar migration increase was observed when the samples were incubated at 40°C during 10 days.

  17. Kinetic study of the gas-phase reaction of atomic chlorine with a series of aldehydes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rodríguez

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The reactions of Cl atoms with a series of unsaturated aldehydes have been investigated for the first time using a relative method. In order to obtain additional information for a qualitative structure versus reactivity discussion, we have also determined the rate coefficients for the reactions of atomic chlorine with their respective saturated aldehydes. These relative measurements were performed at room temperature and atmospheric pressure of air and N2, by using ethane, propene and 1-butene as reference compounds. The weighted average relative rate constants obtained, kCl±2σ (in units of cm3 molecule−1 s−1 were: trans-2-pentenal (1.31±0.19×10−10; trans-2-hexenal (1.92±0.22×10−10; trans-2-heptenal (2.40±0.29×10−10; n-pentanal (2.56±0.27×10−10; n-hexanal (2.88±0.37×10−10; n-heptanal (3.00±0.34×10−10. Finally, results and atmospheric implications are discussed and compared with the reactivity with OH and NO3 radicals.

  18. Identification and characterisation of Aedes aegypti aldehyde dehydrogenases involved in pyrethroid metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nongkran Lumjuan

    Full Text Available Pyrethroid insecticides, especially permethrin and deltamethrin, have been used extensively worldwide for mosquito control. However, insecticide resistance can spread through a population very rapidly under strong selection pressure from insecticide use. The upregulation of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH has been reported upon pyrethroid treatment. In Aedes aegypti, the increase in ALDH activity against the hydrolytic product of pyrethroid has been observed in DDT/permethrin-resistant strains. The objective of this study was to identify the role of individual ALDHs involved in pyrethroid metabolism.Three ALDHs were identified; two of these, ALDH9948 and ALDH14080, were upregulated in terms of both mRNA and protein levels in a DDT/pyrethroid-resistant strain of Ae. aegypti. Recombinant ALDH9948 and ALDH14080 exhibited oxidase activities to catalyse the oxidation of a permethrin intermediate, phenoxybenzyl aldehyde (PBald, to phenoxybenzoic acid (PBacid.ALDHs have been identified in association with permethrin resistance in Ae. aegypti. Characterisation of recombinant ALDHs confirmed the role of this protein in pyrethroid metabolism. Understanding the biochemical and molecular mechanisms of pyrethroid resistance provides information for improving vector control strategies.

  19. Curcumin loaded gum arabic aldehyde-gelatin nanogels for breast cancer therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarika, P.R., E-mail: sarikapaithal@gmail.com; Nirmala, Rachel James, E-mail: nirmala@iist.ac.in

    2016-08-01

    Curcumin, a widely studied hydrophobic polyphenol with anticancer potential is loaded in gum arabic aldehyde-gelatin (GA Ald-Gel) nanogels to improve its bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy towards cancer cells. Physicochemical properties of the curcumin loaded GA Ald-Gel nanogels are investigated by different techniques including dynamic light scattering (DLS), NMR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These nanogels exhibit hydrodynamic diameter of 452 ± 8 nm with a zeta potential of − 27 mV. The nanogels possess an encapsulation efficiency of 65 ± 3%. Potential of the nanogels for controlled release of curcumin is illustrated by in vitro drug release studies. Hemocompatibility and cytocompatibility of the drug loaded nanogels are evaluated. In vitro cytotoxicity of the bare and curcumin loaded nanogels are analyzed by MTT assay towards MCF-7 cells. The results manifest that curcumin loaded nanogels induce toxicity in MCF-7 cells. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) studies indicate in vitro cellular uptake of the nanogels in MCF-7 cells. All these results prove the suitability of the curcumin loaded GA Ald-Gel nanogels for cancer therapy. - Highlights: • Curcumin loaded gum arabic aldehyde-gelatin nanogels were prepared. • Nanogels maintained negative zeta potential after curcumin loading. • Curcumin release is higher at acidic pH compared to neutral pH. • Curcumin loaded GA Ald-Gel nanogels shows toxicity towards MCF-7 cells. • Green fluorescence in MCF-7 cells confirmed the intracellular uptake.

  20. NMR analysis of aldehydes in Sicilian extra-virgin olive oils by DPFGSE techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Rotondo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The DPFGSE NMR sequences open new perspectives in the volatile compounds analysis of food matrices. Many fresh extra-virgin Sicilian olive oils, analyzed by this technique, show two main resonances in the aldehydic spectral region (9–10 ppm, at 9.18 and 9.58 ppm. The former was never reported so far, the latter was sometime highlighted as a minor aldehydic component signal of spectra showing stronger resonances at 9.45 and 9.70 ppm. Thermal treatment at 220°C of extra virgin olive oil samples lead to the complete transformation of the resonances at 9.18 and 9.58 ppm into those at 9.45 and 9.70 ppm in 50 minutes. Analogous transformation takes place place in CDCl3 at rt in several weeks. These results suggest the transformation of relatively unstable compounds into thermodynamically more stable products whose resonances are commonly reported in the literature. Even though these chemical changes involve minimal amount of product, they are of crucial importance to define: i organoleptic extra virgin olive oil properties; ii fraudulent chemical or thermal treatment detection; iii extra virgin oil ageing.

  1. Aldehyde fixative solutions alter the water relaxation and diffusion properties of nervous tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Timothy M; Thelwall, Peter E; Stanisz, Greg J; Blackband, Stephen J

    2009-07-01

    Chemically-fixed nervous tissues are well-suited for high-resolution, time-intensive MRI acquisitions without motion artifacts, such as those required for brain atlas projects, but the aldehyde fixatives used may significantly alter tissue MRI properties. To test this hypothesis, this study characterized the impact of common aldehyde fixatives on the MRI properties of a rat brain slice model. Rat cortical slices immersion-fixed in 4% formaldehyde demonstrated 21% and 81% reductions in tissue T(1) and T(2), respectively (P washing slices with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) for 12 h to remove free formaldehyde solution. Diffusion MRI of cortical slices analyzed with a two-compartment analytical model of water diffusion demonstrated 88% and 30% increases in extracellular apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC(EX)) and apparent restriction size, respectively, when slices were chemically-fixed with 4% formaldehyde (P

  2. RPAN: rice pan-genome browser for ∼3000 rice genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chen; Hu, Zhiqiang; Zheng, Tianqing; Lu, Kuangchen; Zhao, Yue; Wang, Wensheng; Shi, Jianxin; Wang, Chunchao; Lu, Jinyuan; Zhang, Dabing; Li, Zhikang; Wei, Chaochun

    2017-01-25

    A pan-genome is the union of the gene sets of all the individuals of a clade or a species and it provides a new dimension of genome complexity with the presence/absence variations (PAVs) of genes among these genomes. With the progress of sequencing technologies, pan-genome study is becoming affordable for eukaryotes with large-sized genomes. The Asian cultivated rice, Oryza sativa L., is one of the major food sources for the world and a model organism in plant biology. Recently, the 3000 Rice Genome Project (3K RGP) sequenced more than 3000 rice genomes with a mean sequencing depth of 14.3×, which provided a tremendous resource for rice research. In this paper, we present a genome browser, Rice Pan-genome Browser (RPAN), as a tool to search and visualize the rice pan-genome derived from 3K RGP. RPAN contains a database of the basic information of 3010 rice accessions, including genomic sequences, gene annotations, PAV information and gene expression data of the rice pan-genome. At least 12 000 novel genes absent in the reference genome were included. RPAN also provides multiple search and visualization functions. RPAN can be a rich resource for rice biology and rice breeding. It is available at http://cgm.sjtu.edu.cn/3kricedb/ or http://www.rmbreeding.cn/pan3k. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  3. Can the co-cultivation of rice and fish help sustain rice production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liangliang; Zhang, Jian; Ren, Weizheng; Guo, Liang; Cheng, Yongxu; Li, Jiayao; Li, Kexin; Zhu, Zewen; Zhang, Jiaen; Luo, Shiming; Cheng, Lei; Tang, Jianjun; Chen, Xin

    2016-06-01

    Because rice feeds half of the world’s population, a secure global food supply depends on sustainable rice production. Here we test whether the co-cultivation of rice and fish into one “rice-fish system” (RFS; fish refers to aquatic animals in this article) could help sustain rice production. We examined intensive and traditional RFSs that have been widely practiced in China. We found that rice yields did not decrease when fish yield was below a threshold value in each intensive RFS. Below the thresholds, moreover, fish yields in intensive RFSs can be substantially higher than those in traditional RFS without reducing rice yield. Relative to rice monoculture, the use of fertilizer-nitrogen and pesticides decreased, and the farmers’ net income increased in RFSs. The results suggest that RFSs can help sustain rice production, and suggest that development of co-culture technologies (i.e. proper field configuration for fish and rice) is necessary to achieve the sustainability.

  4. Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Rice Bran Oils Produced from Colored Rice Using Different Extraction Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingyai, Sukanya; Kettawan, Aikkarach; Srikaeo, Khongsak; Singanusong, Riantong

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of rice bran oil (RBO) produced from the bran of three rice varities; Khao Dawk Mali 105 (white rice), Red Jasmine rice (red rice) and Hom-nin rice (black rice) using three extraction methods including cold-press extraction (CPE), solvent extraction (SE) and supercritical CO2 extraction (SC-CO2). Yields, color, acid value (AV), free fatty acid (FFA), peroxide value (PV), iodine value (IV), total phenolic compound (TPC), γ-oryzanol, α-tocopherol and fatty acid profile were analyzed. It was found that the yields obtained from SE, SC-CO2 and CPE extractions were 17.35-20.19%, 14.76-18.16% and 3.22-6.22%, respectively. The RBO from the bran of red and black rice samples exhibited high antioxidant activities. They also contained higher amount of γ-oryzanol and α-tocopherol than those of white rice sample. In terms of extraction methods, SC-CO2 provided better qualities of RBO as evidenced by their physicochemical and antioxidant properties. This study found that RBO produced from the bran of black rice samples using SC-CO2 extraction method showed the best physicochemical and antioxidant properties.

  5. Practical synthesis of enantiomerically pure beta2-amino acids via proline-catalyzed diastereoselective aminomethylation of aldehydes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Yonggui; English, Emily P; Pomerantz, William C; Horne, W Seth; Joyce, Leo A; Alexander, Lane R; Fleming, William S; Hopkins, Elizabeth A; Gellman, Samuel H

    2007-05-09

    Proline-catalyzed diastereoselective aminomethylation of aldehydes using a chiral iminium ion, generated from a readily prepared precursor, provides alpha-substituted-beta-amino aldehydes with 85:15 to 90:10 dr. The alpha-substituted-beta-amino aldehydes can be reduced to beta-substituted-gamma-amino alcohols, the major diastereomer of which can be isolated via crystallization or column chromatography. The amino alcohols are efficiently transformed to protected beta2-amino acids, which are valuable building blocks for beta-peptides, natural products, and other interesting molecules. Because conditions for the aminomethylation and subsequent reactions are mild, beta2-amino acid derivatives with protected functional groups in the side chain, such as beta2-homoglutamic acid, beta2-homotyrosine, and beta2-homolysine, can be prepared in this way. The synthetic route is short, and purifications are simple; therefore, this method enables the preparation of protected beta2-amino acids in useful quantities.

  6. Catalytic wet-air oxidation of lignin in a three-phase reactor with aromatic aldehyde production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sales F.G.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work a process of catalytic wet air oxidation of lignin obtained from sugar-cane bagasse is developed with the objective of producing vanillin, syringaldehyde and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde in a continuous regime. Palladium supported on g-alumina was used as the catalyst. The reactions in the lignin degradation and aldehyde production were described by a kinetic model as a system of complex parallel and series reactions, in which pseudo-first-order steps are found. For the purpose of producing aromatic aldehydes in continuous regime, a three-phase fluidized reactor was built, and it was operated using atmospheric air as the oxidizer. The best yield in aromatic aldehydes was of 12%. The experimental results were compatible with those values obtained by the pseudo-heterogeneous axial dispersion model (PHADM applied to the liquid phase.

  7. Enhanced detection of aldehydes in Extra-Virgin Olive Oil by means of band selective NMR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugo, Giacomo; Rotondo, Archimede; Mallamace, Domenico; Cicero, Nicola; Salvo, Andrea; Rotondo, Enrico; Corsaro, Carmelo

    2015-02-01

    High resolution Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is a very powerful tool for comprehensive food analyses and especially for Extra-Virgin Olive Oils (EVOOs). We use the NMR technique to study the spectral region of aldehydes (8-10 ppm) for EVOOs coming from the south part of Italy. We perform novel experiments by using mono and bidimensional band selective spin-echo pulse sequences and identify four structural classes of aldehydes in EVOOs. For the first time such species are identified in EVOOs without any chemical treatment; only dilution with CDCl3 is employed. This would allow the discrimination of different EVOOs for the aldehydes content increasing the potentiality of the NMR technique in the screening of metabolites for geographical characterization of EVOOs.

  8. Consumer Preferences and Buying Criteria in Rice: A Study to Identify Market Strategy for Thailand Jasmine Rice Export

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suwannaporn, P.; Linnemann, A.R.

    2008-01-01

    Rice consumption per capita in many Asian countries decreased, but it is consumed more in non-rice-eating countries. This study aimed to investigate consumer preferences and attitudes toward Jasmine rice among consumers in target rice export countries to identify opportunities and strategic

  9. Seed wintering and deterioration characteristics between weedy and cultivated rice

    OpenAIRE

    Baek, Jung-Sun; Chung, Nam-Jin

    2012-01-01

    Background Incidences of weedy rice continuously occurred in paddy fields because its shattering seeds were able to over-winter. In this research, the seed deterioration of weedy rice was investigated compared with cultivated rice, and the wintering characteristics of these two types of rice were investigated with the field wintering test, freezing resistance test, and accelerated aging test. Results For the wintering test, the seeds of weedy rice were placed on the soil surface of a paddy wi...

  10. COMPARATIVE PERFORMANCE OF A LOCALLY DEVELOPED VOTEX RICE FAN THRESHER

    OpenAIRE

    Dauda, S.M.; A. U. Dzivama

    2008-01-01

    The efforts to discover and make optimal and effective use of locally developed rice thresher as substitute for imported rice threshers form the focus of this paper. A locally developed rice thresher was compared with an imported Votex rice fan fromHolland.  The study was based on threshing efficiency, cleaning efficiency, total grain losses, grain recovery range, capacity utilization and threshing intensity. Three popular rice varieties, Faro 51, Faro 29 and Faro 21 were used to evaluate the...

  11. Mechanistic investigation of the gold-catalyzed aerobic oxidation of aldehydes: added insight from Hammett studies and isotopic labelling experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fristrup, Peter; Johansen, Louise Bahn; Christensen, Claus Hviid

    2008-01-01

    The gold-catalyzed aerobic oxidation of aldehydes proceeds through development of a partial negative charge and has a significant kinetic isotope effect (k(H)/k(D) = 2.8-2.9), which illustrates that activation of the C-H bond takes place in the rate-determining step.......The gold-catalyzed aerobic oxidation of aldehydes proceeds through development of a partial negative charge and has a significant kinetic isotope effect (k(H)/k(D) = 2.8-2.9), which illustrates that activation of the C-H bond takes place in the rate-determining step....

  12. [Safety of rice grains and mycotoxins - a historical review of yellow rice mycotoxicoses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udagawa, Shun-ichi; Tatsuno, Takashi

    2004-01-01

    Aflatoxins, the most powerful mycotoxins, were brought to the attention fo the people in the early 1960s with the outbreak of the turkey "X" disease in England. However, the history of mycotoxin research in Japan began 100 years ago. In 1891, Sakaki demonstrated that moldy, unpolished rice was fatal to experimental animals, with symptoms indicating paralysis of the central nervous system (Shoshin-kakke). In 1920, Prof. I. Miyake and Dr. Takada first reported that Penicillium commune, which was known as a causal agent of "Mossy diseased rice" was found to be toxic to experimental animals by feeding the moldy rice to rabbits and rats.With such a historical background, taking the idea of "rice, fungus and toxin" as a working hypothesis, Miyake and his co-workers discovered the first sample of yellow rice grains from Taiwanese and domestic rice, from which was isolated a species of Penicillium and later identified it with P. citreonigrum (=P. toxicarium). The fungus produced a highly toxic metabolite, citreoviridin. Unfortunately because this study was published during wartime, it failed to alert the world to the potential or actual dangers of the toxicity of common molds. After World War II, Japanese people suffered for some years from a shortage in domestic rice production and depended on foreign countries to supply rice, which led to the toxicological screening on fungal isolates from polluted rice grains by Dr. Tsunoda and his co-workers. AMong the isolates from imported rice, there were two species of Penicillium which were particularly associated with high toxicity; P. islandicum responsible for brownish discolored rice, and P. citrinum responsible for yellowish rice. P. islandicum produces two hepatotoxic metabolites: luteoskyrin and cyclochlorotine, while a nephrotoxic of P. citrinum is citrinin. These toxicological characters, including the induction of cancer and chemical structures, were studied by Profs. uraguchi, Saito, Shibata, Tatsuno and their co

  13. Evaluation of Heavy Metals Contamination from Environment to Food Matrix by TXRF: The Case of Rice and Rice Husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabjola Bilo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the chemical analysis of contaminated soils of India and the rice grown in the same area. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy is a well-established technique for elemental chemical analysis of environmental samples, and it can be a useful tool to assess food safety. Metals uptake in rice crop grown in soils from different areas was studied. In this work soil, rice husk and rice samples were analyzed after complete solubilization of samples by microwave acid digestion. Heavy metals concentration detected in rice samples decreases in the following order: Mn > Zn > Cu > Ni > Pb > Cr. The metal content in rice husk was higher than in rice. This study suggests, for the first time, a possible role of heavy metals filter played by rice husk. The knowledge of metals sequestration capability of rice husk may promote some new management practices for rice cultivation to preserve it from pollution.

  14. Rice Husk Filled Polymer Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Arjmandi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural fibers from agricultural wastes are finding their importance in the polymer industry due to the many advantages such as their light weight, low cost and being environmentally friendly. Rice husk (RH is a natural sheath that forms around rice grains during their growth. As a type of natural fiber obtained from agroindustrial waste, RH can be used as filler in composites materials in various polymer matrices. This review paper is aimed at highlighting previous works of RH filled polymer composites to provide information for applications and further research in this area. Based on the information gathered, application of RH filled composites as alternative materials in building and construction is highly plausible with both light weight and low cost being their main driving forces. However, further investigations on physical and chemical treatment to further improve the interfacial adhesion with polymeric matrix are needed as fiber-polymer interaction is crucial in determining the final composite properties. Better understanding on how the used polymer blends as the matrix and secondary fillers may affect the properties would provide interesting areas to be explored.

  15. Response of aerobic rice to Piriformospora indica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Joy; Ramesh, K V; Maithri, U; Mutangana, D; Suresh, C K

    2014-03-01

    Rice cultivation under aerobic condition not only saves water but also opens up a splendid scope for effective application of beneficial root symbionts in rice crop unlike conventional puddled rice cultivation where water logged condition acts as constraint for easy proliferation of various beneficial soil microorganisms like arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Keeping these in view, an in silico investigation were carried out to explore the interaction of hydrogen phosphate with phosphate transporter protein (PTP) from P. indica. This was followed by greenhouse investigation to study the response of aerobic rice to Glomusfasciculatum, a conventional P biofertilizer and P. indica, an alternative to AM fungi. Computational studies using ClustalW tool revealed several conserved motifs between the phosphate transporters from Piriformospora indica and 8 other Glomus species. The 3D model of PTP from P. indica resembling "Mayan temple" was successfully docked onto hydrogen phosphate, indicating the affinity of this protein for inorganic phosphorus. Greenhouse studies revealed inoculation of aerobic rice either with P. indica, G. fasciculatum or both significantly enhanced the plant growth, biomass and yield with higher NPK, chlorophyll and sugar compared to uninoculated ones, P. indica inoculated plants being superior. A significantly enhanced activity of acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase were noticed in the rhizosphere soil of rice plants inoculated either with P. indica, G. fasciculatum or both, contributing to higher P uptake. Further, inoculation of aerobic rice plants with P. indica proved to be a better choice as a potential biofertilizer over mycorrhiza.

  16. Using rice straw to manufacture ceramic bricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorbunov German Ivanovich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the co-authors offer their advanced and efficient methodologies for the recycling of the rice straw, as well as the novel approaches to the ceramic brick quality improvement through the application of the rice straw as the combustible additive and through the formation of amorphous silica in the course of the rice straw combustion. The co-authors provide characteristics of the raw materials, production techniques used to manufacture ceramic bricks, and their basic properties in the article. The co-authors describe the simulated process of formation of amorphous silica. The process in question has two independent steps (or options: 1 rice straw combustion and ash formation outside the oven (in the oxidizing medium, and further application of ash as the additive in the process of burning clay mixtures; 2 adding pre-treated rice straw as the combustible additive into the clay mixture, and its further burning in compliance with the pre-set temperature mode. The findings have proven that the most rational pre-requisite of the rice straw application in the manufacturing of ceramic bricks consists in feeding milled straw into the clay mixture to be followed by molding, drying and burning. Brick samples are highly porous, and they also demonstrate sufficient compressive strength. The co-authors have also identified optimal values of rice straw and ash content in the mixtures under research.

  17. A convenient method for rapid determination of proteins in rices and rice products

    OpenAIRE

    光永, 俊郎; 安藤, ひとみ

    1990-01-01

    [Author abstract]In the biuret determination of protein in rices and rice products, starch and lipids extractable with an alkaline solution such as biuret reagent were found to interfere with the biuret method. Comparative evaluation of their effects revealed that starch, a major component of rice, has the most significant effect on the biuret method. In the presence of starch, the correlation between Kjeldahl protein and the optical density of biuret was poor. It was found that several perha...

  18. Chemical Looping Combustion of Rice Husk

    OpenAIRE

    Rashmeet Singh Monga; Ganesh R. Kale

    2015-01-01

    A thermodynamic investigation of direct chemical looping combustion (CLC) of rice husk is presented in this paper. Both steam and CO2 are used for gasification within the temperature range of 500–1200˚C and different amounts of oxygen carriers. Chemical equilibrium model was considered for the CLC fuel reactor. The trends in product compositions of the fuel reactor, were determined. Rice husk gasification using 3 moles H2O and 0 moles CO2 per mole carbon (in rice husk) at 1 bar pr...

  19. Thermodynamics of solvation of some linear and branched aliphatic aldehydes in water and heptane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Della Gatta, G., E-mail: giuseppe.dellagatta@unito.i [Department of Chemistry IFM, University of Turin, via Pietro Giuria 9, 10125 Turin (Italy); Badea, Elena; Saczuk, Magdalena [Department of Chemistry IFM, University of Turin, via Pietro Giuria 9, 10125 Turin (Italy)

    2010-10-15

    The enthalpies of dissolution in water at infinite dilution (i.d.), {Delta}H{sub tot}{sup {infinity}}, of propanal, butanal, 2-methylpropanal, pentanal, and 2,2-dimethylpropanal were measured by isothermal calorimetry at T = 298.15 K. The enthalpies of solution, {Delta}{sub sol}H{sub m}{sup {infinity}}, in water were derived by subtracting the enthalpies of the hydration reaction at 298.15 K from the measured enthalpies of dissolution. The values obtained were combined with the standard enthalpies of vaporisation, {Delta}{sub vap}H{sub m}{sup 0}, to obtain the corresponding enthalpies of solvation at i.d., {Delta}{sub solv}H{sub m}{sup {infinity}}. The CH{sub 2} group contribution to {Delta}{sub solv}H{sub m}{sup {infinity}}in water for linear aliphatic aldehydes was (-3.4 {+-} 0.5) kJ . mol{sup -1} in good agreement with the average value obtained for a large number of organic compounds containing linear alkyl chains. The simple additive method adopted to estimate the molar enthalpy of solvation at i.d in water for the CHO functional group and its internal CO group gave (-28.1 {+-} 1.5) kJ . mol{sup -1} and (-22.5 {+-} 1.5) kJ . mol{sup -1}, respectively. The enthalpies of solvation in heptane of linear and branched aldehydes with 3 to 11 C atoms were obtained using our earlier enthalpies of solution at i.d. and T = 298.15 K and recent experimental enthalpies of vaporisation from literature. Methylene group contribution to {Delta}{sub solv}H{sub m}{sup {infinity}}for linear aliphatic aldehydes in heptane was (-4.8 {+-} 0.1) kJ . mol{sup -1}. Enthalpy of transfer from heptane to water for CH{sub 2} group was (2.1 {+-} 0.4) kJ . mol{sup -1}.

  20. Development of a microfluidic paper-based analytical device for the determination of salivary aldehydes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdzan, Adlin N; Almeida, M Inês G S; McCullough, Michael J; Kolev, Spas D

    2016-05-05

    A low cost, disposable and easy to use microfluidic paper-based analytical device (μPAD) was developed for simple and non-invasive determination of total aldehydes in saliva with a potential to be used in epidemiological studies to assess oral cancer risk. The μPAD is based on the colour reaction between aldehydes (e.g. acetaldehyde, formaldehyde), 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone (MBTH) and iron(III) to form an intense blue coloured formazan dye. The newly developed μPAD has a 3D design with two overlapping paper layers. The first layer comprises 15 circular detection zones (8 mm in diameter), each impregnated with 8 μL of MBTH, while the second layer contains 15 reagent zones (4 mm in diameter). Two μL of iron(III) chloride are added to each one of the second layer zones after the addition of sample to the detection zones in the first layer. All hydrophilic zones of the μPAD are defined by wax printing using a commercial wax printer. Due to the 2-step nature of the analytical reaction, the two paper layers are separated by a cellulose acetate interleaving sheet to allow for the reaction between the aldehydes in the saliva sample with MBTH to proceed first with the formation of an azine, followed by a blue coloured reaction between the azine and the oxidized by iron(III) form of MBTH, produced after the removal of the interleaving sheet. After obtaining a high resolution image of the detection side zone of the device using a flatbed scanner, the intensity of the blue colour within each detection zone is measured with Image J software. Under optimal conditions, the μPAD is characterised by a working range of 20.4-114.0 μM, limit of detection of 6.1 μM, and repeatability, expressed as RSD, of less than 12.7% (n = 5). There is no statistically significant difference at the 95% confidence level between the results obtained by the μPAD and the reference method (Student's t-test: 0.090 freezer (≤-20 °C). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All

  1. 1-ARYL-2,2-DIMETHYL-1,3-PROPANEDIOLS AS CHIRAL AUXILIARIES - ACETAL FORMATION WITH ALPHA,BETA-UNSATURATED ALDEHYDES AND ANALYSIS OF THE STEREOCHEMISTRY OF CYCLOPROPANATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    EBENS, R; KELLOGG, RM

    1990-01-01

    Optically pure 1-aryl-(phenyl and 2-chlorophenyl) 1,3-propanediols, 1a and 1b, condense smoothly with aldehydes to provide the corresponding cyclic acetals. 3. Except in cases that the aldehyde is substituted at the alpha-carbon atom, a single product is obtained. With the aid of 2D-NMR the

  2. Chemoselective Preparation of 1,1-Diacetates from Aldehydes, Mediated by a Keggin Heteropolyacid Under Solvent Free Conditions at Room Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Romanelli

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, general and efficient method has been developed for the conversion of aldehydes to 1,1-diacetates using acetic anhydride, a catalytic amount of non commercial Keggin heteropolyacid (H6 PalMo11O40 (1% mol in solvent free conditions at room temperature. Aromatic and aliphatic, simple and conjugated aldehydes were protected with excellent yields.

  3. Development of an on-line weak-cation exchange liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method for screening aldehyde products in biological matrices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggink, M.; Charret, S.; Wijtmans, M.; Lingeman, H.; Kool, J.; Niessen, W.M.; Irth, H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the development and optimization of an on-line weak-cation exchange SPE (WCXE) coupled to gradient HPLC with tandem MS detection. The system enables the selective purification and re-concentration of the in-vial derivatized aldehydes from plasma and urine samples. Aldehydes are

  4. Feeding behavior of rice bug Leptocorisa chinensis (Dallas) (Heteroptera: Alydidae) nymphs on rice panicles and rice plant extract

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ishizaki, Mami; Yasuda, Tetsuya; Watanabe, Tomonari

    2007-01-01

    .... The nymphs showed typical behavioral phases towards the rice panicles: antennation, extension of the rostrum, repeated dabbing with the labium, rostrum placing on the plant surface, stylet penetration and continuous sucking...

  5. Impact of milling and water-to-rice ratio on cooked rice and wastewater properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altheide, M C; Morawicki, R O; Hager, T J

    2012-06-01

    Due to the environmental concerns and expense associated with the disposal of wastewater after industrial cooking of rice, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the extent of leaching, water uptake and volumetric expansion of rice during cooking at various milling durations and water-to-rice ratios. Two cultivars of Arkansas rice, a long grain (Francis) and a medium grain (Jupiter), were milled for 10, 20, and 30 s with a laboratory mill. Samples were cooked in aluminum foil covered beakers at water-to-rice ratios of 10:1, 15:1, and 20:1. After 20 min, rice was weighed for water uptake and measured for volumetric expansion using hexane displacement. The excess cooking water was evaluated for total solids, amylose, and protein to determine the extent of leaching. Water uptake and volumetric expansion significantly increased with milling duration in both cultivars. Leached solids increased as the water-to-rice ratio increased in Francis and increased with milling duration in Jupiter; however, the amylose content of leached solids was unaffected by the water-to-rice ratio in both cultivars. Thus, shorter milling durations may limit the extent of leaching during cooking, as observed with Jupiter, while a lower water-to-rice ratio may reduce wastewater contamination for cultivars similar to Francis.

  6. Characterization of Volatile Flavor Compounds in Chinese Rice Wine Fermented from Enzymatic Extruded Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Enbo; Long, Jie; Wu, Zhengzong; Li, Hongyan; Wang, Fang; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu; Jiao, Aiquan

    2015-07-01

    Enzymatic extrusion, instead of traditional steam cooking, to treat rice is an efficient and alternative pretreatment for Chinese rice wine fermentation. In order to determine the formation of volatiles in enzymatic extrusion-processed rice wine (EE), and to confirm its characteristic flavor compounds, headspace solid-phase micro-extraction followed by GC-MS was used. A total of 66 volatile compounds were identified in EE. During fermentation, most volatiles generated from enzymatic extruded rice had the similar trends with those from steam-cooked rice, but the differences in the concentration of volatiles indicated a changed balance of flavors release caused by enzymatic extrusion. Besides, the concentrations and sorts of volatiles in EEs fermented from different rice particle sizes, were not dramatically different. By principal component analysis, EE could be distinctly separated from other traditional Chinese rice wines according to its characteristic volatiles, namely, 2-heptanol, 1-octen-3-ol, ethyl 4-hydroxybenzoate, methylpentyl 2-propenoate, γ-hexalactone, and 4-vinylguaiacol. Enzymatic extrusion liquefaction has been a popular thermal treatment for cereals, and gradually being applied in fermentation and liquor-making industry all over the world. The characterization of volatile flavor compounds in Chinese rice wine processed by enzymatic extrusion liquefaction pretreatment, might be made use not only for a better understanding of this new-type rice wine, but for the further utilization of enzymatic extrusion in other wine or alcohol production as well. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. Novel aldehyde and thiosemicarbazone derivatives: Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, structural studies and molecular docking studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakurt, Tuncay; Tahtaci, Hakan; Subasi, Nuriye Tuna; Er, Mustafa; Ağar, Erbil

    2016-12-01

    In this study our purpose is that, synthesis and characterization of compounds containing the aldehyde and thiosemicarbazone groups and comparison of the theoretical results with the experimental results. The structures of all synthesized compounds were elucidated by IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, elemental analyses techniques. The structure of compound (4) (C9H8N4O2S) was also elucidated by X-ray diffraction analysis. In addition, the theoretical IR spectrum, 1H NMR and 13C NMR chemical shift values, frontier molecular orbital values (FMO) of these molecules were analyzed by using Becke-3- Lee-Yang-Parr (B3LYP) method with LanL2DZ basis set. Finally, molecular docking studies were performed on synthesized compounds using the 4DKI beta-lactam protein structure to determine the potential binding mode of inhibitors.

  8. Synthesis of cyclic polyamines by enzymatic generation of an amino aldehyde in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassimjee, Karim Engelmark; Marín, Sílvia Rodríguez; Berglund, Per

    2012-09-26

    Multifunctional polycationic polyamines, for example, used in drug and gene delivery, have product range limitations in their synthesis methods. Here, we synthesize a polyamine by forming a self-assembling amino aldehyde from the corresponding amino alcohol with horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase (HLADH), followed by reduction. Circular polyamines were synthesized from 3-amino-propan-1-ol as starting material, analogous to cyclic polyamines formed from azetidin. The product had an isolated yield of 89.7% or 15.3 g L(-1) . The predicted range of possible polyamine products by this method is broad since many amino alcohols are putative substrates for HLADH. The enzyme also had activity for 2-amino-propan-1-ol and 2-amino-2-phenyl-ethanol, for which the enantioselectivity was 330 (S) and 32 (R), respectively. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. A modeling study of aldehyde inhibitors of human cathepsin K using partial least squares method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahlaei, M; Fassihi, A; Saghaie, L; Arkan, E; Pourhossein, A

    2011-07-01

    Quantitative relationships between molecular structure of forty eight aldehyde compounds with their known Cathepsin K inhibitory effects were discovered by partial least squares (PLS) method. Evaluation of a test set of 10 compounds with the developed PLS model revealed that this model is reliable with a good predictability. Since the QSAR study was performed on the basis of theoretical descriptors calculated completely from the molecular structures, the proposed model could potentially provide useful information about the activity of the studied compounds. Various tests and criteria such as leave-one-out cross validation, leave-many-out cross validation, and also criteria suggested by Tropsha were employed to examine the predictability and robustness of the developed model.

  10. A modeling study of aldehyde inhibitors of human cathepsin K using partial least squares method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahlaei, M.; Fassihi, A.; Saghaie, L.; Arkan, E.; Pourhossein, A.

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative relationships between molecular structure of forty eight aldehyde compounds with their known Cathepsin K inhibitory effects were discovered by partial least squares (PLS) method. Evaluation of a test set of 10 compounds with the developed PLS model revealed that this model is reliable with a good predictability. Since the QSAR study was performed on the basis of theoretical descriptors calculated completely from the molecular structures, the proposed model could potentially provide useful information about the activity of the studied compounds. Various tests and criteria such as leave-one-out cross validation, leave-many-out cross validation, and also criteria suggested by Tropsha were employed to examine the predictability and robustness of the developed model. PMID:22224089

  11. Nature of Intermediates in Organo-SOMO Catalysis of α-Arylation of Aldehydes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Joann M.; Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Schoenebeck, Franziska

    2010-01-01

    The intramolecular α-arylation of aldehydes via organo-SOMO catalysis was investigated using density functional theory (B3LYP and M06-2X functionals). The geometries, spin densities, Mulliken charges, and molecular orbitals of the reacting enamine radical cations were analyzed, and the nature of the resulting cyclized radical cation intermediates were characterized. In agreement with experimental observations, the calculated 1,3-disubstituted aromatic system shows ortho selectivity, while the 1,3,4-trisubstituted systems show para, meta (instead of ortho, meta) selectivity. The selectivity change for the trisubstituted rings is attributed to a distortion of the ortho substituents in the ortho, meta cyclization transition structures, causing a destabilization of these isomers and therefore selectivity for the para, meta product. PMID:20387888

  12. Protein alkylation by the α,β-unsaturated aldehyde acrolein. A reversible mechanism of electrophile signaling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Matthew J.; Hristova, Milena; van der Vliet, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Acrolein, a reactive aldehyde found in cigarette smoke, is thought to induce its biological effects primarily by irreversible adduction to cellular nucleophiles such as cysteine thiols. Here, we demonstrate that acrolein rapidly inactivates the seleno-enzyme thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) in human bronchiolar epithelial HBE1 cells, which recovered over 4-8 hrs by a mechanism depending on the presence of cellular GSH and thioredoxin 1 (Trx1), and corresponding with reversal of protein-acrolein adduction. Our findings indicate that acrolein-induced protein alkylation is not necessarily a feature of irreversible protein damage, but may reflect a reversible signaling mechanism that is regulated by GSH and Trx1. PMID:24157358

  13. Biological Evaluation and 3D-QSAR Studies of Curcumin Analogues as Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 1 Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1 is reported as a biomarker for identifying some cancer stem cells, and down-regulation or inhibition of the enzyme can be effective in anti-drug resistance and a potent therapeutic for some tumours. In this paper, the inhibitory activity, mechanism mode, molecular docking and 3D-QSAR (three-dimensional quantitative structure activity relationship of curcumin analogues (CAs against ALDH1 were studied. Results demonstrated that curcumin and CAs possessed potent inhibitory activity against ALDH1, and the CAs compound with ortho di-hydroxyl groups showed the most potent inhibitory activity. This study indicates that CAs may represent a new class of ALDH1 inhibitor.

  14. Glyceraldehyde and glycolaldehyde in interstellar ice analogues and the role of aldehydes in cosmochemical evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meierhenrich, U.; de Marcellus, P.; Meinert, C.; Myrgorodska, I.; Nahon, L.; Buhse, T.; d'Hendecourt, L.

    2015-10-01

    Our understanding of the molecular origin of life is based on amino acids, ribose, and nucleobases that - after their selection by prebiotic processes - initiated the evolutionary assembly of catalytic and informational polymers, being proteins and ribonucleic acids. Following previous amino acid identifications in the room-temperature residues of simulated circumstellar/interstellar ices [1,2] we have searched for a different family of molecules of potential prebiotic interest. Using multidimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry, we have detected ten aldehydes, including the sugar-related glycolaldehyde and glyceraldehyde - two species considered as key prebiotic intermediates in the first steps toward the synthesis of ribonucleotides in a planetary environment.

  15. Wittig reactions in water media employing stabilized ylides with aldehydes. Synthesis of alpha,beta-unsaturated esters from mixing aldehydes, alpha-bromoesters, and Ph3P in aqueous NaHCO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Batta, Amer; Jiang, Changchun; Zhao, Wen; Anness, Robert; Cooksy, Andrew L; Bergdahl, Mikael

    2007-07-06

    Water is demonstrated to be an effective medium for the Wittig reaction over a wide range of stabilized ylides and aldehydes. Despite sometimes poor solubility of the reactants, good chemical yields normally ranging from 80 to 98% and high E-selectivities (up to 99%) are achieved, and the rate of the reactions in water is unexpectedly accelerated. The efficiency of water as a medium in the Wittig reaction is compared to conventional organic solvents ranging from carbon tetrachloride to methanol. The aqueous Wittig reaction works best when large hydrophobic entities are present, such as aromatic, heterocyclic aromatic carboxaldehydes, and long-chain aliphatic aldehydes with triphenylphosphoranes. The E/Z-isomeric ratio of the Wittig products appears dependent on the electron-accepting/donating capacity and the location of the substituents present in the aromatic ring. The effect of additives, such as benzoic acid, LiCl, and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), on the Wittig reaction has been explored. The Wittig reaction can also be conducted in the presence of acidic entities, such as phenols and carboxylic acids. In addition, large alpha-substituents in the aliphatic aldehydes do not jeopardize the reaction. It is also demonstrated that hydrates of aldehydes can be used directly in the aqueous Wittig reaction as substrates. The scope of the aqueous Wittig reaction is extended to 24 examples of one-pot mixtures of Ph3P, alpha-bromoesters, and aldehydes in sodium bicarbonate solution (at 20 degrees C for 40 min to 3 h) to provide Wittig products of up to 99% yield and up to 98% E-selectivity. Since water is inexpensive, extremely easy to handle, and represents no environmental concerns, it should be considered a possible medium for new organic reactions.

  16. Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Gene Superfamily in Populus: Organization and Expression Divergence between Paralogous Gene Pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Feng-Xia; Zang, Jian-Lei; Wang, Tan; Xie, Yu-Li; Zhang, Jin; Hu, Jian-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) constitute a superfamily of NAD(P)+-dependent enzymes that catalyze the irreversible oxidation of a wide range of reactive aldehydes to their corresponding nontoxic carboxylic acids. ALDHs have been studied in many organisms from bacteria to mammals; however, no systematic analyses incorporating genome organization, gene structure, expression profiles, and cis-acting elements have been conducted in the model tree species Populus trichocarpa thus far. In this study, a comprehensive analysis of the Populus ALDH gene superfamily was performed. A total of 26 Populus ALDH genes were found to be distributed across 12 chromosomes. Genomic organization analysis indicated that purifying selection may have played a pivotal role in the retention and maintenance of PtALDH gene families. The exon-intron organizations of PtALDHs were highly conserved within the same family, suggesting that the members of the same family also may have conserved functionalities. Microarray data and qRT-PCR analysis indicated that most PtALDHs had distinct tissue-specific expression patterns. The specificity of cis-acting elements in the promoter regions of the PtALDHs and the divergence of expression patterns between nine paralogous PtALDH gene pairs suggested that gene duplications may have freed the duplicate genes from the functional constraints. The expression levels of some ALDHs were up- or down-regulated by various abiotic stresses, implying that the products of these genes may be involved in the adaptation of Populus to abiotic stresses. Overall, the data obtained from our investigation contribute to a better understanding of the complexity of the Populus ALDH gene superfamily and provide insights into the function and evolution of ALDH gene families in vascular plants.

  17. Distribution of genetic polymorphism of aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2 in Indonesian subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Septelia I. Wanandi

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH plays a pivotal role in the alcohol metabolism. Decreased activity of ALDH enzyme has more influence on the hypersensitivity to alcohol than of alcohol dehydrogenase. ALDH enzyme exists in several isozymes. Among these isozymes, ALDH2 is a major isozyme that has a very high affinity for acetaldehyde. Recent studies suggested that the deficiency of ALDH2 may be inherited. Functional polymorphism of ALDH2 gene has been observed in a nucleotide of the 487th codon. In the atypical gene, this codon consists of AAA nucleotides for lysine, instead of GAA for glutamic acid in the wild type gene. In this study, we have analyzed the genetic polymorphism of ALDH2 gene among 100 Indonesian students using genomic DNA extracted from hair roots. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP methods were performed for this purpose. Three oligonucleotide primers were designed for two steps PCR. The reverse primer R was intentionally constructed not to be 100% complementary to the template strand, to generate a restriction site for Eco RI within the variable nucleotide in the PCR product of ALDH2 gene. This study indicates that 70 subjects (70% have wild type, 29 (29% atypical heterozygote and only 1 (1% atypical homozygote ALDH2 alleles. Conclusively, the atypical ALDH2 allele frequency in Indonesians (31/200 is higher than in Caucasoids (only about 5-10%, but less than in Mongoloids (40-50%. This may be due to the diverse ethnics of Indonesian population. (Med J Indones 2002; 11: 135-42 Keywords: alcohol hypersensitivity, genetic polymorphism, aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2 gene

  18. Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Gene Superfamily in Populus: Organization and Expression Divergence between Paralogous Gene Pairs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Xia Tian

    Full Text Available Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs constitute a superfamily of NAD(P+-dependent enzymes that catalyze the irreversible oxidation of a wide range of reactive aldehydes to their corresponding nontoxic carboxylic acids. ALDHs have been studied in many organisms from bacteria to mammals; however, no systematic analyses incorporating genome organization, gene structure, expression profiles, and cis-acting elements have been conducted in the model tree species Populus trichocarpa thus far. In this study, a comprehensive analysis of the Populus ALDH gene superfamily was performed. A total of 26 Populus ALDH genes were found to be distributed across 12 chromosomes. Genomic organization analysis indicated that purifying selection may have played a pivotal role in the retention and maintenance of PtALDH gene families. The exon-intron organizations of PtALDHs were highly conserved within the same family, suggesting that the members of the same family also may have conserved functionalities. Microarray data and qRT-PCR analysis indicated that most PtALDHs had distinct tissue-specific expression patterns. The specificity of cis-acting elements in the promoter regions of the PtALDHs and the divergence of expression patterns between nine paralogous PtALDH gene pairs suggested that gene duplications may have freed the duplicate genes from the functional constraints. The expression levels of some ALDHs were up- or down-regulated by various abiotic stresses, implying that the products of these genes may be involved in the adaptation of Populus to abiotic stresses. Overall, the data obtained from our investigation contribute to a better understanding of the complexity of the Populus ALDH gene superfamily and provide insights into the function and evolution of ALDH gene families in vascular plants.

  19. Potential Polyunsaturated Aldehydes in the Strait of Gibraltar under Two Tidal Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad Morillo-García

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Diatoms, a major component of the large-sized phytoplankton, are able to produce and release polyunsaturated aldehydes after cell disruption (potential PUAs or pPUA. These organisms are dominant in the large phytoplankton fraction (>10 µm in the Strait of Gibraltar, the only connection between the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. In this area, the hydrodynamics exerts a strong control on the composition and physiological state of the phytoplankton. This environment offers a great opportunity to analyze and compare the little known distribution of larger sized PUA producers in nature and, moreover, to study how environmental variables could affect the ranges and potential distribution of these compounds. Our results showed that, at both tidal regimes studied (Spring and Neap tides, diatoms in the Strait of Gibraltar are able to produce three aldehydes: Heptadienal, Octadienal and Decadienal, with a significant dominance of Decadienal production. The PUA released by mechanical cell disruption of large-sized collected cells (pPUA ranged from 0.01 to 12.3 pmol from cells in 1 L, and from 0.1 to 9.8 fmol cell−1. Tidal regime affected the abundance, distribution and the level of physiological stress of diatoms in the Strait. During Spring tides, diatoms were more abundant, usually grouped nearer the coastal basin and showed less physiological stress than during Neap tides. Our results suggest a significant general increase in the pPUA productivity with increasing physiological stress for the cell also significantly associated to low nitrate availability.

  20. Protocatechuic aldehyde inhibits migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells and intravascular thrombosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Chang Yoon [The Hotchkiss School, Lakeville, CT (United States); Endocrinology, Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Institute of Endocrine Research, and Severance Integrative Research Institute for Cerebral and Cardiovascular Disease, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ku, Cheol Ryong [Endocrinology, Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Institute of Endocrine Research, and Severance Integrative Research Institute for Cerebral and Cardiovascular Disease, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Yoon Hee, E-mail: wooriminji@gmail.com [Endocrinology, Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Institute of Endocrine Research, and Severance Integrative Research Institute for Cerebral and Cardiovascular Disease, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eun Jig, E-mail: ejlee423@yuhs.ac [Endocrinology, Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Science, Institute of Endocrine Research, and Severance Integrative Research Institute for Cerebral and Cardiovascular Disease, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Endocrinology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2012-06-22

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Protocatechuic aldehyde (PCA) inhibits ROS production in VSMCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PCA inhibits proliferation and migration in PDGF-induced VSMCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PCA has anti-platelet effects in ex vivo rat whole blood. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We report the potential therapeutic role of PCA in atherosclerosis. -- Abstract: The migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and formation of intravascular thrombosis play crucial roles in the development of atherosclerotic lesions. This study examined the effects of protocatechuic aldehyde (PCA), a compound isolated from the aqueous extract of the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza, an herb used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat a variety of vascular diseases, on the migration and proliferation of VSMCs and platelets due to platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). DNA 5-bromo-2 Prime -deoxy-uridine (BrdU) incorporation and wound-healing assays indicated that PCA significantly attenuated PDGF-induced proliferation and migration of VSMCs at a pharmacologically relevant concentration (100 {mu}M). On a molecular level, we observed down-regulation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, both of which regulate key enzymes associated with migration and proliferation. We also found that PCA induced S-phase arrest of the VSMC cell cycle and suppressed cyclin D2 expression. In addition, PCA inhibited PDGF-BB-stimulated reactive oxygen species production in VSMCs, indicating that PCA's antioxidant properties may contribute to its suppression of PDGF-induced migration and proliferation in VSMCs. Finally, PCA exhibited an anti-thrombotic effect related to its inhibition of platelet aggregation, confirmed with an aggregometer. Together, these findings suggest a potential therapeutic role of PCA in the treatment of atherosclerosis and angioplasty-induced vascular restenosis.

  1. Identification of crucial amino acids in mouse aldehyde oxidase 3 that determine substrate specificity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Mahro

    Full Text Available In order to elucidate factors that determine substrate specificity and activity of mammalian molybdo-flavoproteins we performed site directed mutagenesis of mouse aldehyde oxidase 3 (mAOX3. The sequence alignment of different aldehyde oxidase (AOX isoforms identified variations in the active site of mAOX3 in comparison to other AOX proteins and xanthine oxidoreductases (XOR. Based on the structural alignment of mAOX3 and bovine XOR, differences in amino acid residues involved in substrate binding in XORs in comparison to AOXs were identified. We exchanged several residues in the active site to the ones found in other AOX homologues in mouse or to residues present in bovine XOR in order to examine their influence on substrate selectivity and catalytic activity. Additionally we analyzed the influence of the [2Fe-2S] domains of mAOX3 on its kinetic properties and cofactor saturation. We applied UV-VIS and EPR monitored redox-titrations to determine the redox potentials of wild type mAOX3 and mAOX3 variants containing the iron-sulfur centers of mAOX1. In addition, a combination of molecular docking and molecular dynamic simulations (MD was used to investigate factors that modulate the substrate specificity and activity of wild type and AOX variants. The successful conversion of an AOX enzyme to an XOR enzyme was achieved exchanging eight residues in the active site of mAOX3. It was observed that the absence of the K889H exchange substantially decreased the activity of the enzyme towards all substrates analyzed, revealing that this residue has an important role in catalysis.

  2. Formation of Aldehydic Phosphatidylcholines during the Anaerobic Decomposition of a Phosphatidylcholine Bearing the 9-Hydroperoxide of Linoleic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyango, Arnold N

    2016-01-01

    Lipid oxidation-derived carbonyl compounds are associated with the development of various physiological disorders. Formation of most of these products has recently been suggested to require further reactions of oxygen with lipid hydroperoxides. However, in rat and human tissues, the formation of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal is greatly elevated during hypoxic/ischemic conditions. Furthermore, a previous study found an unexpected result that the decomposition of a phosphatidylcholine (PC) bearing the 13-hydroperoxide of linoleic acid under a nitrogen atmosphere afforded 9-oxononanoyl-PC rather than 13-oxo-9,11-tridecadienoyl-PC as the main aldehydic PC. In the present study, products of the anaerobic decomposition of a PC bearing the 9-hydroperoxide of linoleic acid were analysed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. 9-Oxononanoyl-PC (ONA-PC) and several well-known bioactive aldehydes including 12-oxo-9-hydroperoxy-(or oxo or hydroxy)-10-dodecenoyl-PCs were detected. Hydrolysis of the oxidized PC products, methylation of the acids obtained thereby, and subsequent gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy with electron impact ionization further confirmed structures of some of the key aldehydic PCs. Novel, hydroxyl radical-dependent mechanisms of formation of ONA-PC and peroxyl-radical dependent mechanisms of formation of the rest of the aldehydes are proposed. The latter mechanisms will mainly be relevant to tissue injury under hypoxic/anoxic conditions, while the former are relevant under both normoxia and hypoxia/anoxia.

  3. A new study of iodine complexes of oxidized gum arabic: An interaction between iodine monochloride and aldehyde groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Akbar; Ganie, Showkat Ali; Mazumdar, Nasreen

    2018-01-15

    Gum arabic, a plant polysaccharide was oxidized with periodate to produce aldehyde groups by the cleavage of diols present in the sugar units. The oxidized gum was then iodinated with iodine monochloride (ICl) and the interaction between electrophilic iodine, I+ and reactive carbonyl groups of the modified gum was studied.Results of titrimetric estimation performed to determine the extent of oxidation and aldehyde content in the oxidized gum showed that degree of oxidation ranged between 19.68-50.19% which was observed to increase with periodate concentration; the corresponding aldehyde content was calculated to be 5.15-40.42%. Different strengths of ICl were used to iodinate the oxidized gum and the iodine content of the complexes varied from 6.11-11.72% as determined by iodometric titration. Structure elucidation of the iodine complexes conclusively established the attachment of ICl molecules to CHO groups. A reaction scheme has been proposed suggesting an electrophilic addition of the reagent to the aldehyde groups, a mechanism that was also supported by iodide ion release studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Ru/Me-BIPAM-Catalyzed Asymmetric Addition of Arylboronic Acids to Aliphatic Aldehydes and α-Ketoesters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momoko Watanabe

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A ruthenium-catalyzed asymmetric arylation of aliphatic aldehydes and α-ketoesters with arylboronic acids has been developed, giving chiral alkyl(arylmethanols and α-hydroxy esters in good yields. The use of a chiral bidentate phosphoramidite ligand (Me-BIPAM achieved excellent enantioselectivities.

  5. Oxidation of N-alkyl and N-aryl azaheterocycles by free and immobilized rabbit liver aldehyde oxidase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Angelino, S.A.G.F.

    1984-01-01

    Aldehyde oxidase isolated from rabbit liver is studied in this thesis with regard to its application in organic synthesis. The enzyme has a broad substrate specificity towards azaheterocycles and therefore offers great potential for profitable use.

    The oxidation of

  6. Enantioselective α-Alkenylation of Aldehydes with Boronic Acids via the Synergistic Combination of Copper(II) and Amine Catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Jason M.

    2013-01-01

    The enantioselective α-alkenylation of aldehydes has been accomplished using boronic acids via the synergistic combination of copper and chiral amine catalysis. The merger of two highly utilized and robust catalytic systems has allowed for the development of a mild and operationally trivial protocol for the direct formation of α-formyl olefins employing common building blocks for organic synthesis. PMID:23889497

  7. Cloning and heterologous expression of two aryl-aldehyde dehydrogenases from the white-rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Tomofumi [Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Fukuoka Institute of Health and Environmental Sciences, 39 Mukaizano, Dazaifu-shi, Fukuoka 818-0135 (Japan); Ichinose, Hirofumi [Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Wariishi, Hiroyuki, E-mail: hirowari@agr.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Bio-Architecture Center, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Innovation Center for Medical Redox Navigation, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan)

    2010-04-09

    We identified two aryl-aldehyde dehydrogenase proteins (PcALDH1 and PcALDH2) from the white-rot basidiomycete Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Both PcALDHs were translationally up-regulated in response to exogenous addition of vanillin, one of the key aromatic compounds in the pathway of lignin degradation by basidiomycetes. To clarify the catalytic functions of PcALDHs, we isolated full-length cDNAs encoding these proteins and heterologously expressed the recombinant enzymes using a pET/Escherichia coli system. The open reading frames of both PcALDH1 and PcALDH2 consisted of 1503 nucleotides. The deduced amino acid sequences of both proteins showed high homologies with aryl-aldehyde dehydrogenases from other organisms and contained ten conserved domains of ALDHs. Moreover, a novel glycine-rich motif 'GxGxxxG' was located at the NAD{sup +}-binding site. The recombinant PcALDHs catalyzed dehydrogenation reactions of several aryl-aldehyde compounds, including vanillin, to their corresponding aromatic acids. These results strongly suggested that PcALDHs metabolize aryl-aldehyde compounds generated during fungal degradation of lignin and various aromatic xenobiotics.

  8. Removal of Low-Molecular Weight Aldehydes by Selected Houseplants under Different Light Intensities and CO2 Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The removal of five low-molecular weight aldehydes by two houseplants (Schefflera octophylla (Lour. Harms and Chamaedorea elegans were investigated in a laboratory simulation environment with short-term exposure to different low light intensities and CO2 concentrations. Under normal circumstances, the C1–C5 aldehyde removal rates of Schefflera octophylla (Lour. Harms and Chamaedorea elegans (Lour. Harms ranged from 0.311 μmol/m2/h for valeraldehyde to 0.677 μmol/m2/h for formaldehyde, and 0.526 μmol/m2/h for propionaldehyde to 1.440 μmol/m2/h for formaldehyde, respectively. However, when the light intensities varied from 0 to 600 lx, a significant correlation between the aldehyde removal rate and the light intensity was found. Moreover, the CO2 experiments showed that the total aldehyde removal rates of Schefflera octophylla (Lour. Harms and Chamaedorea elegans (Lour. Harms decreased 32.0% and 43.2%, respectively, with increasing CO2 concentrations from 350 ppmv to 1400 ppmv. This might be explained by the fact that the excessive CO2 concentration decreased the stomatal conductance which limited the carbonyl uptake from the stomata.

  9. Aldehyde fixation differentially affects distribution of diaphorase activity but not of nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivity in rat brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buwalda, B.; Nyakas, C.; Gast, J.; Luiten, P.G.M.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of aldehyde fixation on NADPH- and NADH-dependent diaphorase (d) histochemistry and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) immunocytochemistry in the brain was investigated by comparing the distribution of these enzymes in in situ nitrocellulose blots of unfixed brain sections with that in

  10. Formation of Aldehydic Phosphatidylcholines during the Anaerobic Decomposition of a Phosphatidylcholine Bearing the 9-Hydroperoxide of Linoleic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnold N. Onyango

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipid oxidation-derived carbonyl compounds are associated with the development of various physiological disorders. Formation of most of these products has recently been suggested to require further reactions of oxygen with lipid hydroperoxides. However, in rat and human tissues, the formation of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal is greatly elevated during hypoxic/ischemic conditions. Furthermore, a previous study found an unexpected result that the decomposition of a phosphatidylcholine (PC bearing the 13-hydroperoxide of linoleic acid under a nitrogen atmosphere afforded 9-oxononanoyl-PC rather than 13-oxo-9,11-tridecadienoyl-PC as the main aldehydic PC. In the present study, products of the anaerobic decomposition of a PC bearing the 9-hydroperoxide of linoleic acid were analysed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. 9-Oxononanoyl-PC (ONA-PC and several well-known bioactive aldehydes including 12-oxo-9-hydroperoxy-(or oxo or hydroxy-10-dodecenoyl-PCs were detected. Hydrolysis of the oxidized PC products, methylation of the acids obtained thereby, and subsequent gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy with electron impact ionization further confirmed structures of some of the key aldehydic PCs. Novel, hydroxyl radical-dependent mechanisms of formation of ONA-PC and peroxyl-radical dependent mechanisms of formation of the rest of the aldehydes are proposed. The latter mechanisms will mainly be relevant to tissue injury under hypoxic/anoxic conditions, while the former are relevant under both normoxia and hypoxia/anoxia.

  11. Tuning the catalytic CO hydrogenation to straight- and long-chain aldehydes/alcohols and olefins/paraffins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Yizhi; Kruse, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    The catalytic CO hydrogenation is one of the most versatile large-scale chemical syntheses leading to variable chemical feedstock. While traditionally mainly methanol and long-chain hydrocarbons are produced by CO hydrogenation, here we show that the same reaction can be tuned to produce long-chain n-aldehydes, 1-alcohols and olefins, as well as n-paraffins over potassium-promoted CoMn catalysts. The sum selectivity of aldehydes and alcohols is usually >50 wt% whereof up to ∼97% can be n-aldehydes. While the product slate contains ∼60% n-aldehydes at /pCO=0.5, a 65/35% slate of paraffins/alcohols is obtained at a ratio of 9. A linear Anderson–Schulz–Flory behaviour, independent of the /pCO ratio, is found for the sum of C4+ products. We advocate a synergistic interaction between a Mn5O8 oxide and a bulk Co2C phase, promoted by the presence of potassium, to be responsible for the unique product spectra in our studies. PMID:27708269

  12. Direct enzyme assay evidence confirms aldehyde reductase function of Ydr541cp and Ygl039wp from Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldehyde reductase gene ARI1 is a recently characterized member of intermediate subfamily under SDR (short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase) superfamily that revealed mechanisms of in situ detoxification of furfural and HMF for tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Uncharacterized open reading frames ...

  13. Tuning the catalytic CO hydrogenation to straight- and long-chain aldehydes/alcohols and olefins/paraffins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Yizhi; Kruse, Norbert

    2016-10-01

    The catalytic CO hydrogenation is one of the most versatile large-scale chemical syntheses leading to variable chemical feedstock. While traditionally mainly methanol and long-chain hydrocarbons are produced by CO hydrogenation, here we show that the same reaction can be tuned to produce long-chain n-aldehydes, 1-alcohols and olefins, as well as n-paraffins over potassium-promoted CoMn catalysts. The sum selectivity of aldehydes and alcohols is usually >50 wt% whereof up to ~97% can be n-aldehydes. While the product slate contains ~60% n-aldehydes at /pCO=0.5, a 65/35% slate of paraffins/alcohols is obtained at a ratio of 9. A linear Anderson-Schulz-Flory behaviour, independent of the /pCO ratio, is found for the sum of C4+ products. We advocate a synergistic interaction between a Mn5O8 oxide and a bulk Co2C phase, promoted by the presence of potassium, to be responsible for the unique product spectra in our studies.

  14. A soft tissue adhesive based on aldehyde-sodium alginate and amino-carboxymethyl chitosan preparation through the Schiff reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu; Yuan, Liu; Sheng, Nai-an; Gu, Zi-qi; Feng, Wen-hao; Yin, Hai-yue; Morsi, Yosry; Mo, Xiu-mei

    2017-09-01

    Sodium alginate and carboxymethyl chitosan have been extensively applied in tissue engineering and other relative fields due to their low price and excellent biocompatibility. In this paper, we oxidized sodium alginate with sodium periodate to convert 1,2-hydroxyl groups into aldehyde groups to get aldehyde-sodium alginate (ASA). Carboxymethyl chitosan was modified with ethylenediamine (ED) in the presence of water-soluble N-(3-Dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) to introduce additional amino groups to get amino-carboxymethyl chitosan (A-CS). Upon mixing the A-SA and A-CS aqueous solutions together, a gel rapidly formed based on the Schiff's base reaction between aldehyde groups in A-SA and amino groups in A-CS. FTIR analysis confirmed the characteristic peak of Schiff's base group in the hydrogel. It was confirmed that the gelation time be dependent on the aldehyde group content in A-SA and amino group content in A-CS. The fasted hydrogel formation takes place within 10 min. The data of bonding strength and cytotoxicity measurement also showed that the hydrogel had good adhesion and biocompatibility. All these results support that this gel has the potential as soft tissue adhesive.

  15. Rice saabus Euroopat taltsutama / Tõnu Prei

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Prei, Tõnu, 1950-

    2005-01-01

    USA välisminister Condolezza Rice alustas ringreisi Euroopas, eesmärgiks anda vastulöök USA-d tabanud kriitikale sõjavangide kohtlemise ja teistes riikides oma luuretalituse salavanglate pidamise pärast

  16. Hunting Plan : Rice Lake National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objectives of this hunting plan for Rice Lake NWR are to: provide a method of removing white-tailed deer from the area population to maintain the general health...

  17. Reciprocating Internal Combustion Engines (RICE) | New ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    RICE use pistons that alternatively move back and forth to convert pressure into rotating motion. They're commonly used at power and manufacturing plants to generate electricity and to power pumps and compressors.

  18. [Red yeast rice: An unsafe food supplement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Christian

    2017-03-01

    Red yeast rice is the fermentation product of the mould Monascus ruber and is traditionally used in East Asia to dye and conserve food. Its main pharmacologically active compound, monakolin K, was isolated from red yeast rice and is used as an inhibitor of cholesterol synthesis under the INN lovastatin. Lovastatin and several other statins are marketed as drugs whereas red yeast rice is offered as a food supplement. As statins can cause severe side effects, such as muscle damage and kidney failure, the dosing and information about interactions with drugs and food is essential for the use of these products. Furthermore, red yeast rice can contain the mycotoxin citrinin and several other substances that are not yet toxicologically evaluated.

  19. USING RICE BRAN IN LAYING HEN DIETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H ERSIN SAMLI

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Rice bran is an energy and protein rich ingredient used in poultry feeding. To balance energy and protein requirements. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of rice bran on performance and egg quality during peak production of a commercial White laying strain of 22 week of age. Dietary treatments were consisted by inclusion of rice bran at 0, 5, 10 and 15% levels. Each treatment had 6 reps in which 12 birds were randomly assigned in wired fl oor battery cages equipped with nipple drinkers and through feeders. Layers accessed to feed and water freely. Lighting regimen was adjusted to 16h light/8h dark. The experiment lasted for 10 weeks. Overall results of the present experiment indicated that rice bran could be included up to 10% without any adverse affect on laying performance, egg quality and digestive organs.

  20. The Origin of Flooded Rice Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi IKEHASHI

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Rice cultivation has long been considered to have originated from seeding of annual types of wild rice somewhere in subtropics, tropics or in the Yangtze River basin. That idea, however, contains a fatally weak point, when we consider the tremendous difficulty for primitive human to seed any cereal crop in the warm and humid climate, where weed thrives all year round. Instead of the accepted theory, we have to see a reality that vegetative propagation of edible plants is a dominant form of agriculture in such regions. The possibility is discussed that Job's tears and rice, two cereal crops unique to the region, might have been developed via vegetative propagation to obtain materials for medicine or herb tea in backyard gardens prior to cereal production. This idea is supported by the fact that rice in temperate regions is still perennial in its growth habit and that such backyard gardens with transplanted taro can still be seen from Yunnan Province of China to Laos. Thanks to detailed survey of wild rice throughout China for 1970–1980, it is now confirmed that a set of clones of wild rice exist in shallow swamps in Jiangxi Province, an area with severe winter cold. In early summer ancient farmers may have divided the sprouting buds and spread them by transplanting into flooded shallow marsh. Such way of propagation might have faster improved less productive rice through a better genetic potential for response to human interference than quick fixation in seed propagation, because vegetative parts are heterogeneous. Obviously, such a primitive manner of rice cultivation did include the essential parts of rice farming, i.e., nursery bed, transplanting in flooded field of shallow marsh like. Transfer from the primitive nursery to true nursery by seed may have later allowed rice cultivation to be extended to northern regions. In thus devised flooded cultivation there were a series of unique advantages, i.e.; continuous cropping of rice in a same

  1. Characterization of paralogous protein families in rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Wei

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High gene numbers in plant genomes reflect polyploidy and major gene duplication events. Oryza sativa, cultivated rice, is a diploid monocotyledonous species with a ~390 Mb genome that has undergone segmental duplication of a substantial portion of its genome. This, coupled with other genetic events such as tandem duplications, has resulted in a substantial number of its genes, and resulting proteins, occurring in paralogous families. Results Using a computational pipeline that utilizes Pfam and novel protein domains, we characterized paralogous families in rice and compared these with paralogous families in the model dicotyledonous diploid species, Arabidopsis thaliana. Arabidopsis, which has undergone genome duplication as well, has a substantially smaller genome (~120 Mb and gene complement compared to rice. Overall, 53% and 68% of the non-transposable element-related rice and Arabidopsis proteins could be classified into paralogous protein families, respectively. Singleton and paralogous family genes differed substantially in their likelihood of encoding a protein of known or putative function; 26% and 66% of singleton genes compared to 73% and 96% of the paralogous family genes encode a known or putative protein in rice and Arabidopsis, respectively. Furthermore, a major skew in the distribution of specific gene function was observed; a total of 17 Gene Ontology categories in both rice and Arabidopsis were statistically significant in their differential distribution between paralogous family and singleton proteins. In contrast to mammalian organisms, we found that duplicated genes in rice and Arabidopsis tend to have more alternative splice forms. Using data from Massively Parallel Signature Sequencing, we show that a significant portion of the duplicated genes in rice show divergent expression although a correlation between sequence divergence and correlation of expression could be seen in very young genes. Conclusion

  2. Mycotoxin production on rice, pulses and oilseeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Fouzia; Samajpati, N.

    Mycotoxin-producing fungi were isolated from contaminated grains of rice, pulses and oilseeds sold in the local markets of Calcutta for human consumption. It was found that aflatoxin B1 was produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, aflatoxin G1 by A. flavus, ochratoxin by Aspergillus ochraceous, sterigmatocystin by Aspergillus japonicus and citrinin by Penicillium citrinum. Aflatoxin B1 (333-10416μg/kg) was produced by Aspergillus spp. in rice, pulses and oilseeds.

  3. Polyamines and Anaerobic Elongation of Rice Coleoptile

    OpenAIRE

    Remo, Reggiani; Alejandro, Hochkoeppler; Alcide, Bertani; Istituto Biosintesi Vegetali, C. N. R.; Istituto Biosintesi Vegetali, C. N. R.; Istituto Biosintesi Vegetali, C. N. R.

    1989-01-01

    The role of polyamines in the anaerobic elongation of rice (Oryza sativa L.) coleoptiles was studied. The reduced growth of rice coleoptiles under anoxic conditions was accompanied by a massive accumulation of free putrescine. Putrescine was synthesized from arginine in a reaction catalyzed by arginine decarboxylase (ADC). The anoxic titer of putrescine was closely correlated with elongation of coleoptiles. In experiments in which putrescine and inhibitors [a-difluoromethylarginine (DFMA) and...

  4. The Potency of White Rice (Oryza sativa), Black Rice (Oryza sativa L. indica), and Red Rice (Oryza nivara) as Antioxidant and Tyrosinase Inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batubara, I.; Maharni, M.; Sadiah, S.

    2017-04-01

    Rice is known to have many beneficial biological activities and is often used as “bedak dingin”, a face powder. The content of vitamins, minerals, fiber, and several types of antioxidants, such as ferulic acid, phytic acid, tocopherol, and oryzanols [1-2] are predicted to be potential as a tyrosinase inhibitor. The purpose of this study is to determine the potency of extracts from there types of rice, namely white, red, and black rice as an antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitor. The rice was extracted with three different solvents, n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol. The results showed that the highest antioxidant activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl method was found in the methanol extract of black rice (IC50 290 μg/mL). Meanwhile, ethyl acetate extract of white rice has the highest antioxidant activity withphosphomolybdic acid method (41 mmol α-tocopherol equivalents/g sample). Thus, methanol extract of black rice and ethyl acetate extract of white rice are potential as an antioxidant. For tyrosinase inhibitor, n-hexane extract of red rice (IC50 3156 μg/mL) was the most active extract. The active component for radical scavenging is polar compound and for antioxidant by phosphomolybdate method is less polar compounds in black rice methanol extract based on TLC bioautogram. In conclusion, the black rice is the most potent in antioxidant while red rice is for tyrosinase inhibition.

  5. Molecularly Imprinted Sol-Gel-Based QCM Sensor Arrays for the Detection and Recognition of Volatile Aldehydes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanjun Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The detection and recognition of metabolically derived aldehydes, which have been identified as important products of oxidative stress and biomarkers of cancers; are considered as an effective approach for early cancer detection as well as health status monitoring. Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM sensor arrays based on molecularly imprinted sol-gel (MISG materials were developed in this work for highly sensitive detection and highly selective recognition of typical aldehyde vapors including hexanal (HAL; nonanal (NAL and bezaldehyde (BAL. The MISGs were prepared by a sol-gel procedure using two matrix precursors: tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS and tetrabutoxytitanium (TBOT. Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APT; diethylaminopropyltrimethoxysilane (EAP and trimethoxy-phenylsilane (TMP were added as functional monomers to adjust the imprinting effect of the matrix. Hexanoic acid (HA; nonanoic acid (NA and benzoic acid (BA were used as psuedotemplates in view of their analogous structure to the target molecules as well as the strong hydrogen-bonding interaction with the matrix. Totally 13 types of MISGs with different components were prepared and coated on QCM electrodes by spin coating. Their sensing characters towards the three aldehyde vapors with different concentrations were investigated qualitatively. The results demonstrated that the response of individual sensors to each target strongly depended on the matrix precursors; functional monomers and template molecules. An optimization of the 13 MISG materials was carried out based on statistical analysis such as principle component analysis (PCA; multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA. The optimized sensor array consisting of five channels showed a high discrimination ability on the aldehyde vapors; which was confirmed by quantitative comparison with a randomly selected array. It was suggested that both the molecularly imprinting (MIP effect and the matrix

  6. Molecularly Imprinted Sol-Gel-Based QCM Sensor Arrays for the Detection and Recognition of Volatile Aldehydes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuanjun; Wyszynski, Bartosz; Yatabe, Rui; Hayashi, Kenshi; Toko, Kiyoshi

    2017-02-16

    The detection and recognition of metabolically derived aldehydes, which have been identified as important products of oxidative stress and biomarkers of cancers; are considered as an effective approach for early cancer detection as well as health status monitoring. Quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) sensor arrays based on molecularly imprinted sol-gel (MISG) materials were developed in this work for highly sensitive detection and highly selective recognition of typical aldehyde vapors including hexanal (HAL); nonanal (NAL) and bezaldehyde (BAL). The MISGs were prepared by a sol-gel procedure using two matrix precursors: tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and tetrabutoxytitanium (TBOT). Aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APT); diethylaminopropyltrimethoxysilane (EAP) and trimethoxy-phenylsilane (TMP) were added as functional monomers to adjust the imprinting effect of the matrix. Hexanoic acid (HA); nonanoic acid (NA) and benzoic acid (BA) were used as psuedotemplates in view of their analogous structure to the target molecules as well as the strong hydrogen-bonding interaction with the matrix. Totally 13 types of MISGs with different components were prepared and coated on QCM electrodes by spin coating. Their sensing characters towards the three aldehyde vapors with different concentrations were investigated qualitatively. The results demonstrated that the response of individual sensors to each target strongly depended on the matrix precursors; functional monomers and template molecules. An optimization of the 13 MISG materials was carried out based on statistical analysis such as principle component analysis (PCA); multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). The optimized sensor array consisting of five channels showed a high discrimination ability on the aldehyde vapors; which was confirmed by quantitative comparison with a randomly selected array. It was suggested that both the molecularly imprinting (MIP) effect and the matrix

  7. Comparative Effects of Salt Stress and Extreme pH Stress Combined on Glycinebetaine Accumulation, Photosynthetic Abilities and Growth Characters of Two Rice Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suriyan CHA-UM

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Glycinebetaine (Glybet accumulation, photosynthetic efficiency and growth performance in indica rice cultivated under salt stress and extreme pH stress were investigated. Betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (BADH activity and Glybet accumulation in the seedlings of salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive rice varieties grown under saline and acidic conditions peaked after treatment for 72 h and 96 h, respectively, and were higher than those grown under neutral pH and alkaline salt stress. A positive correlation was found between BADH activity and Glybet content in both salt-tolerant (r2 = 0.71 and salt-sensitive (r2 = 0.86 genotypes. The chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll and total carotenoids contents in the stressed seedlings significantly decreased under both acidic and alkaline stresses, especially in the salt-sensitive genotype. Similarly, the maximum quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm, photon yield of PSII (ΦPSII, non-photochemical quenching (NPQ and net photosynthetic rate (Pn in the stressed seedlings were inhibited, leading to overall growth reduction. The positive correlations between chlorophyll a content and Fv/Fm, total chlorophyll content and ΦPSII, ΦPSII and Pn as well as Pn and leaf area in both salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive genotypes were found. Saline acidic and saline alkaline soils may play a key role affecting vegetative growth prior to the reproductive stage in rice plants.

  8. Transcriptional profiling of rice early response to Magnaporthe oryzae identified OsWRKYs as important regulators in rice blast resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Wei

    Full Text Available Rice blast disease is a major threat to rice production worldwide, but the mechanisms underlying rice resistance to the causal agent Magnaporthe oryzae remain elusive. Therefore, we carried out a transcriptome study on rice early defense response to M. oryzae. We found that the transcriptional profiles of rice compatible and incompatible interactions with M. oryzae were mostly similar, with genes regulated more prominently in the incompatible interactions. The functional analysis showed that the genes involved in signaling and secondary metabolism were extensively up-regulated. In particular, WRKY transcription factor genes were significantly enriched among the up-regulated genes. Overexpressing one of these WRKY genes, OsWRKY47, in transgenic rice plants conferred enhanced resistance against rice blast fungus. Our results revealed the sophisticated transcriptional reprogramming of signaling and metabolic pathways during rice early response to M. oryzae and demonstrated the critical roles of WRKY transcription factors in rice blast resistance.

  9. Three geographically separate domestications of Asian rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civáň, Peter; Craig, Hayley; Cox, Cymon J; Brown, Terence A

    2015-11-02

    Domesticated rice (Oryza sativa L.) accompanied the dawn of Asian civilization(1) and has become one of world's staple crops. From archaeological and genetic evidence various contradictory scenarios for the origin of different varieties of cultivated rice have been proposed, the most recent based on a single domestication(2,3). By examining the footprints of selection in the genomes of different cultivated rice types, we show that there were three independent domestications in different parts of Asia. We identify wild populations in southern China and the Yangtze valley as the source of the japonica gene pool, and populations in Indochina and the Brahmaputra valley as the source of the indica gene pool. We reveal a hitherto unrecognized origin for the aus variety in central India or Bangladesh. We also conclude that aromatic rice is a result of a hybridization between japonica and aus, and that the tropical and temperate versions of japonica are later adaptations of one crop. Our conclusions are in accord with archaeological evidence that suggests widespread origins of rice cultivation(1,4). We therefore anticipate that our results will stimulate a more productive collaboration between genetic and archaeological studies of rice domestication, and guide utilization of genetic resources in breeding programmes aimed at crop improvement.

  10. Drought Monitoring for Rice Production in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyda Chhinh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Rice production underpins the national economy and the most rural livelihoods in Cambodia, but it is negatively impacted by repeated droughts. The research reported on in this paper focuses on relationships between drought occurrences in Cambodia’s most drought-prone province (Kampong Speu and (i damage to the annual rice harvest between 1994 and 2011, and (ii the Niño 3.4 index. Droughts were identified using the Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI. In seven of the years between 1994 and 2006 droughts damaged >1000 ha of rice in the Kampong Speu province. Furthermore, in 11 years >200 ha of rice were damaged. A critical success index of 0.66 obtained for an analysis of SPI-defined drought and area rice damage in the province indicates a strong statistical relationship. A statistically significant correlation (r = −0.455 was achieved between Niño 3.4 and 12-month SPI values lagged by three months, this indicates the importance of ENSO linkages in explaining drought in this region. Late season droughts lead to greater rice damage than early- and mid-season droughts.

  11. Rice bran oil an alternate bakery shortening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Amarjeet; Jassal, Vishaldeep; Thind, S S; Aggarwal, Poonam

    2012-02-01

    Studies were carried out to replace bakery shortening with refined rice bran oil in bread preparation. Physico-chemical properties of bakery shortening and rice bran oil were studied. Rice bran oil was found to have a higher content of essential fatty acid linoleic acid (34.98%) as compared to that of bakery shortening (5.14%). Chemical composition of wheat flour used was also evaluation. Bread samples were prepared by replacing bakery shortening with rice bran oil at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% levels. Breads were examined for bread making quality i.e. loaf weight, loaf height, loaf volume and specific volume and organoleptic quality i.e. appearance, crust colour, crumb colour, aroma, texture, taste and overall acceptability on a 9 point hedonic scale. Statistical analysis regarding bread making quality and organoleptic quality of bread revealed that bread making and organoleptic quality of breads prepared after replacing bakery shortening with rice bran oil at 50% level varied significantly from that of control. Statistically significant variations were observed in the texture of breads prepared with shortening from that prepared after replacing bakery shortening with rice bran oil at 50% level.

  12. The structure of rice weevil pectin methylesterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teller, David C; Behnke, Craig A; Pappan, Kirk; Shen, Zicheng; Reese, John C; Reeck, Gerald R; Stenkamp, Ronald E

    2014-11-01

    Rice weevils (Sitophilus oryzae) use a pectin methylesterase (EC 3.1.1.11), along with other enzymes, to digest cell walls in cereal grains. The enzyme is a right-handed β-helix protein, but is circularly permuted relative to plant and bacterial pectin methylesterases, as shown by the crystal structure determination reported here. This is the first structure of an animal pectin methylesterase. Diffraction data were collected to 1.8 Å resolution some time ago for this crystal form, but structure solution required the use of molecular-replacement techniques that have been developed and similar structures that have been deposited in the last 15 years. Comparison of the structure of the rice weevil pectin methylesterase with that from Dickeya dandantii (formerly Erwinia chrysanthemi) indicates that the reaction mechanisms are the same for the insect, plant and bacterial pectin methylesterases. The similarity of the structure of the rice weevil enzyme to the Escherichia coli lipoprotein YbhC suggests that the evolutionary origin of the rice weevil enzyme was a bacterial lipoprotein, the gene for which was transferred to a primitive ancestor of modern weevils and other Curculionidae. Structural comparison of the rice weevil pectin methylesterase with plant and bacterial enzymes demonstrates that the rice weevil protein is circularly permuted relative to the plant and bacterial molecules.

  13. Fungicide and insecticide residues in rice grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Mack Teló

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyse residues of fungicides and insecticides in rice grains that were subjected to different forms of processing. Field work was conducted during three crop seasons, and fungicides and insecticides were applied at different crop growth stages on the aerial portion of the rice plants. Azoxystrobin, difenoconazole, propiconazole, tebuconazole, and trifloxystrobin fungicides were sprayed only once at the R2 growth stage or twice at the R2 and R4 growth stages; cypermethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, permethrin, and thiamethoxam insecticides were sprayed at the R2 growth stage; and permethrin was sprayed at 5-day intervals from the R4 growth stage up to one day prior to harvest. Pesticide residues were analysed in uncooked, cooked, parboiled, polished and brown rice grains as well as rice hulls during the three crop seasons, for a total of 1458 samples. The samples were analysed by gas chromatography with electron capture detection (GC-ECD using modified QuEChERS as the extraction method. No fungicide or insecticide residues were detected in rice grain samples; however, azoxystrobin and cypermethrin residues were detected in rice hull samples.

  14. Pathways of Rice Diversification across Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorian Q Fuller

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The archaeology of rice has made important methodological advances over the past decade that have contributed new data on the domestication process, spread and ecology of cultivation. Growing evidence from spikelet bases indicates that non-shattering, domesticated forms evolved gradually in the Yangtze basin and that there were at least two distinct processes around the Middle Yangtze region pre-dating 6000 BC, and the in the Lower Yangtze region between 6000 and 4000 BC. Early rice cultivation in these areas was based on wet field ecologies, in contrast to rainfed rice that is indicated among the earliest systems in India. When rice first spread north it was not entirely suited to shorter temperate summer growth seasons, and we are able to infer from high levels of apparently green-harvested spikelets that genetic adaptations to temperate conditions evolved after 2000 BC. When rice first spread south, to mainland Southeast Asia, after 2500 BC, it was grown in rainfed, dry ecologies that were less labour- demanding and less-productive. More productive and intensive irrigated rice then redeveloped in Southeast Asia around 2000 years ago, supporting growing population densities and social complexity.

  15. Co-pyrolysis of rice straw and Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) using a fixed bed drop type pyrolyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzatie, N. I.; Basha, M. H.; Uemura, Y.; Hashim, M. S. M.; Amin, N. A. M.; Hamid, M. F.

    2017-10-01

    In this work, co-pyrolysis of rice straw and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) was carried out at different temperatures (450,500,550, and 600°C) at ratio 1:1 by using fixed bed drop-type pyrolyzer. The purpose of this work is to determine the effect of pyrolysis temperature on the product yield. As the temperature increased, the pyrolysis oil increased until it reaches certain high temperature (600°C), the pyrolysis oil decreased as of more NCG were produced. The temperature 550°C is considered as the optimum pyrolysis temperature since it produced the highest amount of pyrolysis oil with 36 wt.%. In pyrolysis oil, the calorific value (13.98kJ/g) was low because of the presence of high water content (52.46 wt.%). Main chemicals group from pyrolysis oil were an aldehyde, ketones, acids, aromatics, and phenol and all compound have abundant of hydrogen and carbon were identified. Co-pyrolysis of rice straw and PET produced a higher amount of carbon oxides and recycling back the NCG could increase liquid and char yields.

  16. Effect of red rice interference in fourth densities of commercial rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge García de la Osa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Field trials were carried out in The Regional Research Grain Station “Sur del Jíbaro”, Sancti Spíritus, in order to study the infestation effect of 0, 12, 25, 50, 100 and 200 red rice plants per square meter (m2 on growth and yields of commercial variety J-104, seeded at 50, 100, 200 and 300 plants/m². Yield of J-104 rice variety decreased with the increase in red rice density. Crop yield decrease in the dry season ranged from 10.7 to 94.8% with infestations of 12 and 200 red rice plants /m², respectively; while in the wet season changed from 11.4 to 91.5 % with similar level in infestations. In both seasons 12 red rice plants were enough to cause a significant reduction in commercial rice yields in relation to the control treatment (without red rice infestation. The lost in crop yield was due to the decreased in panicles/ m² and filled grains per panicle, caused by the interference with red rice.

  17. evaluation of rice cultivars for resistance to rice yellow mottle virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2018-02-08

    Feb 8, 2018 ... H. KAM, M.-N. NDJIONDJOP1, N. OUEDRAOGO, M.D. LAING2 and A. GHESQUIERE3. Environmental and Agricultural Research Institute (INERA), 01 910 Bobo - Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. 1Africa Rice Center (AfricaRice), 01 BP 2551 Bouaké, Côte d'Ivoire. 2University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZN), School of ...

  18. Rice-eating quality among consumers in different rice grain preference countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suwannaporn, P.; Linnemann, A.R.

    2008-01-01

    More rice is eaten nowadays in traditionally nonrice-eating countries. This study investigated consumer eating quality preferences among consumers in target rice export countries to identify opportunities and strategic implications. A quantitative study with 1,128 consumers of target nationalities

  19. The Potential of System of Rice Intensification (SRI) to Increase Rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SRI practice for planting space of 25x25 to 30x30 cm, wetting and drying interval of three days, and younger seedling of 8-12 days are recommended as good combinations for SRI practice in Mkindo area, Morogoro region. Key words: Climate change, rice productivity, System of Rice Intensification (SRI), alternate wetting ...

  20. Complexity of rice Hsp100 gene family: lessons from rice genome ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2007-03-29

    Mar 29, 2007 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 32; Issue 3. Complexity of rice Hsp100 gene family: lessons from rice genome sequence data. Gaurav Batra ... Elucidation of genome sequence provides an excellent platform to understand detailed complexity of the various gene families. Hsp100 is an ...

  1. Development and characterization of emulsions containing purple rice bran and brown rice oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aims of this study were to characterize purple rice bran oil (PRBO) as extracted from the bran, and to produce and characterize a nano-emulsion containing purple rice bran oil. An emulsion was prepared using PRBO (10%), sodium caseinate (5%) and water (85%). The mixture was sonicated followed ...

  2. Simultaneous rough rice drying and rice bran stabilization using infrared radiation heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to develop a new rice drying method by using IR heating followed by tempering. Freshly harvested medium grain rice (M206) samples with different initial moisture contents (IMCs) were used in this study. The samples were dried for one- and two-passes by using a catalyt...

  3. Rice bran: a novel functional ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Mian Kamran; Butt, Masood Sadiq; Anjum, Faqir Muhammad; Khan, Saima Hafiz

    2014-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is the most important staple food for a large part of the world's human population, especially in East and South Asia, the Middle East, Latin America, and the West Indies. It provides more than one fifth of the calories consumed worldwide by the human. It is the second leading cereal crop and staple food of half of the world's population. It is grown in at least 114 countries with global production of 645 million tons; share of Asian farmers is about 90% of the total produce. Rice bran, brown outer layer of rice kernel, is mainly composed of pericarp, aleurone, subaleurone layer, and germ. It contains appreciable quantities of nutrients like protein, fat, and dietary fiber. Furthermore, it contains substantial amount of minerals like K, Ca, Mg, and Fe. Presence of antioxidants like tocopherols, tocotrienols, and γ-oryzanol also brighten prospects of rice bran utilization for humans as functional ingredient to mitigate the life-threatening disorders. Moreover, in the developing countries, budding dilemma of food crisis, arising due to lower crop yields and escalating population, needs to utilize each pent of available resources. To provide enough food to all people, there is the holistic approach of using the by-products generated during food processing and preparations. Rice is being processed in well-established industry, but the major apprehension is the utilization of its by-products; rice bran (5-8%) and polishing (2-3%) that are going as waste. Rice processing or milling produces several streams of materials including milled rice, bran, and husk. In developing countries, rice bran is considered as a by-product of the milling process and commonly used in animal feed or discarded as a waste. The potential of producing rice bran at the global level is 29.3 million tons annually, whereas the share of Pakistan is worked out to be 0.5 million tons. In present paper, attempt has been made to highlight the significance of these valuable but

  4. Effect of Temperature on Chinese Rice Wine Brewing with High Concentration Presteamed Whole Sticky Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Tao; Xiong, Weili; Hu, Jianhua; Xu, Baoguo; Lin, Chi-Chung; Xu, Ling; Jiang, Lihua

    2014-01-01

    Production of high quality Chinese rice wine largely depends on fermentation temperature. However, there is no report on the ethanol, sugars, and acids kinetics in the fermentation mash of Chinese rice wine treated at various temperatures. The effects of fermentation temperatures on Chinese rice wine quality were investigated. The compositions and concentrations of ethanol, sugars, glycerol, and organic acids in the mash of Chinese rice wine samples were determined by HPLC method. The highest ethanol concentration and the highest glycerol concentration both were attained at the fermentation mash treated at 23°C. The highest peak value of maltose (90 g/L) was obtained at 18°C. Lactic acid and acetic acid both achieved maximum values at 33°C. The experimental results indicated that temperature contributed significantly to the ethanol production, acid flavor contents, and sugar contents in the fermentation broth of the Chinese rice wines. PMID:24672788

  5. Development of Ozone Technology Rice Storage Systems (OTRISS) for Quality Improvement of Rice Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur, M.; Kusdiyantini, E.; Wuryanti, W.; Winarni, T. A.; Widyanto, S. A.; Muharam, H.

    2015-06-01

    This research has been carried out by using ozone to address the rapidly declining quality of rice in storage. In the first year, research has focused on the rice storage with ozone technology for small capacity (e.g., household) and the medium capacity (e.g., dormitories, hospitals). Ozone was produced by an ozone generator with Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma (DBDP). Ozone technology rice storage system (OTRISS) is using ozone charateristic which is a strong oxidizer. Ozone have a short endurance of existence and then decompose, as a result produce oxygen and radicals of oxygen. These characteristics could kill microorganisms and pests, reduce air humidity and enrich oxygen. All components used in SPBTO assembled using raw materials available in the big cities in Indonesia. Provider of high voltage (High Voltage Power Supply, 40-70 kV, 23 KH, AC) is one of components that have been assembled and tested. Ozone generator is assembled with 7 reactors of Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma (DBDP). Rice container that have been prepared for OTRISS have adjusted so can be integrated with generator, power supply and blower to blow air. OTRISS with a capacity of 75 kg and 100 kg have been made and tested. The ability of ozone to eliminate bacteria and fungi have been tested and resulted in a decrease of microorganisms at 3 log CFU/g. Testing in food chemistry showed that ozone treatment of rice had not changed the chemical content that still meet the standard of chemical content and nutritional applicable to ISO standard milled rice. The results of this study are very likely to be used as an alternative to rice storage systems in warehouse. Test and scale-up is being carried out in a mini warehouse whose condition is mimicked to rice in National Rice Storage of Indonesia (Bulog) to ensure quality. Next adaptations would be installed in the rice storage system in the Bulog.

  6. Integrated rice-duck farming mitigates the global warming potential in rice season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guochun; Liu, Xin; Wang, Qiangsheng; Yu, Xichen; Hang, Yuhao

    2017-01-01

    Integrated rice-duck farming (IRDF), as a mode of ecological agriculture, is an important way to realize sustainable development of agriculture. A 2-year split-plot field experiment was performed to evaluate the effects of IRDF on methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and its ecological mechanism in rice season. This experiment was conducted with two rice farming systems (FS) of IRDF and conventional farming (CF) under four paddy-upland rotation systems (PUR): rice-fallow (RF), annual straw incorporating in rice-wheat rotation system (RWS), annual straw-based biogas residues incorporating in rice-wheat rotation system (RWB), and rice-green manure (RGM). During the rice growing seasons, IRDF decreased the CH4 emission by 8.80-16.68%, while increased the N2O emission by 4.23-15.20%, when compared to CF. Given that CH4 emission contributed to 85.83-96.22% of global warming potential (GWP), the strong reduction in CH4 emission led to a significantly lower GWP of IRDF as compared to CF. The reason for this trend was because IRDF has significant effect on dissolved oxygen (DO) and soil redox potential (Eh), which were two pivotal factors for CH4 and N2O emissions in this study. The IRDF not only mitigates the GWP, but also increases the rice yield by 0.76-2.43% compared to CF. Moreover, compared to RWS system, RF, RWB and RGM systems significantly reduced CH4 emission by 50.17%, 44.89% and 39.51%, respectively, while increased N2O emission by 10.58%, 14.60% and 23.90%, respectively. And RWS system had the highest GWP. These findings suggest that mitigating GWP and improving rice yield could be simultaneously achieved by the IRDF, and employing suitable PUR would benefit for relieving greenhouse effect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Genome-wide analysis of Dongxiang wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) to investigate lost/acquired genes during rice domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fantao; Xu, Tao; Mao, Linyong; Yan, Shuangyong; Chen, Xiwen; Wu, Zhenfeng; Chen, Rui; Luo, Xiangdong; Xie, Jiankun; Gao, Shan

    2016-04-26

    It is widely accepted that cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) was domesticated from common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.). Compared to other studies which concentrate on rice origin, this study is to genetically elucidate the substantially phenotypic and physiological changes from wild rice to cultivated rice at the whole genome level. Instead of comparing two assembled genomes, this study directly compared the Dongxiang wild rice (DXWR) Illumina sequencing reads with the Nipponbare (O. sativa) complete genome without assembly of the DXWR genome. Based on the results from the comparative genomics analysis, structural variations (SVs) between DXWR and Nipponbare were determined to locate deleted genes which could have been acquired by Nipponbare during rice domestication. To overcome the limit of the SV detection, the DXWR transcriptome was also sequenced and compared with the Nipponbare transcriptome to discover the genes which could have been lost in DXWR during domestication. Both 1591 Nipponbare-acquired genes and 206 DXWR-lost transcripts were further analyzed using annotations from multiple sources. The NGS data are available in the NCBI SRA database with ID SRP070627. These results help better understanding the domestication from wild rice to cultivated rice at the whole genome level and provide a genomic data resource for rice genetic research or breeding. One finding confirmed transposable elements contribute greatly to the genome evolution from wild rice to cultivated rice. Another finding suggested the photophosphorylation and oxidative phosphorylation system in cultivated rice could have adapted to environmental changes simultaneously during domestication.

  8. Evaluating Welfare Effects of Rice Import Quota in Japan: Based on Measuring Non-Tariff Barriers of SBS Rice Imports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianhui Gao

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The principal objective of this study is to analyze welfare effects of Japan’s rice import quota focusing on the simultaneous buy and sell (SBS of the rice importation minimum access (MA policy. Based on the utility function specified in this study, the constructed model is adopted to measure consumption patterns through estimating elasticity of substitution between imported rice and Japan’s domestic rice, and consumers’ preference parameters for different kinds of rice. The results showed that Japanese households prefer domestic rice to the imported rice. Besides, three scenarios of adjusting rice quota volumes were carried out to examine the changes in consumer prices of imported rice and Japanese consumers’ welfares. The results revealed that tariff equivalents of the SBS import quota almost doubled the scale of the mark-up, and the intervention by the Ministry of Agriculture of Japan did cause non-tariff barriers to trade (NTBs. Finally, if the SBS rice quota quantity was fixed at or larger than 180 thousand tons every fiscal year, the consumer prices of imported rice in Japan’s market would decrease to be less than the prices of Japan’s domestic rice, and therefore the imported rice would have more price advantages in this scenario.

  9. Decreasing Rice Supply as the Impact Of The Government’s Policy on Rice Grain Purchasing Price

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retno Lantarsih

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed at examining: (1 rice supply adjustment for the long-term equilibrium (2 the impact of the government’s policies on rice grain purchasing price to the rice supply, (3 and factors influencing the long-term and short-term rice supply in the rice-producing regions in Indonesia. This research used the panel data regression with the error correction model approach. The data were the yearly time series data of 1987 through 2008. The results showed that (1 the rice supply adjustment for the long-term equilibrium was at 68%, (2 in the long term, the government’s policies on rice grain purchasing price reduced the rice supply, (3 in the long term, the rice retail price, the rain fall, and the technology had a positive influence on the rice supply, while the cassava and soybean prices had a negative influence. In the short term, the rice retail price and technology had a positive influence, while the cassava and soybean prices and the monetary crisis dummy had a negative influence to the rice supply in the rice-producing regions in Indonesia.

  10. ALDEHYDE AND OTHER VOLATILE ORGANIC CHEMICAL EMISSIONS IN FOUR FEMA TEMPORARY HOUSING UNITS ? FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, Olivia; Maddalena, Randy L.; Russell, Marion; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Apte, Michael G.

    2008-05-04

    Four unoccupied FEMA temporary housing units (THUs) were studied to assess their indoor emissions of volatile organic compounds including formaldehyde. Measurement of whole-THU VOC and aldehyde emission factors (mu g h-1 per m2 of floor area) for each of the four THUs were made at FEMA's Purvis MS staging yard using a mass balance approach. Measurements were made in the morning, and again in the afternoon in each THU. Steady-state indoor formaldehyde concentrations ranged from 378 mu g m-3 (0.31ppm) to 632 mu g m-3 (0.52 ppm) in the AM, and from 433 mu g m-3 (0.35 ppm) to 926 mu g m-3 (0.78 ppm) in the PM. THU air exchange rates ranged from 0.15 h-1 to 0.39 h-1. A total of 45 small (approximately 0.025 m2) samples of surface material, 16 types, were collected directly from the four THUs and shipped to Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The material samples were analyzed for VOC and aldehyde emissions in small stainless steel chambers using a standard, accurate mass balance method. Quantification of VOCs was done via gas chromatography -- mass spectrometry and low molecular weight aldehydes via high performance liquid chromatography. Material specific emission factors (mu g h-1 per m2 of material) were quantified. Approximately 80 unique VOCs were tentatively identified in the THU field samples, of which forty-five were quantified either because of their toxicological significance or because their concentrations were high. Whole-trailer and material specific emission factors were calculated for 33 compounds. The THU emission factors and those from their component materials were compared against those measured from other types of housing and the materials used in their construction. Whole THU emission factors for most VOCs were typically similar to those from comparative housing. The three exceptions were exceptionally large emissions of formaldehyde and TMPD-DIB (a common plasticizer in vinyl products), and somewhat elevated for phenol. Of these three compounds

  11. Mutant Resources for the Functional Analysis of the Rice Genome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nili Wang Tuan Long Wen Yao Lizhong Xiong Qifa Zhang Changyin Wu

    2013-01-01

    .... In order to systematically assign functions to all predicted genes in the rice genome, a large number of rice mutant lines, including those created by T-DNA insertion, Ds/dSpm tagging, Tos17 tagging...

  12. Analysis of Energy Characteristics of Rice and Coffee Husks Blends

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cuthbert F. Mhilu

    2014-01-01

    .... This paper reports work done to determine energy characteristics of rice and coffee husks. The results show that coffee husks have better energy quality than rice husks, while heating values of coffee are 18.34 MJ/kg...

  13. Phylogenetic diversity and relationships among 40 rice accessions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    , there is the need to diversify the genetic base of improved rice varieties, and the first step towards this is to evaluate and characterise available rice germplasm or genotypes at both the morphological and molecular levels. This is because the.

  14. Why Is Golden Rice Golden (Yellow) Instead of Red?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Patrick Schaub; Salim Al-Babili; Rachel Drake; Peter Beyer

    2005-01-01

    The endosperm of Golden Rice (Oryza sativa) is yellow due to the accumulation of β-carotene (provitamin A) and xanthophylls. The product of the two carotenoid biosynthesis transgenes used in Golden Rice, phytoene synthase...

  15. Fisheries Management Plan: Rice Lake National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Rice Lake National Wildlife Refuge provides a sport fishery on three of the four refuge lakes. Fishing is restricted to designated areas. Rice Lake, though not open...

  16. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF RICE PROTEIN CONCENTRATES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    V. V. Kolpakova; D. N. Lukin; L. V. Chumikina; L. V. Shevyakova

    2015-01-01

    .... The task of this study was a comparative research of nutrition and biological value and functional properties of protein and protein-calcium concentrates produced from rice flour milled from white and brown rice...

  17. 7 CFR 457.141 - Rice crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (Appropriate title for insurance provider) Both FCIC and Reinsured Policies Rice Crop Provisions If a conflict... Standards for Rice including, but not limited to, protein and oil content or milling quality will not be...

  18. THE BENTHIC COMMUNITIES COMPARISON BETWEEN ORGANIC AND CONVENTIONAL RICE FIELDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasamesiri, P; Thaimuangphol, W

    2015-01-01

    Rice fields are temporary wetlands prone to contamination from agricultural chemicals which affect their ecotoxicology and benthic community composition. The diversity of benthic fauna in both organic and conventional rice fields in Kalasin Province, Thailand was investigated. Benthos samples were collected by grab sampling from 20 stations in organic and conventional rice fields during one successive crop in August 2014. The number of benthic organisms found at each sampling station ranged from 16-518 and 24-137 individuals for organic and conventional rice fields, respectively. The benthic fauna in organic rice fields were dominated by crustaceans 41%, insects 31%, annelids 26%, and gastropods 2%. The conventional rice fields benthic fauna was composed of insects 51%, annelids 41%, and gastropods 8%. The abundance and composition of the benthic fauna demonstrated that organic rice farming practices are beneficial to sustaining the biodiversity in rice field ecosystems.

  19. Simulating rice yields under climate change scenarios using the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    %. Simulations demonstrate that the effects of planting dates cannot be overlooked in finding measures to increase rice yield under climate change mitigations. The effects of climate change on rice yield of will depend on the actual patterns of ...

  20. Comparative Economic Analysis of Rice Production by Adopters and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adopters of improved rice varieties among farmers in Paikoro Local Area of Niger State. Primary data were collected using a structured questionnaire administered to 90 respondents, which consist of 45 adopters of improved rice variety and 45 ...

  1. Assessment of protection and comparative advantage in rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    added rice as well as analyze the comparative advantage and competitiveness of rice processing in Nigeria. The extent of policy distortion and agricultural protection was also determined by the study. The data were collected from Ebonyi State, ...

  2. Identifying Sources of Volatile Organic Compounds and Aldehydes in a High Performance Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Anna C.; Russell, Marion; Lee, Wen-Yee; Apte, Michael; Maddalena, Randy

    2010-09-20

    The developers of the Paharpur Business Center (PBC) and Software Technology Incubator Park in New Delhi, India offer an environmentally sustainable building with a strong emphasis on energy conservation, waste minimization and superior indoor air quality (IAQ). To achieve the IAQ goal, the building utilizes a series of air cleaning technologies for treating the air entering the building. These technologies include an initial water wash followed by ultraviolet light treatment and biolfiltration using a greenhouse located on the roof and numerous plants distributed throughout the building. Even with the extensive treatment of makeup air and room air in the PBC, a recent study found that the concentrations of common volatile organic compounds and aldehydes appear to rise incrementally as the air passes through the building from the supply to the exhaust. This finding highlights the need to consider the minimization of chemical sources in buildings in combination with the use of advanced air cleaning technologies when seeking to achieve superior IAQ. The goal of this project was to identify potential source materials for indoor chemicals in the PBC. Samples of building materials, including wood paneling (polished and unpolished), drywall, and plastic from a hydroponic drum that was part of the air cleaning system, were collected from the building for testing. All materials were collected from the PBC building and shipped to the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) for testing. The materials were pre-conditioned for two different time periods before measuring material and chemical specific emission factors for a range of VOCs and Aldehydes. Of the six materials tested, we found that the highest emitter of formaldehyde was new plywood paneling. Although polish and paint contribute to some VOC emissions, the main influence of the polish was in altering the capacity of the surface to accumulate formaldehyde. Neither the new nor aged polish contributed

  3. Characterization of aldehyde dehydrogenase isozymes in ovarian cancer tissues and sphere cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saw Yu-Ting

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aldehyde dehydrogenases belong to a superfamily of detoxifying enzymes that protect cells from carcinogenic aldehydes. Of the superfamily, ALDH1A1 has gained most attention because current studies have shown that its expression is associated with human cancer stem cells. However, ALDH1A1 is only one of the 19 human ALDH subfamilies currently known. The purpose of the present study was to determine if the expression and activities of other major ALDH isozymes are associated with human ovarian cancer and ovarian cancer sphere cultures. Methods Immunohistochemistry was used to delineate ALDH isozyme localization in clinical ovarian tissues. Western Blot analyses were performed on lysates prepared from cancer cell lines and ovarian cancer spheres to confirm the immunohistochemistry findings. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reactions were used to measure the mRNA expression levels. The Aldefluor® assay was used to measure ALDH activity in cancer cells from the four tumor subtypes. Results Immunohistochemical staining showed significant overexpression of ALDH1A3, ALDH3A2, and ALDH7A1 isozymes in ovarian tumors relative to normal ovarian tissues. The expression and activity of ALDH1A1 is tumor type-dependent, as seen from immunohistochemisty, Western blot analysis, and the Aldefluor® assay. The expression was elevated in the mucinous and endometrioid ovarian epithelial tumors than in serous and clear cell tumors. In some serous and most clear cell tumors, ALDH1A1 expression was found in the stromal fibroblasts. RNA expression of all studied ALDH isozymes also showed higher expression in endometrioid and mucinous tumors than in the serous and clear cell subtypes. The expression of ALDH enzymes showed tumor type-dependent induction in ovarian cancer cells growing as sphere suspensions in serum-free medium. Conclusions The results of our study indicate that ALDH enzyme expression and activity may be associated

  4. Rice Genome Research: Current Status and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Han

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Rice ( L. is the leading genomics system among the crop plants. The sequence of the rice genome, the first cereal plant genome, was published in 2005. This review summarizes progress made in rice genome annotations, comparative genomics, and functional genomics researches. It also maps out the status of rice genomics globally and provides a vision of future research directions and resource building.

  5. HEAVY METAL LEVELS IN PADDY SOILS AND RICE (ORYZA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    metals in O. sativa grains harvested locally as well as to set the baseline levels of some heavy ... Machiwa – Heavy Metal Levels in Paddy Soils and Rice … .... where 0.5 g of dried soil or rice (polished rice and paddy rice) samples were weighed in 50 ml volumetric flasks. De-ionized water. (1 ml) was added, the flasks were ...

  6. Genetic improvement of rice for biotic and abiotic stress tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    ANSARI, MAHMOOD UR RAHMAN; Shaheen, Tayyaba; BUKHARI, SHAZAI; Husnain, Tayyab

    2015-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is among the most important food crops that provide a staple food for nearly half of the world's population. Rice crops are prone to various types of stresses, both biotic and abiotic. Biotic stresses include insect pests, fungus, bacteria, viruses, and herbicide toxicity. Among abiotic stresses, drought, cold, and salinity are also well studied in rice. Various genes have been identified, cloned, and characterized to combat these stresses and protect rice crop...

  7. The politics of Golden Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubock, Adrian

    2014-07-03

    Genetic knowledge applicable to crop improvement has erupted over the past 60 years, and the techniques of introducing genes from one organism to another have enabled new varieties of crops not achievable by previously available methodologies of crop breeding. Research and particularly development of these GMO-crops to a point where they are useful for growers and consumers in most countries is subject to complex national and international rules arising out of the UN's Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity, with 167 country signatories. (The USA and Canada are not signatories.) The Protocol was developed based on concerns initially expressed in the 1970's that such technology presented unusual risks to man and the environment. Those ideas have comprehensively and authoritatively been proven to be wrong. The Protocol has nevertheless spawned significant regulatory obstacles to the development of GMO-crop technology at great cost to global society and in conflict with many other UN objectives. The suspicion induced by the Protocol is also widely used, overtly or covertly, for political purposes. These points are illustrated by reference to the not-for-profit Golden Rice project.

  8. Effect of germination on the physicochemical and antioxidant characteristics of rice flour from three rice varieties from Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinma, Chiemela Enyinnaya; Anuonye, Julian Chukwuemeka; Simon, Omotade Comfort; Ohiare, Raliat Ozavize; Danbaba, Nahemiah

    2015-10-15

    This study determined the effect of germination (48 h) on the physicochemical and antioxidant characteristics of rice flour from three rice varieties from Nigeria. Local rice varieties (Jamila, Jeep and Kwandala) were evaluated and compared to an improved variety (MR 219). Physicochemical and antioxidant properties of flours were determined using standard methods. Protein, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium and antioxidant properties of rice flours increased after germination while phytic acid and total starch contents decreased. Foaming capacity and stability of rice flours increased after germination. Germination resulted to changes in pasting and thermal characteristics of rice flours. Germinated rice flours had better physicochemical and antioxidant properties with reduced phytic acid and starch contents compared to MR 219, which can be utilized as functional ingredients in the preparation of rice-based products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Persistence and metabolism of imidacloprid in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoijam, Romila; Singh, Balwinder

    2014-05-01

    Imidacloprid is a systemic insecticide which gives effective control of plant and leaf hoppers in rice. The persistence and metabolism of imidacloprid in paddy leaves, rice grains, bran, straw and husk were studied following two applications of imidacloprid (Confidor 17.8 SL) @ 20 and 80 g a.i. ha(-1) at an interval of 10 days. Samples of paddy leaves were collected at various time intervals. The samples of rice grains, bran, straw and husk were collected at the time of harvest. The limit of quantification of imidacloprid and its metabolites was worked out to be 0.01 mg kg(-1). The maximum residues of imidacloprid and its metabolites in paddy leaves after 0 day (1 h after last spray) of its application @ 20 and 80 g a.i. ha(-1) were found to be 4.57 and 13.94 mg kg(-1), respectively. These residues could not be detected after 60 and 90 days following last application of imidacloprid at lower and higher dosages, respectively. In rice, olefin metabolite was found to be the main constituent, followed by nitroguanidine, urea, 5-hydroxy, chloronicotinic acid and nitrosimine. The samples of rice grains, bran, straw and husk did not reveal the presence of imidacloprid or its metabolites following its application at both the dosages at harvest.

  10. Making Rice Production More Environmentally-Friendly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Uphoff

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Irrigated rice production is one of the most essential agricultural activities for sustaining our global population, and at the same time, one of the agricultural sectors considered most eco-unfriendly. This is because it consumes a larger share of available freshwater resources, competing with varied ecosystems as well as other economic sectors; its paddy fields are responsible for significant emission of greenhouse gases; and the reliance on chemical fertilizers and various agrochemicals contributes to pollution of soils and water systems. These stresses on soils, hydrology and atmosphere are actually not necessary for rice production, which can be increased by modifying agronomic practices though more agroecologically-sound management practices. These, combined under the rubric of the System of Rice Intensification (SRI, can reduce requirements of irrigation water, chemical fertilizer and agrochemicals while increasing paddy yields and farmer’s net incomes. Here we discuss how irrigated rice production can be made more eco-friendly for the benefit of farmers, consumers and the environment. This is achieved by introducing practices that improve the growth and functioning of rice plants’ root systems and enhance the abundance, diversity and activity of beneficial soil organisms that live around plant roots and within the plants themselves as symbiotic endophytes.

  11. The gymnastics of epigenomics in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Aditya; Roychoudhury, Aryadeep

    2017-09-02

    Epigenomics is represented by the high-throughput investigations of genome-wide epigenetic alterations, which ultimately dictate genomic, transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic dynamism. Rice has been accepted as the global staple crop. As a result, this model crop deserves significant importance in the rapidly emerging field of plant epigenomics. A large number of recently available data reveal the immense flexibility and potential of variable epigenomic landscapes. Such epigenomic impacts and variability are determined by a number of epigenetic regulators and several crucial inheritable epialleles, respectively. This article highlights the correlation of the epigenomic landscape with growth, flowering, reproduction, non-coding RNA-mediated post-transcriptional regulation, transposon mobility and even heterosis in rice. We have also discussed the drastic epigenetic alterations which are reported in rice plants grown from seeds exposed to the extraterrestrial environment. Such abiotic conditions impose stress on the plants leading to epigenomic modifications in a genotype-specific manner. Some significant bioinformatic databases and in silico approaches have also been explained in this article. These softwares provide important interfaces for comparative epigenomics. The discussion concludes with a unified goal of developing epigenome editing to promote biological hacking of the rice epigenome. Such a cutting-edge technology if properly standardized, can integrate genomics and epigenomics together with the generation of high-yielding trait in several cultivars of rice.

  12. A feasibility study on identification of Basmati (aromatic) rice using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    basis of characterization of rice crop into two different varieties namely aromatic and non-aromatic. Multitemporal HH polarization data along with rate of change of cross polarization ratio (HH/HV) from. July to September 2011 was used. The aromatic rice could be separated from normal rice with 91% accuracy. 1.

  13. Feasiblity of collecting naturally leached rice straw for thermal conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, R.R.; Jenkins, B.M.

    2003-01-01

    The practical application of field or natural leaching to rice straw was evaluated with the goal of improving biomass fuel value. Observations on three rice farms in the Sacramento Valley, California indicated that potassium, chlorine and total ash are leached from rice straw by rainfall regardless

  14. Genomic diversity among Basmati rice ( Oryza sativa L) mutants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genomic diversity among Basmati rice ( Oryza sativa L) mutants obtained through 60 Co gamma radiations using AFLP markers. ... In order to obtain new varieties of rice with improved agronomic and grain characteristics, gamma radiation (60Co) has been used to generate novel mutants of the Basmati rice. In this study ...

  15. Land Evaluation for improved Rice Production in Watari Irrigation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed at raising irrigated rice production in Watari Irrigation scheme, in Kano state, as to bridge the gap between the demand for rice and its supply. The food and Agricultural Organization FAO, (1985) frame work for land evaluation for irrigated rice production was employed, and the soil map of the study area has ...

  16. Agromorphological characterization of some rice species in the main ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rice is the basic cereal of the populations of the areas of Tandjilé and Western Mayo Kebbi, in the south of Chad. The rice productivity is, however, low: less than 1 t/ha. This is related to several factors, of which the strong infestation of rice plantation into adventitious and lack of improved varieties with high productivity.

  17. Quality characteristics of rice inoculated with Inonotus obliquus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    latif

    2013-08-14

    Aug 14, 2013 ... This study was performed to investigate the quality characteristics of Inonotus obliquus mycelia rice incubated with I. obliquus (KCTC 256152). Different volumes of mycelial culture of I. obliquus were used for production of I. obliquus mycelia rice. Twenty percent of the mycelial culture was added to rice and.

  18. Genetic analysis of Resistance to Rice Bacterial blight in Uganda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rice bacterial blight (Xanthomonas oryzae pv.oryzae) is a major constraint to rice (Oryza sativa L.) production in Uganda and as part of strategies to develop resistant cultivars, it is important to evaluate resistance of commonly used cultivars. A full-diallel mating design involving three resistant and three susceptible rice ...

  19. Physiology and productivity of rice crop influenced by drought stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rice is sensitive to moisture stress and in view of the water scarcity in the coming years, it is imperative to evaluate the performance of rice cultivar under moisture deficit. The present study aimed to evaluate the physiological responses of two rice cultivars under drought stress induced at panicle initiation and soft dough ...

  20. Perceived Factors Limiting Rice Production in Patigi Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the perceived factors limiting rice production in five selected villages in Patigi Local Government Area of Kwara State, Nigeria. The study area was purposively selected based on their known potentials for rice production. One Hundred and Ten (110) rice farmers were selected for the study.

  1. Developing technology options for rice integrated crop management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    Developing technology options for rice integrated crop management in the. Sahel Zone of West Africa: Case of irrigated rice production the Senegal River. Valley. M. Kebbeh, K. Miezan and M. Camara1. Production Economist, Breeder and Visiting Scientist in Agronomy at The Africa Rice Center (WARDA). Address: BP 96 ...

  2. Genetic diversity in grain quality and nutrition of aromatic rices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted at Bangladesh Rice Research Institute (BRRI), Gazipur in 2005 to assess the genetic divergence of aromatic rices for grain quality and nutrition aspects. Forty genotypes composed of 32 local aromatic, five exotic aromatic and three non-aromatic rice varieties were used. Univariate and multivariate ...

  3. Utilization of Rice Offal in Practical Ration of Broilers. | Maikano ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... two (finisher phase), broilers were fed with the finisher diets from 5-8 weeks and tolerated 15% rice offal inclusion in their diets with significant growth. In all experiments there was increase in feed intake as the level of rice offal increased. Keywords: Rice offal, chicken diets, starter phase, finisher phase. The Zoologist Vol.

  4. Ghanaian Consumers' Attitudes toward Cisgenic Rice: Are all ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Employing an interval regression on the survey data showed that consumers were willing to pay a premium for environmentally beneficial rice and a discount for GM and cisgenic rice. In addition, a Likert scale and simple t test was used to show that respondents had a less negative attitude towards cisgenic rice relative to ...

  5. Dietary effect of rice milling waste and supplementary enzyme on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2013-08-21

    Aug 21, 2013 ... to low level of animal protein production and high cost of animal products and suggested the intensification of ... hulls or husk, rice bran and bravery's rice. Rice husks, the major part of RMW contains ..... cereals and vegetable proteins, thereby decreasing gut viscosity, and thus improve nutrient absorption.

  6. Perceived factors limiting rice production in Pategi Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    ABSTRACT. The study examined the perceived factors limiting rice production in five selected villages in Patigi Local Government Area of Kwara State, Nigeria. The study area was purposively selected based on their known potentials for rice production. One Hundred and Ten (110) rice farmers were selected for the study.

  7. Genetic analysis of some Egyptian rice genotypes using RAPD, SSR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nformation of genetic similarities and diversity among superior Egyptian rice genotypes is necessary for future rice breeding programs and derivation of plant lines. Genetic variability and relationships among seven Egyptian rice genotypes namely Giza 178, Giza177, Giza 175, Giza171 Giza 172, Sakha 102, and Sakha 101 ...

  8. Storage behaviour of two contrasting upland rice genotypes | Bam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated complaints by upland rice farmers in Ghana that their local rice cultivar "Kawomo" (Oryza glaberrima) stored better than an improved upland rice cultivar, IDSA 85 (Oryza sativa subsp. japonica), tested and selected in a Participatory Varietal Selection programme. One seed lot of "Kawomo" and two ...

  9. Genetic diversity in grain quality and nutrition of aromatic rices

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-04-06

    Apr 6, 2009 ... Genetic divergence in scented and fine genotypes of rice (Oryza sativa L). Ann. Agric. Res. 17(2):. 163-166. Singh RK, Gautam PL, Sanjeev S, Singh S (2000). Scented rice germplasm: Consevation, evaluation and utilization. p. 107-133 In: Aromatic rices. Ed: Singh RK, Singh US, Khush GS. Oxford and IBH.

  10. Rice methylmercury exposure and mitigation: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg, Sarah E; Windham-Myers, Lisamarie; Creswell, Joel E

    2014-08-01

    Rice cultivation practices from field preparation to post-harvest transform rice paddies into hot spots for microbial mercury methylation, converting less-toxic inorganic mercury to more-toxic methylmercury, which is likely translocated to rice grain. This review includes 51 studies reporting rice total mercury and/or methylmercury concentrations, based on rice (Orzya sativa) cultivated or purchased in 15 countries. Not surprisingly, both rice total mercury and methylmercury levels were significantly higher in polluted sites compared to non-polluted sites (Wilcoxon rank sum, p<0.001). However, rice percent methylmercury (of total mercury) did not differ statistically between polluted and non-polluted sites (Wilcoxon rank sum, p=0.35), suggesting comparable mercury methylation rates in paddy soil across these sites and/or similar accumulation of mercury species for these rice cultivars. Studies characterizing the effects of rice cultivation under more aerobic conditions were reviewed to determine the mitigation potential of this practice. Rice management practices utilizing alternating wetting and drying (instead of continuous flooding) caused soil methylmercury levels to spike, resulting in a strong methylmercury pulse after fields were dried and reflooded; however, it is uncertain whether this led to increased translocation of methylmercury from paddy soil to rice grain. Due to the potential health risks, it is advisable to investigate this issue further, and to develop separate water management strategies for mercury polluted and non-polluted sites, in order to minimize methylmercury exposure through rice ingestion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Enhancing Performance of Farmers' Cooperative in Rice Innovation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The state has witnessed proliferation of farmers' cooperative; and while new ones are emerging in their numbers, some old ones are becoming less functional and others going into extinct The study examined factors for enhancing performance of rice farmers' cooperative in rice innovation system. Seventy members of rice ...

  12. Efficiency in rice production : evidence from gogounou district in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These different results suggest that the role that must be played project agents to improve management skills of rice producers throughout their visit and training is important. Finally, it's necessary to promote a wideness of rice growing areas for a real rice production development and a sustainable food security in Benin.

  13. Rice value chain analysis in Tanzania: identification of constraints ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The importance of rice (Oryza sativa L.) as a food and cash crop in Eastern Africa, is increasing, but its value chain is becoming complex. In 2012/13, rice value chain analysis was conducted in rice farming systems of Lake, Eastern and Southern-Highlands zones of Tanzania. A sample of 240 producers, 60 traders and 30 ...

  14. Effects of Aqueous Extract of Unpolished Dark Purple Glutinous Rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These data suggest that LP antagonizes the effect of scopolamine on memory. Conclusion: LP extract has anti-oxidative and memory-enhancing effects in cell culture and mice. The rice may be a nutraceutical helpful for promoting brain health. Keywords: Dark purple rice, Leum Pua rice, Reactive oxygen species, Memory, ...

  15. Upland rice yield as affected by Brachiaria coverage management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano S. Nascente

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An important point in no-tillage system is the time between cover crop glyphosate desiccation and rice sowing. This study aimed to verify the effect of Brachiaria ruziziensis management time before rice sowing on rice yield and its components. The experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions and consisted of four types of B. ruziziensis management: with Brachiaria and with herbicide (WBWH, without Brachiaria shoots and with herbicide (NBWH, without Brachiaria shoots and without herbicide (NBNH, and with Brachiaria and without herbicide (WBNH, at four times: 30, 20, 10, and 0 days, preceding the rice sowing. The amount of B. ruziziensis dry matter increased as the management was done closer to the rice sowing date. The WBWH and WBNH managements (this one causes the lowest rice grain yield must be done 30 days before rice sowing; while NBWH management must be done ten or more days before rice sowing. On the other hand, NBNH management (this one favors the best rice grain yield can be done until rice sowing day. Despite some reduction in rice yield caused by the B. ruziziensis management, when it was done at the proper time the rice grain yield was similar to the control (without Brachiaria sowing and without herbicide application.

  16. physico-chemical and grain cooking characteristics of selected rice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    Antarctica, extending from 50º North to. South Latitude. Rice is an important crop in Tanzania, with. 60% of the population eating rice. Annual per capital consumption has risen from less than 15 kg in the 1970s (IRRI 2006) to more than 35-40 kg in 2005. Annual rice production in Tanzania decreased from. 782,300 MT 2000 ...

  17. Preferences of Ugandan consumers for rice varieties and brands on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The demand for rice Oryza sativa in Uganda has exceeded local supply resulting into importation of several other rice varieties and brands to meet the deficit. Lack of information on consumer preferences hinders decision-making to invest in the rice sub sector. This study seeks to provide information on consumer ...

  18. influence of addition of rice husk ash on porcelain composition

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Rice husk ash (RHA) has long been known to possess high silica content. The abundance of rice husk as agricultural waste makes it the most promising to be used as a supplementary cementations and ceramic material. In this study RHA was used as an additive material on porcelain body. The rice husk was ...

  19. Influence of Addition of Rice Husk Ash on Porcelain Composition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rice husk ash (RHA) has long been known to possess high silica content. The abundance of rice husk as agricultural waste makes it the most promising to be used as a supplementary cementations and ceramic material. In this study RHA was used as an additive material on porcelain body. The rice husk was subjected to ...

  20. Golden Rice is an effective source of vitamin A1234

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Guangwen; QIN, Jian; Dolnikowski, Gregory G.; Russell, Robert M.; Grusak, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Genetically engineered “Golden Rice” contains up to 35 μg β-carotene per gram of rice. It is important to determine the vitamin A equivalency of Golden Rice β-carotene to project the potential effect of this biofortified grain in rice-consuming populations that commonly exhibit low vitamin A status.

  1. Technical efficiency of upland and lowland rice production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examined the efficiency of upland and lowland rice production systems in a prominent rice producing State (Niger State) in Nigeria using descriptive statistics, stochastic production frontier model as well as inefficiency model. The data used were generated from a farm survey involving 240 rice farmers' randomly ...

  2. Yield differentials among participating and non-participating rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The shortfall in domestic rice production in Nigeria has been attributed to inadequate provision of productivity-enhancing agricultural support services to rice farmers. Input supply and guaranteed market that entrenched the shortfall are the focus of the Public-Private Partnership (PPP) arrangement in rice production.

  3. Global Rice Atlas: Disaggregated seasonal crop calendar and production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balanza, Jane Girly; Gutierrez, Mary Anne; Villano, Lorena; Nelson, A.D.; Zwart, S.J.; Boschetti, Mirco; Koo, Jawoo; Reinke, Russell; Murty, M. V.R.; Laborte, Alice G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Rice is an important staple crop cultivated in more than 163 million ha globally. Although information on the distribution of global rice production is available by country and, at times, at subnational level, information on its distribution within a year is often lacking in different rice

  4. Fluoride levels in commercially available rice in Ethiopia | Tegegne ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alkaline fusion was used for sample preparation of six varieties for both the raw rice and rice cooked with tap water and fluoridated water. Fluoride levels ... A statistical analysis of variance at 95% confidence level for fluoride determination indicated significant difference between the mean of each variety of rice samples.

  5. Physicochemical properties of germinated brown rice ( Oryza sativa L.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physicochemical properties of white rice (WR), brown rice (BR) and germinated brown rice (GBR) starches from a mixed variety of MR219 and MR220, commonly consumed Malaysian varieties, were compared in this study. The granular size of the starch particles, measured using scanning electron microscope (SEM), ...

  6. Determinants of rice output among ADP contact farmers in mining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study analyzed factors affecting rice output among Agricultural Development Programme (ADP) contact farmers in the mining and non mining locations of IVO LGA of Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Multistage random sampling technique was used to select agricultural circles and rice farmers. The sample size was 120 rice ...

  7. Scaling up Intermittent Rice Irrigation for Malaria Control on the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Scaling up Intermittent Rice Irrigation for Malaria Control on the North Coast of Peru. New research aims to help control malaria in one watershed in northern Peru. Malaria is widespread in Peru's arid North Coast because of the extensive irrigation required to support rice paddies. Rice growing in the region accounts for ...

  8. Developing selection protocols for weed competitiveness in aerobic rice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, D.L.; Atlin, G.N.; Bastiaans, L.; Spiertz, J.H.J.

    2006-01-01

    Aerobic rice production systems, wherein rice is dry-sown in non-puddled soil and grown as an upland crop, offer large water savings but are subject to severe weed infestation. Weed-competitive cultivars will be critical to the adoption of aerobic rice production by farmers. Breeding

  9. Soil Management Methods under Rice Cultivation in Ndokwa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examines the soil management methods under rice cultivation in. Ndokwa grassland soils with the aim of determining the most effective soil management measures for rice cultivation. Soil samples were collected at three locations where rice is presently cultivated in the area. Five plots of 20m x 20m were ...

  10. Biosorption studies on copper (II) and cadmium (II) using pretreated rice straw and rice husk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W C; Law, F Y; Chan, Y H M

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated the adsorption and removal behaviour of copper (Cu) (II) and cadmium (Cd) (II) ions using rice husk and rice straw in aqueous solutions. Different parameters were used to investigate their adsorption performance in saline conditions and the optimal level of biosorption at different pH levels. The main parameters were pH (3, 6 and 9), initial concentration level of heavy metals (Cu (II) 5, 10, 20, 40 and 60 mg/L and Cd (II) 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 8 mg/L, respectively), salinity (0, 50 and 100 mM NaCl) and contact time (ranging from 3 to 60 min). Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were applied to analyse the removal efficiency and sorption capacity of the pretreated rice husk and rice straw. The removal efficiency and adsorption capacity generally increased with the pH and reached a plateau in alkaline conditions. The percentage removal of Cu (II) by rice husk reached 97 % at pH 9 and 95 % by rice straw at pH 6. Biosorption performance increased in the absence of NaCl. Kinetic studies for both metals revealed that the biosorption of Cu (II) and Cd (II) onto rice straw and husk was pseudo-second order.

  11. Manually Curated Database of Rice Proteins (MCDRP, a database of digitized experimental data on rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Raghuvanshi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available MCDRP or ‘Manually Curated Database of Rice Proteins’ is a database of digitized experimental datasets on rice proteins. Every aspect of the experimental data published in peer-reviewed research articles on rice biology has been digitized with the help of novel data curation models. These models use a semantic and structured arrangement of alpha-numeric notation, including several well known ontologies, to represent various aspect of the data. As a result data from more than 15,000 different experiments pertaining to about 2400 rice proteins has been digitized from over 540 published and peer-reviewed research articles. The database portal provides access to the digitized experimental data via search or browse functions. In essence, one can instantly access data from even a single data-point from a collection of thousands of the experimental datasets. On the other hand, one can easily access the digitized experimental data from multiple research articles on a rice protein. Based on the analysis and integration of the digitized experimental data, more than 800 different traits (molecular, biochemical or phenotypic have been precisely mapped onto the rice proteins along with the underlying experimental evidences. Similarly, over 4370 associations, based on experimental evidence, have been established between the rice proteins and various gene ontology terms. The database is being continuously updated and is freely available at www.genomeindia.org.in/biocuration.

  12. [Effect of ridge & terraced ecological rice farming on rice photosynthetic characteristics and yield].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hua-Bin; Liu, Jian-Xia; Yao, Lin; He, Hui; Huang, Huang

    2014-09-01

    Taking super hybrid rice Y-liangyou 1, and hybrid rice Xianyou 63 and conventional rice Huanghuazhan as test materials, a field experiment was conducted in Changsha City of Hunan Province in 2011 and 2012 to investigate the effects of ridge & terraced ecological rice farming (RT) and bed ecological rice farming (B) on rice grain yield and photosynthetic characteristics. Compared with conventional rice farming (CK) , yield of Y-liangyou 1 in the RT was increased significantly by 28.7%, the effective panicles per unit area and spikelets per panicle were increased by 16.1% and 6.8%, respectively. Yields of Xianyou 63 and Huanghuazhan in the RT and B were 24.3% and 19.7%, 12.0% and 16.2% higher than those of CK, respectively. Leaf area index, dry matter accumulation before and after full-heading, total dry matter accumulation of Y-liangyou 1 in the RT was higher than that of CK. Number of spikelets/leaf area, number of filled grains/leaf area, grain mass/leaf area of Y-liangyou 1 in the RT were 8.1%, 14.8% and 15.8% higher than those of CK, respectively, the photosynthetic potential was increased by 32.2% while the net assimilation rate was declined by 9.3%.

  13. Specific Effects of Carbofuran on Rice Agrosystem in Yogyakarta Plant Growth and Rice Stem Borer Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddy Mahrub

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of carbofuran in controlling lowland rice stem borers in traditional farming systems was studied by looking at its impact on the whole rice agroecosystem. Levels of infestation, rice yield, damage to the plant, parasitism rates, and distribution of damage were compared after medium, high, and no (control dosages were applied to lowland rice fields near Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Although larvae were found to be more numerous in control plots, the damage attributable to them was not significantly different. Their spatial distribution, however, differed radically. The authors concluded that carbofuran might affect pest populations at two different levels: by discouraging or preventing rice stem borers from laying their eggs on rice, and by delaying or eliminating natural enemies attacks on rice stem borers. Both levels were determined by comparing the distribution of damage in treated fields with untreated fields. In the treated fields, distributions of larvae seemed to reflect initial grouping of eggs, producing a random distribution of groups, while in the control fields larvae were found in random distribution of individuals.

  14. Identification and Overexpression of a Bifunctional Aldehyde/Alcohol Dehydrogenase Responsible for Ethanol Production in Thermoanaerobacter mathranii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Shuo; Just Mikkelsen, Marie

    2010-01-01

    B), butanol dehydrogenase (BdhA) and NAD(H)-dependent bifunctional aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhE), respectively. Here we observed that AdhE is an important enzyme responsible for ethanol production in T. mathranii based on the constructed adh knockout strains. An adhE knockout strain fails to produce...... ethanol as a fermentation product, while other adh knockout strains showed no significant difference from the wild type. Further analysis revealed that the ΔadhE strain was defective in aldehyde dehydrogenase activity, but still maintained alcohol dehydrogenase activity. This showed that AdhE is the major....... Overexpressions of AdhE in strain BG1E1 with xylose as a substrate facilitate the production of ethanol at an increased yield. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel...

  15. In vitro antifungal and anti-elastase activity of some aliphatic aldehydes from Olea europaea L. fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battinelli, L; Daniele, C; Cristiani, M; Bisignano, G; Saija, A; Mazzanti, G

    2006-09-01

    Olea europaea preparations are traditionally employed in a variety of troubles, including skin infections. Olive extracts and some of their pure compounds have shown antimicrobial activity in vitro. The present study deals with the antifungal activity of some aliphatic aldehydes from olive fruit [hexanal, nonanal, (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-heptenal, (E)-2-octenal, (E)-2-nonenal] against Tricophyton mentagrophytes (6 strains), Microsporum canis (1 strains) and Candida spp. (7 strains). The capability of these substances to inhibit elastase, a virulence factor essential for the dermatophytes colonization, and their cytotoxicity on cultures of reconstructed human epidermis, are also described. Aldehydes tested, inhibited the growth of T. mentagrophytes and M. canis in the range of concentration between olive fruit here reported, substantiates the use of olive and olive oil in skin diseases and suggests that these natural compounds could be useful agents in the topical treatment of fungal cutaneous infections.

  16. Rh(III)-Catalyzed Diastereoselective C-H Bond Addition/Cyclization Cascade of Enone Tethered Aldehydes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerth, Jeffrey A; Ellman, Jonathan A

    2016-02-01

    The Rh(III)-catalyzed cascade addition of a C-H bond across alkene and carbonyl π-bonds is reported. The reaction proceeds under mild reaction conditions with low catalyst loading. A range of directing groups were shown to be effective as was the functionalization of alkenyl in addition to aromatic C(sp2)-H bonds. When the enone and aldehyde electrophile were tethered together, cyclic β-hydroxy ketones with three contiguous stereocenters were obtained with high diastereoselectivity. The intermolecular three-component cascade reaction was demonstrated for both aldehyde and imine electrophiles. Moreover, the first x-ray structure of a cationic Cp*Rh(III) enolate with interatomic distances consistent with an η3-bound enolate is reported.

  17. Clicking Hydrazine and Aldehyde: The Way to Labeling of Viruses with Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Zheng-Yuan; Lv, Cheng; Liu, An-An; Liu, Shu-Lin; Sun, En-Ze; Zhang, Zhi-Ling; Lei, Ai-Wen; Pang, Dai-Wen

    2015-12-22

    Real-time tracking of fluorophore-tagged viruses in living cells can help uncover virus infection mechanisms. Certainly, the indispensable prerequisite for virus-tracking is to label viruses with some bright and photostable beacons such as quantum dots (QDs) via an appropriate labeling strategy. Herein, we devise a convenient hydrazine-aldehyde based strategy to label viruses with QDs through the conjugation of 4-formylbenzoate (4FB) modified QDs to 6-hydrazinonicotinate acetone hydrazone (HyNic) modified viruses under mild conditions. On the basis of this strategy, viruses can be successfully labeled with QDs with high selectivity, stable conjugation, good reproducibility, high labeling efficiency of 92-93% and maximum retention of both fluorescence properties of QDs and infectivity of viruses, which is very meaningful to tracking and statistical analysis of virus infection processes. By further comparing with the most widely used labeling strategy based on the Biotin-SA system, this new strategy has advantages of both high labeling efficiency and good retention of virus infectivity, thus offering a promising alternative for virus-labeling. Moreover, due to the ubiquitous presence of exposed amino groups on the surface of various viruses, this selective, efficient, reproducible and biofriendly strategy should have good universality for labeling both enveloped and nonenveloped viruses.

  18. Pepsin immobilization on an aldehyde-modified polymethacrylate monolith and its application for protein analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wenjuan; Yamauchi, Mika; Hasegawa, Urara; Noda, Masanori; Fukui, Kiichi; van der Vlies, André J; Uchiyama, Susumu; Uyama, Hiroshi

    2015-05-01

    Polymer-based monoliths with interconnected porous structure have attracted much attention as a high-performance stationary phase for online digestion liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) system. In this study, a poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-methyl methacrylate) (PGM) monolith prepared via thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) was used as a solid support to covalently immobilize pepsin. The PGM monolith was modified with aminoacetal to yield an aldehyde-bearing (PGM-CHO) monolith. Pepsin was immobilized onto the PGM-CHO monolith via reductive amination. The immobilized pepsin showed better pH and thermal stability compared with free pepsin. Furthermore, the PGM-CHO monolith modified with pepsin was applied for online protein digestion followed by LC-MS and LC-MS/MS analyses. As a result, a larger number of peptides are reproducibly identified compared to those by polystyrene/divinylbenzene particle (POROS)-based online pepsin column. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Research on Odor Interaction between Aldehyde Compounds via a Partial Differential Equation (PDE Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LuchunYan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to explore the odor interaction of binary odor mixtures, a series of odor intensity evaluation tests were performed using both individual components and binary mixtures of aldehydes. Based on the linear relation between the logarithm of odor activity value and odor intensity of individual substances, the relationship between concentrations of individual constituents and their joint odor intensity was investigated by employing a partial differential equation (PDE model. The obtained results showed that the binary odor interaction was mainly influenced by the mixing ratio of two constituents, but not the concentration level of an odor sample. Besides, an extended PDE model was also proposed on the basis of the above experiments. Through a series of odor intensity matching tests for several different binary odor mixtures, the extended PDE model was proved effective at odor intensity prediction. Furthermore, odorants of the same chemical group and similar odor type exhibited similar characteristics in the binary odor interaction. The overall results suggested that the PDE model is a more interpretable way of demonstrating the odor interactions of binary odor mixtures.

  20. Thermostable aldehyde dehydrogenase from psychrophile, Cytophaga sp. KUC-1: enzymological characteristics and functional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Yuko; Kazuoka, Takayuki; Yoshida, Masahiro; Yamanaka, Kazuya; Oikawa, Tadao; Soda, Kenji

    2002-11-15

    We found the occurrence of NAD(P)(+)-dependent aldehyde dehydrogenase (EC1.2.1.5) in the cells of a psychrophile from Antarctic seawater, Cytophaga sp. KUC-1, and purified to homogeneity. About 50% of the enzyme activity remained even after heating at 50 degrees C for 65min and the highest activity was observed in the range of 55-60 degrees C. The enzyme was thermostable and thermophilic, although it was derived from a psychrophile. The circular dichroism at 222nm of the enzyme showed a peak at 32 degrees C. This temperature was closely similar to the transition temperature in the Arrhenius plots. The stereospecificity for the hydride transfer at C4-site of nicotinamide moiety of NADH was pro-R. The gene encoding the enzyme consisted of an open reading frame of 1506-bp encoding a protein of 501 amino acid residues. The significant sequence identity (61%) was found between the Cytophaga and the Pseudomonas aeruginosa enzymes, although their thermostabilities are completely different.

  1. Aldehyde dehydrogenase expression in Metaphire posthuma as a bioindicator to monitor heavy metal pollution in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panday, Raju; Bhatt, Padam Shekhar; Bhattarai, Tribikram; Shakya, Kumudini; Sreerama, Lakshmaiah

    2016-11-21

    Soil contamination and associated pollution plays a detrimental role in soil flora and fauna. Soil is processed and remodeled by subterranean earthworms, accordingly are referred to as soil chemical engineers. These worms, besides processing carbon and nitrogen, serve as minors for processing metals. In heavy metal contaminated soils, they accumulate heavy metals, which in turn cause altered gene expression, including aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) enzymes. This study explores the possibility of ALDH expression in earthworms as a novel biomarker for the heavy metal contamination of soil. Earthworms cultured in contaminated soils accumulated significantly higher levels of Pb and Cd. Similarly, significantly higher levels of ALDH enzyme activities were observed in earthworms cultured in soils contaminated with Pb and Cd. The ALDH activity was found to be highest in worms cultured in 5 ppm heavy metal contaminated soils. Although, ALDH activities decreased as the heavy metal concentration in soil increased, they were significantly higher when compared to control worms cultured in uncontaminated soils. The accumulation of heavy metal in earthworms measured after 28 days decreased as the heavy metal concentration in soil increased. Levels of ALDH expression correlated with total Pb and Cd concentration in the earthworm tissue. This study showed that the ALDH activity in earthworms could potentially be used as a biomarker to show heavy metal pollution in soil.

  2. Health-risk assessment based on an additive to paints made from isobutyric aldehyde condensation products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan Tic, Wilhelm

    2017-10-01

    Solvents are primarily used for making protective coatings. Considering their chemical nature, there are a great variety of coatings, including those based on liquid hydrocarbons and organic chloroderivatives. These products are a serious load to the environment because of their physicochemical properties, therefore, they have for some time been replaced with more-environmentally friendly, new generation products. One of them is the hydroxyester HE-1: made from isobutyric aldehyde condensation products, it is an alternative to those coalescents for paints and varnishes which are intended to be replaced or their use restricted. The results of selected toxicological tests relating to the human health risk effect of the hydroxyester HE-1 - environmentally-friendly additive to paints and varnishes are presented. The test results indicate that HE-1 causes skin irritation in rabbit only when used at its maximum concentrations. No lesions in the cornea or iris were observed in any of the test rabbits after the application of the hydroxyester HE-1. In the mutagenic effect test of HE-1 on the bacteria Salmonella typhimurium, the result was negative. Based on the test results, it was found that the hydroxyester HE-1 may only have a human health risk effect when used at its maximum concentrations.

  3. Biosynthesis of steroidal alkaloids in Solanaceae plants: involvement of an aldehyde intermediate during C-26 amination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohyama, Kiyoshi; Okawa, Akiko; Moriuchi, Yuka; Fujimoto, Yoshinori

    2013-05-01

    The C-26 amino group of steroidal alkaloids, such as tomatine, is introduced during an early step of their biosynthesis from cholesterol. In the present study, the mechanism of C-26 amination was reinvestigated by administering stable isotope labeled compounds, such as (26,26,26,27,27,27-(2)H6)cholesterol during biosynthesis of tomatine, solanine and solasonine. The chemical compositions of tomatine and solanine so obtained were analyzed by LC-MS after administering the d6-cholesterol to a tomato seedling and a potato shoot, respectively. The resulting spectra indicated that two deuterium atoms were eliminated from C-26 of cholesterol during biosynthesis. Furthermore, administration of (6-(13)C(2)H3)mevalonate in combination with lovastatin to an eggplant seedling, followed by GC-MS analysis of solasodine after TMS derivatization established that two deuterium atoms were eliminated from C-26 of cholesterol during solasonine biosynthesis. These findings are in contrast to an earlier observation that one hydrogen atom was lost from C-26 during tomatidine biosynthesis, and suggest that C-26 nitrogen atom addition involves an aldehyde intermediate. Thus, it is proposed that the C-26 amination reaction that occurs during steroidal alkaloid biosynthesis proceeds by way of a transamination mechanism. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. In vivo evaluation of induction of abnormal sperm morphology in mice by an unsaturated aldehyde crotonaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Anand M; Kumar, Mithilesh

    2006-02-28

    Crotonaldehyde, a highly reactive unsaturated aldehyde is used for the manufacture of sorbic acid, synthesis of butyl alcohol, butylaldehyde, quinaldine, thiophenes, pyridines, dyes, pesticides, pharmaceuticals, rubber antioxidants, chemical warfare agents, etc. and also occurs naturally in meat, fish, in many fruits and vegetables, bread, cheese, milk, beer, wine and liquors. Human exposure to crotonaldehyde occurs from both man-made and natural sources. No human data was located describing carcinogenicity associated with crotonaldehyde exposure. In the present study we have evaluated whether or not exposure to crotonaldehyde results in a significant increase in the frequency of abnormal sperm heads in male Swiss albino mice. Adult male mice were treated with 8, 16 and 32 microl/kg b.w. of crotonaldehyde as a single intraperitoneal injection. The animals were killed 1, 3 and 5 weeks after treatment. Five animals were sacrificed per dose and time tested. Crotonaldehyde induced dose related increase in the percentage of abnormal sperm heads. Statistically significant increase in percentage of abnormal sperm heads was recoded at 16 and 32 microl/kg b.w. after 1 and 3 weeks of treatment and only at 32 microl/kg b.w. after 5 weeks of treatment.

  5. Roles of histamine on the expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 in endometrioid adenocarcinoma cell line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Jiang, Yang; Ikeda, Jun-ichiro; Tian, Tian; Sato, Atsushi; Ohtsu, Hiroshi; Morii, Eiichi

    2014-01-01

    Cancer-initiating cells (CICs) are a limited number of cells that are essential for maintenance, recurrence, and metastasis of tumors. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) has been recognized as a marker of CICs. We previously reported that ALDH1-high cases of uterine endometrioid adenocarcinoma showed poor prognosis, and that ALDH1 high population was more tumorigenic, invasive, and resistant to apoptosis than ALDH1 low population. Histamine plays a critical role in cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Here, we examined the effect of histamine on ALDH1 expression in endometrioid adenocarcinoma cell line. The addition of histamine increased ALDH1 high population, which was consistent with the result that histamine enhanced the invasive ability and the resistance to anticancer drug. Among 4 types of histamine receptors, histamine H1 and H2 receptor (H1R and H2R) were expressed in endometrioid adenocarcinoma cell line. The addition of H1R agonist but not H2R agonist increased ALDH1. The antagonist H1R but not H2R inhibited the effect of histamine on ALDH1 expression. These results indicated that histamine increased the expression of ALDH1 via H1R but not H2R. These findings may provide the evidence for exploring a new strategy to suppress CICs by inhibiting ALDH1 expression with histamine. PMID:25045085

  6. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 overexpression inhibits neuronal apoptosis after spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing-zhen Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2 is an important factor in inhibiting oxidative stress and has been shown to protect against renal ischemia/reperfusion injury. Therefore, we hypothesized that ALDH2 could reduce spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury. Spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury was induced in rats using the modified Zivin's method of clamping the abdominal aorta. After successful model establishment, the agonist group was administered a daily consumption of 2.5% alcohol. At 7 days post-surgery, the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan score significantly increased in the agonist group compared with the spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury group. ALDH2 expression also significantly increased and the number of apoptotic cells significantly decreased in the agonist group than in the spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury group. Correlation analysis revealed that ALDH2 expression negatively correlated with the percentage of TUNEL-positive cells (r = −0.485, P < 0.01. In summary, increased ALDH2 expression protected the rat spinal cord against ischemia/reperfusion injury by inhibiting apoptosis.

  7. Minipig and Human Metabolism of Aldehyde Oxidase Substrates: In Vitro-In Vivo Comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, David J; Southall, Rosalind L; Li, Mingguang; Wright, Lisa M; Corfield, Lindsay J; Heeley, Thomas A; Bratby, Benjamin; Mannu, Ranbir; Johnson, Sarah L; Shaw, Victoria; Friett, Holly L; Blakeburn, Louise A; Kendrick, John S; Otteneder, Michael B

    2017-07-01

    The importance of aldehyde oxidase (AOX) is becoming increasingly recognized in the prediction of human pharmacokinetic parameters from animal data. The objectives of these studies were to ascertain whether an in vitro-in vivo correlation existed in the clearance and metabolic pathways of AOX substrates and to establish whether the minipig represented an appropriate non-rodent model for man in the pre-clinical development of drugs metabolized by AOX. Using the AOX substrates carbazeran, 6-deoxypenciclovir and zaleplon, clearance was estimated from in vitro depletion experiments with minipig and human liver cytosol and microsomes and scaled before comparison with data generated in parallel in vivo studies in minipigs. In vitro and in vivo metabolic pathways were characterized by LC-MS/MS. Scaling of in vitro metabolism data to predict in vivo clearance underestimated in vivo values, although the rank order of clearance for the three compounds was preserved. Prediction of human in vivo clearance from scaled minipig in vivo data produced results which correlated well with published clinical values. Overall, this study is the first to compare minipig in vitro metabolism data with in vivo pharmacokinetic data for compounds metabolized by AOX and provides a scientific rationale for the selection of this species as a model for humans in the development of drugs which are substrates of AOX.

  8. Association of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 gene polymorphism with pancreatic cancer but not colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyasaka, Kyoko; Hosoya, Hiroko; Tanaka, Yasuo; Uegaki, Satoko; Kino, Kenji; Shimokata, Hiroshi; Kawanami, Takako; Funakoshi, Akihiro

    2010-07-01

    Most of the acetaldehyde, a recognized animal carcinogen, generated during alcohol metabolism is eliminated by liver mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2). More than 40% of Japanese people have the inactive form of ALDH2, and inactive ALDH2 is a risk factor for multiple cancer of the esophagus, as well as head and neck cancer. Possible associations between pancreatic cancer and ALDH2 gene polymorphism, as well as between colon cancer and ALDH2 gene polymorphism, in conjunction with smoking and/or drinking habits, were examined in a Japanese population. Patients with pancreatic cancer (n = 187) and with colon cancer (n = 49) were examined. The drinking (5 g ethanol consumption/day) and/or smoking habits as well as ALDH2 gene polymorphism were examined. The age-matched control subjects were recruited in the NILS Longitudinal Study of Aging (LSA). Aging, smoking and inactive ALDH2, but not alcohol, are independent risk factors for pancreatic cancer. The frequency of smoking habits tended to be higher in patients with colon cancer compared with the patients without cancer. However, age, body mass index or the distribution of ALDH2 genotypes did not differ significantly among the patients with colon cancer, colon polyps and others. Inactive ALDH2 is an independent risk factor for pancreatic cancer, but inactive ALDH2 might not be a risk for colon cancer.

  9. Covalent Immobilization of Bacillus licheniformis γ-Glutamyl Transpeptidase on Aldehyde-Functionalized Magnetic Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Chun Chi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the synthesis and use of surface-modified iron oxide nanoparticles for the covalent immobilization of Bacillus licheniformis γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (BlGGT. Magnetic nanoparticles were prepared by an alkaline solution of divalent and trivalent iron ions, and they were subsequently treated with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APES to obtain the aminosilane-coated nanoparticles. The functional group on the particle surface and the amino group of BlGGT was then cross-linked using glutaraldehyde as the coupling reagent. The loading capacity of the prepared nanoparticles for BlGGT was 34.2 mg/g support, corresponding to 52.4% recovery of the initial activity. Monographs of transmission electron microscopy revealed that the synthesized nanoparticles had a mean diameter of 15.1 ± 3.7 nm, and the covalent cross-linking of the enzyme did not significantly change their particle size. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the immobilization of BlGGT on the magnetic nanoparticles. The chemical and kinetic behaviors of immobilized BlGGT are mostly consistent with those of the free enzyme. The immobilized enzyme could be recycled ten times with 36.2% retention of the initial activity and had a comparable stability respective to free enzyme during the storage period of 30 days. Collectively, the straightforward synthesis of aldehyde-functionalized nanoparticles and the efficiency of enzyme immobilization offer wide perspectives for the practical use of surface-bound BlGGT.

  10. Rutin attenuates ethanol-induced neurotoxicity in hippocampal neuronal cells by increasing aldehyde dehydrogenase 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kibbeum; Kim, Sokho; Na, Ji-Young; Park, Jong-Heum; Kim, Jae-Kyung; Kim, Jae-Hun; Kwon, Jungkee

    2014-10-01

    Rutin is derived from buckwheat, apples, and black tea. It has been shown to have beneficial anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Ethanol is a central nervous system depressant and neurotoxin. Its metabolite, acetaldehyde, is critically toxic. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) metabolizes acetaldehyde into nontoxic acetate. This study examined rutin's effects on ALDH2 activity in hippocampal neuronal cells (HT22 cells). Rutin's protective effects against acetaldehyde-based ethanol neurotoxicity were confirmed. Daidzin, an ALDH2 inhibitor, was used to clarify the mechanisms of rutin's protective effects. Cell viability was significantly increased after rutin treatment. Rutin significantly reversed ethanol-increased Bax, cytochrome c expression and caspase 3 activity, and decreased Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL protein expression in HT22 cells. Interestingly, rutin increased ALDH2 expression, while daidzin reversed this beneficial effect. Thus, this study demonstrates rutin protects HT22 cells against ethanol-induced neurotoxicity by increasing ALDH2 activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Distribution of genotypes of alcohol dehydrogenase 2 and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 in Japanese twin children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, W; Yamagata, Z; Wu, D; Zhang, B; Zhang, Y

    1999-03-01

    In order to prevent alcohol related deseases, this study investigated the distribution of the genes controlling alcohol metabolism in Japan's twin. Restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (RFLP-PCR) technique was used to measure the control gene of alcohol metabolized enzymes and the genotypes of alcohol dehydrogenase 2 (ADH2) and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), which were distributed in Japan's twins. At the same time, according to the difference in genotypes, the sensitive individuals were screened from the study subjects. The distribution of ADH2 and ALDH2 genes were consistent with the Hardy-weinberg equation. The three genotypes of ADH2 gene were ADH2(1)/ADH2(1) (1.1%), ADH2(1)/ADH2(2) (44.6%) and ADH2(2)/ADH2(2) (54.3%). And those of ALDH2 gene were ALDH2(1)/ALDH2(1) (41.3%), ALDH2(1)/ALDH2(2) (39.1%) and ALDH2(2)/ALDH2(2) (19.6%). The frequency of ADH2 and ALDH2 genes was 0.255, 0.745 and 0.609, 0.391 respectively. Not only the distribution of genotypes of ADH2 and ALDH2 is known, but also the sensitive individuals are found, which can help prevent alcohol related disease.

  12. Lattice thermal expansion and anisotropic displacements in urea, bromomalonic aldehyde, pentachloropyridine, and naphthalene

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Janine; Wang, Ruimin; Englert, Ulli; Dronskowski, Richard

    2017-08-01

    Anisotropic displacement parameters (ADPs) are commonly used in crystallography, chemistry, and related fields to describe and quantify thermal motion of atoms. Within the very recent years, these ADPs have become predictable by lattice dynamics in combination with first-principles theory. Here, we study four very different molecular crystals, namely, urea, bromomalonic aldehyde, pentachloropyridine, and naphthalene, by first-principles theory to assess the quality of ADPs calculated in the quasi-harmonic approximation. In addition, we predict both the thermal expansion and thermal motion within the quasi-harmonic approximation and compare the predictions with the experimental data. Very reliable ADPs are calculated within the quasi-harmonic approximation for all four cases up to at least 200 K, and they turn out to be in better agreement with the experiment than those calculated within the harmonic approximation. In one particular case, ADPs can even reliably be predicted up to room temperature. Our results also hint at the importance of normal-mode anharmonicity in the calculation of ADPs.

  13. Prognostic value of cancer stem cell marker aldehyde dehydrogenase in ovarian cancer: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuyan Liu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH has recently been reported as a marker of cancer stem-like cells in ovarian cancer. However, the prognostic role of ALDH in ovarian cancer still remains controversial. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the association between the expression of ALDH and the outcome of ovarian cancer patients by performing a meta-analysis. METHODS: We systematically searched for studies investigating the relationships between ALDH expression and outcome of ovarian cancer patients. Only articles in which ALDH expression was detected by immunohistochemical staining were included. A meta-analysis was performed to generate combined hazard ratios (HRs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs for overall survival (OS and disease-free survival (DFS. RESULTS: A total of 1,258 patients from 7 studies (6 articles were included in the analysis. Our results showed that high ALDH expression in patients with ovarian cancer was associated with poor prognosis in terms of Os (HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.07-1.47; P = 0.005 and DFS (HR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.00-2.49; P = 0.052, though the difference for DFS was not statistically significant. In addition, there was no evidence of publication bias as suggested by Begg's and Egger's tests (Begg's test, P = 0.707; Egger's test, P = 0.355. CONCLUSION: The present meta-analysis indicated that elevated ALDH expression was associated with poor prognosis in patients with ovarian cancer.

  14. Alcohol Consumption, Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 2 Gene Polymorphisms, and Cardiovascular Health in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Min Jeong; Cho, Yoonsu; Davey Smith, George

    2017-07-01

    Alcohol consumption is a serious health issue in Korea in terms of the amount consumed and the behavior related to its consumption. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) is a key enzyme in alcohol metabolism that degrades acetaldehyde to nontoxic acetic acid. The enzyme is coded by the ALDH2 gene, which is commonly polymorphic in East Asian populations. A point mutation in the ALDH2 gene (the rs671 allele) yields an inactive form of ALDH2 that causes acetaldehyde accumulation in the body after alcohol consumption, thereby inhibiting normal alcohol metabolism. Individuals who are homozygous for polymorphism in ALDH2 tend to refrain from drinking alcohol, decreasing their chances of developing alcoholism and exposure to the associated risks. Mendelian randomization (MR) studies have demonstrated that alcohol consumption predicted by ALDH2 genotype is causally related to cardiovascular risks. Moreover, recent MR studies suggest that the ALDH2 variant has mechanistic effects on some disease outcomes or mortality through increased blood levels of acetaldehyde, showing differences therein between heterozygotes (ALDH2*2*2) and homozygotes (ALDH2*1*2) in those who consume alcohol. Accordingly, consideration of ALDH2 genotype in alcohol prevention programs is warranted. In conclusion, strategies that incorporate genetic information and provide an evidential basis from which to help people make informed decisions on alcohol consumption are urgently required. © Copyright: Yonsei University College of Medicine 2017.

  15. Interaction of Aldehyde dehydrogenase with acetaminophen as examined by spectroscopies and molecular docking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayodele O. Kolawole

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of acetaminophen, a non-substrate anionic ligand, with Aldehyde Dehydrogenase was studied by fluorescence, UV–Vis absorption, and circular dichroism spectroscopies under simulated physiological conditions. The fluorescence spectra and data generated showed that acetaminophen binding to ALDH is purely dynamic quenching mechanism. The acetaminophen-ALDH is kinetically rapid reversible interaction with a binding constant, Ka, of 4.91×103 L mol−1. There was an existence of second binding site of ALDH for acetaminophen at saturating acetaminophen concentration. The binding sites were non-cooperative. The thermodynamic parameters obtained suggest that Van der Waal force and hydrogen bonding played a major role in the binding of acetaminophen to ALDH. The interaction caused perturbation of the ALDH structures with an obvious reduction in the α-helix. The binding distance of 4.43 nm was obtained between Acetaminophen and ALDH. Using Ficoll 400 as macro-viscosogen and glycerol as micro-viscosogen, Stoke-Einstein empirical plot demonstrated that acetaminophen-ALDH binding was diffusion controlled. Molecular docking showed the participation of some amino acids in the complex formation with −5.3 kcal binding energy. With these, ALDH might not an excipient detoxifier of acetaminophen but could be involved in its pegylation/encapsulation.

  16. Skin Sensitization QMM for HRIPT NOEL Data: Aldehyde Schiff-Base Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David W; Schultz, Terry W; Api, Anne Marie

    2017-06-19

    The general chemistry principles underlying skin sensitization for Schiff base (SB) electrophiles may be used to develop a quantitative mechanistic model (QMM), based on reactivity supplemented with a hydrophobicity parameter for some but not all structures within the SB reaction domain. For aliphatic Schiff base electrophiles, the log of the no observed effect level (NOEL) values (pNOEL) from the human repeated insult patch test (HRIPT) can be calculated by the reactivity parameter summation of sigma star values (Σσ*) and a hydrophobicity parameter (logP). Specifically, the QMM, pNOEL = 2.34(±0.33) Σσ* + 0.19(±0.07) logP - 2.62(±0.22), n = 19, R2 = 0.77, R2(adj) = 0.74, s = 0.20, F = 27, was developed. Not all parts of the Schiff base domain are modeled with one equation. Particularly, predicting aromatic aldehydes and ketones appears to require a separate equation. Interestingly, the same physical organic chemical properties originally applied to modeling the local lymph node assay potency of Schiff base electrophiles apply to human potency as represented by the HRIPT.

  17. An overview of aldehyde oxidase: an enzyme of emerging importance in novel drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidi, Mohammad-Reza; Soltani, Somaieh

    2017-03-01

    Given the rising trend in medicinal chemistry strategy to reduce cytochrome P450-dependent metabolism, aldehyde oxidase (AOX) has recently gained increased attention in drug discovery programs and the number of drug candidates that are metabolized by AOX is steadily growing. Areas covered: Despite the emerging importance of AOX in drug discovery, there are certain major recognized problems associated with AOX-mediated metabolism of drugs. Intra- and inter-species variations in AOX activity, the lack of reliable and predictive animal models using the common experimental animals, and failure in the predictions of in vivo metabolic activity of AOX using traditional in vitro methods are among these issues that are covered in this article. A comprehensive review of computational human AOX (hAOX) related studies are also provided. Expert opinion: Following the recent progress in the stem cell field, the authors recommend the application of organoids technology as an effective tool to solve the fundamental problems associated with the evaluation of AOX in drug discovery. The recent success in resolving the hAOX crystal structure can too be another valuable data source for the study of AOX-catalyzed metabolism of new drug candidates, using computer-aided drug discovery methods.

  18. Evaluation of peroxidative stress of cancer cells in vitro by real-time quantification of volatile aldehydes in culture headspace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shestivska, Violetta; Rutter, Abigail V; Sulé-Suso, Josep; Smith, David; Španěl, Patrik

    2017-08-30

    Peroxidation of lipids in cellular membranes results in the release of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including saturated aldehydes. The real-time quantification of trace VOCs produced by cancer cells during peroxidative stress presents a new challenge to non-invasive clinical diagnostics, which as described here, we have met with some success. A combination of selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS), a technique that allows rapid, reliable quantification of VOCs in humid air and liquid headspace, and electrochemistry to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vitro has been used. Thus, VOCs present in the headspace of CALU-1 cancer cell line cultures exposed to ROS have been monitored and quantified in real time using SIFT-MS. The CALU-1 lung cancer cells were cultured in 3D collagen to mimic in vivo tissue. Real-time SIFT-MS analyses focused on the volatile aldehydes: propanal, butanal, pentanal, hexanal, heptanal and malondialdehyde (propanedial), that are expected to be products of cellular membrane peroxidation. All six aldehydes were identified in the culture headspace, each reaching peak concentrations during the time of exposure to ROS and eventually reducing as the reactants were depleted in the culture. Pentanal and hexanal were the most abundant, reaching concentrations of a few hundred parts-per-billion by volume, ppbv, in the culture headspace. The results of these experiments demonstrate that peroxidation of cancer cells in vitro can be monitored and evaluated by direct real-time analysis of the volatile aldehydes produced. The combination of adopted methodology potentially has value for the study of other types of VOCs that may be produced by cellular damage. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. A hydrophilic inorganic framework based on a sandwich polyoxometalate: unusual chemoselectivity for aldehydes/ketones with in situ generated hydroxylamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Songzhu; Han, Qiuxia; Shi, Zhuolin; Wang, Shugai; Yang, PeiPei; Wu, Qiang; Li, Mingxue

    2017-09-12

    A hydrophilic inorganic porous catalyst was prepared via the hydrothermal method. The combination of [WZn3(H2O)2(ZnW9O34)2](12-) and Co(ii) provides a synergistical catalytic way to promote oximation of aldehyde/ketone with in situ generated hydroxylamine that initially produces an oxime, which further either dehydrates into a nitrile or undergoes a Beckmann rearrangement to form an amide.

  20. Ionic liquids as recyclable and separable reaction media in Rh-catalyzed decarbonylation of aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malcho, Phillip; Garcia-Suarez, Eduardo J.; Riisager, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) have been applied as recyclable reaction media in the decarbonylation of aldehydes in the presence of a rhodium-phosphine complex catalyst. The performance of several new catalytic systems based on imidazolium-based ILs and [Rh(dppp)2]Cl (dppp: 1,3-diphenylphosphinopropane) were...... as a biphasic system with the product allowing recovery and reuse of the employed catalyst....

  1. Expressional studies of the aldehyde oxidase (AOX1) gene during myogenic differentiation in C2C12 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamli, Majid Rasool; Kim, Jihoe; Pokharel, Smritee; Jan, Arif Tasleem [School of Biotechnology, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Eun Ju [School of Biotechnology, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Bovine Genome Resources Bank, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Inho, E-mail: inhochoi@ynu.ac.kr [School of Biotechnology, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Bovine Genome Resources Bank, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • AOX1 contributes to the formation of myotube. • Silencing of AOX1 reduces myotube formation. • AOX1 regulates MyoG gene expression. • AOX1 contributes to myogenesis via H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. - Abstract: Aldehyde oxidases (AOXs), which catalyze the hydroxylation of heterocycles and oxidation of a wide variety of aldehydic compounds, have been present throughout evolution from bacteria to humans. While humans have only a single functional aldehyde oxidase (AOX1) gene, rodents are endowed with four AOXs; AOX1 and three aldehyde oxidase homologs (AOH1, AOH2 and AOH3). In continuation of our previous study conducted to identify genes differentially expressed during myogenesis using a microarray approach, we investigated AOX1 with respect to its role in myogenesis to conceptualize how it is regulated in C2C12 cells. The results obtained were validated by silencing of the AOX1 gene. Analysis of their fusion index revealed that formation of myotubes showed a marked reduction of up to 40% in AOX1{sub kd} cells. Expression of myogenin (MYOG), one of the marker genes used to study myogenesis, was also found to be reduced in AOX1{sub kd} cells. AOX1 is an enzyme of pharmacological and toxicological importance that metabolizes numerous xenobiotics to their respective carboxylic acids. Hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) produced as a by-product in this reaction is considered to be involved as a part of the signaling mechanism during differentiation. An observed reduction in the level of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} among AOX1{sub kd} cells confirmed production of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in the reaction catalyzed by AOX1. Taken together, these findings suggest that AOX1 acts as a contributor to the process of myogenesis by influencing the level of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}.

  2. Genome-wide characterization and expression analysis of the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) gene superfamily under abiotic stresses in cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xinlei; Wang, Yuanyuan; Lu, Hejun; Cai, Xiaoyan; Wang, Xingxing; Zhou, Zhongli; Wang, Chunying; Wang, Yuhong; Zhang, Zhenmei; Wang, Kunbo; Liu, Fang

    2017-09-10

    In plants, aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) function as 'aldehyde scavengers' by removing reactive aldehydes and thus play important roles in stress responses. To date, 30 ALDHs have been identified in Gossypium raimondii, whereas ALDHs have not been studied in Gossypium arboreum or in tetraploid cotton. In this study, we identified 30, 59 and 59 aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) genes from G. arboreum, G. hirsutum and G. barbadense, respectively. Gene structure analysis revealed that members of the same family exhibit similar exon-intron structures and structural domains, and all members of the ALDH18 family possess a distinct AA-kinase domain. Synteny analysis showed that segmental and tandem duplications have played an important role in the expansion and evolution of ALDHs in cotton. Phylogenetic and synteny analysis between G. arboreum and G. raimondii demonstrated that all GaALDHs and GrALDHs are orthologous and that most GaALDHs are located in syntenic blocks corresponding to those of G. raimondii, implying that these genes appeared before the divergence of G. arboreum and G. raimondii and that no expansion of the ALDH superfamily has occurred in these two cotton species. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that the majority of GaALDHs and GhALDHs are up-regulated under conditions of high salinity and drought, indicating that these genes may be stress responsive. The findings of this study, based on genome-wide identification of ALDHs in Gossypium and analysis of their evolution and expression, provide a foundation for further analysis of ALDHs and suggest potential target genes for improving stress resistance in cotton. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Efficient Approach to Carbinol Derivatives through Palladium-Catalyzed Base-Free Addition of Aryltriolborates to Aldehydes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Hu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Palladium-catalyzed base-free addition of aryltriolborates to aldehydes has been developed, leading to a wide range of carbinol derivatives in good to excellent yields. The efficiency of this transformation was demonstrated by compatibility with a wide range of functional groups. The present synthetic route to carbinol derivatives could be readily scaled up to gram quantity without difficulty. Thus, this method represents a simple and practical procedure to access carbinol derivatives.

  4. Inhibition of Human Aldehyde Oxidase Activity by Diet-Derived Constituents: Structural Influence, Enzyme-Ligand Interactions, and Clinical Relevance

    OpenAIRE

    Barr, John T.; Jones, Jeffrey P.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.; Paine, Mary F.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanistic understanding of interactions between diet-derived substances and conventional medications in humans is nascent. Most investigations have examined cytochrome P450–mediated interactions. Interactions mediated by other phase I enzymes are understudied. Aldehyde oxidase (AO) is a phase I hydroxylase that is gaining recognition in drug design and development programs. Taken together, a panel of structurally diverse phytoconstituents (n = 24) was screened for inhibitors of the AO-m...

  5. Delivering golden rice to developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Jorge E

    2007-01-01

    Micronutrient deficiencies create a vicious circle of malnutrition, poverty, and economic dependency that we must strive to break. Golden Rice offers a sustainable solution to reduce the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency-related diseases and mortality, a problem that affects the health of millions of children in all developing countries. The technology is based on the reconstitution of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway by addition of 2 transgenes. The outcome of this high-tech approach will be provided to end users as nutrient-dense rice varieties that are agronomically identical to their own, locally adapted varieties. This intervention has the potential to reach remote rural populations without access to fortification and supplementation programs. As part of our delivery strategy, we are partnering with government and nongovernment, national and international agricultural institutions to navigate through cumbersome and expensive regulatory regimes that affect the release of genetically modified crops, and to create local demand for the biofortified rice varieties.

  6. Evolutionary and social consequences of introgression of nontransgenic herbicide resistance from rice to weedy rice in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merotto, Aldo; Goulart, Ives C G R; Nunes, Anderson L; Kalsing, Augusto; Markus, Catarine; Menezes, Valmir G; Wander, Alcido E

    2016-08-01

    Several studies have expressed concerns about the effects of gene flow from transgenic herbicide-resistant crops to their wild relatives, but no major problems have been observed. This review describes a case study in which what has been feared in transgenics regarding gene flow has actually changed biodiversity and people's lives. Nontransgenic imidazolinone-resistant rice (IMI-rice) cultivars increased the rice grain yield by 50% in southern Brazil. This increase was beneficial for life quality of the farmers and also improved the regional economy. However, weedy rice resistant to imidazolinone herbicides started to evolve three years after the first use of IMI-rice cultivars. Population genetic studies indicate that the herbicide-resistant weedy rice was mainly originated from gene flow from resistant cultivars and distributed by seed migration. The problems related with herbicide-resistant weedy rice increased the production costs of rice that forced farmers to sell or rent their land. Gene flow from cultivated rice to weedy rice has proven to be a large agricultural, economic, and social constraint in the use of herbicide-resistant technologies in rice. This problem must be taken into account for the development of new transgenic or nontransgenic rice technologies.

  7. Recognition of Paddy, Brown Rice and White Rice Cultivars Based on Textural Features of Images and Artificial Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Golpour

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Identification of rice cultivars is very important in modern agriculture. Texture properties could be used to identify of rice cultivars among of the various factors. The digital images processing can be used as a new approach to extract texture features. The objective of this research was to identify rice cultivars using of texture features with using image processing and back propagation artificial neural networks. To identify rice cultivars, five rice cultivars Fajr, Shiroodi, Neda, Tarom mahalli and Khazar were selected. Finally, 108 textural features were extracted from rice images using gray level co-occurrence matrix. Then cultivar identification was carried out using Back Propagation Artificial Neural Network. After evaluation of the network with one hidden layer using texture features, the highest classification accuracy for paddy cultivars, brown rice and white rice were obtained 92.2%, 97.8% and 98.9%, respectively. After evaluation of the network with two hidden layers, the average accuracy for classification of paddy cultivars was obtained to be 96.67%, for brown rice it was 97.78% and for white rice the classification accuracy was 98.88%. The highest mean classification accuracy acquired for paddy cultivars with 45 features was achieved to be 98.9%, for brown rice cultivars with 11 selected features it was 93.3% and it was 96.7% with 18 selected features for rice cultivars.

  8. 76 FR 78021 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Rice Solar Energy, LLC, Rice Solar...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-15

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Rice Solar Energy, LLC, Rice Solar Energy Project (RSEP) and California Desert Conservation Area Plan Amendment, California...: Rice Solar Energy, LLC, a subsidiary of SolarReserve, LLC plans to construct a 150 megawatt (MW) solar...

  9. Genetic Variation and Association Mapping of Protein Concentration in Brown Rice Using a Diverse Rice Germplasm Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protein is the second most abundant constituent in the rice grain next to starch. Association analysis for protein concentration in brown rice was performed using a “Mini-Core” collection, which represents the germplasm diversity found in the USDA world rice collection. Protein concentration was det...

  10. Production of transgenic rice with agronomically useful genes: an assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, C C; Vijaya Laxmi, G

    2000-12-01

    Rice is the most important food crop in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Yield enhancement to increase rice production is one of the essential strategies to meet the demand for food of the growing population. Both abiotic and biotic features limit adversely the productivity of rice growing areas. Conventional breeding has been an effective means for developing high yielding varieties, however; it is associated with its own limitations. It is envisaged that recent trends in biotechnology can contribute to the agronomic improvement of rice in terms of yield and nutritional quality as a supplement to traditional breeding methods. Genetic transformation of rice has demonstrated numerous important opportunities resulting in the genetic improvement of existing elite rice varieties and production of new plant types. Significant advances have been made in the genetic engineering of rice since the first transgenic rice plant production in the late 1980s. Several gene transfer protocols have been employed successfully for the introduction of foreign genes to rice. In more than 60 rice cultivars belonging to indica, japonica, javanica, and elite African cultivars, the protocol has been standardized for transgenic rice production. Selection and use of appropriate promoters, selectable markers, and reporter genes has been helpful for development of efficient protocols for transgenic rice in a number of rice cultivars. The present review is an attempt to assess the current state of development in transgenic rice for the transfer of agronomically useful genes, emphasizing the application and future prospects of transgenic rice production for the genetic improvement of this food crop.

  11. Barnyard grass-induced rice allelopathy and momilactone B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi

    2011-07-01

    Here, we investigated chemical-mediated interaction between crop and weeds. Allelopathic activity of rice seedlings exhibited 5.3-6.3-fold increases when rice and barnyard grass seedlings were grown together, where there may be the competitive interference between rice and barnyard grass for nutrients. Barnyard grass is one of the most noxious weeds in rice cultivation. The momilactone B concentration in rice seedlings incubated with barnyard grass seedlings was 6.9-fold greater than that in rice seedlings incubated independently. Low nutrient growth conditions also increased allelopathic activity and momilactone B concentrations in rice seedlings. However, the increases in the low nutrient-induced allelopathic activity and momilactone B concentration were much lower than those in barnyard grass-induced allelopathic activity and momilactone B concentration. Root exudates of barnyard grass seedlings increased allelopathic activity and momilactone B concentration in rice seedlings at concentrations greater than 30 mg/L of the root exudates, and increasing the exudate concentration increased the activity and momilactone B concentration. Therefore, barnyard grass-induced allelopathic activity of rice seedlings may be caused not only by nutrient competition between two species, but also by components in barnyard grass root exudates. As momilactone B shows strong allelopathic activities, barnyard grass-induced allelopathic activity of rice may be due to the increased concentration of momilactone B in rice seedlings. The present research suggests that rice may respond to the presence of neighboring barnyard grass by sensing the components in barnyard grass root exudates and increasing allelopathic activity by production of elevated concentration of momilactone B. Thus, rice allelopathy may be one of the inducible defense mechanisms by chemical-mediated plant interaction between rice and barnyard grass, and the induced-allelopathy may provide a competitive advantage for

  12. Characterization of polar organosulfates in secondary organic aerosol from the unsaturated aldehydes 2-E-pentenal, 2-E-hexenal, and 3-Z-hexenal

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — We show in the present study that the unsaturated aldehydes, 2-E-pentenal, 2-E-hexenal and 3-Z-hexenal, are biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) precursors for...

  13. Immobilisation and characterisation of biocatalytic co-factor recycling enzymes, glucose dehydrogenase and NADH oxidase, on aldehyde functional ReSynTM polymer microspheres

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Twala, BV

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available the immobilisation of two biocatalytically relevant co-factor recycling enzymes, glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) and NADH oxidase (NOD) on aldehyde functional ReSynTM polymer microspheres with varying functional group densities. The successful immobilisation...

  14. Progress toward the total synthesis of bafilomycin A(1): stereoselective synthesis of the C15-C25 subunit by additions of nonracemic allenylzinc reagents to aldehydes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, J A; Adams, N D

    2000-09-07

    [reaction: see text] A highly stereoselective synthesis of the C15-C25 subunit (2) of bafilomycin A(1) (1) has been accomplished by a route utilizing additions of chiral nonracemic allenylzinc reagents to aldehydes.

  15. Accumulation of polyunsaturated aldehydes in the gonads of the copepod Acartia tonsa revealed by tailored fluorescent probes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Wolfram

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs are released by several diatom species during predation. Besides other attributed activities, these oxylipins can interfere with the reproduction of copepods, important predators of diatoms. While intensive research has been carried out to document the effects of PUAs on copepod reproduction, little is known about the underlying mechanistic aspects of PUA action. Especially PUA uptake and accumulation in copepods has not been addressed to date. To investigate how PUAs are taken up and interfere with the reproduction in copepods we developed a fluorescent probe containing the α,β,γ,δ-unsaturated aldehyde structure element that is essential for the activity of PUAs as well as a set of control probes. We developed incubation and monitoring procedures for adult females of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa and show that the PUA derived fluorescent molecular probe selectively accumulates in the gonads of this copepod. In contrast, a saturated aldehyde derived probe of an inactive parent molecule was enriched in the lipid sac. This leads to a model for PUAs' teratogenic mode of action involving accumulation and covalent interaction with nucleophilic moieties in the copepod reproductive tissue. The teratogenic effect of PUAs can therefore be explained by a selective targeting of the molecules into the reproductive tissue of the herbivores, while more lipophilic but otherwise strongly related structures end up in lipid bodies.

  16. [Determination of low-carbon alcohols, aldehydes and ketones in aqueous products of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis by gas chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gai, Qingqing; Wu, Peng; Shi, Yulin; Bai, Yu; Long, Yinhua

    2015-01-01

    A method for the determination of low-carbon (C1-C8) alcohols, aldehydes and ketones in aqueous products of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis was developed by gas chromatography. It included the optimization of separation conditions, the precision and accuracy of determination, and the use of correction factors of the analytes to ethanol for quantification. The aqueous products showed that the correlation coefficients for ethanol in different content ranges were above 0.99, which means it had good linear correlations. The spiked recoveries in the aqueous samples of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis were from 93.4% to 109.6%. The accuracy of the method can satisfy the requirement for the analysis of the aqueous samples of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The results showed that the total mass fractions of the major low-carbon alcohols, aldehydes, ketones in aqueous products of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis were about 3%-12%, and the contents of ethanol were the highest (about 1.7%-7.3%). The largest share of the total proportion was n-alcohols, followed by isomeric alcohols, aldehydes and ketones were the lowest. This method is simple, fast, and has great significance for the analysis of important components in aqueous products of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis.

  17. Novel oxidation of aromatic aldehydes catalyzed by Preyssler's anion, [NaP5W30O110]14-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamoharram F. F.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Preyssler's anion, with formula [NaP5W30O110]14-, catalyzes the oxidation of aromatic aldehydes to related carboxylic acids by hydrogen peroxide as oxidizing agent, under microwave irradiation, or at 70 ºC. Both homogeneous and heterogeneous Preyssler's catalysts (as H14[NaP5W30O110 ] were used and had their activity compared with those of some Keggin structures. Our data indicate that Sodium30-tungsto pentaphosphate, the so-called Preyssler's anion, with high hydrolytic (pH=0-12 and thermal stability is the best catalyst with high yield and good selectivity. Under microwave irradiation, this polyanion supported on SiO2 was found to be an excellent catalyst for aldehydes with low loss factor in 1-2 min (the loss factor is a measure of the ability of the material to dissipate energy. The effects of various parameters, including catalyst type, nature of the substituent in the aldehyde and temperature, on the yield of the carboxylic acids were studied.

  18. Exudation of alcohol and aldehyde sugars from roots of defoliated Lolium perenne L. grown under sterile conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Stephen J; Read, Derek B; Murray, Philip J; Gregory, Peter J

    2008-11-01

    Root exudates were collected over a 27 day period from defoliated and non-defoliated Lolium perenne L. plants grown under sterile conditions in microlysimeters. Eleven individual sugars, including both aldehyde and alcohol sugars, were identified and quantified with a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). There was no change in the number of sugars present between 7 and 27 days, but the exudation of alcohol sugars decreased rapidly at about day 12. Xylose and glucose were present in the largest amounts. Defoliation initially increased the total amount of sugars in the exudates, but continuous defoliation reduced total sugar exudation by 16% and induced changes in the exudation patterns of individual sugars. Defoliation enhanced exudation of erythritol, threitol, and xylitol, reduced exudation of glucose and arabitol, but had little effect on the amounts of other sugars exuded. The more complex 6 C, 5 OH aldehyde sugars, especially glucose, showed changes earlier and to a greater extent (17 days), than the 5 C, 4 OH (xylose and ribose) and 6 C 4 OH (fucose) aldehyde groups. These findings confirm the general finding that repeated defoliation reduces the quantity of total sugars exuded, but the pattern of release of individual sugars is complex and variable.

  19. A Metabolic Probe-Enabled Strategy Reveals Uptake and Protein Targets of Polyunsaturated Aldehydes in the Diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Wolfram

    Full Text Available Diatoms are unicellular algae of crucial importance as they belong to the main primary producers in aquatic ecosystems. Several diatom species produce polyunsaturated aldehydes (PUAs that have been made responsible for chemically mediated interactions in the plankton. PUA-effects include chemical defense by reducing the reproductive success of grazing copepods, allelochemical activity by interfering with the growth of competing phytoplankton and cell to cell signaling. We applied a PUA-derived molecular probe, based on the biologically highly active 2,4-decadienal, with the aim to reveal protein targets of PUAs and affected metabolic pathways. By using fluorescence microscopy, we observed a substantial uptake of the PUA probe into cells of the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum in comparison to the uptake of a structurally closely related control probe based on a saturated aldehyde. The specific uptake motivated a chemoproteomic approach to generate a qualitative inventory of proteins covalently targeted by the α,β,γ,δ-unsaturated aldehyde structure element. Activity-based protein profiling revealed selective covalent modification of target proteins by the PUA probe. Analysis of the labeled proteins gave insights into putative affected molecular functions and biological processes such as photosynthesis including ATP generation and catalytic activity in the Calvin cycle or the pentose phosphate pathway. The mechanism of action of PUAs involves covalent reactions with proteins that may result in protein dysfunction and interference of involved pathways.

  20. Site directed mutagenesis of amino acid residues at the active site of mouse aldehyde oxidase AOX1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Schumann

    Full Text Available Mouse aldehyde oxidase (mAOX1 forms a homodimer and belongs to the xanthine oxidase family of molybdoenzymes which are characterized by an essential equatorial sulfur ligand coordinated to the molybdenum atom. In general, mammalian AOs are characterized by broad substrate specificity and an yet obscure physiological function. To define the physiological substrates and the enzymatic characteristics of mAOX1, we established a system for the heterologous expression of the enzyme in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein showed spectral features and a range of substrate specificity similar to the native protein purified from mouse liver. The EPR data of recombinant mAOX1 were similar to those of AO from rabbit liver, but differed from the homologous xanthine oxidoreductase enzymes. Site-directed mutagenesis of amino acids Val806, Met884 and Glu1265 at the active site resulted in a drastic decrease in the oxidation of aldehydes with no increase in the oxidation of purine substrates. The double mutant V806E/M884R and the single mutant E1265Q were catalytically inactive enzymes regardless of the aldehyde or purine substrates tested. Our results show that only Glu1265 is essential for the catalytic activity by initiating the base-catalyzed mechanism of substrate oxidation. In addition, it is concluded that the substrate specificity of molybdo-flavoenzymes is more complex and not only defined by the three characterized amino acids in the active site.

  1. Identification and overexpression of a bifunctional aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase responsible for ethanol production in Thermoanaerobacter mathranii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shuo; Mikkelsen, Marie Just

    2010-01-01

    Thermoanaerobacter mathranii contains four genes, adhA, adhB, bdhA and adhE, predicted to code for alcohol dehydrogenases involved in ethanol metabolism. These alcohol dehydrogenases were characterized as NADP(H)-dependent primary alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhA), secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhB), butanol dehydrogenase (BdhA) and NAD(H)-dependent bifunctional aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhE), respectively. Here we observed that AdhE is an important enzyme responsible for ethanol production in T. mathranii based on the constructed adh knockout strains. An adhE knockout strain fails to produce ethanol as a fermentation product, while other adh knockout strains showed no significant difference from the wild type. Further analysis revealed that the ΔadhE strain was defective in aldehyde dehydrogenase activity, but still maintained alcohol dehydrogenase activity. This showed that AdhE is the major aldehyde dehydrogenase in the cell and functions predominantly in the acetyl-CoA reduction to acetaldehyde in the ethanol formation pathway. Finally, AdhE was conditionally expressed from a xylose-induced promoter in a recombinant strain (BG1E1) with a concomitant deletion of a lactate dehydrogenase. Overexpressions of AdhE in strain BG1E1 with xylose as a substrate facilitate the production of ethanol at an increased yield. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Determination of some aldehydes by using solid-phase microextraction and high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashwini; Singh, Baldev; Malik, Ashok Kumar; Tiwary, Dhananjay K

    2007-01-01

    A new approach has been developed for the extraction and determination of aldehydes such as veratraldehyde, m-nitrobenzaldehyde, cinnamaldehyde, benzaldehyde, and p-chlorobenzaldehyde by using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection (HPLC/UV). The method involves adsorption of the aldehydes on polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene-coated fiber, followed by desorption in the desorption chamber of the SPME-HPLC interface, using acetonitrile-water (70 + 30) as the mobile phase; UV detection was at 254 nm. A good separation of 5 aldehydes was obtained on a C18 column. The detection limits of veratraldehyde, m-nitrobenzaldehyde, cinnamaldehyde, benzaldehyde, and p-chlorobenzaldehyde are 25, 41, 13, 12, and 11 pg/mL, respectively, which are about 100 times better than the detection limits for other SPME methods using gas chromatography. The proposed method was validated by determining benzaldehyde in bitter almonds and cinnamaldehyde in cinnamon bark. The recoveries of the 5 analytes were determined by analysis of spiked drinking water.

  3. Gene conversion in the rice genome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Shuqing; Clark, Terry; Zheng, Hongkun

    2008-01-01

    than ten percent. Pseudogenes in the rice genome with low similarity to Arabidopsis genes showed greater likelihood for gene conversion than those with high similarity to Arabidopsis genes. Functional annotations suggest that at least 14 multigene families related to disease or bacteria resistance were......BACKGROUND: Gene conversion causes a non-reciprocal transfer of genetic information between similar sequences. Gene conversion can both homogenize genes and recruit point mutations thereby shaping the evolution of multigene families. In the rice genome, the large number of duplicated genes......-chromosomal conversions distributed between chromosome 1 and 5, 2 and 6, and 3 and 5 are more frequent than genome average (Z-test, P

  4. Databases and bioinformatics tools for rice research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Garg

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Rice is one of the most important agricultural crop in the world and widely studied model plant. The completion of whole genome sequence of rice (Oryza sativa and high-throughput experimental platforms have led to the generation of the tremendous amount of data, and development of the specialized databases and bioinformatics tools for data processing, efficient organization, analysis, and visualization. In this article, we discuss a collection of biological databases that host genomics data on sequence, gene expression, genetic variation, gene-interactomes, and pathways, and facilitate data analysis and visualization.

  5. Drought Monitoring for Rice Production in Cambodia

    OpenAIRE

    Nyda Chhinh; Andrew Millington

    2015-01-01

    Rice production underpins the national economy and the most rural livelihoods in Cambodia, but it is negatively impacted by repeated droughts. The research reported on in this paper focuses on relationships between drought occurrences in Cambodia’s most drought-prone province (Kampong Speu) and (i) damage to the annual rice harvest between 1994 and 2011, and (ii) the Niño 3.4 index. Droughts were identified using the Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI). In seven of the years between 1994 ...

  6. Sugarcane rice residue biochars and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    Sugarcane production in U.S. involves either pre-harvest burning or after-harvest burning of the residue. Approximately 70-90% of the dry matter of harvested sugarcane trash is lost through open field burning. This practice has caused considerable concerns over air quality and soil sustainability. We propose an alternative conservation approach to convert the sugarcane residue to biochar and used as soil amendment to conserve carbon and potentially improve soil fertility. In this study, fundamental properties of biochars made from sugarcane residue along with rice residues were tested for agronomic and environmental benefits. Sugarcane and rice harvest residues and milling processing byproducts bagasse and rice husk were converted to biochars at different pyrolysis temperatures and characterized. In general, sugarcane leave biochar contained more P, K, Ca and Mg than sugarcane bagasse biochar. Rice straw biochar had more S, K Ca but less P than rice husk biochar. Both biochars had higher available fraction of total P than that of total K. Sugarcane leave biochar converted at 450oC was dominated with various lignin derived phenols as well as non-specific aromatic compounds whereas bagasse biochar was with both lignin derived phenol and poly aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). Rice straw char was dominated with non-specific aromatic compounds. At 750oC, charred material was dominated with aromatic ethers while losing the aromatic C=C structures. These molecular and surface property differences likely contributed to the difference in water holding capacities observed with these biochars. On the other hand, rice straw biochars produced at different pyrolysis temperatures had no significant effect on rice germination. Soils treated with sugarcane leave/trash biochar significantly enhanced sugarcane growth especially the root length. Treating soil with either sugarcane leave or bagasse char also enhanced soil adsorption capacity of atrazine; a common herbicide used in sugarcane

  7. Abscisic (ABA)-aldehyde is a precursor to, and 1 prime ,4 prime -trans-ABA-diol a catabolite of, ABA in apple. [Malus domestica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rock, C.D.; Zeevaart, J.A.D. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA))

    1990-07-01

    Previous {sup 18}O labeling studies of abscisic acid (ABA) have shown that apple (Malus domestica Borkh. cv Granny Smith) fruits synthesize a majority of ({sup 18}O)ABA with the label incorporated in the 1{prime}-hydroxyl position and unlabeled in the carboxyl group (JAD Zeevaart, TG Heath, DA Gage (1989) Plant Physiol 91: 1594-1601). It was proposed that exchange of {sup 18}O in the side chain with the medium occurred at an aldehyde intermediate stage of ABA biosynthesis. We have isolated ABA-aldehyde and 1{prime}-4{prime}-trans-ABA-diol (ABA-trans-diol) from {sup 18}O-labeled apple fruit tissue and measured the extent and position of {sup 18}O incorporation by tandem mass spectrometry. {sup 18}O-Labeling patterns of ABA-aldehyde, ABA-trans-diol, and ABA indicate that ABA-aldehyde is a precursor to, and ABA-trans-diol a catabolite of, ABA. Exchange of {sup 18}O in the carbonyl of ABA-aldehyde can be the cause of loss of {sup 18}O from the side chain of ({sup 18}O)ABA. Results of feeding experiments with deuterated substrates provide further support for the precursor-product relationship of ABA-aldehyde {yields} ABA {yields} ABA-trans-diol. The ABA-aldehyde and ABA-trans-diol contents of fruits and leaves were low, approximately 1 and 0.02 nanograms per gram fresh weight for ABA-aldehyde and ABA-trans-diol, respectively, while ABA levels in fruits ranged from 10 to 200 nanograms per gram fresh weight. ABA biosynthesis was about 10-fold lower in fruits than in leaves. In fruits, the majority of ABA was conjugated to {beta}-D-glucopyranosyl abscisate, whereas in leaves ABA was mainly hydroxylated to phaseic acid. Parallel pathways for ABA and trans-ABA biosynthesis and conjugation in fruits and leaves are proposed.

  8. An integrated QSAR-PBK/D modelling approach for predicting detoxification and DNA adduct formation of 18 acyclic food-borne α,β-unsaturated aldehydes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiwamoto, R., E-mail: reiko.kiwamoto@wur.nl; Spenkelink, A.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Punt, A.

    2015-01-01

    Acyclic α,β-unsaturated aldehydes present in food raise a concern because the α,β-unsaturated aldehyde moiety is considered a structural alert for genotoxicity. However, controversy remains on whether in vivo at realistic dietary exposure DNA adduct formation is significant. The aim of the present study was to develop physiologically based kinetic/dynamic (PBK/D) models to examine dose-dependent detoxification and DNA adduct formation of a group of 18 food-borne acyclic α,β-unsaturated aldehydes without 2- or 3-alkylation, and with no more than one conjugated double bond. Parameters for the PBK/D models were obtained using quantitative structure–activity relationships (QSARs) defined with a training set of six selected aldehydes. Using the QSARs, PBK/D models for the other 12 aldehydes were defined. Results revealed that DNA adduct formation in the liver increases with decreasing bulkiness of the molecule especially due to less efficient detoxification. 2-Propenal (acrolein) was identified to induce the highest DNA adduct levels. At realistic dietary intake, the predicted DNA adduct levels for all aldehydes were two orders of magnitude lower than endogenous background levels observed in disease free human liver, suggesting that for all 18 aldehydes DNA adduct formation is negligible at the relevant levels of dietary intake. The present study provides a proof of principle for the use of QSAR-based PBK/D modelling to facilitate group evaluations and read-across in risk assessment. - Highlights: • Physiologically based in silico models were made for 18 α,β-unsaturated aldehydes. • Kinetic parameters were determined by in vitro incubations and a QSAR approach. • DNA adduct formation was negligible at levels relevant for dietary intake. • The use of QSAR-based PBK/D modelling facilitates group evaluations and read-across.

  9. One-pot synthesis of amides by aerobic oxidative coupling of alcohols or aldehydes with amines using supported gold and base as catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kegnæs, Søren; Mielby, Jerrik Jørgen; Mentzel, Uffe Vie

    2012-01-01

    Synthesis of amides by aerobic oxidative coupling of alcohols or aldehydes with amines via intermediate formation of methyl esters is highly efficient and selective when using a catalytic system comprised of supported gold nanoparticles and added base in methanol.......Synthesis of amides by aerobic oxidative coupling of alcohols or aldehydes with amines via intermediate formation of methyl esters is highly efficient and selective when using a catalytic system comprised of supported gold nanoparticles and added base in methanol....

  10. Aminative umpolung of aldehydes to α-amino anion equivalents for Pd-catalyzed allylation: an efficient synthesis of homoallylic amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lei; Chen, Jing; Hu, Yifan; Xu, Juan; Gong, Xing; Xu, Dongfang; Zhao, Baoguo; Li, Hexing

    2014-02-07

    An attractive strategy for generation of α-amino anions from aldehydes with applications in synthesis of homoallylic amines is described. Aromatic aldehydes can be converted to α-amino anion equivalents via amination with 2,2-diphenylglycine and subsequent decarboxylation. The in situ generated α-imino anions are highly reactive for Pd-catalyzed allylation, forming the corresponding homoallylic amines in high yields with excellent regioselectivity.

  11. Effects of Cadmium Stress on the Quality of Rice Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    CHEN, Juan; FANG, Hui; ZHANG, Ying; FAN, Yuanyuan

    2013-01-01

    Germination and hydroponic experiments are performed on rice seeds growing in soils treated with Cd stress, with rice seeds of the same variety that is not treated with Cd stress as a control, to study the effects of Cd stress on quality of rice seeds. The results have shown that: (1) Cd stress reduces the thousand grain weight of rice seeds, and higher Cd content means lower thousand grain weight; (2) The germination vigor and germination percentage of rice seeds under Cd stress as well as t...

  12. Development of Polyspermic Rice Zygotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Erika; Ohnishi, Yukinosuke; Okamoto, Takashi

    2016-05-01

    Fertilization is a general feature of eukaryotic uni- and multicellular organisms to restore a diploid genome from female and male gamete haploid genomes. In most animals and fucoid algae, polyspermy block occurs at the plasmogamy step. Because the polyspermy barrier in animals and in fucoid algae is incomplete, polyspermic zygotes are generated by multiple fertilization events. However, these polyspermic zygotes with extra centrioles from multiple sperms show aberrant nuclear and cell division. In angiosperms, polyspermy block functions in the egg cell and the central cell to promote faithful double fertilization, although the mechanism of polyspermy block remains unclear. In contrast to the case in animals and fucoid algae, polyspermic zygotes formed in angiosperms are not expected to die because angiosperms lack centrosomes. However, there have been no reports on the developmental profiles of polyspermic zygotes at cellular level in angiosperms. In this study, we produced polyspermic rice zygotes by electric fusion of an egg cell with two sperm cells, and monitored their developmental profiles. Two sperm nuclei and an egg nucleus fused into a zygotic nucleus, and the triploid zygote divided into a two-celled embryo via mitotic division with a typical bipolar microtubule spindle, as observed during mitosis of a diploid zygote. The two-celled proembryos further developed and regenerated into triploid plants. These findings suggest that polyspermic plant zygotes have the potential to form triploid embryos. Polyspermy in angiosperms might be a pathway for the formation of triploid plants, which can contribute significantly to the formation of autopolyploids. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Silicon sources for rice crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Hamilton Seron

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Although silicon is not an essential nutrient, its application is beneficial for plant growth and development. To evaluate silicon sources in relation to agronomic efficiency and economic viability in rice crops (Oryza sativa L., a greenhouse experiment was conducted, Quartzipsamment soil, in a completely randomized experimental design (n = 4. Treatments were 12 silicon sources and a control. Silicon was applied at the rate of 125 kg Si ha-1. Data were compared to a standard response curve for Si using the standard source Wollastonite at rates of 0, 125, 250, 375, and 500 kg Si ha-1. All treatments received CaCO3 and MgCO3 to balance pH, Ca and Mg. One hundred and fifty days after sowing, evaluations on dry matter yield in the above-ground part of plants, grain yield, and Si contents in the soil and plant tissues were performed. Wollastonite had linear response, increasing silicon in the soil and plants with increasing application rates. Differences between silicon sources in relation to Si uptake were observed. Phosphate slag provided the highest Si uptake, followed by Wollastonite and electric furnace silicates which however, did not show differed among themselves. The highest Si accumulation in grain was observed for stainless steel, which significantly differed from the control, silicate clay, Wollastonite, and AF2 (blast furnace of the company 2 slag. Silicate clay showed the lowest Si accumulation in grain and did not differ from the control, AF2 slag, AF1 slag, schist ash, schist, and LD4 (furnace steel type LD of the company 4 slag.

  14. Effect of Red Yeast Rice and Coconut, Rice Bran or Sunflower Oil Combination in Rats on Hypercholesterolemic Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Sumitra; Vellingiri, Kishore

    2016-04-01

    Dietary supplements provide a novel population based health approach for treating hyperlipidemias. Red yeast rice is known to have lipid lowering effects. Combination of red yeast rice with various oils is taken by different population around the world. In this present work, we aimed to compare the effects of red yeast rice with different oil (coconut, rice bran and sunflower oil) supplementations on lipid levels and oxidative stress in rats fed on hypercholesterolemic diet. A Randomized controlled study was conducted on 28 male Sprague Dawley rats. It included 4 arms-Control arm (hypercholesterolemic diet), Test arm A (hypercholesterolemic diet +Red yeast rice + Rice bran oil), arm B (hypercholesterolemic diet +Red yeast rice + Coconut oil) and arm C (hypercholesterolemic diet +Red yeast rice + Sunflower oil). At the end of one month, serum cholesterol, triglycerides, MDA and paraoxonase was measured. The mean values of analytes between the different groups were compared using student 't-' test. The rats fed with red yeast rice and rice bran oil combination showed significantly lower levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides and MDA when compared to the controls. The serum paraoxonase levels were significantly higher in this group when compared to the controls. The rats fed with red yeast rice and coconut oil combination showed significantly lower serum cholesterol and MDA levels when compared to the controls. The mean triglyceride and paraoxonase levels did not show any statistically significant difference from the controls. The rats on red yeast rice and sunflower oil combination did not show any statistically significant difference in the lipid levels and oxidative stress parameters. The food combination which had best outcome in preventing the development of hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress in rats fed with hypercholesterolemic diet was red yeast rice and rice bran oil. Combining red yeast rice with coconut oil and sunflower oil gave suboptimal benefits.

  15. Effect of Red Yeast Rice and Coconut, Rice Bran or Sunflower Oil Combination in Rats on Hypercholesterolemic Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellingiri, Kishore

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dietary supplements provide a novel population based health approach for treating hyperlipidemias. Red yeast rice is known to have lipid lowering effects. Combination of red yeast rice with various oils is taken by different population around the world. Aim In this present work, we aimed to compare the effects of red yeast rice with different oil (coconut, rice bran and sunflower oil) supplementations on lipid levels and oxidative stress in rats fed on hypercholesterolemic diet. Materials and Methods A Randomized controlled study was conducted on 28 male Sprague Dawley rats. It included 4 arms-Control arm (hypercholesterolemic diet), Test arm A (hypercholesterolemic diet +Red yeast rice + Rice bran oil), arm B (hypercholesterolemic diet +Red yeast rice + Coconut oil) and arm C (hypercholesterolemic diet +Red yeast rice + Sunflower oil). At the end of one month, serum cholesterol, triglycerides, MDA and paraoxonase was measured. The mean values of analytes between the different groups were compared using student ‘t-’ test. Results The rats fed with red yeast rice and rice bran oil combination showed significantly lower levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides and MDA when compared to the controls. The serum paraoxonase levels were significantly higher in this group when compared to the controls. The rats fed with red yeast rice and coconut oil combination showed significantly lower serum cholesterol and MDA levels when compared to the controls. The mean triglyceride and paraoxonase levels did not show any statistically significant difference from the controls. The rats on red yeast rice and sunflower oil combination did not show any statistically significant difference in the lipid levels and oxidative stress parameters. Conclusion The food combination which had best outcome in preventing the development of hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress in rats fed with hypercholesterolemic diet was red yeast rice and rice bran oil. Combining red yeast rice

  16. Homogeneous catalytic hydrogenation of bio-oil and related model aldehydes with RuCl{sub 2}(PPh{sub 3}){sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, F.; Li, W.; Lu, Q.; Zhu, X. [Anhui Province Key Laboratory of Biomass Clean Energy, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China)

    2010-12-15

    A homogeneous RuCl{sub 2}(PPh{sub 3}){sub 3} catalyst was prepared for the hydrogenation of bio-oil to improve its stability and fuel quality. Experiments were first performed on three model aldehydes of acetaldehyde, furfural and vanillin selected to represent the linear aldehydes, oxygen heterocyclic aldehydes and aromatic aldehydes in bio-oil. The results demonstrated the high hydrogenation capability of this homogeneous catalyst under mild conditions (55-90 C, 1.3-3.3 MPa). The highest conversion of the three model aldehydes was over 90 %. Furfural and acetaldehyde were singly converted to furfuryl alcohol and ethanol after hydrogenation, while vanillin was mainly converted to vanillin alcohol, together with a small amount of 2-methoxy-4-methylphenol and 2-methoxyphenol. Further experiments were conducted on a bio-oil fraction extracted by ethyl acetate and on the whole bio-oil at 70 C and 3.3 MPa. Most of the aldehydes were transformed to the corresponding alcohols, and some ketones and compounds with C-C double bond were converted to more stable compounds. (Copyright copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Antimicrobial Activity of UV-Induced Phenylamides from Rice Leaves

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    Hye Lin Park

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Rice produces a wide array of phytoalexins in response to pathogen attacks and UV-irradiation. Except for the flavonoid sakuranetin, most phytoalexins identified in rice are diterpenoid compounds. Analysis of phenolic-enriched fractions from UV-treated rice leaves showed that several phenolic compounds in addition to sakuranetin accumulated remarkably in rice leaves. We isolated two compounds from UV-treated rice leaves using silica gel column chromatography and preparative HPLC. The isolated phenolic compounds were identified as phenylamide compounds: N-trans-cinnamoyltryptamine and N-p-coumaroylserotonin. Expression analysis of biosynthetic genes demonstrated that genes for arylamine biosynthesis were upregulated by UV irradiation. This result suggested that phenylamide biosynthetic pathways are activated in rice leaves by UV treatment. To unravel the role of UV-induced phenylamides as phytoalexins, we examined their antimicrobial activity against rice fungal and bacterial pathogens. N-trans-Cinnamoyltryptamine inhibited the growth of rice brown spot fungus (Bipolaris oryzae. In addition to the known antifungal activity to the blast fungus, sakuranetin had antimicrobial activity toward B. oryzae and Rhizoctonia solani (rice sheath blight fungus. UV-induced phenylamides and sakuranetin also had antimicrobial activity against rice bacterial pathogens for grain rot (Burkholderia glumae, blight (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and leaf streak (X. oryzae pv. oryzicola diseases. These findings suggested that the UV-induced phenylamides in rice are phytoalexins against a diverse array of pathogens.

  18. Survey of Rice Cropping Systems in Kampong Chhnang Province, Cambodia

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    Volker KLEINHENZ

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Although Cambodia might have achieved self-sufficiency and an exported surplus in rice production, its rice-based farming systems are widely associated with low productivity, low farmer income and rural poverty. The study is based on a questionnaire village survey in 14 communes containing 97 villages of Kampong Chhnang Province from March to June, 2011. It analyzes the prevailing rice-based cropping systems and evaluates options for their improvement. Differences in cropping systems depend on the distance from the Tonle Sap water bodies. At distances greater than 10 km, transplanted wet-season rice cropping system with low productivity of about 1.6 t/hm2 prevails. This deficiency can be primarily attributed to soils with high coarse sand fractions and low pH ( 4.0. Farmers predominantly cultivate dry-season recession rice between January and April. Seventy-nine percent of the area is sown directly and harvested by combines. Adoption ratio of commercial rice seeds is 59% and yields average 3.2 t/hm2. Introduction of the second dry-season rice between April and July may double annual yields in this rice cropping system. Besides upgrading other cultivation technologies, using seeds from commercial sources will improve yield and rice quality. Along with rice, farmers grow non-rice crops at different intensities ranging from single annual crops to intensive sequences at low yields.

  19. Avian foods, foraging and habitat conservation in world rice fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, J.D.; Kaminski, R.M.; Reinecke, K.J.

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide, rice (Oryza sativa) agriculture typically involves seasonal flooding and soil tillage, which provides a variety of microhabitats and potential food for birds. Water management in rice fields creates conditions ranging from saturated mud flats to shallow (waste rice) is typically the most abundant potential food of birds in rice fields, with estimates of seed mass from North America ranging from 66672 kg/ha. Although initially abundant after harvest, waste rice availability can be temporally limited. Few abundance estimates for other foods, such as vertebrate prey or forage vegetation, exist for rice fields. Outside North America, Europe and Japan, little is known about abundance and importance of any avian food in rice fields. Currently, flooding rice fields after harvest is the best known management practice to attract and benefit birds. Studies from North America indicate specific agricultural practices (e.g. burning stubble) may increase use and improve access to food resources. Evaluating and implementing management practices that are ecologically sustainable, increase food for birds and are agronomically beneficial should be global priorities to integrate rice production and avian conservation. Finally, land area devoted to rice agriculture appears to be stable in the USA, declining in China, and largely unquantified in many regions. Monitoring trends in riceland area may provide information to guide avian conservation planning in rice-agriculture ecosystems.

  20. African Rice in the History of the New World

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    Judith Carney

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Rice was introduced to multiple regions of the Americas during the colonial period. Rice plantations flourished in the U.S. southeast and eighteenth-century Brazil. Long attributed to European initiative, recent scholarship suggests that enslaved Africans provided more than labor to the emergence of rice as a food crop in the western hemisphere. This emerges from scholarly consensus that rice was independently domesticated in West Africa 3,000 years ago and further recognition of its role as provisions on transatlantic slave ships. This article summarizes the research findings in support of African agency in New World rice cultivation. A comparative historical approach to Atlantic rice culture suggests African cultural antecedents. The discussion examines the role of enslaved rice-growing Africans in transferring the seed and cultivation skills critical for pioneering the crop’s establishment in the Americas.