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  1. The Boston Puerto Rican Health Study, a longitudinal cohort study on health disparities in Puerto Rican adults: challenges and opportunities

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    Collado Bridgette M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Boston Puerto Rican Health Study is an ongoing longitudinal cohort study designed to examine the role of psychosocial stress on presence and development of allostatic load and health outcomes in Puerto Ricans, and potential modification by nutritional status, genetic variation, and social support. Methods Self-identified Puerto Ricans, aged 45-75 years and residing in the Boston, MA metro area, were recruited through door-to-door enumeration and community approaches. Participants completed a comprehensive set of questionnaires and tests. Blood, urine and salivary samples were extracted for biomarker and genetic analysis. Measurements are repeated at a two-year follow-up. Results A total of 1500 eligible participants completed baseline measurements, with nearly 80% two-year follow-up retention. The majority of the cohort is female (70%, and many have less than 8th grade education (48%, and fall below the poverty level (59%. Baseline prevalence of health conditions is high for this age range: considerable physical (26% and cognitive (7% impairment, obesity (57%, type 2 diabetes (40%, hypertension (69%, arthritis (50% and depressive symptomatology (60%. Conclusions The enrollment of minority groups presents unique challenges. This report highlights approaches to working with difficult to reach populations, and describes some of the health issues and needs of Puerto Rican older adults. These results may inform future studies and interventions aiming to improve the health of this and similar communities.

  2. Association between BDNF-rs6265 and obesity in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study

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    The objective of this study is to examine a functional variant (rs6265) in the BDNF gene interacting with dietary intake modulate obesity traits in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study population. BDNF rs6265 was genotyped in 1147 Puerto Ricans (aged 45-75 years), and examined for association with o...

  3. Association between BDNF rs6265 and Obesity in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-Yong Ma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF has been associated with regulation of body weight and appetite. The goal of this study was to examine the interactions of a functional variant (rs6265 in the BDNF gene with dietary intake for obesity traits in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study. BDNF rs6265 was genotyped in 1147 Puerto Rican adults and examined for association with obesity-related traits. Men (n=242 with the GG genotype had higher BMI (P=0.009, waist circumference (P=0.002, hip (P=0.002, and weight (P=0.03 than GA or AA carriers (n=94. They had twice the risk of being overweight (BMI≥25 relative to GA or AA carriers (OR = 2.08, CI = 1.02–4.23, and P=0.043. Interactions between rs6265 and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA intake were associated with BMI, hip, and weight, and n-3 : n-6 PUFA ratio with waist circumference in men. In contrast, women (n=595 with the GG genotype had significantly lower BMI (P=0.009, hip (P=0.029, and weight (P=0.027 than GA or AA carriers (n=216. Women with the GG genotype were 50% less likely to be overweight compared to GA or AA carriers (OR = 0.05, CI = 0.27–0.91, and P=0.024. In summary, BDNF rs6265 is differentially associated with obesity risk by sex and interacts with PUFA intake influencing obesity traits in Boston Puerto Rican men.

  4. Aging in Puerto Rico: A Comparison of Health Status Among Island Puerto Rican and Mainland U.S. Older Adults.

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    Pérez, Catherine; Ailshire, Jennifer A

    2017-06-01

    To characterize the health status of older island Puerto Ricans, a segment of the U.S. population that has been largely overlooked in aging research. Data from the 2002 Puerto Rican Elderly Health Conditions Project and the 2002 Health and Retirement Study are used to examine differences in disease, disability, and self-rated health among island Puerto Ricans and the mainland U.S.-born older adult population. Differences are further examined by gender. Island Puerto Ricans were less likely to have heart disease, stroke, lung disease, cancer, activities of daily living (ADL) limitations, and poor self-rated health, but more likely to have hypertension and diabetes. Island Puerto Rican women had worse health relative to island Puerto Rican men. Recent challenges in the funding and provision of health care in Puerto Rico are worrisome given the large number of aging island adults, many of whom have hypertension and diabetes, two conditions that require long-term medical care.

  5. Food insecurity is associated with subsequent cognitive decline in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study

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    Background: Living with hunger and fear of not having enough food is a growing worldwide concern. In our previous cross-sectional study, we found that food insecurity was associated with poor cognitive function, but the direction of this relation remains unclear. Objective: We investigated whether f...

  6. Acculturation and sociocultural influences on dietary intake and health status among Puerto Rican adults in Massachusetts

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    Previous studies have shown negative consequences of acculturation on lifestyle factors, health status, and dietary intake of Hispanic immigrants in the US. Despite prevalent type 2 diabetes and low socioeconomic status (SES) among Puerto Rican adults living on the US mainland, little is known about...

  7. Health and Reproductive Assessment of Selected Puerto Rican Parrots ( Amazona vittata ) in Captivity.

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    Clubb, Susan; Velez, Jafet; Garner, Michael M; Zaias, Julia; Cray, Carolyn

    2015-12-01

    The Puerto Rican parrot ( Amazona vittata ) has become an iconic and high-profile conservation species. The cornerstone of the recovery plan for this critically endangered species is an active captive breeding program, management of the wild population, and a long-term reintroduction program. In 2002, 40 adult Puerto Rican parrots that had not produced viable offspring were selected for reproductive assessment at 2 aviary populations in Puerto Rico (Iguaca and Río Abajo), which are the only sources of parrots for release. The goal was to enhance reproductive potential and produce productive pairings in an attempt to augment the population growth and provide ample individuals for reintroduction. Seven Hispanolian Amazon parrots ( Amazona ventralis ) that were used as surrogate parents for the Puerto Rican parrots were also included in the study. This assessment included physical examination, endoscopic evaluation, hematologic and plasma biochemical profiles, viral screening, and hormonal assays. Results of general physical examination and hematologic and plasma biochemical testing revealed overall good health and condition of this subset of the population of Puerto Rican parrots; no major infectious diseases were found. Endoscopic examination also revealed overall good health and condition, especially of females. The apparent low fertility of male birds warrants further investigation. The findings helped to define causes of reproductive failure in the selected pairs and individual birds. New pairings resulting from the assessment helped to augment reproduction of this critically endangered species.

  8. Influential Factors of Puerto Rican Mother-Child Communication About Sexual Health Topics.

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    Torres, Maria Idalí; Granberry, Phillip; Person, Sharina; Allison, Jeroan; Rosal, Milagros; Rustan, Sarah

    2016-11-01

    Introduction Latina mothers play a central role in raising and socializing their children; however, few studies have examined the cultural, socio-cognitive and neighborhood-related variables influencing the level of communication between Puerto Rican mothers and their children about sexuality and sexual health. This cross-sectional study sought to examine these influences. Methods Puerto Rican mothers with children aged 10-19 years (n = 193) were selected randomly for an ethnographic interview as part of a community participatory action research project in a U.S. urban northeastern community. Results Bivariate analyses found statistically significant associations between the child's age (p = 0.002), the mother's past communication about traditional gender role norms of women (marianismo) (p < 0.001), her positive outcome expectations for communications with her child (p < 0.025), and her perceptions of the physical condition (p < 0.001) and sexual health problems (p = 0.047) in the neighborhood. In a multivariate model, all of these variables remained significant except sexual health problems, and mother's attitudes toward the obligations of children to parents (familismo) emerged as a factor associated with a decrease in the number of sexual health topics that mothers raised with their children. No significant effects were found for mother's spiritual and religious experience (religiosidad). Discussion Our study highlights the importance of marianismo as a framework within which Puerto Rican mothers communicate sexual health information as well as the need to improve mothers' confidence discussing sexual health issues with their children. Future public health interventions to promote communication about sexuality and sexual health among Puerto Rican mothers should consider addressing this issue as a part of comprehensive neighborhood improvement projects.

  9. Influential Factors of Puerto Rican Mother–Child Communication About Sexual Health Topics

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    Granberry, Phillip; Person, Sharina; Allison, Jeroan; Rosal, Milagros; Rustan, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Latina mothers play a central role in raising and socializing their children; however, few studies have examined the cultural, socio-cognitive and neighborhood-related variables influencing the level of communication between Puerto Rican mothers and their children about sexuality and sexual health. This cross-sectional study sought to examine these influences. Methods Puerto Rican mothers with children aged 10–19 years (n = 193) were selected randomly for an ethnographic interview as part of a community participatory action research project in a U.S. urban northeastern community. Results Bivariate analyses found statistically significant associations between the child’s age (p = 0.002), the mother’s past communication about traditional gender role norms of women (marianismo) (p communications with her child (p communicate sexual health information as well as the need to improve mothers’ confidence discussing sexual health issues with their children. Future public health interventions to promote communication about sexuality and sexual health among Puerto Rican mothers should consider addressing this issue as a part of comprehensive neighborhood improvement projects. PMID:27461018

  10. Perspectives of Puerto Rican Adults about Heart Health and a Potential Community Program

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    Todorova, Irina L. G.; Tejada, Shirley; Castaneda-Sceppa, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Puerto Ricans are the second largest Hispanic group in the United States, and older adults have significant health disparities. Educational programs that address heart disease risk for this population have rarely been developed and implemented. Purpose: To address this gap, the Heart Healthy Initiative for Puerto Rican adults is being…

  11. Stress and the Social Determinants of Maternal Health among Puerto Rican Women: A CBPR Approach

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    Bermúdez-Millán, Angela; Damio, Grace; Cruz, Joan; D’Angelo, Karen; Segura-Pérez, Sofia; Hromi-Fiedler, Amber; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative research project explores how poverty, the built environment, education, working conditions, health care access, food insecurity and perceived discrimination are experienced by Puerto Rican Latinas through the course of their lives. Five focus groups were conducted with the primary objective of documenting community experiences and perspectives regarding: 1) stress, including perceived discrimination based on race/ethnicity (racism); 2) the impact of stress on Puerto Rican wo...

  12. Perceived discrimination and health among Puerto Rican and Mexican Americans: buffering effect of the Lazo matrimonial?

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    Lee, Min-Ah; Ferraro, Kenneth F

    2009-06-01

    An emerging body of research shows that perceived discrimination adversely influences the mental health of minority populations, but is it also deleterious to physical health? If yes, can marriage buffer the effect of perceived discrimination on physical health? We address these questions with data from Puerto Rican and Mexican American residents of Chicago. Multivariate regression analyses reveal that perceived discrimination is associated with more physical health problems for both Puerto Rican and Mexican Americans. In addition, an interaction effect between marital status and perceived discrimination was observed: married Mexican Americans with higher perceived discrimination had fewer physical health problems than their unmarried counterparts even after adjusting for differential effects of marriage by nativity. The findings reveal that perceived discrimination is detrimental to the physical health of both Puerto Rican and Mexican Americans, but that the stress-buffering effect of marriage on physical health exists for Mexican Americans only.

  13. Geography of Service Delivery: On the Role of Mental Health Service Structure in Community Senior Services for Puerto Rican Older Adults

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    Velez Ortiz, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine the role of mental health services structure in community senior centers and how it interacts with Puerto Rican older adults' historical, social, and cultural experiences to relate to their perceptions, awareness, and utilization of mental health services. The study was carried out within a concurrent…

  14. A Profile of Puerto Rican Health in the United States: Data from the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1982-84.

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    Munoz, Eric; And Others

    The health conditions and health status of Hispanic Americans will assume increased importance as their population increases. The goal of this book of charts is to present data from the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HHANES) on Puerto Ricans. The Puerto Rican HHANES sampling procedure is a multi-stage probability sample of…

  15. Stress and the social determinants of maternal health among Puerto Rican women: a CBPR approach.

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    Bermúdez-Millán, Angela; Damio, Grace; Cruz, Joan; D'Angelo, Karen; Segura-Pérez, Sofia; Hromi-Fiedler, Amber; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2011-11-01

    This qualitative research project explores how poverty, the built environment, education, working conditions, health care access, food insecurity and perceived discrimination are experienced by Puerto Rican Latinas through the course of their lives. Five focus groups were conducted with the primary objective of documenting community experiences and perspectives regarding: 1) stress, including perceived discrimination based on race/ethnicity (racism); 2) the impact of stress on Puerto Rican women of reproductive age, their families, and/or their community; and 3) stressors that affect maternal health. Focus groups were conducted in English and Spanish in the two cities with the highest rates of premature birth and low infant birthweight in the state of Connecticut. Focus group findings indicate that participants perceived poverty, food insecurity, lack of access to quality education, and unsafe environments as significant life stressors affecting maternal and child health.

  16. Self-reliance, mental health need, and the use of mental healthcare among island Puerto Ricans.

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    Ortega, Alexander N; Alegría, Margarita

    2002-09-01

    This paper examines the relationship between self-reliance (preference to solve emotional problems on one's own) and 5 mental healthcare utilization outcomes for Puerto Ricans living in low-income areas. A random probability community sample of noninstitutionalized Puerto Ricans, ages 18-69, living in low-income areas of the island were selected and interviewed in 1992-93 and 1993-94. A series of logistic regression models tested the association between self-reliance and 5 mental health utilization measures, after adjusting for covariates measuring predisposing, enabling, need and barrier factors: any use of mental health services, any use of general health services for mental healthcare, any use of specialty care, use of psychotropic medications, and retention in mental healthcare. Self-reliance was found to be negatively associated with all 5 dependent service utilization measures. Those with a positive self-reliant attitude were 40% less likely to use care on any of the 5 outcome measures. An interaction was also observed between definite need for mental healthcare and having a self-reliant attitude when predicting mental health service use. Definite needers with a self-reliant attitude were 54%-58% less likely to use mental health services compared with definite needers who did not have a self-reliant attitude. Further, decreases in self-reliant attitude over the two data collection periods were associated with increases in mental health service use. Our findings suggest that self-reliance is a significant and robust predictor of mental healthcare utilization among Puerto Ricans living in low-income areas of the island.

  17. Dental and periodontal health and treatment needs in a mother/child rural Puerto Rican population.

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    López Del Valle, Lydia M

    2010-03-01

    Oral research directed toward the maternal and child dyads is important because mothers are a source of dental caries pathogens and are the health behavior managers and trainers of children. The objectives of this study were: 1) to evaluate the oral health status of the mothers in a sample of 100 children aged 12 to 60 months from a rural community in Puerto Rico, and 2) to compare the children with their mothers' oral health status. A sample of 71 women and 100 of their children, (Mean Age = 28.8 years +/- 9.0, and 36.41 mos +/- 18.2, respectively) were evaluated for DMFT/S and periodontal health or deft/s. A NIDCR calibrated dentist performed all dental evaluations of children and mothers utilizing NIDCR criteria. Descriptive statistics were produced. Mothers' bleeding point prevalence in at least one site was 63%; prevalence of at least one site with pocket depth of 4 to 6 mm was 37 %. Calculus prevalence was, no calculus 25%, supragingival calculus 56.7%, subgingival calculus 2.2%, supra and sub gingival calculus 16.3%. Mean Dental Indices for mothers were DMFS (16.51 -/+ 0.02), DMFT (12.20 +/- 6.76), Caries (2.93 +/- 2.86), Filling (7.07 +/- 8.76), Missing (2.93 +/- 4.53). Children's Mean Dental Indices were defs (4.32 +/- 9.7), deft (2.30 +/- 4.0), decalcifications lesions (1.36 +/-1.9), caries (1.96 +/- 3.2) and surfaces caries (3.81 +/- 8.68), fillings (0.22 +/- 0.83) and extracted teeth (0.043 +/- 0.45). Significant levels of treated and untreated caries and gingival disease were observed in this sample. The importance for primary and secondary prevention, as well as treatment for periodontal and dental disease, in rural Puerto Rican communities is evident from this investigation.

  18. Perspectives of Puerto Rican Adults about Heart Health and a Potential Community Program.

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    Todorova, Irina L G; Tejada, Shirley; Castaneda-Sceppa, Carmen

    Puerto Ricans are the second largest Hispanic group in the U.S. and older adults have significant health disparities. Educational programs that address heart disease risk for this population have rarely been developed and implemented. To address this gap, the Heart Healthy Initiative for Puerto Rican adults is being developed. To develop it as a participatory program, the community members were asked about their perspectives. Five focus groups with 28 participants, aged 45-60, were conducted, transcribed and analyzed using Thematic Analysis. In-depth analysis of meanings of health promoting behaviors, in the context of cultural beliefs and values was carried out. The following themes were identified: Health as balance and integration; Health as connection of self, connection with others; Cultural meanings of lifestyle choices; Stresses and struggles. Participants suggested that the program should have significant variety and a holistic perspective, be sensitive to different needs and motivations, stimulate mutual understanding and shared cultural meanings. The program needs to support lifestyle changes which maximally preserve traditions and to introduce multi-level changes. The identified cultural meanings of diet, physical activity and relationships were taken into account to develop the educational curriculum.

  19. HEALTH ASSESSMENT OF CAPTIVE PSITTACINE SPECIES IN PRERELEASE PROGRAMS AT COSTA RICAN RESCUE CENTERS.

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    Mora-Chavarría, Esteban; Umaña-Castro, Rodolfo; Abou-Madi, Noha; Solano-González, Stefany; Retamosa-Izaguirre, Mónica; Jiménez-Soto, Mauricio; Blanco-Peña, Kinndle

    2017-12-01

    With stricter laws regulating the capture and possession of wild animals in Costa Rica, local wildlife-rescue centers have been overwhelmed by an influx of confiscated or relinquished illegal pets, specifically of psittacine species. As part of a nationwide health-assessment program targeting these centers, 122 birds representing five psittacine species ( Ara macao, Amazona autumnalis, Amazona auropalliata, Amazona farinosa, Aratinga finschi) and one hybrid macaw ( Ara macao × Ara ambiguus) were examined and tested between January 2011 and October 2012. Physical examination, hematology, and serum biochemical analyses were performed. Blood and feathers were tested for psittacine beak and feather disease virus (PBFDV) and avian polyomavirus (APV) via PCR. A DNA-based prevalence and sequence analysis characterized the strains of PBFDV and APV isolated. Physical abnormalities observed in 36% of the 122 birds examined were limited to thin body condition and poor feather quality. None of the feather abnormalities were characteristic of disease caused by either PBFDV or APV. Results of hematological and biochemical analyses were within normal limits except for five birds with leukocytosis and heterophilia, three birds with uric acid values above 16 mg/dl, and two additional birds with AST values above 400 IU/L. No hemoparasites were detected during blood smear examination. Overall prevalences of 9.8% (12/122) for PBFDV and 3.3% (4/122) for APV were documented, with only one bird testing positive for both PBFDV and APV. Birds from two of the eight centers were negative for both viruses. Findings from this study constitute the beginning of a standardized surveillance program for Costa Rican rescue centers, targeting the management of avian species enrolled in propagation and reintroduction programs and expanding of the spectrum of pathogen surveillance and husbandry recommendations in prerelease centers.

  20. Hero/Heroine Modeling for Puerto Rican Adolescents: A Preventive Mental Health Intervention.

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    Malgady, Robert G.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Developed hero/heroine intervention based on adult Puerto Rican role models to foster ethnic identity, self-concept, and adaptive coping behavior. Screened 90 Puerto Rican eighth and ninth graders for presenting behavior problems in school and randomly assigned them to intervention or control groups. After 19 sessions, intervention significantly…

  1. Sexual Prejudice among Puerto Rican young adults

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    Bauermeister, José A.; Morales, Mercedes M.; Seda, Gretchen; González-Rivera, Milagritos

    2014-01-01

    Sexual prejudice is linked to hate crimes, mental health, risk behaviors, and stigma. Few studies have examined sexual prejudice among Latinos. We surveyed 382 college students in Puerto Rico. A structural model tested whether contact and positive experiences with homosexuals, perceived similarities with peers' attitudes toward homosexuality, and religiosity were predictive of sexual prejudice among Puerto Rican young adults. Sex differences in the structural model were explored. With the exception of peers' attitudes toward homosexuality, all study variables predict sexual prejudice. No sex differences were found. Implications for decreasing sexual prejudice among Puerto Rican youth in a college setting are discussed. PMID:18689195

  2. Prevalence of gingivitis and calculus in 12-year-old Puerto Ricans: a cross-sectional study.

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    Elias-Boneta, Augusto R; Ramirez, Karol; Rivas-Tumanyan, Sona; Murillo, Margarita; Toro, Milagros J

    2018-01-19

    Gingivitis is a common oral health problem. Untreated gingivitis may progress to periodontitis, a common cause of tooth loss. The prevalence of gingivitis and calculus among Puerto Rican children is unknown. Understanding this prevalence can support early public health preventative strategies. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of gingivitis and calculus among 12-year-old Puerto Ricans by health region and to explore differences in distribution by school type (proxy for socio-economic status) and gender. A probability-based sample of 113 schools was selected proportional to enrollment size and stratified by health region, school type, and gender. Two trained examiners evaluated the presence of gingivitis and both supragingival and subgingival dental calculus. Gingivitis was defined as the presence of gingival bleeding upon gentle probing (BOP) in at least one site, and the extent of the problem was classified according to the percentage of teeth whose gingiva presented BOP (limited: 25-49% of the teeth tested; extensive: >50% of teeth tested). Logistic and linear regression models, adjusted for health regions, were used to compare gingivitis and calculus prevalence and extent between genders and school types. Gingivitis was found in 80.41% of the 1586 children evaluated. Urban-public schoolchildren had a slightly higher prevalence (83.24%) compared to private (79.15%, p = 0.16); those in rural-public (77.59%) and private schools had similar prevalence (p = 0.15). Extensive gingivitis was present in 60.81% of all children. The mean percentage of sites presenting BOP (BOP%) was 17.79%. Rural and urban public schoolchildren presented significantly higher BOP% compared to children from private schools (p = 0.0005, p = 0.002, respectively). Dental calculus was detected in 61.59% of the sample, boys presenting significantly higher (p = 0.005) total and supragingival calculus. Rural-public schoolchildren had a significantly higher prevalence of

  3. A twin study of early-childhood asthma in Puerto Ricans.

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    Supinda Bunyavanich

    Full Text Available The relative contributions of genetics and environment to asthma in Hispanics or to asthma in children younger than 3 years are not well understood.To examine the relative contributions of genetics and environment to early-childhood asthma by performing a longitudinal twin study of asthma in Puerto Rican children ≤ 3 years old.678 twin infants from the Puerto Rico Neo-Natal Twin Registry were assessed for asthma at age 1 year, with follow-up data obtained for 624 twins at age 3 years. Zygosity was determined by DNA microsatellite profiling. Structural equation modeling was performed for three phenotypes at ages 1 and 3 years: physician-diagnosed asthma, asthma medication use in the past year, and ≥ 1 hospitalization for asthma in the past year. Models were additionally adjusted for early-life environmental tobacco smoke exposure, sex, and age.The prevalences of physician-diagnosed asthma, asthma medication use, and hospitalization for asthma were 11.6%, 10.8%, 4.9% at age 1 year, and 34.1%, 40.1%, and 8.5% at 3 years, respectively. Shared environmental effects contributed to the majority of variance in susceptibility to physician-diagnosed asthma and asthma medication use in the first year of life (84%-86%, while genetic effects drove variance in all phenotypes (45%-65% at age 3 years. Early-life environmental tobacco smoke, sex, and age contributed to variance in susceptibility.Our longitudinal study in Puerto Rican twins demonstrates a changing contribution of shared environmental effects to liability for physician-diagnosed asthma and asthma medication use between ages 1 and 3 years. Early-life environmental tobacco smoke reduction could markedly reduce asthma morbidity in young Puerto Rican children.

  4. Social Support for Exercise as a Predictor of Weight and Physical Activity Status Among Puerto Rican and Mexican Men: Results From the Latino Men's Health Initiative.

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    Craven, Meredith R; Keefer, Laurie; Rademaker, Alfred; Dykema-Engblade, Amanda; Sanchez-Johnsen, Lisa

    2018-07-01

    Social support is an important factor in increasing positive health outcomes and positive health behaviors across a variety of disease states including obesity. However, research examining the relationship between social support for exercise and weight and physical activity status, particularly among Latino men, is lacking. This paper examined whether social support for exercise predicted weight and physical activity status and whether the direction of these relationships differ as a function of Hispanic/Latino background (Puerto Rican/Mexican). Participants were 203 men who participated in a National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded study addressing culture- and obesity-related variables. Both family participation social support and f amily rewards and punishment social support predicted higher weight status ( p social support did not predict weight status. The direction of the relationship between weight status and family participation social support, family rewards and punishment social support, and friend participation social support did not significantly differ as a function of Hispanic/Latino background. The direction of the relationship between physical activity status and family participation social support, family rewards and punishment social support, and friend participation social support did not significantly differ as a function of Hispanic/Latino background. Findings suggest that increased social support for exercise from family members may be focused on those who need it most-overweight and obese participants. Additional research is needed to explore sociocultural factors that may promote social support, physical activity, and weight loss and maintenance in Puerto Rican and Mexican men.

  5. A Study of the Predictive Validity of the Children's Depression Inventory for Major Depression Disorder in Puerto Rican Adolescents

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    Rivera-Medina, Carmen L.; Bernal, Guillermo; Rossello, Jeannette; Cumba-Aviles, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the predictive validity of the Children's Depression Inventory items for major depression disorder (MDD) in an outpatient clinic sample of Puerto Rican adolescents. The sample consisted of 130 adolescents, 13 to 18 years old. The five most frequent symptoms of the Children's Depression Inventory that best predict the…

  6. Do Puerto Rican youth with asthma and obesity have higher odds for mental health disorders?

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    Acosta-Pérez, Edna; Canino, Glorisa; Ramírez, Rafael; Prelip, Michael; Martin, Molly; Ortega, Alexander N

    2012-01-01

    Island Puerto Rican (PR) youth experience disproportionately high asthma and obesity rates compared with other racial/ethnic groups on the U.S. mainland. Previous research has demonstrated associations of chronic disease with psychiatric disorders. We examined the relationship among anxiety/depressive disorders, asthma, and obesity in an epidemiologic community sample of youth. The sample (n = 656) was derived from the second wave of an island-wide probabilistic representative household sample of PR youth stratified and based on whether or not they had a diagnosis of asthma and/or depressive/anxiety disorder. For this study, we used the subpopulation ages 10-19 years. Asthma and obesity were significantly related to higher odds of depressive/anxiety disorders in youth. Obesity moderated the relationship between asthma attacks and depressive/anxiety disorders. The relationship between asthma attack and higher odds for depressive/anxiety disorders was only present in the non-obese group. Among the obese, females show a significant increase from 11% to 36% in the prevalence of anxiety/depressive disorders. Asthma and obesity were highly prevalent and a significant association was found between asthma attack and depressive/anxiety disorders. The effects of asthma and obesity were not additive; the prevalence for psychiatric disorder for those having both conditions did not increase above the prevalence associated having only one of the conditions. Future studies should consider including longitudinal designs and examine the extent to which important variables not included in this study, such as body image dissatisfaction (particularly among females), teasing, and discrimination may moderate the relationship among obesity and depressive and anxiety disorders in youth. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Health disparities between island and mainland Puerto Ricans Disparidades de salud entre puertorriqueños que viven en la isla de Puerto Rico y en tierra firme estadounidense

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    Gloria Y. F. Ho

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To detect health disparities among three populations-Puerto Ricans living in Puerto Rico as well as Puerto Ricans and non-Hispanic whites living on the United States (U.S. mainland. METHODS: Data from two similarly designed surveys conducted in 1999-2000 were analyzed. The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS provided data on Puerto Ricans living on the island and on non-Hispanic whites in the U.S. Another survey of Puerto Ricans living in New York City provided data on mainland Puerto Ricans. The age- and sex-standardized weighted prevalences of various health parameters (e.g., obesity, diabetes, smoking, and physical illness and indicators of access to health care (e.g., frequencies of routine checkups and diabetes care were compared between populations by means of standardized rate ratios (SRR. RESULTS: Puerto Ricans living on the mainland and those living on the island had a similar prevalence of obesity (21% to 22%. Compared with islanders, mainland Puerto Ricans had a higher prevalence of diabetes (SRR = 1.4; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 1.01 to 2.0; those with diabetes also showed higher prevalences of smoking (SRR = 4.2; 95% CI = 2.3 to 7.7 and physical illness (SRR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.1 to 2.0 than Puerto Ricans living on the island. While mainland Puerto Ricans were similar to non-Hispanic whites in terms of their utilization of primary prevention and diabetes care, island Puerto Ricans trailed behind significantly. CONCLUSIONS: Puerto Ricans living on the U.S. mainland and those living in Puerto Rico both need to target lowering their prevalence of obesity and diabetes. For island Puerto Ricans, improved education about the significance of primary prevention and diabetes care is needed. For mainland Puerto Ricans, the accessibility of the primary health care system renders it a potentially effective venue for interventions, particularly for smoking cessation. More studies are warranted to identify factors

  8. Puerto Rican understandings of child disability: methods for the cultural validation of standardized measures of child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannotti, Mary E; Handwerker, W Penn

    2002-12-01

    Validating the cultural context of health is important for obtaining accurate and useful information from standardized measures of child health adapted for cross-cultural applications. This paper describes the application of ethnographic triangulation for cultural validation of a measure of childhood disability, the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) for use with children living in Puerto Rico. The key concepts include macro-level forces such as geography, demography, and economics, specific activities children performed and their key social interactions, beliefs, attitudes, emotions, and patterns of behavior surrounding independence in children and childhood disability, as well as the definition of childhood disability. Methods utilize principal components analysis to establish the validity of cultural concepts and multiple regression analysis to identify intracultural variation. Findings suggest culturally specific modifications to the PEDI, provide contextual information for informed interpretation of test scores, and point to the need to re-standardize normative values for use with Puerto Rican children. Without this type of information, Puerto Rican children may appear more disabled than expected for their level of impairment or not to be making improvements in functional status. The methods also allow for cultural boundaries to be quantitatively established, rather than presupposed. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  9. The mental health relevance of idioms of distress. Anger and perceptions of injustice among New York Puerto Ricans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogler, L H; Cortes, D E; Malgady, R G

    1994-06-01

    Cultural sensitivity in mental health research is enhanced by examining the collective perceptions of members of ethnic groups about their own idiomatic expressions of distress. Such an examination was conducted with Puerto Ricans living in New York City, beginning with focus group discussions. Their prevailing idioms of distress, based upon themes of anger and injustice, were correlated widely with professionally developed measures of anxiety, depression, and somatization and with utilization of professional mental health care. By examining the relationship between idioms of distress, saliently volunteered by members of the ethnic ingroup, on the one hand, and professional care and assessments of mental health, on the other, we increase our culturally based understanding of mental health in the community.

  10. Factors associated with regional rheumatic pain disorders in a population of Puerto Ricans with diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Font, Yvonne M.; Castro-Santana, Lesliane E.; Nieves-Plaza, Mariely; Maldonado, Mirna; Mayor, Ángel M.; Vilá, Luis M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with bursitis/tendonitis disorders in Puerto Ricans with diabetes mellitus (DM). A cross-sectional study was performed in 202 adult Puerto Ricans (100 DM patients and 102 non-diabetic subjects). For each participant, a complete medical history and a musculoskeletal exam were systematically performed. Socio-demographic parameters, health-related behaviors, comorbidities, and pharmacotherapy were determined for all subj...

  11. Experimental Study of the Effect of Language (English and Spanish on Advertisement Effectiveness with Puerto Rican Hispanic University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Lebrón

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Even though the population of Puerto Rico includes a large percent of residents with some knowledge of the English language (bilinguals, the vast majority communicates using Spanish, which is their native language. Not surprisingly, the majority of advertisements in Puerto Rican media use the Spanish language. The common sense assumption that Spanish advertising is significantly superior to English advertising when targeting Puerto Rican Hispanics living in Puerto Rico is tested experimentally in this study. The Social Value component of the Theory of Consumption Values was used to generate several Hypotheses that would favor the use of English language. The experiment used magazine-like printed illustrated advertisements to test the hypotheses, all of them dealing with relative effectiveness of Spanish versus English language advertisements. The results show that Spanish advertisements and English advertisements were about the same in terms of their persuasion effectiveness.

  12. Gun Violence, African Ancestry, and Asthma: A Case-Control Study in Puerto Rican Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Salazar, Christian; Han, Yueh-Ying; Brehm, John M; Forno, Erick; Acosta-Pérez, Edna; Cloutier, Michelle M; Alvarez, María; Colón-Semidey, Angel; Canino, Glorisa; Celedón, Juan C

    2016-06-01

    Exposure to gun violence and African ancestry have been separately associated with increased risk of asthma in Puerto Rican children. The objective of this study was to examine whether African ancestry and gun violence interact on asthma and total IgE in school-aged Puerto Rican children. This is a case-control study of 747 Puerto Rican children aged 9 to 14 years living in San Juan, Puerto Rico (n = 472), and Hartford, Connecticut (n = 275). Exposure to gun violence was defined as the child's report of hearing gunshots more than once, and the percentage of African ancestry was estimated using genome-wide genotypic data. Asthma was defined as parental report of physician-diagnosed asthma and wheeze in the previous year. Serum total IgE (IU/mL) was measured in study participants. Multivariate logistic and linear regressions were used for the analysis of asthma and total IgE, respectively. In multivariate analyses, there was a significant interaction between exposure to gun violence and African ancestry on asthma (P = .001) and serum total IgE (P = .04). Among children exposed to gun violence, each quartile increase in the percentage of African ancestry was associated with approximately 45% higher odds of asthma (95% CI, 1.15-1.84; P = .002) and an approximately 19% increment in total IgE (95% , 0.60-40.65, P = .04). In contrast, there was no significant association between African ancestry and asthma or total IgE in children not exposed to gun violence. Our results suggest that exposure to gun violence modifies the estimated effect of African ancestry on asthma and atopy in Puerto Rican children. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Puerto Rican Women as Workers and Writers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, Blanca, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This theme issue of the "Centro Bulletin" highlights recent studies by and about employed Puerto Rican and Latina women. "La mujer en el Puerto Rico del siglo XIX" (O. Jimenez de Wagenheim), in Spanish, reviews the contributions of women to Puerto Rican economic, political, and social life during the nineteenth century.…

  14. Music Education in Puerto Rican Elementary Schools: A Study from the Perspective of Music Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-León, Ricardo; Lorenzo-Quiles, Oswaldo; Addessi, Anna Rita

    2015-01-01

    This article presents, for the first time, descriptive research on the status of music education in Puerto Rican public elementary schools. General music education at elementary schools on the island has been part of the school offering for more than 50 years. As yet, music education at this level has not been recognized as an essential discipline…

  15. Parental mental health, childhood psychiatric disorders, and asthma attacks in island Puerto Rican youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Alexander N; Goodwin, Renee D; McQuaid, Elizabeth L; Canino, Glorisa

    2004-01-01

    Previous research documents an association of poor parental mental health with asthma in children. This study aims to determine whether the associations between parental mental health problems and childhood asthma attacks persist after controlling for childhood anxiety and depression and other confounding factors. A community household sample of youth ages 4 to 17 years and their primary caregivers from the US Commonwealth of Puerto Rico was studied to determine the associations between parental mental health and childhood asthma attacks. Regression models that predicted asthma attacks in youth controlled for parental mental health problems, childhood anxiety and depression, zone of residence, and parents' age, education, and perception of poverty. After adjusting for children's depressive and anxiety disorders as well as other important confounders, associations between parental depression, suicide attempts, ataque de nervios, and history of mental health treatment and asthma attacks in offspring, by parental report, persisted. Additionally, the frequency of parental mental health problems was associated with children's asthma attacks. Parents with mental health problems were more likely to report histories of asthma attacks in their children compared with parents without mental health problems in Puerto Rico. These associations were not attributable to internalizing disorders in youth but persisted independent of childhood psychopathology and other confounding factors. Clinicians and researchers should recognize the relations between poor parental mental health and childhood asthma and explore the potential role of family psychosocial and behavioral factors related to the manifestation of the disease.

  16. A Study of the Spanish Translation of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised with Puerto Rican Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Maria D.; And Others

    Two studies were performed with Puerto Rican children and adolescents in Puerto Rico and Connecticut to determine the reliability and predictive validity of the Spanish translation of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised, the Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler para Ninos-Revisada (EIWN-R). Results suggest that the EIWN-R is a reliable…

  17. Puerto Rican Women in International Business: Myths and Realities

    OpenAIRE

    Maritza Soto

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to study Puerto Rican women in international management, specifically with respect to the perceptions and myths regarding their participation in international assignments, their application in our culture, as well as, to study the factors that affect the participation of Puerto Rican women in international business. The results obtained indicate: 1) the current myths regarding Puerto Rican women in international business positions; 2) factors that influence when...

  18. Pharmacogenetic association study on clopidogrel response in Puerto Rican Hispanics with cardiovascular disease: a novel characterization of a Caribbean population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernandez-Suarez DF

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Dagmar F Hernandez-Suarez,1 Mariana R Botton,2 Stuart A Scott,2 Matthew I Tomey,3 Mario J Garcia,4 Jose Wiley,4 Pedro A Villablanca,5 Kyle Melin,6 Angel Lopez-Candales,7 Jessicca Y Renta,8 Jorge Duconge9 1Cardiovascular Medicine Division, Department of Medicine, University of Puerto Rico School of Medicine, San Juan, PR, USA; 2Department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA; 3Cardiovascular Medicine Division, Department of Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA; 4Division of Cardiovascular Diseases, Department of Medicine, Montefiore Medical Center/Albert Einstein College of Medicine New York, NY, USA; 5Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, USA; 6Department of Pharmacy Practice, University of Puerto Rico Medical Sciences Campus, San Juan, PR, USA; 7Cardiovascular Medicine Division, Department of Medicine, University of Puerto Rico School of Medicine, San Juan, PR, USA; 8Department of Biochemistry, University of Puerto Rico Medical Sciences Campus, San Juan, PR, USA; 9Pharmaceutical Sciences Department, University of Puerto Rico Medical Sciences Campus, San Juan, PR, USA Introduction: High on-treatment platelet reactivity (HTPR to clopidogrel imparts an increased risk for ischemic events in adults with coronary artery disease. Platelet reactivity varies with ethnicity and is influenced by both clinical and genetic variables; however, no clopidogrel pharmacogenetic studies with Puerto Rican patients have been reported. Therefore, we sought to identify clinical and genetic determinants of on-treatment platelet reactivity in a cohort of Puerto Rican patients with cardiovascular disease. Methods: We performed a retrospective study of 111 patients on 75 mg/day maintenance dose of clopidogrel. Patients were allocated into 2 groups: Group I, without HTPR; and Group II, with HTPR. Platelet function was

  19. Prevalence of Osteoporosis and Low Bone Mass Among Puerto Rican Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Sabrina E; Mangano, Kelsey M; Griffith, John L; Wright, Nicole C; Dawson-Hughes, Bess; Tucker, Katherine L

    2018-01-01

    Historically, osteoporosis has not been considered a public health priority for the Hispanic population. However, recent data indicate that Mexican Americans are at increased risk for this chronic condition. Although it is well established that there is heterogeneity in social, lifestyle, and health-related factors among Hispanic subgroups, there are currently few studies on bone health among Hispanic subgroups other than Mexican Americans. The current study aimed to determine the prevalence of osteoporosis and low bone mass (LBM) among 953 Puerto Rican adults, aged 47 to 79 years and living on the US mainland, using data from one of the largest cohorts on bone health in this population: The Boston Puerto Rican Osteoporosis Study (BPROS). Participants completed an interview to assess demographic and lifestyle characteristics and bone mineral density measures. To facilitate comparisons with national data, we calculated age-adjusted estimates for osteoporosis and LBM for Mexican American, non-Hispanic white, and non-Hispanic black adults, aged ≥50 years, from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The overall prevalence of osteoporosis and LBM were 10.5% and 43.3% for participants in the BPROS, respectively. For men, the highest prevalence of osteoporosis was among those aged 50 to 59 years (11%) and lowest for men ≥70 years (3.7%). The age-adjusted prevalence of osteoporosis for Puerto Rican men was 8.6%, compared with 2.3% for non-Hispanic white, and 3.9% for Mexican American men. There were no statistically significant differences between age-adjusted estimates for Puerto Rican women (10.7%), non-Hispanic white women (10.1%), or Mexican American women (16%). There is a need to understand specific factors contributing to osteoporosis in Puerto Rican adults, particularly younger men. This will provide important information to guide the development of culturally and linguistically tailored interventions to improve bone health in this

  20. Puerto Rican Women in International Business: Myths and Realities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Soto

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to study Puerto Rican women in international management, specifically with respect to the perceptions and myths regarding their participation in international assignments, their application in our culture, as well as, to study the factors that affect the participation of Puerto Rican women in international business. The results obtained indicate: 1 the current myths regarding Puerto Rican women in international business positions; 2 factors that influence when considering Puerto Rican women for international business positions and; 3 organizational units and departments where women currently hold positions in international assignments. Although there have been previous studies regarding women in management, there are none regarding Puerto Rican women's participation in international business assignments.

  1. Transnational Mortality Comparisons Between Archipelago and Mainland Puerto Ricans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colón-Ramos, Uriyoán; Rodríguez-Ayuso, Idania; Gebrekristos, Hirut T; Roess, Amira; Pérez, Cynthia M; Simonsen, Lone

    2017-10-01

    Puerto Ricans in the US experience higher deaths from diabetes and other causes compared to non-Hispanic Whites and other Hispanic groups. We compared mortality in Puerto Rico to that of Puerto Ricans in the US as a first step to investigate if similar or worse mortality patterns originate from the sending country (Puerto Rico). Age-adjusted death rates were generated using national vital statistics databases in the US and territories for all-cause and the top ten causes of death among Hispanics in 2009. Mortality ratios in the archipelago of Puerto Rico (APR) were compared to mainland US Puerto Ricans (MPR). Rates for other ethnic/racial groups (Mexican Americans, Cubans, and non-Hispanic Whites, Blacks, American Indians, and Asians) were calculated to provide a context. APR had significantly higher all-cause mortality and death rates for diabetes, nephritis, pneumonia/influenza, and homicide/assault compared to MPR (APR/MPR ratio for all-cause: 1.08, diabetes: 2.04, nephritis: 1.84, pneumonia/influenza: 1.33, homicide/assault: 3.15). Death rates for diabetes and homicide/assault (particularly among men) were higher among APR compared to any other racial/ethnic groups in the US. In contrast, deaths from heart disease, cancer, and chronic liver disease were significantly lower for APR compared to MPR (MPR/APR ratio 0.72, 0.91, 0.41, respectively). Among APR women, death rates for these causes were also lower compared to any other group in the US. Substantial mortality variability exists between Puerto Ricans in Puerto Rico and those in the US, re-emphasizing the need to study of how socio-environmental determinants of health differ in sending and receiving countries. Explanations for disparate rates include access to and availability of healthcare and unique factors related to the migration experience of this group.

  2. Is subclinical anxiety an endophenotype for bipolar I patients? A study from a Costa Rican sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Javier; Hare, Elizabeth; Pacheco, Adriana; Escamilla, Michael; Raventos, Henriette

    2010-05-01

    Although genetic influences on bipolar I disorder are well established, localization of genes that predispose to the illness has been difficult. Some genes predisposing to bipolar I disorder may be transmitted without expression of the categorical clinical phenotype. One strategy to overcome this obstacle is the use of quantitative endophenotypes, as has been done for other medical disorders. We analyzed 30 bipolar I extended families (300 subjects, average family size 10.34 members, range: 2-31) and 20 unrelated healthy controls from a Costa Rican sample. Heritability and genetic correlation of the state and trait scale from the Anxiety State and Trait Inventory was computed by using the general linear model (SOLAR package software). We also assessed variation of both scores among groups (patients, relatives and controls) and tested independence of affection status. Heritability for state is 0.45 (SE=0.11, p=0.0000001) and for trait is 0.89 (SE=0.06, p=6.22e-29). Genetic correlation for state and trait is 0.29, (SE=0.12, p=0.038-3.19e-8). Bipolar I patients showed the highest trait score (F=12.17 [5,24], p=0.002), (bipolar I patients>relatives with other pathologies, >healthy relatives>unrelated healthy controls) with normal distribution in healthy individuals and no difference regarding depression and mania current status, (F=0.230, df=1, p=0.632 and F=1.401, df=1, p=0.238, respectively), contrary to the state score. Confounding factors such as comorbid disorders could affect the interaction of subclinical anxiety with mania. Due to our limited budget we were not able to re-evaluate the subjects and conduct a test retest to assess the STAI reliability and mood state independence of anxiety traits over different times. Further research is needed to evaluate if anxiety traits are specially related to bipolar I disorder in comparison with other traits such as anger, attention or response inhibition deficit, pathological impulsivity or low self-directedness. Anxiety

  3. Investigation of KIF6 Trp719Arg in a case-control study of myocardial infarction: a Costa Rican population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lance A Bare

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The 719Arg allele of KIF6 (rs20455 was associated with coronary events in Caucasian participants of five prospective studies. We investigated whether this KIF6 variant was associated with non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI in a case-control study of an admixed population from the Central Valley of Costa Rica. Genotypes of the KIF6 variant were determined for 4,134 men and women. Cases (1,987 had survived a first MI; controls (2,147 had no history of MI and were matched to cases by age, sex, and area of residence. We tested the association between the KIF6 719Arg allele and non-fatal MI by conditional logistic regression and adjusted for admixture of founder populations.Compared with the reference Trp/Trp homozygotes, KIF6 719Arg carriers were not at significantly higher risk for non-fatal MI in this study after adjustment for traditional risk factors or admixture (OR= 1.12; 95%CI, 0.98-1.28. Heterozygotes of the KIF6 Trp719Arg variant were at increased risk of non-fatal MI: the adjusted odds ratio was 1.16 (95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.34, but this association would not be significant after a multiple testing correction.We found that carriers of the KIF6 719Arg allele were not at increased risk of non-fatal MI in a case-control study of Costa Ricans living in the Central Valley of Costa Rica.

  4. Key plants preserve elements of culture: a study over distance and time of fresh crops in Puerto Rican markets in Hartford, Connecticut, "A moveable feast".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, David W; Anderson, Gregory J

    2014-04-01

    People retain culinary customs when they migrate. We tested this commitment via the study of Puerto Rican fresh produce markets in the continental United States over time, 18 yr, and space, by comparisons with source markets in Puerto Rico (PR). A survey of Puerto Rican markets in Hartford (HT), Connecticut in 1993-1994 was repeated in 2009-2010. A comparative study was made at open-air markets in PR in 2009. Surveys recorded fresh crops, and interviews with vendors and Hartford Puerto Rican residents provided context. We recorded 84 plant crops (64 species; 32 families) for seven categories. The largest category was viandas (fresh, starchy "root" crops and immature fruits), followed by saborizantes (flavorings). In the second HT survey, 80% of the crops were still present. And ∼90% of the HT 1993-1994 crops and ∼75% of the HT 2009-2010 crops were shared with markets in PR. On the basis of our results, we suggest two new concepts. The persistence of these largely tropical foods in a temperate market far removed from tropical PR shows the importance of basic foods as an element of cultural identification. We recognize this stability as an example of "culinary cultural conservation". Second, analysis of these fresh produce markets leads to the conclusion that viandas are the most prominent in diversity, persistence over time and distance, volume, and in terms of consumers' "willingness to pay". Accordingly, we consider the viandas a good example of a "cultural keystone food group", a food group that is emblematic of a community's culinary conservation.

  5. Habitual sugar intake and cognitive function among middle-aged and older Puerto Ricans without diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Xingwang; Gao, Xiang; Scott, Tammy; Tucker, Katherine L.

    2011-01-01

    Intake of added sugars, mainly fructose and sucrose, has been associated with risk factors for cognitive impairment, such as obesity, the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. The objective of this analysis was to examine whether habitual intakes of total sugars, added sugars, sugar-sweetened beverages or sweetened solid foods are associated with cognitive function. The present study included 737 participants without diabetes, aged 45–75 years, from the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study, 200...

  6. "Chronicity," "nervios" and community care: a case study of Puerto Rican psychiatric patients in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swerdlow, M

    1992-06-01

    The role of ethnicity, community structure, and folk concepts of mental illness in facilitating the adaptation of long term psychiatric patients to community living has received little attention. This article examines the cultural concepts of mental illness and the community involvement of 30 Puerto Rican psychiatric patients participating in a New York City treatment program. It is shown that many of the attributes usually associated with chronic mental illness do not apply to this population. It is argued that the folk concept of nervios helps to foster the integration of these patients in a wide range of community networks. The impact of gentrification on these patients' community integration is also discussed.

  7. Analyzing Student Perceptions on Translanguaging: A Case Study of a Puerto Rican University Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Adrian J.; Mazak, Catherine M.

    2017-01-01

    Translanguaging in the classroom is gaining traction as a viable pedagogical choice. Often overlooked, though, are the students' attitudes in response to strategic classroom translanguaging. This study seeks to determine whether students' language attitudes influence their perceptions of an instructor's translingual pedagogy. The study took place…

  8. Analyzing Student Perceptions on Translanguaging: A Case Study of a Puerto Rican University Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian J. Rivera

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Translanguaging in the classroom is gaining traction as a viable pedagogical choice. Often overlooked, though, are the students’ attitudes in response to strategic classroom translanguaging. This study seeks to determine whether students’ language attitudes influence their perceptions of an instructor’s translingual pedagogy. The study took place in an undergraduate psychology classroom at the University of Puerto Rico, Mayagüez, and involved a case-study approach and analysis of survey results. The results show this particular group of students has a neutral to positive outlook on classroom translanguaging. The high number of neutral responses may mean students are indifferent to translingual pedagogy or that these students are conditioned to work within a context where code switching and translanguaging happen frequently.

  9. A Framework for Studying Minority Youths' Transitions to Fatherhood: The Case of Puerto Rican Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkut, Sumru; Szalacha, Laura A.; Coll, Cynthia Garcia

    2005-01-01

    A theoretical framework is proposed for studying minority young men's involvement with their babies that combines the integrative model of minority youth development and a life course developmental perspective with Lamb's revised four-factor model of father involvement. This framework posits a relationship between demographic and family background…

  10. Childhood Asthma Prevalence among Puerto Ricans and Mexican Americans: Implications for Behavioral Intervention Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, A. Magdalena

    1995-01-01

    Data from the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1982-84, were used to examine lifetime prevalence (LTP) of childhood asthma among Mexican Americans and Puerto Ricans. LTP was related to Puerto Rican ethnicity, birth outside U.S. mainland, low weight for age, male gender, poverty, urban residence, and single parenthood. Implications…

  11. Studies of 14C-methamidophos residues and their binding to Costa Rican vegetables and soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carazo, E.; Constenla, M.A.; Fuentes, G.; Moza, P.N.

    1984-01-01

    Studies of 14 C-methamidophos residues in tomato, lettuce and two soils were made under greenhouse conditions. Residues in tomato fruits were 4.5 ppm 35 days after the last application. Total residues in lettuce were also high and present mainly in the edible leaves (9.7 and 12.8 ppm after 3 and 5 applications of the insecticide, respectively). The non-extractable residues constituted a significant part of the total residues in plant tissues. Recovery of the extractable residues decreased with time more rapidly in a loamy clay than in a clay soil. Bound residue levels were about 8% of the applied 14 C in loamy clay after 10 days. Residues in the clay soil were higher and continued to decline throughout a 65-day period. (author)

  12. [Study on the resilience internal factors in a sample of Puerto Rican centenarians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosado-Medina, José J; Rodríguez-Gómez, José R; Altieri-Ramirez, Gladys

    2012-01-01

    Old age is a stage that is usually characterized by lost at the physiological, psychological and social level that generates much distress to individuals. However, the centenaries have been identified as an example of successful aging, within other factors, because they have adequate managed skills that help them to deal with healthy normal losses. Resilience could be one of the factors that may help the Centennials to age successfully. It is necessary more studies with Puerto Rico Centennials since we lack such investigations. This study has an expo facto design; in addition we evaluate psychometrically the Symptoms Check List 90-R (SCL-90-R). The scale of Internal Resilience Factors (EFIR), a semi structured interview and the SCL-90-R were used to identify factors associated with successful aging in the centennials. In addition we explore if there exist gender differences in internal factors of resilience within the sample. 23 Centennials, 15 men and 8 women, of different parts of Puerto Rico (average age = 101. 5 years). Internal resilience factors associated with the aging process were identifying, those were: emotional stability, optimism, behavioral factor and behavioral and emotional skills component. These factors are consistent with the revised literature on positive emotions and adaptive ageing. On the other hand, no statistically significant difference was identified (p <. 05) for the internal factors of resilience on the basis of gender, a finding agreed with the revised literature. The multiple tests administered showed adequate internal consistency (EFIR: (=. 726); SCL-90-R: (=. 941). The Symptoms Check list 90-R (SCL-90-R) was valid with a Cronbach's alpha of. 941. We identified internal resilience factors that could be linked with successfully aging: those factors are encouraging the elderly population. In addition used tests showed adequate internal consistency. Limitations in relation to the size of the sample and the distribution of gender were

  13. Estimating the greenhouse gas benefits of forestry projects: A Costa Rican Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busch, Christopher; Sathaye, Jayant; Sanchez Azofeifa, G. Arturo

    2000-09-01

    If the Clean Development Mechanism proposed under the Kyoto Protocol is to serve as an effective means for combating global climate change, it will depend upon reliable estimates of greenhouse gas benefits. This paper sketches the theoretical basis for estimating the greenhouse gas benefits of forestry projects and suggests lessons learned based on a case study of Costa Rica's Protected Areas Project, which is a 500,000 hectare effort to reduce deforestation and enhance reforestation. The Protected Areas Project in many senses advances the state of the art for Clean Development Mechanism-type forestry projects, as does the third-party verification work of SGS International Certification Services on the project. Nonetheless, sensitivity analysis shows that carbon benefit estimates for the project vary widely based on the imputed deforestation rate in the baseline scenario, e.g. the deforestation rate expected if the project were not implemented. This, along with a newly available national dataset that confirms other research showing a slower rate of deforestation in Costa Rica, suggests that the use of the 1979--1992 forest cover data originally as the basis for estimating carbon savings should be reconsidered. When the newly available data is substituted, carbon savings amount to 8.9 Mt (million tones) of carbon, down from the original estimate of 15.7 Mt. The primary general conclusion is that project developers should give more attention to the forecasting land use and land cover change scenarios underlying estimates of greenhouse gas benefits.

  14. The association between cognitive decline and incident depressive symptoms in a sample of older Puerto Rican adults with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Tyler; Dávila, Ana Luisa; Clay, Olivio; Markides, Kyriakos S; Andel, Ross; Crowe, Michael

    2017-08-01

    Older Puerto Rican adults have particularly high risk of diabetes compared to the general US population. Diabetes is associated with both higher depressive symptoms and cognitive decline, but less is known about the longitudinal relationship between cognitive decline and incident depressive symptoms in those with diabetes. This study investigated the association between cognitive decline and incident depressive symptoms in older Puerto Rican adults with diabetes over a four-year period. Households across Puerto Rico were visited to identify a population-based sample of adults aged 60 years and over for the Puerto Rican Elderly: Health Conditions study (PREHCO); 680 participants with diabetes at baseline and no baseline cognitive impairment were included in analyses. Cognitive decline and depressive symptoms were measured using the Mini-Mental Cabán (MMC) and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), respectively. We examined predictors of incident depressive symptoms (GDS ≥ 5 at follow-up but not baseline) and cognitive decline using regression modeling. In a covariate-adjusted logistic regression model, cognitive decline, female gender, and greater diabetes-related complications were each significantly associated with increased odds of incident depressive symptoms (p Puerto Ricans with diabetes who also experienced cognitive decline. Efforts are needed to optimize diabetes management and monitor for depression and cognitive decline in this population.

  15. Late-life anxiety disorders among Puerto Rican primary care patients: impact on well-being, functioning, and service utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefenbach, Gretchen J; Robison, Julie T; Tolin, David F; Blank, Karen

    2004-01-01

    With the growing population of older Hispanic adults there is a need for additional research on the mental health care of this patient group. This study explored the impact of anxiety disorders on the health status of 291 older (>/=50 years) Puerto Rican primary care patients (n = 65 with anxiety disorders, n = 226 without anxiety disorders). All analyses controlled for potential confounding variables, including depression diagnosis and physical health burden. Logistic regression indicated that anxiety disorders were associated with higher psychological distress, suicidality, and emergency room service utilization, as well as lower instrumental functioning and perceived health quality. Analysis of covariance indicated that both anxiety disorder status and history of ataque de nervios were related to higher percentages of lifetime somatic symptoms. These data highlight the need for improved recognition and treatment of anxiety disorders in older Puerto Rican adults.

  16. Coffee intake and risk of incident diabetes in Puerto Rican men: results from the Puerto Rico Heart Health Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrman, B J; Smit, E; Crespo, C J; Garcia-Palmieri, M R

    2009-06-01

    To study prospectively the association of coffee intake with incident diabetes in the Puerto Rico Heart Health Program cohort, comprising 9824 middle-aged men (aged 35-79 years). Of 9824 men, 3869 did not provide a fasting blood sample at baseline, 1095 had prevalent diabetes and 131 were not given fasting glucose tests at any subsequent study visit. Thus, the present analysis includes 4685 participants. Diabetes was ascertained at baseline and at two study visits between 1968 and 1975 using fasting glucose tests and self-reports of physician-diagnosed diabetes or use of insulin or hypoglycaemic medication. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the association of coffee intake with risk of incident diabetes while adjusting for covariates (age, BMI, physical activity, smoking, education, alcohol intake, family history of diabetes, intakes of milk and sugar). Five hundred and nineteen participants met the criteria for incident diabetes. Compared with those reporting intake of 1-2 servings of coffee/d, coffee abstainers were at reduced risk (OR = 0.64; 95 % CI 0.43, 0.94). Among coffee drinkers, there was a significant trend of decreasing risk by intake (P = 0.02); intake of >/=4 servings/d was associated with an odds ratio of 0.75 (95 % CI 0.58, 0.97). Study findings support a protective effect of coffee intake on diabetes risk, while also suggesting that abstainers may be at reduced risk.

  17. Factorial Structure of a Measure of Acculturation in a Puerto Rican Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leon, Brunilda; Mendez, Serafin

    1996-01-01

    The psychometric characteristics of the Cultural Life Style Inventory were studied with a sample of 402 Puerto Rican college students. Factor analysis revealed high factorial stability for Puerto Ricans. Similarities and differences with a previously studied Mexican American population are discussed. (SLD)

  18. Pulmonary Disease and Age at Immigration among Hispanics. Results from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, R Graham; Avilés-Santa, Larissa; Davis, Sonia M; Aldrich, Tom K; Gonzalez, Franklyn; Henderson, Ashley G; Kaplan, Robert C; LaVange, Lisa; Liu, Kiang; Loredo, Jose S; Mendes, Eliana S; Ni, Ai; Ries, Andrew; Salathe, Matthias; Smith, Lewis J

    2016-02-15

    Asthma has been reported to be more prevalent among Hispanics of Puerto Rican heritage than among other Hispanics and among Hispanics born in the United States or who immigrated as children than among those who came as adults; however, direct comparisons across Hispanic groups are lacking. To test whether asthma is more prevalent among Hispanics of Puerto Rican heritage than among other Hispanic groups, whether asthma is associated with age of immigration, and whether chronic obstructive pulmonary disease varies by heritage in a large, population-based cohort of Hispanics in the United States. The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos researchers recruited a population-based probability sample of 16,415 Hispanics/Latinos, 18-74 years of age, in New York City, Chicago, Miami, and San Diego. Participants self-reported Puerto Rican, Cuban, Dominican, Mexican, Central American, or South American heritage; birthplace; and, if relevant, age at immigration. A respiratory questionnaire and standardized spirometry were performed with post-bronchodilator measures for those with airflow limitation. The prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma among Puerto Ricans (36.5%; 95% confidence interval, 33.6-39.5%) was higher than among other Hispanics (odds ratio, 3.9; 95% confidence interval, 3.3-4.6). Hispanics who were born in the mainland United States or had immigrated as children had a higher asthma prevalence than those who had immigrated as adults (19.6, 19.4, and 14.1%, respectively; P immigration. Asthma was more prevalent among Puerto Ricans, other Hispanics born in the United States, and those who had immigrated as children than among other Hispanics. In contrast, the higher prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease among Puerto Ricans and Cubans was largely reflective of differential smoking patterns and asthma.

  19. Association between sleep duration, insomnia symptoms and bone mineral density in older Puerto Rican adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: To examine the association between sleep patterns (sleep duration and insomnia symptoms) and total and regional bone mineral density (BMD) among older Boston Puerto Rican adults. Materials/Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study including 750 Puerto Rican adults, aged 47–79 y livi...

  20. UNDERSTANDING THE PUERTO RICAN AND HIS FAMILY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    THOMAS MARIE, SISTER

    AN UNDERSTANDING OF TRADITIONAL PUERTO RICAN FAMILY CUSTOMS AND BASIC DIFFERENCES BETWEEN PUERTO RICAN AND OTHER LIFE STYLES SHOULD HELP PROFESSIONAL WORKERS SOLVE THE PROBLEMS CREATED BY MIGRATION TO THE UNITED STATES. THE CULTURE OF THE PUERTO RICAN CAN BE DESCRIBED IN RELATION TO THREE CONCEPTS--DIGNIDAD (SELF-ESTEEM OR SELF-WORTH), RESPETO…

  1. The Psychology of Puerto Rican Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prewitt Diaz, Joseph O.

    The psychology of the Puerto Rican migrant to the United States mainland is explored. Puerto Ricans have been migrating to the U.S. mainland and returning to Puerto Rico for more than 125 years, and, in fact, approximately 57% of all Puerto Ricans have migrated at one time or another. The migrant experience, including the circular migration…

  2. Puerto Ricans in Science and Biomedicine: Report of a Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, DC.

    Twelve divisions and institutes of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) cosponsored this conference to examine the barriers to participation of Puerto Ricans in the United States to careers in science and biomedicine. Areas addressed during the conference included: (1) perspectives from the NIH; (2) historical and modern perspectives of…

  3. Disproportionate impact of diabetes in a Puerto Rican community of Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Steve; Silva, Abigail; Shah, Ami M

    2006-12-01

    We assessed the impact of diabetes in a large Puerto Rican community of Chicago by measuring the prevalence of diagnosed diabetes and calculating the diabetes mortality rate. Data were analyzed from a comprehensive health survey conducted in randomly selected households in community areas. Questions on diagnosed diabetes and selected risk factors were asked. In addition, vital records data were analyzed in order to calculate the age-adjusted diabetes mortality rate. When possible, rates were compared to those found in other studies. The diabetes prevalence located in this community (20.8%: 95% CI = 10.1%-38.0%) is the highest ever reported for Puerto Ricans and one of the highest ever reported in the United States for a non-Native American population. For instance, it is twice the prevalence for Puerto Ricans in New York (11.3%) and Puerto Rico (9.3%-9.6%). Diagnosed diabetes was found to be significantly associated with obesity (p = 0.023). The prevalence was particularly high among older people, females, those born in the US, and those with a family history of diabetes. Notably, the diabetes mortality rate (67.6 per 100,000 population) was more than twice the rate for all of Chicago (31.2) and the US (25.4). Understanding why the diabetes prevalence and mortality rates for Puerto Ricans in this community are so much higher than those of other communities is imperative for primary and secondary prevention. Collaboration between researchers, service providers and community members can help address the issues of diabetes education, early screening and diagnosis, and effective treatment needed in this community.

  4. Creation of the Quebrada Arriba Community and Academic Partnership: An Effective Coalition for Addressing Health Disparities in Older Puerto Ricans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellano-Colón, Elsa M; González-Laboy, Yolanda; De Jesús-Rosario, Amarelis

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a community-academic coalition partnership to conduct community-based participatory research (CBPR) to address health disparities in older adults with chronic conditions living in the Quebrada Arriba community. We used the 'Developing and Sustaining CPPR Partnerships: A Skill-Building Curriculum', to create the Quebrada Arriba Community-Academic Partnership (QACAP). We assessed the meetings effectiveness and the CBPR experiences of the coalition members in the community-academic partnership. The stepwise process resulted in: the development of The Coalition for the Health and Wellbeing of Older People of Quebrada Arriba; the partnership's mission and vision; the operating procedures; the formulation of the research question, and; the action plan for obtaining funding resources. The mean levels of satisfaction for each of the items of the Meeting Effectiveness Evaluation tool were 100%. The mean agreement rating scores on variables related to having a positive experience with the coalition, members' representativeness of community interest, respectful contacts between members, the coalition's vision and mission, the participation of the members in establishing the prioritized community problem, and sharing of resources between the members was 100%. The steps used to build the QACAP provided an effective structure to create the coalition and captured the results of coalition activities. Partners' time to build trust and developing a sufficient understanding of local issues, high interest of the community members, flexibility of the partners, capitalization on the partners' strengths, and the shared decision building process were key contributors of this coalition's success.

  5. Influence of sensory and cultural perceptions of white rice, brown rice and beans by Costa Rican adults in their dietary choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge-Rojas, Rafael; Mattei, Josiemer; Fuster, Tamara; Willett, Walter; Campos, Hannia

    2014-10-01

    Little is known about the distinct perceptions towards rice and beans that may shape the consumption of these main staple foods among Costa Ricans. We aimed to identify barriers and motivators that could change the current staple into a healthier one, and assess the sensory perceptions of these foods in this population. Focus group discussions and sensory tastings of 8 traditional white or brown rice and beans preparations were conducted in 98 Costa Ricans, aged 40-65 years. Traditional habits and family support emerged as the two main drivers for current consumption. Consuming similar amounts of rice and beans, as well as unfamiliarity with brown rice, are habits engrained in the Costa Rican culture, and are reinforced in the family and community environment. Suggested strategies for consuming more brown rice and more beans included introducing them during childhood, disseminating information of their health benefits that take into account the importance of tradition, lowering the cost, increasing availability, engaging women as agents of change and for brown rice masking the perceived unpleasant sensory characteristics by incorporating them into mixed dishes. Plain brown rice received the lowest mean hedonic liking scores. The preparations rated highest for pleasant were the beans: rice 1:1 ratio regardless of the type of rice. This study identified novel strategies to motivate Costa Rican adults to adapt their food choices into healthier ones within their cultural and sensory acceptability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Bird Perches Increase Forest Seeds on Puerto Rican Landslides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron B. Shiels; Lawrence R. Walker

    2003-01-01

    Landslides result in the loss of vertical vegetative structure, soil nutrients, and the soil seed bank. These losses impede timely recovery of tropical forest communities. In this study we added bird perches to six Puerto Rican landslides with three types of surfaces (bare, climbing fern, grass) in an effort to facilitate inputs of forest seeds through bird dispersal...

  7. POPULATION DECLINES OF THE PUERTO RICAN VIREO IN GUANICA FOREST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    JOHN FAABORG; KATE M. DUGGER; WAYNE J. ARENDT; BETHANY L. WOODWORTH; MICHAEL E. BALTZ

    1997-01-01

    Abundance of the Puerto Rican Vireo (Vireo Zutimeri) in Guanica Forest, Puerto Rico, has declined gradually over the period 1973-1996 as determined by constant effort mist netting. Concurrent studies of breeding vireos show low nesting success, primarily due to parasitism by Shiny Cowbirds (Molothrus bonariensis). This decline may reflect the rather recent entry of the...

  8. Commercialization Trends in Higher Education: The Costa Rican Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guido, Maria de Los Angeles

    1999-01-01

    This case study of the commercialized teaching profession in Costa Rican higher education urges circumspection; the term "efficient and productive change" camouflages the state-sanctioned commodification of the instructional enterprise. Courses are becoming proprietary courseware, machinery for selling intellectual capital is emerging,…

  9. Sex Differences in Trajectories of Offending among Puerto Rican Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Wesley G.; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.; Piquero, Alex R.; Odgers, Candice L.; Bird, Hector; Canino, Glorisa

    2010-01-01

    Although sex is one of the strongest correlates of crime, contentions remain regarding the necessity of sex-specific theories of crime. The current study examines delinquent trajectories across sex among Puerto Rican youth socialized in two different cultural contexts (Bronx, United States; and San Juan, Puerto Rico). Results indicate similar…

  10. BREEDING AND NATAL DISPERSAL IN THE PUERTO RICAN VIREO

    Science.gov (United States)

    BETHANY L. WOODWORTH; JOHN FAABORG; WAYNE J. ARENDT

    1998-01-01

    Information on dispersali s critical for understandingt he population dynamicso f birds. We estimated breeding and natal dispersal in two studies of a population of the Puerto Rican Vireo (Vireo latimeri) that is in danger of local extirpation due to low reproductive success from 7.1-29% of adult males and 12.5 - 25% of adult females changed territories between...

  11. Long-term association of economic inequality and mortality in adult Costa Ricans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modrek, Sepideh; Dow, William H; Rosero-Bixby, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Despite the large number of studies, mostly in developed economies, there is limited consensus on the health effects of inequality. Recently a related literature has examined the relationship between relative deprivation and health as a mechanism to explain the economic inequality and health relationship. This study evaluates the relationship between mortality and economic inequality, as measured by area-level Gini coefficients, as well as the relationship between mortality and relative deprivation, in the context of a middle-income country, Costa Rica. We followed a nationally representative prospective cohort of approximately 16,000 individuals aged 30 and over who were randomly selected from the 1984 census. These individuals were then linked to the Costa Rican National Death Registry until Dec. 31, 2007. Hazard models were used to estimate the relative risk of mortality for all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality for two indicators: canton-level income inequality and relative deprivation based on asset ownership. Results indicate that there was an unexpectedly negative association between canton income inequality and mortality, but the relationship is not robust to the inclusion of canton fixed-effects. In contrast, we find a positive association between relative deprivation and mortality, which is robust to the inclusion of canton fixed-effects. Taken together, these results suggest that deprivation relative to those higher in a hierarchy is more detrimental to health than the overall dispersion of the hierarchy itself, within the Costa Rican context. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Feminist Therapy with Mainland Puerto Rican Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comas-Diaz, Lillian

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the use of feminist therapy with mainland Puerto Rican women, presenting clinical vignettes. Emphasizes the consideration of sociocultural context, including the experience of cross-cultural translocation, transculturation, the colonial background of Puerto Rico, Puerto Rican sex roles, power issues and Puertorriquenas' sense of…

  13. The symptom experiences of Puerto Rican children undergoing cancer treatments and alleviation practices as reported by their mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Mercado, Velda J; Williams, Phoebe D; Williams, Arthur R; Pedro, Elsa; Colon, Gloria

    2017-02-01

    Although symptoms during cancer treatments are prevalent and are important clinical outcomes of childhood cancer, the symptom experiences of Puerto Rican children along with the symptom alleviation/care practices that parents provide during cancer treatments have received limited attention. To examine the occurrence/severity of symptoms on the Therapy-Related Symptom Checklist-Children (TRSC-C), reported by mothers of Puerto Rican children undergoing cancer treatments and identifying mothers' symptom alleviation/management strategies. Descriptive study conducted between January and May 2012. Mothers of 65 Puerto Rican children/adolescents undergoing cancer treatments responded to the Spanish versions of the TRSC-C, Symptom Alleviation: Self-Care Methods, and a Demographic and Health form. The children/adolescents' mean age was 9.2 (1-17) years; 62% were boys; 56 had chemotherapy; 9 had chemoradiotherapy. Children diagnoses were 35.4% leukemia, 24.6% solid tumors, 24.6% nervous system tumors, and 15.4% other. On the TRSC-C, the symptoms experienced by 70% or more of the children were: irritability (77%), nausea (75%), and hair loss (72%). On the Symptom Alleviation: Self-Care Methods, the most commonly reported symptom alleviation category was "taking prescribed medicines." Puerto Rican mothers reported the use of alleviation practices to treat their children experiencing symptoms during pediatric cancer treatments. Patients and caregivers need to be educated about treatment-induced side effects, and the life-threatening consequences of underreporting and undermanagement. Symptoms should always be addressed at the time of initiation of primary or adjuvant cancer therapy because pretreatment symptoms may persist or get worse across the trajectory of treatment. A continuous assessment and management of symptoms during the childhood cancer trajectory can optimize clinical care and improve quality of life of patients and families. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia

  14. Association of child maltreatment and depressive symptoms among Puerto Rican youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaschek, Graciela; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; He, Xin; Lee, Sunmin; Canino, Glorisa

    2016-08-01

    This article compares multiple types of child maltreatment among Puerto Rican youth. We seek to expand the limited knowledge of the effects of multiple types of maltreatment on depressive symptoms in a specific Latino population as emerging studies indicate that children who are exposed to one type of maltreatment are often exposed to other types. This study examines the predictive strength of different and multiple types of lifetime child maltreatment (i.e., physical, sexual, and emotional abuse; and neglect), and the effect of youth support from parents, youth coping, youth self-esteem, and place of residence on depressive symptoms among Puerto Rican youth. Secondary data analyses were performed using three annual waves (2000-2004) of data from the Boricua Youth Study. The analytic sample consists of 1041 10-13 year old Puerto Rican youth living in New York and Puerto Rico. Results indicate that: (1) youth who experienced 'sexual abuse only', 'multiple maltreatment' (2 or more types of maltreatment), 'physical abuse only' have a significant increase in depressive symptoms (75.1%, 61.6%, and 40.5% respectively) compared to those without maltreatment; and (2) place of residence, exposure to violence, and mental disorders were significant risk factors. When developing psychosocial interventions, professionals should particularly focus on youth who report past lifetime experience with child maltreatment. Particular attention should be given to children living in the Bronx, New York and similar urban low-income areas who report past lifetime experience with multiple types of child maltreatment and who present symptoms or a diagnosis of co-occurring mental health problems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Association of major depression and diabetes in medically indigent Puerto Rican adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disdier-Flores, Orville M

    2010-03-01

    Studies have found that major depression and diabetes mellitus are strongly associated. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the association between major depression and diabetes in a large medically indigent population of Puerto Rican adults living on the island. A secondary database analysis through a cross-sectional design was used for this study. Participants were selected from the Puerto Rico Commonwealth Health Plan database, beneficiaries of the public health sector. Adult's subjects with at least one claim during 2002 were included. The final sample consisted of 1,026,625 adult insured. The International Classification of Diseases (ICD-9) was used for disease classifications. The prevalence of diabetes was 14.6% in subjects with major depression and 9.7% for those without major depression (POR 1.59, p diabetes appears to be significantly higher in Puerto Rican adults with major depression compared to those without this psychiatric disorder. Longitudinal prospective studies and randomized controlled trials are needed to shed light on the temporal or causal relationship and to test whether effective prevention and treatment can reduce the risk of developing diabetes.

  16. Wood Decomposition of Cyrilla racemiflora (Cyrillaceae) in Puerto Rican Dry and Wet Forests: A 13-year Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan A. Torres; Grizelle Gonzalez

    2005-01-01

    We studied the decomposition of Cyrilla racemiflora logs over a 13-yr period in tropical dry and wet forests in Puerto Rico. The mean mass loss, ratio of soft to hard wood, nutrient concentrations, and the diversity of wood-inhabiting organisms were greater in logs decomposing in the dry forest than in the wet forest. Termites were also more abundant in the logs...

  17. Depression and substance use in a middle aged and older Puerto Rican population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingartner, Katherine; Robison, Julie; Fogel, Denise; Gruman, Cynthia

    2002-01-01

    This study focuses on depression and substance use in Puerto Rican primary care patients, age 50 and older, recruited from five clinics in Hartford, CT (n = 303). One-third of the participants screened positive for depression using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale, and 16 percent either reported excessive alcohol use, prescription drug abuse, and/or illegal drug use in the past year. Correlates of depression include younger age, female gender, being separated or divorced, low perceived adequacy of income, poor health status, functional limitations, few emotional supports, and a history of an "ataque de nervios." Younger age, male gender, low perceived adequacy of income, few emotional supports, suicidal ideation, and a history of an "ataque de nervios" were associated with substance use. While the relationship between excessive alcohol use and a higher rate of depression did not reach statistical significance, drug use was a strong predictor of depression, particularly prescription drug abuse. However substance use did not significantly affect the likelihood of seeking treatment for depression. These findings underscore the need for appropriate interventions for those at risk for depression among the Puerto Rican population.

  18. Parenting Styles and Child Outcomes in Puerto Rican Families

    OpenAIRE

    Colón, Jeisianne Rosario

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate observed parenting styles among Puerto Rican parents living in Puerto Rico. Participants included 51 families with a child between the ages of 6 and 11. Families engaged in different behavioral observational tasks. Observations were coded for parenting dimensions and family parenting styles in order to determine its relationship to child outcomes. The Parenting Styles Observation Rating Scale was used to code the observations and the Child Behavior Ch...

  19. Toward a Puerto Rican popular nosology: nervios and ataque de nervios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnaccia, Peter J; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Marano, Melissa Rivera

    2003-09-01

    This paper is about naming illnesses--about who determines what categories are used and the implications of these determinations. The central concerns of medical/psychiatric anthropology have been to understand popular categories of and systems for classification of illness, to examine the relationship of illness categories to cultural understandings of the body, and to interpret the role of categories of illness in mediating between the personal and social spheres. At the same time, the paper also discusses the interplay of popular categories and psychiatric diagnoses. This paper examines the multiple experiences of nervios among Puerto Ricans in Puerto Rico and New York City. Our contention is that nervios is more than a diffuse idiom of distress, and that there are different categories and experiences of nervios which provide insights into how distress is experienced and expressed by Puerto Ricans and point to different social sources of suffering. The data in this paper come from the responses to a series of open-ended questions which tapped into people's general conceptions of nervios and ataques de nervios. These questions were incorporated into follow-up interviews to an epidemiological study of the mental health of adults in Puerto Rico. The results suggest ways to incorporate these different categories of nervios into future research and clinical work with different Latino groups in the United States and in their home countries.

  20. The influence of gender stereotypes on eating habits among Costa Rican adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge-Rojas, Rafael; Fuster-Baraona, Tamara; Garita, Carlos; Sánchez, Marta; Smith-Castro, Vanesa; Valverde-Cerros, Oscar; Colon-Ramos, Uriyoán

    2015-01-01

    To identify the influence of gender stereotypes on eating habits among Costa Rican adolescents. Qualitative, descriptive research was used in this study. Adolescents and parents were recruited from socioeconomically diverse populations in rural and urban areas of San José, Costa Rica. Subjects were 92 adolescents (14 to 17 years old) and 48 parents. Focus group data were transcribed and entered into the qualitative data analysis software Atlas.ti version 5.0. Analyses were grounded on the social cognitive theory. Five themes emerged from the focus group discussions: (1) Costa Rican adolescents associate the consumption of moderate quantities of healthy foods with femininity and male homosexuality. (2) The consumption of hearty portions of nonhealthy foods was associated with masculinity and male heterosexuality. (3) There is an emerging view that it is acceptable for heterosexual male adolescents to take care of their bodies through healthy eating. (4) Body care among female adolescents is an element of femininity and body image. (5) Parents reinforce their daughters' persistent concern with weight control because they perceive it as feminine behavior. Health promoters should be aware of the existing and changing food stereotypes around gender as an avenue for the promotion of healthy eating.

  1. A review of barriers to effective asthma management in Puerto Ricans: cultural, healthcare system and pharmacogenomic issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicea-Alvarez, Norma; Swanson-Biearman, Brenda; Kelsen, Steven G

    2014-02-01

    Among the Hispanic community, Puerto Ricans have the highest prevalence of asthma and manifest the worst outcomes. The expected growth of the Hispanic population in the USA in the next several decades make elimination of disparate care in Puerto Rican asthmatics a matter of national importance. The purpose of this review of the literature (ROL) is to examine a variety of health system, genetic and cultural barriers in the Puerto Rican community which have created disparities in asthma care and outcomes among adult and pediatric Hispanic populations. In addition, this ROL describes several culturally sensitive, community-based educational interventions which can be used as a framework for future projects to improved asthma outcomes. Databases searched included Medline, PubMED, EBSCOhost, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Google Scholar and ERIC. Papers published in English from January 1990 to January 2012 were reviewed. Health system policies, insurer compensation patterns, clinician attitudes and cultural values/folk remedies in the Puerto Rican community represent barriers to effective asthma management, the use of controller medication and the implementation of educational interventions. In addition, genetic factors involving the beta-2 adrenergic receptor gene, which impair the response to albuterol, appear to contribute to poorer outcomes in Puerto Rican asthmatics. In contrast, several comprehensive, community-based, culturally sensitive educational interventions such as Controlling Asthma in American Cities Project (CAACP), the Racial and Ethnic Approach to Community Health in the US Program and Healthy Hoops programs (REACH) have been described. We believe that culturally sensitive community-based asthma education programs can serve as models for programs targeted toward Puerto Ricans to help decrease asthma morbidity. Moreover, greater sensitivity to Puerto Rican mores and folk remedies on the part of healthcare providers may improve the patient-clinician rapport and

  2. Prematurity, atopy, and childhood asthma in Puerto Ricans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Salazar, Christian; Ramratnam, Sima K; Brehm, John M; Han, Yueh-Ying; Boutaoui, Nadia; Forno, Erick; Acosta-Pérez, Edna; Alvarez, María; Colón-Semidey, Angel; Canino, Glorisa; Celedón, Juan C

    2014-02-01

    Puerto Rican children share a disproportionate burden of prematurity and asthma in the United States. Little is known about prematurity and childhood asthma in Puerto Rican subjects. We sought to examine whether prematurity is associated with asthma in Puerto Rican children. We performed a case-control study of 678 children aged 6 to 14 years with (n = 351) and without (n = 327) asthma living in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Prematurity was defined by parental report for our primary analysis. In a secondary analysis, we only included children whose parents reported prematurity that required admission to the neonatal intensive care unit. Asthma was defined as physician-diagnosed asthma and wheeze in the prior year. We used logistic regression for analysis. All multivariate models were adjusted for age, sex, household income, atopy (≥1 positive IgE level to common allergens), maternal history of asthma, and early-life exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. In a multivariate analysis there was a significant interaction between prematurity and atopy on asthma (P = .006). In an analysis stratified by atopy, prematurity was associated with a nearly 5-fold increased odds of asthma in atopic children (adjusted odds ratio, 4.7; 95% CI, 1.5-14.3; P = .007). In contrast, there was no significant association between prematurity and asthma in nonatopic children. Similar results were obtained in our analysis of prematurity requiring admission to the neonatal intensive care unit and asthma. Our results suggest that atopy modifies the estimated effect of prematurity on asthma in Puerto Rican children. Prematurity might explain, in part, the high prevalence of atopic asthma in this ethnic group. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Spirometry Reference Equations from the HCHS/SOL (Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaVange, Lisa; Davis, Sonia M; Hankinson, John; Enright, Paul; Wilson, Rebbecca; Barr, R Graham; Aldrich, Thomas K; Kalhan, Ravi; Lemus, Hector; Ni, Ai; Smith, Lewis J; Talavera, Gregory A

    2017-10-15

    Accurate reference values for spirometry are important because the results are used for diagnosing common chronic lung diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, estimating physiologic impairment, and predicting all-cause mortality. Reference equations have been established for Mexican Americans but not for others with Hispanic/Latino backgrounds. To develop spirometry reference equations for adult Hispanic/Latino background groups in the United States. The HCHS/SOL (Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos) recruited a population-based probability sample of 16,415 Hispanics/Latinos aged 18-74 years living in the Bronx, Chicago, Miami, and San Diego. Participants self-identified as being of Puerto Rican, Cuban, Dominican, Mexican, or Central or South American background. Spirometry was performed using standardized methods with central quality control monitoring. Spirometric measures from a subset of 6,425 never-smoking participants without respiratory symptoms or disease were modeled as a function of sex, age, height, and Hispanic/Latino background to produce background-specific reference equations for the predicted value and lower limit of normal. Dominican and Puerto Rican Americans had substantially lower predicted and lower limit of normal values for FVC and FEV 1 than those in other Hispanic/Latino background groups and also than Mexican American values from NHANES III (Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey). For patients of Dominican and Puerto Rican background who present with pulmonary symptoms in clinical practice, use of background-specific spirometry reference equations may provide more appropriate predicted and lower limit of normal values, enabling more accurate diagnoses of abnormality and physiologic impairment.

  4. [Difficulties and concerns identified by Puerto Rican youth with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM): their relationship with metabolic control, hopelessness, social support, and depressive symptoms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosselló, Jeannette; Maysonet Guzmán, Marielisa

    2006-12-01

    Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is a chronic health condition that affects 18 of every 100,000 Puerto Rican youth. Few research studies have been performed on the problems that youth with diabetes encounter and how they are related to adherence to treatment and adequate metabolic control. Adequate metabolic control is associated with fewer short and long-term medical complications, as well as better quality of life. Adapting to the demands and stressors associated with IDDM and its treatment is a task that can prove to be difficult for youth with diabetes due to having to make adjustments, alterations, and following a prescribed regimen in their daily activities. The main purpose of this investigation was to explore difficulties and worries identified by Puerto Rican youth with IDDM. This study examined whether there is a relationship between difficulties and worries, and adequate metabolic control, hopelessness, social support and depressive symptomatology. One hundred and one youth with IDDM between the ages of 8 and 17 (45 male, 56 female) were evaluated. Analysis of frequencies, correlations, and comparison tests were performed by group (gender, age, diabetes duration, and metabolic control. Results reveal that some of the difficulties identified by Puerto Rican youth with IDDM were: not eating candy and/or cake, self-monitoring blood glucose at school, doing things on time, and waking up early. Among the worries they reported were: insulin reactions and thinking that they might have to go to the hospital.

  5. Knowledge of prenatal health care among Costa Rican and Panamanian women Conocimientos de las mujeres de Costa Rica y Panamá sobre el cuidado de la salud durante el embarazo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Harold Guilford

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: There is evidence that health care during pregnancy is a crucial component in ensuring a safe delivery. Because the infant mortality rate in Costa Rica is almost half the rate of Panama, the researchers tested the hypothesis that women in Costa Rica are more knowledgeable about prenatal health care than women in neighboring Panama. METHODS: A multiple-choice survey was used to evaluate women’s knowledge of prenatal care using WHO recommendations as the nominal standard. Oral surveys were administered to 320 women in Costa Rican and Panamanian health care clinics. The surveys consisted of multiple-choice questions designed to assess four specific domains of knowledge in prenatal care: nutrition, danger signs, threats from illness, and acceptable activities during pregnancy. Survey answers were scored, and significant factors in assessing women’s knowledge of prenatal care were determined using analysis of variance and general linear models. RESULTS: Costa Rican women scored higher than Panamanian women in most domains of knowledge in prenatal health care. Only country of origin and educational level were significant factors in determining knowledge of prenatal care. However, country of origin was a stronger predictor of knowledge of prenatal care than was having completed high school. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that Costa Rican women are more knowledgeable about necessary prenatal care than Panamanian women, and that this difference is probably related to direct education about and promotion of prenatal care in Costa Rica. This suggests an influence of cultural health care awareness that extends beyond the previously established negative correlation between maternal educational level and infant mortality.OBJETIVOS: El cuidado de la salud durante el embarazo es un componente crucial para garantizar un parto sin riesgo. Como la mortalidad infantil en Costa Rica es casi la mitad de la registrada en Panamá, se probó la hip

  6. Vida/SIDA: A Grassroots Response to AIDS in Chicago's Puerto Rican Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanabria, Roberto

    2004-01-01

    Chicago's Puerto Rican community in West Town had a unique reaction to the spread of AIDS within its limits. They created their own institutions and tackled the epidemic themselves. In its infancy, Vida/SIDA, which translates as Life/AIDS, was solely an alternative health clinic for people with AIDS. Free of charge, it provided services such as…

  7. A Brief Culturally Tailored Intervention for Puerto Ricans with Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Chandra Y.; Amico, K. R.; Cruz, Noemi; O'Connell, Ann A.; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Kalichman, Seth C.; Wolf, Scott A.; Fisher, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    The information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) model of health behavior change informed the design of a brief, culturally tailored diabetes self-care intervention for Puerto Ricans with type 2 diabetes. Participants (n = 118) were recruited from an outpatient, primary care clinic at an urban hospital in the northeast United States. ANCOVA…

  8. Impact of relationship dynamics and gender roles in the protection of HIV discordant heterosexual couples: an exploratory study in the Puerto Rican context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orengo-Aguayo, Rosaura; Pérez-Jiménez, David

    2009-03-01

    Most of the HIV/AIDS prevention efforts have not taken into consideration the context of the relationship and the gender constructs that influence relationship dynamics. These efforts have failed to view HIV prevention as a collaborative process between partners. Therefore, it is important to explore how relationship dynamics and gender constructs influence how men and women involved in an HIV discordant heterosexual relationship, visualize their role in the protection of their partners in order to design more effective prevention interventions. Five Puerto Rican HIV discordant heterosexual couples were interviewed via a qualitative semi-structured interview. The taped interviews were transcribed and analyzed using content analysis according to a set of defined categories. Women visualized their role as one of convincing their partners to use protection as well as being strong and firm in the demand of its use. Men viewed their role as one of being more supportive and willing to use protection, but recognized their resistance towards the use of condoms. Relationship dynamics such as communication and support promoted protection. Traditional and non-traditional gender roles were assumed by both men and women. Traditional gender roles inhibited protection but were also used in positive ways to promote it. Men showed a greater initiative to break with traditional gender norms. A positive relationship, marked by communication and support could serve as a facilitator in the protection and in the transformation of traditional gender norms. This points out to the need of viewing HIV/AIDS prevention as a collaborative rather than individualistic process.

  9. A Healthy Lifestyle Score Is Associated with Cardiometabolic and Neuroendocrine Risk Factors among Puerto Rican Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotos-Prieto, Mercedes; Bhupathiraju, Shilpa N; Falcón, Luis M; Gao, Xiang; Tucker, Katherine L; Mattei, Josiemer

    2015-07-01

    Although individual healthy lifestyle behaviors may reduce cardiovascular disease risk, few studies have analyzed the combined effect of multiple lifestyle components as one all-inclusive measure on such outcomes, much less in minority populations. We aimed to develop a Healthy Lifestyle Score (HLS) that included several lifestyle recommendations and to test its association with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and allostatic load (AL) and their cardiometabolic and neuroendocrine factors in Puerto Ricans. In a cross-sectional study in 787 Puerto Ricans living in Boston (aged 45-75 y), we developed an HLS that ranged from 0 to 190 (higher score indicative of healthier lifestyle) and included 5 components (diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviors, smoking, social support and network, and sleep). Multivariable-adjusted models were used to test associations between the HLS and biomarkers of dysregulation and odds of MetS and high AL (≥4 out of 10 components). The HLS showed adequate internal consistency (ρ = 0.31-0.69) and was inversely associated with urinary cortisol (β ± SE = -0.22 ± 0.11; P = 0.042), epinephrine (-0.20 ± 0.09; P = 0.017), and norepinephrine (-0.26 ± 0.11; P = 0.016); waist circumference (-0.014 ± 0.004; P = 0.003); and serum insulin (-0.30 ± 0.13; P = 0.028) and positively associated with plasma HDL cholesterol (0.007 ± 0.003; P = 0.021) after adjustment for potential confounders. For each 20-unit increase in HLS, participants had 19% (95% CI: 2%, 33%) and 25% (11%, 36%) lower odds of MetS or AL, respectively. Healthier scores for social support and network and smoking components were associated with lower odds of high AL (P lifestyle components. Following an overall healthy lifestyle that comprises a combination of multiple behaviors may provide stronger protection against MetS and AL in Puerto Rican adults than individual components. The HLS may be a useful tool for examining health-related outcomes. This trial was registered at

  10. Spatial Ecology of Puerto Rican Boas (Epicrates inornatus) in a Hurricane Impacted Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph M. Wunderle Jr.; Javier E. Mercado Bernard Parresol Esteban Terranova 2

    2004-01-01

    Spatial ecology of Puerto Rican boas (Epicrates inornatus, Boidae) was studied with radiotelemetry in a subtropical wet forest recovering from a major hurricane (7–9 yr previous) when Hurricane Georges struck. Different boas were studied during three periods relative to Hurricane Georges: before only; before and after; and after only. Mean daily movement per month...

  11. Housing Dependence and Intimate Relationships in the Lives of Low-Income Puerto Rican Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Sherri Lawson; Burton, Linda M.; Flippen, Chenoa A.

    2011-01-01

    Using longitudinal ethnographic data from the Three-City Study, the authors examined the relationship between 16 low-income Puerto Rican mothers' housing dependencies and their intimate partner relations. This study traced mothers' dependent housing arrangements and entree to marital or cohabiting relationships from their teens through their…

  12. Factors associated with regional rheumatic pain disorders in a population of Puerto Ricans with diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font, Yvonne M.; Castro-Santana, Lesliane E.; Nieves-Plaza, Mariely; Maldonado, Mirna; Mayor, Ángel M.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with bursitis/tendonitis disorders in Puerto Ricans with diabetes mellitus (DM). A cross-sectional study was performed in 202 adult Puerto Ricans (100 DM patients and 102 non-diabetic subjects). For each participant, a complete medical history and a musculoskeletal exam were systematically performed. Socio-demographic parameters, health-related behaviors, comorbidities, and pharmacotherapy were determined for all subjects. For DM patients, disease duration, glycemic control, and DM long-term complications were also examined. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to determine the factors associated with bursitis/tendonitis disorders. The mean (SD) age for DM patients and non-diabetic controls were 53.3 (12.9) and 50.0 (13.1) years; 64.0 and 64.7 % of DM patients and controls were females, respectively. Overall, the prevalence of bursitis/tendonitis was higher in DM patients than among non-diabetics (59.0 % vs. 29.4 %, pdiabetics. Specifically, DM patients had a higher frequency of flexor tenosynovitis, De Quervain’s tenosynovitis, lateral epicondylitis, medial epicondylitis, trochanteric bursitis, and anserine bursitis than non-diabetic subjects (p<0.05). Among DM patients, multivariate analyses showed that those with bursitis/tendonitis were more likely to be female [OR (95 % CI) 4.55 (1.42, 14.55)] and have peripheral vascular disease [OR (95 % CI) 8.48 (1.71, 41.93)]. In conclusion, bursitis/tendonitis disorders were common in this population of Hispanics with DM. Among DM patients, bursitis/tendonitis disorders were more frequent in women and those with long-term complications such as peripheral vascular disease. PMID:24522480

  13. The Puerto Ricans: Culture Change and Language Deviance. Viking Fund Publications in Anthropology, Number 51.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, Ruby Rohrlich

    This anthropological study examines whether sociocultural factors are basic to the etiology of stuttering through (1) an investigation of the incidence of stuttering in a single ethnic group, Puerto Rican rural migrants living in two different cultural milieus (San Juan and New York City), and (2) a comparison of the sociocultural variables in the…

  14. Trans-cultural Aspects of Puerto Rican Mental Illness in New York

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    Rendon, Mario

    1974-01-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that mental illness is considerably high among Puerto Rican adolescents in New York. Besides poverty, crowding, illiteracy, lack of skill for qualified jobs, and other sources of stress, trans-culturation is said to explain some of these facts. [Available from The Avenue Publishing Company, 18 Park Avenue, London…

  15. The prevalence of refractive conditions in Puerto Rican adults attending an eye clinic system

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    Neisha M. Rodriguez

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Hyperopia is the most common refractive error and its prevalence and seems to increase among the aging population who visited the clinics. Further programs and studies must be developed to address the refractive errors needs of the adult Puerto Rican population.

  16. Extended Family Ties among Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, and Whites: Superintegration or Disintegration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkisian, Natalia; Gerena, Mariana; Gerstel, Naomi

    2006-01-01

    Addressing recent theoretical debates, this study examined the differences in extended family integration among Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, and Whites, as well as the importance of culture and structure in explaining these differences. Our findings showed Whites and Latinos/as have distinctive patterns of extended family integration: Mexicans and…

  17. Racial Identity Attitudes and Ego Identity Statuses in Dominican and Puerto Rican College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Delida

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the relation between racial identity attitudes and ego identity statuses in 94 Dominican and Puerto Rican Latino college students in an urban public college setting. Simultaneous regression analyses were conducted to test the relation between racial identity attitudes and ego identity statuses, and findings indicated that…

  18. Psychiatric comorbidity and acculturation stress among Puerto Rican substance abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Kevin P; Swendsen, Joel D; Dierker, Lisa; Canino, Glorisa; Merikangas, Kathleen R

    2007-06-01

    Although acculturation to the United States has been associated with an increase in substance, mood, and anxiety disorders in Latino populations, few studies have examined this concept relative to comorbidity among these syndromes. This study compares the prevalence and patterns of psychiatric comorbidity among Puerto Ricans with substance use disorders living in San Juan (Puerto Rico) to those who have migrated to New Haven (Connecticut) and examines the association between acculturation-related stress and the prevalence and patterns of psychiatric comorbidity among those who have migrated to New Haven. Lifetime levels of nearly all comorbid psychiatric disorders among respondents with substance use disorders were generally similar across sites. However, the risk of any co-occurring psychiatric disorder was higher among substance use disorder cases in New Haven who reported high levels of total acculturation stress and family-specific acculturation stress. These findings were generally accounted for by associations between affective disorders and high scores on these indicators of acculturation stress. The overall prevalence and patterns of psychiatric comorbidity are remarkably similar among Puerto Rican substance abusers whether they live in San Juan or have migrated to New Haven, thereby demonstrating robustness to differences in geographic location. Nevertheless, the degree of acculturation-related family stress is positively associated with co-occurring substance and psychiatric disorders, particularly affective disorders. Intervention in family strain related to the acculturation process may diminish the development of comorbid mental disorders and assist in implementing successful treatment of substance abuse.

  19. Perceptions of breast and cervical cancer risk and screening among Dominicans and Puerto Ricans in Rhode Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Roberta E; Risica, Patricia Markham

    2004-01-01

    This study explored perceptions of cancer, risk, and screening among Dominicans and Puerto Ricans in Rhode Island. Qualitative interviews were conducted with a community-based sample of 147 adults. Perceived risks for breast cancer were predominantly associated with carelessness about health care, trauma to the breast, and breastfeeding. Cervical cancer risks were mostly attributed to carelessness about health care and sexual behaviors. A strong sense of fatalism and embarrassment coexisted with positive beliefs about check-ups and screening. Participants cited confianza (trust, confidence) in their doctor, and their doctor's provision of information and explanations, as important factors in decreasing embarrassment and increasing their likelihood of getting screened. While familiarity with mammography and Pap testing was great among participants, many did not practice sustained, regular screening, and held misconceptions about tests and screening guidelines. Respondents' perceptions of having sufficient information often did not correspond to their having the accurate information necessary to promote informed screening decisions.

  20. Sleep, Depressive/Anxiety Disorders, and Obesity in Puerto Rican Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koinis-Mitchell, Daphne; Rosario-Matos, Nicolás; Ramírez, Rafael R; García, Pedro; Canino, Glorisa J; Ortega, Alexander N

    2017-03-01

    Adolescents from Puerto Rican backgrounds are found to have higher rates of obesity than adolescents from other ethnic groups in the US. The objective of this study is to examine whether sleeping the recommended number of hours and depression or anxiety disorder are independently related to risk for obesity in a sample of Island Puerto Rican adolescents, and whether the association between sleep and obesity is moderated by depression or anxiety disorder. Data from the study were derived from the third wave of an island wide probability sample of Puerto Rican youth residing on the Island, 10-25 years of age (N = 825), with a response rate of 79.59%. The current study focuses on youth 10 to 19 years of age (n = 436). In this sample, youth who slept less than the recommended number of hours (defined as 7-9 h per night) had a significantly increased risk for obesity and were three times as likely to be obese. Youth who met criteria for a depressive/anxiety disorder were almost 2.5 times as likely to be obese. However, the presence of an anxiety/depressive disorders did not moderate the association between sleeping the recommended number of hours and risk for obesity. Sleeping less than the recommended number of hours may be an important risk factor for obesity status in Island Puerto Rican youth. These findings suggest that attention to healthy sleep behaviors and a sleep environment that promotes high quality sleep may be important for Puerto Rican adolescents at risk for obesity.

  1. AIDS-related stigma and social interaction: Puerto Ricans living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varas-Díaz, Nelson; Serrano-García, Irma; Toro-Alfonso, José

    2005-02-01

    People living with HIV/AIDS are stigmatized. Although personal and social consequences of this stigmatization have been documented, research regarding its impact on social interactions is scarce. Latinos, and Puerto Ricans in particular, have voiced concern regarding AIDS stigma. The authors investigated the key role of social interaction in the process of stigmatization through in-depth, semistructured interviews in a sample of 30 Puerto Ricans living with HIV/AIDS. Participants reported instances in which AIDS stigma negatively influenced social interactions with family, friends, sexual partners, coworkers, and health professionals. Some of the consequences they described were loss of social support, persecution, isolation, job loss, and problems accessing health services. Findings support the need for interventions to address AIDS stigma and its consequences.

  2. Latina girls of Puerto Rican origin who are successful in science and mathematics high school courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oquendo-Rodriguez, Aida L.

    Professions and careers related to science and mathematics lack representation of minorities. Within these underrepresented minority populations there is no other group more affected than Latina women and girls. Women in general, are still underrepresented in many areas of our society. While women's roles are changing in today's society, most changes encourage the participation of more White/Anglo women in traditionally male roles. Latina women are still more disadvantaged than White women. There is no doubt that education is significant in increasing the participation of minorities in the fields of science and mathematics, especially for minority girls (Oakes, 1990; Rodriguez, 1993). This study explored the interests, life experiences, characteristics and motivations of Latina girls of Puerto Rican origin who are successful in science and mathematics high school courses. The study identifies factors that can influence the interest of Latina girls of Puerto Rican origin in science and mathematics career choices. This research is significant and relevant to educators and policy makers, especially to science and mathematics educators. The research is primarily descriptive and exploratory. It explores the social characteristics of Latina girls and professional women who have been successful in science and mathematics high school courses. The research offers the reader a visit to the participants' homes with descriptions and the opportunity to explore the thoughts and life experiences of Latina girls, their mothers and young Latina professionals of Puerto Rican origin. This research reveals the common characteristics of successful students found in the Latina girls of Puerto Rican origin who where interviewed. Creating a portrait of Latina girls of Puerto Rican origin who are successful in science and mathematics high school courses in one of the school districts of western Massachusetts. The research findings reveal that teacher relationships, family expectations

  3. Folk Hero Modeling Therapy for Puerto Rican Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, Guiseppe; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes development of a new modality for Puerto Rican adolescents which presents Puerto Rican folk heros and heroines in modeling therapy targeted towards enhancing adolescents' pride in their ethnic heritage. Evaluation of therapy using 21 adolescents indicated subjects increased in self-disclosure and self-confidence, gained pride, learned…

  4. The Puerto Ricans: Their History, Culture, and Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Adalberto, Ed.

    Articles in this book cover Puerto Rican history from the Spanish colonization to the present day experience of Puerto Ricans in the United States. Political, social, economic, cultural, and historical issues are addresed by the following authors: Edna Acosta-Belen, Frank Bonilla, Juan Manuel Carrion, Diana Christopulos, Sandra Messinger Cypess,…

  5. "But you don't look Puerto Rican": the moderating effect of ethnic identity on the relation between skin color and self-esteem among Puerto Rican women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Irene

    2008-04-01

    This exploratory study investigated whether ethnic identity, as assessed by Phinney's (1992) Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure, functioned as a moderator in the relation between skin color (as measured by masked interviewer evaluation, participant self-report, and skin reflectance data) and self-esteem (as measured by Rosenberg's 1989 Self-Esteem Scale). In a sample of 53 English-speaking Puerto Rican women, a hierarchical multiple regression indicated that among lighter skinned women, those who felt less attached to their culture had less self-esteem than those who were more culturally embedded. Similarly, among darker skinned women, greater attachment to Puerto Rican culture was associated with greater self-esteem than a less defined ethnic identity. Findings are discussed in light of the beneficial effects of ethnic identity.

  6. CREENCIAS Y DESARROLLO INTEGRAL: UN ESTUDIO DE CASOS DE UNA DOCENTE COSTARRICENSE Y TRES NIÑOS NICARAGÜENSES (BELIEFS AND DEVELOPMENT: A CASE STUDY OF A COSTA RICAN TEACHER AND THREE NICARAGUAN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz Guevara Lillian Susana

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:Este artículo identifica las creencias de una docente costarricense con respecto a las características de desarrollo integral de tres infantes nicaragüenses en edad preescolar. Este estudio se realiza en un área de atención prioritaria de la zona central de Heredia, Costa Rica, durante el 2006. Por las características del estudio y la postura de la investigadora, el trabajo se aborda desde un enfoque cualitativo de investigación, asimismo el estudio de casos predomina como estrategia y método de investigación y por último, la triangulación por fuentes permite el análisis del dato. Las conclusiones más importantes de la investigación evidencian una contradicción importante entre el discurso teórico acerca de la atención a la diversidad y las acciones que realiza en clase la docente para que los estudiantes nicaragüenses puedan desarrollar sus capacidades.Abstract:This article identifies the beliefs of a Costa Rican teacher regarding the characteristics of development of three Nicaraguan children. This study was conducted in a priority of the central area of Heredia, Costa Rica during 2006. Due to the characteristics of the study, the position of the researcher, and the triangulation of data analysis inquiry is related to a qualitative approach. The most important conclusions of the investigation show a significant contradiction between the theoretical discourse about the attention to diversity and the actions taken by the class teacher so that students can develop their skills Nicaraguans.

  7. Is Waist-to-Height Ratio a Better Obesity Risk-Factor Indicator for Puerto Rican Children than is BMI or Waist Circumference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Soto, Winna T; Rodríguez-Figueroa, Linnette

    2016-03-01

    Puerto Rican children could have a higher prevalence of obesity, compared to US children or even to US Hispanic children. Obese youths are more likely to have risk factors for cardiovascular conditions, such as hypertension. Although BMI provides a simple, convenient measurement of obesity, it does not measure body fat distribution, associated with mortality and morbidity. Waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) have been suggested to estimate obesity health risks. This study aimed to explore the association of a single blood pressure reading with 3 different obesity indicators (WC, BMI, and WHtR). A representative sample of students (first to sixth grade) from public and private schools in Puerto Rico was selected. The sample size consisted of 249 students, representing a 63% response rate. According to the sex-specific BMIs, approximately 38.1% of the children were obese or overweight. The prevalence of obesity was slightly higher when determined using WHtR but lower when using WC as the overweight indicator. The prevalence of high blood pressure among students was 12.5%; an additional 11.3% of the students were classified as possible prehypertensive. Regardless of the weight indicator used, overweight children were shown to have a higher risk of pre-hypertension/hypertension (as defined by a single BP measure) than were non-overweight children. The odds for high blood pressure were almost 3 times higher using WHtR. Logistic regression showed a stronger relationship between WHtR and the risk of pre-hypertension/hypertension than that between the former and either BMI or WC. This study suggests the possibility of higher prevalence of high blood pressure in obese Puerto Rican children. The waist-to height ratio could be the best indicator to measure obesity and potential hypertension in Puerto Rican children.

  8. Examining the influence of family environments on youth violence: a comparison of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, non-Latino Black, and non-Latino White adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Martínez, Lorena M; Padilla, Mark B; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Schulz, Amy Jo

    2011-08-01

    Existing research rarely considers important ethnic subgroup variations in violent behaviors among Latino youth. Thus, their risk for severe violent behaviors is not well understood in light of the immense ethnic and generational diversity of the Latino population in the United States. Grounded in social control theory and cultural analyses of familism, we examine differences in the risk for severe youth violence, as well its associations with family cohesion, parental engagement, adolescent autonomy, household composition, and immigrant generation among Mexican (n = 1,594), Puerto Rican (n = 586), Cuban (n = 488), and non-Latino Black (n = 4,053), and White (n = 9,921) adolescents with data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Results indicate a gradient of risk; White youth had the lowest risk for severe violence and Puerto Rican youth had the highest risk compared to all other racial/ethnic subgroups. Within-group analysis indicates that family factors are not universally protective or risk-inducing. While family cohesion decreased the risk of severe violence among all groups, parental engagement was associated with increased risk among Blacks and Whites, and adolescent autonomy was associated with increased risk among Puerto Ricans and Cubans. In addition, Cuban and White adolescents who lived in single parent households or who did not live with their parents, had higher risk for severe violent behaviors than their counterparts who lived in two parent households. Among Latinos, the association of immigrant generation was in opposite directions among Mexicans and Cubans. We conclude that family and immigration factors differentially influence risk for violence among Latino subgroups and highlight the significance of examining subgroup differences and developing intervention strategies that are tailored to the needs of each ethnic subgroup.

  9. Association of vitamin B-6 status with inflammation, oxidative stress, and chronic inflammatory conditions: the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Low vitamin B-6 status has been linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. The cardioprotective effects of vitamin B-6 independent of homocysteine suggest that additional mechanisms may be involved. Objective: Our objective was to examine the cross-sectional association of ...

  10. Physical Activity in Puerto Rican Breast Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirado-Gómez, Maribel; Hughes, Daniel C; González-Mercado, Velda; Treviño-Whitaker, Rose A; Basen-Engquist, Karen

    2016-06-01

    Breast cancer survivors do not engage in appropriate levels of physical activity, despite the known benefits of such activity. This study aims to describe physical-activity levels and the barriers to it in a group of Puerto Rican breast cancer survivors, as well as detailing their preferences for an intervention. Participants who finished their chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy for breast cancer at least 4 months prior to the study were included. Demographic, anthropometric, and clinical data were obtained. The Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (GLTEQ) and questionnaires on exercise self-efficacy, barriers to self-efficacy, modeling, and social support were filled out by study participants. Data on access to exercise equipment and preferences regarding a physical-activity intervention were collected. Descriptive statistics and correlation analyses were performed. Fifty breast cancer survivors were recruited. Almost all the participants reported that they did not engage in any kind of strenuous physical activity (94%), with more than three fourths (76%) reporting that they did not even participate in any kind of moderate physical activity. The GLTEQ score was associated with barriers to selfefficacy, while the association with exercise self-efficacy approached significance (p = 0.055). Nearly half of the patients (44%) had access to exercise equipment. Preferred methods for the delivery of physical-activity interventions were participating in group settings (72%) and receiving material in the postal mail (44%). The study described herein reports on the low levels of physical activity being practiced by a group of Puerto Rican breast cancer survivors, despite the fact that many of them had access to exercise equipment and facilities. Further studies aimed at understanding breast cancer survivors' barriers to physical activity and at developing culturally competent interventions to increase the levels of such activity are warranted.

  11. Disparities in allele frequencies and population differentiation for 101 disease-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms between Puerto Ricans and non-Hispanic whites

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    Arnett Donna

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variations in gene allele frequencies can contribute to differences in the prevalence of some common complex diseases among populations. Natural selection modulates the balance in allele frequencies across populations. Population differentiation (FST can evidence environmental selection pressures. Such genetic information is limited in Puerto Ricans, the second largest Hispanic ethnic group in the US, and a group with high prevalence of chronic disease. We determined allele frequencies and population differentiation for 101 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in 30 genes involved in major metabolic and disease-relevant pathways in Puerto Ricans (n = 969, ages 45–75 years and compared them to similarly aged non-Hispanic whites (NHW (n = 597. Results Minor allele frequency (MAF distributions for 45.5% of the SNPs assessed in Puerto Ricans were significantly different from those of NHW. Puerto Ricans carried risk alleles in higher frequency and protective alleles in lower frequency than NHW. Patterns of population differentiation showed that Puerto Ricans had SNPs with exceptional FST values in intronic, non-synonymous and promoter regions. NHW had exceptional FST values in intronic and promoter region SNPs only. Conclusion These observations may serve to explain and broaden studies on the impact of gene polymorphisms on chronic diseases affecting Puerto Ricans.

  12. Body composition using deuterated water, index of insulin resistance and cortisol levels in Costa Rican school in the metropolitan area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valverde Vindas, Allan Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Body composition in the Costa Rican child population is evaluated and analyzed to determine the relationship with the index of insulin resistance and serum cortisol levels. 113 children in the metropolitan area were studied using deuterium isotope techniques as reference method for overweight and obesity. Morning cortisol levels were determined by immunoassay techniques (ELISA). The insulin resistance index of 113 Costa Rican boys and girls is obtained by the homeostatic method and the relationship between body composition with index of insulin resistance or levels of cortisol [es

  13. Breast cancer patterns and lifetime risk of developing breast cancer among Puerto Rican females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazario, C M; Figueroa-Vallés, N; Rosario, R V

    2000-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the epidemiologic patterns of breast cancer and to estimate the lifetime risk probability of developing breast cancer among Hispanic females using cancer data from Puerto Rico. The age-adjusted breast cancer incidence rate (per 100,000) in Puerto Rico increased from 15.3 in 1960-1964 to 43.3 in 1985-1989. The age-adjusted breast cancer mortality rate (per 100,000) increased from 5.7 to 10.6 comparing the same two time periods (1960-1964 vs 1985-1989). Nevertheless, in 1985-1989 breast cancer incidence rate was higher in US White females (110.8 per 100,000) compared to Puerto Rican females (51.4 per 100,000; age-adjusted to the 1970 US standard population). The breast cancer mortality rate was also higher in US White females (27.4 per 100,000) than in Puerto Rican females (15.1 per 100,000; age-adjusted to the 1970 US standard population) during 1985-1989. A multiple decrement life table was constructed applying age-specific incidence and mortality rates from cross-sectional data sets (1980-1984 and 1985-1989 data for Puerto Rican females and 1987-1989 SEER data sets for US White and Black females) to a hypothetical cohort of 10,000,000 women. The probability of developing invasive breast cancer was computed for the three groups using the long version of DEVCAN: Probability of DEVeloping CANcer software, version 3.3. The lifetime risk of developing breast cancer was 5.4% for Puerto Rican females, compared to 8.8% for US Black females and 13.0% for US White females. Lifetime risk for Puerto Rican females increased from 4.5% in 1980-1984 to 5.4% in 1985-1989. Lifetime risk of breast cancer appears to be increasing in Puerto Rico, but remains lower than the probability for US White females. Therefore, the application of lifetime probability of developing invasive breast cancer estimated for the US female population will overestimate the risk for the Puerto Rican female population.

  14. Communication about sex and HPV among Puerto Rican mothers and daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colón-López, Vivian; Fernández-Espada, Natalie; Vélez, Camille; Gonzalez, Velda J; Diaz-Toro, Elba C; Calo, William A; Savas, Lara S; Pattatucci, Angela; Fernández, María E

    2017-08-01

    Although opportunities to vaccinate against human papillomavirus (HPV) are available, vaccination rates in Puerto Rico remain low. Communication between parents and adolescents about sexual topics may influence decisions about HPV vaccination uptake, particularly among young women; yet, few studies have addressed this issue. This qualitative study explored Puerto Rican mothers' and daughters' communication on sex-related topics, and HPV, including the HPV vaccine. Thirty participants, including 9 mothers and 21 daughters, participated in seven focus groups. Participants were divided into groups of mothers and daughters, and further stratified by vaccination status. Transcripts were analyzed using a modified grounded theory approach to identify emergent themes. Focus group data revealed four main themes: (1) limited parent-daughter communication about sex-related topics; (2) daughters' discomfort discussing sex-related topics with their parents; (3) parental focus on abstinence; and, (4) limited parent-daughter communication about HPV and the HPV vaccine. Although daughters in this study struggled with feelings of embarrassment, invasion of privacy, encouragement of abstinence, and the fear of parents' reaction to them being sexually active prior to marriage, they also recognized the need to increase the parent-daughter communication about sex-related topics including HPV and the HPV vaccine. Educational efforts should target both daughters and parents to increase communication skills and self-efficacy and to enable them to discuss sexual health in open and nonjudgmental conversations.

  15. Habitual sugar intake and cognitive function among middle-aged and older Puerto Ricans without diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xingwang; Gao, Xiang; Scott, Tammy; Tucker, Katherine L.

    2016-01-01

    Intake of added sugars, mainly fructose and sucrose, has been associated with risk factors for cognitive impairment, such as obesity, the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. The objective of this analysis was to examine whether habitual intakes of total sugars, added sugars, sugar-sweetened beverages or sweetened solid foods are associated with cognitive function. The present study included 737 participants without diabetes, aged 45–75 years, from the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study, 2004–9. Cognitive function was measured with a battery of seven tests: Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), word list learning, digit span, clock drawing, figure copying, and Stroop and verbal fluency tests. Usual dietary intake was assessed with a validated FFQ. Greater intakes of total sugars, added sugars and sugar-sweetened beverages, but not of sugar-sweetened solid foods, were significantly associated with lower MMSE score, after adjusting for covariates. Adjusted OR for cognitive impairment (MMSE score sugars and 2·28 (95 % CI 1·26, 4·14) for added sugars, comparing the highest with lowest intake quintiles. Greater intake of total sugars was also significantly associated with lower word list learning score. In conclusion, higher sugar intake appears to be associated with lower cognitive function, but longitudinal studies are needed to clarify the direction of causality. PMID:21736803

  16. Habitual sugar intake and cognitive function among middle-aged and older Puerto Ricans without diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xingwang; Gao, Xiang; Scott, Tammy; Tucker, Katherine L

    2011-11-01

    Intake of added sugars, mainly fructose and sucrose, has been associated with risk factors for cognitive impairment, such as obesity, the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. The objective of this analysis was to examine whether habitual intakes of total sugars, added sugars, sugar-sweetened beverages or sweetened solid foods are associated with cognitive function. The present study included 737 participants without diabetes, aged 45-75 years, from the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study, 2004-9. Cognitive function was measured with a battery of seven tests: Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), word list learning, digit span, clock drawing, figure copying, and Stroop and verbal fluency tests. Usual dietary intake was assessed with a validated FFQ. Greater intakes of total sugars, added sugars and sugar-sweetened beverages, but not of sugar-sweetened solid foods, were significantly associated with lower MMSE score, after adjusting for covariates. Adjusted OR for cognitive impairment (MMSE score sugars and 2.28 (95 % CI 1.26, 4.14) for added sugars, comparing the highest with lowest intake quintiles. Greater intake of total sugars was also significantly associated with lower word list learning score. In conclusion, higher sugar intake appears to be associated with lower cognitive function, but longitudinal studies are needed to clarify the direction of causality.

  17. Psychosocial factors influencing the frequency of fast-food consumption among urban and rural Costa Rican adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge-Rojas, Rafael; Smith-Castro, Vanessa; Colón-Ramos, Uriyoán; Aragón, M Catalina; Herrera-Raven, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify psychosocial factors that influence fast-food consumption in urban and rural Costa Rican adolescents. A self-administered questionnaire designed for the study asked about sociodemographic information, frequency of fast-food consumption, meaning of "fast food," location of purchase, and psychosocial correlates. Five psychosocial factors were extracted by using principal components analysis with Varimax rotation method and eigenvalues. Descriptive statistics and a hierarchical linear regression model were used to predict the frequency of fast-food consumption. Responses from 400 adolescents (ages 12-17 y) reveal that daily consumption of fast food was 1.8 times more frequently mentioned by rural adolescents compared with urban youth. Urban and rural differences were found in the way adolescents classified fast foods (rural adolescents included more traditional foods like chips, sandwiches, and Casado-a dish consisting of rice, black beans, plantains, salad, and a meat), and in purchasing locations (rural adolescents identified neighborhood convenience stores as fast-food restaurants). Living in rural areas, convenience and availability of foods, and the presence of external loci of control were predictors of a higher frequency of fast-food consumption, whereas health awareness predicted a lower frequency. The development of interventions to reduce fast-food consumption in Costa Rican adolescents should consider not only convenience, but also the availability of these foods where adolescents are more exposed, particularly in rural areas. Interventions such as improving the convenience of healthy fast foods available in school canteens and neighborhood stores, policies to increase the price of unhealthy fast food, and activities to provide adolescents with the skills to increase self-efficacy and reduce the effect of external loci of control are recommended. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A locally funded Puerto Rican parrot (Amazona vittata genome sequencing project increases avian data and advances young researcher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksyk Taras K

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amazona vittata is a critically endangered Puerto Rican endemic bird, the only surviving native parrot species in the United States territory, and the first parrot in the large Neotropical genus Amazona, to be studied on a genomic scale. Findings In a unique community-based funded project, DNA from an A. vittata female was sequenced using a HiSeq Illumina platform, resulting in a total of ~42.5 billion nucleotide bases. This provided approximately 26.89x average coverage depth at the completion of this funding phase. Filtering followed by assembly resulted in 259,423 contigs (N50 = 6,983 bp, longest = 75,003 bp, which was further scaffolded into 148,255 fragments (N50 = 19,470, longest = 206,462 bp. This provided ~76% coverage of the genome based on an estimated size of 1.58 Gb. The assembled scaffolds allowed basic genomic annotation and comparative analyses with other available avian whole-genome sequences. Conclusions The current data represents the first genomic information from and work carried out with a unique source of funding. This analysis further provides a means for directed training of young researchers in genetic and bioinformatics analyses and will facilitate progress towards a full assembly and annotation of the Puerto Rican parrot genome. It also adds extensive genomic data to a new branch of the avian tree, making it useful for comparative analyses with other avian species. Ultimately, the knowledge acquired from these data will contribute to an improved understanding of the overall population health of this species and aid in ongoing and future conservation efforts.

  19. The Puerto Rican Community and Its Children on the Mainland: A Source Book for Teachers, Social Workers and Other Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordasco, Francesco; Bucchioni, Eugene

    This collection of readings is organized in four parts. Part I, "Aspects of Puerto Rican culture," includes the following articles: "Explicit and implicit culture in Puerto Rico: a case study in educational anthropology," T. Brameld; "Respeto, relajo, and interpersonal relations in Puerto Rico," A. Lauria;…

  20. Retardation in Intellectual Development of Lower-Class Puerto Rican Children in New York City. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Alexander

    To study the home environment of the Puerto Rican as it relates to the children's academic achievement, 45 working class families were interviewed and these variables were investigated: achievement, classroom behavior inventory in relation to academic achievement, the effect of bilinguality on academic achievement, the influence of examiner…

  1. Theory-Based Predictors of Intention to Engage in Precautionary Sexual Behavior among Puerto Rican High School Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collazo, Andres A.

    2004-01-01

    Predictors of intention to abstain from sexual intercourse or use condoms consistently with both main and other partners were investigated in 431 Puerto Rican high school students. The basis for this study was the theories of reasoned action (TRA) and planned behavior (TPB), and two predictors from the theory of interpersonal behavior (TIB). As…

  2. Importance of vitamin D and vitamin D levels status in Puerto Ricans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Martínez, Edu B; Pérez, Cynthia M; Cruz, Sofia K; Khorsandi, Shayan; Chardón, Camile; Ferder, Leon

    2013-11-01

    There is growing and compelling evidence demonstrating the extra-skeletal role of vitamin D and the importance of maintaining adequate levels of this nutrient. Currently, there is very limited information available on the vitamin D status in children and adults in underserved groups, including Puerto Ricans. We assessed the vitamin D status of 4,090 Puerto Ricans living in six geographical regions in the island. Only 31.5% of the studied population had sufficient vitamin D levels (>30 ng/ml). The 18-39 year age group and the females showed inadequate (<30 ng/ml) levels of vitamin D (76.9% and 69.8%, respectively). Participants aged 60 or older showed the highest mean values of serum 25(OH)D (28.8 ng/ml) and the highest percentage (37.1%) of sufficient levels (>30 ng/ml). Future studies are certainly warranted to understand the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and influencing factors (including obesity) in Puerto Ricans.

  3. Association of Types of Life Events with Depressive Symptoms among Puerto Rican Youth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Jaschek

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to examine the association between four types of adverse life events (family environment, separation, social adversity, and death and the development of depressive symptoms among Puerto Rican youth. This was a secondary analysis using three waves (2000-2004 of interview data from the Boricua Youth Study of 10-13 year old Puerto Rican youth residing in New York and Puerto Rico with no depressive symptoms at baseline (n = 977. Depressive symptoms increased with an increase in social adversity, separation, death, and death events. Youth support from parents was a significant protective factor for all adverse events and parent coping was a protective factor in social adversity events. Relying on standard diagnostic tools is ideal to identify youth meeting the criteria for a diagnosis of depression but not useful to detect youth who present with subclinical levels of depression. Youth with sub-clinical levels of depression will not get treated and are at increased risk of developing depression later in life. Adverse life events are potentially relevant to use in conjunction with other screening tools to identify Puerto Rican youth who have subclinical depression and are at risk of developing depression in later adolescence.

  4. Are ataques de nervios in Puerto Rican children associated with psychiatric disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnaccia, Peter J; Martinez, Igda; Ramirez, Rafael; Canino, Glorisa

    2005-11-01

    To provide the first empirical analysis of a cultural syndrome in children by examining the prevalence and psychiatric correlates of ataques de nervios in an epidemiological study of the mental health of children in Puerto Rico. Probability samples of caretakers of children 4-17 years old in the community (N = 1,892; response rate: 90%) and in clinical services (N = 761; response rate 72%) were administered structured interviews to assess the presence and correlates of ataques de nervios. Nine percent of children in the community sample and 26% of children in the clinical sample had a reported history of an ataque de nervios. In contrast to the overall community and clinical samples, which had more boys in them, the ataque de nervios groups in both samples had more girls in them. Family history of ataques de nervios was associated with ataques de nervios in children in both samples. Across a wide range of depression, anxiety, and disruptive disorders, children who reported an ataque de nervios were more likely to meet research criteria for psychiatric disorder in both samples. Ataques de nervios are a frequently reported cultural syndrome among children in Puerto Rico. Adolescent girls are more likely to report this experience. Ataques de nervios have a significant relationship with psychiatric disorder and impairment in Puerto Rican children.

  5. Acculturation and Intention to Breastfeed among a Population of Predominantly Puerto Rican Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelona de Mendoza, Veronica; Harville, Emily; Theall, Katherine; Buekens, Pierre; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2016-03-01

    Latinas have high overall breastfeeding initiation rates, yet Puerto Ricans have among the lowest exclusive breastfeeding rates. This study sought to determine if acculturation was associated with intent to breastfeed in a predominantly Puerto Rican population. A cohort of Latina women were enrolled in Proyecto Buena Salud, and provided information on infant feeding intent (n = 1,323). Acculturation was assessed via the Psychological Acculturation Scale (PAS), language preference, and generation in the United States. Increasing acculturation as measured by English language preference (aOR 0.61 [95% CI 0.42-0.88]) and second or third generation in the United States (aOR 0.70 [95% CI 0.52-0.95)] was inversely associated with odds of intending to exclusively breastfeed. Similarly, women with higher levels of acculturation as measured by the PAS (aOR 0.67 [95% CI 0.45-0.99]), English language preference (aOR 0.48 [95% CI 0.33-0.70]) and second or third generation in the United States (aOR 0.42 [95% CI 0.31-0.58]) were less likely to report intent to combination feed as compared with women with lower acculturation. Acculturation was inversely associated with intent to exclusively breastfeed and intent to combination feed in this predominantly Puerto Rican sample. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. The social basis of separatism: explaining support for the Puerto Rican Independence Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Arrarás

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In the 1990s, particularly in the wake of the fall of the Soviet Union, comparativists rediscovered the enduring appeal of separatist movements around the globe. Many of the most significant political events of the past decade have revolved around issues of nationalism, ethnicity, irredenta, and the like. In light of these renewed preoccupations, it is surprising that U.S. scholars have largely ignored a nationalist movement closer to home. The Puerto Rican independence movement is by far the most significant separatist tendency under the U.S. flag, and is one of the few major anticolonialist movements to survive into the twenty-first century. Although supporters of Puerto Rican independence have typically drawn only three to five percent support in local elections and in plebiscites on the island’s political status, neither have they disappeared from the political scene. The remarkable durability of the independence movement demands systematic explanation. However, as strange as it may seem, to date there have been no serious scholarly studies of the social bases of the Puerto Rican independence movement.

  7. Application of DNA fingerprinting to the recovery program of the endangered Puerto Rican parrot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, M.K.; White, B.N.

    1992-01-01

    The Puerto Rican parrot was reduced to 13 animals in 1975 and as a conservation measure, a captive population was established from a few founders taken from the wild between 1973 and 1983. The number of successful breeding pairs in captivity has been !ow, and the captive breeding program has not been as productive as that of the closely related Hispaniolan parrot. Therefore, a genetic study was initiated to examine the relative levels of relatedness of the captive founders using levels of bandsharing in DNA fingerprints. Unrelated captive founder Puerto Rican parrots had the same average level of bandsharing (0.41) as second-degree relatives of the Hispaniolan parrot (0.38, P > 0,05), with an inbreeding coefficient of 0.04. High levels of bandsharing (>40%) between pairs of males and females correlated with reproductive failure, suggesting that inbreeding depression is partly responsible for the !ow number of' breeding pairs. Consequently, DNA profiling can be used to guide the captive breeding program for the Puerto Rican parrot, and other endangered species, by identifying pairs of males and females with low levels of bandsharing.

  8. Subject and authorship of records related to the Organization for Tropical Studies (OTS) in BINABITROP, a comprehensive database about Costa Rican biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge-Nájera, Julián; Nielsen-Muñoz, Vanessa; Azofeifa-Mora, Ana Beatriz

    2013-06-01

    BINABITROP is a bibliographical database of more than 38000 records about the ecosystems and organisms of Costa Rica. In contrast with commercial databases, such as Web of Knowledge and Scopus, which exclude most of the scientific journals published in tropical countries, BINABITROP is a comprehensive record of knowledge on the tropical ecosystems and organisms of Costa Rica. We analyzed its contents in three sites (La Selva, Palo Verde and Las Cruces) and recorded scientific field, taxonomic group and authorship. We found that most records dealt with ecology and systematics, and that most authors published only one article in the study period (1963-2011). Most research was published in four journals: Biotropica, Revista de Biología Tropical/ International Journal of Tropical Biology and Conservation, Zootaxa and Brenesia. This may be the first study of a such a comprehensive database for any case of tropical biology literature.

  9. Subject and authorship of records related to the Organization for Tropical Studies (OTS in BINABITROP, a comprehensive database about Costa Rican biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Monge-Nájera

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available BINABITROP is a bibliographical database of more than 38 000 records about the ecosystems and organisms of Costa Rica. In contrast with commercial databases, such as Web of Knowledge and Scopus, which exclude most of the scientific journals published in tropical countries, BINABITROP is a comprehensive record of knowledge on the tropical ecosystems and organisms of Costa Rica. We analyzed its contents in three sites (La Selva, Palo Verde and Las Cruces and recorded scientific field, taxonomic group and authorship. We found that most records dealt with ecology and systematics, and that most authors published only one article in the study period (1963-2011. Most research was published in four journals: Biotropica, Revista de Biología Tropical/ International Journal of Tropical Biology and Conservation, Zootaxa and Brenesia. This may be the first study of a such a comprehensive database for any case of tropical biology literature.

  10. Subject and authorship of records related to the Organization for Tropical Studies (OTS in BINABITROP, a comprehensive database about Costa Rican biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Monge-Nájera

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available BINABITROP is a bibliographical database of more than 38 000 records about the ecosystems and organisms of Costa Rica. In contrast with commercial databases, such as Web of Knowledge and Scopus, which exclude most of the scientific journals published in tropical countries, BINABITROP is a comprehensive record of knowledge on the tropical ecosystems and organisms of Costa Rica. We analyzed its contents in three sites (La Selva, Palo Verde and Las Cruces and recorded scientific field, taxonomic group and authorship. We found that most records dealt with ecology and systematics, and that most authors published only one article in the study period (1963-2011. Most research was published in four journals: Biotropica, Revista de Biología Tropical/ International Journal of Tropical Biology and Conservation, Zootaxa and Brenesia. This may be the first study of a such a comprehensive database for any case of tropical biology literature.BINABITROP es una base de datos bibliográfica con más de 38 000 registros sobre los ecosistemas y organismos de Costa Rica. En contraste con bases de datos comerciales como Web of Knowledge y Scopus, que excluyen a la mayoría de las revistas científicas publicadas en los países tropicales, BINABITROP registra casi por completo la literatura biológica sobre Costa Rica. Analizamos los registros de La Selva, Palo Verde y Las Cruces. Hallamos que la mayoría de los registros corresponden a estudios sobre ecología y sistemática; que la mayoría de los autores sólo registraron un artículo en el período de estudio (1963-2011 y que la mayoría de la investigación formalmente publicada apareció en cuatro revistas: Biotropica, Revista de Biología Tropical/International Journal of Tropical Biology, Zootaxa y Brenesia. Este parece ser el primer estudio de una base de datos integral sobre literatura de biología tropical.

  11. Study of interdisciplinarity in chemistry research based on the production of Puerto Rican scientists 1992-2001. Interdisciplinarity, Bibliometric indicators, Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Sanz-Casado

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Determining the role played by interdisciplinarity in the generation of knowledge is a very fertile line of research in which synergies among different fields of science can be identified and their impact on research efficiency ascertained. A number of methods may be used to explore interdisciplinarity, from the sociological approach to those requiring the application of bibliometric indicators. In this paper, a bibliometric analysis of the research conducted by scientists with the Chemistry Department at the University of Puerto Rico was run on the basis of the subject matter of citing and cited papers, in order to ascertain how interdisciplinarity affects certain aspects of research, such as collaboration or visibility. The data used for this paper were taken from the Science Citation Index database, which lists the most significant contributions made by these scientists, along with the respective bibliographic references. The study revealed the existence of scientific areas that are highly dependent on the knowledge generated in the specific area itself. A positive, albeit weak, correlation was also observed between research interdisciplinarity and collaboration between researchers and institutions. Interdisciplinarity was not found to have any effect, however, on the visibility of research papers or to be correlated with international collaboration.

  12. Seroprevalence of dengue virus antibodies in asymptomatic Costa Rican children, 2002-2003: a pilot study La seroprevalencia de anticuerpos contra el virus del dengue en niños costarricenses asintomáticos, 2002-2003: estudio piloto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Iturrino-Monge

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Since 1993 dengue has become more frequent in Costa Rica. Adults have been the most affected population, while children have remained virtually unharmed. So far no studies have investigated how many asymptomatic children have been affected by this virus. This pilot study documents the seroprevalence, measured as the presence of IgG antibodies, of dengue virus in asymptomatic children from two different geographical areas. METHODS: This descriptive, prospective epidemiologic study compared the presence of antibodies in children who live in a coastal region of a tropical country where dengue is endemic, and an inland area where dengue is not endemic. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to test the serum for dengue virus IgG antibodies. None of the children had a prior history of dengue, fever, immunosuppressive therapy or underlying disease. RESULTS: During the period from July 2002 to July 2003, 103 children were recruited from each area. In the costal region we found a seroprevalence of 36.9%. In the inland area seroprevalence was 2.9% CONCLUSIONS: We found a substantial number of asymptomatic infections in Costa Rican children. This greatly increases the risk of dengue hemorrhagic fever or dengue shock syndrome in these children, in whom previous dengue infection had gone undetected. Preventive efforts should be targeted at the costal region due to the higher prevalence in this area.OBJETIVOS: Desde 1993, la frecuencia de dengue en Costa Rica ha venido aumentando. La población de adultos ha sido la más afectada, mientras que en los niños apenas se han presentado casos. Hasta el momento no se han realizado estudios para determinar cuántos niños asintomáticos se han visto afectados por el virus de la enfermedad. Este estudio piloto documenta la seroprevalencia de anticuerpos de tipo IgG contra el virus del dengue en niños asintomáticos procedentes de dos zonas geográficas distintas. MÉTODOS: En este estudio

  13. Studying health in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Mulvad, Gert; Olsen, Jørn

    2003-01-01

    Health research in Greenland has contributed with several findings of interest for the global scientific community and has documented health problems and risk factors of importance for planning the local health care system. The study of how health develops in small, scattered communities during...... rapid epidemiological transition carries prospects of global significance. The Inuit are a genetically distinct people living under extreme physical conditions. Their traditional living conditions and diet are currently undergoing a transformation, which may approach their disease pattern...... to that of the industrialized world, while still including local outbreaks of tuberculosis. Health research in Greenland is logistically difficult and costly, but offers opportunities not found elsewhere in the world. A long tradition of registration enhances the possibilities for research. A number of research institutions...

  14. The Mediterranean Diet Score Is More Strongly Associated with Favorable Cardiometabolic Risk Factors over 2 Years Than Other Diet Quality Indexes in Puerto Rican Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, Josiemer; Sotos-Prieto, Mercedes; Bigornia, Sherman J; Noel, Sabrina E; Tucker, Katherine L

    2017-04-01

    Background: Multiple diet quality scores have been used to evaluate adherence to specific dietary recommendations or to consumption of healthful foods and nutrients. It remains unknown which score can more strongly predict longitudinal changes in cardiometabolic risk factors. Objective: We aimed to determine associations of 5 diet quality scores [AHA diet score (AHA-DS), Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH), Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2005, Mediterranean diet score (MeDS), and Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI)] with 2-y changes in cardiometabolic risk factors in adults 45-75 y old. Methods: Data from the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study were analyzed ( n = 1194). Diet quality scores were calculated from a baseline-validated food-frequency questionnaire. Multivariable-adjusted, repeated-subjects, mixed-effects models, adjusted for baseline measures, estimated associations between each z score and 14 individual cardiometabolic factors measured at 2 y. Results: MeDS was significantly associated with lower 2-y waist circumference (β coefficient ± SE: -0.52 ± 0.26, P = 0.048); body mass index (BMI; -0.23 ± 0.08, P = 0.005); log-insulin (-0.06 ± 0.02, P = 0.005); log-homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; -0.05 ± 0.02, P = 0.030), and log-C-reactive protein (-0.13 ± 0.03, P = 0.0002). Similar but weaker associations were observed for the AHEI with BMI, insulin, and HOMA-IR. The AHA-DS was inversely associated with BMI (-0.17 ± 0.08, P = 0.033). Neither the HEI-2005 nor DASH was significantly associated with any variable. Traditional Puerto Rican foods consumed by individuals with high MeDSs included vegetables and meats in homemade soups, orange juice, oatmeal, beans and legumes, fish, whole milk, corn oil, and beer. Conclusions: The MeDS comprises food components and scores associated with a favorable cardiometabolic profile over 2 y in Puerto Rican adults. An overall healthy diet may be particularly beneficial for

  15. Environmental health studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easterly, C.E.; Shank, K.E.

    1978-01-01

    The two major thrusts of the environmental health studies have been in the areas of health physics aspects of fusion power and methodology for assessing health effects related to nuclear facilities. Researchers were unable to discern a dose-response relationship or to find adverse health effects in the local population around nuclear facilities which might be related to radiation exposure. A second study analyzed the trends in incidence of cancer, congenital malformation, and fetal and infant mortality for Oak Ridge, Anderson County, and Roane County relative to Tennessee. Finally, a more in-depth study on congenital malformations and fetal mortality trends for nine East Tennessee counties surrounding Oak Ridge was completed. The objective of the Health Physics Aspects of Fusion Power Program is to provide, on a timely basis, scientific information and technical evaluations on the potential impacts of fusion power to occupational workers and to members of the public. The primary areas of study in this program during the past year have been (1) factors affecting calculations of dose resulting from a release of tritium, (2) an assessment of the potential for reducing occupational risk from exposures to tritium, and (3) experimental studies of tritium conversion from molecular hydrogen to tritiated water

  16. Parenting practices among Dominican and Puerto Rican mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Dittus, Patricia; Jaccard, James; Johansson, Margaret; Bouris, Alida; Acosta, Neifi

    2007-01-01

    This study presents descriptive qualitative data about Latino parenting practices in an urban context. Focus groups were conducted with Dominican and Puerto Rican mother-adolescent pairs in the Bronx borough of NewYork City. When parenting style typologies are integrated with the Latino cultural components familismo, respeto, personalismo, and simpatía, Latino parenting practices and their underlying styles are better understood. Content analysis of parents' focus groups revealed five essential Latino parenting practices: (1) ensuring close monitoring of adolescents; (2) maintaining warm and supportive relationships characterized by high levels of parent-adolescent interaction and sharing; (3) explaining parental decisions and actions; (4) making an effort to build and improve relationships; and (5) differential parenting practices based on adolescents' gender. Mothers reported concerns related to the risks associated with living in an urban area, exposure to different cultural values, and opportunities for engaging in risky behaviors. Adolescents' recommendations for effective parenting strategies were similar to the practices reported by their mothers. The study has important applied implications for culturally competent social work practice with Latino adolescents and their families.

  17. Adaptation of a food frequency questionnaire to assess diets of Puerto Rican and non-Hispanic adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, K L; Bianchi, L A; Maras, J; Bermudez, O I

    1998-09-01

    To study issues of diet and health among Hispanic adults living in the northeastern United States, the authors adapted a version of the National Cancer Institute (NCI)/Block food frequency questionnaire. Foods that contributed to nutrient intake of Puerto Rican adults in the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HHANES) were ranked to identify items to be added to the food list. Portion sizes were compared across HHANES and the Second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES II) to assess the adequacy of the assumed values. Within line items, frequencies of consumption of individual foods were ranked and these data were used to adjust the weighting factors within the database. To test the revised form, 24-hour recalls were collected from 90 elderly Hispanics and 35 elderly non-Hispanic whites. These data were coded into the original and revised food frequency forms and nutrient intake results were compared with recall results by paired t-test, and by Pearson and intraclass correlations. Added foods include plantains, avocado, mango, cassava, empanadas, and custard. Portion sizes differed significantly between HHANES and NHANES II, and were left open-ended. Estimated mean nutrient intakes and correlations with recall data were lower with the original versus the revised form. The authors conclude that the use in minority populations of food frequency questionnaires developed for the general population is likely to result in biased estimates of intake unless modifications are made in the questionnaires.

  18. Ladrillo and Tales of Juan Bobo: Puerto Rican Folk Tales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Reinaldo; Matos, Ana

    These two illustrated elementary readers contain the Spanish and English versions of the Puerto Rican folk tales, "Ladrillo" and "Cuentos de Juan Bobo." They are part of a series of reading materials for elementary-level migrant children. These materials are intended to help the child relate to his culture, develop interest in…

  19. Seeds of Puerto Rican Trees and Shrubs: Second Installment

    Science.gov (United States)

    John K. Francis; Alberto Rodríguez

    1993-01-01

    Seed weights and germination information were obtained for 119 native Puerto Rican and naturalized exotic trees and shrubs. Fruit was collected from 34 of these species, and the weights were recorded. The data are presented in tables that list the species alphabetically by scientific names.

  20. Women of Puerto Rican Origin in the Continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employment Standards Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Women's Bureau.

    This brief paper presents data on Puerto Rican women residing in the United States as of March of 1975. Information on population, age, marital status, household and family head, labor force participation, work experience, occupational, and income statistics is included. (Author/BS)

  1. Acculturation and Adverse Birth Outcomes in a Predominantly Puerto Rican Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelona de Mendoza, Veronica; Harville, Emily; Theall, Katherine; Buekens, Pierre; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2016-06-01

    Introduction Latinas in the United States on average have poorer birth outcomes than Whites, yet considerable heterogeneity exists within Latinas. Puerto Ricans have some of the highest rates of adverse outcomes and are understudied. The goal of this study was to determine if acculturation was associated with adverse birth outcomes in a predominantly Puerto Rican population. Methods We conducted a secondary analysis of Proyecto Buena Salud, a prospective cohort study conducted from 2006 to 2011. A convenience sample of pregnant Latina women were recruited from a tertiary care hospital in Massachusetts. Acculturation was measured in early pregnancy; directly via the Psychological Acculturation Scale, and via proxies of language preference and generation in the United States. Birth outcomes (gestational age and birthweight) were abstracted from medical records (n = 1362). Results After adjustment, psychological acculturation, language preference, and generation was not associated with odds of preterm birth. However, every unit increase in psychological acculturation score was associated with an increase in gestational age of 0.22 weeks (SE = 0.1, p = 0.04) among all births. Women who preferred to speak Spanish (β = -0.39, SE = 0.2, p = 0.02) and who were first generation in the US (β = -0.33, SE = 0.1, p = 0.02) had significantly lower gestational ages than women who preferred English or who were later generation, respectively. Similarly, women who were first generation had babies who weighed 76.11 g less (SE = 35.2, p = 0.03) than women who were later generation. Discussion We observed a small, but statistically significant adverse impact of low acculturation on gestational age and birthweight in this predominantly Puerto Rican population.

  2. Maternal seric alpha-fetoprotein: determination of the medium values in Costa Rican pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salas Chaves, P.; Villalobos Castro, A.

    1999-01-01

    The present study focuses on the normal mean values of AFP in 124 Costa rican pregnant women. In the women 554 determinations were done between the fifteenth and twentieth week of gestation. For this purpose, and Irma test and normal values were established. The concentration values of AFP were expressed as multiples of the median, considering a value of 2.5 Mm as the normal superior limit and of 0.25 as the inferior limit. The confidence limits of the median were 24-57 Ku/I and the 2.5MM value located between 60-143 Ku/I. (author)

  3. [CHALLENGES IN THE INTERVENTION OF PUERTO RICAN ADOLESCENTS THAT SHOW SUICIDAL BEHAVIOR].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, Yovanska Duarté; Dávila, Paloma Torres; Hernández, Samariz Laboy

    2015-01-01

    This article is a case study of a Puerto Rican adolescent with suicidal behavior. The adolescent began a Socio-Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Suicidal Behavior (SCBT), an ambulatory treatment, after being hospitalized for a suicide attempt. The SCBT incorporates an ecological and developmental perspective to CBT. She initially presented low self-esteem, and significant depressive and anxiety symptoms. At the end of treatment, the adolescent revealed a significant change in symptoms, and a better use of her coping skills. No suicidal ideation was presented during previous months, neither during follow up. Case analysis allowed treatment protocol modifications, particularly family sessions and communication skills, thus contributing to its further feasibility.

  4. The Role of Educational Leadership on Participation in the Costa Rican National Program of Science and Technology Fairs at Escuela Abraham Lincoln in the Coastal Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the role that Costa Rican educational leaders play in implementing the National Program of Science and Technology Fairs (Programa Nacional de Ferias de Ciencia y Tecnologia [PRONAFECYT]) initiative. The study provides an examination of leadership practices, instructional strategies, and professional…

  5. Trajectories of Sensation Seeking Among Puerto Rican Children and Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Silvia S; Wall, Melanie M; Eisenberg, Ruth; Blanco, Carlos; Santaella, Julian; Ramos-Olazagasti, Maria; Canino, Glorisa; Bird, Hector R; Brown, Qiana; Duarte, Cristiane S

    2015-12-01

    To document the natural course of sensation seeking from childhood to adolescence, characterize distinct sensation seeking trajectories, and examine how these trajectories vary according to selected predictors. Data were obtained from the Boricua Youth Study, a longitudinal study of 2,491 children and adolescents of Puerto Rican background (3 assessments from 2000 to 2004). First, age-specific sensation seeking levels were characterized, and then age-adjusted residuals were analyzed using growth mixture models. On average, sensation seeking was stable in childhood (ages 5-10 years) and increased during adolescence (ages 11-17 years). Mean scores of sensation seeking were higher in the South Bronx versus Puerto Rico and among males versus females. Four classes of sensation seeking trajectories were observed: most study participants had age-expected sensation seeking trajectories following the average for their age ("normative," 43.8%); others (37.2%) remained consistently lower than the expected average for their age ("low" sensation seeking); some (12.0%) had an "accelerated" sensation seeking trajectory, increasing at a faster rate than expected; and a minority (7.0%) had a decreasing sensation seeking trajectory that started high but decreased, reaching scores slightly higher than the age-average sensation seeking scores ("stabilizers"). Site (South Bronx versus Puerto Rico) and gender were predictors of membership in a specific class of sensation seeking trajectory. It is important to take a developmental approach when examining sensation seeking and to consider gender and the social environment when trying to understand how sensation seeking evolves during childhood and adolescence. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Ataques de nervios in the Puerto Rican Diagnostic Interview Schedule: the impact of cultural categories on psychiatric epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnaccia, P J; Rubio-Stipec, M; Canino, G

    1989-09-01

    This paper examines the effect of the cultural category ataques de nervios on responses to the Puerto Rican Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS), a Spanish version of structured psychiatric diagnostic interview developed for the NIMH Epidemiologic Catchment Area study. An ataque de nervios scale was created from the Somatization items of the DIS to explore the effect of this culturally meaningful category of distress on responses to a standard psychiatric interview. Analysis of 1,513 cases from a representative sample of the island of Puerto Rico indicated that people reporting ataque symptoms fit the social characteristics described for ataques sufferers in the ethnographic literature. Qualitative data indicated that Puerto Ricans were reporting ataques de nervios in the panic section of the DIS. Questions are raised about the validity of the somatization and panic sections of the DIS in cross-cultural research with Hispanics.

  7. Long-Term Outcomes in Puerto Ricans with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) Receiving Early Treatment with Disease-Modifying Anti-Rheumatic Drugs using the American College of Rheumatology Definition of Early RA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela-Rosario, Noemí; Arroyo-Ávila, Mariangelí; Fred-Jiménez, Ruth M; Díaz-Correa, Leyda M; Pérez-Ríos, Naydi; Rodríguez, Noelia; Ríos, Grissel; Vilá, Luis M

    2017-01-01

    Early treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) results in better long-term outcomes. However, the optimal therapeutic window has not been clearly established. To determine the clinical outcome of Puerto Ricans with RA receiving early treatment with conventional and/or biologic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) based on the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) definition of early RA. A cross-sectional study was performed in a cohort of Puerto Ricans with RA. Demographic features, clinical manifestations, disease activity, functional status, and pharmacotherapy were determined. Early treatment was defined as the initiation of DMARDs (conventional and/or biologic) in less than 6 months from the onset of symptoms attributable to RA. Patients who received early (disease duration was 14.9 years and 337 (87.0%) patients were women. One hundred and twenty one (31.3%) patients received early treatment. In the multivariate analysis adjusted for age and sex, early treatment was associated with better functional status, lower probability of joint deformities, intra-articular injections and joint replacement surgeries, and lower scores in the physician's assessments of global health, functional impairment and physical damage of patients. Using the ACR definition of early RA, this group of patients treated with DMARDs within 6 months of disease had better long-term outcomes with less physical damage and functional impairment.

  8. Impact of psychiatric and social characteristics on HIV sexual risk behavior in Puerto Rican women with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaphy, Emily Lenore Goldman; Loue, Sana; Sajatovic, Martha; Tisch, Daniel J

    2010-11-01

    Latinos in the United States have been identified as a high-risk group for depression, anxiety, and substance abuse. HIV/AIDS has disproportionately impacted Latinos. Review findings suggest that HIV-risk behaviors among persons with severe mental illness (SMI) are influenced by a multitude of factors including psychiatric illness, cognitive-behavioral factors, substance use, childhood abuse, and social relationships. To examine the impact of psychiatric and social correlates of HIV sexual risk behavior in Puerto Rican women with SMI. Data collected longitudinally (from 2002 to 2005) in semi-structured interviews and from non-continuous participant observation was analyzed using a cross-sectional design. Bivariate associations between predictor variables and sexual risk behaviors were examined using binary and ordinal logistic regression. Linear regression was used to examine the association between significant predictor variables and the total number of risk behaviors the women engaged in during the 6 months prior to baseline. Just over one-third (35.9%) of the study population (N = 53) was diagnosed with bipolar disorder and GAF scores ranged from 30 to 80 with a median score of 60. Participants ranged in age from 18 to 50 years (M = 32.6 ± 8.7), three-fourths reported a history of either sexual or physical abuse or of both in childhood, and one-fourth had abused substances in their lifetimes. Bivariate analyses indicated that psychiatric and social factors were differentially associated with sexual risk behaviors. Multivariate linear regression models showed that suffering from increased severity of psychiatric symptoms and factors and living below the poverty line are predictive of engagement in a greater number of HIV sexual risk behaviors. Puerto Rican women with SMI are at high risk for HIV infection and are in need of targeted sexual risk reduction interventions that simultaneously address substance abuse prevention and treatment, childhood abuse, and the

  9. The Federal Role in Meeting the Education Needs of Chicanos and Puerto Ricans with Special Emphasis on Higher Education. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda (L.) and Associates, Bethesda, MD.

    Federal efforts to meet higher educational needs of Chicanos and Puerto Ricans are analyzed in this report. As part of a study conducted by L. Miranda and Associates, 15 Federal agencies were surveyed to determine their programs and their financial commitment to Hispanic postsecondary education, and the participation of Hispanics in each agency's…

  10. The Island Image and Global Links in Puerto Rican Cinema of the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cristina Rodríguez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay looks back at the production of Puerto Rican films in the 1980s and 1990s as the point of departure for young Puerto Rican filmmakers in the first decades of the 21st century. Even as the stories of this newer generation differ, their concern with the island image and diasporic movement continue to question Puerto Rican identity. Problems of local film production and outside distribution remain for each film project. This essay analyzes a number of key films by a diverse group of directors whose goal is to rethink the concept of a Puerto Rican cinema.

  11. Prostate Cancer Mortality in Puerto Rican Men: The Effect of Body Habitus and Physical Activity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crespo, Carlos J

    2005-01-01

    .... The underlying hypothesis of this epidemiological research is that excess body adiposity and sedentary lifestyles are independent risk factors for prostate cancer mortality in Puerto Rican men...

  12. Prostate Cancer Mortality in Puerto Rican Men: The Effect of Body Habitus and Physical Activity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crespo, Carlos

    2003-01-01

    .... The underlying hypothesis of this epidemiological research is that excess body adiposity and sedentary lifestyles are independent risk factors for prostate cancer mortality in Puerto Rican men...

  13. DETERMINATION OF MAXIMAL OXYGEN CONSUMPTION OF COSTA RICAN FIRST DIVISION FOOTBALL PLAYERS DURING 2008 PRESEASON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Salas-Cabrera

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the cardiorespiratory profile (VO2max of Costa Rican first division football players during preseason and compare VO2max by players’ positions. Methodology: A total of 9 Costa Rican first division football teams were evaluated in this study for a total sample of 219 professional players ages 20-36 with an average age of 24.64 ± 4.35 years, average body weight of 73.34 kg ± 7.34, and a fat percentage of 9.78 % ± 3.64. In order to evaluate the VO2max of players, the treadmill protocol was used as recommended by Wilmore and Costill (2007. This was a maximal test. Results: an average VO2max of 57.71 ml/kg/min ± 8.8 was found; however, no statistically significant differences were found (p = .752 between positions. Conclusion: there were no differences in VO2max by positions.

  14. Survival and causes of mortality in juvenile Puerto Rican parrots

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.D. Lindsey; W.J. Arendt; J. Kalina

    1994-01-01

    Fifteen juvenile Puerto Rican Parrots (Amazona vittata) from wild nests in 1985, 1986 and 1987 were radio monitored an average of 110 +_ 15.9 (SE) d (range 4-209 d) post-fiedging.. Minimum survival was 67% (n = 3) in 1985, 100%( n = 4) in 1986 and 43% (n = 7) in 1987. Most mortality (three of five deaths) occurred during the first 35 d following fledging. A major...

  15. Ataques de nervios and somatic complaints among island and mainland Puerto Rican children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Irene; Ramirez, Rafael; Guarnaccia, Peter; Canino, Glorisa; Bird, Hector

    2011-06-01

    Previous research has documented the association between the Latino cultural idiom of distress, ataques de nervios (i.e., "attacks of nerves"), and unexplained neurological symptoms among adults. However, the associations between ataques and somatic complaints in children have not been sufficiently explored. In this study, we assessed the relation between this anxiety-related experience, henceforth ataques, and somatic complaints in a probability sample of Puerto Rican youth, ages 5-13 years, living in San Juan, Puerto Rico (N = 1353) and in the South Bronx, New York (N = 1138). When both sites were combined, children with ataques were significantly more likely to have either a lifetime prevalence of asthma or headaches, and tended to have more stomach aches and a history of epilepsy or seizure than children without ataques. Further within site analyses showed a similar patterning of complaints for the South Bronx sample as for the combined sample. However, children in San Juan with ataques were only slightly more likely to experience headaches, and at risk for injury, than those without ataques. In addition, comparisons between ataque sufferers across sites indicated that children in San Juan with ataques were at elevated risk for serious illness or injury in comparison to those in the South Bronx with ataques. Ataques are significantly associated with a wide range of physical complaints in Puerto Rican youth. However, their pattern of associations differs by context. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Experience of nervousness and anxiety disorders in Puerto Rican women: psychiatric and ethnopsychological perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss-Chioino, J D

    1989-01-01

    Analyses of case materials describe variations in the experiences of Puerto Rican women diagnosed as having an anxiety disorder, in treatment with mental health clinicians, physicians, or traditional healers. Their common complaints are examined as core symbolic elements in culturally patterned complexes of meanings focused around personal trauma, stressful life events, personal and social reactions, expectations about treatment, and the course of illness. Many of these women report themselves to be "nervous," to be "sick from nerves," or to have had an "ataque de nervios." "Nervousness" is the base symbolic domain in Puerto Rico of what psychiatry labels "anxiety disorder," although it is also a common complaint of many disorders. What "nervousness" means to patients/clients and their clinicians or healers is examined within the frames of multilayered popular and biomedical interpretations. The special difficulties of women in Puerto Rico are highlighted, and psychiatric and ethnopsychological (Spiritist) models of etiology and treatment are compared.

  17. The role of birth cohorts in studies of adult health: the New York women's birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Mary Beth; Flom, Julie; Tehranifar, Parisa; Susser, Ezra

    2009-09-01

    Epidemiological studies investigating associations between early life factors and adult health are often limited to studying exposures that can be reliably recalled in adulthood or obtained from existing medical records. There are few US studies with detailed data on the pre- and postnatal environment whose study populations are now in adulthood; one exception is the Collaborative Perinatal Project (CPP). We contacted former female participants of the New York site of the CPP who were born from 1959 to 1963 and were prospectively followed for 7 years to examine whether the pre- and postnatal environment is associated with adult health in women 40 years after birth. The New York CPP cohort is particularly diverse; at enrolment, the race/ethnicity distribution of mothers was approximately 30% White, 40% Black and 30% Puerto Rican. Of the 841 eligible women, we successfully traced 375 women (45%) and enrolled 262 women (70% of those traced). Baseline data were available for all eligible women, and we compared those who participated with the remaining cohort (n = 579). Higher family socio-economic status at age 7, availability of maternal social security number, and White race/ethnicity were statistically significantly associated with a higher probability of tracing. Of those traced, race/ethnicity was associated with participation, with Blacks and Puerto Ricans less likely to participate than Whites (OR = 0.5, 95% CI 0.3, 0.8, and OR = 0.5, 95% CI 0.3, 1.0, respectively). In addition, higher weight at 7 years was associated with lower participation (OR = 0.95, 95% CI 0.92, 0.99), but this association was observed only among the non-White participants. None of the other maternal characteristics, infant or early childhood growth measures was associated with participation or with tracing, either overall or within each racial/ethnic subgroup. Daughters' recall of early life factors such as pre-eclampsia (sensitivity = 24%) and birthweight were generally poor, with the

  18. Food Insecurity Is Associated with Acculturation and Social Networks in Puerto Rican Households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhokarh, Rajanigandha; Himmelgreen, David A.; Peng, Yu-Kuei; Segura-Perez, Sofia; Hromi-Fiedler, Amber; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether acculturation and social networks influence household food insecurity in an inner-city Puerto Rican community. Methods: A survey was administered to 200 low-income female Puerto Rican caregivers with at least 1 child 12-72 months old living in Hartford, CT. Food insecurity was measured with the Radimer/Cornell Hunger…

  19. The Puerto Ricans--Two Communities, One Culture. (Los Puertorriquenos--Dos Comunidades, Una Cultura.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivo, Paquita

    1980-01-01

    Puerto Rican roots stem from the ethnic mixture of Indians, Europeans, and Africans. This article describes the advent of each of the groups on the island, the historical and cultural impact each made, and the retention of heritage among Puerto Rican migrants to the U.S. (DS)

  20. "So yo creo que es un proceso evolutivo": Language Ideologies among Puerto Ricans in Southeastern Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenk, Elaine

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the perspectives of Puerto Ricans living in the United States in response to a publicity campaign that focuses on the correction of linguistic features that appear in some Puerto Ricans' spoken Spanish. The campaign addresses phonetic, morphological, lexical, and syntactic features, including a specific set of words or…

  1. Puerto Rican Migration: The Return Flow = La Migracion Puertorriquena: El Reflujo a la Isla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivo, Paquita, Comp.

    This is a guide to materials and research on Puerto Ricans who have returned to Puerto Rico after living in the United States. Part 1 is an annotated bibliography of books, journal articles, printed documents, doctoral dissertations, master's theses, journalistic accounts, and unpublished papers on characteristics of Puerto Rican return migrants;…

  2. Bargaining power and revenue distribution in the Costa Rican mango supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zúñiga-Arias, G.; Meijer, S.A.; Ruben, R.; Hofstede, G.J.

    2007-01-01

    By the time a European consumer eats a Costa Rican mango, the product has been traded in several transactions between producers, traders, retailers and consumers. This paper investigates the position of Costa Rican smallholders in the mango supply chain in terms of bargaining power and revenue

  3. Machismo, Marianismo, and Negative Cognitive-Emotional Factors: Findings From the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Sociocultural Ancillary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuñez, Alicia; González, Patricia; Talavera, Gregory A; Sanchez-Johnsen, Lisa; Roesch, Scott C; Davis, Sonia M; Arguelles, William; Womack, Veronica Y; Ostrovsky, Natania W; Ojeda, Lizette; Penedo, Frank J; Gallo, Linda C

    2016-11-01

    There is limited research on the traditional Hispanic male and female gender roles of machismo and marianismo, respectively, in relation to negative cognitions and emotions. Given the vulnerability of Hispanics to negative cognitions and emotions, it is important to examine sociocultural correlates of emotional distress. Therefore, we examined associations of machismo and marianismo with negative cognitive-emotional factors (i.e., depression symptoms; cynical hostility; and trait anxiety and anger) in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Sociocultural Ancillary Study, a cross-sectional cohort study of sociocultural and psychosocial correlates of cardiometabolic health. Participants were aged 18-74 years and self-identified as Hispanic of Central American, Cuban, Dominican, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South American, and other Hispanic background ( N = 4,426). Results revealed that specific components of machismo (traditional machismo) and marianismo (family and spiritual pillar dimensions) were associated with higher levels of negative cognitions and emotions after adjusting for socio-demographic factors ( p < .05); these associations remained consistent across sex, Hispanic background group, and acculturation. Findings can inform mental health interventions and contribute to our understanding of the importance of gender role socialization in the context of self-reported negative cognitive-emotional factors in Hispanics.

  4. Health Care Industry Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    press conference with President Toledo of Peru on March 23, 2002, President Bush proclaimed, “education, jobs, and health care are the greatest...allow patients with chronic illnesses such as diabetes and high blood pressure to “visit” their doctors “on-line” while in the comfort and privacy of...to maintain a healthy lifestyle. As a result, non-communicable disease such as 10 heart disease, stroke, diabetes , and cancer are prevalent throughout

  5. Studying health consequences of microchimerism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, J.; Campi, Rita; Frydenberg, Morten

    2003-01-01

    may thus have a health effect beyond the parity effect. A possible design for studying this is to compare health effects for women with or without multiple partners but with the same parity. We compared total and cause specific mortality in these two groups in order to estimate their comparability......Abstract. A pregnancy requires a reasonably good health and may have positive as well as negative health consequences for the woman. Part of these health effects may depend on the immune response to the exchange of fetal cells (microchimerism). The number of biological fathers to a woman’s children...... unlikely that these large differences are entirely related to microchimerism. The study shows that caution is needed when studying health effects of procreation with multiple partners....

  6. The effects of ABCG5/G8 polymorphisms on plasma HDL cholesterol concentrations depend on smoking habit in the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background-Low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is associated with an increased risk for atherosclerosis and concentrations are modulated by genetic and environmental factors such as smoking. Objective- To assess whether the association of common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs...

  7. Boricua de pura cepa: Ethnic identity, cultural stress and self-concept in Puerto Rican youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen-Duan, Jenny; Jacquez, Farrah; Sáez-Santiago, Emily

    2018-05-17

    The available literature on ethnic identity among Puerto Ricans has focused on those living in the United States, with little to no attention placed on examining ethnic identity and psychological constructs among youth living in Puerto Rico. Using a colonial mentality framework, the current study examined the associations between ethnic identity, cultural stress, and self-concept among adolescent boys and girls living in Puerto Rico. The current cross-sectional study surveyed participants (N = 187) recruited from several junior high schools in the metropolitan area in Puerto Rico. Relations between ethnic identity, cultural stress, and self-concept differed by gender. First, cultural stress was associated with self-concept for boys, such that higher cultural stress predicted lower self-concept. Second, among girls, cultural stress moderated the relation between ethnic identity and self-concept. Specifically, for girls experiencing high cultural stress, exploration and resolution of their ethnic identity was associated with higher ratings of self-concept. Although cultural stress has been widely understood as a phenomena associated with immigrants, our study indicated that cultural stress is important in understanding self-concept of youth living in Puerto Rico. For boys, cultural stress, but not ethnic identity, is particularly important to their self-concept. Among girls experiencing high cultural stress, exploration and resolution of ethnic identity was associated with higher self-concept. Results suggested that the cultural stress associated with the colonial context of Puerto Rico is salient in ethnic identity and self-concept development, even though Puerto Rican youth are the ethnic majority in the island. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Association between Sleep Duration, Insomnia Symptoms and Bone Mineral Density in Older Boston Puerto Rican Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinya Niu

    Full Text Available To examine the association between sleep patterns (sleep duration and insomnia symptoms and total and regional bone mineral density (BMD among older Boston Puerto Rican adults.We conducted a cross-sectional study including 750 Puerto Rican adults, aged 47-79 y living in Massachusetts. BMD at 3 hip sites and the lumbar spine were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Sleep duration (≤5 h, 6 h, 7 h, 8 h, or ≥9 h/d and insomnia symptoms (difficulty initiating sleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, early-morning awaking, and non-restorative sleep were assessed by a questionnaire. Multivariable regression was used to examine sex-specific associations between sleep duration, insomnia symptoms and BMD adjusting for standard confounders and covariates.Men who slept ≥9h/d had significantly lower femoral neck BMD, relative to those reporting 8 h/d sleep, after adjusting for age, education level, smoking, physical activity, depressive symptomatology, comorbidity and serum vitamin D concentration. This association was attenuated and lost significance after further adjustment for urinary cortisol and serum inflammation biomarkers. In contrast, the association between sleep duration and BMD was not significant in women. Further, we did not find any significant associations between insomnia symptoms and BMD in men or women.Our study does not support the hypothesis that shorter sleep duration and insomnia symptoms are associated with lower BMD levels in older adults. However, our results should be interpreted with caution. Future studies with larger sample size, objective assessment of sleep pattern, and prospective design are needed before a conclusion regarding sleep and BMD can be reached.

  9. Dissociation, childhood trauma, and ataque de nervios among Puerto Rican psychiatric outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis-Fernández, Roberto; Garrido-Castillo, Pedro; Bennasar, Mari Carmen; Parrilla, Elsie M; Laria, Amaro J; Ma, Guoguang; Petkova, Eva

    2002-09-01

    This study examined the relationships of dissociation and childhood trauma with ataque de nervios. Forty Puerto Rican psychiatric outpatients were evaluated for frequency of ataque de nervios, dissociative symptoms, exposure to trauma, and mood and anxiety psychopathology. Blind conditions were maintained across assessments. Data for 29 female patients were analyzed. Among these 29 patients, clinician-rated dissociative symptoms increased with frequency of ataque de nervios. Dissociative Experiences Scale scores and diagnoses of panic disorder and dissociative disorders were also associated with ataque frequency, before corrections were made for multiple comparisons. The rate of childhood trauma was uniformly high among the patients and showed no relationship to dissociative symptoms and disorder or number of ataques. Frequent ataques de nervios may, in part, be a marker for psychiatric disorders characterized by dissociative symptoms. Childhood trauma per se did not account for ataque status in this group of female outpatients.

  10. Ataques de nervios in relation to anxiety sensitivity among island Puerto Ricans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cintrón, Jennifer A; Carter, Michele M; Sbrocco, Tracy

    2005-12-01

    This study investigated the symptom profile of ataques de nervios (ADN) among Puerto Rican volunteers from the community who self-identified as having experienced at least one ataque. As expected, the most commonly reported ataques-specific symptoms were crying, anger, nervousness, and becoming hysterical. Comparing the responses of those with ADN to those with no history of ADN but who reported elevated anxiety sensitivity (AS) indicated that both groups were comparable on measures of depression, state and trait anxiety, and associated panic symptoms. As expected, both groups scored significantly higher on all measures than did participants with no history of ADN and low AS with the exception of the measure of state anxiety. It is unclear, however, whether the overlap in symptom severity between those with ADN and those with elevated anxiety sensitivity indicates that ADN and AS are the same or distinct conditions.

  11. Anthropology in a postcolonial colony: Helen I. Safa's contribution to Puerto Rican ethnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duany, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    This article assesses Helen I. Safa's legacy to anthropological thought in Puerto Rico. The first part of the article locates Safa's research on the Island within a long tradition of fieldwork by U.S. scholars since the early twentieth century. More recent research, conducted mostly by Puerto Rican women anthropologists and other social scientists, has expanded upon Safa's insights on gender and work. The second part of the essay analyzes Safa's major empirical work, The Urban Poor of Puerto Rico: A Study in Development and Inequality. Above all, this book helped overcome the theoretical impasse over the culture of poverty that characterized much of urban anthropology during the 1960s and 1970s. The article concludes with an appraisal of the relevance of Safa's work for the ethnography of contemporary Puerto Rico.

  12. Breadwinning women: Economic contribution of married and cohabiting women to Costa Rican households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Salazar Mayorga

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the economic contribution of married and cohabiting women to the household income, in comparison to the income their partners generate, in Costa Rica.  From a perspective of gender roles, human capital theory and female labor participation, this paper examines what variables influence the probability of contribution.  Based on data by the 2014 National Household Survey, this study found that 51% percent of married or cohabiting women do not generate any income, which shows there is an unequal economic relationship in half of Costa Rican households and the males assume the breadwinning role.  Household chores and the number of children reduce the probability of economic contribution.  On the other hand, women with more years of schooling have a higher probability to contribute equally to the couple’s total income.

  13. Association between a Healthy Lifestyle Score and inflammatory markers among Puerto Rican adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotos-Prieto, M; Bhupathiraju, S N; Falcon, L M; Gao, X; Tucker, K L; Mattei, J

    2016-03-01

    The relationship between multiple lifestyle components analyzed in combination and inflammation remains understudied. We aimed to assess the association between a Healthy Lifestyle Score (HLS) that includes adherence to five behavioral components (diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviors, smoking, social support and network, and sleep) and inflammatory markers, as well as the role of the HLS in inflammation among individuals with cardiometabolic conditions, in Puerto Rican adults. In a cross-sectional study of 842 Puerto Ricans adults (aged 45-75 y) living in Boston, MA, the HLS (range = 0-190; maximum indicative of healthiest adherence) was analyzed for association with three inflammatory markers: interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and C-reactive protein (CRP). In multivariable-adjusted models, the HLS was inversely associated with IL-6 (β ± SE = -0.55 ± 0.13; P markers independently of the other HLS components. Significant inverse associations were observed for each 20-unit increase in HLS and IL-6 and TNF-α for participants with hypertension (n = 600; β ± SE = -0.58 ± 0.16; -0.46 ± 0.16, respectively) and with overweight/obesity (n = 743; β ± SE = -0.59 ± 0.13; -0.50 ± 0.14, respectively), but not for those with diabetes (n = 187) or heart disease (n = 192). The HLS was not associated with CRP, after adjustment for potential confounders. Higher adherence to multiple lifestyle behaviors was associated with lower concentrations of inflammatory markers. Because low-grade inflammation may precede chronic diseases, following an overall healthy lifestyle may help lower risk of these diseases. Copyright © 2015 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Occurrence and correlates of overweight and obesity among island Puerto Rican youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Jeremiah R; Pérez, Edna Acosta; Prelip, Michael; McCarthy, William J; Feldman, Jonathan M; Canino, Glorisa; Ortega, Alexander N

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: This article provides 2005-2008 population-based prevalence data on obesity and overweight among youth residing in Puerto Rico. Data for this report are from the Asthma, Depression, and Anxiety in Puerto Rican Youth (ADA) study. Measures included height and weight level data on youth in Puerto Rico aged 10 to 19 years with and without asthma as well as body mass index data on their caregivers. A total of 436 youth-caregiver dyads were selected and weighted to represent the general population of youth in Puerto Rico using 2008 US Census data. Household surveys demonstrated that 40% of youth aged 10 to 19 were overweight or obese. Twenty-five percent met moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity guidelines, however, physical activity was not associated with overweight or obesity in this sample. In multivariate analyses, females were 50% less likely than males to be overweight or obese. Older youth were 73% less likely to be overweight or obese than younger youth. Youth whose parents were obese were more than two times more likely to be overweight or obese than those whose parents were at a desirable weight. Youth in Puerto Rico have higher rates of overweight and obesity and lower compliance to moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity guidelines than rates reported for youth on the mainland. More population-based research is needed to understand the epidemiology of obesity and overweight among island Puerto Rican youth and the contribution of physical activity to the phenomenon.

  15. Development of the Inventario de Comportamiento Escolar (IDCE) for Puerto Rican Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauermeister, Jose J.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The "Inventario de Comportamiento Escolar" is a teacher rating inventory for the assessment of Puerto Rican children, particularly those with a behavior pattern indicative of attention deficit disorder, learning disabilities, or academic underachievement. (JHZ)

  16. Comparing the oral health status of diabetic and non-diabetic children from Puerto Rico: a case-control pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López del Valle, Lydia M; Ocasio-López, Carlos

    2011-09-01

    Children with type 1 diabetes have infrequently been the subjects of studies examining oral health status (caries and gingival diseases); in addition, no study of this type has ever been on Puerto Rican children. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the oral health status of Puerto Rican children (ranging in age from 6 to 12 years) either with or without type 1 diabetes and compare the two groups with regard to that status. This was a matched case-control study. A convenience sample of 25 children with type 1 diabetes (cases) and 25 non-diabetic children (controls), all ranging in age from 6 to 12 years and matched by age and gender, was evaluated by a calibrated dentist for caries, bleeding on probing, and plaque and calculus indexes. A sample of saliva was taken from each subject and analyzed to determine Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus counts. Descriptive statistics, chi-square test, and t-test were used to describe and assess the data. We used the caries index to evaluate the teeth of the children participating in our study; we found significant differences in the number of lesions in the permanent teeth of diabetic children compared to the number found in the permanent teeth of non-diabetic children (1.43 and 0.56, respectively; p = 0.05). The mean number of sites of bleeding on probing for diabetic children was 23.9; for non-diabetic children it was 4.2. Diabetic children had more plaque than did the control children (plaque index = 2.5 vs. 0.8; p = 0.007) and more bleeding on probing (p = 0.001). High levels of glycosylated hemoglobin in diabetic children were statistically significantly associated with a greater number of sites with bleeding on probing. Diabetic children are at higher risk for caries and gum disease than are non-diabetic children.

  17. Masculinity and gender roles among Puerto Rican men: machismo on the U.S. mainland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, J B

    1998-01-01

    The literature on masculinity and gender roles in American life has mostly over-looked Latino men, or has stereotyped them by means of a distorted concept of machismo. A reconceptualization of masculinity and machismo among Puerto Rican men is presented, based on a multidimensional view of their historical and current sociocultural reality. Relevant clinical and social services for Puerto Rican men are discussed and directions for future research are suggested.

  18. Digital Storytelling as a Narrative Health Promotion Process: Evaluation of a Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiFulvio, Gloria T; Gubrium, Aline C; Fiddian-Green, Alice; Lowe, Sarah E; Del Toro-Mejias, Lizbeth Marie

    2016-04-01

    Digital storytelling (DST) engages participants in a group-based process to create and share narrative accounts of life events. The process of individuals telling their own stories has not been well assessed as a mechanism of health behavior change. This study looks at outcomes associated with engaging in the DST process for vulnerable youth. The project focused on the experiences of Puerto Rican Latinas between the ages of 15 to 21. A total of 30 participants enrolled in a 4-day DST workshops, with 29 completing a 1 to 3-minute digital story. Self-reported data on several scales (self-esteem, social support, empowerment, and sexual attitudes and behaviors) were collected and analyzed. Participants showed an increase in positive social interactions from baseline to 3-month post workshop. Participants also demonstrated increases in optimism and control over the future immediately after the workshop, but this change was not sustained at 3 months. Analysis of qualitative results and implications are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Forecasting Costa Rican Quarterly Growth with Mixed-frequency Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Rodríguez Vargas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We assess the utility of mixed-frequency models to forecast the quarterly growth rate of Costa Rican real GDP: we estimate bridge and MiDaS models with several lag lengths using information of the IMAE and compute forecasts (horizons of 0-4 quarters which are compared between themselves, with those of ARIMA models and with those resulting from forecast combinations. Combining the most accurate forecasts is most useful when forecasting in real time, whereas MiDaS forecasts are the best-performing overall: as the forecasting horizon increases, their precisionis affected relatively little; their success rates in predicting the direction of changes in the growth rate are stable, and several forecastsremain unbiased. In particular, forecasts computed from simple MiDaS with 9 and 12 lags are unbiased at all horizons and information sets assessed, and show the highest number of significant differences in forecasting ability in comparison with all other models.

  20. Parental psychosocial stress and asthma morbidity in Puerto Rican twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Nancy E.; Bunyavanich, Supinda; Silberg, Judy L.; Canino, Glorisa; Rosner, Bernard A.; Celedón, Juan C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Little is known about paternal psychosocial factors and childhood asthma. Objective To examine the link between maternal and paternal psychosocial stress and asthma outcomes in young children. Methods Parents of 339 pairs of Puerto Rican twins were interviewed individually about their own psychosocial stress and about asthma in their children at age 1 and again about their child’s asthma at age 3. Fathers were asked about symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and anti-social behavior. Mothers were asked about depressive symptoms. Outcomes assessed in children included recent asthma symptoms, oral steroid use and hospitalizations for asthma in the prior year, and asthma diagnosis. Generalized estimated equation models were used for the multivariate analysis of parental psychosocial stress and asthma morbidity in childhood. Results After multivariable adjustment, paternal PTSD symptoms, depression, and anti-social behavior were each associated with increased asthma symptoms at age 1 (e.g., OR =1.08 for each 1-point increase in PTSD score, 95% CI=1.03–1.14). Maternal depressive symptoms were associated with an increased risk of asthma hospitalizations at age 1 year. At age 3 years, maternal depressive symptoms were associated with asthma diagnosis and hospitalizations for asthma (OR for each 1-point increase in symptoms=1.16, 95% CI=1.00–1.36]). In an analysis combining 1 and 3 year outcomes, paternal depression was associated with oral steroid use, maternal depressive symptoms were associated with asthma hospitalizations and asthma diagnosis, and parental depression was associated with hospitalizations for asthma. Conclusions Both paternal and maternal psychosocial factors may influence asthma morbidity in young Puerto Rican children. PMID:21194742

  1. Cross-cultural adaptation of the psychosocial impact of assistive device scale (PIADS) for Puerto Rican assistive technology users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellano, Elsa M; Jutai, Jeffrey W

    2013-01-01

    Assistive technology (AT) is important for individuals with disabilities' independence and participation in daily life, and there is a lack of valid AT outcome tools for the Puerto Rican population. This pilot study examined the content validity of a new adaptation of the Psychosocial Impact of Assistive Device Scale (PIADS): the Puerto Rican-Spanish PIADS (PR-PIADS). Following standard procedures, the cultural adaptation methodology included a bilingual multidisciplinary committee review of the original (English language) and Spanish versions of the PIADS and pilot testing of the preliminary version of the PR-PIADS with 20 AT users. The committee recommended a total of 58 semantic and conceptual modifications of the Spanish PIADS. Pilot data analysis resulted in 4 additional semantic and conceptual modifications of items that did not reach the minimum content validity ratio of 0.42 for a panel composed by 20 members: competence (0), efficiency (-0.6), performance (-0.95), and eagerness to take chances (-0.6). This pilot study demonstrated evidence of initial content validity of the PR-PIADS. Future research is required before using this tool with greater confidence to address the construct validity and reliability that are also critical to a successful cultural adaptation.

  2. Donde Estan los Estudiantes Puertorriquenos/os Exitosos? [Where Are the Academically Successful Puerto Rican Students?]: Success Factors of High-Achieving Puerto Rican High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antrop-Gonzalez, Rene; Velez, William; Garrett, Tomas

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the 4 success factors that 10 working class Puerto Rican urban high school students attributed to their high academic achievement. These success factors were (a) the acquisition of social capital through religiosity and participation in school and community-based extracurricular activities, (b) having a strong Puerto Rican…

  3. A New Destination for "The Flying Bus"?: The Implications of Orlando-Rican Migration for Luis Rafael Sanchez's "La guagua aerea"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreneche, Gabriel Ignacio; Lombardi, Jane; Ramos-Flores, Hector

    2012-01-01

    Puerto Rican author Luis Rafael Sanchez's "La guagua aerea" explores the duality, hybridity, and fluidity of US-Puerto Rican identity through the frequent travel of migrants between New York City (the traditional destination city for Puerto Rican migrants) and the island. In recent years, however, the "flying bus" has adopted a…

  4. Feeding Practices and Expectations among Middle-Class Anglo and Puerto Rican Mothers of 12-Month-Old Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Pamela A.; Harwood, Robin L.; Schoelmerich, Axel

    2001-01-01

    Investigated differences in beliefs and practices about infant feeding among middle class Anglo and Puerto Rican mothers. Interviews and observations indicated that Anglo mothers reported earlier attainment of self-feeding and more emphasis on child rearing goals related to self-maximization. Puerto Rican mothers reported later attainment of…

  5. Carbohydrate nutrition differs by diabetes status and is associated with dyslipidemia in Boston Puerto Rican adults without diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puerto Rican adults have a greater prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and lower HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) than the general U.S. population. Carbohydrate nutrition may play a role in this disparity. Cross-sectional analyses included data from 1219 Puerto Ricans aged 45-75 y enrolled in the Boston Puer...

  6. Bargaining power and revenue distribution in the Costa Rican mango chain: a gaming simulation approach with local producers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuniga Arias, G.E.; Meijer, S.; Ruben, R.; Hofstede, G.J.

    2007-01-01

    By the time a European consumer eats a Costa Rican mango, the product has been traded in several transactions between producers, traders, retailers and consumers. This paper investigates the position of Costa Rican smallholders in the mango supply chain in terms of bargaining power and revenue

  7. Statistical health-effects study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.S.; Sever, L.E.

    1983-01-01

    A principal objective of this program is to determine if there are demonstrable effects of radiation exposure to the Hanford worker by analyzing mortality records of this population. A secondary purpose is to improve methodology for assessing health effects of chronic low-level exposure to harmful agents or substances, particularly i an occupational setting. In the past year we have updated our analyses and initiated new areas of analysis. Complete documentation was provided for our computer program for the mortality study, and a user's manual is under development. A case-control study of birth defects was started in FY 1982

  8. Center for Maritime Safety and Health Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Established in November 2015, the Center for Maritime Safety and Health Studies (CMSHS) promotes safety and health for all maritime workers, including those employed...

  9. The relationship between psychosocial status, acculturation and country of origin in mid-life Hispanic women: data from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, R; Santoro, N F; McGinn, A P; Wildman, R P; Derby, C A; Polotsky, A J; Weiss, G

    2010-12-01

    To test the hypothesis that psychosocial symptomatology differs by country of origin and acculturation among Hispanic women, we examined 419 women, aged 42-52 years at baseline, enrolled in the New Jersey site of the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Women were categorized into six groups: Central (CA, n = 29) or South American (SA, n = 106), Puerto Rican (PR, n = 56), Dominican (D, n = 42), Cuban (Cu, n = 44) and non-Hispanic Caucasian (NHC, n = 142). Acculturation, depressive symptoms, hostility/cynicism, mistreatment/discrimination, sleep quality, social support, and perceived stress were assessed at baseline. Physical functioning, trait anxiety and anger were assessed at the fourth annual follow-up. Comparisons between Hispanic and non-Hispanic Caucasians used χ², t test or non-parametric alternatives; ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis testing examined differences among the five Hispanic sub-groups. Multivariable regression models used PR women as the reference group. Hispanic women were overall less educated, less acculturated (p stress, and less mistreatment/discrimination than NHCs. Along with D women, PR women reported worse sleep than Cu women (p acculturated (21.4% highly acculturated vs. CA (0.0%), D (4.8%), SA (4.8%) and Cu (2.3%) women; p acculturation was associated with more favorable psychosocial status, but PR ethnicity was negatively related to psychosocial status. Psychosocial symptomatology among Hispanic women differs by country of origin and the relatively adverse profile of Puerto Rican women is not explained by acculturation.

  10. Enamel lesions in development, classification in Costa Rican families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murillo Knudsen, Gina; Berrocal Salazar, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Enamel lesions in development were identified and classified in patients of Llano Grande de Cartago, examined at the Facultad de Odontologia of the Universidad de Costa Rica. A guide is provided over the topic. 15 children and 2 Costa Rican adults were selected. Clinical examinations, radiographs and clinical photographs were used as data collection method. Dental defects of the enamel were classified according to the possible genetic causes and without genetic causes. Imperfect Amelogenesis (IA) was diagnosed in 10 of patients. Hypoplastic IA was determined in 3 siblings with autosomal recessive inheritance, for 16% of the total sample. Hypomineralized IA was identified in an adult and two of his sons, with autosomal dominant inheritance. The remaining 4 cases of IA have been sporadic. Lesions of dental fluorosis were determined in the Horowitz index in 4 individuals, from 2 unrelated families. Other defects unspecified of the enamel or hypoplasias were found in 3 individuals. Enamel lesions in development should be classified with precision, for the purpose to inform to patients affected about their condition, origin, prognosis and appropriate treatment. The basis are established to implement reliability in the construction of family genealogy, identification and classification of enamel lesions, as well as the probabilities of future generations to express the lesions in the enamel of temporary or permanent dentition [es

  11. Forest conservation and the clean development mechanism. Lessons from the Costa Rican protected areas project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voehringer, F.

    2004-01-01

    Deforestation is currently the source of about 20% of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Avoided deforestation has, nonetheless, been ruled out as a Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) category in the Kyoto Protocol's first commitment period, because several methodological issues were considered too difficult to resolve. This paper explores whether CDM issues such as (1) carbon quantification, (2) additionality and baseline setting, (3) leakage risks, (4) non-permanence risks, and (5) sustainable development can be adequately dealt with in large, diversified forest conservation projects. To this aim, it studies the case of the Costa Rican Protected Areas Project (PAP), an Activities Implemented Jointly (AIJ) project which was meant to consolidate the national park system to avoid deforestation, promote the growth of secondary forests and regenerate pastures on an area that, in total, covers 10% of the national territory. The case study examines how the issues mentioned above have been addressed in the project design and in the certification process. It is found that baseline uncertainties are the major problem in this case. Nonetheless, the case suggests the possibility to address CDM issues by specific requirements for project design and very conservative and temporary crediting. Provided that other case studies support this conclusion, eligibility of well-designed forest conservation projects under the CDM in the second commitment period may be worth considering, given the secondary benefits of avoided deforestation

  12. Clinical Manifestations Associated with Overweight/Obesity in Puerto Ricans with Fibromyalgia Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth M. Fred-Jiménez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the clinical manifestations associated with overweight/obesity in Hispanics from Puerto Rico with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS. Methods. A cross-sectional study was performed in 144 patients with FMS (per American College of Rheumatology (ACR classification criteria. Sociodemographic features, FMS-related symptoms, tender points (per ACR criteria, comorbidities, and FMS treatment were examined. BMI was calculated and patients were grouped into two categories: BMI ≤ 24.9 kg/m2 (nonoverweight/obese and BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 (overweight/obese. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to evaluate differences between the study groups. Results. The mean (standard deviation (SD age of patients was 50.2 (9.9 years; 95.1% were females and 75.7% were overweight/obese. In the bivariate analysis, overweight/obese patients were more likely to have self-reported memory impairment, anxiety, shortness of breath, and urinary frequency than nonoverweight/obese patients. In addition, the tender point count was higher in the overweight/obese group. In the logistic regression analyses, self-reported memory impairment and urinary frequency differences remained significant after adjusting for confounding variables. Conclusion. In this population of Puerto Ricans with FMS, overweight/obese patients experienced more FMS-related manifestations than nonoverweight/obese individuals. However, prospective studies are needed to confirm these associations and to elucidate if weight reduction interventions could favorably impact the severity of FMS.

  13. Clinical Manifestations Associated with Overweight/Obesity in Puerto Ricans with Fibromyalgia Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fred-Jiménez, Ruth M; Arroyo-Ávila, Mariangelí; Mayor, Ángel M; Ríos, Grissel; Vilá, Luis M

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To determine the clinical manifestations associated with overweight/obesity in Hispanics from Puerto Rico with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). Methods. A cross-sectional study was performed in 144 patients with FMS (per American College of Rheumatology (ACR) classification criteria). Sociodemographic features, FMS-related symptoms, tender points (per ACR criteria), comorbidities, and FMS treatment were examined. BMI was calculated and patients were grouped into two categories: BMI ≤ 24.9 kg/m(2) (nonoverweight/obese) and BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2) (overweight/obese). Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to evaluate differences between the study groups. Results. The mean (standard deviation (SD)) age of patients was 50.2 (9.9) years; 95.1% were females and 75.7% were overweight/obese. In the bivariate analysis, overweight/obese patients were more likely to have self-reported memory impairment, anxiety, shortness of breath, and urinary frequency than nonoverweight/obese patients. In addition, the tender point count was higher in the overweight/obese group. In the logistic regression analyses, self-reported memory impairment and urinary frequency differences remained significant after adjusting for confounding variables. Conclusion. In this population of Puerto Ricans with FMS, overweight/obese patients experienced more FMS-related manifestations than nonoverweight/obese individuals. However, prospective studies are needed to confirm these associations and to elucidate if weight reduction interventions could favorably impact the severity of FMS.

  14. What Latino Puerto Ricans and non-Latinos say when they talk about Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlawish, Jason; Barg, Frances K; Augsburger, Deborah; Beaver, James; Ferguson, Allison; Nunez, Jessica

    2011-03-01

    To discover whether Latino Puerto Rican and non-Latino communities differ in the words they use to talk about Alzheimer's disease (AD). Four groups of 30 persons per group defined by self-identified ethnicity and caregiver status: Latino Puerto Ricans and non-Latino Whites, who were either caregivers or non-caregivers completed free-listing exercises to identify the words they use when they describe AD causes, symptoms, caregiving, and research risks and benefits. Both Latino Puerto Ricans and non-Latino Whites recognize AD as a disease of memory loss and other cognitive problems. Although both groups used the term "sadness" to describe AD, non-Latino Whites did not feature emotional, behavioral, or psychological problems as among the causes of AD. Although all the groups' descriptions of a person who lives with and cares for a person with AD shared the word "loving," Latino Puerto Ricans focused on a good spouse who exercises intelligence, patience, and attention on behalf of the person with AD and did not use the term "caregiver." In contrast, non-Latino Whites typically used the term "caregiver." Both groups' lists shared words that describe research as presenting harms to an AD patient and requiring a commitment of time. Latino Puerto Ricans' lists suggested an understanding of research benefits akin to clinical care. Notable differences exist in how Latino Puerto Ricans and non-Latino Whites talk about AD and AD research. Clinicians, clinical investigators, and patient educators need to consider these differences when they conduct clinical care and research and design outreach and educational materials. Copyright © 2011 The Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Diameter growth performance of tree functional groups in Puerto Rican secondary tropical forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Adame

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Understanding the factors that control tree growth in successional stands is particularly important for quantifying the carbon sequestration potential and timber yield of secondary tropical forests. Understanding the factors that control tree growth in successional stands is particularly important for quantifying the carbon sequestration potential and timber yield of secondary tropical forests. Yet, the high species diversity of mixed tropical forests, including many uncommon species, hinders the development of species-specific diameter growth models.Area of study: In these analyses, we grouped 82 species from secondary forests distributed across 93 permanent plots on the island of Puerto Rico.Material and Methods: Species were classified according to regeneration strategy and adult height into six functional groups. This classification allowed us to develop a robust diameter growth model using growth data collected from 1980-1990. We used mixed linear model regression to analyze tree diameter growth as a function of individual tree characteristics, stand structure, functional group and site factors.Main results: The proportion of variance in diameter growth explained by the model was 15.1%, ranging from 7.9 to 21.7%. Diameter at breast height, stem density and functional group were the most important predictors of tree growth in Puerto Rican secondary forest. Site factors such as soil and topography failed to predict diameter growth.Keywords: Caribbean forests; growth model; tropical forest succession; Puerto Rico.

  16. Parental feeding styles and adolescents' healthy eating habits. Structure and correlates of a Costa Rican questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge-Rojas, Rafael; Smith-Castro, Vanesa; Colon-Ramos, Uriyoán; Garita-Arce, Carlos; Sánchez-López, Marta; Chinnock, Anne

    2010-10-01

    This study designed and validated a questionnaire aimed at examining parental feeding styles to encourage healthy eating habits among Costa Rican adolescents. Adolescents (n=133; mean age 15.4 years), and their parents, participated in the study. The parents completed a parental feeding style questionnaire, and the adolescents completed 3-day food records. Confirmatory factor analyses suggest four distinct parental feeding styles, (a) verbal encouragement of healthy eating behaviors; (b) use of verbal sanctions to indirectly control the intake of healthy food; (c) direct control of access to and intake of food; and (d) use of food to regulate emotions and behavior. There were no correlations between dietary intake and the verbal encouragement of healthy eating behaviors, but there were significant negative correlations between (1) "the use of verbal sanctions to indirectly control the intake of healthy food", and the consumption of fruit and vegetable, of calcium, iron, vitamin B6 and folic acid intake, and (2) between the "direct control of access to and intake of food" and fast food consumption and total carbohydrates intake. The use of food to regulate emotions and behavior was positively correlated with high energy-dense food consumption. Stratification of the data shows significant differences by gender in the correlations between parental feeding style and dietary intake. Understanding parental feeding styles in a Latin American context is a first step in helping researchers develops culturally-appropriate parenting intervention/prevention strategies to encourage healthy eating behaviors during adolescence.

  17. Marco referencial para el análisis de los programas de enseñanza media en el área de física y de química propuestos por el Ministerio de Educación Pública Costarricense / Referencial frame work for the analysis of the third and fourth cycles study programs in the physics and chemistry fields proposed by the Costa Rican Public Education Ministry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artavia Herrera, Yeudin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Este artículo presenta el marco referencial para el análisis de los programas de estudio propuestos por el Ministerio de Educación Pública (MEP en la enseñanza de la Física y la Química para la educación diversificada. Se considera el aporte que el MEP ofrece a los docentes de Física y Química, desde su posición de ente controlador de la educación costarricense. Así como el aporte de diversos autores que ofrecen variadas concepciones sobre la temática de enseñanza de la ciencia en general y de la Física y la Química en particular.Abstract:This article presents the referencial frame work for the analysis of the study programs proposed by the Public Education Ministry (MEP for the teaching of Physics and Chemistry in the third and fourth cicles. The contribution given to the Physics and Chemistry teachers by the Ministry of education has been taken into consideration since it`s the controlling entity in Costa Rican education. Besides, relevant ideas from several authors who have a variety of concepts about science teaching and Physics and Chemistry specifically were used to support the research.

  18. Cultural mechanisms in the exchange of social support among Puerto Ricans after a natural disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Fernando I

    2012-06-01

    In this study, I uncovered the dynamics involved in the exchange (or lack) of social support among a group of Puerto Ricans who experienced a natural disaster. I coded and analyzed 12 semistructured qualitative interviews. My analysis of the interviews revealed that a reported high degree of need was not associated with any type of help seeking from the respondents' social support networks. Relevant issues that arose in explaining the lack of social support exchanges were level of comfort in help seeking and cultural issues. My findings point to the importance of culture in shaping patterns of help-seeking behavior in the aftermath of a disaster. Two of the most salient cultural explanations as to why disaster victims were reluctant to ask for help from family and friends were the issues of confianza (trust) and pena (embarrassment). I discuss the results with reference to how they might help in planning and establishing programs to maximize help seeking among Latinos/as in an emergency situation.

  19. Identification of endangered or threatened Costa Rican tree species by wood anatomy and fluorescence activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, Róger; Wiemann, Michael C; Olivares, Carlos

    2013-09-01

    A total of 45 native Costa Rican tree species are threatened or in danger of extinction, but the Convention on International Trade Endangered Species (CITES) includes only eight of these in its Appendices. However, the identification of other species based on their wood anatomy is limited. The present study objective was to describe and to compare wood anatomy and fluorescence activity in some endangered or threatened species of Costa Rica. A total of 45 (22 endangered and 23 threatened with extinction) wood samples of these species, from the xylaria of the Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica and the Forest Products Laboratory in Madison, Wisconsin, were examined. Surface fluorescence was positive in eight species, water extract fluorescence was positive in six species and ethanol extract fluorescence was positive in 24 species. Almost all species were diffuse porous except for occasional (Cedrela odorata, C. fissilis, Cordia gerascanthus) or regular (C. salvadorensis and C. tonduzii) semi-ring porosity. A dendritic vessel arrangement was found in Sideroxylon capari, and pores were solitary in Guaiacum sanctum and Vantanea barbourii. Vessel element length was shortest in Guaiacum sanctum and longest in Humiriastrum guianensis, Minquartia guianensis and Vantanea barbourii. Finally, anatomical information and fluorescence activity were utilized to construct an identification key of species, in which fluorescence is a feature used in identification.

  20. Corpses and Capital: Narratives of Gendered Violence in Two Costa Rican Novels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Barbas Rhoden

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In a region prone to violence and political corruption, Costa Rica has been touted as an ecological paradise, a stable democracy, and an egalitarian society. However, Costa Rican fiction from the late twentieth century contests this idyllic image and presents instead a world of intrigue, violence, and criminality. El año del laberinto (2000 by Tatiana Lobo and Cruz de olvido (1999 by Carlos Cortés are two novels that serve as an excellent introduction to developments in postwar fiction and scholarship from Central America. In my analysis, I first situate the novels in the context of Central American cultural and political developments in recent decades and then consider the linking of narrative, gender, and violence in the novels. My study centers on the authors' use of crime to challenge national myths and to deconstruct narratives that have been instrumental in constructing cherished national identities. Of particular importance is the depiction of gendered bodies and the violence practiced upon them, as well as the politics surrounding bodies and violence in national narratives and in the authors' contemporary stories.

  1. Identification of endangered or threatened Costa Rican tree species by wood anatomy and fluorescence activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Róger Moya

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 45 native Costa Rican tree species are threatened or in danger of extinction, but the Convention on International Trade Endangered Species (CITES includes only eight of these in its Appendices. However, the identification of other species based on their wood anatomy is limited. The present study objective was to describe and to compare wood anatomy and fluorescence activity in some endangered or threatened species of Costa Rica. A total of 45 (22 endangered and 23 threatened with extinction wood samples of these species, from the xylaria of the Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica and the Forest Products Laboratory in Madison, Wisconsin, were examined. Surface fluorescence was positive in eight species, water extract fluorescence was positive in six species and ethanol extract fluorescence was positive in 24 species. Almost all species were diffuse porous except for occasional (Cedrela odorata, C. fissilis, Cordia gerascanthus or regular (C. salvadorensis and C. tonduzii semi-ring porosity. A dendritic vessel arrangement was found in Sideroxylon capari, and pores were solitary in Guaiacum sanctum and Vantanea barbourii. Vessel element length was shortest in Guaiacum sanctum and longest in Humiriastrum guianensis, Minquartia guianensis and Vantanea barbourii. Finally, anatomical information and fluorescence activity were utilized to construct an identification key of species, in which fluorescence is a feature used in identification.

  2. Dimensional Assessment of Anxiety in Puerto Rican Patients: Evaluating Applicability of Psychological Questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Barrios, Polaris; Morales-Rodríguez, Carlos M; Merced-Morales, Kritzianel; Lampón, Anabelle; González, Rafael; Martínez, Karen

    2016-09-01

    A dimensional assessment model as a supplement to the diagnosis process could overcome the current pitfalls in classifying psychopathology in ethnic minorities. The aim of the study described herein was to examine a sample of Puerto Rican patients diagnosed with anxiety disorder in order to evaluate the psychometric properties of the specific scales that assess the following 3 domains: clinical symptoms, personality/trait, and affective style. 80 subjects were recruited and interviewed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV to identify the presence of anxiety disorders. Following this, various questionnaires assessing each proposed domain were administered to the participants. Reliability and validity of these questionnaires were examined using Cronbach's alpha and exploratory factor analysis. The effect of the individual items of the questionnaires on the overall reliability and validity was assessed using factor scores component matrix. Analyses revealed moderate to high reliability and validity scores within all 3 domains. The sample obtained moderate to high scores on the scales comprising clinical and personality/trait domains. The use of self-report scales in accordance with the proposed dimensional framework may be an effective way to supplement categorical diagnoses within the Hispanic population represented by this sample.

  3. Specific activity and derived intervention levels for cesium-137 in Costa Rican export goods: tuna fish, coffee and powdered milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loria, L.G.; Mora, Patricia

    1994-01-01

    Cesium-137 is a fission product of 235 U and 239 Pu. After a major nuclear accident, it is released into the atmosphere and in the far field region it will produce radioactively contaminated food and drinking water. This paper will study the specific activity of 137 Cs in three Costa Rican export products: tuna fish, coffee and powdered milk. The average specific activities found are as follows: 0.89 ± 0.41, 1.16 ± 0.76 and 4.53 ± 2.00 Bq kg -1 . They represent low values compared to their derived intervention levels: 1.25 x 10 7 , 1.25 x 10 7 and 2.44 x 10 5 Bq kg -1 , respectively. (Author)

  4. Clinical determinants of clopidogrel responsiveness in a heterogeneous cohort of Puerto Rican Hispanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Suarez, Dagmar F; Scott, Stuart A; Tomey, Matthew I; Melin, Kyle; Lopez-Candales, Angel; Buckley, Charlotte E; Duconge, Jorge

    2017-09-01

    Clopidogrel is by far the most prescribed platelet adenosine diphosphate (ADP) antagonist in Puerto Rico despite the advent of newer agents (prasugrel and ticagrelor). Given the paucity of data on clopidogrel responsiveness in Hispanics, we sought to determine the association between clinical characteristics and platelet reactivity in Puerto Rican patients on clopidogrel therapy. A total of 100 Puerto Rican patients on clopidogrel therapy were enrolled and allocated into two groups: Group I, without high on-treatment platelet reactivity (HTPR); and Group II, with HTPR. Platelet function was measured ex vivo using the VerifyNow® P2Y12 assay. The cohort was comprised of Hispanic patients with coronary artery disease (57%), peripheral artery disease (32%), carotid artery stenosis (7%), cerebral artery aneurysm (2%), and stroke (2%). Mean platelet reactivity was 200 ± 61 P2Y12 reaction units (PRUs) (range: 8-324), and 35% of patients had HTPR (PRUs ⩾ 230). Multivariable logistic regression analysis determined that diabetes mellitus (DM) [odds ratio (OR) = 3.27; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.20-8.96], use of proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) (OR = 3.60; 95% CI: 1.09-11.82), and calcium channel blockers (CCBs) (OR = 3.10; 95% CI: 1.09-8.83) were independent predictors of HTPR ( p Puerto Rican Hispanic patients on clopidogrel, 35% had HTPR. Furthermore, DM, PPIs and CCBs predicted HTPR. Clinical outcome data are needed to identify appropriate PRU thresholds for risk prediction in the Puerto Rican population.

  5. Phylogeography of an island endemic: the Puerto Rican freshwater crab, Epilobocera sinuatifrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin D. Cook; Catherine M. Pringle; Jane M. Hughes

    2008-01-01

    The endemic Puerto Rican crab, Epilobocera sinuatifrons (Pseudothelphusidae), has a freshwater-dependant life-history strategy, although the species has some capabilities for terrestrial movement as adults. In contrast to all other freshwater decapods on the island (e.g., caridean shrimp), E. sinuatifrons does not undertake amphidromous migration, and is restricted to...

  6. The Puerto Rican Prison Experience: A Multicultural Understanding of Values, Beliefs, and Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Edil Torres; Wilbur, Michael P.; Roberts-Wilbur, Janice

    1998-01-01

    Counselors are challenged to use a nontraditional, multicultural approach with Puerto Rican inmates, to strive to understand their values, beliefs, experiences, and behaviors; and to question their own underlying assumptions and linear models of therapy. Five specific recommendations are made, and a comparison of beliefs and values is appended.…

  7. Urinary 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine and cognitive function in Puerto Rican adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    DNA oxidative stress has been suggested as an important pathogenic mechanism in cognitive impairment and dementia. We, therefore, examined whether urinary 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a biomarker of global DNA oxidation, was associated with cognitive function in a sample of Puerto Rican adul...

  8. Taking a Diasporic Stance: Puerto Rican Mothers Educating Children in a Racially Integrated Neighborhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolon-Dow, Rosalie

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the perspectives of second-generation Puerto Rican mothers as they discuss their experiences educating their children in a working class, lower-middle class, racially diverse neighborhood. The article examines the racialization processes that the women and their families face, despite experiencing geographic and socioeconomic…

  9. Characterization of Bioactive Constituents from Honey Produced by Costa Rican Stingless Bees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zamora Fallas, L.G.

    2018-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance created the need for innovations in topical treatments for wound healing. This thesis comprises a series of investigations that allowed Costa Rican Tetragonisca angustula honeys to pass from being a highly regarded traditional medicine to becoming a novel candidate for wound

  10. SURVIVAL OF CAPTIVE-REARED PUERTO RICAN PARROTS RELEASED IN THE CARIBBEAN NATIONAL FOREST

    Science.gov (United States)

    THOMAS H. WHITE; JAIME A. COLLAZO; FRANCISCO J. VILELLA

    2005-01-01

    We report first-year survival for 34 captive-reared Puerto Rican Parrots (Amazona vittata) released in the Caribbean National Forest, Puerto Rico between 2000 and 2002. The purpose of the releases were to increase population size and the potential number of breeding individuals of the sole extant wild population, and to refine release protocols for eventual...

  11. DiaspoRican Art as a Space for Identity Building, Cultural Reclamation, and Political Reimagining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario-Ramos, Enid M.; Tucker-Raymond, Eli; Rosario, Maria

    2017-01-01

    The lives of Puerto Ricans in the neighborhood of Humboldt Park, Chicago, are often situated in a complex social field shaped by transnational cultural and political border crossing. We argue that artistic practices in this neighborhood are integral to building community and individual identities grounded in local meanings of the Puerto Rican…

  12. Dominican and Puerto Rican Mother-Adolescent Communication: Maternal Self-Disclosure and Youth Risk Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent

    2010-01-01

    A communication framework was developed to examine the influence of maternal use of self-disclosure on adolescent intentions to smoke cigarettes and to engage in sexual intercourse. Data were collected from 516 Dominican and Puerto Rican mother-adolescent dyads. Statistical analyses were conducted in AMOS using structural equation modeling.…

  13. Partial power, partial knowledge: accounting for the dis-integration of a Costa Rican cooperative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susannah R. McCandless; Marla R. Emery

    2008-01-01

    Drawing on the writings of Foucault, we argue that the multiple-service cooperative at the core of a Costa Rican highland municipality failed due to an incomplete transformation from sovereign to governmental regimes at the regional scale. The cooperative challenged sovereign power, held by the local patron and private biological reserves, with a governance model based...

  14. Anatomy of a bottleneck: diagnosing factors limiting population growth in the Puerto Rican Parrot

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.R. Beissinger; Jr Wunderle; J.M. Meyers; B.E. Saether; S. Engen

    2008-01-01

    The relative importance of genetic, demographic, environmental, and catastrophic processes that maintain population bottlenecks has received little consideration. We evaluate the role of these factors in maintaining the Puerto Rican Parrot (Amazona vittata) in a prolonged bottleneck from 1973 through 2000 despite intensive conservation efforts. We first conduct a risk...

  15. Self-reported parenting practices in Dominican and Puerto Rican mothers of young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzada, Esther J; Eyberg, Sheila M

    2002-09-01

    Explored self-reported parenting in a Hispanic sample of mothers living in the mainland United States using a cultural framework. Participants were 130 immigrant or first-generation Dominican and Puerto Rican mothers with a child between the ages of 2 and 6 years. Mothers completed questionnaires related to their parenting behavior and also filled out a detailed demographic form and a measure of acculturation. Results suggested that both Dominican and Puerto Rican mothers engage in high levels of praise and physical affection and low levels of harsh, inconsistent, and punitive parenting behaviors. Dominican and Puerto Rican parenting was similar on measures of authoritarian and permissive parenting, but differences emerged on a measure of authoritative parenting and when parenting was considered at the more detailed level of individual behaviors. Parenting was related to several demographic characteristics, including father's education level and child age; more specifically, higher paternal education and younger age of the child were related to higher levels of authoritative parenting by mothers. Parenting and acculturation were generally not related. Discussion focused on a culturally sensitive interpretation of normative parenting among Dominican and Puerto Rican mothers.

  16. African American and Puerto Rican American Parenting Styles, Paternal Involvement, and Head Start Children's Social Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Jay

    2000-01-01

    Examined similarities and differences in parenting styles and paternal involvement within and between African American and Puerto Rican American parent groups and the relationship between parenting styles, child care involvement, and Head Start children's social competence. Found a significant relationship between high levels of parental…

  17. Factors associated with Neospora caninum serostatus in cattle of 20 specialised Costa Rican dairy herds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romero, J.J.; Perez, E.; Dolz, G.; Frankena, K.

    2002-01-01

    Twenty-five specialised Costa Rican dairy farms (located in the Poás area) were used to determine neosporosis seroprevalence and the association of seropositivity with environmental and management factors. The farms involved were selected intentionally and all of them use VAMPP 5.1 (Veterinary

  18. Current recommendations for the study of carotid stenosis by doppler ultrasound and other imaging techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Matamoros, Angelica

    2012-01-01

    Ischemic cerebrovascular disease has been one of the most frequent causes of death from chronic disease, as well as cause of long-term disabilities, in both the United States, and in Latin American countries during recent years. It is therefore, important to know about it. An updated review of international recommendations to the Costa Rican health system is performed for carotid imaging study in patients at risk of accidents and ischemic cerebrovascular disease; with special emphasis on carotid Doppler ultrasonography, due to its wide availability in the medical field Costa Rican. Furthermore, certain relevant concepts of other imaging techniques currently available are listed to determine the appropriate choice of each method according to the individual patient's condition, such as conventional angiography and tomographic angiography [es

  19. Health communication in primary health care -a case study of ICT development for health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Amina Jama; Olander, Ewy; Eriksén, Sara; Haglund, Bo Ja

    2013-01-30

    Developing Information and Communication Technology (ICT) supported health communication in PHC could contribute to increased health literacy and empowerment, which are foundations for enabling people to increase control over their health, as a way to reduce increasing lifestyle related ill health. However, to increase the likelihood of success of implementing ICT supported health communication, it is essential to conduct a detailed analysis of the setting and context prior to the intervention. The aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of health communication for health promotion in PHC with emphasis on the implications for a planned ICT supported interactive health channel. A qualitative case study, with a multi-methods approach was applied. Field notes, document study and focus groups were used for data collection. Data was then analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Health communication is an integral part of health promotion practice in PHC in this case study. However, there was a lack of consensus among health professionals on what a health promotion approach was, causing discrepancy in approaches and practices of health communication. Two themes emerged from the data analysis: Communicating health and environment for health communication. The themes represented individual and organizational factors that affected health communication practice in PHC and thus need to be taken into consideration in the development of the planned health channel. Health communication practiced in PHC is individual based, preventive and reactive in nature, as opposed to population based, promotive and proactive in line with a health promotion approach. The most significant challenge in developing an ICT supported health communication channel for health promotion identified in this study, is profiling a health promotion approach in PHC. Addressing health promotion values and principles in the design of ICT supported health communication channel could facilitate

  20. Breast Health Belief Systems Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Mary

    1999-01-01

    .... The hypothesis underlying this research is that a breast health promotion approach that is based in specific belief systems among three disparate African American rural populations of low socioeconomic status (SES...

  1. Primary and booster vaccination with DTPw-HB/Hib pentavalent vaccine in Costa Rican children who had received a birth dose of hepatitis B vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idis Faingezicht

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The DTPw-HB/Hib pentavalent combination vaccine has been developed following recommendations of the World Health Organization for the introduction of hepatitis B (HB and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib vaccines into routine childhood vaccination programs. The objectives of this study were to: 1 analyze the immunogenicity and the reactogenicity of the DTPw-HB/Hib pentavalent combination vaccine in comparison to separate injections of DTPw-HB and Hib vaccines as primary vaccination in a group of children who had received a dose of HB vaccine at birth and 2 in the second year of life to assess the antibody persistence as well as the response to a DTPw-HB/Hib or DTPw/Hib booster. Methods. In the first part of the study (primary-vaccination stage, conducted in 1998-1999, we analyzed the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of the DTPw-HB/Hib combination vaccine in comparison to separate injections of DTPw-HB and Hib vaccines as primary vaccination at 2, 4, and 6 months of age in 207 Costa Rican children who had received a dose of HB vaccine at birth. Later, in the booster-vaccination stage of the study, in 1999-2000, in a subset of the children (69 toddlers, now 15-18 months old, antibody persistence was measured, and response to a DTPw-HB/Hib or DTPw/Hib booster was also assessed. Results. In both primary-vaccination groups, at least 97.5% of the infants reached protective levels of antibodies (seropositivity against the antigens employed in the vaccines. The DTPw-HB/Hib pentavalent combination vaccine did not result in more local reactions than did the DTPw-HB vaccine alone, and, in terms of general reactions, there was no clinically significant difference between the combination or separate injections, and with the pentavalent vaccine having the benefit of needing one less injection. Nine months after the third dose of the primary-vaccination course, antibody persistence was similar in both groups, with over 93% of children still having

  2. The Breast Health Intervention Evaluation Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blumenthal, Daniel

    1997-01-01

    The Breast Health Intervention Evaluation (BRIE) Study will evaluate the relative effectiveness of three different approaches to breast health messages--a fear appeal, a positive affect appeal, and an affectively neutral, cognitive appeal...

  3. Effects of minority stress processes on the mental health of Latino men who have sex with men and women: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Ian W; Padilla, Mark B; Willner, Lauren; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent

    2015-10-01

    Emerging literature on minority stress among sexual minority populations has described the negative consequences that multiple minority statuses may exert on mental health and well-being. This literature has tended to focus on individuals whose self-identifications reflect sexual minority sexual categories, such as gay or bisexual, and has explored the intersection of these definitions with ethnic, racial, and class statuses. Few such studies have explored mental health among men who actively deny a sexual minority sexual identity label while engaging in same-sex sexual behaviors. The present study used ethnographic interview data from 20 non-gay-identified bisexually behaving Dominican and Puerto Rican men in New York City. Participants described discovery of same sex sexual behavior as a threat to their intimate relationships, community affiliation, and counter to expectations of Latino masculinity. Recounting a wide range of information management strategies used to avoid open disclosure about their sexual lives, participants experienced the potential consequences of disclosure as extreme and even life threatening. Men anticipated social isolation, depression, self-injury, and suicidality as possible outcomes from disclosing sexual behavior with other men to their female romantic partners. This analysis provides direction for future research on minority stress processes and mental health service delivery among Latino men who have sex with men and women.

  4. Trajectories of Sensation Seeking Among Puerto-Rican Children and Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Silvia S.; Wall, Melanie M.; Eisenberg, Ruth; Blanco, Carlos; Santaella, Julian; Ramos-Olazagasti, Maria; Canino, Glorisa; Bird, Hector R.; Brown, Qiana; Duarte, Cristiane S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To document the natural course of sensation seeking from childhood to adolescence, characterize distinct sensation-seeking trajectories, and examine how these trajectories vary according to selected predictors. Method Data were obtained from the Boricua Youth Study, a longitudinal study of 2,491 children and adolescents of Puerto Rican background (three assessments from 2000 to 2004). First, age-specific sensation-seeking levels were characterized. Then, age-adjusted residuals were analyzed using growth mixture models (GMM). Results On average, sensation seeking was stable in childhood (ages 5–10) and increased during adolescence (ages 11–17). Mean scores of sensation seeking were higher in the South Bronx vs. Puerto Rico and among males vs. females. Four classes of sensation-seeking trajectories were observed: most study participants had age-expected sensation-seeking trajectories following the average for their age (“normative,” 43.8%); others (37.2%) remained consistently lower than the expected average for their age (“low” sensation seeking); some (12.0%) had an “accelerated” sensation-seeking trajectory, increasing at a faster rate than expected, while a minority (7.0%) had a decreasing sensation-seeking trajectory that started high but decreased, reaching scores slightly higher than the age-average sensation-seeking scores (“stabilizers”). Site (South Bronx vs. Puerto Rico) and gender were predictors of membership in a specific class of sensation-seeking trajectory. Conclusion It is important to take a developmental approach when examining sensation seeking and to consider gender and the social environment when trying to understand how sensation seeking evolves during childhood and adolescence. PMID:26598479

  5. Statistical health-effects study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.S.

    1982-01-01

    The main purpose of this program is to analyze the mortality of Hanford workers and to determine the effects of radiation exposure in this population. A secondary purpose is to improve methodology for assessing health effects of chronic low-level exposure to harmful agents or substances, particularly in an occupational setting. In the past year we have updated our analyses, submitted papers for publication in the two areas of methodological research, and have interacted with Hanford Environmental Health Foundation staff to improve data collection procedures

  6. 26 CFR 1.401(a)-50 - Puerto Rican trusts; election to be treated as a domestic trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Puerto Rican trusts; election to be treated as a domestic trust. 1.401(a)-50 Section 1.401(a)-50 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. § 1.401(a)-50 Puerto Rican trusts...

  7. Favourable changes in economic well-being and self-rated health among the elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenes-Camacho, Gilbert

    2011-01-01

    Adverse economic shocks exert an influence on health perceptions, but little is known about the effect of sudden positive changes in a person’s financial situation on self-rated health, particularly among low income people. This paper explores the association between an increase in the amount of non-contribution pensions, public cash transfers given to Costa Rican elderly of low socio-economic status (SES) and changes in self-rated health over time. The analysis is based on data from CRELES, the “Costa Rican Study on Longevity and Healthy Aging”, which is based on a probabilistic sample of people born in 1945 or earlier, and living in Costa Rica by 2002. The fieldwork for the first and second waves of CRELES was conducted from 2004 to 2006, and from 2006 to 2008, respectively. The Costa Rican Government raised the amount of the non-contribution pension for the poor 100% before July 2007, and an additional 100% after that date. Due to the CRELES fieldwork schedule, the data have a natural quasi-experimental design, given that approximately half of CRELES respondents were interviewed before July 2007, independently of their status in receiving the public cash transfers. Using random effects ordered probit regression models, we find that people who experienced such increase report a greater improvement in self-rated health between waves than those who experienced a smaller increase and than the rest of the interviewees. Results suggest that increases in income may lead to a greater improvement in self-rated health. PMID:21440352

  8. The pull of public health studies

    OpenAIRE

    Braine, Theresa

    2007-01-01

    Public health has burgeoned over the past 100 years, from the study of tropical diseases in the 19th century to national public health systems after World War One and, more recently, to include international public health. Education has kept up with these trends, and today there are hundreds of schools around the world, many flourishing in developing countries.

  9. Nativity differences in allostatic load by age, sex, and Hispanic background from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian R. Salazar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Allostatic load (AL, an index of biological “wear and tear” on the body from cumulative exposure to stress, has been little studied in US Hispanics/Latinos. We investigated AL accumulation patterns by age, sex, and nativity in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos. We studied 15,830 Hispanic/Latinos of Mexican, Cuban, Dominican, Puerto Rican, Central and South American descent aged 18–74 years, 77% of whom were foreign-born. Consistent with the conceptualization of AL, we developed an index based upon 16 physiological markers that spanned the cardiometabolic, parasympathetic, and inflammatory systems. We computed mean adjusted AL scores using log-linear models across age-groups (18–44, 45–54, 55–74 years, by sex and nativity status. Among foreign-born individuals, differences in AL by duration of residence in the US (<10, ≥10 years and age at migration (<24, ≥24 years were also examined. In persons younger than 55 years old, after controlling for socioeconomic and behavioral factors, AL was highest among US-born individuals, intermediate in foreign-born Hispanics/Latinos with longer duration in the US (≥10 years, and lowest among those with shorter duration in the US (<10 years (P<0.0001 for increasing trend. Similarly, AL increased among the foreign-born with earlier age at immigration. These trends were less pronounced among individuals ≥55 years of age. Similar patterns were observed across all Hispanic/Latino heritage groups (P for interaction=0.5. Our findings support both a “healthy immigrant” pattern and a loss of health advantage over time among US Hispanics/Latinos of diverse heritages. Keywords: Allostatic load, Physiological dysregulation, Hispanic ethnicity, Nativity, Age patterns

  10. Ecosystem-Level Carbon Stocks in Costa Rican Mangrove Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cifuentes, M.

    2012-12-01

    Tropical mangroves provide a wide variety of ecosystem services, including atmospheric carbon sequestration. Because of their high rates of carbon accumulation, the large expected size of their total stocks (from 2 to 5 times greater than those of upland tropical forests), and the alarming rates at which they are being converted to other uses (releasing globally from 0.02 to 0.12 Pg C yr-1), mangroves are receiving increasing attention as additional tools to mitigate climate change. However, data on whole ecosystem-level carbon in tropical mangroves is limited. Here I present the first estimate of ecosystem level carbon stocks in mangrove forests of Central America. I established 28, 125 m-long, sampling transects along the 4 main rivers draining the Térraba-Sierpe National Wetland in the southern Pacific coast of Costa Rica. This area represents 39% of all remaining mangroves in the country (48300 ha). A circular nested plot was placed every 25 m along each transect. Carbon stocks of standing trees, regeneration, the herbaceous layer, litter, and downed wood were measured following internationally-developed methods compatible with IPCC "Good Practice Guidelines". In addition, total soil carbon stocks were determined down to 1 m depth. Together, these carbon estimates represent the ecosystem-carbon stocks of these forests. The average aboveground carbon stocks were 72.5 ± 3.2 MgC ha-1 (range: 9 - 241 MgC ha-1), consistent with results elsewhere in the world. Between 74 and 92% of the aboveground carbon is stored in trees ≥ 5cm dbh. I found a significant correlation between basal area of trees ≥ 5cm dbh and total aboveground carbon. Soil carbon stocks to 1 m depth ranged between 141 y 593 MgC ha-1. Ecosystem-level carbon stocks ranged from 391 MgC ha-1 to 438 MgC ha-1, with a slight increase from south to north locations. Soil carbon stocks represent an average 76% of total ecosystem carbon stocks, while trees represent only 20%. These Costa Rican mangroves

  11. Determinants of health in seasonal migrants: coffee harvesters in Los Santos, Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loría Bolaños, Rocío; Partanen, Timo; Berrocal, Milena; Alvárez, Benjamín; Córdoba, Leonel

    2008-01-01

    In the agroexport zone of Los Santos Zone in Costa Rica, coffee is harvested by migrant labor. Most migrants are from Panama and Nicaragua. We describe migrants' housing- and service-related health determinants, with analyses of ethnicity, nationality and geography. We used interviews, observation-based assessments, and the Geographic Information System to assess a population of 8,783 seasonal migrants and 1,099 temporary dwellings at a total of 520 farms during 2004-2005. We identified determinants of poor health including widespread deficiencies in the quality of grower-provided dwellings, geographical isolation, crowding, lack of radio and television, and deficient toilets and cooking facilities. The indigenous and non-Costa Ricans shared the poorest conditions. Reluctance to use mainstream public health services was widespread, especially among foreign and indigenous migrants and the geographically isolated. Post-study, researchers organized workshops for audiences including workers, coffee producers, public officials and service providers. Topics have included migration, preventive health and hygiene, and child labor. This work was successful in convincing Costa Rican social security authorities to implement reforms that improve access to and quality of health care for the migrants. Special projects on ergonomics, psychosocial health hazards, and water quality, as well as a literacy program, are ongoing.

  12. Associations between health culture, health behaviors, and health-related outcomes: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yingnan; Gao, Junling; Dai, Junming; Zheng, Pinpin; Fu, Hua

    2017-01-01

    To examine the associations between demographic characteristics, health behaviors, workplace health culture, and health-related outcomes in Chinese workplaces. A total of 1508 employees from 10 administrative offices and 6 enterprises were recruited for a cross-sectional survey. Self-administered questionnaires mainly addressed demographic characteristics, health behaviors, workplace health culture, and health-related outcomes including self-rated health, mental health, and happiness. The proportion of participants who reported good health-related outcomes was significantly higher in those working in administrative offices than those working in enterprises. The result of the potential factors related to self-rated health (SRH), mental health, and happiness by logistic regression analyses showed that age and income were associated with SRH; type of workplace, age, smoking, and health culture at the workplace level were associated with mental health; and beneficial health effects of direct leadership was positively associated with happiness. Moreover, there were some similar results among 3 multivariate regression models. Firstly, good SRH (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.744), mental health (OR = 1.891), and happiness (OR = 1.736) were more common among highly physically active participants compared with those physical inactive. Furthermore, passive smoking was negatively correlated with SRH (OR = 0.686), mental health (OR = 0.678), and happiness (OR = 0.616), while health culture at the individual level was positively correlated with SRH (OR = 1.478), mental health (OR = 1.654), and happiness (OR = 2.916). The present study indicated that workplace health culture, health behaviors, and demographic characteristics were associated with health-related outcomes. Furthermore, individual health culture, physical activity, and passive smoking might play a critical role in workplace health promotion.

  13. Ataques de Nervios and their psychiatric correlates in Puerto Rican children from two different contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Irene; Rivera, Fernando; Ramirez, Rafael; Guarnaccia, Peter J; Canino, Glorisa; Bird, Héctor R

    2009-12-01

    Among Latino adults and children, ataques de nervios has been associated with an array of psychiatric disorders. Using data from a probability sample of Puerto Rican children, aged 5 to 13 years (N = 2491), we assessed the lifetime prevalence and psychiatric correlates of ataques in youth residing in the South Bronx, New York and San Juan, Puerto Rico. Baseline site comparisons indicated that between 4% and 5% of children had a lifetime prevalence of ataques (either by child or parent report) and that ataques were associated with greater global impairment and a host of childhood disorders within the previous twelve months. Ataques were also correlated with greater exposure to violence, as well as more stressful life events for the South Bronx sample. After controlling for several covariates, ataques continued to be significantly associated with psychopathology. Ataques are, therefore, a significant correlate of global impairment and childhood psychopathology among Puerto Rican youth.

  14. Internet Resources of Consumer Health Information Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Tzuon Chou

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Health and medical care has always been an important issue. Recently, there has been a rapid increase in consumer health awareness. Therefore, Consumer Health Information has been vastlyemphasized, which results in the development of associated websites. According to an investigation in Taiwan, there are 1,820 different health and medical related websites in 2002. However, due to the lack of regulations, some of these websites’ information contents may be faulty and may confuse users or potentially be harmful. The purpose of this article is to advise consumers how to differentiate between correct and incorrect information in the Health Information websites. The present study analyzes the strengths and weaknesses of some Taiwan’s consumer health websites by comparing their structures, contents and other information with those provided by "the Top Ten Most Useful Health Information Websites" of the USA. [Article content in Chinese

  15. Emigration From Puerto Rico to Florida: Multivariate Analysis of Factors That Condition Attitudes of the Puerto Rican Population Toward Organ Donation for Transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, A; López-Navas, A I; Sánchez, Á; Martínez-Alarcón, L; Ayala, M A; Garrido, G; Sebastián, M J; Ramis, G; Hernández, A M; Ramírez, P; Parrilla, P

    2018-03-01

    The Puerto Rican population represents one of the largest immigration groups in Florida, and this has an impact on the organ transplant donation process. Our aim was to analyze attitudes toward organ donation among Puerto Ricans who currently reside in the state of Florida (USA). The population screened consisted of individuals >15 years old, who were born in Puerto Rico, living in Florida, and awaiting organs for transplant. All participants completed the "PCID-DTO Rios" questionnaire. Random selection was done according to stratification. Support from immigration associations in Spain was needed for advice on the locations of potential respondents. Study participation was anonymized and self-administered. There were 259 respondents, 37% (n = 95) were in favor of donation, 36% (n = 93) were against donation, and 27% (n = 71) were undecided. The variables associated with these attitudes were: age (P = .017); civil status (P = .021); level of education (P donation and transplant (P donation of a relative (P donation (P donation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Challenges for implementing water quality monitoring and analysis on a small Costa Rican catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golcher, Christian; Cernesson, Flavie; Tournoud, Marie-George; Bonin, Muriel; Suarez, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    The Costa Rican water regulatory framework (WRF) (2007), expresses the national concern about the degradation of surface water quality observed in the country since several years. Given the urgency of preserving and restoring the surface water bodies, and facing the need of defining a monitoring tool to classify surface water pollution, the Costa-Rican WRF relies on two water quality indexes: the so-called "Dutch Index" (D.I) and the Biological Monitoring Working Party adapted to Costa Rica (BMWP'CR), allowing an "easy" physicochemical and biological appraisal of the water quality and the ecological integrity of water bodies. Herein, we intend to evaluate whether the compound of water quality indexes imposed by Costa Rican legislation, is suitable to assess rivers local and global anthropogenic pressure and environmental conditions. We monitor water quality for 7 points of Liberia River (northern pacific region - Costa Rica) from March 2013 to July 2015. Anthropogenic pressures are characterized by catchment land use and riparian conditions. Environmental conditions are built from rainfall daily series. Our results show (i) the difficulties to monitor new sites following the recent implementation of the WRF; (ii) the statistical characteristics of each index; and (iii) a modelling tentative of relationships between water quality indexes and explanatory factors (land-use, riparian characteristics and climate conditions).

  17. Artificial Cavities and Nest Site Selection by Puerto Rican Parrots: a Multiscale Assessment

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    Thomas H. White, Jr.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined nest site selection by Puerto Rican Parrots, a secondary cavity nester, at several spatial scales using the nest entrance as the central focal point relative to 20 habitat and spatial variables. The Puerto Rican Parrot is unique in that, since 2001, all known nesting in the wild has occurred in artificial cavities, which also provided us with an opportunity to evaluate nest site selection without confounding effects of the actual nest cavity characteristics. Because of the data limitations imposed by the small population size of this critically endangered endemic species, we employed a distribution-free statistical simulation approach to assess site selection relative to characteristics of used and unused nesting sites. Nest sites selected by Puerto Rican Parrots were characterized by greater horizontal and vertical visibility from the nest entrance, greater density of mature sierra palms, and a more westerly and leeward orientation of nest entrances than unused sites. Our results suggest that nest site selection in this species is an adaptive response to predation pressure, to which the parrots respond by selecting nest sites offering advantages in predator detection and avoidance at all stages of the nesting cycle. We conclude that identifying and replicating the “nest gestalt” of successful nesting sites may facilitate conservation efforts for this and other endangered avian species.

  18. Embedding health literacy into health systems: a case study of a regional health service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellar, Lucia; Mastroianni, Fiorina; Lambert, Kelly

    2017-12-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to describe how one regional health service the Illawarra Shoalhaven Local Health District embedded health literacy principles into health systems over a 3-year period. Methods Using a case study approach, this article describes the development of key programs and the manner in which clinical incidents were used to create a health environment that allows consumers the right to equitably access quality health services and to participate in their own health care. Results The key outcomes demonstrating successful embedding of health literacy into health systems in this regional health service include the creation of a governance structure and web-based platform for developing and testing plain English consumer health information, a clearly defined process to engage with consumers, development of the health literacy ambassador training program and integrating health literacy into clinical quality improvement processes via a formal program with consumers to guide processes such as improvements to access and navigation around hospital sites. Conclusions The Illawarra Shoalhaven Local Health District has developed an evidence-based health literacy framework, guided by the core principles of universal precaution and organisational responsibility. Health literacy was also viewed as both an outcome and a process. The approach taken by the Illawarra Shoalhaven Local Health District to address poor health literacy in a coordinated way has been recognised by the Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care as an exemplar of a coordinated approach to embed health literacy into health systems. What is known about the topic? Poor health literacy is a significant national concern in Australia. The leadership, governance and consumer partnership culture of a health organisation can have considerable effects on an individual's ability to access, understand and apply the health-related information and services available to them

  19. Cohort studies in health sciences librarianship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldredge, Jonathan

    2002-10-01

    What are the key characteristics of the cohort study design and its varied applications, and how can this research design be utilized in health sciences librarianship? The health, social, behavioral, biological, library, earth, and management sciences literatures were used as sources. All fields except for health sciences librarianship were scanned topically for either well-known or diverse applications of the cohort design. The health sciences library literature available to the author principally for the years 1990 to 2000, supplemented by papers or posters presented at annual meetings of the Medical Library Association. A narrative review for the health, social, behavioral, biological, earth, and management sciences literatures and a systematic review for health sciences librarianship literature for the years 1990 to 2000, with three exceptions, were conducted. The author conducted principally a manual search of the health sciences librarianship literature for the years 1990 to 2000 as part of this systematic review. The cohort design has been applied to answer a wide array of theoretical or practical research questions in the health, social, behavioral, biological, and management sciences. Health sciences librarianship also offers several major applications of the cohort design. The cohort design has great potential for answering research questions in the field of health sciences librarianship, particularly evidence-based librarianship (EBL), although that potential has not been fully explored.

  20. Adult health study report, 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawada, Hisao; Kodama, Kazunori; Shimizu, Yukiko; Kato, Hiroo.

    1987-02-01

    The AHS clinical examination is conducted biennially to determine disease (not limited to disease) prevalence rates. No inquiry is made about deaths occurring between the cycle examinations. Since there has been a remarkable difference in cancer mortality by radiation dose it must be stated that the effects of atomic bomb radiation cannot be adequately assessed through a comparison of cancer prevalence rates alone. Nonetheless, in this study, an association between the prevalence rates of various cancers and radiation has been demonstrated, particularly for cancers with a relatively low lethality rate. In this group are cancers of the thyroid and breast where the association is strong, particularly in the younger age-groups. An association continued to be observed for neoplasms of the lymphatic and hematopoietic tissues, and for all cancers excluding the foregoing, for which a demonstrable association to A-bomb exposure was made at an early stage. These are important findings. Further, analysis of benign tumors suggested an increase in prevalence associated with an increase in radiation dose, a finding which was not observed in the studies of autopsied cases. This finding raises a whole series of questions relating to radiation carcinogenesis. As for other diseases, strong association of increased prevalence with increased radiation dose was observed for various thyroid diseases, anemia, cataract, and calcification of the aorta. As for physical measurements and laboratory tests, relationships to radiation dose were observed concerning hemoglobin, hematocrit, erythrocyte sedimentatioin rate, and white blood cell count (WBC), in addition to growth and development retardation in the younger survivors as described in a previous report. In general, for many diseases and measurements, the association is stronger for those exposed at younger ages. Furthermore, some effects on the aging process are also suggested by the analysis. (author)

  1. Indice Bibliografico de Investigaciones Pedagogicas 1948-1968. Estudio y Tesis. Volumen I. (Bibliographic Index of Pedagogical Research, 1948-1968. Studies and Theses. Volume I.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puerto Rico Univ., Rio Piedras.

    This bibliography presents a comprehensive index of research from 1948 to 1968 on topics relating to Puerto Ricans and education. Included are studies from Puerto Rican, U.S. and European universities and research centers. The bibliography, which is divided into three separate books, is organized by subject: Part 1 cites literature on:…

  2. Acculturation and gestational weight gain in a predominantly puerto rican population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tovar Alison

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying risk factors that affect excess weight gain during pregnancy is critical, especially among women who are at a higher risk for obesity. The goal of this study was to determine if acculturation, a possible risk factor, was associated with gestational weight gain in a predominantly Puerto Rican population. Methods We utilized data from Proyecto Buena Salud, a prospective cohort study of Hispanic women in Western Massachusetts, United States. Height, weight and gestational age were abstracted from medical records among participants with full-term pregnancies (n=952. Gestational weight gain was calculated as the difference between delivery and prepregnancy weight. Acculturation (measured via a psychological acculturation scale, generation in the US, place of birth and spoken language preference was assessed in early pregnancy. Results Adjusting for age, parity, perceived stress, gestational age, and prepregnancy weight, women who had at least one parent born in Puerto Rico/Dominican Republic (PR/DR and both grandparents born in PR/DR had a significantly higher mean total gestational weight gain (0.9 kg for at least one parent born in PR/DR and 2.2kg for grandparents born in PR/DR and rate of weight gain (0.03 kg/wk for at least one parent born in PR/DR and 0.06 kg/wk for grandparents born in PR/DR vs. women who were of PR/DR born. Similarly, women born in the US had significantly higher mean total gestational weight gain (1.0 kg and rate of weight gain (0.03 kg/wk vs. women who were PR/ DR born. Spoken language preference and psychological acculturation were not significantly associated with total or rate of pregnancy weight gain. Conclusion We found that psychological acculturation was not associated with gestational weight gain while place of birth and higher generation in the US were significantly associated with higher gestational weight gain. We interpret these findings to suggest the potential importance of the

  3. Acculturation and gestational weight gain in a predominantly Puerto Rican population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, Alison; Chasan-Taber, Lisa; Bermudez, Odilia I; Hyatt, Raymond R; Must, Aviva

    2012-11-21

    Identifying risk factors that affect excess weight gain during pregnancy is critical, especially among women who are at a higher risk for obesity. The goal of this study was to determine if acculturation, a possible risk factor, was associated with gestational weight gain in a predominantly Puerto Rican population. We utilized data from Proyecto Buena Salud, a prospective cohort study of Hispanic women in Western Massachusetts, United States. Height, weight and gestational age were abstracted from medical records among participants with full-term pregnancies (n=952). Gestational weight gain was calculated as the difference between delivery and prepregnancy weight. Acculturation (measured via a psychological acculturation scale, generation in the US, place of birth and spoken language preference) was assessed in early pregnancy. Adjusting for age, parity, perceived stress, gestational age, and prepregnancy weight, women who had at least one parent born in Puerto Rico/Dominican Republic (PR/DR) and both grandparents born in PR/DR had a significantly higher mean total gestational weight gain (0.9 kg for at least one parent born in PR/DR and 2.2 kg for grandparents born in PR/DR) and rate of weight gain (0.03 kg/wk for at least one parent born in PR/DR and 0.06 kg/wk for grandparents born in PR/DR) vs. women who were of PR/DR born. Similarly, women born in the US had significantly higher mean total gestational weight gain (1.0 kg) and rate of weight gain (0.03 kg/wk) vs. women who were PR/ DR born. Spoken language preference and psychological acculturation were not significantly associated with total or rate of pregnancy weight gain. We found that psychological acculturation was not associated with gestational weight gain while place of birth and higher generation in the US were significantly associated with higher gestational weight gain. We interpret these findings to suggest the potential importance of the US "obesogenic" environment in influencing unhealthy

  4. An insight into the antibiofilm properties of Costa Rican stingless bee honeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, L G; Beukelman, C J; van den Berg, A J J; Aerts, P C; Quarles van Ufford, H C; Nijland, R; Arias, M L

    2017-04-02

    There is an increasing search for antibiofilm agents that either have specific activity against biofilms or may act in synergy with antimicrobials. Our objective is to examine the the antibiofilm properties of stingless bee honeys. Meliponini honeys from Costa Rica were examined along with Medihoney as a reference. All honeys were submitted to a screening composed of minimum inhibitory concentration, inhibition of biofilm formation and biofilm destruction microplate-based assays against a Staphylococcus aureus biofilm forming strain. Dialysis led to the isolation of an antibiofilm fraction in Tetragonisca angustula honeys. The honey antibiofilm fraction was evaluated for protease activity and for any synergistic effect with antibiotics on a Staphylococcus aureus biofilm. The active fraction was then separated through activity guided isolation techniques involving SDS-PAGEs, anion exchange and size exclusion fast protein liquid chromatographies. The fractions obtained and the isolated antibiofilm constituents were tested for amylase and DNase activity. A total of 57 Meliponini honeys from Costa Rica were studied in this research. The honeys studied belonged to the Tetragonisca angustula (n=36) and Melipona beecheii (n=21) species. Costa Rican Tetragonisca angustula honeys can inhibit the planktonic growth, biofilm formation, and are capable of destroying a Staphylococcus aureus biofilm. The antibiofilm effect was observed in the protein fraction of Tetragonisca angustula honeys. The biofilm destruction proteins allowed ampicillin and vancomycin to recover their antimicrobial activity over a Staphylococcus aureus biofilm. The antibiofilm proteins are of bee origin, and their activity was not due to serine, cysteine or metalloproteases. There were 2 proteins causing the antibiofilm action; these were named the Tetragonisca angustula biofilm destruction factors (TABDFs). TABDF-1 is a monomeric protein of approximately 50kDa that is responsible of the amylase activity

  5. Genetics of hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy and the Costa Rican contribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Leal

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN or Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT is the most common hereditary illness of the peripheral nervous system. The genetics and the physiopathological aspects of the disease clarified until know, are here summarized. More than twenty genes and ten additional loci have been related with HMSN. These findings contribute to understand the metabolism of peripheral nerves and give the basis for molecular diagnostics and future therapy. Several Costa Rican families with CMT have been identified, specially with axonal forms. Two families present mutations in the myelin protein zero gene (MPZ. In addition, linkage have been found between the disease and locus 19q13.3 in an extended family, and a mutation segregating with the disease is present in a candidate gene of the critical interval. Costa Rica has several advantages for genetical studies, that can contribute importantly in the generation of knowledge in the neurogenetical field. Rev. Biol. Trop. 52(3: 475-483. Epub 2004 Dic 15.El grupo de neuropatías motoras y sensoriales hereditarias (HMSN o enfermedad de Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT es el padecimiento hereditario más común del sistema nervioso periférico. El propósito de este trabajo es resumir los aspectos genéticos y fisiopatológicos más actuales de esta enfermedad. Más de veinte genes y diez loci adicionales han sido relacionados con HMSN. Estos hallazgos han contribuido con la comprensión del metabolismo de los nervios periféricos y sirven de base para el diagnóstico molecular y el diseño de terapias. Diversas familias costarricenses con CMT han sido identificadas: dos de ellas presentan mutaciones en el gen que codifica por la mielina proteína cero (MPZ. Además, un análisis de ligamiento localizó el gen que causa una forma axonal de la enfermedad en el cromosoma 19q13.3 en una extensa familia; también se detectó en esa región una mutación que co-segrega con la enfermedad y que

  6. Profiling the venom gland transcriptomes of Costa Rican snakes by 454 pyrosequencing

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    Sanz Libia

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A long term research goal of venomics, of applied importance for improving current antivenom therapy, but also for drug discovery, is to understand the pharmacological potential of venoms. Individually or combined, proteomic and transcriptomic studies have demonstrated their feasibility to explore in depth the molecular diversity of venoms. In the absence of genome sequence, transcriptomes represent also valuable searchable databases for proteomic projects. Results The venom gland transcriptomes of 8 Costa Rican taxa from 5 genera (Crotalus, Bothrops, Atropoides, Cerrophidion, and Bothriechis of pitvipers were investigated using high-throughput 454 pyrosequencing. 100,394 out of 330,010 masked reads produced significant hits in the available databases. 5.165,220 nucleotides (8.27% were masked by RepeatMasker, the vast majority of which corresponding to class I (retroelements and class II (DNA transposons mobile elements. BLAST hits included 79,991 matches to entries of the taxonomic suborder Serpentes, of which 62,433 displayed similarity to documented venom proteins. Strong discrepancies between the transcriptome-computed and the proteome-gathered toxin compositions were obvious at first sight. Although the reasons underlaying this discrepancy are elusive, since no clear trend within or between species is apparent, the data indicate that individual mRNA species may be translationally controlled in a species-dependent manner. The minimum number of genes from each toxin family transcribed into the venom gland transcriptome of each species was calculated from multiple alignments of reads matched to a full-length reference sequence of each toxin family. Reads encoding ORF regions of Kazal-type inhibitor-like proteins were uniquely found in Bothriechis schlegelii and B. lateralis transcriptomes, suggesting a genus-specific recruitment event during the early-Middle Miocene. A transcriptome-based cladogram supports the large

  7. Mobile Health Initiatives in Vietnam: Scoping Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Jeffrey A; Dang, Linh Thuy; Phan, Ngoc Tran; Trinh, Hue Thi; Vu, Nguyen Cong; Nguyen, Cuong Kieu

    2018-04-24

    Mobile health (mHealth) offers a promising solution to the multitude of challenges the Vietnamese health system faces, but there is a scarcity of published information on mHealth in Vietnam. The objectives of this scoping study were (1) to summarize the extent, range, and nature of mHealth initiatives in Vietnam and (2) to examine the opportunities and threats of mHealth utilization in the Vietnamese context. This scoping study systematically identified and extracted relevant information from 20 past and current mHealth initiatives in Vietnam. The study includes multimodal information sources, including published literature, gray literature (ie, government reports and unpublished literature), conference presentations, Web-based documents, and key informant interviews. We extracted information from 27 records from the electronic search and conducted 14 key informant interviews, allowing us to identify 20 mHealth initiatives in Vietnam. Most of the initiatives were primarily funded by external donors (n=15), while other initiatives were government funded (n=1) or self-funded (n=4). A majority of the initiatives targeted vulnerable and hard-to-reach populations (n=11), aimed to prevent the occurrence of disease (n=12), and used text messaging (short message service, SMS) as part of their intervention (n=14). The study revealed that Vietnamese mHealth implementation has been challenged by factors including features unique to the Vietnamese language (n=4) and sociocultural factors (n=3). The largest threats to the popularity of mHealth initiatives are the absence of government policy, lack of government interest, heavy dependence on foreign funding, and lack of technological infrastructure. Finally, while current mHealth initiatives have already demonstrated promising opportunities for alternative models of funding, such as social entrepreneurship or private business models, sustainable mHealth initiatives outside of those funded by external donors have not yet been

  8. Construction of the Cognitive Dimension of the Scientific Literacy in the Students through the Costa Rican Biological Sciences Olympics

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    Shirley Camacho-Vargas

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This research recognizes the cognitive contributions to the students participating in the Third Costa Rican Biological Sciences Olympics that will define the advancement and strengthening in the construction of its conceptual dimension in the scientific literacy.  This paper is based, mainly, on qualitative approach techniques (ethnographic design:  case study; however, some data are interpreted through quantitative methodologies (descriptive design with an explanatory and exploratory touch for the analysis of a sample of 54 high school students, finalists in the category A of the Olympics, through the use of tools such as a documentary study and a survey, in July 2009.  The information generated was analyzed using elements of inferential and descriptive statistics, figures and histograms.  It was proved that there is a better cognitive management in the topics assessed, an increase in the students’ academic performance as the tests are applied, a commitment for the academic update supported by the development of several tasks for previous preparation, curriculum contributions unprecedented based on our sample, a consent to optimize student’s knowledge about Biology, which will allow the application of scientific notions to diversify and renew the knowledge, according to what is established in the principles of scientific literacy.

  9. Cultural Variables Underlying Obesity in Latino Men: Design, Rationale and Participant Characteristics from the Latino Men's Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Johnsen, Lisa; Craven, Meredith; Nava, Magdalena; Alonso, Angelica; Dykema-Engblade, Amanda; Rademaker, Alfred; Xie, Hui

    2017-08-01

    Overweight and obesity are associated with significant health problems and rates of obesity are high among Latino men. This paper describes the design, rationale and participant characteristics of the key demographic variables assessed in an NIH-funded study (R21-CA143636) addressing culture and several obesity-related variables (diet, physical activity, and body image) among Mexican and Puerto Rican men using a community-based participatory research framework. Participants completed objective measures (height, weight, body fat, hip, waist), a health and culture interview, a diet questionnaire, and used an accelerometer to measure their level of physical activity. A total of 203 participants completed the measures and the health and culture interview and 193 completed all study components. Puerto Ricans were older than Mexicans (p health insurance, Body Mass Index, body fat, hip and waist measurements, and the language preference of the interview. Results have implications for the development of a future intervention that incorporates the role of cultural factors into a community participatory obesity intervention for Latino men.

  10. Insulin autoantibodies: evidence of autoimmune disease among a group of Puerto Rican children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González de Pijem, L; Nieves-Rivera, F

    2001-06-01

    Type 1 diabetes is a chronic disease caused by a cell-specific destruction of the insulin producing cells of the pancreas. Although Puerto Rico has the highest incidence of type 1 diabetes among Latin American countries, there is scanty data on the presence of antibodies against insulin producing cells. To this end, 20 children (8 males, 12 females), ages 1-15 years, admitted to the University Pediatric Hospital with type 1 diabetes de novo between November 2000 and April 2001 were prospectively studied to determine the presence of serum antibodies against Islet cells (ICA), glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD-65) and insulin autoantibodies (IAA). IAA was found to be present in 45% of the subjects with 85% of positive rate in subjects under age 5. GAD-65 was present in 66% and ICA was present in 23% of the subjects. We found evidence of autoimmunity against islet cell surface and intracellular components among a cohort of Puerto Rican children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes. These findings compared favorably with reports from other ethnicities.

  11. Proposal for Managing Eco-efficient Operations Plant Dedicated to Waste Handling at Costa Rican Institute of Electricity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Chinchilla

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, different eco-efficient specifications were established considered by Ingeniería y Construcciónor IC (Engineering and Construction, a business of the Costa Rican Institute of Electricity (ICE, in Spanish, at the time of developing an operational plant devoted to the handling of waste, in order to make rational use of resources and generate the lowest environmental impact. Initially a general diagnosis was conducted to learn about the current process of waste management in IC, as well as the identification and assessment of its aspects and environmental impacts. An ecoefficiency proposal program was subsequently prepared to be implemented once the ordinary, special and hazardous waste plant is operating. As part of this investigation, eco-efficient measures and technologies were also identified; this can be adopted by IC or any organization to improve its waste management. Finally, it is necessary that the Eco-efficient Management Program (PGE, in Spanish is organized, planned and systematized over time; in addition, the need to have an Ecoefficiency Management Committee arises, which will allow to implement it and measure it through a series of indicators.

  12. The impact of war on Puerto Rican families: challenges and strengthened family relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaly Freytes, I; Hannold, Elizabeth M; Resende, Rosana; Wing, Kristen; Uphold, Constance R

    2013-08-01

    We describe the impact of war on Puerto Rican Veterans and family members. We used qualitative research methods to collect and analyze data. We interviewed 8 Veterans and 8 family members. We used the constant comparison method to review data to identify prominent themes. Two categories emerged: (1) Challenges associated with post-deployment family reintegration, and (2) A positive aftermath of war on the family. Overall, findings indicate that OEF/OIF Veterans and family members were not prepared for the changes they encounter post-deployment. Despite these challenges, some Veterans and family members strengthened their relationships and renewed their appreciation for one another.

  13. Granular cell tumor in an endangered Puerto Rican Amazon parrot (Amazon vittata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quist, C.F.; Latimer, K.S.; Goldade, S.L.; Rivera, A.; Dein, F.J.

    1999-01-01

    A 3 cm diameter mass from the metacarpus of a Puerto Rican Amazon parrot was diagnosed as a granular cell tumour based on light microscopy. The cytoplasmic granules were periodic-acid Schiff positive and diastase resistant. Ultrastructural characteristics of the cells included convoluted nuclei and the presence of numerous cytoplasmic tertiary lysosomes. This is only the second granular cell tumour reported in a bird. We speculate that most granular cell tumours are derived from cells that are engaged in some type of cellular degradative process, creating a similar morphologic appearance, but lacking a uniform histogenesis.

  14. Pathogenic potential of a Costa Rican strain of 'Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii' in guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) and protective immunity against Rickettsia rickettsii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Juan J; Moreira-Soto, Andrés; Alvarado, Gilberth; Taylor, Lizeth; Calderón-Arguedas, Olger; Hun, Laya; Corrales-Aguilar, Eugenia; Morales, Juan Alberto; Troyo, Adriana

    2015-09-01

    'Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii' is a spotted fever group rickettsia that is not considered pathogenic, although there is serologic evidence of possible infection in animals and humans. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pathogenic potential of a Costa Rican strain of 'Candidatus R. amblyommii' in guinea pigs and determine its capacity to generate protective immunity against a subsequent infection with a local strain of Rickettsia rickettsii isolated from a human case. Six guinea pigs were inoculated with 'Candidatus R. amblyommii' strain 9-CC-3-1 and two controls with cell culture medium. Health status was evaluated, and necropsies were executed at days 2, 4, and 13. Blood and tissues were processed by PCR to detect the gltA gene, and end titers of anti-'Candidatus R. amblyommii' IgG were determined by indirect immunofluorescence. To evaluate protective immunity, another 5 guinea pigs were infected with 'Candidatus R. amblyommii' (IGPs). After 4 weeks, these 5 IGPs and 3 controls (CGPs) were inoculated with pathogenic R. rickettsii. Clinical signs and titers of anti-Rickettsia IgG were determined. IgG titers reached 1:512 at day 13 post-infection with 'Candidatus R. amblyommii'. On day 2 after inoculation, two guinea pigs had enlarged testicles and 'Candidatus R. amblyommii' DNA was detected in testicles. Histopathology confirmed piogranulomatous orchitis with perivascular inflammatory infiltrate in the epididymis. In the protective immunity assay, anti-Rickettsia IgG end titers after R. rickettsii infection were lower in IGPs than in CGPs. IGPs exhibited only transient fever, while CGP showed signs of severe disease and mortality. R. rickettsii was detected in testicles and blood of CGPs. Results show that the strain 9-CC-3-1 of 'Candidatus R. amblyommii' was able to generate pathology and an antibody response in guinea pigs. Moreover, its capacity to generate protective immunity against R. rickettsii may modulate the epidemiology and severity of Rocky

  15. Integrative health coaching: an organizational case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolever, Ruth Q; Caldwell, Karen L; Wakefield, Jessica P; Little, Kerry J; Gresko, Jeanne; Shaw, Andrea; Duda, Linda V; Kosey, Julie M; Gaudet, Tracy

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe integrative health (IH) coaching as developed in three different interventions offered through a major medical center, as a step toward further defining the field of health coaching. An organizational case study was conducted with document analysis and interviews. Interviewees were the first six IH coaches at Duke Integrative Medicine who provided 360 clients with individual and/or group coaching (two to 28 sessions) in a randomized clinical study and two work-site wellness programs. Qualitative analysis using the constant comparative method was conducted. Integrative health coaching is characterized by a process of self-discovery that informs goal setting and builds internal motivation by linking clients' goals to their values and sense of purpose. Time, commitment, and motivation are necessary in the IH coaching process. The underpinnings of IH coaching are distinct from the medical model, and the process is distinct from health education, executive coaching, and psychotherapy. Integrative health coaching fits well with the assumptions of integrative medicine and has a role in supporting behavior change. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Psychedelics and mental health: a population study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teri S Krebs

    Full Text Available The classical serotonergic psychedelics LSD, psilocybin, mescaline are not known to cause brain damage and are regarded as non-addictive. Clinical studies do not suggest that psychedelics cause long-term mental health problems. Psychedelics have been used in the Americas for thousands of years. Over 30 million people currently living in the US have used LSD, psilocybin, or mescaline.To evaluate the association between the lifetime use of psychedelics and current mental health in the adult population.Data drawn from years 2001 to 2004 of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health consisted of 130,152 respondents, randomly selected to be representative of the adult population in the United States. Standardized screening measures for past year mental health included serious psychological distress (K6 scale, mental health treatment (inpatient, outpatient, medication, needed but did not receive, symptoms of eight psychiatric disorders (panic disorder, major depressive episode, mania, social phobia, general anxiety disorder, agoraphobia, posttraumatic stress disorder, and non-affective psychosis, and seven specific symptoms of non-affective psychosis. We calculated weighted odds ratios by multivariate logistic regression controlling for a range of sociodemographic variables, use of illicit drugs, risk taking behavior, and exposure to traumatic events.21,967 respondents (13.4% weighted reported lifetime psychedelic use. There were no significant associations between lifetime use of any psychedelics, lifetime use of specific psychedelics (LSD, psilocybin, mescaline, peyote, or past year use of LSD and increased rate of any of the mental health outcomes. Rather, in several cases psychedelic use was associated with lower rate of mental health problems.We did not find use of psychedelics to be an independent risk factor for mental health problems.

  17. Food insecurity and cognitive function in Puerto Rican adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food insecurity is associated with nutrient inadequacy and a variety of unfavorable health outcomes. However, little is known about whether food security is associated with lower cognitive function in the elderly. We investigated the prevalence of food insecurity in a representative sample of 1358 P...

  18. Inuit Health in Transition: the Nuka study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter

    biological samples. The studies in Nunavik and Greenland are not identical but share protocols on diabetes, heart disease, diet, smoking, social capital, self rated health, gambling and many other topics. The study is being geographically expanded to cover also Nunavut, Labrador and East Greenland......, and comparable studies have yielded data from Alaska Natives and Norwegian Sami. A number of researchers will present results from the study at this meeting and we shall hear a lot about the link between diet and health. I will take one step back and look at the social determinants of dietary patterns...... in Greenland in a life course perspective. First different ways to determine dietary patterns will be examined; then the association of parents' background, childhood conditions, education, place of residence, job and wealth with diet will be analysed. Finally, the association of diet with other determinants...

  19. The feasibility study: a health economics perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Gannon

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The remit of research funding bodies is to prioritise funding for research that is of relevance and of high quality. This in turn will aim to raise the quality of healthcare and benefit to patients. Researchers are faced with increasing demands and expectations from the public purse and patients. The emphasis is to improve the quality of their research, with the ultimate aim of improving population health. While guidelines on feasibility study methods concentrate heavily on trials, there appears less guidance on application of health economics within feasibility studies, yet these are a less costly way to determine first of all if a full randomised controlled trial (RCT is feasible. A feasibility study assesses if the study can be done in a small RCT type study. Since by definition, a feasibility study does not evaluate the outcome, researchers often omit the health economics aspects but do however include statistical analysis. This leaves a gap in interpretation for policy makers and potential funders. It also means that any resulting publication does not include relevant information and therefore comparison across studies in terms of difficulty in collecting cost data is not possible. The main aim of this commentary therefore, is to demonstrate a suggested health economics analysis within a feasibility study and to recommend to researchers to include these aspects from the conception of their intervention. This paper proposes a number of points, with rationale for each point, to indicate the health economics data and the potential benefits required for coherent interpretation of the feasibility of future economic evaluations in a full trial. Economic evaluation is necessary if implementation into standard care is anticipated. Therefore, collection and summary analysis of relevant data is good practice at each point of the intervention development. Current guidelines for economic evaluation, for example, The Medical Research Guidelines in the

  20. Estimated prevalence of dengue viremia in Puerto Rican blood donations, 1995 through 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Lyle R; Tomashek, Kay M; Biggerstaff, Brad J

    2012-08-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) nucleic acid amplification testing of blood donations during epidemics in endemic locations, including Puerto Rico, has suggested possible sizable transfusion transmission risk. Estimates of the long-term prevalence of DENV viremic donations will help evaluate the potential magnitude of this risk in Puerto Rico. Estimates of the prevalence of DENV viremia in the Puerto Rican population at large from 1995 through 2010 were derived from dengue case reports and their onset dates obtained from islandwide surveillance, estimates of case underreporting, and extant data on the duration of DENV viremia and the unapparent-to-apparent dengue infection ratio. Under the assumptions that viremia prevalence in blood donors was similar to that of the population at large and that symptomatic persons do not donate, statistical resampling methods were used to estimate the prevalence of dengue viremia in blood donations. Over the 16-year period, the maximum and mean daily prevalences of dengue viremia (per 10,000) in blood donations in Puerto Rico were estimated at 45.0 (95% confidence interval [CI], 36.5-55.4) and 7.0 (95% CI, 3.9-10.1), respectively. Prevalence varied considerably by season and year. These data suggest a substantial prevalence of DENV viremia in Puerto Rican blood donations, particularly during outbreaks. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  1. Belledune area health study : summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-02-01

    The Belledune area has been home to various industrial activities such as mining, smelting, fertilizer plants, battery-recycling plants, gypsum plants, sawmills, and a coal-fired electricity generating facility. These industries have had various types and quantities of emissions over the past 4 decades that may have impacted on the health of people in the area. This report provided details of the Belledune Health Area Study. The objective of the study was to ensure that the concerns of residents were addressed and that the historical and human health risks associated with past and current industrial activities were quantified. The current health status of residents in the area was examined with reference to environmental exposures, and recommendations for future studies and research based on the results of the study were presented. Two main components were used: the human health risk assessment (HHRA), and community health status assessment (CHSA). Best estimate calculations for residents in the core communities showed that exposures to cadmium, lead and mercury were predicted to be below toxicity reference values. In Belledune itself, child exposures to cadmium and mercury were above the toxicity reference value. Results indicated that the health status pattern for the study area was different from that found in the surrounding areas. There was a statistically significantly elevated incidence of oral, respiratory, and prostate cancer and elevated incidences of kidney and colorectal cancer. There was a higher mortality rate than expected, and there were more deaths than expected due to circulatory disease, cancer and other causes such as accidents and suicides. An expanded survey of blood lead among child residents and pregnant women was recommended. A program was launched to collect data on metal concentrations in fish from the Baie des Chaleurs and additional data on vegetables from the Greater Belledune area. Future research on some of the factors associated

  2. Belledune area health study : summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-02-01

    The Belledune area has been home to various industrial activities such as mining, smelting, fertilizer plants, battery-recycling plants, gypsum plants, sawmills, and a coal-fired electricity generating facility. These industries have had various types and quantities of emissions over the past 4 decades that may have impacted on the health of people in the area. This report provided details of the Belledune Health Area Study. The objective of the study was to ensure that the concerns of residents were addressed and that the historical and human health risks associated with past and current industrial activities were quantified. The current health status of residents in the area was examined with reference to environmental exposures, and recommendations for future studies and research based on the results of the study were presented. Two main components were used: the human health risk assessment (HHRA), and community health status assessment (CHSA). Best estimate calculations for residents in the core communities showed that exposures to cadmium, lead and mercury were predicted to be below toxicity reference values. In Belledune itself, child exposures to cadmium and mercury were above the toxicity reference value. Results indicated that the health status pattern for the study area was different from that found in the surrounding areas. There was a statistically significantly elevated incidence of oral, respiratory, and prostate cancer and elevated incidences of kidney and colorectal cancer. There was a higher mortality rate than expected, and there were more deaths than expected due to circulatory disease, cancer and other causes such as accidents and suicides. An expanded survey of blood lead among child residents and pregnant women was recommended. A program was launched to collect data on metal concentrations in fish from the Baie des Chaleurs and additional data on vegetables from the Greater Belledune area. Future research on some of the factors associated

  3. Tea and Health: Studies in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Naghma; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2014-01-01

    Tea, next to water is the cheapest beverage humans consume. Drinking the beverage tea has been considered a health-promoting habit since ancient times. The modern medicinal research is providing a scientific basis for this belief. The evidence supporting the health benefits of tea drinking grows stronger with each new study that is published in the scientific literature. Tea plant Camellia sinensis has been cultivated for thousands of years and its leaves have been used for medicinal purposes. Tea is used as a popular beverage worldwide and its ingredients are now finding medicinal benefits. Encouraging data showing cancer-preventive effects of green tea from cell-culture, animal and human studies have emerged. Evidence is accumulating that black tea may have similar beneficial effects. Tea consumption has also been shown to be useful for prevention of many debilitating human diseases that include maintenance of cardiovascular and metabolic health. Various studies suggest that polyphenolic compounds present in green and black tea are associated with beneficial effects in prevention of cardiovascular diseases, particularly of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. In addition, anti-aging, antidiabetic and many other health beneficial effects associated with tea consumption are described. Evidence is accumulating that catechins and theaflavins, which are the main polyphenolic compounds of green and black tea, respectively, are responsible for most of the physiological effects of tea. This article describes the evidences from clinical and epidemiological studies in the prevention of chronic diseases like cancer and cardiovascular diseases and general health promotion associated with tea consumption. PMID:23448443

  4. Effects of model choice and forest structure on inventory-based estimations of Puerto Rican forest biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas J. Brandeis; Maria Del Rocio; Suarez Rozo

    2005-01-01

    Total aboveground live tree biomass in Puerto Rican lower montane wet, subtropical wet, subtropical moist and subtropical dry forests was estimated using data from two forest inventories and published regression equations. Multiple potentially-applicable published biomass models existed for some forested life zones, and their estimates tended to diverge with increasing...

  5. Pintando Tambien se Aprende. Aspectos de la Cultura Puertorriquena (One Can Also Learn From Coloring. Aspects of Puerto Rican Culture).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadilla de Ruibal, Carmen Alicia

    This workbook-style text is intended to introduce the Puerto Rican child and Spanish speaking children generally to the history, geography, customs and traditions of Puerto Rico. The introduction in the form of a teacher's guide provides objectives, suggested procedures, and additional activities. The student portion of the text is divided into…

  6. Comparison of passive fog gauges for determining fog duration and fog interception by a Puerto Rican elfin cloud forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holwerda, F; Bruijnzeel, L.A.; Scatena, F.N.

    2011-01-01

    Between 5 March and 10 May 2001, the performance of three types of passive fog gauges (wire harp WH, standard fog collector SC and Juvik gauge JU) was compared at a wind-exposed Puerto Rican elfin cloud forest site. The gauges were used to determine the timing and duration of fog, as well as

  7. “Uncovering the Kink Celebrating my Black Identity: Perceptions on Afro-Costa Ricans Natural Hair”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Hutchinson Miller

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available It is no secret the racism within the Costa Rican society especially against people of African descent. While this racism is manifested in mostly overt ways it is nonetheless present, and continues to affect people of African descent in a myriad of ways including how they feel about their natural hair. From a very early age Afro-Costa Rican children learn to look down on their natural kink reinforced verbally and through images designed for them to hide, and dislike what is naturally theirs. As a result many embraced synthetic, and other ethnic group’s natural hair, preferring to pay any amount of money besides undergoing significant hair, and scalp ill-treatment all with the objective of hiding the natural kink. The main objective of this paper is to make visible the perceptions of Afro-Costa Ricans natural hair by both Afro, and mestizo ethnic groups, and enquire about some of the effects on people of African descent in Costa Rica. The exploratory research collected data from four focus groups of teenage mestizos, 20th century newspaper, one workshop, and questionnaires filled only by Afro-Costa Ricans.

  8. EVA Health and Human Performance Benchmarking Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercromby, A. F.; Norcross, J.; Jarvis, S. L.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple HRP Risks and Gaps require detailed characterization of human health and performance during exploration extravehicular activity (EVA) tasks; however, a rigorous and comprehensive methodology for characterizing and comparing the health and human performance implications of current and future EVA spacesuit designs does not exist. This study will identify and implement functional tasks and metrics, both objective and subjective, that are relevant to health and human performance, such as metabolic expenditure, suit fit, discomfort, suited postural stability, cognitive performance, and potentially biochemical responses for humans working inside different EVA suits doing functional tasks under the appropriate simulated reduced gravity environments. This study will provide health and human performance benchmark data for humans working in current EVA suits (EMU, Mark III, and Z2) as well as shirtsleeves using a standard set of tasks and metrics with quantified reliability. Results and methodologies developed during this test will provide benchmark data against which future EVA suits, and different suit configurations (eg, varied pressure, mass, CG) may be reliably compared in subsequent tests. Results will also inform fitness for duty standards as well as design requirements and operations concepts for future EVA suits and other exploration systems.

  9. The effect of supplementation with vitamin A on serum and liver concentrations in Puerto Rican crested toads (Peltophryne lemur) and its lack of impact on brown skin disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, Christopher; Lentini, Andrew; Berkvens, Charlene; Crawshaw, Graham

    2014-01-01

    "Brown skin disease" (BSD) is a clinical syndrome of dysecdysis, chronic weight loss and death, previously reported in Puerto Rican crested toads (Peltophryne lemur). Although vitamin A deficiency has been suggested, its cause remains unknown and multiple treatments have failed to prevent or reverse the condition. This study compared the efficacy of vitamin A supplementation, administered in different forms and by different routes, in 48 captive born Puerto Rican crested toads fed from metamorphosis on gut-loaded, dusted, commercially raised crickets. Forty-five toads started to show clinical signs of BSD at 9 months of age; all toads were treated orally with an oil-based vitamin A formulation twice weekly for 2 months but continued to deteriorate. Two treatment groups were then compared: Animals in one group (n=19) received 2 IU injectable vitamin A (Aquasol-A) per gram bodyweight subcutaneously twice weekly for 3 months with no change in diet. Toads in the other group (n=22) received a single oral dose of vitamins A, D3 , and E, and were fed on earthworms and crickets gut-loaded with produce and a finely-ground alfalfa-based pellet, dusted with the same vitamin/mineral supplement. All affected animals developed severe BSD equally and died during, or were euthanized at the end of, the treatment regimen, with no clinical improvement. Animals supplemented with Aquasol-A had significantly higher liver vitamin A concentrations compared with the other treatment group, whereas serum retinol concentrations showed no significant difference. Vitamin A supplementation does not appear a successful treatment once BSD symptoms have developed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Maternal seric alpha-fetoprotein: determination of the medium values in Costa Rican pregnant women; Alfa-fetoproteina serica materna: determinacion de los valores medios normales en mujeres embarazadas costarricenses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salas Chaves, P [Instituto de Investigaciones en Salud (Costa Rica); Universidad de Costa Rica (Costa Rica). Centro Internacional de Investigacion y Adiestramiento Medico de la Universidad de Louisiana; Rodriguez Aguilar, S [Instituto Costarricense de Investigacion y Ensenanza en Nutricion y Salud (Costa Rica); Villalobos Castro, A [Hospital Dr. Rafael Angel Calderon Guardia (Costa Rica). Seccion de Ginecoobstetricia; Contreras Carmona, P [Hospital Dr. Rafael Angel Calderon Guardia (Costa Rica)

    1999-07-01

    The present study focuses on the normal mean values of AFP in 124 Costa rican pregnant women. In the women 554 determinations were done between the fifteenth and twentieth week of gestation. For this purpose, and Irma test and normal values were established. The concentration values of AFP were expressed as multiples of the median, considering a value of 2.5 Mm as the normal superior limit and of 0.25 as the inferior limit. The confidence limits of the median were 24-57 Ku/I and the 2.5MM value located between 60-143 Ku/I. (author)

  11. Health-care users, key community informants and primary health care workers' views on health, health promotion, health assets and deficits: qualitative study in seven Spanish regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons-Vigués, Mariona; Berenguera, Anna; Coma-Auli, Núria; Pombo-Ramos, Haizea; March, Sebastià; Asensio-Martínez, Angela; Moreno-Peral, Patricia; Mora-Simón, Sara; Martínez-Andrés, Maria; Pujol-Ribera, Enriqueta

    2017-06-13

    Although some articles have analysed the definitions of health and health promotion from the perspective of health-care users and health care professionals, no published studies include the simultaneous participation of health-care users, primary health care professionals and key community informants. Understanding the perception of health and health promotion amongst these different stakeholders is crucial for the design and implementation of successful, equitable and sustainable measures that improve the health and wellbeing of populations. Furthermore, the identification of different health assets and deficits by the different informants will generate new evidence to promote healthy behaviours, improve community health and wellbeing and reduce preventable inequalities. The objective of this study is to explore the concept of health and health promotion and to compare health assets and deficits as identified by health-care users, key community informants and primary health care workers with the ultimate purpose to collect the necessary data for the design and implementation of a successful health promotion intervention. A descriptive-interpretive qualitative research was conducted with 276 participants from 14 primary care centres of 7 Spanish regions. Theoretical sampling was used for selection. We organized 11 discussion groups and 2 triangular groups with health-care users; 30 semi-structured interviews with key community informants; and 14 discussion groups with primary health care workers. A thematic content analysis was carried out. Health-care users and key community informants agree that health is a complex, broad, multifactorial concept that encompasses several interrelated dimensions (physical, psychological-emotional, social, occupational, intellectual, spiritual and environmental). The three participants' profiles consider health promotion indispensable despite defining it as complex and vague. In fact, most health-care users admit to having

  12. Prevalence of mild serum vitamin B12 deficiency in rural and urban Costa Rican young adults Prevalencia de la deficiencia moderada de vitamina B12 sérica en jóvenes adultos de zonas rurales y urbanas de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana Holst-Schumacher

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have shown an increase of mild serum cobalamin (vitamin B12 deficiency in some Latin American countries; however, no data are available from Costa Rica. The purpose of this work was to establish the prevalence of serum vitamin B12 deficiency among Costa Rican young adults and to study some factors that may help explain the serum cobalamin concentrations. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 400 adults aged 20 to 40 years old from urban and rural areas of the central valley of Costa Rica to determine serum vitamin B12 levels. Additionally, cobalamin dietary intake and the detection of Helicobacter pylori IgG antibodies were studied as possible determinants of the serum vitamin B12 concentrations. RESULTS: The mean serum concentration of vitamin B12 was 268 ± 125 pmol/L, and no significant differences were found by gender or area. Study data indicate an overall prevalence of inadequate serum cobalamin levels of 42.4% (11.2% deficient and 31.2% marginal; more than 50% but less than 75% of individuals had an intake of vitamin B12 below the U.S. Estimated Average Requirement (EAR and 61.2% had IgG antibodies to H. pylori. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of mild serum vitamin B12 deficiency in young Costa Rican subjects is as high as in other Latin American countries. More investigation should be done to elucidate the etiological factors that are generating deficient and marginal serum cobalamin levels in Costa Rican adults in order to define appropriate public health actions.OBJETIVO: Aunque estudios recientes han demostrado un incremento en el déficit moderado de cobalamina (vitamina B12 sérica en algunos países de América Latina, no hay datos de Costa Rica. El propósito de este trabajo fue determinar la prevalencia de la deficiencia de vitamina B12 sérica en jóvenes adultos de Costa Rica y estudiar algunos factores que pueden ayudar a explicar las concentraciones séricas de cobalamina. MÉTODOS: Se

  13. Anthropogenic impacts on Costa Rican bat parasitism are sex specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Hannah K; Mendenhall, Chase D; Judson, Seth D; Daily, Gretchen C; Hadly, Elizabeth A

    2016-07-01

    While anthropogenic impacts on parasitism of wildlife are receiving growing attention, whether these impacts vary in a sex-specific manner remains little explored. Differences between the sexes in the effect of parasites, linked to anthropogenic activity, could lead to uneven sex ratios and higher population endangerment. We sampled 1108 individual bats in 18 different sites across an agricultural mosaic landscape in southern Costa Rica to investigate the relationships between anthropogenic impacts (deforestation and reductions in host species richness) and bat fly ectoparasitism of 35 species of Neotropical bats. Although female and male bat assemblages were similar across the deforestation gradient, bat fly assemblages tracked their hosts closely only on female bats. We found that in female hosts, parasite abundance per bat decreased with increasing bat species richness, while in male hosts, parasite abundance increased. We hypothesize the differences in the parasite-disturbance relationship are due to differences in roosting behavior between the sexes. We report a sex-specific parasite-disturbance relationship and argue that sex differences in anthropogenic impacts on wildlife parasitism could impact long-term population health and survival.

  14. HEALTH / GENDER STUDIES: HIV/AIDS and Health Inequalities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focuses on the interface between the HIV/AIDS pandemic and health inequalities in Sub-Saharan Africa, with an inbuilt assumption that the health inequality situation in African nation states exacerbates, and therefore forestalls meaningful efforts towards the control of HIV/AIDS spread in sub-Saharan Africa.

  15. Do post-migration perceptions of social mobility matter for Latino immigrant health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcántara, Carmela; Chen, Chih-Nan; Alegría, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    Latino immigrants exhibit health declines with increasing duration in the United States, which some attribute to a loss in social status after migration or downward social mobility. Yet, research into the distribution of perceived social mobility and patterned associations to Latino health is sparse, despite extensive research to show that economic and social advancement is a key driver of voluntary migration. We investigated Latino immigrant sub-ethnic group variation in the distribution of perceived social mobility, defined as the difference between respondents’ perceived social status of origin had they remained in their country of origin and their current social status in the U.S. We also examined the association between perceived social mobility and past-year major depressive episode (MDE) and self-rated fair/poor physical health, and whether Latino sub-ethnicity moderated these associations. We computed weighted logistic regression analyses using subsample (N = 1561 the Latino immigrant) of the National Latino and Asian American Study. Puerto Rican migrants were more likely to perceive downward social mobility relative to Mexican and Cuban immigrants who were more likely to perceive upward social mobility. Perceived downward social mobility was associated with increased odds of fair/poor physical health and MDE. Latino sub-ethnicity was a statistically significant moderator, such that perceived downward social mobility was associated with higher odds of MDE only among Puerto Rican and Other Latino immigrants. In contrast, perceived upward social mobility was not associated with self-rated fair/poor physical health. Our findings suggest that perceived downward social mobility might be an independent correlate of health among Latino immigrants, and might help explain Latino sub-ethnic group differences in mental health status. Future studies on Latino immigrant health should use prospective designs to examine the physiological and psychological costs

  16. Niche restriction and conservatism in a neotropical psittacine: the case of the Puerto Rican parrot

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Thomas H.; Collazo, Jaime A.; Dinsmore, Stephen J.; Llerandi-Roman, I. C.

    2014-01-01

    The factors which govern species‘ distribution and abundance are myriad, and together constitute the ecological niche of a given species. Because abiotic factors are arguably the most profound of the factors influencing niche boundaries and thus, species distributions, substantial changes in either climatic or habitat-related parameters can be expected to produce interrelated and profound niche shifts. Habitat loss and degradation can also effectively induce a de facto climate change by forcing populations to relocate to environmentally suboptimal habitats. Populations experiencing niche shifts due to range restrictions and geographic isolation become subject to a suite of factors that may act synergistically to amplify deleterious ecological effects of habitat loss. These factors tend to exert a greater influence on populations of rare or endemic species with inherently restricted ranges. The Puerto Rican parrot (Amazona vittata) is an example of a tropical, insular, endemic and critically-endangered species that has suffered from extensive habitat loss and degradation over the past century, resulting in a single relict wild population restricted for more than 70 years to the montane rainforest of the Luquillo Mountains in northeastern Puerto Rico. In this chapter, we examine the current ecological situation of this geographically and demographically isolated parrot population by reviewing the history of landscape-level changes in and around the Luquillo Mountains, and concurrent biotic and abiotic limiting factors in relation to both historical population trajectory and current prognosis for species recovery. We used a decade (2000-2009) of empirical data on parrot fledgling survival together with long-term climatological data to model effects of local climate on fledgling survival and gain insights into its influence on population growth. We also modeled hypothetical survival of parrot fledglings in the lowlands surrounding the Luquillo Mountains, areas

  17. Aging and Sexuality: Perceptions of a Puerto Rican Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Judith; Drew, Benjamin

    While there are acknowledged physical, psychological, and social benefits to be derived from maintaining sexual activity in old age, the negative cultural attitudes displayed by younger members of society as well as by their own peers constitute a barrier to the achievement of a satisfactory sex life for the elderly. A study was undertaken to…

  18. Biogeography of Puerto Rican ants: a non-equilibrium case?

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.A. Torres; R.R. Snelling

    1997-01-01

    Ants were studied on Puerto Rico and 44 islands surrounding Puerto Rico. Habitat diversity was the best predictor of the number of species per island and the distributions of species followed a nested subset pattern. The number of extinctions per island was low, approximately 1 to 2 extinctions per island in a period of 18 years, and the rates of colonization seem to...

  19. The Korea Nurses' Health Study: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Oksoo; Ahn, Younjhin; Lee, Hea-Young; Jang, Hee Jung; Kim, Sue; Lee, Jung Eun; Jung, Heeja; Cho, Eunyoung; Lim, Joong-Yeon; Kim, Min-Ju; Willett, Walter C; Chavarro, Jorge E; Park, Hyun-Young

    2017-08-01

    The Korea Nurses' Health Study (KNHS) is a prospective cohort study of female nurses, focusing on the effects of occupational, environmental, and lifestyle risk factors on the health of Korean women. Female registered nurses aged 20-45 years and living in the Republic of Korea were invited to join the study, which began in July 2013. They were asked to complete a web-based baseline survey. The study protocols and questionnaires related to the KNHS are based on the Nurses' Health Study 3 (NHS3) in the United States, although they were modified to reflect the Korean lifestyle. Participants were asked about demographic, lifestyle factors, disease history, occupational exposure, reproductive factors, and dietary habits during their adolescence: Follow-up questionnaires were/will be completed at 6-8 month intervals after the baseline survey. If a participant became pregnant, she answered additional questionnaires containing pregnancy-related information. Among 157,569 eligible female nurses, 20,613 (13.1%) completed the web-based baseline questionnaire. The mean age of the participants was 29.4 ± 5.9 years, and more than half of them were in their 20s. Eighty-eight percent of the participants had worked night shifts as a nurse (mean, 5.3 ± 4.3 nights per month). Approximately 80% of the participants had a body mass index below 23 kg/m 2 . Gastrointestinal diseases were the most prevalent health issues (25.9%). The findings from this prospective cohort study will help to identify the effects of lifestyle-related and occupational factors on reproductive health and development of chronic diseases in Korean women.

  20. Information in mental health: qualitative study of mental health service users

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, John; Clarke, Aileen

    2006-01-01

    Background  Despite the widespread proliferation of consumer health information provision, little is known about information needs or information‐seeking behaviour in mental health. A qualitative study was therefore undertaken to explore these issues for mental health service users.

  1. occupational health problems studied among the workers of lime

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAMGANES

    In present study, an extensive health survey of 573 lime kiln workers of Maihar and Jhukehi region of ... Among the observed health anomalies, ..... Health benefits of air pollution control in ... “Association of Indoor and Outdoor Particulate.

  2. Tracheobronchial calcification in adult health study subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuya, Tatsuro; Mihara, Futoshi; Kudo, Sho; Russell, W.J.; Delongchamp, R.R.; Vaeth, M.; Hosoda, Yutaka.

    1988-04-01

    Tracheobronchial calcification is reportedly more frequent in women than in men. Ten cases of extensive tracehobronchial calcification were identified on chest radiographs of 1,152 consecutively examined Adult Health Study subjects, for a prevalence of 0.87 %. An additional 51 subjects having this coded diagnosis were identified among 11,758 members of this fixed population sample. Sixty of the 61 subjects were women. The manifestations and extent of this type of calcification and its correlations with clinical and histopathologic features, which have not been previously reported, are described here. (author)

  3. Evaluations of Conflicts Between Latino Values and Autonomy Desires Among Puerto Rican Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos Solís, Myriam; Smetana, Judith G; Tasopoulos-Chan, Marina

    2017-09-01

    Puerto Rican adolescents (N = 105; M age  = 15.97 years, SD = 1.40) evaluated hypothetical situations describing conflicts between Latino values (family obligations and respeto) and autonomy desires regarding personal, friendship, and dating activities. Adolescents judged that peers should prioritize Latino values over autonomy, which led to greater feelings of pride than happiness. However, they believed that teens would prioritize autonomy over Latino values, which led to greater feelings of happiness than pride. Adolescents reasoned about autonomy desires as personal issues, whereas reasoning about Latino values was multifaceted, including references to conventions and concerns for others. Furthermore, judgments and reasoning depended on the type of autonomy desire and Latino value and sometimes, by participants' age and sex. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  4. A cross-taxa survey of organochlorine pesticide contamination in a Costa Rican wildland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klemens, J.A.; Wieland, M.L.; Flanagin, V.J.; Frick, J.A.; Harper, R.G

    2003-04-01

    Amphibians, turtles, mice and birds from a protected Costa Rican wildland were contaminated with organochlorine pesticides and metabolites. - Amphibians, turtles, birds (mostly passerines) and mice collected from a conservation area in northwestern Costa Rica were analyzed for organochlorine (OC) pesticide contamination. Six of 39 amphibians (three of eight species), three of six turtles (two species), one of eight mice (one species) and 19 of 55 birds (five of seven species) contained OCs at levels up to 580 ng/g. The most frequently detected compound in 23 of 108 organisms was p,p'DDE. Dieldrin, delta-BHC, heptachlor, p,p'DDD, and endosulfan II were each found in at least four organisms, while eight other OCs were found in at least one organism. The presence of OCs in taxa from the conservation area indicates the likelihood of long-distance transport of such compounds through the atmosphere.

  5. Habitat association, size, stomach contents, and reproductive condition of Puerto Rican boas (Epicrates inornatus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, J.W.

    2003-01-01

    The Puerto Rican boa occurs in a variety of habitats, including wet montane forest, lowland wet forest, mangrove forest, wet limestone karst, and offshore cays, and from sea level to 480 m. Mean SVL of 49 encountered boas (live and road-killed) was 136.9 ?? 35.1 (range = 38.8-205 cm), with a mean mass of 952.1 ?? 349.0 g (n = 47; range = 140-1662 g). Prey in digestive tracts (n = 29) included remains of black rats, house mice, three species of anoles, bats, common ground-doves, domestic fowl chicks, and invertebrates. Females were in reproductive condition in late April through mid-August and had an average brood size of 21.8 ?? 6.0 (n = 9, range = 13-30 ).

  6. Perspectives of colorectal cancer risk and screening among Dominicans and Puerto Ricans: stigma and misperceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Roberta E; Diaz, Joseph A; Kim, Ivone

    2009-11-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second most common cancer among Latinos, but a lower percentage of Latinos are screened than Whites and Blacks. Along with recognized economic barriers, differences in knowledge and perceptions might impede colorectal screening among Latinos. We conducted 147 individual, qualitative interviews with Dominicans and Puerto Ricans in the northeastern United States to explore their explanatory models for colorectal cancer and screening barriers. Many participants had not previously heard of colorectal cancer. The most commonly mentioned cause of colorectal cancer was anal sex. Also considered risks were "bad food," digestion leading to constipation, and strained bowel movements. Screening barriers included stigma, misperceptions, embarrassment, and machismo. Progress toward increasing colorectal cancer screening requires normalization of this screening among Latinos. Higher patient familiarity, along with improved physician counseling and referral, might contribute to reducing stigma and other barriers, and to enhancing knowledge and Latino community support of colorectal cancer screening.

  7. A cross-taxa survey of organochlorine pesticide contamination in a Costa Rican wildland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemens, J.A.; Wieland, M.L.; Flanagin, V.J.; Frick, J.A.; Harper, R.G.

    2003-01-01

    Amphibians, turtles, mice and birds from a protected Costa Rican wildland were contaminated with organochlorine pesticides and metabolites. - Amphibians, turtles, birds (mostly passerines) and mice collected from a conservation area in northwestern Costa Rica were analyzed for organochlorine (OC) pesticide contamination. Six of 39 amphibians (three of eight species), three of six turtles (two species), one of eight mice (one species) and 19 of 55 birds (five of seven species) contained OCs at levels up to 580 ng/g. The most frequently detected compound in 23 of 108 organisms was p,p'DDE. Dieldrin, delta-BHC, heptachlor, p,p'DDD, and endosulfan II were each found in at least four organisms, while eight other OCs were found in at least one organism. The presence of OCs in taxa from the conservation area indicates the likelihood of long-distance transport of such compounds through the atmosphere

  8. CONDICIONES ACTUALES DEL FINANCIAMIENTO DE LAS PYMES COSTARRICENSES. (Current financing conditions for costa rican SME companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizette Brenes Bonilla

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Uno de los temas indagados en el Segundo estudio nacional realizado por el Observatorio Costarricense de Mipymes durante el 2011 corresponde al financiamiento de las micros, pequeñas y medianas empresas costarricenses. Se consultaron las fuentes de financiamiento más utilizadas, la presentación de solicitudes de crédito durante los últimos cinco años, la utilización que en general hacen estas empresas de los diferentes medios de financiamiento y sus requerimientos actuales. De forma similar a lo que ocurre en otros países, los fondos propios constituyen la principal opción para estas empresas. Por ello, en este trabajo han sido analizadas las condiciones que propician la autofinanciación o el uso de otras opciones. Por medio del análisis estadístico de la información recopilada en la encuesta, se comprueba que algunas variables relativas a la gestión empresarial, tales como la fuente de financiamiento inicial, la experiencia del (de la empresario(a y la prioridad que dan al manejo de aspectos financieros, presentan una asociación significativa con las estrategias de financiamiento en las mipymes costarricenses. ABSTRACT Financing was one of the areas investigated in the Second National Survey of micro, small and medium sized Costa Rican companies during 2011. The most used financing sources, credit applications during the last five years, end use of this credit, and current credit requirements in various financing institutions were investigated. Similar to other countries, own funding was the main option for these companies. Thus, this work examines the conditions that facilitate the use of self financing or other options available. Through statistic analysis of the information collected, variables like initial funding source, previous experience of the entrepreneur and priority given to financial management were shown to present a definite relationship to financing strategies for Costa Rican SMEs.

  9. Sex Education Approaches at Costa Rican Public Universities: An Exploratory Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Preinfalk-Fernández

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This research paper aims to show the panorama and scope of the current existing sex education practices carried out by the Costa Rican public universities. It analyzes different initiatives, its theoretical approaches that guide the actions, their purposes and other relevant aspects. The analysis includes secondary information as well as the point of view of students and university staff, as inputs for decision-making aimed at improving the overall education of young people. The findings take part of an exploratory research based on qualitative and quantitative methodologies based on gender and constructionism perspective. The information was gathered via the application of a questionnaire to a specific uneven stratified cluster groups, composed by 766 enrolled undergraduate students since first semester 2011 at Universidad Nacional de Costa Rica. The statistical margin of error was 1.5% and the confidence level of 95%. In addition, two focus groups with students and depth interviews with 16 persons were made. Data were tabulated with CSPRO software and analyzed using R software.  The findings suggest that Costa Rican universities recognize the importance of sex education as an essential part of overall development of students. Most of the initiatives are institutionalized; however, the lack of guidelines or policies on the subject, in most institutions, affects quality, consolidation and expansion of services. The need to strengthen and expand training activities on sexuality was identified as well. The students have a high opinion about the services offered, but few of them use these services, because they are perceived as less accessible and friendly. This paper concludes that it is a priority to maintain and strengthen existing initiatives on sexual education, so that they can effectively satisfy the needs of youth, with timely interventions and quality to enjoy a healthy and safe sexuality free from violence.

  10. Antioxidant activity of Costa Rican propolis: a multivariate analysis approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umana Rojas, Eduardo; Solado, Godofredo; Tamayo-Castillo, Giselle

    2013-01-01

    Propolis is produced by Apis mellifera bees from resins of plants that are found around the apiary. The chemical composition is highly variable and Costa Rica has reported without studies of characterization to define the types of propolis in the country. 119 samples were collected from beekeeping areas of the country. The spectrum of 1 H-NMR and its antioxidant activity against DPPH radical were measured. The spectra have been divided into 243 blocks of 0,04 ppm and processed with the Minitab software for multivariate analysis. 99 of the samples collected were used for construction of models for the valuation of the predictive ability of the model have been used coefficients of determination (R 2 ) of prediction by the software and the remaining 20 samples. The existence of three types of propolis with chemically different metabolomes were determined by principal component analysis (PCA). A prediction model was constructed by analysis of partial least squares (PLS). The prediction model has allowed to classify a propolis according to the level of antioxidant activity (AAO), high (type I and II) or low (type III) from the spectrum of 1 H-NMR. The R 2 has been 0.88 and R 2 prediction of 0, 718 for new samples. The nconiferyl benzoate of group I and nemorosone of the group II as two discriminated antioxidants among the groups I and II were isolated and high concentration levels of these compounds have been differentiated with respect to type III. This has allowed the construction of a linear discriminant model with a success rate of 100% for the samples used for formulation and 92,9 for the prediction of different samples. The classification systems could be applied to the standardization of the quality of propolis from Costa Rica for future medicinal or cosmetic applications that take advantage of its antioxidant properties. Also, the methylated derivative has isolated and identified of the nconiferyl benzoate thereof propolis than was obtained his counterpart

  11. Qingdao Port Cardiovascular Health Study: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatz, Erica S; Jiang, Xianyan; Lu, Jiapeng; Masoudi, Frederick A; Spertus, John A; Wang, Yongfei; Li, Xi; Downing, Nicholas S; Nasir, Khurram; Du, Xue; Li, Jing; Krumholz, Harlan M; Liu, Xiancheng; Jiang, Lixin

    2015-12-09

    In China, efforts are underway to respond to rapidly increasing rates of heart disease and stroke. Yet the epidemiology of cardiovascular disease in China may be different from that of other populations. Thus, there is a critical need for population-based studies that provide insight into the risk factors, incidence and outcomes of cardiovascular disease in China. The Qingdao Port Cardiovascular Health Study is designed to investigate the burden of cardiovascular disease and the sociodemographic, biological, environmental and clinical risk factors associated with disease onset and outcomes. For this study, from 2000 through 2013, 32,404 employees aged 18 years or older were recruited from the Qingdao Port Group in China, contributing 221,923 annual health assessments. The mean age at recruitment was 43.4 (SD=12.9); 79% were male. In this ongoing study, annual health assessments, governed by extensive quality control mechanisms, include a questionnaire (capturing demographic and employment information, medical history, medication use, health behaviours and health outcomes), physical examination, ECG, and blood and urine analysis. Additional non-annual assessments include an X-ray, echocardiogram and carotid ultrasound; bio-samples will be collected for future genetic and proteomic analyses. Cardiovascular outcomes are accessed via self-report and are actively being verified with medical insurance claims; efforts are underway to adjudicate outcomes with hospital medical records. Early findings reveal a significant increase in cardiovascular risk factors from 2000 to 2010 (hypertension: 26.4-39.4%; diabetes: 3.3-8.9%; hyperlipidaemia: 5.0-33.6%; body mass index >28 m/kg(2): 14.1-18.6%). We aim to generate novel insights about the epidemiology and outcomes of cardiovascular disease in China, with specific emphasis on the potentially unique risk factor profiles of this Chinese population. Knowledge generated will be disseminated in the peer-reviewed literature, and will

  12. Qingdao Port Cardiovascular Health Study: a prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatz, Erica S; Jiang, Xianyan; Lu, Jiapeng; Masoudi, Frederick A; Spertus, John A; Wang, Yongfei; Li, Xi; Downing, Nicholas S; Nasir, Khurram; Du, Xue; Li, Jing; Krumholz, Harlan M; Liu, Xiancheng; Jiang, Lixin

    2015-01-01

    Purpose In China, efforts are underway to respond to rapidly increasing rates of heart disease and stroke. Yet the epidemiology of cardiovascular disease in China may be different from that of other populations. Thus, there is a critical need for population-based studies that provide insight into the risk factors, incidence and outcomes of cardiovascular disease in China. The Qingdao Port Cardiovascular Health Study is designed to investigate the burden of cardiovascular disease and the sociodemographic, biological, environmental and clinical risk factors associated with disease onset and outcomes. Participants For this study, from 2000 through 2013, 32 404 employees aged 18 years or older were recruited from the Qingdao Port Group in China, contributing 221 923 annual health assessments. The mean age at recruitment was 43.4 (SD=12.9); 79% were male. In this ongoing study, annual health assessments, governed by extensive quality control mechanisms, include a questionnaire (capturing demographic and employment information, medical history, medication use, health behaviours and health outcomes), physical examination, ECG, and blood and urine analysis. Additional non-annual assessments include an X-ray, echocardiogram and carotid ultrasound; bio-samples will be collected for future genetic and proteomic analyses. Cardiovascular outcomes are accessed via self-report and are actively being verified with medical insurance claims; efforts are underway to adjudicate outcomes with hospital medical records. Findings to date Early findings reveal a significant increase in cardiovascular risk factors from 2000 to 2010 (hypertension: 26.4–39.4%; diabetes: 3.3–8.9%; hyperlipidaemia: 5.0–33.6%; body mass index >28 m/kg2: 14.1–18.6%). Future Plans We aim to generate novel insights about the epidemiology and outcomes of cardiovascular disease in China, with specific emphasis on the potentially unique risk factor profiles of this Chinese population. Knowledge

  13. Global Health in the Social Studies Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David J.

    2005-01-01

    It may surprise students to realize that health problems in other countries affect them, too. Where people live and the conditions under which they live directly affect their health. The health of a population can also offer insight into a region's social, political, and economic realities. As a powerful lens into how human societies function,…

  14. Afro-Costa Rican women and delayed multiculturalism: constitutional reform of the (white republic of Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianela MUÑOZ MUÑOZ

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the reform of Article 1 of the Political Constitution of Costa Rica to acknowledge the multicultural and pluriethnic character of the nation, in terms of its protagonists and timing of approval. On the one hand, it suggests a relationship between racial formation processes and a constitutional multicultural delay. On the other, it recognizes the challenges and strategies of Afro-Costa Rican women to reframe this reform in terms of social justice.

  15. Wet canopy evaporation from a Puerto Rican lower montane rain forest: the importance of realistically estimated aerodynamic conductance

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. Holwerda; L.A. Bruijnzeel; F.N. Scatena; H.F. Vugts; A.G.C.A. Meesters

    2012-01-01

    Rainfall interception (I) was measured in 20 m tall Puerto Rican tropical forest with complex topography for a 1-year period using totalizing throughfall (TF) and stemflow (SF) gauges that were measured every 2–3 days. Measured values were then compared to evaporation under saturated canopy conditions (E) determined with the Penman–Monteith (P–M) equation, using (i)...

  16. Epidemiological Studies Persian Gulf War Illnesses Persian Gulf Women's Health Linkage Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klemm, Rebecca

    1997-01-01

    The Persian Gulf Women's Health Linkage Study will provide baseline health and risk factor information to estimate the prevalence of selected health conditions, with an emphasis on reproductive health...

  17. Estimate the Health Literacy in Health Centers in the Border of Yazd City: Cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakineh Gerayllo

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: Health literacy of women in general was unacceptable, and recommendations were made to establish continuous training for women to improve their views. Also consideration should be given to centers to plan the transformation of health literacy which has been launched, to increase the Health literacy of the population being studied as recipients of health services.

  18. Improving work functioning and mental health of health care employees using an e-mental health approach to workers' health surveillance: pretest-posttest study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaar, Sarah M.; Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen; Bolier, Linda; Smeets, Odile; Sluiter, Judith K.

    2014-01-01

    Mental health complaints are quite common in health care employees and can have adverse effects on work functioning. The aim of this study was to evaluate an e-mental health (EMH) approach to workers' health surveillance (WHS) for nurses and allied health professionals. Using the waiting-list group

  19. Health literacy among Saudi population: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Latif, Mohamed M M; Saad, Sherif Y

    2017-09-12

    Health literacy is a major problem worldwide and adversely affects an individual's health. The aim of the present study was to assess health literacy level among Saudi population. A cross-sectional study was conducted among a randomly selected population (n = 500) in Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire comprised of questions pertaining to demographic characteristics, health literacy and health information. Health literacy was measured by REALM-R test. Internal reliability was determined using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The majority of the respondents had intermediate (43.8%) and basic (34.4%) health literacy levels. A higher percentage among men had intermediate (59.8%) and basic (70.93%) health literacy levels compared with women. About 30% of respondents had difficulty in understanding health screening tests and disease treatment. More than half of participants (52.4%) had difficulty in finding health information. The REALM-R test revealed that about 42.6% of individuals with score of >6 had adequate health literacy compared with 57.4% with score of ≤6 had inadequate health literacy. The present study demonstrated that a majority of Saudi individuals had inadequate health literacy that associated with poor knowledge of health information. Our findings highlighted the importance of understanding the status of health literacy among Saudis and the need for educational programs to raise the health literacy awareness among Saudi population. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. CASE STUDY: Building better health | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Building Better Health A short video on the importance of community involvement to effective health systems. ... They discovered that the World Bank would fund the lion's share of the cost of installing piped water in Kilimani if the villagers raised a portion of the money themselves. Villagers decided to create a fund based on ...

  1. Religiousness and Mental Health: Systematic Review Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbdAleati, Naziha S; Mohd Zaharim, Norzarina; Mydin, Yasmin Othman

    2016-12-01

    Many people use religious beliefs and practices to cope with stressful life events and derive peace of mind and purpose in life. The goal of this paper was to systematically review the recent psychological literature to assess the role of religion in mental health outcomes. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using medical and psychological databases on the relationship between religiosity and mental health. Seventy-four articles in the English and Arabic languages published between January 2000 and March 2012 were chosen. Despite the controversial relationship between religion and psychiatry, psychology, and medical care, there has been an increasing interest in the role which spirituality and religion play in mental health. The findings of past research showed that religion could play an important role in many situations, as religious convictions and rules influence the believer's life and health care. Most of the past literature in this area reported that there is a significant connection between religious beliefs and practices and mental health.

  2. eHealth in Denmark: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierkegaard, Patrick

    2013-12-01

    Denmark is widely regarded as a leading country in terms of eHealth integration and healthcare delivery services. The push for eHealth adoption over that past 20 years in the Danish health sector has led to the deployment of multiple eHealth technologies. However, in reality the Danish healthcare suffers from eHealth system fragmentation which has led to eHealth's inability to reach full potential in delivering quality healthcare service. This paper will presents a case study of the current state of eHealth in the Danish healthcare system and discuss the current challenges the country is facing today.

  3. Measuring Down: Evaluating Digital Storytelling as a Process for Narrative Health Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubrium, Aline C; Fiddian-Green, Alice; Lowe, Sarah; DiFulvio, Gloria; Del Toro-Mejías, Lizbeth

    2016-05-15

    Digital storytelling (DST) engages participants in a group-based process to create and share narrative accounts of life events. We present key evaluation findings of a 2-year, mixed-methods study that focused on effects of participating in the DST process on young Puerto Rican Latina's self-esteem, social support, empowerment, and sexual attitudes and behaviors. Quantitative results did not show significant changes in the expected outcomes. However, in our qualitative findings we identified several ways in which the DST made positive, health-bearing effects. We argue for the importance of "measuring down" to reflect the locally grounded, felt experiences of participants who engage in the process, as current quantitative scales do not "measure up" to accurately capture these effects. We end by suggesting the need to develop mixed-methods, culturally relevant, and sensitive evaluation tools that prioritize process effects as they inform intervention and health promotion. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. A Qualitative Study Exploring Facilitators for Improved Health Behaviors and Health Behavior Programs: Mental Health Service Users’ Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candida Graham

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Mental health service users experience high rates of cardiometabolic disorders and have a 20–25% shorter life expectancy than the general population from such disorders. Clinician-led health behavior programs have shown moderate improvements, for mental health service users, in managing aspects of cardiometabolic disorders. This study sought to potentially enhance health initiatives by exploring (1 facilitators that help mental health service users engage in better health behaviors and (2 the types of health programs mental health service users want to develop. Methods. A qualitative study utilizing focus groups was conducted with 37 mental health service users attending a psychosocial rehabilitation center, in Northern British Columbia, Canada. Results. Four major facilitator themes were identified: (1 factors of empowerment, self-value, and personal growth; (2 the need for social support; (3 pragmatic aspects of motivation and planning; and (4 access. Participants believed that engaging with programs of physical activity, nutrition, creativity, and illness support would motivate them to live more healthily. Conclusions and Implications for Practice. Being able to contribute to health behavior programs, feeling valued and able to experience personal growth are vital factors to engage mental health service users in health programs. Clinicians and health care policy makers need to account for these considerations to improve success of health improvement initiatives for this population.

  5. Rigor, vigor, and the study of health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Nancy; Bush, Nicole R; Pantell, Matthew S

    2012-10-16

    Health disparities research spans multiple fields and methods and documents strong links between social disadvantage and poor health. Associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and health are often taken as evidence for the causal impact of SES on health, but alternative explanations, including the impact of health on SES, are plausible. Studies showing the influence of parents' SES on their children's health provide evidence for a causal pathway from SES to health, but have limitations. Health disparities researchers face tradeoffs between "rigor" and "vigor" in designing studies that demonstrate how social disadvantage becomes biologically embedded and results in poorer health. Rigorous designs aim to maximize precision in the measurement of SES and health outcomes through methods that provide the greatest control over temporal ordering and causal direction. To achieve precision, many studies use a single SES predictor and single disease. However, doing so oversimplifies the multifaceted, entwined nature of social disadvantage and may overestimate the impact of that one variable and underestimate the true impact of social disadvantage on health. In addition, SES effects on overall health and functioning are likely to be greater than effects on any one disease. Vigorous designs aim to capture this complexity and maximize ecological validity through more complete assessment of social disadvantage and health status, but may provide less-compelling evidence of causality. Newer approaches to both measurement and analysis may enable enhanced vigor as well as rigor. Incorporating both rigor and vigor into studies will provide a fuller understanding of the causes of health disparities.

  6. Case Study: Neglected Health Issues in Niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron Neylon

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The project “Problemes négligés du système de santé au Niger” focusses on a core set of often-neglected issues that nevertheless have an overall negative impact on health system effectiveness in Niger. For example, poor quality maternal health services result from challenges related to the midwifery profession and from pressures from addressing the effects of illegal termination of pregnancy. Overall health system governance is undermined by weak management of human resources and health information systems as well as problems related to decentralisation of health care provision and dependence on external funding for health projects. LASDEL applies a rapid assessment and qualitative research approach to working with patients and health care professionals to identify the scale and characteristics of these problems. The project goal is to develop an evidence base to support tackling these neglected issues. Développer des recherches sur les « problèmes négligés » dans la gouvernance de la santé, et sur cette base contribuer à des réformes des systèmes de santé permettant une meilleure qualité des soins pour les populations vulnérables. "Develop research on "neglected problems" in the provision of health systems, and through this work, contribute to health system reforms, that provide better quality of care for vulnerable populations." As can be seen above, many of these issues relate to reproductive health and more generally to health issues of disadvantaged groups. Some issues are neglected for political or social reasons meaning that they are not recognised or acknowledged and in some cases are criminalised. Therefore there are profound issues of participant privacy, protection and even safety for this project. Data sharing therefore requires thoughtful anonymisation and selection. The project group is Francophone with limited English language knowledge and the researchers and the context is largely in French. In common with

  7. One Health and the Environment: Toxic Cyanobacteria A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study of environmental health typically focuses on human populations. However, companion animals, livestock and wildlife also experience adverse health effects from environmental pollutants. Animals may experience direct exposure to pollutants unlike people in most ambient ex...

  8. Social determinants of health, universal health coverage, and sustainable development: case studies from Latin American countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Luiz Odorico Monteiro; Pellegrini Filho, Alberto; Solar, Orielle; Rígoli, Félix; de Salazar, Lígia Malagon; Serrate, Pastor Castell-Florit; Ribeiro, Kelen Gomes; Koller, Theadora Swift; Cruz, Fernanda Natasha Bravo; Atun, Rifat

    2015-04-04

    Many intrinsically related determinants of health and disease exist, including social and economic status, education, employment, housing, and physical and environmental exposures. These factors interact to cumulatively affect health and disease burden of individuals and populations, and to establish health inequities and disparities across and within countries. Biomedical models of health care decrease adverse consequences of disease, but are not enough to effectively improve individual and population health and advance health equity. Social determinants of health are especially important in Latin American countries, which are characterised by adverse colonial legacies, tremendous social injustice, huge socioeconomic disparities, and wide health inequities. Poverty and inequality worsened substantially in the 1980s, 1990s, and early 2000s in these countries. Many Latin American countries have introduced public policies that integrate health, social, and economic actions, and have sought to develop health systems that incorporate multisectoral interventions when introducing universal health coverage to improve health and its upstream determinants. We present case studies from four Latin American countries to show the design and implementation of health programmes underpinned by intersectoral action and social participation that have reached national scale to effectively address social determinants of health, improve health outcomes, and reduce health inequities. Investment in managerial and political capacity, strong political and managerial commitment, and state programmes, not just time-limited government actions, have been crucial in underpinning the success of these policies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Physical health monitoring in mental health settings: a study exploring mental health nurses' views of their role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwebe, Herbert

    2017-10-01

    To explore nurses' views of their role in the screening and monitoring of the physical care needs of people with serious mental illness in a mental health service provider. There is increasing awareness through research that people with serious mental illness disproportionately experience and die early from physical health conditions. Mental health nurses are best placed as front-line workers to offer screening, monitoring and interventions; however, their views on physical care interventions are not studied often. Qualitative exploratory study. The study was carried out in a mental health inpatient centre in England. Volunteer sampling was adopted for the study with a total target sample of (n = 20) nurses from three inpatient wards. Semistructured interviews were conducted with (n = 10) registered mental health nurses who had consented to take part in the study. Inductive data analysis and theme development were guided by a thematic analytic framework. Participants shared a clear commitment regarding their role regarding physical health screening and monitoring in mental health settings. Four themes emerged as follows: features of current practice and physical health monitoring; perceived barriers to physical health monitoring; education and training needs; and strategies to improve physical health monitoring. Nurses were unequivocal in their resolve to ensure good standard physical health monitoring and screening interventions in practice. However, identified obstacles have to be addressed to ensure that physical health screening and monitoring is integrated adequately in everyday clinical activities. Achieving this would require improvements in nurses' training, and an integrated multiservice and team-working approach. Attending to the physical health needs of people with serious mental illness has been associated with multiple improvements in both mental and physical health; nurses have a vital role to play in identifying and addressing causes of poor

  10. Public Health Achievements and Challenges: Symposium of the University of Mostar Faculty of Health Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravlija, Jelena; Vasilj, Ivan; Babic, Dragan; Marijanovic, Inga

    2017-05-01

    Public health is an important area of health care that reflects the readiness of the state and society to provide the welfare of all citizens through the promotion of health and the preservation of a healthy environment - factors that directly affect the health of the population. The field of public health is very broad and its concept is changing over time, being defined in a narrower and wider sense. In short, public health is a science and practice that aims at ensuring the conditions in which people can preserve and improve their health and prevent health damage. The third millennium brings its specifics, needs and priorities according to challenges public health is faced by in the twenty-first century: the economic crisis, rising inequality, population aging, rising rates of chronic diseases, migration, urbanization, ecosystem change, climate change, etc. The role of public health is to protect, improve health, prevent diseases and injuries. Such a public health approach implies a multisectoral work focusing on "wider health determinants", and within this activity experts from various medical and non-medical profiles, whose field of public health is concerned, can be found. The development of inter-departmental co-operation skills contributes to a better understanding of health professionals and professionals of other profiles, and facilitates common, synergistic actions in addressing public health problems in the community. Symposium on Public Health Achievements and Challenges organized by the University of Mostar Faculty of Health Studies is just another indication of the obligation, the need and the desire for professional and scientific contribution to the fight for better health. Our faculty has so far organized other numerous symposia, and the aim of this symposium is to present public health achievements and challenges in our surrounding in order to protect, improve health, prevent diseases and injuries in a modern way.

  11. Educational needs of reproductive health students: A Delphi study

    OpenAIRE

    N Yamani; M Shakour; S Ehsanpour

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The importance of reproductive health led to establish the MSc in reproductive health program in developed country. In Iran, the program has not been offered yet. The aim of this study was to assess educational needs of MSc program in reproductive health. Methods: This research used Delphi method. Fifteen experts in reproductive health from Iran participated in this study. First, we provided a list of educational needs for every task, then experts confirmed or rejected education...

  12. Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in a native Puerto Rican patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pilar-Morales, Esteban A; Cali, Ignazio; Chapas, Javier; Bertrán-Pasarell, Jorge; Puoti, Gianfranco; Gambetti, Pierluigi; Nobo, Ulises

    2015-03-01

    The diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is often a challenge for most physicians given its extremely low incidence and different clinico-pathological presentations. We report the case of a 56-year old patient native to Puerto Rico suspected of sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCD). The symptoms at onset were notorious for bilateral cortical blindness followed by rapidly progressive cognitive decline, visual deficit, increased levels of CSF 14-3-3 and tau along with positive brain MRI and EEG, are highly indicative of CJD. The definite diagnosis was confirmed by the National Prion Disease Pathology Surveillance Center (NPDPSC), in Cleveland, Ohio, USA. Lack of genetic mutations in the prion protein (PrP) gene, widespread histopathological changes and the accumulation of scrapie PrP (PrPSc) in the brain confirmed the diagnosis of sCJD. The patient, admitted to our institution in 2011, represents the first detailed report of sCJD in a native Puerto Rican patient living in Puerto Rico.

  13. Bartonellae are Prevalent and Diverse in Costa Rican Bats and Bat Flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judson, S D; Frank, H K; Hadly, E A

    2015-12-01

    Species in the bacterial genus, Bartonella, can cause disease in both humans and animals. Previous reports of Bartonella in bats and ectoparasitic bat flies suggest that bats could serve as mammalian hosts and bat flies as arthropod vectors. We compared the prevalence and genetic similarity of bartonellae in individual Costa Rican bats and their bat flies using molecular and sequencing methods targeting the citrate synthase gene (gltA). Bartonellae were more prevalent in bat flies than in bats, and genetic variants were sometimes, but not always, shared between bats and their bat flies. The detected bartonellae genetic variants were diverse, and some were similar to species known to cause disease in humans and other mammals. The high prevalence and sharing of bartonellae in bat flies and bats support a role for bat flies as a potential vector for Bartonella, while the genetic diversity and similarity to known species suggest that bartonellae could spill over into humans and animals sharing the landscape. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Improving Work Functioning and Mental Health of Health Care Employees Using an E-Mental Health Approach to Workers' Health Surveillance: Pretest–Posttest Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah M. Ketelaar; Karen Nieuwenhuijsen; Linda Bolier; Odile Smeets; Judith K. Sluiter

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mental health complaints are quite common in health care employees and can have adverse effects on work functioning. The aim of this study was to evaluate an e-mental health (EMH) approach to workers' health surveillance (WHS) for nurses and allied health professionals. Using the waiting-list group of a previous randomized controlled trial with high dropout and low compliance to the intervention, we studied the pre- and posteffects of the EMH approach in a larger group of particip...

  15. Pathway Linking Internet Health Information Seeking to Better Health: A Moderated Mediation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shaohai; Street, Richard L

    2017-08-01

    The Internet increasingly has been recognized as an important medium with respect to population health. However, little is known about the mechanisms that underlie the potential impact of health-related Internet use on health outcomes. Based on the three-stage model of health promotion using interactive media, this study empirically tested a moderated mediation pathway model. Results showed that the effect of Internet health information seeking on three health outcomes (general, emotional, and physical) was completely mediated by respondents' access to social support resources. In addition, users' online health information seeking experience positively moderated this mediation path. The findings have significant theoretical and practical implications for the design of Internet-based health promotion resources to improve health outcomes.

  16. Public health accreditation and metrics for ethics: a case study on environmental health and community engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernheim, Ruth Gaare; Stefanak, Matthew; Brandenburg, Terry; Pannone, Aaron; Melnick, Alan

    2013-01-01

    As public health departments around the country undergo accreditation using the Public Health Accreditation Board standards, the process provides a new opportunity to integrate ethics metrics into day-to-day public health practice. While the accreditation standards do not explicitly address ethics, ethical tools and considerations can enrich the accreditation process by helping health departments and their communities understand what ethical principles underlie the accreditation standards and how to use metrics based on these ethical principles to support decision making in public health practice. We provide a crosswalk between a public health essential service, Public Health Accreditation Board community engagement domain standards, and the relevant ethical principles in the Public Health Code of Ethics (Code). A case study illustrates how the accreditation standards and the ethical principles in the Code together can enhance the practice of engaging the community in decision making in the local health department.

  17. From the School Health Education Study to the National Health Education Standards: Concepts Endure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobiling, Brandye D.; Lyde, Adrian R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The landmark School Health Education Study (SHES) project influenced by the conceptual approach to teaching and learning provides perspective on modern school health instruction. Conceptual education, the cornerstone of the SHES curriculum framework (CF), "Health Education: A Conceptual Approach to Curriculum Design," fosters…

  18. A study of the relationship between health awareness, lifestyle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The objectives of the study were to determine whether consumers who read food labels, were also more aware of health and lifestyle issues, in terms of nutrition and other health-related lifestyle behaviours, and whether there was a relationship between food-label reading, health awareness and lifestyle ...

  19. A qualitative study of health information technology in the Canadian public health system

    OpenAIRE

    Zinszer, Kate; Tamblyn, Robyn; Bates, David W; Buckeridge, David L

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although the adoption of health information technology (HIT) has advanced in Canada over the past decade, considerable challenges remain in supporting the development, broad adoption, and effective use of HIT in the public health system. Policy makers and practitioners have long recognized that improvements in HIT infrastructure are necessary to support effective and efficient public health practice. The objective of this study was to identify aspects of health information technol...

  20. Situating mobile health: a qualitative study of mHealth expectations in the rural health district of Nouna, Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duclos, Vincent; Yé, Maurice; Moubassira, Kagoné; Sanou, Hamidou; Sawadogo, N Hélène; Bibeau, Gilles; Sié, Ali

    2017-07-12

    The implementation of mobile health (mHealth) projects in low- and middle-income countries raises high and well-documented expectations among development agencies, policymakers and researchers. By contrast, the expectations of direct and indirect mHealth users are not often examined. In preparation for a proposed intervention in the Nouna Health District, in rural Burkina Faso, this study investigates the expected benefits, challenges and limitations associated with mHealth, approaching these expectations as a form of situated knowledge, inseparable from local conditions, practices and experiences. The study was conducted within the Nouna Health District. We used a qualitative approach, and conducted individual semi-structured interviews and group interviews (n = 10). Participants included healthcare workers (n = 19), godmothers (n = 24), pregnant women (n = 19), women with children aged 12-24 months (n = 33), and women of childbearing age (n = 92). Thematic and content qualitative analyses were conducted. Participants expect mHealth to help retrieve patients lost to follow-up, improve maternal care monitoring, and build stronger relationships between pregnant women and primary health centres. Expected benefits are not reducible to a technological realisation (sending messages), but rather point towards a wider network of support. mHealth implementation is expected to present considerable challenges, including technological barriers, organisational challenges, gender issues, confidentiality concerns and unplanned aftereffects. mHealth is also expected to come with intrinsic limitations, to be found as obstacles to maternal care access with which pregnant women are confronted and on which mHealth is not expected to have any significant impact. mHealth expectations appear as situated knowledges, inseparable from local health-related experiences, practices and constraints. This problematises universalistic approaches to mHealth knowledge, while nevertheless hinting at

  1. Relevance of the ancestry for the variability of the Drug-Metabolizing Enzymes CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 polymorphisms in a multiethnic Costa Rican population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Céspedes-Garro, Carolina; Rodrigues-Soares, Fernanda; Jiménez-Arce, Gerardo; Naranjo, María-Eugenia G; Tarazona-Santos, Eduardo; Fariñas, Humberto; Barrantes, Ramiro; Llerena, Adrián

    2016-09-01

    CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 metabolize around 40% of drugs and their genes vary across populations. The Costa Rican population has a trihybrid ancestry and its key geographic location turns it into a suitable scenario to evaluate interethnic differences across populations. This study aims to describe the diversity of CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 polymorphisms in Costa Rican populations in the context of their ancestry. A total of 448 healthy individuals were included in the study: Bribri (n= 47), Cabécar (n= 27), Maleku (n= 16), Guaymí (n= 30), Huetar (n= 48), Chorotega (n= 41), Admixed/Mestizos from the Central Valley/Guanacaste (n= 189), and Afro-Caribbeans (n= 50) from Limón. CYP2C9 (alleles *2, *3, *6) and CYP2C19 (*2, *3, *4, *5, *17) genotypes were determined by Real-Time PCR. African, European and Native American ancestry were inferred using 87 ancestry informative markers. The frequency of the decreased activity allele CYP2C9*2 is lower in the self-reported Amerindian groups compared to the admixed population, and the highest frequencies of CYP2C19*2 (null activity) and the CYP2C19*17 (increased activity) were found in the self-reported Afro-Caribbean population. Moreover, a frequency of 0.7 % CYP2C9 gPMs in the Admixed population and a variable frequency of CYP2C19 gUMs (0.0-32.6 %, more prevalent in Afro-Caribbeans) in Costa Rican populations, was found. Finally, the following alleles were positively correlated with genomic African ancestry and negatively correlated with genomic Native American ancestry: CYP2D6*5 (null activity), CYP2D6*17 (decreased activity), CYP2D6*29 (decreased activity) and CYP2C19*17 (increased activity). No correlation for CYP2C9 polymorphisms and genomic ancestry was found. Further studies assessing the CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 sequence in these populations, preferentially by sequencing these genes, are warranted.

  2. Comparison of health risk behavior, awareness, and health benefit beliefs of health science and non-health science students: An international study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa; Yung, Tony K C; Aounallah-Skhiri, Hajer; Rehman, Rehana

    2016-06-01

    This study determines the differences in health risk behavior, knowledge, and health benefit beliefs between health science and non-health science university students in 17 low and middle income countries. Anonymous questionnaire data were collected in a cross-sectional survey of 13,042 undergraduate university students (4,981 health science and 8,061 non-health science students) from 17 universities in 17 countries across Asia, Africa, and the Americas. Results indicate that overall, health science students had the same mean number of health risk behaviors as non-health science university students. Regarding addictive risk behavior, fewer health science students used tobacco, were binge drinkers, or gambled once a week or more. Health science students also had a greater awareness of health behavior risks (5.5) than non-health science students (4.6). Linear regression analysis found a strong association with poor or weak health benefit beliefs and the health risk behavior index. There was no association between risk awareness and health risk behavior among health science students and an inverse association among non-health science students. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. Multisectoral studies in Public Health in Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Andreeva, Tatiana

    2011-01-01

    The second issue of the TCPHEE contains materials presented at the conference ‘Economics, sociology, theory and practice of public health’ conducted in Kiev on April 12-15, 2011. Conference participants were the faculty, doctoral and master students of the School of Public Health (SPH) at the National University of Kyiv-Mohyla Academy (NaUKMA). Reports were first discussed during the conference and then submitted as conference abstracts for the editorial review. The revised versions were then...

  4. Organizational climate and employee mental health outcomes: A systematic review of studies in health care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronkhorst, Babette; Tummers, Lars; Steijn, Bram; Vijverberg, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the high prevalence of mental health problems among health care workers has given rise to great concern. The academic literature suggests that employees' perceptions of their work environment can play a role in explaining mental health outcomes. We conducted a systematic review of the literature in order to answer the following two research questions: (1) how does organizational climate relate to mental health outcomes among employees working in health care organizations and (2) which organizational climate dimension is most strongly related to mental health outcomes among employees working in health care organizations? Four search strategies plus inclusion and quality assessment criteria were applied to identify and select eligible studies. As a result, 21 studies were included in the review. Data were extracted from the studies to create a findings database. The contents of the studies were analyzed and categorized according to common characteristics. Perceptions of a good organizational climate were significantly associated with positive employee mental health outcomes such as lower levels of burnout, depression, and anxiety. More specifically, our findings indicate that group relationships between coworkers are very important in explaining the mental health of health care workers. There is also evidence that aspects of leadership and supervision affect mental health outcomes. Relationships between communication, or participation, and mental health outcomes were less clear. If health care organizations want to address mental health issues among their staff, our findings suggest that organizations will benefit from incorporating organizational climate factors in their health and safety policies. Stimulating a supportive atmosphere among coworkers and developing relationship-oriented leadership styles would seem to be steps in the right direction.

  5. A search strategy for occupational health intervention studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, J.; Salmi, J.; Pasternack, I.; Jauhiainen, M.; Laamanen, I.; Schaafsma, F.; Hulshof, C.; van Dijk, F.

    2005-01-01

    As a result of low numbers and diversity in study type, occupational health intervention studies are not easy to locate in electronic literature databases. To develop a search strategy that facilitates finding occupational health intervention studies in Medline, both for researchers and

  6. Epidemiological Study of Greek University Students' Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounenou, Kalliope; Koutra, Aikaterini; Katsiadrami, Aristea; Diacogiannis, Georgios

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, 805 Greek students participated by filling in self-report questionnaires studying depression (Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale), general health status (General Health Questionnaire), general psychopathology (Symptom Checklist-90-R), and personal demographic features. Some of the more prevalent findings…

  7. Employee health benefit redesign at the academic health center: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Julie; Weaver, Deirdre C; Splaine, Kevin; Hefner, David S; Kirch, Darrell G; Paz, Harold L

    2013-03-01

    The rapidly escalating cost of health care, including the cost of providing health care benefits, is a significant concern for many employers. In this article, the authors examine a case study of an academic health center that undertook a complete redesign of its health benefit structure to control rising costs, encourage use of its own provider network, and support employee wellness. With the implementation in 2006 of a high-deductible health plan combined with health reimbursement arrangements and wellness incentives, the Penn State Hershey Medical Center (PSHMC) was able to realize significant cost savings and increase use of its own network while maintaining a high level of employee satisfaction. By contracting with a single third-party administrator for its self-insured plan, PSHMC reduced its administrative costs and simplified benefit choices for employees. In addition, indexing employee costs to salary ensured that this change was equitable for all employees, and the shift to a consumer-driven health plan led to greater employee awareness of health care costs. The new health benefit plan's strong focus on employee wellness and preventive health has led to significant increases in the use of preventive health services, including health risk assessments, cancer screenings, and flu shots. PSHMC's experience demonstrates the importance of clear and ongoing communication with employees throughout--before, during, and even after--the process of health benefit redesign.

  8. Evaluation of discriminating power of 13 Y chromosome markers with high rate of mutation (RM Y-STR) in the Costa Rican population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solano Matamoros, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The Y chromosome microsatellites analysis has had among its purposes the obtaining of a male haplotype from mixtures with high prevalence of female genetic material, such as sexual offenses. The currently available markers set as AmpFISTR® Yfiler® have offered haplotype resolution to level of incomplete patrilineal line. This limitation has been particularly important when is needed to supplement paternity studies. The implementation expected of the 13 Y chromosome microsatellites with high mutation rate (RM Y-STR) recently described, has improved the discriminating power of microsatellite analysis of Y in the forensic context. However, for implemetation it has been necessary to obtain the frequencies of haplotypes in the Costa Rican population. In addition, the discriminating power of the new markers is evaluated and compared with current markers set, such as AmpFISTR® Yfile®, to determine whether the former have an advantage over the latter. The use of a powerful new tool has been claimed for a more efficient and effective application of justice in Costa Rica, specially in sexual offenses [es

  9. Love and hooking up in the new millennium: communication technology and relationships among urban African American and Puerto Rican young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergdall, Anna R; Kraft, Joan Marie; Andes, Karen; Carter, Marion; Hatfield-Timajchy, Kendra; Hock-Long, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Communication technology is a central feature of young people's lives, but its role in romantic and sexual relationships has not been thoroughly examined. This article describes how young adults use communication technology for partnering across relationship stages (formation, maintenance, and dissolution) and types (serious/casual), and proposes implications of usage in relationships. This study analyzed qualitative data from a five-week, prospective, coital diary method with related debriefing interviews (N = 70) of African American and Puerto Rican men and women aged 18 to 25 years in Hartford and Philadelphia. Cell phones, including calls, text messaging, and mobile Internet, were the most common forms of communication technology used for partnering goals. Participants reported using cell phones to pursue partnering goals across all relationship stages, including formation (meeting, screening, and getting to know new partners), maintaining existing relationships, and breaking up. Cell phone uses depended on the type of relationship (serious/casual) and the participants' intentions and desires. Results indicated that cell phones are an important element of communication among young adults in romantic and sexual relationships. Specific features of cell phone communication shape the process and context of partnering. Future research should explore emerging communication technologies and implications for psychosocial development, dating violence, and sexual behavior.

  10. Users' views of prison health services: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, Louise; Hek, Gill; Harris, Francesca; Powell, Jane; Kemple, Terry; Price, Sally

    2007-05-01

    This paper is a report of a study of the views of prisoners about health services provided in prisons. Prison provides an opportunity for a 'hard to reach' group to access health services, primarily those provided by nurses. Prisoners typically have high health and social needs, but the views and experiences of prisoners about health services in prison have not been widely researched. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 111 prisoners in purposively selected 12 prisons in England in 2005. Interviews covered both prisoners' views of health services and their own ways of caring for their health in prison. Interviews were analysed to develop a conceptual framework and identify dominant themes. Prisoners considered health services part of a personal prison journey, which began at imprisonment and ended on release. For those who did not access health services outside prison, imprisonment improved access to both mental and physical health services. Prisoners identified accessing services, including those provided by nurses, confidentiality, being seen as a 'legitimate' patient and living with a chronic condition as problems within the prison healthcare system. At all points along the prison healthcare journey, the prison regime could conflict with optimal health care. Lack of autonomy is a major obstacle to ensuring that prisoners' health needs are fully met. Their views should be considered when planning, organizing and delivering prison health services. Further research is needed to examine how nurses can ensure a smooth journey through health care for prisoners.

  11. An information-motivation-behavioral skills analysis of diet and exercise behavior in Puerto Ricans with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Chandra Y; Rivet Amico, K; Fisher, William A; Egede, Leonard E; Fisher, Jeffrey D

    2010-11-01

    Frameworks are needed to inform diabetes self-care programs for diverse populations. We tested the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model in a sample of Puerto Ricans with Type 2 diabetes (N = 118). Structural equation models evaluated model fit and interrelations between IMB constructs. For diet behavior, information and motivation related to behavioral skills ( r = 0.19, p motivation related to behavioral skills (r = 0.53, p < .001), and behavioral skills related to behavior (r = 0.45, p < .001). The IMB model could inform interventions targeting these behaviors in diabetes.

  12. An Information—Motivation—Behavioral Skills Analysis of Diet and Exercise Behavior in Puerto Ricans with Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Chandra Y.; Amico, K. Rivet; Fisher, William A.; Egede, Leonard E.; Fisher, Jeffrey D.

    2011-01-01

    Frameworks are needed to inform diabetes self-care programs for diverse populations. We tested the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model among Puerto Ricans with Type 2 diabetes (N=118). Structural equation models evaluated model fit and interrelations among constructs. For diet behavior, information and motivation related to behavioral skills (r=0.19, pmotivation related to behavioral skills (r=0.53, p<0.001), and behavioral skills related to behavior (r=0.45, p<0.001). The IMB model could inform interventions targeting these behaviors in diabetes. PMID:20453056

  13. Pampered sons, (wo)manly men, or do-nothing machos? Costa Rican men coming of age under neoliberalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannon, Susan E; Kemp, Eagan

    2010-01-01

    This article explores how young men in Costa Rica negotiate ideas of manhood under neoliberalism. We draw on interview data involving 23 men, ages 15–35, residing in one Costa Rican city. Comparing men across three different class locations, we find diverse "markers of manhood." Our data suggest an emerging globally dominant masculine ideal among an elite class of men, a declining locally dominant masculine ideal among working-class men, and a cynical, possibly counter-cultural masculine ideal among poor men. We conclude that masculinities are not only fluid, but tied to changing economic circumstances and class structures.

  14. Health visiting assessment--unpacking critical attributes in health visitor needs assessment practice: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, Jane V; Cowley, Sarah

    2008-02-01

    Assessment of family health need is a central feature of health visiting practice in which a range of skills, knowledge and judgements are used. These assessments are pivotal in uncovering need, safeguarding children and in determining levels of health intervention to be offered to children and their families by the health visiting service in the UK. The central focus of this paper is to outline the critical attributes of the basic principles that underpin health visiting assessment practice that emerged as part of a case study enquiry. A case study design informed by a constructivist methodology was used to examine health visitors' professional judgements and use of formal guidelines in identifying health needs and prioritising families requiring extra health visiting support. The main study was conducted in three community Trust case sites in England, UK, with pilot work being undertaken in a fourth site. Fifteen health visitors participated in the main study and data were collected during 56 observed home visits to families receiving extra health visiting support. Separate in-depth interviews were conducted with the health visitors, pre- and post-home contacts, while 53 client interviews also took place. The analysis suggests that there are certain fundamental elements associated with the majority of health visitor assessments and these have been termed assessment principles. These characteristics are integral to, and provide the basis upon which health visitors' assessments are conducted and professional judgement is formed. They reflect the basic principles of health visiting assessment practice, which exist despite the constraints and realities of the practice context and can be differentiated from the activity centred methods of assessment processes.

  15. Health Equity Pilot Project Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robertson, Aileen

    2017-01-01

    the existing EU inequities in the low prevalence of breastfeeding and high prevalence of obesity mean that their negative consequences disproportionately affect low socioeconomic families. These families are less likely to be upwardly socially mobile and more likely to be unemployed or suffer absenteeism from...... work due to ill health. Strengthening national legislation to curtail marketing of baby food products will give universal protection while helping especially those who are most susceptible to spend their limited financial resources because of sophisticated marketing strategies. Once transferred...

  16. Air Pollution Exposure Modeling for Health Studies | Science ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Michael Breen is leading the development of air pollution exposure models, integrated with novel personal sensor technologies, to improve exposure and risk assessments for individuals in health studies. He is co-investigator for multiple health studies assessing the exposure and effects of air pollutants. These health studies include participants with asthma, diabetes, and coronary artery disease living in various U.S. cities. He has developed, evaluated, and applied novel exposure modeling and time-activity tools, which includes the Exposure Model for Individuals (EMI), GPS-based Microenvironment Tracker (MicroTrac) and Exposure Tracker models. At this seminar, Dr. Breen will present the development and application of these models to predict individual-level personal exposures to particulate matter (PM) for two health studies in central North Carolina. These health studies examine the association between PM and adverse health outcomes for susceptible individuals. During Dr. Breen’s visit, he will also have the opportunity to establish additional collaborations with researchers at Harvard University that may benefit from the use of exposure models for cohort health studies. These research projects that link air pollution exposure with adverse health outcomes benefit EPA by developing model-predicted exposure-dose metrics for individuals in health studies to improve the understanding of exposure-response behavior of air pollutants, and to reduce participant

  17. An eHealth Capabilities Framework for Graduates and Health Professionals: Mixed-Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Deborah; Keep, Melanie; Janssen, Anna; Spallek, Heiko; Quinn, Deleana; Jones, Aaron; Tseris, Emma; Yeung, Wilson; Togher, Leanne; Solman, Annette; Shaw, Tim

    2018-01-01

    Background The demand for an eHealth-ready and adaptable workforce is placing increasing pressure on universities to deliver eHealth education. At present, eHealth education is largely focused on components of eHealth rather than considering a curriculum-wide approach. Objective This study aimed to develop a framework that could be used to guide health curriculum design based on current evidence, and stakeholder perceptions of eHealth capabilities expected of tertiary health graduates. Methods A 3-phase, mixed-methods approach incorporated the results of a literature review, focus groups, and a Delphi process to develop a framework of eHealth capability statements. Results Participants (N=39) with expertise or experience in eHealth education, practice, or policy provided feedback on the proposed framework, and following the fourth iteration of this process, consensus was achieved. The final framework consisted of 4 higher-level capability statements that describe the learning outcomes expected of university graduates across the domains of (1) digital health technologies, systems, and policies; (2) clinical practice; (3) data analysis and knowledge creation; and (4) technology implementation and codesign. Across the capability statements are 40 performance cues that provide examples of how these capabilities might be demonstrated. Conclusions The results of this study inform a cross-faculty eHealth curriculum that aligns with workforce expectations. There is a need for educational curriculum to reinforce existing eHealth capabilities, adapt existing capabilities to make them transferable to novel eHealth contexts, and introduce new learning opportunities for interactions with technologies within education and practice encounters. As such, the capability framework developed may assist in the application of eHealth by emerging and existing health care professionals. Future research needs to explore the potential for integration of findings into workforce development

  18. [Health literacy of adults in Germany: Findings from the German Health Update (GEDA) study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Susanne; Hoebel, Jens

    2015-09-01

    In today's information society, health literacy (HL) is considered important for health maintenance and disease management. In this context, dealing with health information is fundamental and requires different cognitive and social skills. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of HL levels in the adult population of Germany, and to identify associations with health behaviours and health status. The analyses were based on data from the German Health Update (GEDA) study, a cross-sectional survey of the German-speaking adult population of Germany, which was conducted from October 2013 to June 2014. Health literacy was assessed with the short form of the European Health Literacy Questionnaire (HLS EU-Q16), along with questions about socio-demographics, health behaviours, and health status. The HLS-EU-Q16 index could be calculated for 4845 respondents. According to the criteria of the HLS-EU-Q16, more than half of the adults had "adequate" HL (55.8 %). Every third person (31.9 %) had "problematic" and almost every eighth person (12.3 %) had "inadequate" HL. We found significant differences in HL by educational level, but no differences in HL by sex and age group. Certain health behaviours were positively associated with health literacy. A low HL level was associated with poorer physical and mental health. The results point to a need for action to improve HL in the adult population. The strengthening of health literacy should not solely aim at the promotion of individual skills, but also give high priority to the development of health-literate settings.

  19. A mismatch between population health literacy and the complexity of health information: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlands, Gillian; Protheroe, Joanne; Winkley, John; Richardson, Marty; Seed, Paul T; Rudd, Rima

    2015-06-01

    Low health literacy is associated with poorer health and higher mortality. Complex health materials are a barrier to health. To assess the literacy and numeracy skills required to understand and use commonly used English health information materials, and to describe population skills in relation to these. An English observational study comparing health materials with national working-age population skills. Health materials were sampled using a health literacy framework. Competency thresholds to understand and use the materials were identified. The proportion of the population above and below these thresholds, and the sociodemographic variables associated with a greater risk of being below the thresholds, were described. Sixty-four health materials were sampled. Two competency thresholds were identified: text (literacy) only, and text + numeracy; 2515/5795 participants (43%) were below the text-only threshold, while 2905/4767 (61%) were below the text + numeracy threshold. Univariable analyses of social determinants of health showed that those groups more at risk of socioeconomic deprivation had higher odds of being below the health literacy competency threshold than those at lower risk of deprivation. Multivariable analysis resulted in some variables becoming non-significant or reduced in effect. Levels of low health literacy mirror those found in other industrialised countries, with a mismatch between the complexity of health materials and the skills of the English adult working-age population. Those most in need of health information have the least access to it. Efficacious strategies are building population skills, improving health professionals' communication, and improving written health information. © British Journal of General Practice 2015.

  20. A Study on Sources of Health Financing in Nigeria: Implications for Health care Marketers and Planners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotimi Ayodele Gbadeyan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been increasing difficulties in providing qualitative health care services to the public in Nigeria. The development has called for the need to examine ways through which government and other stakeholders resolve these crises in the health sector. The objective of this paper is to examine the level of Government spending to total Health expenditures in Nigeria. This study basically employs secondary data for analysis. The secondary data are provided from the World Bank Development indicators and Internet. The data was analyzed using the Pearson Correlation Coefficient Statistical technique. The result revealed a strong positive Correlation (r = 0.634 between Government Health Spending and Total Health Spending. This indicates that Government Health Spending constitutes a significant proportion of the Total Health Expenditures in Nigeria; despite complains about inadequate health financing. In conclusion, the Nigerian Health sector would become more vibrant, if the Government and the Private sector are ready to give the necessary commitments required to achieve the laudable objective of qualitative health for all. The study recommends for more Government Health funding towards tackling the prevalence of some chronic diseases such as HIV, Asthma, Tuberculosis, Meningitis and Paralysis, etc.

  1. Female employment and the social reproduction of the Puerto Rican working class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safa, H I

    1984-01-01

    The rapid industrialization, migration and urbanization processes in Puerto Rico since 1940 have been responsible for the increase in the rate of female employment from 22.1% in 1960 to 27.8% in 1980, while the rate of male employment has fallen. This rise in female employment is significant in an era of growing unemployment and economic crises. There is a tendency for management to prefer young, single women workers over the older, married or formerly married women. The former tend to be better educated, work harder, complain less and are likely to be burdened with household or childcare responsibilities, which can lead to fatigue or even absenteism on the job. Their strong background in patriarchal rural traditions makes it easier for them to accept the authority of thier employers without question. With a knowledge that they can find other, similar work, the younger women are not troubled by plant problems such as production cutbacks, and layoffs. Their primary concern is not job stability, but money, which is used for future plans which include marriage, children and a new home. In contrast, older women view job security as more important. Their years of being in the labor force and the sense of self worth they have acquired as a result of it, tend to make them critical of authority. The contribution of working women to the household economy in Puerto Rican working class families varies with age and marital status. Older, married and formerly married women carry a heavier financial burden, assume a larger share of household responsibilities, and are often the sole supporters of their families. Younger women usually share their responsibilities with a relatively large number of siblings. Export-led industrialization has contributed to male outmigration from Puerto Rico, but as women lose their factory jobs due the factories being relocaged elsewhere as part of Operation Bootstrap, women too may join the migration flows.

  2. An international Delphi study examining health promotion and health education in nursing practice, education and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Dean

    2008-04-01

    To arrive at an expert consensus in relation to health promotion and health education constructs as they apply to nursing practice, education and policy. Nursing has often been maligned and criticized, both inside and outside of the profession, for its ability to understand and conduct effective health promotion and health education-related activities. In the absence of an expert-based consensus, nurses may find it difficult to progress beyond the current situation. In the absence of any previously published nursing-related consensus research, this study seeks to fill that knowledge-gap. A two-round Delphi technique via email correspondence. A first-round qualitative questionnaire used open-ended questions for defining health promotion and health education. This was both in general terms and as participants believed these concepts related to the clinical, theoretical (academic/educational) and the policy (political) setting in nursing. Line-by-line qualitative content and thematic analysis of the first-round data generated 13 specific categories. These categories contained 134 statement items. The second-round questionnaire comprised the identified 134 statements. Using a five-point Likert scale (ranging from 1 = strongly disagree to 5 = strongly agree) participants scored and rated their level of agreement/disagreement against the listed items. Data from the second-round was descriptively analysed according to distribution and central tendency measures. An expert consensus was reached on 65 of the original 134 statements. While some minor contradiction was demonstrated, strong consensus emerged around the issues of defining health promotion and health education and the emergence of a wider health promotion and health education role for nursing. No consensus was reached on only one of the 13 identified topic categories - that of 'nurses working with other disciplines and agencies in a health education and health promotion role.' This study provides a hitherto

  3. The Porto Alegre Early Life Nutrition and Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffee, Benjamin Wilk; Vítolo, Márcia Regina; Feldens, Carlos Alberto

    2014-12-01

    Early childhood caries is a persistent worldwide problem. The etiologic contribution of feeding practices has been less frequently investigated in prospective studies of young children. The Porto Alegre Early Life Nutrition and Health Study has followed a birth cohort of 715 mother-child pairs, recruited from municipal health centers, originally involved in a cluster-randomized controlled trial of healthcare worker training. The birth cohort links prospectively collected socio-demographic, infant feeding, and general and oral health information. To date, oral health data, including caries status and oral health-related quality of life, have been collected for 458 children at the age of 2-3 years. Studies are underway to investigate possible determinants and consequences of oral health among these children.

  4. The Porto Alegre Early Life Nutrition and Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Wilk Chaffee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Early childhood caries is a persistent worldwide problem. The etiologic contribution of feeding practices has been less frequently investigated in prospective studies of young children. The Porto Alegre Early Life Nutrition and Health Study has followed a birth cohort of 715 mother-child pairs, recruited from municipal health centers, originally involved in a cluster-randomized controlled trial of healthcare worker training. The birth cohort links prospectively collected socio-demographic, infant feeding, and general and oral health information. To date, oral health data, including caries status and oral health-related quality of life, have been collected for 458 children at the age of 2-3 years. Studies are underway to investigate possible determinants and consequences of oral health among these children.

  5. Study of the Working Conditions of Health Extension Workers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coverage: 2005-2009” of which “The Health Extension Program (HEP)” is a major component”. Objective: The study focuses on the first batch of Health Extension Workers (HEWs) with the overall objective of assessing the working conditions of HEWs and their job satisfaction. Methods: An in-depth field study was carried ...

  6. Comparing mental health literacy and physical health literacy: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickstead, Robert; Furnham, Adrian

    2017-10-01

    This study compared mental health and physical health literacy using five health problems from each area. The aim was to determine whether the same group had better physical than mental health literacy Method: A sample of 263 participants completed an online questionnaire requiring them to name a problem/illness described in 10 vignettes and suggest treatment options. Five vignettes described mental health problems (anxiety, bipolar-disorder, depression, OCPD and schizophrenia) and five physical problems (angina, COPD, diabetes, a heart attack, and sinusitis). Participants were also asked to rate their sympathy and estimates of prevalence for each disorder. Recognition of the mental health disorders was superior compared recognition of the physical disorders. Analysis of treatment beliefs, sympathy and prevalence ratings also showed significant differences between disorders. Results highlight the importance of education and the lack of public knowledge regarding major physical health conditions.

  7. Promoting employee health by integrating health protection, health promotion, and continuous improvement: a longitudinal quasi-experimental intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Thiele Schwarz, Ulrica; Augustsson, Hanna; Hasson, Henna; Stenfors-Hayes, Terese

    2015-02-01

    To test the effects of integrating health protection and health promotion with a continuous improvement system (Kaizen) on proximal employee outcomes (health promotion, integration, and Kaizen) and distal outcomes (workability, productivity, self-rated health and self-rated sickness absence). Twelve units in a county hospital in Sweden were randomized to control or intervention groups using a quasiexperimental study design. All staff (approximately 500) provided self-ratings in questionnaires at baseline, and a 12- and 24-month follow-up (response rate, 79% to 87.5%). There was a significant increase in the proximal outcomes over time in the intervention group compared with the control group, and a trend toward improvement in the distal outcomes workability and productivity. Integration seems to promote staff engagement in health protection and promotion, as well as to improve their understanding of the link between work and health.

  8. eHealth and mHealth initiatives in Bangladesh: A scoping study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The health system of Bangladesh is haunted by challenges of accessibility and affordability. Despite impressive gains in many health indicators, recent evidence has raised concerns regarding the utilization, quality and equity of healthcare. In the context of new and unfamiliar public health challenges including high population density and rapid urbanization, eHealth and mHealth are being promoted as a route to cost-effective, equitable and quality healthcare in Bangladesh. The aim of this paper is to highlight such initiatives and understand their true potential. Methods This scoping study applies a combination of research tools to explore 26 eHealth and mHealth initiatives in Bangladesh. A screening matrix was developed by modifying the framework of Arksey & O’Malley, further complemented by case study and SWOT analysis to identify common traits among the selected interventions. The WHO health system building blocks approach was then used for thematic analysis of these traits. Results Findings suggest that most eHealth and mHealth initiatives have proliferated within the private sector, using mobile phones. The most common initiatives include tele-consultation, prescription and referral. While a minority of projects have a monitoring and evaluation framework, less than a quarter have undertaken evaluation. Most of the initiatives use a health management information system (HMIS) to monitor implementation. However, these do not provide for effective sharing of information and interconnectedness among the various actors. There are extremely few individuals with eHealth training in Bangladesh and there is a strong demand for capacity building and experience sharing, especially for implementation and policy making. There is also a lack of research evidence on how to design interventions to meet the needs of the population and on potential benefits. Conclusion This study concludes that Bangladesh needs considerable preparation and planning to sustain eHealth

  9. eHealth and mHealth initiatives in Bangladesh: a scoping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Tanvir; Lucas, Henry; Khan, Azfar Sadun; Islam, Rubana; Bhuiya, Abbas; Iqbal, Mohammad

    2014-06-16

    The health system of Bangladesh is haunted by challenges of accessibility and affordability. Despite impressive gains in many health indicators, recent evidence has raised concerns regarding the utilization, quality and equity of healthcare. In the context of new and unfamiliar public health challenges including high population density and rapid urbanization, eHealth and mHealth are being promoted as a route to cost-effective, equitable and quality healthcare in Bangladesh. The aim of this paper is to highlight such initiatives and understand their true potential. This scoping study applies a combination of research tools to explore 26 eHealth and mHealth initiatives in Bangladesh. A screening matrix was developed by modifying the framework of Arksey & O'Malley, further complemented by case study and SWOT analysis to identify common traits among the selected interventions. The WHO health system building blocks approach was then used for thematic analysis of these traits. Findings suggest that most eHealth and mHealth initiatives have proliferated within the private sector, using mobile phones. The most common initiatives include tele-consultation, prescription and referral. While a minority of projects have a monitoring and evaluation framework, less than a quarter have undertaken evaluation. Most of the initiatives use a health management information system (HMIS) to monitor implementation. However, these do not provide for effective sharing of information and interconnectedness among the various actors. There are extremely few individuals with eHealth training in Bangladesh and there is a strong demand for capacity building and experience sharing, especially for implementation and policy making. There is also a lack of research evidence on how to design interventions to meet the needs of the population and on potential benefits. This study concludes that Bangladesh needs considerable preparation and planning to sustain eHealth and mHealth initiatives successfully

  10. Health and productivity as a business strategy: a multiemployer study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeppke, Ronald; Taitel, Michael; Haufle, Vince; Parry, Thomas; Kessler, Ronald C; Jinnett, Kimberly

    2009-04-01

    To explore methodological refinements in measuring health-related lost productivity and to assess the business implications of a full-cost approach to managing health. Health-related lost productivity was measured among 10 employers with a total of 51,648 employee respondents using the Health and Work Performance Questionnaire combined with 1,134,281 medical and pharmacy claims. Regression analyses were used to estimate the associations of health conditions with absenteeism and presenteeism using a range of models. Health-related productivity costs are significantly greater than medical and pharmacy costs alone (on average 2.3 to 1). Chronic conditions such as depression/anxiety, obesity, arthritis, and back/neck pain are especially important causes of productivity loss. Comorbidities have significant non-additive effects on both absenteeism and presenteeism. Executives/Managers experience as much or more monetized productivity loss from depression and back pain as Laborers/Operators. Testimonials are reported from participating companies on how the study helped shape their corporate health strategies. A strong link exists between health and productivity. Integrating productivity data with health data can help employers develop effective workplace health human capital investment strategies. More research is needed to understand the impacts of comorbidity and to evaluate the cost effectiveness of health and productivity interventions from an employer perspective.

  11. Army Study Shows Decline In Behavioral Health Stigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Army Study Shows Decline in Behavioral Health Stigma By Rob McIlvaine Army News Service WASHINGTON, Jan. 20, 2012 - A newly released Army study on...conference yesterday. The three-year study outlines the problem of suicide in the Army and related issues of substance abuse, spouse abuse and child abuse...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Army Study Shows Decline In Behavioral Health Stigma 5a. CONTRACT

  12. World Health Organization Member States and Open Health Data: An Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles J Greenberg

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Open health data has implications for clinical care, research, public health, and health policy at regional, national, and global levels. No published attempts have been made to determine, collectively, whether WHO member states and governments have embraced the promise and effort required to officially share open health data. The observational study will provide evidence that World Health Organization (WHO member states individually and collectively have adopted open data recommended principles, providing access to open health data. Methods Using the WHO list of member states (n=194, the researchers identified the presence of open health data or initiatives. With each country, the following types of official government web pages were recorded: a Ministry of Health web page; a conspicuous link on a government web page to open health data; additional government health web sites; national government-sponsored open data repositories; unique attributes of national health data web sites; and adherence to the principles of open government data for health. A supplemental PDF file provides a representation of data used for analysis and observations. Our complete data is available at: https://goo.gl/Kwj7mb Observations and Discussion Open health data is easily discoverable in less than one-third of the WHO member states. 13 nations demonstrate the principle to provide comprehensive open data. Only 16 nations distribute primary, non-aggregated health data. 24 % of the WHO observed member states are providing some health data in a non-proprietary formats such as comma-separated values. The sixth, seventh, and eighth open government data principles for health, representing universal access, non-proprietary formats, and non-patent protection, are observed in about one-third of the WHO member states. While there are examples of organized national open health data, no more than a one-third minority of the world’s nations have portals set up to

  13. Detection of yellow dwarf virus onion (OYDV) and garlic common latent virus (GCLV) in Costa Rican garlic (Allium sativum L)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillen Watson, Anny Vannesa; Chacon Cerdas, Randall; Zuniga Vega, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Viral diseases have been responsible for significant losses in crop yield of garlic in the world. Costa Rican material Garlic has been analyzed to determine the incidence of : onion yellow dwarf virus (OYDV), the leek yellow stripe virus (LYSV), shallot latent virus (SLV) and garlic common latent virus (GLCV). The DAS-ELISA technique has been used for status native plant material. Bulbs field apparently normal (N), normal with yellow tunic (TA) and deformed (D) and normal field sheets (N), symptomatic (S) and possible presence of viral vectors (VT) were used. Vitroplants product have analyzed the introduction of apices of 1,0 and 0,5 cm in length teeth from normal (N) and yellow tunic (TA). The 33% of the bulbs GCLV field were analyzed for positive (TA), whereas OYDV was detected 100% appearance regardless. 100% of the plantlets have presented without infection of GCLV, the OYDV only those introduced in apices of 1,0 cm from bulbs with yellow robes have shown without effect. GCLV is determined for 100% of the samples for both batches OYDV bulb formation in vitro and in only 50%. In the Costa Rican garlic has concluded that are present the viruses of GCLV and OYDV, with a high incidence on local material and differential infection according to the organ analyzed. Various methodologies combined are recommended together with the apexes vitro cultivation, for more effective viral clearance and thus increase the value and boost the local seed crop. (author) [es

  14. Analysis of twelve polymorphous bookmarks in the DNA of a population sample of the Costa Rican Central Valley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas, E.; Lobo, J.; Leon, P.

    1999-01-01

    To establish databases of allele frequencies in a Costa Rican Central Valley population sample. Peripheral blood samples from more than 40 individual were used to isolate DNA and analyze each sample with 10 dinucleotide repeat genetic markers and with 2 mini satellite repeats, using the polymerase chain reaction. Alleles were identified by comparison with DNA from CEPH family members. Genotypes were determined by labelling one of the two Pcr primers with 32P before amplification, electrophoresis in sequencing gels and autoradiography. Analysis of this data set indicates that these samples is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and shows no evidence of linkage disequilibrium between markers. These data are compared with results from other human populations analyzed with the same markers, finding similarities in allele frequencies among them. Notably, the Costa Rican sample presents the lowest heterozygosity value, with 4 of the 10 dinucleotide markers tested, followed by a Cerdenian sample. In contrast, the two African samples presented the highest heterozygosity indexes with a larger number of alleles. (L. Jimenez) [es

  15. Evaluations of health promoting schools: a review of nine studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mũkoma, Wanjirũ; Flisher, Alan J

    2004-09-01

    The concept of 'health promoting schools' has been embraced internationally as an effective way of promoting the health of children, adolescents, and the wider school community. It is only recently that attempts have been made to evaluate health promoting schools. This paper reviews evaluations of health promoting schools and draws useful evaluation methodology lessons. The review is confined to school-based interventions that are founded explicitly on the concept of the health promoting school and employ the concept beyond one school domain. We included nine evaluations in this review. Seven of these were published in the peer reviewed scientific literature. Two were unpublished reports. One study was a randomized controlled trial, while a quasi-experimental research design with comparison schools was used in three studies. With three exceptions, combinations of quantitative and qualitative data were collected. There was evidence that the health promoting school has some influence on various domains of health for the school community. It is also possible to integrate health promotion into the school curriculum and policies successfully. However, the evaluation of health promoting schools is complex. We discuss some of the methodological challenges of evaluating health promoting schools and make suggestions for improving future evaluations.

  16. Cardiovascular Health and Arterial Stiffness: The Maine Syracuse Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Georgina E; Elias, Merrill F; Robbins, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    Ideal cardiovascular health is a recently defined construct by the American Heart Association (AHA) to promote cardiovascular disease reduction. Arterial stiffness is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The extent to which the presence of multiple prevalent cardiovascular risk factors and health behaviors is associated with arterial stiffness is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the association between the AHA construct of cardiovascular health and arterial stiffness, as indexed by pulse wave velocity and pulse pressure. The AHA health metrics, comprising of four health behaviors (smoking, body mass index, physical activity, and diet) and three health factors (total cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose) were evaluated among 505 participants in the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study. Outcome measures were carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) and pulse pressure measured at 4 to 5-year follow-up. Better cardiovascular health, comprising both health factors and behaviors, was associated with lower arterial stiffness, as indexed by pulse wave velocity and pulse pressure. Those with at least five health metrics at ideal levels had significantly lower PWV (9.8 m/s) than those with two or less ideal health metrics (11.7 m/s) (P<0.001). This finding remained with the addition of demographic and PWV-related variables (P=0.004). PMID:24384629

  17. The study of Health Literacy of adults in Karaj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Sahrayi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Health literacy represents the cognitive and social skills that determine the motivation and ability of individuals to acquire, access and understand the information to maintain and promote health. This study aimed to assess the health literacy of adults in Karaj. Methods: In this cross-sectional and descriptive study, 525 subjects aged 18-65 years old were selected using multistage sampling in Karaj. Relevant information was obtained using demographic questionnaire and HELIA questionnaire (18-65 years-old, respectively. Data were analyzed using SPSS and appropriate tests. Results: The mean age of participants was 33.48 ± 11.39 years old. 48.8% (n=250 the participants were male and 51.2% (n=262 were female. 24.2% (n=124 of the participants had inadequate health literacy, 23.4 % (n=120 not so inadequate health literacy, 37.9 % (n=194 adequate health literacy and 14.5 (n = 74 had higher health literacy. Health literacy was significantly associated with age, gender, marital status, education, BMI, smoking and physical activity (p<0.05. Conclusion: Due to low health literacy and the importance of adult role in society, it is necessary educational programs aimed at improving their health literacy skills , designed and implemented. Paper Type: Research Article.

  18. Sustainability: Environmental Studies and Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklas Scholz

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This special issue ‘Sustainability: Environmental Studies and Public Health’ is part of the internationally leading 'International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health’. I was invited to be the guest editor, and to oversee the refereeing process and subsequent selection of timely, relevant and high quality papers highlighting particularly novel aspects concerned with sustainability issues in environmental studies. [...

  19. Sustainability: Environmental Studies and Public Health

    OpenAIRE

    Scholz, Miklas

    2009-01-01

    This special issue ‘Sustainability: Environmental Studies and Public Health’ is part of the internationally leading 'International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health’. I was invited to be the guest editor, and to oversee the refereeing process and subsequent selection of timely, relevant and high quality papers highlighting particularly novel aspects concerned with sustainability issues in environmental studies. [...

  20. Point systems in Games for Health: A bibliometric scoping study

    OpenAIRE

    Kokol, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Very few details about point systems used in games for health are reported in scientific literature. To shed some light on this topic a bibliometric study, analyzing the papers containing terms related to games for health and point systems was performed and a mini taxonomy was derived. The search string game* AND health AND (point* OR score) AND system* in a Scopus bibliographic database was used to produce the corpus. We limited the search to articles, reviews and conference papers written i...

  1. Mental Disorder and Supernatural Influence: Beliefs of Puerto Ricans in Two Connecticut Urban Communities About the Cause and Treatment of Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaviria, Moises; Wintrob, Ronald

    This report is based upon information obtained from personal interviews with a representative sample of Puerto Rican adults, both patients and non-patients, 20 years of age and over, living in two urban communities in central Connecticut, with 1,000 and 8,000 Spanish-speaking residents, respectively. The findings of this research are summarized as…

  2. Impact of nest predators, competitors, and ectoparasites on Pearly-eyed Thrashers, with comments on the potential implications for Puerto Rican Parrot recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne J. Arendt

    2000-01-01

    Over the past 17 years, research on a rain forest population of the Pearly-eyed Thrasher (Margarops fuscatus), with additional observations on nesting Puerto Rican Parrots (Amazona vittata) within the Sierra de Luquillo, Puerto Rico, has shown that reproductive success of thrashers and parrots is often greatly reduced as a result of the additive effects of a diverse...

  3. Comparison of Scores on the WAIS and Its Puerto Rican Counterpart, Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler para Adultos, in an Institutionalized Latin American Psychiatric Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Todd McLin; Rodriguez, Vene L.

    1979-01-01

    Compared vocabulary and block design subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) and its Puerto Rican counterpart, the Escala de Inteligencia Wechsler para Adultos (EIWA), in hospitalized Latins and Trans-Caribbean Blacks. EIWA scores were significantly higher than WAIS scores. Equivalence of EIWA and WAIS estimates is questioned.…

  4. Health Information Management System for Elderly Health Sector: A Qualitative Study in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadoughi, Farahnaz; Shahi, Mehraban; Ahmadi, Maryam; Davaridolatabadi, Nasrin

    2016-02-01

    There are increasing change and development of information in healthcare systems. Given the increase in aging population, managers are in need of true and timely information when making decision. The aim of this study was to investigate the current status of the health information management system for the elderly health sector in Iran. This qualitative study was conducted in two steps. In the first step, required documents for administrative managers were collected using the data gathering form and observed and reviewed by the researcher. In the second step, using an interview guide, the required information was gathered through interviewing experts and faculty members. The convenience, purposeful and snowball sampling methods were applied to select interviewees and the sampling continued until reaching the data saturation point. Finally, notes and interviews were transcribed and content analysis was used to analyze them. The results of the study showed that there was a health information management system for the elderly health sector in Iran. However, in all primary health care centers the documentation of data was done manually; the data flow was not automated; and the analysis and reporting of data are also manually. Eventually, decision makers are provided with delayed information. It is suggested that the steward of health in Iran, the ministry of health, develops an appropriate infrastructure and finally puts a high priority on the implementation of the health information management system for elderly health sector in Iran.

  5. A Longitudinal Study of Usability in Health Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldskov, Jesper; Skov, Mikael B.; Stage, Jan

    2010-01-01

    We report from a longitudinal laboratory-based usability evaluation of a health care information system. The purpose of the study was to inquire into the nature of usability problems experienced by novice and expert users, and to see to what extend usability problems of a health care information...... system may or may not disappear over time, as the nurses get more familiar with it-if time heals poor design? As our method for studying this, we conducted a longitudinal study with two key studies. A usability evaluation was conducted with novice users when an electronic patient record system was being......, we discuss implications for evaluating usability in health care....

  6. The Distribution of Health Services in Iran Health Care System: A Case Study at East Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Almaspoor-khangah

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is necessary that various aspects of health information and statistics are identified and measured since health problems are getting more complex day by day. Objective: This study is aimed to investigate the distribution of health services in the health care system in Iran and the case of study is East Azerbaijan province. Methods: This research was a retrospective, descriptive, cross-sectional study. The statistical population included all health service providers in East Azerbaijan Province in the public, private, charity, military, social security, and NGO sectors. In this study, the data from all functional health sectors, including hospitals, health centers, and clinical, rehabilitation centers and all clinics and private offices were studied during 2014. The data relevant to performance were collected according to a pre-determined format (researcher- built checklist which was approved by five professionals and experts Health Services Management (content validity. Results: The study findings showed that the public sector by 45.28% accounted for the highest share of provided services and the private sector, social security, military institutions, charities and NGOs institutions by 25.47%, 18.92%, 4.37%, 3.3%, and 2.66% next rank in providing health services in East Azerbaijan province have been allocated. Conclusion: The results show that most of the health services in East Azerbaijan Province belongs to the public sector and the private sector has managed to develop its services in some parts surpassed the public sector. According to the study findings, Policies should be aimed to create balance and harmony in the provision of services among all service providers.

  7. Public health preparedness in Alberta: a systems-level study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Douglas; Shiell, Alan; Noseworthy, Tom; Russell, Margaret; Predy, Gerald

    2006-12-28

    Recent international and national events have brought critical attention to the Canadian public health system and how prepared the system is to respond to various types of contemporary public health threats. This article describes the study design and methods being used to conduct a systems-level analysis of public health preparedness in the province of Alberta, Canada. The project is being funded under the Health Research Fund, Alberta Heritage Foundation for Medical Research. We use an embedded, multiple-case study design, integrating qualitative and quantitative methods to measure empirically the degree of inter-organizational coordination existing among public health agencies in Alberta, Canada. We situate our measures of inter-organizational network ties within a systems-level framework to assess the relative influence of inter-organizational ties, individual organizational attributes, and institutional environmental features on public health preparedness. The relative contribution of each component is examined for two potential public health threats: pandemic influenza and West Nile virus. The organizational dimensions of public health preparedness depend on a complex mix of individual organizational characteristics, inter-agency relationships, and institutional environmental factors. Our study is designed to discriminate among these different system components and assess the independent influence of each on the other, as well as the overall level of public health preparedness in Alberta. While all agree that competent organizations and functioning networks are important components of public health preparedness, this study is one of the first to use formal network analysis to study the role of inter-agency networks in the development of prepared public health systems.

  8. Public health preparedness in Alberta: a systems-level study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noseworthy Tom

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent international and national events have brought critical attention to the Canadian public health system and how prepared the system is to respond to various types of contemporary public health threats. This article describes the study design and methods being used to conduct a systems-level analysis of public health preparedness in the province of Alberta, Canada. The project is being funded under the Health Research Fund, Alberta Heritage Foundation for Medical Research. Methods/Design We use an embedded, multiple-case study design, integrating qualitative and quantitative methods to measure empirically the degree of inter-organizational coordination existing among public health agencies in Alberta, Canada. We situate our measures of inter-organizational network ties within a systems-level framework to assess the relative influence of inter-organizational ties, individual organizational attributes, and institutional environmental features on public health preparedness. The relative contribution of each component is examined for two potential public health threats: pandemic influenza and West Nile virus. Discussion The organizational dimensions of public health preparedness depend on a complex mix of individual organizational characteristics, inter-agency relationships, and institutional environmental factors. Our study is designed to discriminate among these different system components and assess the independent influence of each on the other, as well as the overall level of public health preparedness in Alberta. While all agree that competent organizations and functioning networks are important components of public health preparedness, this study is one of the first to use formal network analysis to study the role of inter-agency networks in the development of prepared public health systems.

  9. Applying the health action process approach (HAPA) to the choice of health products: An exploratory study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krutulyte, Rasa; Grunert, Klaus G.; Scholderer, Joachim

    This paper presents the results of a qualitative pilot study that aimed to uncovering Danish consumers' motives for choosing health food. Schwarzer's (1992) health action process approach (HAPA) was applied to understand the process by which people chose health products. The research focused...... on the role of the behavioural intention predictors such as risk perception, outcome expectations and self-efficacy. The model has been proved to be a useful framework for understanding consumer choosing health food and is substantial in the further application of dietary choice issues....

  10. Social Capital and Health: A Review of Prospective Multilevel Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Hiroshi; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2012-01-01

    Background This article presents an overview of the concept of social capital, reviews prospective multilevel analytic studies of the association between social capital and health, and discusses intervention strategies that enhance social capital. Methods We conducted a systematic search of published peer-reviewed literature on the PubMed database and categorized studies according to health outcome. Results We identified 13 articles that satisfied the inclusion criteria for the review. In general, both individual social capital and area/workplace social capital had positive effects on health outcomes, regardless of study design, setting, follow-up period, or type of health outcome. Prospective studies that used a multilevel approach were mainly conducted in Western countries. Although we identified some cross-sectional multilevel studies that were conducted in Asian countries, including Japan, no prospective studies have been conducted in Asia. Conclusions Prospective evidence from multilevel analytic studies of the effect of social capital on health is very limited at present. If epidemiologic findings on the association between social capital and health are to be put to practical use, we must gather additional evidence and explore the feasibility of interventions that build social capital as a means of promoting health. PMID:22447212

  11. R-2000 home health study : Homeowner health in R-2000 and new conventional homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parekh, A.

    2002-01-01

    A field study was conducted by Health Canada and Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) to evaluate self-reported health symptoms by residents of R-2000 and conventional homes in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. It involved 52 energy efficient R-2000 and 50 conventionally built houses. Health Canada collected and analyzed data concerning changes in occupant health after moving into R-2000 houses and similar conventional houses. Definite trends in improvements of respiratory symptoms of occupants in R-2000 houses were revealed, compared to the results obtained for occupants of conventional houses. New occupants of R-2000 houses reported significant improvement in indoor air quality in 94 per cent of cases, while only 77 per cent of conventional homeowners reported similar results. Fifty six per cent of the occupants of R-2000 homes reported a general improvement in their health, compared to 32 per cent in conventional houses. The testing of houses in other regions is being planned by Health Canada. tabs

  12. From the school health education study to the national health education standards: concepts endure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobiling, Brandye D; Lyde, Adrian R

    2015-05-01

    The landmark School Health Education Study (SHES) project influenced by the conceptual approach to teaching and learning provides perspective on modern school health instruction. Conceptual education, the cornerstone of the SHES curriculum framework (CF), Health Education: A Conceptual Approach to Curriculum Design, fosters a student's understanding of information that develops with experience. Data were collected through content analysis of the SHES CF and the National Health Education Standards: Achieving Excellence (NHES), 2nd edition. Similarity of essential framework elements was established. Inter-rater reliability was established. Alignment of the SHES components with the NHES reveals parallel conceptual structures around which to develop curriculum. The conceptual approach to curriculum planning has enduring value. It provides a foundation for teaching and learning that is adaptable, flexible, and can maintain permanence in conjunction with emerging scientific evidence and cultural and political influences on health behavior. © 2015, American School Health Association.

  13. The Cost of Health Services Delivery in Health Houses of Alborz: A Case Study

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    Javad Ghoddousinejad

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives : Health houses play an active role to improve health status of rural population.Furthermore, it is important to know the costs of provided services. This research was designed to determine the costs of healthcare delivery in health houses of ALBORZ district. Material and Methods : In this cross-sectional descriptive study, Activity Based Costing (ABC was used to analyze the costs of services. Results : The average Direct Costs (DC of healthcare delivery in health houses was estimated 37033365 Rials. Direct and Indirect Costs (IC of service delivery in health houses were 65.91% and 34.09% of Total Costs (TC respectively. Conclusion : Since human resources play the most important role in determining the costs of health services delivery in healthcare, reforming payment mechanisms would be a suitable solution to reduce extra costs. Moreover, in order to decrease extra costs, it is essential to modify activities and eliminate parallel tasks.

  14. Mobile Health Based System for Managing and Maintaining Health Data in Classroom: Case Study

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    Dalibor Serafimovski

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available It is necessary for young people to get appropriate medical education so that they can learn how to properly take care of their health from an early age. In this paper we are presenting a study that enables practical implementation of a mobile system for monitoring students’ health using mobile devices and managing medical data in the classroom. About 600 students were engaged for the purpose of this study. The study results suggest that the application of these technologies leads to an increased concern about students’ health and their proper medical education.

  15. Study Guide for TCT in Health and Physical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullan, Marie R.

    This study guide is designed for those individuals preparing to take the Georgia Teacher Certification Test (TCT) in health and physical education. The test covers nine broad subareas: (1) health, body systems, disease; (2) tennis, handball, fencing, bowling, track, and recreational games; (3) development, hygiene, safety, nutrition; (4) softball,…

  16. Political Economies of Health: A Consideration for International Nursing Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Michael A.; Drummond, John S.

    2008-01-01

    This article introduces and explores the concept of political economy. In particular it focuses upon the political economy of health while also considering the implications for international nursing studies in the context of health care more generally. Political economy is not only about budgets, resources and policy. It is also about particular…

  17. Health effects of employment: a systematic review of prospective studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Noordt, Maaike; IJzelenberg, Helma; Droomers, Mariël; Proper, Karin I.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to systematically summarise the literature on the health effects of employment. A search for prospective studies investigating the effect of employment on health was executed in several electronic databases, and references of selected publications were checked.

  18. Improving health insurance coverage in Ghana : a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotoh, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Ghana is one of the first sub-Saharan African countries to introduce national health insurance to ensure more equity in access to health care. The response of the population has been disappointing, however. This study describes and examines an experiment with so called 'problem-solving groups' that

  19. Women's mental health during pregnancy: A participatory qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Wendy L M; Crozier, Kenda E; Penhale, Bridget L M

    2017-08-01

    British public health and academic policy and guidance promotes service user involvement in health care and research, however collaborative research remains underrepresented in literature relating to pregnant women's mental health. The aim of this participatory research was to explore mothers' and professionals' perspectives on the factors that influence pregnant women's mental health. This qualitative research was undertaken in England with the involvement of three community members who had firsthand experience of mental health problems during pregnancy. All members of the team were involved in study design, recruitment, data generation and different stages of thematic analysis. Data were transcribed for individual and group discussions with 17 women who self-identified as experiencing mental health problems during pregnancy and 15 professionals who work with this group. Means of establishing trustworthiness included triangulation, researcher reflexivity, peer debriefing and comprehensive data analysis. Significant areas of commonality were identified between mothers' and professionals' perspectives on factors that undermine women's mental health during pregnancy and what is needed to support women's mental health. Analysis of data is provided with particular reference to contexts of relational, systemic and ecological conditions in women's lives. Women's mental health is predominantly undermined or supported by relational, experiential and material factors. The local context of socio-economic deprivation is a significant influence on women's mental health and service requirements. Copyright © 2016 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Health promotion among older adults in Austria: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggatz, Thomas; Meinhart, Christoph Matthias

    2017-04-01

    To determine the types of attitudes to health promotion among older Austrians. Health promotion in old age becomes increasingly important in the current period of demographic transition. Interventions are likely to be successful if they take the attitude of older persons into consideration. There may be several types of attitudes to health promotion among older adults. Cross-sectional qualitative study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in a purposive sample consisting of 36 home-dwelling older persons from local communities in the federal province of Salzburg, Austria. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis according to Mayring and subsequent construction of types. There are three main types of attitudes to health promotion. 'Health promoters through everyday activities' considered domestic work and walks to be sufficient in keeping up their health. Fitness-oriented persons practised sports of some type. Users of complementary methods practised such methods to some degree. These types of attitudes could be further differentiated according to their outcome expectations. In addition to benefits for health, socialising was also an important outcome. Physical decline may reduce a fitness-oriented attitude, whereas encouragement by others may trigger it. Older adults have various attitudes to health promotion, but these are not immutable. Health promotion programmes that are not restricted to a narrow focus on health but provide the opportunity to socialise may support older adults in maintaining a healthy lifestyle. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Celebrating the health literacy skills of parents: A photovoice study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estacio, Emee Vida; Nathan, Lavinia; Protheroe, Joanne

    2018-03-01

    Parents play a vital role in promoting children's health. The parental health literacy skills are important since the decisions they make can have an impact on other family members' health and well-being. Using an assets-based approach, this project aimed to explore the skills parents use to communicate health messages with their children and how they manage their family's health. Six adult parents of children aged 0-16 years old took part in this photovoice study. The thematic analysis suggests that tapping into the creativity of parents through the gamification of health messages and encouraging children's independence are effective ways to promote healthy behaviors. Trusting their instincts and developing good relationships with healthcare providers were also seen as important. However, there is still a need to improve confidence and skills, particularly on how to critically appraise information, especially in this digital age where sources of information are vast and conflicting messages could arise.

  2. A nationally representative study of emotional competence and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikolajczak, Moïra; Avalosse, Hervé; Vancorenland, Sigrid; Verniest, Rebekka; Callens, Michael; van Broeck, Nady; Fantini-Hauwel, Carole; Mierop, Adrien

    2015-10-01

    Emotional competence (EC; also called "emotional intelligence"), which refers to individual differences in the identification, understanding, expression, regulation, and use of one's emotions and those of others, has been found to be an important predictor of individuals' adaptation to their environment. Higher EC is associated with greater happiness, better mental health, more satisfying social and marital relationships, and greater occupational success. Whereas a considerable amount of research has documented the significance of EC, 1 domain has been crucially under investigated: the relationship between EC and physical health. We examined the relationship between EC and objective health indicators in 2 studies (N1 = 1,310; N2 = 9,616) conducted in collaboration with the largest Mutual Benefit Society in Belgium. These studies allowed us (a) to compare the predictive power of EC with other well-known predictors of health such as age, sex, Body Mass Index, education level, health behaviors (diet, physical activity, smoking and drinking habits), positive and negative affect, and social support; (b) to clarify the relative weight of the various EC dimensions in predicting health; and (c) to determine to what extent EC moderates the effect of already known predictors on health. Results show that EC is a significant predictor of health that has incremental predictive power over and above other predictors. Findings also show that high EC significantly attenuates (and sometimes compensates for) the impact of other risk factors. Therefore, we argue that EC deserves greater interest and attention from health professionals and governments. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. A cross-sectional study of self-reported general health, lifestyle factors, and disease: the Hordaland Health Study

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    Randi Jepsen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background. Information on self-reported health is important for health professionals, and the aim of this study was to examine associations between lifestyle factors and self-reported health and the mediating effect of disease in a Norwegian population.Methods and Materials. The data collection was conducted as part of the Hordaland Health Study (HUSK 1997–99, which was a cross-sectional epidemiological study. All individuals in Hordaland county born in 1953–1957 were invited to participate (aged 40–44 years. Complete information for the present study was obtained from 12,883 individuals (44% response rate. Height and weight were measured at a physical examination. Information on lifestyle factors, self-reported health, disease (heart attack, apoplexy, angina pectoris, and diabetes, and socio-demographic variables was obtained from a self-administered questionnaire. Self-reported health was measured with a one-item question. Odds ratios for fair or poor self-reported health were calculated using multiple logistic regression analyses adjusted for disease and socio-demographic variables.Results. Respondents reporting adverse lifestyle behaviours (obesity (odds ratio (OR 1.7, p < 0.001, smoking (OR 1.2, p < 0.001, or excessive intake of alcohol (OR 3.3, p < 0.001 showed an increased risk of poor self-reported health. Furthermore, a moderate intake of wine (OR 0.6, p < 0.001 or strenuous physical activity (OR 0.5, p < 0.001 decreased the risk of poor health. Disease did not mediate the effect.Conclusion. A one-item question measuring self-reported health may be a suitable measure for health professionals to identify levels of subjective health and reveal a need to target lifestyle factors in relatively young individuals with or without disease.

  4. The world health organization multicountry survey on maternal and newborn health: study protocol

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    Souza João

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective interventions to reduce mortality and morbidity in maternal and newborn health already exist. Information about quality and performance of care and the use of critical interventions are useful for shaping improvements in health care and strengthening the contribution of health systems towards the Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5. The near-miss concept and the criterion-based clinical audit are proposed as useful approaches for obtaining such information in maternal and newborn health care. This paper presents the methods of the World Health Organization Multicountry Study in Maternal and Newborn Health. The main objectives of this study are to determine the prevalence of maternal near-miss cases in a worldwide network of health facilities, evaluate the quality of care using the maternal near-miss concept and the criterion-based clinical audit, and develop the near-miss concept in neonatal health. Methods/Design This is a large cross-sectional study being implemented in a worldwide network of health facilities. A total of 370 health facilities from 29 countries will take part in this study and produce nearly 275,000 observations. All women giving birth, all maternal near-miss cases regardless of the gestational age and delivery status and all maternal deaths during the study period comprise the study population. In each health facility, medical records of all eligible women will be reviewed during a data collection period that ranges from two to three months according to the annual number of deliveries. Discussion Implementing the systematic identification of near-miss cases, mapping the use of critical evidence-based interventions and analysing the corresponding indicators are just the initial steps for using the maternal near-miss concept as a tool to improve maternal and newborn health. The findings of projects using approaches similar to those described in this manuscript will be a good starter for a more

  5. Are Ataques de Nerviosa in Puerto Rican Children Associated with Psychiatric Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnaccia, Peter J.; Martinez, Igda; Ramirez, Rafael; Canino, Glorisa

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To provide the first empirical analysis of a cultural syndrome in children by examining the prevalence and psychiatric correlates of ataques de nervios in an epidemiological study of the mental health of children in Puerto Rico. Method: Probability samples of caretakers of children 4-17 years old in the community (N = 1,892; response…

  6. Nutrition and health - the association between eating behavior and various health parameters: a matched sample study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie T Burkert

    Full Text Available Population-based studies have consistently shown that our diet has an influence on health. Therefore, the aim of our study was to analyze differences between different dietary habit groups in terms of health-related variables. The sample used for this cross-sectional study was taken from the Austrian Health Interview Survey AT-HIS 2006/07. In a first step, subjects were matched according to their age, sex, and socioeconomic status (SES. After matching, the total number of subjects included in the analysis was 1320 (N = 330 for each form of diet - vegetarian, carnivorous diet rich in fruits and vegetables, carnivorous diet less rich in meat, and carnivorous diet rich in meat. Analyses of variance were conducted controlling for lifestyle factors in the following domains: health (self-assessed health, impairment, number of chronic conditions, vascular risk, health care (medical treatment, vaccinations, preventive check-ups, and quality of life. In addition, differences concerning the presence of 18 chronic conditions were analyzed by means of Chi-square tests. Overall, 76.4% of all subjects were female. 40.0% of the individuals were younger than 30 years, 35.4% between 30 and 49 years, and 24.0% older than 50 years. 30.3% of the subjects had a low SES, 48.8% a middle one, and 20.9% had a high SES. Our results revealed that a vegetarian diet is related to a lower BMI and less frequent alcohol consumption. Moreover, our results showed that a vegetarian diet is associated with poorer health (higher incidences of cancer, allergies, and mental health disorders, a higher need for health care, and poorer quality of life. Therefore, public health programs are needed in order to reduce the health risk due to nutritional factors.

  7. Adult Health Study: provisional research plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollingsworth, J W; Beebe, G W

    1960-12-14

    The study is planned as an intensive search for the late effects of single, whole-body radiation from the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs. Although dosimetry information is by no means definitive at this time, preliminary information suggests that the effects of radiation doses up to 600 rads can be effectively studied in the surviving samples. The lower limit is moot, depending on the magnitude of the effect produced and the sensitivity of the study. The upper limit is also somewhat uncertain, as the most closely exposed individuals were more often heavily shielded. The potential radiation effects may be classified as follows: (1) alterations in the incidence of disease; (2) alterations in the natural history of disease, with or without alteration in incidence; (3) development of physiological or biochemical changes, or markers, short of actual disease; (4) nonspecific changes in vigor, acceleration of aging; and (5) occurrence of new diseases. It is proposed to conduct a search sufficiently intensive to detect effects of all five types. It is also a specific objective of this investigation to illuminate the pathogenesis of diseases of increased incidence, or of new diseases, if such be found. Also of interest is the matter of genetic or biochemical factors associated with survival and with the appearance of acute radiation symptoms. Survivors represent a truncated sample and selective host factors may have played a part in both survival and the liklihood of acute radiation symptoms. 17 reference.

  8. Income and health in Accra, Ghana: results from a time use and health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Günther; Weeks, John R; Hill, Allan G

    2012-10-01

    This paper uses newly collected household survey data from Accra, Ghana, to investigate whether incomes affect acute and chronic health outcomes in settings that can be considered representative for the large and rapidly growing urban centers of sub-Saharan Africa. The Time Use and Health Study in Accra collected information on incomes, current health status, and health care use from 5,484 persons in 1,250 households, each repeatedly sampled on a rolling basis for a period of 13 weeks. Data collection took place during September 2008-March 2010 to capture seasonal variations. The study found that incomes varied widely between households, and that a high fraction of persons lived below the poverty line. Despite this level of income poverty and an overall remarkably high burden of treatable disease, no systematic differences in self-reported and objectively measured health conditions were detected across socioeconomic groups.

  9. Assessing the association between pesticide exposure and cognitive development in rural Costa Rican children living in organic and conventional coffee farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chensheng; Essig, Christa; Root, Christa; Rohlman, Diane S; McDonald, Tom; Sulzbacher, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    We examined the association between pesticide exposure and cognitive development among rural Costa Rican children in a cross-sectional study. Study participants aged 4-10 years included 17 children whose parents worked in La Amistad organic coffee plantation and 18 Las Mellizas children whose parents worked in their own small conventional coffee farms. Two spot-urine samples were collected from each participant and analyzed for organophosphorus and pyrethroids pesticide metabolites. We administered the computerized Behavioral Assessment and Research System (BARS), a figure-drawing task, and a long-term memory test to evaluate study participant's cognitive development. Although urinary pesticide metabolite levels did not vary considerably between these two groups of children, we found that Las Mellizas children performed better in BARS and the figure drawing tests than did La Amistad. The results from the linear mixed-effects models suggested that family socioeconomic status (SES) might be a significant contributor to the variation of the outcomes of the neurobehavioral tests. The effect of pesticide exposure, however, as measured in a snapshot fashion, did not play a significant role to the performance of the cognitive development evaluation. Regardless of the study limitations, needed effort should be devoted to the improvement of the SES on the La Amistad families so that their children's cognitive development would not be compromised further. Additionally, future studies should focus on addressing the limitations imposed on the snapshot assessment of pesticide exposure and on conducting cognitive development evaluation so the link between childhood pesticide exposure and their cognitive development can be thoroughly investigated.

  10. Urban Sprawl, Physical Activity, and Body Mass Index: Nurses’ Health Study and Nurses’ Health Study II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troped, Philip J.; Hart, Jaime E.; Joshu, Corinne E.; Colditz, Graham A.; Brownson, Ross C.; Ewing, Reid; Laden, Francine

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the association between the county sprawl index, a measure of residential density and street accessibility, and physical activity and body mass index (BMI). Methods. We conducted a multilevel cross-sectional analysis in a sample of Nurses’ Health Study participants living throughout the United States in 2000 to 2001 (n = 136 592). Results. In analyses adjusted for age, smoking status, race, and husband’s education, a 1-SD (25.7) increase in the county sprawl index (indicating a denser, more compact county) was associated with a 0.13 kilograms per meters squared (95% confidence interval [CI] = −0.18, −0.07) lower BMI and 0.41 (95% CI = 0.17, 0.65) more metabolic equivalent (MET) hours per week of total physical activity, 0.26 (95% CI = 0.19, 0.33) more MET hours per week of walking, and 0.47 (95% CI = 0.34, 0.59) more MET hours per week of walking, bicycling, jogging, and running. We detected potential effect modification for age, previous disease status, husband’s education level (a proxy for socioeconomic status), and race. Conclusions. Our results suggest that living in a dense, compact county may be conducive to higher levels of physical activity and lower BMI in women. PMID:22698015

  11. Urban sprawl, physical activity, and body mass index: Nurses' Health Study and Nurses' Health Study II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Peter; Troped, Philip J; Hart, Jaime E; Joshu, Corinne E; Colditz, Graham A; Brownson, Ross C; Ewing, Reid; Laden, Francine

    2013-02-01

    We evaluated the association between the county sprawl index, a measure of residential density and street accessibility, and physical activity and body mass index (BMI). We conducted a multilevel cross-sectional analysis in a sample of Nurses' Health Study participants living throughout the United States in 2000 to 2001 (n = 136 592). In analyses adjusted for age, smoking status, race, and husband's education, a 1-SD (25.7) increase in the county sprawl index (indicating a denser, more compact county) was associated with a 0.13 kilograms per meters squared (95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.18, -0.07) lower BMI and 0.41 (95% CI = 0.17, 0.65) more metabolic equivalent (MET) hours per week of total physical activity, 0.26 (95% CI = 0.19, 0.33) more MET hours per week of walking, and 0.47 (95% CI = 0.34, 0.59) more MET hours per week of walking, bicycling, jogging, and running. We detected potential effect modification for age, previous disease status, husband's education level (a proxy for socioeconomic status), and race. Our results suggest that living in a dense, compact county may be conducive to higher levels of physical activity and lower BMI in women.

  12. Health Information Technology Usability Evaluation Scale (Health-ITUES) for Usability Assessment of Mobile Health Technology: Validation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnall, Rebecca; Cho, Hwayoung; Liu, Jianfang

    2018-01-05

    Mobile technology has become a ubiquitous technology and can be particularly useful in the delivery of health interventions. This technology can allow us to deliver interventions to scale, cover broad geographic areas, and deliver technologies in highly tailored ways based on the preferences or characteristics of users. The broad use of mobile technologies supports the need for usability assessments of these tools. Although there have been a number of usability assessment instruments developed, none have been validated for use with mobile technologies. The goal of this work was to validate the Health Information Technology Usability Evaluation Scale (Health-ITUES), a customizable usability assessment instrument in a sample of community-dwelling adults who were testing the use of a new mobile health (mHealth) technology. A sample of 92 community-dwelling adults living with HIV used a new mobile app for symptom self-management and completed the Health-ITUES to assess the usability of the app. They also completed the Post-Study System Usability Questionnaire (PSSUQ), a widely used and well-validated usability assessment tool. Correlations between these scales and each of the subscales were assessed. The subscales of the Health-ITUES showed high internal consistency reliability (Cronbach alpha=.85-.92). Each of the Health-ITUES subscales and the overall scale was moderately to strongly correlated with the PSSUQ scales (r=.46-.70), demonstrating the criterion validity of the Health-ITUES. The Health-ITUES has demonstrated reliability and validity for use in assessing the usability of mHealth technologies in community-dwelling adults living with a chronic illness. ©Rebecca Schnall, Hwayoung Cho, Jianfang Liu. Originally published in JMIR Mhealth and Uhealth (http://mhealth.jmir.org), 05.01.2018.

  13. Can climate variability information constrain a hydrological model for an ungauged Costa Rican catchment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada-Montano, Beatriz; Westerberg, Ida K.; Fuentes-Andino, Diana; Hidalgo-Leon, Hugo; Halldin, Sven

    2017-04-01

    Long-term hydrological data are key to understanding catchment behaviour and for decision making within water management and planning. Given the lack of observed data in many regions worldwide, hydrological models are an alternative for reproducing historical streamflow series. Additional types of information - to locally observed discharge - can be used to constrain model parameter uncertainty for ungauged catchments. Climate variability exerts a strong influence on streamflow variability on long and short time scales, in particular in the Central-American region. We therefore explored the use of climate variability knowledge to constrain the simulated discharge uncertainty of a conceptual hydrological model applied to a Costa Rican catchment, assumed to be ungauged. To reduce model uncertainty we first rejected parameter relationships that disagreed with our understanding of the system. We then assessed how well climate-based constraints applied at long-term, inter-annual and intra-annual time scales could constrain model uncertainty. Finally, we compared the climate-based constraints to a constraint on low-flow statistics based on information obtained from global maps. We evaluated our method in terms of the ability of the model to reproduce the observed hydrograph and the active catchment processes in terms of two efficiency measures, a statistical consistency measure, a spread measure and 17 hydrological signatures. We found that climate variability knowledge was useful for reducing model uncertainty, in particular, unrealistic representation of deep groundwater processes. The constraints based on global maps of low-flow statistics provided more constraining information than those based on climate variability, but the latter rejected slow rainfall-runoff representations that the low flow statistics did not reject. The use of such knowledge, together with information on low-flow statistics and constraints on parameter relationships showed to be useful to

  14. Litterfall Production Prior to and during Hurricanes Irma and Maria in Four Puerto Rican Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianbin Liu

    2018-06-01

    biogeochemical processes and soil communities in these Puerto Rican forests.

  15. Study protocol: Evaluating the impact of a rural Australian primary health care service on rural health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buykx Penny

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rural communities throughout Australia are experiencing demographic ageing, increasing burden of chronic diseases, and de-population. Many are struggling to maintain viable health care services due to lack of infrastructure and workforce shortages. Hence, they face significant health disadvantages compared with urban regions. Primary health care yields the best health outcomes in situations characterised by limited resources. However, few rigorous longitudinal evaluations have been conducted to systematise them; assess their transferability; or assess sustainability amidst dynamic health policy environments. This paper describes the study protocol of a comprehensive longitudinal evaluation of a successful primary health care service in a small rural Australian community to assess its performance, sustainability, and responsiveness to changing community needs and health system requirements. Methods/Design The evaluation framework aims to examine the health service over a six-year period in terms of: (a Structural domains (health service performance; sustainability; and quality of care; (b Process domains (health service utilisation and satisfaction; and (c Outcome domains (health behaviours, health outcomes and community viability. Significant international research guided the development of unambiguous reliable indicators for each domain that can be routinely and unobtrusively collected. Data are to be collected and analysed for trends from a range of sources: audits, community surveys, interviews and focus group discussions. Discussion This iterative evaluation framework and methodology aims to ensure the ongoing monitoring of service activity and health outcomes that allows researchers, providers and administrators to assess the extent to which health service objectives are met; the factors that helped or hindered achievements; what worked or did not work well and why; what aspects of the service could be improved and how

  16. Health information systems to improve health care: A telemedicine case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liezel Cilliers

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: E-health has been identified as an integral part of the future of South African public healthcare. Telemedicine was first introduced in South Africa in 1997 and since then the cost of running the Telemedicine projects has increased substantially. Despite these efforts to introduce the system, only 34% of the Telemedicine sites in South Africa are functional at present. Objectives: Literature has suggested that one of the barriers to the successful implementation of health information systems is the user acceptance by health care workers of systems such as Telemedicine. This study investigated the user acceptance of Telemedicine in the public health care system in the Eastern Cape Province, making use of the Unified Theory of the Use and Acceptance of Technology. Method: The study employed a quantitative survey approach. A questionnaire was developed making use of existing literature and was distributed to various clinics around the province where Telemedicine has been implemented. Statistics were produced making use of Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS. Results: In general, the health care workers did understand the value and benefit of health information systems to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the health care system. The barriers to the effective implementation of a health information system include the lack of knowledge and the lack of awareness regarding the Telemedicine system. This in turn means that the user is apprehensive when making use of the system thus contributing to less frequent usage. Conclusion: Health care workers do acknowledge that information systems can help to increase the effectiveness of the health care system. In general, the acceptance of Telemedicine in the Eastern Cape Department of Health is positive, but in order to integrate it into standard work practices, more must be done with regards to the promotion and education of telemedicine.

  17. CONCEPT OF HEALTH: A STUDY WITH HEALTH CARE PROFESSIONALS AND STUDENTS

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    João Bosco Oliveira Ribeiro da Silva

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate, by means of a questionnaire, the degree of knowledge that pediatricians, maternal-infant health nurses and medical and nursing students have of the concept of health. Methods: It was a cross-sectional and prospective study, previously approved by UNIFENAS Committee on Ethics in Research, having been carried out with pediatricians (n=42, maternal-infant health nurses (n=69, medical students (n=118, and nursing students (n=68 from two southern towns of the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, which have medical and nursing schools. A survey was done in hospitals, medical clinics, City Health Bureaus and universities to reach the total number of students and professionals, weighing the possibility of a professional working in more than a job. The replies were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed. For the open questions the contents analysis was used, according to BARDIN (1977. The data were presented in table. Results: According to the answer of 71,74% of the pediatricians 72,60% of the maternal-infant unit nurses, 77,77% of the medical school students and 63,76% of the nursing school students, health is a total physical, mental and social well-being. Health was also found to be a balance between the body and its environment by 10,87% of the pediatricians, 10,95% of the maternal-infant unit nurses, 15.07% of the medical school students and 18,84% of the nursing school students. Conclusions: The difficulty to define health is well known, once it is a condition with different meanings. The notions of health and disease are strongly influenced by the cultural context in which they occur. The binomial health / disease is not related only to microorganisms, but also to socioeconomic, political and educational issue, and, the students as well as the health professionals are committed with this new health concept.

  18. Study of Womens Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Biospecimen Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The SWAN Repository is the biospecimen bank of the SWAN study. All stored specimens are from the 3,302 SWAN participants, collected across the 14 clinic visits...

  19. Tri-Service Center for Oral Health Studies (TSCOHS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Tri-Service Center for Oral Health Studies (TSCOHS), a service of the Postgraduate Dental College, is chartered by the Department of Defense TRICARE Management...

  20. CASE STUDY: Chile — Health, environment, and indigenous culture ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-06

    Jan 6, 2011 ... CASE STUDY: Chile — Health, environment, and indigenous culture .... For example, the National Corporation for Indigenous Development (CONADI) ... Institute for Agriculture Development (INDAP), and applied research on ...

  1. Intervention studies for improving global health and health care: An important arena for epidemiologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Kvåle

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Marginalised populations in many low- and middle-income countries experience an increasing burden of disease, in sub-Saharan Africa to a large extent due to faltering health systems and serious HIV epidemics. Also other poverty related diseases (PRDs are prevalent, especially respiratory and diarrhoeal diseases in children, malnutrition, maternal and perinatal health problems, tuberculosis and malaria. Daily, nearly 30,000 children under the age of 5 die, most from preventable causes, and 8,000 people die from HIV infections. In spite of the availability of powerful preventive and therapeutic tools for combating these PRDs, their implementation, especially in terms of equitable delivery, leaves much to be desired. The research community must address this tragic gap between knowledge and implementation. Epidemiologists have a very important role to play in conducting studies on diseases that account for the largest share of the global disease burden. A shift of focus of epidemiologic research towards intervention studies addressing health problems of major public health importance for disadvantaged population groups is needed. There is a need to generate an evidence-base for interventions that can be implemented on a large scale; this can result in increased funding of health promotion programs as well as enable rational prioritization and integration between different health interventions. This will require close and synergetic teamwork between epidemiologists and other professions across disciplines and sectors. In this way epidemiologists can contribute significantly to improve health and optimise health care delivery for marginalized populations.

  2. A qualitative study of user perceptions of mobile health apps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wei; Kanthawala, Shaheen; Yuan, Shupei; Hussain, Syed Ali

    2016-11-14

    Mobile apps for health exist in large numbers today, but oftentimes, consumers do not continue to use them after a brief period of initial usage, are averse toward using them at all, or are unaware that such apps even exist. The purpose of our study was to examine and qualitatively determine the design and content elements of health apps that facilitate or impede usage from the users' perceptive. In 2014, six focus groups and five individual interviews were conducted in the Midwest region of the U.S. with a mixture of 44 smartphone owners of various social economic status. The participants were asked about their general and health specific mobile app usage. They were then shown specific features of exemplar health apps and prompted to discuss their perceptions. The focus groups and interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and coded using the software NVivo. Inductive thematic analysis was adopted to analyze the data and nine themes were identified: 1) barriers to adoption of health apps, 2) barriers to continued use of health apps, 3) motivators, 4) information and personalized guidance, 5) tracking for awareness and progress, 6) credibility, 7) goal setting, 8) reminders, and 9) sharing personal information. The themes were mapped to theories for interpretation of the results. This qualitative research with a diverse pool of participants extended previous research on challenges and opportunities of health apps. The findings provide researchers, app designers, and health care providers insights on how to develop and evaluate health apps from the users' perspective.

  3. Health promoting Behaviors Among Adolescents: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musavian, Azra Sadat; Pasha, Afsaneh; Rahebi, Seyyedeh-Marzeyeh; Atrkar Roushan, Zahra; Ghanbari, Atefeh

    2014-04-01

    Health maintenance and promotion are the fundamental prerequisites to community development. The best time for establishing healthy lifestyle habits is during adolescence. Due to importance of health promotion behaviors in adolescents, this study was conducted to investigate health-promoting behaviors and its associated factors among high school students in Rasht, Iran. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on 424 students during the first semester of the year 2012. We employed the multistage sampling design to recruit from private and public high schools in Rasht, Iran. The data collection instrument was a self-report questionnaire consisting of two parts. The first part of instrument was consisted of demographic questionnaire and the second part was adolescent health promotion scale (AHPS) questionnaire. AHPS questionnaire was consisted of six dimensions (nutrition, social support, health responsibility, life appreciation, physical activity, and stress management) to measure health promoting lifestyles. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS 16 software employing ANOVA (analysis of variance) test, t-test, Mann-Whitney, and the Kruskal-Wallis. The score of total Adolescent Health Promotion Scale were 3.58 ± 0.52 (possible range was 1-5). The highest score was in life appreciation dimension (3.99 ± 0.068) and the lowest score was in health responsibility dimension. Moreover, Significant associations were found between the adolescent health promotion Scale with age (P school grade (P health instructors, schoolteachers, and families must pay more attention to these students. Moreover, as most of lifelong healthy and unhealthy lifestyle habits are established during adolescence, developing effective health promotion and disease prevention strategies for adolescents seems crucial.

  4. District health information system assessment: a case study in iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeisi, Ahmad Reza; Saghaeiannejad, Sakineh; Karimi, Saeed; Ehteshami, Asghar; Kasaei, Mahtab

    2013-03-01

    Health care managers and personnel should be aware and literate of health information system in order to increase the efficiency and effectiveness in their organization. Since accurate, appropriate, precise, timely, valid information and interpretation of information is required and is the basis for policy planning and decision making in various levels of the organization. This study was conducted to assess the district health information system evolution in Iran according to WHO framework. This research is an applied, descriptive cross sectional study, in which a total of twelve urban and eight rural facilities, and the district health center at Falavarjan region were surveyed by using a questionnaire with 334 items. Content and constructive validity and reliability of the questionnaire were confirmed with correlation coefficient of 0.99. Obtained data were analyzed with SPSS 16 software and descriptive statistics were used to examine measures of WHO compliance. The analysis of data revealed that the mean score of compliance of district health information system framework was 35.75 percent. The maximum score of compliance with district health information system belonged to the data collection process (70 percent). The minimum score of compliance with district health information system belonged to information based decision making process with a score of 10 percent. District Health Information System Criteria in Isfahan province do not completely comply with WHO framework. Consequently, it seems that health system managers engaged with underlying policy and decision making processes at district health level should try to restructure and decentralize district health information system and develop training management programs for their managers.

  5. Health Anxiety in Young Indonesian Adults: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venie Viktoria Rondang Maulina

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In young adulthood most people begin to realize the meaning of health. The amount of costs to be incurred for the treatment of a person when they are suffering from a disease also affects a person's health concern. According to Taylor and Asmundson (2004, most people feel anxious about their health. Anxiety about health can differ from one person to another. Through this study a general overview of health anxiety for young adults in Indonesia, especially in Jakarta, can be seen. Participants in this study consisted of 263 people, aged 20-40 years (M = 27.23 , SD = 5.50. Sociodemographic variables include ages, gender, and marital status, level of education, employment status, and ethnicity. Researcher used Short Health Anxiety Inventory (SHAI; Salkovskis, Rimes, & Warwick, 2002, Patient Health Questionnaire Somatic Symptom Severity Scale (PHQ-15; Kroenke, Spitzer, & William, 2002. For data analysis, researcher used The Pearson Product Moment Correlation. The results showed significant correlation between health anxiety and somatic symptoms.

  6. The Australian longitudinal study on male health-methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianne Currier

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health (Ten to Men was established in 2011 to build the evidence base on male health to inform policy and program development. Methods Ten to Men is a national longitudinal study with a stratified multi-stage cluster random sample design and oversampling in rural and regional areas. Household recruitment was conducted from October 2013 to July 2014. Males who were aged 10 to 55 years residing in private dwellings were eligible to participate. Data were collected via self-completion paper questionnaires (participants aged 15 to 55 and by computer-assisted personal interview (boys aged 10 to 14. Household and proxy health data for boys were collected from a parent via a self-completion paper-based questionnaire. Questions covered socio-demographics, health status, mental health and wellbeing, health behaviours, social determinants, and health knowledge and service use. Results A cohort of 15,988 males aged between 10 and 55 years was recruited representing a response fraction of 35 %. Conclusion Ten to Men is a unique resource for investigating male health and wellbeing. Wave 1 data are available for approved research projects.

  7. Prioritising public health: a qualitative study of decision making to reduce health inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Flaherty Martin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The public health system in England is currently facing dramatic change. Renewed attention has recently been paid to the best approaches for tackling the health inequalities which remain entrenched within British society and across the globe. In order to consider the opportunities and challenges facing the new public health system in England, we explored the current experiences of those involved in decision making to reduce health inequalities, taking cardiovascular disease (CVD as a case study. Methods We conducted an in-depth qualitative study employing 40 semi-structured interviews and three focus group discussions. Participants were public health policy makers and planners in CVD in the UK, including: Primary Care Trust and Local Authority staff (in various roles; General Practice commissioners; public health academics; consultant cardiologists; national guideline managers; members of guideline development groups, civil servants; and CVD third sector staff. Results The short term target- and outcome-led culture of the NHS and the drive to achieve "more for less", combined with the need to address public demand for acute services often lead to investment in "downstream" public health intervention, rather than the "upstream" approaches that are most effective at reducing inequalities. Despite most public health decision makers wishing to redress this imbalance, they felt constrained due to difficulties in partnership working and the over-riding influence of other stakeholders in decision making processes. The proposed public health reforms in England present an opportunity for public health to move away from the medical paradigm of the NHS. However, they also reveal a reluctance of central government to contribute to shifting social norms. Conclusions It is vital that the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of all new and existing policies and services affecting public health are measured in terms of their impact on the

  8. An eHealth Capabilities Framework for Graduates and Health Professionals: Mixed-Methods Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Melissa; McGregor, Deborah; Keep, Melanie; Janssen, Anna; Spallek, Heiko; Quinn, Deleana; Jones, Aaron; Tseris, Emma; Yeung, Wilson; Togher, Leanne; Solman, Annette; Shaw, Tim

    2018-05-15

    The demand for an eHealth-ready and adaptable workforce is placing increasing pressure on universities to deliver eHealth education. At present, eHealth education is largely focused on components of eHealth rather than considering a curriculum-wide approach. This study aimed to develop a framework that could be used to guide health curriculum design based on current evidence, and stakeholder perceptions of eHealth capabilities expected of tertiary health graduates. A 3-phase, mixed-methods approach incorporated the results of a literature review, focus groups, and a Delphi process to develop a framework of eHealth capability statements. Participants (N=39) with expertise or experience in eHealth education, practice, or policy provided feedback on the proposed framework, and following the fourth iteration of this process, consensus was achieved. The final framework consisted of 4 higher-level capability statements that describe the learning outcomes expected of university graduates across the domains of (1) digital health technologies, systems, and policies; (2) clinical practice; (3) data analysis and knowledge creation; and (4) technology implementation and codesign. Across the capability statements are 40 performance cues that provide examples of how these capabilities might be demonstrated. The results of this study inform a cross-faculty eHealth curriculum that aligns with workforce expectations. There is a need for educational curriculum to reinforce existing eHealth capabilities, adapt existing capabilities to make them transferable to novel eHealth contexts, and introduce new learning opportunities for interactions with technologies within education and practice encounters. As such, the capability framework developed may assist in the application of eHealth by emerging and existing health care professionals. Future research needs to explore the potential for integration of findings into workforce development programs. ©Melissa Brunner, Deborah Mc

  9. Prioritising public health: a qualitative study of decision making to reduce health inequalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, Lois C; Lloyd-Williams, Ffion; Taylor-Robinson, David C; Moonan, May; O'Flaherty, Martin; Capewell, Simon

    2011-10-20

    The public health system in England is currently facing dramatic change. Renewed attention has recently been paid to the best approaches for tackling the health inequalities which remain entrenched within British society and across the globe. In order to consider the opportunities and challenges facing the new public health system in England, we explored the current experiences of those involved in decision making to reduce health inequalities, taking cardiovascular disease (CVD) as a case study. We conducted an in-depth qualitative study employing 40 semi-structured interviews and three focus group discussions. Participants were public health policy makers and planners in CVD in the UK, including: Primary Care Trust and Local Authority staff (in various roles); General Practice commissioners; public health academics; consultant cardiologists; national guideline managers; members of guideline development groups, civil servants; and CVD third sector staff. The short term target- and outcome-led culture of the NHS and the drive to achieve "more for less", combined with the need to address public demand for acute services often lead to investment in "downstream" public health intervention, rather than the "upstream" approaches that are most effective at reducing inequalities. Despite most public health decision makers wishing to redress this imbalance, they felt constrained due to difficulties in partnership working and the over-riding influence of other stakeholders in decision making processes. The proposed public health reforms in England present an opportunity for public health to move away from the medical paradigm of the NHS. However, they also reveal a reluctance of central government to contribute to shifting social norms. It is vital that the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of all new and existing policies and services affecting public health are measured in terms of their impact on the social determinants of health and health inequalities. Researchers

  10. Health promotion activities of sports clubs and coaches, and health and health behaviours in youth participating in sports clubs: the Health Promoting Sports Club study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokko, Sami; Selänne, Harri; Alanko, Lauri; Heinonen, Olli J; Korpelainen, Raija; Savonen, Kai; Vasankari, Tommi; Kannas, Lasse; Kujala, Urho M; Aira, Tuula; Villberg, Jari; Parkkari, Jari

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Sports clubs form a potential setting for health promotion, but the research is limited. The aim of the Health Promoting Sports Club (HPSC) study was to elucidate the current health promotion activities of youth sports clubs and coaches, and to investigate the health behaviours and health status of youth participating in sports clubs compared to non-participants. Methods and analysis The study design employs cross-sectional multilevel and multimethod research with aspirations to a prospective cohort study in the next phase. The setting-based variables at sports clubs and coaching levels, and health behaviour variables at the individual level, are investigated using surveys; and total levels of physical activity are assessed using objective accelerometer measurements. Health status variables will be measured by preparticipation screening. The health promotion activity of sports clubs (n=154) is evaluated by club officials (n=313) and coaches (n=281). Coaches and young athletes aged 14–16 (n=759) years evaluate the coaches’ health promotion activity. The survey of the adolescents’ health behaviours consist of two data sets—the first is on their health behaviours and the second is on musculoskeletal complaints and injuries. Data are collected via sports clubs (759 participants) and schools 1650 (665 participants and 983 non-participants). 591 (418 athletes and 173 non-athletes) youth, have already participated in preparticipation screening. Screening consists of detailed personal medical history, electrocardiography, flow-volume spirometry, basic laboratory analyses and health status screening, including posture, muscle balance, and static and dynamic postural control tests, conducted by sports and exercise medicine specialists. Ethics and dissemination The HPSC study is carried out conforming with the declaration of Helsinki. Ethical approval was received from the Ethics Committee of Health Care District of Central Finland. The HPSC study is

  11. Health promotion activities of sports clubs and coaches, and health and health behaviours in youth participating in sports clubs: the Health Promoting Sports Club study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokko, Sami; Selänne, Harri; Alanko, Lauri; Heinonen, Olli J; Korpelainen, Raija; Savonen, Kai; Vasankari, Tommi; Kannas, Lasse; Kujala, Urho M; Aira, Tuula; Villberg, Jari; Parkkari, Jari

    2015-01-01

    Sports clubs form a potential setting for health promotion, but the research is limited. The aim of the Health Promoting Sports Club (HPSC) study was to elucidate the current health promotion activities of youth sports clubs and coaches, and to investigate the health behaviours and health status of youth participating in sports clubs compared to non-participants. The study design employs cross-sectional multilevel and multimethod research with aspirations to a prospective cohort study in the next phase. The setting-based variables at sports clubs and coaching levels, and health behaviour variables at the individual level, are investigated using surveys; and total levels of physical activity are assessed using objective accelerometer measurements. Health status variables will be measured by preparticipation screening. The health promotion activity of sports clubs (n=154) is evaluated by club officials (n=313) and coaches (n=281). Coaches and young athletes aged 14-16 (n=759) years evaluate the coaches' health promotion activity. The survey of the adolescents' health behaviours consist of two data sets-the first is on their health behaviours and the second is on musculoskeletal complaints and injuries. Data are collected via sports clubs (759 participants) and schools 1650 (665 participants and 983 non-participants). 591 (418 athletes and 173 non-athletes) youth, have already participated in preparticipation screening. Screening consists of detailed personal medical history, electrocardiography, flow-volume spirometry, basic laboratory analyses and health status screening, including posture, muscle balance, and static and dynamic postural control tests, conducted by sports and exercise medicine specialists. The HPSC study is carried out conforming with the declaration of Helsinki. Ethical approval was received from the Ethics Committee of Health Care District of Central Finland. The HPSC study is close-to-practice, which generates foundations for development work

  12. The value of including spirometry in health checks - a randomized controlled study in primary health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørts, Lene Maria; Ottesen, Anders Løkke; Bjerregaard, Anne-Louise

    Background Lung diseases are among the most frequent and most serious ailments in Denmark. Preventive health checks including spirometry can be used to detect lung diseases earlier. Over time the attendance at preventive health checks has decreased and at present the response rate is approximately...... 50%. Little is known about initiatives that can influence the attendance rate. Objectives To examine whether focused information on spirometry in the invitation material will influence the attendance in preventive health checks. Materiel/Methods Design: A randomized controlled study on information...... on spirometry embedded in “Check your health Prevention Program, CHPP” from 2015-16. CHPP is a house-hold cluster randomized controlled trial offering a preventive health check to 30-49 year olds in a Danish municipality during the years 2012 through to 2017 (n= 26,216), carried out in collaboration between...

  13. Employment status and perceived health in the Hordaland Health Study (HUSK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overland, Simon; Glozier, Nicholas; Mæland, John Gunnar; Aarø, Leif Edvard; Mykletun, Arnstein

    2006-01-01

    Background Most western countries have disability benefit schemes ostensibly based upon requiring (1) a work inhibiting functional limitation that (2) can be attributed to a diagnosable condition, injury or disease. The present paper examines to what extent current practice matches the core premises of this model by examining how much poorer the perceived health of disability benefit recipients is, compared to the employed and the unemployed, and further to examine to what extent any poorer perceived health among benefit recipients can be attributed to mental or somatic illness and symptoms. Methods Information on disability benefit recipiency was obtained from Norwegian registry data, and merged with health information from the Hordaland Health Study (HUSK) in Western Norway, 1997–99. Participants (N = 14 946) aged 40–47 were assessed for perceived physical and mental health (Short Form-12), somatic symptoms, mental health, and self reported somatic conditions and diseases treated with medication. Differences associated with employment status were tested in chi-square and t-tests, as well as multivariate and univariate regression models to adjust for potential confounders. Results Recipients of disability benefits (n = 1 351) had poorer perceived physical and mental health than employees (n = 13 156); group differences were 1.86 and 0.74 pooled standard deviations respectively. Self reported somatic diagnoses, mental health and symptoms accounted for very little of this difference in perceived health. The unemployed (n = 439) were comparable to the employed rather than the recipients of disability benefits. Conclusion Recipients of disability benefits have poor perceived health compared to both the employed and the unemployed. Surprisingly little of this difference can be ascribed to respondents' descriptions of their illnesses and symptoms. Even allowing for potential underascertainment of condition severity, this finding supports the increasing focus on non

  14. Employment status and perceived health in the Hordaland Health Study (HUSK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarø Leif

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most western countries have disability benefit schemes ostensibly based upon requiring (1 a work inhibiting functional limitation that (2 can be attributed to a diagnosable condition, injury or disease. The present paper examines to what extent current practice matches the core premises of this model by examining how much poorer the perceived health of disability benefit recipients is, compared to the employed and the unemployed, and further to examine to what extent any poorer perceived health among benefit recipients can be attributed to mental or somatic illness and symptoms. Methods Information on disability benefit recipiency was obtained from Norwegian registry data, and merged with health information from the Hordaland Health Study (HUSK in Western Norway, 1997–99. Participants (N = 14 946 aged 40–47 were assessed for perceived physical and mental health (Short Form-12, somatic symptoms, mental health, and self reported somatic conditions and diseases treated with medication. Differences associated with employment status were tested in chi-square and t-tests, as well as multivariate and univariate regression models to adjust for potential confounders. Results Recipients of disability benefits (n = 1 351 had poorer perceived physical and mental health than employees (n = 13 156; group differences were 1.86 and 0.74 pooled standard deviations respectively. Self reported somatic diagnoses, mental health and symptoms accounted for very little of this difference in perceived health. The unemployed (n = 439 were comparable to the employed rather than the recipients of disability benefits. Conclusion Recipients of disability benefits have poor perceived health compared to both the employed and the unemployed. Surprisingly little of this difference can be ascribed to respondents' descriptions of their illnesses and symptoms. Even allowing for potential underascertainment of condition severity, this finding supports the

  15. A pilot study of health and wellness coaching for fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackshaw, Kevin V; Plans-Pujolras, Marcal; Rodriguez-Saona, Luis E; Moore, Margaret A; Jackson, Erika K; Sforzo, Gary A; Buffington, C A Tony

    2016-11-08

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that a health and wellness coaching (HWC)-based intervention for fibromyalgia (FM) would result in sustained improvements in health and quality of life, and reductions in health care utilization. Nine female subjects meeting American College of Rheumatology criteria for a diagnosis of primary FM were studied. The HWC protocol had two components, which were delivered telephonically over a twelve-month period. First, each patient met individually with a coach during the 12 month study at the patient's preference of schedule and frequency (Range:22-32 × 45-min sessions). Coaches were health professionals trained in health and wellness coaching tasks, knowledge, and skills. Second, each patient participated in bimonthly (first six months) and monthly (second six months) group classes on self-coaching strategies during the 12 month study. Prior to the intervention, and after 6 months and 12 months of coaching, the Revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQR) was used to measure health and quality of life, and the Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form (BPI) was used to measure pain intensity and interference with function. Total and rheumatology-related health encounters were documented using electronic medical records. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA. All nine patients finished the HWC protocol. FIQR scores improved by 35 % (P = 0.001). BPI scores decreased by 32 % overall (P = 0.006), 31 % for severity (P = 0.02), and 44 % for interference (P = 0.006). Health care utilization declined by 86 % (P = 0.006) for total and 78 % (P life measures (FIQR), pain (BPI), and marked reductions in health care utilization. Such improvements do not typically occur spontaneously in FM patients, suggesting that HWC deserves further consideration as an intervention for FM.

  16. Occupational health management system: A study of expatriate construction professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, I Y S; Leung, M Y; Liu, A M M

    2016-08-01

    Due to its direct impact on the safety and function of organizations, occupational health has been a concern of the construction industry for many years. The inherent complexity of occupational health management presents challenges that make a systems approach essential. From a systems perspective, health is conceptualized as an emergent property of a system in which processes operating at the individual and organizational level are inextricably connected. Based on the fundamental behavior-to-performance-to-outcome (B-P-O) theory of industrial/organizational psychology, this study presents the development of an I-CB-HP-O (Input-Coping Behaviors-Health Performance-Outcomes) health management systems model spanning individual and organizational boundaries. The model is based on a survey of Hong Kong expatriate construction professionals working in Mainland China. Such professionals tend to be under considerable stress due not only to an adverse work environment with dynamic tasks, but also the need to confront the cross-cultural issues arising from expatriation. A questionnaire was designed based on 6 focus groups involving 44 participants, and followed by a pilot study. Of the 500 questionnaires distributed in the main study, 137 valid returns were received, giving a response rate of 27.4%. The data were analyzed using statistical techniques such as factor analysis, reliability testing, Pearson correlation analysis, multiple regression modeling, and structural equation modeling. Theories of coping behaviors and health performance tend to focus on the isolated causal effects of single factors and/or posits the model at single, individual level; while industrial practices on health management tend to focus on organizational policy and training. By developing the I-CB-HP-O health management system, incorporating individual, interpersonal, and organizational perspectives, this study bridges the gap between theory and practice while providing empirical support for a

  17. Disclosure of minor mental health problems: an exploratory theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, B; Healy, D

    2001-07-01

    The aim of this study was to explore people's experiences, concerns and beliefs about disclosing minor mental health problems by focusing on the ways in which such disclosures are interpreted. Approximately half of people with mental health problems do not seek help. The decision to consult represents just one aspect of the process of revealing one's illness to others. People with mental health problems are known to be reluctant to reveal the existence of those problems through fear of how others might then view them. A qualitative approach was employed. In-depth interviews were carried out with 47 users and nonusers of community mental health services. Interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed and analysed. The data suggest that when people reveal minor mental health problems others interpret these in relation to a number of perceived contextual factors. These include perceptions of the severity and duration of any possible causes, the inner 'strength' of the person, the expected ability of the person to either solve or suppress the experience, and the form and context of the expression itself. The data presented included individuals who were seeking help for relatively 'minor' mental health problems (primarily depression and anxiety) and individuals who had no current mental health problems but routinely managed expressions of their own emotions. Throughout the data there appeared to be no distinct difference between these two groups other than one of the severity of psychological experience. The key elements involved in the interpretation of people's expressions of sadness were essentially the same as those involved in the interpretation of expressions of depression. An appreciation of these contextual factors influencing the interpretation and disclosure of minor mental health problems may aid the development of more person-centred mental health services and inform the content of health education in the mental health field.

  18. Turning health research into health promotion: a study of causality and 'critical insights' in a United Kingdom health campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piggin, Joe

    2012-10-01

    This article examines how important decisions about health can alter between public health policy formulation and eventual marketing implementation. Specifically, the article traces the development and production of a major United Kingdom social marketing campaign named Change4Life, and examines how ideas about the causes of and solutions to the obesity epidemic are produced in differing ways throughout the health promotion process. This study examines a variety of United Kingdom health research, policy, marketing strategy and marketing messages between 2008 and 2011. This research demonstrates that claims about causality oscillate and alter throughout the research, policy and Change4Life marketing process. These oscillations are problematic, since the Department of Health described the original consumer research as 'critical'. Given both the importance of the health issues being addressed and the amount of funding dedicated to Change4Life, that 'critical' research was directly contradicted in the campaign requires urgent review. To conclude, the article discusses the utility of social marketing when considering causal claims in health promotion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Case study: Massachusetts Department of Public Health's Southeastern Massachusetts health study on leukemia around Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station: Who won?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flanagan, Anita [Boston Edison Company (United States)

    1993-07-01

    In October 1990, the Massachusetts Department of Public Health released their Southeastern Massachusetts health study. This is a study of leukemia incidence in 22 towns around Pilgrim NPP, for the period 1978 through 1986. Pilgrim Station had been returned to operation following a 3 year outage, from 1986-1989. During this period, some $300 million in capital outlay was invested by Boston Edison in upgrading safety systems and installing the so-Called Three Mile Island upgrades. A copy of the peer review panel report is attached to this paper. Because of the interest in the Southeastern Massachusetts Health Study in Europe. There are three major points the Panel made which can summarized: 1. No excess of leukemia was found around Pilgrim Station. 2. The Southeastern Massachusetts Health Study over-predicted by a factor of 90 the number of leukemia cases attributable to plant operation. 3. The Southeastern Massachusetts Health Study failed to account for exposure to natural background radiation, which represents far larger biological exposure than plant Operation. Given All Of This, One Might Ask Why Didn't Common Sense Prevail In The Beginning? One Answer Might Be The Energy Of The Media In Pursuing The Story And Playing It Up No Matter What. Another Answer Might Be That The Original Study Purported To Show 'What Everyone Knows'. No One Really Stopped To Question Whether The Study Was Politically Motivated, Given That The Division of Environmental Health's Budget Had Been Cut.

  20. Case study: Massachusetts Department of Public Health's Southeastern Massachusetts health study on leukemia around Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station: Who won?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flanagan, Anita

    1993-01-01

    In October 1990, the Massachusetts Department of Public Health released their Southeastern Massachusetts health study. This is a study of leukemia incidence in 22 towns around Pilgrim NPP, for the period 1978 through 1986. Pilgrim Station had been returned to operation following a 3 year outage, from 1986-1989. During this period, some $300 million in capital outlay was invested by Boston Edison in upgrading safety systems and installing the so-Called Three Mile Island upgrades. A copy of the peer review panel report is attached to this paper. Because of the interest in the Southeastern Massachusetts Health Study in Europe. There are three major points the Panel made which can summarized: 1. No excess of leukemia was found around Pilgrim Station. 2. The Southeastern Massachusetts Health Study over-predicted by a factor of 90 the number of leukemia cases attributable to plant operation. 3. The Southeastern Massachusetts Health Study failed to account for exposure to natural background radiation, which represents far larger biological exposure than plant Operation. Given All Of This, One Might Ask Why Didn't Common Sense Prevail In The Beginning? One Answer Might Be The Energy Of The Media In Pursuing The Story And Playing It Up No Matter What. Another Answer Might Be That The Original Study Purported To Show 'What Everyone Knows'. No One Really Stopped To Question Whether The Study Was Politically Motivated, Given That The Division of Environmental Health's Budget Had Been Cut

  1. Does involvement in a cohort study improve health and affect health inequalities? A natural experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, Annie; Böhnke, Jan R; Wright, John; Pickett, Kate E

    2017-01-25

    Evidence suggests that the process of taking part in health research can improve participants' health, independent of any intended intervention. However, no research has yet explored whether these effects differ across socioeconomic groups. If the effect of mere participation in health research also has a social gradient this could increase health inequalities and bias research results. This study used the Born in Bradford family cohort (BIB) to explore whether simply taking part in BIB had improved participants' health and, if so, whether this effect was mediated by socioeconomic status. Survey data on self-reported health behaviours were collected between 2007 and 2010 as part of BIB. These were augmented by clinical data on birth weight. Pregnant women on their second pregnancy, joining BIB for the first time formed the control group. Their health was compared to women on their second pregnancy who had both pregnancies within the study, who formed the exposed group. In order to limit the inherent bias in a non-randomised study, propensity score analysis was used, matching on age, ethnicity, education and date of questionnaire. The results were then compared according to mothers' education. Of six outcomes tested, only alcohol consumption showed a statistically significant reduction with exposure to BIB (OR: 0.35, 95% CIs 0.13, 0.92). Although effect estimates were larger for women with higher education compared to lower education, these effects were not statistically significant. Despite one significant finding, these results overall are insufficient to conclude that simply taking part in BIB affected participants' health. We recommend that socioeconomic status is considered in future studies testing effects of research participation, and that randomised studies with larger sample sizes are conducted.

  2. [Colombia 2015 National Mental Health Survey. Study Protocol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; de Santacruz, Cecilia; Rodriguez, María Nelcy; Rodriguez, Viviana; Tamayo Martínez, Nathalie; Matallana, Diana; Gonzalez, Lina M

    2016-12-01

    The 2015 National Mental Health Survey (NMHS) is the fourth mental survey conducted in Colombia, and is part of the National System of Surveys and Population Studies for health. A narrative description is used to explain the background, references, the preparation, and characteristics of the 2015 NMHS. The 2015 NMHS and its protocol emerge from the requirements that support the national and international policies related to mental health. Together with the Ministry of Health and Social Protection, the objectives, the collection tools, the sample, and the operational plan are defined. The main objective was to obtain updated information about the mental health, mental problems and disorders, accessibility to health services, and an evaluation of health conditions. Participants were inhabitants from both urban and rural areas, over 7 years old, and in whom the comprehension of social determinants and equity were privileged. An observational cross-sectional design with national, regional and age group representativity, was used. The age groups selected were 7-11, 12-17, and over 18 years old. The regions considered were Central, Orient, Atlantic, Pacific, and Bogota. The calculated sample had a minimum of 12,080 and a maximum of 14,496 participants. A brief summary of the protocol of the 2015 NMHS is presented. The full document with all the collection tools can be consulted on the Health Ministry webpage. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier España.

  3. Hazard prioritization and risk characterization of antibiotics in an irrigated Costa Rican region used for intensive crop, livestock and aquaculture farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Cruz, Elba; Fournier, María Luisa; García, Fernando; Molina, Andrea; Chavarría, Guadalupe; Alfaro, Margarita; Ramírez, Fernando; Rodríguez, César

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotics alter the homeostasis of microbial communities and select for antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the wild. Thus, the accumulation of unnaturally high concentration of these substances in the environment due to their use in human activities can be regarded as a neglected form of pollution, especially in countries with agricultural-based economies. Qualitative and quantitative information on antibiotic usage in Costa Rica is scarce, hence the design and enforcement of prevention strategies and corrective measures is difficult. To address this issue, and aiming in the long run to contribute with a more rational use of pharmaceuticals in the tropics, we characterized the hazard associated with the antibiotics used during 2008 in agriculture, aquaculture, pig farming, veterinary medicine and human medicine in the major irrigation district of Costa Rica. Hazard indicators were calculated based on antibiotic use and a weighted algorithm that also considered antibiotic fate, toxicity, and resistance. Moreover, hazard quotients were computed using maximum environmental concentrations reported for Costa Rican surface waters and predicted no effect concentrations for aquatic organisms. The number of antibiotics used in the ATID during the study were n = 38 from 15 families. Antibiotic consumption was estimated at 1169-109908 g ha(-1) year(-1) and, distinctively, almost half of this figure was traced back to phenicols. Tetracyclines, with a particular contribution of oxytetracycline, were the most widely used antibiotics in agriculture and veterinary medicine. Oxytetracycline, florfenicol, chlortetracycline, sulfamethoxazole, erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, sulfamethazine, trimethoprim and tylosin, in that order showed the highest hazard indicators. Moreover, hazard quotients greater than 1 were calculated for oxacillin, doxycycline, oxytetracycline, sulfamethazine, and ciprofloxacin. Studies dealing with the ecotoxicology of tetracyclines, sulfonamides

  4. Investigating the psychosocial determinants of child health in Africa: the Drakenstein Child Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, DJ; Koen, N; Donald, KA; Adnams, CM; Koopowitz, S; Lund, C; Marais, A; Myers, B; Roos, A; Sorsdahl, K; Stern, M; Tomlinson, M; van der Westhuizen, C; Vythilingum, B; Myer, L; Barnett, W; Brittain, K; Zar, HJ

    2015-01-01

    Background Early life psychobiological and psychosocial factors play a key role in influencing child health outcomes. Longitudinal studies may help elucidate the relevant risk and resilience profiles, and the underlying mechanisms that impact on child health, but there is a paucity of birth cohort data from low and middle-income countries (LMIC). We describe the rationale for and present baseline findings from the psychosocial component of the Drakenstein Child Health Study (DCHS). Methods We review the psychosocial measures used in the DCHS, a multidisciplinary birth cohort study in a peri-urban area in South Africa, and provide initial data on psychological distress, depression, substance use, and exposure to traumatic stressors and intimate partner violence (IPV). These and other measures will be assessed longitudinally in mothers in order to investigate associations with child neurodevelopmental and health outcomes. Results Baseline psychosocial data is presented for mothers (n = 634) and fathers (n = 75) who have completed antenatal assessments to date. The sample of pregnant mothers is characterized by multiple psychosocial risk factors, including a high prevalence of psychological distress and depression, high levels of substance use, and high exposure to traumatic stressors and IPV. Discussion These data are consistent with prior South African studies which have documented a high prevalence of a multitude of risk factors during pregnancy. Further longitudinal assessment of mothers and children may clarify the underlying psychobiological and psychosocial mechanisms which impact on child health, and so inform clinical and public health interventions appropriate to the South African and other LMIC contexts. PMID:25797842

  5. Adolescent's perspective on reproductive health: a study from Karachi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahid, A.; Nasim, S.; Memon, A.A.; Mustafa, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the existing knowledge, attitude and behavior about reproductive and sexual health in adolescents of Karachi and seek their opinion about reproductive health education. Study type, settings and duration: A cross sectional study was conducted on adolescents (17-19 years) of both gender studying in colleges of Karachi during 2010. Subject sand Methods: Using stratified sampling procedure, a cross sectional study was carried out. After informed consent and ensuring confidentiality an anonymous quantitative questionnaire was completed to ascertain the knowledge of adolescents on reproductive health. Results: A total of 912 adolescents (470 males and 442 females) of 12 public and private sector colleges of Karachi participated in the study. Acquaintance to reproductive health was present in 75% males and 71% females and most participants confirmed discussing reproductive health issues with friends. About 81% males and 91 % females affirmed for a need for enhanced reproductive health education and awareness while over 50% of the respondents were of the opinion that the right age for reproductive health education was 16 to 18 years. Confining sexual activity to one partner and avoiding exposure to blood and needles for the prevention of AIDS was known to 38% males and 44% females but the prevention of sexually transmitted infections using condoms, was known to only 1/3 rd of the respondents. Although 70% of the respondents of both genders knew that pregnancy can be avoided but only 20% knew about contraceptives. Conclusions: Most adolescents' knew about the reproductive cycle but were not well aware of how to avoid exposures to sexually transmitted infections and pregnancies. Policy message: Reproductive health education is insufficient in adolescents should be gender specific and socio culturally sensitive. (author)

  6. History of health studies around nuclear facilities: a methodologival consideration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuhata, G.K.; Smith, M.W.

    1981-01-01

    A brief historical review was made of low-level radiation studies for general populations living around nuclear facilities. In addition, technical and methodological problems were identified and discussed which often arise in all epidemiological studies designed to determine the possible health effects of low-level radiation released from nuclear facilities. Need for extremely large populations for prospective cancer studies was discussed, but accompanying ascertainment difficulties were also emphasized. More epidemiological studies are needed to provide adequate assessment of the potential health hazards of nuclear facilities

  7. Ethnic Variations in Psychosocial and Health Correlates of Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; DeFreitas, Mariana R

    2018-04-25

    The aim of this study is to explore ethnic variations in psychosocial and health correlates of eating disorders in the United States, Specifically, we compared associations between gender, socioeconomic status (SES), body mass index (BMI), physical and mental self-rated health (SRH), and major depressive disorder (MDD) with eating disorders (EDs) across 10 different ethnic groups in the United States. Data was obtained from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES), a national household probability sample collected in 2001⁻2003. Data for this study included a sample of 17,729 individuals with the following ethnic profile: 520 Vietnamese, 508 Filipino, 600 Chinese, 656 Other Asian, 577 Cuban, 495 Puerto Rican, 1442 Mexican, 1106 Other Hispanic, 4746 African American, and 7587 Non-Latino Whites. Gender, SES (education and income), BMI, SRH, MDD, and presence of EDs were measured across different ethnic groups. Logistic regression analysis was conducted for each ethnic group with lifetime EDs as the main outcome. Ethnic group varied in psychosocial and health correlates of EDs. In most ethnic groups, gender and SES were not associated with EDs. In almost all ethnic groups, EDs were associated with MDD and BMI. EDs were found to be associated with SRH in half of the ethnic groups studied. The associations between gender, SES, BMI, SRH, MDD, and EDs vary across different ethnic groups. These differences must be considered in further studies and in clinical practice in order to improve our approach towards diagnosis and treatment of EDs.

  8. Ethnic Variations in Psychosocial and Health Correlates of Eating Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to explore ethnic variations in psychosocial and health correlates of eating disorders in the United States, Specifically, we compared associations between gender, socioeconomic status (SES, body mass index (BMI, physical and mental self-rated health (SRH, and major depressive disorder (MDD with eating disorders (EDs across 10 different ethnic groups in the United States. Data was obtained from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES, a national household probability sample collected in 2001–2003. Data for this study included a sample of 17,729 individuals with the following ethnic profile: 520 Vietnamese, 508 Filipino, 600 Chinese, 656 Other Asian, 577 Cuban, 495 Puerto Rican, 1442 Mexican, 1106 Other Hispanic, 4746 African American, and 7587 Non-Latino Whites. Gender, SES (education and income, BMI, SRH, MDD, and presence of EDs were measured across different ethnic groups. Logistic regression analysis was conducted for each ethnic group with lifetime EDs as the main outcome. Ethnic group varied in psychosocial and health correlates of EDs. In most ethnic groups, gender and SES were not associated with EDs. In almost all ethnic groups, EDs were associated with MDD and BMI. EDs were found to be associated with SRH in half of the ethnic groups studied. The associations between gender, SES, BMI, SRH, MDD, and EDs vary across different ethnic groups. These differences must be considered in further studies and in clinical practice in order to improve our approach towards diagnosis and treatment of EDs.

  9. Workplace health interventions in small enterprises: a Swedish longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinberg, Stig

    2008-01-01

    This article has a two-fold approach. First, it investigates relationships between work organizational factors, and health and performance outcomes. Second, it compares two change strategy approaches in workplace health interventions by studying changes of these factors and outcomes. The sample consisted of ten Swedish small enterprises including 102 individuals, who answered a before and after questionnaire about organizational factors and outcomes. The leaders were interviewed and answered a questionnaire about performed workplace health interventions. Statistical methods used were reliability tests, correlation analyses and t-tests. Results indicate rather strong links between indicators of respectful leadership, creative work and team spirit, and the outcome indicators self-assessed health and judged workplace adaptability in association with customer satisfaction. The results concerning changes of determinants and outcomes (after workplace health interventions) showed significant differences between enterprises using a broad change strategy and those using an expert/problem-based strategy with the former having more favourable results. The leader interview results also point at obstacles concerning workplace change processes as lack of resources, insufficient competence and influence of external factors. The study results suggest that work organizational factors and integrated models for workplace health intervention are of importance for health and performance outcomes in small enterprises.

  10. Family Influences on the Long Term Post-Disaster Recovery of Puerto Rican Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Erika; You, Sukkyung; Vernberg, Eric; Canino, Glorisa

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on characteristics of the family environment that may mediate the relationship between disaster exposure and the presence of symptoms that met DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for symptom count and duration for an internalizing disorder in children and youth. We also explored how parental history of mental health problems may moderate this meditational model. Approximately 18 months after Hurricane Georges hit Puerto Rico in 1998, participants were randomly selected based on a probability household sample using 1990 US Census block groups. Caregivers and children (N=1,886 dyads) were interviewed with the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children and other questionnaires in Spanish. Areas of the family environment assessed include parent-child relationship quality, parent-child involvement, parental monitoring, discipline, parents’ relationship quality and parental mental health. SEM models were estimated for parents and children, and by age group. For children (4–10 years old), parenting variables were related to internalizing psychopathology, but did not mediate the exposure-psychopathology relationship. Exposure had a direct relationship to internalizing psychopathology. For youth (11–17 years old), some parenting variables attenuated the relation between exposure and internalizing psychopathology. Family environment factors may play a mediational role in psychopathology post-disaster among youth, compared to an additive role for children. Hurricane exposure had a significant relation to family environment for families without parental history of mental health problems, but no influence for families with a parental history of mental health problems. PMID:22688681

  11. Implementing an Open Source Electronic Health Record System in Kenyan Health Care Facilities: Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muinga, Naomi; Magare, Steve; Monda, Jonathan; Kamau, Onesmus; Houston, Stuart; Fraser, Hamish; Powell, John; English, Mike; Paton, Chris

    2018-04-18

    The Kenyan government, working with international partners and local organizations, has developed an eHealth strategy, specified standards, and guidelines for electronic health record adoption in public hospitals and implemented two major health information technology projects: District Health Information Software Version 2, for collating national health care indicators and a rollout of the KenyaEMR and International Quality Care Health Management Information Systems, for managing 600 HIV clinics across the country. Following these projects, a modified version of the Open Medical Record System electronic health record was specified and developed to fulfill the clinical and administrative requirements of health care facilities operated by devolved counties in Kenya and to automate the process of collating health care indicators and entering them into the District Health Information Software Version 2 system. We aimed to present a descriptive case study of the implementation of an open source electronic health record system in public health care facilities in Kenya. We conducted a landscape review of existing literature concerning eHealth policies and electronic health record development in Kenya. Following initial discussions with the Ministry of Health, the World Health Organization, and implementing partners, we conducted a series of visits to implementing sites to conduct semistructured individual interviews and group discussions with stakeholders to produce a historical case study of the implementation. This case study describes how consultants based in Kenya, working with developers in India and project stakeholders, implemented the new system into several public hospitals in a county in rural Kenya. The implementation process included upgrading the hospital information technology infrastructure, training users, and attempting to garner administrative and clinical buy-in for adoption of the system. The initial deployment was ultimately scaled back due to a

  12. Front Range Forest Health Partnership Phase 1 feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkin, P

    1998-09-01

    The Front Range Forest Health Partnership is an alliance of individuals, citizen groups, federal, state, private, and nonprofit organizations that formed to promote forest health restoration and reduce fire risks on Colorado's Front Range. The partnership promotes selective thinning to restore forest health and supports economically feasible end uses for wood waste materials. The Phase I study was initiated to determine the environmental and economic feasibility of using wood wastes from forested and urban areas for the production of fuel-grade ethanol.

  13. Police and mental health clinician partnership in response to mental health crisis: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Brian; Furness, Trentham; Oakes, Jane; Brown, Steve

    2015-10-01

    Police officers as first responders to acute mental health crisis in the community, commonly transport people in mental health crisis to a hospital emergency department. However, emergency departments are not the optimal environments to provide assessment and care to those experiencing mental health crises. In 2012, the Northern Police and Clinician Emergency Response (NPACER) team combining police and mental health clinicians was created to reduce behavioural escalation and provide better outcomes for people with mental health needs through diversion to appropriate mental health and community services. The aim of this study was to describe the perceptions of major stakeholders on the ability of the team to reduce behavioural escalation and improve the service utilization of people in mental health crisis. Responses of a purposive sample of 17 people (carer or consumer advisors, mental health or emergency department staff, and police or ambulance officers) who had knowledge of, or had interfaced with, the NPACER were thematically analyzed after one-to-one semistructured interviews. Themes emerged about the challenge created by a stand-alone police response, with the collaborative strengths of the NPACER (communication, information sharing, and knowledge/skill development) seen as the solution. Themes on improvements in service utilization were revealed at the point of community contact, in police stations, transition through the emergency department, and admission to acute inpatient units. The NPACER enabled emergency department diversion, direct access to inpatient mental health services, reduced police officer 'down-time', improved interagency collaboration and knowledge transfer, and improvements in service utilization and transition. © 2015 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  14. Health management in past disasters in Iran: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Nakhaei

    2014-06-01

    Background: Disaster management is relied on prediction of problems and providing necessary preparations in right time and place. In this study researchers intended to explore passed experiences of health disaster management. Method: This study conducted using qualitative content analysis methods. Participants were selected purposefully and data were collected through interviews, observation, and other documents. Results: Transcribed data from 18interviews, field notes and other documents were analyzed. In data analysis reactive management was emerged as main theme. It was included some categories such as ‘exposure shock’, ‘non deliberative relief’, ‘lack of comprehensive health disaster plan’, ‘lack of preparedness’, and ‘poor coordination in health service delivery’ and contextual factors. Discussion: The results clarified deep perception of participants’ experiences about health management in disasters. The professionals' and non-professionals' emotion-based reactions and behaviors, if accompanied with deficiencies in planning and preparedness, can lead to ineffective services, and aggravates the damages.

  15. Vision for a Global Registry of Anticipated Public Health Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Bernard C.K.; Frank, John; Mindell, Jennifer S.; Orlova, Anna; Lin, Vivian; Vaillancourt, Alain D.M.G.; Puska, Pekka; Pang, Tikki; Skinner, Harvey A.; Marsh, Marsha; Mokdad, Ali H.; Yu, Shun-Zhang; Lindner, M. Cristina; Sherman, Gregory; Barreto, Sandhi M.; Green, Lawrence W.; Svenson, Lawrence W.; Sainsbury, Peter; Yan, Yongping; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Zevallos, Juan C.; Ho, Suzanne C.; de Salazar, Ligia M.

    2007-01-01

    In public health, the generation, management, and transfer of knowledge all need major improvement. Problems in generating knowledge include an imbalance in research funding, publication bias, unnecessary studies, adherence to fashion, and undue interest in novel and immediate issues. Impaired generation of knowledge, combined with a dated and inadequate process for managing knowledge and an inefficient system for transferring knowledge, mean a distorted body of evidence available for decisionmaking in public health. This article hopes to stimulate discussion by proposing a Global Registry of Anticipated Public Health Studies. This prospective, comprehensive system for tracking research in public health could help enhance collaboration and improve efficiency. Practical problems must be discussed before such a vision can be further developed. PMID:17413073

  16. The training for health equity network evaluation framework: a pilot study at five health professional schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Simone J; Preston, Robyn; Lindemann, Iris C; Matte, Marie C; Samson, Rex; Tandinco, Filedito D; Larkins, Sarah L; Palsdottir, Bjorg; Neusy, Andre-Jacques

    2014-01-01

    The Training for Health Equity Network (THEnet), a group of diverse health professional schools aspiring toward social accountability, developed and pilot tested a comprehensive evaluation framework to assess progress toward socially accountable health professions education. The evaluation framework provides criteria for schools to assess their level of social accountability within their organization and planning; education, research and service delivery; and the direct and indirect impacts of the school and its graduates, on the community and health system. This paper describes the pilot implementation of testing the evaluation framework across five THEnet schools, and examines whether the evaluation framework was practical and feasible across contexts for the purposes of critical reflection and continuous improvement in terms of progress towards social accountability. In this pilot study, schools utilized the evaluation framework using a mixed method approach of data collection comprising of workshops, qualitative interviews and focus group discussions, document review and collation and analysis of existing quantitative data. The evaluation framework allowed each school to contextually gather evidence on how it was meeting the aspirational goals of social accountability across a range of school activities, and to identify strengths and areas for improvement and development. The evaluation framework pilot study demonstrated how social accountability can be assessed through a critically reflective and comprehensive process. As social accountability focuses on the relationship between health professions schools and health system and health population outcomes, each school was able to demonstrate to students, health professionals, governments, accrediting bodies, communities and other stakeholders how current and future health care needs of populations are addressed in terms of education, research, and service learning.

  17. Impact of Home Health Care on Health Care Resource Utilization Following Hospital Discharge: A Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Roy; Miller, Jacob A; Zafirau, William J; Gorodeski, Eiran Z; Young, James B

    2018-04-01

    As healthcare costs rise, home health care represents an opportunity to reduce preventable adverse events and costs following hospital discharge. No studies have investigated the utility of home health care within the context of a large and diverse patient population. A retrospective cohort study was conducted between 1/1/2013 and 6/30/2015 at a single tertiary care institution to assess healthcare utilization after discharge with home health care. Control patients discharged with "self-care" were matched by propensity score to home health care patients. The primary outcome was total healthcare costs in the 365-day post-discharge period. Secondary outcomes included follow-up readmission and death. Multivariable linear and Cox proportional hazards regression were used to adjust for covariates. Among 64,541 total patients, 11,266 controls were matched to 6,363 home health care patients across 11 disease-based Institutes. During the 365-day post-discharge period, home health care was associated with a mean unadjusted savings of $15,233 per patient, or $6,433 after adjusting for covariates (p Home health care independently decreased the hazard of follow-up readmission (HR 0.82, p home health care most benefited patients discharged from the Digestive Disease (death HR 0.72, p home health care was associated with significant reduction in healthcare utilization and decreased hazard of readmission and death. These data inform development of value-based care plans. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Cyber Espionage in the International and Costa Rican Law: A Form of Violation of the Human Right to Privacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Masís Solís

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cybercrime is a dangerous consequence of the evolution of information technology. This is how it is conceptualized the issues addressed in this paper. As a methodology, it is discussed and analysed published articles, Costa Rican law, and international regulations concerning cybercrime –such as the Convention on Cybercrime of 2001–, and introduce case law connected to the topic. In this paper, cyber espionage is viewed as an example of the way in which cybercrime jeopardizes and radically affects the human and fundamental right to intimacy. Finally, it is presented a number of conclusions in which it is underscored the importance of international cooperation for the investigation and punishment of cybercrime, as well as to locate the offenders. It is also suggested that it is crucial that due process is respected in the phase of investigation, as well as the human rights of the persons involved.

  19. Advances in the use of DNA barcodes to build a community phylogeny for tropical trees in a Puerto Rican forest dynamics plot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W John Kress

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Species number, functional traits, and phylogenetic history all contribute to characterizing the biological diversity in plant communities. The phylogenetic component of diversity has been particularly difficult to quantify in species-rich tropical tree assemblages. The compilation of previously published (and often incomplete data on evolutionary relationships of species into a composite phylogeny of the taxa in a forest, through such programs as Phylomatic, has proven useful in building community phylogenies although often of limited resolution. Recently, DNA barcodes have been used to construct a robust community phylogeny for nearly 300 tree species in a forest dynamics plot in Panama using a supermatrix method. In that study sequence data from three barcode loci were used to generate a well-resolved species-level phylogeny.Here we expand upon this earlier investigation and present results on the use of a phylogenetic constraint tree to generate a community phylogeny for a diverse, tropical forest dynamics plot in Puerto Rico. This enhanced method of phylogenetic reconstruction insures the congruence of the barcode phylogeny with broadly accepted hypotheses on the phylogeny of flowering plants (i.e., APG III regardless of the number and taxonomic breadth of the taxa sampled. We also compare maximum parsimony versus maximum likelihood estimates of community phylogenetic relationships as well as evaluate the effectiveness of one- versus two- versus three-gene barcodes in resolving community evolutionary history.As first demonstrated in the Panamanian forest dynamics plot, the results for the Puerto Rican plot illustrate that highly resolved phylogenies derived from DNA barcode sequence data combined with a constraint tree based on APG III are particularly useful in comparative analysis of phylogenetic diversity and will enhance research on the interface between community ecology and evolution.

  20. Zimbabwean diabetics' beliefs about health and illness: an interview study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mufunda Esther

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes mellitus (DM is increasing globally, with the greatest increase in Africa and Asia. In Zimbabwe a threefold increase was shown in the 1990s. Health-related behaviour is important in maintaining health and is determined by individual beliefs about health and illness but has seen little study. The purpose of the study was to explore beliefs about health and illness that might affect self-care practice and health care seeking behaviour in persons diagnosed with DM, living in Zimbabwe. Methods Exploratory study. Consecutive sample from a diabetes clinic at a central hospital. Semi-structured interviews were held with 21 persons aged 19-65 years. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Results Health was described as freedom from disease and well-being, and individual factors such as compliance with advice received and drugs were considered important to promote health. A mixture of causes of DM, predominantly individual factors such as heredity, overweight and wrong diet in combination with supernatural factors such as fate, punishment from God and witchcraft were mentioned. Most respondents did not recognize the symptoms of DM when falling ill but related the problems to other diseases, e.g. HIV, malaria etc. Limited knowledge about DM and the body was indicated. Poor economy was mentioned as harmful to health and a consequence of DM because the need to buy expensive drugs, food and attend check-ups. Self-care was used to a limited extent but if used, a combination of individual measures, household remedies or herbs and religious acts such as prayers and holy water were frequently used, and in some cases health care professionals were consulted. Conclusions Limited knowledge about DM, based on beliefs about health and illness including biomedical and traditional explanations related to the influence of supernatural forces, e.g. fate, God etc., were found, which affected patients' self-care and care

  1. DIFERENCIAS POR GÉNERO EN EL EMPRENDIMIENTO EMPRESARIAL COSTARRICENSE. (Gender differences in the costa rican entrepreneurial environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizette Brenes Bonilla

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available El Observatorio de Mipymes realizó el Segundo estudio nacional de micros, pequeñas y medianas empresas (mipymes costarricenses durante el 2011, por medio de una encuesta aplicada a 1167 mipymes. En este trabajo se obtienen resultados desglosados por género para algunas variables principales indagadas en dicho estudio, las cuales permiten identificar características de las personas propietarias de estas empresas y las condiciones en que emprendieron sus negocios. Con el propósito de comprobar si las diferencias observadas son significativas, se aplicaron las pruebas correspondientes. Los resultados muestran que la participación femenina en el parque empresarial mipymes costarricense es muy baja y está limitada principalmente a las microempresas. Además, se verifican diferencias por género estadísticamente significativas que develan mayores dificultades para las mujeres en aspectos tales como: falta de experiencia en el sector empresarial, menor conocimiento del negocio, falta de recursos para emprender en forma individual y mayor dependencia respecto a los ingresos de la empresa. ABSTRACT The SME Observatory developed the Second National Survey of micro, small and medium sized Costa Rican companies (SMEs during 2011 using survey answers from 1167 SMEs. This work generated gender classified data for a few of the variables examined that led to the identification of characteristics for female business owners, and the limitations in which they developed their businesses. Tests for the validation of significant differences observed were applied. Results show that female participation in the Costa Rican SME population is very low and limited to micro enterprises only. Besides, statistically different gender differences revealed greater difficulties for women in areas like the lack of entrepreneurial experience, lesser knowledge of the business, lack of resources for individual entrepreneurship and a great dependency from the company

  2. Do governance choices matter in health care networks?: an exploratory configuration study of health care networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Health care networks are widely used and accepted as an organizational form that enables integrated care as well as dealing with complex matters in health care. However, research on the governance of health care networks lags behind. The research aim of our study is to explore the type and importance of governance structure and governance mechanisms for network effectiveness. Methods The study has a multiple case study design and covers 22 health care networks. Using a configuration view, combinations of network governance and other network characteristics were studied on the level of the network. Based on interview and questionnaire data, network characteristics were identified and patterns in the data looked for. Results Neither a dominant (or optimal) governance structure or mechanism nor a perfect fit among governance and other characteristics were revealed, but a number of characteristics that need further study might be related to effective networks such as the role of governmental agencies, legitimacy, and relational, hierarchical, and contractual governance mechanisms as complementary factors. Conclusions Although the results emphasize the situational character of network governance and effectiveness, they give practitioners in the health care sector indications of which factors might be more or less crucial for network effectiveness. PMID:23800334

  3. Sociodemographic and socioeconomic determinants of health services utilization in Greece: the Hellas Health I study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tountas, Yannis; Oikonomou, Nikolaos; Pallikarona, Georgia; Dimitrakaki, Christine; Tzavara, Chara; Souliotis, Kyriakos; Mariolis, Anargiros; Pappa, Evelina; Kontodimopoulos, Nick; Niakas, Dimitris

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to estimate the demographic and socioeconomic determinants of utilization of the Greek primary and hospital health care services. Data were obtained from the cross-sectional nationwide household survey Hellas Health I (2006). The sample (N = 1005) was representative of the Greek adult population in terms of age and residency, and was selected by means of a three-stage, proportional-to-size sampling design. The presence of a family doctor was reported in a higher degree by participants of higher social classes and private insurance. After adjusting for self-perceived general health and chronic illness, contacts with health care professionals during the past four weeks were found less for residents of rural areas, while contacts with health care professionals during the past 12 months were found less for men than women, for individuals without private insurance and for individuals of lower education. More out-of-pocket payments were reported by the 34-44 age group, rural area residents and individuals with private insurance. Higher use of private health care services was reported by participants of higher social classes and residents of rural areas and private insurance. Only hospital admissions were not directly influenced by demographic and socioeconomic factors. The findings imply the existence of inequities in access and use of primary health services with clear implications to related policies.

  4. Health literacy and the Internet: a study on the readability of Australian online health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Christina; Dunn, Matthew

    2015-08-01

    Almost 80% of Australian Internet users seek out health information online so the readability of this information is important. This study aimed to evaluate the readability of Australian online health information and determine if it matches the average reading level of Australians. Two hundred and fifty-one web pages with information on 12 common health conditions were identified across sectors. Readability was assessed by the Flesch-Kincaid (F-K), Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG) and Flesch Reading Ease (FRE) formulas, with grade 8 adopted as the average Australian reading level. The average reading grade measured by F-K and SMOG was 10.54 and 12.12 respectively. The mean FRE was 47.54, a 'difficult-to-read' score. Only 0.4% of web pages were written at or below grade 8 according to SMOG. Information on dementia was the most difficult to read overall, while obesity was the most difficult among government websites. The findings suggest that the readability of Australian health websites is above the average Australian levels of reading. A quantifiable guideline is needed to ensure online health information accommodates the reading needs of the general public to effectively use the Internet as an enabler of health literacy. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  5. Black Families' Lay Views on Health and the Implications for Health Promotion: A Community-Based Study in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochieng, Bertha

    2012-01-01

    Many studies focusing on beliefs about health and health promotion have paid little attention to the life experiences of Black and other visible minority ethnic families in western societies. This paper is a report of a study exploring Black families' beliefs about health and the implications of such beliefs for health promotion. Ten Black…

  6. Marriage and Health in the Transition to Adulthood: Evidence for African Americans in the Add Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Lee, Hedwig; DeLeone, Felicia Yang

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the relationships among early marriage (before age 26 years), cohabitation, and health for African Americans and Whites during the transition to adulthood using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). The study examines three categories of health outcomes relevant to young adulthood: physical…

  7. Beacon communities' public health initiatives: a case study analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoudi, Barbara L; Marcial, Laura H; Haque, Saira; Bailey, Robert; Chester, Kelley; Cunningham, Shellery; Riley, Amanda; Soper, Paula

    2014-01-01

    The Beacon Communities for Public Health (BCPH) project was launched in 2011 to gain a better understanding of the range of activities currently being conducted in population- and public health by the Beacon Communities. The project highlighted the successes and challenges of these efforts with the aim of sharing this information broadly among the public health community. The Beacon Community Program, designed to showcase technology-enabled, community-based initiatives to improve outcomes, focused on: building and strengthening health information technology (IT) infrastructure and exchange capabilities; translating investments in health IT to measureable improvements in cost, quality, and population health; and, developing innovative approaches to performance measurement, technology, and care delivery. Four multimethod case studies were conducted based on a modified sociotechnical framework to learn more about public health initiative implementation and use in the Beacon Communities. Our methodological approach included using document review and semistructured key informant interviews. NACCHO Model Practice Program criteria were used to select the public health initiatives included in the case studies. Despite differences among the case studies, common barriers and facilitators were found to be present in all areas of the sociotechnical framework application including structure, people, technology, tasks, overarching considerations, and sustainability. Overall, there were many more facilitators (range = 7-14) present for each Beacon compared to barriers (range = 4-6). Four influential promising practices were identified through the work: forging strong and sustainable partnerships; ensuring a good task-technology fit and a flexible and iterative design; fostering technology acceptance; and, providing education and demonstrating value. A common weakness was the lack of a framework or model for the Beacon Communities evaluation work. Sharing a framework or approach

  8. Beacon Communities’ Public Health Initiatives: A Case Study Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoudi, Barbara L.; Marcial, Laura H.; Haque, Saira; Bailey, Robert; Chester, Kelley; Cunningham, Shellery; Riley, Amanda; Soper, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The Beacon Communities for Public Health (BCPH) project was launched in 2011 to gain a better understanding of the range of activities currently being conducted in population- and public health by the Beacon Communities. The project highlighted the successes and challenges of these efforts with the aim of sharing this information broadly among the public health community. Background: The Beacon Community Program, designed to showcase technology-enabled, community-based initiatives to improve outcomes, focused on: building and strengthening health information technology (IT) infrastructure and exchange capabilities; translating investments in health IT to measureable improvements in cost, quality, and population health; and, developing innovative approaches to performance measurement, technology, and care delivery. Methods: Four multimethod case studies were conducted based on a modified sociotechnical framework to learn more about public health initiative implementation and use in the Beacon Communities. Our methodological approach included using document review and semistructured key informant interviews. NACCHO Model Practice Program criteria were used to select the public health initiatives included in the case studies. Findings: Despite differences among the case studies, common barriers and facilitators were found to be present in all areas of the sociotechnical framework application including structure, people, technology, tasks, overarching considerations, and sustainability. Overall, there were many more facilitators (range = 7–14) present for each Beacon compared to barriers (range = 4–6). Discussion: Four influential promising practices were identified through the work: forging strong and sustainable partnerships; ensuring a good task-technology fit and a flexible and iterative design; fostering technology acceptance; and, providing education and demonstrating value. Conclusions: A common weakness was the lack of a framework or model for

  9. Health behaviours of young, rural residents: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Lisa; Humphreys, John; Lukaitis, Fiona

    2009-04-01

    To analyse self-reported health behaviours of young people from a rural community and the factors influencing their behaviours. Interviews were conducted with 19 young people, 11 parents and 10 key informants from a small rural Victorian community, asking about teenage health behaviours and the factors influencing these behaviours. Young people ate both healthy and unhealthy foods, most participated in physical activity, few smoked and most drank alcohol. The study found that community level factors, including community norms, peers, access issues and geographic isolation, were particularly powerful in shaping health behaviours, especially alcohol consumption. Smoking was influenced by social participation in the community and national media health campaigns. Diet and exercise behaviour were influenced by access and availability, convenience, family, peers and local and non-local cultural influences. The rural context, including less access to and choice of facilities and services, lower incomes, lack of transport and local social patterns (including community norms and acceptance), impact significantly on young people's health behaviours. Although national health promotion campaigns are useful aspects of behaviour modification, much greater focus on the role and importance of the local contexts in shaping health decisions of young rural people is required.

  10. VIOLENCE AGAINST HEALTH CARE WORKERS: A RETROSPECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacer ATAMAN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As violence in society is increasing in recent years it is an important problem in health institutions as well. Changes in health systems, rising socio-economic levels of people, and changes in expectations for health services led to violence in health sector. This study was conducted for the purpose of examining work place violence against health care workers. This retrospective-descriptive study covers a period from December 2011 to April 2015. 136 notifications about work place violence reported by health workers to quality management unit of a hospital were taken into account. Research findings show that 43,4% of the victims of violence was physicians, 37,5% was nurses and health officers and 19,1% were from other professions. 63,2% of the health workers were women, 36,8% were male. Additionally health workers were exposed to violence by 47.3% of the patients and 52.7% by their relatives. 69.7% of the people applied violence were male and 30.3% were female. 63,2% of the health workers exposed to violence were women, 36,8% were male. According to our results male physicians were exposed to workplace violence more than other workers and this was significant ( χ 2=31,634, p<0,01. When place of violence occurred was investigated it was seen that while most of physicians were exposed to violence in polyclinics, nurses were exposed to violence in inpatient services (χ2=18,231, p<0,01. Male physicians were exposed to verbal violence most. On the other hand nurses experienced both verbal and physical violence (χ2=34,639,p<0.01. Patient relatives applied verbal violence and the others applied physical violence (χ2=22,073, p<0,01. As a result, in order to reduce / prevent violence in work place , it is considered necessary to increase consciousness of patients and their relatives, to increase security measures in health institutions, to provide health workers to report work place violence to management , to improve physical working conditions and

  11. Mental health concerns among Canadian physicians: results from the 2007-2008 Canadian Physician Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Michael T; Frank, Erica

    2011-01-01

    In light of prior reports on the prevalence of stress, depression, and other mental health problems among physicians in training and practice, we examined the mental health concerns of Canadian physicians using data from the 2007-2008 Canadian Physician Health Study. Among 3213 respondents, 5 variables (depressive symptoms during the past year, anhedonia in the past year, mental health concerns making it difficult to handle one's workload in the past month, problems with work-life balance, and poor awareness of resources for mental health problems) were examined in relation to sex, specialty, practice type (solo practice vs group or other practice settings), and practice setting (inner city, urban/suburban, or rural/small town/remote). Nearly one quarter of physicians reported a 2-week period of depressed mood, and depression was more common among female physicians and general practitioners/family physicians. Anhedonia was reported by one fifth; anesthesiologists were most likely to report anhedonia, followed by general practitioners/family physicians. More than one quarter reported mental health concerns making it difficult to handle their workload, which was more common among female physicians and general practitioners/family physicians and psychiatrists. Nearly one quarter reported poor work-life balance. Lack of familiarity with mental health resources was problematic, which was more prominent among female physicians and specialists outside of general practice/family medicine or psychiatry. Mental health concerns are relatively common among Canadian physicians. Training programs and programmatic/policy enhancements should redouble efforts to address depression and other mental health concerns among physicians for the benefit of the workforce and patients served by Canadian physicians. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Hanford-worker health study: a status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, S.; Tolley, H.D.; Gilbert, E.S.; Petersen, G.R.

    1983-02-01

    Analysis of the workers' health at the Hanford plant produced no startling changes. Multiple myeloma is the only cancer type that shows a statistically significant trend of mortality with increasing radiation exposure. The study populations will be augmented by the addition of a group of construction workers in the future. Methodologic studies based on this data set are continuing

  13. Methodological issues in studies of air pollution and reproductive health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Tracey J; Parker, Jennifer D; Darrow, Lyndsey A; Slama, Rémy; Bell, Michelle L; Choi, Hyunok; Glinianaia, Svetlana; Hoggatt, Katherine J; Karr, Catherine J; Lobdell, Danelle T; Wilhelm, Michelle

    2009-04-01

    In the past decade there have been an increasing number of scientific studies describing possible effects of air pollution on perinatal health. These papers have mostly focused on commonly monitored air pollutants, primarily ozone (O(3)), particulate matter (PM), sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), carbon monoxide (CO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), and various indices of perinatal health, including fetal growth, pregnancy duration, and infant mortality. While most published studies have found some marker of air pollution related to some types of perinatal outcomes, variability exists in the nature of the pollutants and outcomes associated. Synthesis of the findings has been difficult for various reasons, including differences in study design and analysis. A workshop was held in September 2007 to discuss methodological differences in the published studies as a basis for understanding differences in study findings and to identify priorities for future research, including novel approaches for existing data. Four broad topic areas were considered: confounding and effect modification, spatial and temporal exposure variations, vulnerable windows of exposure, and multiple pollutants. Here we present a synopsis of the methodological issues and challenges in each area and make recommendations for future study. Two key recommendations include: (1) parallel analyses of existing data sets using a standardized methodological approach to disentangle true differences in associations from methodological differences among studies; and (2) identification of animal studies to inform important mechanistic research gaps. This work is of critical public health importance because of widespread exposure and because perinatal outcomes are important markers of future child and adult health.

  14. Data resource profile: the World Health Organization Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowal, Paul; Chatterji, Somnath; Naidoo, Nirmala; Biritwum, Richard; Fan, Wu; Lopez Ridaura, Ruy; Maximova, Tamara; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy; Williams, Sharon; Snodgrass, J Josh; Minicuci, Nadia; D'Este, Catherine; Peltzer, Karl; Boerma, J Ties

    2012-12-01

    Population ageing is rapidly becoming a global issue and will have a major impact on health policies and programmes. The World Health Organization's Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) aims to address the gap in reliable data and scientific knowledge on ageing and health in low- and middle-income countries. SAGE is a longitudinal study with nationally representative samples of persons aged 50+ years in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia and South Africa, with a smaller sample of adults aged 18-49 years in each country for comparisons. Instruments are compatible with other large high-income country longitudinal ageing studies. Wave 1 was conducted during 2007-2010 and included a total of 34 124 respondents aged 50+ and 8340 aged 18-49. In four countries, a subsample consisting of 8160 respondents participated in Wave 1 and the 2002/04 World Health Survey (referred to as SAGE Wave 0). Wave 2 data collection will start in 2012/13, following up all Wave 1 respondents. Wave 3 is planned for 2014/15. SAGE is committed to the public release of study instruments, protocols and meta- and micro-data: access is provided upon completion of a Users Agreement available through WHO's SAGE website (www.who.int/healthinfo/systems/sage) and WHO's archive using the National Data Archive application (http://apps.who.int/healthinfo/systems/surveydata).

  15. The Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) employee health study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeks, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    The Atomic Energy Health Study formally began in April 1980. The purpose of the study is to determine the causes of death among a population of radiation workers and to compare this information with data available for the causes of death in the general population. The study population and the implementation are briefly discussed. The aim of the study is to determine the real occupational risk of being a radiation worker. 3 refs

  16. Unfairness and health: evidence from the Whitehall II Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vogli, Roberto; Ferrie, Jane E; Chandola, Tarani; Kivimäki, Mika; Marmot, Michael G

    2007-06-01

    To examine the effects of unfairness on incident coronary events and health functioning. Prospective cohort study. Unfairness, sociodemographics, established coronary risk factors (high serum cholesterol, hypertension, obesity, exercise, smoking and alcohol consumption) and other psychosocial work characteristics (job strain, effort-reward imbalance and organisational justice) were measured at baseline. Associations between unfairness and incident coronary events and health functioning were determined over an average follow-up of 10.9 years. 5726 men and 2572 women from 20 civil service departments in London (the Whitehall II Study). Incident fatal coronary heart disease, non-fatal myocardial infarction and angina (528 events) and health functioning. Low employment grade is strongly associated with unfairness. Participants reporting higher levels of unfairness are more likely to experience an incident coronary event (HR 1.55, 95% CI 1.11 to 2.17), after adjustment for age, gender, employment grade, established coronary risk factors and other work-related psychosocial characteristics. Unfairness is also associated with poor physical (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.20 to 1.77) and mental (OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.19 to 1.99) functioning at follow-up, controlling for all other factors and health functioning at baseline. Unfairness is an independent predictor of increased coronary events and impaired health functioning. Further research is needed to disentangle the effects of unfairness from other psychosocial constructs and to investigate the societal, relational and biological mechanisms that may underlie its associations with health and heart disease.

  17. Building Collaborative Health Promotion Partnerships: The Jackson Heart Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clifton C. Addison

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Building Collaborative Health Promotion Partnerships: The Jackson Heart Study. Background: Building a collaborative health promotion partnership that effectively employs principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR involves many dimensions. To ensure that changes would be long-lasting, it is imperative that partnerships be configured to include groups of diverse community representatives who can develop a vision for long-term change. This project sought to enumerate processes used by the Jackson Heart Study (JHS Community Outreach Center (CORC to create strong, viable partnerships that produce lasting change. Methods: JHS CORC joined with community representatives to initiate programs that evolved into comprehensive strategies for addressing health disparities and the high prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD. This collaboration was made possible by first promoting an understanding of the need for combined effort, the desire to interact with other community partners, and the vision to establish an effective governance structure. Results: The partnership between JHS CORC and the community has empowered and inspired community members to provide leadership to other health promotion projects. Conclusion: Academic institutions must reach out to local community groups and together address local health issues that affect the community. When a community understands the need for change to respond to negative health conditions, formalizing this type of collaboration is a step in the right direction.

  18. Women in leadership positions: a study of allied health chairpersons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selker, L G; Vogt, M T

    1982-05-01

    The National Commission on Allied Health Education identified as one of its primary recommendations the need for increased numbers of women and minorities in leadership positions in allied health. The majority of allied health practitioners and students entering the allied health fields today are female. In these professions women tend to remain in direct line practice positions, while men typically occupy the managerial and executive positions. Much research and writing has appeared addressing how the traditional socialization process affects women's career patterns. The personal, interpersonal, and structural barriers that impede women's advancement into managerial positions have been reasonably well delineated. Much less attention has been directed toward how women who overcome these barriers function in managerial roles. Little work has been done on the functioning of males and females in administrative and managerial positions in academic settings. The research reported here involved a study of the perceived goal emphasis and time spent on the academic, administrative, and leadership functions by male and female allied health chairpersons. In this study male and female chairpersons were found to be remarkably similar in terms of emphasis and time spent on key departmental functions. The significance of these results is discussed relative to the traditional male/female socialization process. Recommendations are made about appropriate curricular modifications and professional/career development activities needed to encourage women to more readily accept leadership responsibilities in allied health during the 80s.

  19. Let's dance: Organization studies, medical sociology and health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Graeme; Dingwall, Robert; Kitchener, Martin; Waring, Justin

    2012-02-01

    This Special Issue of Social Science & Medicine investigates the potential for positive inter-disciplinary interaction, a 'generative dance', between organization studies (OS), and two of the journal's traditional disciplinary foundations: health policy and medical sociology. This is both necessary and timely because of the extent to which organizations have become a neglected topic within medical sociology and health policy analysis. We argue there is need for further and more sustained theoretical and conceptual synergy between OS, medical sociology and health policy, which provides, on the one-hand a cutting-edge and thought-provoking basis for the analysis of contemporary health reforms, and on the other hand, enables the development and elaboration of theory. We emphasize that sociologists and policy analysts in healthcare have been leading contributors to our understanding of organizations in modern society, that OS enhances our understanding of medical settings, and that organizations remain one of the most influential actors of our time. As a starting point to discussion, we outline the genealogy of OS and its application to healthcare settings. We then consider how medical sociology and health policy converge or diverge with the concerns of OS in the study of healthcare settings. Following this, we focus upon the material environment, specifically the position of business schools, which frames the generative dance between OS, medical sociology and health policy. This sets the context for introducing the thirteen articles that constitute the Special Issue of Social Science & Medicine. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among Costa Rican elementary school children Prevalencia del sobrepeso y la obesidad entre escolares de nivel primario en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Patricia Núñez-Rivas

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Given that excessive body weight during childhood influences the development of several chronic diseases in adulthood, this study was conducted to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity in urban and rural Costa Rican elementary school children. METHODS: The study was carried out from July 2000 to April 2001. A total of 1718 students ages 7-12 were selected from 34 schools in the capital city of San José and in other nearby urban and rural areas. Both younger children (ones aged 7 through 9 years and older children (ones aged 10 through 12 years with a body mass index (BMI at or above the sex-specific 85th percentile were considered overweight. The younger children were classified as being obese if their triceps skinfold was greater than or equal to the 85th percentile for age and sex using the percentiles by age for children in the United States of America as normative standards. The older children were considered obese if they had a BMI at or above the sex-specific 85th percentile and both the triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness at or above the 90th percentile. RESULTS: The prevalence of overweight was 34.5%. Children aged 7-9, boys, children from urban areas, and children of a higher socioeconomic status had a higher prevalence of overweight. The prevalence of obesity was 26.2%. A higher prevalence of obesity was found among children aged 7-9, boys, children from urban areas, and children of middle socioeconomic status. CONCLUSIONS: Given the high prevalence of obesity that we found in the Costa Rican children, primary and secondary prevention measures are needed in order to reduce the proportion of deaths due to chronic nontransmissible diseases among Costa Rican adults in the coming decades.OBJETIVO: Dado que el peso corporal excesivo durante la niñez influye en el desarrollo de varias enfermedades crónicas en la adultez, se llevó a cabo este estudio en escolares de nivel primario de áreas urbanas y rurales

  1. A qualitative study of user perceptions of mobile health apps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Peng

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mobile apps for health exist in large numbers today, but oftentimes, consumers do not continue to use them after a brief period of initial usage, are averse toward using them at all, or are unaware that such apps even exist. The purpose of our study was to examine and qualitatively determine the design and content elements of health apps that facilitate or impede usage from the users’ perceptive. Methods In 2014, six focus groups and five individual interviews were conducted in the Midwest region of the U.S. with a mixture of 44 smartphone owners of various social economic status. The participants were asked about their general and health specific mobile app usage. They were then shown specific features of exemplar health apps and prompted to discuss their perceptions. The focus groups and interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and coded using the software NVivo. Results Inductive thematic analysis was adopted to analyze the data and nine themes were identified: 1 barriers to adoption of health apps, 2 barriers to continued use of health apps, 3 motivators, 4 information and personalized guidance, 5 tracking for awareness and progress, 6 credibility, 7 goal setting, 8 reminders, and 9 sharing personal information. The themes were mapped to theories for interpretation of the results. Conclusions This qualitative research with a diverse pool of participants extended previous research on challenges and opportunities of health apps. The findings provide researchers, app designers, and health care providers insights on how to develop and evaluate health apps from the users’ perspective.

  2. A systematic review of health promotion intervention studies in the police force: study characteristics, intervention design and impacts on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, Freya; Karamacoska, Diana; El Masri, Aymen; McBride, Kate A; Steiner, Genevieve Z; Cook, Amelia; Kolt, Gregory S; Klupp, Nerida; George, Emma S

    2017-12-01

    To systematically review studies of health promotion intervention in the police force. Four databases were searched for articles reporting on prepost single and multigroup studies in police officers and trainees. Data were extracted and bias assessed to evaluate study characteristics, intervention design and the impact of interventions on health. Database searching identified 25 articles reporting on 21 studies relevant to the aims of this review. Few studies (n=3) were of long duration (≥6 months). Nine of 21 studies evaluated structured physical activity and/or diet programmes only, 5 studies used education and behaviour change support-only interventions, 5 combined structured programmes with education and behaviour change support, and 2 studies used computer prompts to minimise sedentary behaviour. A wide array of lifestyle behaviour and health outcomes was measured, with 11/13 multigroup and 8/8 single-group studies reporting beneficial impacts on outcomes. High risk of bias was evident across most studies. In those with the lowest risk of bias (n=2), a large effect on blood pressure and small effects on diet, sleep quality, stress and tobacco use, were reported. Health promotion interventions can impact beneficially on health of the police force, particularly blood pressure, diet, sleep, stress and tobacco use. Limited reporting made comparison of findings challenging. Combined structured programmes with education and behaviour change support and programmes including peer support resulted in the most impact on health-related outcomes. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Barriers to partnership working in public health: a qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Carlton Taylor-Robinson

    Full Text Available Public health provision in England is undergoing dramatic changes. Currently established partnerships are thus likely to be significantly disrupted by the radical reforms outlined in the Public Health White Paper. We therefore explored the process of partnership working in public health, in order to better understand the potential opportunities and threats associated with the proposed changes.70 participants took part in an in-depth qualitative study involving 40 semi-structured interviews and three focus group discussions. Participants were senior and middle grade public health decision makers working in Primary Care Trusts, Local Authorities, Department of Health, academia, General Practice and Hospital Trusts and the third sector in England. Despite mature arrangements for partnership working in many areas, and much support for joint working in principle, many important barriers exist. These include cultural issues such as a lack of shared values and language, the inherent complexity of intersectoral collaboration for public health, and macro issues including political and resource constraints. There is particular uncertainty and anxiety about the future of joint working relating to the availability and distribution of scarce and diminishing financial resources. There is also the concern that existing effective collaborative networks may be completely disrupted as the proposed changes unfold. The extent to which the proposed reforms might mitigate or potentiate these issues remains unclear. However the threats currently remain more salient than opportunities.The current re-organisation of public health offers real opportunity to address some of the barriers to partnership working identified in this study. However, significant threats exist. These include the breakup of established networks, and the risk of cost cutting on effective public health interventions.

  4. Exposure assessment in studies on health effects of traffic exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setaelae, S [Association for the Pulmonary Disabled, Helsinki (Finland); Jaakkola, J J.K. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Public Health

    1996-12-31

    A main source of outdoor air pollution is road traffic, which produces a complex mixture of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, volatile hydrocarbons, airborne particles and some other compounds. Traffic exhaust affects also the concentrations of ozone and other photo chemical oxidants. In earlier studies those components have had remarkable health effects. Several studies on occupational exposure to automobile exhaust have been published and several studies have been observed an association between both outdoor and indoor pollutant levels and health outcomes. However, there are only a few epidemiological studies in which traffic exhaust, a complex mixture, has been studied in its entirety. During recent years, interesting epidemiological studies of the health effects of this complex mixture have been published. Human exposure assessment for traffic exhaust can be categorized according to the environment of exposure (indoors, outdoors, in-traffic) or to the method of exposure assessment (direct or indirect methods). In this presentation the methods are further categorized into (1) traffic activity, (2) air concentration measurements, and (3) dispersion models, in order to better understand the advantages and disadvantages of different approaches. The objective of this presentation is to make a critical review of exposure assessments in the epidemiological studies on health effects of traffic exhaust. (author)

  5. Exposure assessment in studies on health effects of traffic exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setaelae, S. [Association for the Pulmonary Disabled, Helsinki (Finland); Jaakkola, J.J.K. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Public Health

    1995-12-31

    A main source of outdoor air pollution is road traffic, which produces a complex mixture of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, volatile hydrocarbons, airborne particles and some other compounds. Traffic exhaust affects also the concentrations of ozone and other photo chemical oxidants. In earlier studies those components have had remarkable health effects. Several studies on occupational exposure to automobile exhaust have been published and several studies have been observed an association between both outdoor and indoor pollutant levels and health outcomes. However, there are only a few epidemiological studies in which traffic exhaust, a complex mixture, has been studied in its entirety. During recent years, interesting epidemiological studies of the health effects of this complex mixture have been published. Human exposure assessment for traffic exhaust can be categorized according to the environment of exposure (indoors, outdoors, in-traffic) or to the method of exposure assessment (direct or indirect methods). In this presentation the methods are further categorized into (1) traffic activity, (2) air concentration measurements, and (3) dispersion models, in order to better understand the advantages and disadvantages of different approaches. The objective of this presentation is to make a critical review of exposure assessments in the epidemiological studies on health effects of traffic exhaust. (author)

  6. Diabetes-related mortality among Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, and Cuban Americans in the United States La mortalidad relacionada con la diabetes en mexicanoestadounidenses, puertorriqueños y cubanoestadounidenses en los Estados Unidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrystal A. S. Smith

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Hispanics are the most rapidly growing minority group in the United States, and Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans and Cuban Americans are the three largest Hispanic subgroups. Among Hispanics, type 2 diabetes is the fifth leading cause of death. This paper examines diabetes-related mortality in Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, and Cuban Americans over 35 years of age in the United States during 1996 and 1997. METHODS: Using data from the National Vital Statistics System and the 1990 and 2000 censuses, we calculated age-adjusted and age-specific diabetes-related death rates for Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, and Cuban Americans over 35 years of age. Diabetes-related deaths were determined to be any death for which diabetes was coded as either the underlying or contributing cause of death. RESULTS: The diabetes-related mortality rate for Mexican Americans (251 per 100 000 and Puerto Ricans (204 deaths per 100 000 was twice as high as the diabetes-related mortality rate for Cuban Americans (101 deaths per 100 000. Cuban American decedents had the highest proportion of deaths with diabetes coded as the underlying cause of death (44%. After diabetes, heart disease (31% followed by cancer (8% and stroke (6% were the most frequent primary underlying causes of diabetes-related deaths in all three ethnic groups. CONCLUSION: Our analyses of these data demonstrate that diabetes-related mortality differed among Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans and Cuban Americans more than 35 years of age in the United States in 1996 and 1997. Socioeconomic factors such as low educational attainment and low income may be factors that contributed to the disparities in these mortality rates for different subgroups. Further research is needed to update these findings and to investigate explanatory risk factors. Diversity among Hispanic subgroups has persisted in recent years and should be considered when health policies and services targeted at these populations

  7. Development of students’ eHealth, mHealth and serious games expertise in health behavior change during health and social studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Punna

    2015-10-01

    New clienthoods require new ways to work in health care and social services at the future. Professionals’ expertise in different kind of digital environments is essential. Expertise should be a combination of evidence-based practice, behavior change theories and the practical experiences of using different kind of applications and they should also overcome of the possible fear of unknown and technological challenges. These are the reasons why eHealth, mHealth and serious games should be involved to curriculum in health care and social services studies. When the expertise has started to develop during the studies by varied methods, the interest and motivation to utilize digital solutions could be increased. Skills to critically assess various digital applications in the aspect of behavior change theories also increase the quality of evidence based practice in health care and social services.

  8. Study protocol for the Fukushima health management survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasumura, Seiji; Hosoya, Mitsuaki; Yamashita, Shunichi; Kamiya, Kenji; Abe, Masafumi; Akashi, Makoto; Kodama, Kazunori; Ozasa, Kotaro

    2012-01-01

    The accidents that occurred at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant after the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011 have resulted in long-term, ongoing anxiety among the residents of Fukushima, Japan. Soon after the disaster, Fukushima Prefecture launched the Fukushima Health Management Survey to investigate long-term low-dose radiation exposure caused by the accident. Fukushima Medical University took the lead in planning and implementing this survey. The primary purposes of this survey are to monitor the long-term health of residents, promote their future well-being, and confirm whether long-term low-dose radiation exposure has health effects. This report describes the rationale and implementation of the Fukushima Health Management Survey. This cohort study enrolled all people living in Fukushima Prefecture after the earthquake and comprises a basic survey and 4 detailed surveys. The basic survey is to estimate levels of external radiation exposure among all 2.05 million residents. It should be noted that internal radiation levels were estimated by Fukushima Prefecture using whole-body counters. The detailed surveys comprise a thyroid ultrasound examination for all Fukushima children aged 18 years or younger, a comprehensive health check for all residents from the evacuation zones, an assessment of mental health and lifestyles of all residents from the evacuation zones, and recording of all pregnancies and births among all women in the prefecture who were pregnant on 11 March. All data have been entered into a database and will be used to support the residents and analyze the health effects of radiation. The low response rate (<30%) to the basic survey complicates the estimation of health effects. There have been no cases of malignancy to date among 38 114 children who received thyroid ultrasound examinations. The importance of mental health care was revealed by the mental health and lifestyle survey and the pregnancy and birth survey. This long

  9. Cross-sectional study of health effects of cryolite production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Henrik; Clausen, J; Gyntelberg, F

    1989-01-01

    A cross-sectional health study of 101 cryolite workers was performed, using spirometry and a questionnaire. Multiple regression analysis revealed a significant correlation between the index of smoking and a decrease in FEV1 (per cent). There was no significant correlation between work-related exp......A cross-sectional health study of 101 cryolite workers was performed, using spirometry and a questionnaire. Multiple regression analysis revealed a significant correlation between the index of smoking and a decrease in FEV1 (per cent). There was no significant correlation between work...

  10. Challenges facing community health workers in Brazil's Family Health Strategy: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman-Kahn, Rebecca; Schoen, Julia; Mallett, John William; Brentani, Alexandra; Kaselitz, Elizabeth; Heisler, Michele

    2017-09-21

    Community health worker (CHW) programs are implemented in many low- and middle-income countries such as Brazil to increase access to and quality of care for underserved populations; CHW programs have been found to improve certain indicators of health, but few studies have investigated the daily work of CHWs, their perspectives on what both helps and hinders them from fulfilling their roles, and ways that their effectiveness and job satisfaction could be increased. To examine these questions, we observed clinic visits, CHW home visits, and conducted semistructured interviews with CHWs in 7 primary care centers in Brazil-2 in Salvador, Bahia, and 5 in São Paulo, SP-in which CHWs are incorporated into the work of all primary care health teams. In addition to enhancing communication between the medical system and the community, CHWs consider their key roles to be helping persuade community members to seek medical care and increasing health professionals' awareness of the social conditions affecting their patients' health. Key obstacles that CHWs face include failure to be fully integrated into the primary care team, inability to follow-up on identified health needs due to limited resources, as well as community members' lack of understanding of their work and undervaluing of preventative medicine. Increased training, better incorporation of CHWs into clinic flow and decision making, and establishing a clear community awareness of the roles and value of CHWs will help increase the motivation and effectiveness of CHWs in Brazil. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Measuring and understanding motivation among community health workers in rural health facilities in India-a mixed method study

    OpenAIRE

    Tripathy, Jaya Prasad; Goel, Sonu; Kumar, Ajay M. V.

    2016-01-01

    Background Motivated human resource is the key to improve health system performance and retention of health workers. There is scanty literature on measuring motivation of health workers in India. Thus, the objective of this study was to measure and identify important aspects of health workers? motivation in North India. Methods A mixed method study design was adopted. Under the quantitative component, we interviewed randomly selected 62 community health workers (CHWs) in 18 sub-centres in two...

  12. Illness and risk behaviour in health care students studying abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelin, Martin; Evengård, Birgitta; Palmgren, Helena

    2015-07-01

    The numbers of university students studying abroad increase every year. These students are not tourists as their studies require different types of travel that expose them to different risks. Moreover, health care students (HCSs) may be exposed to even greater risks according to their travel destinations and itineraries. Clearly, research-based pre-travel advice is needed. This study reports on a prospective survey conducted from April 2010 to January 2014 of health care and non-health care students from Swedish universities in Umeå, Stockholm and Gothenburg studying abroad. Of the 393 students included in the study, 85% responded. Over half (55%) were HCSs. Pre-travel health information was received by 79% and information on personal safety by 49% of HCSs. The rate of illness during travel was 52%. Health care students more often travelled to developing regions and were at increased risk for travellers' diarrhoea. One in 10 experienced theft and 3% were involved in traffic accidents. One in five met a new sexual partner during travel and 65% of these practised safe sex. Half of all participants increased their alcohol consumption while abroad; high alcohol consumption was associated with increased risk for being a victim of theft, as well as for meeting a new sexual partner during travel. University authorities are responsible for the safety and well-being of students studying abroad. This study supplies organisers and students with epidemiological data that will help improve pre-travel preparation and increase student awareness of the potential risks associated with studying abroad. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Job insecurity and health: a study of 16 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    László, Krisztina D; Pikhart, Hynek; Kopp, Mária S; Bobak, Martin; Pajak, Andrzej; Malyutina, Sofia; Salavecz, Gyöngyvér; Marmot, Michael

    2010-03-01

    Although the number of insecure jobs has increased considerably over the recent decades, relatively little is known about the health consequences of job insecurity, their international pattern, and factors that may modify them. In this paper, we investigated the association between job insecurity and self-rated health, and whether the relationship differs by country or individual-level characteristics. Cross-sectional data from 3 population-based studies on job insecurity, self-rated health, demographic, socioeconomic, work-related and behavioural factors and lifetime chronic diseases in 23,245 working subjects aged 45-70 years from 16 European countries were analysed using logistic regression and meta-analysis. In fully adjusted models, job insecurity was significantly associated with an increased risk of poor health in the Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Israel, the Netherlands, Poland and Russia, with odds ratios ranging between 1.3 and 2.0. Similar, but not significant, associations were observed in Austria, France, Italy, Spain and Switzerland. We found no effect of job insecurity in Belgium and Sweden. In the pooled data, the odds ratio of poor health by job insecurity was 1.39. The association between job insecurity and health did not differ significantly by age, sex, education, and marital status. Persons with insecure jobs were at an increased risk of poor health in most of the countries included in the analysis. Given these results and trends towards increasing frequency of insecure jobs, attention needs to be paid to the public health consequences of job insecurity. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Occupational health research priorities in Malaysia: a Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhra, S; Beach, J R; Aw, T C; Sheikh-Ahmed, K

    2001-07-01

    As part of a consultancy project on occupational health, the Delphi method was used to identify research priorities in occupational health in Malaysia. Participation was sought from government ministries, industry, and professional organisations, and university departments with an interest in occupational and public health. Two rounds of questionnaires resulted in a final list of priorities, with noticeable differences between participants depending on whether they worked in industry or were from government organisations. The participation rate of 71% (55 of 78) was obtained for the first questionnaire and 76% (72 of 95) for the second questionnaire. The participants identified occupational health problems for specific groups and industries as the top research priority area (ranked as top priority by 25% of participants). Ministry of Health participants placed emphasis on healthcare workers (52% ranking it as top priority), whereas those from industry identified construction and plantation workers as groups, which should be accorded the highest priority. Evaluation of research and services was given a low priority. The priorities for occupational health determined with the Delphi approach showed differences between Malaysia, a developing country, and findings from similar European studies. This may be expected, as differences exist in stages of economic development, types of industries, occupational activities, and cultural attitudes to occupational health and safety. Chemical poisonings and workplace accidents were accorded a high priority. By contrast with findings from western countries, workplace psychosocial problems and musculoskeletal injuries were deemed less important. There also seemed to be greater emphasis on adopting interventions for identified problems based on experience in other countries rather than the need to evaluate local occupational health provisions.

  15. The validity of vignettes in cross country health studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pozzoli, Dario; Gupta, Nabanita Datta; Kristensen, Nicolai

    Cross-country comparisons of subjective assessments may be ham-pered by sub-population speci.c response style. To correct for this, the use of vignettes has become increasingly popular - notably within cross-country health studies. However, the validity of vignettes as a means to re-scale across ...... that the assumption of RC is not innocous and that our extended model improves the fit and significantly changes the cross-country rankings of health vis-á-vis the standard Chopit model.......Cross-country comparisons of subjective assessments may be ham-pered by sub-population speci.c response style. To correct for this, the use of vignettes has become increasingly popular - notably within cross-country health studies. However, the validity of vignettes as a means to re-scale across...

  16. A study of health beliefs and practices of the Yoruba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adepoju, Joseph A

    2012-01-01

    The issue of how immigrant populations combine traditional and Western health beliefs and practices has not been given due attention. Hence, this qualitative research study of Yoruba immigrants, an ethnic group from south-western Nigeria, living in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States, sheds some light on the question of how best to provide culturally appropriate health care to Yoruba immigrant groups with differences in health beliefs and practices. The study found that there are three types of Yoruba immigrant groups: (1) those who use only Western medicine (though mostly for pragmatic reason); (2) those who combine traditional Yoruba and Western beliefs; and (3) those who combine Western medicine and Christian beliefs.

  17. Register-based studies on migration, ethnicity, and health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norredam, Marie; Kastrup, Marianne; Helweg-Larsen, Karin

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Researchers in Denmark have unique possibilities of register-based research in relation to migration, ethnicity, and health. This review article outlines how these opportunities have been used, so far, by presenting a series of examples. RESEARCH TOPICS: We selected six registers...... it discriminatory. Although, we do not register ethnicity in relation to use of health care in Denmark, our possibilities of linkage between population registers and registers on diseases and healthcare utilisation appear to render the same potentials....... to highlight the process of how migrant study populations have been established and studied in relation to different registers: The Danish Cancer Registry, the Danish Central Psychiatric Research Register, the Danish National Patient Register, the Danish National Health Service Register, the Danish Injury...

  18. A delphi study on health in future India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohatgi, K; Rohatgi, P K

    1980-07-01

    A delphi study was conducted to identify or envision health scenarios in India by the year 2000. Questionnaires consisting of 48 questions on 5 areas (diagnosis and therapy; family planning; pharmaceuticals and drugs; biochemical and biomedical research; health services) were mailed to 250 experts in India. 36 responded. Results were compiled and mailed back to the respondents for changes and comments. 17 people responded. Results of the delphi study shows that policy decisions with respect to compulsory family planning as well as health education at secondary school level will precede further breakthroughs in birth control technology. Non operation reversible sterilization procedures, immunological birth control, Ayurvedic medicines for contraception and abortion, and selection of baby's sex are all possible by 2000 thereafter. Complete eradication of infectious diseases, malnutrition and associated diseases is considered unlikely before 2000, as are advances in biomedical research. Changes in health services (e.g., significant increases in hospital beds and doctors, cheap bulk drugs), particularly in rural areas, are imminent, leading to prolonging of life expectancy to 70 years. Genetic engineering may provide significant breakthroughs in the prevention of malignancies and cardiac disorders. The India delphi study is patterned after a similar delphi study conducted in the U.S. by Smith, Kline and French (SKF) Laboratories in 1968. The SKF study was able to predict some breakthroughs with basic research which have been realized.

  19. Mental health service users' experiences of diabetes care by Mental Health Nurses: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, M

    2014-10-01

    This paper is a report of a study exploring mental health service users' (MHSUs') experiences of diabetes care. Diabetes is a growing clinical concern in mental health nursing practice. However, little is known about MHSUs' experience of diabetes care. This is a descriptive qualitative study. Semi-structured telephone interviews were held between June and October 2011, with seven MHSUs who had diabetes. Participants reported experiences of stigma and diagnostic overshadowing (DO) when reporting symptoms of diabetes or when feeling unwell. Participants also encountered a split between their mental health and diabetes care needs, which resulted in a lack of holistic or integrated care. All participants mentioned experiencing complications of diabetes even to the extent of diabetic ketoacidosis. Mental health nurses (MHNs) must critically reflect on their attitudes towards service users that report physical symptoms to ensure that stigma and DO do not constitute barriers to appropriate screening and treatment. The complex relationship that exists between mental illness and diabetes requires MHNs to ensure physical and mental health care are wholly integrated and not split. Education needs are apparent so that symptoms and complications can be recognized and treated accordingly. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Self-Esteem, Oral Health Behaviours, and Clinical Oral Health Status in Chinese Adults: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Luzy Siu-Hei; Chan, Joanne Chung-Yan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This is an exploratory study to examine the relations among self-esteem, oral health behaviours and clinical oral health status in Chinese adults. In addition, gender differences in clinical oral health status and oral health behaviours were explored. Methods: Participants were 192 patients from a private dental clinic in Hong Kong…

  1. Improving the Mental Health, Healthy Lifestyle Choices, and Physical Health of Hispanic Adolescents: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, Bernadette M.; Jacobson, Diana; Kelly, Stephanie; O'Haver, Judith; Small, Leigh; Mays, Mary Z.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Obesity and mental health disorders are 2 major public health problems in American adolescents, with prevalence even higher in Hispanic teens. Despite the rapidly increasing incidence and adverse health outcomes associated with overweight and mental health problems, very few intervention studies have been conducted with adolescents to…

  2. Environmental health scoping study at Bruce Heavy Water Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prior, M.; Mostrom, M.; Coppock, R.; Florence, Z.

    1995-10-01

    There are concerns that hydrogen sulfide released from the Heavy Water Plant near Kincardine, Ontario may be the cause of the mortalities and morbidities observed in a nearby flock of sheep. The Philosopher's Wool sheep farm is about four kilometres south-southeast of the Bruce Heavy Water Plant. Ontario Hydro, the owner and operator of the Bruce Heavy Water Plant, claims that hydrogen sulphide emissions from the Bruce Heavy Water Plant are within regulatory limits and well below levels that cause harm. Accordingly, the Atomic Energy Control Board commissioned the Alberta Environmental Centre, Alberta Department of Environmental Protection, to develop a scoping study for this environmental health issue. The first objective was to describe a field investigation model to define clearly the environmental health and operation of the sheep farm. The second objective was to describe possible exposure patterns and develop a holistic environmental pathway model. If appropriate, the third study objective was to describe animal models of the actual situation to elucidate specific aspects of the environmental health concerns. It was not the objective of this report to provide a definitive answer to the present environmental health issue. Ontario Hydro provided data to the Alberta Environmental Centre, as di the sheep farmer, the attending veterinarian, the University of Guelph study team, and the Atomic Energy Control Board. A six-tiered strategy of sequential evaluations of the ovine health problem is based on the multiple-response paradigm. It assumes the observed ovine health results are the result of multiple effector events. Each tier constitutes a separate, but inter-related, study. Sequential evaluation and feedback of each tier allow sound scientific judgements and efficient use of resources. (author). 59 refs., 11 tabs., 22 figs

  3. Body composition using deuterated water, index of insulin resistance and cortisol levels in Costa Rican school in the metropolitan area; Composicion corporal utilizando agua deuterada, indice de resistencia a la insulina y niveles de cortisol en escolares costarricenses del area metropolitana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valverde Vindas, Allan Ignacio

    2014-07-01

    Body composition in the Costa Rican child population is evaluated and analyzed to determine the relationship with the index of insulin resistance and serum cortisol levels. 113 children in the metropolitan area were studied using deuterium isotope techniques as reference method for overweight and obesity. Morning cortisol levels were determined by immunoassay techniques (ELISA). The insulin resistance index of 113 Costa Rican boys and girls is obtained by the homeostatic method and the relationship between body composition with index of insulin resistance or levels of cortisol [Spanish] La composicion corporal en la poblacion infantil costarricense es evaluada y analizada para determinar la relacion con el indice de resistencia a la insulina y niveles de cortisol serico. 113 ninos y ninas del area metropolitana fueron estudiados utilizando tecnicas isotopicas de deuterio como metodo de referencia para sobrepeso y obesidad. Los niveles de cortisol matutino se han determinado mediante tecnicas inmunoensayo (ELISA). El indice resistencia a la insulina de 113 ninos y ninas costarricenses es obtenido mediante el metodo homeostatico asi como la relacion entre composicion corporal con indice de resistencia a la insulina o niveles de cortisol.

  4. A Scoping Study on the Ethics of Health Systems Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachani, Abdulgafoor M; Rattani, Abbas; Hyder, Adnan A

    2016-12-01

    Currently, health systems research (HSR) is reviewed by the same ethical standards as clinical research, which has recently been argued in the literature to be an inappropriate standard of evaluation. The issues unique to HSR warrant a different review by research ethics committees (RECs), as it does not impose the same risks to study participants as other types of clinical or public health research. However, there are limited tools and supporting documents that clarify the ethical considerations. Therefore, there is a need for additional reflection around ethical review of HSR and their consideration by RECs. The purpose of this paper is to review, understand, and synthesize the current state of literature and practice to inform these deliberations and the larger discourse on ethics review guidelines for HSR. This paper presents a review of the literature on ethics of HSR in the biomedical, public health, and implementation research to identify ethical considerations specific to HSR; and to identify examples of commonly available guidance and/or tools for the ethical review of HSR studies. Fifteen articles were identified on HSR ethics issues, and forty-two international academic institutions were contacted (of the responses (n=29), no institution had special ethical guidelines for reviewing HSR) about their HSR ethics review guidelines. There appears to be a clear gap in the current health research ethics discourse around health systems research ethics. This review serves as a first step (to better understand the current status) towards a larger dialogue on the topic. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. High prevalence of overweight and obesity among a representative sample of Puerto Rican children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elías-Boneta, Augusto R; Toro, Milagros J; Garcia, Omar; Torres, Roxana; Palacios, Cristina

    2015-03-05

    The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity has become a public health problem worldwide. The objectives of the study were: 1) to establish the BMI prevalence in 12-year olds residing in Puerto Rico, and 2) to determine BMI differences by sex, public-private school type, and geographic regions. Data was obtained from an island-wide probabilistic stratified sample of 1,582 twelve-year-olds (53% girls and 47% boys). The BMI was determined using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey procedures. Children were categorized as underweight, healthy weight, overweight or obese using the Center for Disease Control and Prevention's age and gender specific growth charts. A logistic regression model was used to estimate BMI category prevalence. Odds ratios were calculated using a multinomial regression. In this study, 18.8% of the children were overweight and 24.3% were obese. A higher prevalence of obesity was observed in boys as compared to girls, 28.2% vs. 20.2%, respectively. The estimated prevalence of overweight and obesity in children from public schools was lower than for those from private schools. After adjusting for type of school and region, boys had a significantly higher risk of being obese (64%) as compared to girls. In public schools, boys had a lower prevalence of being overweight while girls had a higher prevalence compared to children attending private schools. Girls attending private schools had a higher obesity prevalence (27.8%) compared to girls from public schools (19.8%). The prevalence of underweight (2.7%) is slightly lower than in the United States. The prevalence of overweight and obesity of 12-year-olds residing in PR was 18.8% and 24.3%, respectively; higher than in the U.S. (by groups). Boys were at higher risk of obesity than girls. There is an urgent need to implement public health policies/programs to reduce the prevalence of overweight and obesity in children in PR.

  6. Searching for religion and mental health studies required health, social science, and grey literature databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Judy M; Cottrell, David J; Mir, Ghazala

    2014-07-01

    To determine the optimal databases to search for studies of faith-sensitive interventions for treating depression. We examined 23 health, social science, religious, and grey literature databases searched for an evidence synthesis. Databases were prioritized by yield of (1) search results, (2) potentially relevant references identified during screening, (3) included references contained in the synthesis, and (4) included references that were available in the database. We assessed the impact of databases beyond MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PsycINFO by their ability to supply studies identifying new themes and issues. We identified pragmatic workload factors that influence database selection. PsycINFO was the best performing database within all priority lists. ArabPsyNet, CINAHL, Dissertations and Theses, EMBASE, Global Health, Health Management Information Consortium, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Sociological Abstracts were essential for our searches to retrieve the included references. Citation tracking activities and the personal library of one of the research teams made significant contributions of unique, relevant references. Religion studies databases (Am Theo Lib Assoc, FRANCIS) did not provide unique, relevant references. Literature searches for reviews and evidence syntheses of religion and health studies should include social science, grey literature, non-Western databases, personal libraries, and citation tracking activities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Knowledge brokering in public health: a tale of two studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traynor, R; DeCorby, K; Dobbins, M

    2014-06-01

    A Knowledge Broker is one approach for facilitating the integration of evidence-informed decision making in public health practice. In this paper, the findings from two studies investigating a Knowledge Broker intervention as a means of enhancing capacity for evidence-informed decision making are presented. Contextual factors that facilitate this strategy are also identified. This paper describes work done through a single mixed-methods study (randomized controlled trial with a qualitative component) and a case study. The Health Evidence team conducted two studies examining Knowledge Broker impact in Canadian public health departments. The effectiveness of knowledge translation strategies of varying intensities for promoting the use of research evidence in decisions related to child obesity prevention were explored via a randomized controlled trial with a fundamental descriptive component (2003-2007). In a case study (2010-2013), the authors partnered with three health departments to develop and implement tailored strategies targeted at the organization. Knowledge Brokers worked with designated staff in these studies via one-on-one consultations, small group meetings, and/or workshops and presentations. The Knowledge Broker role was assessed by analysing data from close-ended surveys, interviews, organizational documents, and reflective journals. In this paper, the authors focus on findings from the qualitative analysis of implementing the Knowledge Broker role in both studies and explore several contextual factors that impacted study outcomes. Knowledge Brokers were shown to enhance individual capacity by improving knowledge and skill in searching for, critically appraising, and applying research evidence to practice-based issues. Organizational capacity was also enhanced with strong management support and policies. Effective Knowledge Broker attributes included both expertise in research methodology and public health, as well as intangible traits such as

  8. Consumer Health-Related Activities on Social Media: Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benetoli, Arcelio; Chen, Timothy F; Aslani, Parisa

    2017-10-13

    Although a number of studies have investigated how consumers use social media for health-related purposes, there is a paucity of studies in the Australian context. This study aimed to explore how Australian consumers used social media for health-related purposes, specifically how they identified social media platforms, which were used, and which health-related activities commonly took place. A total of 5 focus groups (n=36 participants), each lasting 60 to 90 minutes, were conducted in the Sydney metropolitan area. The group discussions were audiorecorded and transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were coded line-by-line and thematically analyzed. Participants used general search engines to locate health-related social media platforms. They accessed a wide range of social media on a daily basis, using several electronic devices (in particular, mobile phones). Although privacy was a concern, it did not prevent consumers from fully engaging in social media for health-related purposes. Blogs were used to learn from other people's experiences with the same condition. Facebook allowed consumers to follow health-related pages and to participate in disease-specific group discussions. Wikipedia was used for factual information about diseases and treatments. YouTube was accessed to learn about medical procedures such as surgery. No participant reported editing or contributing to Wikipedia or posting YouTube videos related to health topics. Twitter was rarely used for health-related purposes. Social media allowed consumers to obtain and provide disease and treatment-related information and social and emotional support for those living with the same condition. Most considered their participation as observational, but some also contributed (eg, responded to people's questions). Participants used a wide range of social media for health-related purposes. Medical information exchange (eg, disease and treatment) and social and emotional support were the cornerstones of their online

  9. Health literacy among Danish university students enrolled in health-related study programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsborg, Lea; Krossdal, Fie; Kayser, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Aims: It is important to address people’s health literacy when providing health care. Health professionals should be aware of, and have insight into, people’s health literacy when they provide health services. Health professionals need to be health literate themselves. We examined the level...

  10. Formulating Employability Skills for Graduates of Public Health Study Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qomariyah, Nurul; Savitri, Titi; Hadianto, Tridjoko; Claramita, Mora

    2016-01-01

    Employability skills (ES) are important for effective and successful individual participation in the workplace. The main aims of the research were to identify important ES needed by graduates of Public Health Study Program Universitas Ahmad Dahlan (PHSP UAD) and to assess the achievement of the ES development that has been carried out by PHSP UAD.…

  11. Case Study of a Participatory Health Promotion Intervention in School

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simovska, Venka

    2012-01-01

    study showed that, if given sufficient guidance, children can act as agents of health promoting changes. The main arena for pupils’ influence was the pupils’ council. Pupils were meaningfully involved in two actions, which targeted road safety around the school and a playground for a disadvantaged...

  12. Procedural justice and prisoners’ mental health problems: A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijersbergen, K.A.; Dirkzwager, A.J.E.; Eichelsheim, V.I.; van der Laan, P.H.; Nieuwbeerta, P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Given the high prevalence of mental health problems among prisoners, knowledge on its determinants is important. Prior cross-sectional studies suggest that procedurally just treatment within prison is a significant predictor; however, longitudinal research is lacking. Aim The aims of this

  13. A Descriptive Study of Differing School Health Delivery Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Sherri I.; Maughan, Erin

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory qualitative study was to identify and describe emerging models of school health services. Participants (N = 11) provided information regarding their models in semistructured phone interviews. Results identified a variety of funding sources as well as different staffing configurations and supervision. Strengths of…

  14. Evaluating health effects of transport interventions methodologic case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie, David; Mitchell, Richard; Mutrie, Nanette; Petticrew, Mark; Platt, Stephen

    2006-08-01

    There is little evidence about the effects of environmental interventions on population levels of physical activity. Major transport projects may promote or discourage physical activity in the form of walking and cycling, but researching the health effects of such "natural experiments" in transport policy or infrastructure is challenging. Case study of attempts in 2004-2005 to evaluate the effects of two major transport projects in Scotland: an urban congestion charging scheme in Edinburgh, and a new urban motorway (freeway) in Glasgow. These interventions are typical of many major transport projects. They are unique to their context. They cannot easily be separated from the other components of the wider policies within which they occur. When, where, and how they are implemented are political decisions over which researchers have no control. Baseline data collection required for longitudinal studies may need to be planned before the intervention is certain to take place. There is no simple way of defining a population or area exposed to the intervention or of defining control groups. Changes in quantitative measures of health-related behavior may be difficult to detect. Major transport projects have clear potential to influence population health, but it is difficult to define the interventions, categorize exposure, or measure outcomes in ways that are likely to be seen as credible in the field of public health intervention research. A final study design is proposed in which multiple methods and spatial levels of analysis are combined in a longitudinal quasi-experimental study.

  15. MORTALITY AMONG FARMERS AND SPOUSES IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the Agricultural Health Study we evaluated the mortality experience of 52,395 farmers and 32,347 of their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina obtain information on cancer and other chronic disease risks from agricultural exposures and other factors associated with rural lifes...

  16. Divor