WorldWideScience

Sample records for ribosome recycling diffusion

  1. Mechanism of recycling of post-termination ribosomal complexes in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu

    all pathway of ribosome recycling in eubacteria with especial reference to the important role of the initiation factor ... [Seshadri A and Varshney U 2006 Mechanism of recycling of post-termination ribosomal complexes in eubacteria: a new role of initiation factor 3 .... RRF binding results in a remarkable conformational change.

  2. The Diffusion Effect of MSW Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Tui Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to compare the recycling performance for some waste fractions selected including food waste, bulk waste, paper, metal products, plastics/rubber and glass products and then to develop some directions for the future improvements. The priority of each waste fraction for recycling is also analyzed by using an importance-performance analysis. Traditionally, the recycling rate that is calculated by the ratio of waste recycled to waste collected is used as an indicator to measure recycling performance. Due to a large variation among waste fractions in municipal solid waste (MSW, the recycling rate cannot reflect the actual recycling performance. The ceiling of recycling rate for each waste fraction estimated from the diffusion models is incorporated into a model to calculate recycling performance. The results show that (1 the diffusion effect exists significantly for the recycling of most recyclables but no evidence is found to support the diffusion effect for the recycling of food waste and bulk waste; (2 the recycling performance of waste metal products ranks the top, compared to waste paper, waste glass and other waste fractions; (3 furthermore, an importance-performance analysis (IPA is employed to analyze the priority of recycling programs and thus this paper suggests that the recycling of food waste should be seen as the most priority item to recycle.

  3. The Diffusion Effect of MSW Recycling

    OpenAIRE

    Yi-Tui Chen; Fu-Chiang Yang; Shih-Heng Yu

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to compare the recycling performance for some waste fractions selected including food waste, bulk waste, paper, metal products, plastics/rubber and glass products and then to develop some directions for the future improvements. The priority of each waste fraction for recycling is also analyzed by using an importance-performance analysis. Traditionally, the recycling rate that is calculated by the ratio of waste recycled to waste collected is used as an indicator t...

  4. A rotational diffusion coefficient of the 70s ribosome determined by depolarized laser light scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruining, J.; Fijnaut, H.M.

    We have obtained a rotational diffusion coefficient of the 70S ribosome isolated from Escherichia-coli (MRE-600), from the depolarized light scattering spectrum measured by photon correlation spectroscopy. The intensity correlation function of depolarized scattered light contains contributions due

  5. Waste acid recycling via diffusion dialysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steffani, C.

    1995-05-26

    Inorganic acids are commonly used for surface cleaning and finishing of metals. The acids become unuseable due to contamination with metals or diluted and weakened. Diffusion dialysis has become a way to recover the useable acid and allow separation of the metals for recovery and sale to refineries. This technique is made possible by the use of membranes that are strong enough to withstand low ph and have long service life.

  6. Exposure to recycled uranium contaminants in gaseous diffusion plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Jeri L.; Yiin, James H.; Tseng, Chih-Yu; Apostoaei, A. Iulian

    2017-01-01

    As part of an ongoing study of health effects in a pooled cohort of gaseous diffusion plant workers, organ dose from internal exposure to uranium was evaluated. Due to the introduction of recycled uranium into the plants, there was also potential for exposure to radiologically significant levels of "9"9Tc, "2"3"7Np and "2"3"8","2"3"9Pu. In the evaluation of dose response, these radionuclide exposures could confound the effect of internal uranium. Using urine bioassay data for study subjects reported in facility records, intakes and absorbed dose to bone surface, red bone marrow and kidneys were estimated as these organs were associated with a priori outcomes of interest. Additionally, "9"9Tc intakes and doses were calculated using a new systemic model for technetium and compared to intakes and doses calculated using the current model recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Organ absorbed doses for the transuranics were significant compared to uranium doses; however, "9"9Tc doses calculated using the new systemic model were significant as well. Use of the new model resulted in an increase in "9"9Tc-related absorbed organ dose of a factor of 8 (red bone marrow) to 30 (bone surface). (authors)

  7. How to Teach Recycling at an Advanced Phase of Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Gonzalo Diaz

    2006-01-01

    The author conducted an empirical study based on structural equation modeling with a convenience sample of 246 individuals with the goal of demonstrating that recycling behavior is a routine conduct and should be addressed as such in educational materials. Although the classic hierarchy of effects dominates the interpretation of recycling behavior…

  8. Incorporating photon recycling into the analytical drift-diffusion model of high efficiency solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumb, Matthew P. [The George Washington University, 2121 I Street NW, Washington, DC 20037 (United States); Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Steiner, Myles A.; Geisz, John F. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Walters, Robert J. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2014-11-21

    The analytical drift-diffusion formalism is able to accurately simulate a wide range of solar cell architectures and was recently extended to include those with back surface reflectors. However, as solar cells approach the limits of material quality, photon recycling effects become increasingly important in predicting the behavior of these cells. In particular, the minority carrier diffusion length is significantly affected by the photon recycling, with consequences for the solar cell performance. In this paper, we outline an approach to account for photon recycling in the analytical Hovel model and compare analytical model predictions to GaAs-based experimental devices operating close to the fundamental efficiency limit.

  9. Polymorphisms in the mitochondrial ribosome recycling factor EF-G2mt/MEF2 compromise cell respiratory function and increase atorvastatin toxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Callegari

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial translation, essential for synthesis of the electron transport chain complexes in the mitochondria, is governed by nuclear encoded genes. Polymorphisms within these genes are increasingly being implicated in disease and may also trigger adverse drug reactions. Statins, a class of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors used to treat hypercholesterolemia, are among the most widely prescribed drugs in the world. However, a significant proportion of users suffer side effects of varying severity that commonly affect skeletal muscle. The mitochondria are one of the molecular targets of statins, and these drugs have been known to uncover otherwise silent mitochondrial mutations. Based on yeast genetic studies, we identify the mitochondrial translation factor MEF2 as a mediator of atorvastatin toxicity. The human ortholog of MEF2 is the Elongation Factor Gene (EF-G 2, which has previously been shown to play a specific role in mitochondrial ribosome recycling. Using small interfering RNA (siRNA silencing of expression in human cell lines, we demonstrate that the EF-G2mt gene is required for cell growth on galactose medium, signifying an essential role for this gene in aerobic respiration. Furthermore, EF-G2mt silenced cell lines have increased susceptibility to cell death in the presence of atorvastatin. Using yeast as a model, conserved amino acid variants, which arise from non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the EF-G2mt gene, were generated in the yeast MEF2 gene. Although these mutations do not produce an obvious growth phenotype, three mutations reveal an atorvastatin-sensitive phenotype and further analysis uncovers a decreased respiratory capacity. These findings constitute the first reported phenotype associated with SNPs in the EF-G2mt gene and implicate the human EF-G2mt gene as a pharmacogenetic candidate gene for statin toxicity in humans.

  10. The pyrH gene of Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris encoding UMP kinase is transcribed as part of an operon including the frr1 gene encoding ribosomal recycling factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadskov-Hansen, Steen Lüders; Martinussen, Jan; Hammer, Karin

    2000-01-01

    establishing the ability of the encoded protein to synthesize UDP. The pyrH gene in L. lactis is flanked downstream by frr1 encoding ribosomal recycling factor 1 and upstream by an open reading frame, orfA, of unknown function. The three genes were shown to constitute an operon transcribed in the direction orf......A-pyrH-frr1 from a promoter immediately in front of orfA. This operon belongs to an evolutionary highly conserved gene cluster, since the organization of pyrH on the chromosomal level in L. lactis shows a high resemblance to that found in Bacillus subtilis as well as in Escherichia coli and several other...

  11. Diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubaschewski, O.

    1983-01-01

    The diffusion rate values of titanium, its compounds and alloys are summarized and tabulated. The individual chemical diffusion coefficients and self-diffusion coefficients of certain isotopes are given. Experimental methods are listed which were used for the determination of diffusion coefficients. Some values have been taken over from other studies. Also given are graphs showing the temperature dependences of diffusion and changes in the diffusion coefficient with concentration changes

  12. Diffusion, capture and recycling of SCAR/WAVE and Arp2/3 complexes observed in cells by single-molecule imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millius, Arthur; Watanabe, Naoki; Weiner, Orion D.

    2012-01-01

    The SCAR/WAVE complex drives lamellipodium formation by enhancing actin nucleation by the Arp2/3 complex. Phosphoinositides and Rac activate the SCAR/WAVE complex, but how SCAR/WAVE and Arp2/3 complexes converge at sites of nucleation is unknown. We analyzed the single-molecule dynamics of WAVE2 and p40 (subunits of the SCAR/WAVE and Arp2/3 complexes, respectively) in XTC cells. We observed lateral diffusion of both proteins and captured the transition of p40 from diffusion to network incorporation. These results suggest that a diffusive 2D search facilitates binding of the Arp2/3 complex to actin filaments necessary for nucleation. After nucleation, the Arp2/3 complex integrates into the actin network and undergoes retrograde flow, which results in its broad distribution throughout the lamellipodium. By contrast, the SCAR/WAVE complex is more restricted to the cell periphery. However, with single-molecule imaging, we also observed WAVE2 molecules undergoing retrograde motion. WAVE2 and p40 have nearly identical speeds, lifetimes and sites of network incorporation. Inhibition of actin retrograde flow does not prevent WAVE2 association and disassociation with the membrane but does inhibit WAVE2 removal from the actin cortex. Our results suggest that membrane binding and diffusion expedites the recruitment of nucleation factors to a nucleation site independent of actin assembly, but after network incorporation, ongoing actin polymerization facilitates recycling of SCAR/WAVE and Arp2/3 complexes. PMID:22349699

  13. French Regulatory Framework for the Recycling/Reuse of Nuclear Waste and the Dismantling of George Besse Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Themines, R., E-mail: robert.themines@areva.com [AREVA (France)

    2011-07-15

    The regulatory framework in France governing the management of materials containing low levels of radionuclides is described. The plans for the management of the materials arising from the dismantling of the Georges Besse Gaseous Diffusion Plant are described as an example of the application of the regulations. (author)

  14. Potentiometric analytical microsystem based on the integration of a gas-diffusion step for on-line ammonium determination in water recycling processes in manned space missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-López, Antonio; Ymbern, Oriol; Puyol, Mar; Casalta, Joan Manel; Alonso-Chamarro, Julián

    2015-05-18

    The design, construction and evaluation of a versatile cyclic olefin copolymer (COC)-based continuous flow potentiometric microanalyzer to monitor the presence of ammonium ion in recycling water processes for future manned space missions is presented. The microsystem integrates microfluidics, a gas-diffusion module and a detection system in a single substrate. The gas-diffusion module was integrated by a hydrophobic polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane. The potentiometric detection system is based on an all-solid state ammonium selective electrode and a screen-printed Ag/AgCl reference electrode. The analytical features provided by the analytical microsystem after the optimization process were a linear range from 0.15 to 500 mg L(-1) and a detection limit of 0.07 ± 0.01 mg L(-1). Nevertheless, the operational features can be easily adapted to other applications through the modification of the hydrodynamic variables of the microfluidic platform. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A ribosome without RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold S Bernhardt

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available It was Francis Crick who first asked why the ribosome contains so much RNA, and discussed the implications of this for the direct flow of genetic information from DNA to protein. Remarkable advances in our understanding of the ribosome and protein synthesis, including the recent publication of two mammalian mitochondrial ribosome structures, have shed new light on this intriguing aspect of evolution in molecular biology. We examine here whether RNA is indispensable for coded protein synthesis, or whether an all-protein ‘ribosome’ (or ‘synthosome’ might be possible, with a protein enzyme catalyzing peptide synthesis, and release factor-like protein adaptors able to read a message composed of deoxyribonucleotides. We also compare the RNA world hypothesis with the alternative ‘proteins first’ hypothesis in terms of their different understandings of the evolution of the ribosome, and whether this might have been preceded by an ancestral form of nonribosomal peptide synthesis catalyzed by protein enzymes.

  16. Hanford recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, I.M.

    1996-09-01

    This paper is a study of the past and present recycling efforts on the Hanford site and options for future improvements in the recycling program. Until 1996, recycling goals were voluntarily set by the waste generators: this year, DOE has imposed goals for all its sites to accomplish by 1999. Hanford is presently meeting the voluntary site goals, but may not be able to meet all the new DOE goals without changes to the program. Most of these new DOE goals are recycling goals: * Reduce the generation of radioactive (low-level) waste from routine operations 50 percent through source reduction and recycling. * Reduce the generation of low-level mixed waste from routine operations 50 percent through source reduction and recycling. * Reduce the generation of hazardous waste from routine operations 50 percent through source reduction and recycling. * Recycle 33 percent of the sanitary waste from all operations. * Increase affirmative procurement of EPA-designated recycled items to 100 percent. The Hanford recycling program has made great strides-there has been a 98 percent increase in the amount of paper recycled since its inception in 1990. Hanford recycles paper, chemicals cardboard, tires, oil, batteries, rags, lead weights, fluorescent tubes, aerosol products, concrete, office furniture, computer software, drums, toner cartridges, and scrap metal. Many other items are recycled or reused by individual groups on a one time basis without a formal contract. Several contracts are closed-loop contracts which involve all parts of the recycle loop. Considerable savings are generated from recycling, and much more is possible with increased attention and improvements to this program. General methods for improving the recycling program to ensure that the new goals can be met are: a Contract and financial changes 0 Tracking database and methods improvements 0 Expanded recycling efforts. Specifically, the Hanford recycling program would be improved by: 0 Establishing one overall

  17. Ribosomal Antibiotics: Contemporary Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Auerbach-Nevo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Most ribosomal antibiotics obstruct distinct ribosomal functions. In selected cases, in addition to paralyzing vital ribosomal tasks, some ribosomal antibiotics are involved in cellular regulation. Owing to the global rapid increase in the appearance of multi-drug resistance in pathogenic bacterial strains, and to the extremely slow progress in developing new antibiotics worldwide, it seems that, in addition to the traditional attempts at improving current antibiotics and the intensive screening for additional natural compounds, this field should undergo substantial conceptual revision. Here, we highlight several contemporary issues, including challenging the common preference of broad-range antibiotics; the marginal attention to alterations in the microbiome population resulting from antibiotics usage, and the insufficient awareness of ecological and environmental aspects of antibiotics usage. We also highlight recent advances in the identification of species-specific structural motifs that may be exploited for the design and the creation of novel, environmental friendly, degradable, antibiotic types, with a better distinction between pathogens and useful bacterial species in the microbiome. Thus, these studies are leading towards the design of “pathogen-specific antibiotics,” in contrast to the current preference of broad range antibiotics, partially because it requires significant efforts in speeding up the discovery of the unique species motifs as well as the clinical pathogen identification.

  18. Expanding the ribosomal universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinman, Jonathan D; Kinzy, Terri Goss

    2009-12-09

    In this issue of Structure, Taylor et al. (2009) present the most complete model of an eukaryotic ribosome to date. This achievement represents a critical milestone along the path to structurally defining the unique aspects of the eukaryotic protein synthetic machinery.

  19. Nuclear recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinrad, B.I.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses two aspects of the economics of recycling nuclear fuel: the actual costs and savings of the recycling operation in terms of money spent, made, and saved; and the impact of the recycling on the future cost of uranium. The authors review the relevant physical and chemical processes involved in the recycling process. Recovery of uranium and plutonium is discussed. Fuel recycling in LWRs is examined and a table presents the costs of reprocessing and not reprocessing. The subject of plutonium in fast reactors is addressed. Safeguards and weapons proliferation are discussed

  20. Unconventional recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, K.M.

    1996-05-01

    Despite advances made in recycling technology and markets for materials over the past few years, recycling at convention centers, particularly on the show floor itself, can be a vexing problem. Part of the problem lies in the fact that recycling at convention centers has more to do with logistics than it does with these industry trends. However, given the varied nature of convention centers, and the shows they book, a rigid approach to recycling at convention centers is not always feasible. Like the numerous different curbside programs serving communities across the country, what works for one convention center--and one show--many not work for another. These difficulties notwithstanding, more convention centers are offering recycling programs today, and more groups booking conventions these days have begun requesting recycling services.

  1. In vitro degradation of ribosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, G; Rivas, A

    1976-12-01

    The cytoplasmic ribosomes from Euglena gracilis var. bacillaris are found to be of two types taking into consideration their stability "in vitro". In the group of unstable ribosomes the large subunit is degraded. The other group apparently does not suffer any degradation under the conditions described. However the RNAs extracted from both types of ribosomes are degraded during sucrose density gradients. The degradation of the largest RNA species has been reported previously, but no comment has been made about the stability of the ribosome itself.

  2. Yeast ribosomal proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otaka, E.; Kobata, K.

    1978-01-01

    The cytoplasmic 80s ribosomal proteins from the cells of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were analyzed by SDS two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Seventyfour proteins were identified and consecutively numbered from 1 to 74. Upon oxidation of the 80s proteins with performic acid, ten proteins (no. 15, 20, 35, 40, 44, 46, 49, 51, 54 and 55) were dislocated on the gel without change of the total number of protein spots. Five proteins (no. 8, 14, 16, 36 and 74) were phosphorylated in vivo as seen in 32 P-labelling experiments. The large and small subunits separated in low magnesium medium were analyzed by the above gel electrophoresis. At least forty-five and twenty-eight proteins were assumed to be in the large and small subunits, respectively. All proteins found in the 80s ribosomes, except for no. 3, were detected in either subunit without appearance of new spots. The acidic protein no. 3 seems to be lost during subunit dissociation. (orig.) [de

  3. Tire Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Cryopolymers, Inc. tapped NASA expertise to improve a process for recycling vehicle tires by converting shredded rubber into products that can be used in asphalt road beds, new tires, hoses, and other products. In conjunction with the Southern Technology Applications Center and Stennis Space Center, NASA expertise in cryogenic fuel-handling needed for launch vehicle and spacecraft operations was called upon to improve the recycling concept. Stennis advised Cryopolymers on the type of equipment required, as well as steps to reduce the amount of liquid nitrogen used in the process. They also guided the company to use more efficient ways to control system hardware. It is estimated that more than 300 million tires nationwide are produced per year. Cryopolymers expects to reach a production rate of 5,000 tires recycled per day.

  4. Neuron-Like Networks Between Ribosomal Proteins Within the Ribosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirot, Olivier; Timsit, Youri

    2016-05-01

    From brain to the World Wide Web, information-processing networks share common scale invariant properties. Here, we reveal the existence of neural-like networks at a molecular scale within the ribosome. We show that with their extensions, ribosomal proteins form complex assortative interaction networks through which they communicate through tiny interfaces. The analysis of the crystal structures of 50S eubacterial particles reveals that most of these interfaces involve key phylogenetically conserved residues. The systematic observation of interactions between basic and aromatic amino acids at the interfaces and along the extension provides new structural insights that may contribute to decipher the molecular mechanisms of signal transmission within or between the ribosomal proteins. Similar to neurons interacting through “molecular synapses”, ribosomal proteins form a network that suggest an analogy with a simple molecular brain in which the “sensory-proteins” innervate the functional ribosomal sites, while the “inter-proteins” interconnect them into circuits suitable to process the information flow that circulates during protein synthesis. It is likely that these circuits have evolved to coordinate both the complex macromolecular motions and the binding of the multiple factors during translation. This opens new perspectives on nanoscale information transfer and processing.

  5. Structure based hypothesis of a mitochondrial ribosome rescue mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huynen Martijn A

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background mtRF1 is a vertebrate mitochondrial protein with an unknown function that arose from a duplication of the mitochondrial release factor mtRF1a. To elucidate the function of mtRF1, we determined the positions that are conserved among mtRF1 sequences but that are different in their mtRF1a paralogs. We subsequently modeled the 3D structure of mtRF1a and mtRF1 bound to the ribosome, highlighting the structural implications of these differences to derive a hypothesis for the function of mtRF1. Results Our model predicts, in agreement with the experimental data, that the 3D structure of mtRF1a allows it to recognize the stop codons UAA and UAG in the A-site of the ribosome. In contrast, we show that mtRF1 likely can only bind the ribosome when the A-site is devoid of mRNA. Furthermore, while mtRF1a will adopt its catalytic conformation, in which it functions as a peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase in the ribosome, only upon binding of a stop codon in the A-site, mtRF1 appears specifically adapted to assume this extended, peptidyl-tRNA hydrolyzing conformation in the absence of mRNA in the A-site. Conclusions We predict that mtRF1 specifically recognizes ribosomes with an empty A-site and is able to function as a peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase in those situations. Stalled ribosomes with empty A-sites that still contain a tRNA bound to a peptide chain can result from the translation of truncated, stop-codon less mRNAs. We hypothesize that mtRF1 recycles such stalled ribosomes, performing a function that is analogous to that of tmRNA in bacteria. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Dr. Eugene Koonin, Prof. Knud H. Nierhaus (nominated by Dr. Sarah Teichmann and Dr. Shamil Sunyaev.

  6. Three-dimensional crystals of ribosomes and their subunits from eu- and archaebacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glotz, C; Müssig, J; Gewitz, H S; Makowski, I; Arad, T; Yonath, A; Wittmann, H G

    1987-11-01

    Ordered three-dimensional crystals of 70S ribosomes as well as of 30S and 50S ribosomal subunits from various bacteria (E. coli, Bacillus stearothermophilus, Thermus thermophilus and Halobacterium marismortui) have been grown by vapour diffusion in hanging drops using mono- and polyalcohols. A new compact crystal form of 50S subunits has been obtained, and it is suitable for crystallographic studies at medium resolution. In addition, from one crystal form large crystals could be grown in X-ray capillaries. In all cases the crystals were obtained from functionally active ribosomal particles, and the particles from dissolved crystals retained their integrity and biological activity.

  7. Recycling Lesson Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okaz, Abeer Ali

    2013-01-01

    This lesson plan designed for grade 2 students has the goal of teaching students about the environmental practice of recycling. Children will learn language words related to recycling such as: "we can recycle"/"we can't recycle" and how to avoid littering with such words as: "recycle paper" and/or "don't throw…

  8. Recycling waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P I.S.

    1976-01-01

    It is being realized that if environmental quality is to be improved the amount of waste generated by man has to be substantially reduced. There are two ways this can be achieved. First, by conserving materials and energy, and sacrificing economic growth, a solution that is completely unacceptable because it would mean some form of rationing, mass unemployment, and collapse of society as it is known. The second way to reduce the volume of waste is by planned recycling, re-use, and recovery. Already the reclamation industry recovers, processes, and turns back for re-use many products used by industry and thereby reduces the UK's import bill for raw materials. In the book, the author sets out the various ways materials may be recovered from industrial and municipal wastes. The broad technology of waste management is covered and attention is focused on man's new resources lying buried in the mountains of industrial wastes, the emissions from stocks, the effluents and sludges that turn rivers into open sewers, and municipal dumps in seventeen chapters. The final chapter lists terms and concepts used in waste technology, organizations concerned with waste management, and sources of information about recycling waste. (MCW)

  9. Structure of Ribosomal Silencing Factor Bound to Mycobacterium tuberculosis Ribosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaojun; Sun, Qingan; Jiang, Cai; Yang, Kailu; Hung, Li-Wei; Zhang, Junjie; Sacchettini, James C

    2015-10-06

    The ribosomal silencing factor RsfS slows cell growth by inhibiting protein synthesis during periods of diminished nutrient availability. The crystal structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) RsfS, together with the cryo-electron microscopy (EM) structure of the large subunit 50S of Mtb ribosome, reveals how inhibition of protein synthesis by RsfS occurs. RsfS binds to the 50S at L14, which, when occupied, blocks the association of the small subunit 30S. Although Mtb RsfS is a dimer in solution, only a single subunit binds to 50S. The overlap between the dimer interface and the L14 binding interface confirms that the RsfS dimer must first dissociate to a monomer in order to bind to L14. RsfS interacts primarily through electrostatic and hydrogen bonding to L14. The EM structure shows extended rRNA density that it is not found in the Escherichia coli ribosome, the most striking of these being the extended RNA helix of H54a. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 5S rRNA and ribosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gongadze, G M

    2011-12-01

    5S rRNA is an integral component of the ribosome of all living organisms. It is known that the ribosome without 5S rRNA is functionally inactive. However, the question about the specific role of this RNA in functioning of the translation apparatus is still open. This review presents a brief history of the discovery of 5S rRNA and studies of its origin and localization in the ribosome. The previously expressed hypotheses about the role of this RNA in the functioning of the ribosome are discussed considering the unique location of 5S rRNA in the ribosome and its intermolecular contacts. Based on analysis of the current data on ribosome structure and its functional complexes, the role of 5S rRNA as an intermediary between ribosome functional domains is discussed.

  11. Recycling Facilities - Land Recycling Cleanup Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Land Recycling Cleanup Location Land Recycling Cleanup Locations (LRCL) are divided into one or more sub-facilities categorized as media: Air, Contained Release or...

  12. Of blood, bones, and ribosomes: is Swachman-Diamond syndrome a ribosomopathy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Arlen W; Ellis, Steve R

    2011-05-01

    Mutations in the human SBDS (Shwachman-Bodian-Diamond syndrome) gene are the most common cause of Shwachman-Diamond syndrome, an inherited bone marrow failure syndrome. In this issue of Genes & Development, Finch and colleagues (pp. 917-929) establish that SBDS functions in ribosome synthesis by promoting the recycling of eukaryotic initiation factor 6 (eIF6) in a GTP-dependent manner. This work supports the idea that a ribosomopathy may underlie this syndrome.

  13. Of blood, bones, and ribosomes: is Swachman-Diamond syndrome a ribosomopathy?

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Arlen W.; Ellis, Steve R.

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in the human SBDS (Shwachman-Bodian-Diamond syndrome) gene are the most common cause of Shwachman-Diamond syndrome, an inherited bone marrow failure syndrome. In this issue of Genes & Development, Finch and colleagues (pp. 917–929) establish that SBDS functions in ribosome synthesis by promoting the recycling of eukaryotic initiation factor 6 (eIF6) in a GTP-dependent manner. This work supports the idea that a ribosomopathy may underlie this syndrome.

  14. Recycling of electronic scrap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Jens Brøbech

    This Ph.D. thesis deals with the growingly important field of electronics recycling with special attention to the problem of printed circuit board recycling. A literature survey of contemporary electronics recycling and printed circuit board recycling is presented.Further, an analysis of the role...

  15. Green Science: Revisiting Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palliser, Janna

    2011-01-01

    Recycling has been around for a long time--people have reused materials and refashioned them into needed items for thousands of years. More recently, war efforts encouraged conservation and reuse of materials, and in the 1970s recycling got its official start when recycling centers were created. Now, curbside recycling programs and recycling…

  16. Actinide recycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Till, C; Chang, Y [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)

    1990-07-01

    A multitude of studies and assessments of actinide partitioning and transmutation were carried out in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Probably the most comprehensive of these was a study coordinated by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The conclusions of this study were that only rather weak economic and safety incentives existed for partitioning and transmuting the actinides for waste management purposes, due to the facts that (1) partitioning processes were complicated and expensive, and (2) the geologic repository was assumed to contain actinides for hundreds of thousands of years. Much has changed in the few years since then. A variety of developments now combine to warrant a renewed assessment of the actinide recycle. First of all, it has become increasingly difficult to provide to all parties the necessary assurance that the repository will contain essentially all radioactive materials until they have decayed. Assurance can almost certainly be provided to regulatory agencies by sound technical arguments, but it is difficult to convince the general public that the behavior of wastes stored in the ground can be modeled and predicted for even a few thousand years. From this point of view alone there would seem to be a clear benefit in reducing the long-term toxicity of the high-level wastes placed in the repository.

  17. Actinide recycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, C.; Chang, Y.

    1990-01-01

    A multitude of studies and assessments of actinide partitioning and transmutation were carried out in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Probably the most comprehensive of these was a study coordinated by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The conclusions of this study were that only rather weak economic and safety incentives existed for partitioning and transmuting the actinides for waste management purposes, due to the facts that (1) partitioning processes were complicated and expensive, and (2) the geologic repository was assumed to contain actinides for hundreds of thousands of years. Much has changed in the few years since then. A variety of developments now combine to warrant a renewed assessment of the actinide recycle. First of all, it has become increasingly difficult to provide to all parties the necessary assurance that the repository will contain essentially all radioactive materials until they have decayed. Assurance can almost certainly be provided to regulatory agencies by sound technical arguments, but it is difficult to convince the general public that the behavior of wastes stored in the ground can be modeled and predicted for even a few thousand years. From this point of view alone there would seem to be a clear benefit in reducing the long-term toxicity of the high-level wastes placed in the repository

  18. Control of ribosome formation in rat heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, L.A.

    1987-01-01

    Diabetes of 9 days duration produced a 17% diminution in the rate of total protein synthesis in rat hearts perfused as Langendorff preparations supplied with glucose, plasma levels of amino acids, and 400 μU/ml insulin. This reduction was attributable to a decrease in efficiency of protein synthesis and total RNA content. Total messenger RNA content decreased in diabetic hearts in proportion to the reduction in total RNA. Diabetes also resulted in diminished ribosome content as reflected by the induction in total RNA. Ribosome production was investigated by monitoring incorporation of [ 3 H]phenylalanine into the proteins of cytoplasmic ribosomes. Rates of ribosome formation in diabetic hearts were as fast as control rates in the presence of insulin, and were faster than control rates in the absence of the hormone. These results indicated that ribosome content fell in diabetic hearts despite unchanged or faster rates of ribosome formation

  19. Ribosomal protein methyltransferases in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Roles in ribosome biogenesis and translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hadid, Qais; White, Jonelle; Clarke, Steven

    2016-02-12

    A significant percentage of the methyltransferasome in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and higher eukaryotes is devoted to methylation of the translational machinery. Methylation of the RNA components of the translational machinery has been studied extensively and is important for structure stability, ribosome biogenesis, and translational fidelity. However, the functional effects of ribosomal protein methylation by their cognate methyltransferases are still largely unknown. Previous work has shown that the ribosomal protein Rpl3 methyltransferase, histidine protein methyltransferase 1 (Hpm1), is important for ribosome biogenesis and translation elongation fidelity. In this study, yeast strains deficient in each of the ten ribosomal protein methyltransferases in S. cerevisiae were examined for potential defects in ribosome biogenesis and translation. Like Hpm1-deficient cells, loss of four of the nine other ribosomal protein methyltransferases resulted in defects in ribosomal subunit synthesis. All of the mutant strains exhibited resistance to the ribosome inhibitors anisomycin and/or cycloheximide in plate assays, but not in liquid culture. Translational fidelity assays measuring stop codon readthrough, amino acid misincorporation, and programmed -1 ribosomal frameshifting, revealed that eight of the ten enzymes are important for translation elongation fidelity and the remaining two are necessary for translation termination efficiency. Altogether, these results demonstrate that ribosomal protein methyltransferases in S. cerevisiae play important roles in ribosome biogenesis and translation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Modelling Recycling Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hill, Amanda Louise; Leinikka Dall, Ole; Andersen, Frits M.

    2014-01-01

    Within the European Union (EU) a paradigm shift is currently occurring in the waste sector, where EU waste directives and national waste strategies are placing emphasis on resource efficiency and recycling targets. The most recent Danish resource strategy calculates a national recycling rate of 22......% for household waste, and sets an ambitious goal of a 50% recycling rate by 2020. This study integrates the recycling target into the FRIDA model to project how much waste and from which streams should be diverted from incineration to recycling in order to achieve the target. Furthermore, it discusses how...... the existing technological, organizational and legislative frameworks may affect recycling activities. The results of the analysis show that with current best practice recycling rates, the 50% recycling rate cannot be reached without recycling of household biowaste. It also shows that all Danish municipalities...

  1. Trapping the ribosome to control gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehringer, Daniel; Ban, Nenad

    2007-09-21

    Protein synthesis is often regulated by structured mRNAs that interact with ribosomes. In this issue of Cell, Marzi et al. (2007) provide insights into the autoregulation of protein S15 by visualizing the folded repressor mRNA on the ribosome stalled in the preinitiation state. These results have implications for our understanding of the mechanism of translation initiation in general.

  2. Differential Stoichiometry among Core Ribosomal Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai Slavov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the regulation and structure of ribosomes is essential to understanding protein synthesis and its dysregulation in disease. While ribosomes are believed to have a fixed stoichiometry among their core ribosomal proteins (RPs, some experiments suggest a more variable composition. Testing such variability requires direct and precise quantification of RPs. We used mass spectrometry to directly quantify RPs across monosomes and polysomes of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESC and budding yeast. Our data show that the stoichiometry among core RPs in wild-type yeast cells and ESC depends both on the growth conditions and on the number of ribosomes bound per mRNA. Furthermore, we find that the fitness of cells with a deleted RP-gene is inversely proportional to the enrichment of the corresponding RP in polysomes. Together, our findings support the existence of ribosomes with distinct protein composition and physiological function.

  3. Frequent Questions on Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a list of frequent questions on recycling, broken down into five categories. These are answers to common questions that EPA has received from press and web inquiries. This list is located on the Reduce, Reuse, Recycle website.

  4. Certified Electronics Recyclers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn how EPA encourages all electronics recyclers become certified by demonstrating to an accredited, independent third-party auditor and that they meet specific standards to safely recycle and manage electronics.

  5. Rethink, Rework, Recycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrhen, Linda; DiSpezio, Michael A.

    1991-01-01

    Information about the recycling and reuse of plastics, aluminum, steel, glass, and newspapers is presented. The phases of recycling are described. An activity that allows students to separate recyclable materials is included. The objectives, a list of needed materials, and procedure are provided. (KR)

  6. Aluminium beverage can recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewinski, A von

    1985-08-01

    Canned beverages have become a controversial issue in this era of ecological sensitivity. METALL has already discussed the problem of can recycling. The present article discusses the technical aspects of aluminium can recycling. Two further articles will follow on aluminium can recycling in North America and on the results of European pilot projects.

  7. Modelling Recycling Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    hill, amanda; Leinikka Dall, Ole; Andersen, Frits Møller

    2014-01-01

    % for household waste, and sets an ambitious goal of a 50% recycling rate by 2020. This study integrates the recycling target into the FRIDA model to project how much waste and from which streams should be diverted from incineration to recycling in order to achieve the target. Furthermore, it discusses how...

  8. The recycling is moving

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2011-01-01

    The recycling site currently situated near building 133 has been transferred to the car park of building 156. The site is identified by the sign “RECYCLING” and the above logo. In this new, more accessible site, you will find recycling bins for the following waste: PET (recyclable plastic bottles); Aluminium cans; Nespresso coffee capsules.  

  9. Usage of Recycled Pet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ebru Tayyar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing industrialization, urbanization and the technological development have caused to increase depletion of the natural resources and environmental pollution's problem. Especially, for the countries which have not enough space recycling of the waste eliminating waste on regular basis or decreasing the amount and volume of waste have provided the important advantages. There are lots of studies and projects to develop both protect resources and prevent environmental pollution. PET bottles are commonly used in beverage industry and can be reused after physical and chemical recycling processes. Usage areas of recycled PET have been developed rapidly. Although recycled PET is used in plastic industry, composite industry also provides usage alternatives of recycled PET. Textile is a suitable sector for recycling of some plastics made of polymers too. In this study, the recycling technologies and applications of waste PET bottles have been investigated and scientific works in this area have been summarized.

  10. Molecular dynamics simulation of ribosome jam

    KAUST Repository

    Matsumoto, Shigenori; Takagi, Fumiko; Shimada, Takashi; Ito, Nobuyasu

    2011-01-01

    We propose a coarse-grained molecular dynamics model of ribosome molecules to study the dependence of translation process on environmental parameters. We found the model exhibits traffic jam property, which is consistent with an ASEP model. We

  11. Ribosome evolution: Emergence of peptide synthesis machinery

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    suggested the dynamic movement of ribosomal proteins. The L2 protein (a .... Such kinds of interactions are important in elucidating the evolution of RNA .... Tamura K 2009 Molecular handedness of life: significance of RNA aminoacylation.

  12. Is The Ribosome Targeted By Adaptive Mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jimenez Fernandez, Alicia; Molin, Søren; Johansen, Helle Krogh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: RNA polymerase and ribosomes, composing the macromolecular synthesis machinery (MMSM), carry out the central processes of transcription and translation, but are usually seen as mechanical elements with no regulatory function. Extensive investigations of gene regulation and the high ...

  13. Synthetic peptides and ribosomal proteins as substrate for 60S ribosomal protein kinase from yeast cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grankowski, N; Gasior, E; Issinger, O G

    1993-01-01

    Kinetic studies on the 60S protein kinase were conducted with synthetic peptides and ribosomal proteins as substrate. Peptide RRREEESDDD proved to be the best synthetic substrate for this enzyme. The peptide has a sequence of amino acids which most closely resembles the structure of potential...... phosphorylation sites in natural substrates, i.e., acidic ribosomal proteins. The superiority of certain kinetic parameters for 60S kinase obtained with the native whole 80S ribosomes over those of the isolated fraction of acidic ribosomal proteins indicates that the affinity of 60S kinase to the specific protein...

  14. Crystallization of ribosomes from Thermus thermophilus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpova, E.A.; Serdyuk, I.N.; Tarkhovskii, Yu.S.; Orlova, E.V.; Borovyagin, V.L.

    1987-01-01

    An understanding of the molecular bases of the process of protein biosynthesis on the ribosome requires a knowledge of its structure with high three-dimensional resolution involving the method of x-ray crystallographic analysis. The authors report on the production of crystals of the 70S ribosomes from a new source - the highly thermophilic bacterium Thermus thermophilus. Ribosomes for crystallization were obtained from Th. thermophilus strain HB8 by two washings in buffer with high ionic strength. The ribosome preparation was investigated for homogeneity by the method of high-speed sedimentation in a buffer containing 15 mM MgCl 2 , 50 mM NH 4 Cl, and 10 MM Tris-HCl, pH 7.5. Analysis showed that the preparation if homogeneous. The same preparation was investigated for intactness of ribosomal RNA by the method of gel electrophoresis in 2.75% acrylamide 0.5% agarose gel in a buffer containing 30 mM Tris, 30 mM NaH 2 PO 4 , 10 mM EDTA, 1-2% SDS, and 6 M urea. Analysis showed that the preparation possesses intact 16S and 23S RNA. The latter did not degrade, at least in a week of exposure of the ribosomes in buffer solution at 5 0 C. The ribosome preparation had no appreciable RNase activity, which was verified by incubating 4.5 micrograms of ribosomes with 3 micrograms of 14 C-labeled 16S rRna (50 0 C, 90 min) in a buffer containing 10 mM MgCl 2 , 100 mM NH 4 Cl, and 10 mM Tris-HCl, pH/sub 20 0 / 7.5. The incubated nonhydrolyzed RNA was precipitated with 5% trichloroacetic acid and applied on a GF/C filter. The radioactivity was determined in a toluene scintillator on an LS-100C counter

  15. The importance of recycling - Responsible recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svensson, Joens Petter

    2014-01-01

    7 times the total emissions from Sweden are saved each year by the recycling industry. It reduces CO 2 emissions and saves the environment. In fact it annually reduces global CO 2 emissions by 500 million tons, which is more than what is being emitted by the world wide aviation industry. Recycling of iron and steel saves 74% energy and reduces water and air pollution by respectively 76% and 86%, compared to primary production. It provides new raw materials and contributes to save energy. There's no sense in producing goods in a permanent material like plastics, that's supposed to be used only once. It's a huge waste of resources. Today the recycling industry provides half of the world's raw materials and this figure is set to increase. It's about environmentally sound management of resources. It's about plain common sense. There has to be a political willingness to facilitate recycling in every way. And from a corporate perspective social responsibility is becoming an increasingly important competitive edge. This is also a communication issue, it has to be a fact that is well known to the market when a company is doing valuable environmental work. We also need a well functioning global market with easy to understand regulations to facilitate global trade. The global demand for recycled materials should influence their collection and use. Fraud and theft has also to be kept at bay which calls for a close collaboration between organizations such as The International Chamber of Commerce, The International Trade Council and the International Maritime Bureau of the commercial crime services. Increasing recycling is the only way to go if we want to minimize our effect on the environment. We have to remember that recycling is essential for the environment. An increase would be a tremendous help to reduce the green house effect. Increasing recycling is not rocket science. We know how to do it, we just have to decide to go through with it

  16. Lamps recycling aiming at the environment preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamachita, Roberto Akira; Gama, Paulo Henrique R. Pereira; Haddad, Jamil; Santos, Afonso H. Moreira; Guardia, Eduardo C.

    1999-01-01

    The article discusses the following issues of lamps recycling in Brazil: mercury lamps recycling, recycling potential, energy conservation and environmental impacts, enterprises lamps recycling, and incentives policy

  17. Recycling of concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halaszovich, S.

    1988-01-01

    The paper reviews potentials and problems of disposal or recycling of concrete removed from nuclear installations. Due to the difficulties in determining radioactivity limits that are compatible with utilization of recycled material in practice, a method is proposed that takes into account inhalation of dusts, as occurring during the reprocessing or recycling of the concrete, for instance in road building. This method is based on the maximum permissible radioactivity uptake by inhalation of a nuclide mixture of unknown composition. (RB) [de

  18. Benchmarking survey for recycling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marley, Margie Charlotte; Mizner, Jack Harry

    2005-06-01

    This report describes the methodology, analysis and conclusions of a comparison survey of recycling programs at ten Department of Energy sites including Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM). The goal of the survey was to compare SNL/NM's recycling performance with that of other federal facilities, and to identify activities and programs that could be implemented at SNL/NM to improve recycling performance.

  19. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    Ashlines: To promote and support the commercially viable and environmentally sound recycling of coal combustion byproducts for productive uses through scientific research, development, and field testing.

  20. Mixed plastics recycling technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hegberg, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Presents an overview of mixed plastics recycling technology. In addition, it characterizes mixed plastics wastes and describes collection methods, costs, and markets for reprocessed plastics products.

  1. Ribosomal studies on the 70S ribosome of E.coli by means of neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhardt, N.

    1997-01-01

    Ribosomes are ribonucleo-protein complexes, which catalyse proteinbiosynthesis in all living organisms. Currently, most of the structural models of the prokaryotic 70S ribosome rely on electron microscopy and describe mainly the outer shape of the particle. Neutron scattering can provide information on the internal structure of the ribosome. Parts of the structure can be contrasted for neutrons by means of an isotopic exchange of the naturally occurring hydrogen ( 1 H) for deuterium ( 2 H), allowing direct measurements in situ. Specifically deuterium-labeled ribosomes (E. coli) were prepared and analysed with neutron scattering. The biochemical methods were established and combined to a generally applicable preparation system. This allows labeling of all ribosomal components in any combination. A systematic analysis of the protein and RNA phases resulted in the development of a new model for the 70S ribosome. This model describes not only the outer shape of the particle, but displays also an experimentally determined internal protein-RNA distribution and the border of subunits for the first time (four-phase model; resolution: 50A). Models of the 70S ribosome from other studies were evaluated and ranked according to consistency with the measured scattering data. Applying a new neutron scattering technique of particular sensitivity, the proton-spin contrast-variation, single proteins could be measured and localized. The positions of the proteins S6 and S10 were determined, providing the first coordinates of protein mass centers within the 70S ribosome. (orig.) [de

  2. The ribosome can prevent aggregation of partially folded protein intermediates: studies using the Escherichia coli ribosome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bani Kumar Pathak

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Molecular chaperones that support de novo folding of proteins under non stress condition are classified as chaperone 'foldases' that are distinct from chaperone' holdases' that provide high affinity binding platform for unfolded proteins and prevent their aggregation specifically under stress conditions. Ribosome, the cellular protein synthesis machine can act as a foldase chaperone that can bind unfolded proteins and release them in folding competent state. The peptidyl transferase center (PTC located in the domain V of the 23S rRNA of Escherichia coli ribosome (bDV RNA is the chaperoning center of the ribosome. It has been proposed that via specific interactions between the RNA and refolding proteins, the chaperone provides information for the correct folding of unfolded polypeptide chains. RESULTS: We demonstrate using Escherichia coli ribosome and variants of its domain V RNA that the ribosome can bind to partially folded intermediates of bovine carbonic anhydrase II (BCAII and lysozyme and suppress aggregation during their refolding. Using mutants of domain V RNA we demonstrate that the time for which the chaperone retains the bound protein is an important factor in determining its ability to suppress aggregation and/or support reactivation of protein. CONCLUSION: The ribosome can behave like a 'holdase' chaperone and has the ability to bind and hold back partially folded intermediate states of proteins from participating in the aggregation process. Since the ribosome is an essential organelle that is present in large numbers in all living cells, this ability of the ribosome provides an energetically inexpensive way to suppress cellular aggregation. Further, this ability of the ribosome might also be crucial in the context that the ribosome is one of the first chaperones to be encountered by a large nascent polypeptide chains that have a tendency to form partially folded intermediates immediately following their synthesis.

  3. Water Recycling in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Young

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Australia is the driest inhabited continent on earth and, more importantly, experiences the most variable rainfall of all the continents on our planet. The vast majority of Australians live in large cities on the coast. Because wastewater treatments plants were all located near the coast, it was thought that large scale recycling would be problematic given the cost of infrastructure and pumping required to establish recycled water schemes. This all changed when Australia experienced a decade of record low rainfall and water utilities were given aggressive targets to increase the volume of water recycled. This resulted in recycled water being accepted as a legitimate source of water for non-drinking purposes in a diversified portfolio of water sources to mitigate climate risk. To ensure community support for recycled water, Australia lead the world in developing national guidelines for the various uses of recycled water to ensure the protection of public health and the environment. Australia now provides a great case study of the developments in maximizing water recycling opportunities from policy, regulatory and technological perspectives. This paper explores the evolution in thinking and how approaches to wastewater reuse has changed over the past 40 years from an effluent disposal issue to one of recognizing wastewater as a legitimate and valuable resource. Despite recycled water being a popular choice and being broadly embraced, the concept of indirect potable reuse schemes have lacked community and political support across Australia to date.

  4. Reuse, Reduce, Recycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, Georgia

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of recycling paper in law libraries is also applicable to other types of libraries. Results of surveys of law libraries that investigated recycling practices in 1987 and again in 1990 are reported, and suggestions for reducing the amount of paper used and reusing as much as possible are offered. (LRW)

  5. Detection and Quantification of Ribosome Inhibition by Aminoglycoside Antibiotics in Living Bacteria Using an Orthogonal Ribosome-Controlled Fluorescent Reporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shijie; Zhu, Xuechen; Melançon, Charles E

    2016-01-15

    The ribosome is the quintessential antibacterial drug target, with many structurally and mechanistically distinct classes of antibacterial agents acting by inhibiting ribosome function. Detecting and quantifying ribosome inhibition by small molecules and investigating their binding modes and mechanisms of action are critical to antibacterial drug discovery and development efforts. To develop a ribosome inhibition assay that is operationally simple, yet provides direct information on the drug target and the mechanism of action, we have developed engineered E. coli strains harboring an orthogonal ribosome-controlled green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter that produce fluorescent signal when the orthogonal ribosome is inhibited. As a proof of concept, we demonstrate that these strains, when coexpressing homogeneous populations of aminoglycoside resistant ribosomes, act as sensitive and quantitative detectors of ribosome inhibition by a set of 12 structurally diverse aminoglycoside antibiotics. We suggest that this strategy can be extended to quantifying ribosome inhibition by other drug classes.

  6. The Compressor Recycle System

    OpenAIRE

    Barstad, Bjørn Ove

    2010-01-01

    The compressor recycle system is the main focus of this thesis. When the mass flow through a compressor becomes too low, the compressor can plunge into surge. Surge is a term that is used for axisymmetric oscillation through a compressor and is highly unwanted. The recycle system feeds compressed gas back to the intake when the mass flow becomes too low, and thereby act as a safety system.A mathematical model of the recycle system is extended and simulated in SIMULINK. The mathematical model ...

  7. Effect of primary and secondary radicals on chain breaks in ribosomal RNA in E. coli ribosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, H.; Bishop, J.

    1984-01-01

    It has been shown previously that, in dilute aerated solutions, ribosomes are inactivated by OH radicals and by secondary radicals produced from added alcohols (Singh and Vadasz 1983 a). In de-aerated solutions, both radicalH and e - sub(aq) also inactivate ribosomes (Singh and Vadasz 1983 b). The results of these studies and other on different systems (Adams et al. 1973, Aldrich and Cundall 1969, Dewey and Stein 1970, Masuda et al. 1971, Nabben et al. 1982, 1983, Samuni et al. 1980, Singh and Singh 1982) have shown that damage to biological systems occurs by diverse mechanisms. One of these mechanisms involves chain breaks in RNA (Pollard and Weller 1967). The purpose of this study was to determine which of the primary and secondary radicals cause chain breaks in ribosomal RNA (rRNA) within the ribosomes. (author)

  8. Recycling of used oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vipulanandan, C.; Ghurye, G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on used oil which is a valuable resource that should be recycled. Recycling used oil saves energy and natural resources. Used oil can be reprocessed and used as fuel in industrial burners and boilers. Unfortunately, more than 400 million gallons/year of used oil is lost through widespread dumping, partly due to lack of effective recycling procedures. Although used oil is not currently a federally listed hazardous waste, the U.S. EPA has proposed to list it as a hazardous waste, which will make recycling of used oil even more attractive. Laboratory samples, representing used oil, were used for detailed parametric studies and to determine the limitation of extending some of the current physical separation techniques such as sedimentation and centrifuging developed for oil-water and solid-liquid separation

  9. Recycling of Metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Anders; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Metals like iron and aluminium are produced from mineral ore and used for a range of products, some of which have very short lifetimes and thus constitute a major fraction of municipal waste. Packaging in terms of cans, foils and containers are products with a short lifetime. Other products like...... appliances, vehicles and buildings, containing iron and aluminium metals, have long lifetimes before they end up in the waste stream. The recycling of production waste and postconsumer metals has a long history in the metal industry. Some metal smelters are today entirely based on scarp metals. This chapter...... describes briefly how iron and aluminium are produced and how scrap metal is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements and use of recycled products are discussed, as are the resource and environmental issues of metal recycling. Copper and other metals are also found in waste but in much smaller...

  10. Reduce, reuse and recycle

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Afrika, M

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of the internationally accepted waste management hierarchy (Sakai et al, 1996) into South African policy has changed the focus from “end of pipe” waste management towards waste minimisation (reuse, recycling and cleaner production...

  11. Recycling of Glass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Damgaard, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Glass is used for many purposes, but in the waste system glass is predominantly found in terms of beverage and food containers with a relatively short lifetime before ending up in the waste. Furthermore there is a large amount of flat glass used in building materials which also ends up in the waste...... system; this glass though has a long lifetime before ending up in the waste. Altogether these product types add up to 82% of the production of the European glass industry (IPCC, 2001). Recycling of glass in terms of cleaning and refilling of bottles as well as the use of broken glass in the production...... of new glass containers is well established in the glass industry. This chapter describes briefly howglass is produced and howwaste glass is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements and use of recycled products are discussed, as are the resource and environmental issues of glass recycling....

  12. A Practical Recycling Project . . .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durant, Raymond H.; Mikuska, James M.

    1973-01-01

    Descirbes a school district's recycling program of aluminum lunch trays that are collected after their use. The trays are used as scrap metal in industrial education workshop and used for sand castings. (PS)

  13. Challenges in plastics recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Jakobsen, L. G.; Eriksen, Marie Kampmann

    2015-01-01

    Recycling of waste plastics still remains a challenging area in the waste management sector. The current and potential goals proposed on EU or regional levels are difficult to achieve, and even to partially fullfil them the improvements in collection and sorting should be considerable. A study...... was undertaken to investigate the factors affecting quality in plastics recycling. The preliminary results showed factors primarily influencing quality of plastics recycling to be polymer cross contamination, presence of additives, non-polymer impurities, and polymer degradation. Deprivation of plastics quality......, with respect to recycling, has been shown to happen throughout the plastics value chain, but steps where improvements may happen have been preliminary identified. Example of Cr in plastic samples analysed showed potential spreading and accumulation of chemicals ending up in the waste plastics. In order...

  14. Dual recycling for GEO 600

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grote, H; Freise, A; Malec, M; Heinzel, G; Willke, B; Lueck, H; Strain, K A; Hough, J; Danzmann, K

    2004-01-01

    Dual recycling is the combination of signal recycling and power recycling; both optical techniques improve the shot-noise-limited sensitivity of interferometric gravitational-wave detectors. In addition, signal recycling can reduce the loss of light power due to imperfect interference and allows us, in principle, to beat the standard quantum limit. The interferometric gravitational-wave detector GEO 600 is the first of the kilometre-scale detectors to use signal recycling. We have recently equipped the detector with a signal-recycling mirror with a transmittance of 1%. In this paper, we present details of the detector commissioning and the first locks of the dual-recycled interferometer

  15. The Recycler Electron Cooler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shemyakin, A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Prost, L. R. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2013-03-19

    The Recycler Electron cooler was the first (and so far, the only) cooler working at a relativistic energy (γ = 9.5). It was successfully developed in 1995-2004 and was in operation at Fermilab in 2005-2011, providing cooling of antiprotons in the Recycler ring. This paper describes the cooler, difficulties in achieving the required electron beam parameters and the ways to overcome them, cooling measurements, and details of operation.

  16. PET and Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Sevencan

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This review aims to clarify the need of decreasing the environmental effects caused by human and draw attention to the increasing environmental effects of plastics wastes. Plastics consist of organic molecules with high density molecules or polymers. Main resources of plastics are the residue of oil rafineries. Several advantages of plastics, have increased the usage continuously. Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET is the most commonly used plastics. PET is used to protect food, drinking water, fruit juice, alcoholic beverage, and food packing films. By the increasing interest on the environmental effects of plastic wastes, concerns on the recyclable packing materials also grew up. Also the daily use of recyclable containers consisting PET have increased. There are five steps for recycling of plastics. These steps are; using large amounts of plastics, collecting them in a big center, classifying and sorting the plastics, reproducing the polymers and obtaining new products with melted plastics. Providing a healthy recycling of plastics, the consumers should have knowledge and responsibility. The consumer should know what he/she has to do before putting the plastics in the recycling containers. Recycling containers and bags should be placed near the sources of plastic wastes. Consequently, the plastic wastes and environmental problems they cause will be on the agenda in future. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(4: 307-312

  17. PET and Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Sevencan

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This review aims to clarify the need of decreasing the environmental effects caused by human and draw attention to the increasing environmental effects of plastics wastes. Plastics consist of organic molecules with high density molecules or polymers. Main resources of plastics are the residue of oil rafineries. Several advantages of plastics, have increased the usage continuously. Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET is the most commonly used plastics. PET is used to protect food, drinking water, fruit juice, alcoholic beverage, and food packing films. By the increasing interest on the environmental effects of plastic wastes, concerns on the recyclable packing materials also grew up. Also the daily use of recyclable containers consisting PET have increased. There are five steps for recycling of plastics. These steps are; using large amounts of plastics, collecting them in a big center, classifying and sorting the plastics, reproducing the polymers and obtaining new products with melted plastics. Providing a healthy recycling of plastics, the consumers should have knowledge and responsibility. The consumer should know what he/she has to do before putting the plastics in the recycling containers. Recycling containers and bags should be placed near the sources of plastic wastes. Consequently, the plastic wastes and environmental problems they cause will be on the agenda in future. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(4.000: 307-312

  18. Nuclear reactor recyclation device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takigawa, Yukio; Chuma, Kazuto

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent the unevenness for the coolant flow rate even when abnormality occurs to one of recycling pumps. Constitution: A plurality of jet pumps disposed at an interval around the reactor core are divided circumferentially into two sets, and a pipeway is disposed to the outside of each pair including recycling pumps corresponding to each of the sets. The pipeway is connected to the recycling inlet of the jet pump by way of a manifold. The discharge portion of the recycling pumps of the loop pipeway are connected with each other by way of communication pipes, and a normally closed valve is disposed to the communication pipe and the normally closed valve of the communication pipe is opened upon detecting abnormality for one of the recycling pumps. Thus, if either one of the pair of recycling pumps shows abnormal state, coolants flows from the other of pipeway to the outside of the loop pipeway and coolants are supplied from all the jet pumps to the reactor core portion and, accordingly, the not-uniform flow rate can be prevented to eliminate undesired effect on the reactor core. (Kamimura, M.)

  19. Recycling of Paper and Cardboard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Damgaard, Anders

    2011-01-01

    waste. Recycling of paper and cardboard production waste and postconsumer waste has a long history in the pulp and paper industry. The recycled material now makes up more than half of the raw material used in European pulp and paper industry (ERPC, 2004). This chapter describes briefly how paper...... and cardboard are produced and how waste paper is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements and use of recycled products are discussed, as are the resource and environmental issues of paper recycling....

  20. GTPases and the origin of the ribosome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Temple F

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper is an attempt to trace the evolution of the ribosome through the evolution of the universal P-loop GTPases that are involved with the ribosome in translation and with the attachment of the ribosome to the membrane. The GTPases involved in translation in Bacteria/Archaea are the elongation factors EFTu/EF1, the initiation factors IF2/aeIF5b + aeIF2, and the elongation factors EFG/EF2. All of these GTPases also contain the OB fold also found in the non GTPase IF1 involved in initiation. The GTPase involved in the signal recognition particle in most Bacteria and Archaea is SRP54. Results 1 The Elongation Factors of the Archaea based on structural considerations of the domains have the following evolutionary path: EF1→ aeIF2 → EF2. The evolution of the aeIF5b was a later event; 2 the Elongation Factors of the Bacteria based on the topological considerations of the GTPase domain have a similar evolutionary path: EFTu→ IF→2→EFG. These evolutionary sequences reflect the evolution of the LSU followed by the SSU to form the ribosome; 3 the OB-fold IF1 is a mimic of an ancient tRNA minihelix. Conclusion The evolution of translational GTPases of both the Archaea and Bacteria point to the evolution of the ribosome. The elongation factors, EFTu/EF1, began as a Ras-like GTPase bringing the activated minihelix tRNA to the Large Subunit Unit. The initiation factors and elongation factor would then have evolved from the EFTu/EF1 as the small subunit was added to the evolving ribosome. The SRP has an SRP54 GTPase and a specific RNA fold in its RNA component similar to the PTC. We consider the SRP to be a remnant of an ancient form of an LSU bound to a membrane. Reviewers This article was reviewed by George Fox, Leonid Mirny and Chris Sander.

  1. Concrete produced with recycled aggregates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. L. Tenório

    Full Text Available This paper presents the analysis of the mechanical and durable properties of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC for using in concrete. The porosity of recycled coarse aggregates is known to influence the fresh and hardened concrete properties and these properties are related to the specific mass of the recycled coarse aggregates, which directly influences the mechanical properties of the concrete. The recycled aggregates were obtained from construction and demolition wastes (CDW, which were divided into recycled sand (fine and coarse aggregates. Besides this, a recycled coarse aggregate of a specific mass with a greater density was obtained by mixing the recycled aggregates of the CDW with the recycled aggregates of concrete wastes (CW. The concrete was produced in laboratory by combining three water-cement ratios, the ratios were used in agreement with NBR 6118 for structural concretes, with each recycled coarse aggregates and recycled sand or river sand, and the reference concrete was produced with natural aggregates. It was observed that recycled aggregates can be used in concrete with properties for structural concrete. In general, the use of recycled coarse aggregate in combination with recycled sand did not provide good results; but when the less porous was used, or the recycled coarse aggregate of a specific mass with a greater density, the properties of the concrete showed better results. Some RAC reached bigger strengths than the reference concrete.

  2. Japan's fuel recycling policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) has formulated Japanese nuclear fuel recycling plan for the next 20 years, based on the idea that the supply and demand of plutonium should be balanced mainly through the utilization of plutonium for LWRs. The plan was approved by AEC, and is to be incorporated in the 'Long term program for development and utilization of nuclear energy' up for revision next year. The report on 'Nuclear fuel recycling in Japan' by the committee is characterized by Japanese nuclear fuel recycling plan and the supply-demand situation for plutonium, the principle of the possession of plutonium not more than the demand in conformity with nuclear nonproliferation attitude, and the establishment of a domestic fabrication system of uranium-plutonium mixed oxide fuel. The total plutonium supply up to 2010 is estimated to be about 85 t, on the other hand, the demand will be 80-90 t. The treatment of plutonium is the key to the recycling and utilization of nuclear fuel. By around 2000, the private sector will commercialize the fabrication of the MOX fuel for LWRs at the annual rate of about 100 t. Commitment to nuclear nonproliferation, future nuclear fuel recycling program in Japan, MOX fuel fabrication system in Japan and so on are reported. (K.I.)

  3. Recycling of Reinforced Plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, R. D.; Collins, Andrew; Cooper, Duncan; Wingfield-Digby, Mark; Watts-Farmer, Archibald; Laurence, Anna; Patel, Kayur; Stevens, Mark; Watkins, Rhodri

    2014-02-01

    This work has shown is that it is possible to recycle continuous and short fibre reinforced thermosetting resins while keeping almost the whole of the original material, both fibres and matrix, within the recyclate. By splitting, crushing hot or cold, and hot forming, it is possible to create a recyclable material, which we designate a Remat, which can then be used to remanufacture other shapes, examples of plates and tubes being demonstrated. Not only can remanufacturing be done, but it has been shown that over 50 % of the original mechanical properties, such as the E modulus, tensile strength, and interlaminar shear strength, can be retained. Four different forms of composite were investigated, a random mat Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastic (GFRP) bathroom component and boat hull, woven glass and carbon fibre cloth impregnated with an epoxy resin, and unidirectional carbon fibre pre-preg. One of the main factors found to affect composite recyclability was the type of resin matrix used in the composite. Thermoset resins tested were shown to have a temperature range around the Glass Transition Temperature (Tg) where they exhibit ductile behaviour, hence aiding reforming of the material. The high-grade carbon fibre prepreg was found to be less easy to recycle than the woven of random fibre laminates. One method of remanufacturing was by heating the Remat to above its glass transition temperature, bending it to shape, and then cooling it. However, unless precautions are taken, the geometric form may revert. This does not happen with the crushed material.

  4. Recycling of reprocessed uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randl, R.P.

    1987-01-01

    Since nuclear power was first exploited in the Federal Republic of Germany, the philosophy underlying the strategy of the nuclear fuel cycle has been to make optimum use of the resource potential of recovered uranium and plutonium within a closed fuel cycle. Apart from the weighty argument of reprocessing being an important step in the treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes, permitting their optimum ecological conditioning after the reprocessing step and subsequent storage underground, another argument that, no doubt, carried weight was the possibility of reducing the demand of power plants for natural uranium. In recent years, strategies of recycling have emerged for reprocessed uranium. If that energy potential, too, is to be exploited by thermal recycling, it is appropriate to choose a slightly different method of recycling from the one for plutonium. While the first generation of reprocessed uranium fuel recycled in the reactor cuts down natural uranium requirement by some 15%, the recycling of a second generation of reprocessed, once more enriched uranium fuel helps only to save a further three per cent of natural uranium. Uranium of the second generation already carries uranium-232 isotope, causing production disturbances, and uranium-236 isotope, causing disturbances of the neutron balance in the reactor, in such amounts as to make further fabrication of uranium fuel elements inexpedient, even after mixing with natural uranium feed. (orig./UA) [de

  5. Progress of Recycling in the Built Environment Final report of the RILEM Technical Committee 217-PRE

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This report is a useful tool for countries starting to recycle aggregates or construction and demolition waste. It contains the latest developments in this field, introduces a completely new approach to the procedure of proportioning concrete mixtures with recycled aggregate, references recent publications, opinions and discrepancies in relation to the durability of recycled concrete, such as freeze-thaw standards, studies of chloride penetration and diffusion, and sulfate attacks, the use of the fine fraction <4mm, quality assurance of concrete recycled aggregate, sustainability and recycling construction waste and global impact assessment of urban renewal based on sustainable recycling strategies for construction and demolition waste. This volume will be of interest to recyclers, researchers and consumers.

  6. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction study of human ribosomal protein L10 core domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Mitsuhiro; Kaminishi, Tatsuya; Kawazoe, Masahito; Shirouzu, Mikako; Takemoto, Chie; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Tanaka, Akiko; Sugano, Sumio; Yoshida, Takuya; Ohkubo, Tadayasu; Kobayashi, Yuji

    2007-01-01

    A truncated variant of human ribosomal protien L10 was prepared and crystallized. Diffraction data were collected to 2.5 Å resolution. Eukaryotic ribosomal protein L10 is an essential component of the large ribosomal subunit, which organizes the architecture of the aminoacyl-tRNA binding site. The human L10 protein is also called the QM protein and consists of 214 amino-acid residues. For crystallization, the L10 core domain (L10CD, Phe34–Glu182) was recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. A hexagonal crystal of L10CD was obtained by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. The L10CD crystal diffracted to 2.5 Å resolution and belongs to space group P3 1 21 or P3 2 21

  7. Kinetic pathway of 40S ribosomal subunit recruitment to hepatitis C virus internal ribosome entry site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Gabriele; Petrov, Alexey N; Marceau, Caleb D; Popov, Lauren M; Chen, Jin; O'Leary, Seán E; Wang, Richard; Carette, Jan E; Sarnow, Peter; Puglisi, Joseph D

    2015-01-13

    Translation initiation can occur by multiple pathways. To delineate these pathways by single-molecule methods, fluorescently labeled ribosomal subunits are required. Here, we labeled human 40S ribosomal subunits with a fluorescent SNAP-tag at ribosomal protein eS25 (RPS25). The resulting ribosomal subunits could be specifically labeled in living cells and in vitro. Using single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) between RPS25 and domain II of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) internal ribosome entry site (IRES), we measured the rates of 40S subunit arrival to the HCV IRES. Our data support a single-step model of HCV IRES recruitment to 40S subunits, irreversible on the initiation time scale. We furthermore demonstrated that after binding, the 40S:HCV IRES complex is conformationally dynamic, undergoing slow large-scale rearrangements. Addition of translation extracts suppresses these fluctuations, funneling the complex into a single conformation on the 80S assembly pathway. These findings show that 40S:HCV IRES complex formation is accompanied by dynamic conformational rearrangements that may be modulated by initiation factors.

  8. Simultaneous Binding of Multiple EF-Tu Copies to Translating Ribosomes in Live Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafi, Mainak; Weisshaar, James C

    2018-01-16

    In bacteria, elongation factor Tu is a translational cofactor that forms ternary complexes with aminoacyl-tRNA (aa-tRNA) and GTP. Binding of a ternary complex to one of four flexible L7/L12 units on the ribosome tethers a charged tRNA in close proximity to the ribosomal A site. Two sequential tests for a match between the aa-tRNA anticodon and the current mRNA codon then follow. Because one elongation cycle can occur in as little as 50 ms and the vast majority of aa-tRNA copies are not cognate with the current mRNA codon, this testing must occur rapidly. We present a single-molecule localization and tracking study of fluorescently labeled EF-Tu in live Escherichia coli Imaging at 2 ms/frame distinguishes 60% slowly diffusing EF-Tu copies (assigned as transiently bound to translating ribosome) from 40% rapidly diffusing copies (assigned as a mixture of free ternary complexes and free EF-Tu). Combining these percentages with copy number estimates, we infer that the four L7/L12 sites are essentially saturated with ternary complexes in vivo. The results corroborate an earlier inference that all four sites can simultaneously tether ternary complexes near the A site, creating a high local concentration that may greatly enhance the rate of testing of aa-tRNAs. Our data and a combinatorial argument both suggest that the initial recognition test for a codon-anticodon match occurs in less than 1 to 2 ms per aa-tRNA copy. The results refute a recent study (A. Plochowietz, I. Farrell, Z. Smilansky, B. S. Cooperman, and A. N. Kapanidis, Nucleic Acids Res 45:926-937, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkw787) of tRNA diffusion in E. coli that inferred that aa-tRNAs arrive at the ribosomal A site as bare monomers, not as ternary complexes. IMPORTANCE Ribosomes catalyze translation of the mRNA codon sequence into the corresponding sequence of amino acids within the nascent polypeptide chain. Polypeptide elongation can be as fast as 50 ms per added amino acid. Each amino acid

  9. Recycling fusion materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooms, L.

    2005-01-01

    The inherent safety and environmental advantages of fusion power in comparison with other energy sources play an important role in the public acceptance. No waste burden for future generations is therefore one of the main arguments to decide for fusion power. The waste issue has thus been studied in several documents and the final conclusion of which it is stated that there is no permanent disposal waste needed if recycling is applied. But recycling of fusion reactor materials is far to be obvious regarding mostly the very high specific activity of the materials to be handled, the types of materials and the presence of tritium. The main objective of research performed by SCK-CEN is to study the possible ways of recycling fusion materials and analyse the challenges of the materials management from fusion reactors, based on current practices used in fission reactors and the requirements for the manufacture of fusion equipment

  10. Integrated Nuclear Recycle Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patodi, Anuj; Parashar, Abhishek; Samadhiya, Akshay K.; Ray, Saheli; Dey, Mitun; Singh, K.K.

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear Recycle Board (NRB), Tarapur proposes to set up an 'Integrated Nuclear Recycle Plant' at Tarapur. This will be located in the premises of BARC facilities. The project location is at coastal town of Tarapur, 130 Km north of Mumbai. Project area cover of INRP is around 80 hectares. The plant will be designed to process spent fuel received from Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs). This is the first large scale integrated plant of the country. INRP will process spent fuel obtained from indigenous nuclear power plants and perform left over nuclear waste disposal

  11. Mox fuels recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper will firstly emphasis that the first recycling of plutonium is already an industrial reality in France thanks to the high degree of performance of La Hague and MELOX COGEMA's plants. Secondly, recycling of spent Mixed OXide fuel, as a complete MOX fuel cycle, will be demonstrated through the ability of the existing plants and services which have been designed to proceed with such fuels. Each step of the MOX fuel cycle concept will be presented: transportation, reception and storage at La Hague and steps of spent MOX fuel reprocessing. (author)

  12. Ribosomal history reveals origins of modern protein synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajith Harish

    Full Text Available The origin and evolution of the ribosome is central to our understanding of the cellular world. Most hypotheses posit that the ribosome originated in the peptidyl transferase center of the large ribosomal subunit. However, these proposals do not link protein synthesis to RNA recognition and do not use a phylogenetic comparative framework to study ribosomal evolution. Here we infer evolution of the structural components of the ribosome. Phylogenetic methods widely used in morphometrics are applied directly to RNA structures of thousands of molecules and to a census of protein structures in hundreds of genomes. We find that components of the small subunit involved in ribosomal processivity evolved earlier than the catalytic peptidyl transferase center responsible for protein synthesis. Remarkably, subunit RNA and proteins coevolved, starting with interactions between the oldest proteins (S12 and S17 and the oldest substructure (the ribosomal ratchet in the small subunit and ending with the rise of a modern multi-subunit ribosome. Ancestral ribonucleoprotein components show similarities to in vitro evolved RNA replicase ribozymes and protein structures in extant replication machinery. Our study therefore provides important clues about the chicken-or-egg dilemma associated with the central dogma of molecular biology by showing that ribosomal history is driven by the gradual structural accretion of protein and RNA structures. Most importantly, results suggest that functionally important and conserved regions of the ribosome were recruited and could be relics of an ancient ribonucleoprotein world.

  13. How does a scanning ribosomal particle move along the 5'-untranslated region of eukaryotic mRNA? Brownian Ratchet model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirin, Alexander S

    2009-11-17

    A model of the ATP-dependent unidirectional movement of the 43S ribosomal initiation complex (=40S ribosomal subunit + eIF1 + eIF1A + eIF2.GTP.Met-tRNA(i) + eIF3) during scanning of the 5'-untranslated region of eukaryotic mRNA is proposed. The model is based on the principles of molecular Brownian ratchet machines and explains several enigmatic data concerning the scanning complex. In this model, the one-dimensional diffusion of the ribosomal initiation complex along the mRNA chain is rectified into the net-unidirectional 5'-to-3' movement by the Feynman ratchet-and-pawl mechanism. The proposed mechanism is organized by the heterotrimeric protein eIF4F (=eIF4A + eIF4E + eIF4G), attached to the scanning ribosomal particle via eIF3, and the RNA-binding protein eIF4B that is postulated to play the role of the pawl. The energy for the useful work of the ratchet-and-pawl mechanism is supplied from ATP hydrolysis induced by the eIF4A subunit: ATP binding and its hydrolysis alternately change the affinities of eIF4A for eIF4B and for mRNA, resulting in the restriction of backward diffusional sliding of the 43S ribosomal complex along the mRNA chain, while stochastic movements ahead are allowed.

  14. Filter Backwash Recycling Rule Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of the FBRR is to require (PWSs) to review their recycle practices and, where appropriate, work with the state Primacy Agency to make any necessary changes to recycle practices that may compromise microbial control.

  15. Overview of HTGR fuel recycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Notz, K.J.

    1976-01-01

    An overview of HTGR fuel recycle is presented, with emphasis placed on reprocessing and fuel kernel refabrication. Overall recycle operations include (1) shipment and storage, (2) reprocessing, (3) refabrication, (4) waste handling, and (5) accountability and safeguards

  16. Phosphorylation of acidic ribosomal proteins from rabbit reticulocytes by a ribosome-associated casein kinase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issinger, O G

    1977-01-01

    Two acidic proteins from 80-S ribosomes were isolated and purified to homogeneity. The purified acidic proteins could be phosphorylated by casein kinase using [gamma-32P]ATP and [gamma-32P]GTP as a phosphoryl donor. The proteins became phosphorylated in situ, too. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacryl......Two acidic proteins from 80-S ribosomes were isolated and purified to homogeneity. The purified acidic proteins could be phosphorylated by casein kinase using [gamma-32P]ATP and [gamma-32P]GTP as a phosphoryl donor. The proteins became phosphorylated in situ, too. Sodium dodecyl sulfate...

  17. Recycling - Danish Waste Management Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romann, Anne Funch; Thøgersen, John; Husmer, Lis

    The report challanges recycling as the only waste handling strategy. The tonnes of recycled materials should not be the only goal - it is essential to minimize the waste production and focus on eliminating hazardous materials.......The report challanges recycling as the only waste handling strategy. The tonnes of recycled materials should not be the only goal - it is essential to minimize the waste production and focus on eliminating hazardous materials....

  18. The ribosomal protein Rpl22 controls ribosome composition by directly repressing expression of its own paralog, Rpl22l1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique N O'Leary

    Full Text Available Most yeast ribosomal protein genes are duplicated and their characterization has led to hypotheses regarding the existence of specialized ribosomes with different subunit composition or specifically-tailored functions. In yeast, ribosomal protein genes are generally duplicated and evidence has emerged that paralogs might have specific roles. Unlike yeast, most mammalian ribosomal proteins are thought to be encoded by a single gene copy, raising the possibility that heterogenous populations of ribosomes are unique to yeast. Here, we examine the roles of the mammalian Rpl22, finding that Rpl22(-/- mice have only subtle phenotypes with no significant translation defects. We find that in the Rpl22(-/- mouse there is a compensatory increase in Rpl22-like1 (Rpl22l1 expression and incorporation into ribosomes. Consistent with the hypothesis that either ribosomal protein can support translation, knockdown of Rpl22l1 impairs growth of cells lacking Rpl22. Mechanistically, Rpl22 regulates Rpl22l1 directly by binding to an internal hairpin structure and repressing its expression. We propose that ribosome specificity may exist in mammals, providing evidence that one ribosomal protein can influence composition of the ribosome by regulating its own paralog.

  19. Vehicle recycling regulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smink, Carla

    2007-01-01

    The number of end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) in the EU is increasing continously. Around 75 percent of an ELV are recyclable metals. The forecast growth in the number of ELVs calls for regulation that aims to minimise the environmental impact of a car. Using Denmark as an example, this article...

  20. Nuclear fuel recycling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H.R.; Koch, A.K.; Krawczyk, A.

    1981-01-01

    A process is provided for recycling sintered uranium dioxide fuel pellets rejected during fuel manufacture and the swarf from pellet grinding. The scrap material is prepared mechanically by crushing and milling as a high solids content slurry, using scrap sintered UO 2 pellets as the grinding medium under an inert atmosophere

  1. Recycling as moral behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    It is argued in this paper that in the affluent, industrial societies, environmental behaviours like recycling are typically classified within ""the domain of morality"" in people's minds. Intentions regarding these types of behaviours are not ba a thorough - conscious or unconscious - calculation...

  2. Recycling Behavior: A Multidimensional Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Gonzalo Diaz; Palacio, Asuncion Beerli

    2005-01-01

    This work centers on the study of consumer recycling roles to examine the sociodemographic and psychographic profile of the distribution of recycling tasks and roles within the household. With this aim in mind, an empirical work was carried out, the results of which suggest that recycling behavior is multidimensional and comprises the undertaking…

  3. Architecture of the large subunit of the mammalian mitochondrial ribosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greber, Basil J; Boehringer, Daniel; Leitner, Alexander; Bieri, Philipp; Voigts-Hoffmann, Felix; Erzberger, Jan P; Leibundgut, Marc; Aebersold, Ruedi; Ban, Nenad

    2014-01-23

    Mitochondrial ribosomes synthesize a number of highly hydrophobic proteins encoded on the genome of mitochondria, the organelles in eukaryotic cells that are responsible for energy conversion by oxidative phosphorylation. The ribosomes in mammalian mitochondria have undergone massive structural changes throughout their evolution, including ribosomal RNA shortening and acquisition of mitochondria-specific ribosomal proteins. Here we present the three-dimensional structure of the 39S large subunit of the porcine mitochondrial ribosome determined by cryo-electron microscopy at 4.9 Å resolution. The structure, combined with data from chemical crosslinking and mass spectrometry experiments, reveals the unique features of the 39S subunit at near-atomic resolution and provides detailed insight into the architecture of the polypeptide exit site. This region of the mitochondrial ribosome has been considerably remodelled compared to its bacterial counterpart, providing a specialized platform for the synthesis and membrane insertion of the highly hydrophobic protein components of the respiratory chain.

  4. Placeholder factors in ribosome biogenesis: please, pave my way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Espinar-Marchena

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of cytoplasmic eukaryotic ribosomes is an extraordinarily energy-demanding cellular activity that occurs progressively from the nucleolus to the cytoplasm. In the nucleolus, precursor rRNAs associate with a myriad of trans-acting factors and some ribosomal proteins to form pre-ribosomal particles. These factors include snoRNPs, nucleases, ATPases, GTPases, RNA helicases, and a vast list of proteins with no predicted enzymatic activity. Their coordinate activity orchestrates in a spatiotemporal manner the modification and processing of precursor rRNAs, the rearrangement reactions required for the formation of productive RNA folding intermediates, the ordered assembly of the ribosomal proteins, and the export of pre-ribosomal particles to the cytoplasm; thus, providing speed, directionality and accuracy to the overall process of formation of translation-competent ribosomes. Here, we review a particular class of trans-acting factors known as “placeholders”. Placeholder factors temporarily bind selected ribosomal sites until these have achieved a structural context that is appropriate for exchanging the placeholder with another site-specific binding factor. By this strategy, placeholders sterically prevent premature recruitment of subsequently binding factors, premature formation of structures, avoid possible folding traps, and act as molecular clocks that supervise the correct progression of pre-ribosomal particles into functional ribosomal subunits. We summarize the current understanding of those factors that delay the assembly of distinct ribosomal proteins or subsequently bind key sites in pre-ribosomal particles. We also discuss recurrent examples of RNA-protein and protein-protein mimicry between rRNAs and/or factors, which have clear functional implications for the ribosome biogenesis pathway.

  5. The architecture of mammalian ribosomal protein promoters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perry Robert P

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mammalian ribosomes contain 79 different proteins encoded by widely scattered single copy genes. Coordinate expression of these genes at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels is required to ensure a roughly equimolar accumulation of ribosomal proteins. To date, detailed studies of only a very few ribosomal protein (rp promoters have been made. To elucidate the general features of rp promoter architecture, I made a detailed sequence comparison of the promoter regions of the entire set of orthologous human and mouse rp genes. Results A striking evolutionarily conserved feature of most rp genes is the separation by an intron of the sequences involved in transcriptional and translational regulation from the sequences with protein encoding function. Another conserved feature is the polypyrimidine initiator, which conforms to the consensus (Y2C+1TY(T2(Y3. At least 60 % of the rp promoters contain a largely conserved TATA box or A/T-rich motif, which should theoretically have TBP-binding capability. A remarkably high proportion of the promoters contain conserved binding sites for transcription factors that were previously implicated in rp gene expression, namely upstream GABP and Sp1 sites and downstream YY1 sites. Over 80 % of human and mouse rp genes contain a transposable element residue within 900 bp of 5' flanking sequence; very little sequence identity between human and mouse orthologues was evident more than 200 bp upstream of the transcriptional start point. Conclusions This analysis has provided some valuable insights into the general architecture of mammalian rp promoters and has identified parameters that might coordinately regulate the transcriptional activity of certain subsets of rp genes.

  6. Molecular dynamics simulation of ribosome jam

    KAUST Repository

    Matsumoto, Shigenori

    2011-09-01

    We propose a coarse-grained molecular dynamics model of ribosome molecules to study the dependence of translation process on environmental parameters. We found the model exhibits traffic jam property, which is consistent with an ASEP model. We estimated the influence of the temperature and concentration of molecules on the hopping probability used in the ASEP model. Our model can also treat environmental effects on the translation process that cannot be explained by such cellular automaton models. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Ribosomal RNA: a key to phylogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, G. J.; Woese, C. R.

    1993-01-01

    As molecular phylogeny increasingly shapes our understanding of organismal relationships, no molecule has been applied to more questions than have ribosomal RNAs. We review this role of the rRNAs and some of the insights that have been gained from them. We also offer some of the practical considerations in extracting the phylogenetic information from the sequences. Finally, we stress the importance of comparing results from multiple molecules, both as a method for testing the overall reliability of the organismal phylogeny and as a method for more broadly exploring the history of the genome.

  8. Eukaryotic ribosome display with in situ DNA recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mingyue; Edwards, Bryan M; Kastelic, Damjana; Taussig, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Ribosome display is a cell-free display technology for in vitro selection and optimisation of proteins from large diversified libraries. It operates through the formation of stable protein-ribosome-mRNA (PRM) complexes and selection of ligand-binding proteins, followed by DNA recovery from the selected genetic information. Both prokaryotic and eukaryotic ribosome display systems have been developed. In this chapter, we describe the eukaryotic rabbit reticulocyte method in which a distinct in situ single-primer RT-PCR procedure is used to recover DNA from the selected PRM complexes without the need for prior disruption of the ribosome.

  9. The Fernald Waste Recycling Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motl, G.P.

    1993-01-01

    Recycling is considered a critical component of the waste disposition strategy at the Fernald Plant. It is estimated that 33 million cubic feet of waste will be generated during the Fernald cleanup. Recycling some portion of this waste will not only conserve natural resources and disposal volume but will, even more significantly, support the preservation of existing disposition options such as off-site disposal or on-site storage. Recognizing the strategic implications of recycling, this paper outlines the criteria used at Fernald to make recycle decisions and highlights several of Fernald's current recycling initiatives

  10. Connecting the kinetics and energy landscape of tRNA translocation on the ribosome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C Whitford

    Full Text Available Functional rearrangements in biomolecular assemblies result from diffusion across an underlying energy landscape. While bulk kinetic measurements rely on discrete state-like approximations to the energy landscape, single-molecule methods can project the free energy onto specific coordinates. With measures of the diffusion, one may establish a quantitative bridge between state-like kinetic measurements and the continuous energy landscape. We used an all-atom molecular dynamics simulation of the 70S ribosome (2.1 million atoms; 1.3 microseconds to provide this bridge for specific conformational events associated with the process of tRNA translocation. Starting from a pre-translocation configuration, we identified sets of residues that collectively undergo rotary rearrangements implicated in ribosome function. Estimates of the diffusion coefficients along these collective coordinates for translocation were then used to interconvert between experimental rates and measures of the energy landscape. This analysis, in conjunction with previously reported experimental rates of translocation, provides an upper-bound estimate of the free-energy barriers associated with translocation. While this analysis was performed for a particular kinetic scheme of translocation, the quantitative framework is general and may be applied to energetic and kinetic descriptions that include any number of intermediates and transition states.

  11. In Profile: Models of Ribosome Biogenesis Defects and Regulation of Protein Synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essers, P.B.M.

    2013-01-01

    Ribosomes are the mediators of protein synthesis in the cell and therefore crucial to proper cell function. In addition, ribosomes are highly abundant, with ribosomal RNA making up 80% of the RNA in the cell. A large amount of resources go into maintaining this pool of ribosomes, so ribosome

  12. A computational investigation on the connection between dynamics properties of ribosomal proteins and ribosome assembly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany Burton

    Full Text Available Assembly of the ribosome from its protein and RNA constituents has been studied extensively over the past 50 years, and experimental evidence suggests that prokaryotic ribosomal proteins undergo conformational changes during assembly. However, to date, no studies have attempted to elucidate these conformational changes. The present work utilizes computational methods to analyze protein dynamics and to investigate the linkage between dynamics and binding of these proteins during the assembly of the ribosome. Ribosomal proteins are known to be positively charged and we find the percentage of positive residues in r-proteins to be about twice that of the average protein: Lys+Arg is 18.7% for E. coli and 21.2% for T. thermophilus. Also, positive residues constitute a large proportion of RNA contacting residues: 39% for E. coli and 46% for T. thermophilus. This affirms the known importance of charge-charge interactions in the assembly of the ribosome. We studied the dynamics of three primary proteins from E. coli and T. thermophilus 30S subunits that bind early in the assembly (S15, S17, and S20 with atomic molecular dynamic simulations, followed by a study of all r-proteins using elastic network models. Molecular dynamics simulations show that solvent-exposed proteins (S15 and S17 tend to adopt more stable solution conformations than an RNA-embedded protein (S20. We also find protein residues that contact the 16S rRNA are generally more mobile in comparison with the other residues. This is because there is a larger proportion of contacting residues located in flexible loop regions. By the use of elastic network models, which are computationally more efficient, we show that this trend holds for most of the 30S r-proteins.

  13. Defining the bacteroides ribosomal binding site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegmann, Udo; Horn, Nikki; Carding, Simon R

    2013-03-01

    The human gastrointestinal tract, in particular the colon, hosts a vast number of commensal microorganisms. Representatives of the genus Bacteroides are among the most abundant bacterial species in the human colon. Bacteroidetes diverged from the common line of eubacterial descent before other eubacterial groups. As a result, they employ unique transcription initiation signals and, because of this uniqueness, they require specific genetic tools. Although some tools exist, they are not optimal for studying the roles and functions of these bacteria in the human gastrointestinal tract. Focusing on translation initiation signals in Bacteroides, we created a series of expression vectors allowing for different levels of protein expression in this genus, and we describe the use of pepI from Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis as a novel reporter gene for Bacteroides. Furthermore, we report the identification of the 3' end of the 16S rRNA of Bacteroides ovatus and analyze in detail its ribosomal binding site, thus defining a core region necessary for efficient translation, which we have incorporated into the design of our expression vectors. Based on the sequence logo information from the 5' untranslated region of other Bacteroidales ribosomal protein genes, we conclude that our findings are relevant to all members of this order.

  14. Recycling phosphorus from wastewater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemming, Camilla Kjærulff

    wastewater-derived products, and to relate this to the availability from other P-containing waste products and mineral P fertiliser. This included aspects of development over time and soil accumulation, as well as effects of soil pH and the spatial distribution in soil. The P sources applied in this PhD work...... reserves. Wastewater represents the largest urban flow of P in waste. Hence, knowledge about plant P availability of products from the wastewater treatment system, and also comparison to other waste P sources and mineral P is essential to obtain an efficient recycling and to prioritise between different P...... recycling options. The work of this PhD focused on the plant P availability of sewage sludge, a P-rich residue from wastewater treatment which is commonly applied to agricultural soil in Denmark. The overall objective of the PhD work was to evaluate the plant availability of P in sewage sludge and other...

  15. Usage of Recycled Pet

    OpenAIRE

    Tayyar, A. Ebru; Üstün, Sevcan

    2010-01-01

    The increasing industrialization, urbanization and the technological development have caused to increase depletion of the natural resources and environmental pollution's problem. Especially, for the countries which have not enough space recycling of the waste eliminating waste on regular basis or decreasing the amount and volume of waste have provided the important advantages. There are lots of studies and projects to develop both protect resources and prevent environmental pollution. PE...

  16. Plutonium recycling in PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youinou, G.; Girieud, R.; Guigon, B.

    2000-01-01

    Two concepts of 100% MOX PWR cores are presented. They are designed such as to minimize the consequences of the introduction of Pu on the core control. The first one has a high moderation ratio and the second one utilizes an enriched uranium support. The important design parameters as well as their capabilities to multi recycle Pu are discussed. We conclude with the potential interest of the two concepts. (author)

  17. COPPER CABLE RECYCLING TECHNOLOGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chelsea Hubbard

    2001-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost-effective technologies for use in deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) of nuclear facilities. The Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA) of the DOE's Office of Science and Technology (OST) sponsors large-scale demonstration and deployment projects (LSDDPs). At these LSDDPs, developers and vendors of improved or innovative technologies showcase products that are potentially beneficial to the DOE's projects and to others in the D and D community. Benefits sought include decreased health and safety risks to personnel and the environment, increased productivity, and decreased costs of operation. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) generated a list of statements defining specific needs and problems where improved technology could be incorporated into ongoing D and D tasks. One such need is to reduce the volume of waste copper wire and cable generated by D and D. Deactivation and decommissioning activities of nuclear facilities generates hundreds of tons of contaminated copper cable, which are sent to radioactive waste disposal sites. The Copper Cable Recycling Technology separates the clean copper from contaminated insulation and dust materials in these cables. The recovered copper can then be reclaimed and, more importantly, landfill disposal volumes can be reduced. The existing baseline technology for disposing radioactively contaminated cables is to package the cables in wooden storage boxes and dispose of the cables in radioactive waste disposal sites. The Copper Cable Recycling Technology is applicable to facility decommissioning projects at many Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities and commercial nuclear power plants undergoing decommissioning activities. The INEEL Copper Cable Recycling Technology Demonstration investigated the effectiveness and efficiency to recycle 13.5 tons of copper cable. To determine the effectiveness

  18. Recycling of merchant ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Klopott

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article briefly outlines the issues concerning ship recycling. It highlights ships' high value as sources of steel scrap and non-ferrous metals, without omitting the fact that they also contain a range of hazardous substances. Moreover, the article also focuses on basic ship demolition methods and their environmental impact, as well as emphasizes the importance of “design for ship recycling” philosophy.

  19. Recycling and Networking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bányai

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the notion that for environmental and legislative reasons improvements The national environmental policies and practice, including recycling strategies, are desirable and in many cases might be economically beneficial has been gaining ground. Although according to recent surveys the state of the environment in Hungary is in line with average values of the European Union, the main challenge for the country is to achieve sustainability in economic, environmental and technological terms. With a view to accession to the European Union, a harmonisation strategy must be worked out and implemented. This harmonisation strategy includes not only legislative aspects, but also social, technological, financial and logistic considerations.Because of the high logistic costs of achieving closed loop recycling systems, the author focuses on logistic aspects and tasks of the improvement phases and concentrates on the possibilities of networking and co-operation. The paper describes some possible alternative solutions for co-operative recycling processes, to improve the following logistic parameters: delivery times, accuracy of supply, running times, utilization of capacities, stock quantities, flexibility, transparency of the system, high forwarding capability, quality of product. The logistic aspects of co-operation will be analysed from the viewpoint of a closed loop economy.

  20. Economics and recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butlin, J A

    1977-06-01

    The current state of recycling technology could appear to be a question of supply and demand, first for storage, disposal, and reclamation facilities, and secondly, for reclaimed materials. If supply and demand are to be relied upon as an environmental policy tool, several conditions need to exist within the economy: supply data for storage and disposal facilities should reflect the full social cost of their use for this purpose relative to any other; demand data for the use of storage facilities must reflect the full social benefit of having waste go through one channel rather than some other; demand for and supply of reclaimed materials for recycling must reflect the full costs and benefits of rechanneling them back into production or consumption; and the markets for products competitive to recycled raw materials (mainly virgin raw materials) should reflect full social costs and benefits, as should the markets for the alternative uses of storage and disposal facilities. If these conditions are met (in addition to a few technical ones), then the problem of waste management will not arise. (MCW)

  1. Recycling of packing plastics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gintenreiter-Koegl, S.

    2001-05-01

    The ordinance on the avoidance of packaging waste was a serious intervention in the public and private waste management in Austria. Above all the high expenses for an overall packaging waste collection and the recycling of packaging plastics were criticized. The landfill ordinance comes into force in 2004 and this means another major change in the Austrian waste management system. In the course of this change the overall collection and the recycling and recovery of waste streams, especially of the high caloric plastics waste, have to be discussed again. The goal of this work was on the one hand to develop and adapt the hydrocracking process for the recovery of mixed plastics waste and to show a possible application in Austria. On the other hand the work shows the technical, ecological and economical conditions for packaging plastics recycling and recovery in order to find optimum applications for the processes and to examine their contribution to a sustainable development. A hydrocracking test plant for the processing of mixed plastic wastes was built and had been running for about three years. The tests were carried out successfully and the suitability of the technology for the recovery of packaging plastics could be shown. Results show at least a 35 % yield of fuel. The hydrocracking technology is quite common in the oil industries and therefore an integration on a refinery site is suggested. (author)

  2. Recycling retention functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skrable, K.W.; Chabot, G.E.; Johnson, M.H.

    1981-01-01

    Beginning with the concept of any number of physiologically meaningful compartments that recycle material with a central extracellular fluid compartment and considering various excretion pathways, we solve the differential equations describing the kinetics by the method of Laplace to obtain concise algebraic expressions for the retentions. These expressions contain both fundamental and eigenvalue rate constants; the eigenvalue rate constants are obtained from the solution of a polynomial incorporating the fundamental rate constants. Mathematically exact expressions that predict the biodistribution resulting from continuous uptakes are used to obtain very simple mathematically exact steady state expressions as well as approximate expressions applicable to any time. These steady state and approximate expressions contain only the fundamental rate constants; also, they include a recycling factor that describes the increase in the biodistributions because of recycling. To obtain the values of the fundamental rate constants, short term kinetics studies along with data on the long term distributions are suggested. Retention functions obtained in this way predict both the short term and long term distributions; they therefore are useful in the interpretation of bioassay data and in the estimation of internal doses

  3. Expression of protein-coding genes embedded in ribosomal DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Steinar D; Haugen, Peik; Nielsen, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) is a specialised chromosomal location that is dedicated to high-level transcription of ribosomal RNA genes. Interestingly, rDNAs are frequently interrupted by parasitic elements, some of which carry protein genes. These are non-LTR retrotransposons and group II introns that e...... in the nucleolus....

  4. Proto-ribosome: a theoretical approach based on RNA relics

    OpenAIRE

    Demongeot, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    We describe in this paper, based on already published articles, a contribution to the theory postulating the existence of a proto-ribosome, which could have appeared early at the origin of life and we discuss the interest of this notion in an evolutionary perspective, taking into account the existence of possible RNA relics of this proto-ribosome.

  5. The Complete Structure of the Mycobacterium smegmatis 70S Ribosome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jendrik Hentschel

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The ribosome carries out the synthesis of proteins in every living cell. It consequently represents a frontline target in anti-microbial therapy. Tuberculosis ranks among the leading causes of death worldwide, due in large part to the combination of difficult-to-treat latency and antibiotic resistance. Here, we present the 3.3-Å cryo-EM structure of the 70S ribosome of Mycobacterium smegmatis, a close relative to the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The structure reveals two additional ribosomal proteins and localizes them to the vicinity of drug-target sites in both the catalytic center and the decoding site of the ribosome. Furthermore, we visualized actinobacterium-specific rRNA and protein expansions that extensively remodel the ribosomal surface with implications for polysome organization. Our results provide a foundation for understanding the idiosyncrasies of mycobacterial translation and reveal atomic details of the structure that will facilitate the design of anti-tubercular therapeutics.

  6. Macrolide antibiotic interaction and resistance on the bacterial ribosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehlsgaard, Jacob; Douthwaite, Stephen

    2003-02-01

    Our understanding of the fine structure of many antibiotic target sites has reached a new level of enlightenment in the last couple of years due to the advent, by X-ray crystallography, of high-resolution structures of the bacterial ribosome. Many classes of clinically useful antibiotics bind to the ribosome to inhibit bacterial protein synthesis. Macrolide, lincosamide and streptogramin B (MLSB) antibiotics form one of the largest groups, and bind to the same site on the 50S ribosomal subunit. Here, we review the molecular details of the ribosomal MLSB site to put into perspective the main points from a wealth of biochemical and genetic data that have been collected over several decades. The information is now available to understand, at atomic resolution, how macrolide antibiotics interact with their ribosomal target, how the target is altered to confer resistance, and in which directions we need to look if we are to rationally design better drugs to overcome the extant resistance mechanisms.

  7. Cis-regulatory RNA elements that regulate specialized ribosome activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Shifeng; Barna, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence has shown that the ribosome itself can play a highly regulatory role in the specialized translation of specific subpools of mRNAs, in particular at the level of ribosomal proteins (RP). However, the mechanism(s) by which this selection takes place has remained poorly understood. In our recent study, we discovered a combination of unique RNA elements in the 5'UTRs of mRNAs that allows for such control by the ribosome. These mRNAs contain a Translation Inhibitory Element (TIE) that inhibits general cap-dependent translation, and an Internal Ribosome Entry Site (IRES) that relies on a specific RP for activation. The unique combination of an inhibitor of general translation and an activator of specialized translation is key to ribosome-mediated control of gene expression. Here we discuss how these RNA regulatory elements provide a new level of control to protein expression and their implications for gene expression, organismal development and evolution.

  8. Control of Ribosome Synthesis in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molin, Søren; Meyenburg, K. von; Måløe, O.

    1977-01-01

    The rate of ribosome synthesis and accumulation in Escherichia coli during the transition after an energy source shift-down was analyzed. The shift was imposed on cultures of stringent and relaxed strains growing in glucose minimal medium by the addition of the glucose analogue {alpha...... and to estimate the transcription time for the rRNA operon under different conditions. In steady states of growth with growth rates ranging from 0.75 to 2.3 doublings/h, as well as during the transition after a shift-down, the transcription time of the rRNA operon was constant. The rate of synthesis of r......RNA correlated during this transition – in contrast to the rate of accumulation (M. T. Hansen et al., J. Bacteriol. 122: 585-591, 1975) – with the ppGpp pool in the same way as has been observed during partial amino acid starvation....

  9. Environmental aspects of recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansma, R.; Van Gemert, F.

    2001-01-01

    Advanced recycling options were studied. Emphasis was on the production of high-level waste. All other impacts, e.g. emissions, were considered to be of minor importance, since from a technical point of view they can be limited to any desired extent. An objective was to gather data from the industry and to use them in a Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) of several fuel cycle options. It was necessary to complete our data set with literature data. At the end of our project we could benefit from the results of several Expert Working Groups of OECD/NEA. Detailed information was available for the once-through fuel cycle (OFC) and the fuel cycle with mono recycling of MOX. For the other more advanced fuel cycle options information was of a more qualitative nature. The established set of data was sufficient to conduct a streamlined LCA with focus on waste production for final disposal. Some remarks should be made before comparing the various fuel cycle options studied. The first relates to plutonium that contributes to more than 90% of the radiotoxicity of the spent fuel for more than 1000 centuries. Large concern for transmutation of minor actinides will disproportional if plutonium itself is not eliminated. The second remark is that the fission products contribute potentially very little to the radiotoxicity especially when some long-lived radionuclides after separation are imprisoned in stable matrices to prevent them to be carried by underground water. From all nuclear fuel cycles considered, the MIX cycle in LWRs, with recycling of plutonium and minor actinides has the lowest minor actinides production (0.018 kg/TW e h) and the plutonium production is also quite low (0.06 kg/TW e h). The MIX cycle without minor actinides recycling performs a little better with respect to plutonium production (0.04 kg/TW e h) but has a relatively high minor actinides production (8.7 kg/TW e h). Another conclusion is that burning of minor actinides in fast reactors (MA 0.28 kg/TW e h, Pu 0

  10. Hierarchical recruitment of ribosomal proteins and assembly factors remodels nucleolar pre-60S ribosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedka, Stephanie; Micic, Jelena; Wilson, Daniel; Brown, Hailey; Diorio-Toth, Luke; Woolford, John L

    2018-04-24

    Ribosome biogenesis involves numerous preribosomal RNA (pre-rRNA) processing events to remove internal and external transcribed spacer sequences, ultimately yielding three mature rRNAs. Removal of the internal transcribed spacer 2 spacer RNA is the final step in large subunit pre-rRNA processing and begins with endonucleolytic cleavage at the C 2 site of 27SB pre-rRNA. C 2 cleavage requires the hierarchical recruitment of 11 ribosomal proteins and 14 ribosome assembly factors. However, the function of these proteins in C 2 cleavage remained unclear. In this study, we have performed a detailed analysis of the effects of depleting proteins required for C 2 cleavage and interpreted these results using cryo-electron microscopy structures of assembling 60S subunits. This work revealed that these proteins are required for remodeling of several neighborhoods, including two major functional centers of the 60S subunit, suggesting that these remodeling events form a checkpoint leading to C 2 cleavage. Interestingly, when C 2 cleavage is directly blocked by depleting or inactivating the C 2 endonuclease, assembly progresses through all other subsequent steps. © 2018 Biedka et al.

  11. Text recycling: acceptable or misconduct?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harriman, Stephanie; Patel, Jigisha

    2014-08-16

    Text recycling, also referred to as self-plagiarism, is the reproduction of an author's own text from a previous publication in a new publication. Opinions on the acceptability of this practice vary, with some viewing it as acceptable and efficient, and others as misleading and unacceptable. In light of the lack of consensus, journal editors often have difficulty deciding how to act upon the discovery of text recycling. In response to these difficulties, we have created a set of guidelines for journal editors on how to deal with text recycling. In this editorial, we discuss some of the challenges of developing these guidelines, and how authors can avoid undisclosed text recycling.

  12. Emulsified industrial oils recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabris, T.

    1982-04-01

    The industrial lubricant market has been analyzed with emphasis on current and/or developing recycling and re-refining technologies. This task has been performed for the United States and other industrialized countries, specifically France, West Germany, Italy and Japan. Attention has been focused at emulsion-type fluids regardless of the industrial application involved. It was found that emulsion-type fluids in the United States represent a much higher percentage of the total fluids used than in other industrialized countries. While recycling is an active matter explored by the industry, re-refining is rather a result of other issues than the mere fact that oil can be regenerated from a used industrial emulsion. To extend the longevity of an emulsion is a logical step to keep expenses down by using the emulsion as long as possible. There is, however, another important factor influencing this issue: regulations governing the disposal of such fluids. The ecological question, the respect for nature and the natural balances, is often seen now as everybody's task. Regulations forbid dumping used emulsions in the environment without prior treatment of the water phase and separation of the oil phase. This is a costly procedure, so recycling is attractive since it postpones the problem. It is questionable whether re-refining of these emulsions - as a business - could stand on its own if these emulsions did not have to be taken apart for disposal purposes. Once the emulsion is separated into a water and an oil phase, however, re-refining of the oil does become economical.

  13. Recycle Glass in Foam Glass Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Rosenlund; König, Jakob; Yue, Yuanzheng

    The foam glass industry turn recycle glass into heat insulating building materials. The foaming process is relative insensitive to impurities in the recycle glass. It is therefore considered to play an important role in future glass recycling. We show and discuss trends of use of recycled glasses...... in foam glass industry and the supply sources and capacity of recycle glass....

  14. A comparative study of ribosomal proteins: linkage between amino acid distribution and ribosomal assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lott, Brittany Burton; Wang, Yongmei; Nakazato, Takuya

    2013-01-01

    Assembly of the ribosome from its protein and RNA constituents must occur quickly and efficiently in order to synthesize the proteins necessary for all cellular activity. Since the early 1960’s, certain characteristics of possible assembly pathways have been elucidated, yet the mechanisms that govern the precise recognition events remain unclear. We utilize a comparative analysis to investigate the amino acid composition of ribosomal proteins (r-proteins) with respect to their role in the assembly process. We compared small subunit (30S) r-protein sequences to those of other housekeeping proteins from 560 bacterial species and searched for correlations between r-protein amino acid content and factors such as assembly binding order, environmental growth temperature, protein size, and contact with ribosomal RNA (rRNA) in the 30S complex. We find r-proteins have a significantly high percent of positive residues, which are highly represented at rRNA contact sites. An inverse correlation between the percent of positive residues and r-protein size was identified and is mainly due to the content of Lysine residues, rather than Arginine. Nearly all r-proteins carry a net positive charge, but no statistical correlation between the net charge and the binding order was detected. Thermophilic (high-temperature) r-proteins contain increased Arginine, Isoleucine, and Tyrosine, and decreased Serine and Threonine compared to mesophilic (lower-temperature), reflecting a known distinction between thermophiles and mesophiles, possibly to account for protein thermostability. However, this difference in amino acid content does not extend to rRNA contact sites, as the proportions of thermophilic and mesophilic contact residues are not significantly different. Given the significantly higher level of positively charged residues in r-proteins and at contact sites, we conclude that ribosome assembly relies heavily on an electrostatic component of interaction. However, the binding order of

  15. Behaviour of Recycled Coarse Aggregate Concrete: Age and Successive Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Kirtikanta; Pathappilly, Robin Davis; Sarkar, Pradip

    2016-06-01

    Recycled Coarse Aggregate (RCA) concrete construction technique can be called as `green concrete', as it minimizes the environmental hazard of the concrete waste disposal. Indian standard recommends target mean compressive strength of the conventional concrete in terms of water cement ratio ( w/ c). The present work is an attempt to study the behaviour of RCA concrete from two samples of parent concrete having different age group with regard to the relationship of compressive strength with water cement ratios. Number of recycling may influence the mechanical properties of RCA concrete. The influence of age and successive recycling on the properties such as capillary water absorption, drying shrinkage strain, air content, flexural strength and tensile splitting strength of the RCA concrete are examined. The relationship between compressive strength at different w/ c ratios obtained experimentally is investigated for the two parameters such as age of parent concrete and successive recycling. The recycled concrete using older recycled aggregate shows poor quality. While the compressive strength reduces with successive recycling gradually, the capillary water absorption increases abruptly, which leads to the conclusion that further recycling may not be advisable.

  16. On the control of ribosomal protein biosynthesis in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichon, J.; Marvaldi, J.; Coeroli, C.; Cozzone, A.; Marchis-Mouren, G.

    1977-01-01

    The rate of individual ribosomal protein synthesis relative to total protein synthesis has been determined in Escherichia coli rel + and rel - cells, under valyl-tRNA deprivation. These strains have a temperature-sensitive valyl-tRNA synthetase. Starvation was obtained following transfer of the cells to non-permissive temperature. Ribosomal proteins were obtained by treatment of either total lysates of freeze-thawed lysozyme spheroplasts or ammonium sulphate precipitate of ribosomes, with acetic acid. Differential labelling of the ribosomal proteins was observed in both strains: proteins from the rel + strain appear more labelled than those from the rel - strain, the rate of labelling of individual proteins being about the same in both strains. Moreover ribosomal proteins were found as stable during starvation as total protein. It is thus concluded that in starving cells individual ribosomal proteins are not synthesized at equal rates. This indicates that the synthesis of ribosomal proteins is not only under the control of the rel gene

  17. Post-transcriptional regulation of ribosome biogenesis in yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle C. Kos-Braun

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Most microorganisms are exposed to the constantly and often rapidly changing environment. As such they evolved mechanisms to balance their metabolism and energy expenditure with the resources available to them. When resources become scarce or conditions turn out to be unfavourable for growth, cells reduce their metabolism and energy usage to survive. One of the major energy consuming processes in the cell is ribosome biogenesis. Unsurprisingly, cells encountering adverse conditions immediately shut down production of new ribosomes. It is well established that nutrient depletion leads to a rapid repression of transcription of the genes encoding ribosomal proteins, ribosome biogenesis factors as well as ribosomal RNA (rRNA. However, if pre-rRNA processing and ribosome assembly are regulated post-transcriptionally remains largely unclear. We have recently uncovered that the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae rapidly switches between two alternative pre-rRNA processing pathways depending on the environmental conditions. Our findings reveal a new level of complexity in the regulation of ribosome biogenesis.

  18. The Unexplored Mechanisms and Regulatory Functions of Ribosomal Translocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejo, Jose Luis

    In every cell, protein synthesis is carried out by the ribosome, a complex macromolecular RNA-protein assembly. Decades of structural and kinetic studies have increased our understanding of ribosome initiation, decoding, translocation and termination. Yet, the underlying mechanism of these fundamental processes has yet to be fully delineated. Hence, the molecular basis of regulation remains obscure. Here, single-molecule fluorescence methods are applied to decipher the mechanism and regulatory roles of the multi-step process of directional substrate translocation on the ribosome that accompanies every round of protein synthesis. In Chapter 1, single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (smFRET) is introduced as a tool for studying bacterial ribosome translocation. Chapter 2 details the experimental methods. In Chapter 3, the elongation factor G(EF-G)-catalyzed movement of substrates through the ribosome is examined from several perspectives or signals reporting on various degrees of freedom of ribosome dynamics. Two ribosomal states interconvert in the presence of EF-G(GDP), displaying novel head domain motions, until relocking takes place. In Chapter 4, in order to test if the mentioned fluctuations leading to relocking are correlated to the engagement of the P-site by the peptidyl-tRNA, the translocation of miscoded tRNAs is studied. Severe defects in the relocking stages of translocation reveal the correlation between this new stage of translocation and P-site tRNA engagement.

  19. Open-loop recycling: A LCA case study of PET bottle-to-fibre-recycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, L.; Worrell, E.; Patel, M.K.

    2010-01-01

    This study assesses the environmental impact of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottle-to-fibre recycling using the methodology of life-cycle assessment (LCA). Four recycling cases, including mechanical recycling, semi-mechanical recycling, back-to-oligomer recycling and back-to-monomer recycling

  20. Waste material recycling: Assessment of contaminants limiting recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn

    systematically investigated. This PhD project provided detailed quantitative data following a consistent approach to assess potential limitations for the presence of chemicals in relation to material recycling. Paper and plastics were used as illustrative examples of materials with well-established recycling...... schemes and great potential for increase in recycling, respectively. The approach followed in the present work was developed and performed in four distinct steps. As step one, fractional composition of waste paper (30 fractions) and plastics (9 fractions) from households in Åbenrå municipality (Southern...... detrimental to their recycling. Finally, a material flow analysis (MFA) approach revealed the potential for accumulation and spreading of contaminants in material recycling, on the example of the European paper cycle. Assessment of potential mitigation measures indicated that prevention of chemical use...

  1. Resources, recycle, and substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wymer, R.G.

    A two-fold strategy appears necessary to ensure that the resource needs of the developed and developing nations are met. First, recycle and substitution must be encouraged in those instances where they do find application. Although these measures have limited applicability, they may be of vital importance in those instances where they do apply; in any event, they buy time. Second, practical and economical technologies must be developed to exploit the lower-grade and marginal ores and the oftentimes abundant but highly refractory ores, as well as to greatly increase the recovery of secondary elements present in the ores - elements whose form and amounts in the ores make them economically unrecoverable by themselves, but which are economically recoverable as by-products. It is often the case that if these elements are not recovered during the initial mining and milling operations, they are rendered unrecoverable, in a practical sense, forever. Furthermore, they may even become environmental pollutants. Specific examples of recovery from refractory ores, by-product recovery, and recycle are given. Also, some suggestions of substitutes for important resources are tabulated

  2. Recycling Pressure-Sensitive Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jihui Guo; Larry Gwin; Carl Houtman; Mark Kroll; Steven J. Severtson

    2012-01-01

    The efficient control of contaminants such as metals, plastics, inks and adhesives during the processing of recovered paper products determines the profitability of recycling mills. In fact, it is arguably the most important technical obstacle in expanding the use of recycled paper.1-4 An especially challenging category of contaminants to manage...

  3. The Dynamic Earth: Recycling Naturally!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldston, M. Jenice; Allison, Elizabeth; Fowler, Lisa; Glaze, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    This article begins with a thought-provoking question: What do you think of when you hear the term "recycle?" Many think about paper, glass, aluminum cans, landfills, and reducing waste by reusing some of these materials. How many of us ever consider the way the systems of Earth dynamically recycle its materials? In the following…

  4. Technology options for future recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, T.

    2001-01-01

    Recycling of nuclear material is indispensable, not only for using valuable resources but also for reducing the debt which we may leave to the next generations. Advanced reprocessing technologies have been developed in several countries to deal with the diversification of nuclear fuels. Also technologies derived from reprocessing or other fuel cycle areas have continued to be developed in terms of recycling. Cost effectiveness and waste-free processing are increasingly important factors in the applicable of an alternate recycling policy. This paper introduces an example of the studies in this field conducted in some countries including Japan and considers the establishment of effective recycling methodologies taking into account the uncertainty of future recycling policy. (author)

  5. Space Plastic Recycling System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Techshot's proposed Space Plastic Recycler (SPR) is an automated closed loop plastic recycling system that allows the automated conversion of disposable ISS...

  6. Energy profit ratio on LWR by uranium recycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Osamu; Uno, Takeki; Matsushima, Jun

    2009-01-01

    Energy profit ratio is defined as the ratio of output energy/input system total energy. In case of electric power generation, input energy is a total for fuel such as uranium mining and enrichment, fuel transportation, build nuclear power plant, M and O and for disposal waste and decommission of reactor vessel. Output energy is the total electricity on LWR during the plant life. EPR on both PWR and BWR is high value using gas centrifuge enrichment compared other type of electric power generation such as a thermal power, a hydraulic power, a wind power and a photovoltaic power. How is the EPR on LWR by MOX? We need understanding the energy of reprocessing spent fuel, MOX fuel fabrication, low level waste disposal and high level radioactive glass disposal. As we show the material balance for two cases, the first is the case of long term storage and reprocessing before FBR, the second is the MOX fuel cycle on LWR plant. The MOX fuel recycle is better EPR value rather than the case of long term storage and reprocessing before FBR (LTSRBF). At the gaseous diffusion enrichment case, MOX fuel recycle has 15 to 18% higher EPR value than LTSRBF. At the gas centrifuge enrichment case the MOX fuel recycle has 17 to 18 higher EPR value than LTSRBF. MOX fuel recycle decreases the uranium mining and refine mass, enrichment separative work and the spent fuel interim storage. It tells us the MOX fuel recycle is good way from view of EPR. (author)

  7. Actinide recycling in reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuesters, H.; Wiese, H.W.; Krieg, B.

    1995-01-01

    The objective is an assessment of the transmutation of long-lived actinides and fission products and the incineration of plutonium for reducing the risk potential of radioactive waste from reactors in comparison to direct waste disposal. The contribution gives an interim account on homogeneous and heterogeneous recycling of 'risk nuclides' in thermal and fast reactors. Important results: - A homogeneous 5 percent admixture of minor actinides (MA) from N4-PWRs to EFR fuel would allow a transmutation not only of the EFR MA, but in addition of the MA from 5 or 6 PWRs of equal power. However, the incineration is restricted by safety considerations. - LWR have only a very low MA incineration potential, due to their disadvantageous neutron capture/fission ratio. - In order to keep the Cm inventory at a low level, it is advantageous to concentrate the Am heterogeneously in particular fuel elements or rods. (orig./HP)

  8. Recycling of plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminsky, W; Menzel, J; Sinn, H

    1976-01-01

    Considering the shortage of raw materials and environmental pollution, the recycling of plastic waste is a very important topic. Pilot plants for research in Funabashi Japan, Franklin (Ohio) U.S.A., and the R 80-process of Krauss Maffei, W. Germany, have demonstrated the possibility of reclaiming plastics from refuse. Old tires and waste from the plastic producing and manufacturing industries are readily available. The pyrolysis of plastic yields gaseous and liquid products, and the exploitation of this cracking reaction has been demonstrated by pilot plants in Japan and Great Britain. Further laboratory scale experiments are taking place in W. Germany. In continuous fluidized beds and in molten salts, polyethylene, polypropylene, polyvinylchloride, polystyrene and rubber are pyrolysed and better than 98 percent conversion is obtained. Up to 40 percent of the feed can be obtained as aromatic compounds, and a pilot plant is under construction. As a first step PVC-containing material can be almost quantitatively dehydrochlorinated.

  9. Recycling microcavity optical biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Heather K; Armani, Andrea M

    2011-04-01

    Optical biosensors have tremendous potential for commercial applications in medical diagnostics, environmental monitoring, and food safety evaluation. In these applications, sensor reuse is desirable to reduce costs. To achieve this, harsh, wet chemistry treatments are required to remove surface chemistry from the sensor, typically resulting in reduced sensor performance and increased noise due to recognition moiety and optical transducer degradation. In the present work, we suggest an alternative, dry-chemistry method, based on O2 plasma treatment. This approach is compatible with typical fabrication of substrate-based optical transducers. This treatment completely removes the recognition moiety, allowing the transducer surface to be refreshed with new recognition elements and thus enabling the sensor to be recycled.

  10. Physics of plutonium recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The commercial recycling of plutonium as PuO 2 /UO 2 mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel is an established practice in pressurised water reactors (PWRs) in several countries, the main motivation being the consumption of plutonium arising from spent fuel reprocessing. Although the same motivating factors apply in the case of boiling water reactors (BWRs), they have lagged behind PWRs for various reasons, and MOX utilisation in BWRs has been implemented in only a few reactors to date. One of the reasons is that the nuclear design of BWR MOX assemblies (or bundles) is more complex than that of PWR assemblies. Recognizing the need and the timeliness to address this issue at the international level, the OECD/NEA Working Party on the Physics of Plutonium Fuels and Innovative Fuel Cycles (WPPR) conducted a physics code benchmark test for a BWR assembly. This volume reports on the benchmark results and conclusions that can be drawn from it. (authors)

  11. Cisplatin Targeting of Bacterial Ribosomal RNA Hairpins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayani N. P. Dedduwa-Mudalige

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cisplatin is a clinically important chemotherapeutic agent known to target purine bases in nucleic acids. In addition to major deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA intrastrand cross-links, cisplatin also forms stable adducts with many types of ribonucleic acid (RNA including siRNA, spliceosomal RNAs, tRNA, and rRNA. All of these RNAs play vital roles in the cell, such as catalysis of protein synthesis by rRNA, and therefore serve as potential drug targets. This work focused on platination of two highly conserved RNA hairpins from E. coli ribosomes, namely pseudouridine-modified helix 69 from 23S rRNA and the 790 loop of helix 24 from 16S rRNA. RNase T1 probing, MALDI mass spectrometry, and dimethyl sulfate mapping revealed platination at GpG sites. Chemical probing results also showed platination-induced RNA structural changes. These findings reveal solvent and structural accessibility of sites within bacterial RNA secondary structures that are functionally significant and therefore viable targets for cisplatin as well as other classes of small molecules. Identifying target preferences at the nucleotide level, as well as determining cisplatin-induced RNA conformational changes, is important for the design of more potent drug molecules. Furthermore, the knowledge gained through studies of RNA-targeting by cisplatin is applicable to a broad range of organisms from bacteria to human.

  12. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziemkiewicz, Paul; Vandivort, Tamara; Pflughoeft-Hassett, Debra; Chugh, Y Paul; Hower, James

    2008-08-31

    Each year, over 100 million tons of solid byproducts are produced by coal-burning electric utilities in the United States. Annual production of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts continues to increase as the result of more stringent sulfur emission restrictions. In addition, stricter limits on NOx emissions mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act have resulted in utility burner/boiler modifications that frequently yield higher carbon concentrations in fly ash, which restricts the use of the ash as a cement replacement. Controlling ammonia in ash is also of concern. If newer, “clean coal” combustion and gasification technologies are adopted, their byproducts may also present a management challenge. The objective of the Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) is to develop and demonstrate technologies to address issues related to the recycling of byproducts associated with coal combustion processes. A goal of CBRC is that these technologies, by the year 2010, will lead to an overall ash utilization rate from the current 34% to 50% by such measures as increasing the current rate of FGD byproduct use and increasing in the number of uses considered “allowable” under state regulations. Another issue of interest to the CBRC would be to examine the environmental impact of both byproduct utilization and disposal. No byproduct utilization technology is likely to be adopted by industry unless it is more cost-effective than landfilling. Therefore, it is extremely important that the utility industry provide guidance to the R&D program. Government agencies and privatesector organizations that may be able to utilize these materials in the conduct of their missions should also provide input. The CBRC will serve as an effective vehicle for acquiring and maintaining guidance from these diverse organizations so that the proper balance in the R&D program is achieved.

  13. Organization of Replication of Ribosomal DNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linskens, Maarten H.K.; Huberman, Joel A.

    1988-01-01

    Using recently developed replicon mapping techniques, we have analyzed the replication of the ribosomal DNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The results show that (i) the functional origin of replication colocalizes with an autonomously replicating sequence element previously mapped to the

  14. Ribosome slowed by mutation to streptomycin resistance. [Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galas, D J; Branscomb, E W

    1976-08-12

    The effect of mutation to streptomycin resistance on the speed of polypeptide elongation in Escherichia coli was investigated. Translation speed was determined by measuring the time required for the first newly synthesized ..beta..-galactosidase molecules to appear after induction of the lactose operon. The results showed that ribosome speed is not a fixed parameter inherent to the protein synthetic apparatus, but a variable determined by the kinetics of translation and ultimately by the structure of the ribosome. (HLW)

  15. Cloning, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the Burkholderia pseudomallei L1 ribosomal protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Aziz, Abd Ghani; Ruzheinikov, Sergey N.; Sedelnikova, Svetlana E.; Mohamed, Rahmah; Nathan, Sheila; Baker, Patrick J.; Rice, David W.

    2012-01-01

    The L1 ribosomal protein from B. pseudomallei has been overexpressed, purified and crystallized in a form suitable for X-ray analysis. The gene encoding the L1 ribosomal protein from Burkholderia pseudomallei strain D286 has been cloned into the pETBLUE-1 vector system, overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Crystals of the native protein were grown by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique using PEG 3350 as a precipitant and diffracted to beyond 1.65 Å resolution. The crystals belonged to space group P2 1 2 1 2, with unit-cell parameters a = 53.6, b = 127.1, c = 31.8 Å and with a single molecule in the asymmetric unit

  16. Defective ribosome assembly in Shwachman-Diamond syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chi C; Traynor, David; Basse, Nicolas; Kay, Robert R; Warren, Alan J

    2011-10-20

    Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS), a recessive leukemia predisposition disorder characterized by bone marrow failure, exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, skeletal abnormalities and poor growth, is caused by mutations in the highly conserved SBDS gene. Here, we test the hypothesis that defective ribosome biogenesis underlies the pathogenesis of SDS. We create conditional mutants in the essential SBDS ortholog of the ancient eukaryote Dictyostelium discoideum using temperature-sensitive, self-splicing inteins, showing that mutant cells fail to grow at the restrictive temperature because ribosomal subunit joining is markedly impaired. Remarkably, wild type human SBDS complements the growth and ribosome assembly defects in mutant Dictyostelium cells, but disease-associated human SBDS variants are defective. SBDS directly interacts with the GTPase elongation factor-like 1 (EFL1) on nascent 60S subunits in vivo and together they catalyze eviction of the ribosome antiassociation factor eukaryotic initiation factor 6 (eIF6), a prerequisite for the translational activation of ribosomes. Importantly, lymphoblasts from SDS patients harbor a striking defect in ribosomal subunit joining whose magnitude is inversely proportional to the level of SBDS protein. These findings in Dictyostelium and SDS patient cells provide compelling support for the hypothesis that SDS is a ribosomopathy caused by corruption of an essential cytoplasmic step in 60S subunit maturation.

  17. Emerging functions of ribosomal proteins in gene-specific transcription and translation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindstroem, Mikael S.

    2009-01-01

    Ribosomal proteins have remained highly conserved during evolution presumably reflecting often critical functions in ribosome biogenesis or mature ribosome function. In addition, several ribosomal proteins possess distinct extra-ribosomal functions in apoptosis, DNA repair and transcription. An increasing number of ribosomal proteins have been shown to modulate the trans-activation function of important regulatory proteins such as NF-κB, p53, c-Myc and nuclear receptors. Furthermore, a subset of ribosomal proteins can bind directly to untranslated regions of mRNA resulting in transcript-specific translational control outside of the ribosome itself. Collectively, these findings suggest that ribosomal proteins may have a wider functional repertoire within the cell than previously thought. The future challenge is to identify and validate these novel functions in the background of an often essential primary function in ribosome biogenesis and cell growth.

  18. Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopewell, Jefferson; Dvorak, Robert; Kosior, Edward

    2009-07-27

    Plastics are inexpensive, lightweight and durable materials, which can readily be moulded into a variety of products that find use in a wide range of applications. As a consequence, the production of plastics has increased markedly over the last 60 years. However, current levels of their usage and disposal generate several environmental problems. Around 4 per cent of world oil and gas production, a non-renewable resource, is used as feedstock for plastics and a further 3-4% is expended to provide energy for their manufacture. A major portion of plastic produced each year is used to make disposable items of packaging or other short-lived products that are discarded within a year of manufacture. These two observations alone indicate that our current use of plastics is not sustainable. In addition, because of the durability of the polymers involved, substantial quantities of discarded end-of-life plastics are accumulating as debris in landfills and in natural habitats worldwide. Recycling is one of the most important actions currently available to reduce these impacts and represents one of the most dynamic areas in the plastics industry today. Recycling provides opportunities to reduce oil usage, carbon dioxide emissions and the quantities of waste requiring disposal. Here, we briefly set recycling into context against other waste-reduction strategies, namely reduction in material use through downgauging or product reuse, the use of alternative biodegradable materials and energy recovery as fuel. While plastics have been recycled since the 1970s, the quantities that are recycled vary geographically, according to plastic type and application. Recycling of packaging materials has seen rapid expansion over the last decades in a number of countries. Advances in technologies and systems for the collection, sorting and reprocessing of recyclable plastics are creating new opportunities for recycling, and with the combined actions of the public, industry and governments it

  19. Plastics recycling: challenges and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopewell, Jefferson; Dvorak, Robert; Kosior, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Plastics are inexpensive, lightweight and durable materials, which can readily be moulded into a variety of products that find use in a wide range of applications. As a consequence, the production of plastics has increased markedly over the last 60 years. However, current levels of their usage and disposal generate several environmental problems. Around 4 per cent of world oil and gas production, a non-renewable resource, is used as feedstock for plastics and a further 3–4% is expended to provide energy for their manufacture. A major portion of plastic produced each year is used to make disposable items of packaging or other short-lived products that are discarded within a year of manufacture. These two observations alone indicate that our current use of plastics is not sustainable. In addition, because of the durability of the polymers involved, substantial quantities of discarded end-of-life plastics are accumulating as debris in landfills and in natural habitats worldwide. Recycling is one of the most important actions currently available to reduce these impacts and represents one of the most dynamic areas in the plastics industry today. Recycling provides opportunities to reduce oil usage, carbon dioxide emissions and the quantities of waste requiring disposal. Here, we briefly set recycling into context against other waste-reduction strategies, namely reduction in material use through downgauging or product reuse, the use of alternative biodegradable materials and energy recovery as fuel. While plastics have been recycled since the 1970s, the quantities that are recycled vary geographically, according to plastic type and application. Recycling of packaging materials has seen rapid expansion over the last decades in a number of countries. Advances in technologies and systems for the collection, sorting and reprocessing of recyclable plastics are creating new opportunities for recycling, and with the combined actions of the public, industry and governments it

  20. Coal liquefaction with preasphaltene recycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimer, Robert F.; Miller, Robert N.

    1986-01-01

    A coal liquefaction system is disclosed with a novel preasphaltene recycle from a supercritical extraction unit to the slurry mix tank wherein the recycle stream contains at least 90% preasphaltenes (benzene insoluble, pyridine soluble organics) with other residual materials such as unconverted coal and ash. This subject process results in the production of asphaltene materials which can be subjected to hydrotreating to acquire a substitute for No. 6 fuel oil. The preasphaltene-predominant recycle reduces the hydrogen consumption for a process where asphaltene material is being sought.

  1. Urea recycling in ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, Yoshiaki; Niibayashi, Tsunekazu

    1980-01-01

    The transfer of blood urea into the alimentary tract of goats, as ruminants, was studied by the use of 15 N-urea, 15 N-ammonium chloride and physiological experimental techniques. Blood urea after an intravenous injection of 15 N-urea appeared in the first rumen via two routes, the saliva (approximately 60% of the serum urea concentration) and idrect diffusion from the wall of the first rumen, both as the ammonium-form N. The serum urea levels from diets containing different protein levels were paralleled with the protein levels, the ammonium level in the first rumen being similar to that of the serum urea. The transfer of low protein into the NH 3 pool of the first rumen was 56% of the total NH 3 in the entire alimentary tract, and the quantitative ratio of salivary secretion of diffusion in the first rumen was 1:9. The transfer of high protein was 14% in the entire alimentary tract, and the ratio of saliva to diffusion in the first rumen was 6:1. Thus, when protein uptake was large, salivary secretion was the primary route to the first rumen. Approximately 50% of the entire quantity of blood urea in the alimentary tract appeared in the first rumen, and 35%, in the lower alimentary tract, primarily in the duodenum and jejunum. (Chiba, N.)

  2. Recycling of americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagstroem, Ingela

    1999-12-01

    Separation of actinides from spent nuclear fuel is a part of the process of recycling fissile material. Extracting agents for partitioning the high level liquid waste (HLLW) from conventional PUREX reprocessing is studied. The CTH-process is based on three consecutive extraction cycles. In the first cycle protactinium, uranium, neptunium and plutonium are removed by extraction with di-2-ethylhexyl-phosphoric acid (HDEHP) from a 6 M nitric acid HLLW solution. Distribution ratios for actinides, fission products and corrosion products between HLLW and 1 M HDEHP in an aliphatic diluent have been investigated. To avoid addition of chemicals the acidity is reduced by a tributylphosphate (TBP) extraction cycle. The distribution ratios of elements present in HLLW have been measured between 50 % TBP in an aliphatic diluent and synthetic HLLW in range 0.1-6 M nitric acid. In the third extraction cycle americium and curium are extracted. To separate trivalent actinides from lanthanides a method based on selective stripping of the actinides from 1 M HDEHP is proposed. The aqueous phase containing ammonia, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and lactic acid is recycled in a closed loop after reextraction of the actinides into a second organic phase also containing 1 M HDEHP. Distribution ratios for americium and neodymium have been measured at varying DTPA and lactic acid concentrations and at varying pH. Nitrogen-donor reagents have been shown to have a potential to separate trivalent actinides from lanthanides. 2,2':6,2''-terpyridine as extractant follows the CHON-principle and can in synergy with 2-bromodecanoic acid separate americium from europium. Distribution ratios for americium and europium, in the range of 0.02-0.12 M nitric acid, between nitric acid and 0.02 M terpyridine with 1 M 2-bromodecanoic acid in tert-butylbenzene (TBB) was investigated. Comparison with other nitrogen-donor reagents show that increasing lipophilicity of the molecule, by substitution of

  3. The Three Rs: Reduce, Reuse, Recycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Activities, 1991

    1991-01-01

    A student hand-out for a recycling unit defines the terms reduce, recycle, and reuse as they relate to solid waste management. Presents the characteristics of recyclable items such as yard wastes, metals, glass, and paper. Lists organizations through which more information about recycling can be obtained. (MCO)

  4. You're a "What"? Recycling Coordinator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torpey, Elka Maria

    2011-01-01

    Recycling coordinators supervise curbside and dropoff recycling programs for municipal governments or private firms. Today, recycling is mandatory in many communities. And advancements in collection and processing methods have helped to increase the quantity of materials for which the recycling coordinator is responsible. In some communities,…

  5. Technology options for future recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, T.

    2000-01-01

    It goes without saying that recycling of nuclear material is indispensable, not only for the effective use of valuable resources but also to reduce the debt which we may leave to the next generations. Many developments in advanced reprocessing technologies have been carried out in several countries to deal with the diversification of nuclear fuels. Also technologies derived from reprocessing or other fuel cycle areas have continued to be developed in terms of recycling. Cost effectiveness and waste-free processing are increasingly important factors in the applicable of an alternate recycling policy. This paper introduces an example of the studies in this field, which has been conducted in Japan and considers the establishment of effective recycling methodologies taking into account the uncertainty of future policy. (authors)

  6. Effect of sodium fluoride on the amount of polyribosomes, single ribosomes and ribosomal subunits in a cellular slime mold, Dictyostelium discoideum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sameshima, M; Ito, K; Iwabuchi, M

    1972-01-01

    In the slime mold, Dictyostelium discoideum, when the rate of protein synthesis was decreased by NaF, free 80-S ribosomes accumulated at the expense of polyribosomes, while 60-S and 40-S ribosomal subunits remained almost constant. The same level of ribosomal subunits was also maintained in cells after incubation with cycloheximide or at the stationary phase of growth.

  7. Continuous cell recycle fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, R K; Hill, G A; MacDonald, D G

    1991-10-01

    A cell recycle fermentor using a cross-flow membrane filter has been operated for extended periods. Productivities as high as 70 g/l/h were obtained at a cell concentration of 120 g/l and a product concentration of 70 g/l. The experimental results were then fitted to previously derived biokinetic models (Warren et al., 1990) for a continuous stirred tank fermentor. A good fit for growth rate was found and the cell yield was shown to decrease with product concentration. The product yield, however, was found to remain nearly constant at all cell, substrate and product concentrations. These biokinetics, along with a previous model for the membrane filter (Warren et al., 1991) were then used in a simulalation to estimate the costs of producing ethanol in a large scale system. This simulation was optimized using a variant of the steepest descent method from which a fermentor inlet substrate concentration of 150 g/l and a net cost of $CAN 253.5/1000 L ethanol were projected. From a sensitivity analysis, the yield parameters were found to have the greatest effect on ethanol net cost of the fermentor parameters, while the operating costs and the profit was found to be most sensitive to the wheat raw material cost and to the dried grains by-product value. 55 refs., 11 tabs., 7figs.

  8. Fly ash. Quality recycling material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomster, D.; Leisio, C.

    1996-11-01

    Imatran Voima`s coal-fired power plants not only generate power and heat but also produce fly ash which is suitable raw material for recycling. This material for recycling is produced in the flue gas cleaning process. It is economical and, thanks to close quality control, is suitable for use as a raw material in the building materials industry, in asphalt production, and in earthworks. Structures made from fly ash are also safe from an environmental point of view. (orig.)

  9. A recycling molecular beam reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prada-Silva, G.; Haller, G.L.; Fenn, J.B.

    1974-01-01

    In a Recycling Molecular Beam Reactor, RMBR, a beam of reactant gas molecules is formed from a supersonic free jet. After collision with a target the molecules pass through the vacuum pumps and are returned to the nozzle source. Continuous recycling permits the integration of very small reaction probabilities into measurable conversions which can be analyzed by gas chromatography. Some preliminary experiments have been carried out on the isomerization of cyclopropane

  10. MOX fuel reprocessing and recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillet, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the reprocessing of MOX fuel in UP2-800 plant at La Hague, and to the MOX successive reprocessing and recycling. 1. MOX fuel reprocessing. In a first step, the necessary modifications in UP2-800 to reprocess MOX fuel are set out. Early in the UP2-800 project, actions have been taken to reprocess MOX fuel without penalty. They consist in measures regarding: Dissolution; Radiological shieldings; Nuclear instrumentation; Criticality. 2. Mox successive reprocessing and recycling. The plutonium recycling in the LWR is now a reality and, as said before, the MOX fuel reprocessing is possible in UP2-800 plant at La Hague. The following actions in this field consist in verifying the MOX successive reprocessing and recycling possibilities. After irradiation, the fissile plutonium content of irradiated MOX fuel is decreased and, in this case, the re-use of plutonium in the LWR need an important increase of initial Pu enrichment inconsistent with the Safety reactor constraints. Cogema opted for reprocessing irradiated MOX fuel in dilution with the standard UO2 fuel in appropriate proportions (1 MOX for 4 UO2 fuel for instance) in order to save a fissile plutonium content compatible with MOX successive recycling (at least 3 recyclings) in LWR. (author). 2 figs

  11. Spontaneous reverse movement of mRNA-bound tRNA through the ribosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konevega, Andrey L; Fischer, Niels; Semenkov, Yuri P; Stark, Holger; Wintermeyer, Wolfgang; Rodnina, Marina V

    2007-04-01

    During the translocation step of protein synthesis, a complex of two transfer RNAs bound to messenger RNA (tRNA-mRNA) moves through the ribosome. The reaction is promoted by an elongation factor, called EF-G in bacteria, which, powered by GTP hydrolysis, induces an open, unlocked conformation of the ribosome that allows for spontaneous tRNA-mRNA movement. Here we show that, in the absence of EF-G, there is spontaneous backward movement, or retrotranslocation, of two tRNAs bound to mRNA. Retrotranslocation is driven by the gain in affinity when a cognate E-site tRNA moves into the P site, which compensates the affinity loss accompanying the movement of peptidyl-tRNA from the P to the A site. These results lend support to the diffusion model of tRNA movement during translocation. In the cell, tRNA movement is biased in the forward direction by EF-G, which acts as a Brownian ratchet and prevents backward movement.

  12. Ribosome. The complete structure of the 55S mammalian mitochondrial ribosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greber, Basil J; Bieri, Philipp; Leibundgut, Marc; Leitner, Alexander; Aebersold, Ruedi; Boehringer, Daniel; Ban, Nenad

    2015-04-17

    Mammalian mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) synthesize mitochondrially encoded membrane proteins that are critical for mitochondrial function. Here we present the complete atomic structure of the porcine 55S mitoribosome at 3.8 angstrom resolution by cryo-electron microscopy and chemical cross-linking/mass spectrometry. The structure of the 28S subunit in the complex was resolved at 3.6 angstrom resolution by focused alignment, which allowed building of a detailed atomic structure including all of its 15 mitoribosomal-specific proteins. The structure reveals the intersubunit contacts in the 55S mitoribosome, the molecular architecture of the mitoribosomal messenger RNA (mRNA) binding channel and its interaction with transfer RNAs, and provides insight into the highly specialized mechanism of mRNA recruitment to the 28S subunit. Furthermore, the structure contributes to a mechanistic understanding of aminoglycoside ototoxicity. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  13. The Complete Structure of the Mycobacterium smegmatis 70S Ribosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschel, Jendrik; Burnside, Chloe; Mignot, Ingrid; Leibundgut, Marc; Boehringer, Daniel; Ban, Nenad

    2017-07-05

    The ribosome carries out the synthesis of proteins in every living cell. It consequently represents a frontline target in anti-microbial therapy. Tuberculosis ranks among the leading causes of death worldwide, due in large part to the combination of difficult-to-treat latency and antibiotic resistance. Here, we present the 3.3-Å cryo-EM structure of the 70S ribosome of Mycobacterium smegmatis, a close relative to the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The structure reveals two additional ribosomal proteins and localizes them to the vicinity of drug-target sites in both the catalytic center and the decoding site of the ribosome. Furthermore, we visualized actinobacterium-specific rRNA and protein expansions that extensively remodel the ribosomal surface with implications for polysome organization. Our results provide a foundation for understanding the idiosyncrasies of mycobacterial translation and reveal atomic details of the structure that will facilitate the design of anti-tubercular therapeutics. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Ribosomes slide on lysine-encoding homopolymeric A stretches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutmou, Kristin S; Schuller, Anthony P; Brunelle, Julie L; Radhakrishnan, Aditya; Djuranovic, Sergej; Green, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Protein output from synonymous codons is thought to be equivalent if appropriate tRNAs are sufficiently abundant. Here we show that mRNAs encoding iterated lysine codons, AAA or AAG, differentially impact protein synthesis: insertion of iterated AAA codons into an ORF diminishes protein expression more than insertion of synonymous AAG codons. Kinetic studies in E. coli reveal that differential protein production results from pausing on consecutive AAA-lysines followed by ribosome sliding on homopolymeric A sequence. Translation in a cell-free expression system demonstrates that diminished output from AAA-codon-containing reporters results from premature translation termination on out of frame stop codons following ribosome sliding. In eukaryotes, these premature termination events target the mRNAs for Nonsense-Mediated-Decay (NMD). The finding that ribosomes slide on homopolymeric A sequences explains bioinformatic analyses indicating that consecutive AAA codons are under-represented in gene-coding sequences. Ribosome ‘sliding’ represents an unexpected type of ribosome movement possible during translation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05534.001 PMID:25695637

  15. The Phosphorylation of Ribosomal Protein in Lemna minor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trewavas, A.

    1973-01-01

    Sterile cultures of Lemna minor have been labeled with 32P1, and the ribosomal proteins have been examined for radioactivity. In relatively short term labeling a radioactive protein was found which ran as a single component in both urea/acetic acid and sodium lauryl sulfate gel electrophoresis. Acid hydrolysis of the labeled protein permitted the isolation of serine phosphate. After labeling to equilibrium with 32P1, calculation indicated only 0.6 to 0.75 atom of this protein phosphorus per ribosome. The phosphorylated protein is found in both polysomes and “derived” monomers and appears to be located in the ribosomal small subunit. Its apparent molecular weight is 42,000. Addition of growth-inhibiting concentrations of abscisic acid does not alter the apparent degree of labeling of this protein in 5 hours, but after 24 hours of treatment the total protein phosphorus was reduced from 0.75 atom of phosphorus per ribosome to 0.36 atom of phosphorus per ribosome. PMID:16658405

  16. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    The Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) program was developed as a focused program to remove and/or minimize the barriers for effective management of over 123 million tons of coal combustion byproducts (CCBs) annually generated in the USA. At the time of launching the CBRC in 1998, about 25% of CCBs were beneficially utilized while the remaining was disposed in on-site or off-site landfills. During the ten (10) year tenure of CBRC (1998-2008), after a critical review, 52 projects were funded nationwide. By region, the East, Midwest, and West had 21, 18, and 13 projects funded, respectively. Almost all projects were cooperative projects involving industry, government, and academia. The CBRC projects, to a large extent, successfully addressed the problems of large-scale utilization of CCBs. A few projects, such as the two Eastern Region projects that addressed the use of fly ash in foundry applications, might be thought of as a somewhat smaller application in comparison to construction and agricultural uses, but as a novel niche use, they set the stage to draw interest that fly ash substitution for Portland cement might not attract. With consideration of the large increase in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum in response to EPA regulations, agricultural uses of FGD gypsum hold promise for large-scale uses of a product currently directed to the (currently stagnant) home construction market. Outstanding achievements of the program are: (1) The CBRC successfully enhanced professional expertise in the area of CCBs throughout the nation. The enhanced capacity continues to provide technology and information transfer expertise to industry and regulatory agencies. (2) Several technologies were developed that can be used immediately. These include: (a) Use of CCBs for road base and sub-base applications; (b) full-depth, in situ stabilization of gravel roads or highway/pavement construction recycled materials; and (c) fired bricks containing up to 30%-40% F

  17. Label-Free Quantitation of Ribosomal Proteins from Bacillus subtilis for Antibiotic Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäkermann, Sina; Prochnow, Pascal; Bandow, Julia E

    2017-01-01

    Current research is focusing on ribosome heterogeneity as a response to changing environmental conditions and stresses, such as antibiotic stress. Altered stoichiometry and composition of ribosomal proteins as well as association of additional protein factors are mechanisms for shaping the protein expression profile or hibernating ribosomes. Here, we present a method for the isolation of ribosomes to analyze antibiotic-induced changes in the composition of ribosomes in Bacillus subtilis or other bacteria. Ribosomes and associated proteins are isolated by ultracentrifugation and proteins are identified and quantified using label-free mass spectrometry.

  18. Cryo-EM structure of the archaeal 50S ribosomal subunit in complex with initiation factor 6 and implications for ribosome evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greber, Basil J; Boehringer, Daniel; Godinic-Mikulcic, Vlatka

    2012-01-01

    additional components of the translation machinery with eukaryotes that are absent in bacteria. One of these translation factors is initiation factor 6 (IF6), which associates with the large ribosomal subunit. We have reconstructed the 50S ribosomal subunit from the archaeon Methanothermobacter...... between this archaeal ribosome and eukaryotic ribosomes but are mostly absent in bacteria and in some archaeal lineages. Furthermore, the structure reveals that, in spite of highly divergent evolutionary trajectories of the ribosomal particle and the acquisition of novel functions of IF6 in eukaryotes......, the molecular binding of IF6 on the ribosome is conserved between eukaryotes and archaea. The structure also provides a snapshot of the reductive evolution of the archaeal ribosome and offers new insights into the evolution of the translation system in archaea....

  19. Interaction of tRNA with Eukaryotic Ribosome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitri Graifer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a review of currently available data concerning interactions of tRNAs with the eukaryotic ribosome at various stages of translation. These data include the results obtained by means of cryo-electron microscopy and X-ray crystallography applied to various model ribosomal complexes, site-directed cross-linking with the use of tRNA derivatives bearing chemically or photochemically reactive groups in the CCA-terminal fragment and chemical probing of 28S rRNA in the region of the peptidyl transferase center. Similarities and differences in the interactions of tRNAs with prokaryotic and eukaryotic ribosomes are discussed with concomitant consideration of the extent of resemblance between molecular mechanisms of translation in eukaryotes and bacteria.

  20. 5SRNAdb: an information resource for 5S ribosomal RNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, Maciej; Zielezinski, Andrzej; Barciszewski, Jan; Erdmann, Volker A; Karlowski, Wojciech M

    2016-01-04

    Ribosomal 5S RNA (5S rRNA) is the ubiquitous RNA component found in the large subunit of ribosomes in all known organisms. Due to its small size, abundance and evolutionary conservation 5S rRNA for many years now is used as a model molecule in studies on RNA structure, RNA-protein interactions and molecular phylogeny. 5SRNAdb (http://combio.pl/5srnadb/) is the first database that provides a high quality reference set of ribosomal 5S RNAs (5S rRNA) across three domains of life. Here, we give an overview of new developments in the database and associated web tools since 2002, including updates to database content, curation processes and user web interfaces. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  1. Structural basis for precursor protein-directed ribosomal peptide macrocyclization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kunhua; Condurso, Heather L.; Li, Gengnan; Ding, Yousong; Bruner, Steven D.

    2016-01-01

    Macrocyclization is a common feature of natural product biosynthetic pathways including the diverse family of ribosomal peptides. Microviridins are architecturally complex cyanobacterial ribosomal peptides whose members target proteases with potent reversible inhibition. The product structure is constructed by three macrocyclizations catalyzed sequentially by two members of the ATP-grasp family, a unique strategy for ribosomal peptide macrocyclization. Here, we describe the detailed structural basis for the enzyme-catalyzed macrocyclizations in the microviridin J pathway of Microcystis aeruginosa. The macrocyclases, MdnC and MdnB, interact with a conserved α-helix of the precursor peptide using a novel precursor peptide recognition mechanism. The results provide insight into the unique protein/protein interactions key to the chemistry, suggest an origin of the natural combinatorial synthesis of microviridin peptides and provide a framework for future engineering efforts to generate designed compounds. PMID:27669417

  2. Structural basis for precursor protein-directed ribosomal peptide macrocyclization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kunhua; Condurso, Heather L; Li, Gengnan; Ding, Yousong; Bruner, Steven D

    2016-11-01

    Macrocyclization is a common feature of natural product biosynthetic pathways including the diverse family of ribosomal peptides. Microviridins are architecturally complex cyanobacterial ribosomal peptides that target proteases with potent reversible inhibition. The product structure is constructed via three macrocyclizations catalyzed sequentially by two members of the ATP-grasp family, a unique strategy for ribosomal peptide macrocyclization. Here we describe in detail the structural basis for the enzyme-catalyzed macrocyclizations in the microviridin J pathway of Microcystis aeruginosa. The macrocyclases MdnC and MdnB interact with a conserved α-helix of the precursor peptide using a novel precursor-peptide recognition mechanism. The results provide insight into the unique protein-protein interactions that are key to the chemistry, suggest an origin for the natural combinatorial synthesis of microviridin peptides, and provide a framework for future engineering efforts to generate designed compounds.

  3. Recycled concrete with coarse recycled aggregate. An overview and analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. González-Fonteboa

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The construction field has contributed to environmental degradation, producing a high amount of construction and demolition waste (C&D waste and consuming large volumes of natural resources. In this context, recycled concrete (RC has been recognised as a means to preserve natural resources and reduce space for waste storage. During the last decades, many researchers have developed works studying different recycled concrete properties. This review focuses on structural RC made with coarse recycled aggregate from concrete waste. The main objective is to provide a state of the art report on RC’s properties and an analysis on how to predict them taking into account relevant research works. Moreover, the study tries to collect and update RC findings, proposing equations to define RC’s performance, in terms of mechanical strength, modulus of elasticity, stress-strain, creep and shrinkage.

  4. Auditing an intensive care unit recycling program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubicki, Mark A; McGain, Forbes; O'Shea, Catherine J; Bates, Samantha

    2015-06-01

    The provision of health care has significant direct environmental effects such as energy and water use and waste production, and indirect effects, including manufacturing and transport of drugs and equipment. Recycling of hospital waste is one strategy to reduce waste disposed of as landfill, preserve resources, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and potentially remain fiscally responsible. We began an intensive care unit recycling program, because a significant proportion of ICU waste was known to be recyclable. To determine the weight and proportion of ICU waste recycled, the proportion of incorrect waste disposal (including infectious waste contamination), the opportunity for further recycling and the financial effects of the recycling program. We weighed all waste and recyclables from an 11-bed ICU in an Australian metropolitan hospital for 7 non-consecutive days. As part of routine care, ICU waste was separated into general, infectious and recycling streams. Recycling streams were paper and cardboard, three plastics streams (polypropylene, mixed plastics and polyvinylchloride [PVC]) and commingled waste (steel, aluminium and some plastics). ICU waste from the waste and recycling bins was sorted into those five recycling streams, general waste and infectious waste. After sorting, the waste was weighed and examined. Recycling was classified as achieved (actual), potential and total. Potential recycling was defined as being acceptable to hospital protocol and local recycling programs. Direct and indirect financial costs, excluding labour, were examined. During the 7-day period, the total ICU waste was 505 kg: general waste, 222 kg (44%); infectious waste, 138 kg (27%); potentially recyclable waste, 145 kg (28%). Of the potentially recyclable waste, 70 kg (49%) was actually recycled (14% of the total ICU waste). In the infectious waste bins, 82% was truly infectious. There was no infectious contamination of the recycling streams. The PVC waste was 37% contaminated

  5. What can recycling in thermal reactors accomplish?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piet, Steven J.; Matthern, Gretchen E.; Jacobson, Jacob J.

    2007-01-01

    Thermal recycle provides several potential benefits when used as stop-gap, mixed, or backup recycling to recycling in fast reactors. These three roles involve a mixture of thermal and fast recycling; fast reactors are required to some degree at some time. Stop-gap uses thermal reactors only until fast reactors are adequately deployed and until any thermal-recycle-only facilities have met their economic lifetime. Mixed uses thermal and fast reactors symbiotically for an extended period of time. Backup uses thermal reactors only if problems later develop in the fast reactor portion of a recycling system. Thermal recycle can also provide benefits when used as pure thermal recycling, with no intention to use fast reactors. However, long term, the pure thermal recycling approach is inadequate to meet several objectives. (authors)

  6. What can Recycling in Thermal Reactors Accomplish?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steven Piet; Gretchen E. Matthern; Jacob J. Jacobson

    2007-01-01

    Thermal recycle provides several potential benefits when used as stop-gap, mixed, or backup recycling to recycling in fast reactors. These three roles involve a mixture of thermal and fast recycling; fast reactors are required to some degree at some time. Stop-gap uses thermal reactors only until fast reactors are adequately deployed and until any thermal-recycle-only facilities have met their economic lifetime. Mixed uses thermal and fast reactors symbiotically for an extended period of time. Backup uses thermal reactors only if problems later develop in the fast reactor portion of a recycling system. Thermal recycle can also provide benefits when used as pure thermal recycling, with no intention to use fast reactors. However, long term, the pure thermal recycling approach is inadequate to meet several objectives

  7. Protein-protein interactions within late pre-40S ribosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melody G Campbell

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ribosome assembly in eukaryotic organisms requires more than 200 assembly factors to facilitate and coordinate rRNA transcription, processing, and folding with the binding of the ribosomal proteins. Many of these assembly factors bind and dissociate at defined times giving rise to discrete assembly intermediates, some of which have been partially characterized with regards to their protein and RNA composition. Here, we have analyzed the protein-protein interactions between the seven assembly factors bound to late cytoplasmic pre-40S ribosomes using recombinant proteins in binding assays. Our data show that these factors form two modules: one comprising Enp1 and the export adaptor Ltv1 near the beak structure, and the second comprising the kinase Rio2, the nuclease Nob1, and a regulatory RNA binding protein Dim2/Pno1 on the front of the head. The GTPase-like Tsr1 and the universally conserved methylase Dim1 are also peripherally connected to this second module. Additionally, in an effort to further define the locations for these essential proteins, we have analyzed the interactions between these assembly factors and six ribosomal proteins: Rps0, Rps3, Rps5, Rps14, Rps15 and Rps29. Together, these results and previous RNA-protein crosslinking data allow us to propose a model for the binding sites of these seven assembly factors. Furthermore, our data show that the essential kinase Rio2 is located at the center of the pre-ribosomal particle and interacts, directly or indirectly, with every other assembly factor, as well as three ribosomal proteins required for cytoplasmic 40S maturation. These data suggest that Rio2 could play a central role in regulating cytoplasmic maturation steps.

  8. DWPF Recycle Evaporator Simulant Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, M

    2005-01-01

    Testing was performed to determine the feasibility and processing characteristics of an evaporation process to reduce the volume of the recycle stream from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The concentrated recycle would be returned to DWPF while the overhead condensate would be transferred to the Effluent Treatment Plant. Various blends of evaporator feed were tested using simulants developed from characterization of actual recycle streams from DWPF and input from DWPF-Engineering. The simulated feed was evaporated in laboratory scale apparatus to target a 30X volume reduction. Condensate and concentrate samples from each run were analyzed and the process characteristics (foaming, scaling, etc) were visually monitored during each run. The following conclusions were made from the testing: Concentration of the ''typical'' recycle stream in DWPF by 30X was feasible. The addition of DWTT recycle streams to the typical recycle stream raises the solids content of the evaporator feed considerably and lowers the amount of concentration that can be achieved. Foaming was noted during all evaporation tests and must be addressed prior to operation of the full-scale evaporator. Tests were conducted that identified Dow Corning 2210 as an antifoam candidate that warrants further evaluation. The condensate has the potential to exceed the ETP WAC for mercury, silicon, and TOC. Controlling the amount of equipment decontamination recycle in the evaporator blend would help meet the TOC limits. The evaporator condensate will be saturated with mercury and elemental mercury will collect in the evaporator condensate collection vessel. No scaling on heating surfaces was noted during the tests, but splatter onto the walls of the evaporation vessels led to a buildup of solids. These solids were difficult to remove with 2M nitric acid. Precipitation of solids was not noted during the testing. Some of the aluminum present in the recycle streams was converted from gibbsite to

  9. Conservative diffusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlen, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    In Nelson's stochastic mechanics, quantum phenomena are described in terms of diffusions instead of wave functions. These diffusions are formally given by stochastic differential equations with extremely singular coefficients. Using PDE methods, we prove the existence of solutions. This reult provides a rigorous basis for stochastic mechanics. (orig.)

  10. Radioactive materials in recycled metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubenau, J O; Yusko, J G

    1995-04-01

    In recent years, the metal recycling industry has become increasingly aware of an unwanted component in metal scrap--radioactive material. Worldwide, there have been 35 instances where radioactive sources were unintentionally smelted in the course of recycling metal scrap. In some cases contaminated metal consumer products were distributed internationally. In at least one case, serious radiation exposures of workers and the public occurred. Radioactive material appearing in metal scrap includes sources subject to licensing under the Atomic Energy Act and also naturally occurring radioactive material. U.S. mills that have smelted a radioactive source face costs resulting from decontamination, waste disposal, and lost profits that range from 7 to 23 million U.S. dollars for each event. To solve the problem, industry and the government have jointly undertaken initiatives to increase awareness of the problem within the metal recycling industry. Radiation monitoring of recycled metal scrap is being performed increasingly by mills and, to a lesser extent, by scrap processors. The monitoring does not, however, provide 100% protection. Improvements in regulatory oversight by the government could stimulate improved accounting and control of licensed sources. However, additional government effort in this area must be reconciled with competing priorities in radiation safety and budgetary constraints. The threat of radioactive material in recycled metal scrap will continue for the foreseeable future and, thus, poses regulatory policy challenges for both developed and developing nations.

  11. A UK perspective on recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, T.

    1991-01-01

    The United Kingdom, through the recycling of depleted uranium from Magnox reactors into Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor (AGR) fuel, has already recycled significant quantities of reprocessed material in reactors owned by Nuclear Electric plc and Scottish Nuclear Limited. This AGR fuel has been satisfactorily irradiated and discharged over a decade or more, and will be reprocessed in the new Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP), currently under construction in the UK. British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) and the UK Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) have also been exploiting the potential of plutonium recycled in mixed oxide (MOX) fuel, which they have been making since 1963. All of the UK nuclear companies are committed to further recycling of Magnox depleted uranium during the 1990s, and it is anticipated that oxide recycling will also become firmly established during the next decade. British Nuclear Fuels and Urenco Ltd, as the providers of fuel cycle services, are developing an infrastructure to close the fuel cycle for oxide nuclear fuel, using both the uranium and plutonium arising from reprocessing. (author)

  12. Recycling of polymers: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatyev, Igor A; Thielemans, Wim; Vander Beke, Bob

    2014-06-01

    Plastics are inexpensive, easy to mold, and lightweight. These and many other advantages make them very promising candidates for commercial applications. In many areas, they have substantially suppressed traditional materials. However, the problem of recycling still is a major challenge. There are both technological and economic issues that restrain the progress in this field. Herein, a state-of-art overview of recycling is provided together with an outlook for the future by using popular polymers such as polyolefins, poly(vinyl chloride), polyurethane, and poly(ethylene terephthalate) as examples. Different types of recycling, primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary, and biological recycling, are discussed together with related issues, such as compatibilization and cross-linking. There are various projects in the European Union on research and application of these recycling approaches; selected examples are provided in this article. Their progress is mirrored by granted patents, most of which have a very limited scope and narrowly cover certain technologies. Global introduction of waste utilization techniques to the polymer market is currently not fully developed, but has an enormous potential. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Recycling of plastics in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thienen, N. von; Patel, M.

    1999-01-01

    This article deals with the waste management of post-consumer plastics in Germany and its potential to save fossil fuels and reduce CO 2 emissions. Since most experience is available for packaging, the paper first gives an overview of the legislative background and the material flows for this sector. Then recycling and recovery processes for plastics waste from all sectors are assessed in terms of their contribution to energy saving and CO 2 abatement. Practically all the options studied show a better performance than waste treatment in an average incinerator which has been chosen as the reference case. High ecological benefits can be achieved by mechanical recycling if virgin polymers are substituted. The paper then presents different scenarios for managing plastic waste in Germany in 1995: considerable savings can be made by strongly enhancing the efficiency of waste incinerators. Under these conditions the distribution of plastics waste among mechanical recycling, feedstock recycling and energy recovery has a comparatively mall impact on the overall results. The maximum savings amount to 74 PJ of energy, i.e, 9% of the chemical sector energy demand in 1995 and 7.0 Mt CO 2 , representing 13% of the sector's emissions. The assessment does not support a general recommendation of energy recovery due to the large difference between the German average and the best available municipal waste-to-energy facilities and also due to new technological developments in the field of mechanical recycling

  14. A streamlined ribosome profiling protocol for the characterization of microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Latif, Haythem; Szubin, Richard; Tan, Justin

    2015-01-01

    Ribosome profiling is a powerful tool for characterizing in vivo protein translation at the genome scale, with multiple applications ranging from detailed molecular mechanisms to systems-level predictive modeling. Though highly effective, this intricate technique has yet to become widely used...... in the microbial research community. Here we present a streamlined ribosome profiling protocol with reduced barriers to entry for microbial characterization studies. Our approach provides simplified alternatives during harvest, lysis, and recovery of monosomes and also eliminates several time-consuming steps...

  15. Interaction of pleuromutilin derivatives with the ribosomal peptidyl transferase center

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, K. S.; Hansen, L. K.; Jakobsen, L.

    2006-01-01

    Tiamulin is a pleuromutilin antibiotic that is used in veterinary medicine. The recently published crystal structure of a tiamulin-50S ribosomal subunit complex provides detailed information about how this drug targets the peptidyl transferase center of the ribosome. To promote rational design...... mutant strain is resistant to tiamulin and pleuromutilin, but not valnemulin, implying that valnemulin is better able to withstand an altered rRNA binding surface around the mutilin core. This is likely due to additional interactions made between the valnemulin side chain extension and the rRNA binding...

  16. Revealing Invisible Water: Moisture Recycling as an Ecosystem Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keys, Patrick W; Wang-Erlandsson, Lan; Gordon, Line J

    2016-01-01

    An ecosystem service is a benefit derived by humanity that can be traced back to an ecological process. Although ecosystem services related to surface water have been thoroughly described, the relationship between atmospheric water and ecosystem services has been mostly neglected, and perhaps misunderstood. Recent advances in land-atmosphere modeling have revealed the importance of terrestrial ecosystems for moisture recycling. In this paper, we analyze the extent to which vegetation sustains the supply of atmospheric moisture and precipitation for downwind beneficiaries, globally. We simulate land-surface evaporation with a global hydrology model and track changes to moisture recycling using an atmospheric moisture budget model, and we define vegetation-regulated moisture recycling as the difference in moisture recycling between current vegetation and a hypothetical desert world. Our results show that nearly a fifth of annual average precipitation falling on land is from vegetation-regulated moisture recycling, but the global variability is large, with many places receiving nearly half their precipitation from this ecosystem service. The largest potential impacts for changes to this ecosystem service are land-use changes across temperate regions in North America and Russia. Likewise, in semi-arid regions reliant on rainfed agricultural production, land-use change that even modestly reduces evaporation and subsequent precipitation, could significantly affect human well-being. We also present a regional case study in the Mato Grosso region of Brazil, where we identify the specific moisture recycling ecosystem services associated with the vegetation in Mato Grosso. We find that Mato Grosso vegetation regulates some internal precipitation, with a diffuse region of benefit downwind, primarily to the south and east, including the La Plata River basin and the megacities of Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. We synthesize our global and regional results into a generalized

  17. Charge Segregation and Low Hydrophobicity Are Key Features of Ribosomal Proteins from Different Organisms*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedyukina, Daria V.; Jennaro, Theodore S.; Cavagnero, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Ribosomes are large and highly charged macromolecular complexes consisting of RNA and proteins. Here, we address the electrostatic and nonpolar properties of ribosomal proteins that are important for ribosome assembly and interaction with other cellular components and may influence protein folding on the ribosome. We examined 50 S ribosomal subunits from 10 species and found a clear distinction between the net charge of ribosomal proteins from halophilic and non-halophilic organisms. We found that ∼67% ribosomal proteins from halophiles are negatively charged, whereas only up to ∼15% of ribosomal proteins from non-halophiles share this property. Conversely, hydrophobicity tends to be lower for ribosomal proteins from halophiles than for the corresponding proteins from non-halophiles. Importantly, the surface electrostatic potential of ribosomal proteins from all organisms, especially halophiles, has distinct positive and negative regions across all the examined species. Positively and negatively charged residues of ribosomal proteins tend to be clustered in buried and solvent-exposed regions, respectively. Hence, the majority of ribosomal proteins is characterized by a significant degree of intramolecular charge segregation, regardless of the organism of origin. This key property enables the ribosome to accommodate proteins within its complex scaffold regardless of their overall net charge. PMID:24398678

  18. Nuclear recycling: costs, savings, and safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinrad, B.I.

    1985-01-01

    This chapter discusses the economics, physical and chemical processes, and safety of nuclear fuel recycling. The spent fuel must be chemically reprocessed in order to recover uranium and plutonium. Topics considered include indifference costs, recycling in light water reactors (LWRs), plutonium in fast reactors, the choice between recycling and storage, safeguards, and weapons proliferation. It is shown that the economics of recycling nuclear fuel involves the actual costs and savings of the recycling operation in terms of money spent, made, and saved, and the impact of the recycling on the future cost of uranium

  19. UREP: gateway to uranium recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rougeau, J.P.; Durret, L.F.

    1988-01-01

    The industrial experience accumulated in France on recycling makes their conversion service fully reliable technically and economically. Problems associated with chemical and radiochemical behavior have been solved satisfactorily in order to offer customers flexible options for their personal optimization. Economically, a price reduction by a significant factor (up to two) has been proposed by UREP as a firm commitment for the coming years. This is the result of technical experience coupled with favorable scaling effect for the large conversion plant proposed. It is believed that such a positive approach greatly helps customers in managing recycling of their material and generating savings in their fuel cycle economics. This flow of recycled uranium, on top of the 40000 t of natural uranium consumed each year, is a valuable asset available to those utilities which have selected the reprocessing route. 2 figs

  20. Metallic mercury recycling. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, M.A.

    1994-07-01

    Metallic mercury is known to be a hazardous material and is regulated as such. The disposal of mercury, usually by landfill, is expensive and does not remove mercury from the environment. Results from the Metallic Mercury Recycling Project have demonstrated that metallic mercury is a good candidate for reclamation and recycling. Most of the potential contamination of mercury resides in the scum floating on the surface of the mercury. Pinhole filtration was demonstrated to be an inexpensive and easy way of removing residues from mercury. The analysis method is shown to be sufficient for present release practices, and should be sufficient for future release requirements. Data from tests are presented. The consistently higher level of activity of the filter residue versus the bulk mercury is discussed. Recommendations for the recycling procedure are made.

  1. Radioactive contamination of recycled metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubenau, J.O.; Cool, D.A.; Yusko, J.G.

    1996-01-01

    Radioactive sources commingled with metal scrap have become a major problem for the metals recycling industry worldwide. Worldwide there have been 38 confirmed reports of radioactive sources accidentally smelted with recycled metal. In some instances, contaminated metal products were subsequently distributed. The metal mills, their products and byproducts from the metal making process such as slags, crosses and dusts from furnaces can become contaminated. In the U.S., imported ferrous metal products such as reinforcement bars, pipe flanges, table legs and fencing components have been found contaminated with taco. U.S. steel mills have unintentionally smelted radioactive sources on 16 occasions. The resulting cost for decontamination waste disposal and temporary closure of the steel mill is typically USD 10,000,000 and has been as much as USD 23,000,000. Other metal recycling industries that have been affected by this problem include aluminum, copper, zinc, gold, lead and vanadium. (author)

  2. Metallic mercury recycling. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    Metallic mercury is known to be a hazardous material and is regulated as such. The disposal of mercury, usually by landfill, is expensive and does not remove mercury from the environment. Results from the Metallic Mercury Recycling Project have demonstrated that metallic mercury is a good candidate for reclamation and recycling. Most of the potential contamination of mercury resides in the scum floating on the surface of the mercury. Pinhole filtration was demonstrated to be an inexpensive and easy way of removing residues from mercury. The analysis method is shown to be sufficient for present release practices, and should be sufficient for future release requirements. Data from tests are presented. The consistently higher level of activity of the filter residue versus the bulk mercury is discussed. Recommendations for the recycling procedure are made

  3. The recycling of reprocessed uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lannegrace, J.-P.

    1991-01-01

    The 1990 update to the Uranium Institute's report ''Uranium Market Issues'', presented to this Symposium last year (1990) stated that the impact of recycled reprocessing products on uranium demand would be limited in the near future to that due to MOX fuel fabrication. The report stated that the recycling of reprocessed uranium was still at an early discussion stage, rather than being a short-term prospect. This paper will set out to challenge this assertion, on the basis both of facts and of economic and environmental incentives. (author)

  4. Collection of Recyclables from Cubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wøhlk, Sanne; Bogh, Morten Bie; Mikkelsen, Hardy

    2014-01-01

    Collection of recyclable materials is a major part of reverse logistics and an important issue in sustainable logistics. In this paper we consider a case study where paper and glass are collected from recycling cubes and transported to a treatment facility where it is processed for reuse. We...... analyze how outsourcing the planning and transportation of the service can result in conflicts of interest and as a consequence cause unsustainable solutions. Finally, we suggest an alternative payment structure which can lead to a common goal, overall economic sustainability, and an improved financial...

  5. Waste collection systems for recyclables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anna Warberg; Merrild, Hanna Kristina; Møller, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    and technical limitations are respected, and what will the environmental and economic consequences be? This was investigated in a case study of a municipal waste management system. Five scenarios with alternative collection systems for recyclables (paper, glass, metal and plastic packaging) were assessed...... and treatment of waste were reduced with increasing recycling, mainly because the high cost for incineration was avoided. However, solutions for mitigation of air pollution caused by increased collection and transport should be sought. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  6. Process to recycle shredder residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jody, Bassam J.; Daniels, Edward J.; Bonsignore, Patrick V.

    2001-01-01

    A system and process for recycling shredder residue, in which separating any polyurethane foam materials are first separated. Then separate a fines fraction of less than about 1/4 inch leaving a plastics-rich fraction. Thereafter, the plastics rich fraction is sequentially contacted with a series of solvents beginning with one or more of hexane or an alcohol to remove automotive fluids; acetone to remove ABS; one or more of EDC, THF or a ketone having a boiling point of not greater than about 125.degree. C. to remove PVC; and one or more of xylene or toluene to remove polypropylene and polyethylene. The solvents are recovered and recycled.

  7. Recycling and surplus chemical programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, T.J.

    1993-05-01

    In 1988, 45 years of defense production came to a close at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. The mission of the Hanford Site was formally changed to environmental restoration and remediation. Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) is the management and operations (M ampersand O) contractor leading the cleanup. Within the framework of future Site cleanup, Hanford recycling and surplus chemical programs are making a viable contribution today to waste minimization, diversion of materials from the waste stream, and setting a standard for future operations. This paper focuses on two successful efforts: paper recycling and surplus chemical sales

  8. A Guide to Running a Recycling Project. [Includes Recycling Handbook].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon Recycling Information and Organizing Network, Portland.

    This guide, designed for both students and adults, is intended for individuals who feel they might be interested in establishing a recycling depot. The guide includes such pertinent information as deciding how to set up a depot, markets and transportation, preparation of materials, where to place the depot and when to operate it, publicity and…

  9. The Recycling Solution: How I Increased Recycling on Dilworth Road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, J. Jacob

    2010-01-01

    The grandson of Fred Keller, one of the founders of behavior analysis, Jacob was 10 years old when he conducted the project for his elementary school science fair. We recently contacted Jacob to learn more about his project. He told us the inspiration came from a class field trip to the county recycling center, which included seeing video footage…

  10. Cryo-EM Structure of the Archaeal 50S Ribosomal Subunit in Complex with Initiation Factor 6 and Implications for Ribosome Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greber, Basil J.; Boehringer, Daniel; Godinic-Mikulcic, Vlatka; Crnkovic, Ana; Ibba, Michael; Weygand-Durasevic, Ivana; Ban, Nenad

    2013-01-01

    Translation of mRNA into proteins by the ribosome is universally conserved in all cellular life. The composition and complexity of the translation machinery differ markedly between the three domains of life. Organisms from the domain Archaea show an intermediate level of complexity, sharing several additional components of the translation machinery with eukaryotes that are absent in bacteria. One of these translation factors is initiation factor 6 (IF6), which associates with the large ribosomal subunit. We have reconstructed the 50S ribosomal subunit from the archaeon Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus in complex with archaeal IF6 at 6.6 Å resolution using cryo-electron microscopy (EM). The structure provides detailed architectural insights into the 50S ribosomal subunit from a methanogenic archaeon through identification of the rRNA expansion segments and ribosomal proteins that are shared between this archaeal ribosome and eukaryotic ribosomes but are mostly absent in bacteria and in some archaeal lineages. Furthermore, the structure reveals that, in spite of highly divergent evolutionary trajectories of the ribosomal particle and the acquisition of novel functions of IF6 in eukaryotes, the molecular binding of IF6 on the ribosome is conserved between eukaryotes and archaea. The structure also provides a snapshot of the reductive evolution of the archaeal ribosome and offers new insights into the evolution of the translation system in archaea. PMID:22306461

  11. Nuclear ribosomal DNA diversity of a cotton pest ( Rotylenchulus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis) has emerged as a major cotton pest in the United States. A recent analysis of over 20 amphimictic populations of this pest from the US and three other countries has shown no sequence variation at the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) despite the region's ...

  12. The ribosome-associated complex antagonizes prion formation in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amor, Alvaro J; Castanzo, Dominic T; Delany, Sean P; Selechnik, Daniel M; van Ooy, Alex; Cameron, Dale M

    2015-01-01

    The number of known fungal proteins capable of switching between alternative stable conformations is steadily increasing, suggesting that a prion-like mechanism may be broadly utilized as a means to propagate altered cellular states. To gain insight into the mechanisms by which cells regulate prion formation and toxicity we examined the role of the yeast ribosome-associated complex (RAC) in modulating both the formation of the [PSI(+)] prion - an alternative conformer of Sup35 protein - and the toxicity of aggregation-prone polypeptides. The Hsp40 RAC chaperone Zuo1 anchors the RAC to ribosomes and stimulates the ATPase activity of the Hsp70 chaperone Ssb. We found that cells lacking Zuo1 are sensitive to over-expression of some aggregation-prone proteins, including the Sup35 prion domain, suggesting that co-translational protein misfolding increases in Δzuo1 strains. Consistent with this finding, Δzuo1 cells exhibit higher frequencies of spontaneous and induced prion formation. Cells expressing mutant forms of Zuo1 lacking either a C-terminal charged region required for ribosome association, or the J-domain responsible for Ssb ATPase stimulation, exhibit similarly high frequencies of prion formation. Our findings are consistent with a role for the RAC in chaperoning nascent Sup35 to regulate folding of the N-terminal prion domain as it emerges from the ribosome.

  13. Ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer 1 and internal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-26

    Jul 26, 2010 ... in some East Asian countries such as China, Korea and. *Corresponding author. E-mail: soonkwan@kangwon.ac.kr. Tel: +82 33 250 6476. Fax: +82 33 250 6470. Abbreviations: nrDNA, Nuclear ribosomal DNA; ITS, internal transcribed spacer; PCR, polymerase chain reaction; BLAST, basic local alignment ...

  14. cDNA, genomic sequence cloning and overexpression of ribosomal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RPS16 of eukaryote is a component of the 40S small ribosomal subunit encoded by RPS16 gene and is also a homolog of prokaryotic RPS9. The cDNA and genomic sequence of RPS16 was cloned successfully for the first time from the Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) using reverse transcription-polymerase chain ...

  15. (Brassicaceae) based on nuclear ribosomal ITS DNA sequences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 93; Issue 2. Phylogeny and biogeography of Alyssum (Brassicaceae) based on nuclear ribosomal ITS DNA sequences. Yan Li Yan Kong Zhe Zhang Yanqiang Yin Bin Liu Guanghui Lv Xiyong Wang. Research Article Volume 93 Issue 2 August 2014 pp 313-323 ...

  16. Expression of a ribosome inactivating protein (curcin 2) in Jatropha ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    mechanisms employed by a number of higher-plant species involve defensive ... of RIPs in the same plant species. ..... Lam C J, Ryals J A, Ward E R and Dixon R A 1992 Emerging ... against insect pests and diseases of plants: ribosome in-.

  17. Protein folding on the ribosome studied using NMR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waudby, Christopher A.; Launay, Hélène; Cabrita, Lisa D.; Christodoulou, John

    2013-01-01

    NMR spectroscopy is a powerful tool for the investigation of protein folding and misfolding, providing a characterization of molecular structure, dynamics and exchange processes, across a very wide range of timescales and with near atomic resolution. In recent years NMR methods have also been developed to study protein folding as it might occur within the cell, in a de novo manner, by observing the folding of nascent polypeptides in the process of emerging from the ribosome during synthesis. Despite the 2.3 MDa molecular weight of the bacterial 70S ribosome, many nascent polypeptides, and some ribosomal proteins, have sufficient local flexibility that sharp resonances may be observed in solution-state NMR spectra. In providing information on dynamic regions of the structure, NMR spectroscopy is therefore highly complementary to alternative methods such as X-ray crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy, which have successfully characterized the rigid core of the ribosome particle. However, the low working concentrations and limited sample stability associated with ribosome–nascent chain complexes means that such studies still present significant technical challenges to the NMR spectroscopist. This review will discuss the progress that has been made in this area, surveying all NMR studies that have been published to date, and with a particular focus on strategies for improving experimental sensitivity. PMID:24083462

  18. Architecture of the E.coli 70S ribosome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burkhardt, N.; Diedrich, G.; Nierhaus, K.H.

    1997-01-01

    The 70S ribosome from E.coli was analysed by neutron scattering focusing on the shape and the internal protein-RNA-distribution of the complex. Measurements on selectively deuterated 70S particles and free 30S and 50S subunits applying conventional contrast variation and proton-spin contrast...

  19. Sustainability issues in circuit board recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Jens Brøbech; Alting, Leo; Baldo, Gian Luca

    1995-01-01

    The resource recovery and environmental impact issues of printed circuit board recycling by secondary copper smelters are discussed. Guidelines concerning material selection for circuit board manufacture and concerning the recycling processes are given to enhance recovery efficiency and to lower...

  20. Recycled materials in Portland cement concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-06-01

    This report pertains to a comprehensive study involving the use of recycled materials in Portland cement concrete. Three different materials were studied including crushed glass (CG), street sweepings (SS), and recycled concrete (RC). Blast furnace s...

  1. Long-term aging of recycled binders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Asphalt pavement is Americas most recycled material. Eighty million tons of asphalt, nearly 80% of all milled asphalt pavement, : is recycled every year [1]. To effectively maintain its 40,000 miles of paved roads, the Florida Department of Transp...

  2. Durable Recycled Superpave Mixes in Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-01

    The use of economical and environment-friendly recycled asphalt materials has become increasingly popular for asphalt pavement construction. In general, reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) and recycled asphalt shingles (RAS) are used in hot-mix asphalt ...

  3. Proceedings of the waste recycling workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, R.E.; Thomas, A.F.; Ries, M.A. [eds.] [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Recorded are seventeen talks from five sessions at the workshop. FERMCO`s recycling program, state of the art recycling technology, and an integrated demonstration of deactivation, decommissioning and decommissioning are presented in the plenary session. In the concrete session, decontamination and recycling are discussed. In the transite session, regulations are considered along with recycling and decontamination. In the metals session, radioactive scrap metals are emphasized. And in the regulatory considerations and liabilities session, DOE and EPA viewpoints are discussed. (GHH)

  4. Differential antibiotic sensitivity determined by the large ribosomal subunit in thermophilic archaea.

    OpenAIRE

    Ruggero, D; Londei, P

    1996-01-01

    Hybrid ribosomes obtained by mixing the ribosomal subunits of the extremely thermophilic archaea Sulfolobus solfataricus and Desulfurococcus mobilis were tested for their sensitivity to selected antibiotics. It is shown that structural differences in the large ribosomal subunits determine qualitatively and quantitatively the patterns of response to alpha-sarcin and paromomycin in these species.

  5. cDNA, genomic sequence cloning and analysis of the ribosomal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ribosomal protein L37A (RPL37A) is a component of 60S large ribosomal subunit encoded by the RPL37A gene, which belongs to the family of ribosomal L37AE proteins, located in the cytoplasm. The complementary deoxyribonucleic acid (cDNA) and the genomic sequence of RPL37A were cloned successfully from giant ...

  6. DNA replication stress restricts ribosomal DNA copy number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, Devika; Bradford, William D.; Freeland, Amy; Cady, Gillian; Wang, Jianmin

    2017-01-01

    Ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) in budding yeast are encoded by ~100–200 repeats of a 9.1kb sequence arranged in tandem on chromosome XII, the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) locus. Copy number of rDNA repeat units in eukaryotic cells is maintained far in excess of the requirement for ribosome biogenesis. Despite the importance of the repeats for both ribosomal and non-ribosomal functions, it is currently not known how “normal” copy number is determined or maintained. To identify essential genes involved in the maintenance of rDNA copy number, we developed a droplet digital PCR based assay to measure rDNA copy number in yeast and used it to screen a yeast conditional temperature-sensitive mutant collection of essential genes. Our screen revealed that low rDNA copy number is associated with compromised DNA replication. Further, subculturing yeast under two separate conditions of DNA replication stress selected for a contraction of the rDNA array independent of the replication fork blocking protein, Fob1. Interestingly, cells with a contracted array grew better than their counterparts with normal copy number under conditions of DNA replication stress. Our data indicate that DNA replication stresses select for a smaller rDNA array. We speculate that this liberates scarce replication factors for use by the rest of the genome, which in turn helps cells complete DNA replication and continue to propagate. Interestingly, tumors from mini chromosome maintenance 2 (MCM2)-deficient mice also show a loss of rDNA repeats. Our data suggest that a reduction in rDNA copy number may indicate a history of DNA replication stress, and that rDNA array size could serve as a diagnostic marker for replication stress. Taken together, these data begin to suggest the selective pressures that combine to yield a “normal” rDNA copy number. PMID:28915237

  7. ABC-F Proteins Mediate Antibiotic Resistance through Ribosomal Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Liam K R; Edwards, Thomas A; O'Neill, Alex J

    2016-03-22

    Members of the ABC-F subfamily of ATP-binding cassette proteins mediate resistance to a broad array of clinically important antibiotic classes that target the ribosome of Gram-positive pathogens. The mechanism by which these proteins act has been a subject of long-standing controversy, with two competing hypotheses each having gained considerable support: antibiotic efflux versus ribosomal protection. Here, we report on studies employing a combination of bacteriological and biochemical techniques to unravel the mechanism of resistance of these proteins, and provide several lines of evidence that together offer clear support to the ribosomal protection hypothesis. Of particular note, we show that addition of purified ABC-F proteins to anin vitrotranslation assay prompts dose-dependent rescue of translation, and demonstrate that such proteins are capable of displacing antibiotic from the ribosomein vitro To our knowledge, these experiments constitute the first direct evidence that ABC-F proteins mediate antibiotic resistance through ribosomal protection.IMPORTANCEAntimicrobial resistance ranks among the greatest threats currently facing human health. Elucidation of the mechanisms by which microorganisms resist the effect of antibiotics is central to understanding the biology of this phenomenon and has the potential to inform the development of new drugs capable of blocking or circumventing resistance. Members of the ABC-F family, which includelsa(A),msr(A),optr(A), andvga(A), collectively yield resistance to a broader range of clinically significant antibiotic classes than any other family of resistance determinants, although their mechanism of action has been controversial since their discovery 25 years ago. Here we present the first direct evidence that proteins of the ABC-F family act to protect the bacterial ribosome from antibiotic-mediated inhibition. Copyright © 2016 Sharkey et al.

  8. DNA replication stress restricts ribosomal DNA copy number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, Devika; Bradford, William D; Freeland, Amy; Cady, Gillian; Wang, Jianmin; Pruitt, Steven C; Gerton, Jennifer L

    2017-09-01

    Ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) in budding yeast are encoded by ~100-200 repeats of a 9.1kb sequence arranged in tandem on chromosome XII, the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) locus. Copy number of rDNA repeat units in eukaryotic cells is maintained far in excess of the requirement for ribosome biogenesis. Despite the importance of the repeats for both ribosomal and non-ribosomal functions, it is currently not known how "normal" copy number is determined or maintained. To identify essential genes involved in the maintenance of rDNA copy number, we developed a droplet digital PCR based assay to measure rDNA copy number in yeast and used it to screen a yeast conditional temperature-sensitive mutant collection of essential genes. Our screen revealed that low rDNA copy number is associated with compromised DNA replication. Further, subculturing yeast under two separate conditions of DNA replication stress selected for a contraction of the rDNA array independent of the replication fork blocking protein, Fob1. Interestingly, cells with a contracted array grew better than their counterparts with normal copy number under conditions of DNA replication stress. Our data indicate that DNA replication stresses select for a smaller rDNA array. We speculate that this liberates scarce replication factors for use by the rest of the genome, which in turn helps cells complete DNA replication and continue to propagate. Interestingly, tumors from mini chromosome maintenance 2 (MCM2)-deficient mice also show a loss of rDNA repeats. Our data suggest that a reduction in rDNA copy number may indicate a history of DNA replication stress, and that rDNA array size could serve as a diagnostic marker for replication stress. Taken together, these data begin to suggest the selective pressures that combine to yield a "normal" rDNA copy number.

  9. DNA replication stress restricts ribosomal DNA copy number.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devika Salim

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs in budding yeast are encoded by ~100-200 repeats of a 9.1kb sequence arranged in tandem on chromosome XII, the ribosomal DNA (rDNA locus. Copy number of rDNA repeat units in eukaryotic cells is maintained far in excess of the requirement for ribosome biogenesis. Despite the importance of the repeats for both ribosomal and non-ribosomal functions, it is currently not known how "normal" copy number is determined or maintained. To identify essential genes involved in the maintenance of rDNA copy number, we developed a droplet digital PCR based assay to measure rDNA copy number in yeast and used it to screen a yeast conditional temperature-sensitive mutant collection of essential genes. Our screen revealed that low rDNA copy number is associated with compromised DNA replication. Further, subculturing yeast under two separate conditions of DNA replication stress selected for a contraction of the rDNA array independent of the replication fork blocking protein, Fob1. Interestingly, cells with a contracted array grew better than their counterparts with normal copy number under conditions of DNA replication stress. Our data indicate that DNA replication stresses select for a smaller rDNA array. We speculate that this liberates scarce replication factors for use by the rest of the genome, which in turn helps cells complete DNA replication and continue to propagate. Interestingly, tumors from mini chromosome maintenance 2 (MCM2-deficient mice also show a loss of rDNA repeats. Our data suggest that a reduction in rDNA copy number may indicate a history of DNA replication stress, and that rDNA array size could serve as a diagnostic marker for replication stress. Taken together, these data begin to suggest the selective pressures that combine to yield a "normal" rDNA copy number.

  10. Studies on the catalytic rate constant of ribosomal peptidyltransferase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synetos, D; Coutsogeorgopoulos, C

    1987-02-20

    A detailed kinetic analysis of a model reaction for the ribosomal peptidyltransferase is described, using fMet-tRNA or Ac-Phe-tRNA as the peptidyl donor and puromycin as the acceptor. The initiation complex (fMet-tRNA X AUG X 70 S ribosome) or (Ac-Phe-tRNA X poly(U) X 70 S ribosome) (complex C) is isolated and then reacted with excess puromycin (S) to give fMet-puromycin or Ac-Phe-puromycin. This reaction (puromycin reaction) is first order at all concentrations of S tested. An important asset of this kinetic analysis is the fact that the relationship between the first order rate constant kobs and [S] shows hyperbolic saturation and that the value of kobs at saturating [S] is a measure of the catalytic rate constant (k cat) of peptidyltransferase in the puromycin reaction. With fMet-tRNA as the donor, this kcat of peptidyltransferase is 8.3 min-1 when the 0.5 M NH4Cl ribosomal wash is present, compared to 3.8 min-1 in its absence. The kcat of peptidyltransferase is 2.0 min-1 when Ac-Phe-tRNA replaces fMet-tRNA in the presence of the ribosomal wash and decreases to 0.8 min-1 in its absence. This kinetic procedure is the best method available for evaluating changes in the activity of peptidyltransferase in vitro. The results suggest that peptidyltransferase is subjected to activation by the binding of fMet-tRNA to the 70 S initiation complex.

  11. Recycling at Penn State's Beaver Stadium. "Recycle on the Go" Success Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2009

    2009-01-01

    With a 13-year-old recycling program, The Pennsylvania State University's (Penn State) Beaver Stadium in the past diverted nearly 30 tons of recyclables per year from local landfills. A new initiative to promote recycling in the stadium's tailgating area has helped Penn State more than triple its old recycling record, collecting 112 tons in 2008.…

  12. Recycling nutrients in algae biorefinery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia Alba, Laura; Vos, M.P.; Torri, C.; Fabbri, D.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Brilman, Derk Willem Frederik

    2013-01-01

    Algal fuel cells: Repeated nutrient recycling is demonstrated by reusing the aqueous phase obtained from the hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of microalgae. This is achieved, for the first time, by performing a complete set of four continuous growth–HTL cycles. Results show similar growth rates in

  13. The Fulton School Recycling Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Jean

    1994-01-01

    Outlines a school recycling project that started as a newspaper collection for library funds and evolved into a community service. Discusses problems that were overcome, strategies for implementation of the project, and related cross-curricular studies and activities. Contains two curriculum mind maps. (LZ)

  14. Controlling adhesive behavior during recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl Houtman; Karen Scallon; Jihui Guo; XinPing Wang; Steve Severtson; Mark Kroll; Mike Nowak

    2004-01-01

    Adhesives can be formulated to facilitate their removal by typical paper recycling unit operations. The investigations described in this paper are focused on determining fundamental properties that control particle size during pulping. While pressure-sensitive adhesives (PSAs) with high elastic moduli tend to survive pulping with larger particles, facestock and...

  15. Recyclization reactions leading to benzimidazoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamedov, Vakhid A; Murtazina, Anna M

    2011-01-01

    The published data on the recyclization reactions that afford benzimidazoles are generalized and systematized. Both classical and new methods of benzimidazole synthesis are considered. Attention is focused on the publications over the recent 10-15 years; of the earlier publications, only those unknown to the wide circle of chemists are analyzed.

  16. Recyclization reactions leading to benzimidazoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamedov, Vakhid A.; Murtazina, Anna M.

    2011-05-01

    The published data on the recyclization reactions that afford benzimidazoles are generalized and systematized. Both classical and new methods of benzimidazole synthesis are considered. Attention is focused on the publications over the recent 10-15 years; of the earlier publications, only those unknown to the wide circle of chemists are analyzed.

  17. The chemical recycle of cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Beyer Schuch

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The chemical recycle of cotton textiles and/or other cellulosic materials for the purpose of manufacturing regenerated high quality textiles fibres is a novel process. The objective of related research is based on the forecast of population growth, on resource scarcity predictions, and on the negative environmental impact of the textile industry. These facts lead the need of broadening the scope for long-term textile-to-textile recycle - as the mechanical recycle of natural fibres serve for limited number of cycles, still depends on input of virgin material, and offer a reduced-in-quality output. Critical analysis of scientific papers, relevant related reports, and personal interviews were the base of this study, which shows viable results in laboratorial scale of using low-quality cellulosic materials as input for the development of high-quality regenerated textile fibres though ecological chemical process. Nevertheless, to scale up and implement this innovative recycle method, other peripheral structures are requested, such as recover schemes or appropriate sort, for instance. Further researches should also be considered in regards to colours and impurities.

  18. The economics of plutonium recycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, R.A.

    1977-11-01

    The individual cost components and the total fuel cycle costs for natural uranium and uranium-plutonium mixed oxide fuel cycles for CANDU-PHW reactors are discussed. A calculation is performed to establish the economic conditions under which plutonium recycle would be economically attractive. (auth)

  19. 76 FR 71861 - America Recycles Day, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ... electronics annually, and without following proper recycling and management practices, the disposal of our old..., and prevent the recovery and reuse of valuable resources. For the well- being of our people and our..., management, and recycling that will accelerate our burgeoning electronics recycling market and create jobs...

  20. 40 CFR 141.76 - Recycle provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recycle provisions. 141.76 Section 141...) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Filtration and Disinfection § 141.76 Recycle provisions. (a... recycle spent filter backwash water, thickener supernatant, or liquids from dewatering processes must meet...

  1. Recycling of nonferrous metals from waste materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urban, A

    1982-02-01

    Recycling of metals was one of the 9 central subjects of the international symposium on 'Materials and Energy from Refuse', held in Antwerpen on October 20 to 22, 1981. Six of 65 poster sessions papers were on metal recycling; four of them discussed the recycling of nonferrous metals.

  2. Tire recycling technologies: What is the future?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saiwari, Sitisaiyidah; van Hoek, Johannes Wilhelmus; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.; Blume, Anke; Heideman, G.

    2016-01-01

    Recycling is a heavily discussed topic nowadays, and recycled tire material to be re-used for the same application is one of the spear points of current R&D activities. Regarding the immense amount of used tires, more than just one outlet for the recycled material is needed. Besides the commonly

  3. Waste management considerations in HTGR recycle operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pence, D.T.; Shefcik, J.J.; Heath, C.A.

    1975-01-01

    Waste management considerations in the recycle of HTGR fuel are different from those encountered in the recycle of LWR fuel. The types of waste associated with HTGR recycle operations are discussed, and treatment methods for some of the wastes are described

  4. School Recycling Programs: A Handbook for Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This brochure describes some of the many recycling program options that schools can implement in their communities. It focuses on implementing actual recycling projects as a way of teaching the importance and benefits of recycling. The text examines the solid waste crisis and why Americans cannot continue to possess a disposable mentality. It…

  5. On the logistics of recycling : an introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flapper, S.D.P.

    1993-01-01

    An overview is given of the different logistic aspects of recycling, where recycling denotes "All the activities required for the reuse of materials and (semi-)finished products after they are no longer used by their last user." Special attention is paid to the forced recycling of durable

  6. Is there a channel in the ribosome for nascent peptide. Labellimg of translating ribosomes with atomar tritium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolb, V A; Kammer, A A; Spirin, A S

    1987-01-01

    The method of tritium bombardment was applied to investigate exposure of growing peptide on the surface of ribsome E.coli. Distribution of radioactivity by fractions is presented. Tritium inclusion in all the aminoacid residues of heteropeptide testifies to its exposure on the surface of the ribosome.

  7. tmRNA-mediated trans-translation as the major ribosome rescue system in a bacterial cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyouta eHimeno

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available tmRNA (transfer messenger RNA; also known as 10Sa RNA or SsrA RNA is a small RNA molecule that is conserved among bacteria. It has structural and functional similarities to tRNA: it has an upper half of the tRNA-like structure, its 5’ end is processed by RNase P, it has typical tRNA-specific base modifications, it is aminoacylated with alanine, it binds to EF-Tu after aminoacylation and it enters the ribosome with EF-Tu and GTP. However, tmRNA lacks an anticodon, and instead it has a coding sequence for a short peptide called tag-peptide. An elaborate interplay of actions of tmRNA as both tRNA and mRNA with the help of a tmRNA-binding protein, SmpB, facilitates trans-translation, which produces a single polypeptide from two mRNA molecules. Initially alanyl-tmRNA in complex with EF-Tu and SmpB enters the vacant A-site of the stalled ribosome like aminoacyl-tRNA but without a codon-anticodon interaction, and subsequently truncated mRNA is replaced with the tag-encoding region of tmRNA. During these processes, not only tmRNA but also SmpB structurally and functionally mimics both tRNA and mRNA. Thus trans-translation rescues the stalled ribosome, thereby allowing recycling of the ribosome. Since the tag-peptide serves as a target of AAA+ proteases, the trans-translation products are preferentially degraded so that they do not accumulate in the cell. Although alternative rescue systems have recently been revealed, trans-translation is the only system that universally exists in bacteria. Furthermore, it is unique in that it employs a small RNA and that it prevents accumulation of nonfunctional proteins from truncated mRNA in the cell. It might play the major role in rescuing the stalled translation in the bacterial cell.

  8. Nuclear fuel cycle waste recycling technology deverlopment - Radioactive metal waste recycling technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Won Zin; Moon, Jei Kwon; Jung, Chong Hun; Park, Sang Yoon

    1998-08-01

    With relation to recycling of the radioactive metal wastes which are generated during operation and decommissioning of nuclear facilities, the following were described in this report. 1. Analysis of the state of the art on the radioactive metal waste recycling technologies. 2. Economical assessment on the radioactive metal waste recycling. 3. Process development for radioactive metal waste recycling, A. Decontamination technologies for radioactive metal waste recycling. B. Decontamination waste treatment technologies, C. Residual radioactivity evaluation technologies. (author). 238 refs., 60 tabs., 79 figs

  9. Proceedings of the workshop on elementary process in hydrogen recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itikawa, Yukikazu.

    1982-03-01

    On September 7 and 8, 1981, a workshop was held at the Institute of Plasma Physics to review the state of the art of the study of elementary processes in hydrogen recycling in fusion reactors. The processes considered are reflection, adsorption, trapping, particle-induced emission, chemical sputtering, and diffusion in metals. The present report is the proceedings of the workshop and contains rather comprehensive reviews each on the processes considered. The workshop was held as part of the joint research program of data compilation at the Research Information Center, Institute of Plasma Physics. (author)

  10. DNA Binding by the Ribosomal DNA Transcription Factor Rrn3 Is Essential for Ribosomal DNA Transcription*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanchick, Ann; Zhi, Huijun; Cavanaugh, Alice H.; Rothblum, Katrina; Schneider, David A.; Rothblum, Lawrence I.

    2013-01-01

    The human homologue of yeast Rrn3 is an RNA polymerase I-associated transcription factor that is essential for ribosomal DNA (rDNA) transcription. The generally accepted model is that Rrn3 functions as a bridge between RNA polymerase I and the transcription factors bound to the committed template. In this model Rrn3 would mediate an interaction between the mammalian Rrn3-polymerase I complex and SL1, the rDNA transcription factor that binds to the core promoter element of the rDNA. In the course of studying the role of Rrn3 in recruitment, we found that Rrn3 was in fact a DNA-binding protein. Analysis of the sequence of Rrn3 identified a domain with sequence similarity to the DNA binding domain of heat shock transcription factor 2. Randomization, or deletion, of the amino acids in this region in Rrn3, amino acids 382–400, abrogated its ability to bind DNA, indicating that this domain was an important contributor to DNA binding by Rrn3. Control experiments demonstrated that these mutant Rrn3 constructs were capable of interacting with both rpa43 and SL1, two other activities demonstrated to be essential for Rrn3 function. However, neither of these Rrn3 mutants was capable of functioning in transcription in vitro. Moreover, although wild-type human Rrn3 complemented a yeast rrn3-ts mutant, the DNA-binding site mutant did not. These results demonstrate that DNA binding by Rrn3 is essential for transcription by RNA polymerase I. PMID:23393135

  11. DNA binding by the ribosomal DNA transcription factor rrn3 is essential for ribosomal DNA transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanchick, Ann; Zhi, Huijun; Cavanaugh, Alice H; Rothblum, Katrina; Schneider, David A; Rothblum, Lawrence I

    2013-03-29

    The human homologue of yeast Rrn3 is an RNA polymerase I-associated transcription factor that is essential for ribosomal DNA (rDNA) transcription. The generally accepted model is that Rrn3 functions as a bridge between RNA polymerase I and the transcription factors bound to the committed template. In this model Rrn3 would mediate an interaction between the mammalian Rrn3-polymerase I complex and SL1, the rDNA transcription factor that binds to the core promoter element of the rDNA. In the course of studying the role of Rrn3 in recruitment, we found that Rrn3 was in fact a DNA-binding protein. Analysis of the sequence of Rrn3 identified a domain with sequence similarity to the DNA binding domain of heat shock transcription factor 2. Randomization, or deletion, of the amino acids in this region in Rrn3, amino acids 382-400, abrogated its ability to bind DNA, indicating that this domain was an important contributor to DNA binding by Rrn3. Control experiments demonstrated that these mutant Rrn3 constructs were capable of interacting with both rpa43 and SL1, two other activities demonstrated to be essential for Rrn3 function. However, neither of these Rrn3 mutants was capable of functioning in transcription in vitro. Moreover, although wild-type human Rrn3 complemented a yeast rrn3-ts mutant, the DNA-binding site mutant did not. These results demonstrate that DNA binding by Rrn3 is essential for transcription by RNA polymerase I.

  12. Fractional Diffusion Equations and Anomalous Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, Luiz Roberto; Kaminski Lenzi, Ervin

    2018-01-01

    Preface; 1. Mathematical preliminaries; 2. A survey of the fractional calculus; 3. From normal to anomalous diffusion; 4. Fractional diffusion equations: elementary applications; 5. Fractional diffusion equations: surface effects; 6. Fractional nonlinear diffusion equation; 7. Anomalous diffusion: anisotropic case; 8. Fractional Schrödinger equations; 9. Anomalous diffusion and impedance spectroscopy; 10. The Poisson–Nernst–Planck anomalous (PNPA) models; References; Index.

  13. Methods of Recycling, Properties and Applications of Recycled Thermoplastic Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina Elena Grigore

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to provide an updated survey of the main thermoplastic polymers in order to obtain recyclable materials for various industrial and indoor applications. The synthesis approach significantly impacts the properties of such materials and these properties in turn have a significant impact on their applications. Due to the ideal properties of the thermoplastic polymers such as corrosion resistance, low density or user-friendly design, the production of plastics has increased markedly over the last 60 years, becoming more used than aluminum or other metals. Also, recycling is one of the most important actions currently available to reduce these impacts and represents one of the most dynamic areas in the plastics industry today.

  14. An industry response to recycle 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motl, G.P.; Loiselle, V.

    1996-01-01

    The US DOE is expected to issue a policy early this year articulating DOE's position on the recycle of DOE radioactive scrap metal. In anticipation of this 'Recycle 2000' initiative, the nuclear industry has formed a new trade association called the Association of Radioactive Metal Recyclers (ARMR). This article describes the Recycle 2000 initiative, provides some background on the ARMR and its membership, and identifies industry views on the actions to be taken and issues to be resolved in Recycle 2000 is to become a reality

  15. Carambola optics for recycling of light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leutz, Ralf; Fu, Ling; Ries, Harald

    2006-04-20

    Recycling of light allows the luminance (radiance) emitted by a light source to be increased at the cost of reducing the total luminous flux (radiant power). Recycling of light means returning part of the emitted light to the source, where part of it will escape absorption. An optical design that is suitable for multiple and controlled recycling is described. Carambola optics is named for its resemblance to star fruit. Several pairs of mirrors or prisms redirect light repeatedly onto the source, thus achieving multiple transits of the light through the source. This recycled light exits the carambola in the same phase space as light directly emitted and not recycled.

  16. Photoaffinity labeling of rat liver ribosomes by N-(2-Nitro-4-azidobenzoyl)puromycin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, H.; Stahl, J.; Bielka, H.

    1979-01-01

    N-(2-nitro-4-azidobenzoyl)-[ 3 H]puromycin (NAB-puromycin) was synthesized as a photoreactive derivative of puromycin in order to detect ribosomal proteins located near the peptidyltransferase centre of rat liver ribosomes. Irradiation of ribosome-NAB-puromycin complexes leads to covalent attachment of the affinity label to proteins of the large ribosomal subunit, in particular to proteins L28/29, and, to a somewhat lower extent, to proteins L4, L6, L10 and L24. The results are discussed in the light of earlier studies performed with other affinity labels that attacked the peptidyltransferase region of rat liver ribosomes. (author)

  17. Translation activity of chimeric ribosomes composed of Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis or Geobacillus stearothermophilus subunits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayaka Tsuji

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Ribosome composition, consisting of rRNA and ribosomal proteins, is highly conserved among a broad range of organisms. However, biochemical studies focusing on ribosomal subunit exchangeability between organisms remain limited. In this study, we show that chimeric ribosomes, composed of Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis or E. coli and Geobacillus stearothermophilus subunits, are active for β-galactosidase translation in a highly purified E. coli translation system. Activities of the chimeric ribosomes showed only a modest decrease when using E. coli 30 S subunits, indicating functional conservation of the 50 S subunit between these bacterial species.

  18. Unstable structure of ribosomal particles synthesized in. gamma. -irradiated Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, H; Morita, K [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1975-06-01

    Stability of Escherichia coli ribosomes newly synthesized after ..gamma..-irradiation was compared with that of normal ribosomes. The ribosomal particles around 70-S synthesized in irradiated cells were more sensitive to digestion by pancreatic ribonuclease A. A larger number of the salt-unstable '50-S' precursor particles existed in the extract from irradiated cells than in the extract from unirradiated cells. These facts suggest that ribosomal particles, synthesized during an earlier stage in irradiated cells, maintain an incomplete structure even though they are not distinguishable from normal ribosomes by means of sucrose density-gradient centrifugation.

  19. Recycling and combustion are complementary; Recycling und Verbrennung bedingen einander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thome-Kozmiensky, Karl J. [vivis CONSULT GmbH, Nietwerder (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    In Germany, the waste management has developed to a medium position between supply and disposal. Numerous waste management companies also operate sorting plants, composting plants, biogas plants, wind power plants, biomass conversion plants and solar power plants. In addition to their traditional tasks, some companies of the energy sector are devoted to the energetic waste management and recycling. Nearly all companies have recognized this trend and have implemented the utilization of renewable energies including waste materials into their strategy.

  20. Cost effectiveness of recycling: A systems model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonjes, David J., E-mail: david.tonjes@stonybrook.edu [Department of Technology and Society, College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3560 (United States); Waste Reduction and Management Institute, School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-5000 (United States); Center for Bioenergy Research and Development, Advanced Energy Research and Technology Center, Stony Brook University, 1000 Innovation Rd., Stony Brook, NY 11794-6044 (United States); Mallikarjun, Sreekanth, E-mail: sreekanth.mallikarjun@stonybrook.edu [Department of Technology and Society, College of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3560 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Curbside collection of recyclables reduces overall system costs over a range of conditions. • When avoided costs for recyclables are large, even high collection costs are supported. • When avoided costs for recyclables are not great, there are reduced opportunities for savings. • For common waste compositions, maximizing curbside recyclables collection always saves money. - Abstract: Financial analytical models of waste management systems have often found that recycling costs exceed direct benefits, and in order to economically justify recycling activities, externalities such as household expenses or environmental impacts must be invoked. Certain more empirically based studies have also found that recycling is more expensive than disposal. Other work, both through models and surveys, have found differently. Here we present an empirical systems model, largely drawn from a suburban Long Island municipality. The model accounts for changes in distribution of effort as recycling tonnages displace disposal tonnages, and the seven different cases examined all show that curbside collection programs that manage up to between 31% and 37% of the waste stream should result in overall system savings. These savings accrue partially because of assumed cost differences in tip fees for recyclables and disposed wastes, and also because recycling can result in a more efficient, cost-effective collection program. These results imply that increases in recycling are justifiable due to cost-savings alone, not on more difficult to measure factors that may not impact program budgets.

  1. Innovative Vacuum Distillation for Magnesium Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tianbai; Li, Naiyi; Mei, Xiaoming; Yu, Alfred; Shang, Shixiang

    Magnesium recycling now becomes a very important subject as magnesium consumption increases fast around the world. All commonly used magnesium die-casting alloys can be recycled and recovered to the primary metal quality. The recycled materials may be comprised of biscuits, sprues, runners, flash, overflows, dross, sludge, scrap parts, and old parts that are returned from service, An innovative magnesium recycle method, vacuum distillation, is developed and proved out to be able to recycle magnesium scraps, especially machining chips, oily magnesium, smelting sludge, dross or the mixture. With this process at a specific temperature and environment condition, magnesium in scraps can be gasified and then solidified to become crystal magnesium crown. This `recycled' magnesium crown is collected and used as the raw material of magnesium alloys. The experimental results show the vacuum distillation is a feasible and plausible method to recycle magnesium. Further, the cost analysis will be addressed in this paper.

  2. Feedwater recycling system in BWR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimamoto, Yoshiharu.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the reactor safety by preventing thermal stresses and cracks generated in structural materials due to the fluctuations in the temperature for high temperature water - low temperature water mixture near the feedwater nozzle. Method: Feedwater pipes are connected to a pressure vessel not directly but by way of a flow control valve. While the recycled water is circulated from an inlet nozzle to an outlet nozzle through a recycle pump, flow control valve and recycling pipeways, feedwater is fed from the feedwater pipes to the recycling pipeways by way of the flow control valve. More specifically, since the high temperature recycle water and the low temperature recycle water are mixed within the pipeways, the temperature fluctuations resulted from the temperature difference between the recycle water and the feedwater is reduced to prevent thermal fatigue and generation of cracks thereby securing the reactor safety. (Furukawa, Y.)

  3. Using the Ribodeblur pipeline to recover A-sites from yeast ribosome profiling data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Kingsford, Carl; McManus, C Joel

    2018-03-15

    Ribosome profiling has emerged as a powerful technique to study mRNA translation. Ribosome profiling has the potential to determine the relative quantities and locations of ribosomes on mRNA genome wide. Taking full advantage of this approach requires accurate measurement of ribosome locations. However, experimental inconsistencies often obscure the positional information encoded in ribosome profiling data. Here, we describe the Ribodeblur pipeline, a computational analysis tool that uses a maximum likelihood framework to infer ribosome positions from heterogeneous datasets. Ribodeblur is simple to install, and can be run on an average modern Mac or Linux-based laptop. We detail the process of applying the pipeline to high-coverage ribosome profiling data in yeast, and discuss important considerations for potential extension to other organisms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. In vivo labelling of functional ribosomes reveals spatial regulation during starvation in Podospora anserina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silar Philippe

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To date, in eukaryotes, ribosomal protein expression is known to be regulated at the transcriptional and/or translational levels. But other forms of regulation may be possible. Results Here, we report the successful tagging of functional ribosomal particles with a S7-GFP chimaeric protein, making it possible to observe in vivo ribosome dynamics in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina. Microscopic observations revealed a novel kind of ribosomal protein regulation during the passage between cell growth and stationary phases, with a transient accumulation of ribosomal proteins and/or ribosome subunits in the nucleus, possibly the nucleolus, being observed at the beginning of stationary phase. Conclusion Nuclear sequestration can be another level of ribosomal protein regulation in eukaryotic cells.This may contribute to the regulation of cell growth and division.

  5. In vivo labelling of functional ribosomes reveals spatial regulation during starvation in Podospora anserina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalucque, Hervé; Silar, Philippe

    2000-01-01

    Background To date, in eukaryotes, ribosomal protein expression is known to be regulated at the transcriptional and/or translational levels. But other forms of regulation may be possible. Results Here, we report the successful tagging of functional ribosomal particles with a S7-GFP chimaeric protein, making it possible to observe in vivo ribosome dynamics in the filamentous fungus Podospora anserina. Microscopic observations revealed a novel kind of ribosomal protein regulation during the passage between cell growth and stationary phases, with a transient accumulation of ribosomal proteins and/or ribosome subunits in the nucleus, possibly the nucleolus, being observed at the beginning of stationary phase. Conclusion Nuclear sequestration can be another level of ribosomal protein regulation in eukaryotic cells.This may contribute to the regulation of cell growth and division. PMID:11112985

  6. Enzyme recycling in lignocellulosic biorefineries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henning; Pinelo, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    platform. Cellulases are the most important enzymes required in this process, but the complex nature of lignocellulose requires several other enzymes (hemicellulases and auxiliary enzymes) for efficient hydrolysis. Enzyme recycling increases the catalytic productivity of the enzymes by reusing them...... for several batches of hydrolysis, and thereby reduces the overall cost associated with the hydrolysis. Research on this subject has been ongoing for many years and several promising technologies and methods have been developed and demonstrated. But only in a very few cases have these technologies been...... upscaled and tested in industrial settings, mainly because of many difficulties with recycling of enzymes from the complex lignocellulose hydrolyzate at industrially relevant conditions, i.e., high solids loadings. The challenges are associated with the large number of different enzymes required...

  7. RECYCLING OF FERROUS METAL SHAVINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Rovin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The most advanced and universal way of chips recycling of ferrous metals is the technology of direct chips remelting in rotational tilting furnaces (RBF directly at the enterprises-sources of waste generation. However common practice of iron and steel chips recycling is based on its briquetting and subsequent remelting in traditional furnaces.For cost reduction when chip briquetting and organization of hot briquetting sections in places of its formation highly efficient equipment – rotational dryer and RBF is proposed. The possibility and effectiveness of developed furnaces for lowand high-temperature chip heating in briquetting lines is proved. Thermal efficiency of such furnaces when dispersed materials heating is much higher than drum or feed-through furnaces. Hot briquetting of shavings reduces the pressing force, which reduces the specific energy consumption. The use of rotary kilns can reduce technological operations and equipment of production sites for the manufacture of briquettes

  8. Vanadium recycling for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolan, T.J.; Butterworth, G.J.

    1994-04-01

    Very stringent purity specifications must be applied to low activation vanadium alloys, in order to meet recycling goals requiring low residual dose rates after 50--100 years. Methods of vanadium production and purification which might meet these limits are described. Following a suitable cooling period after their use, the vanadium alloy components can be melted in a controlled atmosphere to remove volatile radioisotopes. The aim of the melting and decontamination process will be the achievement of dose rates low enough for ''hands-on'' refabrication of new reactor components from the reclaimed metal. The processes required to permit hands-on recycling appear to be technically feasible, and demonstration experiments are recommended. Background information relevant to the use of vanadium alloys in fusion reactors, including health hazards, resources, and economics, is provided

  9. DWPF recycle minimization: Brainstorming session

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobs, R.A.; Poirier, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    The recycle stream from the DWPF constitutes a major source of water addition to the High Level Waste evaporator system. As now designed, the entire flow of 3.5 to 6.5 gal/min (at sign 25% and 75% attainment, respectively), or 2 gal/min during idling, flow to the 2H evaporator system (Tank 43). Substantial improvement in the HLW water balance and tank volume management is expected if the DWPF recycle to the HLW evaporator system can be significantly reduced. A task team has been appointed to study alternatives for reducing the flow to the HLW evaporator system and make recommendations for implementation and/or further study and evaluation. The brainstorming session detailed in this report was designed to produce the first cut options for the task team to further evaluate

  10. Pactamycin binding site on archaebacterial and eukaryotic ribosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tejedor, F.; Amils, R.; Ballesta, J.P.G.

    1987-01-01

    The presence of a photoreactive acetophenone group in the protein synthesis inhibitor pactamycin and the possibility of obtaining active iodinated derivatives that retain full biological activity allow the antibiotic binding site on Saccharomyces cerevisiae and archaebacterium Sulfolobus solfataricus ribosomes to be photoaffinity labeled. Four major labeled proteins have been identified in the yeast ribosomes, i.e., YS10, YS18, YS21/24, and YS30, while proteins AL1a, AS10/L8, AS18/20, and AS21/22 appeared as radioactive spots in S. solfataricus. There seems to be a correlation between some of the proteins labeled in yeast and those previously reported in Escherichia coli indicating that the pactamycin binding sites of both species, which are in the small subunit close to the initiation factors and mRNA binding sites, must have similar characteristics

  11. Ribosome-catalyzed formation of an abnormal peptide analogue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesser, J.R.; Chorghade, M.S.; Hecht, S.M.

    1986-01-01

    The peptidyl-tRNA analogue N-(chloracetyl) phenylalanyl-tRNA/sup Phe/ was prepared by chemical aminoacylation and prebound to the P site of Escherichia coli ribosomes in response to poly(uridylic acid). Admixture of phenylalanyl-tRNA/sup Phe/ to the A site resulted in the formation of two dipeptides, one of which was found by displacement of chloride ion from the peptidyl-tRNA. This constitutes the first example of ribosome-mediated formation of a peptide of altered connectivity and suggests a need for revision of the current model of peptide bond formation. Also suggested by the present finding is the feasibility of utilizing tRNAs to prepare polypeptides of altered connectivity in an in vitro protein biosynthesizing system. [ 32 P]-oligo(rA), [ 3 H]- and [ 14 C] phenylalanines were used in the assay of the peptidye-tRNA analogue

  12. Transcriptional activation of ribosomal RNA genes during compensatory renal hypertrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouellette, A.J.; Moonka, R.; Zelenetz, A.; Malt, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The overall rate of rDNA transcription increases by 50% during the first 24 hours of compensatory renal hypertrophy in the mouse. To study mechanisms of ribosome accumulation after uninephrectomy, transcription rates were measured in isolated kidneys by transcriptional runoff. 32 P-labeled nascent transcripts were hybridized to blots containing linearized, denatured cloned rDNA, and hybridization was quantitated autoradiographically and by direct counting. Overall transcriptional activity of rDNA was increased by 30% above control levels at 6 hrs after nephrectomy and by 50% at 12, 18, and 24 hrs after operation. Hybridizing RNA was insensitive to inhibiby alpha-amanitin, and no hybridization was detected to vector DNA. Thus, accelerated rDNA transcription is one regulatory element in the accretion of ribosomes in renal growth, and the regulatory event is an early event. Mechanisms of activation may include enhanced transcription of active genes or induction of inactive DNA

  13. Ribosomal protein S14 transcripts are edited in Oenothera mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, W; Unseld, M; Wissinger, B; Brennicke, A

    1990-01-01

    The gene encoding ribosomal protein S14 (rps14) in Oenothera mitochondria is located upstream of the cytochrome b gene (cob). Sequence analysis of independently derived cDNA clones covering the entire rps14 coding region shows two nucleotides edited from the genomic DNA to the mRNA derived sequences by C to U modifications. A third editing event occurs four nucleotides upstream of the AUG initiation codon and improves a potential ribosome binding site. A CGG codon specifying arginine in a position conserved in evolution between chloroplasts and E. coli as a UGG tryptophan codon is not edited in any of the cDNAs analysed. An inverted repeat 3' of an unidentified open reading frame is located upstream of the rps14 gene. The inverted repeat sequence is highly conserved at analogous regions in other Oenothera mitochondrial loci. Images PMID:2326162

  14. Slag recycling of irradiated vanadium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorman, P.K.

    1995-01-01

    An experimental inductoslag apparatus to recycle irradiated vanadium was fabricated and tested. An experimental electroslag apparatus was also used to test possible slags. The testing was carried out with slag materials that were fabricated along with impurity bearing vanadium samples. Results obtained include computer simulated thermochemical calculations and experimentally determined removal efficiencies of the transmutation impurities. Analyses of the samples before and after testing were carried out to determine if the slag did indeed remove the transmutation impurities from the irradiated vanadium

  15. Control device for recycling pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Yoshihiro.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to control the recycling flow rate by the variation coefficient of the recycling flow rate corresponding to the state of the reactor power. Constitution: A number of rotation of an electric power generator for supplying a driving power to recycling pump is calculated in a rotational number setting section such that the deviation between the actual measurement signal for the flow rate of steams from the reactor and an instruction signal for the steam flow rate is reduced to zero. The velocity ratio of the fluid coupling for connecting the motor with the electric power generator is calculated in a rotational number adjusting section such that the deviation between the output signal from the setting section and the measuring signal from the electric power generator is reduced to zero, and a set velocity ratio signal is outputted. The set velocity ratio signal, set velocity ratio measurement signal from the fluid coupling and the rotational number measuring signal for the electric power generator are inputted into a velocity ratio control section to control the velocity ratio of the fluid coupling such that the deviation between both of the velocity ratio signal inputs is reduced to zero by the variation coefficient depending on the number of rotation of the electric power generator. (Sekiya, K.)

  16. Recycle flow rate control device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumida, Susumu; Mizuno, Hiroshi; Oka, Yoko.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To attain stable low hydraulic power operation with no abnormal changes in the reactor water level by smoothly varying the speed control for the recycling pump for regulating the reactor core flowrate in BWR type reactors. Constitution: In a recycling control system equipped with an internal pump having a response characteristic higher by ten and several times or more than that of prior pump, a previously programed recycling run-back signal is inputted to a speed regulator upon load interruption of the electric generator to thereby control the operation of the internal pump driving motor such that the speed is decreased rapidly at the initial state and smoothly thereafter. The run-back singal is passed through a primary delay circuit so that the interruption of the motor operation does not directly performed by the signal interruption upon failure. As the result, the amount of void produced is also made smooth and the reactor water level varies smoothly as well, whereby the reactor power can be reduced with a sufficient margin. (Kamimura, M.)

  17. Used Battery Collection and Recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pistoia, G.; Wiaux, J.P.; Wolsky, S.P.

    2001-01-01

    This book covers all aspects of spent battery collection and recycling. First of all, the legislative and regulatory updates are addressed and the main institutions and programs worldwide are mentioned. An overview of the existing battery systems, of the chemicals used in them and their hazardous properties is made, followed by a survey of the major industrial recycling processes. The safety and efficiency of such processes are stressed. Particular consideration is given to the released emissions, i.e. to the impact on human health and the environment. Methods for the evaluation of this impact are described. Several chapters deal with specific battery chemistries: lead-acid, nickel-cadmium and nickel-metal hydride, zinc (carbon and alkaline), lithium and lithium-ion. For each type of battery, details are provided on the collection/recycling process from the technical, economic and environmental viewpoint. The chemicals recoverable from each process and remarketable are mentioned. A chapter deals with recovering of the large batteries powering electric vehicles, e.g. lead-acid, nickel-metal hydride and lithium-ion. The final chapter is devoted to the important topic of collecting batteries from used electrical and electronic equipment. The uncontrolled disposal of these devices still containing their batteries contributes to environmental pollution

  18. Lithium actinide recycle process demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, G.K.; Pierce, R.D.; McPheeters, C.C. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Several pyrochemical processes have been developed in the Chemical Technology Division of Argonne Laboratory for recovery of actinide elements from LWR spent fuel. The lithium process was selected as the reference process from among the options. In this process the LWR oxide spent fuel is reduced by lithium at 650{degrees}C in the presence of molten LiCl. The Li{sub 2}O formed during the reduction process is soluble in the salt. The spent salt and lithium are recycled after the Li{sub 2}O is electrochemically reduced. The oxygen is liberated as CO{sub 2} at a carbon anode or oxygen at an inert anode. The reduced metal components of the LWR spent fuel are separated from the LiCL salt phase and introduced into an electrorefiner. The electrorefining step separates the uranium and transuranium (TRU) elements into two product streams. The uranium product, which comprises about 96% of the LWR spent fuel mass, may be enriched for recycle into the LWR fuel cycle, stored for future use in breeder reactors, or converted to a suitable form for disposal as waste. The TRU product can be recycled as fast reactor fuel or can be alloyed with constituents of the LWR cladding material to produce a stable waste form.

  19. The subcellular distribution of the human ribosomal "stalk" components: P1, P2 and P0 proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tchórzewski, Marek; Krokowski, Dawid; Rzeski, Wojciech

    2003-01-01

    The ribosomal "stalk" structure is a distinct lateral protuberance located on the large ribosomal subunit in prokaryotic, as well as in eukaryotic cells. In eukaryotes, this ribosomal structure is composed of the acidic ribosomal P proteins, forming two hetero-dimers (P1/P2) attached...

  20. Assembly constraints drive co-evolution among ribosomal constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, Saurav; Akashi, Hiroshi; Kundu, Sudip

    2015-06-23

    Ribosome biogenesis, a central and essential cellular process, occurs through sequential association and mutual co-folding of protein-RNA constituents in a well-defined assembly pathway. Here, we construct a network of co-evolving nucleotide/amino acid residues within the ribosome and demonstrate that assembly constraints are strong predictors of co-evolutionary patterns. Predictors of co-evolution include a wide spectrum of structural reconstitution events, such as cooperativity phenomenon, protein-induced rRNA reconstitutions, molecular packing of different rRNA domains, protein-rRNA recognition, etc. A correlation between folding rate of small globular proteins and their topological features is known. We have introduced an analogous topological characteristic for co-evolutionary network of ribosome, which allows us to differentiate between rRNA regions subjected to rapid reconstitutions from those hindered by kinetic traps. Furthermore, co-evolutionary patterns provide a biological basis for deleterious mutation sites and further allow prediction of potential antibiotic targeting sites. Understanding assembly pathways of multicomponent macromolecules remains a key challenge in biophysics. Our study provides a 'proof of concept' that directly relates co-evolution to biophysical interactions during multicomponent assembly and suggests predictive power to identify candidates for critical functional interactions as well as for assembly-blocking antibiotic target sites. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  1. Photoaffinity labeling of the pactamycin binding site on eubacterial ribosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tejedor, F.; Amils, R.; Ballesta, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    Pactamycin, an inhibitor of the initial steps of protein synthesis, has an acetophenone group in its chemical structure that makes the drug a potentially photoreactive molecule. In addition, the presence of a phenolic residue makes it easily susceptible to radioactive labeling. Through iodination, one radioactive derivative of pactamycin has been obtained with biological activities similar to the unmodified drug when tested on in vivo and cell-free systems. With the use of [ 125 I]iodopactamycin, ribosomes of Escherichia coli have been photolabeled under conditions that preserve the activity of the particles and guarantee the specificity of the binding sites. Under these conditions, RNA is preferentially labeled when free, small ribosomal subunits are photolabeled, but proteins are the main target in the whole ribosome. This indicates that an important conformational change takes place in the binding site on association of the two subunits. The major labeled proteins are S2, S4, S18, S21, and L13. These proteins in the pactamycin binding site are probably related to the initiation step of protein synthesis

  2. Further characterization of ribosome binding to thylakoid membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurewitz, J.; Jagendorf, A.T.

    1987-01-01

    Previous work indicated more polysomes bound to pea (Pisum sativum cv Progress No. 9) thylakoids in light than in the dark, in vivo. With isolated intact chloroplasts incubated in darkness, addition of MgATP had no effect but 24 to 74% more RNA was thylakoid-bound at pH 8.3 than at pH 7. Thus, the major effect of light on ribosome-binding in vivo may be due to higher stroma pH. In isolated pea chloroplasts, initiation inhibitors (pactamycin and kanamycin) decreased the extent of RNA binding, and elongation inhibitors (lincomycin and streptomycin) increased it. Thus, cycling of ribosomes is controlled by translation, initiation, and termination. Bound RNA accounted for 19 to 24% of the total chloroplast RNA and the incorporation of [ 3 H]leucine into thylakoids was proportional to the amount of this bound RNA. These data support the concept that stroma ribosomes are recruited into thylakoid polysomes, which are active in synthesizing thylakoid proteins

  3. Structure of Vibrio cholerae ribosome hibernation promoting factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Bari, Heather; Berry, Edward A.

    2013-01-01

    The X-ray crystal structure of ribosome hibernation promoting factor from V. cholerae has been determined at 2.0 Å resolution. The crystal was phased by two-wavelength MAD using cocrystallized cobalt. The X-ray crystal structure of ribosome hibernation promoting factor (HPF) from Vibrio cholerae is presented at 2.0 Å resolution. The crystal was phased by two-wavelength MAD using cocrystallized cobalt. The asymmetric unit contained two molecules of HPF linked by four Co atoms. The metal-binding sites observed in the crystal are probably not related to biological function. The structure of HPF has a typical β–α–β–β–β–α fold consistent with previous structures of YfiA and HPF from Escherichia coli. Comparison of the new structure with that of HPF from E. coli bound to the Thermus thermophilus ribosome [Polikanov et al. (2012 ▶), Science, 336, 915–918] shows that no significant structural changes are induced in HPF by binding

  4. A new version of the RDP (Ribosomal Database Project)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maidak, B. L.; Cole, J. R.; Parker, C. T. Jr; Garrity, G. M.; Larsen, N.; Li, B.; Lilburn, T. G.; McCaughey, M. J.; Olsen, G. J.; Overbeek, R.; hide

    1999-01-01

    The Ribosomal Database Project (RDP-II), previously described by Maidak et al. [ Nucleic Acids Res. (1997), 25, 109-111], is now hosted by the Center for Microbial Ecology at Michigan State University. RDP-II is a curated database that offers ribosomal RNA (rRNA) nucleotide sequence data in aligned and unaligned forms, analysis services, and associated computer programs. During the past two years, data alignments have been updated and now include >9700 small subunit rRNA sequences. The recent development of an ObjectStore database will provide more rapid updating of data, better data accuracy and increased user access. RDP-II includes phylogenetically ordered alignments of rRNA sequences, derived phylogenetic trees, rRNA secondary structure diagrams, and various software programs for handling, analyzing and displaying alignments and trees. The data are available via anonymous ftp (ftp.cme.msu. edu) and WWW (http://www.cme.msu.edu/RDP). The WWW server provides ribosomal probe checking, approximate phylogenetic placement of user-submitted sequences, screening for possible chimeric rRNA sequences, automated alignment, and a suggested placement of an unknown sequence on an existing phylogenetic tree. Additional utilities also exist at RDP-II, including distance matrix, T-RFLP, and a Java-based viewer of the phylogenetic trees that can be used to create subtrees.

  5. Simulation and analysis of single-ribosome translation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinoco, Ignacio Jr; Wen, Jin-Der

    2009-01-01

    In the cell, proteins are synthesized by ribosomes in a multi-step process called translation. The ribosome translocates along the messenger RNA to read the codons that encode the amino acid sequence of a protein. Elongation factors, including EF-G and EF-Tu, are used to catalyze the process. Recently, we have shown that translation can be followed at the single-molecule level using optical tweezers; this technique allows us to study the kinetics of translation by measuring the lifetime the ribosome spends at each codon. Here, we analyze the data from single-molecule experiments and fit the data with simple kinetic models. We also simulate the translation kinetics based on a multi-step mechanism from ensemble kinetic measurements. The mean lifetimes from the simulation were consistent with our experimental single-molecule measurements. We found that the calculated lifetime distributions were fit in general by equations with up to five rate-determining steps. Two rate-determining steps were only obtained at low concentrations of elongation factors. These analyses can be used to design new single-molecule experiments to better understand the kinetics and mechanism of translation

  6. The Rejuvenating Effect in Hot Asphalt Recycling by Mortar Transfer Ratio and Image Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fusong; Wang, Zipeng; Li, Chao; Xiao, Yue; Wu, Shaopeng; Pan, Pan

    2017-05-24

    Using a rejuvenator to improve the performance of asphalt pavement is an effective and economic way of hot asphalt recycling. This research analyzes the rejuvenating effect on aged asphalt by means of a Mortar Transfer Ratio (MTR) test, which concerns the ratio of asphalt mortar that moves from recycled aggregates (RAP aggregates) to fresh added aggregates when aged asphalt is treated with a regenerating agent and comes into contact with fresh aggregates. The proposed MTR test analyzes the regeneration in terms of the softening degree on aged asphalt when the rejuvenator is applied. The covered area ratio is studied with an image analyzing tool to understand the possibility of mortar transferring from RAP aggregates to fresh aggregates. Additionally, a micro-crack closure test is conducted and observed through a microscope. The repairing ability and diffusion characteristics of micro-cracks can therefore be analyzed. The test results demonstrate that the proposed mortar transfer ratio is a feasible way to evaluate rejuvenator diffusion during hot recycling. The mortar transfer ratio and uncovered area ratio on fresh aggregates are compatible, and can be used to quantify the contribution of the rejuvenator. Within a certain temperature range, the diffusing effect of the rejuvenator is better when the diffusing temperature is higher. The diffusion time of the rejuvenator is optimum when diffusion occurs for 4-8 h. When the rejuvenator is properly applied, the rough and cracking surface can be repaired, resulting in better covered aggregates. The micro-closure analysis visually indicates that rejuvenators can be used to repair the RAP aggregates during hot recycling.

  7. Heterogeneous all actinide recycling in LWR all actinide cycle closure concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tondinelli, Luciano

    1980-01-01

    A project for the elimination of transuranium elements (Waste Actinides, WA) by neutron transmutation is developed in a commercial BWR with U-Pu (Fuel Actinides, FA) recycle. The project is based on the All Actinide Cycle Closure concept: 1) closure of the 'back end' of the fuel cycle, U-Pu coprocessing, 2) waste actinide disposal by neutron transmutation. The reactor core consists of Pu-island fuel assemblies containing WAs in target pins. Two parallel reprocessing lines for FAs and WAs are provided. Mass balance, hazard measure, spontaneous activity during 10 recycles are calculated. Conclusions are: the reduction in All Actinide inventory achieved by Heterogeneous All Actinide Recycling is on the order of 83% after 10 recycles. The U235 enrichment needed for a constant end of cycle reactivity decreases for increasing number of recycles after the 4th recycle. A diffusion-burnup calculation of the pin power peak factors in the fuel assembly shows that design limits can be satisfied. A strong effort should be devoted to the solution of the problems related to high values of spontaneous emission by the target pins

  8. Management options for recycling radioactive scrap metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehmel, J.C.; MacKinney, J.; Bartlett, J.

    1997-02-01

    The feasibility and advantages of recycling radioactive scrap metals (RSM) have yet to be assessed, given the unique technical, regulatory, safety, and cost-benefit issues that have already been raised by a concerned recycling industry. As is known, this industry has been repeatedly involved with the accidental recycling of radioactive sources and, in some cases, with costly consequences. If recycling were deemed to be a viable option, it might have to be implemented with regulatory monitoring and controls. Its implementation may have to consider various and complex issues and address the requirements and concerns of distinctly different industries. There are three basic options for the recycling of such scraps. They are: (1) recycling through the existing network of metal-scrap dealers and brokers, (2) recycling directly and only with specific steelmills, or (3) recycling through regional processing centers. Under the first option, scrap dealers and brokers would receive material from RSM generators and determine at which steelmills such scraps would be recycled. For the second option, RSM generators would deal directly with selected steelmills under specific agreements. For the third option, generators would ship scraps only to regional centers for processing and shipment to participating steelmills. This paper addresses the potential advantages of each option, identifies the types of arrangements that would need to be secured among all parties, and attempts to assess the receptivity of the recycling industry to each option.

  9. Deep water recycling through time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magni, Valentina; Bouilhol, Pierre; van Hunen, Jeroen

    2014-11-01

    We investigate the dehydration processes in subduction zones and their implications for the water cycle throughout Earth's history. We use a numerical tool that combines thermo-mechanical models with a thermodynamic database to examine slab dehydration for present-day and early Earth settings and its consequences for the deep water recycling. We investigate the reactions responsible for releasing water from the crust and the hydrated lithospheric mantle and how they change with subduction velocity ( v s ), slab age ( a ) and mantle temperature (T m ). Our results show that faster slabs dehydrate over a wide area: they start dehydrating shallower and they carry water deeper into the mantle. We parameterize the amount of water that can be carried deep into the mantle, W (×10 5 kg/m 2 ), as a function of v s (cm/yr), a (Myrs), and T m (°C):[Formula: see text]. We generally observe that a 1) 100°C increase in the mantle temperature, or 2) ∼15 Myr decrease of plate age, or 3) decrease in subduction velocity of ∼2 cm/yr all have the same effect on the amount of water retained in the slab at depth, corresponding to a decrease of ∼2.2×10 5 kg/m 2 of H 2 O. We estimate that for present-day conditions ∼26% of the global influx water, or 7×10 8 Tg/Myr of H 2 O, is recycled into the mantle. Using a realistic distribution of subduction parameters, we illustrate that deep water recycling might still be possible in early Earth conditions, although its efficiency would generally decrease. Indeed, 0.5-3.7 × 10 8 Tg/Myr of H 2 O could still be recycled in the mantle at 2.8 Ga. Deep water recycling might be possible even in early Earth conditions We provide a scaling law to estimate the amount of H 2 O flux deep into the mantle Subduction velocity has a a major control on the crustal dehydration pattern.

  10. Heterogeneous Ribosomes Preferentially Translate Distinct Subpools of mRNAs Genome-wide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhen; Fujii, Kotaro; Kovary, Kyle M; Genuth, Naomi R; Röst, Hannes L; Teruel, Mary N; Barna, Maria

    2017-07-06

    Emerging studies have linked the ribosome to more selective control of gene regulation. However, an outstanding question is whether ribosome heterogeneity at the level of core ribosomal proteins (RPs) exists and enables ribosomes to preferentially translate specific mRNAs genome-wide. Here, we measured the absolute abundance of RPs in translating ribosomes and profiled transcripts that are enriched or depleted from select subsets of ribosomes within embryonic stem cells. We find that heterogeneity in RP composition endows ribosomes with differential selectivity for translating subpools of transcripts, including those controlling metabolism, cell cycle, and development. As an example, mRNAs enriched in binding to RPL10A/uL1-containing ribosomes are shown to require RPL10A/uL1 for their efficient translation. Within several of these transcripts, this level of regulation is mediated, at least in part, by internal ribosome entry sites. Together, these results reveal a critical functional link between ribosome heterogeneity and the post-transcriptional circuitry of gene expression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Diffusion bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.C.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for joining beryllium to beryllium by diffusion bonding. At least one surface portion of at least two beryllium pieces is coated with nickel. A coated surface portion is positioned in a contiguous relationship with another surface portion and subjected to an environment having an atmosphere at a pressure lower than ambient pressure. A force is applied on the beryllium pieces for causing the contiguous surface portions to abut against each other. The contiguous surface portions are heated to a maximum temperature less than the melting temperature of the beryllium, and the applied force is decreased while increasing the temperature after attaining a temperature substantially above room temperature. A portion of the applied force is maintained at a temperature corresponding to about maximum temperature for a duration sufficient to effect the diffusion bond between the contiguous surface portions

  12. ZZ WPPR, Pu Recycling Benchmark Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, D.; Mattes, M.; Delpech, Marc; Juanola, Marc

    2002-01-01

    Description of program or function: The NEA NSC Working Party on Physics of Plutonium Recycling has commissioned a series of benchmarks covering: - Plutonium recycling in pressurized-water reactors; - Void reactivity effect in pressurized-water reactors; - Fast Plutonium-burner reactors: beginning of life; - Plutonium recycling in fast reactors; - Multiple recycling in advanced pressurized-water reactors. The results have been published (see references). ZZ-WPPR-1-A/B contains graphs and tables relative to the PWR Mox pin cell benchmark, representing typical fuel for plutonium recycling, one corresponding to a first cycle, the second for a fifth cycle. These computer readable files contain the complete set of results, while the printed report contains only a subset. ZZ-WPPR-2-CYC1 are the results from cycle 1 of the multiple recycling benchmarks

  13. Studies on recycled aggregates-based concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakshvir, Major; Barai, Sudhirkumar V

    2006-06-01

    Reduced extraction of raw materials, reduced transportation cost, improved profits, reduced environmental impact and fast-depleting reserves of conventional natural aggregates has necessitated the use of recycling, in order to be able to conserve conventional natural aggregate. In this study various physical and mechanical properties of recycled concrete aggregates were examined. Recycled concrete aggregates are different from natural aggregates and concrete made from them has specific properties. The percentages of recycled concrete aggregates were varied and it was observed that properties such as compressive strength showed a decrease of up to 10% as the percentage of recycled concrete aggregates increased. Water absorption of recycled aggregates was found to be greater than natural aggregates, and this needs to be compensated during mix design.

  14. Coolant clean-up and recycle systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Takao.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To increase the service life of mechanical seals in a shaft sealing device, eliminate leakages and improve the safety by providing a recycle pump for feeding coolants to a coolant clean-up device upon reactor shut-down and adapting the pump treat only low temperature and low pressure coolants. Constitution: The system is adapted to partially take out coolants from the pipeways of a recycling pump upon normal operation and feed them to a clean-up device. Upon reactor shut-down, the recycle pump is stopped and coolants are extracted by the recycle pump for shut-down into the clean-up device. Since the coolants are not fed to the clean-up device by the recycle pump during normal operation as conducted so far, high temperature and high pressure coolants are not directly fed to the recycle pump, thereby enabling to avoid mechanical problems in the pump. (Kamimura, M.)

  15. Multipassage diffuser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalis, A.; Rouviere, R.; Simon, G.

    1976-01-01

    A multipassage diffuser having 2p passages comprises a leak-tight cylindrical enclosure closed by a top cover and a bottom end-wall, parallel porous tubes which are rigidly assembled in sectors between tube plates and through which the gas mixture flows, the tube sectors being disposed at uniform intervals on the periphery of the enclosure. The top tube plates are rigidly fixed to an annular header having the shape of a half-torus and adapted to communicate with the tubes of the corresponding sector. Each passage is constituted by a plurality of juxtaposed sectors in which the mixture circulates in the same direction, the header being divided into p portions limited by radial partition-walls and each constituting two adjacent passages. The diffuser is provided beneath the bottom end-wall with p-1 leak-tight chambers each adapted to open into two different portions of the header, and with two collector-chambers each fitted with a nozzle for introducing the gas mixture and discharging the fraction of the undiffused mixture. By means of a central orifice formed in the bottom end-wall the enclosure communicates with a shaft for discharging the diffused fraction of the gas mixture

  16. Implementing a campus wide recycling program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, L.

    2002-01-01

    'Full text:' The University of Windsor is currently expanding its recycling program to include all buildings on campus, but faces two challenges: 1) uncertainty about the current waste composition and distribution on campus; and 2) uncertainty about the effectiveness of increased recycling. This project assesses the current waste composition and the attitudes of the students towards recycling, and evaluates the effectiveness of proposed recycling activities. At present, paper is the only material that is collected throughout the entire campus. Except for two buildings, all other potentially recyclable materials within buildings, such as metal, glass, and plastic beverage containers, are discarded. The main focus of this research is on beverage containers as they represent clearly identifiable materials, but other materials were examined as well. To quantify the waste, different buildings on campus were classified according to their function: academic,operational and administrative. The waste composition study indicated that approximately 33% of the campus waste which is landfilled is composed of potentially recyclable material. A survey was then conducted to gauge the campus population's views on recycling issues that could affect the design of a recycling program. Interestingly, 97% of the respondents indicated a high willingness to recycle, but were uncertain as to how and where to recycle on campus. The project is currently assessing potential diversion rates using new, clearly identifiable recycling receptacles placed within selected classrooms for all major materials. There is a significant tradeoff however because the cost for new receptacles is considerable: multiple materials containers are often placed in high pedestrian traffic locations (e.g., hallways) and not always in classrooms,of which there are often many. This project will evaluate the basic benefits and costs of implementing a more comprehensive recycling program, and recommend how other

  17. Utility of Recycled Bedding for Laboratory Rodents

    OpenAIRE

    Miyamoto, Toru; Li, Zhixia; Kibushi, Tomomi; Okano, Shinya; Yamasaki, Nakamichi; Kasai, Noriyuki

    2009-01-01

    Animal facilities generate a large amount of used bedding containing excrement as medical waste. We developed a recycling system for used bedding that involves soft hydrothermal processing. In this study, we examined the effects of bedding type on growth, hematologic and serum biochemical values, and organ weights of female and male mice reared on either recycled or fresh bedding from 3 to 33 wk of age. Neither growth nor physiology differed between mice housed on recycled bedding compared wi...

  18. Involvement of ribosomal protein L6 in assembly of functional 50S ribosomal subunit in Escherichia coli cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigeno, Yuta; Uchiumi, Toshio; Nomura, Takaomi

    2016-01-01

    Ribosomal protein L6, an essential component of the large (50S) subunit, primarily binds to helix 97 of 23S rRNA and locates near the sarcin/ricin loop of helix 95 that directly interacts with GTPase translation factors. Although L6 is believed to play important roles in factor-dependent ribosomal function, crucial biochemical evidence for this hypothesis has not been obtained. We constructed and characterized an Escherichia coli mutant bearing a chromosomal L6 gene (rplF) disruption and carrying a plasmid with an arabinose-inducible L6 gene. Although this ΔL6 mutant grew more slowly than its wild-type parent, it proliferated in the presence of arabinose. Interestingly, cell growth in the absence of arabinose was biphasic. Early growth lasted only a few generations (LI-phase) and was followed by a suspension of growth for several hours (S-phase). This suspension was followed by a second growth phase (LII-phase). Cells harvested at both LI- and S-phases contained ribosomes with reduced factor-dependent GTPase activity and accumulated 50S subunit precursors (45S particles). The 45S particles completely lacked L6. Complete 50S subunits containing L6 were observed in all growth phases regardless of the L6-depleted condition, implying that the ΔL6 mutant escaped death because of a leaky expression of L6 from the complementing plasmid. We conclude that L6 is essential for the assembly of functional 50S subunits at the late stage. We thus established conditions for the isolation of L6-depleted 50S subunits, which are essential to study the role of L6 in translation. - Highlights: • We constructed an in vivo functional assay system for Escherichia coli ribosomal protein L6. • Growth of an E. coli ΔL6 mutant was biphasic when L6 levels were depleted. • The ΔL6 mutant accumulated 50S ribosomal subunit precursors that sedimented at 45S. • L6 is a key player in the late stage of E. coli 50S subunit assembly.

  19. Involvement of ribosomal protein L6 in assembly of functional 50S ribosomal subunit in Escherichia coli cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shigeno, Yuta [Division of Applied Biology, Faculty of Textile Science and Technology, Shinshu University, Ueda 386-8567 (Japan); Uchiumi, Toshio [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); Nomura, Takaomi, E-mail: nomurat@shinshu-u.ac.jp [Division of Applied Biology, Faculty of Textile Science and Technology, Shinshu University, Ueda 386-8567 (Japan)

    2016-04-22

    Ribosomal protein L6, an essential component of the large (50S) subunit, primarily binds to helix 97 of 23S rRNA and locates near the sarcin/ricin loop of helix 95 that directly interacts with GTPase translation factors. Although L6 is believed to play important roles in factor-dependent ribosomal function, crucial biochemical evidence for this hypothesis has not been obtained. We constructed and characterized an Escherichia coli mutant bearing a chromosomal L6 gene (rplF) disruption and carrying a plasmid with an arabinose-inducible L6 gene. Although this ΔL6 mutant grew more slowly than its wild-type parent, it proliferated in the presence of arabinose. Interestingly, cell growth in the absence of arabinose was biphasic. Early growth lasted only a few generations (LI-phase) and was followed by a suspension of growth for several hours (S-phase). This suspension was followed by a second growth phase (LII-phase). Cells harvested at both LI- and S-phases contained ribosomes with reduced factor-dependent GTPase activity and accumulated 50S subunit precursors (45S particles). The 45S particles completely lacked L6. Complete 50S subunits containing L6 were observed in all growth phases regardless of the L6-depleted condition, implying that the ΔL6 mutant escaped death because of a leaky expression of L6 from the complementing plasmid. We conclude that L6 is essential for the assembly of functional 50S subunits at the late stage. We thus established conditions for the isolation of L6-depleted 50S subunits, which are essential to study the role of L6 in translation. - Highlights: • We constructed an in vivo functional assay system for Escherichia coli ribosomal protein L6. • Growth of an E. coli ΔL6 mutant was biphasic when L6 levels were depleted. • The ΔL6 mutant accumulated 50S ribosomal subunit precursors that sedimented at 45S. • L6 is a key player in the late stage of E. coli 50S subunit assembly.

  20. Thorium-U Recycle Facility (7930)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Thorium-U Recycle Facility (7930), along with the Transuranic Processing Facility (7920). comprise the Radiochemical Engineering Development Complex. 7930 is a...

  1. Resource Efficient Metal and Material Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Markus A.; van Schaik, Antoinette

    Metals enable sustainability through their use and their recyclability. However, various factors can affect the Resource Efficiency of Metal Processing and Recycling. Some typical factors that enable Resource Efficiency include and arranged under the drivers of sustainability: Environment (Maximize Resource Efficiency — Energy, Recyclates, Materials, Water, Sludges, Emissions, Land); Economic Feasibility (BAT & Recycling Systems Simulation / Digitalization, Product vis-à-vis Material Centric Recycling); and Social — Licence to Operate (Legislation, consumer, policy, theft, manual labour.). In order to realize this primary production has to be linked systemically with typical actors in the recycling chain such as Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs), Recyclers & Collection, Physical separation specialists as well as process metallurgical operations that produce high value metals, compounds and products that recycle back to products. This is best done with deep knowledge of multi-physics, technology, product & system design, process control, market, life cycle management, policy, to name a few. The combination of these will be discussed as Design for Sustainability (DfS) and Design for Recycling (DfR) applications.

  2. Pentachlorophenol (PCP) sludge recycling unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The Guelph Utility Pole Company treats utility poles by immersion in pentachlorophenol (PCP) or by pressure treatment with chromated copper arsenate (CCA). The PCP treatment process involves a number of steps, each producing a certain amount of sludge and other wastes. In a plant upgrading program to improve processing and treatment of poles and to reduce and recycle waste, a PCP recovery unit was developed, first as an experimental pilot-scale unit and then as a full-scale unit. The PCP recovery unit is modular in design and can be modified to suit different requirements. In a recycling operation, the sludge is pumped through a preheat system (preheated by waste heat) and suspended solids are removed by a strainer. The sludge is then heated in a tank and at a predetermined temperature it begins to separate into its component parts: oil, steam, and solids. The steam condenses to water containing low amounts of light oil, and this water is pumped through an oil/water separator. The recovered oil is reused in the wood treatment process and the water is used in the CCA plant. The oil remaining in the tank is reused in PCP treatment and the solid waste, which includes small stones and wood particles, is removed and stored. By the third quarter of operation, the recovery unit was operating as designed, processing ca 10,000 gal of sludge. This sludge yielded 6,500 gal of water, 3,500 gal of oil, and ca 30 gal of solids. Introduction of the PCP sludge recycling system has eliminated long-term storage of PCP sludge and minimized costs of hazardous waste disposal. 4 figs

  3. Recycling And Disposal Of Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Ui So

    1987-01-15

    This book introduces sewage disposal sludge including properties of sludge and production amount, stabilization of sludge by anaerobic digestion stabilization of sludge by aerobic digestion, stabilization of sludge by chemical method, and dewatering, water process sludge, human waste and waste fluid of septic tank such as disposal of waste fluid and injection into the land, urban waste like definition of urban waste, collection of urban waste, recycling, properties and generation amount, and disposal method and possibility of injection of industrial waste into the ground.

  4. gamma. radiation effect on the functional properties of the cotton ribosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibragimov, A P; Safarov, Sh

    1973-01-01

    A study is made of the action of radiation on the functional properties of ribosomes in irradiated organisms and on isolated ribosomes exposed to different doses. With increase in dose there occurs a reduction in the incorporation of labelled amino acids by the ribosomes released from irradiated sprouts and also during irradiation of isolated ribosomes. The study covered the functional activity of ribosomes irradiated at different doses with the use of synthetic poly-U and poly-A matrices synthesizing polyphenylalanine and polylysine, depending on the irradiation dose. The inhibition of the activity of the protein synthesis system at high doses is due to structural and functional changes in ribosomes and also to disturbance in the biosynthesis and functions of the messenger RNA.

  5. Computational resources for ribosome profiling: from database to Web server and software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongwei; Wang, Yan; Xie, Zhi

    2017-08-14

    Ribosome profiling is emerging as a powerful technique that enables genome-wide investigation of in vivo translation at sub-codon resolution. The increasing application of ribosome profiling in recent years has achieved remarkable progress toward understanding the composition, regulation and mechanism of translation. This benefits from not only the awesome power of ribosome profiling but also an extensive range of computational resources available for ribosome profiling. At present, however, a comprehensive review on these resources is still lacking. Here, we survey the recent computational advances guided by ribosome profiling, with a focus on databases, Web servers and software tools for storing, visualizing and analyzing ribosome profiling data. This review is intended to provide experimental and computational biologists with a reference to make appropriate choices among existing resources for the question at hand. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Senescent changes in the ribosomes of animal cells in vivo and in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquel, J.; Johnson, J. E., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The paper examines RNA-ribosomal changes observed in protozoa and fixed postmitotic cells, as well as the characteristics of intermitotic cells. Attention is given to a discussion of the implications of the reported ribosomal changes as to the senescent deterioration of protein synthesis and physiological functions. A survey of the literature suggests that, while the data on ribosomal change in dividing cells both in vivo and in vitro are inconclusive, there is strong histological and biochemical evidence in favor of some degree of quantitative ribosomal loss in fixed postmitotic cells. Since these decreases in ribosomes are demonstrated in differential cells from nematodes, insects and mammals, they may represent a universal manifestation of cytoplasmic senescence in certain types of fixed postmitotic animal cells. The observed variability in ribosomal loss for cells belonging to the same type suggests that this involution phenomenon is rather related to the wear and tear suffered by a particular cell.

  7. Control of ribosome traffic by position-dependent choice of synonymous codons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitarai, Namiko; Pedersen, Steen

    2013-01-01

    Messenger RNA (mRNA) encodes a sequence of amino acids by using codons. For most amino acids, there are multiple synonymous codons that can encode the amino acid. The translation speed can vary from one codon to another, thus there is room for changing the ribosome speed while keeping the amino...... acid sequence and hence the resulting protein. Recently, it has been noticed that the choice of the synonymous codon, via the resulting distribution of slow- and fast-translated codons, affects not only on the average speed of one ribosome translating the mRNA but also might have an effect on nearby...... ribosomes by affecting the appearance of 'traffic jams' where multiple ribosomes collide and form queues. To test this 'context effect' further, we here investigate the effect of the sequence of synonymous codons on the ribosome traffic by using a ribosome traffic model with codon-dependent rates, estimated...

  8. Recycler

    OpenAIRE

    Déniz García, Beatriz

    2018-01-01

    En este trabajo final de máster se propone la creación de una aplicación para dispositivos móviles Android, cuyo objetivo es, mediante la gamificación, motivar a la ciudadanía a reciclar. La idea nace principalmente de la necesidad de mantener la sostenibilidad en las ciudades para las generaciones futuras. Esta idea resulta más atractiva y sencilla de implementar si unimos las tecnologías de la información y comunicación con las transparencia de algunos organismos públicos con el Open dat...

  9. Recycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre-Petersen, Maria

    2017-01-01

    introduction of sustainable principles in creative processes may influence expansion of aesthetic spaces of opportunity, and how glass craft and design may contribute to sustainable development. To connect scientific and artistic research with glass craft and design practice and education, I have engaged...... in a practice-based research method in combination with elements of education-based research and action research. The dissertation presents a discussion of theories, methods and practices around glass craft and design and sustainability in relation to a series of activities including personal experiments...... Arts. In order to ensure relevance within this format, a premise for the project has been to develop as holistic a foundation as possible for creative experimentation using the facilities and resources available at this institution. The outcomes of the project include practical, artistic and scientific...

  10. Recycle Alaska: Reduce, Reuse, Recycle. Activities Handbook, Teacher's Guide, and Student Worksheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau.

    Recycling is a very important aspect of conserving the environment for future generations. This guide addresses the topic of litter prevention for the Alaskan environment and contains 42 activities. Activity topics covered include Natural Cycles, Human Interruption of Natural Cycles, Reduce, Reuse, Recycle and Recycled Classroom. Grade level,…

  11. Genome-wide polysomal analysis of a yeast strain with mutated ribosomal protein S9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arava Yoav

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The yeast ribosomal protein S9 (S9 is located at the entrance tunnel of the mRNA into the ribosome. It is known to play a role in accurate decoding and its bacterial homolog (S4 has recently been shown to be involved in opening RNA duplexes. Here we examined the effects of changing the C terminus of S9, which is rich in acidic amino acids and extends out of the ribosome surface. Results We performed a genome-wide analysis to reveal effects at the transcription and translation levels of all yeast genes. While negligible relative changes were observed in steady-state mRNA levels, a significant number of mRNAs appeared to have altered ribosomal density. Notably, 40% of the genes having reliable signals changed their ribosomal association by more than one ribosome. Yet, no general correlations with physical or functional features of the mRNA were observed. Ribosome Density Mapping (RDM along four of the mRNAs with increased association revealed an increase in ribosomal density towards the end of the coding region for at least two of them. Read-through analysis did not reveal any increase in read-through of a premature stop codon by the mutant strain. Conclusion The ribosomal protein rpS9 appears to be involved in the translation of many mRNAs, since altering its C terminus led to a significant change in ribosomal association of many mRNAs. We did not find strong correlations between these changes and several physical features of the mRNA, yet future studies with advanced tools may allow such correlations to be determined. Importantly, our results indicate an accumulation of ribosomes towards the end of the coding regions of some mRNAs. This suggests an involvement of S9 in ribosomal dissociation during translation termination.

  12. Human nucleolus organizers on nonhomologous chromosomes can share the same ribosomal gene variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krystal, M; D'Eustachio, P; Ruddle, F H; Arnheim, N

    1981-01-01

    The distributions of three human ribosomal gene polymorphisms among individual chromosomes containing nucleolus organizers were analyzed by using mouse--human hybrid cells. Different nucleolus organizers can contain the same variant, suggesting the occurrence of genetic exchanges among ribosomal gene clusters on nonhomologous chromosomes. Such exchanges appear to occur less frequently in mice. This difference is discussed in terms of the nucleolar organization and chromosomal location of ribosomal gene clusters in humans and mice. Images PMID:6272316

  13. HLW disposal by fission reactors; calculation of trans-mutation rate and recycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulyanto

    1997-01-01

    Transmutation of MA (Minor actinide) and LLFPS (long-lived fission products) into stable nuclide or short-lived isotopes by fission reactors seem to become an alternative technology for HLW disposal. in this study, transmutation rate and recycle calculation were developed in order to evaluate transmutation characteristics of MA and LLFPs in the fission reactors. inventory of MA and LLFPs in the transmutation reactors were determined by solving of criticality equation with 1-D cylindrical geometry of multigroup diffusion equations at the beginning of cycle (BOC). transmutation rate and burn-up was determined by solving of depletion equation. inventory of MA and LLFPs was calculated for 40 years recycle. From this study, it was concluded that characteristics of MA and LLFPs in the transmutation reactors can be evaluated by recycle calculation. by calculation of transmutation rate, performance of fission reactor for transmutation of MA or LLFPs can be discussed

  14. Quantum diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, S.

    1994-01-01

    We consider a simple quantum system subjected to a classical random force. Under certain conditions it is shown that the noise-averaged Wigner function of the system follows an integro-differential stochastic Liouville equation. In the simple case of polynomial noise-couplings this equation reduces to a generalized Fokker-Planck form. With nonlinear noise injection new ''quantum diffusion'' terms rise that have no counterpart in the classical case. Two special examples that are not of a Fokker-Planck form are discussed: the first with a localized noise source and the other with a spatially modulated noise source

  15. The primary structures of ribosomal proteins S14 and S16 from the archaebacterium Halobacterium marismortui. Comparison with eubacterial and eukaryotic ribosomal proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, J; Kimura, M

    1987-09-05

    The amino acid sequences of two ribosomal proteins, S14 and S16, from the archaebacterium Halobacterium marismortui have been determined. Sequence data were obtained by the manual and solid-phase sequencing of peptides derived from enzymatic digestions with trypsin, chymotrypsin, pepsin, and Staphylococcus aureus protease as well as by chemical cleavage with cyanogen bromide. Proteins S14 and S16 contain 109 and 126 amino acid residues and have Mr values of 11,964 and 13,515, respectively. Comparison of the sequences with those of ribosomal proteins from other organisms demonstrates that S14 has a significant homology with the rat liver ribosomal protein S11 (36% identity) as well as with the Escherichia coli ribosomal protein S17 (37%), and that S16 is related to the yeast ribosomal protein YS22 (40%) and proteins S8 from E. coli (28%) and Bacillus stearothermophilus (30%). A comparison of the amino acid residues in the homologous regions of halophilic and nonhalophilic ribosomal proteins reveals that halophilic proteins have more glutamic acids, asparatic acids, prolines, and alanines, and less lysines, arginines, and isoleucines than their nonhalophilic counterparts. These amino acid substitutions probably contribute to the structural stability of halophilic ribosomal proteins.

  16. Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer Request Permissions Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 10/2017 What is hereditary diffuse gastric cancer? Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) is a rare ...

  17. 5S ribosomal RNA database Y2K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, M; Barciszewska, M Z; Barciszewski, J; Erdmann, V A

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the updated version (Y2K) of the database of ribosomal 5S ribonucleic acids (5S rRNA) and their genes (5S rDNA), http://rose.man/poznan.pl/5SData/index.html. This edition of the database contains 1985primary structures of 5S rRNA and 5S rDNA. They include 60 archaebacterial, 470 eubacterial, 63 plastid, nine mitochondrial and 1383 eukaryotic sequences. The nucleotide sequences of the 5S rRNAs or 5S rDNAs are divided according to the taxonomic position of the source organisms.

  18. mRNA decapping enzyme from ribosomes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, A.

    1980-01-01

    By use of [ 3 H]methyl-5'-capped [ 14 C]mRNA from yeast as a substrate, a decapping enzyme activity has been detected in enzyme fractions derived from a high salt wash of ribosomes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The product of the decapping reaction is [ 3 H]m 7 GDP. That the enzyme is not a non-specific pyrophosphatase is suggested by the finding that the diphosphate product, m 7 GpppA(G), and UDP-glucose are not hydrolyzed

  19. Potential roles for ubiquitin and the proteasome during ribosome biogenesis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stavreva, D. A.; Kawasaki, M.; Dundr, M.; Koberna, Karel; Müller, W. G.; Tsujimura-Takahashi, T.; Komatsu, W.; Hayano, T.; Isobe, T.; Raška, Ivan; Misteli, T.; Takahashi, N.; McNally, J. G.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 13 (2006), s. 5131-5145 ISSN 0270-7306 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC535; GA ČR(CZ) GA304/05/0374; GA ČR(CZ) GA304/04/0692 Grant - others:NIH(US) Intramural Research Program; Ministry of Education(JP) Pioneer Research grant Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : the role of the ubikvitin * proteasome system in ribosome biogenesis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 6.773, year: 2006

  20. Fermilab Recycler Collimation System Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, B. C. [Fermilab; Adamson, P. [Fermilab; Ainsworth, R. [Fermilab; Capista, D. [Fermilab; Hazelwood, K. [Fermilab; Kourbanis, I. [Fermilab; Mokhov, N. V. [Fermilab; Morris, D. K. [Fermilab; Murphy, M. [Fermilab; Sidorov, V. [Fermilab; Stern, E. [Fermilab; Tropin, I. [Fermilab; Yang, M-J. [Fermilab

    2016-10-04

    To provide 700 kW proton beams for neutrino production in the NuMI facility, we employ slip stacking in the Recycler with transfer to the Main Injector for recapture and acceleration. Slip stacking with 12 Booster batches per 1.33 sec cycle of the Main Injector has been implemented and briefly tested while extensive operation with 8 batches and 10 batches per MI cycle has been demonstrated. Operation in this mode since 2013 shows that loss localization is an essential component for long term operation. Beam loss in the Recycler will be localized in a collimation region with design capability for absorbing up to 2 kW of lost protons in a pair of 20-Ton collimators (absorbers). This system will employ a two stage collimation with a thin molybdenum scattering foil to define the bottom edge of both the injected and decelerated-for-slipping beams. Optimization and engineering design of the collimator components and radiation shielding are based on comprehensive MARS15 simulations predicting high collimation efficiency as well as tolerable levels of prompt and residual radiation. The system installation during the Fermilab 2016 facility shutdown will permit commissioning in the subsequent operating period.

  1. Recycling of Rare Earth Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Tom; Bertau, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Any development of an effective process for rare earth (RE) recycling has become more and more challenging, especially in recent years. Since 2011, when commodity prices of REs had met their all-time maximum, prices have dropped rapidly by more than 90 %. An economic process able to offset these fluctuations has to take unconventional methods into account beside well-known strategies like acid/basic leaching or solvent extraction. The solid-state chlorination provides such an unconventional method for mobilizing RE elements from waste streams. Instead of hydrochloric acid this kind of chlorination decomposes NH4Cl thermally to release up to 400 °C hot HCl gas. After cooling the resulting solid metal chlorides may be easily dissolved in pH-adjusted water. Without producing strongly acidic wastes and with NH4Cl as cheap source for hydrogen chloride, solid-state chlorination provides various advantages in terms of costs and disposal. In the course of the SepSELSA project this method was examined, adjusted and optimized for RE recycling from fluorescent lamp scraps as well as Fe14Nd2B magnets. Thereby many surprising influences and trends required various analytic methods to examine the reasons and special mechanisms behind them.

  2. Recycling abandoned lead battery sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, A.H.

    1993-01-01

    In the past, automobile batteries were recycled principally for their lead content. The waste generated at battery wrecking facilities consisted of spent acid, crushed casings (ebonite and plastic), and where secondary smelting was involved, matte, slag, and carbon from the smelting process. These waste products were generally disposed in an on-site in a landfill or stored in piles. If the facility shut down because further commercial operations were not financially viable, the waste piles remained to be addressed at a later date through remedial action or reclamation programs. There are many of these facilities in the US. Nationally, about 28 sites have been discovered by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the Superfund program and are under investigation or administrative orders for remedial action. A major remediation effort is now underway at the Gould Superfund Site in Portland, Oregon, which was operated as a secondary smelting facility between 1949 and 1981. This paper describes the nature of the contamination at the Gould site and the work conducted by Canonie Environmental Services Corp. (Canonie) to develop a process which would treat the waste from battery wrecking operations and produce revenue generating recyclable products while removing the source contamination (lead) from the site. The full-scale commercial plant is now operating and is expected to achieve a throughput rate of between 200 and 250 tons per day in the coming weeks

  3. γ-irradiated ribosomes from Micrococcus radiodurans in a cell-free protein synthesizing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suessmuth, R.; Widmann, A.

    1979-01-01

    γ-irradiation inactivation of isolated ribosomes of Micrococcus radiodurans was studied by examining poly U directed synthesis of polyphenylalanine. Ribosomes of M. radiodurans did not show significant γ-radiation sensitivity up to a dose of approx. 11.6 k Gy. Cells of M. radiodurans take up more magnesium than E. coli cells under the same conditions. The magnesium content of ribosomes of M. radiodurans was 18% higher than that of E.coli ribosomes. A possible relation between Mg 2+ -content and γ-resistance is discussed. (orig.) [de

  4. Ribosome dynamics and tRNA movement by time-resolved electron cryomicroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Niels; Konevega, Andrey L; Wintermeyer, Wolfgang; Rodnina, Marina V; Stark, Holger

    2010-07-15

    The translocation step of protein synthesis entails large-scale rearrangements of the ribosome-transfer RNA (tRNA) complex. Here we have followed tRNA movement through the ribosome during translocation by time-resolved single-particle electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM). Unbiased computational sorting of cryo-EM images yielded 50 distinct three-dimensional reconstructions, showing the tRNAs in classical, hybrid and various novel intermediate states that provide trajectories and kinetic information about tRNA movement through the ribosome. The structures indicate how tRNA movement is coupled with global and local conformational changes of the ribosome, in particular of the head and body of the small ribosomal subunit, and show that dynamic interactions between tRNAs and ribosomal residues confine the path of the tRNAs through the ribosome. The temperature dependence of ribosome dynamics reveals a surprisingly flat energy landscape of conformational variations at physiological temperature. The ribosome functions as a Brownian machine that couples spontaneous conformational changes driven by thermal energy to directed movement.

  5. Ribosomes: Ribozymes that Survived Evolution Pressures but Is Paralyzed by Tiny Antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonath, Ada

    An impressive number of crystal structures of ribosomes, the universal cellular machines that translate the genetic code into proteins, emerged during the last decade. The determination of ribosome high resolution structure, which was widely considered formidable, led to novel insights into the ribosomal function, namely, fidelity, catalytic mechanism, and polymerize activities. They also led to suggestions concerning its origin and shed light on the action, selectivity and synergism of ribosomal antibiotics; illuminated mechanisms acquiring bacterial resistance and provided structural information for drug improvement and design. These studies required the pioneering and implementation of advanced technologies, which directly influenced the remarkable increase of the number of structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank.

  6. Expression of ribosomal genes in pea cotyledons at the initial stages of germination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gumilevskaya, N.A.; Chumikhina, L.V.; Akhmatova, A.T.; Kretovich, V.L.

    1986-01-01

    The time of appearance of newly synthesized rRNAs and ribosomal proteins (r-proteins) in the ribosomes of pea cotyledons (Pisum sativum L.) during germination was investigated. The ribosomal fraction was isolated and analyzed according to the method of germination of the embryo in the presence of labeled precursors or after pulse labeling of the embryos at different stages of germination. For the identification of newly synthesized rRNAs in the ribosomes we estimated the relative stability of labeled RNAs to the action of RNase, the sedimentation rate, the ability to be methylated in vivo in the presence of [ 14 C]CH 3 -methionine, and the localization in the subunits of dissociated ribosomes. The presence of newly synthesized r-proteins in the ribosomes was judged on the basis of the electrophoretic similarity in SDS-disc electrophoresis of labeled polypeptides of purified ribosome preparations and of genuine r-proteins, as well as according to the localization of labeled proteins in the subunits of the dissociated ribosomes. It was shown that the expression of the ribosomal genes in highly specialized cells of pea cotyledons that have completed their growth occurs at very early stages of germination

  7. Long-term aging of recycled binders : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    At 80 million tons a year representing more than 80% of all milled asphalt pavement : asphalt paving is Americas most recycled material. Asphalt can be recycled in place, which is : very cost effective; however, aging of recycled binder ca...

  8. Compressive strength improvement for recycled concrete aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Dhiyaa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing amount of construction waste and, concrete remnants, in particular pose a serious problem. Concrete waste exist in large amounts, do not decay and need long time for disintegration. Therefore, in this work old demolished concrete is crashed and recycled to produce recycled concrete aggregate which can be reused in new concrete production. The effect of using recycled aggregate on concrete compressive strength has been experimentally investigated; silica fume admixture also is used to improve recycled concrete aggregate compressive strength. The main parameters in this study are recycled aggregate and silica fume admixture. The percent of recycled aggregate ranged from (0-100 %. While the silica fume ranged from (0-10 %. The experimental results show that the average concrete compressive strength decreases from 30.85 MPa to 17.58 MPa when the recycled aggregate percentage increased from 0% to 100%. While, when silica fume is used the concrete compressive strength increase again to 29.2 MPa for samples with 100% of recycled aggregate.

  9. 75 FR 71003 - America Recycles Day, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-19

    ... help create green jobs, support a vibrant American recycling and refurbishing industry, and advance our..., including the recycling of electronic products. The increased use of electronics and technology in our homes... harmful effects of the improper handling and disposal of these products. Currently, most discarded...

  10. Phosphate recycling in the phosphorus industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, W.J.; Klapwijk, A.; Potjer, A.; Rulkens, W.H.; Temmink, B.G.; Kiestra, F.D.G.; Lijmbach, A.C.M.

    2001-01-01

    The feasibility of phosphate recycling in the white phosphorus production process is discussed. Several types of materials may be recycled, provided they are dry inorganic materials, low in iron, copper and zinc. Sewage sludge ash may be used if no iron is used for phosphate precipitation in the

  11. Linguistic Recycling and the Open Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Probal

    2001-01-01

    Examines linguistic recycling in the context of domestic Esperanto use. Argues that word-meaning recycling reflects the same fundamental principles as sentential recursion, and that a linguistics theoretically sensitive to these principles strengthens practical efforts towards the social goal of an open speech community. (Author/VWL)

  12. COMPOSITES FROM RECYCLED WOOD AND PLASTICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ultimate goal of this research was to develop technology to convert recycled wood fiber and plastics into durable products that are recyclable and otherwise environmentally friendly. Two processing technologies were used to prepare wood-plastic composites: air-laying and melt...

  13. FLY ASH RECYCLE IN DRY SCRUBBING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper describes the effects of fly ash recycle in dry scrubbing. (Previous workers have shown that the recycle of product solids improves the utilization of slaked lime--Ca(OH)2--for sulfur dioxide (SO2) removal by spray dryers with bag filters.) In laboratory-scale experimen...

  14. India's ship recycling trade-off

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worrell, E.; Athanasopoulou, V.

    2014-01-01

    The special nature of India's steel industry lends particular importance to ship recycling as a source of scrap. Ship recycling in upgraded 'green' facilities can substitute other 'dirty' ironmaking processes, resulting in energy savings and air pollutant emission reductions for the Indian steel

  15. Recycling of WEEE by magnetic density separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, B.; Giacometti, L.; Di Maio, F.; Rem, P.C.

    2011-01-01

    The paper introduces a new recycling method of WEEE: Magnetic Density Separation. By using this technology, both grade and recovery rate of recycled products are over 90%. Good separations are not only observed in relatively big WEEE samples, but also in samples with smaller sizes or electrical

  16. Plutonium recycle concept for RCC - type PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonet, H.; Charlier, A.; Deramaix, P.; Vanderberg, C.

    1975-01-01

    Self-generated Pu recycling schemes in RCC-type PWRs have been defined. The main results of survey studies performed to compare the relative merits of various Pu recycle strategies and the merits of alternative solutions of the assembly design such as the Pu-island assembly or the all-Pu assembly are presented [fr

  17. Idea Notebook: Recycling with an Educational Purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerth, Tom; Wilson, David A.

    1986-01-01

    Four students at St. Louis University High School developed a project to clean up the environment while saving energy and natural resources. Aluminum and steel cans were recycled and the money was used to buy and plant trees. Students learned about recycling, organization, money management, and improving the environment. (JMM)

  18. Rubber Recycling: Chemistry, Processing, and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Myhre, M.; Saiwari, Sitisaiyidah; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.

    2012-01-01

    For both environmental and economic reasons, there is broad interest in recycling rubber and in the continued development of recycling technologies. The use of postindustrial materials is a fairly well-established and documented business. Much effort over the past decade has been put into dealing

  19. Hot Mix Asphalt Recycling : Practices and Principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohajeri, M.

    2015-01-01

    Hot mix asphalt recycling has become common practice all over the world since the 1970s because of the crisis in oil prices. In the Netherlands, hot recycling has advanced to such an extent that in most of the mixtures more than 50% of reclaimed asphalt (RA) is allowed. These mixtures with such a

  20. Sustainability and the Recycling of Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Donna L.; Nilsen, Alleen Pace

    2011-01-01

    With the mention of "sustainability" and "recycling," most people think about reusing paper, plastic, metal, and glass, but what the authors discovered when they embarked on a word-study unit is that the sustainability movement has also brought about the recycling of words. The authors were team-teaching a language awareness class taken by…

  1. Combined Effect of the Cfr Methyltransferase and Ribosomal Protein L3 Mutations on Resistance to Ribosome-Targeting Antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakula, Kevin K; Hansen, Lykke H; Vester, Birte

    2017-09-01

    Several groups of antibiotics inhibit bacterial growth by binding to bacterial ribosomes. Mutations in ribosomal protein L3 have been associated with resistance to linezolid and tiamulin, which both bind at the peptidyl transferase center in the ribosome. Resistance to these and other antibiotics also occurs through methylation of 23S rRNA at position A2503 by the methyltransferase Cfr. The mutations in L3 and the cfr gene have been found together in clinical isolates, raising the question of whether they have a combined effect on antibiotic resistance or growth. We transformed a plasmid-borne cfr gene into a uL3-depleted Escherichia coli strain containing either wild-type L3 or L3 with one of seven mutations, G147R, Q148F, N149S, N149D, N149R, Q150L, or T151P, expressed from plasmid-carried rplC genes. The L3 mutations are well tolerated, with small to moderate growth rate decreases. The presence of Cfr has a very minor influence on the growth rate. The resistance of the transformants to linezolid, tiamulin, florfenicol, and Synercid (a combination of quinupristin and dalfopristin [Q-D]) was measured by MIC assays. The resistance from Cfr was, in all cases, stronger than the effects of the L3 mutations, but various effects were obtained with the combinations of Cfr and L3 mutations ranging from a synergistic to an antagonistic effect. Linezolid and tiamulin susceptibility varied greatly among the L3 mutations, while no significant effects on florfenicol and Q-D susceptibility were seen. This study underscores the complex interplay between various resistance mechanisms and cross-resistance, even from antibiotics with overlapping binding sites. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  2. WATER RESISTANCE OF RECYCLED PAPER PANEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Rani Suryandono

    2017-06-01

    Alice Wisler (2015 Facts about Recycling Paper. http://greenliving.lovetoknow.com/Facts_About_Recycling_Paper. Accessed 2 April 2016 Clay Miller (2011 5 Benefits of Recycling Paper. http://www.ways2gogreenblog.com/2011/09/28/5-benefits-of-recycling-paper/. Accessed 10 May 2016 Hari Goyal (2015 Grades of Paper. http://www.paperonweb.com/grade.htm. Accessed 2 April 2016 Hari Goyal (2015 Properties of Paper. http://www.paperonweb.com/paperpro.htm. Accessed 2 April 2016 Kathryn Sukalich (2016 Everything You Need to Know about Paper Recycling. http://earth911.com/business-policy/business/paper-recycling-details-basics/. Accessed 15 July 2016 [U1] Larry West (2015 Why Recycle Paper. http://environment.about.com/od/recycling/a/The-Benefits-Of-Paper-Recycling-Why-Recycle-Paper.htm. Accesed 15 June 2016 Marie-Luise Blue (2008 The Advantages of Recycling Paper. http://education.seattlepi.com/advantages-recycling-paper-3440.html. Accessed 15 June 2016 Nina Spitzer (2009 http://www.sheknows.com/home-and-gardening/articles/810025/the-impact-of-disposable-coffee-cups-on-the-environment. Accessed 15 June 2016 Radio New Zealand (2010 Iwi not Giving Up Fight against Tasman Mill Discharges. http://www.radionz.co.nz/news/regional/64521/iwi-not-giving-up-fight-against-tasman-mill-discharges. Accessed 15 July 2016 Rick LeBlanc (2016 Paper Recycling Facts, Figures and Information Sources. https://www.thebalance.com/paper-recycling-facts-figures-and-information-sources-2877868?_ga=1.192832942.544061388.1477446686. Accesed 2 April 2016 Robinson Meyer (2016 Will More Newspapers Go Nonprofit? http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2016/01/newspapers-philadelphia-inquirer-daily-news-nonprofit-lol-taxes/423960/. Accessed 3 August 2016 School of Engineering at Darthmouth (2010 Forest and Paper Industry. http://engineering.dartmouth.edu/~d30345d/courses/engs171/Paper.pdf. Accessed 2 April 2016 T. Subramani, V. Angappan. (2015. Experimental Investigation of Papercrete Concrete

  3. Measures for recycling plastic wastes in France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cossais, J C [Ministere de l' Industrie et de la Recherche, 75 - Paris (France). Delegation aux Economies de Matieres Premieres

    1978-05-01

    Raw materials crisis and environmental awareness have lead to the question of intensively dealing with the recycling of plastics. Although plastic wastes (residues) industrially occuring have been recycled for a long time, this is certainly not always the case in the subsequent stages. One must particularly give thought to the considerable quantities of agricultural and municipal wastes. Besides the problem of collecting the waste which can only be satisfactorily solved by separate collection or setting up sorting places, it is necessary for the recycling plastic wastes on a large scale to find or develop sellable products. The product for sale is limited by economical aspects and prejudices against recycled materials. The public have taken to a series of measures in France to simplify recycling plastic wastes. Private industry is also beginning to take interest in this new sources of raw materials.

  4. MOX recycling-an industrial reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shallo, G.D.F.

    1996-01-01

    Reprocessing and plutonium recycling have now attained industrial maturity in France and Europe. Specifically, mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel is fabricated and used in light water reactors (LWRs) in satisfactory operating conditions. The utilities and the fuel cycle industry experience no technical difficulties, and European recycling programs are growing steadily, from 18 reactors in operation today up to 50 expected around the year 2000, putting the system reprocessing-recycling in coherence: 25 t of plutonium will then be used each year to produce the electricity equivalence of 25 millions tons of oil. Plutonium recycling in MOX fuel in current LWRs proves to be technically safe and economically competitive and meets natural resource savings and environmental protection objectives. And recycling responds properly to the nonproliferation concerns. Such an industrial experience gives a unique reference for weapons plutonium disposition through MOX use in reactors

  5. Requirements for the recycling of hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petts, M.

    1990-09-01

    The regulatory status of materials destined to be recycled is not always clear. There have been numerous questions from DOE Field Elements regarding the applicability of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) to certain materials that can be recycled. The Office of Environmental Guidance, RCRA/CERCLA Division, has responded to questions relating to the RCRA regulations as they apply to materials that are recycled or are destined for recycling. Additional regulatory requirements for these materials may be promulgated upon the reauthorization of RCRA (e.g., regulation of used oil). Additional EH-23 information Briefs will be issued as these regulations develop. The Office of Environment, Safety and Health has convened a workshop to establish DOE's position on a number of issues associated with mixed waste and materials management, several relative to recycling

  6. Ribosome-Inactivating Proteins from Plants: A Historical Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bolognesi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This review provides a historical overview of the research on plant ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs, starting from the first studies at the end of eighteenth century involving the purification of abrin and ricin, as well as the immunological experiments of Paul Erlich. Interest in these plant toxins was revived in 1970 by the observation of their anticancer activity, which has given rise to a large amount of research contributing to the development of various scientific fields. Biochemistry analyses succeeded in identifying the enzymatic activity of RIPs and allowed for a better understanding of the ribosomal machinery. Studies on RIP/cell interactions were able to detail the endocytosis and intracellular routing of ricin, thus increasing our knowledge of how cells handle exogenous proteins. The identification of new RIPs and the finding that most RIPs are single-chain polypeptides, together with their genetic sequencing, has aided in the development of new phylogenetic theories. Overall, the biological properties of these proteins, including their abortifacient, anticancer, antiviral and neurotoxic activities, suggest that RIPs could be utilized in agriculture and in many biomedical fields, including clinical drug development.

  7. Analysis of ribosomal protein gene structures: implications for intron evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Many spliceosomal introns exist in the eukaryotic nuclear genome. Despite much research, the evolution of spliceosomal introns remains poorly understood. In this paper, we tried to gain insights into intron evolution from a novel perspective by comparing the gene structures of cytoplasmic ribosomal proteins (CRPs and mitochondrial ribosomal proteins (MRPs, which are held to be of archaeal and bacterial origin, respectively. We analyzed 25 homologous pairs of CRP and MRP genes that together had a total of 527 intron positions. We found that all 12 of the intron positions shared by CRP and MRP genes resulted from parallel intron gains and none could be considered to be "conserved," i.e., descendants of the same ancestor. This was supported further by the high frequency of proto-splice sites at these shared positions; proto-splice sites are proposed to be sites for intron insertion. Although we could not definitively disprove that spliceosomal introns were already present in the last universal common ancestor, our results lend more support to the idea that introns were gained late. At least, our results show that MRP genes were intronless at the time of endosymbiosis. The parallel intron gains between CRP and MRP genes accounted for 2.3% of total intron positions, which should provide a reliable estimate for future inferences of intron evolution.

  8. [Family of ribosomal proteins S1 contains unique conservative domain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deriusheva, E I; Machulin, A V; Selivanova, O M; Serdiuk, I N

    2010-01-01

    Different representatives of bacteria have different number of amino acid residues in the ribosomal proteins S1. This number varies from 111 (Spiroplasma kunkelii) to 863 a.a. (Treponema pallidum). Traditionally and for lack of this protein three-dimensional structure, its architecture is represented as repeating S1 domains. Number of these domains depends on the protein's length. Domain's quantity and its boundaries data are contained in the specialized databases, such as SMART, Pfam and PROSITE. However, for the same object these data may be very different. For search of domain's quantity and its boundaries, new approach, based on the analysis of dicted secondary structure (PsiPred), was used. This approach allowed us to reveal structural domains in amino acid sequences of S1 proteins and at that number varied from one to six. Alignment of S1 proteins, containing different domain's number, with the S1 RNAbinding domain of Escherichia coli PNPase elicited a fact that in family of ribosomal proteins SI one domain has maximal homology with S1 domain from PNPase. This conservative domain migrates along polypeptide chain and locates in proteins, containing different domain's number, according to specified pattern. In this domain as well in the S1 domain from PNPase, residues Phe-19, Phe-22, His-34, Asp-64 and Arg-68 are clustered on the surface and formed RNA binding site.

  9. Interaction of Pleuromutilin Derivatives with the Ribosomal Peptidyl Transferase Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Katherine S.; Hansen, Lykke H.; Jakobsen, Lene; Vester, Birte

    2006-01-01

    Tiamulin is a pleuromutilin antibiotic that is used in veterinary medicine. The recently published crystal structure of a tiamulin-50S ribosomal subunit complex provides detailed information about how this drug targets the peptidyl transferase center of the ribosome. To promote rational design of pleuromutilin-based drugs, the binding of the antibiotic pleuromutilin and three semisynthetic derivatives with different side chain extensions has been investigated using chemical footprinting. The nucleotides A2058, A2059, G2505, and U2506 are affected in all of the footprints, suggesting that the drugs are similarly anchored in the binding pocket by the common tricyclic mutilin core. However, varying effects are observed at U2584 and U2585, indicating that the side chain extensions adopt distinct conformations within the cavity and thereby affect the rRNA conformation differently. An Escherichia coli L3 mutant strain is resistant to tiamulin and pleuromutilin, but not valnemulin, implying that valnemulin is better able to withstand an altered rRNA binding surface around the mutilin core. This is likely due to additional interactions made between the valnemulin side chain extension and the rRNA binding site. The data suggest that pleuromutilin drugs with enhanced antimicrobial activity may be obtained by maximizing the number of interactions between the side chain moiety and the peptidyl transferase cavity. PMID:16569865

  10. Genetic diversity of Entamoeba: Novel ribosomal lineages from cockroaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuro Kawano

    Full Text Available Our current taxonomic perspective on Entamoeba is largely based on small-subunit ribosomal RNA genes (SSU rDNA from Entamoeba species identified in vertebrate hosts with minor exceptions such as E. moshkovskii from sewage water and E. marina from marine sediment. Other Entamoeba species have also been morphologically identified and described from non-vertebrate species such as insects; however, their genetic diversity remains unknown. In order to further disclose the diversity of the genus, we investigated Entamoeba spp. in the intestines of three cockroach species: Periplaneta americana, Blaptica dubia, and Gromphadorhina oblongonota. We obtained 134 Entamoeba SSU rDNA sequences from 186 cockroaches by direct nested PCR using the DNA extracts of intestines from cockroaches, followed by scrutinized BLASTn screening and phylogenetic analyses. All the sequences identified in this study were distinct from those reported from known Entamoeba species, and considered as novel Entamoeba ribosomal lineages. Furthermore, they were positioned at the base of the clade of known Entamoeba species and displayed remarkable degree of genetic diversity comprising nine major groups in the three cockroach species. This is the first report of the diversity of SSU rDNA sequences from Entamoeba in non-vertebrate host species, and should help to understand the genetic diversity of the genus Entamoeba.

  11. Quantify the energy and environmental effects of using recycled asphalt and recycled concrete for pavement construction phase I : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this study is to quantify the energy and environment impacts from using recycled materials : for highway construction. Specifically, when recycled asphalt pavement is re-used for producing hot mix : asphalt or when recycled concrete ...

  12. Purification and characterization of ribosomal proteins L27 and L30 having antimicrobial activity produced by the Lactobacillus salivarius SGL 03.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidutti, P; Federici, F; Brandi, J; Manna, L; Rizzi, E; Marini, U; Cecconi, D

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial potential of proteins secreted by a new strain of Lactobacillus salivarius. The secretome of L. salivarius SGL 03 strain was analysed by gel-assisted fractionation and MS/MS to identify low-molecular-mass proteins. This strategy allowed us to identify 10 secreted proteins. Then, a combination of heterologous expression and agar well diffusion was used to characterize them as to their antimicrobial activity, mechanisms of action and stability. Our findings indicate that L27 and L30 proteins of the 50S ribosomal subunit have antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus uberis and Enterococcus faecium. In addition, both proteins are bactericidal against S. pyogenes and maintain their antimicrobial activity after different protease treatments, at acidic pH, after heat treatment, and if stored in a refrigerated ambient at least at 4°C. The overall results demonstrated that the L27 and L30 ribosomal proteins are of interest as new antimicrobial molecules to prevent the growth of S. pyogenes, S. uberis and E. faecium. Our results provide the first insight into the extra-ribosomal activity of L27 and L30 secreted proteins of L. salivarius. This study demonstrated the capacity of L. salivarius SGL 03 to produce antimicrobial molecules and suggested this strain as a promising probiotic candidate. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Is Municipal Solid Waste Recycling Economically Efficient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavee, Doron

    2007-12-01

    It has traditionally been argued that recycling municipal solid waste (MSW) is usually not economically viable and that only when externalities, long-term dynamic considerations, and/or the entire product life cycle are taken into account, recycling becomes worthwhile from a social point of view. This article explores the results of a wide study conducted in Israel in the years 2000 2004. Our results reveal that recycling is optimal more often than usually claimed, even when externality considerations are ignored. The study is unique in the tools it uses to explore the efficiency of recycling: a computer-based simulation applied to an extensive database. We developed a simulation for assessing the costs of handling and treating MSW under different waste-management systems and used this simulation to explore possible cost reductions obtained by designating some of the waste (otherwise sent to landfill) to recycling. We ran the simulation on data from 79 municipalities in Israel that produce over 60% of MSW in Israel. For each municipality, we were able to arrive at an optimal method of waste management and compare the costs associated with 100% landfilling to the costs born by the municipality when some of the waste is recycled. Our results indicate that for 51% of the municipalities, it would be efficient to adopt recycling, even without accounting for externality costs. We found that by adopting recycling, municipalities would be able to reduce direct costs by an average of 11%. Through interviews conducted with representatives of municipalities, we were also able to identify obstacles to the utilization of recycling, answering in part the question of why actual recycling levels in Israel are lower than our model predicts they should be.

  14. Recycling production designs: the value of coordination and flexibility in aluminum recycling operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brommer, Tracey H.

    The growing motivation for aluminum recycling has prompted interest in recycling alternative and more challenging secondary materials. The nature of these alternative secondary materials necessitates the development of an intermediate recycling facility that can reprocess the secondary materials into a liquid product Two downstream aluminum remelters will incorporate the liquid products into their aluminum alloy production schedules. Energy and environmental benefits result from delivering the products as liquid but coordination challenges persist because of the energy cost to maintain the liquid. Further coordination challenges result from the necessity to establish a long term recycling production plan in the presence of long term downstream aluminum remelter production uncertainty and inherent variation in the daily order schedule of the downstream aluminum remelters. In this context a fundamental question arises, considering the metallurgical complexities of dross reprocessing, what is the value of operating a coordinated set of by-product reprocessing plants and remelting cast houses? A methodology is presented to calculate the optimal recycling center production parameters including 1) the number of recycled products, 2) the volume of recycled products, 3) allocation of recycled materials across recycled products, 4) allocation of recycled products across finished alloys, 4) the level of flexibility for the recycling center to operate. The methods implemented include, 1) an optimization model to describe the long term operations of the recycling center, 2) an uncertainty simulation tool, 3) a simulation optimization method, 4) a dynamic simulation tool with four embedded daily production optimization models of varying degrees of flexibility. This methodology is used to quantify the performance of several recycling center production designs of varying levels of coordination and flexibility. This analysis allowed the identification of the optimal recycling

  15. Metal recycling technology and related issues in the United States, a BNFL perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradbury, P.; Dam, S.; Starke, W.

    1995-01-01

    Radioactively contaminated metallic materials comprise a large part of the potential waste products which result from nuclear facility repair, refurbishment, and decommissioning. United States Government (Departments of Energy and Defense) facilities, U.S. nuclear power plants, and other commercial nuclear fuel cycle facilities have large inventories of radioactive scrap metal which could be decontaminated and recycled into useful radioactive and non-radioactive products. Residual radioactivity and recycling criteria is needed to avoid the high cost of disposal and the waste of natural resources. In the United Kingdom, BNFL has decommissioned the gaseous diffusion plant at Capenhurst and has recycled a large fraction of the metallic scrap into the metals market. Other structural materials have also been released as uncontaminated scrap. U.K. release criteria for residual radionuclide contamination have been applied to these operations. A variety of techniques were utilized to size reduce large components, to remove radioactivity, and to survey and release these materials. These methods and the application of release criteria has a direct relationship to methods which would be applicable in the U.S. and in other countries. This paper will describe the specific U.K. technology and experience in the decontamination, recycle, and release of scrap metal. It will also describe the U.S. environment for metal recycle, including the volumes and levels of contamination, and the current and proposed release criteria. Comparisons will be presented between the U.S. and U.K., both in technology and methodology for recycle and in regulatory criteria for residual radioactivity and material release and for ultimate decommissioning. The paper will then provide suggested approaches and criteria for U.S. recycling and decommissioning. (author)

  16. Recycling of acetone by distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennan, D.L.; Campbell, B.A.; Phelan, J.E.; Harper, M.

    1992-09-01

    The Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA) identifies spent acetone solvent as a listed hazardous waste. At Fernald, acetone has been spent that has been contaminated with radionuclides and therefore is identified as a mixed hazardous waste. At the time of this publication there is no available approved method of recycling or disposal of radioactively contaminated spent acetone solvent. The Consent Decree with the Ohio EPA and the Consent Agreement with the United States EPA was agreed upon for the long-term compliant storage of hazardous waste materials. The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the feasibility for safely decontaminating spent acetone to background levels of radioactivity for reuse. It was postulated that through heat distillation, radionuclides could be isolated from the spent acetone

  17. Reactor having coolant recycling pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Tadashi; Karatsuka, Shigeki; Yamamoto, Hajime.

    1991-01-01

    In a coolant recycling pump for an LMFBR type reactor, vertical grooves are formed to a static portion which surrounds a pump shaft as far as the lower end thereof. Sodium mists present in an annular gap of the pump shaft form a rotational flow, lose its centrifugal force at the grooved portion and are collected positively to the grooved portion. Further, since the rotational flow in the grooved channel is in a state of a cavity flow, the pressure is released in the grooved portion and a secondary eddy current is formed thereby providing a depressurized state. Accordingly, by a synergestic effect of the centrifugal force and the cavity flow, sodium mists can be recovered completely. (T.M.)

  18. Issues in recycling galvanized scrap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koros, P.J. [LTV Steel Co., Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States); Hellickson, D.A. [General Motors Corp., Detroit, MI (United States); Dudek, F.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1995-02-10

    The quality of the steel used for most galvanizing (and tinplate) applications makes scrap derived from their production and use a premier solid charge material for steelmaking. In 1989 the AISI created a Task Force to define the issues and to recommend technologically and economically sound approaches to assure continued, unhindered recyclability of the growing volume of galvanized scrap. The AISI program addressed the treatment of full-sized industrial bales of scrap. The current, on-going MRI (US)--Argonne National Laboratory program is focused on ``loose`` scrap from industrial and post-consumer sources. Results from these programs, issues of scrap management from source to steel melting, the choices for handling zinc in iron and steelmaking and the benefits/costs for removal of zinc (and lead) from scrap prior to melting in BOF and foundry operations are reviewed in this paper.

  19. Centralized consolidation/recycling center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St. Georges, L.T.; Poor, A.D.

    1995-05-01

    There are approximately 175 separate locations on the Hanford Site where dangerous waste is accumulated in hundreds of containers according to compatibility. Materials that are designated as waste could be kept from entering the waste stream by establishing collection points for these materials and wastes and then transporting them to a centralized consolidation/recycling center (hereinafter referred to as the consolidation center). Once there the materials would be prepared for offsite recycling. This document discusses the removal of batteries, partially full aerosol cans, and DOP light ballasts from the traditional waste management approach, which eliminates 89 satellite accumulation areas from the Hanford Site (43 for batteries, 33 for aerosols, and 13 for DOP ballasts). Eliminating these 89 satellite accumulation areas would reduce by hundreds the total number of containers shipped offsite as hazardous waste (due to the increase in containers when the wastes that are accumulated are segregated according to compatibility for final shipment). This new approach is in line with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) draft Universal Waste Rules for these open-quotes nuisanceclose quotes and common waste streams. Additionally, future reviews of other types of wastes that can be handled in this less restrictive and more cost-effective manner will occur as part of daily operations at the consolidation center. The Hanford Site has been identified as a laboratory for reinventing government by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Hazel O'Leary, and as a demonstration zone where open-quotes innovative ideas, processes and technologies can be created, tested and demonstrated.close quotes Additionally, DOE, EPA, and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) have agreed to cut Hanford cleanup costs by $1 billion over a 5-year period

  20. Minor Actinides Recycling in PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delpech, M.; Golfier, H.; Vasile, A.; Varaine, F.; Boucher, L.; Greneche, D.

    2006-01-01

    Recycling of minor actinides in current and near future PWR is considered as one of the options of the general waste management strategy. This paper presents the analysis of this option both from the core physics and fuel cycle point of view. A first indicator of the efficiency of different neutron spectra for transmutation purposes is the capture to fission cross sections ratio which is less favourable by a factor between 5 to 10 in PWRs compared to fast reactors. Another indicator presented is the production of high ranking isotopes like Curium, Berkelium or Californium in the thermal or epithermal spectrum conditions of PWR cores by successive neutron captures. The impact of the accumulation of this elements on the fabrication process of such PWR fuels strongly penalizes this option. The main constraint on minor actinides loadings in PWR (or fast reactors) fuels are related to their direct impact (or the impact of their transmutation products) on the reactivity coefficients, the reactivity control means and the core kinetics parameters. The main fuel cycle physical parameters like the neutron source, the alpha decay power, the gamma and neutrons dose rate and the criticality aspects are also affected. Recent neutronic calculations based on a reference core of the Evolutionary Pressurized Reactor (EPR), indicates typical maximum values of 1 % loadings. Different fuel design options for minor actinides transmutation purposes in PWRs are presented: UOX and MOX, homogeneous and heterogeneous assemblies. In this later case, Americium loading is concentrated in specific pins of a standard UOX assembly. Recycling of Neptunium in UOX and MOX fuels was also studied to improve the proliferation resistance of the fuel. The impact on the core physics and penalties on Uranium enrichment were underlined in this case. (authors)

  1. The N-terminal sequence of ribosomal protein L10 from the archaebacterium Halobacterium marismortui and its relationship to eubacterial protein L6 and other ribosomal proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijk, J; van den Broek, R; Nasiulas, G; Beck, A; Reinhardt, R; Wittmann-Liebold, B

    1987-08-01

    The amino-terminal sequence of ribosomal protein L10 from Halobacterium marismortui has been determined up to residue 54, using both a liquid- and a gas-phase sequenator. The two sequences are in good agreement. The protein is clearly homologous to protein HcuL10 from the related strain Halobacterium cutirubrum. Furthermore, a weaker but distinct homology to ribosomal protein L6 from Escherichia coli and Bacillus stearothermophilus can be detected. In addition to 7 identical amino acids in the first 36 residues in all four sequences a number of conservative replacements occurs, of mainly hydrophobic amino acids. In this common region the pattern of conserved amino acids suggests the presence of a beta-alpha fold as it occurs in ribosomal proteins L12 and L30. Furthermore, several potential cases of homology to other ribosomal components of the three ur-kingdoms have been found.

  2. Simulating Isotope Enrichment by Gaseous Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Cameron

    2015-04-01

    A desktop-computer simulation of isotope enrichment by gaseous diffusion has been developed. The simulation incorporates two non-interacting point-mass species whose members pass through a cascade of cells containing porous membranes and retain constant speeds as they reflect off the walls of the cells and the spaces between holes in the membranes. A particular feature is periodic forward recycling of enriched material to cells further along the cascade along with simultaneous return of depleted material to preceding cells. The number of particles, the mass ratio, the initial fractional abundance of the lighter species, and the time between recycling operations can be chosen by the user. The simulation is simple enough to be understood on the basis of two-dimensional kinematics, and demonstrates that the fractional abundance of the lighter-isotope species increases along the cascade. The logic of the simulation will be described and results of some typical runs will be presented and discussed.

  3. A Listeria monocytogenes RNA helicase essential for growth and ribosomal maturation at low temperatures uses its C terminus for appropriate interaction with the ribosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netterling, Sakura; Vaitkevicius, Karolis; Nord, Stefan; Johansson, Jörgen

    2012-08-01

    Listeria monocytogenes, a Gram-positive food-borne human pathogen, is able to grow at temperatures close to 0°C and is thus of great concern for the food industry. In this work, we investigated the physiological role of one DExD-box RNA helicase in Listeria monocytogenes. The RNA helicase Lmo1722 was required for optimal growth at low temperatures, whereas it was dispensable at 37°C. A Δlmo1722 strain was less motile due to downregulation of the major subunit of the flagellum, FlaA, caused by decreased flaA expression. By ribosomal fractionation experiments, it was observed that Lmo1722 was mainly associated with the 50S subunit of the ribosome. Absence of Lmo1722 decreased the fraction of 50S ribosomal subunits and mature 70S ribosomes and affected the processing of the 23S precursor rRNA. The ribosomal profile could be restored to wild-type levels in a Δlmo1722 strain expressing Lmo1722. Interestingly, the C-terminal part of Lmo1722 was redundant for low-temperature growth, motility, 23S rRNA processing, and appropriate ribosomal maturation. However, Lmo1722 lacking the C terminus showed a reduced affinity for the 50S and 70S fractions, suggesting that the C terminus is important for proper guidance of Lmo1722 to the 50S subunit. Taken together, our results show that the Listeria RNA helicase Lmo1722 is essential for growth at low temperatures, motility, and rRNA processing and is important for ribosomal maturation, being associated mainly with the 50S subunit of the ribosome.

  4. Hypoxic stress-induced changes in ribosomes of maize seedling roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey-Serres, J.; Freeling, M.

    1990-01-01

    The hypoxic stress response of Zea mays L. seedling roots involves regulation of gene expression at transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. We investigated the effect of hypoxia on the translational machinery of seedling roots. The levels of monoribosomes and ribosomal subunits increased dramatically within 1 hour of stress. Prolonged hypoxia resulted in continued accumulation of nontranslating ribosomes, as well as increased levels of small polyribosomes. The return of seedlings to normal aerobic conditions resulted in recovery of normal polyribosome levels. Comparison of ribosomal proteins from control and hypoxic roots revealed differences in quantity and electrophoretic mobility. In vivo labeling of roots with [ 35 S]methionine revealed variations in newly synthesized ribosomal proteins. In vivo labeling of roots with [ 32 P]orthophosphate revealed a major reduction in the phosphorylation of a 31 kilodalton ribosomal protein in hypoxic stressed roots. In vitro phosphorylation of ribosomal proteins by endogenous kinases was used to probe for differences in ribosome structure and composition. The patterns of in vitro kinased phosphoproteins of ribosomes from control and hypoxic roots were not identical. Variation in phosphoproteins of polyribosomes from control and hypoxic roots, as well as among polyribosomes from hypoxic roots were observed. These results indicate that modification of the translational machinery occurs in response to hypoxic stress

  5. The activity of the acidic phosphoproteins from the 80 S rat liver ribosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacConnell, W P; Kaplan, N O

    1982-05-25

    The selective removal of acidic phosphoproteins from the 80 S rat liver ribosome was accomplished by successive alcohol extractions at low salt concentration. The resulting core ribosomes lost over 90% of their translation activity and were unable to support the elongation factor 2 GTPase reaction. Both activities were partially restored when the dialyzed extracts were added back to the core ribosome. The binding of labeled adenosine diphosphoribosyl-elongation factor 2 to ribosomes was also affected by extraction and could be reconstituted, although not to the same extent as the GTPase activity associated with elongation factor 2 in the presence of the ribosome. The alcohol extracts of the 80 S ribosome contained mostly phosphoproteins P1 and P2 which could be dephosphorylated and rephosphorylated in solution by alkaline phosphatase and protein kinase, respectively. Dephosphorylation of the P1/P2 mixture in the extracts caused a decrease in the ability of these proteins to reactivate the polyphenylalanine synthesis activity of the core ribosome. However, treatment of the dephosphorylated proteins with the catalytic subunit of 3':5'-cAMP-dependent protein kinase in the presence of ATP reactivated the proteins when compared to the activity of the native extracts. Rabbit antisera raised against the alcohol-extracted proteins were capable of impairing both the polyphenylalanine synthesis reaction and the elongation factor 2-dependent GTPase reaction in the intact ribosomes.

  6. The Ribosomal RNA is a Useful Marker to Visualize Rhizobia Interacting with Legume Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaudi, Luciana; Isola, Maria C.; Giordano, Walter

    2004-01-01

    Symbiosis between rhizobia and leguminous plants leads to the formation of nitrogen-fixing root nodules. In the present article, we recommend the use of the ribosomal RNA (rRNA) isolated from legume nodules in an experimental class with the purpose of introducing students to the structure of eukaryotic and prokaryotic ribosomes and of…

  7. Control of ribosome traffic by position-dependent choice of synonymous codons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitarai, Namiko; Pedersen, Steen

    2013-01-01

    Messenger RNA (mRNA) encodes a sequence of amino acids by using codons. For most amino acids, there are multiple synonymous codons that can encode the amino acid. The translation speed can vary from one codon to another, thus there is room for changing the ribosome speed while keeping the amino acid sequence and hence the resulting protein. Recently, it has been noticed that the choice of the synonymous codon, via the resulting distribution of slow- and fast-translated codons, affects not only on the average speed of one ribosome translating the mRNA but also might have an effect on nearby ribosomes by affecting the appearance of ‘traffic jams’ where multiple ribosomes collide and form queues. To test this ‘context effect’ further, we here investigate the effect of the sequence of synonymous codons on the ribosome traffic by using a ribosome traffic model with codon-dependent rates, estimated from experiments. We compare the ribosome traffic on wild-type (WT) sequences and sequences where the synonymous codons were swapped randomly. By simulating translation of 87 genes, we demonstrate that the WT sequences, especially those with a high bias in codon usage, tend to have the ability to reduce ribosome collisions, hence optimizing the cellular investment in the translation apparatus. The magnitude of such reduction of the translation time might have a significant impact on the cellular growth rate and thereby have importance for the survival of the species. (paper)

  8. Plastid ribosome pausing is induced by multiple features and is linked to protein complex assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gawroński, Piotr; Jensen, Poul Erik; Karpinski, Stanislaw

    2018-01-01

    Many mRNAs contain pause sites that briefly interrupt the progress of translation. Specific features that induce ribosome pausing have been described; however, their individual contributions to pause-site formation, and the overall biological significance of ribosome pausing, remain largely uncle...

  9. Secondary resources and recycling in developing economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghupathy, Lakshmi; Chaturvedi, Ashish

    2013-09-01

    Recycling of metals extends the efficient use of minerals and metals, reduces pressure on environment and results in major energy savings in comparison to primary production. In developing economies recycling had been an integral part of industrial activity and has become a major concern due to the handling of potentially hazardous material without any regard to the occupational health and safety (OH&S) needs. With rising awareness and interest from policy makers, the recycling scenario is changing and the large scale enterprises are entering the recycling sector. There is widespread expectation that these enterprises would use the Best Available Technologies (BAT) leading to better environment management and enhanced resource recovery. The major challenge is to enhance and integrate the activities of other stakeholders in the value chain to make recycling an economically viable and profitable enterprise. This paper is an attempt to propose a sustainable model for recycling in the developing economies through integration of the informal and formal sectors. The main objective is to augment the existing practices using a scientific approach and providing better technology without causing an economic imbalance to the present practices. In this paper studies on lead acid batteries and e-waste recycling in India are presented to evolve a model for "green economy". Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Management and recycling of electronic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanskanen, Pia

    2013-01-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is one of the largest growing waste streams globally. Hence, for a sustainable environment and the economic recovery of valuable material for reuse, the efficient recycling of electronic scrap has been rendered indispensable, and must still be regarded as a major challenge for today’s society. In contrast to the well-established recycling of metallic scrap, it is much more complicated to recycle electronics products which have reached the end of their life as they contain many different types of material types integrated into each other. As illustrated primarily for the recycling of mobile phones, the efficient recycling of WEEE is not only a challenge for the recycling industry; it is also often a question of as-yet insufficient collection infrastructures and poor collection efficiencies, and a considerable lack of the consumer’s awareness for the potential of recycling electronics for the benefit of the environment, as well as for savings in energy and raw materials

  11. Secondary resources and recycling in developing economies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghupathy, Lakshmi; Chaturvedi, Ashish

    2013-01-01

    Recycling of metals extends the efficient use of minerals and metals, reduces pressure on environment and results in major energy savings in comparison to primary production. In developing economies recycling had been an integral part of industrial activity and has become a major concern due to the handling of potentially hazardous material without any regard to the occupational health and safety (OH and S) needs. With rising awareness and interest from policy makers, the recycling scenario is changing and the large scale enterprises are entering the recycling sector. There is widespread expectation that these enterprises would use the Best Available Technologies (BAT) leading to better environment management and enhanced resource recovery. The major challenge is to enhance and integrate the activities of other stakeholders in the value chain to make recycling an economically viable and profitable enterprise. This paper is an attempt to propose a sustainable model for recycling in the developing economies through integration of the informal and formal sectors. The main objective is to augment the existing practices using a scientific approach and providing better technology without causing an economic imbalance to the present practices. In this paper studies on lead acid batteries and e-waste recycling in India are presented to evolve a model for “green economy”

  12. Phosphorylation of ribosomal proteins induced by auxins in maize embryonic tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, L.; Aguilar, R.; Mendez, A.P.; de Jimenez, E.S.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of auxin on ribosomal protein phosphorylation of germinating maize (Zea mays) tissues was investigated. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and autoradiography of [ 32 P] ribosomal protein patterns for natural and synthetic auxin-treated tissues were performed. Both the rate of 32 P incorporation and the electrophoretic patterns were dependent on 32 P pulse length, suggesting that active protein phosphorylation-dephosphorylation occurred in small and large subunit proteins, in control as well as in auxin-treated tissues. The effect of ribosomal protein phosphorylation on in vitro translation was tested. Measurements of poly(U) translation rates as a function of ribosome concentration provided apparent K m values significantly different for auxin-treated and nontreated tissues. These findings suggest that auxin might exert some kind of translational control by regulating the phosphorylated status of ribosomal proteins

  13. rRNA:mRNA pairing alters the length and the symmetry of mRNA-protected fragments in ribosome profiling experiments

    OpenAIRE

    O?Connor, Patrick B. F.; Li, Gene-Wei; Weissman, Jonathan S.; Atkins, John F.; Baranov, Pavel V.

    2013-01-01

    Motivation: Ribosome profiling is a new technique that allows monitoring locations of translating ribosomes on mRNA at a whole transcriptome level. A recent ribosome profiling study demonstrated that internal Shine?Dalgarno (SD) sequences have a major global effect on translation rates in bacteria: ribosomes pause at SD sites in mRNA. Therefore, it is important to understand how SD sites effect mRNA movement through the ribosome and generation of ribosome footprints. Results: Here, we provide...

  14. Recycling carbon revenues: transforming costs into opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaidyula, Manasvini; Alberola, Emilie

    2016-01-01

    Governments worldwide generated $26 billion in 2015 in carbon pricing revenues. The benefits and co-benefits of carbon pricing can be enhanced by recycling carbon revenues. Revenue allocation decisions made by governments are vital as these revenues can help shift the narrative on carbon pricing from 'burden to benefit'. Existing carbon pricing schemes can provide useful feedback on revenue recycling. A well-positioned decision-making and governing framework is required to ensure the efficient recycling of carbon revenues

  15. Recycling systems for BWR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Akio; Yamamoto, Fumiaki; Fukumoto, Ryuji.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To stabilize the coolant flowing characteristics and reactor core reactivity. Constitution: The recycling system in a BWR type reactor comprises a recycling pump disposed to the outside of a reactor pressure vessel, a ring header connected to the recycling pump through main pipe ways, and a plurality of pipes branched from and connected with the ring header and connected to a plurality of jet pumps within the pressure vessel. Then, by making the diameter for the pipeways of each of the branched pipes different from each other, the effective cross-sectional area is varied to thereby average the coolant flow rate supplied to each of the jet pumps. (Seki, T.)

  16. Hot Mix Asphalt Recycling: Practices and Principles

    OpenAIRE

    Mohajeri, M.

    2015-01-01

    Hot mix asphalt recycling has become common practice all over the world since the 1970s because of the crisis in oil prices. In the Netherlands, hot recycling has advanced to such an extent that in most of the mixtures more than 50% of reclaimed asphalt (RA) is allowed. These mixtures with such a high RA content are produced in a batch plant to which a parallel drum is attached. In this drum RA is pre-heated to approximately 130°C. Since 2007 another hot mix recycling techniques became availa...

  17. Economic feasibility of radioactive scrap steel recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balhiser, R.; Rosholt, D.; Nichols, F.

    1995-01-01

    The goal of MSE's Radioactive Scrap Steel (RSS) Recycle Program is to develop practical methods for recycling RSS into useful product. This paper provides interim information about ongoing feasibility investigations that are scheduled for completion by September 1995. The project approach, major issues, and cost projections are outlined. Current information indicates that a cost effective RSS Recycling Facility can be designed, built, and in operation by 1999. The RSS team believes that high quality steel plate can be made from RSS at a conversion cost of $1500 per ton or less

  18. Supporting Sustainability through Recycling on Office Premises

    OpenAIRE

    Sierra Quiros, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is about recycling at the Deloitte office. Recycling of office material can be considered as a rather easy way to influence aspects of sustainability. The starting point for this thesis was to give support to Deloitte´s Green Agenda team, who’s aim is to consider recycling and sustainability from business perspectives. One of the main objectives in this thesis is to provide Deloitte with a frame of solutions for them to establish clear rules, policies and norms that encourage...

  19. Reusing recycled aggregates in structural concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Shicong

    The utilization of recycled aggregates in concrete can minimize environmental impact and reduce the consumption of natural resources in concrete applications. The aim of this thesis is to provide a scientific basis for the possible use of recycled aggregates in structure concrete by conducting a comprehensive programme of laboratory study to gain a better understanding of the mechanical, microstructure and durability properties of concrete produced with recycled aggregates. The study also explored possible techniques to of improve the properties of recycled aggregate concrete that is produced with high percentages (≧ 50%) of recycled aggregates. These techniques included: (a) using lower water-to-cement ratios in the concrete mix design; (b) using fly ash as a cement replacement or as an additional mineral admixture in the concrete mixes, and (c) precasting recycled aggregate concrete with steam curing regimes. The characteristics of the recycled aggregates produced both from laboratory and a commercially operated pilot construction and demolition (C&D) waste recycling plant were first studied. A mix proportioning procedure was then established to produce six series of concrete mixtures using different percentages of recycled coarse aggregates with and without the use of fly ash. The water-to-cement (binder) ratios of 0.55, 0.50, 0.45 and 0.40 were used. The fresh properties (including slump and bleeding) of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) were then quantified. The effects of fly ash on the fresh and hardened properties of RAC were then studied and compared with those RAC prepared with no fly ash addition. Furthermore, the effects of steam curing on the hardened properties of RAC were investigated. For micro-structural properties, the interfacial transition zones of the aggregates and the mortar/cement paste were analyzed by SEM and EDX-mapping. Moreover, a detailed set of results on the fracture properties for RAC were obtained. Based on the experimental

  20. Planning logistics network for recyclables collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratković Branislava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid urbanization, intensified industrialization, rise of income, and a more sophisticated form of consumerism are leading to an increase in the amount and toxicity of waste all over the world. Whether reused, recycled, incinerated or put into landfill sites, the management of household and industrial waste yield financial and environmental costs. This paper presents a modeling approach that can be used for designing one part of recycling logistics network through defining optimal locations of collection points, and possible optimal scheduling of vehicles for collecting recyclables. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR36005

  1. Replication and meiotic transmission of yeast ribosomal RNA genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, B J; Zakian, V A; Fangman, W L

    1980-11-01

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has approximately 120 genes for the ribosomal RNAs (rDNA) which are organized in tandem within chromosomal DNA. These multiple-copy genes are homogeneous in sequence but can undergo changes in copy number and topology. To determine if these changes reflect unusual features of rDNA metabolism, we have examined both the replication of rDNA in the mitotic cell cycle and the inheritance of rDNA during meiosis. The results indicate that rDNA behaves identically to chromosomal DNA: each rDNA unit is replicated once during the S phase of each cell cycle and each unit is conserved through meiosis. Therefore, the flexibility in copy number and topology of rDNA does not arise from the selective replication of units in each S phase nor by the selective inheritance of units in meiosis.

  2. Globular conformation of some ribosomal proteins in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serdyuk, I.N.; Spirin, A.S.

    1978-01-01

    The possibility that such RNA-binding proteins of the 30 S subparticle as S4, S7, S8 and S16 exist in the form of compact globules in solution has been explored experimentally. These proteins have been studied in D 2 O solution by neutron scattering to measure their radii of gyration. This type of radiation using D 2 O as a solvent provides the maximum 'contrast', that is the maximum difference between the scattering of the protein and the solvent. It allowed measurements to be made using protein at <= 1.5 mg/ml. The radii of gyration for the ribosomal proteins S4, S7, S8 and S16 were found to be relatively small corresponding to the radii of gyration of compact globular proteins of the same molecular weights. (Auth.)

  3. Heavy ion effects on yeast: Inhibition of ribosomal RNA synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, K.J.; Schneider, E.; Kiefer, J.; Kraft, G.

    1990-01-01

    Diploid wild-type yeast cells were exposed to beams of heavy ions covering a wide range of linear energy transfer (LET) (43-13,700 keV/microns). Synthesis of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) was assessed as a functional measure of damage produced by particle radiation. An exponential decrease of relative rRNA synthesis with particle fluence was demonstrated in all cases. The inactivation cross sections derived were found to increase with LET over the entire range of LET studied. The corresponding values for relative biological effectiveness were slightly less than unity. Maximum cross sections measured were close to 1 micron 2, implying that some larger structure within the yeast nucleus (e.g., the nucleolus) might represent the target for an impairment of synthetic activity by very heavy ions rather than the genes coding for rRNA. Where tested, an oxygen effect for rRNA synthesis could not be demonstrated

  4. Expanding the Entamoeba Universe: New Hosts Yield Novel Ribosomal Lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Alison S; Busby, Eloise J; Levy, Abigail D; Komm, Natasha; Clark, C Graham

    2016-01-01

    Removing the requirement for cell culture has led to a substantial increase in the number of lineages of Entamoeba recognized as distinct. Surveying the range of potential host species for this parasite genus has barely been started and it is clear that additional sampling of the same host in different locations often identifies additional diversity. In this study, using small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequencing, we identify four new lineages of Entamoeba, including the first report of Entamoeba from an elephant, and extend the host range of some previously described lineages. In addition, examination of microbiome data from a number of host animals suggests that substantial Entamoeba diversity remains to be uncovered. © 2015 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2015 International Society of Protistologists.

  5. Diffusion archeology for diffusion progression history reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefer, Emre; Kingsford, Carl

    2016-11-01

    Diffusion through graphs can be used to model many real-world processes, such as the spread of diseases, social network memes, computer viruses, or water contaminants. Often, a real-world diffusion cannot be directly observed while it is occurring - perhaps it is not noticed until some time has passed, continuous monitoring is too costly, or privacy concerns limit data access. This leads to the need to reconstruct how the present state of the diffusion came to be from partial diffusion data. Here, we tackle the problem of reconstructing a diffusion history from one or more snapshots of the diffusion state. This ability can be invaluable to learn when certain computer nodes are infected or which people are the initial disease spreaders to control future diffusions. We formulate this problem over discrete-time SEIRS-type diffusion models in terms of maximum likelihood. We design methods that are based on submodularity and a novel prize-collecting dominating-set vertex cover (PCDSVC) relaxation that can identify likely diffusion steps with some provable performance guarantees. Our methods are the first to be able to reconstruct complete diffusion histories accurately in real and simulated situations. As a special case, they can also identify the initial spreaders better than the existing methods for that problem. Our results for both meme and contaminant diffusion show that the partial diffusion data problem can be overcome with proper modeling and methods, and that hidden temporal characteristics of diffusion can be predicted from limited data.

  6. Cross-species functionality of pararetroviral elements driving ribosome shunting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail M Pooggin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV and Rice tungro bacilliform virus (RTBV belong to distinct genera of pararetroviruses infecting dicot and monocot plants, respectively. In both viruses, polycistronic translation of pregenomic (pg RNA is initiated by shunting ribosomes that bypass a large region of the pgRNA leader with several short (sORFs and a stable stem-loop structure. The shunt requires translation of a 5'-proximal sORF terminating near the stem. In CaMV, mutations knocking out this sORF nearly abolish shunting and virus viability. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we show that two distant regions of the CaMV leader that form a minimal shunt configuration comprising the sORF, a bottom part of the stem, and a shunt landing sequence can be replaced by heterologous sequences that form a structurally similar configuration in RTBV without any dramatic effect on shunt-mediated translation and CaMV infectivity. The CaMV-RTBV chimeric leader sequence was largely stable over five viral passages in turnip plants: a few alterations that did eventually occur in the virus progenies are indicative of fine tuning of the chimeric sequence during adaptation to a new host. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings demonstrate cross-species functionality of pararetroviral cis-elements driving ribosome shunting and evolutionary conservation of the shunt mechanism. We are grateful to Matthias Müller and Sandra Pauli for technical assistance. This work was initiated at Friedrich Miescher Institute (Basel, Switzerland. We thank Prof. Thomas Boller for hosting the group at the Institute of Botany.

  7. Ribosomal protein gene knockdown causes developmental defects in zebrafish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamayo Uechi

    Full Text Available The ribosomal proteins (RPs form the majority of cellular proteins and are mandatory for cellular growth. RP genes have been linked, either directly or indirectly, to various diseases in humans. Mutations in RP genes are also associated with tissue-specific phenotypes, suggesting a possible role in organ development during early embryogenesis. However, it is not yet known how mutations in a particular RP gene result in specific cellular changes, or how RP genes might contribute to human diseases. The development of animal models with defects in RP genes will be essential for studying these questions. In this study, we knocked down 21 RP genes in zebrafish by using morpholino antisense oligos to inhibit their translation. Of these 21, knockdown of 19 RPs resulted in the development of morphants with obvious deformities. Although mutations in RP genes, like other housekeeping genes, would be expected to result in nonspecific developmental defects with widespread phenotypes, we found that knockdown of some RP genes resulted in phenotypes specific to each gene, with varying degrees of abnormality in the brain, body trunk, eyes, and ears at about 25 hours post fertilization. We focused further on the organogenesis of the brain. Each knocked-down gene that affected the morphogenesis of the brain produced a different pattern of abnormality. Among the 7 RP genes whose knockdown produced severe brain phenotypes, 3 human orthologs are located within chromosomal regions that have been linked to brain-associated diseases, suggesting a possible involvement of RP genes in brain or neurological diseases. The RP gene knockdown system developed in this study could be a powerful tool for studying the roles of ribosomes in human diseases.

  8. Translation initiation in bacterial polysomes through ribosome loading on a standby site on a highly translated mRNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, Irena

    2018-01-01

    During translation, consecutive ribosomes load on an mRNA and form a polysome. The first ribosome binds to a single-stranded mRNA region and moves toward the start codon, unwinding potential mRNA structures on the way. In contrast, the following ribosomes can dock at the start codon only when the first ribosome has vacated the initiation site. Here we show that loading of the second ribosome on a natural 38-nt-long 5′ untranslated region of lpp mRNA, which codes for the outer membrane lipoprotein from Escherichia coli, takes place before the leading ribosome has moved away from the start codon. The rapid formation of this standby complex depends on the presence of ribosomal proteins S1/S2 in the leading ribosome. The early recruitment of the second ribosome to the standby site before translation by the leading ribosome and the tight coupling between translation elongation by the first ribosome and the accommodation of the second ribosome can contribute to high translational efficiency of the lpp mRNA. PMID:29632209

  9. Solid Waste and Recycling Collection Routes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Cary, North Carolina — View the Town’s current collection schedule, including pick-up day and recycling week designation.The Town of Cary collects garbage weekly at the curb on the same...

  10. Characterization and Modeling of Recycled Pavement Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    Because of its documented cost and environmental benefits, cold central plant recycling (CCPR) has attracted the interest of local and state departments of transportation. In 2015 two test pavement sections with CCPR as base layers were constructed a...

  11. BWR Assembly Optimization for Minor Actinide Recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Ivan Maldonado; John M. Christenson; J.P. Renier; T.F. Marcille; J. Casal

    2010-03-22

    The Primary objective of the proposed project is to apply and extend the latest advancements in LWR fuel management optimization to the design of advanced boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel assemblies specifically for the recycling of minor actinides (MAs).

  12. Performance of I-57 recycled concrete pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    In 1986-1987 the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) constructed a demonstration project on I-57 near Effingham, Illinois to evaluate the viability : of recycling an existing jointed reinforced concrete pavement for use as its primary aggreg...

  13. Recycled concrete aggregate in portland cement concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Aggregates can be produced by crushing hydraulic cement concrete and are known as recycled concrete : aggregates (RCA). This report provides results from a New Jersey Department of Transportation study to identify : barriers to the use of RCA in new ...

  14. Evaluation of radioactive scrap metal recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieves, L.A.; Chen, S.Y.; Kohout, E.J.; Nabelssi, B.; Tilbrook, R.W.; Wilson, S.E.

    1995-12-01

    This report evaluates the human health risks and environmental and socio-political impacts of options for recycling radioactive scrap metal (RSM) or disposing of and replacing it. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is assisting the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Oak Ridge Programs Division, in assessing the implications of RSM management alternatives. This study is intended to support the DOE contribution to a study of metal recycling being conducted by the Task Group on Recycling and Reuse of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The focus is on evaluating the justification for the practice of recycling RSM, and the case of iron and steel scrap is used as an example in assessing the impacts. To conduct the evaluation, a considerable set of data was compiled and developed. Much of this information is included in this document to provide a source book of information

  15. Hydrogen recycle modeling in transport codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, H.C.

    1979-01-01

    The hydrogen recycling models now used in Tokamak transport codes are reviewed and the method by which realistic recycling models are being added is discussed. Present models use arbitrary recycle coefficients and therefore do not model the actual recycling processes at the wall. A model for the hydrogen concentration in the wall serves two purposes: (1) it allows a better understanding of the density behavior in present gas puff, pellet, and neutral beam heating experiments; and (2) it allows one to extrapolate to long pulse devices such as EBT, ISX-C and reactors where the walls are observed or expected to saturate. Several wall models are presently being studied for inclusion in transport codes

  16. The continued quest to better recycling behaviour

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Strydom, WF

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available During 2010 a national survey on waste management service delivery and recycling behaviour amongst metropolitan households was conducted. WasteCon2010 conference attendees were also surveyed in parallel and on a voluntary basis. This paper reports...

  17. Organic household waste - incineration or recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The Danish Environmental Protection Agency has carried out a cost benefit analysis of the consequences of increasing recycling of organic household waste. In the cost benefit analysis both the economic consequences for the affected parties and the welfare-economic consequences for the society as a whole have been investigated. In the welfare-economic analysis the value of the environmental effects has been included. The analysis shows that it is more expensive for the society to recycle organic household waste by anaerobic digestion or central composting than by incineration. Incineration is the cheapest solution for the society, while central composting is the most expensive. Furthermore, technical studies have shown that there are only small environmental benefits connected with anaerobic digestion of organic waste compared with incineration of the waste. The primary reason for recycling being more expensive than incineration is the necessary, but cost-intensive, dual collection of the household waste. Treatment itself is cheaper for recycling compared to incinerating. (BA)

  18. Evaluation of radioactive scrap metal recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves, L.A.; Chen, S.Y.; Kohout, E.J.; Nabelssi, B.; Tilbrook, R.W.; Wilson, S.E.

    1995-12-01

    This report evaluates the human health risks and environmental and socio-political impacts of options for recycling radioactive scrap metal (RSM) or disposing of and replacing it. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is assisting the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Oak Ridge Programs Division, in assessing the implications of RSM management alternatives. This study is intended to support the DOE contribution to a study of metal recycling being conducted by the Task Group on Recycling and Reuse of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The focus is on evaluating the justification for the practice of recycling RSM, and the case of iron and steel scrap is used as an example in assessing the impacts. To conduct the evaluation, a considerable set of data was compiled and developed. Much of this information is included in this document to provide a source book of information.

  19. The feasibility of recycling contaminated concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayers, K.W.; Corroon, W.; Parker, F.L.

    1999-01-01

    The changing mission of the Department of Energy along with the aging of many of its facilities has resulted in renewed emphasis on decontaminating and decommissioning surplus structures. Currently DOE is decontaminating some concrete and sending the clean material to C and D disposal facilities. In other instance, DOE is sending contaminated concrete to LLW disposal facilities. This paper examines the economic feasibility of decontaminating the concrete and recycling the rubble as clean aggregate. A probabilistic cost model was used to examine six potential recycling and disposal scenarios. The model predicted potential costs saving across the DOE complex of nearly one billion dollars. The ability of local markets to assimilate the recycled material was estimated for Washington, Idaho, Tennessee, New Mexico, and South Carolina. The relationships between a number of the economic model's variables were examined to develop operating ranges for initial managerial evaluation of recycling

  20. Irradiation performance of HTGR recycle fissile fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homan, F.J.; Long, E.L. Jr.

    1976-08-01

    The irradiation performance of candidate HTGR recycle fissile fuel under accelerated testing conditions is reviewed. Failure modes for coated-particle fuels are described, and the performance of candidate recycle fissile fuels is discussed in terms of these failure modes. The bases on which UO 2 and (Th,U)O 2 were rejected as candidate recycle fissile fuels are outlined, along with the bases on which the weak-acid resin (WAR)-derived fissile fuel was selected as the reference recycle kernel. Comparisons are made relative to the irradiation behavior of WAR-derived fuels of varying stoichiometry and conclusions are drawn about the optimum stoichiometry and the range of acceptable values. Plans for future testing in support of specification development, confirmation of the results of accelerated testing by real-time experiments, and improvement in fuel performance and reliability are described

  1. Recycling Mentors: an intergenerational, service-learning program to promote recycling and environmental awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'abundo, Michelle L; Fugate-Whitlock, Elizabeth I; Fiala, Kelly A

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of Recycling Mentors was to implement an intergenerational, service-learning program focused on promoting recycling and environmental awareness among students enrolled in Community Health (HEA 301) and Current Issues in Gerontology (GRN 440/540) and adults older than 60 years. Recycling Mentors was conducted in New Hanover County (NHC), North Carolina, where a moderate climate and coastal location attracts many tourists, retirees, and college students. A community like NHC is a good place to implement service-learning that educates both students and older adults about the benefits of recycling to individual health and the environment. During the Fall 2009 semester, undergraduate and graduate students completed institutional review board training and then conducted the program with older adults. The education component of Recycling Mentors included a pre/post survey, brochure, and scheduled visits. Overall, Recycling Mentors was positive service-learning experience with students identifying salient outcomes such as learning about recycling and the environment and working with older adults. In addition, teaching the education component of Recycling Mentors was good practice for students who will be the future health professionals. While service-learning and environmentally themed projects are common, a program that combines the 2 like Recycling Mentors is unique and has the potential to motivate individual change while positively impacting the local community and the environment.

  2. Length sensing and control of a Michelson interferometer with power recycling and twin signal recycling cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gräf, Christian; Thüring, André; Vahlbruch, Henning; Danzmann, Karsten; Schnabel, Roman

    2013-03-11

    The techniques of power recycling and signal recycling have proven as key concepts to increase the sensitivity of large-scale gravitational wave detectors by independent resonant enhancement of light power and signal sidebands within the interferometer. Developing the latter concept further, twin signal recycling was proposed as an alternative to conventional detuned signal recycling. Twin signal recycling features the narrow-band sensitivity gain of conventional detuned signal recycling but furthermore facilitates the injection of squeezed states of light, increases the detector sensitivity over a wide frequency band and requires a less complex detection scheme for optimal signal readout. These benefits come at the expense of an additional recycling mirror, thus increasing the number of degrees of freedom in the interferometer which need to be controlled.In this article we describe the development of a length sensing and control scheme and its successful application to a tabletop-scale power recycled Michelson interferometer with twin signal recycling. We were able to lock the interferometer in all relevant longitudinal degrees of freedom and thus laid the foundation for further investigations of this interferometer configuration to evaluate its viability for the application in gravitational wave detectors.

  3. Defense Waste Processing Facility Recycle Stream Evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STONE, MICHAEL

    2006-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) stabilizes high level radioactive waste (HLW) by vitrification of the waste slurries. DWPF currently produces approximately five gallons of dilute recycle for each gallon of waste vitrified. This recycle stream is currently sent to the HLW tank farm at SRS where it is processed through the HLW evaporators with the concentrate eventually sent back to the DWPF for stabilization. Limitations of the HLW evaporators and storage space constraints in the tank farm have the potential to impact the operation of the DWPF and could limit the rate that HLW is stabilized. After an evaluation of various alternatives, installation of a dedicated evaporator for the DWPF recycle stream was selected for further evaluation. The recycle stream consists primarily of process condensates from the pretreatment and vitrification processes. Other recycle streams consist of process samples, sample line flushes, sump flushes, and cleaning solutions from the decontamination and filter dissolution processes. The condensate from the vitrification process contains some species, such as sulfate, that are not appreciably volatile at low temperature and could accumulate in the system if 100% of the evaporator concentrate was returned to DWPF. These species are currently removed as required by solids washing in the tank farm. The cleaning solutions are much higher in solids content than the other streams and are generated 5-6 times per year. The proposed evaporator would be required to concentrate the recycle stream by a factor of 30 to allow the concentrate to be recycled directly to the DWPF process, with a purge stream sent to the tank farm as required to prevent buildup of sulfate and similar species in the process. The overheads are required to meet stringent constraints to allow the condensate to be sent directly to an effluent treatment plant. The proposed evaporator would nearly de-couple the DWPF process from the

  4. Auditing Operating Room Recycling: A Management Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGain, Forbes; Jarosz, Katherine Maria; Nguyen, Martin Ngoc Hoai Huong; Bates, Samantha; O'Shea, Catherine Jane

    2015-08-01

    Much waste arises from operating rooms (ORs). We estimated the practical and financial feasibility of an OR recycling program, weighing all waste from 6 ORs in Melbourne, Australia. Over 1 week, 237 operations produced 1265 kg in total: general waste 570 kg (45%), infectious waste 410 kg (32%), and recyclables 285 kg (23%). The achieved recycling had no infectious contamination. The achieved recycling/potential recycling rate was 285 kg/517 kg (55%). The average waste disposal costs were similar for general waste and recycling. OR recycling rates of 20%-25% total waste were achievable without compromising infection control or financial constraints.

  5. Probabilistic Analysis of Structural Member from Recycled Aggregate Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broukalová, I.; Šeps, K.

    2017-09-01

    The paper aims at the topic of sustainable building concerning recycling of waste rubble concrete from demolition. Considering demands of maximising recycled aggregate use and minimising of cement consumption, composite from recycled concrete aggregate was proposed. The objective of the presented investigations was to verify feasibility of the recycled aggregate cement based fibre reinforced composite in a structural member. Reliability of wall from recycled aggregate fibre reinforced composite was assessed in a probabilistic analysis of a load-bearing capacity of the wall. The applicability of recycled aggregate fibre reinforced concrete in structural applications was demonstrated. The outcomes refer to issue of high scatter of material parameters of recycled aggregate concretes.

  6. Recycling Endosomes and Viral Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale-Costa, Sílvia; Amorim, Maria João

    2016-03-08

    Many viruses exploit specific arms of the endomembrane system. The unique composition of each arm prompts the development of remarkably specific interactions between viruses and sub-organelles. This review focuses on the viral-host interactions occurring on the endocytic recycling compartment (ERC), and mediated by its regulatory Ras-related in brain (Rab) GTPase Rab11. This protein regulates trafficking from the ERC and the trans-Golgi network to the plasma membrane. Such transport comprises intricate networks of proteins/lipids operating sequentially from the membrane of origin up to the cell surface. Rab11 is also emerging as a critical factor in an increasing number of infections by major animal viruses, including pathogens that provoke human disease. Understanding the interplay between the ERC and viruses is a milestone in human health. Rab11 has been associated with several steps of the viral lifecycles by unclear processes that use sophisticated diversified host machinery. For this reason, we first explore the state-of-the-art on processes regulating membrane composition and trafficking. Subsequently, this review outlines viral interactions with the ERC, highlighting current knowledge on viral-host binding partners. Finally, using examples from the few mechanistic studies available we emphasize how ERC functions are adjusted during infection to remodel cytoskeleton dynamics, innate immunity and membrane composition.

  7. Plastic Recycling Experiments in Materials Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping; Waskom, Tommy L.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this project was to introduce a series of plastic recycling experiments to students in materials-related courses such as materials science, material technology and materials testing. With the plastic recycling experiments, students not only can learn the fundamentals of plastic processing and properties as in conventional materials courses, but also can be exposed to the issue of materials life cycle and the impact on society and environment.

  8. Communication strategy of recycling and collecting bottles

    OpenAIRE

    Slavinská, Lenka

    2009-01-01

    This thesis deals with communication in the field of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). It aims to analyse the relationship between marketing communication and CSR and to evaluate which tools of the communication mix are suitable for the communication of CSR and especially for the communication of recycling. It also deals with the fields of packaging in marketing, recycling, collecting and sorting the packages and sustainable development. Theoretical knowledge is applied on The Coca-Cola ...

  9. Plutonium recycle. In-core fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincent, F.; Berthet, A.; Le Bars, M.

    1985-01-01

    Plutonium recycle in France will concern a dozen of PWR 900 MWe controlled in gray mode till 1995. This paper presents the main characteristics of fuel management with plutonium recycle. The organization of management studies will be copied from this developed for classical management studies. Up these studies, a ''feasibility report'' aims at establishing at each stage of the fuel cycle, the impact of the utilization of fuel containing plutonium [fr

  10. Superior cold recycling : The score project

    OpenAIRE

    LESUEUR, D; POTTI, JJ; SOUTHWELL, C; WALTER, J; CRUZ, M; DELFOSSE, F; ECKMANN, B; FIEDLER, J; RACEK, I; SIMONSSON, B; PLACIN, F; SERRANO, J; RUIZ, A; KALAAJI, A; ATTANE, P

    2004-01-01

    In order to develop Environmentally Friendly Construction Technologies (EFCT) and as part of the 5th Framework Program of Research and Development, the European Community has decided to finance a research project on cold recycling, entitled SCORE "Superior COld REcycling based on benefits of bituminous microemulsions and foamed bitumen. A EFCT system for the rehabilitation and the maintenance of roads". This research project gathers organizations from all over Europe, from industrial partners...

  11. Modern recycling methods in metallurgical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Maj

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of environment caused by increased industrial activities is the main topic of discussions in Poland and in the world. The possibilities of waste recovery and recycling vary in different sectors of the industry, and the specific methods, developed and improved all the time, depend on the type of the waste. In this study, the attention has been focussed mainly on the waste from metallurgical industry and on the available techniques of its recycling

  12. The value and feasibility of proactive recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fthenakis, V.M.; Moskowitz, P.D.

    1999-01-01

    Photovoltaics (PV) technology has definite environmental advantages over competing electricity generation technologies, and so far these advantages have driven market penetration. The PV industry follows a pro-active approach to preserve its safe and environmentally friendly nature. Industrial ecology considerations raise the issue of what to do with the PV modules at the end of their useful life. One option is recycling. This paper discusses the value of proactive recycling and compares several alternatives. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  13. Studies of the effects of ultraviolet radiation on the structural integrities of ribosomal RNA components of the Escherichia coli 50S ribosomal subunit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorelic, L.; Parker, D.

    1978-01-01

    The effects of 254-nm radiation on the structural integrities of free and 50S ribosome-bound 5S and 23S ribosomal ribonucleic acids (rRNA) have been elucidated. Irradiation of aqueous solutions of Escherichia coli 50S ribosomes with 253.7-nm radiation results in the formation of single-strand breaks in double-stranded regions of the 23S rRNA component, but not in rRNA chain scission, and destabilization of the secondary structure of the 23S rRNA toward denaturation. The minimum doses of 253.7-nm radiation required for the first detection of the two effects are 7 x 10 19 quanta for the production of single-strand breaks in double-stranded regions of the 23S rRNA, and 19 quanta for destabilization of the 23S rRNA secondary structure. Free 23S rRNA is resistant toward photoinduced chain breakage at doses of 253.7-nm radiation up to at least 2.3 x 10 20 and is much less sensitive toward destabilization of secondary structure than ribosome-bound 23S rRNA. In contrast to the photosensitivity of 50S ribosome-bound 23S rRNA toward chain breakage, 50S ribosome-bound 5S rRNA is resistant toward chain breakage at doses of 253.7-nm radiation up to at least 2.3 x 10 20 quanta. Ribosome-bound 5S and 23S rRNA are also not photosensitive toward intermolecular 5S/23S rRNA cross-linkage

  14. The primary structure of rat liver ribosomal protein L37. Homology with yeast and bacterial ribosomal proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, A; McNally, J; Wool, I G

    1983-09-10

    The covalent structure of the rat liver 60 S ribosomal subunit protein L37 was determined. Twenty-four tryptic peptides were purified and the sequence of each was established; they accounted for all 111 residues of L37. The sequence of the first 30 residues of L37, obtained previously by automated Edman degradation of the intact protein, provided the alignment of the first 9 tryptic peptides. Three peptides (CN1, CN2, and CN3) were produced by cleavage of protein L37 with cyanogen bromide. The sequence of CN1 (65 residues) was established from the sequence of secondary peptides resulting from cleavage with trypsin and chymotrypsin. The sequence of CN1 in turn served to order tryptic peptides 1 through 14. The sequence of CN2 (15 residues) was determined entirely by a micromanual procedure and allowed the alignment of tryptic peptides 14 through 18. The sequence of the NH2-terminal 28 amino acids of CN3 (31 residues) was determined; in addition the complete sequences of the secondary tryptic and chymotryptic peptides were done. The sequence of CN3 provided the order of tryptic peptides 18 through 24. Thus the sequence of the three cyanogen bromide peptides also accounted for the 111 residues of protein L37. The carboxyl-terminal amino acids were identified after carboxypeptidase A treatment. There is a disulfide bridge between half-cystinyl residues at positions 40 and 69. Rat liver ribosomal protein L37 is homologous with yeast YP55 and with Escherichia coli L34. Moreover, there is a segment of 17 residues in rat L37 that occurs, albeit with modifications, in yeast YP55 and in E. coli S4, L20, and L34.

  15. Recycling ampersand incineration: Evaluating the choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denison, R.A.; Ruston, J.

    1993-01-01

    Conflicts between proponents of municipal solid waste incineration and advocates of recycling have escalated with efforts to reduce the volume of waste that ends up in landfills. Central to this debate is competition for materials that are both combustible and recyclable. Environmental and economic concerns also play a major role. This book, produced by the Environmental Defense Fund, compares recycling and incineration. It is intended for 'citizens, government officials, and business people who want to help resolve the solid-waste crisis.' The book is divided into three parts: recycling and incineration; health and environmental risk of incineration; and planning, public participation, and environmental review requirements. The book does an excellent job of discussing the benefits of recycling and the pitfalls of incineration. It provides helpful information for identifying questions that should be raised about incineration, but it does not raise similar queries about recycling. There is much worthwhile information here, but the book would be more useful if it identified critical issues for all waste reduction and management options

  16. Optical absorption in recycled waste plastic polyethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aji, M. P.; Rahmawati, I.; Priyanto, A.; Karunawan, J.; Wati, A. L.; Aryani, N. P.; Susanto; Wibowo, E.; Sulhadi

    2018-03-01

    We investigated the optical properties of UV spectrum absorption in recycled waste plastic from polyethylene polymer type. Waste plastic polyethylene showed an optical spectrum absorption after it’s recycling process. Spectrum absorption is determined using spectrophotometer UV-Nir Ocean Optics type USB 4000. Recycling method has been processed using heating treatment around the melting point temperature of the polyethylene polymer that are 200°C, 220°C, 240°C, 260°C, and 280°C. In addition, the recycling process was carried out with time variations as well, which are 1h, 1.5h, 2h, and 2.5h. The result of this experiment shows that recycled waste plastic polyethylene has a spectrum absorption in the ∼ 340-550 nm wavelength range. The absorbance spectrum obtained from UV light which is absorbed in the orbital n → π* and the orbital π → π*. This process indicates the existence of electron transition phenomena. This mechanism is affected by the temperature and the heating time where the intensity of absorption increases and widens with the increase of temperature and heating time. Furthermore this study resulted that the higher temperature affected the enhancement of the band gap energy of waste plastic polyethylene. These results show that recycled waste plastic polyethylene has a huge potential to be absorber materials for solar cell.

  17. Paper recycling framework, the "Wheel of Fiber".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ervasti, Ilpo; Miranda, Ruben; Kauranen, Ilkka

    2016-06-01

    At present, there is no reliable method in use that unequivocally describes paper industry material flows and makes it possible to compare geographical regions with each other. A functioning paper industry Material Flow Account (MFA) that uses uniform terminology and standard definitions for terms and structures is necessary. Many of the presently used general level MFAs, which are called frameworks in this article, stress the importance of input and output flows but do not provide a uniform picture of material recycling. Paper industry is an example of a field in which recycling plays a key role. Additionally, terms related to paper industry recycling, such as collection rate, recycling rate, and utilization rate, are not defined uniformly across regions and time. Thus, reliably comparing material recycling activity between geographical regions or calculating any regional summaries is difficult or even impossible. The objective of this study is to give a partial solution to the problem of not having a reliable method in use that unequivocally describes paper industry material flows. This is done by introducing a new material flow framework for paper industry in which the flow and stage structure supports the use of uniform definitions for terms related to paper recycling. This new framework is termed the Detailed Wheel of Fiber. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Ribosomal studies on the 70S ribosome of E.coli by means of neutron scattering; Strukturuntersuchungen am 70S-Ribosom von E.coli unter Anwendung von Neutronenstreuung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkhardt, N. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstofforschung

    1997-12-31

    Ribosomes are ribonucleo-protein complexes, which catalyse proteinbiosynthesis in all living organisms. Currently, most of the structural models of the prokaryotic 70S ribosome rely on electron microscopy and describe mainly the outer shape of the particle. Neutron scattering can provide information on the internal structure of the ribosome. Parts of the structure can be contrasted for neutrons by means of an isotopic exchange of the naturally occurring hydrogen ({sup 1}H) for deuterium ({sup 2}H), allowing direct measurements in situ. Specifically deuterium-labeled ribosomes (E. coli) were prepared and analysed with neutron scattering. The biochemical methods were established and combined to a generally applicable preparation system. This allows labeling of all ribosomal components in any combination. A systematic analysis of the protein and RNA phases resulted in the development of a new model for the 70S ribosome. This model describes not only the outer shape of the particle, but displays also an experimentally determined internal protein-RNA distribution and the border of subunits for the first time (four-phase model; resolution: 50A). Models of the 70S ribosome from other studies were evaluated and ranked according to consistency with the measured scattering data. Applying a new neutron scattering technique of particular sensitivity, the proton-spin contrast-variation, single proteins could be measured and localized. The positions of the proteins S6 and S10 were determined, providing the first coordinates of protein mass centers within the 70S ribosome. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ribosomen sind Ribonukleinsaeure-Protein Komplexe, die in allen lebenden Organismen die Proteinbiosynthese katalysieren. Strukturmodelle fuer das prokaryontische 70S-Ribosom beruhen derzeit vorwiegend auf elektronenmikroskopischen Untersuchungen und beschreiben im wesentlichen die aeussere Oberflaeche des Partikels. Informationen ueber die innere Struktur des Ribosoms koennen Messungen mit

  19. Ribosomal studies on the 70S ribosome of E.coli by means of neutron scattering; Strukturuntersuchungen am 70S-Ribosom von E.coli unter Anwendung von Neutronenstreuung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkhardt, N [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstofforschung

    1998-12-31

    Ribosomes are ribonucleo-protein complexes, which catalyse proteinbiosynthesis in all living organisms. Currently, most of the structural models of the prokaryotic 70S ribosome rely on electron microscopy and describe mainly the outer shape of the particle. Neutron scattering can provide information on the internal structure of the ribosome. Parts of the structure can be contrasted for neutrons by means of an isotopic exchange of the naturally occurring hydrogen ({sup 1}H) for deuterium ({sup 2}H), allowing direct measurements in situ. Specifically deuterium-labeled ribosomes (E. coli) were prepared and analysed with neutron scattering. The biochemical methods were established and combined to a generally applicable preparation system. This allows labeling of all ribosomal components in any combination. A systematic analysis of the protein and RNA phases resulted in the development of a new model for the 70S ribosome. This model describes not only the outer shape of the particle, but displays also an experimentally determined internal protein-RNA distribution and the border of subunits for the first time (four-phase model; resolution: 50A). Models of the 70S ribosome from other studies were evaluated and ranked according to consistency with the measured scattering data. Applying a new neutron scattering technique of particular sensitivity, the proton-spin contrast-variation, single proteins could be measured and localized. The positions of the proteins S6 and S10 were determined, providing the first coordinates of protein mass centers within the 70S ribosome. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ribosomen sind Ribonukleinsaeure-Protein Komplexe, die in allen lebenden Organismen die Proteinbiosynthese katalysieren. Strukturmodelle fuer das prokaryontische 70S-Ribosom beruhen derzeit vorwiegend auf elektronenmikroskopischen Untersuchungen und beschreiben im wesentlichen die aeussere Oberflaeche des Partikels. Informationen ueber die innere Struktur des Ribosoms koennen Messungen mit

  20. The nonlinear relationship between paper recycling and primary pulp requirements : modeling paper production and recycling in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenk, Niels J.; Moll, Henri C.; Potting, Josepha

    Waste paper is suitable for recycling back into paper or for incineration for energy recovery. If waste paper is used for recycling, secondary pulp replaces virgin pulp. Fiber recycling is limited, however, because of physical constraints—particularly the breakage of fiber in the recycling

  1. Excess Entropy and Diffusivity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Excess Entropy and Diffusivity. Excess entropy scaling of diffusivity (Rosenfeld,1977). Analogous relationships also exist for viscosity and thermal conductivity.

  2. Low to high performance recycled cementitious materials: case studies

    OpenAIRE

    Etxeberria Larrañaga, Miren

    2015-01-01

    In this work, four real case studies using concrete produced with recycled aggregates are described. The four real cases carried out in Barcelona are: 1) Pavement filling with control low strength material (CLSM) employing fine recycled aggregates, 2) pervious recycled aggregate concrete employing coarse mixed recycled aggregates in the works undertaken at Cervantes park; 3) Concrete blocks produced employing recycled and slag aggregates as well as sea water for a new breakwater dyke and 4) R...

  3. Energetic conditions of effective recycling of composite castings

    OpenAIRE

    J. Jackowski

    2009-01-01

    The most reasonable way of recycling the metal composite materials consists in separation of the components. In case of the composites with saturated reinforcement it is the only recycling method. The process of separation of the components always undergoes in the presence of an additional liquid phase called a recycling medium. In a three-phase system including the material of composite reinforcement – liquid composite matrix – liquid recycling medium, an important role for the recycling pro...

  4. Understanding Biases in Ribosome Profiling Experiments Reveals Signatures of Translation Dynamics in Yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey A Hussmann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ribosome profiling produces snapshots of the locations of actively translating ribosomes on messenger RNAs. These snapshots can be used to make inferences about translation dynamics. Recent ribosome profiling studies in yeast, however, have reached contradictory conclusions regarding the average translation rate of each codon. Some experiments have used cycloheximide (CHX to stabilize ribosomes before measuring their positions, and these studies all counterintuitively report a weak negative correlation between the translation rate of a codon and the abundance of its cognate tRNA. In contrast, some experiments performed without CHX report strong positive correlations. To explain this contradiction, we identify unexpected patterns in ribosome density downstream of each type of codon in experiments that use CHX. These patterns are evidence that elongation continues to occur in the presence of CHX but with dramatically altered codon-specific elongation rates. The measured positions of ribosomes in these experiments therefore do not reflect the amounts of time ribosomes spend at each position in vivo. These results suggest that conclusions from experiments in yeast using CHX may need reexamination. In particular, we show that in all such experiments, codons decoded by less abundant tRNAs were in fact being translated more slowly before the addition of CHX disrupted these dynamics.

  5. Ribosomal proteins as biomarkers for bacterial identification by mass spectrometry in the clinical microbiology laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Stéphanie; Ferroni, Agnès; Lotz, Aurélie; Jolley, Keith A; Guérin, Philippe; Leto, Julie; Dauphin, Brunhilde; Jamet, Anne; Maiden, Martin C J; Nassif, Xavier; Armengaud, Jean

    2013-09-01

    Whole-cell matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is a rapid method for identification of microorganisms that is increasingly used in microbiology laboratories. This identification is based on the comparison of the tested isolate mass spectrum with reference databases. Using Neisseria meningitidis as a model organism, we showed that in one of the available databases, the Andromas database, 10 of the 13 species-specific biomarkers correspond to ribosomal proteins. Remarkably, one biomarker, ribosomal protein L32, was subject to inter-strain variability. The analysis of the ribosomal protein patterns of 100 isolates for which whole genome sequences were available, confirmed the presence of inter-strain variability in the molecular weight of 29 ribosomal proteins, thus establishing a correlation between the sequence type (ST) and/or clonal complex (CC) of each strain and its ribosomal protein pattern. Since the molecular weight of three of the variable ribosomal proteins (L30, L31 and L32) was included in the spectral window observed by MALDI-TOF MS in clinical microbiology, i.e., 3640-12000 m/z, we were able by analyzing the molecular weight of these three ribosomal proteins to classify each strain in one of six subgroups, each of these subgroups corresponding to specific STs and/or CCs. Their detection by MALDI-TOF allows therefore a quick typing of N. meningitidis isolates. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Ribosomal stress induces L11- and p53-dependent apoptosis in mouse pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgado-Palacin, Lucia; Llanos, Susana; Serrano, Manuel

    2012-02-01

    Ribosome biogenesis is the most demanding energetic process in proliferating cells and it is emerging as a critical sensor of cellular homeostasis. Upon disturbance of ribosome biogenesis, specific free ribosomal proteins, most notably L11, bind and inhibit Mdm2, resulting in activation of the tumor suppressor p53. This pathway has been characterized in somatic and cancer cells, but its function in embryonic pluripotent cells has remained unexplored. Here, we show that treatment with low doses of Actinomycin D or depletion of ribosomal protein L37, two well-established inducers of ribosomal stress, activate p53 in an L11-dependent manner in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Activation of p53 results in transcriptional induction of p53 targets, including p21, Mdm2, Pidd, Puma, Noxa and Bax. Finally, ribosomal stress elicits L11- and p53-dependent apoptosis in ESCs/iPSCs. These results extend to pluripotent cells the functionality of the ribosomal stress pathway and we speculate that this could be a relevant cellular checkpoint during early embryogenesis.

  7. Proteome distribution between nucleoplasm and nucleolus and its relation to ribosome biogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Denise; Simm, Stefan; Darm, Katrin; Weis, Benjamin L; Ruprecht, Maike; Schleiff, Enrico; Scharf, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Ribosome biogenesis is an essential process initiated in the nucleolus. In eukaryotes, multiple ribosome biogenesis factors (RBFs) can be found in the nucleolus, the nucleus and in the cytoplasm. They act in processing, folding and modification of the pre-ribosomal (r)RNAs, incorporation of ribosomal proteins (RPs), export of pre-ribosomal particles to the cytoplasm, and quality control mechanisms. Ribosome biogenesis is best established for Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Plant ortholog assignment to yeast RBFs revealed the absence of about 30% of the yeast RBFs in plants. In turn, few plant specific proteins have been identified by biochemical experiments to act in plant ribosome biogenesis. Nevertheless, a complete inventory of plant RBFs has not been established yet. We analyzed the proteome of the nucleus and nucleolus of Arabidopsis thaliana and the post-translational modifications of these proteins. We identified 1602 proteins in the nucleolar and 2544 proteins in the nuclear fraction with an overlap of 1429 proteins. For a randomly selected set of proteins identified by the proteomic approach we confirmed the localization inferred from the proteomics data by the localization of GFP fusion proteins. We assigned the identified proteins to various complexes and functions and found about 519 plant proteins that have a potential to act as a RBFs, but which have not been experimentally characterized yet. Last, we compared the distribution of RBFs and RPs in the various fractions with the distribution established for yeast.

  8. Assessing changes on poly(ethylene terephthalate) properties after recycling: Mechanical recycling in laboratory versus postconsumer recycled material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López, María del Mar Castro, E-mail: quimcl02@udc.es [Grupo de Polímeros, Centro de Investigacións Tecnológicas (CIT), Departamento de Física, Escuela Universitaria Politécnica, Universidade de A Coruña, Campus de Ferrol, 15403 Ferrol (Spain); Ares Pernas, Ana Isabel, E-mail: aares@udc.es [Grupo de Polímeros, Centro de Investigacións Tecnológicas (CIT), Departamento de Física, Escuela Universitaria Politécnica, Universidade de A Coruña, Campus de Ferrol, 15403 Ferrol (Spain); Abad López, Ma José, E-mail: mjabad@udc.es [Grupo de Polímeros, Centro de Investigacións Tecnológicas (CIT), Departamento de Física, Escuela Universitaria Politécnica, Universidade de A Coruña, Campus de Ferrol, 15403 Ferrol (Spain); and others

    2014-10-15

    Keeping rheological, mechanical and thermal properties of virgin poly(ethylene terephthalate), PET, is necessary to assure the quality of second-market applications. A comparative study of these properties has been undertaken in virgin, mechanical recycled and commercial recycled PET samples. Viscoelastic characterization was carried out by rheological measurements. Mechanical properties were estimated by tensile and Charpy impact strength tests. Thermal properties and crystallinity were evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry and a deconvolution procedure was applied to study the population of the different crystals. Molecular conformational changes related to crystallinity values were studied by FTIR spectroscopy. Variations in average molecular weight were predicted from rheology. Besides, the presence-absence of linear and cyclic oligomeric species was measured by mass spectrometry techniques, as MALDI-TOF. Mechanical recycled PET undergoes a significant decline in rheological, mechanical and thermal properties upon increasing the number of reprocessing steps. This is due to the cleavage of the ester bonds with reduction in molar mass and raise in cyclic oligomeric species, in particular [GT{sub c}]{sub n} and [GT{sub c}]{sub n}-G type. Chain shortening plus enrichment in trans conformers favour the crystallization process which occurs earlier and faster with modification in crystal populations. Additional physicochemical steps are necessary to preserve the main benefits of PET. - Highlights: • Combination of multiple techniques to characterize the effects of recycling in PET. • Cleavage of ester bonds reduced viscosity, Mw, toughness in mechanical recycled PET. • Virgin, mechanical recycled and commercial recycled PET differ in crystal populations. • Cyclic oligomers [GT{sub c}]{sub n} and [GT{sub c}]{sub n}-G increase from the fourth extrusion cycle onwards.

  9. A Numbers Game: Ribosome Densities, Bacterial Growth, and Antibiotic-Mediated Stasis and Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce R. Levin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We postulate that the inhibition of growth and low rates of mortality of bacteria exposed to ribosome-binding antibiotics deemed bacteriostatic can be attributed almost uniquely to these drugs reducing the number of ribosomes contributing to protein synthesis, i.e., the number of effective ribosomes. We tested this hypothesis with Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655 and constructs that had been deleted for 1 to 6 of the 7 rRNA (rrn operons. In the absence of antibiotics, constructs with fewer rrn operons have lower maximum growth rates and longer lag phases than those with more ribosomal operons. In the presence of the ribosome-binding “bacteriostatic” antibiotics tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and azithromycin, E. coli strains with 1 and 2 rrn operons are killed at a substantially higher rate than those with more rrn operons. This increase in the susceptibility of E. coli with fewer rrn operons to killing by ribosome-targeting bacteriostatic antibiotics is not reflected in their greater sensitivity to killing by the bactericidal antibiotic ciprofloxacin, which does not target ribosomes, but also to killing by gentamicin, which does. Finally, when such strains are exposed to these ribosome-targeting bacteriostatic antibiotics, the time before these bacteria start to grow again when the drugs are removed, referred to as the post-antibiotic effect (PAE, is markedly greater for constructs with fewer rrn operons than for those with more rrn operons. We interpret the results of these other experiments reported here as support for the hypothesis that the reduction in the effective number of ribosomes due to binding to these structures provides a sufficient explanation for the action of bacteriostatic antibiotics that target these structures.

  10. Ribosomal trafficking is reduced in Schwann cells following induction of myelination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M. Love

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Local synthesis of proteins within the Schwann cell periphery is extremely important for efficient process extension and myelination, when cells undergo dramatic changes in polarity and geometry. Still, it is unclear how ribosomal distributions are developed and maintained within Schwann cell projections to sustain local translation. In this multi-disciplinary study, we expressed a plasmid encoding a fluorescently labeled ribosomal subunit (L4-GFP in cultured primary rat Schwann cells. This enabled the generation of high-resolution, quantitative data on ribosomal distributions and trafficking dynamics within Schwann cells during early stages of myelination, induced by ascorbic acid treatment. Ribosomes were distributed throughout Schwann cell projections, with ~2-3 bright clusters along each projection. Clusters emerged within 1 day of culture and were maintained throughout early stages of myelination. Three days after induction of myelination, net ribosomal movement remained anterograde (directed away from the Schwann cell body, but ribosomal velocity decreased to about half the levels of the untreated group. Statistical and modeling analysis provided additional insight into key factors underlying ribosomal trafficking. Multiple regression analysis indicated that net transport at early time points was dependent on anterograde velocity, but shifted to dependence on anterograde duration at later time points. A simple, data-driven rate kinetics model suggested that the observed decrease in net ribosomal movement was primarily dictated by an increased conversion of anterograde particles to stationary particles, rather than changes in other directional parameters. These results reveal the strength of a combined experimental and theoretical approach in examining protein localization and transport, and provide evidence of an early establishment of ribosomal populations within Schwann cell projections with a reduction in trafficking following

  11. Mutations in ribosomal protein L3 and 23S ribosomal RNA at the peptidyl transferase centre are associated with reduced susceptibility to tiamulin in Brachyspira spp. isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Märit; Poehlsgaard, Jacob; Vester, Birte; Long, Katherine S

    2004-12-01

    The pleuromutilin antibiotic tiamulin binds to the ribosomal peptidyl transferase centre. Three groups of Brachyspira spp. isolates with reduced tiamulin susceptibility were analysed to define resistance mechanisms to the drug. Mutations were identified in genes encoding ribosomal protein L3 and 23S rRNA at positions proximal to the peptidyl transferase centre. In two groups of laboratory-selected mutants, mutations were found at nucleotide positions 2032, 2055, 2447, 2499, 2504 and 2572 of 23S rRNA (Escherichia coli numbering) and at amino acid positions 148 and 149 of ribosomal protein L3 (Brachyspira pilosicoli numbering). In a third group of clinical B. hyodysenteriae isolates, only a single mutation at amino acid 148 of ribosomal protein L3 was detected. Chemical footprinting experiments show a reduced binding of tiamulin to ribosomal subunits from mutants with decreased susceptibility to the drug. This reduction in drug binding is likely the resistance mechanism for these strains. Hence, the identified mutations located near the tiamulin binding site are predicted to be responsible for the resistance phenotype. The positions of the mutated residues relative to the bound drug advocate a model where the mutations affect tiamulin binding indirectly through perturbation of nucleotide U2504.

  12. The Arabidopsis TOR Kinase Specifically Regulates the Expression of Nuclear Genes Coding for Plastidic Ribosomal Proteins and the Phosphorylation of the Cytosolic Ribosomal Protein S6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrenel, Thomas; Mancera-Martínez, Eder; Forzani, Céline; Azzopardi, Marianne; Davanture, Marlène; Moreau, Manon; Schepetilnikov, Mikhail; Chicher, Johana; Langella, Olivier; Zivy, Michel; Robaglia, Christophe; Ryabova, Lyubov A; Hanson, Johannes; Meyer, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Protein translation is an energy consuming process that has to be fine-tuned at both the cell and organism levels to match the availability of resources. The target of rapamycin kinase (TOR) is a key regulator of a large range of biological processes in response to environmental cues. In this study, we have investigated the effects of TOR inactivation on the expression and regulation of Arabidopsis ribosomal proteins at different levels of analysis, namely from transcriptomic to phosphoproteomic. TOR inactivation resulted in a coordinated down-regulation of the transcription and translation of nuclear-encoded mRNAs coding for plastidic ribosomal proteins, which could explain the chlorotic phenotype of the TOR silenced plants. We have identified in the 5' untranslated regions (UTRs) of this set of genes a conserved sequence related to the 5' terminal oligopyrimidine motif, which is known to confer translational regulation by the TOR kinase in other eukaryotes. Furthermore, the phosphoproteomic analysis of the ribosomal fraction following TOR inactivation revealed a lower phosphorylation of the conserved Ser240 residue in the C-terminal region of the 40S ribosomal protein S6 (RPS6). These results were confirmed by Western blot analysis using an antibody that specifically recognizes phosphorylated Ser240 in RPS6. Finally, this antibody was used to follow TOR activity in plants. Our results thus uncover a multi-level regulation of plant ribosomal genes and proteins by the TOR kinase.

  13. Origins of the plant chloroplasts and mitochondria based on comparisons of 5S ribosomal RNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delihas, N.; Fox, G. E.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper, we provide macromolecular comparisons utilizing the 5S ribosomal RNA structure to suggest extant bacteria that are the likely descendants of chloroplast and mitochondria endosymbionts. The genetic stability and near universality of the 5S ribosomal gene allows for a useful means to study ancient evolutionary changes by macromolecular comparisons. The value in current and future ribosomal RNA comparisons is in fine tuning the assignment of ancestors to the organelles and in establishing extant species likely to be descendants of bacteria involved in presumed multiple endosymbiotic events.

  14. Purification and properties of a ribosomal casein kinase from rabbit reticulocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issinger, O G

    1977-01-01

    A casein kinase was isolated and purifed from rabbit reticulocytes. About 90% of the enzyme activity co-sedimented with the ribosomal fraction, whereas about 10% of the enzyme activity was found in the ribosome-free supernatant. Both casein kinases (the ribosome-bound enzyme as well as the free...... suggested that the casein kinase is a dimer composed of subunits of identical molecular weight. The enzyme utilizes GTP as well as ATP as a phosphoryl donor. It preferentially phosphorylates acidic proteins, in particular the model substrates casein and phosvitin. Casein kinase is cyclic AMP...

  15. Dietary ascorbic acid normalizes ribosomal efficiency for collagen production in skin of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneir, M.; Imberman, M.; Ramamurthy, N.; Golub, L.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the contribution of both ribosome amount and ribosomal efficiency to decreased collagen production in skin of diabetic rats and diabetic rats treated with dietary ascorbic acid. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were distributed equally into the following categories: non-diabetic controls; diabetics; ascorbic acid-treated diabetics. On day-20, all rats were injected with ( 3 H)proline and killed after 2 h. Absolute rate of collagen production, ribosome content, and ribosomal efficiency of collagen production were quantified. Also ribosomal efficiency was quantified for ribosomes in sucrose-gradient fractionated post-mitochondrial supernatants. The results indicate that decreased ribosomal efficiency was responsible for 70% of the decreased collagen production with 30% caused by decreased ribosome content, when measured for total skin or sucrose gradient-isolated ribosomes. At both levels of analysis, ascorbic acid treatment normalized ribosomal efficiency, indicating diabetes-mediated decreased ribosomal efficiency for collagen production is related to a co-translational event, such as procollagen underhydroxylation

  16. Integration of Demilitarization Contractors and Recyclers - Collateral Benefits of On-Site Training of Recyclers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    item Spherical? Wedge Shaped? Cylindrical? These items are potentially very dangerous 29 Spherical = Not Good If found in a recycling yard, don’t...touch! Call 9-1-1 BLU-63 30 Wedge Shape = Not Good If found in a recycling yard, don’t touch! Call 9-1-1 M72M43 31 Cylindrical = Not Good If found in a

  17. Structural recycled concrete: utilization of recycled aggregate from construction and demolition wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alaejos Gutierrez, P.; Sanchez de Juan, M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to present the main results of CEDEX research works concerning the use of recycled aggregates for structural concretes. By way of conclusion, recommendations on the requirements of the recycled aggregates have been established, providing information about the influence of these aggregates on the properties of structural concrete. (Author)

  18. Cell phone recycling experiences in the United States and potential recycling options in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Geraldo T R; Chang, Shoou-Yuh

    2010-11-01

    This paper presents an overview of cell phone recycling programs currently available in the United States. At the same time, it also provides analyses of the current recycling situation and possible recycling alternatives for Brazil. Although there are several recycling options in the United States, collection rates are still only 10% of all potential devices because customers are not aware of these possibilities. The whole system is financially based on reselling refurbished cell phones and recycled materials to developing countries which represent an effective and strong market. Several recyclers offer funds to collection partners who are either charities or who work with charities while obtaining the materials that they need in order to run their operations. A mobile phone recycling system for Brazil considering the United States experience and the Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) principle is suggested. A deposit/refund/advance-recycling fee is proposed which might be implemented as a voluntary industrial initiative managed by PRO Brazil, a producer responsibility organization. One widespread public-private agreement will integrate all mobile phone stakeholders, and environmental education actions and promotional events will promote citizen's participation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The fast-recycling receptor Megalin defines the apical recycling pathway of epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Bay, Andres E.; Schreiner, Ryan; Benedicto, Ignacio; Paz Marzolo, Maria; Banfelder, Jason; Weinstein, Alan M.; Rodriguez-Boulan, Enrique J.

    2016-01-01

    The basolateral recycling and transcytotic pathways of epithelial cells were previously defined using markers such as transferrin (TfR) and polymeric IgA (pIgR) receptors. In contrast, our knowledge of the apical recycling pathway remains fragmentary. Here we utilize quantitative live-imaging and mathematical modelling to outline the recycling pathway of Megalin (LRP-2), an apical receptor with key developmental and renal functions, in MDCK cells. We show that, like TfR, Megalin is a long-lived and fast-recycling receptor. Megalin enters polarized MDCK cells through segregated apical sorting endosomes and subsequently intersects the TfR and pIgR pathways at a perinuclear Rab11-negative compartment termed common recycling endosomes (CRE). Whereas TfR recycles to the basolateral membrane from CRE, Megalin, like pIgR, traffics to subapical Rab11-positive apical recycling endosomes (ARE) and reaches the apical membrane in a microtubule- and Rab11-dependent manner. Hence, Megalin defines the apical recycling pathway of epithelia, with CRE as its apical sorting station. PMID:27180806

  20. Energy implications of recycling packaging materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, L.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Stodolsky, F. [Argonne National Lab., Washington, DC (United States)

    1994-03-01

    In 1992, Congress sought to rewrite the United States comprehensive solid waste legislation -- the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Commodity-specific recycling rates were proposed for consumer-goods packaging materials and newsprint We compare the impacts on energy, materials use, and landfill volume of recycling at those rates to the impacts for alternative methods of material disposition to determine the optimum for each material. After products have served their intended uses, there are several alternative paths for material disposition. These include reuse, recycling to the same product, recycling to a lower-valued product, combustion for energy recovery, incineration without energy recovery, and landfill. Only options considered to be environmentally sound are Included. Both houses of Congress specifically excluded combustion for energy recovery from counting towards the recovery goats, probably because combustion is viewed as a form of disposal and is therefore assumed to waste resources and have n environmental effects. However, co-combustion in coal-fired plants or combustion in appropriately pollution-controlled waste-to-energy plants Is safe, avoids landfill costs, and can displace fossil fuels. In some cases, more fossil fuels can be displaced by combustion than by recycling. We compare the alternative life-cycle energies to the energies for producing the products from virgin materials. Results depend on the material and on the objective to be achieved. There are trade-offs among possible goals. For instance, paper packaging recycling conserves trees but may require greater fossil-fuel input than virgin production. Therefore, the objectives for proposed legislation must be examined to see whether they can most effectively be achieved by mandated recycling rates or by other methods of disposition. The optimal choices for the United States may not necessarily be the same as those for Europe and other parts of the world.

  1. Entropy, recycling and macroeconomics of water resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakatsanis, Georgios; Mamassis, Nikos; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2014-05-01

    We propose a macroeconomic model for water quantity and quality supply multipliers derived by water recycling (Karakatsanis et al. 2013). Macroeconomic models that incorporate natural resource conservation have become increasingly important (European Commission et al. 2012). In addition, as an estimated 80% of globally used freshwater is not reused (United Nations 2012), under increasing population trends, water recycling becomes a solution of high priority. Recycling of water resources creates two major conservation effects: (1) conservation of water in reservoirs and aquifers and (2) conservation of ecosystem carrying capacity due to wastewater flux reduction. Statistical distribution properties of the recycling efficiencies -on both water quantity and quality- for each sector are of vital economic importance. Uncertainty and complexity of water reuse in sectors are statistically quantified by entropy. High entropy of recycling efficiency values signifies greater efficiency dispersion; which -in turn- may indicate the need for additional infrastructure for the statistical distribution's both shifting and concentration towards higher efficiencies that lead to higher supply multipliers. Keywords: Entropy, water recycling, water supply multipliers, conservation, recycling efficiencies, macroeconomics References 1. European Commission (EC), Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), International Monetary Fund (IMF), Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), United Nations (UN) and World Bank (2012), System of Environmental and Economic Accounting (SEEA) Central Framework (White cover publication), United Nations Statistics Division 2. Karakatsanis, G., N. Mamassis, D. Koutsoyiannis and A. Efstratiades (2013), Entropy and reliability of water use via a statistical approach of scarcity, 5th EGU Leonardo Conference - Hydrofractals 2013 - STAHY '13, Kos Island, Greece, European Geosciences Union, International Association of Hydrological Sciences

  2. Amino acid sequences of ribosomal proteins S11 from Bacillus stearothermophilus and S19 from Halobacterium marismortui. Comparison of the ribosomal protein S11 family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, M; Kimura, J; Hatakeyama, T

    1988-11-21

    The complete amino acid sequences of ribosomal proteins S11 from the Gram-positive eubacterium Bacillus stearothermophilus and of S19 from the archaebacterium Halobacterium marismortui have been determined. A search for homologous sequences of these proteins revealed that they belong to the ribosomal protein S11 family. Homologous proteins have previously been sequenced from Escherichia coli as well as from chloroplast, yeast and mammalian ribosomes. A pairwise comparison of the amino acid sequences showed that Bacillus protein S11 shares 68% identical residues with S11 from Escherichia coli and a slightly lower homology (52%) with the homologous chloroplast protein. The halophilic protein S19 is more related to the eukaryotic (45-49%) than to the eubacterial counterparts (35%).

  3. Recycling in the 90's - a shared responsibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Recycling means different things to different people. To consumers, recycling can mean putting out bottles and cans for curbside collection. To a product maker - a manufacturer of raw materials, fabricator of goods or products, or brand owner - recycling can mean reformulating goods to include recycled materials. To recycling service providers, recycling can mean providing cost-efficient collection services. To public policy makers in all levels of government recycling can mean establishing collection and utilization regulations. For recycling to work successfully, these diverse groups must work together and share responsibility for its success. Also, if recycling is to succeed on a large scale and over the long term, three critical points must be first addressed: These points are: approach, economics, and markets. These points are discussed

  4. Printability of papers recycled from toner and inkjet-printed papers after deinking and recycling processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karademir, Arif; Aydemir, Cem; Tutak, Dogan; Aravamuthan, Raja

    2018-04-01

    In our contemporary world, while part of the fibers used in the paper industry is obtained from primary fibers such as wood and agricultural plants, the rest is obtained from secondary fibers from waste papers. To manufacture paper with high optical quality from fibers of recycled waste papers, these papers require deinking and bleaching of fibers at desired levels. High efficiency in removal of ink from paper mass during recycling, and hence deinkability, are especially crucial for the optical and printability quality of the ultimate manufactured paper. In the present study, deinkability and printability performance of digitally printed paper with toner or inkjet ink were compared for the postrecycling product. To that end, opaque 80 g/m 2 office paper was digitally printed under standard printing conditions with laser toner or inkjet ink; then these sheets of paper were deinked by a deinking process based on the INGEDE method 11 p. After the deinking operation, the optical properties of the obtained recycled handsheets were compared with unprinted (reference) paper. Then the recycled paper was printed on once again under the same conditions as before with inkjet and laser printers, to monitor and measure printing color change before and after recycling, and differences in color universe. Recycling and printing performances of water-based inkjet and toner-based laser printed paper were obtained. The outcomes for laser-printed recycled paper were better than those for inkjet-printed recycled paper. Compared for luminosity Y, brightness, CIE a* and CIE b* values, paper recycled from laser-printed paper exhibited higher value than paper recycled from inkjet-printed paper.

  5. Diffusing diffusivity: Rotational diffusion in two and three dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Rohit; Sebastian, K. L.

    2017-06-01

    We consider the problem of calculating the probability distribution function (pdf) of angular displacement for rotational diffusion in a crowded, rearranging medium. We use the diffusing diffusivity model and following our previous work on translational diffusion [R. Jain and K. L. Sebastian, J. Phys. Chem. B 120, 3988 (2016)], we show that the problem can be reduced to that of calculating the survival probability of a particle undergoing Brownian motion, in the presence of a sink. We use the approach to calculate the pdf for the rotational motion in two and three dimensions. We also propose new dimensionless, time dependent parameters, αr o t ,2 D and αr o t ,3 D, which can be used to analyze the experimental/simulation data to find the extent of deviation from the normal behavior, i.e., constant diffusivity, and obtain explicit analytical expressions for them, within our model.

  6. Diffusion in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, G.P.; Kale, G.B.; Patil, R.V.

    1999-01-01

    The article presents a brief survey of process of diffusion in solids. It is emphasised that the essence of diffusion is the mass transfer through the atomic jumps. To begin with formal equations for diffusion coefficient are presented. This is followed by discussions on mechanisms of diffusion. Except for solutes which form interstitial solid solution, diffusion in majority of cases is mediated through exchange of sites between an atom and its neighbouring vacancy. Various vacancy parameters such as activation volume, correlation factor, mass effect etc are discussed and their role in establishing the mode of diffusion is delineated. The contribution of dislocations and grain boundaries in diffusion process is brought out. The experimental determination of different types of diffusion coefficients are described. Finally, the pervasive nature of diffusion process in number of commercial processes is outlined to show the importance of diffusion studies in materials science and technology. (author)

  7. Inhibition of ribosomal RNA synthesis in yeast by ionizing radiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, K; Kiefer, J [Giessen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Strahlenzentrum

    1984-12-01

    Synthesis of ribosomal RNA(r-RNA) was measured for 1 h after exposure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to ..gamma..-rays, X-rays or ..cap alpha.. particles. ..gamma..- or X-ray induced transcription inhibition was always found to decrease exponentially with dose. D/sub 0/ values of 2150 or 1950 Gy were determined in wild-type cells, corresponding to a mean energy of about 60 eV per r-RNA gene. The finding of differential sensitivities of the two high molecular-weight r-RNA species which are cotranscribed from r-DNA is compatible with the existence of a transcription terminating mechanism. Cells from a mutant strain (rad-9), radiation sensitive to colony forming ability, showed an approximately equal sensitivity for transcription inhibition compared to the wild-type (D/sub 0/ (2095) = 2400 Gy). Inactivation of r-RNA synthesis in cells exposed to ..cap alpha..-particles at room-temperature showed a decreased sensitivity with higher particle fluences ('resistant tail'). This phenomenon was drastically reduced if the temperature during irradiation was lowered to 4/sup 0/C and completely abolished when dried cells were used. An inactivation cross-section for ..cap alpha..-particle induced transcription inhibition of about 0.02 ..mu..m/sup 2/ can be derived from the experimental data.

  8. Analysis of Ribosome Inactivating Protein (RIP): A Bioinformatics Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jothi, G. Edward Gnana; Majilla, G. Sahaya Jose; Subhashini, D.; Deivasigamani, B.

    2012-10-01

    In spite of the medical advances in recent years, the world is in need of different sources to encounter certain health issues.Ribosome Inactivating Proteins (RIPs) were found to be one among them. In order to get easy access about RIPs, there is a need to analyse RIPs towards constructing a database on RIPs. Also, multiple sequence alignment was done towards screening for homologues of significant RIPs from rare sources against RIPs from easily available sources in terms of similarity. Protein sequences were retrieved from SWISS-PROT and are further analysed using pair wise and multiple sequence alignment.Analysis shows that, 151 RIPs have been characterized to date. Amongst them, there are 87 type I, 37 type II, 1 type III and 25 unknown RIPs. The sequence length information of various RIPs about the availability of full or partial sequence was also found. The multiple sequence alignment of 37 type I RIP using the online server Multalin, indicates the presence of 20 conserved residues. Pairwise alignment and multiple sequence alignment of certain selected RIPs in two groups namely Group I and Group II were carried out and the consensus level was found to be 98%, 98% and 90% respectively.

  9. Automated genome mining of ribosomal peptide natural products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohimani, Hosein; Kersten, Roland; Liu, Wei; Wang, Mingxun; Purvine, Samuel O.; Wu, Si; Brewer, Heather M.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Bandeira, Nuno; Moore, Bradley S.; Pevzner, Pavel A.; Dorrestein, Pieter C.

    2014-07-31

    Ribosomally synthesized and posttranslationally modified peptides (RiPPs), especially from microbial sources, are a large group of bioactive natural products that are a promising source of new (bio)chemistry and bioactivity (1). In light of exponentially increasing microbial genome databases and improved mass spectrometry (MS)-based metabolomic platforms, there is a need for computational tools that connect natural product genotypes predicted from microbial genome sequences with their corresponding chemotypes from metabolomic datasets. Here, we introduce RiPPquest, a tandem mass spectrometry database search tool for identification of microbial RiPPs and apply it for lanthipeptide discovery. RiPPquest uses genomics to limit search space to the vicinity of RiPP biosynthetic genes and proteomics to analyze extensive peptide modifications and compute p-values of peptide-spectrum matches (PSMs). We highlight RiPPquest by connection of multiple RiPPs from extracts of Streptomyces to their gene clusters and by the discovery of a new class III lanthipeptide, informatipeptin, from Streptomyces viridochromogenes DSM 40736 as the first natural product to be identified in an automated fashion by genome mining. The presented tool is available at cy-clo.ucsd.edu.

  10. Ribosome reinitiation at leader peptides increases translation of bacterial proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolev, Semen A; Zverkov, Oleg A; Seliverstov, Alexandr V; Lyubetsky, Vassily A

    2016-04-16

    Short leader genes usually do not encode stable proteins, although their importance in expression control of bacterial genomes is widely accepted. Such genes are often involved in the control of attenuation regulation. However, the abundance of leader genes suggests that their role in bacteria is not limited to regulation. Specifically, we hypothesize that leader genes increase the expression of protein-coding (structural) genes via ribosome reinitiation at the leader peptide in the case of a short distance between the stop codon of the leader gene and the start codon of the structural gene. For instance, in Actinobacteria, the frequency of leader genes at a distance of 10-11 bp is about 70 % higher than the mean frequency within the 1 to 65 bp range; and it gradually decreases as the range grows longer. A pronounced peak of this frequency-distance relationship is also observed in Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Spirochaetales, Acidobacteria, the Deinococcus-Thermus group, and Planctomycetes. In contrast, this peak falls to the distance of 15-16 bp and is not very pronounced in Firmicutes; and no such peak is observed in cyanobacteria and tenericutes. Generally, this peak is typical for many bacteria. Some leader genes located close to a structural gene probably play a regulatory role as well.

  11. Structure of the quaternary complex between SRP, SR, and translocon bound to the translating ribosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jomaa, Ahmad; Fu, Yu-Hsien Hwang; Boehringer, Daniel; Leibundgut, Marc; Shan, Shu-Ou; Ban, Nenad

    2017-05-19

    During co-translational protein targeting, the signal recognition particle (SRP) binds to the translating ribosome displaying the signal sequence to deliver it to the SRP receptor (SR) on the membrane, where the signal peptide is transferred to the translocon. Using electron cryo-microscopy, we have determined the structure of a quaternary complex of the translating Escherichia coli ribosome, the SRP-SR in the 'activated' state and the translocon. Our structure, supported by biochemical experiments, reveals that the SRP RNA adopts a kinked and untwisted conformation to allow repositioning of the 'activated' SRP-SR complex on the ribosome. In addition, we observe the translocon positioned through interactions with the SR in the vicinity of the ribosome exit tunnel where the signal sequence is extending beyond its hydrophobic binding groove of the SRP M domain towards the translocon. Our study provides new insights into the mechanism of signal sequence transfer from the SRP to the translocon.

  12. Generation of monoclonal antibodies for the assessment of protein purification by recombinant ribosomal coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Janni; Sperling-Petersen, Hans Uffe; Mortensen, Kim Kusk

    2005-01-01

    We recently described a conceptually novel method for the purification of recombinant proteins with a propensity to form inclusion bodies in the cytoplasm of Escherichia coli. Recombinant proteins were covalently coupled to the E. coli ribosome by fusing them to ribosomal protein 23 (rpL23...... therefore purified rpL23-GFP-His, rpL23-His and GFP from E. coli recombinants using affinity, ion exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. These proteins could be purified with yields of 150, 150 and 1500 microg per gram cellular wet weight, respectively. However, rpL23-GFP-His could only...... proteolytic cleavage sites. We conclude that the generated antibodies can be used to evaluate ribosomal coupling of recombinant target proteins as well as the efficiency of their separation from the ribosome....

  13. Remodeling of ribosomal genes in somatic cells by Xenopus egg extract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østrup, Olga; Hyttel, Poul; Klærke, Dan Arne

    2011-01-01

    Extracts from Xenopus eggs can reprogram gene expression in somatic nuclei, however little is known about the earliest processes associated with the switch in the transcriptional program. We show here that an early reprogramming event is the remodeling of ribosomal chromatin and gene expression....... This occurs within hours of extract treatment and is distinct from a stress response. Egg extract elicits remodeling of the nuclear envelope, chromatin and nucleolus. Nucleolar remodeling involves a rapid and stable decrease in ribosomal gene transcription, and promoter targeting of the nucleolar remodeling...... and elicits a stress-type nuclear response. Thus, an early event of Xenopus egg extract-mediated nuclear reprogramming is the remodeling of ribosomal genes involving nucleolar remodeling complex. Condition-specific and rapid silencing of ribosomal genes may serve as a sensitive marker for evaluation...

  14. Mitochondrial ribosomal protein S18-2 evokes chromosomal instability and transforms primary rat skin fibroblasts

    KAUST Repository

    Kashuba, Elena; Carbone, Ennio; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Tirinato, Luca; Petruchek, Maria; Drummond, Catherine; Kovalevska, Larysa; Gurrapu, Sreeharsha; Mushtaq, Muhammad; Darekar, Suhas D.

    2015-01-01

    We have shown earlier that overexpression of the human mitochondrial ribosomal protein MRPS18-2 (S18-2) led to immortalization of primary rat embryonic fibroblasts. The derived cells expressed the embryonic stem cell markers, and cellular pathways

  15. Dynamic enzyme docking to the ribosome coordinates N-terminal processing with polypeptide folding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandikci, Arzu; Gloge, Felix; Martinez, Michael; Mayer, Matthias P; Wade, Rebecca; Bukau, Bernd; Kramer, Günter

    2013-07-01

    Newly synthesized polypeptides undergo various cotranslational maturation steps, including N-terminal enzymatic processing, chaperone-assisted folding and membrane targeting, but the spatial and temporal coordination of these steps is unclear. We show that Escherichia coli methionine aminopeptidase (MAP) associates with ribosomes through a charged loop that is crucial for nascent-chain processing and cell viability. MAP competes with peptide deformylase (PDF), the first enzyme to act on nascent chains, for binding sites at the ribosomal tunnel exit. PDF has extremely fast association and dissociation kinetics, which allows it to frequently sample ribosomes and ensure the processing of nascent chains after their emergence. Premature recruitment of the chaperone trigger factor, or polypeptide folding, negatively affect processing efficiency. Thus, the fast ribosome association kinetics of PDF and MAP are crucial for the temporal separation of nascent-chain processing from later maturation events, including chaperone recruitment and folding.

  16. Probing the structure of ribosome assembly intermediates in vivo using DMS and hydroxyl radical footprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulscher, Ryan M; Bohon, Jen; Rappé, Mollie C; Gupta, Sayan; D'Mello, Rhijuta; Sullivan, Michael; Ralston, Corie Y; Chance, Mark R; Woodson, Sarah A

    2016-07-01

    The assembly of the Escherichia coli ribosome has been widely studied and characterized in vitro. Despite this, ribosome biogenesis in living cells is only partly understood because assembly is coupled with transcription, modification and processing of the pre-ribosomal RNA. We present a method for footprinting and isolating pre-rRNA as it is synthesized in E. coli cells. Pre-rRNA synthesis is synchronized by starvation, followed by nutrient upshift. RNA synthesized during outgrowth is metabolically labeled to facilitate isolation of recent transcripts. Combining this technique with two in vivo RNA probing methods, hydroxyl radical and DMS footprinting, allows the structure of nascent RNA to be probed over time. Together, these can be used to determine changes in the structures of ribosome assembly intermediates as they fold in vivo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Ribosomal mutations promote the evolution of antibiotic resistance in a multidrug environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, James E; Kaufmann-Malaga, Benjamin B; Wivagg, Carl N; Kim, Peter B; Silvis, Melanie R; Renedo, Nikolai; Ioerger, Thomas R; Ahmad, Rushdy; Livny, Jonathan; Fishbein, Skye; Sacchettini, James C; Carr, Steven A; Hung, Deborah T

    2017-02-21

    Antibiotic resistance arising via chromosomal mutations is typically specific to a particular antibiotic or class of antibiotics. We have identified mutations in genes encoding ribosomal components in Mycobacterium smegmatis that confer resistance to several structurally and mechanistically unrelated classes of antibiotics and enhance survival following heat shock and membrane stress. These mutations affect ribosome assembly and cause large-scale transcriptomic and proteomic changes, including the downregulation of the catalase KatG, an activating enzyme required for isoniazid sensitivity, and upregulation of WhiB7, a transcription factor involved in innate antibiotic resistance. Importantly, while these ribosomal mutations have a fitness cost in antibiotic-free medium, in a multidrug environment they promote the evolution of high-level, target-based resistance. Further, suppressor mutations can then be easily acquired to restore wild-type growth. Thus, ribosomal mutations can serve as stepping-stones in an evolutionary path leading to the emergence of high-level, multidrug resistance.

  18. Multi-perspective smFRET reveals rate-determining late intermediates of ribosomal translocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Michael R.; Alejo, Jose L.; Altman, Roger B.; Blanchard, Scott C.

    2016-01-01

    Directional translocation of the ribosome through the messenger RNA open reading frame is a critical determinant of translational fidelity. This process entails a complex interplay of large-scale conformational changes within the actively translating particle, which together coordinate the movement of transfer and messenger RNA substrates with respect to the large and small ribosomal subunits. Using pre-steady state, single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer imaging, we have tracked the nature and timing of these conformational events within the Escherichia coli ribosome from five structural perspectives. Our investigations reveal direct evidence of structurally and kinetically distinct, late intermediates during substrate movement, whose resolution is rate-determining to the translocation mechanism. These steps involve intra-molecular events within the EFG(GDP)-bound ribosome, including exaggerated, reversible fluctuations of the small subunit head domain, which ultimately facilitate peptidyl-tRNA’s movement into its final post-translocation position. PMID:26926435

  19. Multiperspective smFRET reveals rate-determining late intermediates of ribosomal translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Michael R; Alejo, Jose L; Altman, Roger B; Blanchard, Scott C

    2016-04-01

    Directional translocation of the ribosome through the mRNA open reading frame is a critical determinant of translational fidelity. This process entails a complex interplay of large-scale conformational changes within the actively translating particle, which together coordinate the movement of tRNA and mRNA substrates with respect to the large and small ribosomal subunits. Using pre-steady state, single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer imaging, we tracked the nature and timing of these conformational events within the Escherichia coli ribosome from five structural perspectives. Our investigations revealed direct evidence of structurally and kinetically distinct late intermediates during substrate movement, whose resolution determines the rate of translocation. These steps involve intramolecular events within the EF-G-GDP-bound ribosome, including exaggerated, reversible fluctuations of the small-subunit head domain, which ultimately facilitate peptidyl-tRNA's movement into its final post-translocation position.

  20. Multiple recycling of plutonium in advanced PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloosterman, J.L.

    1998-04-01

    The influence of the moderator-to-fuel ratio in MOX fueled PWRs on the moderator void coefficient, the fuel temperature coefficient, the moderator temperature coefficient, the boron reactivity worth, the critical boron concentration, the mean neutron generation time and the effective delayed neutron fraction has been assessed. Increasing the moderator-to-fuel ratio to values larger than three, gives a moderator void coefficient sufficiently large to recycle the plutonium at least four times. Scenario studies show that four times recycling of plutonium in PWRs reduces the plutonium mass produced with a factor of three compared with a reference once-through reactor park, but that the americium and curium production triple. If the minor actinides and the remaining plutonium after four times recycling are disposed of, the reduction of the radiotoxicity reaches only a factor of two. This factor increases to five at the maximum when the plutonium is further recycled. Recycling of americium and curium is needed to further reduce the radiotoxicity of the spent fuel. 4 refs

  1. Paper recycling and social policy. [United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, R K; Grace, R

    1976-12-01

    The most promising new source of paper for recycling is the household and small commercial business, whose waste papers can be processed if the paper and board industry is willing to invest capital to develop the facilities and the technology needed to upgrade indigenous fibers. Cost-benefit analyses in the United Kingdom indicate that support of this type of paper recycling has more merit than a buffer stock scheme. Efforts to conserve virgin materials by increasing the use of secondary materials could be further strengthened by taxes on the disposal of virgin materials. Paper recycling policies should include a range of sources, from discarded post-consumer waste paper and boxes to the release and use of energy by incineration, pyrolysis, and hydrolysis. Waste availability is influenced by product durability, replacement by other products (such as plastic wrap for paper), industry maturity, and social attitudes. Public acceptance of lower-quality paper products and improved technology to remove ink and color should combine to make recycling more feasible. Efforts to develop the household and commercial sector will result in lower import requirements for wood pulp and an improved balance of payments for the United Kingdom. Recycled fibers require less water and energy to process, but the process wastes introduce environmental pollutants. Short- and long-term forecasts show a growth rate trend that varies with paper grade and corresponds with general economic growth. (35 references) (DCK)

  2. INEL metal recycle annual report, FY-94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechtold, T.E.

    1994-09-01

    In 1992, the mission of the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant was changed from reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels to development of technologies for conditioning of spent nuclear fuels and other high-level wastes for disposal in a geologic repository. In addition, the Department of Energy (DOE) directed Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to develop a program plan addressing the management of radioactive contaminated scrap metal (RSM) within the DOE complex. Based on discussions with the EM-30 organization, the INEL Metal Recycle program plan was developed to address all issues of RSM management. Major options considered for RSM management were engineered interim storage, land disposal as low-level waste, and beneficial reuse/recycle. From its inception, the Metal Recycle program has emphasized avoidance of storage and disposal costs through beneficial reuse of RSM. The Metal Recycle program plan includes three major activities: Site-by-site inventory of RSM resources; validation of technologies for conversion of RSM to usable products; and identification of parties prepared to participate in development of a RSM recycle business

  3. The unrivalled expertise for Pu recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fournier, W.; Pouilloux, M.

    1997-01-01

    Relying on the outstanding performances of the reprocessing facilities and the growing fabrication facilities, the in-reactor Pu recycling program in France and in other European countries is steadily implemented and has reached full-scale industrial operation. The RCR strategy -Reprocessing, Conditioning and Recycling- developed by COGEMA is now a well proven industrial reality. In 1997, plutonium recycling through MOX fuel is a mature industry, with successful operational experience and large-scale fabrication plants. In this field, COGEMA is the main actor, on operating simultaneously three complete multidesign fuel production plants: MELOX plant (in Marcoule), CADARACHE plant and DESSEL plant (in Belgium). Present MOX production capacity available to COGEMA fits 175 tHM per year and will be extended to reach about 325 tHM in the year 2000, that will represent 75% of the total MOX fabrication capacity in Europe. The industrial mastery and the high production level in MOX production assured by high technology processes confers COGEMA an unrivalled expertise for Pu recycling. This allows COGEMA to be a major actor in Pu-based fuels in the coming second nuclear era with advanced fuel cycles. The paper depicts the steps of the progressive advance of COGEMA to reach the Pu recycling expertise. (author)

  4. Software recycling at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HINKELMAN, K.C.

    1999-01-01

    The Hanford Site was the first Department of Energy (DOE) complex to recycle excess software rather than dispose of it in the landfill. This plan, which took over a year to complete, was reviewed for potential legal conflicts, which could arise from recycling rather than disposal of software. It was determined that recycling was an approved method of destruction and therefore did not conflict with any of the licensing agreements that Hanford had with the software manufacturers. The Hanford Recycling Program Coordinator combined efforts with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to recycle all Hanford software through a single contract, which went out for bid in January 1995. It was awarded to GreenDisk, Inc. located in Woodinville Washington and implemented in March 1995. The contract was later re-bid and awarded to EcoDisWGreenDisk in December 1998. The new contract included materials such as; software manuals, diskettes, tyvek wrapping, cardboard and paperboard packaging, compact disks (CDs), videotapes, reel-to-reel tapes, magnetic tapes, audio tapes, and many other types of media

  5. Research methodology in used oil recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, D.A.

    1982-01-01

    Legislation and activities in the United States on the subject of used oil recycling have increased dramatically in the past several years. However, a substantial portion of both industry and government have some concerns about the lack of scientific and technical research and data on certain aspects of the quality and consistence of recycled petroleum oils, particularly re-refined engine oils. Further, there are some significant environmental concerns about pollution aspects of used oils and their recycling by-products and wastes. Since 1976, the (U.S.) National Bureau of Standards (NBS) has had a legislatively mandated program to''... develop test procedures for the determination of substantial equivalency of re-refined or otherwise processed used oil . . . with new oil for a particular end use'' (42 U.S. Code 6363c). The NBS research includes identification of problem areas in the characterization of used and recycled oils, research into new measurement methods for determination of novel constituents in these materials, and the development and evaluation of appropriate test procedures and standards for recycled oil products. Aspects of this research discussed in this paper include analysis of total elemental content and speciation studies on lead and on the halogens (chlorine and bromine) and hydrocarbon type characterization studies on lubricating oil fractions

  6. Diffusion archeology for diffusion progression history reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Sefer, Emre; Kingsford, Carl

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion through graphs can be used to model many real-world processes, such as the spread of diseases, social network memes, computer viruses, or water contaminants. Often, a real-world diffusion cannot be directly observed while it is occurring — perhaps it is not noticed until some time has passed, continuous monitoring is too costly, or privacy concerns limit data access. This leads to the need to reconstruct how the present state of the diffusion came to be from partial d...

  7. Decommissioning of the gaseous diffusion plant at BNFL Capenhurst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, S.G.; Bradbury, P.

    1992-01-01

    The history of the on-going dismantling and disposal program for the Capenhurst Diffusion Plant is described. Reference is made to the scale of the project and to the special techniques developed, particularly in the areas of size reduction, decontamination and protection of personnel and the environment. When the project is successfully concluded by the end of 1993 over 99% of the materials of construction of the plant will have been recycled to the environment as clean material. (author)

  8. The ribosome uses two active mechanisms to unwind messenger RNA during translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xiaohui; Wen, Jin-Der; Lancaster, Laura; Noller, Harry F; Bustamante, Carlos; Tinoco, Ignacio

    2011-07-06

    The ribosome translates the genetic information encoded in messenger RNA into protein. Folded structures in the coding region of an mRNA represent a kinetic barrier that lowers the peptide elongation rate, as the ribosome must disrupt structures it encounters in the mRNA at its entry site to allow translocation to the next codon. Such structures are exploited by the cell to create diverse strategies for translation regulation, such as programmed frameshifting, the modulation of protein expression levels, ribosome localization and co-translational protein folding. Although strand separation activity is inherent to the ribosome, requiring no exogenous helicases, its mechanism is still unknown. Here, using a single-molecule optical tweezers assay on mRNA hairpins, we find that the translation rate of identical codons at the decoding centre is greatly influenced by the GC content of folded structures at the mRNA entry site. Furthermore, force applied to the ends of the hairpin to favour its unfolding significantly speeds translation. Quantitative analysis of the force dependence of its helicase activity reveals that the ribosome, unlike previously studied helicases, uses two distinct active mechanisms to unwind mRNA structure: it destabilizes the helical junction at the mRNA entry site by biasing its thermal fluctuations towards the open state, increasing the probability of the ribosome translocating unhindered; and it mechanically pulls apart the mRNA single strands of the closed junction during the conformational changes that accompany ribosome translocation. The second of these mechanisms ensures a minimal basal rate of translation in the cell; specialized, mechanically stable structures are required to stall the ribosome temporarily. Our results establish a quantitative mechanical basis for understanding the mechanism of regulation of the elongation rate of translation by structured mRNAs. ©2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved

  9. Kinase-Mediated Regulation of 40S Ribosome Assembly in Human Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    and will assess if this resistance involves gain-of-function mutations in Ltv1, and if resistance can be overcome with drugs that direct...ribosome assembly factor Ltv1 in both yeast and TNBC cells, and that selective knockdown or silencing of CK1δ, or forced expression of Ltv1 mutant that...cannot be phosphorylated by CK1δ, blocks ribosome assembly in yeast and compromises the growth and survival of TNBC cells. Further, we have shown that

  10. A conserved chloramphenicol binding site at the entrance to the ribosomal peptide exit tunnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Long, Katherine S; Porse, Bo T

    2003-01-01

    , of E.coli 23S rRNA and G2084 (2058 in E.coli numbering) in domain V of H.halobium 23S rRNA. The modification sites overlap with a portion of the macrolide binding site and cluster at the entrance to the peptide exit tunnel. The data correlate with the recently reported chloramphenicol binding site...... on an archaeal ribosome and suggest that a similar binding site is present on the E.coli ribosome....

  11. Production of RNA-protein cross links in γ irradiated E. Coli ribosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekert, Bernard; Giocanti, Nicole

    1976-01-01

    γ irradiation in de-aerated conditions of E. coli MRE 600 ribosomes, labelled with 14 C uracil, leads to a decrease of extractibility of 14 C RNA by lithium chloride 4 M-urea 8 M. On the other hand, the radioactivity of the protein fraction increases with irradiation. These results strongly suggest that RNA-protein cross links are formed in irradiated ribosomes [fr

  12. Antimony recycling in the United States in 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, James F.

    2006-01-01

    The importance of recycling has become more obvious as concerns about the environment and import dependence have grown in recent years. When materials are recycled, fewer natural resources are consumed, and less waste products go to landfills or pollute the water and air. This study, one of a series of reports on metals recycling in 2000, discusses the flow of antimony from mining through its uses and disposal with emphasis on recycling. In 2000, the recycling efficiency for antimony was estimated to be 89 percent, and the recycling rate was about 20 percent.

  13. Trapped ion depletion by anomalous diffusion due to the dissipative trapped ion instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wimmel, H.K.

    1975-07-01

    At high temperatures the KADOMTSEV-POGUTSE diffusion in tokamaks can become so large as to cause depletion of trapped ions if these are replaced with free ions by means of collisions rather than being directly recycled or injected. Modified KADOMTSEV-POGUTSE diffusion formulas are employed in order to estimate this effect in the cases of classical and anomalous collisions. The maximum trapped-ion depletion is estimated from the PENROSE stability condition. For anomalous collisions a BOHM-type diffusion is derived. Numerical examples are given for JET-like parameters (JET = Joint European Torus). Depletion is found to reduce diffusion by factors of up to 10 and more. (orig.) [de

  14. Evidence for alteration of the membrane-bound ribosomes in Micrococcus luteus cells exposed to lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrow, W; Himmel, M; Squire, P G; Tornabene, T G

    1978-01-01

    Micrococcus luteus cells exposed to Pb(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/ contained cytosol ribosomal particles and disaggregated membranal ribosomal particles as determined by ultracentrifugation and spectral studies. Approximately 60% of the membrane ribosome fraction from lead exposed cells had a sedimentation value of 8.4S. Cytosol ribosome from lead exposed cells as well as membranal and cytosol ribosomes from control cells were comparable by their contents of predominantly the 70S type with the 50S and 100S present in relatively small amounts. The lead content of the 8.4S components was more than 200 times higher than the components with higher sedimentation coefficients from lead exposed cells and approximately 650 times more than that of control cell ribosomes. The cells exposed to lead, however, showed no adverse effects from the lead in respect to their growth rates and cellular yields. These results indicate that lead is interacting only at specific sites of the membrane and is inducing events initiated only in strategic cellular regions. These data further substantiate that subtle changes do occur in lead exposed cells that show no obvious effects. It is assumed that these minor alterations are, in toto, biologically significant. 24 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  15. The complete structure of the large subunit of the mammalian mitochondrial ribosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greber, Basil J; Boehringer, Daniel; Leibundgut, Marc; Bieri, Philipp; Leitner, Alexander; Schmitz, Nikolaus; Aebersold, Ruedi; Ban, Nenad

    2014-11-13

    Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) are extensively modified ribosomes of bacterial descent specialized for the synthesis and insertion of membrane proteins that are critical for energy conversion and ATP production inside mitochondria. Mammalian mitoribosomes, which comprise 39S and 28S subunits, have diverged markedly from the bacterial ribosomes from which they are derived, rendering them unique compared to bacterial, eukaryotic cytosolic and fungal mitochondrial ribosomes. We have previously determined at 4.9 Å resolution the architecture of the porcine (Sus scrofa) 39S subunit, which is highly homologous to the human mitoribosomal large subunit. Here we present the complete atomic structure of the porcine 39S large mitoribosomal subunit determined in the context of a stalled translating mitoribosome at 3.4 Å resolution by cryo-electron microscopy and chemical crosslinking/mass spectrometry. The structure reveals the locations and the detailed folds of 50 mitoribosomal proteins, shows the highly conserved mitoribosomal peptidyl transferase active site in complex with its substrate transfer RNAs, and defines the path of the nascent chain in mammalian mitoribosomes along their idiosyncratic exit tunnel. Furthermore, we present evidence that a mitochondrial tRNA has become an integral component of the central protuberance of the 39S subunit where it architecturally substitutes for the absence of the 5S ribosomal RNA, a ubiquitous component of all cytoplasmic ribosomes.

  16. The 5S RNP couples p53 homeostasis to ribosome biogenesis and nucleolar stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Katherine E; Bohnsack, Markus T; Watkins, Nicholas J

    2013-10-17

    Several proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressors regulate the production of ribosomes. Ribosome biogenesis is a major consumer of cellular energy, and defects result in p53 activation via repression of mouse double minute 2 (MDM2) homolog by the ribosomal proteins RPL5 and RPL11. Here, we report that RPL5 and RPL11 regulate p53 from the context of a ribosomal subcomplex, the 5S ribonucleoprotein particle (RNP). We provide evidence that the third component of this complex, the 5S rRNA, is critical for p53 regulation. In addition, we show that the 5S RNP is essential for the activation of p53 by p14(ARF), a protein that is activated by oncogene overexpression. Our data show that the abundance of the 5S RNP, and therefore p53 levels, is determined by factors regulating 5S complex formation and ribosome integration, including the tumor suppressor PICT1. The 5S RNP therefore emerges as the critical coordinator of signaling pathways that couple cell proliferation with ribosome production. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Could a Proto-Ribosome Emerge Spontaneously in the Prebiotic World?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana C. Agmon

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An indispensable prerequisite for establishing a scenario of life emerging by natural processes is the requirement that the first simple proto-molecules could have had a realistic probability of self-assembly from random molecular polymers in the prebiotic world. The vestige of the proto-ribosome, which is believed to be still embedded in the contemporary ribosome, is used to assess the feasibility of such spontaneous emergence. Three concentric structural elements of different magnitudes, having a dimeric nature derived from the symmetrical region of the ribosomal large subunit, were suggested to constitute the vestige of the proto-ribosome. It is assumed to have materialized spontaneously in the prebiotic world, catalyzing non-coded peptide bond formation and simple elongation. Probabilistic and energetic considerations are applied in order to evaluate the suitability of the three contenders for being the initial proto-ribosome. The analysis points to the simplest proto-ribosome, comprised of a dimer of tRNA-like molecules presently embedded in the core of the symmetrical region, as the only one having a realistic statistical likelihood of spontaneous emergence from random RNA chains. Hence it offers a feasible starting point for a continuous evolutionary path from the prebiotic matter, through natural processes, into the intricate modern translation system.

  18. Trans-kingdom mimicry underlies ribosome customization by a poxvirus kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Sujata; Rollins, Madeline G; Fuchs, Gabriele; Procter, Dean J; Hall, Elizabeth A; Cozzolino, Kira; Sarnow, Peter; Savas, Jeffrey N; Walsh, Derek

    2017-06-29

    Ribosomes have the capacity to selectively control translation through changes in their composition that enable recognition of specific RNA elements. However, beyond differential subunit expression during development, evidence for regulated ribosome specification within individual cells has remained elusive. Here we report that a poxvirus kinase phosphorylates serine/threonine residues in the human small ribosomal subunit protein, receptor for activated C kinase (RACK1), that are not phosphorylated in uninfected cells or cells infected by other viruses. These modified residues cluster in an extended loop in RACK1, phosphorylation of which selects for translation of viral or reporter mRNAs with 5' untranslated regions that contain adenosine repeats, so-called polyA-leaders. Structural and phylogenetic analyses revealed that although RACK1 is highly conserved, this loop is variable and contains negatively charged amino acids in plants, in which these leaders act as translational enhancers. Phosphomimetics and inter-species chimaeras have shown that negative charge in the RACK1 loop dictates ribosome selectivity towards viral RNAs. By converting human RACK1 to a charged, plant-like state, poxviruses remodel host ribosomes so that adenosine repeats erroneously generated by slippage of the viral RNA polymerase confer a translational advantage. Our findings provide insight into ribosome customization through trans-kingdom mimicry and the mechanics of species-specific leader activity that underlie poxvirus polyA-leaders.

  19. Mutational analysis of S12 protein and implications for the accuracy of decoding by the ribosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Divya; Cukras, Anthony R; Rogers, Elizabeth J; Southworth, Daniel R; Green, Rachel

    2007-12-07

    The fidelity of aminoacyl-tRNA selection by the ribosome depends on a conformational switch in the decoding center of the small ribosomal subunit induced by cognate but not by near-cognate aminoacyl-tRNA. The aminoglycosides paromomycin and streptomycin bind to the decoding center and induce related structural rearrangements that explain their observed effects on miscoding. Structural and biochemical studies have identified ribosomal protein S12 (as well as specific nucleotides in 16S ribosomal RNA) as a critical molecular contributor in distinguishing between cognate and near-cognate tRNA species as well as in promoting more global rearrangements in the small subunit, referred to as "closure." Here we use a mutational approach to define contributions made by two highly conserved loops in S12 to the process of tRNA selection. Most S12 variant ribosomes tested display increased levels of fidelity (a "restrictive" phenotype). Interestingly, several variants, K42A and R53A, were substantially resistant to the miscoding effects of paromomycin. Further characterization of the compromised paromomycin response identified a probable second, fidelity-modulating binding site for paromomycin in the 16S ribosomal RNA that facilitates closure of the small subunit and compensates for defects associated with the S12 mutations.

  20. Diverse Regulators of Human Ribosome Biogenesis Discovered by Changes in Nucleolar Number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine I. Farley-Barnes

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Ribosome biogenesis is a highly regulated, essential cellular process. Although studies in yeast have established some of the biological principles of ribosome biogenesis, many of the intricacies of its regulation in higher eukaryotes remain unknown. To understand how ribosome biogenesis is globally integrated in human cells, we conducted a genome-wide siRNA screen for regulators of nucleolar number. We found 139 proteins whose depletion changed the number of nucleoli per nucleus from 2–3 to only 1 in human MCF10A cells. Follow-up analyses on 20 hits found many (90% to be essential for the nucleolar functions of rDNA transcription (7, pre-ribosomal RNA (pre-rRNA processing (16, and/or global protein synthesis (14. This genome-wide analysis exploits the relationship between nucleolar number and function to discover diverse cellular pathways that regulate the making of ribosomes and paves the way for further exploration of the links between ribosome biogenesis and human disease.

  1. Miscoding-induced stalling of substrate translocation on the bacterial ribosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejo, Jose L; Blanchard, Scott C

    2017-10-10

    Directional transit of the ribosome along the messenger RNA (mRNA) template is a key determinant of the rate and processivity of protein synthesis. Imaging of the multistep translocation mechanism using single-molecule FRET has led to the hypothesis that substrate movements relative to the ribosome resolve through relatively long-lived late intermediates wherein peptidyl-tRNA enters the P site of the small ribosomal subunit via reversible, swivel-like motions of the small subunit head domain within the elongation factor G (GDP)-bound ribosome complex. Consistent with translocation being rate-limited by recognition and productive engagement of peptidyl-tRNA within the P site, we now show that base-pairing mismatches between the peptidyl-tRNA anticodon and the mRNA codon dramatically delay this rate-limiting, intramolecular process. This unexpected relationship between aminoacyl-tRNA decoding and translocation suggests that miscoding antibiotics may impact protein synthesis by impairing the recognition of peptidyl-tRNA in the small subunit P site during EF-G-catalyzed translocation. Strikingly, we show that elongation factor P (EF-P), traditionally known to alleviate ribosome stalling at polyproline motifs, can efficiently rescue translocation defects arising from miscoding. These findings help reveal the nature and origin of the rate-limiting steps in substrate translocation on the bacterial ribosome and indicate that EF-P can aid in resuming translation elongation stalled by miscoding errors.

  2. Organization of proteins in mammalian mitochondrial ribosomes: accessibility to lactoperoxidase-catalyzed radioiodination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denslow, N.D.; O'Brien, T.W.

    1984-01-01

    To assess the relative exposure of individual ribosomal proteins (r-proteins) in the large and small subunits of the bovine mitochondrial ribosome, double label iodination technique was used. Regions of r-proteins exposed in purified ribosomal subunits were labeled with 131 I using the lactoperoxidase-catalyzed iodination system, and additional reactive groups available upon denaturing the r-proteins in urea were labeled with 125 I using the chloramine-T mediated reaction. The ratio of 131 I to 125 I incorporated into individual proteins under these conditions is representative of the degree of exposure for each of the proteins in the subunits. In this manner, the r-proteins have been grouped into 3 classes depending on their degree of exposure: high exposure, intermediate exposure, and essentially buried. While both subunits have a few proteins in the highly exposed group, and a large number of proteins in the intermediate exposure group, only the large ribosomal subunit has an appreciable number of proteins which appear essentially buried. The more buried proteins may serve mainly structural roles, perhaps acting as assembly proteins, since many from this group bind to ribosomal RNA. The more superficially disposed proteins may comprise binding sites for macromolecules that interact with ribosomes during protein synthesis, as well as stabilizing the association of the large and small subribosomal particles

  3. Ribosomal and hematopoietic defects in induced pluripotent stem cells derived from Diamond Blackfan anemia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garçon, Loïc; Ge, Jingping; Manjunath, Shwetha H; Mills, Jason A; Apicella, Marisa; Parikh, Shefali; Sullivan, Lisa M; Podsakoff, Gregory M; Gadue, Paul; French, Deborah L; Mason, Philip J; Bessler, Monica; Weiss, Mitchell J

    2013-08-08

    Diamond Blackfan anemia (DBA) is a congenital disorder with erythroid (Ery) hypoplasia and tissue morphogenic abnormalities. Most DBA cases are caused by heterozygous null mutations in genes encoding ribosomal proteins. Understanding how haploinsufficiency of these ubiquitous proteins causes DBA is hampered by limited availability of tissues from affected patients. We generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from fibroblasts of DBA patients carrying mutations in RPS19 and RPL5. Compared with controls, DBA fibroblasts formed iPSCs inefficiently, although we obtained 1 stable clone from each fibroblast line. RPS19-mutated iPSCs exhibited defects in 40S (small) ribosomal subunit assembly and production of 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Upon induced differentiation, the mutant clone exhibited globally impaired hematopoiesis, with the Ery lineage affected most profoundly. RPL5-mutated iPSCs exhibited defective 60S (large) ribosomal subunit assembly, accumulation of 12S pre-rRNA, and impaired erythropoiesis. In both mutant iPSC lines, genetic correction of ribosomal protein deficiency via complementary DNA transfer into the "safe harbor" AAVS1 locus alleviated abnormalities in ribosome biogenesis and hematopoiesis. Our studies show that pathological features of DBA are recapitulated by iPSCs, provide a renewable source of cells to model various tissue defects, and demonstrate proof of principle for genetic correction strategies in patient stem cells.

  4. Genetic incorporation of recycled unnatural amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Wooseok; Kim, Sanggil; Jo, Kyubong; Lee, Hyun Soo

    2016-02-01

    The genetic incorporation of unnatural amino acids (UAAs) into proteins has been a useful tool for protein engineering. However, most UAAs are expensive, and the method requires a high concentration of UAAs, which has been a drawback of the technology, especially for large-scale applications. To address this problem, a method to recycle cultured UAAs was developed. The method is based on recycling a culture medium containing the UAA, in which some of essential nutrients were resupplemented after each culture cycle, and induction of protein expression was controlled with glucose. Under optimal conditions, five UAAs were recycled for up to seven rounds of expression without a decrease in expression level, cell density, or incorporation fidelity. This method can generally be applied to other UAAs; therefore, it is useful for reducing the cost of UAAs for genetic incorporation and helpful for expanding the use of the technology to industrial applications.

  5. A utility analysis of MOX recycling policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfaeffli, J.L.

    1990-01-01

    The author presents the advantages of recycling of plutonium and uranium from spent reactor fuel assemblies as follows: natural uranium and enrichment savings, mixed oxide fuel (MOX) fuel assembly cost, MOX compatibility with plant operation, high burnups, spent MOX reprocessing, and non-proliferation aspects.Disadvantages of the recycling effort are noted as well: plutonium degradation with time, plutonium availability, in-core fuel management, administrative authorizations by the licensings authorities, US prior consent, and MOX fuel fabrication capacity. Putting the advantages and disadvantages in perspective, it is concluded that the recycling of MOX in light water reactors represents, under the current circumstances, the most appropriate way of making use of the available plutonium

  6. Rare earth elements: end use and recyclability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2011-01-01

    Rare earth elements are used in mature markets (such as catalysts, glassmaking, lighting, and metallurgy), which account for 59 percent of the total worldwide consumption of rare earth elements, and in newer, high-growth markets (such as battery alloys, ceramics, and permanent magnets), which account for 41 percent of the total worldwide consumption of rare earth elements. In mature market segments, lanthanum and cerium constitute about 80 percent of rare earth elements used, and in new market segments, dysprosium, neodymium, and praseodymium account for about 85 percent of rare earth elements used. Regardless of the end use, rare earth elements are not recycled in large quantities, but could be if recycling became mandated or very high prices of rare earth elements made recycling feasible.

  7. Paper waste - Recycling, incineration or landfilling?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Alejandro; Wenzel, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    comparisons of different management options for waste paper. Despite claims of inconsistency, the LCAs reviewed illustrate the environmental benefits in recycling over incineration or landfill options, for paper and cardboard waste. This broad consensus was found despite differences in geographic location....... Such message has implications for current policy formulation on material recycling and disposal in the EU. Secondly, to identify key methodological issues of paper waste management LCAs, and enlighten the influence of such issues on the conclusions of the LCA studies. Thirdly, in light of the analysis made...... and definitions of the paper recycling/disposal systems studied. A systematic exploration of the LCA studies showed, however, important methodological pitfalls and sources of error, mainly concerning differences in the definition of the system boundaries. Fifteen key assumptions were identified that cover...

  8. Coir dust reinforced recycled polypropylene composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Bianca B. dos; Costa, Marysilvia F. da; Thire, Rossana M. da S.M.

    2015-01-01

    The environmental impacts caused by disposed plastics encourage the search for new alternatives. Recycling polymers leads to the degradation of their mechanical properties, which can be modified by the addition of fillers. In this paper, recycled polypropylene from plastic cups with 2%, 5% and 10% of coir dust were produced with and without the addition of additives. These composites were characterized by tensile tests, X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry and scanning electron microscopy on the fracture surface. It was verified the effectiveness of the addition of coir dust in improving the elasticity modulus of recycled polypropylene besides the effectiveness of additives used in promoting the adhesion of the powder to the matrix. However, higher levels of coir dust caused the appearance of air bubbles inside the material, which contributed to its embrittlement. The addition of coir dust promoted a decrease in the degree of polypropylene crystallinity. (author)

  9. Recycling of steelmaking dusts: The Radust concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalkanen H.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Recycling of dusts and other wastes of steelmaking is becoming to a necessity of two reasons: due to high contents of iron oxides dusts are valuable raw material for steelmaking and tightening environmental legislation makes the landfill disposal of wastes more expensive. Fine dust fractions from various stages of steelmaking route contain besides iron and carbon heavy metals especially zinc and lead and heavy hydrocarbons that are acceptable neither for landfill disposal nor for recycling back to processes without any spe4cial treatments. Some theoretical and practical aspects concerning high temperature treatments of steelmaking dusts for removal of hazardous components and production of clean high iron raw material for recycling is discussed in this paper. The Radust technology developed at Koverhar steelwork in Finland for treatment of the most problematic fine fractions of blast furnace and oxygen converter dusts is shortly presented and discussed.

  10. Composition of waste materials and recyclables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Götze, Ramona

    involves several steps to prepare the samples mechanically and/or chemically for final analysis. Not all sample preparation methods are equally well suited for specific waste characterization purposes. The correctness of results and practical feasibility of sample preparation was strongly affected...... for future modelling and assessment of waste management systems. The analyzed fractions were selected based on material properties with relevance for potential recycling processes. The physico-chemical analysis revealed chemical differences between residual and source-segregated samples for several fractions....... The results for parameters associated with organic matter confirmed the idea of cross-contaminated recyclables in residual waste, whereas the results for heavy metals and trace elements were more complex. For many fractions rather high metal contents were found to be intrinsic properties of the recyclables...

  11. Scrap uranium recycling via electron beam melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKoon, R.

    1993-11-01

    A program is underway at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to recycle scrap uranium metal. Currently, much of the material from forging and machining processes is considered radioactive waste and is disposed of by oxidation and encapsulation at significant cost. In the recycling process, uranium and uranium alloys in various forms will be processed by electron beam melting and continuously cast into ingots meeting applicable specifications for virgin material. Existing vacuum processing facilities at LLNL are in compliance with all current federal and state environmental, safety and health regulations for the electron beam melting and vaporization of uranium metal. One of these facilities has been retrofitted with an auxiliary electron beam gun system, water-cooled hearth, crucible and ingot puller to create an electron beam melt furnace. In this furnace, basic process R ampersand D on uranium recycling will be performed with the goal of eventual transfer of this technology to a production facility

  12. Recycling argon through metamorphic reactions: The record in symplectites

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Christopher S.; Regis, Daniele; Warren, Clare J.; Kelley, Simon P.; Sherlock, Sarah C.

    2018-02-01

    The 40Ar/39Ar ages of metamorphic micas that crystallized at high temperatures are commonly interpreted as cooling ages, with grains considered to have lost 40Ar via thermally-driven diffusion into the grain boundary network. Recently reported laser-ablation data suggest that the spatial distribution of Ar in metamorphic micas does not always conform to the patterns predicted by diffusion theory and that despite high metamorphic temperatures, argon was not removed efficiently from the local system during metamorphic evolution. In the Western Gneiss Region (WGR), Norway, felsic gneisses preserve microtextural evidence for the breakdown of phengite to biotite and plagioclase symplectites during near isothermal decompression from c. 20-25 to c. 8-12 kbar at 700 °C. These samples provide an ideal natural laboratory to assess whether the complete replacement of one K-bearing mineral by another at high temperatures completely 'resets' the Ar clock, or whether there is some inheritance of 40Ar in the neocrystallized phase. The timing of the high-temperature portion of the WGR metamorphic cycle has been well constrained in previous studies. However, the timing of cooling following the overprint is still much debated. In-situ laser ablation spot dating in phengite, biotite-plagioclase symplectites and coarser, texturally later biotite yielded 40Ar/39Ar ages that span much of the metamorphic cycle. Together these data show that despite residence at temperatures of 700 °C, Ar is not completely removed by diffusive loss or during metamorphic recrystallization. Instead, Ar released during phengite breakdown appears to be partially reincorporated into the newly crystallizing biotite and plagioclase (or is trapped in fluid inclusions in those phases) within a close system. Our data show that the microtextural and petrographic evolution of the sample being dated provides a critical framework in which local 40Ar recycling can be tracked, thus potentially allowing 40Ar/39Ar dates

  13. Marine shale and the Hazwaste recycling debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports that Marine Shale Processors, Inc. (St. Rose, La.), and the Hazardous Waste Treatment Council (Washington, D.C.), an industry trade association, are at the focus of a controversy whose resolution has significant implications for the respective definitions, concepts and legal statuses of hazardous-waste incineration and recycling. Marine Shale Processors (MSP) claims it recycles hazardous wastes from a variety of government and commercial sources by blending it and treating it thermally in a large rotary kiln to produce non-hazardous aggregate material, which is sold for construction, road-building or other purposes. The Hazardous Waste Treatment Council (HWTC) and others allege that, under the provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), MSP is operating an unpermitted hazardous-waste incinerator. According to HWTC officials, MSP's identification as a recycler is inappropriate and has allowed the company unfairly to avoid permitting costs and formal compliance with RCRA standards and regulations. Recently, the Louisiana legislature passed laws declaring that hazardous-waste recyclers in the state must meet the same standards as permitted hazardous-waste incinerators. At press time, a hearing before the Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality to determine MSP's status as a recycler under the new laws was set for Sept. 29. Since all parties in the debate over Marine Shale's industry role appear to agree that the controversy is central to the emerging issue of establishing clear distinctions between recycling and hazardous-waste destruction, this article describes the arguments on both sides as these stood in mid-September

  14. Design study of advanced nuclear fuel recycle system. Conceptual study of recycle system using molten salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakehi, I.; Shirai, N.; Hatano, M.; Kajitani, M.; Yonezawa, S.; Kawai, T.; Kawamura, F.; Tobe, K.; Takahashi, K.

    1996-12-01

    For the purpose of developing the future nuclear fuel recycle system, the design study of the advanced nuclear fuel recycle system is being conducted. This report describes intermediate accomplishments in the conceptual system study of the advanced nuclear fuel recycle system. Fundamental concepts of this system is the recycle system using molten salt which intend to break through the conventional concepts of purex and pellet fuel system. Contents of studies in this period are as follows, 1)feasibility study of the process by Cd-cathode for nitride fuel, 2)application study for the molten salt of low melting point (AlCl3+organic salt), 3)research for decladding (advantage of decladding by heat treatment), 4)behavior of FPs in electrorefining (behavior of iodine and volatile FP chlorides, FPs behavior in chlorination), 5)criticality analysis in electrorefiner, 6)drawing of off-gas flow diagram, 7)drawing of process machinery concept (cathode processor, vibration packing), 8)evaluation for the amounts of the high level radioactive wastes, 9)quality of the recycle fuels (FPs contamination of recycle fuel), 10)conceptual study of in-cell handling system, 11)meaning of the advanced nuclear fuel recycle system. The conceptual system study will be completed in describing concepts of the system and discussing issues for the developments. (author)

  15. Electric vehicle recycling 2020: Key component power electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulach, Winfried; Schüler, Doris; Sellin, Guido; Elwert, Tobias; Schmid, Dieter; Goldmann, Daniel; Buchert, Matthias; Kammer, Ulrich

    2018-04-01

    Electromobility will play a key role in order to reach the specified ambitious greenhouse gas reduction targets in the German transport sector of 42% between 1990 and 2030. Subsequently, a significant rise in the sale of electric vehicles (EVs) is to be anticipated in future. The amount of EVs to be recycled will rise correspondingly after a delay. This includes the recyclable power electronics modules which are incorporated in every EV as an important component for energy management. Current recycling methods using car shredders and subsequent post shredder technologies show high recycling rates for the bulk metals but are still associated with high losses of precious and strategic metals such as gold, silver, platinum, palladium and tantalum. For this reason, the project 'Electric vehicle recycling 2020 - key component power electronics' developed an optimised recycling route for recycling power electronics modules from EVs which is also practicable in series production and can be implemented using standardised technology. This 'WEEE recycling route' involves the disassembly of the power electronics from the vehicle and a subsequent recycling in an electronic end-of-life equipment recycling plant. The developed recycling process is economical under the current conditions and raw material prices, even though it involves considerably higher costs than recycling using the car shredder. The life cycle assessment shows basically good results, both for the traditional car shredder route and the developed WEEE recycling route: the latter provides additional benefits from some higher recovery rates and corresponding credits.

  16. Attributes to facilitate e-waste recycling behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senawi Nur Hidayah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the set of attributes to facilitate electronic waste (e-waste behaviour among the community. E-waste disposal is increasing from year to year in parallel with increasing of global population. The short lifespan of electronics and poor e-waste recycling behaviour is among the main contributors to the steadily increasing of e-waste generated. Current recycling rate among the nation is lacking behind, which is only 10.5%. A questionnaire survey has been conducted among the students in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia to evaluate the current e-waste recycling practice. The results showed that majority of the respondents did not recycle their e-waste on campus. Aggressive efforts is needed to realize the country’s target of 20% recycling rate in year 2020, one of the effective paths is to minimize e-waste generation via active e-waste recycling behaviour among the community. Extensive literatures have been reviewed to classify the attributes to facilitate effective e-waste recycling among the community. Total of five attributes that identified in this study which are Convenience of E- waste Recycling Infrastruture and Services, E-waste Recycling Information, Incentives For E-waste Recycling, Reminder to Recycle E-waste And E-waste Recycling Infrastructure and Services. The set of attributes identified in this study may serve as guideline for the management in designing program to foster e-waste recycling behaviour among the community.

  17. Recovering valuable metals from recycled photovoltaic modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Youn Kyu; Kim, Hyun Soo; Tran, Tam; Hong, Sung Kil; Kim, Myong Jun

    2014-07-01

    Recovering valuable metals such as Si, Ag, Cu, and Al has become a pressing issue as end-of-life photovoltaic modules need to be recycled in the near future to meet legislative requirements in most countries. Of major interest is the recovery and recycling of high-purity silicon (> 99.9%) for the production of wafers and semiconductors. The value of Si in crystalline-type photovoltaic modules is estimated to be -$95/kW at the 2012 metal price. At the current installed capacity of 30 GW/yr, the metal value in the PV modules represents valuable resources that should be recovered in the future. The recycling of end-of-life photovoltaic modules would supply > 88,000 and 207,000 tpa Si by 2040 and 2050, respectively. This represents more than 50% of the required Si for module fabrication. Experimental testwork on crystalline Si modules could recover a > 99.98%-grade Si product by HNO3/NaOH leaching to remove Al, Ag, and Ti and other metal ions from the doped Si. A further pyrometallurgical smelting at 1520 degrees C using CaO-CaF2-SiO2 slag mixture to scavenge the residual metals after acid leaching could finally produce > 99.998%-grade Si. A process based on HNO3/NaOH leaching and subsequent smelting is proposed for recycling Si from rejected or recycled photovoltaic modules. Implications: The photovoltaic industry is considering options of recycling PV modules to recover metals such as Si, Ag, Cu, Al, and others used in the manufacturing of the PV cells. This is to retain its "green" image and to comply with current legislations in several countries. An evaluation of potential resources made available from PV wastes and the technologies used for processing these materials is therefore of significant importance to the industry. Of interest are the costs of processing and the potential revenues gained from recycling, which should determine the viability of economic recycling of PV modules in the future.

  18. Coal and recycling mark the way forward

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bignell, E.

    2000-11-01

    A report is given of this year's Mineral Engineering Society's annual conference held in Scarborough, UK. The themes of recycling and coal were chosen for the two days of technical presentations. Topics included the cleaning up of brown field sites; the use of recycled waste oxide to replace iron ore pellets for cooling furnaces in steel making; high pressure filtration of industrial mineral effluent; iron ore mining in Australia; screen development; the status of coal preparation technology, by RJB Mining; study of movement of material (to simulate coal) in a hopper; and a UK-Chinese project on reduction of sulphur in coal.

  19. Fernald scrap metal recycling and beneficial reuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motl, G.P.; Burns, D.D.

    1993-10-01

    The Fernald site, formerly the Feed Materials Production Facility, produced uranium metal products to meet defense production requirements for the Department of Energy from 1953 to 1989. In this report is is described how the Fernald scrap metal project has demonstrated that contractor capabilities can be used successfully to recycle large quantities of Department of Energy scrap metal. The project has proven that the open-quotes beneficial reuseclose quotes concept makes excellent economic sense when a market for recycled products can be identified. Topics covered in this report include the scrap metal pile history, the procurement strategy, scrap metal processing, and a discussion of lessons learned

  20. Developments in the US aluminium recycling industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolling, R N

    1983-06-01

    In the USA scrap recovery of aluminium has gained in importance since the war. Today its amounts to about 32% of total supply. On the other hand primary production in the US seems to have hardly any expansion possibilities. The development of the aluminium beverage can is the clearest example for recycling growth. The increased use of aluminium in passenger cars has led to very close technical and local relations of aluminium foundries and secondary smelters. The changing nature of the aluminium business caused by the growth of recycling should be recognized and made use of.