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Sample records for riboseq gbs test

  1. Evaluation of a novel real-time PCR test based on the ssrA gene for the identification of group B streptococci in vaginal swabs.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wernecke, Martina

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite the implementation of prevention guidelines, early-onset group B streptococci (GBS) disease remains a cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Strategies to identify women who are at risk of transmitting GBS to their infant and the administration of intrapartum antibiotics have greatly reduced the incidence of neonatal GBS disease. However, there is a requirement for a rapid diagnostic test for GBS that can be carried out in a labour ward setting especially for women whose GBS colonisation status is unknown at the time of delivery. We report the design and evaluation of a real-time PCR test (RiboSEQ GBS test) for the identification of GBS in vaginal swabs from pregnant women. METHODS: The qualitative real-time PCR RiboSEQ GBS test was designed based on the bacterial ssrA gene and incorporates a competitive internal standard control. The analytical sensitivity of the test was established using crude lysate extracted from serial dilutions of overnight GBS culture using the IDI Lysis kit. Specificity studies were performed using DNA prepared from a panel of GBS strains, related streptococci and other species found in the genital tract environment. The RiboSEQ GBS test was evaluated on 159 vaginal swabs from pregnant women and compared with the GeneOhm StrepB Assay and culture for the identification of GBS. RESULTS: The RiboSEQ GBS test is specific and has an analytical sensitivity of 1-10 cell equivalents. The RiboSEQ GBS test was 96.4% sensitive and 95.8% specific compared to "gold standard" culture for the identification of GBS in vaginal swabs from pregnant women. In this study, the RiboSEQ GBS test performed slightly better than the commercial BD GeneOhm StrepB Assay which gave a sensitivity of 94.6% and a specificity of 89.6% compared to culture. CONCLUSION: The RiboSEQ GBS test is a valuable method for the rapid, sensitive and specific detection of GBS in pregnant women. This study also validates the ssrA gene as a suitable and

  2. Recolonization of group B Streptococcus (GBS) in women with prior GBS genital colonization in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Teresa; Bilinski, Ewa; Lombard, Emily

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate the incidence of women with prior GBS genital colonization who have recolonization in subsequent pregnancies. This is a retrospective, cohort study of patients with a prior GBS genital colonization in pregnancy and a subsequent pregnancy with a recorded GBS culture result, from January 2000 through June 2007. Documentation of GBS status was through GBS culture performed between 35 to 37 weeks gestation. Exclusion criteria included pregnancies with unknown GBS status, patients with GBS bacteriuria, women with a previous neonate with GBS disease and GBS finding prior to 35 weeks. Data was analyzed using SPSS 15.0. The sample proportion of subjects with GBS genital colonization and its confidence interval were computed to estimate the incidence rate. Logistic regression was performed to assess potential determinants of GBS colonization. Regression coefficients, odds ratios and associated confidence intervals, and p-values were reported, with significant results reported. There were 371 pregnancies that met the test criteria. There were 151 subsequent pregnancies with GBS genital colonization and 220 without GBS recolonization. The incidence of GBS recolonization on patients with prior GBS genital colonization was 40.7% (95% confidence interval 35.7-45.69%). The incidence rate for the sample was significantly larger than 30% (p recolonization in subsequent pregnancies.

  3. HIV positive patient with GBS-like syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Samantha J; Black, Heather; Thomson, Emma C; Gunson, Rory N

    2017-08-01

    Introduction. Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) is an acute demyelinating polyneuropathy which can occur post-infection. Criteria of diagnosis of GBS include areflexia with progressive bilateral weakness in arms and legs. GBS can lead to severe respiratory and cardiac complications. The fatality rate can be up to 5 % in patients, depending on the severity of the symptoms. HIV can cause a range of neurological disorders including, on rare occasions, GBS. GBS can occur at any stage of HIV infection, highlighting the complexity of diagnosis of GBS within HIV patients. Case presentation. A 57 year old female with lumbar back pain radiating to the legs, poor mobility and tiredness, with reports of a viral-like illness four days previously, was initially diagnosed with a lower respiratory tract infection and discharged. Seventeen days later the patient was readmitted to hospital with progressive lower and upper limb weakness, areflexia and sensory loss. She was diagnosed with GBS and was unexpectedly discovered to be HIV-positive. HIV avidity was low indicating a recently acquired HIV infection. The patient was treated with intravenous immunoglobulin for five days for the GBS and commenced antriretrovirals for HIV. The patient was discharge from hospital 53 days after admission with walking aids and regular physiotherapy follow-up. . This case highlighted the need for all clinicians to be aware that patients with symptoms of GBS, regardless of clinical history should be offered an HIV test. GBS can be the first sign a patient is HIV-positive.

  4. Structure of Streptococcus agalactiae tip pilin GBS104: a model for GBS pili assembly and host interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnan, Vengadesan [UNESCO Regional Centre for Biotechnology (RCB), Gurgaon 122 016, Haryana (India); Dwivedi, Prabhat [University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Kim, Brandon J. [San Diego State University, 5500 Campanile Drive, San Diego, CA 92182 (United States); Samal, Alexandra; Macon, Kevin [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); Ma, Xin; Mishra, Arunima [University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Doran, Kelly S. [San Diego State University, 5500 Campanile Drive, San Diego, CA 92182 (United States); Ton-That, Hung [University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX 77030 (United States); Narayana, Sthanam V. L., E-mail: narayana@uab.edu [University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294 (United States); UNESCO Regional Centre for Biotechnology (RCB), Gurgaon 122 016, Haryana (India)

    2013-06-01

    The crystal structure of a 75 kDa central fragment of GBS104, a tip pilin from the 2063V/R strain of Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus; GBS), is reported. The crystal structure of a 75 kDa central fragment of GBS104, a tip pilin from the 2063V/R strain of Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus; GBS), is reported. In addition, a homology model of the remaining two domains of GBS104 was built and a model of full-length GBS104 was generated by combining the homology model (the N1 and N4 domains) and the crystal structure of the 75 kDa fragment (the N2 and N3 domains). This rod-shaped GBS104 model is constructed of three IgG-like domains (the N1, N2 and N4 domains) and one vWFA-like domain (the N3 domain). The N1 and N2 domains of GBS104 are assembled with distinct and remote segments contributed by the N- and C-termini. The metal-binding site in the N3 domain of GBS104 is in the closed/low-affinity conformation. Interestingly, this domain hosts two long arms that project away from the metal-binding site. Using site-directed mutagenesis, two cysteine residues that lock the N3 domain of GBS104 into the open/high-affinity conformation were introduced. Both wild-type and disulfide-locked recombinant proteins were tested for binding to extracellular matrix proteins such as collagen, fibronectin, fibrinogen and laminin, and an increase in fibronectin binding affinity was identified for the disulfide-locked N3 domain, suggesting that induced conformational changes may play a possible role in receptor binding.

  5. Structure of Streptococcus agalactiae tip pilin GBS104: a model for GBS pili assembly and host interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, Vengadesan; Dwivedi, Prabhat; Kim, Brandon J.; Samal, Alexandra; Macon, Kevin; Ma, Xin; Mishra, Arunima; Doran, Kelly S.; Ton-That, Hung; Narayana, Sthanam V. L.

    2013-01-01

    The crystal structure of a 75 kDa central fragment of GBS104, a tip pilin from the 2063V/R strain of Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus; GBS), is reported. The crystal structure of a 75 kDa central fragment of GBS104, a tip pilin from the 2063V/R strain of Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus; GBS), is reported. In addition, a homology model of the remaining two domains of GBS104 was built and a model of full-length GBS104 was generated by combining the homology model (the N1 and N4 domains) and the crystal structure of the 75 kDa fragment (the N2 and N3 domains). This rod-shaped GBS104 model is constructed of three IgG-like domains (the N1, N2 and N4 domains) and one vWFA-like domain (the N3 domain). The N1 and N2 domains of GBS104 are assembled with distinct and remote segments contributed by the N- and C-termini. The metal-binding site in the N3 domain of GBS104 is in the closed/low-affinity conformation. Interestingly, this domain hosts two long arms that project away from the metal-binding site. Using site-directed mutagenesis, two cysteine residues that lock the N3 domain of GBS104 into the open/high-affinity conformation were introduced. Both wild-type and disulfide-locked recombinant proteins were tested for binding to extracellular matrix proteins such as collagen, fibronectin, fibrinogen and laminin, and an increase in fibronectin binding affinity was identified for the disulfide-locked N3 domain, suggesting that induced conformational changes may play a possible role in receptor binding

  6. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Ability West, Galway

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wernecke, Martina

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite the implementation of prevention guidelines, early-onset group B streptococci (GBS) disease remains a cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Strategies to identify women who are at risk of transmitting GBS to their infant and the administration of intrapartum antibiotics have greatly reduced the incidence of neonatal GBS disease. However, there is a requirement for a rapid diagnostic test for GBS that can be carried out in a labour ward setting especially for women whose GBS colonisation status is unknown at the time of delivery. We report the design and evaluation of a real-time PCR test (RiboSEQ GBS test) for the identification of GBS in vaginal swabs from pregnant women. METHODS: The qualitative real-time PCR RiboSEQ GBS test was designed based on the bacterial ssrA gene and incorporates a competitive internal standard control. The analytical sensitivity of the test was established using crude lysate extracted from serial dilutions of overnight GBS culture using the IDI Lysis kit. Specificity studies were performed using DNA prepared from a panel of GBS strains, related streptococci and other species found in the genital tract environment. The RiboSEQ GBS test was evaluated on 159 vaginal swabs from pregnant women and compared with the GeneOhm StrepB Assay and culture for the identification of GBS. RESULTS: The RiboSEQ GBS test is specific and has an analytical sensitivity of 1-10 cell equivalents. The RiboSEQ GBS test was 96.4% sensitive and 95.8% specific compared to "gold standard" culture for the identification of GBS in vaginal swabs from pregnant women. In this study, the RiboSEQ GBS test performed slightly better than the commercial BD GeneOhm StrepB Assay which gave a sensitivity of 94.6% and a specificity of 89.6% compared to culture. CONCLUSION: The RiboSEQ GBS test is a valuable method for the rapid, sensitive and specific detection of GBS in pregnant women. This study also validates the ssrA gene as a suitable and

  7. Screening for group B Streptococcus (GBS) at labour onset using PCR: accuracy and potential impact - a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh Babu, Sandhya; McDermott, Rachel; Farooq, Irum; Le Blanc, David; Ferguson, Wendy; McCallion, Naomi; Drew, Richard; Eogan, Maeve

    2018-01-01

    This pilot study assessed the diagnostic accuracy and potential impact of a rapid PCR-based screening test for the detection of group B Streptococcus (GBS) at the onset of labour for the purpose of optimising intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP). Vaginal and rectal swabs from a convenience sample of 158 women were analysed by conventional broth-enriched culture and a rapid PCR test. Overall, GBS carriage was 18.98% by culture and 19.62% by PCR. PCR for the detection of GBS had a sensitivity of 93.1%, specificity of 96.67% and area under the curve (AUC) of 0.95. Only 19.3% GBS-positive women received IAP. Three-fourths of babies born to GBS-positive mothers did not receive surveillance for early-onset GBS disease. Of the women who received IAP, only 32.5% were GBS carriers. Seventy-four percent of the GBS-positive mothers delivered more than 5 h after recruitment, which gives adequate swab to delivery interval for appropriate antibiotic prophylaxis in labour. Impact statement What is already known about this subject: Appropriate intra-partum treatment of colonized mothers reduces the risk of GBS transmission to neonates. Universal ante partum screening of pregnant women or IAP based on risk factors in labour for GBS prevention fail to accurately identify and treat the woman who actually harbors GBS in the birth canal in labour. A PCR based rapid test, allows for real-time assessment of GBS carriage in labour. This study highlights the fact that a large number of GBS carriers in labour, who could potentially infect their babies, do not receive IAP, and most of their babies do not receive added surveillance in the neonatal period for EOGBS disease. It also confirms that PCR testing at onset of labour is a highly sensitive and reliable test that identifies the women who are GBS carriers in labour and hence need IAP. What the implications are of these findings for clinical practice and/or further research: Timely provision of IAP for the appropriate woman is

  8. The homodimeric GBS1074 from Streptococcus agalactiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, Anshuman; Pallen, Mark; Anthony, Mark; White, Scott A.

    2010-01-01

    The homodimeric nature of the ESAT-6 homologue GBS1074 and the potential for fibre-like assemblies are revealed by the 2 Å resolution crystal structure. ESAT-6 is a well characterized secreted protein from Mycobacterium tuberculosis and represents the archetype of the WXG100 family of proteins. Genes encoding ESAT-6 homologues have been identified in the genome of the human pathogen Streptococcus agalactiae; one of these genes, esxA, has been cloned and the recombinant protein has been crystallized. In contrast to M. tuberculosis ESAT-6, the crystal structure of GBS1074 reveals a homodimeric structure similar to homologous structures from Staphylococcus aureus and Helicobacter pylori. Intriguingly, GBS1074 forms elongated fibre-like assemblies in the crystal structure

  9. GBS public awareness, advocacy, and prevention--what's working, what's not and why we need a maternal GBS vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Gina; Plumb, Jane

    2013-08-28

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is the most common cause of severe early-onset (0-6 days) infection and a significant cause of serious late-onset (7-90 days) infection in infants. While most babies recover from their GBS infection, some are stillborn, more die in the first weeks of life and others suffer lifelong disability. Despite efforts in many developed countries to prevent these infections, the burden of GBS disease remains significant, particularly among the late onset infections, which are not preventable using current risk-based or screening strategies. Vaccination, once available, could prevent more cases of GBS infection than any other strategy, including preventing preterm labor and stillbirths caused by GBS infection, post-delivery GBS infection in the mother and late-onset GBS infection in the baby. Vaccination would also avoid allergic reactions to antibiotics and concern about the emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria. We consider the history of the two largest group B Strep parent organizations (Group B Strep Association USA and Group B Strep Support UK) and the history of GBS prevention in their respective countries. We look at what is needed before a vaccine can be introduced and consider how acceptable a GBS vaccine would be from families' perspective. We also summarize what a perfect GBS vaccine would look like and what we should all strive to achieve. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 40 Gb/s optical transmission systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buxens Azcoaga, Alvaro Juan; Nielsen, Steen Krogh

    2003-01-01

    ; chromatic dispersion, Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD), Self Phase Modulation (SPM) and linear or non-linear crosstalk among others. Regarding chromatic dispersion, sufficient evidence is presented for the need in 40 Gb/s systems of either modulation formats that allow for higher tolerance than....... Using a 9 ps pulsed RZ Tx, transmission is achieved over a 400 km link consisting of 5 spans of 80 km standard-SMF with a Quality (Q) factor of 17.7 dB, while for NRZ it is reduced to 15 dB. In another experimental verification over 40 km spans of standard-SMF, we could achieve transmission over 6 spans...

  11. Preventing invasive Group B Streptococcus (GBS) disease in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    9 No. 3 has been successfully used for the prevention of tetanus, influenza and pertussis in infants.[11] A trivalent GBS polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccine (against serotypes Ia, Ib and III) has completed phase-II evaluation among pregnant women and has the potential to prevent 70 - 80% of all invasive GBS disease.

  12. 100 Gb/s single VCSEL data transmission link

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodes Lopez, Roberto; Estaran Tolosa, Jose Manuel; Li, Bomin

    2012-01-01

    100 Gb/s optical fiber transmission link with a single 1.5 um VCSEL has been experimentally demonstrated using 4-level pulse amplitude modulation.......100 Gb/s optical fiber transmission link with a single 1.5 um VCSEL has been experimentally demonstrated using 4-level pulse amplitude modulation....

  13. Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) and Flu Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Swine Variant Pandemic Other Guillain-Barré syndrome and Flu Vaccine Questions & Answers Language: English (US) Español Recommend ... it among people who have been vaccinated against flu? The background rate for GBS in the Unites ...

  14. Bacterial Hyaluronidase Promotes Ascending GBS Infection and Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vornhagen, Jay; Quach, Phoenicia; Boldenow, Erica; Merillat, Sean; Whidbey, Christopher; Ngo, Lisa Y.; Adams Waldorf, K. M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Preterm birth increases the risk of adverse birth outcomes and is the leading cause of neonatal mortality. A significant cause of preterm birth is in utero infection with vaginal microorganisms. These vaginal microorganisms are often recovered from the amniotic fluid of preterm birth cases. A vaginal microorganism frequently associated with preterm birth is group B streptococcus (GBS), or Streptococcus agalactiae. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying GBS ascension are poorly understood. Here, we describe the role of the GBS hyaluronidase in ascending infection and preterm birth. We show that clinical GBS strains associated with preterm labor or neonatal infections have increased hyaluronidase activity compared to commensal strains obtained from rectovaginal swabs of healthy women. Using a murine model of ascending infection, we show that hyaluronidase activity was associated with increased ascending GBS infection, preterm birth, and fetal demise. Interestingly, hyaluronidase activity reduced uterine inflammation but did not impact placental or fetal inflammation. Our study shows that hyaluronidase activity enables GBS to subvert uterine immune responses, leading to increased rates of ascending infection and preterm birth. These findings have important implications for the development of therapies to prevent in utero infection and preterm birth. PMID:27353757

  15. Bacterial Hyaluronidase Promotes Ascending GBS Infection and Preterm Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Vornhagen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Preterm birth increases the risk of adverse birth outcomes and is the leading cause of neonatal mortality. A significant cause of preterm birth is in utero infection with vaginal microorganisms. These vaginal microorganisms are often recovered from the amniotic fluid of preterm birth cases. A vaginal microorganism frequently associated with preterm birth is group B streptococcus (GBS, or Streptococcus agalactiae. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying GBS ascension are poorly understood. Here, we describe the role of the GBS hyaluronidase in ascending infection and preterm birth. We show that clinical GBS strains associated with preterm labor or neonatal infections have increased hyaluronidase activity compared to commensal strains obtained from rectovaginal swabs of healthy women. Using a murine model of ascending infection, we show that hyaluronidase activity was associated with increased ascending GBS infection, preterm birth, and fetal demise. Interestingly, hyaluronidase activity reduced uterine inflammation but did not impact placental or fetal inflammation. Our study shows that hyaluronidase activity enables GBS to subvert uterine immune responses, leading to increased rates of ascending infection and preterm birth. These findings have important implications for the development of therapies to prevent in utero infection and preterm birth.

  16. Functional analysis of the glycogen binding subunit CG9238/Gbs-70E of protein phosphatase 1 in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerekes, Éva; Kókai, Endre; Páldy, Ferenc Sándor; Dombrádi, Viktor

    2014-06-01

    The product of the CG9238 gene that we termed glycogen binding subunit 70E (Gbs-70E) was characterized by biochemical and molecular genetics methods. The interaction between Gbs-70E and all catalytic subunits of protein phosphatase 1 (Pp1-87B, Pp1-9C, Pp1-96A and Pp1-13C) of Drosophila melanogaster was confirmed by pairwise yeast two-hybrid tests, co-immunoprecipitation and pull down experiments. The binding of Gbs-70E to glycogen was demonstrated by sedimentation analysis. With RT-PCR we found that the mRNAs coding for the longer Gbs-70E PB/PC protein were expressed in all developmental stages of the fruit flies while the mRNA for the shorter Gbs-70E PA was restricted to the eggs and the ovaries of the adult females. The development specific expression of the shorter splice variant was not conserved in different Drosophila species. The expression level of the gene was manipulated by P-element insertions and gene deletion to analyze the functions of the gene product. A small or moderate reduction in the gene expression resulted in no significant changes, however, a deletion mutant expressing very low level of the transcript lived shorter and exhibited reduced glycogen content in the imagos. In addition, the gene deletion decreased the fertility of the fruit flies. Our results prove that Gbs-70E functions as the glycogen binding subunit of protein phosphatase 1 that regulates glycogen content and plays a role in the development of eggs in D. melanogaster. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Coherent 40 Gb/s SP-16QAM and 80 Gb/s PDM-16QAM in an Optimal Supercomputer Optical Switch Fabric

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karinou, Fotini; Borkowski, Robert; Zibar, Darko

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate, for the first time, the feasibility of using 40 Gb/s SP-16QAM and 80 Gb/s PDM-16QAM in an optimized cell switching supercomputer optical interconnect architecture based on semiconductor optical amplifiers as ON/OFF gates.......We demonstrate, for the first time, the feasibility of using 40 Gb/s SP-16QAM and 80 Gb/s PDM-16QAM in an optimized cell switching supercomputer optical interconnect architecture based on semiconductor optical amplifiers as ON/OFF gates....

  18. The GBS PI-2a pilus is required for virulence in mice neonates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Papasergi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus is a leading cause of sepsis and meningitis in newborns. Most bacterial pathogens, including gram-positive bacteria, have long filamentous structures known as pili extending from their surface. Although pili are described as adhesive organelles, they have been also implicated in many other functions including thwarting the host immune responses. We previously characterized the pilus-encoding operon PI-2a (gbs1479-1474 in strain NEM316. This pilus is composed of three structural subunit proteins: PilA (Gbs1478, PilB (Gbs1477, and PilC (Gbs1474, and its assembly involves two class C sortases (SrtC3 and SrtC4. PilB, the bona fide pilin, is the major component whereas PilA, the pilus associated adhesin, and PilC the pilus anchor are both accessory proteins incorporated into the pilus backbone.In this study, the role of the major pilin subunit PilB was tested in systemic virulence using 6-weeks old and newborn mice. Notably, the non-piliated ΔpilB mutant was less virulent than its wild-type counterpart in the newborn mice model. Next, we investigated the possible role(s of PilB in resistance to innate immune host defenses, i.e. resistance to macrophage killing and to antimicrobial peptides. Phagocytosis and survival of wild-type NEM316 and its isogenic ΔpilB mutant in immortalized RAW 264.7 murine macrophages were not significantly different whereas the isogenic ΔsodA mutant was more susceptible to killing. These results were confirmed using primary peritoneal macrophages. We also tested the activities of five cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMP-1D, LL-37, colistin, polymyxin B, and mCRAMP and found no significant difference between WT and ΔpilB strains whereas the isogenic dltA mutant showed increased sensitivity.These results question the previously described role of PilB pilus in resistance to the host immune defenses. Interestingly, PilB was found to be important for virulence in the neonatal

  19. A new orthogonal labeling scheme based on a 40-Gb/s DPSK payload and a 2.5-Gb/s PolSK label

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Lin; Chi, Nan; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo

    2005-01-01

    In this letter, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a new orthogonal labeling scheme based on a 40-Gb/s differential phase-shift keying payload and a 2.5-Gb/s polarization-shift keying label, which entirely eliminates the modulation crosstalk between the payload and label and shows negligible...

  20. Carrier phase estimation for coherent equalization of 43-Gb/s POLMUX-NRZ-DQPSK transmission with 10.7-Gb/s NRZ neighbours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borne, van den D.; Fludger, C.R.S.; Duthel, T.; Wuth, T.; Schmidt, E.D.; Schulien, C.; Gottwald, E.; Khoe, G.D.; Waardt, de H.

    2007-01-01

    We show the influence of 10.7-Gb/s NRZ neighbors on 43-Gb/s polarization-multiplexed NRZ-DQPSK transmission combined with digital coherent equalization. The impact of XPM induced phase noise is reduced with an optimized carrier phase estimation (CPE) algorithm.

  1. Gender Invariance of the Gambling Behavior Scale for Adolescents (GBS-A): An Analysis of Differential Item Functioning Using Item Response Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, Maria Anna; Chiesi, Francesca; Izzo, Viola A; Primi, Caterina

    2017-01-01

    As there is a lack of evidence attesting the equivalent item functioning across genders for the most employed instruments used to measure pathological gambling in adolescence, the present study was aimed to test the gender invariance of the Gambling Behavior Scale for Adolescents (GBS-A), a new measurement tool to assess the severity of Gambling Disorder (GD) in adolescents. The equivalence of the items across genders was assessed by analyzing Differential Item Functioning within an Item Response Theory framework. The GBS-A was administered to 1,723 adolescents, and the graded response model was employed. The results attested the measurement equivalence of the GBS-A when administered to male and female adolescent gamblers. Overall, findings provided evidence that the GBS-A is an effective measurement tool of the severity of GD in male and female adolescents and that the scale was unbiased and able to relieve truly gender differences. As such, the GBS-A can be profitably used in educational interventions and clinical treatments with young people.

  2. A demonstrator for a level-1 trigger system based on MicroTCA technology and 5Gb/s optical links

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foudas, C; Hall, G; Iles, G; Marrouche, J; Rose, A [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom); Frazier, R; Newbold, D [H.H. Wills Physics Laboratory, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Jones, J [Weathertop, Claverton Down Road, Bath BA2 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2010-11-15

    A demonstrator for the CMS Level-1 calorimeter trigger system has been designed, manufactured, tested and a time-multiplexed trigger implemented. The prototype card uses the AMC double width form factor, 5Gb/s links and a Xilinx XC5VTX150T or XC5VTX240T FPGA. A possible implementation of such a trigger architecture in CMS is described.

  3. The GBS code for tokamak scrape-off layer simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halpern, F.D.; Ricci, P.; Jolliet, S.; Loizu, J.; Morales, J.; Mosetto, A.; Musil, F.; Riva, F.; Tran, T.M.; Wersal, C.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new version of GBS, a 3D global, flux-driven plasma turbulence code to simulate the turbulent dynamics in the tokamak scrape-off layer (SOL), superseding the code presented by Ricci et al. (2012) [14]. The present work is driven by the objective of studying SOL turbulent dynamics in medium size tokamaks and beyond with a high-fidelity physics model. We emphasize an intertwining framework of improved physics models and the computational improvements that allow them. The model extensions include neutral atom physics, finite ion temperature, the addition of a closed field line region, and a non-Boussinesq treatment of the polarization drift. GBS has been completely refactored with the introduction of a 3-D Cartesian communicator and a scalable parallel multigrid solver. We report dramatically enhanced parallel scalability, with the possibility of treating electromagnetic fluctuations very efficiently. The method of manufactured solutions as a verification process has been carried out for this new code version, demonstrating the correct implementation of the physical model.

  4. Heterodyne detection of CPFSK signals with and without wavelength conversion up to 5 Gb/s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rune Johan Skullerud; Ebskamp, F.; Mikkelsen, Benny

    1993-01-01

    Detection of wavelength converted signals by a coherent continuous-phase frequency-shift-keying receiver is reported. The signals are wavelength converted over 35 nm, and record receiver sensitivities of -38.7 dBm at 4.0Gb/s and -35.6 dBm at 4.8Gb/s are obtained. Comparison between results...

  5. STIMULUS: End-System Network Interface Controller for 100 Gb/s Wide Area Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarkesh-Ha, Payman [University of New Mexico

    2014-09-12

    The main goal of this research grant is to develop a system-level solution leveraging novel technologies that enable network communications at 100 Gb/s or beyond. University of New Mexico in collaboration with Acadia Optronics LLC has been working on this project to develop the 100 Gb/s Network Interface Controller (NIC) under this Department of Energy (DOE) grant.

  6. First Experimental Demonstration of Coherent CAP for 300-Gb/s Metropolitan Optical Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estaran Tolosa, Jose Manuel; Iglesias Olmedo, Miguel; Zibar, Darko

    2014-01-01

    We report on high - capacity coherent links employing dual polarization 2D - CAP modulation, allowing for signal design in 8 - dimensional space. Successful demodulation of 221 Gb/s (7.5 b/s/Hz) and 336 Gb/s (7.8 b/s/Hz) after 225 km and 451 km of standard single - mode fiber (SSMF) is achieved....

  7. 0.4 THz Photonic-Wireless Link With 106 Gb/s Single Channel Bitrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jia, Shi; Pang, Xiaodan; Ozolins, Oskars

    2018-01-01

    To accommodate the demand of exponentially increased global wireless data traffic, the prospective data rates for wireless communication in the market place will soon reach 100 Gb/s and beyond. In the lab environment, wireless transmission throughput has been elevated to the level of over 100 Gb....../s attributed to the development of photonic-assisted millimeter wave and terahertz (THz) technologies. However, most of recent demonstrations with over 100 Gb/s data rates are based on spatial or frequency division multiplexing techniques, resulting in increased system's complexity and energy consumption. Here......, we experimentally demonstrate a single channel 0.4 THz photonic-wireless link achieving a net data rate of beyond 100 Gb/s by using a single pair of THz emitter and receiver, without employing any spatial/frequency division multiplexing techniques. The high throughput up to 106 Gb/s within a single...

  8. Epidemiology of Toxoplasma and CMV serology and of GBS colonization in pregnancy and neonatal outcome in a Sicilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puccio, Giuseppe; Cajozzo, Cinzia; Canduscio, Laura Antonella; Cino, Lucia; Romano, Amelia; Schimmenti, Maria Gabriella; Giuffrè, Mario; Corsello, Giovanni

    2014-02-22

    Aim of our study is to analyze the immunological status in pregnancy for two main TORCH agents, Toxoplasma and Cytomegalovirus (CMV), and the results of group B streptococcus (GBS) screening, assessing the risk for congenital infection in a population from Palermo, Italy. We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of all inborn live newborns who were born in our division during 2012, gathering information about the mother, the pregnancy and neonatal hospitalization at birth. Whenever data were available, we categorized the serologic status of the mothers for Toxoplasma and CMV. We also considered the results of rectal and vaginal swabs for GBS. We compared the results in Italian and immigrant mothers. The neonatal outcome was evaluated in all cases at risk. Prevalence of anti-Toxo IgG antibodies was 17.97%, and was significantly higher in immigrant women (30% vs 16.4% in Italian women; p = 0.0008). Prevalence of anti-CMV IgG antibodies was 65.87%. Again, it was significantly higher in immigrant women (91.4% vs 62.5%, p = 3.31e-08). We compared those data with a previous study performed in our hospital in 2005-2006, and found that the prevalence of anti-Toxoplasma and anti-CMV antibodies in our population has remained stable, both in the immigrant and in the local population. Seroconversion rates and neonatal infections were rare: no seroconversions were observed for Toxoplasma, 4 seroconversions for CMV. One neonatal Toxoplasma infection and two neonatal CMV infections were documented. In some cases with dubious patterns or probable persistence of IgM, we performed additional tests and follow-up. Vaginal and rectal swabs were positive for GBS in 7.98% of cases, with no significant difference between the Italian and the immigrant population. No GBS neonatal sepsis was documented. The prevalence of Toxoplasma IgG antibodies in pregnant women was low in our population, if compared with European countries and with other parts of Italy, and is significantly

  9. Demonstration of the First Real-Time End-to-End 40-Gb/s PAM-4 for Next-Generation Access Applications using 10-Gb/s Transmitter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, J. L.; Eiselt, Nicklas; Griesser, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the first known experiment of a real-time end-to-end 40-Gb/s PAM-4 system for next-generation access applications using 10-Gb/s class transmitters only. Based on the measurement of a real-time 40-Gb/s PAM system, low-cost upstream and downstream link power budgets are estimated. Up...

  10. Prenatal Group B Streptococcus Test Using Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Feng Wei

    2009-06-01

    Conclusion: It is necessary to perform a GBS test 4 weeks after an initial negative GBS culture at 35–37 weeks of gestation. RT-PCR provides a simple and rapid alternative method for detecting rectovaginal GBS colonization at the time of labor.

  11. Low-cost and miniaturized 100-Gb/s (2 × 50 Gb/s) PAM-4 TO-packaged ROSA for data center networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sae-Kyoung; Huh, Joon Young; Lee, Jie Hyun; Lee, Joon Ki

    2018-03-05

    We design and implement a cost-effective and compact 100-Gb/s (2 × 50 Gb/s) PAM-4 receiver optical sub-assembly (ROSA) by using a TO-can package instead of an expensive box-type package. It consists of an optical demultiplexer, two PIN-PDs and a 2-channel linear transimpedance amplifier. The components are passively aligned and assembled using alignment marks engraved on each part. With a real-time PAM-4 DSP chip, we measured the back-to-back receiver sensitivities of the 100-Gb/s ROSA based on TO-56 to be less than -13.2 dBm for both channels at a bit error rate of 2.4e-4. The crosstalk penalty due to the adjacent channel interference was observed around 0.1 dB.

  12. 10 Gb/s bidirectional single fibre long reach PON link with distributed Raman amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso; Kjær, Rasmus; Jeppesen, Palle

    2006-01-01

    We report operation of a single fibre bidirectional 80 km long reach PON link with symmetric up- and-downstream data rate of 10 Gb/s supported by distributed Raman fibre amplification only.......We report operation of a single fibre bidirectional 80 km long reach PON link with symmetric up- and-downstream data rate of 10 Gb/s supported by distributed Raman fibre amplification only....

  13. Phase Modulation for postcompensation of dispersion in 160-Gb/s systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siahlo, Andrei; Clausen, A. T.; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo

    2005-01-01

    Tunable postcompensation of second-order dispersion by sinusoidal phase modulation is realized for a 160-Gb/s optical transmission system. Accumulated dispersions with magnitudes up to 4 ps/nm are compensated in the receiver end.......Tunable postcompensation of second-order dispersion by sinusoidal phase modulation is realized for a 160-Gb/s optical transmission system. Accumulated dispersions with magnitudes up to 4 ps/nm are compensated in the receiver end....

  14. 160 Gb/s Raman-assisted notch-filtered XPM wavelength conversion and transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galili, Michael; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen

    2007-01-01

    In-line wavelength conversion of 160 Gb/s data by Raman-assisted notch-filtered XPM is demonstrated for 130 km total transmission. The improvement in system performance from applying Raman gain during conversion is shown.......In-line wavelength conversion of 160 Gb/s data by Raman-assisted notch-filtered XPM is demonstrated for 130 km total transmission. The improvement in system performance from applying Raman gain during conversion is shown....

  15. BRAINSTEM AUDITORY EVOKED POTENTIAL AS AN INDEX OF CNS DEMYELINATION IN GUILLAIN -BARRÉ SYNDROME (GBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS is an acute, frequently severe and fulminant polyradicular neuropathy that is autoimmune in nature. GBS manifest as rapidly evolving areflexic motor paralysis with or without sensory disturbances. It mainly involves peripheral nervous system and autonomic nervous system. There are rare evidences about the involvement of central nervous system (CNS in GBS. Aims: The main objective of the study was to assess the CNS involvement in GBS using the Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potential (BAEP. Methods & Material: The study was conducted in the clinical neurophysiology lab in the department of physiology, CSMMU Lucknow. Study group involved 26 subjects (n=26 having GBS and control group involved 30 normal subjects (n=30. BAEPS were recorded by Neuroperfect- EMG 2000 EMG/NCV/EPsytem. The data so obtained were subjected to analysis using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Version 13.0. Results & Conclusions: There was significant increase in PIII & PV peak latencies and PI-PIII & PI-PV interpeak latencies in both left and right ear in the study group, which showed the CNS involvement in GBS which can be assessed using BAEP.

  16. 10 Gb/s OEIC optical receiver front-end and 3.125 Gb/s PHEMT limiting amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Chao; Jiao Shilong; Wu Yunfeng; Ye Yutang; Chen Tangsheng; Yang Lijie; Feng Ou

    2009-01-01

    A 10 Gb/s OEIC (optoelectronic integrated circuit) optical receiver front-end has been studied and fabricated based on the Φ-76 mm GaAs PHEMT process; this is the first time that a limiting amplifier (LA) has been designed and realized using depletion mode PHEMT. An OEIC optical receiver front-end mode composed of an MSM photodiode and a current mode transimpedance amplifier (TIA) has been established and optimized by simulation software ATLAS. The photodiode has a bandwidth of 10 GHz, a capacitance of 3 fF/μm and a photosensitive area of 50 x 50 μm 2 . The whole chip has an area of 1511 x 666 μm 2 . The LA bandwidth is expanded by spiral inductance which has been simulated by software HFSS. The chip area is 1950 x 1910 μm 2 and the measured results demonstrate an input dynamic range of 34 dB (10-500 mVpp) with constant output swing of 500 mVpp.

  17. 10 Gb/s OEIC optical receiver front-end and 3.125 Gb/s PHEMT limiting amplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan Chao; Jiao Shilong; Wu Yunfeng; Ye Yutang [School of Opto-Electronic Information, UESTC, Chengdu 610054 (China); Chen Tangsheng; Yang Lijie; Feng Ou, E-mail: fanchao41@126.co [Nanjing Electronic Devices Institute, Nanjing 210016 (China)

    2009-10-15

    A 10 Gb/s OEIC (optoelectronic integrated circuit) optical receiver front-end has been studied and fabricated based on the {Phi}-76 mm GaAs PHEMT process; this is the first time that a limiting amplifier (LA) has been designed and realized using depletion mode PHEMT. An OEIC optical receiver front-end mode composed of an MSM photodiode and a current mode transimpedance amplifier (TIA) has been established and optimized by simulation software ATLAS. The photodiode has a bandwidth of 10 GHz, a capacitance of 3 fF/{mu}m and a photosensitive area of 50 x 50 {mu}m{sup 2}. The whole chip has an area of 1511 x 666 {mu}m{sup 2}. The LA bandwidth is expanded by spiral inductance which has been simulated by software HFSS. The chip area is 1950 x 1910 {mu}m{sup 2} and the measured results demonstrate an input dynamic range of 34 dB (10-500 mVpp) with constant output swing of 500 mVpp.

  18. 12.5 Gb/s multi-channel broadcasting transmission for free-space optical communication based on the optical frequency comb module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jun; Zhao, Zeping; Wang, Yuehui; Zhang, Zhike; Liu, Jianguo; Zhu, Ninghua

    2018-01-22

    A wide-spectrum, ultra-stable optical frequency comb (OFC) module with 100 GHz frequency intervals based on a quantum dot mode locked (QDML) laser is fabricated by our lab, and a scheme with 12.5 Gb/s multi-channel broadcasting transmission for free-space optical (FSO) communication is proposed based on the OFC module. The output power of the OFC is very stable, with the specially designed circuit and the flatness of the frequency comb over the span of 6 nm, which can be limited to 1.5 dB. Four channel wavelengths are chosen to demonstrate one-to-many channels for FSO communication, like optical wireless broadcast. The outdoor experiment is established to test the bit error rate (BER) and eye diagrams with 12.5 Gb/s on-off keying (OOK). The indoor experiment is used to test the highest traffic rate, which is up to 21 Gb/s for one-hop FSO communication. To the best of our knowledge, this scheme is the first to propose the realization of one-to-many broadcasting transmission for FSO communication based on the OFC module. The advantages of integration, miniaturization, channelization, low power consumption, and unlimited bandwidth of one-to-many broadcasting communication scheme, shows promising results on constructing the future space-air-ground-ocean (SAGO) FSO communication networks.

  19. 1-Gb/s zero-pole cancellation CMOS transimpedance amplifier for Gigabit Ethernet applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Beiju; Zhang Xu; Chen Hongda

    2009-01-01

    A zero-pole cancellation transimpedance amplifier (TIA) has been realized in 0.35 μm RF CMOS technology for Gigabit Ethernet applications. The TIA exploits a zero-pole cancellation configuration to isolate the input parasitic capacitance including photodiode capacitance from bandwidth deterioration. Simulation results show that the proposed TIA has a bandwidth of 1.9 GHz and a transimpedance gain of 65 dB·Ω for 1.5 pF photodiode capacitance, with a gain-bandwidth product of 3.4 THz·Ω. Even with 2 pF photodiode capacitance, the bandwidth exhibits a decline of only 300 MHz, confirming the mechanism of the zero-pole cancellation configuration. The input resistance is 50 Ω, and the average input noise current spectral density is 9.7 pA/√Hz. Testing results shows that the eye diagram at 1 Gb/s is wide open. The chip dissipates 17 mW under a single 3.3 V supply.

  20. 1-Gb/s zero-pole cancellation CMOS transimpedance amplifier for Gigabit Ethernet applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Beiju; Zhang Xu; Chen Hongda, E-mail: bjhuang@semi.ac.c [State Key Laboratory of Integrated Optoelectronics, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2009-10-15

    A zero-pole cancellation transimpedance amplifier (TIA) has been realized in 0.35 {mu}m RF CMOS technology for Gigabit Ethernet applications. The TIA exploits a zero-pole cancellation configuration to isolate the input parasitic capacitance including photodiode capacitance from bandwidth deterioration. Simulation results show that the proposed TIA has a bandwidth of 1.9 GHz and a transimpedance gain of 65 dB{center_dot}{Omega} for 1.5 pF photodiode capacitance, with a gain-bandwidth product of 3.4 THz{center_dot}{Omega}. Even with 2 pF photodiode capacitance, the bandwidth exhibits a decline of only 300 MHz, confirming the mechanism of the zero-pole cancellation configuration. The input resistance is 50 {Omega}, and the average input noise current spectral density is 9.7 pA/{radical}Hz. Testing results shows that the eye diagram at 1 Gb/s is wide open. The chip dissipates 17 mW under a single 3.3 V supply.

  1. Genotyping by sequencing (GBS, an ultimate marker-assisted selection (MAS tool to accelerate plant breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangfeng eHe

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Marker-assisted selection (MAS refers to the use of molecular markers to assist phenotypic selections in crop improvement. Several types of molecular markers, such as single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, have been identified and effectively used in plant breeding. The application of next-generation sequencing (NGS technologies has led to remarkable advances in whole genome sequencing, which provides ultra-throughput sequences to revolutionize plant genotyping and breeding. To further broaden NGS usages to large crop genomes such as maize and wheat, genotyping by sequencing (GBS has been developed and applied in sequencing multiplexed samples that combine molecular marker discovery and genotyping. GBS is a novel application of NGS protocols for discovering and genotyping SNPs in crop genomes and populations. The GBS approach includes the digestion of genomic DNA with restriction enzymes followed by the ligation of barcode adapter, PCR amplification and sequencing of the amplified DNA pool on a single lane of flow cells. Bioinformatic pipelines are needed to analyze and interpret GBS datasets. As an ultimate MAS tool and a cost-effective technique, GBS has been successfully used in implementing genome-wide association study (GWAS, genomic diversity study, genetic linkage analysis, molecular marker discovery and genomic selection (GS under a large scale of plant breeding programs.

  2. 10 Gb/s operation of photonic crystal silicon optical modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hong C; Sakai, Yuya; Shinkawa, Mizuki; Ishikura, Norihiro; Baba, Toshihiko

    2011-07-04

    We report the first experimental demonstration of 10 Gb/s modulation in a photonic crystal silicon optical modulator. The device consists of a 200 μm-long SiO2-clad photonic crystal waveguide, with an embedded p-n junction, incorporated into an asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The device is integrated on a SOI chip and fabricated by CMOS-compatible processes. With the bias voltage set at 0 V, we measure a V(π)L pseudo-random bit sequence signal. An open eye pattern is observed at bitrates of 10 Gb/s and 2 Gb/s, with and without pre-emphasis of the drive signal, respectively.

  3. A less invasive approach to screening for early onset neonatal GBS.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Glackin, S

    2015-03-01

    Recent recommendations for the management of an asymptomatic term infant with one septic risk factor for Group B Streptococcal (GBS) invasive disease have advised a clinical approach. Following a previous audit in our unit which showed that high numbers of asymptomatic infants were receiving antibiotics, a new protocol was introduced which emphasised the importance of clinical examination. This study assessed the safety and efficacy of this new protocol through chart review of 1855 eligible infants. We found a statistically significant decrease (P < 0.0001) from 444 (19%) to 121 (6.5%) in the total number of term infants who underwent septic evaluations and received antibiotics. 241 asymptomatic infants with one septic risk factor were managed conservatively. No eligible infants had GBS invasive disease during the three month study period. The new protocol is a safe and effective tool for evaluating infants at risk of GBS invasive disease.

  4. 40 Gb/s Pulse Generation Using Gain Switching of a Commercially Available Laser Module

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørregaard, Jesper; Hanberg, Jesper; Franck, Thorkild

    1999-01-01

    The laser module contains a single-mode, distributed feedback (DFB) laser diode. The epi-structure of the laser diode is grown by MOCVD as a multiple quantum well heterostructure. The DFB grating is defined by holography, and the laser diode is designed with a co-planar contact metallization...... time division multiplexing to generate a 40 Gb/s RZ pattern.The presentation will report on further details on the laser module including chirp characteristics, and show the eye diagrams taken at 10 and 40 Gb/s....

  5. 320-to-40-Gb/s optical demultiplexing using four-wave mixing in a quantum-dot soa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matsuura, M.; Gomez-Agis, F.; Calabretta, N.; Raz, O.; Dorren, H.J.S.

    2012-01-01

    We report, for the first time, the optical demultiplexing of a 320-Gb/s intensity-modulated signal using four-wave mixing in a quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifier. Error-free operations were successfully achieved for all the 40-Gb/s channels extracted by the optical demultiplexer.

  6. Experimental demonstration of 30 Gb/s direct-detection optical OFDM transmission with blind symbol synchronisation using virtual subcarriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouziane, R; Milder, P A; Erkılınç, S; Galdino, L; Kilmurray, S; Thomsen, B C; Bayvel, P; Killey, R I

    2014-02-24

    The paper investigates the performance of a blind symbol synchronisation technique for optical OFDM systems based on virtual subcarriers. The test-bed includes a real-time 16-QAM OFDM transmitter operating at a net data rate of 30.65 Gb/s using a single OFDM band with a single FPGA-DAC subsystem and demonstrates transmission over 23.3 km SSMF with direct detection at a BER of 10(-3). By comparing the performance of the proposed synchronisation scheme with that of the Schmidl and Cox algorithm, it was found that the two approaches achieve similar performance for large numbers of averaging symbols, but the performance of the proposed scheme degrades as the number of averaging symbols is reduced. The proposed technique has lower complexity and bandwidth overhead as it does not rely on training sequences. Consequently, it is suitable for implementation in high speed optical OFDM transceivers.

  7. Random Tagging Genotyping by Sequencing (rtGBS, an Unbiased Approach to Locate Restriction Enzyme Sites across the Target Genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Hilario

    Full Text Available Genotyping by sequencing (GBS is a restriction enzyme based targeted approach developed to reduce the genome complexity and discover genetic markers when a priori sequence information is unavailable. Sufficient coverage at each locus is essential to distinguish heterozygous from homozygous sites accurately. The number of GBS samples able to be pooled in one sequencing lane is limited by the number of restriction sites present in the genome and the read depth required at each site per sample for accurate calling of single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Loci bias was observed using a slight modification of the Elshire et al.some restriction enzyme sites were represented in higher proportions while others were poorly represented or absent. This bias could be due to the quality of genomic DNA, the endonuclease and ligase reaction efficiency, the distance between restriction sites, the preferential amplification of small library restriction fragments, or bias towards cluster formation of small amplicons during the sequencing process. To overcome these issues, we have developed a GBS method based on randomly tagging genomic DNA (rtGBS. By randomly landing on the genome, we can, with less bias, find restriction sites that are far apart, and undetected by the standard GBS (stdGBS method. The study comprises two types of biological replicates: six different kiwifruit plants and two independent DNA extractions per plant; and three types of technical replicates: four samples of each DNA extraction, stdGBS vs. rtGBS methods, and two independent library amplifications, each sequenced in separate lanes. A statistically significant unbiased distribution of restriction fragment size by rtGBS showed that this method targeted 49% (39,145 of BamH I sites shared with the reference genome, compared to only 14% (11,513 by stdGBS.

  8. Field Trial of 40 Gb/s Optical Transport Network using Open WDM Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Petersen, Martin Nordal

    2013-01-01

    An experimental field-trail deployment of a 40Gb/s open WDM interface in an operational network is presented, in cross-carrier interconnection scenario. Practical challenges of integration and performance measures for both native and alien channels are outlined....

  9. High-performance semiconductor optical preamplifier receiver at 10 Gb/s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Benny; Jørgensen, Carsten Gudmann; Jensen, N.

    1993-01-01

    A semiconductor optical preamplifier receiver for bitrates of 10 Gb/s is described. The measured sensitivity is -28 dBm, with a polarization sensitivity of less than 0.5 dB. Using the same transmitter and receiver configuration but with a 980-nm pumped fiber amplifier instead of the semiconductor...... amplifier, the sensitivity is -34 dBm...

  10. Error-free 320 Gb/s simultaneous add-drop multiplexing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Clausen, Anders

    2007-01-01

    We report on the first demonstration of error-free time-division add-drop multiplexing at 320 Gb/s. The add- and drop-operations are performed simultaneously in a non-linear optical loop mirror with only 100 m of highly non-linear fibre....

  11. 8x40 Gb/s RZ all-optical broadcasting utilizing an electroabsorption modulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Lin; Chi, Nan; Yvind, Kresten

    2004-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate all-optical broadcasting through simultaneous 8 × 40 Gb/s wavelength conversion in the RZ format based on cross absorption modulation in an electroabsorption modulator. The original intensity-modulated information is successfully duplicated onto eight wavelengths...

  12. Field trial of 160 Gb/s all-optical packet switching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.; Herrera Llorente, J.; Raz, O.; Tangdiongga, E.; Marti, J.; Ramos, F.; Maxwell, G.D.; Poustie, A.; Mulvad, H.C.H.; Hill, M.T.; Waardt, de H.; Khoe, G.D.; Koonen, A.M.J.; Dorren, H.J.S.; Nakano, Y.

    2007-01-01

    We present the results of a transmission experiment, over 110 km of field installed fiber, for an all-optical 160 Gb/s packet switching system. The system uses in-band optical labels which are processed entirely in the optical domain using a narrow-band all-optical filter. The label decision

  13. 40-Gb/s all-optical processing systems using hybrid photonic integration technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kehayas, E.; Tsiokos, D.; Bakapoulos, P.; Apostolopoulos, D.; Petrantonakis, D.; Stampoulidis, L.; Poustie, A.; McDougall, R.; Maxwell, G.D.; Liu, Y.; Zhang, S.; Dorren, H.J.S.; Seoane, J.; Van Holm-Nielsen, P.; Jeppesen, P.; Avramopoulos, H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental performance characterization of all-optical subsystems at 40 Gb/s using interconnected hybrid integrated all-optical semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) gates and flip-flop prototypes. It was shown that optical gates can be

  14. 10 Gb/s Real-Time All-VCSEL Low Complexity Coherent scheme for PONs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodes Lopez, Roberto; Cheng, Ning; Jensen, Jesper Bevensee

    2012-01-01

    Real time demodulation of a 10 Gb/s all-VCSEL based coherent PON link with a simplified coherent receiver scheme is demonstrated. Receiver sensitivity of −33 dBm is achieved providing high splitting ratio and link reach....

  15. 320 Gb/s Nyquist OTDM received by polarization-insensitive time-domain OFT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Hao; Kong, Deming; Palushani, Evarist

    2014-01-01

    We have demonstrated the generation of a 320 Gb/s Nyquist-OTDM signal by rectangular filtering on an RZ-OTDM signal with the filter bandwidth (320 GHz) equal to the baud rate (320 Gbaud) and the reception of such a Nyquist-OTDM signal using polarization-insensitive time-domain optical Fourier tra...

  16. Evaluating imputation algorithms for low-depth genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Well-powered genomic studies require genome-wide marker coverage across many individuals. For non-model species with few genomic resources, high-throughput sequencing (HTS) methods, such as Genotyping-By-Sequencing (GBS), offer an inexpensive alternative to array-based genotyping. Although affordabl...

  17. Classification and characterization of species within the genus lens using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa M L Wong

    Full Text Available Lentil (Lens culinaris ssp. culinaris is a nutritious and affordable pulse with an ancient crop domestication history. The genus Lens consists of seven taxa, however, there are many discrepancies in the taxon and gene pool classification of lentil and its wild relatives. Due to the narrow genetic basis of cultivated lentil, there is a need towards better understanding of the relationships amongst wild germplasm to assist introgression of favourable genes into lentil breeding programs. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS is an easy and affordable method that allows multiplexing of up to 384 samples or more per library to generate genome-wide single nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP markers. In this study, we aimed to characterize our lentil germplasm collection using a two-enzyme GBS approach. We constructed two 96-plex GBS libraries with a total of 60 accessions where some accessions had several samples and each sample was sequenced in two technical replicates. We developed an automated GBS pipeline and detected a total of 266,356 genome-wide SNPs. After filtering low quality and redundant SNPs based on haplotype information, we constructed a maximum-likelihood tree using 5,389 SNPs. The phylogenetic tree grouped the germplasm collection into their respective taxa with strong support. Based on phylogenetic tree and STRUCTURE analysis, we identified four gene pools, namely L. culinaris/L. orientalis/L. tomentosus, L. lamottei/L. odemensis, L. ervoides and L. nigricans which form primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary gene pools, respectively. We discovered sequencing bias problems likely due to DNA quality and observed severe run-to-run variation in the wild lentils. We examined the authenticity of the germplasm collection and identified 17% misclassified samples. Our study demonstrated that GBS is a promising and affordable tool for screening by plant breeders interested in crop wild relatives.

  18. Design and OAM&P aspects of a DWDM system equipped with a 40Gb/s PM-QPSK alien wavelength and adjacent 10Gb/s channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nuijts, Roeland; Bjørn, Lars Lange; Petersen, Martin Nordal

    2011-01-01

    We present theoretical and experimental investigations of the interaction, in terms of BER performance, between a 40Gb/s PM-QPSK alien wavelength and adjacent (50GHz spacing) 10Gb/s NRZ-OOK channels. Experiments were conducted on the Hamburg-Copenhagen section of the Amsterdam-Copenhagen CBF (Cross...... Border Fiber) connection between SURFnet and NORDUnet. Furthermore, we investigated the OAM&P (Operation, Administration, Maintenance and Provisioning) of an alien wavelength in CBF transmission systems....

  19. Fabrication of 32Gb/s Electroabsorption Modulated Distributed Feedback Lasers by Selective Area Growth Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Dai-Bing; Wang Hui-Tao; Zhang Rui-Kang; Wang Bao-Jun; Bian Jing; An Xin; Lu Dan; Zhao Ling-Juan; Zhu Hong-Liang; Ji Chen; Wang Wei

    2015-01-01

    A 32 Gb/s monolithically integrated electroabsorption modulated laser is fabricated by selective area growth technology. The threshold current of the device is below 13 mA. The output power exceeds 10 mW at 0 V bias when the injection current of the distributed feedback laser is 100 mA at 25°C. The side mode suppression ratio is over 50 dB. A 32Gb/s eye diagram is measured with a 3.5V pp nonreturn-to-zero pseudorandom modulation signal at −2.3 V bias. A clearly opening eyediagram with a dynamic extinction ratio of 8.01 dB is obtained. (paper)

  20. Demonstration of an 8 × 25-Gb/s optical time-division multiplexing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Huo, Li; Li, Yunbo; Wang, Lei; Li, Han; Jiang, Xiangyu; Chen, Xin; Lou, Caiyun

    2017-11-01

    An 8 × 25-Gb/s optical time-division multiplexing (OTDM) system is demonstrated experimentally. The optical pulse source is based on optical frequency comb (OFC) generation and pulse shaping, which can generate nearly chirp-free 25-GHz 1.6-ps optical Gaussian pulse. The eightfold optical time-division demultiplexer consists of a single-driven dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator (DPMZM) and a Mamyshev reshaper. Error-free demultiplexing of 8 × 25-Gb/s back-to-back (B2B) signal with a power penalty of 4.1 dB to 4.4 dB at a bit error rate (BER) of 10-9 is achieved to confirm the performance of the proposed system.

  1. A robust, simple genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS approach for high diversity species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Elshire

    Full Text Available Advances in next generation technologies have driven the costs of DNA sequencing down to the point that genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS is now feasible for high diversity, large genome species. Here, we report a procedure for constructing GBS libraries based on reducing genome complexity with restriction enzymes (REs. This approach is simple, quick, extremely specific, highly reproducible, and may reach important regions of the genome that are inaccessible to sequence capture approaches. By using methylation-sensitive REs, repetitive regions of genomes can be avoided and lower copy regions targeted with two to three fold higher efficiency. This tremendously simplifies computationally challenging alignment problems in species with high levels of genetic diversity. The GBS procedure is demonstrated with maize (IBM and barley (Oregon Wolfe Barley recombinant inbred populations where roughly 200,000 and 25,000 sequence tags were mapped, respectively. An advantage in species like barley that lack a complete genome sequence is that a reference map need only be developed around the restriction sites, and this can be done in the process of sample genotyping. In such cases, the consensus of the read clusters across the sequence tagged sites becomes the reference. Alternatively, for kinship analyses in the absence of a reference genome, the sequence tags can simply be treated as dominant markers. Future application of GBS to breeding, conservation, and global species and population surveys may allow plant breeders to conduct genomic selection on a novel germplasm or species without first having to develop any prior molecular tools, or conservation biologists to determine population structure without prior knowledge of the genome or diversity in the species.

  2. Mast cell degranulation by a hemolytic lipid toxin decreases GBS colonization and infection

    OpenAIRE

    Gendrin, Claire; Vornhagen, Jay; Ngo, Lisa; Whidbey, Christopher; Boldenow, Erica; Santana-Ufret, Veronica; Clauson, Morgan; Burnside, Kellie; Galloway, Dionne P.; Waldorf, Kristina Adams; Piliponsky, Adrian M.; Rajagopal, Lakshmi

    2015-01-01

    Ascending infection of microbes from the lower genital tract into the amniotic cavity increases the risk of preterm birth, stillbirth, and newborn infections. Host defenses that are critical for preventing ascending microbial infection are not completely understood. Group B Streptococcus (GBS) are Gram-positive bacteria that frequently colonize the lower genital tract of healthy women but cause severe infections during pregnancy, leading to preterm birth, stillbirth, or early-onset newborn in...

  3. 160 Gb/s OFDM transmission utilizing an all-optical symbol generator based on PLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiaojun; Qiao, Yaojun; Li, Wei; Mei, Junyao; Qin, Yi

    2009-11-01

    We demonstrate a 160 Gb/s orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) system using an all-optical symbol generator based on planar light circuit (PLC) technology. Excellent bit error rate (BER) is observed after long-distance transmission. The proposed symbol generator fundamentally eliminates the processing speed limits introduced by electronics and is suitable for high integration, making it physically realizable to build high-speed all-optical OFDM systems with a large number of subcarriers.

  4. Modeling novel back-pressure mechanisms for a 100 Gb/s switch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Ruepp, Sarah Renée

    2012-01-01

    In this work we evaluate the performance of novel back-pressure mechanisms in a Clos-based 100 Gb/s switch system via OPNET modeler simulations. The effectiveness of the mechanisms under different switch configurations, as well as under different traffic patterns, is presented. Our results indicate...... that the proposed back-pressure techniques can effectively reduce the requirements for buffer space in the different stages of the Clos switch....

  5. Experimental Investigation of Digital Compensation of DGD for 112 Gb/s PDM-QPSK Clock Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibar, Darko; de Oliviera, Julio Cesar R.; Ribeiro, Vitor B.

    2011-01-01

    For the first time, the impact of DGD on clock recovery for 112Gb/s PDM-QPSK is experimentally investigated and quantified. We propose and experimentally demonstrate novel digital adaptive timing error detector which is robust to DGD....

  6. A 10 Gb/s passive-components-based WDM-TDM reconfigurable optical access network architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, N.C.; Jung, H.D.; Okonkwo, C.M.; Tangdiongga, E.; Koonen, A.M.J.

    2011-01-01

    We propose a cost-effective, reconfigurable optical access network by employing passive components in the remote node and dual conventional optical transceivers in ONUs. The architecture is demonstrated with bidirectional transmission at 10 Gb/s.

  7. Up to 40 Gb/s wireless signal generation and demodulation in 75-110 GHz band using photonic techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sambaraju, R.; Zibar, Darko; Caballero Jambrina, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Record wireless signal capacity of up to 40 Gb/s is demonstrated in the 75-110 GHz band. All-optical OFDM and photonic up-conversion are used for generation and digital coherent detection for demodulation....

  8. 2.5 Gb/s laser-driver GaAS IC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riishøj, Jesper

    1993-01-01

    A laser-diode driver GaAs IC incorporating an optional NRZ/RZ (non-return-to-zero/return-to-zero) conversion facility, having ECL (emitter-coupled logic) and SCFL (source-coupled FET logic)-compatible inputs and providing a 0-60-mA adjustable output current into a 50-Ω/5-V termination at bit rates...... obtained. To verify laser driving performance a back-to-back optical-fiber transmission experiment was performed, giving good optical eye diagrams at 2.5 Gb/s. The electrooptical interplay between laser-diode driver and laser-diode has been demonstrated using SPICE simulations...... up to 2 Gb/s NRZ and maintaining a clear eye opening of 50 mA at 2.5 Gb/s NRZ bit rate has been designed, using a commercial 1-μm gate-length (Fτ=12 GHz) GaAs MESFET foundry service. The high maximum output current is obtained by implementing the output driver as a cascode differential amplifier...

  9. Architectural Design Study for a 10Gb/s Ethernet Switch

    CERN Document Server

    Oltean, Alexandra Dana

    2004-01-01

    The demand for 10Gb/s switches at this early stage in the market is primarily for modular solutions that can grow as do the bandwidth requirements. This indicates a requirement for chassis based solutions where individual line cards can be added to a chassis infrastructure and have to communicate across a 10Gb/s switching backplane. The present study is provides an architectural design solution for a passive copper backplane used for moving data between the line cards of a 10Gb/s Ethernet switch system. The ability to pass multi-gigabit data rates through a backplane system requires great attention to details previously thought to be irrelevant at lower frequencies. The trace dimensions, the via holes diameters, the backplane materials and choice of connectors, all play a crucial role in determining the success of the system. At high-speed even a subtle change in any of these elements can drastically affect the end-to-end system performance. In this context, the study presents the modeling and simulation work...

  10. Receiver Architecture for 12.5 Gb/s 16-ary Pulse Position Modulation (PPM) Signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez, A J; Gagliardi, R M; Hernandez, V J; Bennett, C V

    2008-07-11

    PPM is a signaling scheme that enables the transmission of multiple bits per symbol [1]. It has found favor in the regime of free space optical communications ('FSO' or 'Lasercom'); however, PPM has yet to be widely applied to fiber optic-based communications. Its limitation in fiber results from the exceedingly high bandwidth requirements needed to electronically process a directly detected pulse, especially as the symbol rate increases and the pulse width correspondingly decreases. As a solution, we introduced the concept of a virtual quadrant receiver for receiving 1.25 Gb/s 4-ary PPM, where photonic processing reduced the number of required electronic components [2]. In this paper, we extend these photonic process techniques to a 16-ary, 12.5 Gb/s (10 Gb/s plus 8B/10B line coding) PPM communications system for fiber optic avionics, wherein much of the receiver processing is enabled by techniques based on planar lightwave circuits (PLCs). The architecture is applicable to higher input data rates and M-ary PPM. In the following, we present the PPM encoding and decoding architectures and numerically simulated results.

  11. End-System Network Interface Controller for 100 Gb/s Wide Area Networks: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Jesse [Acadia Optronics LLC, Rockville, MD (United States)

    2013-08-30

    In recent years, network bandwidth requirements have scaled multiple folds, pushing the need for the development of data exchange mechanisms at 100 Gb/s and beyond. High performance computing, climate modeling, large-scale storage, and collaborative scientific research are examples of applications that can greatly benefit by leveraging high bandwidth capabilities of the order of 100 Gb/s. Such requirements and advances in IEEE Ethernet standards, Optical Transport Unit4 (OTU4), and host-system interconnects demand a network infrastructure supporting throughput rates of the order of 100 Gb/s with a single wavelength. To address such a demand Acadia Optronics in collaboration with the University of New Mexico, proposed and developed a end-system Network Interface Controller (NIC) for the 100Gbps WANs. Acadia’s 100G NIC employs an FPGA based system with a high-performance processor interconnect (PCIe 3.0) and a high capacity optical transmission link (CXP) to provide data transmission at the rate of 100 Gbps.

  12. Generating a Square Switching Window for Timing Jitter Tolerant 160 Gb/s Demultiplexing by the Optical Fourier Transform Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Galili, Michael; Clausen, A. T:

    2006-01-01

    A square spectrum is optically Fourier transformed into a square pulse in the time domain. This is used to demultiplex a 160 Gb/s data signal with a significant increase in jitter tolerance to 2.6 ps.......A square spectrum is optically Fourier transformed into a square pulse in the time domain. This is used to demultiplex a 160 Gb/s data signal with a significant increase in jitter tolerance to 2.6 ps....

  13. 40 Gb/s Lane Rate NG-PON using Electrical/Optical Duobinary, PAM-4 and Low Complex Equalizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, J. L.; Grobe, Klaus; Wagner, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    We present the first numerical investigation and comparison of 40-Gb/s lane rate electrical Duobinary, optical Duobinary and PAM-4 for NG-PONs incorporating low complex linear and nonlinear post-equalizations.......We present the first numerical investigation and comparison of 40-Gb/s lane rate electrical Duobinary, optical Duobinary and PAM-4 for NG-PONs incorporating low complex linear and nonlinear post-equalizations....

  14. Optical interconnects for in-plane high-speed signal distribution at 10 Gb/s: Analysis and demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yin-Jung

    ultra-short pulse response of these devices is modeled based on the guided-mode theory incorporated with Fourier transform technique. For example, for 50 fs Gaussian input pulses into a 1 x 16 splitter, the output pulses are severely degraded in coupling efficiency (48%) and completely broken up in time primarily due to inter-modal and intra-modal (waveguide) dispersion. Material dispersion is found to play only a minor role in the pulse response of MMI devices. However, for 1ps input pulses into the same 1 x 16 splitter, the output pulses are only moderately degraded in coupling efficiency (86%) and only slightly degraded in shape. With the understanding of the necessary condition of the distortionless high-speed signal transmission through MMI devices, high-speed data transmission at 40Gb/s per channel with a total bandwidth of 320Gb/s for 8 output ports is demonstrated for the first time on a 1 x 8 photo-definable polymer-based MMI power splitter. The device is designed with multimode input/output waveguides of 10mum in width and 7.6mum in height for a better input coupling efficiency for which the high-speed testing demands. The eye diagrams are all clear and fully open with an extinction ratio of 10.1dB and a jitter of 1.65 ps. The transmission validity is further confirmed by the bit-error-rate testing at the pseudoramdom binary sequence of 27--1. The fabrication process developed lays the cornerstone of the integration scheme and system design for the prototype of hybrid interconnects. An important problem regarding the guided-mode attenuation associated with optical-interconnect-polymer waveguides fabricated on FR-4 printed-circuit boards is also quantified for the first time. On-board optical waveguides are receiving more attention recently from Fujitsu American Laboratory, IBM Watson Research Center, and Packaging Research Center here at Georgia Tech. This branch of research work is part of the effort in investigating, scientifically, the attenuation mechanism

  15. Conceptual studies of construction and safety enhancement of ocean SMART mounted on GBS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min-Gil; Lee, Kang-Heon; Kim, Seong Gu; Woo, Il-Guk; Han, Jeong-Hoon; Lee, Phill-Seung; Lee, Jeong Ik

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We suggested the concept of coupling the SMART to the GBS, and we made suggested improvements. • We describe the design concepts and GA of SMART ONPP. • We analyzed seismic feature of SMART ONPP preliminarily. • We suggested the concept of coupling the IPSS to the SMART ONPP, and we made suggested improvements. - Abstract: From the Fukushima accident, protection of NPPs from any imaginable natural disasters became very important. In this study, the authors suggest a new concept of ocean nuclear power plant (ONPP) by using SMART as a reference reactor, which is the most recent Small Modular Reactor (SMR) developed by Korea, to demonstrate that the proposed concept can improve the safety of NPP from earthquake and tsunami. The proposed concept utilizes Gravity Based Structure (GBS), which is a widely spread construction technique of offshore plants. Because, floating type or submerged type NPPs can be easily affected by severe ocean environments such as tsunamis and storms, additional safety features have to be added to the existing land based plant. In contrast, the newly proposed GBS-type ONPP does not require going through significant design modifications due to inherent characteristics of the construction method. The authors have demonstrated this concept can be applied to the large nuclear power plant in the previous work and will expand this concept for SMRs in this paper. The authors discuss the new concept by presenting design parameters, design requirements, and the new total general arrangement. Furthermore, due to the unique configuration of ONPP SMART, innovative passive safety features can be added to the existing SMART design. The performance of proposed concept to resist earthquake as well as newly added passive safety feature will be discussed by presenting simplified analysis results

  16. Conceptual studies of construction and safety enhancement of ocean SMART mounted on GBS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min-Gil, E-mail: gggggtt@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Guseong-dong Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kang-Heon, E-mail: welcome@kaist.ac.kr [Division of Ocean Systems Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Guseong-dong Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seong Gu, E-mail: skim07@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Guseong-dong Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Il-Guk, E-mail: igwoo@dsme.co.kr [Department of Energy System R and D (Plant R and D), Daewoo Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering Co., Ltd., 221-17, Nonhyun-Dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-010 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Jeong-Hoon, E-mail: jhhan1@dsme.co.kr [Department of Energy System R and D (Plant R and D), Daewoo Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering Co., Ltd., 221-17, Nonhyun-Dong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-010 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Phill-Seung, E-mail: philseung@kaist.edu [Division of Ocean Systems Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Guseong-dong Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Ik, E-mail: jeongiklee@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 373-1 Guseong-dong Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • We suggested the concept of coupling the SMART to the GBS, and we made suggested improvements. • We describe the design concepts and GA of SMART ONPP. • We analyzed seismic feature of SMART ONPP preliminarily. • We suggested the concept of coupling the IPSS to the SMART ONPP, and we made suggested improvements. - Abstract: From the Fukushima accident, protection of NPPs from any imaginable natural disasters became very important. In this study, the authors suggest a new concept of ocean nuclear power plant (ONPP) by using SMART as a reference reactor, which is the most recent Small Modular Reactor (SMR) developed by Korea, to demonstrate that the proposed concept can improve the safety of NPP from earthquake and tsunami. The proposed concept utilizes Gravity Based Structure (GBS), which is a widely spread construction technique of offshore plants. Because, floating type or submerged type NPPs can be easily affected by severe ocean environments such as tsunamis and storms, additional safety features have to be added to the existing land based plant. In contrast, the newly proposed GBS-type ONPP does not require going through significant design modifications due to inherent characteristics of the construction method. The authors have demonstrated this concept can be applied to the large nuclear power plant in the previous work and will expand this concept for SMRs in this paper. The authors discuss the new concept by presenting design parameters, design requirements, and the new total general arrangement. Furthermore, due to the unique configuration of ONPP SMART, innovative passive safety features can be added to the existing SMART design. The performance of proposed concept to resist earthquake as well as newly added passive safety feature will be discussed by presenting simplified analysis results.

  17. All-optical 10 Gb/s AND logic gate in a silicon microring resonator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiong, Meng; Lei, Lei; Ding, Yunhong

    2013-01-01

    An all-optical AND logic gate in a single silicon microring resonator is experimentally demonstrated at 10 Gb/s with 50% RZ-OOK signals. By setting the wavelengths of two intensity-modulated input pumps on the resonances of the microring resonator, field-enhanced four-wave mixing with a total inp...... power of only 8.5 dBm takes place in the ring, resulting in the generation of an idler whose intensity follows the logic operation between the pumps. Clear and open eye diagrams with a bit-error- ratio below 10−9 are achieved....

  18. Cost-effectiveness of maternal GBS immunization in low-income sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Louise B; Kim, Sun-Young; Cosgriff, Ben; Pentakota, Sri Ram; Schrag, Stephanie J; Sobanjo-Ter Meulen, Ajoke; Verani, Jennifer R; Sinha, Anushua

    2017-12-14

    A maternal group B streptococcal (GBS) vaccine could prevent neonatal sepsis and meningitis. Its cost-effectiveness in low-income sub-Saharan Africa, a high burden region, is unknown. We used a decision tree model, with Markov nodes to project infants' lifetimes, to compare maternal immunization delivered through routine antenatal care with no immunization. 37 countries were clustered on the basis of economic and health resources and past public health performance. Vaccine efficacy for covered serotypes was ranged from 50% to 90%. The model projected EOGBS (early-onset) and LOGBS (late-onset) cases and deaths, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), healthcare costs (2014 US$), and cost-effectiveness for a representative country in each of the four clusters: Guinea-Bissau, Uganda, Nigeria, and Ghana. Maximum vaccination costs/dose were estimated to meet two cost-effectiveness benchmarks, 0.5 GDP and GDP per capita/DALY, for ranges of disease incidence (reported and adjusted for under-reporting) and vaccine efficacy. At coverage equal to the proportion of pregnant women with≥4 antenatal visits (ANC4) and serotype-specific vaccine efficacy of 70%, maternal GBS immunization would prevent one-third of GBS cases and deaths in Uganda and Nigeria, where ANC4 is 50%, 42-43% in Guinea-Bissau (ANC4=65%), and 55-57% in Ghana (ANC4=87%). At a vaccination cost of $7/dose, maternal immunization would cost $320-$350/DALY averted in Guinea-Bissau, Nigeria, and Ghana, less than half these countries' GDP per capita. In Uganda, which has the lowest case fatality ratios, the cost would be $573/DALY. If the vaccine prevents a small proportion of stillbirths, it would be even more cost-effective. Vaccination cost/dose, disease incidence, and case fatality were key drivers of cost/DALY in sensitivity analyses. Maternal GBS immunization could be a cost-effective intervention in low-income sub-Saharan Africa, with cost-effectiveness ratios similar to other recently introduced vaccines

  19. Quantum key distribution for 10 Gb/s dense wavelength division multiplexing networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, K. A.; Dynes, J. F.; Lucamarini, M.; Choi, I.; Sharpe, A. W.; Yuan, Z. L.; Shields, A. J.; Penty, R. V.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate quantum key distribution (QKD) with bidirectional 10 Gb/s classical data channels in a single fiber using dense wavelength division multiplexing. Record secure key rates of 2.38 Mbps and fiber distances up to 70 km are achieved. Data channels are simultaneously monitored for error-free operation. The robustness of QKD is further demonstrated with a secure key rate of 445 kbps over 25 km, obtained in the presence of data lasers launching conventional 0 dBm power. We discuss the fundamental limit for the QKD performance in the multiplexing environment

  20. A 1.5 Gb/s monolithically integrated optical receiver in the standard CMOS process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao Xindong; Mao Luhong; Yu Changliang; Zhang Shilin; Xie Sheng, E-mail: xxd@tju.edu.c [School of Electronic Information Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2009-12-15

    A monolithically integrated optical receiver, including the photodetector, has been realized in Chartered 0.35 {mu}m EEPROM CMOS technology for 850 nm optical communication. The optical receiver consists of a differential photodetector, a differential transimpedance amplifier, three limiting amplifiers and an output circuit. The experiment results show that the receiver achieves an 875 MHz 3 dB bandwidth, and a data rate of 1.5 Gb/s is achieved at a bit-error-rate of 10{sup -9}. The chip dissipates 60 mW under a single 3.3 V supply. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  1. A 1.5 Gb/s monolithically integrated optical receiver in the standard CMOS process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Xindong; Mao Luhong; Yu Changliang; Zhang Shilin; Xie Sheng

    2009-01-01

    A monolithically integrated optical receiver, including the photodetector, has been realized in Chartered 0.35 μm EEPROM CMOS technology for 850 nm optical communication. The optical receiver consists of a differential photodetector, a differential transimpedance amplifier, three limiting amplifiers and an output circuit. The experiment results show that the receiver achieves an 875 MHz 3 dB bandwidth, and a data rate of 1.5 Gb/s is achieved at a bit-error-rate of 10 -9 . The chip dissipates 60 mW under a single 3.3 V supply. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  2. 12.5 Gb/s carrier-injection silicon Mach—Zehnder optical modulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Hongtao; Ding Jianfeng; Yang Lin

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a 12.5 Gb/s carrier-injection silicon Mach—Zehnder optical modulator. Under a nonreturn-zero (NRZ) pre-emphasized electrical drive signal with voltage swing of 6.3 V and forward bias of 0.7 V, the eye is clearly opened with an extinction ratio of 8.4 dB. The device exhibits high modulation efficiency, with a figure of merit V π L of 0.036 V·mm. (semiconductor devices)

  3. CHARACTERIZATION AND MODELING OF SOLITON TRANSMISSION AT 2.5 GB/S OVER 200 KM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KHALID A. S. AL-KHATEEB

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Soliton characteristics and soliton transmission have been simulated using a VPI simulator. Simulation was also used to construct and study a soliton communication system. Near soliton pulses emitted by an actively mode-locked laser is then compressed in a dispersion-compensating fiber (DCF to produce solitons. The effects of non-linearity and active pre-chirping of mode-locked laser diode sources were also investigated. Assessment on a modeled system using real data shows that propagation over 250 km at 2.5 Gb/s in standard fibers with 20 ps pulse widths is possible in the 1550 nm wavelength range.

  4. Directly Modulated and ER Enhanced Hybrid III-V/SOI DFB Laser Operating up to 20 Gb/s for Extended Reach Applications in PONs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cristofori, Valentina; Da Ros, Francesco; Chaibi, Mohamed E.

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate error-free performance of an MRR filtered DML on the SOI platform over 40- and 81-km of SSW. The device operates up to 17.5 Gb/s over 81 km and 20 Gb/s over 40 km.......We demonstrate error-free performance of an MRR filtered DML on the SOI platform over 40- and 81-km of SSW. The device operates up to 17.5 Gb/s over 81 km and 20 Gb/s over 40 km....

  5. Optical Synchronization of a 10-G Ethernet Packet and Time-Division Multiplexing to a 50-Gb/s Signal Using an Optical Time Lens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Hao; Laguardia Areal, Janaina; Palushani, Evarist

    2010-01-01

    A 10-G Ethernet packet with maximum packet size of 1518 bytes is synchronized to a master clock with 200-kHz frequency offset using a time lens. The input 10-Gb/s non-return-to-zero packet is at the same time converted into a return-to-zero (RZ) packet with a pulsewidth of 10 ps and then time......-division multiplexed with four 10-Gb/s optical time-division-multiplexing (OTDM) channels, thus constituting a 50-Gb/s OTDM serial signal. Error-free performances of the synchronized RZ packet and demultiplexed packet from the aggregated 50-Gb/s OTDM signal are achieved....

  6. Prevalence and drug susceptibility pattern of group B Streptococci (GBS) among pregnant women attending antenatal care (ANC) in Nekemte Referral Hospital (NRH), Nekemte, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengist, Hylemariam Mihiretie; Zewdie, Olifan; Belew, Adugna; Dabsu, Regea

    2017-08-10

    The main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and drug susceptibility pattern of group B Streptococci (GBS) among pregnant women. The specific objectives include; (1) To determine the prevalence of GBS colonization among pregnant women (2) To determine the drug susceptibility pattern of GBS among pregnant women and (3) To identify associated risk factors with GBS colonization among pregnant women. The median age of the participants was 24.5 years (range 16-38) and 86% participants were urban residents. The total prevalence of maternal GBS colonization from vaginal swab culture was 12.2% (22/180). The prevalence of GBS colonization rate was significantly higher in those pregnant women above 37 weeks of gestation [AOR, 95% CI 2.1 (1.2, 11.6), P = 0.03] and married ones [AOR, 95% CI 3.2 (1.8, 11.6), P < 0.021]. Twenty (91%) of GBS isolates were sensitive to vancomycin and the highest resistance was observed against penicillin G (77.3%). The prevalence of GBS colonization in this study was significantly high and differed by gestational age and marital status. None of the GBS isolates were resistant to vancomycin but higher resistance was shown against Penicillin G.

  7. Self-passivation Rule and the Effect of Post-treatment in GBs of Solar Cell Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengyan; Chen, Shiyou; Xiang, Hongjun; Gong, Xingao

    Grain boundaries (GBs) existing in polycrystalline semiconductors alloys inducing a great deal of deep defect levels are usually harmful to cells' photovoltaic performance. Experimental and theoretical investigations verified that these defect levels come from the GBs' dangling bonds. We find that, the defect levels in anion core of GB can be passivated by its cations, called by self-passivation. For instance, the post-treated by CdCl2, Cd can eliminate the defect levels by saturating Te dangling bonds in the grain boundary of CdTe. We verify that the idea of self-passivation rule can perfectly explain the benign GBs of CISe and CZTS by sodium treatment. The present work reveals a general mechanism about how dopants in GBs eliminate the defect states through passivating the dangling bonds in covalent polycrystalline semiconductors, and sheds light on how to passivate dangling bonds in GBs with alterative processes. National Science Foundation of China, international collaboration project of MOST, Pujiang plan, Program for Professor of Special Appointment (Eastern Scholar), and Shanghai Rising-star program.

  8. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS), an ultimate marker-assisted selection (MAS) tool to accelerate plant breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiangfeng; Zhao, Xiaoqing; Laroche, André; Lu, Zhen-Xiang; Liu, HongKui; Li, Ziqin

    2014-01-01

    Marker-assisted selection (MAS) refers to the use of molecular markers to assist phenotypic selections in crop improvement. Several types of molecular markers, such as single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), have been identified and effectively used in plant breeding. The application of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies has led to remarkable advances in whole genome sequencing, which provides ultra-throughput sequences to revolutionize plant genotyping and breeding. To further broaden NGS usages to large crop genomes such as maize and wheat, genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) has been developed and applied in sequencing multiplexed samples that combine molecular marker discovery and genotyping. GBS is a novel application of NGS protocols for discovering and genotyping SNPs in crop genomes and populations. The GBS approach includes the digestion of genomic DNA with restriction enzymes followed by the ligation of barcode adapter, PCR amplification and sequencing of the amplified DNA pool on a single lane of flow cells. Bioinformatic pipelines are needed to analyze and interpret GBS datasets. As an ultimate MAS tool and a cost-effective technique, GBS has been successfully used in implementing genome-wide association study (GWAS), genomic diversity study, genetic linkage analysis, molecular marker discovery and genomic selection under a large scale of plant breeding programs.

  9. Risk-based screening combined with a PCR-based test for group B streptococci diminishes the use of antibiotics in laboring women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalil, Mohammed R.; Uldbjerg, Niels; Thorsen, Poul B.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the performance of a polymerase chain reaction - group B streptococci test (PCR-GBS test) - in deciding antibiotic prophylaxis in term laboring women. STUDY DESIGN: In this observational study, we enrolled 902 unselected Danish term pregnant women. During labor, midwives......), the sensitivity 92% (23 of 25), and the specificity 89% (74 of 83). CONCLUSION: In programs that aim to treat all laboring women with vaginal GBS-colonization (12% in the present study) with penicillin, the PCR-GBS will perform well (sensitivity 83% and specificity 97%). In programs aiming to treat only GBS...

  10. Risk-based screening combined with a PCR-based test for group B streptococci diminishes the use of antibiotics in laboring women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Mohammed R; Uldbjerg, Niels; Thorsen, Poul B; Henriksen, Birgitte; Møller, Jens K

    2017-08-01

    To assess the performance of a polymerase chain reaction - group B streptococci test (PCR-GBS test) - in deciding antibiotic prophylaxis in term laboring women. In this observational study, we enrolled 902 unselected Danish term pregnant women. During labor, midwives obtained vaginal swabs that were used for both GBS cultures (reference standard) and for the PCR-GBS test. Furthermore, we recorded the presence of risk factors for EOGBS (Early Onset Group B Streptococcal disease): (1) Bacteriuria during current pregnancy, (2) Prior infant with EOGBS (3) Temperature above 38.0°C during labor, and (4) Rupture of membranes ≥18h. The prevalence of GBS carriers was 12% (104 of 902), the sensitivity of the PCR-GBS test 83% (86 of 104), and the specificity 97% (774 of 798). Among the 108 with one or more EOGBS-risk factors, GBS was present in 23% (25 of 108), the sensitivity 92% (23 of 25), and the specificity 89% (74 of 83). In programs that aim to treat all laboring women with vaginal GBS-colonization (12% in the present study) with penicillin, the PCR-GBS will perform well (sensitivity 83% and specificity 97%). In programs aiming to treat only GBS-carriers among those with risk factors of EOGBS, a reduction of penicillin usage by two-thirds from 12% to 4% may be possible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Broadband Packaging of Photodetectors for 100 Gb/s Ethernet Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Chenhui; Krozer, Viktor; Bach, Heinz-Gunter

    2013-01-01

    The packing structure of functional modules is a major limitaion in achieving a desired performance for 100 Gb/s ethernet applications. This paper presents a methodology of developing advanced packaging of photodetectors (PDs) for high-speed data transmission applications by using 3-D electromagn......The packing structure of functional modules is a major limitaion in achieving a desired performance for 100 Gb/s ethernet applications. This paper presents a methodology of developing advanced packaging of photodetectors (PDs) for high-speed data transmission applications by using 3-D...... electromagnetic (EM) simulations. A simplified model of the PD module is first used to analyze and optimize packaging structures and propose an optimal packaging design based on the simplified model. Although a PD module with improved performance proved the success of the optimal packaging design, the simplified...... of limiting the bandwidth of PD modules. After eliminating the mode mismatch effect by improving the chip-conductor-backed coplanar waveguide transition, a final optimal packaging structure is implemented for the PD module with reduced attenuation up to 100 GHz and a broader 3-dB bandwidth of more than 90 GHz...

  12. 45 Gb/s low complexity optical front-end for soft-decision LDPC decoders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakib, Meer Nazmus; Moayedi, Monireh; Gross, Warren J; Liboiron-Ladouceur, Odile

    2012-07-30

    In this paper a low complexity and energy efficient 45 Gb/s soft-decision optical front-end to be used with soft-decision low-density parity-check (LDPC) decoders is demonstrated. The results show that the optical front-end exhibits a net coding gain of 7.06 and 9.62 dB for post forward error correction bit error rate of 10(-7) and 10(-12) for long block length LDPC(32768,26803) code. The performance over a hard decision front-end is 1.9 dB for this code. It is shown that the soft-decision circuit can also be used as a 2-bit flash type analog-to-digital converter (ADC), in conjunction with equalization schemes. At bit rate of 15 Gb/s using RS(255,239), LDPC(672,336), (672, 504), (672, 588), and (1440, 1344) used with a 6-tap finite impulse response (FIR) equalizer will result in optical power savings of 3, 5, 7, 9.5 and 10.5 dB, respectively. The 2-bit flash ADC consumes only 2.71 W at 32 GSamples/s. At 45 GSamples/s the power consumption is estimated to be 4.95 W.

  13. 100-Gb/s InP DP-IQ modulator for small-form-factor pluggable coherent transceivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Nobuhiro; Ogiso, Yoshihiro; Yamada, Eiichi

    2016-02-01

    We developed a compact InP-based DP-IQ modulator for small-form-factor pluggable coherent transceivers. The modulator achieves 112-Gb/s DP-QPSK modulation with a driving voltage of 6 Vppd. In addition, it provides 86-Gb/s DP-16 QAM signal generation and 240-km transmission with negligible degradation of BER performance. The halfwavelength voltage of our recent device is 1.9 V, and a high median extinction ratio of over 32 dB was achieved for more than 1,400 child MZ modulators. We have also proposed an athermal InP-based twin IQ modulator that enables us to use a modulator in a TEC-free operation. It contributes to lowering the power consumption of transceivers. Under a constant driving condition, there is little change in 56-Gb/s x 2 QPSK modulation characteristics in the range of 20 to 80°C.

  14. Wavelength conversion of 80 Gb/s RZ-DPSK Pol-MUX signals in a silicon nanowire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vukovic, Dragana; Peucheret, Christophe; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo

    2014-01-01

    All-optical wavelength conversion of 80 Gb/s RZ-DPSK polarization multiplexed signals is demonstrated in a silicon nanowire using an angled-pump scheme. The quality of the converted signal is characterized through BER measurements for the first time.......All-optical wavelength conversion of 80 Gb/s RZ-DPSK polarization multiplexed signals is demonstrated in a silicon nanowire using an angled-pump scheme. The quality of the converted signal is characterized through BER measurements for the first time....

  15. 41.6 Gb/s RZ-DPSK to NRZ-DPSK Format Conversion in a Microring Resonator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiong, Meng; Ozolins, Oskars; Ding, Yunhong

    2012-01-01

    RZ-DPSK to NRZ-DPSK format conversion in a silicon microring resonator is demonstrated experimentally for the first time at 41.6 Gb/s. The converted signal eye diagrams and bit-error-rate measurements show the good performance of the scheme........RZ-DPSK to NRZ-DPSK format conversion in a silicon microring resonator is demonstrated experimentally for the first time at 41.6 Gb/s. The converted signal eye diagrams and bit-error-rate measurements show the good performance of the scheme.....

  16. All-optical wavelength conversion at bit rates above 10 Gb/s using semiconductor optical amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Carsten; Danielsen, Søren Lykke; Stubkjær, Kristian

    1997-01-01

    This work assesses the prospects for high-speed all-optical wavelength conversion using the simple optical interaction with the gain in semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) via the interband carrier recombination. Operation and design guidelines for conversion speeds above 10 Gb/s are described...... and the various tradeoffs are discussed. Experiments at bit rates up to 40 Gb/s are presented for both cross-gain modulation (XGM) and cross-phase modulation (XPM) in SOAs demonstrating the high-speed capability of these techniques...

  17. Evaluation of Passive Containment Cooling System design of SMART built in GBS for ocean environment under the Fukushima Accident Condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Gil; Kim, Seong Gu; Lee, Jeong Ik; Lee, Kang Heon; Lee, Phil Seung [Korea Advanced Institue of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The ONPP can be towed to the installation site after the SMART is constructed within the GBS in a dry dock. And, by incorporating IPSS (Integrated Passive Safety System), proposed by KAIST, in the ocean SMART the safety of the whole system will be significantly increased which can potentially eliminate any possibility of repeating Fukushima accident again. In recent years, KAIST research team is developing a very advanced concept of ocean NPPs which can avoid natural disasters while potentially increasing economy and enhancing public acceptance. Authors chose Korean small reactor, SMART as a reference system to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed ocean NPP. Ocean SMART is mounted on GBS (Gravity Based Structure)

  18. 160-Gb/s Silicon All-Optical Packet Switch for Buffer-less Optical Burst Switching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Hao; Ji, Hua; Pu, Minhao

    2015-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a 160-Gb/s Ethernet packet switch using an 8.6-mm-long silicon nanowire for optical burst switching, based on cross phase modulation in silicon. One of the four packets at the bit rate of 160 Gb/s is switched by an optical control signal using a silicon based 1 × 1 all......-optical packet switch. Error free performance (BER silicon packet switch based optical burst switching, which might be desirable for high-speed interconnects within a short...

  19. All-Optical 9.35 Gb/s Wavelength Conversion in an InP Photonic Crystal Nanocavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vukovic, Dragana; Yu, Yi; Heuck, Mikkel

    2013-01-01

    Wavelength conversion of a 9.35 Gb/s RZ signal is demonstrated using an InP photonic crystal H0 nanocavity. A clear eye is observed for the converted signal showing a pre-FEC bit error ratio down to 10-3.......Wavelength conversion of a 9.35 Gb/s RZ signal is demonstrated using an InP photonic crystal H0 nanocavity. A clear eye is observed for the converted signal showing a pre-FEC bit error ratio down to 10-3....

  20. Wavelength Conversion of a 9.35-Gb/s RZ OOK Signal in an InP Photonic Crystal Nanocavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vukovic, Dragana; Yu, Yi; Heuck, Mikkel

    2014-01-01

    Wavelength conversion of a 10-Gb/s (9.35 Gb/s net rate) return-to-zero ON-OFF keying signal is demonstrated using a simple InP photonic crystal H0 nanocavity with Lorentzian line shape. The shifting of the resonance induced by the generation of free-carriers enables the pump intensity modulation...

  1. All-Optical Regenerative OTDM Add-Drop Multiplexing at 40 Gb/s using Monolithic InP Mach-Zehnder Interferometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, St.; Dülk, M.; Gamper, E.

    2000-01-01

    We present a novel method for all-optical add-drop multiplexing having regenerative capability for 40-Gb/s optical time-division multiplexed (OTDM) data using a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) based, monolithic Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI). Simultaneous dropping of one 10-Gb/s channel ...

  2. 56 Gb/s DMT transmission with VCSELs in 1.5 um wavelength range over up to 12 km for DWDM intra-data center connects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dochhan, Annika; Eiselt, Nicklas; Hohenleitner, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate up to 12 km, 56 Gb/s DMT transmission using high-speed VCSELs in the 1.5 um wavelength range for future 400Gb/s intra-data center connects, enabled by vestigial sideband filtering of the transmit signal....

  3. Real-Time 200 Gb/s (4x56.25 Gb/s) PAM-4 Transmission over 80 km SSMF using Quantum-Dot Laser and Silicon Ring-Modulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiselt, Nicklas; Griesser, Helmut; Eiselt, Michael

    2017-01-01

    We report real-time 4x56.26-Gb/s DWDM PAM-4 transmission over 80-km SSMF with novel optical transmitter sub-assembly comprising multi-wavelength quantum-dot laser and silicon ring modulators. Pre-FEC BERs below 1E-4 are achieved after 80-km, allowing error-free operation with HD-FEC...

  4. A Multi-Country Cross-Sectional Study of Vaginal Carriage of Group B Streptococci (GBS and Escherichia coli in Resource-Poor Settings: Prevalences and Risk Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piet Cools

    Full Text Available One million neonates die each year in low- and middle-income countries because of neonatal sepsis; group B Streptococcus (GBS and Escherichia coli are the leading causes. In sub-Saharan Africa, epidemiological data on vaginal GBS and E. coli carriage, a prerequisite for GBS and E. coli neonatal sepsis, respectively, are scarce but necessary to design and implement prevention strategies. Therefore, we assessed vaginal GBS and E. coli carriage rates and risk factors and the GBS serotype distribution in three sub-Saharan countries.A total of 430 women from Kenya, Rwanda and South Africa were studied cross-sectionally. Vaginal carriage of GBS and E. coli, and GBS serotype were assessed using molecular techniques. Risk factors for carriage were identified using multivariable logistic regression analysis.Vaginal carriage rates in reference groups from Kenya and South Africa were 20.2% (95% CI, 13.7-28.7% and 23.1% (95% CI, 16.2-31.9%, respectively for GBS; and 25.0% (95% CI, 17.8-33.9% and 27.1% (95% CI, 19.6-36.2%, respectively for E. coli. GBS serotypes Ia (36.8%, V (26.3% and III (14.0% were most prevalent. Factors independently associated with GBS and E. coli carriage were Candida albicans, an intermediate vaginal microbiome, bacterial vaginosis, recent vaginal intercourse, vaginal washing, cervical ectopy and working as a sex worker. GBS and E. coli carriage were positively associated.Reduced vaginal GBS carriage rates might be accomplished by advocating behavioral changes such as abstinence from sexual intercourse and by avoidance of vaginal washing during late pregnancy. It might be advisable to explore the inclusion of vaginal carriage of C. albicans, GBS, E. coli and of the presence of cervical ectopy in a risk- and/or screening-based administration of antibiotic prophylaxis. Current phase II GBS vaccines (a trivalent vaccine targeting serotypes Ia, Ib, and III, and a conjugate vaccine targeting serotype III would not protect the majority of

  5. 25Gb/s 1V-driving CMOS ring modulator with integrated thermal tuning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoliang; Zheng, Xuezhe; Yao, Jin; Thacker, Hiren; Shubin, Ivan; Luo, Ying; Raj, Kannan; Cunningham, John E; Krishnamoorthy, Ashok V

    2011-10-10

    We report a high-speed ring modulator that fits many of the ideal qualities for optical interconnect in future exascale supercomputers. The device was fabricated in a 130 nm SOI CMOS process, with 7.5 μm ring radius. Its high-speed section, employing PN junction that works at carrier-depletion mode, enables 25 Gb/s modulation and an extinction ratio >5 dB with only 1V peak-to-peak driving. Its thermal tuning section allows the device to work in broad wavelength range, with a tuning efficiency of 0.19 nm/mW. Based on microwave characterization and circuit modeling, the modulation energy is estimated ~7 fJ/bit. The whole device fits in a compact 400 μm2 footprint.

  6. High Performance Design of 100Gb/s DPSK Optical Transmitter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Bhagwan; Abdullah, M.F.L; Shah, Nor Shahihda Mohd

    2016-01-01

    and optical transmitter have taken plenty of time for transmitting signal. When proposed design is operated at 1 GHz, 5 GHz, 10 GHz and 20 GHz using time constraint technique, it is observed that among all these frequencies, at 10 GHz high performance output is achieved for designed optical transmitter....... This high performance design of optical transmitter has zero timing error, low timing score and high slack time due to synchronization between input data and clock frequency. It is also determined that 99% timing score is reduced in comparison with 1 GHz frequency that has high jitters, high timing error......, high time score and low slack time. The high performance design is realized without disturbing actual bandwidth, power consumption and other parameters of the design. The proposed high performance design of 100Gb/s optical transmitter can be used with existing optical communication system to develop...

  7. Effects of optical layer impairments on 2.5 Gb/s optical CDMA transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, H; Mendez, A; Heritage, J; Lennon, W

    2000-07-03

    We conducted a computer simulation study to assess the effects of optical layer impairments on optical CDMA (O-CDMA) transmission of 8 asynchronous users at 2.5 Gb/s each user over a 214-km link. It was found that with group velocity dispersion compensation, two other residual effects, namely, the nonzero chromatic dispersion slope of the single mode fiber (which causes skew) and the non-uniform EDFA gain (which causes interference power level to exceed signal power level of some codes) degrade the signal to multi-access interference (MAI) ratio. In contrast, four wave mixing and modulation due to the Kerr and Raman contributions to the fiber nonlinear refractive index are less important. Current wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) technologies, including dispersion management, EDFA gain flattening, and 3 rd order dispersion compensation, are sufficient to overcome the impairments to the O-CDMA transmission system that we considered.

  8. Optical switching and detection of 640 Gb/s OTDM data packets transmitted over 50 km of fibre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomez-Agis, F.; Hu, H.; Luo, J.; Mulvad, H.C.H.; Galili, M.; Calabretta, N.; Oxenløwe, L.K.; Dorren, H.J.S.; Jeppesen, P.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate 1×4 optical-packet switching with error-free transmission of 640 Gb/s single-wavelength OTDM data-packets including instantaneous clock extraction and short pulse generation for optical time-demultiplexing based on a cavity-less pulse source.

  9. 40-Gb/s transmission over 100m graded-index plastic optical fiber based on discrete multitone modulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, H.; Lee, S.C.J.; Tangdiongga, E.; Breyer, F.; Randel, S.; Koonen, A.M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Spectral-efficient 40-Gb/s discrete multitone transmission over 100m of graded-index plastic optical fiber is experimentally demonstrated by intensity-modulation of a 10-GHz DFB-laser (1302nm) and direct-detection with a 25-µm large diameter photodetector.

  10. 30-Gb/s bidirectional transparent optical transmission with an MMF access and an indoor optical wireless link

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, H.; Boom, van den H.P.A.; Tangdiongga, E.; Koonen, A.M.J.

    2012-01-01

    This letter describes a 30-Gb/s bidirectional transparent optical transmission, over a 4.4-km multimode fiber (MMF) in combination with an indoor optical wireless (OW) link, which could provide limited mobility. Due to MMF's advantages, such as lower installation costs and easy maintenance, it is

  11. Optimisation of 40 Gb/s wavelength converters based on four-wave mixing in a semiconductor optical amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, K.; Petersen, Martin Nordal; Herrera, J.

    2007-01-01

    The optimum operating powers and wavelengths for a 40 Gb/s wavelength converter based on four-wave mixing in a semiconductor 14 optical amplifier are inferred from experimental results. From these measurements, some general rules of thumb are derived for this kind of devices. Generally, the optim...

  12. Detection of 320 Gb/s Nyquist OTDM by polarization-insensitive time-domain optical Fourier transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Hao; Kong, Deming; Palushani, Evarist

    2013-01-01

    320 Gb/s Nyquist-OTDM is generated by rectangular filtering with a bandwidth of 320 GHz and received by polarization-insensitive time-domain optical Fourier transformation (TD-OFT) followed by passive filtering. After the time-to-frequency mapping in the TD-OFT, the Nyquist-OTDM is converted into...

  13. 100-Gb/s Transmission Over a 2520-km Integrated MCF System Using Cladding-Pumped Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castro, Carlos; Jain, Saurabh; De Man, Erik

    2017-01-01

    A 10.5-Tb/s optical transmission (15 x 100 Gb/s QPSK channels per core) over 2520 km of multicore fiber is achieved using an integrated multicore transmission link consisting of directly spliced multicore components, such as fan-in/fan-out fiber couplers, a 60-km trench-assisted seven-core hexago...

  14. Improved slow-light performance of 10 Gb/s NRZ, PSBT and DPSK signals in fiber broadband SBS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Lilin; Jaouen, Yves; Hu, Weisheng; Su, Yikai; Bigo, Sébastien

    2007-12-10

    We have demonstrated error-free operations of slow-light via stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in optical fiber for 10-Gb/s signals with different modulation formats, including non-return-to-zero (NRZ), phase-shaped binary transmission (PSBT) and differential phase-shiftkeying (DPSK). The SBS gain bandwidth is broadened by using current noise modulation of the pump laser diode. The gain shape is simply controlled by the noise density function. Super-Gaussian noise modulation of the Brillouin pump allows a flat-top and sharp-edge SBS gain spectrum, which can reduce slow-light induced distortion in case of 10-Gb/s NRZ signal. The corresponding maximal delay-time with error-free operation is 35 ps. Then we propose the PSBT format to minimize distortions resulting from SBS filtering effect and dispersion accompanied with slow light because of its high spectral efficiency and strong dispersion tolerance. The sensitivity of the 10-Gb/s PSBT signal is 5.2 dB better than the NRZ case with a same 35-ps delay. The maximal delay of 51 ps with error-free operation has been achieved. Futhermore, the DPSK format is directly demodulated through a Gaussian-shaped SBS gain, which is achieved using Gaussian-noise modulation of the Brillouin pump. The maximal error-free time delay after demodulation of a 10-Gb/s DPSK signal is as high as 81.5 ps, which is the best demonstrated result for 10-Gb/s slow-light.

  15. Evaluating Imputation Algorithms for Low-Depth Genotyping-By-Sequencing (GBS Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel W Chan

    Full Text Available Well-powered genomic studies require genome-wide marker coverage across many individuals. For non-model species with few genomic resources, high-throughput sequencing (HTS methods, such as Genotyping-By-Sequencing (GBS, offer an inexpensive alternative to array-based genotyping. Although affordable, datasets derived from HTS methods suffer from sequencing error, alignment errors, and missing data, all of which introduce noise and uncertainty to variant discovery and genotype calling. Under such circumstances, meaningful analysis of the data is difficult. Our primary interest lies in the issue of how one can accurately infer or impute missing genotypes in HTS-derived datasets. Many of the existing genotype imputation algorithms and software packages were primarily developed by and optimized for the human genetics community, a field where a complete and accurate reference genome has been constructed and SNP arrays have, in large part, been the common genotyping platform. We set out to answer two questions: 1 can we use existing imputation methods developed by the human genetics community to impute missing genotypes in datasets derived from non-human species and 2 are these methods, which were developed and optimized to impute ascertained variants, amenable for imputation of missing genotypes at HTS-derived variants? We selected Beagle v.4, a widely used algorithm within the human genetics community with reportedly high accuracy, to serve as our imputation contender. We performed a series of cross-validation experiments, using GBS data collected from the species Manihot esculenta by the Next Generation (NEXTGEN Cassava Breeding Project. NEXTGEN currently imputes missing genotypes in their datasets using a LASSO-penalized, linear regression method (denoted 'glmnet'. We selected glmnet to serve as a benchmark imputation method for this reason. We obtained estimates of imputation accuracy by masking a subset of observed genotypes, imputing, and

  16. Evaluating Imputation Algorithms for Low-Depth Genotyping-By-Sequencing (GBS) Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ariel W; Hamblin, Martha T; Jannink, Jean-Luc

    2016-01-01

    Well-powered genomic studies require genome-wide marker coverage across many individuals. For non-model species with few genomic resources, high-throughput sequencing (HTS) methods, such as Genotyping-By-Sequencing (GBS), offer an inexpensive alternative to array-based genotyping. Although affordable, datasets derived from HTS methods suffer from sequencing error, alignment errors, and missing data, all of which introduce noise and uncertainty to variant discovery and genotype calling. Under such circumstances, meaningful analysis of the data is difficult. Our primary interest lies in the issue of how one can accurately infer or impute missing genotypes in HTS-derived datasets. Many of the existing genotype imputation algorithms and software packages were primarily developed by and optimized for the human genetics community, a field where a complete and accurate reference genome has been constructed and SNP arrays have, in large part, been the common genotyping platform. We set out to answer two questions: 1) can we use existing imputation methods developed by the human genetics community to impute missing genotypes in datasets derived from non-human species and 2) are these methods, which were developed and optimized to impute ascertained variants, amenable for imputation of missing genotypes at HTS-derived variants? We selected Beagle v.4, a widely used algorithm within the human genetics community with reportedly high accuracy, to serve as our imputation contender. We performed a series of cross-validation experiments, using GBS data collected from the species Manihot esculenta by the Next Generation (NEXTGEN) Cassava Breeding Project. NEXTGEN currently imputes missing genotypes in their datasets using a LASSO-penalized, linear regression method (denoted 'glmnet'). We selected glmnet to serve as a benchmark imputation method for this reason. We obtained estimates of imputation accuracy by masking a subset of observed genotypes, imputing, and calculating the

  17. Transmission of 2 × 56 Gb/s PAM-4 signal over 100 km SSMF using 18 GHz DMLs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shiwei; Li, Xiang; Yi, Lilin; Yang, Qi; Fu, Songnian

    2016-04-15

    We experimentally demonstrate C-band 2 × 56 Gb/s pulse-amplitude modulation (PAM)-4 signal transmission over 100 km standard single-mode fiber (SSMF) using 18 GHz direct-modulated lasers (DMLs) and direct detection, without inline optical amplifier. A delay interferometer (DI) at the transmitter side is used to extend the transmission reach from 40 to 100 km. A digital Volterra filter at the receiver side is used to mitigate the nonlinear distortions. We obtain an average bit error ratio (BER) of 1.5 × 10(-3) for 2 × 56 Gb/s PAM-4 signal after 100 km SSMF transmission at the optimal input power, which is below the 7% forward error correction (FEC) threshold (3.8 × 10(-3)).

  18. On the reduced-complexity of LDPC decoders for beyond 400 Gb/s serial optical transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, Ivan B.; Xu, Lei; Wang, Ting

    2010-12-01

    Two reduced-complexity (RC) LDPC decoders are proposed, which can be used in combination with large-girth LDPC codes to enable beyond 400 Gb/s serial optical transmission. We show that optimally attenuated RC min-sum sum algorithm performs only 0.45 dB worse than conventional sum-product algorithm, while having lower storage memory requirements and much lower latency. We further evaluate the proposed algorithms for use in beyond 400 Gb/s serial optical transmission in combination with PolMUX 32-IPQ-based signal constellation and show that low BERs can be achieved for medium optical SNRs, while achieving the net coding gain above 11.4 dB.

  19. Clock- and data-recovery IC with demultiplexer for a 2.5 Gb/s ATM physical layer controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming; Salama, C.A.T.

    1996-01-01

    A Clock- and Data-Recovery (CDR) IC for a Physical Layer Controller in an Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) system operating at a bit rate of 2.488 Gb/s is presented. The circuit was designed and fabricated in a 0.8 μm BiCMOS process featuring 13 GHz fT bipolar transistors. Clock-recovery is accom......A Clock- and Data-Recovery (CDR) IC for a Physical Layer Controller in an Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) system operating at a bit rate of 2.488 Gb/s is presented. The circuit was designed and fabricated in a 0.8 μm BiCMOS process featuring 13 GHz fT bipolar transistors. Clock...

  20. 400-GHz wireless transmission of 60-Gb/s nyquist-QPSK signals using UTC-PD and heterodyne mixer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Xianbin; Asif, Rameez; Piels, Molly

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate an optical network compatible high-speed optoelectronics THz wireless transmission system operating at 400-GHz band. In the experiment, optical Nyquist quadrature phase-shift keying signals in a 12.5-GHz ultradense wavelength-division multiplexing grid is converted...... to the THz wireless radiation by photomixing in an antenna integrated unitravelling photodiode. The photomixing is transparent to optical modulation formats. We also demonstrate in the experiment the scalability of our system by applying single to four channels, as well as mixed three channels. Wireless...... transmission of a capacity of 60 Gb/s for four channels (15 Gb/s per channel) at 400-GHz band is successfully achieved, which pushes the data rates enabled by optoelectronics approach beyond the envelope in the frequency range above 300 GHz. Besides those, this study also validates the potential of bridging...

  1. A Low-Power CMOS Trans-Impedance Amplifier for 2.5 Gb/S Optical Communication Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Mohseni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This Paper presents a new Trans-impedance amplifier for optical receiver circuits. The amplifier is based on parallel (R-C feedback topology which is optimized for power consumption and uses shunt-peaking technique to enhance the frequency bandwidth of the amplifier. However, the circuit is designed and simulated using 0.18µm CMOS technology parameters. As simulation results show, the amplifier has a gain of 67.5dBΩ, bandwidth of 3GHz while consumes only 12.16 mW power which shows a very good performance for using in a 2.5Gb/S (SONET OC-48 optical communication system. Finally, as the simulated Eye-Diagram shows, the circuit has a very good performance for a 2.5Gb/S system for a 10µA input current.

  2. 5-Gb/s 0.18-{mu}m CMOS 2:1 multiplexer with integrated clock extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Changchun; Wang Zhigong; Shi Si; Miao Peng [Institute of RF- and OE-ICs, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Tian Ling, E-mail: zgwang@seu.edu.c [School of Science and Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2009-09-15

    A 5-Gb/s 2:1 MUX (multiplexer) with an on-chip integrated clock extraction circuit which possesses the function of automatic phase alignment (APA), has been designed and fabricated in SMIC's 0.18 {mu}m CMOS technology. The chip area is 670 x 780 {mu}m{sup 2}. At a single supply voltage of 1.8 V, the total power consumption is 112 mW with an input sensitivity of less than 50 mV and an output single-ended swing of above 300 mV. The measurement results show that the IC can work reliably at any input data rate between 1.8 and 2.6 Gb/s with no need for external components, reference clock, or phase alignment between data and clock. It can be used in a parallel optic-fiber data interconnecting system.

  3. 5-Gb/s 0.18-μm CMOS 2:1 multiplexer with integrated clock extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Changchun; Wang Zhigong; Shi Si; Miao Peng; Tian Ling

    2009-01-01

    A 5-Gb/s 2:1 MUX (multiplexer) with an on-chip integrated clock extraction circuit which possesses the function of automatic phase alignment (APA), has been designed and fabricated in SMIC's 0.18 μm CMOS technology. The chip area is 670 x 780 μm 2 . At a single supply voltage of 1.8 V, the total power consumption is 112 mW with an input sensitivity of less than 50 mV and an output single-ended swing of above 300 mV. The measurement results show that the IC can work reliably at any input data rate between 1.8 and 2.6 Gb/s with no need for external components, reference clock, or phase alignment between data and clock. It can be used in a parallel optic-fiber data interconnecting system.

  4. 5-Gb/s 0.18-μm CMOS 2:1 multiplexer with integrated clock extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changchun, Zhang; Zhigong, Wang; Si, Shi; Peng, Miao; Ling, Tian

    2009-09-01

    A 5-Gb/s 2:1 MUX (multiplexer) with an on-chip integrated clock extraction circuit which possesses the function of automatic phase alignment (APA), has been designed and fabricated in SMIC's 0.18 μm CMOS technology. The chip area is 670 × 780 μm2. At a single supply voltage of 1.8 V, the total power consumption is 112 mW with an input sensitivity of less than 50 mV and an output single-ended swing of above 300 mV. The measurement results show that the IC can work reliably at any input data rate between 1.8 and 2.6 Gb/s with no need for external components, reference clock, or phase alignment between data and clock. It can be used in a parallel optic-fiber data interconnecting system.

  5. 128 Gb/s TWDM PON system using dispersion-supported transmission method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindhaiq, Salem; Zulkifli, Nadiatulhuda; Supa'at, Abusahmah M.; Idrus, Sevia M.; Salleh, M. S.

    2017-11-01

    Time and wavelength division multiplexed passive optical network (TWDM-PON) trend is considered as the most extraordinary trend of the next generation solution to accommodate exponential traffic growth for converged new services. In this paper, we briefly review recent progress on TWDM-PON system through the use of low cost directly modulated lasers (DMLs) transmission for various line rate transmissions to date. Furthermore, through simulation, we propose and evaluate a cost effective way to upgrade TWDM-PON up to a symmetric capacity of 128 Gb/s using fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) in optical line terminal (OLT) as a paramount dispersion manager in high speed light-wave systems in both upstream and downstream directions. A low cost and potential chirpless directed modulated grating laser (DMGL) is employed for downstream link and DML with a single delay-interferometer (DI) is employed for upstream link. After illustrating the demonstrated system architecture and configuration, we present the results and analysis to prove the system feasibility. The results show that a successful transmission is achieved over 40 km single mode fiber with a power budget of 33.7 dB, which could support 1:256 splitting ratio.

  6. A 5 Gb/s CMOS adaptive equalizer for serial link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hongbing; Wang, Jingyu; Liu, Hongxia

    2018-04-01

    A 5 Gb/s adaptive equalizer with a new adaptation scheme is presented here by using 0.13 μm CMOS process. The circuit consists of the combination of equalizer amplifier, limiter amplifier and adaptation loop. The adaptive algorithm exploits both the low frequency gain loop and the equalizer loop to minimize the inter-symbol interference (ISI) for a variety of cable characteristics. In addition, an offset cancellation loop is used to alleviate the offset influence of the signal path. The adaptive equalizer core occupies an area of 0.3567 mm2 and consumes a power consumption of 81.7 mW with 1.8 V power supply. Experiment results demonstrate that the equalizer could compensate for a designed cable loss with 0.23 UI peak-to-peak jitter. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61376099), the Foundation for Fundamental Research of China (No. JSZL2016110B003), and the Major Fundamental Research Program of Shaanxi (No. 2017ZDJC-26).

  7. 1.114-gb/s time/space division switch system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawelski, Robert L.; Nordin, Ronald A.; Huisman, R. F.; Kelly, S.; Payne, William A.; Veach, R. S.

    1990-10-01

    Advanced digital communication services11 such as Broadband ISDN High Definition Television (HDTV) and enhanced data networking are expected to require high bandwidth and fast reconfiguration time switching centers available in the 1990''s. Digital GaAs IC''s can allow the implementation of these switching centers providing these services efficiently and at a low cost. The low cost arises from the reduction in hardware power maintenance etc. when the switch is designed to operate at the incoming data rate instead of at a lower rate. In order to utilize the capacity of a high bandwidth data link time division multiplexing is employed. This is a technique where multiple digital signals are interleaved (bit byte or block) on one data link. Clearly it is advantageous to have a switch that not only has a large bandwidth but can reconfigure at the data rate so as to provide bit byte or block switching functions thus being compatible with many different transmission formats. We present an experimental Time/Space Division Switch System capable of operating at over 1 Gb/s. Both custom and commercial Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) devices are used in the design of the various system functional blocks. These functional blocks include a Time Slot Interchanger (TSI) Time Multiplexed Switch (TMS) TMS Controller Multiplexer and Demultiplexers. In addition to the system overview we discuss such issues as printed circuit board microwave interconnections and CAD tools for high speed

  8. Optical true-time-delay microwave beam-steering with 1 Gb/s wireless transmission for in-building networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cao, Z.; Li, F.; Boom, van den H.P.A.; Tangdiongga, E.; Koonen, A.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    An optical true time delay based microwave beam-steering (OTTD-MBS) scheme integrated with a radio-over-fibre system is demonstrated. Properties of 1Gb/s data wireless transmission with OTTD-MBS are studied.

  9. Time-lens based synchronizer and retimer for 10 Gb/s Ethernet packets with up to ±1MHz frequency offset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laguardia Areal, Janaina; Hu, Hao; Palushani, Evarist

    2010-01-01

    We present a time-lens based all-optical 10 Gb/s frame synchronizer and retimer. Our scheme can work with a 4096-bit frame, with frequency offset up to 1MHz, which is demonstrated by experimental results.......We present a time-lens based all-optical 10 Gb/s frame synchronizer and retimer. Our scheme can work with a 4096-bit frame, with frequency offset up to 1MHz, which is demonstrated by experimental results....

  10. The group B streptococcal alpha C protein binds alpha1beta1-integrin through a novel KTD motif that promotes internalization of GBS within human epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolduc, Gilles R; Madoff, Lawrence C

    2007-12-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is the leading cause of bacterial pneumonia, sepsis and meningitis among neonates and a cause of morbidity among pregnant women and immunocompromised adults. GBS epithelial cell invasion is associated with expression of alpha C protein (ACP). Loss of ACP expression results in a decrease in GBS internalization and translocation across human cervical epithelial cells (ME180). Soluble ACP and its 170 amino acid N-terminal region (NtACP), but not the repeat protein RR', bind to ME180 cells and reduce internalization of wild-type GBS to levels obtained with an ACP-deficient isogenic mutant. In the current study, ACP colocalized with alpha(1)beta(1)-integrin, resulting in integrin clustering as determined by laser scanning confocal microscopy. NtACP contains two structural domains, D1 and D2. D1 is structurally similar to fibronectin's integrin-binding region (FnIII10). D1's (KT)D146 motif is structurally similar to the FnIII10 (RG)D1495 integrin-binding motif, suggesting that ACP binds alpha(1)beta(1)-integrin via the D1 domain. The (KT)D146A mutation within soluble NtACP reduced its ability to bind alpha(1)beta(1)-integrin and inhibit GBS internalization within ME180 cells. Thus ACP binding to human epithelial cell integrins appears to contribute to GBS internalization within epithelial cells.

  11. Evaluation of chromogenic medium and direct latex agglutination test for detection of group B streptococcus in vaginal specimens from pregnant women in Lebanon and Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaddar, Nahed; Alfouzan, Wadha; Anastasiadis, Elie; Al Jiser, Tamima; Itani, Saad Eddine; Dernaika, Racha; Eid, Toufic; Ghaddar, Ali; Charafeddine, Adib; Dhar, Rita; El Hajj, Hiba

    2014-10-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate chromogenic medium and a direct latex agglutination test (DLA) for detection of Group B Streptococcus (GBS) in the vaginal specimens of pregnant women, and to ascertain the prevalence of GBS in this population in Kuwait and Lebanon. Vaginal swabs, collected from women at 35-37 weeks of gestation, were cultured on 5 % sheep blood agar (SBA), colistin nalidixic acid agar (CNA), Strept B Select chromogenic agar (SBS) as well as Lim enrichment broth in 168 cases in Lebanon while only SBA was used for 1391 samples in Kuwait. In addition, vaginal samples from 102 GBS-positive and 20 GBS-negative women near the time of delivery were collected in Kuwait for evaluation of the DLA test. During the study period, the prevalence of GBS colonization was determined to be 20.7 % (288/1391) in Kuwait while 18.4 % (31) of 168 pregnant women in Lebanon had vaginal cultures positive for GBS. By direct plating of vaginal swabs on the three media used, the isolation rates of GBS were 51.6, 64.5 and 77.4 % on SBA, CNA and SBS, respectively, which increased to 90.35, 93.1 and 96.8 %, respectively, following subculture in Lim broth after 18 h of incubation. The sensitivity of the DLA test was found to be dependent on the density of GBS colonization, resulting in 100 % sensitivity and 100 % specificity for heavy (>10(2) c.f.u. per swab) and moderately heavy (50-100 c.f.u. per swab) growth of GBS. However, for vaginal specimens yielding women. The DLA test, in particular, could prove to be a useful tool for immediate detection of GBS in women near delivery so that intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis can be initiated. © 2014 The Authors.

  12. Integrated MEMS-based variable optical attenuator and 10Gb/s receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberson, James; Cusin, Pierre; Fettig, H.; Hickey, Ryan; Wylde, James

    2005-03-01

    MEMS devices can be successfully commercialized in favour of competing technologies only if they offer an advantage to the customer in terms of lower cost or increased functionality. There are limited markets where MEMS can be manufactured cheaper than similar technologies due to large volumes: automotive, printing technology, wireless communications, etc. However, success in the marketplace can also be realized by adding significant value to a system at minimal cost or leverging MEMS technology when other solutions simply will not work. This paper describes a thermally actuated, MEMS based, variable optical attenuator that is co-packaged with existing opto-electronic devices to develop an integrated 10Gb/s SONET/SDH receiver. The configuration of the receiver opto-electronics and relatively low voltage availability (12V max) in optical systems bar the use of LCD, EO, and electro-chromic style attenuators. The device was designed and fabricated using a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) starting material. The design and performance of the device (displacement, power consumption, reliability, physical geometry) was defined by the receiver parameters geometry. This paper will describe how these design parameters (hence final device geometry) were determined in light of both the MEMS device fabrication process and the receiver performance. Reference will be made to the design tools used and the design flow which was a joint effort between the MEMS vendor and the end customer. The SOI technology offered a robust, manufacturable solution that gave the required performance in a cost-effective process. However, the singulation of the devices required the development of a new singulation technique that allowed large volumes of silicon to be removed during fabrication yet still offer high singulation yields.

  13. Genotyping-By-Sequencing (GBS) Detects Genetic Structure and Confirms Behavioral QTL in Tame and Aggressive Foxes (Vulpes vulpes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jennifer L; Wittgenstein, Helena; Mitchell, Sharon E; Hyma, Katie E; Temnykh, Svetlana V; Kharlamova, Anastasiya V; Gulevich, Rimma G; Vladimirova, Anastasiya V; Fong, Hiu Wa Flora; Acland, Gregory M; Trut, Lyudmila N; Kukekova, Anna V

    2015-01-01

    The silver fox (Vulpes vulpes) offers a novel model for studying the genetics of social behavior and animal domestication. Selection of foxes, separately, for tame and for aggressive behavior has yielded two strains with markedly different, genetically determined, behavioral phenotypes. Tame strain foxes are eager to establish human contact while foxes from the aggressive strain are aggressive and difficult to handle. These strains have been maintained as separate outbred lines for over 40 generations but their genetic structure has not been previously investigated. We applied a genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) approach to provide insights into the genetic composition of these fox populations. Sequence analysis of EcoT22I genomic libraries of tame and aggressive foxes identified 48,294 high quality SNPs. Population structure analysis revealed genetic divergence between the two strains and more diversity in the aggressive strain than in the tame one. Significant differences in allele frequency between the strains were identified for 68 SNPs. Three of these SNPs were located on fox chromosome 14 within an interval of a previously identified behavioral QTL, further supporting the importance of this region for behavior. The GBS SNP data confirmed that significant genetic diversity has been preserved in both fox populations despite many years of selective breeding. Analysis of SNP allele frequencies in the two populations identified several regions of genetic divergence between the tame and aggressive foxes, some of which may represent targets of selection for behavior. The GBS protocol used in this study significantly expanded genomic resources for the fox, and can be adapted for SNP discovery and genotyping in other canid species.

  14. 10Gb/s Ultra-Wideband Wireless Transmission Based on Multi-Band Carrierless Amplitude Phase Modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puerta Ramírez, Rafael; Rommel, Simon; Vegas Olmos, Juan José

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, for the first time, a record UWB transmission of 10Gb/s is experimentally demonstrated employing a multi-band approach of carrierless amplitude phase modulation (MultiCAP). The proposed solution complies with the restrictions on the effective radiated power established by both...... the United States Federal Communications Commission and the European Electronic Communications Committee, achieving a BER below the limit for a 7% overhead FEC of 3.8 · 10−3 up to respective wireless distances of 3.5m and 2m....

  15. Zero-bias 32 Gb/s evanescently coupled InGaAs/InP UTC-PDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Siwei; Liang, Song; Xie, Xiao; Xu, Junjie; Guo, Lu; Zhu, Hongliang; Wang, Wei

    2018-05-01

    We report the design and fabrication of high speed evanescently coupled InGaAs/InP uni-traveling-carrier-photodiodes (UTC-PDs). A self-aligned passive waveguide is integrated with the PDs by a simple fabrication procedure. Open eye diagrams at 32 Gb/s under zero bias are demonstrated for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, from evanescently or edge coupled InP based PDs, which are easier to be integrated with other optical components than surface illuminated PDs. When used for photonic integrated circuits (PICs) applications, our PDs help to lower the electrical cross talk and power consumption of PICs chips.

  16. 15 Gb/s OFDM-based VLC using direct modulation of 450 GaN laser diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, Shaun; Islim, Mohamed Sufyan; Watson, Scott; Videv, Stefan; Haas, Harald; Kelly, Anthony E.

    2017-10-01

    A record data rate for visible light communications (VLC) using a transistor outline (TO) packaged Gallium Nitride (GaN) laser diode is reported. Using a system 3 dB bandwidth of 1.4 GHz data transmission at 15 Gb/s is reported. This is achieved due to the use of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) in combination with a high system signal to noise ratio (SNR) and adaptive bit loading extending the effective bandwidth to 2.5 GHz. To the best of authors knowledge this is the highest reported data rate for single channel VLC.

  17. A planar waveguide optical discrete Fourier transformer design for 160 Gb/s all-optical OFDM systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Liang, Xiaojun; Ma, Weidong; Zhou, Tianhong; Huang, Benxiong; Liu, Deming

    2010-01-01

    A cost-effective all-optical discrete Fourier transformer (ODFT) is designed based on a silicon planar lightwave circuit (PLC), which can be applied to all-optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) transmission systems and can be achieved by current techniques. It consists of 2 × 2 directional couplers, phase shifters and optical delay lines. Metal-film heaters are used as phase shifters, according to the thermooptic effect of SiO 2. Based on the ODFT, a 160 Gb/s OFDM system is set up. Simulation results show excellent bit error rate (BER) and optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) performances after 400 km transmission.

  18. Pulse-Shape Analysis of PDM-QPSK Modulation Formats for 100 and 200 Gb/s DWDM transmissions

    OpenAIRE

    Macho Ortiz, Andrés; Rodriguez Horche, Paloma

    2013-01-01

    Advanced optical modulation format polarization-division multiplexed quadrature phase shift keying (PDM-QPSK) has become a key ingredient in the design of 100 and 200-Gb/s dense wavelength-division multiplexed (DWDM) networks. The performance of this format varies according to the shape of the pulses employed by the optical carrier: non-return to zero (NRZ), return to zero (RZ) or carrier-suppressed return to zero (CSRZ). In this paper we analyze the tolerance of PDM-QPSK to linear and nonlin...

  19. Combining DPSK and duobinary for the downstream in 40-Gb/s long-reach WDM-PONs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Bo; An, Yi; Chi, Nan

    2013-01-01

    detection at the ONUs. DPSK is deployed in the trunk span as it provides stronger robustness to fiber nonlinearity. Duobinary is used in the access span where its higher chromatic dispersion tolerance relieves the need for dispersion compensation. All-optical multichannel modulation format conversion from...... DPSK to duobinary is realized in the local exchange in a single delay interferometer to reduce system cost. Single and multi-channel 80-km long-reach DPSK transmission and up to 5-km duobinary access transmission are experimentally demonstrated at 40Gb/s. The proposed approach shows great potential...... for future high data rate optical access networks....

  20. Two orthogonal carriers assisted 101-Gb/s dual-band DDO-OFDM transmission over 320-km SSMF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yiqin; Hu, Rong; Yang, Qi; Luo, Ming; Yu, Shaohua; Li, Wei

    2015-05-04

    We propose a novel fading-free direct-detection optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (DDO-OFDM) scheme for 100-Gb/s medium-reach transmission. In the proposed scheme, we adopts two bands spaced at 100-GHz to accommodate the same complex-valued OFDM signal. However, the signals are coupled with a pair of orthogonal optical carriers. By doing so, real and imaginary parts of the complex-valued OFDM signal can be recovered from the two bands, respectively. We also propose a cost-effective scheme to generate such DDO-OFDM signal using an optical 90-degree hybrid and an optical I/Q modulator. The advantage of the proposed method is that it is fading-free, and the electrical spectral efficiency (SE) is doubled compared to traditional direct-detection method. Finally, we experimentally demonstrated a 101-Gb/s dual-band transmission over 320-km SSMF within only 30-GHz electrical bandwidth, which is highly competitive in both capacity and cost.

  1. Fiber Nonlinearity Post-Compensation by Optical Phase Conjugation for 40Gb/s CO-OFDM Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao Yao-Jun; Liu Xue-Jun; Ji Yue-Feng

    2011-01-01

    Fiber nonlinearity impairments in a 40-Gb/s coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (COOFDM) system are post-compensated for by a new method of fiber nonlinearity post-compensation (FNPC). The FNPC located before the CO-OFDM receiver includes an optical phase conjugation (OPC) unit and a subsequent 80-km-high nonlinear fiber (HNLF) as a fiber nonlinearity compensator. The OPC unit is based on a four wave mixing effect in a semiconductor optical amplifier. The fiber nonlinearity impairments in the transmission link are post-compensated for after OPC by transmission through the HNLF with a large nonlinearity coefficient. Simulation results show that the nonlinear threshold (NLT) (for Q > 10 dB) can be increased by about 2.5 dB and the maximum Q factor is increased by about 1.2 dB for the single-channel 40-Gb/s CO-OFDM system with periodic dispersion maps. In the 50-GHz channel spacing wavelength-division-multiplexing system, the NLT increases by 1.1 dB, equating to a 0.7 dB improvement for the maximum Q factor. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  2. 112 Gb/s sub-cycle 16-QAM Nyquist-SCM for intra-datacenter connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakopoulos, Paraskevas; Dris, Stefanos; Argyris, Nikolaos; Spatharakis, Christos; Avramopoulos, Hercules

    2016-03-01

    Datacenter traffic is exploding. Ongoing advancements in network infrastructure that ride on Moore's law are unable to keep up, necessitating the introduction of multiplexing and advanced modulation formats for optical interconnects in order to overcome bandwidth limitations, and scale lane speeds with energy- and cost-efficiency to 100 Gb/s and beyond. While the jury is still out as to how this will be achieved, schemes relying on intensity modulation with direct detection (IM/DD) are regarded as particularly attractive, due to their inherent implementation simplicity. Moreover, the scaling-out of datacenters calls for longer transmission reach exceeding 300 m, requiring single-mode solutions. In this work we advocate using 16-QAM sub-cycle Nyquist-SCM as a simpler alternative to discrete multitone (DMT), but which is still more bandwidth-efficient than PAM-4. The proposed optical interconnect is demonstrated at 112 Gb/s, which, to the best of our knowledge, is the highest rate achieved in a single-polarization implementation of SCM. Off-the-shelf components are used: A DFB laser, a 24.3 GHz electro-absorption modulator (EAM) and a limiting photoreceiver, combined with equalization through digital signal processing (DSP) at the receiver. The EAM is driven by a low-swing (components; matched root-raised-cosine transmit and receive filters with 0.1 excess bandwidth are thus employed. Performance is assessed through transmission experiments over 1250 m and 2000 m of SMF.

  3. Electrical and functional characterisation with single chips and module prototypes of the 1.2 Gb/s serial data link of the monolithic active pixel sensor for the upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System

    CERN Document Server

    Bonora, Matthias; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca; Hillemanns, Hartmut; Kim, Daehyeok; Kugathasan, Thanushan; Lattuca, Alessandra; Mazza, Giovanni; Sielewicz, Krzysztof Marek; Snoeys, Walter

    2017-01-01

    The upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System uses a newly developed monolithic active pixel sensor (ALPIDE) which will populate seven tracking layers surrounding the interaction point. Chips communicate with the readout electronics using a 1.2 Gb/s data link and a 40 Mb/s bidirectional control link. Event data are transmitted to the readout electronics over microstrips on a Flexible Printed Circuit and a 6 m long twinaxial cable. This paper outlines the characterisation effort for assessing the Data Transmission Unit performance of single sensors and prototypes of the detector modules. It describes the different prototypes used, the test system and procedures, and results of laboratory and irradiation tests.

  4. 107.5 Gb/s 850 nm multi- and single-mode VCSEL transmission over 10 and 100 m of multi-mode fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puerta Ramírez, Rafael; Agustin, M.; Chorchos, L.

    2016-01-01

    First time successful 107.5 Gb/s MultiCAP 850 nm OM4 MMF transmissions over 10 m with multi-mode VCSEL and up to 100 m with single-mode VCSEL are demonstrated, with BER below 7% overhead FEC limit measured for each case.......First time successful 107.5 Gb/s MultiCAP 850 nm OM4 MMF transmissions over 10 m with multi-mode VCSEL and up to 100 m with single-mode VCSEL are demonstrated, with BER below 7% overhead FEC limit measured for each case....

  5. Modified hybrid subcarrier/amplitude/ phase/polarization LDPC-coded modulation for 400 Gb/s optical transmission and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batshon, Hussam G; Djordjevic, Ivan; Xu, Lei; Wang, Ting

    2010-06-21

    In this paper, we present a modified coded hybrid subcarrier/ amplitude/phase/polarization (H-SAPP) modulation scheme as a technique capable of achieving beyond 400 Gb/s single-channel transmission over optical channels. The modified H-SAPP scheme profits from the available resources in addition to geometry to increase the bandwidth efficiency of the transmission system, and so increases the aggregate rate of the system. In this report we present the modified H-SAPP scheme and focus on an example that allows 11 bits/Symbol that can achieve 440 Gb/s transmission using components of 50 Giga Symbol/s (GS/s).

  6. 428-Gb/s single-channel coherent optical OFDM transmission over 960-km SSMF with constellation expansion and LDPC coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qi; Al Amin, Abdullah; Chen, Xi; Ma, Yiran; Chen, Simin; Shieh, William

    2010-08-02

    High-order modulation formats and advanced error correcting codes (ECC) are two promising techniques for improving the performance of ultrahigh-speed optical transport networks. In this paper, we present record receiver sensitivity for 107 Gb/s CO-OFDM transmission via constellation expansion to 16-QAM and rate-1/2 LDPC coding. We also show the single-channel transmission of a 428-Gb/s CO-OFDM signal over 960-km standard-single-mode-fiber (SSMF) without Raman amplification.

  7. First Demonstration of Real-Time End-to-End 40 Gb/s PAM-4 System using 10-G Transmitter for Next Generation Access Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Jinlong; Eiselt, Nicklas; Griesser, Helmut

    We demonstrate the first known experiment of a real-time end-to-end 40-Gb/s PAM-4 system for next generation access applications using 10G class transmitters only. Up to 25-dB upstream link budget for 20 km SMF is achieved.......We demonstrate the first known experiment of a real-time end-to-end 40-Gb/s PAM-4 system for next generation access applications using 10G class transmitters only. Up to 25-dB upstream link budget for 20 km SMF is achieved....

  8. Experimental 2.5-Gb/s QPSK WDM phase-modulated radio-over-fiber link with digital demodulation by a K-means algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerrero Gonzalez, Neil; Zibar, Darko; Caballero Jambrina, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Highest reported bit rate of 2.5 Gb/s for optically phase modulated radio-over-fiber (RoF) link, employing digital coherent detection, is demonstrated. Demodulation of 3$,times,$ 2.5 Gb/s quadrature phase-shift keying modulated wavelength-division-multiplexed RoF channels is achieved after 79 km ...... of transmission through deployed fiber. Error-free performance (bit-error rate corresponding to $10^{{-}4}$) is achieved using a digital coherent receiver in combination with a $K$-means algorithm for radio-frequency phase recovery....

  9. Power budget improvement of symmetric 40 Gb/s TWDM based PON2 system utilizing DMLs and DCF technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindhaiq, Salem; Zulkifli, Nadiatulhuda; Supa'at, Abu Sahmah M.; Idrus, Sevia M.; Salleh, M. S.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we propose to use optical dispersion compensation based on the widely deployed compensating fiber (DCF) employing directly modulated lasers (DMLs) to improve the power budget in a symmetric 40 Gb/s time and wavelength division multiplexed-passive optical network (TWDM-PON) systems. The DML output waveforms in terms of output optical power, bandwidth enhancement factor (α) characteristics are investigated in order to minimize the effect of DML chirp and improve the transmission performance. Simulation results show dispersion compensation of up to 140 km of SMF with power budget of 56.6 dB and less than 2 dB dispersion penalty. The feasibility of bandwidth enhancement factor and power budget is also investigated. The simulation results indicate sufficient dispersion compensation for TWDM-PON based on DML transmission, which may vary considerably in their practical demonstration due to different system characterization.

  10. A CMOS 0.13 mu m, 5-Gb/s laser driver for high energy physics applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mazza, G; Moreira, P; Rivetti, A; Soos, C; Troska, J; Wyllie, K

    2012-01-01

    The GigaBit Laser Driver (GBLD) is a radiation tolerant ASIC designed to drive both edge emitting lasers and VCSELs at data rates up to 5 Gb/s. It is part of the GigaBit Transceiver (GBT) and Versatile Link projects, which are designing a bi-directional optical data transmission system capable of operating in the radiation environment of a typical HEP experiment. The GBLD can provide laser diode modulation currents up to 24 mA and laser bias currents up to 43 mA. Pre- and de-emphasis functions are implemented to compensate for high external capacitive loads and asymmetric laser response. The chip, designed in a 0.13 $\\mu$m CMOS technology, is powered by a single 2.5 V power supply and can be programmed via an $I2C$ interface.

  11. Optical Backplane Based on Ring-Resonators: Scalability and Performance Analysis for 10 Gb/s OOK-NRZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Rizzelli

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of architectures that implement optical switching without any need of optoelectronic conversion allows us to overcome the limits imposed by today’s electronic backplane, such as power consumption and dissipation, as well as power supply and footprint requirements. We propose a ring-resonator based optical backplane for router line-card interconnection. In particular we investigate how the scalability of the architecture is affected by the following parameters: number of line cards, switching-element round-trip losses, frequency drifting due to thermal variations, and waveguide-crossing effects. Moreover, to quantify the signal distortions introduced by filtering operations, the bit error rate for the different parameter conditions are shown in case of an on-off keying non-return-to-zero (OOK-NRZ input signal at 10 Gb/s.

  12. 40-Gb/s PAM4 with low-complexity equalizers for next-generation PON systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xizi; Zhou, Ji; Guo, Mengqi; Qi, Jia; Hu, Fan; Qiao, Yaojun; Lu, Yueming

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate 40-Gb/s four-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM4) transmission with 10 GHz devices and low-complexity equalizers for next-generation passive optical network (PON) systems. Simple feed-forward equalizer (FFE) and decision feedback equalizer (DFE) enable 20 km fiber transmission while high-complexity Volterra algorithm in combination with FFE and DFE can extend the transmission distance to 40 km. A simplified Volterra algorithm is proposed for reducing computational complexity. Simulation results show that the simplified Volterra algorithm reduces up to ∼75% computational complexity at a relatively low cost of only 0.4 dB power budget. At a forward error correction (FEC) threshold of 10-3 , we achieve 31.2 dB and 30.8 dB power budget over 40 km fiber transmission using traditional FFE-DFE-Volterra and our simplified FFE-DFE-Volterra, respectively.

  13. Bandwidth efficient bidirectional 5 Gb/s overlapped-SCM WDM PON with electronic equalization and forward-error correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buset, Jonathan M; El-Sahn, Ziad A; Plant, David V

    2012-06-18

    We demonstrate an improved overlapped-subcarrier multiplexed (O-SCM) WDM PON architecture transmitting over a single feeder using cost sensitive intensity modulation/direct detection transceivers, data re-modulation and simple electronics. Incorporating electronic equalization and Reed-Solomon forward-error correction codes helps to overcome the bandwidth limitation of a remotely seeded reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA)-based ONU transmitter. The O-SCM architecture yields greater spectral efficiency and higher bit rates than many other SCM techniques while maintaining resilience to upstream impairments. We demonstrate full-duplex 5 Gb/s transmission over 20 km and analyze BER performance as a function of transmitted and received power. The architecture provides flexibility to network operators by relaxing common design constraints and enabling full-duplex operation at BER ∼ 10(-10) over a wide range of OLT launch powers from 3.5 to 8 dBm.

  14. 40-Gb/s PDM-QPSK signal transmission over 160-m wireless distance at W-band.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jiangnan; Yu, Jianjun; Li, Xinying; Xu, Yuming; Zhang, Ziran; Chen, Long

    2015-03-15

    We experimentally demonstrate a W-band optical-wireless transmission system over 160-m wireless distance with a bit rate up to 40 Gb/s. The optical-wireless transmission system adopts optical polarization-division-multiplexing (PDM), multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) reception and antenna polarization diversity. Using this system, we experimentally demonstrate the 2×2 MIMO wireless delivery of 20- and 40-Gb/s PDM quadrature-phase-shift-keying (PDM-QPSK) signals over 640- and 160-m wireless links, respectively. The bit-error ratios (BERs) of these transmission systems are both less than the forward-error-correction (FEC) threshold of 3.8×10-3.

  15. 25-Gb/s transmission over 2.5-km SSMF by silicon MRR enhanced 1.55-μm III-V/SOI DML

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cristofori, Valentina; Da Ros, Francesco; Ozolins, Oskars

    2017-01-01

    The use of a micro-ring resonator (MRR) to enhance the modulation extinction ratio and dispersion tolerance of a directly modulated laser (DML) is experimentally investigated with a bit rate of 25 Gb/s as proposed for the next generation data center communications. The investigated system combines...

  16. 25-Gb/s Transmission Over 2.5-km SSMF by Silicon MRR Enhanced 1.55-mu m III-V/SOI DML

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cristofori, Valentina; Da Ros, Francesco; Ozolins, Oskars

    2017-01-01

    The use of a micro-ring resonator (MRR) to enhance the modulation extinction ratio and dispersion tolerance of a directly modulated laser is experimentally investigated with a bit rate of 25 Gb/s as proposed for the next generation data center communications. The investigated system combines a 11...

  17. Error-free Dispersion-uncompensated Transmission at 20 Gb/s over SSMF using a Hybrid III-V/SOI DML with MRR Filtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cristofori, Valentina; Kamchevska, Valerija; Ding, Yunhong

    2016-01-01

    Error-free 20-Gb/s directly-modulated transmission is achieved by enhancing the dispersion tolerance of a III-V/SOI DFB laser with a silicon micro-ring resonator. Low (∼0.4 dB) penalty compared to back-to-back without ring is demonstrated after 5-km SSMF....

  18. 16 Gb/s QPSK Wireless-over-Fibre Link in 75-110GHz Band Employing Optical Heterodyne Generation and Coherent Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibar, Darko; Sambaraju, Rakesh; Caballero Jambrina, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    We report on the first demonstration of QPSK based Wireless-over-Fibre link in 75-110GHz band with a record capacity of up to 16Gb/s. Photonic wireless signal generation by heterodyne beating of free-running lasers and baud-rate digital coherent detection are employed....

  19. A 30 Gb/s full-duplex bi-directional transmission optical wireless-over fiber integration system at W-band.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chanjuan; Yu, Jianjun; Li, Xinying; Chi, Nan; Xiao, Jiangnan; Tian, Yumin; Zhang, Junwen

    2014-01-13

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a full-duplex bi-directional transmission optical wireless-over fiber integration system at W-band (75-100 GHz) with the speed up to 15 Gb/s for both 95.4 GHz link and 88.6 GHz link for the first time. The generation of millimeter-wave (mm-wave) wireless signal is based on the photonic technique by heterodyne mixing of an optical quadrature-phase-shift-keying (QPSK) signal with a free-running light at different wavelength. After 20 km fiber transmission, up to 30 Gb/s mm-wave signal is delivered over 2 m wireless link, and then converted to the optical signal for another 20 km fiber transmission. At the wireless receiver, coherent detection and advanced digital signal processing (DSP) are introduced to improve receiver sensitivity and system performance. With the OSNR of 15 dB, the bit error ratios (BERs) for 10 Gb/s signal transmission at 95.4 GHz and 88.6 GHz are below the forward-error-correction (FEC) threshold of 3.8 × 10(-3) whether post filter is used or not, while the BER for 15 Gb/s QPSK signal employing post filter in the link of 95.4 GHz is 2.9 × 10(-3).

  20. 3.125 Gb/s impulse radio ultra-wideband photonic generation and distribution Over a 50 km Fiber With Wireless Transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibbon, Timothy Braidwood; Yu, Xianbin; Gamatham, Romeo

    2010-01-01

    A 3.125 Gb/s photonic impulse radio ultra-wideband signal is created using the incoherent optical field summation resulting from the cross gain modulation of an uncooled distributed feedback laser injected with an external cavity laser. After 50 km of fiber and wireless transmission over 2.9-3.3-m...

  1. A fully-integrated 12.5-Gb/s 850-nm CMOS optical receiver based on a spatially-modulated avalanche photodetector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, M.J.; Youn, J.S.; Park, K.Y.; Choi, W.Y.

    2014-01-01

    We present a fully integrated 12.5-Gb/s optical receiver fabricated with standard 0.13-µm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology for 850-nm optical interconnect applications. Our integrated optical receiver includes a newly proposed CMOS-compatible spatially-modulated avalanche

  2. Population genetics, phylogenomics and hybrid speciation of Juglans in China determined from whole chloroplast genomes, transcriptomes, and genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng Zhao; Hui-Juan Zhou; Daniel Potter; Yi-Heng Hu; Xiao-Jia Feng; Meng Dang; Li Feng; Saman Zulfiqar; Wen-Zhe Liu; Gui-Fang Zhao; Keith Woeste

    2018-01-01

    Genomic data are a powerful tool for elucidating the processes involved in the evolution and divergence of species. The speciation and phylogenetic relationships among Chinese Juglans remain unclear. Here, we used results from phylogenomic and population genetic analyses, transcriptomics, Genotyping-By-Sequencing (GBS), and whole chloroplast...

  3. High Time-Resolution 640-Gb/s Clock Recovery Using Time-Domain Optical Fourier Transformation and Narrowband Optical Filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, P.; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen; Kasai, K.

    2010-01-01

    We present a novel scheme for subharmonic clock recovery from an optical time-division-multiplexing signal using time-domain optical Fourier transformation and a narrowband optical filter. High-resolution 640-Gb/s clock recovery is successfully demonstrated with no pattern dependence. The clock...

  4. Wavelength conversion of a 40 Gb/s RZ-DPSK signal using four-wave mixing in a dispersion-flattened highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Andreas; Tokle, Torger; Geng, Yan

    2005-01-01

    Wavelength conversion of a 40-Gb/s return-to-zero differential phase-shift keying signal is demonstrated in a highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber (HNL-PCF) for the first time. A conversion efficiency of -20 dB for a pump power of 23 dBm and a conversion bandwidth of 31 nm, essentially limited...

  5. 38.2-Gb/s Optical-Wireless Transmission in 75-110 GHz Based on Electrical OFDM with Optical Comb Expansion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Lei; Pang, Xiaodan; Beltrán, Marta

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate scalable optical comb- and heterodyning-based generation, optical and 1.3-m wireless transmission, and electrical heterodyne detection of multiband OFDM up to 38.2 Gb/s occupying 14.4-GHz RF bandwidth, for high-capacity optical-wireless links in 75-110 GHz....

  6. Performance Comparison of 112-Gb/s DMT, Nyquist PAM4, and Partial-Response PAM4 for Future 5G Ethernet-Based Fronthaul Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiselt, Nicklas; Muench, Daniel; Dochhan, Annika; Griesser, Helmut; Eiselt, Michael; Olmos, Juan Jose Vegas; Monroy, Idelfonso Tafur; Elbers, Joerg-Peter

    2018-05-01

    For a future 5G Ethernet-based fronthaul architecture, 100G trunk lines of a transmission distance up to 10 km standard single mode fiber (SSMF) in combination with cheap grey optics to daisy chain cell site network interfaces are a promising cost- and power-efficient solution. For such a scenario, different intensity modulation and direct detect (IMDD) Formats at a data rate of 112 Gb/s, namely Nyquist four-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM4), discrete multi-tone Transmission (DMT) and partial-response (PR) PAM4 are experimentally investigated, using a low-cost electro-absorption modulated laser (EML), a 25G driver and current state-of-the-art high Speed 84 GS/s CMOS digital-to-analog converter (DAC) and analog-to-digital converter (ADC) test chips. Each modulation Format is optimized independently for the desired scenario and their digital signal processing (DSP) requirements are investigated. The performance of Nyquist PAM4 and PR PAM4 depend very much on the efficiency of pre- and post-equalization. We show the necessity for at least 11 FFE-taps for pre-emphasis and up to 41 FFE coefficients at the receiver side. In addition, PR PAM4 requires an MLSE with four states to decode the signal back to a PAM4 signal. On the contrary, bit- and power-loading (BL, PL) is crucial for DMT and an FFT length of at least 512 is necessary. With optimized parameters, all Modulation formats result in a very similar performances, demonstrating a transmission distance of up to 10 km over SSMF with bit error rates (BERs) below a FEC threshold of 4.4E-3, allowing error free transmission.

  7. Polarization-insensitive all-optical wavelength conversion of 320 Gb/s RZ-DQPSK signals using a Ti:PPLN waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Hao; Nouroozi, R.; Ludwig, R.

    2010-01-01

    Polarization-insensitive wavelength conversion of a single channel 320 Gb/s RZ-DQPSK data signal using a Ti:PPLN waveguide in a bi-directional loop configuration with less than 0.5 dB polarization sensitivity is reported. The conversion efficiency with polarization scrambling of the signal was -2...... little broadening and chirping, indicating the potential for wavelength conversion of even much higher data rates.......Polarization-insensitive wavelength conversion of a single channel 320 Gb/s RZ-DQPSK data signal using a Ti:PPLN waveguide in a bi-directional loop configuration with less than 0.5 dB polarization sensitivity is reported. The conversion efficiency with polarization scrambling of the signal was -21...

  8. VCSEL Transmission at 10 Gb/s for 20 km Single Mode Fiber WDM-PON without Dispersion Compensation or Injection Locking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibbon, Timothy Braidwood; Prince, Kamau; Pham, Tien Thang

    2011-01-01

    how off-center wavelength filtering of the VCSEL spectrum at an array waveguide grating can be used to mitigate the effect of chirp and the dispersion penalty. Transmission at 10Gb/s VCSEL over 23.6 km of single mode fiber is experimentally demonstrated, with a dispersion penalty of only 2.9 d......B. Simulated results are also presented which show that off-center wavelength filtering can extend the 10 Gb/s network reach from 11.7 km to 25.8 km for a 4 dB dispersion penalty. This allows for cheap and simple dispersion mitigation in next generation VCSEL based optical access networks....

  9. A fully-integrated 12.5-Gb/s 850-nm CMOS optical receiver based on a spatially-modulated avalanche photodetector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myung-Jae; Youn, Jin-Sung; Park, Kang-Yeob; Choi, Woo-Young

    2014-02-10

    We present a fully integrated 12.5-Gb/s optical receiver fabricated with standard 0.13-µm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology for 850-nm optical interconnect applications. Our integrated optical receiver includes a newly proposed CMOS-compatible spatially-modulated avalanche photodetector, which provides larger photodetection bandwidth than previously reported CMOS-compatible photodetectors. The receiver also has high-speed CMOS circuits including transimpedance amplifier, DC-balanced buffer, equalizer, and limiting amplifier. With the fabricated optical receiver, detection of 12.5-Gb/s optical data is successfully achieved at 5.8 pJ/bit. Our receiver achieves the highest data rate ever reported for 850-nm integrated CMOS optical receivers.

  10. Continuous-wave operation and 10-Gb/s direct modulation of InAsP/InP sub-wavelength nanowire laser on silicon photonic crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Takiguchi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrated sub-wavelength (∼111 nm diameter single nanowire (NW continuous wave (CW lasers on silicon photonic crystal in the telecom-band with direct modulation at 10 Gb/s by optical pumping at cryogenic temperatures. To estimate the small signal response and pseudo-random bit sequence (PRBS modulation of our CW lasers, we employed a new signal detection technique that employs a superconducting single photon detector and a time-correlated single photon counting module. The results showed that our NW laser was unambiguously modulated at above 10 Gb/s and an open eye pattern was obtained. This is the first demonstration of a telecom-band CW NW laser with high-speed PRBS modulation.

  11. On-demand virtual optical network access using 100 Gb/s Ethernet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Osamu; Takamichi, Toru; Arai, Sachine; Kawate, Ryusuke; Toyoda, Hidehiro; Morita, Itsuro; Araki, Soichiro; Ichikawa, Toshiyuki; Hoshida, Takeshi; Murai, Hitoshi

    2011-12-12

    Our Terabit LAN initiatives attempt to enhance the scalability and utilization of lambda resources. This paper describes bandwidth-on-demand virtualized 100GE access to WDM networks on a field fiber test-bed using multi-domain optical-path provisioning. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  12. Seamless integration of 57.2-Gb/s signal wireline transmission and 100-GHz wireless delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinying; Yu, Jianjun; Dong, Ze; Cao, Zizheng; Chi, Nan; Zhang, Junwen; Shao, Yufeng; Tao, Li

    2012-10-22

    We experimentally demonstrated the seamless integration of 57.2-Gb/s signal wireline transmission and 100-GHz wireless delivery adopting polarization-division-multiplexing quadrature-phase-shift-keying (PDM-QPSK) modulation with 400-km single-mode fiber-28 (SMF-28) transmission and 1-m wireless delivery. The X- and Y-polarization components of optical PDM-QPSK baseband signal are simultaneously up-converted to 100 GHz by optical polarization-diversity heterodyne beating, and then independently transmitted and received by two pairs of transmitter and receiver antennas, which make up a 2x2 multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) wireless link based on microwave polarization multiplexing. At the wireless receiver, a two-stage down conversion is firstly done in analog domain based on balanced mixer and sinusoidal radio frequency (RF) signal, and then in digital domain based on digital signal processing (DSP). Polarization de-multiplexing is realized by constant modulus algorithm (CMA) based on DSP in heterodyne coherent detection. Our experimental results show that more taps are required for CMA when the X- and Y-polarization antennas have different wireless distance.

  13. 73.7 Tb/s (96x3x256-Gb/s) mode-division-multiplexed DP-16QAM transmission with inline MM-EDFA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleiffer, V.A.J.M.; Jung, Y.; Veljanovski, V.; Uden, van R.G.H.; Kuschnerov, M.; Kang, Q.; Grüner-Nielsen, L.; Sun, Y.; Richardson, D.J.; Alam, S.U.; Poletti, F.; Sahu, J.K.; Dhar, A.; Chen, H.; Inan, B.; Koonen, A.M.J.; Corbett, B.; Winfield, R.; Ellis, A.D.; Waardt, de H.

    2012-01-01

    We show transmission of a 73.7 Tb/s (96x3x256-Gb/s) DP-16QAM mode-division- multiplexed signal over 119km of few-mode fiber with inline multi-mode EDFA, using 6x6 MIMO digital signal processing. The total demonstrated net capacity is 57.6 Tb/s (SE 12 bits/s/Hz).

  14. 45% power saving in a 0.25μm BiCMOS 10Gb/s 50Ω-terminated packaged active-load laser driver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayranci, E.; Christensen, K.; Andreani, Pietro

    2007-01-01

    A 0.25μm BiCMOS laser driver based on active loads allows operation at 10Gb/s while drawing 5mA from a 1.8V supply. The design guarantees the correct matching of the driver outputs without the use of physical 50Ω load resistors. This enables a theoretical current consumption reduction of 50% (45...

  15. A 3.125-Gb/s inductorless transimpedance amplifier for optical communication in 0.35 μm CMOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Hui; Feng Jun; Liu Quan; Li Wei

    2011-01-01

    A 3.125-Gb/s transimpedance amplifier (TIA) for an optical communication system is realized in 0.35 μm CMOS technology. The proposed TIA employs a regulated cascode configuration as the input stage, and adopts DC-cancellation techniques to stabilize the DC operating point. In addition, noise optimization is processed. The on-wafer measurement results show the transimpedance gain of 54.2 dBΩ and −3 dB bandwidth of 2.31 GHz. The measured average input referred noise current spectral density is about 18.8 pA/√Hz. The measured eye diagram is clear and symmetrical for 2.5-Gb/s and 3.125-Gb/s PRBS. Under a single 3.3-V supply voltage, the TIA consumes only 58.08 mW, including 20 mW from the output buffer. The whole die area is 465 × 435 μm 2 . (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  16. A 2.5-Gb/s fully-integrated, low-power clock and recovery circuit in 0.18-{mu}m CMOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Changchun; Wang Zhigong; Shi Si; Guo Yufeng, E-mail: zgwang@seu.edu.c [Institute of RF- and OE-ICs, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2010-03-15

    Based on the devised system-level design methodology, a 2.5-Gb/s monolithic bang-bang phase-locked clock and data recovery (CDR) circuit has been designed and fabricated in SMIC's 0.18-{mu}m CMOS technology. The Pottbaecker phase frequency detector and a differential 4-stage inductorless ring VCO are adopted, where an additional current source is added to the VCO cell to improve the linearity of the VCO characteristic. The CDR has an active area of 340 x 440 {mu}m{sup 2}, and consumes apower of only about 60 mW from a 1.8 V supply voltage, with an input sensitivity of less than 25 mV, and an output single-ended swing of more than 300 mV It has a pull-in range of 800 MHz, and a phase noise of -111.54 dBc/Hz at 10 kHz offset. The CDR works reliably at any input data rate between 1.8 Gb/s and 2.6 Gb/s without any need for reference clock, off-chip tuning, or external components. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  17. Novel pre-equalization transimpedance amplifier for 10 Gb/s optical interconnects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Qiwei; Mao Luhong; Xie Sheng; Kang Yuzhuo

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a modified regulated cascode (RGC) transimpedance amplifier (TIA) with a novel pre-equalized technique. The pre-equalized circuit employed the broadband series inductive π-network and G m -boosting technique. The introduction of this technique compensates the transferred signal at the input port of the TIA without an increase in power dissipation. Furthermore, a novel miller capacitance degeneration method is designed in the gain stage for further bandwidth improvement. The TIA is realized in UMC 0.18 πm CMOS technology and tested with an on-chip 0.3 pF capacitor to emulate a photodetector (PD). The measured transimpedance gain amounts to 57 dBΩ with a −3 dB bandwidth of about 8.2 GHz and consumes only 22 mW power from a single 1.8 V supply. (paper)

  18. Monolithically integrated quantum dot optical gain modulator with semiconductor optical amplifier for 10-Gb/s photonic transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Naokatsu; Akahane, Kouichi; Umezawa, Toshimasa; Kawanishi, Tetsuya

    2015-03-01

    Short-range interconnection and/or data center networks require high capacity and a large number of channels in order to support numerous connections. Solutions employed to meet these requirements involve the use of alternative wavebands to increase the usable optical frequency range. We recently proposed the use of the T- and O-bands (Thousand band: 1000-1260 nm, Original band: 1260-1360 nm) as alternative wavebands because large optical frequency resources (>60 THz) can be easily employed. In addition, a simple and compact Gb/s-order high-speed optical modulator is a critical photonic device for short-range communications. Therefore, to develop an optical modulator that acts as a highfunctional photonic device, we focused on the use of self-assembled quantum dots (QDs) as a three-dimensional (3D) confined structure because QD structures are highly suitable for realizing broadband optical gain media in the T+O bands. In this study, we use the high-quality broadband QD optical gain to develop a monolithically integrated QD optical gain modulator (QD-OGM) device that has a semiconductor optical amplifier (QD-SOA) for Gb/s-order highspeed optical data generation in the 1.3-μm waveband. The insertion loss of the device can be compensated through the SOA, and we obtained an optical gain change of up to ~7 dB in the OGM section. Further, we successfully demonstrate a 10-Gb/s clear eye opening using the QD-OGM/SOA device with a clock-data recovery sequence at the receiver end. These results suggest that the monolithic QD-EOM/SOA is suitable for increasing the number of wavelength channels for smart short-range communications.

  19. The Comparison of Two Types of Treatment (High Dose and Low Dose IVIG in Children with GBS in Mofid Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaneh Karim-Zadeh

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Acute inflammatory demyelinating peripheral neuropathy (Guillain-Barre-Syndrome is by far the most common cause of immune–mediated peripheral nerve disease in children and with the near disappearance of poliomyelitis, is responsible for the great majority of cases of acute flaccid paralysis. Several controlled studies have done with corticosteroids, plasma pheresis and IVIG in pediatric patients. IVIG treatment can be done in two types of treatment: 1- High dose that means 1gr/kg/day for 2 days. 2- Low dose that means 400mg/kg/day for 5 days. Several studies in other countries have shown faster rate of recovery in patients who received total dose of IVIG in 2 days as opposed to 5 days. Materials & Methods: Because we have not any study about this two types of treatment in IRAN we decided to comparison this two types of IVIG treatment. So the patients that referred to Mofid children hospital for weakness and we diagnosed GBS (with history, physical examination, laboratories and EMG-NCV are divided in two groups: 1- High dose IVIG treatment (experimental group. 2- Low dose IVIG treatment (control group Then the results evaluated. Results: Our findings included that in high dose IVIG therapy we have faster rate of recovery and the Hospital stay is shorter than low dose IVIG-therapy. Also in this type of treatment “because the patients cure faster” , so complications are decreased in them. In the group of high dose IVIG therapy, lower and upper extremities weakness decreased in time. Conclusion: We did not receive any relationship between side effects of drugs and the type of treatment. The relationship between high dose IVIG therapy and drug side effects was not significant.

  20. Grain Boundary Sliding (GBS) as a Plastic Instability Leading to Coeval Pseudotachylyte Development in Mylonites: an EBSD Study of the Seismic Cycle in Brittle-Ductile Transition Rocks of the South Mountains Core Complex, Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, E.; Stewart, C.

    2017-12-01

    Exposures of coeval pseudotachylytes and mylonites are relatively rare, but are crucial for understanding the seismic cycle in the vicinity of the brittle-ductile transition (BDT). We use both field observations and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis to investigate the coeval pseudotachylytes and granodiorite mylonites exposed in the footwall of the South Mountains core complex, Arizona, to evaluate how strain is localized both prior to and during pseudotachylyte development at the BDT. In the field, we observe numerous pseudotachylyte veins oriented parallel to mylonitic foliation; the veins have synthetic shear sense with adjacent mylonites, and are < 2 cm thick, laterally discontinuous, and confined to a few m in structural thickness. EBSD analysis reveals that deformation is strongly partitioned into quartz in mylonites, where quartz shows subgrain rotation overprinted by bulging recrystallization microstructures and lattice preferred orientation (LPO) patterns indicative of dislocation creep. Foliation-parallel zones of finely recrystallized, (< 5 μm diameter) bulge-nucleated grains in the mylonites show four-grain junctions and randomized LPO patterns consistent with grain boundary sliding (GBS). Pseudotachylyte veins have elongate polycrystalline quartz survivor clasts that also exhibit GBS traits, suggesting that pseudotachylytes form within GBS zones in mylonites. We interpret the onset of GBS as a triggering mechanism for coeval pseudotachylyte development, where the accompanying decrease in effective viscosity and increase in strain rate initiated seismic slip and pseudotachylyte formation within GBS zones. Strain became localized within the pseudotachylyte until crystallization of melt impeded flow, inducing pseudotachylyte development in other GBS zones. We associate the pseudotachylyte veins and host mylonites with the coseismic and interseismic parts of the seismic cycle, respectively, where the abundance and lateral discontinuity of

  1. GBS IOTE Feed Measurements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Borge, T

    2001-01-01

    ...) package on UHF Follow-on (UFO) satellites, flights 8, 9, and 10. This terminal has been transferred to Lincoln Laboratory through the Milsatcom Joint Program Office at the USAF Space and Missile Center (AFSMC...

  2. Challenges and Ideas to Achieve Wireless 100 Gb/s Transmission: An Overview of Challenges and Solutions within the German Research Foundation (DFG) Special Priority Program SPP1655

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Rolf

    2017-09-01

    Wireless communications is one of the fastest growing technology fields, driving numerous other innovations in electronics. One challenging research area within the wireless field is to achieve much higher transmission rates. First products with up to 3 Gb/s are in the market. In the coming years we predict this speed growing quickly up to and beyond 100 Gb/s. Today it is an open question how we can realize a wireless system at this speed. If we intend to use such systems in a mobile environment, we can only afford to spend approximately 1-10 pW/b for the end-to-end communication. This includes RF-transmission and all processing and protocol steps. The SPP1655 of the DFG was set up to investigate new paradigms for achieving the 100 Gb/s wireless transmission goal. Within 11 coordinated projects researchers from all over Germany are addressing several relevant issues ranging from the antennas and RF-Frontend, baseband-processing and error correction to protocol processing. A number of limitations of current approaches have to be investigated and new algorithms must be found in order to achieve the intended goal. One of the big challenges is finding the correct balance between analog and digital signal processing to achieve an extremely high performance at very low energy consumption. Another challenge is to find a good balance between bandwidth and bandwidth efficiency to achieve the 100 Gbps goal. Finally, protocol processing will need new approaches to decouple the central processor of a computer from the high-end input/output operations. Within this editorial we will address the main challenges and briefly outline the approaches of the running projects. The rest of this special issue will be devoted to more detailed descriptions and achievements of the individual projects of SPP1655.

  3. Dual-polarization multi-band optical OFDM transmission and transceiver limitations for up to 500 Gb/s uncompensated long-haul links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacoumidis, E; Jarajreh, M A; Sygletos, S; Le, S T; Farjady, F; Tsokanos, A; Hamié, A; Pincemin, E; Jaouën, Y; Ellis, A D; Doran, N J

    2014-05-05

    A number of critical issues for dual-polarization single- and multi-band optical orthogonal-frequency division multiplexing (DP-SB/MB-OFDM) signals are analyzed in dispersion compensation fiber (DCF)-free long-haul links. For the first time, different DP crosstalk removal techniques are compared, the maximum transmission-reach is investigated, and the impact of subcarrier number and high-level modulation formats are explored thoroughly. It is shown, for a bit-error-rate (BER) of 10(-3), 2000 km of quaternary phase-shift keying (QPSK) DP-MB-OFDM transmission is feasible. At high launched optical powers (LOP), maximum-likelihood decoding can extend the LOP of 40 Gb/s QPSK DP-SB-OFDM at 2000 km by 1.5 dB compared to zero-forcing. For a 100 Gb/s DP-MB-OFDM system, a high number of subcarriers contribute to improved BER but at the cost of digital signal processing computational complexity, whilst by adapting the cyclic prefix length the BER can be improved for a low number of subcarriers. In addition, when 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (16QAM) is employed the digital-to-analogue/analogue-to-digital converter (DAC/ADC) bandwidth is relaxed with a degraded BER; while the 'circular' 8QAM is slightly superior to its 'rectangular' form. Finally, the transmission of wavelength-division multiplexing DP-MB-OFDM and single-carrier DP-QPSK is experimentally compared for up to 500 Gb/s showing great potential and similar performance at 1000 km DCF-free G.652 line.

  4. Identification of loci governing eight agronomic traits using a GBS-GWAS approach and validation by QTL mapping in soya bean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonah, Humira; O'Donoughue, Louise; Cober, Elroy; Rajcan, Istvan; Belzile, François

    2015-02-01

    Soya bean is a major source of edible oil and protein for human consumption as well as animal feed. Understanding the genetic basis of different traits in soya bean will provide important insights for improving breeding strategies for this crop. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was conducted to accelerate molecular breeding for the improvement of agronomic traits in soya bean. A genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) approach was used to provide dense genome-wide marker coverage (>47,000 SNPs) for a panel of 304 short-season soya bean lines. A subset of 139 lines, representative of the diversity among these, was characterized phenotypically for eight traits under six environments (3 sites × 2 years). Marker coverage proved sufficient to ensure highly significant associations between the genes known to control simple traits (flower, hilum and pubescence colour) and flanking SNPs. Between one and eight genomic loci associated with more complex traits (maturity, plant height, seed weight, seed oil and protein) were also identified. Importantly, most of these GWAS loci were located within genomic regions identified by previously reported quantitative trait locus (QTL) for these traits. In some cases, the reported QTLs were also successfully validated by additional QTL mapping in a biparental population. This study demonstrates that integrating GBS and GWAS can be used as a powerful complementary approach to classical biparental mapping for dissecting complex traits in soya bean. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Effects of correlations between particle longitudinal positions and transverse plane on bunch length measurement: a case study on GBS electron LINAC at ELI-NP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabato, L.; Arpaia, P.; Cianchi, A.; Liccardo, A.; Mostacci, A.; Palumbo, L.; Variola, A.

    2018-02-01

    In high-brightness LINear ACcelerators (LINACs), electron bunch length can be measured indirectly by a radio frequency deflector (RFD). In this paper, the accuracy loss arising from non-negligible correlations between particle longitudinal positions and the transverse plane (in particular the vertical one) at RFD entrance is analytically assessed. Theoretical predictions are compared with simulation results, obtained by means of ELEctron Generation ANd Tracking (ELEGANT) code, in the case study of the gamma beam system (GBS) at the extreme light infrastructure—nuclear physics (ELI-NP). In particular, the relative error affecting the bunch length measurement, for bunches characterized by both energy chirp and fixed correlation coefficients between longitudinal particle positions and the vertical plane, is reported. Moreover, the relative error versus the correlation coefficients is shown for fixed RFD phase 0 rad and π rad. The relationship between relative error and correlations factors can help the decision of using the bunch length measurement technique with one or two vertical spot size measurements in order to cancel the correlations contribution. In the case of the GBS electron LINAC, the misalignment of one of the quadrupoles before the RFD between  -2 mm and 2 mm leads to a relative error less than 5%. The misalignment of the first C-band accelerating section between  -2 mm and 2 mm could lead to a relative error up to 10%.

  6. A 6.25 Gb/s equalizer in 0.18 μm CMOS technology for high-speed SerDes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Mingke; Hu Qingsheng

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a 0.18 μm CMOS 6.25 Gb/s equalizer for high speed backplane communication. The proposed equalizer is a combined one consisting of a one-tap feed-forward equalizer (FFE) and a two-tap half-rate decision feedback equalizer (DFE) in order to cancel both pre-cursor and post-cursor ISI. By employing an active-inductive peaking circuit for the delay line, the bandwidth of the FFE is increased and the area cost is minimized. CML-based circuits such as DFFs, summers and multiplexes all help to improve the speed of DFEs. Measurement results illustrate that the equalizer operates well when equalizing 6.25 Gb/s data is passed over a 30-inch channel with a loss of 22 dB and consumes 55.8 mW with the supply voltage of 1.8 V. The overall chip area including pads is 0.3 × 0.5 mm 2 . (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  7. Enhanced noise tolerance for 10 Gb/s Bi-directional cross-wavelength reuse colorless WDM-PON by using spectrally shaped OFDM signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Pallab K.

    2018-05-01

    Spectrally shaped orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signal for symmetric 10 Gb/s cross-wavelength reuse reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA) based colorless wavelength division multiplexed passive optical network (WDM-PON) is proposed and further analyzed to support broadband services of next generation high speed optical access networks. The generated OFDM signal has subcarriers in separate frequency ranges for downstream and upstream, such that the re-modulation noise can be effectively minimized in upstream data receiver. Moreover, the cross wavelength reuse approach improves the tolerance against Rayleigh backscattering noise due to the propagation of different wavelengths in the same feeder fiber. The proposed WDM-PON is successfully demonstrated for 25 km fiber with 16-QAM (quadrature amplitude modulation) OFDM signal having bandwidth of 2.5 GHz for 10 Gb/s operation and subcarrier frequencies in 3-5.5 GHz and DC-2.5 GHz for downstream (DS) and upstream (US) transmission respectively. The result shows that the proposed scheme maintains a good bit error rate (BER) performance below the forward error correction (FEC) limit of 3.8 × 10-3 at acceptable receiver sensitivity and provides a high resilience against re-modulation and Rayleigh backscattering noises as well as chromatic dispersion.

  8. Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers.......Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers....

  9. 2 × 64 Gb/s PAM-4 transmission over 70 km SSMF using O-band 18G-class directly modulated lasers (DMLs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fan; Zhou, Shiwei; Li, Xiang; Fu, Songnian; Deng, Lei; Tang, Ming; Liu, Deming; Yang, Qi

    2017-04-03

    We experimentally demonstrate 2 × 64 Gb/s PAM-4 transmission over a 70 km standard single-mode fiber (SSMF) using two O-band 18G-class directly modulated lasers (DMLs). Only one praseodymium-doped fiber amplifier (PDFA) at the receiver side is used to compensate the transmission loss. Meanwhile, transmission impairments are compensated by a sparse Volterra filter (SVF) equalizer, which can achieve similar system performance but with half the computational complexity (CC), in comparison with a traditional VF equalizer. Finally, we optimize the insignificant factor (IF) of SVF to identify the trade-off between the transmission performance and the CC. Thus, the redundancy of individual SVF kernels can be reasonably removed.

  10. 100-Gb/s 80-km transmission of PIM-SSB-OFDM at C-band using a single-end photodetector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Jiahao; Zhou, Xian; Zhong, Kangping; Gui, Tao; Tan, Fengze; Tu, Jiajing; Yuan, Jinhui; Zhang, Hongyu; Long, Keping; Yu, Changyuan; Lau, Alan Pak Tao; Lu, Chao

    2017-10-01

    Polarization-interleave-multiplexed (PIM) with single-sideband orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (SSB-OFDM) based on direct detection is proposed for short-reach applications transmitted up to 80 km in which the guard band can be shared for the two SSB signals with interleave electrical center frequencies. Based on two dual-drive Mach-Zehnder modulators with one single-end photodetector (PD), 100-Gb/s PIM-SSB-OFDM transmission over a 80-km standard single-mode fiber is successfully demonstrated. After 80-km transmission, the optical signal-to-noise ratio requirement is 29.1 dB with respect to the bit error rate threshold of 7% hard decision-forward error correction overhead.

  11. Scaling up a CMS tier-3 site with campus resources and a 100 Gb/s network connection: what could go wrong?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Li, Wenzhao; Hurtado Anampa, Kenyi; Tovar, Benjamin; Brenner, Paul; Lannon, Kevin; Hildreth, Mike; Thain, Douglas

    2017-10-01

    The University of Notre Dame (ND) CMS group operates a modest-sized Tier-3 site suitable for local, final-stage analysis of CMS data. However, through the ND Center for Research Computing (CRC), Notre Dame researchers have opportunistic access to roughly 25k CPU cores of computing and a 100 Gb/s WAN network link. To understand the limits of what might be possible in this scenario, we undertook to use these resources for a wide range of CMS computing tasks from user analysis through large-scale Monte Carlo production (including both detector simulation and data reconstruction.) We will discuss the challenges inherent in effectively utilizing CRC resources for these tasks and the solutions deployed to overcome them.

  12. Experimental demonstration of 24-Gb/s CAP-64QAM radio-over-fiber system over 40-GHz mm-wave fiber-wireless transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junwen; Yu, Jianjun; Chi, Nan; Li, Fan; Li, Xinying

    2013-11-04

    We propose and demonstrate a novel CAP-ROF system based on multi-level carrier-less amplitude and phase modulation (CAP) 64QAM with high spectrum efficiency for mm-wave fiber-wireless transmission. The performance of novel CAP modulation with high order QAM, for the first time, is investigated in the mm-wave fiber-wireless transmission system. One I/Q modulator is used for mm-wave generation and base-band signal modulation based on optical carrier suppression (OCS) and intensity modulation. Finally, we demonstrated a 24-Gb/s CAP-64QAM radio-over-fiber (ROF) system over 40-km stand single-mode-fiber (SMMF) and 1.5-m 38-GHz wireless transmission. The system operation factors are also experimentally investigated.

  13. Full-duplex bidirectional transmission of 10-Gb/s millimeter-wave QPSK signal in E-band optical wireless link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yuan; Yu, Jianjun; Chi, Nan; Xiao, Jiangnan

    2014-01-27

    We experimentally demonstrated full-duplex bidirectional transmission of 10-Gb/s millimeter-wave (mm-wave) quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) signal in E-band (71-76 GHz and 81-86 GHz) optical wireless link. Single-mode fibers (SMF) are connected at both sides of the antenna for uplink and downlink which realize 40-km SMF and 2-m wireless link for bidirectional transmission simultaneously. We utilized multi-level modulation format and coherent detection in such E-band optical wireless link for the first time. Mm-wave QPSK signal is generated by photonic technique to increase spectrum efficiency and received signal is coherently detected to improve receiver sensitivity. After the coherent detection, digital signal processing is utilized to compensate impairments of devices and transmission link.

  14. An integrated 12.5-Gb/s optoelectronic receiver with a silicon avalanche photodetector in standard SiGe BiCMOS technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Jin-Sung; Lee, Myung-Jae; Park, Kang-Yeob; Rücker, Holger; Choi, Woo-Young

    2012-12-17

    An optoelectronic integrated circuit (OEIC) receiver is realized with standard 0.25-μm SiGe BiCMOS technology for 850-nm optical interconnect applications. The OEIC receiver consists of a Si avalanche photodetector, a transimpedance amplifier with a DC-balanced buffer, a tunable equalizer, and a limiting amplifier. The fabricated OEIC receiver successfully detects 12.5-Gb/s 2(31)-1 pseudorandom bit sequence optical data with the bit-error rate less than 10(-12) at incident optical power of -7 dBm. The OEIC core has 1000 μm x 280 μm chip area, and consumes 59 mW from 2.5-V supply. To the best of our knowledge, this OEIC receiver achieves the highest data rate with the smallest sensitivity as well as the best power efficiency among integrated OEIC receivers fabricated with standard Si technology.

  15. Wide range operation of regenerative optical parametric wavelength converter using ASE-degraded 43-Gb/s RZ-DPSK signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Mingyi; Kurumida, Junya; Namiki, Shu

    2011-11-07

    For sustainable growth of the Internet, wavelength-tunable optical regeneration is the key to scaling up high energy-efficiency dynamic optical path networks while keeping the flexibility of the network. Wavelength-tunable optical parametric regenerator (T-OPR) based on the gain saturation effect of parametric amplification in a highly nonlinear fiber is promising for noise reduction in phase-shift keying signals. In this paper, we experimentally evaluated the T-OPR performance for ASE-degraded 43-Gb/s RZ-DPSK signals over a 20-nm input wavelength range between 1527 nm and 1547 nm. As a result, we achieved improved power penalty performance for the regenerated idler with a proper pump power range.

  16. Experimental Demonstration of 84 Gb/s PAM-4 Over up to 1.6 km SSMF Using a 20-GHz VCSEL at 1525 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiselt, Nicklas; Griesser, Helmut; Wei, Jinlong

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate 84-Gb/s four-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM-4) over up to 1.6-km standard single mode fiber using a 20-GHz single mode short cavity vertical cavity surface emitting laser diode at a transmission wavelength of 1525 nm. Different equalizer approaches including a common...... feedforward equalizer, a nonlinear Volterra equalizer (NLVE), a maximum likelihood sequence estimator (MLSE) and their combinations are evaluated working either as an equalizer for a standard PAM-4 or a partial response PAM-4 signal with seven levels. It is demonstrated that a standard FFE is not enough...... for a transmission distance of >0.6 km, while the use of an NLVE or FFE + MLSE is able to improve the transmission distance towards 1 km. The use of partial-response PAM-4 FFE in combination with a short memory MLSE is able to efficiently equalize the bandwidth limitations, showing more than 10-times BER improvement...

  17. 3.375-Gb/s RGB-LED based WDM visible light communication system employing PAM-8 modulation with phase shifted Manchester coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Nan; Zhang, Mengjie; Zhou, Yingjun; Zhao, Jiaqi

    2016-09-19

    Optical background noise and second-order nonlinear distortions are two main challenges faced by indoor high-speed VLC system. In this paper, a novel phase shifted Manchester (PS-Manchester) coding based on PAM-8 is proposed and experimentally demonstrated to mitigate these noise and distortions. With the aid of PS-Manchester coding and WDM, a total data rate of 3.375-Gb/s can be successfully achieved in the RGB-LED based VLC system. The BER is under 7% HD-FEC limit of 3.8x10-3 after 1-m indoor free space transmission. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest data rate ever achieved in PAM VLC systems.

  18. “Direct modulation of a hybrid III-V/Si DFB laser with MRR filtering for 22.5-Gb/s error-free dispersion-uncompensated transmission over 2.5-km SSMF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cristofori, Valentina; Da Ros, Francesco; Ding, Yunhong

    2016-01-01

    Error-free and penalty-free transmission over 2.5 km SSMF of a 22.5 Gb/s data signal from a directly modulated hybrid III-V/Si DFB laser is achieved by enhancing the dispersion tolerance using a silicon micro-ring resonator....

  19. The application of GBS markers for extending the dense genetic map of rye (Secale cereale L.) and the localization of the Rfc1 gene restoring male fertility in plants with the C source of sterility-inducing cytoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milczarski, Paweł; Hanek, Monika; Tyrka, Mirosław; Stojałowski, Stefan

    2016-11-01

    Genotyping by sequencing (GBS) is an efficient method of genotyping in numerous plant species. One of the crucial steps toward the application of GBS markers in crop improvement is anchoring them on particular chromosomes. In rye (Secale cereale L.), chromosomal localization of GBS markers has not yet been reported. In this paper, the application of GBS markers generated by the DArTseq platform for extending the high-density map of rye is presented. Additionally, their application is used for the localization of the Rfc1 gene that restores male fertility in plants with the C source of sterility-inducing cytoplasm. The total number of markers anchored on the current version of the map is 19,081, of which 18,132 were obtained from the DArTseq platform. Numerous markers co-segregated within the studied mapping population, so, finally, only 3397 unique positions were located on the map of all seven rye chromosomes. The total length of the map is 1593 cM and the average distance between markers is 0.47 cM. In spite of the resolution of the map being not very high, it should be a useful tool for further studies of the Secale cereale genome because of the presence on this map of numerous GBS markers anchored for the first time on rye chromosomes. The Rfc1 gene was located on high-density maps of the long arm of the 4R chromosome obtained for two mapping populations. Genetic maps were composed of DArT, DArTseq, and PCR-based markers. Consistent mapping results were obtained and DArTs tightly linked to the Rfc1 gene were successfully applied for the development of six new PCR-based markers useful in marker-assisted selection.

  20. Construction of High Density Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L. Linkage Maps Using Microsatellite Markers and SNPs Detected by Genotyping-by-Sequencing (GBS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Guajardo

    Full Text Available Linkage maps are valuable tools in genetic and genomic studies. For sweet cherry, linkage maps have been constructed using mainly microsatellite markers (SSRs and, recently, using single nucleotide polymorphism markers (SNPs from a cherry 6K SNP array. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS, a new methodology based on high-throughput sequencing, holds great promise for identification of high number of SNPs and construction of high density linkage maps. In this study, GBS was used to identify SNPs from an intra-specific sweet cherry cross. A total of 8,476 high quality SNPs were selected for mapping. The physical position for each SNP was determined using the peach genome, Peach v1.0, as reference, and a homogeneous distribution of markers along the eight peach scaffolds was obtained. On average, 65.6% of the SNPs were present in genic regions and 49.8% were located in exonic regions. In addition to the SNPs, a group of SSRs was also used for construction of linkage maps. Parental and consensus high density maps were constructed by genotyping 166 siblings from a 'Rainier' x 'Rivedel' (Ra x Ri cross. Using Ra x Ri population, 462, 489 and 985 markers were mapped into eight linkage groups in 'Rainier', 'Rivedel' and the Ra x Ri map, respectively, with 80% of mapped SNPs located in genic regions. Obtained maps spanned 549.5, 582.6 and 731.3 cM for 'Rainier', 'Rivedel' and consensus maps, respectively, with an average distance of 1.2 cM between adjacent markers for both 'Rainier' and 'Rivedel' maps and of 0.7 cM for Ra x Ri map. High synteny and co-linearity was observed between obtained maps and with Peach v1.0. These new high density linkage maps provide valuable information on the sweet cherry genome, and serve as the basis for identification of QTLs and genes relevant for the breeding of the species.

  1. High Density Linkage Map Construction and Mapping of Yield Trait QTLs in Maize (Zea mays) Using the Genotyping-by-Sequencing (GBS) Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chengfu; Wang, Wei; Gong, Shunliang; Zuo, Jinghui; Li, Shujiang; Xu, Shizhong

    2017-01-01

    Increasing grain yield is the ultimate goal for maize breeding. High resolution quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping can help us understand the molecular basis of phenotypic variation of yield and thus facilitate marker assisted breeding. The aim of this study is to use genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) for large-scale SNP discovery and simultaneous genotyping of all F2 individuals from a cross between two varieties of maize that are in clear contrast in yield and related traits. A set of 199 F2 progeny derived from the cross of varieties SG-5 and SG-7 were generated and genotyped by GBS. A total of 1,046,524,604 reads with an average of 5,258,918 reads per F2 individual were generated. This number of reads represents an approximately 0.36-fold coverage of the maize reference genome Zea_mays.AGPv3.29 for each F2 individual. A total of 68,882 raw SNPs were discovered in the F2 population, which, after stringent filtering, led to a total of 29,927 high quality SNPs. Comparative analysis using these physically mapped marker loci revealed a higher degree of synteny with the reference genome. The SNP genotype data were utilized to construct an intra-specific genetic linkage map of maize consisting of 3,305 bins on 10 linkage groups spanning 2,236.66 cM at an average distance of 0.68 cM between consecutive markers. From this map, we identified 28 QTLs associated with yield traits (100-kernel weight, ear length, ear diameter, cob diameter, kernel row number, corn grains per row, ear weight, and grain weight per plant) using the composite interval mapping (CIM) method and 29 QTLs using the least absolute shrinkage selection operator (LASSO) method. QTLs identified by the CIM method account for 6.4% to 19.7% of the phenotypic variation. Small intervals of three QTLs (qCGR-1, qKW-2, and qGWP-4) contain several genes, including one gene (GRMZM2G139872) encoding the F-box protein, three genes (GRMZM2G180811, GRMZM5G828139, and GRMZM5G873194) encoding the WD40-repeat protein, and

  2. Experimental study of 112 Gb/s short reach transmission employing PAM formats and SiP intensity modulator at 1.3 μm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagnon, Mathieu; Osman, Mohamed; Poulin, Michel; Latrasse, Christine; Gagné, Jean-Frédéric; Painchaud, Yves; Paquet, Carl; Lessard, Stéphane; Plant, David

    2014-08-25

    We present a Silicon Photonic (SiP) intensity modulator operating at 1.3 μm with pulse amplitude modulation formats for short reach transmission employing a digital to analog converter for the RF signal generator, enabling pulse shaping and precompensation of the transmitter's frequency response. Details of the SiP Mach-Zehnder interfometer are presented. We study the system performance at various bit rates, PAM orders and propagation distances. To the best of our knowledge, we report the first demonstration of a 112 Gb/s transmission over 10 km of SMF fiber operating below pre-FEC BER threshold of 3.8 × 10(-3) employing PAM-8 at 37.4 Gbaud using a fully packaged SiP modulator. An analytical model for the Q-factor metric applicable for multilevel PAM-N signaling is derived and accurately experimentally verified in the case of Gaussian noise limited detection. System performance is experimentally investigated and it is demonstrated that PAM order selection can be optimally chosen as a function of the desired throughput. We demonstrate the ability of the proposed transmitter to exhibit software-defined transmission for short reach applications by selecting PAM order, symbol rate and pulse shape.

  3. Population genetics, phylogenomics and hybrid speciation of Juglans in China determined from whole chloroplast genomes, transcriptomes, and genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Peng; Zhou, Hui-Juan; Potter, Daniel; Hu, Yi-Heng; Feng, Xiao-Jia; Dang, Meng; Feng, Li; Zulfiqar, Saman; Liu, Wen-Zhe; Zhao, Gui-Fang; Woeste, Keith

    2018-04-18

    Genomic data are a powerful tool for elucidating the processes involved in the evolution and divergence of species. The speciation and phylogenetic relationships among Chinese Juglans remain unclear. Here, we used results from phylogenomic and population genetic analyses, transcriptomics, Genotyping-By-Sequencing (GBS), and whole chloroplast genomes (Cp genome) data to infer processes of lineage formation among the five native Chinese species of the walnut genus (Juglans, Juglandaceae), a widespread, economically important group. We found that the processes of isolation generated diversity during glaciations, but that the recent range expansion of J. regia, probably from multiple refugia, led to hybrid formation both within and between sections of the genus. In southern China, human dispersal of J. regia brought it into contact with J. sigillata, which we determined to be an ecotype of J. regia that is now maintained as a landrace. In northern China, walnut hybridized with a distinct lineage of J. mandshurica to form J. hopeiensis, a controversial taxon (considered threatened) that our data indicate is a horticultural variety. Comparisons among whole chloroplast genomes and nuclear transcriptome analyses provided conflicting evidence for the timing of the divergence of Chinese Juglans taxa. J. cathayensis and J. mandshurica are poorly differentiated based our genomic data. Reconstruction of Juglans evolutionary history indicate that episodes of climatic variation over the past 4.5 to 33.80 million years, associated with glacial advances and retreats and population isolation, have shaped Chinese walnut demography and evolution, even in the presence of gene flow and introgression. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A 1.2 Gb/s Data Transmission Unit in CMOS 0.18 μm technology for the ALICE Inner Tracking System front-end ASIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, G.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Benotto, F.; Corrales Morales, Y.; Kugathasan, T.; Lattuca, A.; Lupi, M.; Ravasenga, I.

    2017-02-01

    The upgrade of the ALICE Inner Tracking System is based on a Monolithic Active Pixel Sensor and ASIC designed in a CMOS 0.18 μ m process. In order to provide the required output bandwidth (1.2 Gb/s for the inner layers and 400 Mb/s for the outer ones) on a single high speed serial link, a custom Data Transmission Unit (DTU) has been developed in the same process. The DTU includes a clock multiplier PLL, a double data rate serializer and a pseudo-LVDS driver with pre-emphasis and is designed to be SEU tolerant.

  5. Testing Testing Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deville, Craig; O'Neill, Thomas; Wright, Benjamin D.; Woodcock, Richard W.; Munoz-Sandoval, Ana; Gershon, Richard C.; Bergstrom, Betty

    1998-01-01

    Articles in this special section consider (1) flow in test taking (Craig Deville); (2) testwiseness (Thomas O'Neill); (3) test length (Benjamin Wright); (4) cross-language test equating (Richard W. Woodcock and Ana Munoz-Sandoval); (5) computer-assisted testing and testwiseness (Richard Gershon and Betty Bergstrom); and (6) Web-enhanced testing…

  6. A 1550-nm all-optical VCSEL-to-VCSEL wavelength conversion of a 8.5-Gb/s data signal and transmission over a 24.7-km fibre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiyo, D. Kiboi; Isoe, G. M.; Gamatham, R. R. G.; Leitch, A. W. R.; Gibbon, T. B.

    2016-02-01

    For the first time, we demonstrate, VCSEL-to-VCSEL wavelength conversion within the low attenuation 1550 nm window, including transmission over fibre and bit error rate (BER) performance characterization. We experimentally demonstrate a low injection power optical wavelength conversion by injecting an optical beam from a signal carrier master vertical cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) into the side-mode of the slave VCSEL. This technique solves the challenge of wavelength collisions and also provides wavelength re-use in typical wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) systems. This paper, for the first time, uses two 1550 nm VCSELs with tunability range of 3 nm for a 5-9.8 mA bias current. The master VCSEL is modulated with a non-return-to-zero (NRZ) pseudo-random binary sequence (PRBS_27-1) 8.5 Gb/s data. A data conversion penalty of 1.1 dB is realized when a 15 dBm injection beam is used. The transmission performance of the converted wavelength from the slave VCSEL is evaluated using BER measurement at a 10-9 threshold. A 0.5 dB transmission penalty of the converted wavelength data is realized in an 8.5 Gb/s transmission over 24.7 km. This work is vital for optical fibre systems that may require wavelength switching for transmission of data signals.

  7. Evaluación de la diversidad genética de la Monastrell, una variedad antigua en la provincia de Alicante (España mediante Genotipado por Secuenciación (GBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteras C.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Monastrell variety, also known as Mourvèdre, is cultivated mainly in the southeast of Spain in more than 45,000 ha. It is an ancient variety, whose origins are not known with certainty, highly adapted to the dry and warm climate of the southeast Spanish. The existence of a great clonal diversity is well known but, although some clonal selection programs have been carried out (Murcia, Bandol, etc., the genetic diversity has not been evaluated to date. The measure of this diversity is urgent, since very old vines have been plucked in recent years. We have initiated a project to estimate the genetic diversity of the conserved clones of this variety through GBS (Genotyping by Sequencing. To carry out this analysis, a survey was carried out covering the whole area of Monastrell cultivation in the Alicante Denomination of Origin (D.O.. We selected 46 vines from 46 different vineyards, always prioritizing the oldest vines at each sampling site. The GBS has allowed us to obtain between 0.54 and 1.17 million of reads per sample, of which between 73 and 78% have been mapped to the reference genome developed by the French-Italian consortium (vvinifera.IGGP 12x with a mapping quality above threshold. More than 100,000 SNPs have been identified, ranging from 14,000 to 43,000 per sample, with a coverage greater than 10X. A high percentage of these variants are polymorphic among Monastrell clones, confirming the existence of significant levels of genetic diversity. In addition, this analysis provides a high number of high quality SNPs well distributed across the genome, suitable for clone genotyping, which will allow the design of strategies to optimize its conservation and use.

  8. Performance Comparison of 112 Gb/s DMT, Nyquist PAM4 and Partial-Response PAM4 for Future 5G Ethernet-based Fronthaul Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiselt, Nicklas; Muench, Daniel; Dochhan, Annika

    2018-01-01

    (EML), a 25G driver and current state-of-the-art high speed 84 GS/s CMOS digital-to-analog converter (DAC) and analog-to-digital converter (ADC) test chips. Each modulation format is optimized independently for the desired scenario and their digital signal processing (DSP) requirements are investigated...

  9. Design and test performance of the ATLAS Feature Extractor trigger boards for the Phase-1 Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00222228; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    In Run 3, the ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger will be augmented by an Electron Feature Extractor (eFEX), to identify isolated e/g and particles, and a Jet Feature Extractor (jFEX), to identify energetic jets and calculate various local energy sums. Each module accommodates more than 450 differential signals that can operate at up to 12.8 Gb/s, some of which are routed over 30 cm between FPGAs. Presented here are the module designs, the processes that have been adopted to meet the challenges associated with multi-Gb/s PCB design, and the results of tests that characterize the performance of these modules.

  10. Design of a trigger layout and the corresponding implementation of a 200 GB/s readout network for the ALICE transition radiation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Rolf

    2008-01-01

    Through the use of modern information technology, intelligent trigger systems are gaining more and more importance in high-energy physics. Particularly in heavy ion experiments, the large number of generated particles results in an enormous amount of data. By filtering the data at an early stage and discarding irrelevant events, the efficiency of the entire system can be raised significantly. The ALICE experiment at CERN breaks new ground in this respect. With the Transition Radiation Detector, the acquired signals are processed parallel right on the detector using more than 65 000 multi-chip modules. Via a readout network, the preprocessed data arrives at a global track reconstruction unit, which contributes to the decision whether an event is discarded or further processed. In this thesis, a trigger concept for the Transition Radiation Detector is developed and the readout network is implemented. A special challenge is to achieve an efficient interaction of the above processing stages. By means of simulations and analyses, the entire system is optimized in this regard. It turns out that the read-out process plays a decisive role. In this context, a design flow for the used ASIC is developed. The analyses show that through optimizations the extremely high demands made on this complex system can be met. During a beam time, first prototypes have successfully been tested. The entire system is currently being assembled and will be brought on line in 2008. (orig.)

  11. Natural outbreak of Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) infection in wild giant Queensland grouper, Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch), and other wild fish in northern Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowater, R O; Forbes-Faulkner, J; Anderson, I G; Condon, K; Robinson, B; Kong, F; Gilbert, G L; Reynolds, A; Hyland, S; McPherson, G; Brien, J O'; Blyde, D

    2012-03-01

    Ninety-three giant Queensland grouper, Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch), were found dead in Queensland, Australia, from 2007 to 2011. Most dead fish occurred in northern Queensland, with a peak of mortalities in Cairns in June 2008. In 2009, sick wild fish including giant sea catfish, Arius thalassinus (Rüppell), and javelin grunter, Pomadasys kaakan (Cuvier), also occurred in Cairns. In 2009 and 2010, two disease epizootics involving wild stingrays occurred at Sea World marine aquarium. Necropsy, histopathology, bacteriology and PCR determined that the cause of deaths of 12 giant Queensland grouper, three wild fish, six estuary rays, Dasyatis fluviorum (Ogilby), one mangrove whipray, Himantura granulata (Macleay), and one eastern shovelnose ray, Aptychotrema rostrata (Shaw), was Streptococcus agalactiae septicaemia. Biochemical testing of 34 S. agalactiae isolates from giant Queensland grouper, wild fish and stingrays showed all had identical biochemical profiles. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of isolates confirmed all isolates were S. agalactiae; genotyping of selected S. agalactiae isolates showed the isolates from giant Queensland grouper were serotype Ib, whereas isolates from wild fish and stingrays closely resembled serotype II. This is the first report of S. agalactiae from wild giant Queensland grouper and other wild tropical fish and stingray species in Queensland, Australia. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and State of Queensland.

  12. Genotyping-by-sequencing provides the first well-resolved phylogeny for coffee (Coffea) and insights into the evolution of caffeine content in its species: GBS coffee phylogeny and the evolution of caffeine content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamon, Perla; Grover, Corrinne E; Davis, Aaron P; Rakotomalala, Jean-Jacques; Raharimalala, Nathalie E; Albert, Victor A; Sreenath, Hosahalli L; Stoffelen, Piet; Mitchell, Sharon E; Couturon, Emmanuel; Hamon, Serge; de Kochko, Alexandre; Crouzillat, Dominique; Rigoreau, Michel; Sumirat, Ucu; Akaffou, Sélastique; Guyot, Romain

    2017-04-01

    A comprehensive and meaningful phylogenetic hypothesis for the commercially important coffee genus (Coffea) has long been a key objective for coffee researchers. For molecular studies, progress has been limited by low levels of sequence divergence, leading to insufficient topological resolution and statistical support in phylogenetic trees, particularly for the major lineages and for the numerous species occurring in Madagascar. We report here the first almost fully resolved, broadly sampled phylogenetic hypothesis for coffee, the result of combining genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) technology with a newly developed, lab-based workflow to integrate short read next-generation sequencing for low numbers of additional samples. Biogeographic patterns indicate either Africa or Asia (or possibly the Arabian Peninsula) as the most likely ancestral locality for the origin of the coffee genus, with independent radiations across Africa, Asia, and the Western Indian Ocean Islands (including Madagascar and Mauritius). The evolution of caffeine, an important trait for commerce and society, was evaluated in light of our phylogeny. High and consistent caffeine content is found only in species from the equatorial, fully humid environments of West and Central Africa, possibly as an adaptive response to increased levels of pest predation. Moderate caffeine production, however, evolved at least one additional time recently (between 2 and 4Mya) in a Madagascan lineage, which suggests that either the biosynthetic pathway was already in place during the early evolutionary history of coffee, or that caffeine synthesis within the genus is subject to convergent evolution, as is also the case for caffeine synthesis in coffee versus tea and chocolate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Test of a PCIe based readout option for PANDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiter, Simon; Lange, Soeren; Kuehn, Wolfgang [Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen (Germany); Engel, Heiko [Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt (Germany); Collaboration: PANDA-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The future PANDA detector will achieve an event rate at about 20 MHz resulting in a high data load of up to 200 GB/s. The data acquisition system will be based on a triggerless readout concept, leading to the requirement of large data bandwidths. The data reduction will be guaranteed on the first level by an array of FPGAs running a full on-line reconstruction followed by the second level of a CPU/GPU cluster to achieve a reduction factor more than 1000. The C-RORC (Common Readout Receiver Card), originally developed for ALICE, provides on the one hand 12 optical links with 6.25 Gbps each, and on the other hand a PCIe interface with up to 40 Gbps. The receiver card has been installed and tested, and the firmware has been adjusted for the Panda data format. Test results are presented.

  14. Prototype system tests of the Belle II PXD DAQ system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleischer, Soeren; Gessler, Thomas; Kuehn, Wolfgang; Lange, Jens Soeren; Muenchow, David; Spruck, Bjoern [II. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universitaet Giessen (Germany); Liu, Zhen' An; Xu, Hao; Zhao, Jingzhou [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Collaboration: II PXD Collaboration

    2012-07-01

    The data acquisition system for the Belle II DEPFET Pixel Vertex Detector (PXD) is designed to cope with a high input data rate of up to 21.6 GB/s. The main hardware component will be AdvancedTCA-based Compute Nodes (CN) equipped with Xilinx Virtex-5 FX70T FPGAs. The design for the third Compute Node generation was completed recently. The xTCA-compliant system features a carrier board and 4 AMC daughter boards. First test results of a prototype board will be presented, including tests of (a) The high-speed optical links used for data input, (b) The two 2 GB DDR2-chips on the board and (c) Output of data via ethernet, using UDP and TCP/IP with both hardware and software protocol stacks.

  15. Design and test performance of the ATLAS Feature Extractor trigger boards for the Phase-I Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Qian, Weiming; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    In Run 3, the ATLAS Level-1 Calorimeter Trigger will be augmented by an Electron Feature Extractor (eFEX), to identify isolated e/g and t particles, and a Jet Feature Extractor (jFEX), to identify energetic jets and calculate various local energy sums. Each module accommodates more than 420 differential signals that can operate at up to 12.8 Gb/s, some routed over 20 cm between FPGAs. Presented here are the module designs, the processes that have been adopted to meet the challenges associated with multi-Gb/s PCB design, and the results of tests that characterise the performance of these modules.

  16. Test Architecture, Test Retrofit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulcher, Glenn; Davidson, Fred

    2009-01-01

    Just like buildings, tests are designed and built for specific purposes, people, and uses. However, both buildings and tests grow and change over time as the needs of their users change. Sometimes, they are also both used for purposes other than those intended in the original designs. This paper explores architecture as a metaphor for language…

  17. Testing Significance Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim I. Krueger

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The practice of Significance Testing (ST remains widespread in psychological science despite continual criticism of its flaws and abuses. Using simulation experiments, we address four concerns about ST and for two of these we compare ST’s performance with prominent alternatives. We find the following: First, the 'p' values delivered by ST predict the posterior probability of the tested hypothesis well under many research conditions. Second, low 'p' values support inductive inferences because they are most likely to occur when the tested hypothesis is false. Third, 'p' values track likelihood ratios without raising the uncertainties of relative inference. Fourth, 'p' values predict the replicability of research findings better than confidence intervals do. Given these results, we conclude that 'p' values may be used judiciously as a heuristic tool for inductive inference. Yet, 'p' values cannot bear the full burden of inference. We encourage researchers to be flexible in their selection and use of statistical methods.

  18. Seismic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sollogoub, Pierre

    2001-01-01

    This lecture deals with: qualification methods for seismic testing; objectives of seismic testing; seismic testing standards including examples; main content of standard; testing means; and some important elements of seismic testing

  19. Schirmer test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tear test; Tearing test; Dry eye test; Basal secretion test; Sjögren - Schirmer; Schirmer's test ... used when the eye doctor suspects you have dry eye. Symptoms include dryness of the eyes or excessive ...

  20. Pinworm test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxyuriasis test; Enterobiasis test; Tape test ... diagnose this infection is to do a tape test. The best time to do this is in ... lay their eggs at night. Steps for the test are: Firmly press the sticky side of a ...

  1. Ultrasonic Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyeong Jun; Kuk, Jeong Han

    2002-02-15

    This book introduces ultrasonic testing, which tells of outline of ultrasonic testing, principle of ultrasonic testing, prosperities of ultrasonic waves, radiographic test and ultrasonic test, basic theory on ultrasonic testing, mode conversion, transmission and diffraction, ultrasonic flaw detection and probe, standard test piece and reference test piece, like KS(JIS) ASME and ASTM, classification and properties of ultrasonic testing, straight beam method, angle beam method, ASME SEC.V.Art.5 ASTMA 388 and KS B 0817 Korean industrial standard.

  2. Formability of a wrought Mg alloy evaluated by impression testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, Walid; Gollapudi, Srikant; Charit, Indrajit; Murty, K. Linga

    2018-01-17

    This study is focused on furthering our understanding of the different factors that influence the formability of Magnesium alloys. Towards this end, formability studies were undertaken on a wrought Mg-2Zn-1Mn (ZM21) alloy. In contrast to conventional formability studies, the impression testing method was adopted here to evaluate the formability parameter, B, at temperatures ranging from 298 to 473 K. The variation of B of ZM21 with temperature and its rather limited values were discussed in the light of different deformation mechanisms such as activation of twinning, slip, grain boundary sliding (GBS) and dynamic recrystallization (DRX). It was found that the material characteristics such as grain size, texture and testing conditions such as temperature and strain rate, were key determinants of the mechanism of plastic deformation. A by-product of this analysis was the observation of an interesting correlation between the Zener-Hollomon parameter, Z, and the ability of Mg alloys to undergo DRX.

  3. Trichomonas Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetic Tests for Targeted Cancer Therapy Glucose Tests Gonorrhea Testing Gram Stain Growth Hormone Haptoglobin hCG Pregnancy ... With some NAATs, samples collected for testing of gonorrhea and chlamydial infections can also be used to ...

  4. Coombs test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direct antiglobulin test; Indirect antiglobulin test; Anemia - hemolytic ... No special preparation is necessary for this test. ... There are 2 types of the Coombs test: Direct Indirect The direct ... that are stuck to the surface of red blood cells. Many diseases ...

  5. Ham test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acid hemolysin test; Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria - Ham test; PNH - Ham test ... BJ. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. Laboratory Tests and Diagnostic Procedures . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  6. Magnesium Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PF4 Antibody Hepatitis A Testing Hepatitis B Testing Hepatitis C Testing HER2/neu Herpes Testing High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP) Histamine Histone Antibody HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) HIV Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Testing, Genotypic HIV Viral Load HLA Testing HLA- ...

  7. Lipase Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PF4 Antibody Hepatitis A Testing Hepatitis B Testing Hepatitis C Testing HER2/neu Herpes Testing High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP) Histamine Histone Antibody HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) HIV Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Testing, Genotypic HIV Viral Load HLA Testing HLA- ...

  8. Rubella Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PF4 Antibody Hepatitis A Testing Hepatitis B Testing Hepatitis C Testing HER2/neu Herpes Testing High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP) Histamine Histone Antibody HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) HIV Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Testing, Genotypic HIV Viral Load HLA Testing HLA- ...

  9. Mono Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PF4 Antibody Hepatitis A Testing Hepatitis B Testing Hepatitis C Testing HER2/neu Herpes Testing High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP) Histamine Histone Antibody HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) HIV Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Testing, Genotypic HIV Viral Load HLA Testing HLA- ...

  10. AMA Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PF4 Antibody Hepatitis A Testing Hepatitis B Testing Hepatitis C Testing HER2/neu Herpes Testing High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP) Histamine Histone Antibody HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) HIV Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Testing, Genotypic HIV Viral Load HLA Testing HLA- ...

  11. Aging effects on fracture behavior of 63Sn37Pb eutectic solder during tensile tests under the SEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Ying; Wang Chunqing; Li Mingyu; Bang Hansur

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of aging treatment on fracture behavior of Sn-Pb eutectic solder alloys at different loading rate regime during tensile tests under the scanning electron microscope. In high homologous temperature, the solder exhibit the creep behavior that could be confirmed through the phenomena of grain boundary sliding (GBS) to both as-cast and aged specimens. Owing to the large grain scale after high temperature storage, boundary behavior was limited to some extent for the difficulty in grain rotation and boundary migration. Instead, drastic intragranular deformation occurred. Also, the phase coarsening weakened the combination between lead-rich phase and tin matrix. Consequently, surface fragmentation was detected for the aged specimens. Furthermore, the fracture mechanism changed from intergranular dominated to transgranular dominated with increasing loading rate to both specimens during early stage

  12. Neuropathy Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... LD) Lactoferrin Lactose Tolerance Tests LDL Cholesterol LDL Particle Testing (LDL-P) Lead Legionella Testing Leptin Levetiracetam Lipase ... tests, such as computed tomography (CT) scans or magnetic resonance imaging ... suspected, additional testing may be performed to evaluate heart rate, blood ...

  13. The prevalence of asymptomatic group B streptococcal infection and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to culture GBS and confirmation with biochemical tests and serological test were done. ... None of the isolates were resistant to erythromycin and sensitive to ... The GBS sensitivity pattern to penicillin was similar to those reported elsewhere.

  14. Pharmacogenomic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your family Plan for the future Insurance and financial planning Transition for children Emergency preparedness Testing & Services Testing ... Support Genetic Disease Information Find a Support Group Financial Planning Who Should I Tell? Genetic Testing & Counseling Compensation ...

  15. Predictive Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your family Plan for the future Insurance and financial planning Transition for children Emergency preparedness Testing & Services Testing ... Support Genetic Disease Information Find a Support Group Financial Planning Who Should I Tell? Genetic Testing & Counseling Compensation ...

  16. Syphilis Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetic Tests for Targeted Cancer Therapy Glucose Tests Gonorrhea Testing Gram Stain Growth Hormone Haptoglobin hCG Pregnancy ... treated for another sexually transmitted disease , such as gonorrhea Is pregnant, during the first prenatal visit and ...

  17. Randomization tests

    CERN Document Server

    Edgington, Eugene

    2007-01-01

    Statistical Tests That Do Not Require Random Sampling Randomization Tests Numerical Examples Randomization Tests and Nonrandom Samples The Prevalence of Nonrandom Samples in Experiments The Irrelevance of Random Samples for the Typical Experiment Generalizing from Nonrandom Samples Intelligibility Respect for the Validity of Randomization Tests Versatility Practicality Precursors of Randomization Tests Other Applications of Permutation Tests Questions and Exercises Notes References Randomized Experiments Unique Benefits of Experiments Experimentation without Mani

  18. Feasibility of using microbiology diagnostic tests of moderate or high complexity at the point - of - care in a delivery suite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, J W; Milner, P J; Edwards, E H; Daniels, J P; Khan, K S

    2012-07-01

    Point-of-care testing (POCT) is one of the fastest growing sectors of laboratory diagnostics. Most tests in routine use are haematology or biochemistry tests that are of low complexity. Microbiology POCT has been constrained by a lack of tests that are both accurate and of low complexity. We describe our experience of the practical issues around using more complex POCT for detection of Group B streptococci (GBS) in swabs from labouring women. We evaluated two tests for their feasibility in POCT: an optical immune assay (Biostar OIA Strep B, Inverness Medical, Princetown, NJ) and a PCR (IDI-Strep B, Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA), which have been categorised as being of moderate and high complexity, respectively. A total of 12 unqualified midwifery assistants (MA) were trained to undertake testing on the delivery suite. A systematic approach to the introduction and management of POC testing was used. Modelling showed that the probability of test results being available within a clinically useful timescale was high. However, in the clinical setting, we found it impossible to maintain reliable availability of trained testers. Implementation of more complex POC testing is technically feasible, but it is expensive, and may be difficult to achieve in a busy delivery suite.

  19. Test chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2009-01-01

    A test chamber for measuring electromagnetic radiation emitted by an apparatus to be tested or for exposing an apparatus to be tested to an electromagnetic radiation field. The test chamber includes a reverberation chamber made of a conductive tent fabric. To create a statistically uniform field in

  20. Tensile testing

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    A complete guide to the uniaxial tensile test, the cornerstone test for determining the mechanical properties of materials: Learn ways to predict material behavior through tensile testing. Learn how to test metals, alloys, composites, ceramics, and plastics to determine strength, ductility and elastic/plastic deformation. A must for laboratory managers, technicians, materials and design engineers, and students involved with uniaxial tensile testing. Tensile Testing , Second Edition begins with an introduction and overview of the test, with clear explanations of how materials properties are determined from test results. Subsequent sections illustrate how knowledge gained through tensile tests, such as tension properties to predict the behavior (including strength, ductility, elastic or plastic deformation, tensile and yield strengths) have resulted in improvements in materals applications. The Second Edition is completely revised and updated. It includes expanded coverage throughout the volume on a variety of ...

  1. Test quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, R.S.; Keller, A.E.

    1992-01-01

    Inservice testing of safety-related components at nuclear power plants is performed under the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (the Code). Subsections IWP and IWV of Section 11 of the Code state test method and frequency requirements for pumps and valves, respectively. Tests vary greatly in quality and frequency. This paper explores the concept of test quality and its relationship with operational readiness and preventive maintenance. This paper also considers the frequencies of component testing. Test quality is related to a test's ability to detect degradation that can cause component failure. The quality of the test depends on several factors, including specific parameters measured, system or component conditions, and instrument accuracy. The quality of some currently required tests for check valves, motor-operated valves, and pumps is also discussed. Suggestions are made to improve test quality by measuring different parameters, testing valves under load, and testing positive displacement pumps at high pressure and centrifugal pumps at high flow rate conditions. These suggestions can help to improve the level of assurance of component operational readiness gained from testing

  2. Test quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, R.S.; Keller, A.E.

    1992-01-01

    This document discusses inservice testing of safety-related components at nuclear power plants which is performed under the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (the Code). Subsections IWP and IWV of Section XI of the Code state test method and frequency requirements for pumps and valves respectively. Tests vary greatly in quality and frequency. This paper explores the concept of test quality and its relationship with operational readiness and preventive maintenance. This paper also considers the frequencies of component testing. Test quality is related to a test's ability to detect degradation that can cause component failure. The quality of the test depends on several factors, including specific parameters measured, system or component conditions, and instrument accuracy. The quality of some currently required tests for check valves, motor-operated valves, and pumps is also discussed. Suggestions are made to improve test quality by measuring different parameters, testing valves under load, and testing positive displacement pumps at high pressure and centrifugal pumps at high flow rate conditions. These suggestions can help to improve the level of assurance of component operational readiness gained from testing

  3. Randomization tests

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Edgington, Eugene S

    1980-01-01

    .... This book provides all the necessary theory and practical guidelines, such as instructions for writing computer programs, to permit experimenters to transform any statistical test into a distribution-free test...

  4. Laboratory Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & ... What are lab tests? Laboratory tests are medical devices that are intended for use on samples of blood, urine, or other tissues ...

  5. Triglycerides Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... K. Brunner & Suddarth's Handbook of Laboratory and Diagnostic Tests. 2 nd Ed, Kindle. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2014. Triglycerides; 491–2 p. Lab Tests ...

  6. Lactate Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Plasma Free Metanephrines Platelet Count Platelet Function Tests Pleural Fluid Analysis PML-RARA Porphyrin Tests Potassium Prealbumin ... ency/article/000391.htm . (2002 January, Updated). Lactate (Liquid) Reagent Set. Pointe Scientific, Inc. [On-line Reagent ...

  7. Electrolytes Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Plasma Free Metanephrines Platelet Count Platelet Function Tests Pleural Fluid Analysis PML-RARA Porphyrin Tests Potassium Prealbumin ... of potassium is found in the plasma , the liquid portion of the blood. Monitoring potassium is important ...

  8. Ferritin Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... normal" values. By comparing your test results with reference values, you and your healthcare provider can see if ... along with other iron tests , when a routine complete blood count (CBC) shows that a person's hemoglobin and hematocrit ...

  9. Cholesterol Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... artery disease. Other names for a cholesterol test: Lipid profile, Lipid panel What is it used for? If you ... Clinic [Internet]. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; c1998-2017.Cholesterol Test: Overview; 2016 Jan 12 [ ...

  10. Gonorrhea Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search Gonorrhea Testing Send Us Your Feedback Choose Topic At ... Sources Ask Us Also Known As GC Test Gonorrhea NAAT or NAT Neisseria gonorrhoeae Nucleic Acid Amplification ...

  11. Susceptibility Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marker Bicarbonate (Total CO2) Bilirubin Blood Culture Blood Gases Blood Ketones Blood Smear Blood Typing Blood Urea ... hours depending on the method used. There are commercial tests available that offer rapid susceptibility testing and ...

  12. Nationale test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    Professor Sven Erik Nordenbo og centerleder Niels Egelund, begge DPU, i samtale om nationale test.......Professor Sven Erik Nordenbo og centerleder Niels Egelund, begge DPU, i samtale om nationale test....

  13. Nationale Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    Hvad er egentlig formålet med de nationale test? Bliver eleverne klogere af at blive testet? Og er der en sammenhæng mellem bandekrig og nationale test? Fysisk medie: dpu.dk/tv......Hvad er egentlig formålet med de nationale test? Bliver eleverne klogere af at blive testet? Og er der en sammenhæng mellem bandekrig og nationale test? Fysisk medie: dpu.dk/tv...

  14. VDRL test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... confirmed with another blood test to make the diagnosis of syphilis. Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different ... broken) Alternative Names Venereal disease research ... laboratory test (VDRL) – serum. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. Laboratory Tests and Diagnostic Procedures . 6th ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier Saunders; ...

  15. Drug Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... testing, substance abuse testing, toxicology screen, tox screen, sports doping tests What is it used for? Drug screening is used to find out whether or not a person has taken a certain drug or drugs. It ... Sports organizations. Professional and collegiate athletes usually need to ...

  16. HIV Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... All Collapse All Should I get tested for HIV? CDC recommends that everyone between the ages of ...

  17. Nondestructive Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Harold [Argonne National Laboratory

    1969-01-01

    A nondestructive test is an examination of an object in any manner which will not impair the future usefulness of the object. This booklet discusses a few basic methods of nondestructive testing, and some of their characteristics. In addition, it discusses possible future methods for nondestructive testing by taking a quick look at some of the methods now under study.

  18. Ultrasonic testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Sung Jin [Sungkwunkwan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hyun Jo [Wonkwang Univ., Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-02-15

    For the proper performance of ultrasonic testing of steel welded joints, and anisotropic material it is necessary to have sound understanding on the underlying physics. To provide such an understanding, it is beneficial to have simulation tools for ultrasonic testing. In order to address such a need, we develop effective approaches to simulate angle beam ultrasonic testing with a personal computer. The simulation is performed using ultrasonic measurement models based on the computationally efficient multi-Gaussian beams. This reach will describe the developed ultrasonic testing models together with the experimental verification of their accuracy.

  19. Troponins Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lab's website in order to provide you with background information about the test(s) you had performed. You will need to return ... C, Banfi G, Guidi GC. Influence of a half-marathon run on NT-proBNP and troponin ... MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia [On-line information]. Available online ...

  20. Insulin Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hours before blood is collected, but occasionally a health practitioner may do testing when fasting is not possible, such as when a glucose tolerance test (see Glucose ) is done. In some cases, the health practitioner may request that a person fast longer ...

  1. Genetic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is often the only way to determine if symptoms could possibly be related to celiac disease. For a person who faces this situation, a negative gene test would indicate that symptoms are not the result of celiac disease. A positive gene test, however, does not diagnose ...

  2. Potassium test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyperkalemia ) may be due to: Addison disease (rare) Blood transfusion Certain medicines Crushed tissue injury Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis ... released. This may cause a falsely high result. Alternative Names Hypokalemia test; K+ Images Blood test References Mount DB. Disorders of potassium balance. ...

  3. Nationale test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundsgaard, Jeppe; Puck, Morten Rasmus

    Nationale test skubber undervisning i en forkert retning. Det er lærerne og skolelederne enige om. Men særligt skolelederne ser også muligheder for at bruge testen til at få viden om elevernes faglige kompetencer og om undervisningen. Det kommer til udtryk i rapporten Nationale test: Danske lærere...

  4. Oedometer Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Grete

    1996-01-01

    The paper describes the results of oedometer tests carried out with samples from Eemian fresh-water deposits and the methods used to determine the preconsolidation pressure from the test results. The influence of creep in the material on the apparent preconsolidation pressure is estimated from...

  5. TORCH Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parietal Cell Antibody Partial Thromboplastin Time (PTT, aPTT) Parvovirus B19 Pericardial Fluid Analysis Peritoneal Fluid Analysis Pertussis Tests ... enterovirus, Epstein-Barr virus , varicella-zoster virus , and parvovirus B19 . How is the sample collected for testing? A ...

  6. Automating Test Activities: Test Cases Creation, Test Execution, and Test Reporting with Multiple Test Automation Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Loke Mun Sei

    2015-01-01

    Software testing has become a mandatory process in assuring the software product quality. Hence, test management is needed in order to manage the test activities conducted in the software test life cycle. This paper discusses on the challenges faced in the software test life cycle, and how the test processes and test activities, mainly on test cases creation, test execution, and test reporting is being managed and automated using several test automation tools, i.e. Jira, ...

  7. Spectral Filtering Criteria for U-Band Test Light for In-Service Line Monitoring in Optical Fiber Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Nazuki; Izumita, Hisashi; Nakamura, Minoru

    2006-06-01

    In the fiber-to-the-home era, thousands of optical fibers will have to be accommodated in the central offices of optical access networks. To reduce maintenance costs and improve the service reliability of optical fiber networks, the authors must develop an optical fiber line testing system with a function for in-service line monitoring that uses a test light with a wavelength different from the communication light wavelength. To monitor an in-service line in an optical network, the effective rejection ratio of the test light must be taken into account. This ratio depends on the spectrum of the test light from the optical time-domain reflectometer and the rejection band of the filter in front of the optical network unit. The dependence of the effective rejection ratio as a function of the sideband suppression ratio (SBSR) and of the ratio of the rejection band to the bandwidth of the sideband noise d/D is clarified. When d/D =0.1 and the target effective rejection ratio of the filter is -40 dB, the SBSR and the filter loss of the termination cable must be -70 and -43 dB, respectively, or the SBSR must be -80 dB. When d/D service line monitoring for a 10-Gb/s transmission using a 1650-nm test light with an SBSR of -80 dB is also demonstrated.

  8. Trypsinogen test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... care provider about the meaning of your specific test results. What Abnormal Results ... vary in size, so it may be harder to get a blood sample from one person than another. Other risks associated with having ...

  9. Just testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, D.

    1985-01-01

    In the 1950s, most of the men who witnessed Britain's nuclear tests at Christmas Island in the Pacific were national servicemen, aged 19 or 20. Some revelled in sun and swimming, some were bored, some were too busy to be bored. How many of the twenty thousand servicemen involved in the tests suspected that they might be exposed to radiation that would reveal itself a generation later in blood and bone cancers, sterility, cataracts, or deformities in their children. The Ministry of Defence insists nobody was in danger. This book tells a different story, in the words of the servicemen, and of their medical reports, about secrets which are no longer Official. It is important not only to the victims of a government's extraordinary reluctance to face up to the tragic consequences of a programme of nuclear tests on Christmas Island and in Australia, but to anyone concerned with the damage that nuclear testing is still doing in the world today. (author)

  10. Test Ship

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U. S. Navy dedicated the decommissioned Spruance Class destroyer ex-PAUL F. FOSTER (EDD 964), Test Ship, primarily for at sea demonstration of short range weapon...

  11. Injection Tests

    CERN Document Server

    Kain, V

    2009-01-01

    The success of the start-up of the LHC on 10th of September was in part due to the preparation without beam and injection tests in 2008. The injection tests allowed debugging and improvement in appropriate portions to allow safe, efficient and state-of-the-art commissioning later on. The usefulness of such an approach for a successful start-up becomes obvious when looking at the problems we encountered before and during the injection tests and could solve during this period. The outline of the preparation and highlights of the different injection tests will be presented and the excellent performance of many tools discussed. A list of shortcomings will follow, leading to some planning for the preparation of the run in 2009.

  12. Fungal Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Wu, A. (2006). Tietz Clinical Guide to Laboratory Tests, Fourth Edition. Saunders Elsevier, St. Louis, Missouri. Pp 1569, 1570, 1532, 1616. Forbes, B. et. al. (© 2007). Bailey & Scott's Diagnostic Microbiology, Twelfth Edition: Mosby Elsevier Press, St. Louis, Missouri. ...

  13. PTH Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gregory C. Sephel PhD FACB MT(ASCP). Lab Tests Online adjunct board member. Director Clinical Pathology, VA TN Valley Healthcare System; Associate Professor Pathology, Microbiology, Immunology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine. Sources Used ...

  14. Phosphorus Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be seen with increased intake of the mineral, hypocalcemia , and with kidney dysfunction. Someone with a mild ... usually detected because of the relationship with and effect on calcium levels . Calcium is routinely tested as ...

  15. Procalcitonin Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... normal" values. By comparing your test results with reference values, you and your healthcare provider can see if ... g., blood culture , urine culture ), lactate , blood gases , complete blood count (CBC) , and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis . When is ...

  16. RSV Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli Sickle Cell Tests Sirolimus Smooth Muscle Antibody (SMA) ... University Medical Center, LAB Letter [On-line newsletter]. PDF available for download at http://www.stanfordhospital.com/ ...

  17. Prenatal Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tests are considered routine — that is, almost all pregnant women receiving prenatal care get them. They include things like checking urine (pee) levels for protein, sugar, or signs of infection. Other non-routine ...

  18. Progesterone Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... replacement therapy, or help diagnose the cause of abnormal uterine bleeding When To Get Tested? At specific times during ... receiving progesterone replacement therapy; when a woman has abnormal uterine bleeding Sample Required? A blood sample drawn from a ...

  19. Testosterone Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Testing Triglycerides Troponin Tryptase Tumor Markers Uric Acid Urinalysis Urine Albumin and Albumin/Creatinine Ratio Urine Culture ... 2010) 2536–259. Centers for Disease Control Hormone Standardization website(HoST). Available online at http://www.cdc. ...

  20. Pertussis Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Conditions Not Listed? Not Listed? Acidosis and Alkalosis Adrenal Insufficiency and Addison Disease Alcoholism Allergies Alzheimer ... tested? Pertussis, commonly called whooping cough, is a respiratory infection caused by the bacteria Bordetella pertussis . These ...

  1. Tests computarizados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Fernando Prialé Z.

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available En primer lugar, se considera el impacto de las microcomputadoras en la actualidad, viéndolo como un hecho social destinado a traer profundos cambios: nos orientamos hacia una cultura informática cuyo signo es la posibilidad de tratar grandes cantidades de información. En segundo lugar; se analiza brevemente la importancia de los tests en el desarrollo de la psicología. Finalmente, se discute la posibilidad de aplicar la informática a la psicometría con el ejemplo del test de BARSIT.   The impact of microcomputers is discussed as a cultural fact that will bring profound changes in the near future: a society with an ubiquous capacity for treating big amounts of information. The importance of tests for the development of psychology is then analysed. Finaly, the possibility of applying microcomputers to psychometry is discussed trough a concrete example: The BARSIT test.

  2. VMA Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... spasms and rapid eye movements referred to as "dancing eyes, dancing feet." The VMA test may also be ordered ... a pheochromocytoma or neuroblastoma? People with a family history of multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN2), a genetic condition ...

  3. Neuropsychological testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchella, Chiara; Federico, Angela; Martini, Alice; Tinazzi, Michele; Bartolo, Michelangelo; Tamburin, Stefano

    2018-06-01

    Neuropsychological testing is a key diagnostic tool for assessing people with dementia and mild cognitive impairment, but can also help in other neurological conditions such as Parkinson's disease, stroke, multiple sclerosis, traumatic brain injury and epilepsy. While cognitive screening tests offer gross information, detailed neuropsychological evaluation can provide data on different cognitive domains (visuospatial function, memory, attention, executive function, language and praxis) as well as neuropsychiatric and behavioural features. We should regard neuropsychological testing as an extension of the neurological examination applied to higher order cortical function, since each cognitive domain has an anatomical substrate. Ideally, neurologists should discuss the indications and results of neuropsychological assessment with a clinical neuropsychologist. This paper summarises the rationale, indications, main features, most common tests and pitfalls in neuropsychological evaluation. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Testing theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casten, R F

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses some simple issues that arise in testing models, with a focus on models for low energy nuclear structure. By way of simplified examples, we illustrate some dangers in blind statistical assessments, pointing out especially the need to include theoretical uncertainties, the danger of over-weighting precise or physically redundant experimental results, the need to assess competing theories with independent and physically sensitive observables, and the value of statistical tests properly evaluated. (paper)

  5. Allergy testing - skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patch tests - allergy; Scratch tests - allergy; Skin tests - allergy; RAST test; Allergic rhinitis - allergy testing; Asthma - allergy testing; Eczema - allergy testing; Hayfever - allergy testing; Dermatitis - allergy testing; Allergy testing; ...

  6. Adaptive test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Lars Peter; Eriksen, Mette Rose

    2010-01-01

    Artikelen er en evaluering af de adaptive tests, som blev indført i folkeskolen. Artiklen sætter særligt fokus på evaluering i folkeskolen, herunder bidrager den med vejledning til evaluering, evalueringsværktøjer og fagspecifkt evalueringsmateriale.......Artikelen er en evaluering af de adaptive tests, som blev indført i folkeskolen. Artiklen sætter særligt fokus på evaluering i folkeskolen, herunder bidrager den med vejledning til evaluering, evalueringsværktøjer og fagspecifkt evalueringsmateriale....

  7. Tests computarizados

    OpenAIRE

    Prialé Z., R. Fernando

    1983-01-01

    En primer lugar, se considera el impacto de las microcomputadoras en la actualidad, viéndolo como un hecho social destinado a traer profundos cambios: nos orientamos hacia una cultura informática cuyo signo es la posibilidad de tratar grandes cantidades de información. En segundo lugar; se analiza brevemente la importancia de los tests en el desarrollo de la psicología. Finalmente, se discute la posibilidad de aplicar la informática a la psicometría con el ejemplo del test de BARSIT.   The im...

  8. Testing Hubbert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, Adam R.

    2007-01-01

    The Hubbert theory of oil depletion, which states that oil production in large regions follows a bell-shaped curve over time, has been cited as a method to predict the future of global oil production. However, the assumptions of the Hubbert method have never been rigorously tested with a large, publicly available data set. In this paper, three assumptions of the modern Hubbert theory are tested using data from 139 oil producing regions. These regions are sub-national (United States state-level, United States regional-level), national, and multi-national (subcontinental and continental) in scale. We test the assumption that oil production follows a bell-shaped curve by generating best-fitting curves for each region using six models and comparing the quality of fit across models. We also test the assumptions that production over time in a region tends to be symmetric, and that production is more bell-shaped in larger regions than in smaller regions

  9. Prealbumin Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... T. J. (© 2007). Mosby's Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Reference 8th Edition: Mosby, Inc., Saint Louis, MO. Pp 755-756. Clarke, W. and Dufour, D. R., Editors (© 2006). Contemporary Practice in Clinical Chemistry: AACC Press, Washington, DC. Pp 197. Banh, L. ( ...

  10. Genomic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this database. Top of Page Evaluation of Genomic Applications in Practice and Prevention (EGAPP™) In 2004, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention launched the EGAPP initiative to establish and test a ... and other applications of genomic technology that are in transition from ...

  11. Fibrinogen Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... thrombotic episode ) As a follow-up to an abnormal bleeding disorder test ( prothrombin time, PT or partial thromboplastin time, ... to help diagnose disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) or abnormal ... status of a progressive disease (such as liver disease ) over time or, rarely, ...

  12. (stress) testing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, maximal HR was significantly higher in all groups during their sporting activities than during stress testing in the laboratory (P < 0.01). Conclusions. Maximal HR in veteran athletes during specific sporting activities was significantly higher than that attained during a routine sECG. This finding was not sport-specific, ...

  13. Trypsinogen Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... exocrine.html. UPCMD (1998 – 2002). Cystic Fibrosis. University Pathology Consortium, LLC [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.upcmd.com/dot/examples/00218/description.html. Sainato, D., (2002, March). Genetic Testing for CF Going Mainstream? Clinical Laboratory ...

  14. Chymotrypsin Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... exocrine.html. UPCMD (1998 – 2002). Cystic Fibrosis. University Pathology Consortium, LLC [On-line information]. Available online at http://www.upcmd.com/dot/examples/00218/description.html. Sainato, D., (2002, March). Genetic Testing for CF Going Mainstream? Clinical Laboratory ...

  15. Coverage and outcomes of antenatal tests for infections: a population based survey in the Province of Trento, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmartello, Michela; Parazzini, Fabio; Pedron, Mariangela; Pertile, Riccardo; Collini, Lucia; La Vecchia, Carlo; Piffer, Silvano

    2018-01-17

    Rubella, syphilis, toxoplasmosis, cytomegalovirus (CMV), hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV), HIV, and Group B Streptococcus (GBS) infections may have very severe outcomes during pregnancy, and for this reason, monitoring of infections in pregnant women is a requirement of prenatal assistance. To describe coverage and outcome of the screening for rubella, syphilis, toxoplasmosis, CMV, HBV, HCV, HIV, and Group B Streptococcus in pregnancy in the Autonomous Province of Trento, Northern Italy (538,600 inhabitants). We analysed the coverage and outcome of the above-mentioned screenings among women who delivered in the hospitals of the Province of Trento between 2007 and 2014 (N = 38,712). Screenings were grouped according to characteristics such as recommendation by national and local guidelines, scheduling of the tests, operating methods, and charge. We also estimated odds ratios (ORs) for missing screening for selected infections through multiple logistic regression. Estimated uptake of antenatal screening was 99.7% for rubella, 99.3% for syphilis, 99.7% for toxoplasmosis, 98.1% for HIV infection, 99.0% for HBV, 98.9% for HCV, 94.0% for GBS infection, and 75.4% for CMV infection. The overall prevalence of immunity was 94.1% for rubella, 24.2% for toxoplasmosis, and 64.2% for CMV. The rate of seroconversion in pregnant women was 0.02% for rubella, 0.29% for toxoplasmosis, and 0.75% for CMV. The overall prevalence of infection was 0.94% for HBV, 0.53% for HCV, 22.3% for GBS, 0.29% for syphilis, and 0.13% for HIV. We found a significant positive association for all screening tests, between lack of testing and late first medical examination in pregnancy (ORs ranging from 1.20 to 1.66 for the first medical visit in the second trimester and ORs ranging from 1.60 to 5.88 for the first medical visit in third trimester, compared to early medical visit in the first trimester). Compared to Italian citizenship, foreign citizenship of the mother was also positively associated with

  16. Radiographic Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H.J; Yang, S.H. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    2002-07-01

    This report contains theory, procedure technique and interpretation of radiographic examination and written for whom preparing radiographic test Level II. To determine this baseline of technical competence in the examination, the individual must demonstrate a knowledge of radiography physics, radiation safety, technique development, radiation detection and measurement, facility design, and the characteristics of radiation-producing devices and their principles of operation. (author) 98 figs., 23 tabs.

  17. Testing Understanding and Understanding Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Jean; Ross, Peter

    1985-01-01

    Provides examples in which graphs are used in the statements of problems or in their solutions as a means of testing understanding of mathematical concepts. Examples (appropriate for a beginning course in calculus and analytic geometry) include slopes of lines and curves, quadratic formula, properties of the definite integral, and others. (JN)

  18. Credibility test; Vertrauens-Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuhs, Michael

    2009-07-01

    Solar wafer producers must prove their quality standards. Q-Cells has started a marketing office and opened their test center to journalists. They are aware that adherence to standards is going only half the way of quality assurance. The other half consists in gaining the customers' trust. (orig.)

  19. Knowledge Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ole Henning

    1998-01-01

    The knowledge test is about competing temporal and spatial expressions of the politics of technological development and national prosperity in contemporary society. The discussion is based on literature of national systems of innovation and industrial networks of various sorts. Similarities...... and differences in the disparate theories are discussed through a critical perspective on metaphor, time, space, agency and technology. It is asserted that the process of globalization is leading to a new production of space-time perceptions and practices where localization and globalization is becoming...... increasingly important. National space is being contested and nation states need to perform differently....

  20. Testing SUSY

    CERN Document Server

    Cassel, S; Ross, G G

    2010-01-01

    If SUSY provides a solution to the hierarchy problem then supersymmetric states should not be too heavy. This requirement is quantified by the Barbieri-Giudice fine tuning measure that provides a quantitative test of SUSY as a solution to the hierarchy problem. The measure is useful in correlating the impact of the various experimental measurements relevant to the search for supersymmetry and also in identifying the most sensitive measurements for testing SUSY. In this paper we apply the measure to the CMSSM, computing it to two-loop order and taking account of current experimental limits and the constraint on dark matter abundance. Using this we determine the present limits on the CMSSM parameter space and identify the measurements at the LHC that are most significant in covering the remaining parameter space. Without imposing the LEP Higgs mass bound we show that the smallest fine tuning (1:14.5) consistent with a saturation of the relic density within the 1$\\sigma$ WMAP bounds corresponds to a Higgs mass o...

  1. Heart failure - tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHF - tests; Congestive heart failure - tests; Cardiomyopathy - tests; HF - tests ... the best test to: Identify which type of heart failure (systolic, diastolic, valvular) Monitor your heart failure and ...

  2. Nuclear stress test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Persantine stress test; Thallium stress test; Stress test - nuclear; Adenosine stress test; Regadenoson stress test; CAD - nuclear stress; Coronary artery disease - nuclear stress; Angina - nuclear ...

  3. Computer-Based Testing: Test Site Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Gerald A.

    Computer-based testing places great burdens on all involved parties to ensure test security. A task analysis of test site security might identify the areas of protecting the test, protecting the data, and protecting the environment as essential issues in test security. Protecting the test involves transmission of the examinations, identifying the…

  4. Mononucleosis spot test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monospot test; Heterophile antibody test; Heterophile agglutination test; Paul-Bunnell test; Forssman antibody test ... The mononucleosis spot test is done when symptoms of mononucleosis are ... Fatigue Fever Large spleen (possibly) Sore throat Tender ...

  5. Coccidioides precipitin test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coccidioidomycosis antibody test; Coccidioides blood test; Valley fever blood test ... There is no special preparation for the test. ... The precipitin test is one of several tests that can be done to determine if you are infected with coccidioides, which ...

  6. Myoglobin urine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urine myoglobin; Heart attack - myoglobin urine test; Myositis - myoglobin urine test; Rhabdomyolysis - myoglobin urine test ... The test involves only normal urination, which should cause no discomfort.

  7. Underground Nuclear Testing Program, Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-09-01

    The Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) continues to conduct an underground nuclear testing program which includes tests for nuclear weapons development and other tests for development of nuclear explosives and methods for their application for peaceful uses. ERDA also continues to provide nuclear explosive and test site support for nuclear effects tests sponsored by the Department of Defense. This Supplement extends the Environmental Statement (WASH-1526) to cover all underground nuclear tests and preparations for tests of one megaton (1 MT) or less at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) during Fiscal Year 1976. The test activities covered include numerous continuing programs, both nuclear and non-nuclear, which can best be conducted in a remote area. However, if nuclear excavation tests or tests of yields above 1 MT or tests away from NTS should be planned, these will be covered by separate environmental statements

  8. Test Review: TestDaF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, John; Drackert, Anastasia

    2018-01-01

    The Test of German as a Foreign Language (TestDaF) plays a critical role as a standardized test of German language proficiency. Developed and administered by the Society for Academic Study Preparation and Test Development (g.a.s.t.), TestDaF was launched in 2001 and has experienced persistent annual growth, with more than 44,000 test takers in…

  9. Tests Related to Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to learn. Search form Search Tests related to pregnancy You are here Home Testing & Services Testing for ... to Genetic Counseling . What Are Tests Related to Pregnancy? Pregnancy related testing is done before or during ...

  10. Design Driven Testing Test Smarter, Not Harder

    CERN Document Server

    Stephens, M

    2010-01-01

    The groundbreaking book Design Driven Testing brings sanity back to the software development process by flipping around the concept of Test Driven Development (TDD) - restoring the concept of using testing to verify a design instead of pretending that unit tests are a replacement for design. Anyone who feels that TDD is "Too Damn Difficult" will appreciate this book. Design Driven Testing shows that, by combining a forward-thinking development process with cutting-edge automation, testing can be a finely targeted, business-driven, rewarding effort. In other words, you'll learn how to test

  11. Learning software testing with Test Studio

    CERN Document Server

    Madi, Rawane

    2013-01-01

    Learning Software Testing with Test Studio is a practical, hands-on guide that will help you get started with Test Studio to design your automated solution and tests. All through the book, there are best practices and tips and tricks inside Test Studio which can be employed to improve your solution just like an experienced QA.If you are a beginner or a professional QA who is seeking a fast, clear, and direct to the point start in automated software testing inside Test Studio, this book is for you. You should be familiar with the .NET framework, mainly Visual Studio, C#, and SQL, as the book's

  12. Engine Test Facility (ETF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Air Force Arnold Engineering Development Center's Engine Test Facility (ETF) test cells are used for development and evaluation testing of propulsion systems for...

  13. Thyroid Function Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Thyroid Function Tests Leer en Español Thyroid Function Tests FUNCTION HOW DOES THE THYROID GLAND FUNCTION? ... Cancer Thyroid Nodules in Children and Adolescents Thyroid Function Tests Resources Thyroid Function Tests Brochure PDF En ...

  14. CEA (Carcinoembryonic Antigen) Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gene Mutations Testing Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Tests D-dimer Dengue Fever Testing Des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) DHEAS ... Glance Why Get Tested? Primarily to monitor cancer treatment, including response to therapy and recurrence; as an ...

  15. Blood Test: Bilirubin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Blood Test: Bilirubin KidsHealth / For Parents / Blood Test: Bilirubin What's in ... liver or kidneys) is working. What Is a Bilirubin Test? A bilirubin test measures how much bilirubin ...

  16. Catecholamine blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003561.htm Catecholamine blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... measured with a urine test than with a blood test. How the Test is Performed A blood sample ...

  17. Anthrax blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthrax serology test; Antibody test for anthrax; Serologic test for B. anthracis ... This test may be performed when the health care provider suspects you have anthrax infection. The bacteria that cause ...

  18. Myoglobin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serum myoglobin; Heart attack - myoglobin blood test; Myositis - myoglobin blood test; Rhabdomyolysis - myoglobin blood test ... too high, it can damage the kidneys. This test is ordered when your health care provider suspects ...

  19. Blood sugar test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sugar; Blood sugar level; Fasting blood sugar; Glucose test; Diabetic screening - blood sugar test; Diabetes - blood sugar test ... The test may be done in the following ways: After you have not eaten anything for at least 8 ...

  20. Ketones urine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketone bodies - urine; Urine ketones; Ketoacidosis - urine ketones test; Diabetic ketoacidosis - urine ketones test ... Urine ketones are usually measured as a "spot test." This is available in a test kit that ...

  1. Lactose tolerance tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrogen breath test for lactose tolerance ... Two common methods include: Lactose tolerance blood test Hydrogen breath test The hydrogen breath test is the preferred method. It measures the amount of hydrogen ...

  2. Test techniques for fracture mechanics testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwalbe, K.H.

    1980-01-01

    Test methods for fracture mechanics tests are described. Two groups of techniques are distinguished: Those for measurement of stable crack growth and those for determination of the loading parameters. (orig.) [de

  3. To test or not to test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rochon, Justine; Gondan, Matthias; Kieser, Meinhard

    2012-01-01

    Background: Student's two-sample t test is generally used for comparing the means of two independent samples, for example, two treatment arms. Under the null hypothesis, the t test assumes that the two samples arise from the same normally distributed population with unknown variance. Adequate...... control of the Type I error requires that the normality assumption holds, which is often examined by means of a preliminary Shapiro-Wilk test. The following two-stage procedure is widely accepted: If the preliminary test for normality is not significant, the t test is used; if the preliminary test rejects...... the null hypothesis of normality, a nonparametric test is applied in the main analysis. Methods: Equally sized samples were drawn from exponential, uniform, and normal distributions. The two-sample t test was conducted if either both samples (Strategy I) or the collapsed set of residuals from both samples...

  4. Materials testing 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The following subjects were dealt with at the meeting: Testing with vibration loads; Hardness testing; Calibration of test devices and equipment; Test technique for compound materials; Vibration strength testing and expense of experiments; Solving problems in introducing forces into samples and components and process of ambulant materials testing. There are 17 separate abstracts from among 43 lectures. (orig./PW) [de

  5. 5-HIAA Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PF4 Antibody Hepatitis A Testing Hepatitis B Testing Hepatitis C Testing HER2/neu Herpes Testing High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP) Histamine Histone Antibody HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) HIV Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Testing, Genotypic HIV Viral Load HLA Testing HLA- ...

  6. Uric Acid Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PF4 Antibody Hepatitis A Testing Hepatitis B Testing Hepatitis C Testing HER2/neu Herpes Testing High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP) Histamine Histone Antibody HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) HIV Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Testing, Genotypic HIV Viral Load HLA Testing HLA- ...

  7. Direct Antiglobulin Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PF4 Antibody Hepatitis A Testing Hepatitis B Testing Hepatitis C Testing HER2/neu Herpes Testing High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP) Histamine Histone Antibody HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) HIV Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Testing, Genotypic HIV Viral Load HLA Testing HLA- ...

  8. CK-MB Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PF4 Antibody Hepatitis A Testing Hepatitis B Testing Hepatitis C Testing HER2/neu Herpes Testing High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP) Histamine Histone Antibody HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) HIV Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Testing, Genotypic HIV Viral Load HLA Testing HLA- ...

  9. Understanding Your Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PF4 Antibody Hepatitis A Testing Hepatitis B Testing Hepatitis C Testing HER2/neu Herpes Testing High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP) Histamine Histone Antibody HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) HIV Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Testing, Genotypic HIV Viral Load HLA Testing HLA- ...

  10. Myasthenia Gravis Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PF4 Antibody Hepatitis A Testing Hepatitis B Testing Hepatitis C Testing HER2/neu Herpes Testing High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP) Histamine Histone Antibody HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) HIV Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Testing, Genotypic HIV Viral Load HLA Testing HLA- ...

  11. Citric acid urine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urine - citric acid test; Renal tubular acidosis - citric acid test; Kidney stones - citric acid test; Urolithiasis - citric acid test ... No special preparation is necessary for this test. But the results ... test is usually done while you are on a normal diet. Ask your ...

  12. From Test Takers to Test Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kari

    2009-01-01

    As a classroom teacher, Kari Smith realized that traditional objective tests don't always assess what students actually know. But tests are so deeply embedded in the education system that it would be difficult to do away with them entirely. Smith decided to make tests into learning tools. In this article, Smith describes three strategies for…

  13. CANFLEX fuel bundle strength tests (test report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Seok Kyu; Chung, C. H.; Kim, B. D.

    1997-08-01

    This document outlines the test results for the strength tests of the CANFLEX fuel bundle. Strength tests are performed to determine and verify the amount of the bundle shape distortion which is against the side-stops when the bundles are refuelling. There are two cases of strength test; one is the double side-stop test which simulates the normal bundle refuelling and the other is the single side-stop test which simulates the abnormal refuelling. the strength test specification requires that the fuel bundle against the side-stop(s) simulators for this test were fabricated and the flow rates were controlled to provide the required conservative hydraulic forces. The test rig conditions of 120 deg C, 11.2 MPa were retained for 15 minutes after the flow rate was controlled during the test in two cases, respectively. The bundle loading angles of number 13- number 15 among the 15 bundles were 67.5 deg CCW and others were loaded randomly. After the tests, the bundle shapes against the side-stops were measured and inspected carefully. The important test procedures and measurements were discussed as follows. (author). 5 refs., 22 tabs., 5 figs

  14. Test design requirements: Thermal conductivity probe testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    This document establishes the test design requirements for development of a thermal conductivity probe test. The thermal conductivity probe determines in situ thermal conductivity using a line source transient heat conduction analysis. This document presents the rationale for thermal conductivity measurement using a thermal conductivity probe. A general test description is included. Support requirements along with design constraints are detailed to allow simple design of the thermal conductivity probe and test. The schedule and delivery requirements of the responsible test designer are also included. 7 refs., 1 fig

  15. Irradiation effects test series test IE-1 test results report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quapp, W.J.; Allison, C.M.; Farrar, L.C.; Mehner, A.S.

    1977-03-01

    The report describes the results of the first programmatic test in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission Irradiation Effects Test Series. This test (IE-1) used four 0.97m long PWR-type fuel rods fabricated from previously irradiated Saxton fuel. The objectives of this test were to evaluate the effect of fuel pellet density on pellet-cladding interaction during a power ramp and to evaluate the influence of the irradiated state of the fuel and cladding on rod behavior during film boiling operation. Data are presented on the behavior of irradiated fuel rods during steady-state operation, a power ramp, and film boiling operation. The effects of as-fabricated gap size, as-fabricated fuel density, rod power, and power ramp rate on pellet-cladding interaction are discussed. Test data are compared with FRAP-T2 computer model predictions, and comments on the consequences of sustained film boiling operation on irradiated fuel rod behavior are provided

  16. The Stimulus test stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christofek, L.; Rapidis, P.; Reinhard, A.; Fermilab

    2005-01-01

    The Stimulus Test Stand was originally constructed and assembled for testing the SVX2 ASIC readout and then upgraded for SVX3 ASIC prototyping and testing. We have modified this system for SVX4 ASIC [1] prototype testing. We described the individual components below. Additional details for other hardware for SVX4 testing can be found in reference [2]. We provide a description of the Stimulus Test Stand used for prototype testing of the SVX4 chip

  17. Group B Streptococcus and the Vaginal Microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Geoffrey H; Randis, Tara M; Desai, Purnahamsi V; Sapra, Katherine J; Ma, Bing; Gajer, Pawel; Humphrys, Michael S; Ravel, Jacques; Gelber, Shari E; Ratner, Adam J

    2017-09-15

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus [GBS]) is an important neonatal pathogen and emerging cause of disease in adults. The major risk factor for neonatal disease is maternal vaginal colonization. However, little is known about the relationship between GBS and vaginal microbiota. Vaginal lavage samples from nonpregnant women were tested for GBS, and amplicon-based sequencing targeting the 16S ribosomal RNA V3-V4 region was performed. Four hundred twenty-eight of 432 samples met the high-quality read threshold. There was no relationship between GBS carriage and demographic characteristics, α-diversity, or overall vaginal microbiota community state type (CST). Within the non-Lactobacillus-dominant CST IV, GBS positive status was significantly more prevalent in CST IV-A than CST IV-B. Significant clustering by GBS status was noted on principal coordinates analysis, and 18 individual taxa were found to be significantly associated with GBS carriage by linear discriminant analysis. After adjusting for race/ethnicity, 4 taxa were positively associated with GBS, and 6 were negatively associated. Vaginal microbiota CST and α-diversity are not related to GBS status. However, specific microbial taxa are associated with colonization of this important human pathogen, highlighting a potential role for the microbiota in promotion or inhibition of GBS colonization. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. CSF-VDRL test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... test - CSF; Neurosyphilis - VDRL Images CSF test for syphilis References Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Venereal disease research laboratory test (VDRL), test, cerebrospinal fluid – specimen. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. Laboratory Tests and Diagnostic Procedures . 6th ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier Saunders; ...

  19. CO2 blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicarbonate test; HCO3-; Carbon dioxide test; TCO2; Total CO2; CO2 test - serum; Acidosis - CO2; Alkalosis - CO2 ... Many medicines can interfere with blood test results. Your health ... need to stop taking any medicines before you have this test. DO ...

  20. Tonopah Test Range - Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capabilities Test Operations Center Test Director Range Control Track Control Communications Tracking Radars Photos Header Facebook Twitter YouTube Flickr RSS Tonopah Test Range Top TTR_TOC Tonopah is the testing range of choice for all national security missions. Tonopah Test Range (TTR) provides research and

  1. Rail Impact Testing. Test Operations Procedure (TOP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-15

    impact test. The rail impact test is used to verify structural integrity of the test item and the adequacy of the tie-down system and tie-down...strength of provisions, connection and supporting structural frame, paragraph 5.2.3 ** Superscript...parts, to include outriggers and booms) without advanced approval by SDDCTEA. Torque nuts on wire rope clips to their correct value. Torque cable

  2. Tractor accelerated test on test rig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mattetti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The experimental tests performed to validate a tractor prototype before its production, need a substantial financial and time commitment. The tests could be reduced using accelerated tests able to reproduce on the structural part of the tractor, the same damage produced on the tractor during real life in a reduced time. These tests were usually performed reproducing a particular harsh condition a defined number of times, as for example using a bumpy road on track to carry out the test in any weather condition. Using these procedures the loads applied on the tractor structure are different with respect to those obtained during the real use, with the risk to apply loads hard to find in reality. Recently it has been demonstrated how, using the methodologies designed for cars, it is possible to also expedite the structural tests for tractors. In particular, automotive proving grounds were recently successfully used with tractors to perform accelerated structural tests able to reproduce the real use of the machine with an acceleration factor higher than that obtained with the traditional methods. However, the acceleration factor obtained with a tractor on proving grounds is in any case reduced due to the reduced speed of the tractors with respect to cars. In this context, the goal of the paper is to show the development of a methodology to perform an accelerated structural test on a medium power tractor using a 4 post test rig. In particular, several proving ground testing conditions have been performed to measure the loads on the tractor. The loads obtained were then edited to remove the not damaging portion of signals, and finally the loads obtained were reproduced in a 4 post test rig. The methodology proposed could be a valid alternative to the use of a proving ground to reproduce accelerated structural tests on tractors.

  3. Characterizing the Joint Effect of Diverse Test-Statistic Correlation Structures and Effect Size on False Discovery Rates in a Multiple-Comparison Study of Many Outcome Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiveson, Alan H.; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Fiedler, James

    2011-01-01

    In their 2009 Annals of Statistics paper, Gavrilov, Benjamini, and Sarkar report the results of a simulation assessing the robustness of their adaptive step-down procedure (GBS) for controlling the false discovery rate (FDR) when normally distributed test statistics are serially correlated. In this study we extend the investigation to the case of multiple comparisons involving correlated non-central t-statistics, in particular when several treatments or time periods are being compared to a control in a repeated-measures design with many dependent outcome measures. In addition, we consider several dependence structures other than serial correlation and illustrate how the FDR depends on the interaction between effect size and the type of correlation structure as indexed by Foerstner s distance metric from an identity. The relationship between the correlation matrix R of the original dependent variables and R, the correlation matrix of associated t-statistics is also studied. In general R depends not only on R, but also on sample size and the signed effect sizes for the multiple comparisons.

  4. Color vision test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... present from birth) color vision problems: Achromatopsia -- complete color blindness , seeing only shades of gray Deuteranopia -- difficulty telling ... Vision test - color; Ishihara color vision test Images Color blindness tests References Bowling B. Hereditary fundus dystrophies. In: ...

  5. Kidney function tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidney function tests are common lab tests used to evaluate how well the kidneys are working. Such tests include: ... Oh MS, Briefel G. Evaluation of renal function, water, electrolytes ... and Management by Laboratory Methods . 23rd ed. Philadelphia, ...

  6. Liver Function Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... digest food, store energy, and remove poisons. Liver function tests are blood tests that check to see ... as hepatitis and cirrhosis. You may have liver function tests as part of a regular checkup. Or ...

  7. Home blood sugar testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes - home glucose testing; Diabetes - home blood sugar testing ... Usual times to test your blood sugar are before meals and at bedtime. Your provider may ask you to check your blood sugar 2 hours after a meal or ...

  8. Teratology testing under REACH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Steve

    2013-01-01

    REACH guidelines may require teratology testing for new and existing chemicals. This chapter discusses procedures to assess the need for teratology testing and the conduct and interpretation of teratology tests where required.

  9. Celiac Disease Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diet When To Get Tested? When you have symptoms suggesting celiac disease, such as chronic diarrhea, abdominal pain, anemia , and ... Celiac tests are usually ordered for people with symptoms suggesting celiac disease, including anemia and abdominal pain. Sometimes celiac testing ...

  10. Aviation Flight Test

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Redstone Test Center provides an expert workforce and technologically advanced test equipment to conduct the rigorous testing necessary for U.S. Army acquisition and...

  11. Mark 1 Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Mark I Test Facility is a state-of-the-art space environment simulation test chamber for full-scale space systems testing. A $1.5M dollar upgrade in fiscal year...

  12. Growth hormone suppression test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Acromegaly - blood test; Gigantism - blood test Images Blood test References Kaiser U, Ho KKY. Pituitary physiology and diagnostic evaluation. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology . 13th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; ...

  13. Lactose Tolerance Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Plasma Free Metanephrines Platelet Count Platelet Function Tests Pleural Fluid Analysis PML-RARA Porphyrin Tests Potassium Prealbumin ... of these, the person tested is given a liquid to drink that contains a standard amount of ...

  14. Thyroid Diseases Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gene Mutations Testing Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Tests D-dimer Dengue Fever Testing Des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) DHEAS ... newborn blood screening programs since early detection and treatment can minimize long-term damage. Hashimoto thyroiditis : the ...

  15. What Is Diagnostic Testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your family Plan for the future Insurance and financial planning Transition for children Emergency preparedness Testing & Services Testing ... Support Genetic Disease Information Find a Support Group Financial Planning Who Should I Tell? Genetic Testing & Counseling Compensation ...

  16. Tests for H. pylori

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ulcers and many cases of stomach inflammation (chronic gastritis). How the Test is Performed There are several ... treating bleeding, or making sure there is no cancer. Why the Test is Performed Testing is most ...

  17. BUN - blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003474.htm BUN - blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... for the Test Many medicines can interfere with blood test results. Your health care provider will tell you ...

  18. Porphyrins - blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003372.htm Porphyrins blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... blood or the urine . This article discusses the blood test. How the Test is Performed A blood sample ...

  19. Renin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003698.htm Renin blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... renin test measures the level of renin in blood. How the Test is Performed A blood sample is needed . How ...

  20. Prolactin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003718.htm Prolactin blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... test measures the amount of prolactin in the blood. How the Test is Performed A blood sample is needed . How ...

  1. Large Rotor Test Apparatus

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This test apparatus, when combined with the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex, produces a thorough, full-scale test capability. The Large Rotor Test Apparatus...

  2. Ketones blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acetone bodies; Ketones - serum; Nitroprusside test; Ketone bodies - serum; Ketones - blood; Ketoacidosis - ketones blood test ... fat cells break down in the blood. This test is used to diagnose ketoacidosis . This is a ...

  3. Dexamethasone suppression test

    Science.gov (United States)

    DST; ACTH suppression test; Cortisol suppression test ... During this test, you will receive dexamethasone. This is a strong man-made (synthetic) glucocorticoid medicine. Afterward, your blood is drawn ...

  4. Bone mineral density test

    Science.gov (United States)

    BMD test; Bone density test; Bone densitometry; DEXA scan; DXA; Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; p-DEXA; Osteoporosis - BMD ... need to undress. This scan is the best test to predict your risk of fractures, especially of ...

  5. Assessment and Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapham, Caroline

    2000-01-01

    Explores the term "applied linguistics" and discusses the role of language testing within this discipline, the relationship between testing and teaching, and the relationship between testing and assessment (Author/VWL)

  6. Tips on Blood Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Test Pain, Discomfort and Anxiety Tips to Help Children through Their Medical Tests Tips to Help the Elderly through Their Medical Tests Find Us On Social Media: Facebook Twitter Google Plus Footer Menu Home About ...

  7. Blood Test: Testosterone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Test: Estradiol Precocious Puberty Understanding Puberty Endocrine System Male Reproductive System Getting a Blood Test (Video) All About Puberty Blood Test (Video) Male Reproductive System View more About Us Contact Us Partners Editorial ...

  8. Structural Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Provides a wide variety of testing equipment, fixtures and facilities to perform both unique aviation component testing as well as common types of materials testing...

  9. SPECT quality control tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robilotta, C.C.; Rebelo, M.F.S.; Oliveira, M.A.; Abe, R.

    1987-01-01

    Quality control tests of tomographic system composed by a rotatory chamber (CGR Gammatomome T-9000) and a microcomputer are presented. Traditional quality control tests for scintilation chambers and specific tests for tomographic systems are reported. (M.A.C.) [pt

  10. Irradiation effects test Series Scoping Test 1: test results report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quapp, W.J.; Allison, C.M.; Farrar, L.C.

    1977-09-01

    The report describes the results of the first scoping test in the Irradiation Effects Test Series conducted by the Thermal Fuels Behavior Program, which is part of the Water Reactor Research Program of EG and G Idaho, Inc. The research is sponsored by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This test used an unirradiated, three-foot-long, PWR-type fuel rod. The objective of this test was to thoroughly evaluate the remote fabrication procedures to be used for irradiated rods in future tests, handling plans, and reactor operations. Additionally, selected fuel behavior data were obtained. The fuel rod was subjected to a series of preconditioning power cycles followed by a power increase which brought the fuel rod power to about 20.4 kW/ft peak linear heat rating at a coolant mass flux of 1.83 x 10 6 lb/hr-ft 2 . Film boiling occurred for a period of 4.8 minutes following flow reductions to 9.6 x 10 5 and 7.5 x 10 5 lb/hr-ft 2 . The test fuel rod failed following reactor shutdown as a result of heavy internal and external cladding oxidation and embrittlement which occurred during the film boiling operation

  11. Small test SDHW systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejen, Niels Kristian

    1999-01-01

    Three small test SDHW systems was tested in a laboratory test facility.The three SDHW systems where all based on the low flow principe and a mantle tank but the design of the systems where different.......Three small test SDHW systems was tested in a laboratory test facility.The three SDHW systems where all based on the low flow principe and a mantle tank but the design of the systems where different....

  12. Textiles Performance Testing Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Textiles Performance Testing Facilities has the capabilities to perform all physical wet and dry performance testing, and visual and instrumental color analysis...

  13. Electromagnetic Interface Testing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electromagnetic Interface Testing facilitysupports such testing asEmissions, Field Strength, Mode Stirring, EMP Pulser, 4 Probe Monitoring/Leveling System, and...

  14. FOOD SAFETY TESTING LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory develops screening assays, tests and modifies biosensor equipment, and optimizes food safety testing protocols for the military and civilian sector...

  15. Thyroxine (T4) Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... K. Brunner & Suddarth's Handbook of Laboratory and Diagnostic Tests. 2 nd Ed, Kindle. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; c2014. Thryoxine, Serum 485 p. Lab Tests ...

  16. Laboratory for filter testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paluch, W.

    1987-07-01

    Filters used for mine draining in brown coal surface mines are tested by the Mine Draining Department of Poltegor. Laboratory tests of new types of filters developed by Poltegor are analyzed. Two types of tests are used: tests of scale filter models and tests of experimental units of new filters. Design and operation of the test stands used for testing mechanical properties and hydraulic properties of filters for coal mines are described: dimensions, pressure fluctuations, hydraulic equipment. Examples of testing large-diameter filters for brown coal mines are discussed.

  17. Mobile Test Capabilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electrical Power Mobile Test capabilities are utilized to conduct electrical power quality testing on aircraft and helicopters. This capability allows that the...

  18. GPS Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Global Positioning System (GPS) Test Facility Instrumentation Suite (GPSIS) provides great flexibility in testing receivers by providing operational control of...

  19. Hot Ground Vibration Tests

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ground vibration tests or modal surveys are routinely conducted to support flutter analysis for subsonic and supersonic vehicles. However, vibration testing...

  20. Test Control Center (TCC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Test Control Center (TCC) provides a consolidated facility for planning, coordinating, controlling, monitoring, and analyzing distributed test events. ,The TCC...

  1. Moisture related test protocols for HVS testing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Denneman, E

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available outcomes of HVS tests where the moisture condition of the pavement or specific layers in the pavement is under investigation for a specific test. Practical guidance is then provided on the potential systems (how to manage the moisture – hardware) as well...

  2. Integrated Test and Evaluation Flight Test 3 Flight Test Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Michael Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    The desire and ability to fly Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) in the National Airspace System (NAS) is of increasing urgency. The application of unmanned aircraft to perform national security, defense, scientific, and emergency management are driving the critical need for less restrictive access by UAS to the NAS. UAS represent a new capability that will provide a variety of services in the government (public) and commercial (civil) aviation sectors. The growth of this potential industry has not yet been realized due to the lack of a common understanding of what is required to safely operate UAS in the NAS. NASA's UAS Integration into the NAS Project is conducting research in the areas of Separation Assurance/Sense and Avoid Interoperability, Human Systems Integration (HSI), and Communication to support reducing the barriers of UAS access to the NAS. This research is broken into two research themes namely, UAS Integration and Test Infrastructure. UAS Integration focuses on airspace integration procedures and performance standards to enable UAS integration in the air transportation system, covering Sense and Avoid (SAA) performance standards, command and control performance standards, and human systems integration. The focus of Test Infrastructure is to enable development and validation of airspace integration procedures and performance standards, including the integrated test and evaluation. In support of the integrated test and evaluation efforts, the Project will develop an adaptable, scalable, and schedulable relevant test environment capable of evaluating concepts and technologies for unmanned aircraft systems to safely operate in the NAS. To accomplish this task, the Project will conduct a series of Human-in-the-Loop and Flight Test activities that integrate key concepts, technologies and/or procedures in a relevant air traffic environment. Each of the integrated events will build on the technical achievements, fidelity and complexity of the previous tests and

  3. Test report for core drilling ignitability testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witwer, K.S.

    1996-01-01

    Testing was carried out with the cooperation of Westinghouse Hanford Company and the United States Bureau of Mines at the Pittsburgh Research Center in Pennsylvania under the Memorandum of Agreement 14- 09-0050-3666. Several core drilling equipment items, specifically those which can come in contact with flammable gasses while drilling into some waste tanks, were tested under conditions similar to actual field sampling conditions. Rotary drilling against steel and rock as well as drop testing of several different pieces of equipment in a flammable gas environment were the specific items addressed. The test items completed either caused no ignition of the gas mixture, or, after having hardware changes or drilling parameters modified, produced no ignition in repeat testing

  4. Digface characterization test plan (remote testing)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croft, K.; Hyde, R.; Allen, S.

    1993-08-01

    The objective of the Digface Characterization (DFC) Remote Testing project is to remotely deploy a sensor head (Mini-Lab) across a digface to determine if it can characterize the contents below the surface. The purpose of this project is to provide a robotics technology that allows removal of workers from hazards, increases speed of operations, and reduces life cycle costs compared to alternate methods and technologies. The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) is funding the demonstration, testing, and evaluation of DFC. This document describes the test plan for the DFC remote deployment demonstration for the BWID. The purposes of the test plan are to establish test parameters so that the demonstration results are deemed useful and usable and perform the demonstration in a safe manner and within all regulatory requirements

  5. Irradiation effects test series, test IE-5. Test results report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croucher, D.W.; Yackle, T.R.; Allison, C.M.; Ploger, S.A.

    1978-01-01

    Test IE-5, conducted in the Power Burst Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, employed three 0.97-m long pressurized water reactor type fuel rods, fabricated from previously irradiated zircaloy-4 cladding and one similar rod fabricated from unirradiated cladding. The objectives of the test were to evaluate the influence of simulated fission products, cladding irradiation damage, and fuel rod internal pressure on pellet-cladding interaction during a power ramp and on fuel rod behavior during film boiling operation. The four rods were subjected to a preconditioning period, a power ramp to an average fuel rod peak power of 65 kW/m, and steady state operation for one hour at a coolant mass flux of 4880 kg/s-m 2 for each rod. After a flow reduction to 1800 kg/s-m 2 , film boiling occurred on one rod. Additional flow reductions to 970 kg/s-m 2 produced film boiling on the three remaining fuel rods. Maximum time in film boiling was 80s. The rod having the highest initial internal pressure (8.3 MPa) failed 10s after the onset of film boiling. A second rod failed about 90s after reactor shutdown. The report contains a description of the experiment, the test conduct, test results, and results from the preliminary postirradiation examination. Calculations using a transient fuel rod behavior code are compared with the test results

  6. Compact and high-sensitivity 100-Gb/s (4 × 25 Gb/s) APD-ROSA with a LAN-WDM PLC demultiplexer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimatsu, Toshihide; Nada, Masahiro; Oguma, Manabu; Yokoyama, Haruki; Ohno, Tetsuichiro; Doi, Yoshiyuki; Ogawa, Ikuo; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Eiji

    2012-12-10

    We demonstrate an integrated 100 GbE receiver optical sub-assembly (ROSA) that incorporates a monolithic four-channel avalanche photodiode (APD) array and a planer lightwave circuit (PLC) based LAN-WDM demultiplexer. A record minimum receiver sensitivity of -20 dBm and 50-km error-free SMF transmission without an optical amplifier have been achieved.

  7. Irradiation Effects Test Series: Test IE-3. Test results report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, L.C.; Allison, C.M.; Croucher, D.W.; Ploger, S.A.

    1977-10-01

    The objectives of the test reported were to: (a) determine the behavior of irradiated fuel rods subjected to a rapid power increase during which the possibility of a pellet-cladding mechanical interaction failure is enhanced and (b) determine the behavior of these fuel rods during film boiling following this rapid power increase. Test IE-3 used four 0.97-m long pressurized water reactor type fuel rods fabricated from previously irradiated fuel. The fuel rods were subjected to a preconditioning period, followed by a power ramp to 69 kW/m at a coolant mass flux of 4920 kg/s-m 2 . After a flow reduction to 2120 kg/s-m 2 , film boiling occurred on the fuel rods. One rod failed approximately 45 seconds after the reactor was shut down as a result of cladding embrittlement due to extensive cladding oxidation. Data are presented on the behavior of these irradiated fuel rods during steady-state operation, the power ramp, and film boiling operation. The effects of a power ramp and power ramp rates on pellet-cladding interaction are discussed. Test data are compared with FRAP-T3 computer model calculations and data from a previous Irradiation Effects test in which four irradiated fuel rods of a similar design were tested. Test IE-3 results indicate that the irradiated state of the fuel rods did not significantly affect fuel rod behavior during normal, abnormal (power ramp of 20 kW/m per minute), and accident (film boiling) conditions

  8. Displacement compressors - acceptance tests

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    1996-01-01

    ISO 1217:2009 specifies methods for acceptance tests regarding volume rate of flow and power requirements of displacement compressors. It also specifies methods for testing liquid-ring type compressors and the operating and testing conditions which apply when a full performance test is specified.

  9. Refactoring test code

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van Deursen (Arie); L.M.F. Moonen (Leon); A. van den Bergh; G. Kok

    2001-01-01

    textabstractTwo key aspects of extreme programming (XP) are unit testing and merciless refactoring. Given the fact that the ideal test code / production code ratio approaches 1:1, it is not surprising that unit tests are being refactored. We found that refactoring test code is different from

  10. Load testing circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    A load testing circuit a circuit tests the load impedance of a load connected to an amplifier. The load impedance includes a first terminal and a second terminal, the load testing circuit comprising a signal generator providing a test signal of a defined bandwidth to the first terminal of the load...

  11. SAP crm integration testing

    OpenAIRE

    Černiavskaitė, Marija

    2017-01-01

    This Bachelor's thesis presents SAP CRM and integration systems testing analysis: investigation in SAP CRM and SAP PO systems, presentation of relationship between systems, introduction to third-party system (non-SAP) – Network Informational System (NIS) which has integration with SAP, presentation of best CRM testing practises, analysis and recommendation of integration testing. Practical integration testing is done in accordance to recommendations.

  12. 1968 Prototype Diagnostic Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veterans Administration Hospital, Bedford, MA.

    This true-false diagnostic test was used for pretesting of employees at a Veterans Administration Hospital. The test is comprised of 20 items. An alternate test--Classification Questionnaire--was used for testing after remedial training. (For related document, see TM 002 334.) (DB)

  13. Liquid Rocket Engine Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Shamim

    2005-01-01

    Comprehensive Liquid Rocket Engine testing is essential to risk reduction for Space Flight. Test capability represents significant national investments in expertise and infrastructure. Historical experience underpins current test capabilities. Test facilities continually seek proactive alignment with national space development goals and objectives including government and commercial sectors.

  14. Nationale test i naturfag

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Karen Egedal; Jensen, Lars Bang

    2015-01-01

    Kapitlet rummer en analyse og diskussion af test inden for naturfagsområdet og de fagforståelser de afspejler med fokus på de nationale test.......Kapitlet rummer en analyse og diskussion af test inden for naturfagsområdet og de fagforståelser de afspejler med fokus på de nationale test....

  15. Numeracy Tests For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Beveridge, Colin

    2012-01-01

    The easy way to get practice and excel at numeracy tests Whether you're looking for a new job, applying to certain university courses, or attempting to join the military, you're increasingly likely to face a numeracy test as part of the screening process. And the only way to prepare for a numeracy test is practise. Numeracy Tests For Dummies is an accessible one-stop guide to pass these test. Featuring expert advice, instruction, review, and plenty of practise, Numeracy Tests For Dummies will help you succeed. Numeracy Tests For Dummies contains instruction and revision on:Basic mathematical k

  16. Dtest Testing Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Abhinandan; Cameron, Jonathan M.; Myint, Steven

    2013-01-01

    This software runs a suite of arbitrary software tests spanning various software languages and types of tests (unit level, system level, or file comparison tests). The dtest utility can be set to automate periodic testing of large suites of software, as well as running individual tests. It supports distributing multiple tests over multiple CPU cores, if available. The dtest tool is a utility program (written in Python) that scans through a directory (and its subdirectories) and finds all directories that match a certain pattern and then executes any tests in that directory as described in simple configuration files.

  17. ITER test programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.; Baker, C.; Casini, G.

    1991-01-01

    ITER has been designed to operate in two phases. The first phase which lasts for 6 years, is devoted to machine checkout and physics testing. The second phase lasts for 8 years and is devoted primarily to technology testing. This report describes the technology test program development for ITER, the ancillary equipment outside the torus necessary to support the test modules, the international collaboration aspects of conducting the test program on ITER, the requirements on the machine major parameters and the R and D program required to develop the test modules for testing in ITER. 15 refs, figs and tabs

  18. Pancreatic exocrine function testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goff, J.S.

    1981-01-01

    It is important to understand which pancreatic function tests are available and how to interpret them when evaluating patients with malabsorption. Available direct tests are the secretin stimulation test, the Lundh test meal, and measurement of serum or fecal enzymes. Indirect tests assess pancreatic exocrine function by measuring the effect of pancreatic secretion on various nutrients. These include triglycerides labeled with carbon 14, cobalamin labeled with cobalt 57 and cobalt 58, and para-aminobenzoic acid bound to a dipeptide. Of all these tests the secretin stimulation test is the most accurate and reliable if done by experienced personnel. However, the indirect tests are simpler to do and appear to be comparable to the secretin test at detecting pancreatic exocrine insufficiency. These indirect tests are becoming clinically available and clinicians should familiarize themselves with the strengths and weaknesses of each

  19. Blanket testing in NET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chazalon, M.; Daenner, W.; Libin, B.

    1989-01-01

    The testing stages in NET for the performance assessment of the various breeding blanket concepts developed at the present time in Europe for DEMO (LiPb and ceramic blankets) and the requirements upon NET to perform these tests are reviewed. Typical locations available in NET for blanket testing are the central outboard segments and the horizontal ports of in-vessel sectors. These test positions will be connectable with external test loops. The number of test loops (helium, water, liquid metal) will be such that each major class of blankets can be tested in NET. The test positions, the boundary conditions and the external test loops are identified and the requirements for test blankets are summarized (author). 6

  20. Functional Testing Airborne Radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-27

    recorded, and presented in accordance with this TOP? Yes No Comment : 2. Were the facilities, test equipment, instrumentation, and support accommo- dations...adequate to accomplish the test objectives? Yes No Comment : 3. Have all data collected been reviewed for correctness and completeness? Yes No ... Comment : 4. Were the test results compromised in any way due to insufficient test planning? Yes No . Comment : 5. Were the test results compromised in any

  1. Testing Aircraft Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-11

    1. Have test data been collected, recorded, and presented in accordance with this TOP? Yes No Comment : 2. Were the facilities, test equipment...instrumentation, and support accommodations adequate to accomplish the test objectives? Yes No Comment : 3. Have all data collected been reviewed for...correctness and completeness? Yes No Comment : 4. Were the test results compromised in any way due to insufficient test planning? Yes No Comment : 5. Were the

  2. Pancreatic Exocrine Function Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Berk, J. Edward

    1982-01-01

    It is important to understand which pancreatic function tests are available and how to interpret them when evaluating patients with malabsorption. Available direct tests are the secretin stimulation test, the Lundh test meal, and measurement of serum or fecal enzymes. Indirect tests assess pancreatic exocrine function by measuring the effect of pancreatic secretion on various nutrients. These include triglycerides labeled with carbon 14, cobalamin labeled with cobalt 57 and cobalt 58, and par...

  3. Testing experience with fast flux test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noordhoff, B.H.; McGough, C.B.; Nolan, J.E.

    1975-01-01

    Early FFTF project planning emphasized partial and full-scale testing of major reactor and plant prototype components under expected environmental conditions, excluding radiation fields. Confirmation of component performance during FFTF service was considered essential before actual FFTF startup, to provide increased assurance against FFTF startup delays or operational difficulties and downtime. Several new sodium facilities were constructed, and confirmation tests on the prototype components are now in progress. Test conditions and results to date are reported for the primary pump, intermediate heat exchanger, sodium-to-air dump heat exchanger, large and small sodium valves, purification cold trap, in-vessel handling machine, instrument tree, core restraint, control rod system, low-level flux monitor, closed loop ex-vessel machine, refueling equipment, and selected maintenance equipment. The significance and contribution of these tests to the FFTF and Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) program are summarized. (U.S.)

  4. Antimicrobials Products Tested or Pending Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    The agency has completed testing of the majority of registered hospital disinfectants and tuberculocide products. The list of products can assist users in making informed choices regarding infection control in their facilities.

  5. The hardness test: a real mechanical test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezakhanlou, R.

    1993-02-01

    During the service life, the mechanical properties of the PWR components change. It is necessary to determine precisely this evolution, but it is not always possible to draw a sample with the adequate size for the characterization. For this latter case we intend to calculate the stress-strain curve of a material from a hardness test results, because it is appropriate for testing on site and do not need any particular sample shape. This paper is the first bibliographical part of a larger study on the relation between the values measured during a hardness test (applied load, indentation diameter) and the mechanical properties of a solid obtained by a traction test. We have treated the problem within the general setting of two solids in contact. Thus, we expose general elastic, elasto-plastic and plastic models describing the indentation of a solid by a rigid indenter

  6. Test plan for core drilling ignitability testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witwer, K.S.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this testing is to determine if ignition occurs while core drilling in a flammable gas environment. Drilling parameters are chosen so as to provide bounding conditions for the core sampling environment. If ignition does not occur under the conditions set forth in this test, then a satisfactory level of confidence will be obtained which would allow field operations under the normal drilling conditions

  7. TESTING TESTS ON ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI MICROVARIABILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Diego, Jose A.

    2010-01-01

    Literature on optical and infrared microvariability in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) reflects a diversity of statistical tests and strategies to detect tiny variations in the light curves of these sources. Comparison between the results obtained using different methodologies is difficult, and the pros and cons of each statistical method are often badly understood or even ignored. Even worse, improperly tested methodologies are becoming more and more common, and biased results may be misleading with regard to the origin of the AGN microvariability. This paper intends to point future research on AGN microvariability toward the use of powerful and well-tested statistical methodologies, providing a reference for choosing the best strategy to obtain unbiased results. Light curves monitoring has been simulated for quasars and for reference and comparison stars. Changes for the quasar light curves include both Gaussian fluctuations and linear variations. Simulated light curves have been analyzed using χ 2 tests, F tests for variances, one-way analyses of variance and C-statistics. Statistical Type I and Type II errors, which indicate the robustness and the power of the tests, have been obtained in each case. One-way analyses of variance and χ 2 prove to be powerful and robust estimators for microvariations, while the C-statistic is not a reliable methodology and its use should be avoided.

  8. Trends in software testing

    CERN Document Server

    Mohanty, J; Balakrishnan, Arunkumar

    2017-01-01

    This book is focused on the advancements in the field of software testing and the innovative practices that the industry is adopting. Considering the widely varied nature of software testing, the book addresses contemporary aspects that are important for both academia and industry. There are dedicated chapters on seamless high-efficiency frameworks, automation on regression testing, software by search, and system evolution management. There are a host of mathematical models that are promising for software quality improvement by model-based testing. There are three chapters addressing this concern. Students and researchers in particular will find these chapters useful for their mathematical strength and rigor. Other topics covered include uncertainty in testing, software security testing, testing as a service, test technical debt (or test debt), disruption caused by digital advancement (social media, cloud computing, mobile application and data analytics), and challenges and benefits of outsourcing. The book w...

  9. Pragmatics of Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Fırat ALTAY

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Teaching of a language is a very complicated issue and testing is anindispensable part of this matter. Thanks to testing teachers can assess efficiency ofteaching and learning atmosphere, and can get feedback about their learners. In order torealize this, a test should have some qualifications. One of these qualifications is aboutpragmatics. This paper aims at explaining what makes a test pragmatic and howpragmatic tests can be formed. So, examples of pragmatic tests of different types arepresented with explanations. Their pragmatic components and nature are focused on bygiving example test items on the problematic area of test questions prepared. Finally,the writer states his last words by making further comments and explanations onpragmatics of testing in the conclusion part.

  10. Relay test program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandyopadhyay, K.K.; Kunkel, C.; Shteyngart, S.

    1994-02-01

    This report presents the results of a relay test program conducted by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) under the sponsorship of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The program is a continuation of an earlier test program the results of which were published in NUREG/CR-4867. The current program was carried out in two phases: electrical testing and vibration testing. The objective was primarily to focus on the electrical discontinuity or continuity of relays and circuit breaker tripping mechanisms subjected to electrical pulses and vibration loads. The electrical testing was conducted by KEMA-Powertest Company and the vibration testing was performed at Wyle Laboratories, Huntsville, Alabama. This report discusses the test procedures, presents the test data, includes an analysis of the data and provides recommendations regarding reliable relay testing

  11. Nondestructive testing of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NUKEM has transferred know-how from reactor technology to materials testing. The high and to a large extent new quality standards in the nuclear industry necessitate reliable measuring and testing equipment of the highest precision. Many of the tasks presented to us could not be solved with the equipment available on the market, for which reason we have developed our own measuring, testing and control systems. We have therefore acquired considerable experience in dealing with specific measuring, testing and control tasks and can handle even out-of-the-way problems that are submitted to us from a wide variety of fields. Our mechanical systems for the checking of close-tolerance gaps, the automatic determination of pellet dimensions and the measurement of absolute lengths and absolute velocities are in use in many different industrial fields. We have succeeded in solving unusual testing and sorting problems with the aid of automated surface testing equipment working on optical principles. Our main activities in the field of non-destructive testing have been concentrated on ultrasonic and eddy current testing and, of late, acoustic emission analysis. NUKEM ultrasonic systems are notable for their high defect detection rate and testing accuracy, combined with high testing speed. The equipment we supply includes ultrasonic rotary systems for the production testing of quality tubes, ultrasonic immersion systems for the final testing of reactor cladding tubes, weld testing equipment, and test equipment for the bonds in multi-layer plates. (orig./RW) [de

  12. Gas Test Loop Booster Fuel Hydraulic Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gas Test Loop Hydraulic Testing Staff

    2006-01-01

    The Gas Test Loop (GTL) project is for the design of an adaptation to the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to create a fast-flux test space where fuels and materials for advanced reactor concepts can undergo irradiation testing. Incident to that design, it was found necessary to make use of special booster fuel to enhance the neutron flux in the reactor lobe in which the Gas Test Loop will be installed. Because the booster fuel is of a different composition and configuration from standard ATR fuel, it is necessary to qualify the booster fuel for use in the ATR. Part of that qualification is the determination that required thermal hydraulic criteria will be met under routine operation and under selected accident scenarios. The Hydraulic Testing task in the GTL project facilitates that determination by measuring flow coefficients (pressure drops) over various regions of the booster fuel over a range of primary coolant flow rates. A high-fidelity model of the NW lobe of the ATR with associated flow baffle, in-pile-tube, and below-core flow channels was designed, constructed and located in the Idaho State University Thermal Fluids Laboratory. A circulation loop was designed and constructed by the university to provide reactor-relevant water flow rates to the test system. Models of the four booster fuel elements required for GTL operation were fabricated from aluminum (no uranium or means of heating) and placed in the flow channel. One of these was instrumented with Pitot tubes to measure flow velocities in the channels between the three booster fuel plates and between the innermost and outermost plates and the side walls of the flow annulus. Flow coefficients in the range of 4 to 6.5 were determined from the measurements made for the upper and middle parts of the booster fuel elements. The flow coefficient for the lower end of the booster fuel and the sub-core flow channel was lower at 2.3

  13. Gas Test Loop Booster Fuel Hydraulic Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gas Test Loop Hydraulic Testing Staff

    2006-09-01

    The Gas Test Loop (GTL) project is for the design of an adaptation to the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to create a fast-flux test space where fuels and materials for advanced reactor concepts can undergo irradiation testing. Incident to that design, it was found necessary to make use of special booster fuel to enhance the neutron flux in the reactor lobe in which the Gas Test Loop will be installed. Because the booster fuel is of a different composition and configuration from standard ATR fuel, it is necessary to qualify the booster fuel for use in the ATR. Part of that qualification is the determination that required thermal hydraulic criteria will be met under routine operation and under selected accident scenarios. The Hydraulic Testing task in the GTL project facilitates that determination by measuring flow coefficients (pressure drops) over various regions of the booster fuel over a range of primary coolant flow rates. A high-fidelity model of the NW lobe of the ATR with associated flow baffle, in-pile-tube, and below-core flow channels was designed, constructed and located in the Idaho State University Thermal Fluids Laboratory. A circulation loop was designed and constructed by the university to provide reactor-relevant water flow rates to the test system. Models of the four booster fuel elements required for GTL operation were fabricated from aluminum (no uranium or means of heating) and placed in the flow channel. One of these was instrumented with Pitot tubes to measure flow velocities in the channels between the three booster fuel plates and between the innermost and outermost plates and the side walls of the flow annulus. Flow coefficients in the range of 4 to 6.5 were determined from the measurements made for the upper and middle parts of the booster fuel elements. The flow coefficient for the lower end of the booster fuel and the sub-core flow channel was lower at 2.3.

  14. Metamorphic Testing for Cybersecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tsong Yueh; Kuo, Fei-Ching; Ma, Wenjuan; Susilo, Willy; Towey, Dave; Voas, Jeffrey; Zhou, Zhi Quan

    2016-06-01

    Testing is a major approach for the detection of software defects, including vulnerabilities in security features. This article introduces metamorphic testing (MT), a relatively new testing method, and discusses how the new perspective of MT can help to conduct negative testing as well as to alleviate the oracle problem in the testing of security-related functionality and behavior. As demonstrated by the effectiveness of MT in detecting previously unknown bugs in real-world critical applications such as compilers and code obfuscators, we conclude that software testing of security-related features should be conducted from diverse perspectives in order to achieve greater cybersecurity.

  15. Theory of nonparametric tests

    CERN Document Server

    Dickhaus, Thorsten

    2018-01-01

    This textbook provides a self-contained presentation of the main concepts and methods of nonparametric statistical testing, with a particular focus on the theoretical foundations of goodness-of-fit tests, rank tests, resampling tests, and projection tests. The substitution principle is employed as a unified approach to the nonparametric test problems discussed. In addition to mathematical theory, it also includes numerous examples and computer implementations. The book is intended for advanced undergraduate, graduate, and postdoc students as well as young researchers. Readers should be familiar with the basic concepts of mathematical statistics typically covered in introductory statistics courses.

  16. Metamorphic Testing for Cybersecurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tsong Yueh; Kuo, Fei-Ching; Ma, Wenjuan; Susilo, Willy; Towey, Dave; Voas, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Testing is a major approach for the detection of software defects, including vulnerabilities in security features. This article introduces metamorphic testing (MT), a relatively new testing method, and discusses how the new perspective of MT can help to conduct negative testing as well as to alleviate the oracle problem in the testing of security-related functionality and behavior. As demonstrated by the effectiveness of MT in detecting previously unknown bugs in real-world critical applications such as compilers and code obfuscators, we conclude that software testing of security-related features should be conducted from diverse perspectives in order to achieve greater cybersecurity. PMID:27559196

  17. Comparative Test Case Specification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena; Heiselberg, Per

     This document includes a definition of the comparative test cases DSF200_3 and DSF200_4, which previously described in the comparative test case specification for the test cases DSF100_3 and DSF200_3 [Ref.1]....... This document includes a definition of the comparative test cases DSF200_3 and DSF200_4, which previously described in the comparative test case specification for the test cases DSF100_3 and DSF200_3 [Ref.1]....

  18. Proficiency Testing in Nondestructive Testing (NDT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amry Amin Abbas; Suhairy Sani; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail; Abd Nassir Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Department of Standard Malaysia (DSM) launched myPTP programme on 31 December 2013 in accordance to ISO/IC 17043. The standard states the requirements for Proficiency Testing. The provider of these services is called Proficiency Testing Provider (PTP). The role of PTP is to compare the proficiency level between inspection bodies or laboratories. With the assistance of expert panel, the PTP will determine the assigned value as reference to be compared to the values obtained from the inspection bodies or laboratories. Quality wise, this services is important as participation will improve wuality of the inspection quality continuously and increase confidence level of client and improve safety level. Requirement of PT in NDT is mentioned in SC1.5- Specific Criteria for Accreditation of Mechanical Testing and Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) for MS ISO/IEC17025 and MTR2- MIBAS Technical Requirements for Accreditation of NDT. This paper explains and discusses the result of this proficiency test done on a number of NDT companies that participated. (author)

  19. Irradiation Effects Test Series: Test IE-2. Test results report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, C.M.; Croucher, D.W.; Ploger, S.A.; Mehner, A.S.

    1977-08-01

    The report describes the results of a test using four 0.97-m long PWR-type fuel rods with differences in diametral gap and cladding irradiation. The objective of this test was to provide information about the effects of these differences on fuel rod behavior during quasi-equilibrium and film boiling operation. The fuel rods were subjected to a series of preconditioning power cycles of less than 30 kW/m. Rod powers were then increased to 68 kW/m at a coolant mass flux of 4900 kg/s-m 2 . After one hour at 68 kW/m, a power-cooling-mismatch sequence was initiated by a flow reduction at constant power. At a flow of 2550 kg/s-m 2 , the onset of film boiling occurred on one rod, Rod IE-011. An additional flow reduction to 2245 kg/s-m 2 caused the onset of film boiling on the remaining three rods. Data are presented on the behavior of fuel rods during quasiequilibrium and during film boiling operation. The effects of initial gap size, cladding irradiation, rod power cycling, a rapid power increase, and sustained film boiling are discussed. These discussions are based on measured test data, preliminary postirradiation examination results, and comparisons of results with FRAP-T3 computer model calculations

  20. GWIPS-viz: 2018 update

    OpenAIRE

    Michel, Audrey M.; Kiniry, Stephen J.; O'Connor, Patrick B. F.; Mullan, James P.; Baranov, Pavel V.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The GWIPS-viz browser (http://gwips.ucc.ie/) is an on-line genome browser which is tailored for exploring ribosome profiling (Ribo-seq) data. Since its publication in 2014, GWIPS-viz provides Ribo-seq data for an additional 14 genomes bringing the current total to 23. The integration of new Ribo-seq data has been automated thereby increasing the number of available tracks to 1792, a 10-fold increase in the last three years. The increase is particularly substantial for data derived fr...

  1. Visual acuity test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003396.htm Visual acuity test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The visual acuity test is used to determine the smallest ...

  2. Learning Python testing

    CERN Document Server

    Arbuckle, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This book is ideal if you want to learn about the testing disciplines and automated testing tools from a hands-on, conversational guide. You should already know Python and be comfortable with Python 3.

  3. EMI Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Supports electromagnetic interference/radio frequency interference (EMI/RFI) testing of flight hardware. It is also used to support custom RF testing up to...

  4. Urine specific gravity test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003587.htm Urine specific gravity test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Urine specific gravity is a laboratory test that shows the concentration ...

  5. Ballistic Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Ballistic Test Facility is comprised of two outdoor and one indoor test ranges, which are all instrumented for data acquisition and analysis. Full-size aircraft...

  6. Ultrasonic testing X gammagraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mello Campos, A.M. de

    1989-01-01

    The experience of 10 years for substituting gammagraphy tests by ultrasonic tests is related. A comparative evaluation of data obtained from both techniques applied to welded butt joints is presented. (author)

  7. Extraocular muscle function testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003397.htm Extraocular muscle function testing To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Extraocular muscle function testing examines the function of the eye muscles. ...

  8. Platelet Function Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search Platelet Function Tests Send Us Your Feedback Choose Topic At ... Also Known As Platelet Aggregation Studies PFT Platelet Function Assay PFA Formal Name Platelet Function Tests This ...

  9. Variable Attitude Test Stand

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Variable Attitude Test Stand designed and built for testing of the V-22 tilt rotor aircraft propulsion system, is used to evaluate the effect of aircraft flight...

  10. Insensitive Munitions Testing

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Insensitive Munitions Testing at RTC is conducted (IAW MILSTD-2105) at Test Area 4. Our engineers and technicians obtain data for hazards classification and safety...

  11. Lab and Imaging Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tests to help detect (diagnose) a blood cancer (leukemia, lymphoma, myeloma, myelodysplastic syndromes or myeloproliferative disease). You may need to undergo additional tests to confirm your diagnosis. Once your diagnosis is confirmed, your doctor may ...

  12. Learning Android application testing

    CERN Document Server

    Blundell, Paul

    2015-01-01

    If you are an Android developer looking to test your applications or optimize your application development process, then this book is for you. No previous experience in application testing is required.

  13. Genetic Testing for ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... genetic counselor can help you work through the pros and cons of genetic testing based on your ... showing symptoms or what their progression will be. Technology is changing rapidly and costs of testing are ...

  14. Atlantic Test Range (ATR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — ATR controls fully-instrumented and integrated test ranges that provide full-service support for cradle-to-grave testing. Airspace and surface target areas are used...

  15. The Danish National Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beuchert, Louise Voldby; Nandrup, Anne Brink

    In 2010, the Danish National Tests were implemented in the public compulsory schools as a mean of evaluating the performance of the public school system. The extensive test program consists of ten mandatory tests in six subjects in grades 2 through 8. In this paper, we share our insights from wor...... characteristics as well as pupils' 9th grade examination marks. We document a stable test score gap across grade levels and socio economic background and discuss the prospects of the national test data for future research....... within each test and argue that this is often a more feasible measure for data analyses compared to the transformed test score presented to pupils and teachers. We provide the reader with preliminary analyses of the relation between pupils' national test results and a wide range of pupil background...

  16. Uric acid test (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uric acid urine test is performed to check for the amount of uric acid in urine. Urine is collected over a 24 ... for testing. The most common reason for measuring uric acid levels is in the diagnosis or treatment of ...

  17. Ethylene glycol blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003564.htm Ethylene glycol blood test To use the sharing features ... enable JavaScript. This test measures the level of ethylene glycol in the blood. Ethylene glycol is a ...

  18. hs-CRP Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the sample? No test preparation is needed; however, fasting for 9-12 hours before the blood sample ... such as colon cancer , complications of diabetes , and obesity. I have had cholesterol tests but never an ...

  19. Understanding Laboratory Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates the development and marketing of all laboratory tests that use test kits ... Cancer.gov en español Multimedia Publications Site Map Digital Standards for NCI Websites POLICIES Accessibility Comment Policy ...

  20. Corrosion Testing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Corrosion Testing Facility is part of the Army Corrosion Office (ACO). It is a fully functional atmospheric exposure site, called the Corrosion Instrumented Test...

  1. Rocketball Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This test facility offers the capability to emulate and measure guided missile radar cross-section without requiring flight tests of tactical missiles. This facility...

  2. PT and INR Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Plasma Free Metanephrines Platelet Count Platelet Function Tests Pleural Fluid Analysis PML-RARA Porphyrin Tests Potassium Prealbumin ... and vitamin K (either in a multivitamin or liquid nutrition supplement) may decrease PT. Certain foods, such ...

  3. Helicobacter pylori Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Plasma Free Metanephrines Platelet Count Platelet Function Tests Pleural Fluid Analysis PML-RARA Porphyrin Tests Potassium Prealbumin ... collected and then the person is given a liquid to drink. Another breath sample is collected at ...

  4. Static Loads Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides the capability to perform large-scale structural loads testing on spacecraft and other structures. Results from these tests can be used to verify...

  5. Antidiuretic hormone blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003702.htm Antidiuretic hormone blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Antidiuretic blood test measures the level of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) in ...

  6. Gastrin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peptic ulcer - gastrin blood test ... A blood sample is needed . ... in the stomach, gastrin is released into the blood. As the acid ... provider may order this test if you have signs or symptoms of a ...

  7. HCG blood test - qualitative

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003509.htm HCG blood test - qualitative To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A qualitative HCG blood test checks if there is a hormone called human ...

  8. ACE blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003567.htm ACE blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... Alternative Names Serum angiotensin-converting enzyme; SACE Images Blood test References Carty RP, Pincus MR, Sarafraz-Yazdi E. ...

  9. LDH isoenzyme blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003499.htm LDH isoenzyme blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... Names LD; LDH; Lactic (lactate) dehydrogenase isoenzymes Images Blood test References Carty RP, Pincus MR, Sarafraz-Yazdi E. ...

  10. Phosphorus blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003478.htm Phosphorus blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The phosphorus blood test measures the amount of phosphate in the blood. ...

  11. CEA blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcinoembryonic antigen blood test ... doing so for a short time before the test. ... When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel ... may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. This soon goes away.

  12. Methylmalonic acid blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003565.htm Methylmalonic acid blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The methylmalonic acid blood test measures the amount of methylmalonic acid in the ...

  13. TBG - blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003374.htm TBG - blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The TBG blood test measures the level of a protein that moves ...

  14. Calcitonin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003699.htm Calcitonin blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The calcitonin blood test measures the level of the hormone calcitonin in ...

  15. Calcium blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003477.htm Calcium blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The calcium blood test measures the level of calcium in the blood. ...

  16. Aldolase blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003566.htm Aldolase blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... risk any time the skin is broken) Images Blood test References Berridge BR, Van Vleet JF, Herman E. ...

  17. Glucagon blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003716.htm Glucagon blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A glucagon blood test measures the amount of a hormone called glucagon ...

  18. Leucine aminopeptidase blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003559.htm Leucine aminopeptidase blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... Alternative Names Serum leucine aminopeptidase; LAP - serum Images Blood test References Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Leucine aminopeptidase (LAP) - ...

  19. Pyruvate kinase blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003357.htm Pyruvate kinase blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... energy when oxygen levels are low. How the Test is Performed A blood sample is needed. In the laboratory, white blood ...

  20. Ammonia blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003506.htm Ammonia blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... Encephalopathy - ammonia; Cirrhosis - ammonia; Liver failure - ammonia Images Blood test References Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Ammonia (NH3) - blood ...

  1. Antithrombin III blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003661.htm Antithrombin III blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... a protein that helps control blood clotting. A blood test can determine the amount of AT III present ...

  2. Fibrinopeptide A blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003373.htm Fibrinopeptide A blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... measure the level of this substance in your blood. How the Test is Performed A blood sample is needed. How ...

  3. Tularemia blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tularemia test; Serology for Francisella tularensis ... This blood test is done when tularemia is suspected. ... Elsevier; 2017:chap 44. Chernecky CC, Berger BJ. Tularemia agglutinins - serum. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. ...

  4. RBC urine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... measurement for a result of this test. Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Some labs use different measurements or test different samples. Talk to your provider ...

  5. Mantoux Tuberculin Skin Test

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Learn how to evaluate people for latent TB infection with the Mantoux tuberculin skin test. This podcast includes sections on administering and reading the Mantoux tuberculin skin test, the standard method for detecting latent TB infection since the 1930s.

  6. Large scale reflood test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Kemmei; Murao, Yoshio

    1980-01-01

    The large-scale reflood test with a view to ensuring the safety of light water reactors was started in fiscal 1976 based on the special account act for power source development promotion measures by the entrustment from the Science and Technology Agency. Thereafter, to establish the safety of PWRs in loss-of-coolant accidents by joint international efforts, the Japan-West Germany-U.S. research cooperation program was started in April, 1980. Thereupon, the large-scale reflood test is now included in this program. It consists of two tests using a cylindrical core testing apparatus for examining the overall system effect and a plate core testing apparatus for testing individual effects. Each apparatus is composed of the mock-ups of pressure vessel, primary loop, containment vessel and ECCS. The testing method, the test results and the research cooperation program are described. (J.P.N.)

  7. Test Preparation: Your Role

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eating cooked meat may be required since some studies have shown that eating cooked meat prior to testing can temporarily increase the level of creatinine. Fecal occult blood test : certain food and/or medication restrictions may be required. Urine ...

  8. Testing for HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Home Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Safety & Availability (Biologics) HIV Home Test Kits Testing for HIV Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  9. Radiated Emissions Test Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-02

    1. Draft Department of Transportation (DOT) Test Plan to Develop : Interference Tolerance Masks for GNSS Receivers in the L1 : Radiofrequency Band (1559 1610 MHz) provides high level : overview of radiated emissions test setup : 2. Presenta...

  10. HPV DNA test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... test; Cancer of cervix - HPV DNA test References Hacker NF. Cervical dysplasia and cancer. In: Hacker NF, Gambone JC, Hobel CJ, eds. Hacker and Moore's Essentials of Obstetrics and Gynecology . 6th ...

  11. Cross cultural usability testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Torkil; Goyal, Shivam

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present the results of a pilot study in Denmark of cross cultural effects on Think Aloud usability testing. We provide an overview of previous research on cross cultural usability evaluation with a special focus on the relationship between the evaluator and the test user....... This relation was studied in an experiment with usability testing of a localized clipart application in which eight participants from Denmark and India formed pairs of evaluator-test user. The test users were asked to think aloud and the evaluators' role were to facilitate the test users thinking aloud...... and hereby identify usability problems with the clipart application. Data on the evaluators' and test users' behaviour were recorded and analyzed by coding and summarizing statistics on these behavioural events. The results show that Think Aloud Usability Test of a localized application is most effectively...

  12. Environmental Test Facility (ETF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Environmental Test Facility (ETF) provides non-isolated shock testing for stand-alone equipment and full size cabinets under MIL-S-901D specifications. The ETF...

  13. The first PANDA tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreier, J.; Huggenberger, M.; Aubert, C.

    1996-01-01

    The PANDA test facility at PSI in Switzerland is used to study the long-term Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR) Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS) performance. The PANDA tests demonstrate performance on a larger scale than previous tests and examine the effects of any non-uniform spatial distributions of steam and non-condensables in the system. The PANDA facility has a 1:1 vertical scale, and 1:25 ''system'' scale (volume, power, etc.). Steady-state PCCS condenser performance tests and extensive facility characterization tests have been completed. Transient system behavior tests were conducted late in 1995; results from the first three transient tests (M3 series) are reviewed. The first PANDA tests showed that the overall global behavior of the SBWR containment was globally repeatable and very favorable; the system exhibited great ''robustness.''

  14. Growth hormone stimulation test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003377.htm Growth hormone stimulation test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The growth hormone (GH) stimulation test measures the ability of ...

  15. USA Hire Testing Platform

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The USA Hire Testing Platform delivers tests used in hiring for positions in the Federal Government. To safeguard the integrity of the hiring processes and ensure...

  16. Design of a trigger layout and the corresponding implementation of a 200 GB/s readout network for the ALICE transition radiation detector; Entwicklung des Triggerkonzepts und die entsprechende Implementierung eines 200-GB/s-Auslesenetzwerks fuer den ALICE-Uebergangsstrahlungsdetektor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Rolf

    2008-05-19

    Through the use of modern information technology, intelligent trigger systems are gaining more and more importance in high-energy physics. Particularly in heavy ion experiments, the large number of generated particles results in an enormous amount of data. By filtering the data at an early stage and discarding irrelevant events, the efficiency of the entire system can be raised significantly. The ALICE experiment at CERN breaks new ground in this respect. With the Transition Radiation Detector, the acquired signals are processed parallel right on the detector using more than 65 000 multi-chip modules. Via a readout network, the preprocessed data arrives at a global track reconstruction unit, which contributes to the decision whether an event is discarded or further processed. In this thesis, a trigger concept for the Transition Radiation Detector is developed and the readout network is implemented. A special challenge is to achieve an efficient interaction of the above processing stages. By means of simulations and analyses, the entire system is optimized in this regard. It turns out that the read-out process plays a decisive role. In this context, a design flow for the used ASIC is developed. The analyses show that through optimizations the extremely high demands made on this complex system can be met. During a beam time, first prototypes have successfully been tested. The entire system is currently being assembled and will be brought on line in 2008. (orig.)

  17. Shock resistance testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouard, M.

    1984-03-01

    In the framework of mechanical tests and to answer the different requests for tests, the T.C.R (Transport Conditionnement et Retraitement) laboratory got test facilities. These installations allow to carry out tests of resistance to shocks, mainly at the safety level of components of nuclear power plants, mockups of transport casks for fuel elements and transport containers for radioactive materials. They include a tower and a catapult. This paper give a decription of the facilities and explain their operation way [fr

  18. Tests in Print II: An Index to Tests, Test Reviews, and the Literature on Specific Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buros, Oscar K., Ed.

    Tests in Print II is a comprehensive, annotated bibliography of all in-print tests published as separates for use with English-speaking subjects. The 1,155 two-column pages list 2,467 tests in print as of early 1974; 16,574 references through 1971 on specific tests; a reprinting of the 1974 APA-AERA-NCME Standards for Educational andPsychological…

  19. Liquid Rocket Engine Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-21

    Briefing Charts 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 17 October 2016 – 26 October 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Liquid Rocket Engine Testing 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239.18 Liquid Rocket Engine Testing SFTE Symposium 21 October 2016 Jake Robertson, Capt USAF AFRL...Distribution Unlimited. PA Clearance 16493 Liquid Rocket Engine Testing • Engines and their components are extensively static-tested in development • This

  20. Probe tests microweld strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Probe is developed to test strength of soldered, brazed or microwelded joints. It consists of a spring which may be adjusted to the desired test pressure by means of a threaded probe head, and an indicator lamp. Device may be used for electronic equipment testing.

  1. Language Testing in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James Dean, Ed.; Yamashita, Sayoko Okada, Ed.

    Papers on second language testing in Japan include: "Differences Between Norm-Referenced and Criterion-Referenced Tests" (James Dean Brown); "Criterion-Referenced Test Construction and Evaluation" (Dale T. Griffe); "Behavioral Learning Objectives as an Evaluation Tool" (Judith A. Johnson); "Developing Norm-…

  2. [Memory Checking Tests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Joseph T.

    Two basic tests for checking memory skills are included in these appendices. The first, the General Information Test, uses the same 150 items for each of its two versions. One version is a completion-type test which measures recall by requiring the examinee to supply a specific response. The other version supplements each of the 150 items with…

  3. Get Tested for HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AIDS: What is HIV/AIDS? Women and HIV/AIDS Next section ... Tested? Why do I need to get tested for HIV? The only way to know if you have HIV is to get tested. Many people with HIV don’t have any symptoms. In the United States, about 1 in 7 ...

  4. Testing Backbone.js

    CERN Document Server

    Roemer, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    This book is packed with the step by step tutorial and instructions in recipe format helping you setup test infrastructure and gradually advance your skills to plan, develop, and test your backbone applications.If you are a JavaScript developer looking for recipes to create and implement test support for your backbone application, then this book is ideal for you.

  5. Automation of radiometric testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chekalin, A.S.; Temnik, A.K.; Butakova, G.E.; Goncharov, V.I.

    1983-01-01

    The main prerequisites for creation of automatic systems of radiometric testing as the means to increase the testing objectivity and quality have been considered, principles of their design being developed. The operating system is described for testing complex configuration products using RD-10R gamma flow detector as a sensor of initial information

  6. Estradiol blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003711.htm Estradiol blood test To use the sharing features on this page, ... of estrogens. How the Test is Performed A blood sample is needed . How to Prepare for the Test Your health care provider may tell you to ...

  7. Nuclear Test Personnel Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    FOIA Electronic Reading Room Privacy Impact Assessment DTRA No Fear Act Reporting Nuclear Test Personnel Review NTPR Fact Sheets NTPR Radiation Dose Assessment Documents US Atmospheric Nuclear Test History Documents US Underground Nuclear Test History Reports NTPR Radiation Exposure Reports Enewetak

  8. 2017 Census Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    /Programs Latest Information Are you in a Survey? 2020 Census 2018 Census Test 2010 Census American Information Surveys/Programs Main Are you in a Survey? 2020 Census 2018 Census Test If you have received a Census. Latest Information The 2018 Census Test will take place in Pierce County, Wash.; Providence

  9. Usability testing for dummies

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Usability testing seems complicated and time-consuming. Is it though? In fact, it is the best way to understand how real users experience your product. In this interactive session, we will do a live usability test and you will get advice on how to conduct your own usability tests.

  10. Barron's SAT subject test

    CERN Document Server

    Jansen, MA, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Includes one diagnostic test and three complete tests, all questions answered and explained, self-assessment guides, and subject reviews. Also features test strategies, QR codes to short instructional videos, and a detailed appendix with equations, physical constants, and a basic math review.

  11. Toroid magnet test facility

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Because of its exceptional size, it was not feasible to assemble and test the Barrel Toroid - made of eight coils - as an integrated toroid on the surface, prior to its final installation underground in LHC interaction point 1. It was therefore decided to test these eight coils individually in a dedicated test facility.

  12. Dismantling the Mantel tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guillot, Gilles

    The simple and partial Mantel tests are routinely used in many areas of evolutionary biology to assess the significance of the association between two or more matrices of distances relative to the same pairs of individuals or demes. Partial Mantel tests rather than simple Mantel tests are widely...

  13. Dismantling the Mantel tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guillot, Gilles; Rousset, François

    2012-01-01

    1. The simple and partialMantel tests are routinely used in many areas of evolutionary biology to assess the significance of the association between two ormorematrices of distances relative to the same pairs of individuals or demes. Partial Mantel tests rather than simple Mantel tests are widely...

  14. A test management approach for structured testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenendaal, van E.P.W.M.; Pol, M.; Veenendaal, van E.P.W.M.; McMullan, J.

    1997-01-01

    Despite encouraging results with various quality improvement approaches, the IT industry is still far from achieving zero defect software. Testing will remain an important activity within software development and maintenance, often taking more than 30 - 40% of the total budget. Both the increasing

  15. Grimsel Test Site: heat test, final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneefuss, J.; Glaess, F.; Gommlich, G.; Schmidt, M.

    1989-05-01

    The Swiss concept for the storage of radioactive waste consists in placing it in compact, dense rock formations. An experiment 'Heat Test' carried out by the 'Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung' in Nagra's Grimsel rock laboratory simulated the heat production of stored radioactive waste. The aim was to evaluate processes for the demonstration of the suitability of a final repository for heat-producing radioactive waste in cristalline rock, to investigate the thermic, mechanic and hydraulic reactions to an artificial heat source, and to develop corresponding calculating models. The duration of the tests was about 3 years. In this report the measured thermic, mechanic and hydraulic reactions are documented and discussed in detail. A simple, rotation symmetrical FEM-model was used for the preparatory and experiment-accompanying modelling of the thermomechanical conditions in the heat test. The test showed that suitable measuring methods for the surveillance of the geomechanics of a final repository are available and that the reactions of the crystalline host rock to the heat source remain locally limited and can be modelled with relatively small effort. 29 refs., 33 figs., 10 tabs

  16. Toroidal simulation magnet tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walstrom, P.L.; Domm, T.C.

    1975-01-01

    A number of different schemes for testing superconducting coils in a simulated tokamak environment are analyzed for their merits relative to a set of test criteria. Two of the concepts are examined in more detail: the so-called cluster test scheme, which employs two large background field coils, one on either side of the test coil, and the compact torus, a low-aspect ratio toroidal array of a small number of coils in which all of the coils are essentially test coils. Simulation of the pulsed fields of the tokamak is discussed briefly

  17. 100 statistical tests

    CERN Document Server

    Kanji, Gopal K

    2006-01-01

    This expanded and updated Third Edition of Gopal K. Kanji's best-selling resource on statistical tests covers all the most commonly used tests with information on how to calculate and interpret results with simple datasets. Each entry begins with a short summary statement about the test's purpose, and contains details of the test objective, the limitations (or assumptions) involved, a brief outline of the method, a worked example, and the numerical calculation. 100 Statistical Tests, Third Edition is the one indispensable guide for users of statistical materials and consumers of statistical information at all levels and across all disciplines.

  18. Testing of abrasion materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hummert, G.

    1983-01-01

    A method of abrasion testing according to ASTM C 704-76 a is presented for steel fibre concrete mortar, fusion-cast basalt and a surface coating material and results of practical interest are mentioned. Due to the high technical demands on these materials and their specific fields of application, the very first test already supplied interesting findings. From the user's point of view, the method is an interesting alternative to the common test methods, e.g. according to DIN 52 108 (wheel test according to Boehme). In English-speaking countries, testing according to ASTM is often mandatory in the refractory industry in order to assure constant quality of refractory materials after setting. The method is characterized by good comparability and high accuracy of measurement. Only the test piece is exchanged while the test conditions remain constant, so that accurate information on the material studied is obtained. (orig.) [de

  19. Group B streptococcus colonization and HIV in pregnancy: A cohort study in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biobaku Oluwafunmilola, R; Olaleye Atinuke, O; Adefusi Olorunwa, F; Adeyemi Babalola, A; Onipede Anthony, O; Loto Olabisi, M; Imaralu John, O

    2017-01-01

    Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of maternal and neonatal infectious morbidity. HIV is prevalent among pregnant women in Nigeria. To determine the rates of anogenital GBS colonization in our institution and compare GBS colonization rates between HIV positive and negative pregnant women. A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted over 6 months. Patients were separated according to their HIV status: positive and negative. GBS colonization was assessed by vaginal and anal swabs collected at 35-37 weeks of gestation and cultured in Todd-Hewitt broth, followed by a confirmatory test. Socio-demographic characteristics and CD4 count were extracted from patient medical records. Secondary outcomes were identification of risk factors for GBS colonization, antibiotic sensitivity, and any association between CD4 count and GBS colonization. Appropriate statistical analysis was done. A total of 200 patients attended the clinic; 67 HIV positive and 133 negative. Analyzed samples were 198; the overall prevalence of GBS was 18.2%. No significant difference in GBS colonization was noted between HIV positive (19.4% [13]) and negative patients (17.6% [23/131]). Most GBS isolates were susceptible to ampicillin (87%) and penicillin (81%). A high body mass index (BMI) was independently associated with GBS colonization (OR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.04-1.51). No association was observed between CD4 counts and GBS colonization. A high prevalence of GBS colonization was observed in our institution. Colonization rates were independent of the HIV status but associated with a high BMI in HIV positive women.

  20. Earthquake likelihood model testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorlemmer, D.; Gerstenberger, M.C.; Wiemer, S.; Jackson, D.D.; Rhoades, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTIONThe Regional Earthquake Likelihood Models (RELM) project aims to produce and evaluate alternate models of earthquake potential (probability per unit volume, magnitude, and time) for California. Based on differing assumptions, these models are produced to test the validity of their assumptions and to explore which models should be incorporated in seismic hazard and risk evaluation. Tests based on physical and geological criteria are useful but we focus on statistical methods using future earthquake catalog data only. We envision two evaluations: a test of consistency with observed data and a comparison of all pairs of models for relative consistency. Both tests are based on the likelihood method, and both are fully prospective (i.e., the models are not adjusted to fit the test data). To be tested, each model must assign a probability to any possible event within a specified region of space, time, and magnitude. For our tests the models must use a common format: earthquake rates in specified “bins” with location, magnitude, time, and focal mechanism limits.Seismology cannot yet deterministically predict individual earthquakes; however, it should seek the best possible models for forecasting earthquake occurrence. This paper describes the statistical rules of an experiment to examine and test earthquake forecasts. The primary purposes of the tests described below are to evaluate physical models for earthquakes, assure that source models used in seismic hazard and risk studies are consistent with earthquake data, and provide quantitative measures by which models can be assigned weights in a consensus model or be judged as suitable for particular regions.In this paper we develop a statistical method for testing earthquake likelihood models. A companion paper (Schorlemmer and Gerstenberger 2007, this issue) discusses the actual implementation of these tests in the framework of the RELM initiative.Statistical testing of hypotheses is a common task and a