Sample records for ribeira petar avaliacao

  1. {sup 222} Rn exposure assessment in the caves of Parque Estadual Turistico do Alto Ribeira (PETAR); Avaliacao da exposicao ao {sup 222} Rn nas cavernas do Parque Estadual Turistico do Alto Ribeira (PETAR)

    Alberigi, Simone


    In the present work, radon concentrations in six caves of PETAR - Parque Estadual Turistico do Alto Ribeira (High Ribeira River Touristic State Park) were carried out with Makrofol E solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) and used to assess the annual effective dose received by regional tour guides. The park has four visitation centers: Santana, Ouro Grosso, Caboclos e Casa de Pedra and receives nearly 40,000 people annually. The caves evaluated were Couto, Agua Suja, Laje Branca, Morro Preto and Santana, from Santana center and Alambari de Baixo from Ouro Grosso center, for being the most frequently visited caves. The exposure period of the SSNTD was, at least, three months, over a period of 26 months, from October 2003 to November 2005.The {sup 222}Rn concentrations lay in a range from 153 Bq.m{sup -3} to 6607 Bq.m{sup -3} and we observed that, in general, for chilly weather, the radon levels decrease. The annual effective dose, considering the most realistic scenario, with geometric mean concentrations, an equilibrium factor of 0.5 and annual exposure time for each cave, varied from 0.2 mSv.a{sup -1} for the Couto cave, strongly ventilated, to 4.0 mSv.a{sup -1} for the Santana cave, the most frequently visited and no external communication. For the worst scenario, with arithmetic mean concentrations, equilibrium factor 1 and annual exposure time for all caves, the annual effective dose was 16.1 mSv.a{sup -1}. All assessed effective doses received by the tour guides are bellow 20 mSv.a{sup -1} suggested as an annual effective dose limit for occupational exposure by the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP 60, 1990). (author)

  2. Riqueza e conservação da avifauna do Parque Estadual Turístico do Alto RibeiraPETAR, SP. Richness and bird species conservation of the Turístico do Alto Ribeira State Park – PETAR, SP.

    Alexsander Zamorano ANTUNES


    Full Text Available Foi realizado um levantamento da avifauna nos diferentes sítios do ParqueEstadualTurístico doAlto RibeiraPETAR. Foram detectadas 266 espécies. Destas, 99 (37%são endêmicas ao bioma Mata Atlântica e 21 (8% consideradas ameaçadas de extinção,evidenciando a importância dessa área para a conservação. Apesar de dominado por florestasecundária, o PETAR mantém uma riqueza de aves semelhante à dos demais parques doMaciço Florestal de Paranapiacaba, incluindo a maioria das espécies ameaçadas deextinção. A presença de moradores e a extração ilegal de palmito constituem as principaisameças à biota do parque.We recorded 266 bird species in Turístico do Alto Ribeira State Park –PETAR, São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. Ninety nine (37% species are Atlantic Forestendemics and 21 (8% threatened, highlighting the importance of this area for conservation.Although dominated by secondary forest, PETAR avifauna has similar to other parks ofSerra de Paranapiacaba Forest, including most endangered species. The presence ofresidents and illegal palm-heart extraction are the main threats to park biota.

  3. Phlebotomines (Diptera, Psychodidae in the Speleological Province of the Ribeira Valley: 2. Parque Estadual do Alto Ribeira (PETAR, São Paulo State, Brazil Flebotomíneos (Diptera, Psychodidae na província Espeleológica do Vale do Ribeira. 2: Parque Estadual Turístico do Alto Ribeira (PETAR, São Paulo, Brasil

    Eunice A. B. Galati


    Full Text Available The Parque Estadual do Alto Ribeira (PETAR with about 250 caves, in an Atlantic forest reserve, is an important ecotourist attraction in the Ribeira Valley, an endemic area of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL. With the purpose of investigating Leishmania vector species bothersome to humans the sandfly fauna was identified and some of its ecological aspects in the Santana nucleus, captures were undertaken monthly with automatic light traps in 11 ecotopes, including caves, forests, a camping site and domiciliary environments, and on black and white Shannon traps, from January/2001 to December/2002. A total of 2,449 sandflies representing 21 species were captured. The highest values of abundance obtained in the captures with automatic light traps were for Psathyromyia pascalei and Psychodopygus ayrozai. A total of 107 specimens representing 13 species were captured on black (12 species and white (6 species Shannon traps set simultaneously. Psychodopygus geniculatus females predominated on the black (43.75%, and Psathyromyia lanei and Ps. ayrozai equally (32.4% on the white. Nyssomyia intermedia and Nyssomyia neivai, both implicated in the transmission of ACL in the Brazilian Southeastern region, were also captured. Ny. intermedia predominated in the open camping area. Low frequencies of phlebotomines were observed in the caves, where Evandromyia edwardsi predominated Lutzomyia longipalpis, the main vector of the American visceral leishmaniasis, was aslo present. This is its most southernly reported occurrence in the Atlantic forest.O Parque Estadual Turístico do Alto Ribeira, com cerca de 250 cavernas, situado em reserva de floresta Atlântica, é uma importante atração turística na região do Vale do Ribeira, onde a leishmaniose tegumentar americana (LTA é endêmica. Com o objetivo de investigar as espécies incômodas ao homem e/ou implicadas na transmissão de Leishmania, identificou-se a fauna flebotomínea e alguns aspectos ecol

  4. Variation of Indoor Radon Levels in Some Caves of Parque Estadual Turístico do Alto Ribeira (PETAR), SP, Brazil with Ventilation and Rain

    Alberigi, Simone; Pecequilo, Brigitte Roxana Soreanu


    In order to assess the radon exposure for the tour guide workers, radon levels in several galleries of the most visited caves of PETAR (High Ribeira River Turistic State Park), were determined by using Makrofol E tracks detectors. A two-years surveillance, from 2003 to 2005, showed radon average levels varying from 153±44 Bqṡm-3 to 6358±1619 Bqṡm-3. Those results showed that the wide variation between the minimum and maximum concentrations values are strongly related with cave ventilation. In order to establish other factors contributing to this variation, beside the well known temperature effect, rain data over the entire period were also considered, showing that, apparently, radon concentrations inside the caves rise with drought.

  5. Phlebotomines (Diptera, Psychodidae in the Speleological Province of the Ribeira Valley: 3. Serra district - area of hostels for tourists who visit the Parque Estadual do Alto Ribeira (PETAR, state of São Paulo, Brazil

    Eunice Aparecida Bianchi Galati


    Full Text Available Phlebotomines (Diptera, Psychodidae in the Speleological Province of the Ribeira Valley: 3. Area of hostels for tourists who visit the Parque Estadual do Alto Ribeira (PETAR, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The study characterizes some ecological aspects of the phlebotomine fauna in an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL situated in the Serra district, Iporanga municipality where the hostels for tourists visiting the PETAR are located. Captures were undertaken on a smallholding and a small farm situated near the hostels, monthly between January/2001 and December/2003 with automatic light traps (ALT in pigsty, hen-house and veranda of a domicile at the two sites, and in peridomicile of the small farm also with black/white Shannon traps. With the ALT a total of 87,224 phlebotomines representing 19 species and also two hybrids of Nyssomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva and Nyssomyia neivai (Pinto and two anomalous specimens were captured. The standardized index species abundance was for Ny. intermedia = 1.0 and Ny. neivai = 0.935. The highest frequencies of the smallholding occurred in the pigsty, the Williams' mean/capture for Ny. intermedia being 63.7 specimens and for Ny. neivai 29.2, and on the small farm, in the hen-house, Ny. intermedia 402.6 and Ny. neivai 116.2. A total of 863 phlebotomines (Ny. intermedia: 75.4%; Ny. neivai: 24.3% were captured with black/white Shannon traps; females of both species being predominant in the white trap. The high frequencies of Ny. intermedia and Ny. neivai, both implicated in CL transmission, indicate the areas presenting risk of the disease.

  6. Ribeira do Iguape basin water quality assessment for drinking water supply; Avaliacao da qualidade da agua na bacia hidrografica do Ribeira de Iguape com vistas ao abastecimento publico

    Cotrim, Marycel Elena Barboza


    Ribeira do Iguape Basin, located in the Southeast region of Sao Paulo state, is the largest remaining area of Mata Atlantica which biodiversity as rich as Amazon forest , where the readiness of water versus demand is extremely positive. With sparse population density and economy almost dependent on banana agriculture, the region is still well preserved. To water supply SABESP (Sao Paulo State Basic Sanitation Company). Ribeira do Iguape Businesses Unit - RR, uses different types of water supplies. In the present work, in order to ascertain water quality for human consumption, major and minor elements were evaluated in various types of water supply (surface and groundwater's as well as the drinking water supplied). Forty three producing systems were monitored: 18 points of surface waters and treated distributed water, 10 points of groundwater and 15 points of surface water in preserved areas, analyzing 30 elements. Bottom sediments (fraction < 63 {mu}m) were also evaluated. The sampling period covered dry and wet seasons from March 2002 to February 2003. The descriptive analysis showed that Al, Fe and Mn, exceeding CONAMA 357 quality guideline. A comparison of the elemental concentrations with the Brazilian Drinking Water Legislation (Portaria 518/04) showed that with the exception of some violations, the levels of all the elements investigated were below the Brazilian Legislation maximum allowed concentrations. This study examined the relationship between the type of water supply and the quality of water used, showed different characteristics on Ca, Fe, Mn concentration. In bottom sediments (fraction <63 {mu}m), Al, Fe and Mg largest concentrations were found. Pb and Zn presents concentrations up to 142,0 {mu}g.g{sup -1} and 172 {mu}g.g{sup -1}, respectively. Data revealed that trace elements concentration in the sediment were below PEL (Probable Effect Level - probable level of adverse effect to the biological community), exception for Pb in Sete Barras and

  7. Estudo Comparado da Gestão das Visitações nos Parques Estaduais Turísticos do Alto da Ribeira (PETAR e Intervales (PEI, São Paulo, Brasil

    Gilberto Sarfati


    Full Text Available ResumoO objetivo primário desta pesquisa é investigar porque dois parques estaduais relativamente semelhantes (PETAR e PEI apresentam graus de conservação tão distintos. A hipótese central é que as diferenças podem ser explicadas em função das gestões diferentes, ou seja, o PEI é mais conservado que o PETAR, pois sua gestão é conduzida pela Fundação Florestal com a participação da comunidade local através de uma cooperativa. A análise dos dados e do resultado da pesquisa de campo nos leva a concluir que o PETAR está sofrendo um processo de deterioração de suas cavernas abertas à visitação e de seu entorno fruto do turismo desordenado, configurando assim a incidência da tragédia dos comuns. Já no caso do PEI foi constatada uma visitação mais controlada e limitada e, portanto, um grau de preservação do complexo turístico bastante superior. Conclui-se que o modelo de gestão no qual o PEI é vinculado a Fundação Florestal ajuda a explicar o melhor grau de conservação do parque em relação ao PETAR administrado pelo Instituto Florestal. Palavras-Chave: PETAR; PEI; gestão de visitações; turismo sustentável; tragédia dos comuns.  AbstractThe primary objective of this research is to investigate why

  8. On the influence of environmental factors on radon levels in caves of Ribeira valley state parks, SP and evaluation of radioactive equilibrium and equilibrium factor between radon and its progeny; Sobre a influencia de fatores ambientais nos niveis de radonio em cavernas dos parques estaduais do vale do Ribeira, SP e avaliacao do equilibrio radioativo e fator de equilibrio entre radonio e seus descendentes

    Alberigi, Simone


    In the present study it was carried out the monitoring of radon in caves distributed among three state parks of Sao Paulo. The radon concentration were determinate in Morro Preto and Santana caves, located at PETAR - Parque Estadual Turistico do Alto Ribeira (High Ribeira River Tourist State Park), Diabo cave, situated in PEJ - Parque Estadual de Jacupiranga (Jacupiranga State Park) and Colorida cave located in PEI - Parque Estadual Intervales (Intervales State Park PEI). The monitoring covered measurements between April 2009 and June 2010. Radon concentrations were carried out by using the technique of passive detection with CR-39 solid state nuclear track detectors and NRPB diffusion chambers. The detectors were exposed in periods ranging from 30 to 150 days. Radon concentrations varied from 132 Bq/m{sup 3} to 9456 Bq/m{sup 3}. The values of radon concentrations were analyzed together with information about rainfall and internal and external temperature values of the Santana cave environment and regional literature values for a possible relationship between radon variations and weather information. Both the determinations of {sup 22}'6Ra in water samples collected in some caves and rivers and radon emanation from a stalactite collected at Santana cave allowed to verify that the radon in the caves comes from the walls rocks. The verification of the radioactive equilibrium between {sup 222}Rn, {sup 218}Po and '2{sup 14}Po in the exposed detectors was prejudiced by the high tracks densities, committing the methodology effectiveness. The annual effective dose was calculated for three values obtained from the literature for the equilibrium factor. Considering the most realistic scenario, with equilibrium factor of 0.5 and 52 working weeks, the annual effective dose was 5.1 mSv/y. Concerning the worst scenario, which simulates an extreme case, adopting an equilibrium factor equal to 1 and 52 weeks of work per year, the annual effective dose is 10.2 m

  9. Availability of metals Cd and Pb and metalloid As in the Ribeira do Iguape River hydrographic basin and its tributaries: an environmental contamination assessment'; Disponibilidade dos metais Cd e Pb e do metaloide As na bacia hidrografica do Rio Ribeira do Iguape e afluentes: uma avaliacao da contaminacao ambiental

    Castro, Francisco Jose Viana de


    During several decades the Alto Vale of Ribeira region (SP-PR) was under influence of lead mining activities, refined and processed in the mines of the region. Since 1996, all such activities ceased, however, leaving behind a huge amount of environmental liabilities. This study aimed to investigate the presence and concentration levels of metals cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) and metalloid arsenic (As) in the water, sediment and biota (fish blood) in the aquatic systems of Ribeira do Iguape River and its tributaries, for an environmental assessment and monitoring of the region. The sampling collection occurred in 8 sites and fish samples were caught by fishing nets and blood sampling was done in the site. The determination of these elements was carried out by atomic absorption spectrometry with graphite furnace electro thermal heating (GF AAS). This study also assessed the occurrence of some major (Ca, Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Ta, Th, U, Zn) and rare earth elements (La, Ce, Eu, Nd, Sm, Lu, Tb and Yb) by Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). Validation of both methodologies, regarding precision and accuracy, was done by reference material analyses. The results obtained for As, Cd and Pb in the sediment were compared to the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME), TEL (Threshold Effect Level) e PEL (Probable Effect Level) adopted by CETESB and CONAMA 454/2012 Resolution. The results for As, Cd and Pb in water samples were below the QL of the analytical technique used, indicating that these elements are in concentration levels that do not affect the water quality standard established by CONAMA 357/2005. On the other hand, the concentration values for these elements in fish blood and sediment samples showed a strong contamination tendency for Cd and Pb most of the sampling points assessed. The highest Cd concentration in fish blood was 24.3 {mu}g L{sup -1}, at site 2. For Pb, the highest concentration value was 118 {nu}g L

  10. Speleoclimate dynamics in Santana Cave (PETAR, São Paulo State, Brazil: general characterization and implications for tourist management

    Heros Augusto Santos Lobo


    Full Text Available Show caves provide tourists with the opportunity to have close contact with natural underground spaces. However, visitation to these places also creates a need for management measures, mainly the definition of tourist carrying capacity. The present work describes the results of climate monitoring and atmospheric profiling performed in Santana Cave (Alto Ribeira State and Tourist Park – PETAR, Brazil between 2008 and 2011. Based on the results, distinct preliminary zones with different levels of thermal variation were identified, which classify Santana Cave as a warm trap. Two critical points along the tourist route (Cristo and Encontro Halls were identified where the temperature of the locality increased by 1.3 °C when tourists were present. Air flow from the inner cave to the outside occurs during the austral summer, and the opposite flow occurs when the outside environment is colder than the air inside the cave during the austral winter. The temperature was used to establish thresholds to the tourist carrying capacity by computing the recovery time of the atmospheric conditions after the changes caused by the presence of tourists. This method suggests a maximum limit of approximately 350 visits per day to Santana Cave. The conclusion of the study is that Santana Cave has an atmosphere that is highly connected with the outside; daily variations in temperature and, to a lesser extent, in the relative humidity occur throughout the entire studied area of the cave. Therefore, the tourist carrying capacity in Santana Cave can be flexible and can be implemented based on the climate seasonality, the tourism demand and other management strategies.


    Méndez Sereno, C.


    Full Text Available In this paper it is made a study of the process that opened the popular education in the Canton Petare, as well as legal support and the same factors that contributed to its implementation. The effort that the City Council of Petare put to monitor the teaching process - learning, to monitor the performance of both teachers and learners, the provision of resources to ensure the success of this important work despite their limitations, and justice proven to enforce laws, showed that this was the most appropriate body to address the education of their community.

  12. A talk with academician SASA Petar Vlahović on his expert stay in PR China

    Vesna Vučinić-Nešković


    Full Text Available Academician Petar Vlahović, a retired professor at the University of Belgrade, Faculty of Philosophy is the first, and up to now, only Serbian ethnologist/anthropologist who underwent professional development in the People’s Republic of China. In the period between November 1955 and December 1856 he stayed at the University of Beijing. This interview is dedicated to his stay in China as well as to the ways in which this experience was meaningful to his further development as a teacher and researcher in ethnology and anthropology at the University of Belgrade. The text is based on three interviews with academician Vlahović conducted in November and December 2012 and March 2014.

  13. Framework Collaboration Agreement with the Institute of Physics Belgrade (IPB) Dr. Alexandar Belic Framework Collaboration Agreement with the Faculty of Physics of University of Belgrade (FP-UB) Prof. Petar Adzic

    Pantelia, Anna


    Framework Collaboration Agreement with the Institute of Physics Belgrade (IPB) Dr. Alexandar Belic Framework Collaboration Agreement with the Faculty of Physics of University of Belgrade (FP-UB) Prof. Petar Adzic

  14. Evaluation of baseline ground-water conditions in the Mosteiros, Ribeira Paul, and Ribeira Faja Basins, Republic of Cape Verde, West Africa, 2005-06

    Heilweil, Victor M.; Earle, John D.; Cederberg, Jay R.; Messer, Mickey M.; Jorgensen, Brent E.; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.; Moura, Miguel A.; Querido, Arrigo; Spencer,; Osorio, Tatiana


    This report documents current (2005-06) baseline ground-water conditions in three basins within the West African Republic of Cape Verde (Mosteiros on Fogo, Ribeira Paul on Santo Ant?o, and Ribeira Faj? on S?o Nicolau) based on existing data and additional data collected during this study. Ground-water conditions (indicators) include ground-water levels, ground-water recharge altitude, ground-water discharge amounts, ground-water age (residence time), and ground-water quality. These indicators are needed to evaluate (1) long-term changes in ground-water resources or water quality caused by planned ground-water development associated with agricultural projects in these basins, and (2) the feasibility of artificial recharge as a mitigation strategy to offset the potentially declining water levels associated with increased ground-water development. Ground-water levels in all three basins vary from less than a few meters to more than 170 meters below land surface. Continuous recorder and electric tape measurements at three monitoring wells (one per basin) showed variations between August 2005 and June 2006 of as much as 1.8 meters. Few historical water-level data were available for the Mosteiros or Ribeira Paul Basins. Historical records from Ribeira Faj? indicate very large ground-water declines during the 1980s and early 1990s, associated with dewatering of the Galleria Faj? tunnel. More-recent data indicate that ground-water levels in Ribeira Faj? have reached a new equilibrium, remaining fairly constant since the late 1990s. Because of the scarcity of observation wells within each basin, water-level data were combined with other techniques to evaluate ground-water conditions. These techniques include the quantification of ground-water discharge (well withdrawals, spring discharge, seepage to springs, and gallery drainage), field water-quality measurements, and the use of environmental tracers to evaluate sources of aquifer recharge, flow paths, and ground

  15. [Recent occurrence of human infection by Rocio arbovirus in the Valley of Ribeira region].

    Iversson, L B; Travassos da Rosa, A P; Rosa, M D


    The presence of IgM antibodies to Rocio in sera of two children from rural area of Ribeira Valley, Brazil, was detected by MAC-ELISA. This new arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family was responsible for an extensive encephalitis epidemic that occurred in the region in 1975-1977. Since 1980 no human disease caused by this virus has been diagnosed. An improvement on surveillance of Rocio infections and on the researches for virus identification in suspected vectors and reservoirs is necessary.

  16. O consumo de vitamina A em Ribeira, São Paulo (Brasil The consumption of vitamin A in Ribeira, S. Paulo (Brazil

    Avany Maria Xavier Bon


    Full Text Available Foi evidenciado o problema da baixa adequação de vitamina A, em localidade considerada grande produtora de alimento rico nesse nutriente, a cidade de Ribeira (S. Paulo, Brasil , produtora de mamão (Carica Papaya L.. A análise dos dados evidencia que esse alimento, que poderia contribuir para cobrir as necessidades recomendadas de vitamina A, foi consumido em quantidades ínfimas. Atribuiu-se esse fato, à falta de conhecimento por parte da população local, do valor nutritivo dos alimentos ricos em vitamina A. Recomenda-se o desenvolvimento de campanhas de educação alimentar.It was focused the problem of low adequacy of vitamin A, in an area considered as a great producer of foodstuff rich in this nutrient, the city of Ribeira, S. Paulo (Brazil, that is a large scale producer of Papaya (Carica papaya L. The analysis of the data, pointed out that this foodstuff that would amply cover the recommended necessities of Vitamin A, was consumed in insignificant quantities. This fact was attributed to a lack of knowledge of the local population on the nutritive value of foodstuff rich in vitamin A. Consequently it was recommended, the development of food education programs, in the mentioned town.

  17. Caracterização da piscicultura na região do Vale do Ribeira - SP Characterization of fish farming in the Ribeira Valley region - SP

    Daniela Castellani


    Full Text Available Este trabalho buscou caracterizar a piscicultura na Região do Vale do Ribeira quanto aos sistemas de manejo. Estudaram-se quarenta e duas pisciculturas sendo que, destas, 36 praticam o sistema semi-intensivo e seis o sistema intensivo, com os seguintes objetivos: engorda de peixes, produção de alevinos e pesque-pagues. Foram listadas 41 espécies de peixes cultivadas. Apenas 6 espécies são nativas da Bacia do Rio Ribeira de Iguape: lambari (Astyanax sp Linneaus, 1758, traíra (Hoplias malabaricus Bloch, 1794, robalo (Centropomus ssp Cuvier e Valenciennes, 1928, jundiá (Rhamdia quelen Quoy e Gaimard, 1824, cascudo (Hypostomus sp Marschall, 1873 e cará (Geophagus brasiliensis Quoy e Gaimard, 1824. Em 95% das pisciculturas foram verificadas fugas de peixes exóticos e alóctones dos cultivos. A tilápia nilótica (Oreochromis niloticus Linneaus, 1758 foi a espécie mais freqüente em escapes, e também é a segunda mais cultivada pelos piscicultores, perdendo somente para o pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus Halmberg, 1887. Foi possível verificar mediante o cálculo da conversão alimentar, que há um desperdício anual de cerca de 32% da ração utilizada nos cultivos pesquisados. A piscicultura encontra-se em plena expansão nesta região, e já representa a atividade agropecuária mais importante após a bananicultura.The aim of this work was to characterize the fish farming in the Ribeira de Iguape Basin, southern São Paulo State (Brazil, in relation to the management systems. Forty two farms were studied. A semi-intensive system is used by 36 farmers, while an intensive system is used only by 6 studied farmers. Their objectives were raising fish, juvenile fish production and sportive fishery. Forty one fish species were found to be cultivated, but only six were native species from Ribeira Valley: lambari (Astyanax sp Linneaus, 1758, traíra (Hoplias malabaricus Bloch, 1794, robalo (Centropomus ssp Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1928, jundi

  18. Metal and trace element sediment assessment from Ribeira do Iguape river, Sao Paulo state, Brazil, by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Castro, Francisco J.V. de; Quinaglia, Gilson A., E-mail:, E-mail: [CETESB - Companhia Ambiental do Estado de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). ELTA - Setor de Analises Toxicologicas; Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (LAN/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Laboratorio de Analise por Ativacao Neutronica; Franklin, Robson L.; Ferreira, Francisco J., E-mail:, E-mail: [CETESB - Companhia Ambiental do Estado de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). ELAI - Setor de Quimica Inorganica


    The watershed region of the Ribeira do Iguape River and the estuarine complex of the Paranagua-Iguape- Cananeia and the various river basins located between this region and the Atlantic Ocean, is known as the Ribeira Valley. The Ribeira do Iguape River runs a total length of approximately 470 km, being the main source of fresh water in the Estuarine Complex of the Iguape-Cananeia-Paranagua (Lagamar). The Ribeira do Iguape River is the last major river in the State of Sao Paulo that has not been altered by dams. During virtually the entire 20th century, the region of the Ribeira Valley was the scene of constant environmental degradation resulting from the intense exploration and refining of lead, zinc and silver ores that were processed in the mines of the region, in a rudimentary way and without any control over environmental impacts. Since 1996, all such activities ceased, however, leaving behind a huge amount of environmental liabilities. This study aims to investigate the presence and concentration levels of metals and semi-metals arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in the sediment and water of aquatic systems of Ribeira do Iguape River and its tributaries, for an environmental assessment and monitoring of the region. The determination of these elements was carried out by GF AAS technique for water samples and ICP OES for the sediment samples. This study also assessed the occurrence of some major (Ca, Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Ta, Th, U, Zn) and rare earth elements (La, Ce, Eu, Nd, Sm, Lu, Tb and Yb) by Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). Validation of both methodologies, according to precision and accuracy, was done by reference material analyses. The results obtained for As, Cd and Pb were compared to the Canadian Environmental oriented values (TEL and PEL). The results obtained for multielemental analyses in the sediment samples were compared to UCC values (Upper Continental Crust). (author)

  19. Morphological variation and isozyme diversity in Dioscorea alata L. landraces from Vale do Ribeira, Brazil

    Eduardo de Andrade Bressan


    Full Text Available Traditional growers of the Vale do Ribeira, São Paulo State, grow and make use of several D. alata landraces. This study assessed the genetic diversity of 16 landraces, using isozymatic and morphological markers and comparing them with 19 commercial varieties of D. alata. Their distribution in different levels of organization such as households and communities of the Vale do Ribeira was evaluated. Isozymatic analyses were performed with polyacrylamide (six systems and starch gels (one system, while the morphological analyses were carried out with 24 traits. Due to the polyploid nature of this species, the isozymatic bands were scored as binary data. Morphological traits were also scored as binary data. Principal coordinates and cluster analyses were conducted for both markers, using for the later the Jaccard´s similarity coefficient and UPGMA method. The separation of the landraces from the commercial varieties, which showed lower genetic diversity, was reported for both markers. No correlation between genetic and geographical distances was found for both data, which suggests that the observed variability is not spatially structured. Also, no correlation was found between both markers. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA indicated that genetic diversity was mainly found within households for both isozymatic (54% and morphological (70% markers. The results obtained for both markers revealed the importance of traditional agriculturists in the Vale do Ribeira in maintaining high diversity for D. alata, even higher than the varieties commercialized in São Paulo State, contributing for the in situ/on farm conservation of this crop.

  20. Recent occurence of human infection by Rocio arbovirus in Ribeira Valley, Brazil

    Lygia Busch Iversson


    Full Text Available The presence of IgM antibodies to Rocio in sera of two children from rural area of Ribeira Valley, Brazil, was detected by MAC-ELISA. This new arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family was responsible for an extensive encephalitis epidemic that occurred in the region in 1975-1977. Since 1980 no human disease caused by this virus has been diagnosed. An improvement on surveillance of Rocio infections and on the researches for virus identification in suspected vectors and reservoirs is necessary.

  1. Nitrogen and potassium fertilization on 'Caipira' and 'BRS Princesa' bananas in the Ribeira Valley.

    Edson S. Nomura; Cuquel,Francine L.; Damatto Junior,Erval R.; Eduardo J. Fuzitani; Borges,Ana L.; Saes,Luis A.


    ABSTRACT ‘BRS Princesa’ (AAAB) and ‘Caipira’ (AAA) banana cultivars have similar sensorial features in comparison to the ‘Maçã’ banana. They are resistant to Panama disease, which allows them to grow in the Ribeira Valley, the largest banana plantation area in the São Paulo State. However, there is no information on how to fertilize crop under these edaphoclimatic conditions. This study aimed to evaluate the development and production of ‘Caipira’ and ‘BRS Princesa’ bananas, by applying four ...

  2. Energy and quality of life: a case study in HPP Tijuco Alto, Ribeira, SP; Energia e qualidade de vida: estudo de caso da Uhe Tijuco Alto no Municipio de Ribeira, SP

    Conceicao, Andre Luiz da [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEM/UNICAMP), SP (BRazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica], email:; Seixas, Sonia Regina da Cal [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (NEPAM/UNICAMP), SP (BRazil). Nucleo de Estudos e Pesquisas Ambientais], email:


    This paper deals with a critical and reflexive that the issue involving the possibility of construction and operation of Hydroelectric Power (HEP) Tijuco Alto, the upper course of the Ribeira Valley between Sao Paulo and Parana, in the Vale do Ribeira. This project will directly affect the towns of Ribeira-SP, Itapirapua Paulista-SP, Cerro Azul-PR, Dr. Ulysses-PR and Adrianopolis-PR. Thus, we defined the main objective of the research examines the quality of life in the city of Ribeira-SP, at the possibility of deployment of the dam. Thus, field research was conducted in the city and interviews with residents, where it was possible to observe, among other things the precarious economic conditions, social, urban and cultural community. Another aspect noted was the fact that most respondents to position themselves for the construction of the HPP Tijuco Alto, citing primarily the need for local development and increased job opportunities. Those opposing the plant, highlighted environmental issues, mainly, reasons related to loss of peace and security site. Regardless of those who are for or against, a technical opinion issued by IBAMA in 2008 points to the likely deployment of the HPP Tijuco Alto. (author)

  3. Transposição e hidrelétricas: o desconhecido Vale do Ribeira (PR-SP

    A. Oswaldo Sevá Filho


    Full Text Available A Bacia do Rio Ribeira do Iguape, com sua imagem usualmente associada à preservação ambiental, às cavernas, ao extrativismo e aos povos tradicionais (quilombolas, índios, pescadores, é aqui reapresentada, descrevendo importantes áreas geoeconômicas da mineração, das monoculturas comerciais e das obras hidráulicas. O rio principal ainda não foi barrado por usinas hidrelétricas, que estão instaladas nos afluentes e somam uma capacidade elétrica de 540 megawatts. A maior delas, o sistema Capivari-Cachoeira, construído há quarenta anos, é baseada numa transposição de vazões entre a Bacia do Alto Ribeira e o litoral paranaense, com fortes consequências ambientais negativas no trecho paulista do Rio Pardo e do Ribeira, e na Baía de Antonina, não reconhecidas no licenciamento ambiental da usina. É previsível o agravamento da situação ambiental da região, caso se concretizem no futuro outras hidrelétricas previstas para a Bacia do Ribeira do Iguape.The image of the Ribeira do Iguape basin is usually linked to environment protection, to the natural caverns and to the traditional people communities ("quilombolas", from the ancient slaves, the native Indians, the fishermen. We draw here another diagnosis, lightening up important geo-economic issues, as the mining fields, the plantations and the hydraulic works. The main river has not yet been dammed for hydro - power plants, located in its tributaries, featuring an amount of 540 Megawatt capacity. The more impressive one, named Capivari - Cachoeira system, built forty years ago, is based on a flow derivation from the high Ribeira basin to the coastline of the Paraná state. Its consequences are negative down stream until the rivers Pardo and Ribeira, in the Sao Paulo State; and in the other side, it also affects far away the Antonina Bay. As these damages were not recognized during the licensing process of this power plant. We launch an alert about the environment degradation

  4. Assessing Rainfall Erosivity with Artificial Neural Networks for the Ribeira Valley, Brazil

    Reginald B. Silva


    Full Text Available Soil loss is one of the main causes of pauperization and alteration of agricultural soil properties. Various empirical models (e.g., USLE are used to predict soil losses from climate variables which in general have to be derived from spatial interpolation of point measurements. Alternatively, Artificial Neural Networks may be used as a powerful option to obtain site-specific climate data from independent factors. This study aimed to develop an artificial neural network to estimate rainfall erosivity in the Ribeira Valley and Coastal region of the State of São Paulo. In the development of the Artificial Neural Networks the input variables were latitude, longitude, and annual rainfall and a mathematical equation of the activation function for use in the study area as the output variable. It was found among other things that the Artificial Neural Networks can be used in the interpolation of rainfall erosivity values for the Ribeira Valley and Coastal region of the State of São Paulo to a satisfactory degree of precision in the estimation of erosion. The equation performance has been demonstrated by comparison with the mathematical equation of the activation function adjusted to the specific conditions of the study area.

  5. Geochronology of anthropogenic radionuclides in Ribeira Bay sediments, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Carvalho Gomes, Franciane de [Programa de Engenharia Nuclear, COPPE/UFRJ, Cidade Universitaria, Caixa Postal 68.509, 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Godoy, Jose Marcus, E-mail: [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Caixa Postal 37750, Barra da Tijuca, 22642-970 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Departamento de Quimica, Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), Rua Marques de Sao Vicente 225, 22453-900 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Godoy, Maria Luiza D.P.; Carvalho, Zenildo Lara de [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Caixa Postal 37750, Barra da Tijuca, 22642-970 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Tadeu Lopes, Ricardo [Programa de Engenharia Nuclear, COPPE/UFRJ, Cidade Universitaria, Caixa Postal 68.509, 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Sanchez-Cabeza, Joan-Albert; Osvath, Iolanda [IAEA Marine Environment Laboratories, 4 Quai Antoine Premier, MC98000 Principality of Monaco (Monaco); Drude de Lacerda, Luiz [Laboratorio de Ciencias do Mar, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Fortaleza, Ceara (Brazil)


    Ribeira Bay is located approximately 130 km south of the city of Rio de Janeiro and receives discharges of liquid effluent from the Angra dos Reis nuclear power plant (NPP) site, where two pressurized water reactors are located. To test whether the presence of anthropogenic radionuclides in sediments in Ribeira Bay could be correlated to the NPP operations, we sampled seven sediment cores and determined accumulation rates and chronologies. Only one sediment core did not exhibit a superficial mixing layer; this sample was used for dating purposes. Cesium-137 and {sup 207}Bi were observed in this sediment profile, but their presence was associated with atmospheric fall-out rather than the nearby NPP. The exponential decay of {sup 210}Pb concentration with sediment layer depth was verified below a superficial mixing layer for all other sediment cores. Calculated accumulation rates ranged from 1.2 mm y{sup -1} in the inner bay to 6.2 mm y{sup -1} close to its entrance. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: > We have dated seven sediment cores on the region close to the Angra dos Reis nuclear power plant site. > Cs-137 and Bi-207 were detected and were used as a tool to validate the Pb-210 dating results. > The spatial variation of the Pb-210 flux indicates two main sources of sediments: the channel between Ilha Grande (Grande Island), and the continental and soil runoff from the adjacent hills.

  6. Geochronology of anthropogenic radionuclides in Ribeira Bay sediments, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    de Carvalho Gomes, Franciane; Godoy, José Marcus; Godoy, Maria Luiza D P; de Carvalho, Zenildo Lara; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu; Sanchez-Cabeza, Joan-Albert; Osvath, Iolanda; de Lacerda, Luiz Drude


    Ribeira Bay is located approximately 130 km south of the city of Rio de Janeiro and receives discharges of liquid effluent from the Angra dos Reis nuclear power plant (NPP) site, where two pressurized water reactors are located. To test whether the presence of anthropogenic radionuclides in sediments in Ribeira Bay could be correlated to the NPP operations, we sampled seven sediment cores and determined accumulation rates and chronologies. Only one sediment core did not exhibit a superficial mixing layer; this sample was used for dating purposes. Cesium-137 and (207)Bi were observed in this sediment profile, but their presence was associated with atmospheric fall-out rather than the nearby NPP. The exponential decay of (210)Pb concentration with sediment layer depth was verified below a superficial mixing layer for all other sediment cores. Calculated accumulation rates ranged from 1.2 mm y(-1) in the inner bay to 6.2 mm y(-1) close to its entrance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cultivos agrícolas en la Ribeira Sacra durante los siglos XIV y XV

    José Antonio López Sabatel


    Full Text Available Este artículo pretende una aproximación al espacio agrario de la Ribeira Sacra a lo largo de los siglos XIV y XV a través de sus diferentes cultivos. La vid, las tierras de cereal, así como la huerta, el linar y el nabal se articularán en consonancia no sólo con las diversas estrategias del campesinado para garantizar su subsistencia, sino también con los condicionantes económicos propios de este periodo histórico.This article tries to approach to the agrarian area of the Sacred Ribeira throughout the XIV and XV centuries across its different cultivations. The grapevine, the cereal fields, as well as the kitchen garden, the flax field and the turnip field will be joint together, according not only with the varied strategies of the peasants to guarantee their subsistence, but also with the particular economic limitations of this historical period.

  8. Freqüência domiciliar e endofilia de mosquitos Culicidae no Vale do Ribeira, São Paulo, Brasil Developing domiciliarity of Ribeira Valley mosquitoes, S. Paulo, Brazil

    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini


    Full Text Available Apresentam-se os resultados obtidos na coleta dos culicídeos nos ecótopos, domiciliar e peridomiciliar, de duas localidades do Vale do Ribeira, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, onde o ambiente se apresenta acentuadamente alterado pelas atividades agropecuárias. Em se tratando de comunidades tropicamente relacionadas, os índices de diversidade e o quociente de similaridade podem fornecer esclarecimentos sobre a relação entre os recursos alimentares e sua distribuição, considerados como importantes na avaliação de possível endofilia. Os dados obtidos sugerem a possível existência de comportamento endófilo em evolução, por parte de Ae. scapularis, Cx. ribeirensis e Cx. sacchettae. Todavia as evidências indicam a influência exercida pela presença de hospedeiros domésticos de grande porte e do comportamento humano nos ambientes domiciliar e alterado. Conclui-se pela possível existência de variações desse comportamento nas três citadas espécies.Results of mosquito collections in two Ribeira Valley localities are presented. These places represents environments highly modified by agrarian and cattle raising activities. The collections were made by the aspiration method, in the search for resting mosquitoes, in all the domiciliary and peridomiciliary compounds, in the early morning. The use of the diversity index and similarity quotient on communities such as these that are tropically related gives some insight into resources and their distribution. So they are considered of great value for the endophily studies. Data obtained suggest that there is some degree of endophilic evolution in Ae. scapularis, Cx. ribeirensis and Cx. sacchettae. This behavior is subject to the influence of some extrinsic factors such as the density of cattle or other large domestic animals, and human behaviour in the management of the environment.

  9. Star persona and national identity in the age of the empire: The role of Maja Strozzi-Pečić in Petar Konjović’s opus

    Grmuša Verica


    Full Text Available This study explores the collaboration between the soprano Maja Strozzi-Pečić and the composer Petar Konjović. It sheds light on the relations between the star and the musical work, as well as the notions of gender and genre, reinstating the performer to the centre of the historical stage within the epoch and the genre of music not usually associated with stardom. It examines the star as both the product and the producer, and as an embodiment of a national identity, highlighting the star’s agency in the creation of her own persona and the co-authoring of the works that she performed.

  10. ESTUDOS CLIMÁTICOS NAS ESCALAS INFERIORES DO CLIMA: manguezais da Barra do Rio Ribeira, Iguape, SP

    Emerson Galvani


    Full Text Available This article presents an example of climate study on the microclimatic scale. The study area were the mangroves of "Barra do Ribeira" of Ribeira river, in Iguape¿s city, SP, Brazil. Was realized an extensive and detailed review about the studies of the physical features of this environment . The fi eld works were realized to identify the species present in the area. A meteorological tower was installed to evaluate the climatic attributes in a temporal scale appropriate to the theorical-methodological presuppositions of the microclimatic studies. It was found that the physiognomic structures of mangroves has a direct infl uence on variation of climatic attributes in particular in reducing precipitation, solar radiation and wind speed below the canopy.


    Clemente, Ademir; Dias, Hélio de Lara


    Este artigo busca analisar o capital humano alocado às funções de planejamento e gestão nos municípios paulistas do Vale do Ribeira. Para tanto, realizou-se um censo dos servidores que desempenham essas funções, resultando em uma população de 551. A região do Vale do Ribeira é localizada no sul do Estado de São Paulo e compreende 23 municípios, distribuídos por três regiões administrativas: Registro, São Paulo e Sorocaba. Os dados foram coletados utilizando a técnica de interrogação, por meio...

  12. Nitrogen and potassium fertilization on ‘Caipira’ and ‘BRS Princesa’ bananas in the Ribeira Valley

    Edson S. Nomura; Cuquel,Francine L.; Damatto Junior,Erval R.; Eduardo J. Fuzitani; Borges,Ana L.; Saes,Luis A.


    ABSTRACT ‘BRS Princesa’ (AAAB) and ‘Caipira’ (AAA) banana cultivars have similar sensorial features in comparison to the ‘Maçã’ banana. They are resistant to Panama disease, which allows them to grow in the Ribeira Valley, the largest banana plantation area in the São Paulo State. However, there is no information on how to fertilize crop under these edaphoclimatic conditions. This study aimed to evaluate the development and production of ‘Caipira̵...

  13. Short-lived polyphase deformation during crustal thickening and exhumation of a collisional orogen (Ribeira Belt, Brazil)

    Faleiros, F. M.; Campanha, G. A. C.; Pavan, M.; Almeida, V. V.; Rodrigues, S. W. O.; Araújo, B. P.


    The Ribeira Belt (Brazil) is a Neoproterozoic collisional-related feature that was located in a south-central position in West Gondwana. We present quantitative data on finite strain, flow vorticity and deformation temperatures for the Curitiba Terrane, a major segment of the southern Ribeira Belt. Six deformation phases (D1-D6) related with crustal thickening and exhumation were recognized. D1 and D2-related microstructures are preserved exclusively within porphyroblasts, in part grown during stages of high-pressure (∼9-12 kbar) isobaric heating after crustal thickening. D3 phase was active from peak metamorphism attained in contrasting crustal levels (810-400 °C), to the early stage of exhumation (500-400 °C), as indicated by petrological, microstructural and quartz c-axis fabric evidence. Kinematic vorticity results indicate that the SL3 mylonitic fabric resulted from a simple shear-dominated deformation related with westward thrusting. North-verging overturned D4 folds with E-W-trending subhorizontal axes derived from a pure shear-dominated deformation. Regional D5 open folds with subvertical axes and NNE-SSW-trending traces were produced by indentation tectonics. D6 phase comprises retrograde orogen-parallel transcurrent shear zones related with scape tectonics. Geochronological data indicate that D3-D6 phases occurred between 584 and 580 Ma, suggesting a fast exhumation rate of ∼8 mm/year for the deepest rocks from the southern Ribeira Belt.

  14. Seasonal variation of nutrients leaves concentration of banana plants in Vale do Ribeira-SPVariação sazonal da concentração de nutrientes em folhas de bananeiras, no Vale do Ribeira-SP

    José Carlos de Mendonça


    Full Text Available The Vale do Ribeira, SP, main agricultural activity is the banana crop, which accounts for most of this fruit production in the State of São Paulo. The nutritional balance of the plant is one of the most important factors for the banana plant can complete the cycle and achieve high productivity. Aiming to evaluate the seasonal variation of leaf nutrient concentration in banana plants in Vale do Ribeira-SP, we used the results of 252 chemical analyses of plant tissue, collected from August 2009 to September 2010, in the 18 representative properties for the region, ten cultivated with subgroup Cavendish banana plant and eight of subgroup Prata banana plant. The largest variation between the macronutrient occurred for K and S, and among the micronutrients, especially for Fe and B. In some dates of evaluation, there was a higher leaf concentration of P, K, Ca and Zn, in subgroup Cavendish banana plants, while the subgroup Prata banana plants showed higher leaf concentration, especially of Mn, B and N. Climatic conditions, especially rain, influenced the leaf nutrient content, especially for K, N, S, B and Fe. O Vale do Ribeira, SP, tem como principal atividade agropecuária o cultivo da bananeira, sendo responsável pela maior parte da produção dessa frutífera no estado de São Paulo. O equilíbrio nutricional da planta é um dos fatores mais importantes para que esta consiga completar o ciclo e alcançar alta produtividade. Com o objetivo de avaliar a variação sazonal da concentração foliar de nutrientes em bananeiras cultivadas no Vale do Ribeira-SP, foram utilizados 252 resultados de análise química de nutrientes do tecido vegetal, coletados no período de agosto de 2009 a setembro de 2010, de 18 propriedades representativas na região, dez cultivadas com bananeira do subgrupo Cavendish e oito do subgrupo Prata. A maior variação entre os macronutrientes ocorreu para o K e o S e entre os micronutrientes, principalmente, para o Fe e o B

  15. Maturation and growth curves of Macrobrachium Carcinus (Linnaeus) (Crustacea, Decapoda, Palaemonidae) from Ribeira de Iguape River, southern Brazil

    Valenti,Wagner C; Jeanette de T.C. de Mello; Vera L Lobão


    In this paper, female Macrobrachium carcinus (Linnaeus, 1758) maturation curve, weight/length relationship, length and weight growth curves were studied. Prawns were captured, by traps, in Ribeira de Iguape river (24ºS and 47ºW), southern Brazil. There were used 207 females. It was observed that M. carcinus presents several spawnings during its life cycle and reproductive period goes on, at least till six years old. Weight/length relationship can be represented for the equation W = 8.73 E-3 L...

  16. Food models and productive arrangements in the Vale do Ribeira Paranaense: a study on the principles of food sovereignty

    Rubia Carla Formighieri Giordani


    Full Text Available The relationship between food production and the social organization of geographic space are fundamental for the understanding of feeding practices in rural areas. This article presents a case study on the food sovereignty between family farmers of the Vale do Ribeira in the State of Parana. The study showed that the organizational aspects and economic rural property interfere in the definition of the models of food intake. The changes in agricultural production, the reduction of area planted and the little variety were responsible for the decline in consumption of vegetables, milk and meat. It was even noted some alimentary monotony on foods with emphasis on fruits, vegetables, roots, and cereals.

  17. As parteiras, o partejar e a noção de pessoa em Ribeira da Barca, Cabo Verde = midwives, midwifery and the notion of person in Ribeira da Barca, Cabo Verde

    Cruz, Carmem Helena Carvalho


    Full Text Available Este estudo sobre as parteiras, o partejar e a noção de pessoa em Ribeira da Barca visa analisar como as técnicas utilizadas no parto se relacionam com a constituição da pessoa. Essa reflexão passa necessariamente por uma discussão da noção de pessoa como indivíduo total, onde não existe uma fronteira visível entre a natureza e a cultura. Essa forma como se constrói a noção de pessoa é verificável na maneira como se molda o corpo na gravidez, no parto e no pós-parto. Neste estudo é usado o método etnográfico de pesquisa pela ênfase conferida às práticas sociais. Nessa ótica, é analisada como se dá forma ao corpo, partindo do princípio que este é passível de ser moldado, dinâmico e com fluxos vitais, integrado nos ciclos da vida e do ambiente (onde não existe uma fronteira visível entre natureza e cultura. É importante concluir que em Ribeira da Barca a pessoa é relacional, que se dá através da relação com os outros e consigo mesma

  18. Invertebrados cavernícolas da porção meridional da província espeleológica do Vale do Ribeira, sul do Brasil Cavernicolous invertebrate from south speleological province of the Ribeira Valley, south Brazil

    Ricardo Pinto-da-Rocha


    Full Text Available From 1986 to 1992, I surveyed the invertebrate fauna of twelve limestone caves from South Ribeira Valley (State of Paraná, Brazil. Associated to walls in the entrace zone live Enoploctenus and Blechroscelis spiders, Goniosoma opilionids, Strinalia crickets, Latebraria amphipyroides moths, and Culicidae and Sciaridae dipterans. In aphotic zone, occur Plato spiders, Daguerreia inermis opilionids, Pseudonannolene strinatii diplopods, Smicridea caddisflies and the aquatic crustacean Aegla paulensis. I found in both zones Ctenus fasciatus spiders. Paronella collembolans, Zelurus travassosi heteropterans, Cholevidae and Anthribidae beetles, Phoridae dipterans and Braconidae wasps. One of the most important energy sources in these caves is the hematophagous bat guano. Associated to the guano piles there is a fauna composed by psedoscorpiones, acarians, Katantodesmus diplopods, Acherontides and Paronella collembolans, Dissochaetus beetles and Phoridae dipterans. The cave fauna studied is similar to that Ribeira Valley of the State of São Paulo. The most expressive difference is the absence of some taxa very common in São Paulo caves, such as the Oniscidae and Styloniscidae isopods, Cryptodesmidae and Chelodesmidae diplopods. Endecous crickets, Tricommatidae harvestmen, Calamoceratidae caddisflies and Neoditomyia Keroplatidae dipterans.

  19. Uma aldeia milenar da Ribeira Lima: a sacralização do seu espaço paroquial

    Carlos A. Brochado de Almeida


    Full Text Available Cultural tourism does not live on physical realities alone; it also feeds on the so called immaterial culture, present on every corner, in each land, in each geographical space. Ribeira Lima is a privileged space to analyze such presuppositions, since here feasts and processions are blended with practices that were once considered pagan. The christian people borh seeks the Senhora (Our Lady da Agonia or Senhora da Peneda processions, and actively takes part in the Feiras Novas (New Fairs of Ponte de Lima, a reality where the sacred is so well combined with the secular. It this very people who hastens to ask for the protection of thaumaturges against plague, famine, war and bones`ailmets (Saint Sebastian, Saint Roque and Saint Amaro, also protecting itself with amulets and herbs against witches and sorceres, against evil eye and envious neighhours. It was this people who, early on, at the dawn of the II Millennium, has drawn the limits of its parishes, and took steps in order to protect them, as well as its homes and property, with the most diverse symbols, some christian, some originating in far more ancestral practies. Any parish od Ribeira Lima would serve as an example, but we chose Santa Leocádia de Geraz do Lima of the municipality of Viana do Castelo, because 2013 is the millennial of its foundation.

  20. Resultados do inquérito alimentar realizado nas cidades de Apiaí, Ribeira e Barra do Chapéu (São Paulo, Brasil The results of the nutrition survey carried out in the towns of Apiaí, Ribeira and Barra do Chapéu (S. Paulo, Brazil

    Maryland Miguel


    Full Text Available Foram apresentados os resultados do inquérito alimentar realizado na região do Vale do Ribeira, nas cidades de Apiaí, Ribeira e Barra do Chapéu (São Paulo, Brasil, em amostra constituída por 154 famílias, totalizando 939 indivíduos. O método utilizado para o levantamento foi o de pesagem "um dia sete dias". A análise dos dados evidenciou que em Apiaí as adequações médias de proteína, ferro e niacina foram as únicas que ultrapassaram os 100% dos valores recomendados, enquanto que, na cidade de Barra do Chapéu este fato ocorreu em relação à ferro, niacina e vitamina B1. Com referência à cidade de Ribeira, apenas niacina atingiu uma adequação de 100%, sendo que os demais nutrientes apresentaram resultados inferiores.There were presented the results of the nutrition survey carried out in the Region of Vale do Ribeira covering the towns of Apiaí, Ribeira and the Village of Barra do Chapéu (Apiaí (S. Paulo, Brazil. The sample was made up of 154 families, corresponding to 939 persons. Data was gathered through the "one day-seven days" method. Analysing the data it was noticed that the recommended values where reached in Apiaí only for protein, niacin and iron, in Barra do Chapéu, for iron, niacin, and thiamin and in Ribeira, only for niacin.

  1. Microstructures and TitaniQ geothermometry in high - temperature dynamically recrystallized mylonites, Ribeira belt (SE Brazil)

    Cavalcante, Carolina; Morales, Luiz


    The Ribeira belt (southern Brazil) was formed by the collision between the São Francisco and West Congo cratons at around 670 - 480 Ma, during the western Gondwana amalgamation. It consists of dextral strike-slip shear zones trending NE-SW to NNE-SSW. The ~20 km wide and ~120 km long Três Rios - Além Paraíba - Pádua shear zone is one these shear zones, in which quartzfeldspathic mylonites were formed at upper amphibolite to granulite conditions. The deformation of these rocks was accompanied by dynamic recrystallization and intense grain-size reduction that is reflected by the large amount of recrystallized grains with sizes >30 - 150 μm. Grain-size reduction is often pointed out as a process that promotes changes in the mechanical behavior of rocks, from grain-size insensitive (GSI) to grain-size sensitive (GSS) deformation mechanisms. However, it is still not clear if the switch from GSI to GSS deformation mechanisms may occur in coarsed grain recrystallized rocks. Furthermore, it is also not clear what is the effect of dynamic recrystallization on the titanium retention in quartz. Here we apply the TitaniQ geothermometer to coarse recrystallized quartz, coupled with detailed microstructural characterization to investigate thermal conditions and deformation mechanisms during recrystallization/deformation of quartz. Quartz grains show typically high temperature microstructure, such as irregular-lobate grain boundaries and subgrain walls. The average titanium contents are ~30 ppm for samples from the Três Rios region, 46 to 54 ppm for samples from Além Paraíba, and 74 to 86 ppm for samples from Santo Antônio de Pádua. The calculated temperatures are fairly homogenous at ~800 °C throughout the studied segments of the shear zone, which is compatible with the observed microstructures. The crystallographic orientation in these rocks is fairly weak, possibly due to static recovery and/or strong activity of such as diffusion processes due to the high

  2. Prince of zeta by Petar Konjović: Opera in five/four acts on the 125th anniversary of the composer's birth

    Mosusova Nadežda


    Full Text Available Petar Konjović (Čurug, May 5, 1883 - Belgrade, October 1, 1970 stands out among Serbian composers as an author of instrumental and vocal compositions. Studies at the Prague Conservatory (1904-1906 acquainted Konjović with Czech music, Wagner's opus, and the Russian national-romantic school, which contributed to the evolution of his talent for both music and stage, enabling him to express his ideas more explicitly in operatic works. It was in the Prague that the second opera - Prince of Zeta - was conceived, with new musical vividness and dramatic appeal (first version composed 1906-1926, the second and final 1929-1939, followed by Koštana (1928, Peasants (1951 and Fatherland (1960. Konjović's mature operas are characterized by his masterful handling of form, both in close-ups and in detail, as well as his deeply individual assimilation of musical folklore into his work. The Prince of Zeta is not to be understood as a folk opera, but some main themes are directly derived from folk music, precisely from the Montenegrin folk songs quoted in the Mokranjac's Ninth Garland and treated in Konjović's post-romantic, almost expressionistic way, interwoven with some Italianate leitmotifs, so as to present the opera's two worlds, Montenegrin and Venetian. In the process of forming Konjović's operatic style, with vocal parts based mainly on the principle of declamation, the opera Prince of Zeta (first performed in Belgrade, 1929, conducted by Lovro von Matačić proved to be a work of great impact. Hardly anyone grasped then the wide sweep of inspiration which allowed the composer to set and to solve several important problems connected with music drama, essential also in his subsequent stage works. First of all, Konjović had to handle in his own way the verbal drama the prototype of his opera, Maxim Crnojević by the Serbian poet Laza Kostić (1841-1910. Permission came from the playwright in the first decade of the 1900, Prince of Zeta being partly

  3. Detecção de contaminantes em espécie bioindicadora (Corbicula fluminea - Rio Ribeira de Iguape - SP Dectection of contaminants in a bioindicator species (Corbicula fluminea - Ribeira de Iguape River, Sao Paulo State

    Valéria Guimarães


    Full Text Available The study assessed heavy metal concentrations in the tissue samples of Corbiculafluminea, by ICP-OES. In the tissues, average levels of 23.99 µg/g of Cu, 144.21 µg/g of Zn, 0.71 µg/g of Cd, 7.10 µg/g of Cr and 2.41 µg/g of Pb were detected ahowing that this last value is high and above the ANVISA reference (2.00 µg/g for fish and other products. The results suggest that natural processes occuring in the Ribeira de Iguape River are not sufficient for purification so that metals remain in the water and can accumulate in the trophic chain.

  4. Aglutininas antileptospíricas em búfalos do Vale do Ribeira, Estado de São Paulo Anti-leptospire agglutinins in buffaloes from Vale do Ribeira, São Paulo State, Brazil

    Hélio Langoni


    Full Text Available Foram estudadas aglutininas antileptospíricas em 403 amostras de soro de búfalos, provenientes de sete Municípios do Vale do Ribeira, Estado de São Paulo, coletadas no período de janeiro de 1992 a junho de 1993. Utilizou-se o teste de soroaglutinação microscópica, considerando-se positivas as amostras cujo título fosse igual ou superior a 100. O maior título encontrado foi 1600 para o sorovar bratislava (1 amostra, seguido de 800 para wolffi (4 amostras. Do total, 152 (37,7% das amostras foram positivas, sendo que, dentre os sorovares testados, a prevalência em ordem decrescente foi: wolffi (68, 44,8%, icterohaemorrhagiae (51, 33,6%, hardjo (51, 33,6%, castellonis (25, 16,5%, djasiman (12, 7,9%, grippotyphosa (10, 6,6%, pomona (8, 5,2%, bratislava (6, 4,0%, copenhageni (5, 3,3% e tarassovi (4, 2,7%.A total of 403 buffaloes serum samples from seven counties of Vale do Ribeira, São Paulo State, Brazil, obtained between January 1992 and June 1993, were studied to determine the prevalence of anti-leptospire agglutinins using the microscopic serum agglutination test. A titre of 100 and above was considered positive. The highest titre found was 1600 to the sorovar bratislava (one sample, followed by 800 to wolffi (4 samples. 152 (37.7% samples from the total were positive to the serovars tested, and their prevalence, in decreasing order, was: wolffi (68, 44.8%, icterohaemorrhagiae (51, 33.6%, hardjo (51, 33.6%, castellonis (25, 16.5%, djasiman (12, 7.9%, grippotyphosa (10, 6.6%, pomona (8, 5.2%, bratislava (6, 4.0%, copenhageni (5, 3.3% and tarassovi (4, 2.7%.

  5. Maturation and growth curves of Macrobrachium Carcinus (Linnaeus (Crustacea, Decapoda, Palaemonidae from Ribeira de Iguape River, southern Brazil

    Wagner C Valenti


    Full Text Available In this paper, female Macrobrachium carcinus (Linnaeus, 1758 maturation curve, weight/length relationship, length and weight growth curves were studied. Prawns were captured, by traps, in Ribeira de Iguape river (24ºS and 47ºW, southern Brazil. There were used 207 females. It was observed that M. carcinus presents several spawnings during its life cycle and reproductive period goes on, at least till six years old. Weight/length relationship can be represented for the equation W = 8.73 E-3 L3.28. Expressions obtained for length and weight growth curves are Lt = 21 .0 (1-e-0493t and Wt= 190 (1-e-0493t3.28. respectively. A symptotic maximum length and asymptotic maximum weight are nearly attained at six and eight years old, respectively.

  6. Uso y transformación en espacio agrario del monte y del estrato arbóreo en la Ribeira Sacra durante los siglos XIV y XV.

    López Sabatel, José Antonio


    Full Text Available This article wants to show the importance that the mountain played in a rural economy orientated as much to the utilization of its natural resources as to its transformation in agrarian space. As in case of the mountain, the exploitation of the wooded stratum, will allow an approximation to the agrarian landscape of the Ribeira Sacra during the XIVth and XVth centuries.

    Este artículo quiere mostrar la importancia que desempeñó el monte en una economía campesina orientada tanto al aprovechamiento de sus recursos naturales como a su transformación en espacio agrario. Al igual que en el caso del monte, la explotación del estrato arbóreo, permitirá un acercamiento al paisaje agrario de la Ribeira Sacra durante los siglos XIV y XV.

  7. Chemical characterization of bottom sediments from Ribeira de Iguape river, Parana and Sao Paulo states, Brazil, by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Castro, Francisco J.V.; Quinaglia, Gilson A., E-mail:, E-mail: [Companhia Ambiental do Estado de Sao Paulo(ELTA/CETESB), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Setor de Analises Toxicologicas; Favaro, Deborah I.T., E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (LAN-CRPq/IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. por Ativacao Neutronica


    During several decades the Alto Vale of Ribeira region (SP-PR) suffered under lead mining activities in the region. Although in 1996 all such activities ceased, the mining activities left behind a huge amount of environmental liabilities mainly in the hydrographic basin of Ribeira de Iguape river. In the present study the chemical characterization of bottom sediments was undertaken and the concentration of the major (Ca, Fe, K and Na), trace (As, Ba, Br, Co, Cs, Hf, Rb, Sb, Ta, Th, U, Zn) and rare earth elements (La, Ce, Eu, Nd, Sm, Lu, Tb, Yb and Sc) by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) were determined. The validation of the analytical methodology was performed by means of certified reference materials analyses and Z-score criterion was used. Eight points were sampled at the Ribeira de Iguape river and its majorities from Adrianopolis (Pr) (site 01) to Registro (SP) (site 08). Granulometric analyses and textural classification were undertaken in the sediment samples. The results obtained by using INAA were compared to UCC (Upper Continental Crust) reference values. The environmental tools of Enrichment Factor (EF) and Geochemical Index (GI) were used to assess the degree of metal contamination in the sediment samples. Samples from site 5 (Betari river - Iporanga, SP) presented high values for As, Sb and Zn and greater IGeo (3.1 - 5.5) and EF (>7.0) values for these elements classifying this point as highly polluted for these elements as well as a strong anthropogenic contribution. Site 7 (Ribeira river - Eldorado, SP) was considered moderately polluted for As, Br and Sb. The high concentration levels of some metals and metalloids reflect the contribution of mining activities from the past in the region. From the results it can be seen that although mining activities no longer exist since 1996, the deleterious effects in the environment are still present and strong. (author)

  8. The geomechanical characterization of the rocky mass foundation of the Tijuco Alto hydroelectric power plant, Ribeira River, Sao Paulo/Parana States, Brazil; Caracterizacao geomecanica do Macico de Fundacao da UHE Tijuco Alto (Rio Ribeira - SP/PR)

    Figueiredo, Amarilis Lucia Casteli de


    This work has as its main objective the geomechanical characterization on the future rocky mass foundation of the Tijuco Alto dam, sited at the Ribeira river, in the cities of Ribeirao, Sao Paulo state and Adrianopolis, Parana state, Brazil, owned by the Companhia Brasileira de Aluminio (Brazilian company of Aluminium). To reach that target, field studies were made to qualify the geotechnical parameters of the rocky mass, in the axis area open galleries. It was also used in situ deformability and stress test results performed in those galleries, that were reinterpreted for a better adaptation of the mass values. The knowledge of the mass inherent characteristics together with the laboratories test results, allowed for the geomechanical classification applications in several different gallery sectors. The geomechanical data obtained allowed through mathematical expressions, to reach the rocky mass values correlations of interest to the work (deformability and strength), that could be compared to the in situ test results. That analysis permitted, besides the classification critical system evaluation, the geomechanical characterization of the rocky mass, focusing its ability to the dam arch construction. (author)

  9. Phenology and morphological diversity of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas landraces of the Vale do Ribeira Fenologia e diversidade morfológica de etnovariedades de batata-doce (Ipomoea batatas do Vale do Ribeira

    Elizabeth Ann Veasey


    Full Text Available The phenotypic diversity of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas landraces was assessed using morphological traits, verifying how this diversity is distributed among the households and settlements of the Vale do Ribeira, Brazil. A total of 74 accessions, involving 53 landraces, collected from 30 households distributed among 18 settlements that practice traditional agriculture in the municipalities of Iguape, Ilha Comprida, and Cananeia, as well as four commercial varieties acquired in markets of Iguape and Piracicaba, were evaluated under an ex situ experimental condition in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil. Nine phenological and floral descriptors, nine morphological vegetative aerial descriptors and five storage root traits were recorded. The 14 aerial vegetative and root descriptors were evaluated as binary data, totaling 74 attributes. Cluster analyses were made using the Jaccard similarity index and the UPGMA (unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean agglomerative method. Binary data was also submitted to a variance analysis (AMOVA. No defined groups were observed, indicating that the diversity of the landraces is not structured in space, but considerable morphological variation was found in this area (Jaccard similarity index varying from 0.12 to 1.0. Most of the variability occurred within households (64.4%, followed by the distribution among households within settlements (27.1% and among settlements (8.4%. Thus, the traditional agriculturists of Vale do Ribeira maintain a high morphological diversity for sweet potato within their households, which can be assumed to be produced by the outcrossing mating system of this species and somatic mutation events, as well as the exchange system at local and regional levels.Avaliou-se a diversidade fenotípica de etnovariedades de batata-doce através de descritores morfológicos, visando verificar como esta diversidade está distribuída em nível de roças e comunidades do Vale do Ribeira, SP, Brasil

  10. [Evaluating children health conditions in a small community: the study of Itapirapuã, Ribeira Valley, SP].

    César, J A; Victora, C G


    A household survey for evaluating the mortality, morbidity, nutritional status and health services utilization of children aged under five years was carried out in a rural village in Ribeira, São Paulo State. Most children belonged to families of rural laborers earning less than 80 US dollars per month and living under inadequate environmental conditions. The infant mortality rate was equal to 83 per thousand and 35% of the children were affected by moderate or severe stunting, rates which are well above those for the State. The main reasons for clinic attendances and hospital admissions were acute respiratory infections and diarrhea. The median duration of breastfeeding was 14.4 months, the highest reported for Brazil. Only 40% of the mothers had received antenatal care, and 56% delivered in a hospital - of whom 35% had a caesarean section. Vaccine coverage reached 65% of children aged 12 months or more. This survey revealed an enclave of high morbidity and mortality within Brazil's richest state. It also showed that with a limited budget and within a short time it is possible to obtain valuable information for planning child survival strategies.

  11. Isolation of Leptospira santarosai, serovar guaricura from buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis in Vale do Ribeira, São Paulo, Brazil

    Vasconcellos Silvio A.


    Full Text Available In April 1998 urine samples from adult female buffaloes were collected in a farm located in Registro, Vale do Ribeira, São Paulo State, Brazil. The urine samples obtained after furosemide injection were immediately transported to the laboratory in liquid modified EMJH medium and seeded, by the serial dilution technique, into Fletcher's or modified EMJH-0.2% agar, both of them with 5-fluorouracil 100mg/mL. The intraperitoneoum inoculation of 0.5 mL was also performed with each urine sample in young, adult hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus. All samples seeded directly in culture medium were contaminated. The hamsters did not show any sign of disease and were killed at the 21st post inoculation day. At this time kidney cultures of these animals were performed and from one of them, one leptospira strain (M04-98 was isolated, identified as belonging to serogroup Sejroe by Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT with a panel of 36 rabbit sera against serovars representative for the pathogenic serogroups. Subsequently, MAT was carried out with antisera against the 19 reference strains of serogroup Sejroe, revealing a close relationship with serovar guaricura. Afterwards the MAT was done with a panel of 18 monoclonal antibodies representative for serovars of serogroup Sejroe. The histogram closely resembled that of serovar guaricura. So Cross Agglutination Absorption Test (CAAT was carried out with the buffalo isolate and serovar guaricura, supporting the relationship between the buffalo isolate and serovar guaricura.

  12. Nitrogen and potassium fertilization on ‘Caipira’ and ‘BRS Princesa’ bananas in the Ribeira Valley

    Edson S. Nomura

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT ‘BRS Princesa’ (AAAB and ‘Caipira’ (AAA banana cultivars have similar sensorial features in comparison to the ‘Maçã’ banana. They are resistant to Panama disease, which allows them to grow in the Ribeira Valley, the largest banana plantation area in the São Paulo State. However, there is no information on how to fertilize crop under these edaphoclimatic conditions. This study aimed to evaluate the development and production of ‘Caipira’ and ‘BRS Princesa’ bananas, by applying four fertilization doses of N and K2O (no fertilization; 175 and 285 kg ha-1 year-1; 350 and 570 kg ha-1 year-1; 525 and 855 kg ha-1 year-1. The most adequate fertilizer recommendation for ‘Caipira’ and ‘BRS Princesa’ cultivars was 150% of the standard recommendation for banana (525 kg ha-1 year-1 of N and 855 kg ha-1 year-1 of K2O in both production cycles, promoting adequate growth and production, since most of the evaluated characteristics showed linear responses with the increase in the fertilization doses. ‘Caipira’ and ‘BRS Princesa’ require higher amounts of N and K than that recommended for the banana crop in the São Paulo State, in order to express their productive potential.

  13. Hipovitaminose A e anemia ferropriva em gestantes de duas comunidades do Vale do Ribeira (Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Vitamin A deficiency and iron deficiency anemia in pregnant women of two communities of the Ribeira River Valley (State of S. Paulo, Brazil

    Maria José Roncada


    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar deficiências de vitamina A e de ferro em mulheres grávidas, a nível de comunidade, estudou-se 60 gestantes, residentes na zona urbana de Apiaí e Ribeira (Estado de São Paulo, através de inquérito bioquímico, realizando-se dosagens séricas de beta-caroteno, vitamina A, hemoglobina, ferro sérico e capacidade de ligação de ferro, bem como determinação do hematócrito. Os resultados foram comentados e apontaram não haver hipovitaminose A nesta amostra, apesar de haver grande proporção de resultados de caroteno sérico considerados não-normais. Houve maior prevalência de anemia entre gestantes de Ribeira. A comparação dos resultados obtidos entre as gestantes com respectivos grupos-testemunha, apontou freqüência maior de casos considerados não-normais entre as primeiras, em todos os coeficientes levantados.The present study was carried out on sixty pregnant women residing in the urban area of the cities of Apiaí and Ribeira, State of S. Paulo. Samples were taken from each subject in order to study blood levels of beta-carotene, vitamin A, hemoglobin, serum iron and iron binding capacity as well as packed cell volume, with the objective of studying vitamin A and iron deficiency. The results showed that vitamin A deficiency was absent although a large proportion of carotene levels was abnormal. Regarding anemia, prevalence was higher in Ribeira residents. Refering all results to a control group, it was found that frequency was higher in the sample subjects.

  14. Fábrica magnética do maciço granítico Itaóca: Cinturão Ribeira, SE do Brasil

    Carlos Alejandro Salazar


    O batólito Itaóca é uma suíte granítica Neoproterozóica cristalizada na crosta rasa cuja fácies dominantes, é constituída por um monzogranito porfirítico. O batólito intrude rochas metamorfisadas em fácies xisto verde do Bloco Lajeado, é limitado por estruturas de cisalhamento transcorrente a sul e noroeste, denominadas respectivamente Ribeira e Quarenta Oitava. Os contatos a norte e leste cortam as estruturas regionais que compartimentaram os metassedimentos encaixantes. A estrutura interna ...

  15. Le Bassin de Ribeira Seca de Santiago, Cap Vert: une gestion basée sur l´approche GIRE

    Januário da Rocha Nascimento


    Full Text Available Dans cet article, l´auteur caractérise l´eau et l´agriculture des îles du Cap Vert et analyse les défis del´eau après la construction du barrage de Poilao dans la Vallée de Ribeira Seca, sur l´île de Santiago,en se servant de l´approche GIRE (Gestion Intégrée des Ressources en Eau. Au niveau de la législation,il s´avère nécessaire de proposer de nouvelles lois, décrets et règlements qui soient en accord avecnotre réalité, en opposition à un important lot d´instruments juridiques inapplicables, obsolètes et decompréhension difficile. La construction du barrage de Poilão a produit des impacts environnementaux,socio-économiques et sur l´irrigation. Il s´agit de trouver un modèle de gestion qui s´adapte à la réalitédu Cap Vert et de l´île de Santiago, regroupant tous les partenaires pour une gestion durable de lavallée de Ribeira Seca et qui puisse servir d´exemple aux futurs barrages à construire.In this article, the author characterizes the water and agriculture of the islands of Cape Verde andanalyzes the challenges in the water after the dam construction Poilao in the Valley of Ribeira Seca,on the island of Santiago, using the IWRM (Integrated Water Resources Management approach. Interms of legislation, it is necessary to propose new laws, decrees and regulations that are consistentwith our reality, as opposed to a large batch of inapplicable legal instruments obsolete and difficult tounderstand. The construction of the dam has produced Poilão environmental, socio-economic impactsand irrigation. It is to find a model that fits the reality of Cape Verde and Santiago Island, involvingall partners for the sustainable management of the valley of Ribeira Seca and that can serve as anexample to future to build dams.

  16. Observações sobre atividade de mosquitos Culicidae em mata primitiva da encosta no Vale do Ribeira, São Paulo, Brasil Observations on mosquito activity in primitive highland rain forest in the Ribeira Valley, S. Paulo, Brazil

    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini


    Full Text Available Relatam-se observações sobre o ciclo diário de atividade culicídea em ambiente primitivo da floresta perenifólia higrófila da encosta, do Sistema da Serra do Mar, no Vale do Ribeira, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Com periodicidade bimensal, e no período de dois anos, foram levadas a efeito coletas de vinte e cinco horas ininterruptas com o emprego de isca humana, bem como a utilização de armadilhas tipo Shannon operadas dentro e fora do ambiente florestal. Os resultados evidenciaram acentuada dominancia de An. cruzii, que se manteve durante todos os meses do ano mesmo naqueles de menor atividade culicídea. A influência crepuscular evidenciou-se pela nítida ocorrência de picos endocrepusculares para An. cruzii e An. bellator, seguidos imediatamente por outros, de menor intensidade, caracterizando assim ritmo que se propõe chamar de paracrepuscular. Ambas essas espécies de Kerteszia apresentaram atividade contínua para a isca humana, no período das 24 horas. Cx. sacchettae mostrou-se nitidamente noturna e com ritmo eocrepuscular. Ae. serratus e Ps. ferox revelaram-se essencialmente diurnos, com certa tendência ao ritmo paracrepuscular porém, até onde foi possível observar, de maneira incompleta e limitado ao crepúsculo matutino. A atividade ininterrupta, aliada à densidade e dominância de An. cruzii reafirma sua importância epidemiológica e a torna uma das feições que caracteriza o ambiente primitivo supracitado.With fortnightly rhythm, 25-hour catches of Culicidae mosquitoes were carried out, at ground level, with human bait, in a primitive rain forest in a highland relief area of the Ribeira Valley region, S. Paulo, Brazil. Besides this, regular simultaneous catches employing Shannon traps were made within and outside the forest environment. Results obtained are presented and discussed. An. cruzii proved a highly dominant species and An. bellator also showed ininterrupted daily activity, increasing at night. They

  17. Isotopic characterization of metabasites and amphibolites of the Acungui and Setuva Groups at the southern portion of de Ribeira Belt; Caracterizacao isotopica de metabasitos e anfibolitos dos Grupos Acungui e Setuva na porcao sul da Faixa Ribeira

    Oliveira, Marcos Aurelio Farias de; Daitx, Elias Carneiro [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Petrologia e Metalogenia; Maniesi, Vanderlei [Universidade Federal de Rondonia (UNIR), Porto Velho (Brazil); Teixeira, Wilson [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Centro de Pesquisas Geocronologicas


    Pb, Rb, Sr, Sm and Nd isotope analyses were carried out on amphibolitic rocks from Campo Largo (PR), Rio Branco do Sul (PR) and Adrianopolis (PR) and for the metabasite from Adrianopolis and Apiai (SP), all belonging to the Acungui and Setuva Groups, southern portion of the Ribeira Belt. These occurrences were chosen because each exhibits geochemical data indicative of a mantle source, having different signatures. Geochronologic determinations are available only for the Apiai metagabro with Neoproterozoic ages of 617 +- 4 Ma (U/Pb in zircon) and 839 +- 85 Ma (Rb/Sr, whole rock). Age determinations by Sm/Nd mineral isochron using whole rock, plagioclase and pyroxene yield values of 885 +- 53 Ma for the Apiai metagabro and 820 +- 84 Ma for the Adrianopolis metabasite. These results agree within error with the Rb/Sr isochron of 839 +- 85 Ma may possibly be interpreted as the time of extraction of the magma from the mantle, as suggested by positive epsilon{sub Nd(850)} values (+2,76) from an Adrianopolis sample. An epsilon{sub Nd} values versus 87 Sr/86 Sr diagram shows that each studied occurrence plots in a different position, following approximately the mantle array trend, the most primitive being the metabasite of Adrianopolis, near the MORB field, and the most enriched being the amphibolite from the same region, near the enriched mantle and or crustal contamination field. The distinct difference in isotopic signatures between the amphibolite and metabasite suggest derivation from different mantle sources, as supported by available geochemical data. Nevertheless, some of the samples show isotopic evidence of the action of metamorphism, crustal contamination and weathering. (author)

  18. Avaliando a saúde infantil em uma pequena comunidade: o estudo de Itapirapuã, Vale do Ribeira, SP

    Juraci Almeida César


    Full Text Available Através de inquérito domiciliar, avaliou-se a morbimortalidade e a utilização dos serviços de saúde em crianças menores de cinco anos em um aglomerado rural no Vale do Ribeira - SP. A maioria das crianças pertencia a famílias de trabalhadores agrícolas com renda inferior a dois salários mínimos, vivendo em precárias condições de habitação e saneamento. O coeficiente de mortalidade infantil foi estimado em 83 por mil nascidos vivos, bastante superior aos dados oficiais para o Município e o Estado. A desnutrição crônica nas formas moderada ou grave atingiu 35% das crianças. As infecções respiratórias e a diarréia foram, repectivamente, os principais motivos de consultas médicas e hospitalizações. O aleitamento materno atingiu a mediana de 14,4 meses, valor jamais descrito no país. As coberturas pré-natal e vacinal foram de apenas 40% e 65%, respectivamente. O presente estudo evidenciou um enclave com preocupantes níveis de saúde infantil, dentro do estado mais rico do país. Mostrou, também, que, com um orçamento extremamente limitado e em um curto período de tempo, foi possível obter dados de grande valia para o diagnóstico comunitário e o planejamento de ações para melhorar a saúde infantil.A household survey for evaluating the mortality, morbidity, nutritional status and health services utilization of children aged under five years was carried out in a rural village in Ribeira, São Paulo State. Most children belonged to families of rural laborers earning less than US$80 per month and living under inadequate environmental conditions. The infant mortality rate was equal to 83 per thousand and 35% of the children were affected by moderate or severe stunting, rates which are well above those for the State. The main reasons for clinic attendances and hospital admissions were acute respiratory infections and diarrhea. The median duration of breastfeeding was 14.4 months, the highest reported for Brazil. Only

  19. The Ilha Anchieta Quartz Monzonite: the southernmost expression of ca. 500 Ma post-collisional magmatism in the Ribeira Belt

    José M. Azevedo Sobrinho


    Full Text Available The Ilha Anchieta Quartz Monzonite (IAQM occupies most of the homonymous island in the coast of the state of São Paulo, and is intrusive into foliated rocks of the ~565 Ma Ubatuba Charnockite. The main petrographic variety is a porphyritic biotite-hornblende quartz monzonite with 2-4 cm tabular microcline megacrysts set in a medium-grained groundmass and magmatic foliation. Outcrop-scale structures indicate cumulative processes (modal and grain-size magmatic banding and interaction with basic magmas (mafic microgranular enclaves. Lithogeochemical data indicates that the main variety is intermediate to acid (S1O2 = 63-67%, alkali-calcic, metaluminous and magnesian (mg# ~30, showing moderate Sr (300-400 ppm and Ba (~1500 ppm contents and relatively high HFSE (Nb = 40 ppm; Zr = 550-700 ppm. The older charnockites are more silicic (S1O2 = 71-78%, ferroan(mg# = 12-16, and have very low Sr (13-80 ppm contents, resulting in Ba/Sr ratios remarkably higher than the IAQM (10 versus 4. LA-MC-ICPMS U-Pb zircon dating of the IAQM yielded 499.7 ± 5.9 Ma. This is the youngest magmatic age identified so far in the crystalline basement of the state of São Paulo, and indicates that the pluton is the southernmost expression of the post-collisional "G5" magmatism in the Ribeira Belt.O Quartzo Monzonito Ilha Anchieta (QMIA ocupa a maior parte da ilha homônima na região costeira do Estado de São Paulo, e é intrusivo em rochas foliadas do Charnockito Ubatuba (~565 Ma. A principal variedade petrográfica é um biotitahornblenda quartzo monzonito porfirítico com foliação magmática e megacristais tabulares de microclínio com 2-4 cm em matriz de granulação média. Estruturas em afloramento indicam processos cumuláticos (bandamento modal e granulométrico e interação com magmas básicos (enclaves microgranulares máficos. Dados geoquímicos indicam que a variedade principal é intermediária a ácida (SiO2 = 63-67%, tem caráter

  20. Soil and water conservation strategies and impact on sustainable livelihood in Cape Verde - Case study of Ribeira Seca watershed

    Baptista, I.; Ferreira, A. D.; Tavares, J.; Querido, A. L. E.; Reis, A. E. A.; Geissen, V.; Ritsema, C.; Varela, A.


    Cape Verde, located off the coast of Senegal in western Africa, is a volcanic archipelago where a combination of human, climatic, geomorphologic and pedologic factors has led to extensive degradation of the soils. Like other Sahelian countries, Cape Verde has suffered the effects of desertification through the years, threatening the livelihood of the islands population and its fragile environment. In fact, the steep slopes in the ore agricultural islands, together with semi-arid and arid environments, characterized by an irregular and poorly distributed rainy season, with high intensity rainfall events, make dryland production a challenge. To survive in these fragile conditions, the stabilization of the farming systems and the maintenance of sustainable yields have become absolute priorities, making the islands an erosion control laboratory. Soil and water conservation strategies have been a centerpiece of the government's agricultural policies for the last half century. Aiming to maintain the soil in place and the water inside the soil, the successive governments of Cape Verde have implemented a number of soil and water conservation techniques, the most common ones being terraces, half moons, live barriers, contour rock walls, contour furrows and microcatchments, check dams and reforestation with drought resistant species. The soil and water conservation techniques implemented have contributed to the improvement of the economical and environmental conditions of the treated landscape, making crop production possible, consequently, improving the livelihood of the people living on the islands. In this paper, we survey the existing soil and water conservation techniques, analyze their impact on the livelihood condition of the population through a thorough literature review and field monitoring using a semi-quantitative methodology and evaluate their effectiveness and impact on crop yield in the Ribeira Seca watershed. A brief discussion is given on the cost and

  1. A Idade e Natureza da Fonte do Granito do Moinho, Faixa Ribeira, Sudeste do Estado de São Paulo

    Colombo Celso Gaeta Tassinari


    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta novos dados geocronológicos U-Pb SHRIMP em zircões e Sm-Nd em rocha total do Granito doMoinho, que ocorre nas imediações da cidade de Nazaré Paulista, Estado de São Paulo. Este granito apresenta característicasin- a tardi-tectônica em relação à Orogenia Brasiliana e é intrusivo nas seqüências mesoproterozóicas do Grupo Serra doItaberaba, no segmento central da Faixa de Dobramentos Ribeira. Adicionalmente, foram reavaliados dados isotópicos de Pbobtidos em amostras de rocha total e feldspatos potássicos disponíveis na literatura. A idade U-Pb SHRIMP obtida emmonocristais de zircões ígneos do granito foi de 620 ± 11 Ma, sendo interpretada como a época de cristalização desta rocha.As idades modelo Sm-Nd obtidas situaram-se entre 2,0 e 1,9 Ga, mostrando que o magma foi produzido por fusão parcial derochas pré-existentes, derivadas do manto superior no Paleoproterozóico. As composições isotópicas de Pb das amostras doGranito do Moinho indicam, a exemplo dos isótopos de Nd, uma fonte também crustal e com participação de rochas doGrupo Serra do Itaberaba, de idade mesoproterozóica.

  2. The Ediacaran Rio Doce magmatic arc revisited (Araçuaí-Ribeira orogenic system, SE Brazil)

    Tedeschi, Mahyra; Novo, Tiago; Pedrosa-Soares, Antônio; Dussin, Ivo; Tassinari, Colombo; Silva, Luiz Carlos; Gonçalves, Leonardo; Alkmim, Fernando; Lana, Cristiano; Figueiredo, Célia; Dantas, Elton; Medeiros, Sílvia; De Campos, Cristina; Corrales, Felipe; Heilbron, Mônica


    Described half a century ago, the Galiléia tonalite represents a milestone in the discovery of plate margin magmatic arcs in the Araçuaí-Ribeira orogenic system (southeastern Brazil). In the 1990's, analytical studies on the Galiléia tonalite finally revealed the existence of a Late Neoproterozoic calc-alkaline magmatic arc in the Araçuaí orogen. Meanwhile, the name Rio Doce magmatic arc was applied to calc-alkaline plutons found in the Araçuaí-Ribeira boundary. After those pioneer studies, the calc-alkaline plutons showing a pre-collisional volcanic arc signature and age between 630 Ma and 585 Ma have been grouped in the G1 supersuite, corresponding to the Rio Doce arc infrastructure. Here, we revisit the Rio Doce arc with our solid field knowledge of the region and a robust analytical database (277 lithochemical analyses, and 47 U-Pb, 53 Sm-Nd, 25 87Sr/86Sr and 7 Lu-Hf datasets). The G1 supersuite consists of regionally deformed, tonalitic to granodioritic batholiths and stocks, generally rich in melanocratic to mesocratic enclaves and minor gabbroic to dioritic plutons. Gabbroic to dioritic enclaves show evidence of magma mixing processes. The lithochemical and isotopic signatures clearly reveal a volcanic arc formed on a continental margin setting. Melts from a Rhyacian basement form the bulk of the magma produced, whilst gabbroic plutons and enclaves record involvement of mantle magmas in the arc development. Tonalitic stocks (U-Pb age: 618-575 Ma, εNd(t): -5.7 to -7.8, Nd TDM ages: 1.28-1.68 Ga, 87Sr/86Sr(t): 0.7059-0.7118, and εHf(t): -5.2 to -11.7) form the northernmost segment of the Rio Doce arc, which dies out in the ensialic sector of the Araçuaí orogen. At arc eastern and central zones, several batholiths (e.g., Alto Capim, Baixo Guandu, Galiléia, Muniz Freire, São Vítor) record a long-lasting magmatic history (632-580 Ma; εNd(t): -5.6 to -13.3; Nd TDM age: 1.35-1.80 Ga; 87Sr/86Sr(t): 0.7091-0.7123). At arc western border, the magmatic

  3. Post-collisional multistage magmatism in the Ribeira mobile belt: geochemical and isotopic study of the Varzea Alegre intrusive complex, Espirito Santo, Brazil

    Medeiros, Silvia Regina de; Mendes, Julio Cezar [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Geologia]. E-mail:; Wiedemann-Leonardos, Cristina Maria [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias]. E-mail:


    The Varzea Alegre Intrusive Complex (VAIC) corresponds to a post-collisional (late orogenic) pluton, related to the Brasiliano cycle, situated in the central part of the Espirito Santo State. It intrudes amphibolite to granulite facies metamorphic rocks of the Ribeira Belt. Two distinct domains were recognised in this zoned pluton: an inner domain with opx-gabbro, monzogabbro, diorite, quartz-diorite and megaporphyritic granite, and an outer one comprising an irregular and large ring of charnockitic rocks. Geochemical data from the former reveal medium to high-K calc-alkalic rocks, enriched in incompatible elements, mainly Ba, Sr, La, Ce and Pb and partially depleted in HFS elements. The charnockitic rocks show a high-K alkali-calcic signature; they are rich in Ba, K and some HFS elements, such a Zr, P and Nb. The incompatible element enrichment detected in the rocks of the VAIC has been reported for several intrusions from this part of the Ribeira Belt. A Rb-Sr isochronic age of 508{+-} 12 Ma was determined for the megaporphyritic granite. The T{sub DM} model age varies from 1.3 Ga (opx-gabbro) to ca. 1.67 Ga (charnockitic rocks), which can be related to an important Mesoproterozoic crustal event. The calculated T{sub CHUR} model ages of the cogenetic opx-gabbros and intermediary rocks is ca. 1.0 Ga, interpreted as the time when the basic magma was extracted from the source. (author)

  4. Algumas considerações sobre o consumo de alimentos em Icapara e Pontal de Ribeira, São Paulo, Brasil Consideration on food intake in Icapara and Pontal de Ribeira, State of S. Paulo, Brazil

    Rosa Nilda Mazzilli


    Full Text Available O inquérito alimentar realizado em 105 famílias de Icapara e 56 de Pontal revelou algumas deficiências alimentares, decorrentes das falhas existentes em sua alimentação habitual. O consumo alimentar de 24 horas foi obtido através do método da pesagem direta dos alimentos, combinado com o recordatório. Os alimentos de maior consumo, considerados básicos, foram a farinha de mandioca, o peixe e o arroz. A inadequação da dieta em determinados nutrientes, como as vitaminas A, B1, B2 e C e o cálcio está ligada aos hábitos alimentares: o leite, as hortaliças e as frutas não são expressivas na alimentação diária dessas populações. A proteína animal não representou problema nessas comunidades, pois o consumo médio diário de peixe foi alto. Um programa integrado de Educação Nutricional e Sanitária, aproveitando e desenvolvendo os recursos locais, será fundamental nessa área no sentido de melhorar os padrões alimentar e social dessas populações.The dietary survey carried out among 105 familles from Icapara, and 56 from Pontal (Region of the Ribeira River Valley, state of S. Paulo, Brazil showed some nutritional deficiencies. The food intake of 24 hours was obtained by applying the method of direct weighing combined with the recall method. Foodstuffs of greater consumption were: cassava flour, fish and polished rice. The inadequacy of diet as regards some nutrients, such as vitamin A, thiamine, riboflavin, vitamin C and Calcium, is connected with food habits. These populations rarely include milk, vegetables or fruit in their daily diet. Animal protein was not a problem in the studied communities because fish was greatly consumed. An integrated program of Nutrition and Health Education is fundamental to improve dietary and social standards in these populations.

  5. Chemical composition of deep hydrothermal fluids in the Ribeira Grande geothermal field (São Miguel, Azores)

    Carvalho, M. R.; Forjaz, V. H.; Almeida, C.


    The Ribeira Grande geothermal field is a water-dominated geothermal system, located within Água de Pau/Fogo Volcano in the central part of the São Miguel Island. This geothermal system is exploited for energy production by wells sustaining two power plants. The wells produce from a formation of pillow lavas divided into different aquifers, with a fairly isothermal zone from 800 to 1300 m in depth, where reservoir temperature reaches 230 to 245 °C. Below the depth of 1300 m there is a slight temperature reversal. The fluid produced has excess enthalpy and, separated at atmospheric pressure, is characterized by mineralization of sodium-chloride type up to 6-7 g/l, the concentration of dissolved silica varies between 450 and 650 mg/l and the pH ranges between 8 and 8.6. The gas phase is dominantly CO 2, at a concentration of 98% of NCG. The composition of the deep geothermal fluid was obtained by computer simulation, using the WATCH program, and was compared with the composition of the bottom-hole samples. The approximations, in this simulation, were considered the single- and multi-step steam separation. The reference temperatures were based on: (i) the measured temperature in wells; (ii) the Na/K geothermometric temperature and (iii) the enthalpy-saturation temperature. According to both the measured and geothermometric temperatures, the deep fluid of the wells has two phases with a steam fraction up to 0.34, at higher well discharges. The measured enthalpy is always greater than the calculated enthalpy. The calcite equilibrium indicates scaling, since the fluid is flashing, around 2.28 mg/l CaCO 3 at the maximum discharge. The geothermal wells exploit three different aquifers, the lower of which is liquid and slightly colder than the upper ones. The intermediate is a two-phase aquifer with a steam fraction up to 0.081. The upper aquifer is probably of steam phase. The main differences between the aquifers are the temperature and boiling; both enthalpy and

  6. Qualitative and semiquantitative interpretation of aeromagnetic data over the Lancinha Shear Zone, Southern Ribeira Belt, in Paraná State, Southern Brazil

    Luís Gustavo de Castro


    Full Text Available The characterization of shear zones at the southern portion of the Ribeira Belt, PR, BR, as well as its recognition in depth is a major challenge. Despite the lack of subsurface information, the influence of such structures on the installation and evolution of the Paraná Basin during the Phanerozoic is widely accepted. Therefore, in this paper, are applied methods of anomaly enhancement (qualitative analysis and estimative of the sources depth (semiquantitative analysis, on the aeromagnetic coverage of the Lancinha Shear Zone area (LSZ in the Paraná state, in order to verify its spatial arrangement in subsurface. The processing resulted in the interpretation of magnetic-structural framework of the study area, which was validated by the depth estimative of the magnetic sources (Euler solutions. The results indicated the extension of the Lancinha, Morro Agudo and Itapirapuã shear zones under the Paraná Basin coverage.

  7. Segmentación del mercado de un destino turístico de interior. El caso de A Ribeira Sacra (Ourense

    Roberto Carballo Meiriño


    Full Text Available A Ribeira Sacra es un destino turístico que engloba municipios de las dos provincias interiores de Galicia. En este entorno espacial se desarrolla una investigación para describir el perfil de los visitantes e identificar diferentes segmentos de consumidores basados en sus motivaciones turísticas, describiéndose variables que definan a cada grupo. La heterogeneidad detectada en los motivos que argumentan los visitantes pone de relieve que la oferta turística y las estrategias de comunicación deben orientarse hacia aquellos segmentos de consumidores que más valoren los atractivos que constituyen ventajas diferenciales de la zona: fundamentalmente los aspectos naturales y patrimoniales en el territorio analizado. Las conclusiones pretenden contribuir a mejorar la estrategia de comercialización y promoción de este destino turístico para cada uno de los segmentos detectados.

  8. Sources of granite magmatism in the Embu Terrane (Ribeira Belt, Brazil): Neoproterozoic crust recycling constrained by elemental and isotope (Sr-Nd-Pb) geochemistry

    Alves, Adriana; Janasi, Valdecir de Assis; Campos Neto, Mario da Costa


    Whole rock elemental and Sr-Nd isotope geochemistry and in situ K-feldspar Pb isotope geochemistry were used to identify the sources involved in the genesis of Neoproterozoic granites from the Embu Terrane, Ribeira Belt, SE Brazil. Granite magmatism spanned over 200 Ma (810-580 Ma), and is dominated by crust-derived relatively low-T (850-750 °C, zircon saturation) biotite granites to biotite-muscovite granites. Two Cryogenian plutons show the least negative εNdt (-8 to -10) and highest mg# (30-40) of the whole set. Their compositions are strongly contrasted, implying distinct sources for the peraluminous (ASI ∼ 1.2) ∼660 Ma Serra do Quebra-Cangalha batholith (metasedimentary rocks from relatively young upper crust with high Rb/Sr and low Th/U) and the metaluminous (ASI = 0.96-1.00) ∼ 630 Ma Santa Catarina Granite. Although not typical, the geochemical signature of these granites may reflect a continental margin arc environment, and they could be products of a prolonged period of oceanic plate consumption started at ∼810 Ma. The predominant Ediacaran (595-580 Ma) plutons have a spread of compositions from biotite granites with SiO2 as low as ∼65% (e.g., Itapeti, Mauá, Sabaúna and Lagoinha granites) to fractionated muscovite granites (Mogi das Cruzes, Santa Branca and Guacuri granites; up to ∼75% SiO2). εNdT are characteristically negative (-12 to -18), with corresponding Nd TDM indicating sources with Paleoproterozoic mean crustal ages (2.0-2.5 Ga). The Guacuri and Santa Branca muscovite granites have the more negative εNdt, highest 87Sr/86Srt (0.714-0.717) and lowest 208Pb/206Pb and 207Pb/206Pb, consistent with an old metasedimentary source with low time-integrated Rb/Sr. However, a positive Nd-Sr isotope correlation is suggested by data from the other granites, and would be consistent with mixing between an older source predominant in the Mauá granite and a younger, high Rb/Sr source that is more abundant in the Lagoinha granite sample. The

  9. Unraveling the tectonic evolution of a Neoproterozoic-Cambrian active margin in the Ribeira Orogen (Se Brazil): U-Pb and Lu-Hf provenance data

    Fernandes, Gabriel Lamounier de F. [Servico Geologico do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (DRM-RJ), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Schmitt, Renata; Bongiolo, Everton M.; Mendes, Julio [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Basei, Miguel S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)


    Full text: The Neoproterozoic-Ordovician Central Ribeira Orogen, in SE Brazil, presents two contrasting tectonic domains in its southern portion: (a) The Arc Domain constituted of Neoproterozoic to Paleozoic magmatic rocks and low P-high T metamorphic para (Sao Fidelis Group) - and ortho- derived units (in Oriental Terrane); and (b) The Basement Domain, constituted of a Paleoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic medium P-high T metamorphic para (Palmital-Buzios Succession)- and ortho-derived units (in Cabo Frio Tectonic Domain). Our work focuses on paraderived rocks sequences from both domains. The provenance analysis using U-Pb and Lu-Hf in zircon grains is presented here as an effective tool to unravel the paleogeography and nature of the pre-collisional sedimentary basins. We performed 505 analyses (U-Pb) on detrital zircon grains and some metamorphic overgrowths from six paragneiss samples. Besides, 141 analyses (Lu-Hf) in six samples only on the detrital zircon grains domains. All samples present a main peak from Neoproterozoic sources (750-570 Ma) and the other minor peak in the Stenian/Tonian periods (1200-850Ma), this indicate an orogenic contribution for this basin. Scarce register from the Mesoproterozoic and two peaks in the Archean/Paleoproterozoic (2.6 and 1.9 Ga) are recognized as a contribution from an ancient continent. The Lu-Hf data reveals a juvenile source for the detrital zircon grains from Buzios Succession while Palmital and Sao Fidelis Group units show a main crustal signature for their detrital zircon population. Based on the U-Pb and Lu-Hf data presented here, plus petrological data, geological correlations, and compilation of data from literature, we propose a tectonic model for the origin of para-derived rocks from the eastern part of the Ribeira Orogen. Starting with an extensional environment of ca. 600 Ma in a back-arc basin (Buzios succession deposition) and continuing as an active margin between 570 and 550 Ma in the fore-arc and prism

  10. Etnoecologia e etnobotânica da palmeira juçara (Euterpe edulis Martius em comunidades quilombolas do Vale do Ribeira, São Paulo Ethnoecology and ethnobotany of the juçara palm (Euterpe edulis Martius in "quilombola" communities of the Ribeira River Valley, São Paulo

    Renata Moreira Barroso


    Full Text Available As comunidades quilombolas são consideradas comunidades negras rurais formadas por descendentes de africanos escravizados. No Vale do Ribeira, uma das regiões mais pobres do estado de São Paulo, estas comunidades vivem da agricultura de subsistência e principalmente da coleta do palmito juçara para complemento da renda familiar. A palmeira juçara possui importante papel ecológico e econômico para a Floresta Atlântica e para as comunidades rurais locais. O objetivo geral deste trabalho foi investigar aspectos etnoecológicos e etnobotânicos da palmeira juçara (Euterpe edulis Martius em comunidades quilombolas do Vale do Ribeira, SP. A investigação se deu em sete comunidades quilombolas através da aplicação de 25 entrevistas semi-estruturadas e da realização de uma oficina de identificação dos animais consumidores de frutos da palmeira. Também foram realizadas coletas e identificação de visitantes florais. Os quilombolas entrevistados demonstraram um detalhado conhecimento ecológico local sobre a palmeira juçara, principalmente a relação da biodiversidade animal associada à espécie. Neste trabalho a etnoecologia e a etnobotânica mostram-se ferramentas importantes no levantamento participativo do conhecimento ecológico local do E. edulis que pode ser considerado no manejo e na conservação da espécie na Floresta Atlântica."Quilombola" communities are distributed all over Brazil. They are composed of the descendents of African slaves. In the Ribeira River Valley, one of the poorest regions in São Paulo state, they practice subsistence agriculture and extract plant resources from the environment, especially the juçara palm (Euterpe edulis Martius, a species that contributes to "quilombola" income. The juçara palm has special ecological and economic importance for "quilombolas". The main aim of this study was to investigate ethnobotanical and ethnoecological aspects of the juçara palm in "quilombola" communities

  11. 40Ar/39Ar ages (600-570 Ma of the Serra do Azeite transtensional shear zone: evidence for syncontractional extension in the Cajati area, southern Ribeira belt

    Rômulo Machado


    Full Text Available This paper presents 40Ar/39Ar ages of the rocks from the Serra do Azeite transtensional shear zone in the southern part of the Ribeira belt, between the States of São Paulo and Paraná, and also discusses the regional correlations and the tectonic implications for other parts of the belt. The geochronological data suggest that transtensional deformation was active between 600 and 580 Ma (hornblende and muscovite apparent ages, respectively. This time span is considerably older than previous proposals for the period of activity of these structures (520-480 Ma in the northern segment of this belt and in the Araçuaí belt. Kinematic analysis of the dated mylonites shows extensional structures with top-down movement to ESE compatible with structures found in other tectonic segments in the eastern portion of the Quadrilátero Ferrífero and in the Rio Doce Valley region. Our ages are situated in the same time interval defined for the alkaline magmatism of the Serra do Mar suite. We suggest that the regional tectonic framework was developed during continental-scale extension. This process has been coeval with convergent strain in the adjacent Neoproterozoic shear zones of the Apiaí/Ribeira and Araçuaí belts, which make up significant segments of these belts. The available data show that these structures may not be simply related to post-orogenic gravitational collapse, but must involve a more complex process probably related to dynamic balance between crustal thickening and thinning during tectonic convergence, basin formation and exhumation processes.Este trabalho apresenta idades 40Ar/39Ar de rochas da Zona de Cisalhamento Transtrativa Sinistral da Serra do Azeite, situada na parte sul do cinturão Ribeira, entre os Estados de São Paulo e Paraná, bem como discute a correlação regional e as implicações tectônicas com outras partes do cinturão. Os dados geocronológicos sugerem que a deformação extensional foi ativa entre 600 e 580 Ma

  12. Soil and Water Conservation Strategies in Cape Verde (Cabo Verde in Portuguese and Their Impacts on Livelihoods: An Overview from the Ribeira Seca Watershed

    Isaurinda Baptista


    Full Text Available Severe land degradation has strongly affected both people’s livelihood and the environment in Cape Verde (Cabo Verde in Portuguese, a natural resource poor country. Despite the enormous investment in soil and water conservation measures (SWC or SLM, which are visible throughout the landscape, and the recognition of their benefits, their biophysical and socioeconomic impacts have been poorly assessed and scientifically documented. This paper contributes to filling this gap, by bringing together insights from literature and policy review, field survey and participatory assessment in the Ribeira Seca Watershed through a concerted approach devised by the DESIRE project (the “Desire approach”. Specifically, we analyze government strategies towards building resilience against the harsh conditions, analyze the state of land degradation and its drivers, survey and map the existing SWC measures, and assess their effectiveness against land degradation, on crop yield and people’s livelihood. We infer that the relative success of Cape Verde in tackling desertification and rural poverty owes to an integrated governance strategy that comprises raising awareness, institutional framework development, financial resource allocation, capacity building, and active participation of rural communities. We recommend that specific, scientific-based monitoring and assessment studies be carried out on the biophysical and socioeconomic impact of SLM and that the “Desire approach” be scaled-up to other watersheds in the country.

  13. Blood feeding patterns of Nyssomyia intermedia and Nyssomyia neivai (Diptera, Psychodidae in a cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic area of the Ribeira Valley, State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Ana Maria Marassa


    Full Text Available Introduction The aim of this study was to identify the blood feeding sources of Nyssomyia intermedia (Ny. intermedia and Nyssomyia neivai (Ny. neivai, which are Leishmania vectors and the predominant sandfly species in the Ribeira Valley, State of São Paulo, Brazil, an endemic area for cutaneous leishmaniasis. Methods Specimens were captured monthly between February 2001 and December 2003 on a smallholding and a small farm situated in the Serra district in the Iporanga municipality. The blood meals of 988 engorged females were tested using the avidin-biotin immunoenzymatic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Seven blood meal sources were investigated: human, dog, chicken, bovine, pig, horse and rat. Results The results showed that among the females that fed on one or more blood sources, the respective percentages for Ny. intermedia and Ny. neivai, respectively, were as follows: human (23% and 36.8%, pig (47.4% and 26.4%, chicken (25.7% and 36.8% and dog (3.9% and 0%, and the differences in the blood sources between the two species were statistically significant (p = 0.043. Conclusions Both species had predominant reactivity for one or two blood sources, and few showed reactivity indicating three or four sources. Many different combinations were observed among the females that showed reactivity for more than one source, which indicated their opportunistic habits and eclecticism regarding anthropic environmental conditions.

  14. Assessment of natural radioactivity levels in waters from the higher Ribeira Valley to the southern Sao Paulo state coastal plain; Levantamento dos niveis de radioatividade natural em aguas do alto Vale da Ribeira a planicie costeira do litoral sul do estado de Sao Paulo

    Jesus, Sueli Carvalho de


    freshwater/saltwater mixing). Thus, the Ra isotopes provide fundamental information on the interaction of sediments, groundwater and estuarine waters. In this project, the distribution of natural Ra isotopes was studied in ix surface, groundwater and estuarine water samples collected from dry and wet seasons (2009 - 2010) campaigns performed in Ribeira Valley, Southern Sao Paulo State. The inventory allowed the application of Ra isotopes as tracers of fluvial and groundwater discharges to the Cananeia-Iguape estuarine complex. The exchange of groundwater/surface water in Ribeira do Iguape River basin and related fluxes of several constituents for the Cananeia-Iguape estuarine complex mass balance is still not very well known. The results obtained in this research work evidenced that there is a prevalence of {sup 228}Ra isotope in all the set of samples analyzed. However, the activity concentrations of Ra isotopes determined from Higher Ribeira Valley through the Southern Coastal Plain of Sao Paulo are representative of natural background levels, showing low or minimal human intervention. In the set of samples collected along Ribeira do Iguape River, Cananeia and Iguape outlets, the higher concentrations of Ra were observed in bottom waters, indicating the diffusion of {sup 228}Ra from sediments recently deposited as a potential source of the increased concentrations of this isotope when compared with others. The activity concentrations of the short-lived Ra isotopes were negligible, lower than the limit of the detection. Fluxes of Ra for Cananeia outlet are strongly influenced by tidal oscillations, which modulate the increase and decrease of Ra concentrations in response of the respective increase and decrease of waters salinity. In Iguape outlet and in hydrochemical stations performed along Ribeira do Iguape River it was observed a linear relationship between the amount of suspended matter and the increase of {sup 228}Ra activity concentration. When we evaluate

  15. Assessment of natural radioactivity levels in waters from the higher Ribeira Valley to the southern Sao Paulo state coastal plain; Levantamento dos niveis de radioatividade natural em aguas do alto Vale da Ribeira a planicie costeira do litoral sul do estado de Sao Paulo

    Jesus, Sueli Carvalho de


    freshwater/saltwater mixing). Thus, the Ra isotopes provide fundamental information on the interaction of sediments, groundwater and estuarine waters. In this project, the distribution of natural Ra isotopes was studied in ix surface, groundwater and estuarine water samples collected from dry and wet seasons (2009 - 2010) campaigns performed in Ribeira Valley, Southern Sao Paulo State. The inventory allowed the application of Ra isotopes as tracers of fluvial and groundwater discharges to the Cananeia-Iguape estuarine complex. The exchange of groundwater/surface water in Ribeira do Iguape River basin and related fluxes of several constituents for the Cananeia-Iguape estuarine complex mass balance is still not very well known. The results obtained in this research work evidenced that there is a prevalence of {sup 228}Ra isotope in all the set of samples analyzed. However, the activity concentrations of Ra isotopes determined from Higher Ribeira Valley through the Southern Coastal Plain of Sao Paulo are representative of natural background levels, showing low or minimal human intervention. In the set of samples collected along Ribeira do Iguape River, Cananeia and Iguape outlets, the higher concentrations of Ra were observed in bottom waters, indicating the diffusion of {sup 228}Ra from sediments recently deposited as a potential source of the increased concentrations of this isotope when compared with others. The activity concentrations of the short-lived Ra isotopes were negligible, lower than the limit of the detection. Fluxes of Ra for Cananeia outlet are strongly influenced by tidal oscillations, which modulate the increase and decrease of Ra concentrations in response of the respective increase and decrease of waters salinity. In Iguape outlet and in hydrochemical stations performed along Ribeira do Iguape River it was observed a linear relationship between the amount of suspended matter and the increase of {sup 228}Ra activity concentration. When we evaluate

  16. Avaliação da contaminação do Igarapé do Sabino (Bacia do Rio Tibiri por metais pesados, originados dos resíduos e efluentes do Aterro da Ribeira, em São Luís, Maranhão Evaluation of contamination on Sabino streamlet (Basin Rio Tibiri by heavy metals originated from waste and effluents of the Ribeira landfill, in São Luis island, state of Maranhão, Brazil

    Antonio Eduardo Lopes Campos


    Full Text Available This work aimed to carry out an environmental monitoring in sabino narrow river (affluent of Tibiri Basin, in São Luís - MA, Brazil, in order to verify the main environmental impacts caused by effluent residues from Ribeira landfill. Chemical analysis and bibliographic and cartographic researches on this ecosystem were also carried out. In addition, heavy metals, such as Hg, Pb and Zn, were investigated in water samples by ICP-MS technique. It was observed that the contents of such heavy metals were above the tolerance limits established by the Brazilian legislation, showing a strong impact level on the evaluated ecosystem.

  17. Provenance of the Neoproterozoic high-grade metasedimentary rocks of the arc-related Oriental Terrane of the Ribeira belt: Implications for Gondwana amalgamation

    Lobato, Marcela; Heilbron, Monica; Torós, Bernardo; Ragatky, Diana; Dantas, Elton


    The Costeiro domain integrates the Oriental terrane of the Ribeira belt, which encompasses arc-related orthogneisses of the Rio Negro complex (ca.790-605 Ma), with a well-documented subduction signature, and the high-grade metasedimentary rocks of the São Fidélis group. The arc-related rocks intruded the lower unit of the São Fidélis group, while both units are crosscut by syn-to late collision granitoids related to the development of different stages of the Brasiliano Orogeny (ca. 605-480 Ma). New U-Pb (LA-ICP-MS) data of detrital zircon grains from quartzites of the top unit of the São Fidélis group yielded a large spectrum of Mesoproterozoic and Paleoproterozoic ages, with subordinated Archean and Neoproterozoic ones. The largest age peaks occur at ca. 1.2 Ga and 2.2 Ga. The youngest detrital zircon of ca. 613 Ma, and metamorphic overprints, with ages varying from ca. 602 to 570 Ma bracket the age of sedimentation of the top unit. Two orthogneisses of the Rio Negro complex intruded within the basal unit of the São Fidélis Group rendered similar ages of ca.620 Ma. These orthogneisses and the basal unit of the São Fidélis group are interpreted as possible sources of the upper unit. The provenance pattern of the São Fidélis Group is similar to that of the Kaoko Belt, suggesting that the Angolan basement, where Mesoproterozoic ages are common, constitutes another important source area.

  18. Petrography and Geochemistry of the Aimorés Charnockitic Complex: An Example of Post-orogenic Plutonism of the Araçuaí/Ribeira Belt

    Fernando Machado de Mello


    Full Text Available The Aimorés Complex is an inversely zoned multistage ring-like structure which crops out over about 150 km2 and wasintruded approximately 500 Ma years ago, during the post-collision event related to Araçuai-Ribeira Fold Belt. This complexconsists of a monzodioritic core with hypersthene, and a charnockitic intermediary ring encircled by granodiorites. Thecontact between core and rim is marked by a mingled/mixed zone, where small occurrences of garnet-granite were also found.Abundant enclaves of different shapes and sizes occur showing circular, diffuse and sharp contacts with the groundmass. Thecontact with the country rocks is sharp and sub-vertical, varying from concordant to discordant and presenting dips toward theintrusion. The enclosing rocks are orthogneiss, which have experienced high-amphibolite to granulite-facies metamorphism.Most of the facies of the complex are metaluminous, except for the large enclaves embedded in the inner portion, which areperaluminous. The aluminium saturation index is approximately 1 and the agpaitic index ((Na+K/Al ranges from 0.45 to0.77. The negative correlation of CaO, MgO, Fe2O3, TiO2 e P2O5 in the Harker diagram can be explained by pyroxene andfeldspar fractionation. The MgO/TiO2 ratio close to 1 and the tectonic discrimination diagrams are compatible with postcollisionalgranitoids, as well as the sum of Zr, Nb, Ce and Y (500 - 1.000 ppm. The Ba/Sr, Sr/Rb, Ba/Rb and Zn/MgO ratiosindicate that there was initially fractionation by pyroxene and plagioclase, followed later by fractionation by amphibole, biotiteand K-feldspar. Geochemical data probably reflects the combination of crystal fractionation and/or crustal contamination andmagma mingling/mixing processes.

  19. Structural evolution and U-Pb SHRIMP zircon ages of the Neoproterozoic Maria da Fé shear zone, central Ribeira Belt - SE Brazil

    Zuquim, M. P. S.; Trouw, R. A. J.; Trouw, C. C.; Tohver, E.


    The Maria da Fé Shear Zone (MFSZ) is a sinistral strike-slip kilometric-scale structure developed in the late Neoproterozoic during the assembly of Gondwana. The MFSZ development is related to the NW-SE collision between the São Francisco Paleocontinent and the Rio Negro Magmatic Arc, which formed the Ribeira Belt. This paper describes the shear zone in detail, concluding that the orientation and age are consistent with NW-SE shortening during the afore mentioned collision. A U-Pb SHRIMP Concordia age of 586.9 ± 8.7 Ma is reported from zircon grains of a granitic dyke that crystallised synkinematically to the main tectonic activity of the shear zone. Another group of zircon grains from the same sample generated an upper intercept age of 2083 ± 43 Ma anchored in the younger Concordia age. These zircon grains are interpreted as relict grains of the basement from which the granite dyke was generated by partial melting. The temperature during mylonitization in the MFSZ was estimated in the range from 450 to 600 °C, based on microstructures in quartz and feldspar. An earlier collision in the same region, between 640 and 610 Ma, led to an extensive nappe-stack with tectonic transport to ENE, integrating the southern Brasilia Belt. One of the thrust zones between these nappes in the studied area is the Cristina Shear Zone with mylonites that were generated under upper amphibolite to granulite facies conditions. Brittle-ductile E-W metric-scale shear zones are superimposed on the MFSZ, which were active in similar, but probably slightly cooler, metamorphic conditions (≈500 °C).

  20. Cambro-Ordovician post-collisional granites of the Ribeira belt, SE-Brazil: A case of terminal magmatism of a hot orogen

    Valeriano, Claudio de Morisson; Mendes, Julio Cezar; Tupinambá, Miguel; Bongiolo, Everton; Heilbron, Monica; Junho, Maria do Carmo Bustamante


    This work presents an overview of the geology and chemical composition of the Cambrian-Ordovician post-collisional (COPC) granites and associated rocks of Ribeira belt, SE-Brazil. These COPC granites make up some of the most picturesque and highest (>2000 m) rocky peaks and cliffs of Rio de Janeiro state, an accessible case of post-orogenic granitic magmatism associated with the terminal stages of a hot Ediacaran-Cambrian (Brasiliano-Panafrican) orogen. The COPC magmatism intruded tonalitic to granitic orthogneisses of the Rio Negro arc (∼790-600 Ma) and associated paragneisses of the São Fidelis Group. Post-collisional magmatism started ∼10 m.y. after the latest collisional event, the Buzios Orogeny, lasting discontinuously from ∼510 Ma until ∼470 Ma. The 15 largest intrusive bodies in Rio de Janeiro State are referred to in the literature as the Parati/Mangaratiba, Vila Dois Rios, Pedra Branca, Suruí, Silva Jardim, Favela, Andorinha, Teresópolis, Frade, Nova Friburgo, Conselheiro Paulino, São José do Ribeirão, Sana and Itaoca granites. They crop out as rounded/elliptical stocks or gently-dipping sheets, always with sharp contacts with the country rocks, along with pegmatite and aplitic veins and dykes. COPC granites are grey and pink undeformed medium-grained biotite monzogranites with (K-feldspar) porphyritic, mega-crystic, equigranular and serial textures. Magmatic flow foliation is frequently observed. Peripheric xenolith zones are common as well as isolated xenoliths from the country rocks. In a compilation of more than 100 chemical compositions, SiO2 contents display a major mode at 71wt%. The COPC magmatism generated high-K calc-alkaline granites and quartz monzonites with predominantly metaluminous granites. Meso to melanocratic gabbroic and dioritic enclaves also have calc-alkaline affinity and likely represent more resistant mafic xenoliths from the Rio Negro Arc.

  1. Evidence of a Neoproterozoic active continental margin - Geochemistry and isotope geology of high-grade paragneiss from the Ribeira Orogen, SE Brazil

    Capistrano, G. G.; Schmitt, R. S.; Medeiros, S. R.; Fernandes, G. L. F.


    Ediacaran paragneisses from the Palmital Unit are located in a key region, between two major tectonic domains of the Ribeira Orogen (in Rio de Janeiro, SE Brazil): the Cabo Frio Tectonic Domain and the Oriental Terrane. We present here petrographic, geochemical and isotopic data in order to partially unravel the origin and tectonic nature of the protoliths from these metamorphic rocks. Litharenites interpreted as immature sediments, mostly derived from the erosion of felsic rocks (granites/rhyolites and diorites/andesites) are here described. Multi-elements patterns and trace elements ratios reinforce an upper continental crust nature for the composition of the protoliths. These were probably located close to the source area and accommodated in semi-arid climate and high topography conditions. Tectonic discrimination diagrams indicate that the Palmital basin developed in an active continental margin, corroborated by the zircon detrital spectra. The main population of detrital zircon (ca. 750-550 Ma) is partially coeval with the age of the Rio Negro continental magmatic arc, resident in the Oriental Terrane. The Palmital basin could represent a forearc environment with no oceanic crust material, but only a continuous sedimentation of turbidites derived from the arc, with gradational bedding signifying a subaqueous environment, without outside tectonic disturbances. On the other hand, TDM ages of 1.6-1.8 Ga suggest that these sediments are not juvenile, indicating also a contribution from an ancient crust. This recycled continental crust could come either from the basement of the Oriental Terrane (which was not identified yet) or from the basement of the Cabo Frio Tectonic Domain. In the last assumption the Palmital deposition would be concomitant with the initiation of continental collision and the subduction of the passive margin of the Cabo Frio Tectonic Domain towards west. This unit was subsequently metamorphosed/deformed during the ca. 540 Ma collision between

  2. A casa e a roça: socioeconomia, demografia e agricultura em populações quilombolas do Vale do Ribeira, São Paulo, Brasil

    Nelson Novaes Pedroso Júnior

    Full Text Available Este estudo tem como objetivos caracterizar o perfil demográfico e socioeconômico de nove comunidades remanescentes de quilombos no vale do Ribeira, estado de São Paulo, e identificar os principais fatores responsáveis pelas mudanças recentes nos seus padrões de subsistência. Desde a formação das primeiras aglomerações de escravos libertos e foragidos no século XVIII, as relações estabelecidas entre estas populações com as cidades próximas e com o mercado regional têm vivenciado momentos de retração e de expansão, adaptando-se e ajustando-se a novas mudanças políticas e socioeconômicas. Nas últimas cinco décadas, o impacto de fatores externos na aceleração das mudanças nos padrões de subsistência locais parece ter tido um aumento significativo. Os resultados mostram que as restrições impostas pela legislação ambiental, os conflitos de terra, a construção de uma rodovia na região, a crescente inserção no mercado regional e a atuação de órgãos governamentais e não-governamentais de desenvolvimento são os principais fatores responsáveis pelas mudanças observadas no sistema agrícola de corte e queima e, conseqüentemente, na organização socioeconômica destas populações.

  3. Spatial distribution of arboviral mosquito vectors (Diptera, Culicidae in Vale do Ribeira in the South-eastern Brazilian Atlantic Forest Distribuição espacial de mosquitos (Diptera, Culicidae vetores de arbovírus no Vale do Ribeira, sudeste da Mata Atlântica, Brasil

    Gabriel Zorello Laporta


    Full Text Available Mosquitoes are vectors of arboviruses that can cause encephalitis and hemorrhagic fevers in humans. Aedes serratus (Theobald, Aedes scapularis (Rondani and Psorophora ferox (Von Humboldt are potential vectors of arboviruses and are abundant in Vale do Ribeira, located in the Atlantic Forest in the southeast of the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The objective of this study was to predict the spatial distribution of these mosquitoes and estimate the risk of human exposure to mosquito bites. Results of the analyses show that humans are highly exposed to bites in the municipalities of Cananéia, Iguape and Ilha Comprida. In these localities the incidence of Rocio encephalitis was 2% in the 1970s. Furthermore, Ae. serratus, a recently implicated vector of yellow fever virus in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, should be a target for the entomological surveillance in the southeastern Atlantic Forest. Considering the continental dimensions of Brazil and the inherent difficulties in sampling its vast area, the habitat suitability method used in the study can be an important tool for predicting the distribution of vectors of pathogens.Mosquitos são vetores de arbovírus que podem causar encefalites e febres hemorrágicas em humanos. Aedes serratus (Theobald, Aedes scapularis (Rondani, e Psorophora ferox (Von Humboldt são vetores potenciais de arbovírus e são abundantes no Vale do Ribeira, Mata Atlântica, sudeste do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. O objetivo desse estudo foi inferir a distribuição espacial desses mosquitos e estimar o risco da exposição humana às picadas de mosquitos. Os resultados das análises indicaram que os humanos estão altamente expostos às picadas nos municípios de Cananéia, Iguape e Ilha Comprida. Nessas localidades a incidência de encefalite Rocio foi 2% na década de 1970. Adicionalmente, Ae. serratus, que foi recentemente implicado vetor do vírus da febre amarela no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, deveria ser alvo da

  4. Dimensões humanas da biodiversidade: mudanças sociais e conflitos em torno de áreas protegidas no Vale do Ribeira, SP, Brasil Human dimensions of biodiversity: social changes and conflicts in protected áreas in Ribeira Valley, SP, Brazil

    Lúcia da Costa Ferreira


    Full Text Available O objetivo do artigo é discutir os marcos teóricos que sustentam a ação político-institucional da conservação da biodiversidade no Brasil. São discutidos os paradigmas de ilhas de biodiversidade circundadas por paisagens alteradas pela ação humana predatória; o paradigma bioregional, que prevê a criação e manutenção de redes de áreas protegidas integradas ao contexto regional e as mudanças de foco em direção às dinâmicas sociais no interior e no entorno das áreas consideradas prioritárias para conservação. A hipótese central prevê que o resultado da ação humana nas áreas protegidas se deve muito mais aos conflitos sociais em torno dessas áreas do que à agregação de populações tradicionais em torno do manejo sustentável dos recursos naturais. Serão analisados alguns resultados das pesquisas Floresta e mar: usos e conflitos no Vale do Ribeira, SP (Fapesp no. 99/14514-1 e Mudanças sociais e conflitos em áreas protegias na Amazônia e Mata Atlântica (Fapesp no. 01/07992-1.This article aims to discuss the theoretical frames that supports biodiversity conservation policy in Brazil: the paradigm of biodiversity isles surrounded by areas altered by predatory human action and the paradigm of regional biodiversity, which foresees the creation and maintenance of a network of protected areas integrated to their regional context and different perspectives of social dynamics within and in the surrounds of the areas taken as priorities for conservation. The main hypothesis is that the outcome of human activity in protected areas is mostly due to the social conflicts about these areas than to the aggregation of traditional populations into the process of natural resources sustainable management. The article will also analyze some results of previous research projects: Forest and sea: utilization and conflicts in the Ribeira Valley, SP (Fapesp n. 99/14514-1 and Social conflicts and changes in the Amazon and Atlantic

  5. Sr and Nd isotopic signature of the high-K calc-alkaline magmatism of the central Ribeira belt: the Sao Pedro Granite in Lumiar, RJ; Assinatura isotopica de Sr e Nd do magmatismo calcio-alcalino de alto-K na Faixa Ribeira central: o exemplo do Granito Sao Pedro em Lumiar, RJ

    Mendes, Julio Cezar; Medeiros, Silvia Regina de; Chaves, Eduardo Amorim, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Departamento de Geologia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (RJ) (Brazil)


    In the central-northern Ribeira belt there are many granitic to granodioritic bodies showing varied shape and size, characterizing a late- to post-collisional Ca-alkaline, cordilleran I-type province. The Sao Pedro Granite occurs in the mountain region of Rio de Janeiro State as small post-collisional bodies. It presents isotropic fabric, equigranular to seriate inequigranular texture, as well as local concentration of allanite, which gives discrete composition and texture variation to the rock. The granite has a high-K calcalkaline to alkali-calcic character and weakly peraluminous nature. Despite its short geochemical variation, high Ba, Zr and Th contents besides low concentrations of MgO and CaO are noticeable. High REE contents are associated with fractionated REE patterns showing strong negative Eu anomalies. A crustal origin for the granite can be assumed by its very negative and positive .Nd and .Sr values, respectively, as well as by 87Sr/86Sr initial ratios ranging from 0,718 to 0,740. TDM ages point to paleoproterozoic source, which agrees with geological time of intensive crust generation. (author)

  6. Avaliação agronômica de genótipos de bananeiras em condições subtropicais, Vale do Ribeira, São Paulo - Brasil Agronomic evaluation of banana plants genotypes in subtropical conditions, Vale do Ribeira, São Paulo - Brazil

    Edson Shigueaki Nomura


    Full Text Available Existe grande número de cultivares de bananeira no Brasil, porém quando se consideram aspectos como preferência dos consumidores, produtividade, tolerância às pragas e doenças, porte adequado e resistência à seca e ao frio, restam poucas com potencial agronômico para serem usadas comercialmente. Objetivando avaliar o desenvolvimento vegetativo de genótipos de bananeiras nas condições edafoclimáticas do Vale do Ribeira (Brasil, foram testados os seguintes materiais, separados em dois grupos genômicos: AAAA (Bucaneiro, FHIA 02 e FHIA 17; e AAAB, sendo este subdividido de acordo com a genitora utilizada no melhoramento: Prata (BRS Garantida, FHIA 18, BRS FHIA Maravilha, BRS Platina e PA94-01; Pacovan (BRS Japira, BRS Pacovan Ken, PV79-34, PV94-01 e BRS Vitória; e Yangambi n.2 (BRS Tropical, BRS Princesa e YB42-03. As cultivares Grande Naine (AAA, Pacovan (AAB, Prata-anã (AAB e Yangambi ou Caipira (AAA apresentam desenvolvimento e produção semelhantes aos genótipos avaliados, portanto foram utilizadas como padrão comparativo. Durante dois ciclos, foram avaliadas as seguintes características de desenvolvimento: altura, diâmetro do pseudocaule, número de folhas ativas (florescimento e colheita, intervalo entre plantio e florescimento, e entre plantio e colheita (dias. Calcularam-se os intervalos de confiança (média ± erro-padrão nos diferentes grupos e tipos de banana. Diante dos resultados obtidos conclui-se que os genótipos do grupo AAAB e genitora 'Pacovan' não são adequados para o cultivo na região devido ao porte alto das plantas, e os genótipos de bananeiras que possuem potencial de cultivo na região do Vale do Ribeira são: grupo AAAA (FHIA 02 e FHIA 17; grupo AAAB: genitora 'Prata' (FHIA 18, BRS Garantida e PA94-01 e genitora 'Yangambi n.2' (BRS Tropical, BRS Princesa e Yangambi.There is a large number of banana cultivars in Brazil, but considering consumer preference, productivity, tolerance to pests and

  7. Presença ausente e ausência presente do Estado na produção do espaço para o turismo no Vale do Ribeira paulista Présence absente et absence présente de l’État dans la production de l’espace touristique dans la vallée du Ribeira, São Paulo

    Carolina Todesco


    Full Text Available A região do Vale do Ribeira, situada no sul do Estado de São Paulo, detém 20% dos remanescentes florestais de Mata Atlântica do Brasil e apresenta os menores índices de desenvolvimento humano do estado de maior densidade técnico-científico-informacional e de capital do país. A atual configuração socioespacial dessa região é produto de um processo histórico marcado pela ação e inação do Estado, o qual desempenha seu papel na produção do espaço de forma diferenciada conforme o movimento da história. Ao analisar as políticas públicas de desenvolvimento regional direcionadas ao Vale, dos anos 60 até o início dos anos 80, nota-se a forma centralizada e ineficiente da ação do Estado, sem o envolvimento da sociedade civil no processo de produção de suas políticas, período que denominamos de “presença ausente do Estado no Vale do Ribeira”. A partir da década de 80, um conjunto de fatores leva a região a se deparar com novos problemas e desafios. A redemocratização política, o avanço do neoliberalismo, a crescente preocupação com as chamadas questões ambientais, o aumento do número de organizações do terceiro setor e a descentralização da produção de políticas públicas desencadeiam uma nova forma de o Estado desempenhar seu papel na produção do espaço. Neste contexto, é nítida a mudança de foco das ações estatais direcionadas ao Vale do Ribeira, influenciada, sobretudo, pelas ONGs ambientalistas, que passam a atuar ativamente na arena política. A partir de então, inicia-se o discurso, pronunciado pelos órgãos públicos e ONGs, de que o ecoturismo é uma alternativa para o Vale, capaz de conciliar conservação ambiental e desenvolvimento social. Entretanto, o Estado passa a delegar às organizações do terceiro setor a incumbência de planejar o desenvolvimento regional do Vale do Ribeira, tornando-se o ente financiador dos projetos. Esta nova face do Estado faz com que o

  8. Aspectos da epidemia de encefalite por arbovirus na região do Vale do Ribeira, S. Paulo, Brasil, no período de 1975 a 1978 Aspects of the encephalitis epidemic caused by arbovirus in the Ribeira Valley, S. Paulo, Brazil, during 1975-1978

    Lygia Busch Iversson


    Full Text Available Foi realizado estudo epidemiológico da encefalite por arbovirus na região do Vale do Ribeira, S. Paulo, Brasil. Uma epidemia da moléstia ocorreu em 1975, 1976 e 1977, com picos nas épocas de maior temperatura e pluviosidade. A partir de 1978 a moléstia manteve-se em níveis baixos numa presumível ende-micidade. A epidemia se deslocou em onda em direção leste-oeste e leste-sudoeste para a região litorânea vizinha. A cadeia montanhosa situada ao norte e noroeste atuou como barreira à propagação da moléstia. Considerou-se a hipótese que o agente etiológico, arbovirus Rocio, deva ter começado a infectar a população humana recentemente, tendo sido veiculado ao homem de reservatórios silvestres, aves e pequenos mamíferos, por culicídeos silvestres. Discutiu-se também prováveis formas de transmissão domiciliar. Verificou-se que os grupos populacionais que apresentaram as formas mais graves foram os de idades extremas e os que apresentavam piores condições de vida. Considerou-se que a perspectiva epidemiológica desta arbovirose é que ela persista na região, uma vez que a mesma apresenta condições ótimas para o desenvolvimento do agente etiológico, dos reservatórios e dos vetores biológicos, além de receber um contínuo afluxo de população suscetível, migrantes ou turistas.In 1975, 1976, and 1977, arbovirus caused an encephalitis epidemic in the Ribeira Valley in the state of S. Paulo. The epidemic would peak when the temperature and pluvial levels were higher. From 1978 on the disease maintained low levels within a presumed endemic zone. The epidemic had swept from east to west and from east to southwest in a wave toward the neighboring coastal region. The mountain chain to the north and northwest acted as a barrier. It was only logical natural that the hypothesis that the etiological agent, arbovirus Rocio may have recently infected the human population be considered. Mosquitos must have transmitted the infection

  9. Comportamento de variáveis físicas, químicas e da eficiência de sistemas de lagoas de estabilização em ambiente tropical (Vale do Ribeira de Iguape, SP)

    Ana Flávia da Silva Hoeppner


    As lagoas de estabilização compõem sistemas de tratamento de águas residuárias sujeitos à variação de eficiência decorrente, dentre outros fatores, das variações climáticas. A variação de eficiência e da estratificação em lagoas de estabilização, localizadas em ambiente subtropical, em diferentes épocas do ano, foi o principal objetivo dessa pesquisa. Para essa finalidade, a eficiência de dois sistemas de lagoas de estabilização localizadas no Vale do Ribeira de Iguape (SP) - nas cidades de J...

  10. Geologic evolution of the Paraiba do Sul complex, in the central part of the Ribeira belt, based on the geochemistry and U-Pb geochronology studies; Evolucao geologica do complexo Paraiba do Sul, no segmento central da faixa Ribeira, com base em estudos de geoquimica e geocronologia U-Pb

    Valladares, Claudia Sayao


    Aiming the definition of the Complexo Paraiba do Sul evolution, the work presents a geochronological approach by the U-Pb method, considered appropriate to study polideformed terrains. The minerals used to the U-Pb dating (zircon, titanite and monazite) provides information about the ages of rock generation and the successive geological events the rocks were submitted. The U-Pb geochronological approach is pioneer in the investigated area and two questions referent to the Complexo Paraiba do Sul evolution in the central part of the Ribeira belt, were the aim of this approach. The first of them refers to the crystallization epoch and the gneisses metamorphism, interpreted here like orthogneisses, called Unidade Quirino of the Complexo Paraiba do Sul. The second refers to the metamorphism ages and meta sedimentary unit deformation. Looking for the contribution to the Complexo Paraiba do Sul evolution understanding, this work presents the data based on the geologic map of this area, comprising part of the Folha Volta Redonda (1:50.000), including petrographic, structural and microtectonic studies. It also presents and discusses the results of: 17 U-Pb analysis in zircon and titanite of the Complexo Paraiba do Sul orthogneisses collection; 24 geochemical analysis of major, minor, trace elements and ETR of the same collection; an U-Pb analysis in titanite of the Unidade Sao Joao, 5 U-Pb analysis in titanites and/or monazites of granites and granitoids; 12 geochemical analysis including major, minor and trace elements and ETR, in granites and sills of leucogranites. Finally, the data achieved were integrated with the objective to elaborate an evolutive view of the Complexo Paraiba do Sul 157 refs., 54 figs., 17 tabs.

  11. O contato com a natureza: efeitos de viagens ao campo sobre os conhecimentos intenções e atitudes pró-ambientais

    Zysman Neiman; César Ades


    The effects of direct contact with nature on pro-environmental attitudes, values and knowledge were assessed by taking college students on field trips at Parque Estadual Turístico do Alto Ribeira (PETAR), and applying a system of directed activities developed throughout 16 years. The changes in knowledge, values and attitudes were evaluated in these students (experimental groups) and other students who were not exposed to the field trips (control groups) through questionnaires which were appl...

  12. Geochemical and isotope aspects of calcite deposits and calcitic marbles hosts mineralizations, Serra do Carumbe, Vale do Ribeira, Parana state, Brazil; Aspectos geoquimicos e isotopicos das mineralizacoes de calcita e marmores calciticos encaixantes, Serra do Carumbe, Vale do Ribeira, estado do Parana

    Venusso, Gerson Caetano; Andrade e Silva, Antonio C. Gondim de, E-mail:, E-mail: [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)


    The calcite deposits and the calcitic marbles hosts occur in Serra do Carumbe, in the Vale do Ribeira region, Parana State, were studied in their geochemical and isotopic aspects viewing the gathering of information about their genesis and economical use. The calcite deposits are constituted by veins and lenses, being three of them concordant and one discordant in relation to the S{sub 0} from the hosting marbles. In these deposits four main types of calcite were recognized: rombohedrical, fibrous, banded and microcrystalline. The calcite reveal themselves having high purity, with CaO concentration above 55.30% and MgO below 0.42%. The lithogeochemical study of the marbles sequence was conducted in various suites revealing an uniformity in their composition, with high values of CaO (above 46.92%) in relation to the MgO values (below 3,37%), what favors their use for cement manufacture, except in sectors that suffered fault influences, where the marbles are impure (siliceous, magnesian, ferruginous and aluminous). Regarding their trace elements content, the hosting calcitic marbles have higher concentrations than the calcite, in the elements Sr, B, Ba and Mg, what makes evident their different formation environments. The δ{sup 13}C values from calcite range from –9,02 to –12,24 ‰ , referring to PDB, while the values δ{sup 18}O range from 24,48 to 25,23 ‰, referring to SMOW; meanwhile, for the calcitic marbles, the δ{sup 13}C values range from –4,03 to 1,42‰ and of δ{sup 18}O range from 20,71 to 23,00 ‰. The high δ{sup 18}O values would indicate enrichment referring to the interaction of the calcite's generator fluid with the carbonatic host rock. The δ{sup 13}C values indicate origin from hydrothermal solution for the calcite, although they would not allow to conclude if their sources would be superficial or profound. As for the hosting calcitic marbles, the isotopic values indicate genesis from pre-cambrian marine limestone. (author)

  13. Avaliação agronômica de genótipos de bananeiras em condições subtropicais, Vale do Ribeira, São Paulo - Brasil

    Edson Shigueaki Nomura


    Full Text Available Existe grande número de cultivares de bananeira no Brasil, porém quando se consideram aspectos como preferência dos consumidores, produtividade, tolerância às pragas e doenças, porte adequado e resistência à seca e ao frio, restam poucas com potencial agronômico para serem usadas comercialmente. Objetivando avaliar o desenvolvimento vegetativo de genótipos de bananeiras nas condições edafoclimáticas do Vale do Ribeira (Brasil, foram testados os seguintes materiais, separados em dois grupos genômicos: AAAA (Bucaneiro, FHIA 02 e FHIA 17; e AAAB, sendo este subdividido de acordo com a genitora utilizada no melhoramento: Prata (BRS Garantida, FHIA 18, BRS FHIA Maravilha, BRS Platina e PA94-01; Pacovan (BRS Japira, BRS Pacovan Ken, PV79-34, PV94-01 e BRS Vitória; e Yangambi n.2 (BRS Tropical, BRS Princesa e YB42-03. As cultivares Grande Naine (AAA, Pacovan (AAB, Prata-anã (AAB e Yangambi ou Caipira (AAA apresentam desenvolvimento e produção semelhantes aos genótipos avaliados, portanto foram utilizadas como padrão comparativo. Durante dois ciclos, foram avaliadas as seguintes características de desenvolvimento: altura, diâmetro do pseudocaule, número de folhas ativas (florescimento e colheita, intervalo entre plantio e florescimento, e entre plantio e colheita (dias. Calcularam-se os intervalos de confiança (média ± erro-padrão nos diferentes grupos e tipos de banana. Diante dos resultados obtidos conclui-se que os genótipos do grupo AAAB e genitora 'Pacovan' não são adequados para o cultivo na região devido ao porte alto das plantas, e os genótipos de bananeiras que possuem potencial de cultivo na região do Vale do Ribeira são: grupo AAAA (FHIA 02 e FHIA 17; grupo AAAB: genitora 'Prata' (FHIA 18, BRS Garantida e PA94-01 e genitora 'Yangambi n.2' (BRS Tropical, BRS Princesa e Yangambi.

  14. Estudos sorológicos para pesquisa de anticorpos de arbovírus em população humana da região do Vale do Ribeira: III - inquérito em coabitantes com casos de encefalite por Flavivirus Rocio Serological studies for research of arbovirus antibodies in human population of the Ribeira Valley: III - survey among persons cohabiting with encephalitis cases by Flavivirus Rocio

    Lygia Busch Iversson


    Full Text Available Foi realizado inquérito sorológico para pesquisa de anticorpos de 17 arbovírus existentes no país, em coabitantes com doentes de encefalite por Rocio, residentes em zona urbana da região do Vale do Ribeira, São Paulo (Brasil, onde ocorreu recentemente uma extensa epidemia dessa moléstia. Não se verificou maior prevalência de anticorpos IH para vírus Rocio nessas pessoas quando comparadas com indivíduos que não coabitavam com doentes de encefalite. Foram observados e discutidos alguns aspectos já verificados em outros grupos populacionais estudados anteriormente: maior prevalência de anticorpos IH de arbovírus em homens, particularmente pescadores; aumento dessa prevalência com a idade e presença de pessoa com antecedente de encefalite que apresentou, exclusivamente anticorpos neutralizantes para o Alphavirus EEL, o qual até agora não tem sido responsabilizado por moléstia na região. Encontrou-se baixa proporção de indivíduos com anticorpos para Rocio e Flavivirus em geral, fato este estranhável considerando a recente epidemia.A serological survey for hemagglutination-inhibition antibodies to 17 arbovirus was carried out in households with cases of Rocio encephalitis, in the urban zone of four cities of the Ribeira Valley, Brazil, where an epidemic of Rocio encephalitis occurred recently. Among those households the prevalence of Rocio antibodies was not higher than in households without cases of encephalitis. Some facts, which were reported before, were again observed: a large prevalence of antibodies in men, particulary fishermen, an increase of antibodies with age and the presence of one past case of encephalitis that presented only neutralizing antibodies against EEE. That Alphavirus has never been responsible for human disease in the area. There is also a very small proportion of people with Rocio and Flavivirus antibodies which, in view of the recent epidemic, was surprising.

  15. Estudos sorológicos para pesquisa de anticorpos de arbovírus em população humana da região do Vale do Ribeira: II - inquérito em pacientes do Hospital Regional de Pariquera-Açú, 1980 A serological study for research of arbovirus antibodies in human population of the Ribeira Valley Region: II - a survey of patients in the Pariquera-Açú Regional Hospital, 1980

    Lygia Busch Iversson


    Full Text Available Foi realizado inquérito sorológico para pesquisa de anticorpos inibidores de hemaglutinaçãc de arbovírus em 516 moradores das zonas urbana e rural da região do Vale do Ribeira, Brasil, área extensamente coberta de florestas onde ocorreu recentemente uma epidemia de encefalite atribuída ao Flavivirus Rocio. Verificou-se que 24,2% destas pessoas tinham anticorpos IH para um ou mais arbovírus (11,2% para Alphavirus; 13,2% para Flavivirus; 4,6% para o Bunyavirus Caraparu e 0,8% para outros arbovírus. Alguns dos investigados, sem antecedente de vacinação contra febre amarela, apresentaram anticorpos neutralizantes para o vírus da encefalite equina do Leste, St. Louis e da febre amarela, os dois últimos ainda não isolados na região. A análise das características dos indivíduos com sorologia positiva sugeria que a transmissão de arboviroses não era fato recente e estava se fazendo em pelo menos 9 municípios da área, não só no ambiente silvestre como fora do mesmo. Os indivíduos de sexo masculino e entre estes os que trabalham em pesca, em geral no período vespertino e noturno, apresentaram maior risco à infecções arbovíricas.A serological survey for hemagglutination - inhibition antibodies to arbovirus was carried out on 516 residents of the rural and urban zones of the Ribeira Valley, Brazil, a largely forested area where there recently occurred an encephalitis epidemic attributed to Flavivirus Rocio. It was discovered that 24.2% of the sample population presented HI antibodies (11.2% against Alphavirus, 13.2% against Flavivirus, 4.6% against the Caraparu virus and 0.8% against other arboviruses. Neutralizing antibodies for Eastern equine encephalitis, St. Louis encephalitis and yellow fever virus were detected in some of the people, not vaccinated against yellow fever, who have always lived in the region. These last two viruses have never before been isolated in the area. The characteristics of people who presented

  16. Sergej Dovlatov: Kofer /S ruskog preveo Petar Karavlah

    Petar Karavlah


    Full Text Available Kuja iz Ureda za vize rekla je: „Svaki emigrant ima pravo na tri kofera. Takva je norma. To su posebni propisi ministarstva.“Nije imalo smisla proturječiti. Ali ipak sam morao: „Samo tri kofera?! Što bih trebao sa stvarima?“„Na primjer?“„Na primjer, sa svojom zbirkom trkaćih auta?“„Prodajte je“, odsutno odgovori službenica. Zatim doda, lagano se namrštivši: „Ako nečim niste zadovoljni, podnesite žalbu.“„Zadovoljan sam.“Nakon zatvora bio sam svime zadovoljan.„Pa onda se i ponašajte tako.“Za tjedan dana već sam pakirao stvari. Ispostavilo se da mi je bio dovoljan jedan jedini kofer. Gotovo sam zaplakao od muke. Pa imao sam trideset i šest godina. Od toga sam osamnaest godina radio. Zaradio bih pa kupio nešto. Mislio sam da imam nekakvu imovinu. A na kraju – jedan kofer. I to prilično skromnih dimenzija. Ispada da sam siromah? Kako je do toga došlo?Knjige? Imao sam uglavnom zabranjene knjige. One nisu prolazile kroz carinu. Morao sam ih podijeliti poznanicima zajedno s takozvanim arhivom.

  17. The question of food security in the localities of Ribeirão and Garça de Cima, in the municipality of Ribeira Grande, Santo Antão - Cape Verde

    Manuel Francisco Monteiro


    Full Text Available Cape Verde, an island country with few natural resources and with adverse soil and weather conditions, imports most of the foodstuffs that need. Local production, although scarce, is relevant to food security. This article reflects a case study in the municipality of Ribeira Grande, island of Santo Antão -Cape Verde, whose aim was to study the role of three production systems in the generation of income, food security and improving the quality of life of families. These systems are: vegetable production, rainfed production and sugar cane production. A total of 105 surveys were carried out in the localities of Ribeirão and Garça de Cima, equally distributed among different agricultural producers. It was found that the sugar cane producers have an average annual income superior to horticulture and rainfed farmers, 402,154, 337,602 and 259,764 CVE respectively (1 euro = 110.265 Cape Verdean escudos – CVE. With respect to food intake, the differences are not significant. Horticulture farmers have a calorie intake of 2959.71, rainfed producers 2926.65 and sugar cane producers 2888.86 kcal/EM/day. With regard to indicators of quality of life, the families of horticulture farmers and sugar cane producers present similar results, superior to the rainfed producers’ families.

  18. Evidence of mingling between contrasting magmas in a deep plutonic environment: the example of Várzea Alegre, in the Ribeira Mobile Belt, Espírito Santo, Brazil



    Full Text Available At the end of the geotectonic cycle that shaped the northern segment of the Ribeira Mobile Belt (Upper Proterozoic to Paleozoic age, a late to post-collisional set of plutonic complexes, consisting of a wide range of lithotypes, intruded all metamorphic units. The Várzea Alegre Intrusive Complex is a post-collisional complex. The younger intrusion consists of an inversely zoned multistage structure envolved by a large early emplaced ring of megaporphyritic charnoenderbitic rocks. The combination of field, petrographic and geochemical data reveals the presence of at least two different series of igneous rocks. The first originated from the partial melting of the mantle. This was previously enriched in incompatible elements, low and intermediate REE and some HFS-elements. A second enrichment in LREE and incompatible elements in this series was due to the mingling with a crustal granitic magma. This mingling process changed the composition of the original tholeiitic magma towards a medium-K calc-alkalic magma to produce a suite of basic to intermediate rock types. The granitic magma from the second high-K, calc-alkalic suite originated from the partial melting of the continental crust, but with strong influence of mantle-derived melts.No final do ciclo tectônico que originou o segmento norte do Cinturão Móvel Ribeira (de idade Proterozóica Superior a Paleozóica, uma série de complexos plutônicos tardi- a pós-colisionais, consistindo de larga gama de litotipos, intrudiu todas as unidades metamórficas. O Complexo Intrusivo de Várzea Alegre é um desses complexos pós-colisionais. A intrusão mais jovem consiste de uma estrutura de multiplos estágios, envolvida por um largo anel de rochas charnoenderbíiticas megaporfirícas de posicionmento anterior. A combinação de dados de campo, petrográficos e geoquímicos revela a presença de pelo menos duas séries distintas de rochas ígneas. A primeira foi originada por fusão parcial do manto

  19. Estudos sorológicos para pesquisa de anticorpos de arbovírus em população humana da região do Vale do Ribeira: IV - inquérito em escolares residentes no município de Iguape, SP (Brasil A serological study for research into arbovirus antibodies in the human population in the Ribeira Valley: IV - survey among school-children in Iguape County (S. Paulo State, Brazil

    Lygia Busch Iversson


    Full Text Available Relatam-se os resultados de inquérito sorológico para pesquisa de anticorpos de 17 arbovírus em 337 escolares de 6 a 14 anos de idade, residentes em quatro áreas, com diferentes características ecológicas, situadas no município de Iguape, Vale do Ribeira, do Estado de São Paulo (Brasil: 1 - zona urbana da cidade de Iguape; 2 - Rocio, bairro periférico com características rurais; 3 - zona de cultura extensiva de banana, na planície litorânea; 4 - zona de mata primitiva na região pré-serrana. Observou-se, em 8,31% dos investigados, a presença de anticorpos inibidores de hemaglutinação de arbovírus dos grupos antigênicos A, B, C, Bunyamwera, Simbu e Anopheles A. Evidenciou-se diferença significante na proporção dos soros positivos entre escolares residentes nas zonas de bananal e de mata (19,05% e 16,67% e moradores na zona urbana e no bairro do Rocio (1,89% e 3,81%. Crianças sempre residentes na zona urbana de Iguape, sem hábito de freqüência a ambiente silvestre, apresentaram anticorpos neutralizantes para os vírus Caraparu e Rocio, sugerindo transmissão urbana desses agentes. Não há indícios sorológicos de infecções recentes causadas pelo flavivírus Rocio.A serological survey for research on antibodies of 17 arbovirus was carried out among 337 school-children from 6 to 14 years old, living in four ecologically different areas of Iguape County, Ribeira Valley, S. Paulo State, Brazil: 1 - urban zone of Iguape; 2 - Rocio, a peripheric city district of rural characteristics; 3 - zone of extensive banana plantation on the coastal plain; 4 - forested area close to the northern mountain range. It was observed that 8.31% of the children presented HI antibodies to arbovirus of groups A, B, C, Bunyamwera, Simbu or Anopheles A. There was a significant difference between the proportion of positive sera in banana plantation and forest dwellers (19.05% and 16.67% and those from the central urban zone and Rocio district (1

  20. Encefalite na região do Vale do Ribeira, São Paulo, Brasil, no período pós-epidêmico de 1978 a 1983: situação do diagnóstico etiológico e características epidemiológicas Encephalitis in the Ribeira Valley (S. Paulo, Brazil in the post-epidemic period of 1978-1983: a discussion on aspects of etiological diagnosis and epidemiological characteristics

    Lygia Busch Iversson


    Full Text Available Relatam-se os resultados do levantamento de dados referentes ao diagnóstico etiológico, distribuição e letalidade das encefalites na região do Vale do Ribeira, São Paulo, Brasil, no período de 1978 a 1983, após uma epidemia de encefalite por arbovírus. Verificou-se que não foi possível o diagnóstico etiológico em nenhum dos 80 casos conhecidos. Em apenas 9 doentes (11,25% foram coletadas duas amostras pares de soro, não se tendo observado conversão sorológica, Em 29 dos 33 pacientes em que se dispunha de pelo menos uma amostra de soro realizou-se teste de inibição de hemaglutinação para os flavivírus Rocio, Ilhéus e St. Louis, observando-se em 8 a presença de títulos > 20 para esses vírus. Testes para os alphavírus VEE, EEE e Mucambo foram efetuados em quatro dos 33 pacientes, com resultados negativos. A distribuição espacial, etária e por sexo dos casos apresentou padrões semelhantes aos do período epidêmico, ao contrário de letalidade que mostrou um aumento significante, de 9,9% para 25,0%. Os autores enfatizam a urgência no incremento da Vigilância epidemiológica das encefalites por arbovírus na região, sugerindo medidas dirigidas ao diagnóstico etiológico.The results of observations on encephalitis etiology, distribution and case fatality ratio in the Ribeira Valley, S. Paulo, Brazil, in the period ranging from 1978 to 1983, after an arbovirus encephalitis epidemic, are reported. In none of the eighty known cases was it possible to make the arbovirus etiological diagnosis as only 9 patients (11.25% had two sera samples collected and no serological conversion was observed. Hemagglutination-inhibition tests for flavivirus Rocio, Ilheus and St. Louis were performed on the 33 patients who had at least one serum sample. In 8 sera titles >20 were observed. Alphavirus VEE, EEE and Mucambo were tested for in 4 of the 33 patients, with negative results. The distribution of cases according to geography, age and

  1. Timing and sources of granite magmatism in the Ribeira Belt, SE Brazil: Insights from zircon in situ U-Pb dating and Hf isotope geochemistry in granites from the São Roque Domain

    Janasi, Valdecir de Assis; Andrade, Sandra; Vasconcellos, Antonio Carlos B. C.; Henrique-Pinto, Renato; Ulbrich, Horstpeter H. G. J.


    Eight new in situ U-Pb zircon age determinations by SHRIMP and LA-MC-ICPMS reveal that the main granitic magmatism in the São Roque Domain, which is largely dominated by metaluminous high-K calc-alkaline monzogranites with subordinate peraluminous leucogranites, occurred between 604 ± 3 and 590 ± 4 Ma. This small temporal range is ca. 20-30 Ma younger than previously admitted based on U-Pb TIMS dates from literature, some of which obtained in the same occurrences now dated. The observed discrepancy seems related to the presence of small Paleoproterozoic inherited cores in part of the zircon populations used for TIMS multigrain dating, which could also respond for the unusually high (up to 10 Ma) uncertainty associated with most of these dates. The younger age range now identified for the São Roque granite magmatism has important implications for the evolution of the Ribeira Fold Belt. Whilst previously admitted ages ca. 620-630 Ma substantiated correlations with the widespread and intensely foliated high-K calc-alkaline granitoid rocks of the neighbor Socorro-Guaxupé Nappe (potentially associated with an accretionary continental margin), the ˜600-590 Ma interval seems more consistent with a late deformation tectonic setting. Strongly negative ɛHf(t) characterize the magmatic zircons from the São Roque Domain granites. An eastward increase from -22 in the São Roque Granite to -11 in the Cantareira Granite and neighboring stocks suggests an across-domain shift in granite sources. Such eastward younging of sources, also indicated by Sm-Nd isotope data from granites and supracrustal sequences in neighboring domains, is suggestive that some of the first-order limits and discontinuities in this belt are not defined by the strike-slip fault systems traditionally taken to separate distinct domains. Although the negative ɛHf(t) and ɛNd(t) indicate sources with long crustal residence for all studied granite plutons, the observed range is more radiogenic than the

  2. Anisotropia de suscetibilidade magnética dos plútons Ribeirão Branco, Sguário e Capão Bonito e implicações tectônicas para a Faixa Ribeira (Domínio Apiaí, SP)

    Carlos Alejandro Salazar


    A trama de magmas graníticos alojados na crosta intermediária e superior pode-se originar pela ação de forças de corpo (ascensionais, convectivas) e/ou tectônicas. Diferentes mecanismos podem concorrer para a formação de tramas, embora a interação entre a deformação magmática e a tectônica regional seja um dos mecanismos fundamentais, notadamente nos granitos alojados em faixas orogênicas. No Domínio Apiaí da Faixa Ribeira (SP - PR), os batólitos graníticos alongados têm sido historicamente c...

  3. Caracterização Isotópica de Metabasitos e Anfibolitos dos Grupos Açungui e Setuva na Porção Sul da Faixa Ribeira

    Marcos Aurélio Farias de Oliveira


    Full Text Available Análises isotópicas de Pb, Rb, Sr, Sm e Nd foram realizadas em anfibolitos de Campo Largo (PR, Rio Branco do Sul(PR e Adrianópolis (PR e em metabásicas de Adrianópolis e Apiaí (SP, pertencentes aos Grupos Açungui e Setuva,porção sul da Faixa Ribeira. Essas ocorrências foram escolhidas por que já contam com estudos geoquímicos pormenorizados,que apontam para fontes mantélicas com características peculiares para cada uma delas. Os únicos resultados daliteratura referentes à idade desses corpos são do metagabro de Apiaí, com valores neoproterozóicos de 617 ± 4 Ma (U/Pbem zircão, e de 839 ± 85 Ma (Rb/Sr em rocha total. Os dados isotópicos obtidos permitiram calcular idades Sm/Nd porisócrona mineral, usando rocha total, plagioclásio e piroxênio, respectivamente de 820 ± 84 Ma para a metabásica deAdrianópolis e de 885 ± 53 Ma para o metagabro de Apiaí. Esses resultados, que coincidem aproximadamente com a idadedo metagabro de Apiaí, obtida pelo método Rb/Sr, estão sendo tentativamente interpretados como uma estimativa da épocade extração do manto do magma gerador dessas rochas, com base em valor positivo de Nd (t e , obtido em amostra deAdrianópolis. Valores de eNd (0 plotados contra a razão (87Sr/86Sr0 mostram que, os pontos correspondentes aos diversoscorpos estudados, distribuem-se em posições diferentes. A maioria das amostras segue aproximadamente a tendência do“mantle array”, a partir do MORB, em direção ao manto enriquecido e/ou domínio de contaminação crustal, sendo ametabásica de Adrianópolis a mais primitiva e o anfibolito, também de Adrianópolis, o mais enriquecido. Pode-se dizerassim, que as assinaturas isotópicas distintas entre os corpos ora estudados sugerem uma derivação a partir de diferentesfontes mantélicas, como já evidenciado pelos dados geoquímicos. Valores negativos de Nd e e elevados da razão 87Sr/86Sr,para algumas amostras, deixam claro, no entanto, que parte desse

  4. Comparison and validation of shallow landslides susceptibility maps generated by bi-variate and multi-variate linear probabilistic GIS-based techniques. A case study from Ribeira Quente Valley (S. Miguel Island, Azores)

    Marques, R.; Amaral, P.; Zêzere, J. L.; Queiroz, G.; Goulart, C.


    Slope instability research and susceptibility mapping is a fundamental component of hazard assessment and is of extreme importance for risk mitigation, land-use management and emergency planning. Landslide susceptibility zonation has been actively pursued during the last two decades and several methodologies are still being improved. Among all the methods presented in the literature, indirect quantitative probabilistic methods have been extensively used. In this work different linear probabilistic methods, both bi-variate and multi-variate (Informative Value, Fuzzy Logic, Weights of Evidence and Logistic Regression), were used for the computation of the spatial probability of landslide occurrence, using the pixel as mapping unit. The methods used are based on linear relationships between landslides and 9 considered conditioning factors (altimetry, slope angle, exposition, curvature, distance to streams, wetness index, contribution area, lithology and land-use). It was assumed that future landslides will be conditioned by the same factors as past landslides in the study area. The presented work was developed for Ribeira Quente Valley (S. Miguel Island, Azores), a study area of 9,5 km2, mainly composed of volcanic deposits (ash and pumice lapilli) produced by explosive eruptions in Furnas Volcano. This materials associated to the steepness of the slopes (38,9% of the area has slope angles higher than 35°, reaching a maximum of 87,5°), make the area very prone to landslide activity. A total of 1.495 shallow landslides were mapped (at 1:5.000 scale) and included in a GIS database. The total affected area is 401.744 m2 (4,5% of the study area). Most slope movements are translational slides frequently evolving into debris-flows. The landslides are elongated, with maximum length generally equivalent to the slope extent, and their width normally does not exceed 25 m. The failure depth rarely exceeds 1,5 m and the volume is usually smaller than 700 m3. For modelling

  5. Tourmaline and Rutile as Indicators of a Magmatic-hydrothermal Origin for Tourmalinite Layers in the São José do Barreiro Area, NE Ribeira Belt, Southern Brazil

    Gianna Maria Garda


    Full Text Available Tourmalines from tourmaline-rich layers intercalated with schists of the Rio Una Unit of the Embu Complex and fromcoarse-grained tourmalinite layers associated with quartzite from São José do Barreiro and Formoso (Central Ribeira Belt,São Paulo State, Brazil were analyzed for major, trace- and rare-earth elements and boron stable isotopes. Two main phasesof tourmaline formation were identified by mineral chemistry. The tourmalines from the schist-hosted tourmaline layers arecharacterized by relatively low MgO (from 4.7 to 6.5%, Na2O (1.5 to 2.1% and CaO (from 0.2 to 1.1% contents andhigh Al2O3 (from 32 to 35% and FeO (from 6.7 to 9.0% contents, and also by two (REECN patterns, one represented by(La/YbCN from 2.7 to 4.3 and positive Eu anomalies, and the other by (La/YbCN from 0.2 to 0.3 and practically no Euanomaly. The variations in major-element contents reflect the composition of the rock being metamorphosed and in whichtourmaline is crystallizing, whereas the (REECN patterns indicate the evolution of the metamorphic fluid in face of changingmetamorphic conditions. The tourmaline of the tourmalinite layers intercalated in quartzite is characterized by relatively highAl2O3 (from 32.3 to 33.92%, FeO (from 6.54 to 7.3% and Na2O (from 1.8 to 2.1% contents and very low total REE (3.5ppm contents, in particular of HREE. The (REECN pattern for this tourmaline is characterized by a positive Eu anomaly,indicating a high fluid/rock ratio. The δ11B values for this tourmaline fall in the -12.3 and -13.9‰ interval. On the other hand,the tourmaline of a massive tourmalinite also associated with quartzite has the highest MgO (from 7.3 to 9.7%, CaO (from0.8 to 2.5%, F, Th, U, Hf, Zr, Y, Sr and total REE (305 ppm contents and the lowest Al2O3 (from 28.6 to 31.8% and FeO(from 5.4 to 8.3% contents, when compared to the other tourmalines analyzed. Differing from all other (REECN patterns,the one that characterizes this tourmaline is LREE-enriched [(La

  6. Evaluación de los cambios en la línea de la costa en la hoz del río Ribeira de Iguape/desembocadura lagunar de la Barra do Icapara (litoral sur de São Paulo - Brasil usando imágenes Landsat MSS, TM E ETM+

    Fernando Shinji Kawakubo


    Full Text Available Se utilizaron imágenes multitemporales generadas por los sensores MSS, TM e ETM+ para la evaluación de los cambios morfológicos relacionados con la línea de costa en la desembocadura del río Ribeira de Iguape/desembocadura lagunar de la Barra do Icapara, litoral sur del Estado de São Paulo (Brasil. Se crearon imágenes fracción representando las proporciones del suelo, sombra/agua limpia y vegetación para cada conjunto de datos por medio de un modelo linear de mezcla espectral (MLME relacionándolas con las formas erosivas y de deposición. Las imágenes fracción fueron clasificadas usando una técnica de segmentación por crecimiento de regiones y clasificación supervisada por regiones. La comparación de las clasificaciones (1976, 1980, 1993 y 2000 posibilitó evaluar la dinámica de los procesos que actúan en esa región. Los resultados mostraron que los procesos erosivos y de deposición son extremamente dinámicos y las entidades geomórficas son susceptibles a los cambios en un cuarto intervalo de tiempo.

  7. Eesti keele evidentsiaalsussüsteem mõne teise keele taustal. Semantika / Petar Kehayov

    Kehayov, Petar


    Eesti keele evidentsiaalsussüsteem võrrelduna balti, balkani, albaania ja türgi keeltega funktsionaalsest küljest: evidentsiaalsussüsteemide suhetest lähedalseisvate verbikategooriatega ning nende semantilis-pragmaatilistest funktsioonidest


    Heros Augusto Santos Lobo


    Full Text Available Los estudios del espeleoclima son incipientes en cavernas brasileñas, restringido a los estudios centrados en la gestión de las cuevas turísticas y la formación de una base para investigaciones paleoclimaticas. Este estudio refleja el desarrollo de este tipo de investigación, presentando los resultados de la investigación del clima más completa y detallada de una cueva en Brasil hasta su finalización (2011, a fin de definir la dinámica atmosférica de una cueva y las estaciones meteorológicas. La encuesta se llevó a cabo en la cueva Santana, una de las cuevas turísticas más importantes del país. Se han llevado a cabo el seguimiento de los parámetros atmosféricos, con énfasis en la temperatura y la humedad relativa, cuyos datos fueron tratados estadísticamente. Los resultados mostraron que la atmósfera de la cueva Santana se caracteriza por ser una trampa para atrapar el aire caliente (warm trap, que se ha mantenido en las galerías superiores. Por lo tanto, los parámetros pueden ser establecidos para su manejo y conservación, así como el uso de esta información para futuros estudios de huella climática, paleoclimatica y gestión del turismo.

  9. Eesti keele evidentsiaalsussüsteem mõne teise keele taustal. Semantika / Petar Kehayov

    Kehayov, Petar


    Eesti keele evidentsiaalsussüsteem võrrelduna balti, balkani, albaania ja türgi keeltega funktsionaalsest küljest: evidentsiaalsussüsteemide suhetest lähedalseisvate verbikategooriatega ning nende semantilis-pragmaatilistest funktsioonidest

  10. Litoquímica, Geocronologia U-Pb e Geologia Isotópica (Sr-Nd-Pb das Rochas Graníticas dos Batólitos Cunhaporanga e Três Córregos na Porção Sul do Cinturão Ribeira, Estado do Paraná

    Hélcio José dos Prazeres Filho


    Full Text Available Durante a evolução da porção sul do Cinturão Ribeira no Estado do Paraná, o Ciclo Brasiliano-Pan Africano foi responsávelpela geração de um grande volume de rochas graníticas com destaque para os batólitos Cunhaporanga (BCP e TrêsCórregos (BTC. Estudos litoquímicos e isotópicos revelaram a existência de tipos graníticos distintos entre dois batólitos einternamente aos mesmos, definidos por unidades graníticas. A principal diferença entre os dois batólitos está no comportamentodos álcalis com o BCP, a NW mais potássico e o BTC, a SE mais sódico. Os dados isotópicos mostram claramente aparticipação de fontes infracrustais distintas de longa residência crustal, evidenciadas pelos isótopos de Pb em K-feldspato,pelos valores negativos de eNd (–11 a –13 para o BCP e –17 a –19 para o BTC e pelas idades TDM (1,8 a 2,0 Ga para o BCPe 2,2 a 2,4 Ga para o BTC. Estas fontes estariam situadas em uma crosta continental paleoproterozóica com a participaçãode fontes mantélicas e supracrustais na gênese das rochas graníticas do BCP e BTC. A Unidade Ribeirão Butiá do BCP e asUnidades Arrieiros e Paina do BTC estão representadas predominantemente por monzogranitos e granodioritos e rarostonalitos, metaluminosos, cálcio-alcalinos de alto a médio K, formados entre 630 a 620 Ma em ambiente de margem continentalativa. As Unidades Piraí do Sul e Santa Rita do BCP são constituídas por monzogranitos fracamente peraluminosos, de altoK e as Unidades São Sebastião e Conceição do BTC são constituídas respectivamente por quartzo-monzonitos e monzo asienogranitos fracamente metaluminosos, de alto K. Estas unidades foram formadas em ambiente sin- a tardi-colisional entre620 e 590 Ma.

  11. Contact with nature: effects of field trips on pro-environmental knowledge, intentions and attitudes

    Zysman Neiman


    Full Text Available The effects of direct contact with nature on pro-environmental attitudes, values and knowledge were assessed by taking college students on field trips at Parque Estadual Turístico do Alto Ribeira (PETAR, and applying a system of directed activities developed throughout 16 years. The changes in knowledge, values and attitudes were evaluated in these students (experimental groups and other students who were not exposed to the field trips (control groups through questionnaires which were applied before (pre-tests and after the trip (post-tests. Meaningful differences were verified between the control and the experimental groups, as well as discrepancies between the pre- and post-tests applied to the experimental groups - a clear indication that the direct contact with nature affected the positioning of the students towards environmental matters. These outcomes reinforce the idea of the importance of contact with nature as a way of implementing pro-environmental behaviors.

  12. Avaliacao neuropsicologica de idosos praticantes de capoeira

    Diogo Miranda Petry


    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Este estudo procura contribuir com uma relação pouco explorada no meio acadêmico: capoeira, cognição e envelhecimento. Relacionando estudos sobre funções executivas e a capoeira, busca-se investigar a interligação desta arte e as funções executivas. Estas se referem a desempenhos de comportamentos complexos (memória de trabalho, flexibilidade mental, tomada de decisão e a memória léxico-semântica. OBJETIVO: Comparar o desempenho de funções executivas em idosas praticantes de capoeira e idosas não praticantes de exercício físico. MÉTODO: Estudo transversal que coletou as informações de cada participante apenas uma vez. Serão comparados dois grupos: 1 grupo de idosos praticantes de capoeira e 2 idosos que não fazem exercício físico. Para seleção e caracterização dos grupos utilizaram-se: questionário sociodemográfico, aspectos gerais de saúde e escala de hábitos de leitura e escrita, mini-exame de estado mental (MEEM e escala de depressão de Yesavage (GDS-30. Para avaliar o desempenho das funções executivas foi realizado o teste de trilhas e as tarefas de fluência verbal. Para análise estatística dos dados será utilizado o teste de Shapiro-Wilk para normatização dos dados. O teste de t de Student e o teste U de Mann Whitney serão usados para comparar duas médias de amostras independentes. Utilizou-se a improvisação, a ação, a tomada de decisão, o equilíbrio e as noções de espaço, tempo, ritmo, música, e a compreensão do jogo da capoeira como intervenção devido à possível utilização dos processos executivos nessa arte. RESULTADOS: Verificou-se que não houve diferença significativa nos testes realizados. Porém houve superioridade nos testes de fluência verbal e testes de trilha A e B, sendo maior em B no grupo de capoeira do que no grupo controle. CONCLUSÃO: A prática de capoeira tem uma tendência em contribuir para a melhora das funções executivas, embora os mecanismos desse benefício não estejam claros

  13. Sacroiliitis: imaging evaluation; Sacroiliite: avaliacao por imagem

    Montandon, Cristiano; Teixeira, Kim-Ir-Sen Santos [Clinicas da Imagem e Multimagem, Goiania, GO (Brazil); Costa, Marlos Augusto Bitencourt; Carvalho, Tarcisio Nunes; Montandon Junior, Marcelo Eustaquio [Universidade Federal de Goias, Goiania, GO (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem]. E-mail:


    Sacroiliitis is a non-infectious inflammatory process involving the sacroiliac joint, and is a diagnostic criterion for seronegative spondyloarthropathies. Imaging methods are of great value for confirming the diagnosis of this condition. The present study is a review of cases included in didactic files and in the literature to illustrate the anatomy, techniques, and main imaging findings in x-ray, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging for determining the diagnosis of sacroiliitis, also approaching main differential diagnoses. (author)

  14. Structural characterization of aquatic humic substance extracted from Itapanhau and Ribeira de Iguape rivers; Caracterizacao estrutural das substancias humicas aquaticas extraidas dos Rios Itapanhau e Ribeira de Iguape

    Goveia, Danielle; Rocha, Julio Cesar [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Oliveira, Luciana Camargo de [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); Morais, Leandro Cardoso de; Campos, Valquiria de; Fraceto, Leonardo Fernandes; Rosa, Andre Henrique [UNESP, Sorocaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Ambiental


    The knowledge of the structure characteristic of the Organic Matter is important for the understanding of the natural process. In this context aquatic humic substances (principal fraction) were isolated from water sample collected from the two distinct rivers, using procedure recommended for International Humic Substances Society and characterized by elemental analysis, electron paramagnetic resonance and nuclear magnetic resonance (1{sup 3C} NMR). The results were interpreted using principal component analysis (PCA) and the statistical analyses showed different in the structural characteristics of the aquatic humic substances studied. (author)

  15. Los idiomas iberorrománicos en los elementos de lingüística románica de Petar Skok

    Pavao Tekavčić


    Full Text Available La cultura hispánica, una de las más prestigiosas del mundo, está presente también, desde hace mucho tiempo, entre las naciones eslavas meridionales. Además de evidentes influencias literarias (véase el recientemente aparecido primer tomo de nuestra revista, un elemento de esta presencia es el conocimiento de las lenguas romanicas de la Península Ibérica, en primer lugar naturalmente del castellano. En las páginas que siguen entendemos el estudio de las lenguas iberorrománicas a nivel universitario, lo que abarca además la evolución de los tres idiomas desde el latín hasta su estado actual: es decir, su gramática histórica (el termíno es, desde hace algún tiempo, un tanto odioso, pero clara y cómodo. Más aun, el estudio histórico de las lenguas iberorromanicas incluye tambien Ia comparaci6n con otros idiomas emparentados (gramatica romanica comparativa y Ia determinacion del Iugar de los idiomas romanicos de Iberia en la Romania. Estas disciplinas, que a primera vista pueden parecer reservadas a especialistas de lingüística histórica románica, son en realidad importantes partes de la cultura de una nación, y son una de las no mínimas piedrezuelas del gran mosaico llamado Romania.

  16. Groundwater Resources of Ribeira Paul Basin, Island of Santo Antao, Cape Verde, West Africa

    Heilweil, Victor M.; Gingerich, Stephen B.; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.


    Groundwater resources in Cape Verde provide water for agriculture, industry, and human consumption. These resources are limited and susceptible to contamination. Additional groundwater resources are needed for continued agricultural development, particularly during times of drought, but increased use and (or) climatic change may have adverse effects on the quantity and quality of freshwater available. In volcanic island aquifers such as those of Cape Verde, a lens of fresh groundwater typically ?floats? upon a layer of brackish water at the freshwater/saltwater boundary, and increased pumping may cause salt water intrusion or other contamination. A recent U.S. Geological Survey study assessed baseline groundwater conditions in watersheds on three islands of Cape Verde to provide the scientific basis for sustainably developing water resources and minimizing future groundwater depletion and contamination.

  17. Groundwater Resources of Ribeira Faja Basin, Island of Sao Nicolau, Cape Verde, West Africa

    Heilweil, Victor M.; Gingerich, Stephen B.; Plummer, L. Niel; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.


    Groundwater resources in Cape Verde provide water for agriculture, industry, and human consumption. These resources are limited and susceptible to contamination. Additional groundwater resources are needed for continued agricultural development, particularly during times of drought, but increased use and (or) climatic change may have adverse effects on the quantity and quality of freshwater available. In volcanic island aquifers such as those of Cape Verde, a lens of fresh groundwater typically ?floats? upon a layer of brackish water at the freshwater/saltwater boundary, and increased pumping may cause salt water intrusion or other contamination. A recent U.S. Geological Survey study assessed baseline groundwater conditions in watersheds on three islands of Cape Verde to provide the scientific basis for sustainably developing water resources and minimizing future groundwater depletion and contamination.

  18. Sustentabilidade socioambiental: desenvolvimento de sistemas construtivos em bambu no Vale do Ribeira, SP

    Paula Regina da Cruz Noia


    O discurso corrente sobre termos como \\"desenvolvimento sustentável\\" e \\"sustentabilidade\\" tende a ser atribuído diretamente a uma matriz de pensamento \\"verde\\" que se desenvolve de maneira independente em relação à realidade social envolvida. No entanto, a manutenção de uma sociedade sustentável deve resgatar, sobretudo, o conceito de qualidade de vida das sociedades. Assim, configura-se a demanda de elaboração de possíveis formas de organizações sustentáveis baseadas nos valores históric...

  19. Last millennium environmental changes and climate inferences in the Southeastern Atlantic forest, Brazil

    Luiz C.R. Pessenda


    Full Text Available This study presents paleoenvironmental data based on pollen, elemental and isotopic compositions of organic matter (TOC, N, d13C and d15N and 14C dating of 170 cm lake sediment record. Samplings have been made in Lagoa Grande at Parque Estadual Turístico do Alto Ribeira - PETAR, Southern São Paulo State, Southeastern Brazil. The variations in relative frequencies (in percentage of arboreal pollen along the core range between 40 and 80%. The d13C values ranged from -23‰ to -30‰ and C/N of ~10 to 15, indicating the contribution of terrestrial C3 plants and algae in the sediment organic matter. The d15N results presented values from 3 to 4.5‰, also suggesting a mixture of algae and terrestrial C3 plants. The 14C dating indicates modern age for the shallow horizons to ~1030 BP at the base of the core. A probable wetter climate in the period of ~370 BP to ~340 BP was inferred from the data set, which corresponds to a part of the period covered by the Little Ice Age (LIA.Este estudo apresenta dados paleoambientais baseados em análises de pólen, da composição elementar e isotópica da matéria orgânica (TOC, N, d13C e d15N e datação 14C, de um testemunho sedimentar lacustre de 170 cm. A amostragem foi realizada na Lagoa Grande localizada no Parque Estadual Turistico do Alto Ribeira - PETAR, Vale do Ribeira, sul do estado de São Paulo, sudeste do Brasil. As variações nas frequências relativas de pólen arbóreo (em porcentagem apresentaram-se entre 40 e 80% ao longo de todo o testemunho. Os valores de d13C variaram de -23‰ à -30‰, indicando a contribuição de plantas C3 (terrestres e algas na matéria orgânica sedimentar. Os resultados de d15N apresentaram valores entre 3 e 4,5‰, também sugerindo uma mistura de algas e plantas C3. A datação 14C indica idade moderna para as camadas superficiais do testemunho e uma idade de até 1030 anos AP para a camada mais profunda do mesmo. Um provável clima mais úmido para o per

  20. A politica estadunidense de desgermanizacao do sistema de transporte aereo brasileiro: o caso da Condor

    Quintaneiro, Tania


    Analise e avaliacao da politica dos Estados Unidos de extincao das atividades da empresa de transporte aereo Condor, por meio de sua inclusao na Lista Negra, do corte no fornecimento de combustivel...

  1. Auto-eficacia, raciocinio verbal e desempenho escolar em estudantes

    Bernardo de Oliveira, Mariana; Benevides Soares, Adriana


    ...; 34 do sexo masculino e 23 do sexo feminino. Os instrumentos utilizados foram o Roteiro de Avaliacao de Auto- eficacia, a prova de raciocinio verbal da BPR-5 e as notas das avaliacoes escolares de Portugues e Redacao...

  2. Nivel de actividad fisica y los indices antropometricos de hipertensos y/o diabeticos en una ciudad de Brasil

    Martins Cunha, Raphael; da Silva Souza, Clara Odete; Ferreira da Silva, Juliana; Aparecida da Silva, Maria


    ...) de 4 regioes da cidade. Apos o convite e insercao dos individuos no estudo, os mesmos foram submetidos a um breve anamnese, questionario internacional de atividade fisica--IPAQ-curto e avaliacao antropometrica, com medida...

  3. Heuristicas para avaliacao de interfaces de portais universitarios

    Pelogi, A.P.S.; Amstel, van F.M.C.; Barsottini, C.G.N.


    The Heuristic Evaluation method seems to be efficient to diagnose interface usability problems. The propose at this study is to determine whether specific heuristics for university portals are appropriate and contribute to a more specific evaluation of interface usability of the portal of the Federa

  4. An assessment of ninth round; Nona: uma avaliacao da rodada

    Assumpcao, Eduardo; Andrade, Leila; Fontana, Raphaela [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    Accomplished on November, 27{sup th}, 2007, 271 exploratory blocks were offered in Round 9, distributed within 14 sectors, totalling an area of 73 thousand km{sup 2}. The following basins were included: Campos, Espirito Santo, Para- Maranhao, Parnaiba, Pernambuco-Paraiba, Potiguar, Santos, Reconcavo and Rio do Peixe. From the original lot of 67 companies qualified (31 Brazilian and 36 of foreign origin), 42 offered bids individually or in partnerships. 117 blocks were allocated to 24 winning operator companies. Other 12 enterprises won acreage as non-operator participants of joint bids. A record of R$ 2,1 billion were offered as signature bonuses along with 169.436 units of the so called minimum exploratory programs. These units may be converted to an estimated R$ 1,4 billion. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the results obtained in Round 9, analyzing collected data through three different perspectives of aggregate results: bidding companies, offered areas and exploratory models. (author)

  5. Energetic evaluation: public schools sector; Avaliacao energetica: setor escolas publicas

    Jota, Patricia Romeiro da Silva; Ribeiro, Mariane Correa; Martins, Fernando Henrique Dias; Silva, Valeria R. Borges da [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais (CEFET-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa em Energia Inteligente


    Energy consumption evaluation at schools is very important for school management. However, there is a great difference among consumption rates, and a simplified analysis would lead to wrong evaluation. It is not possible to analyze schools that have different number of students or different sizes, unless these variables are applied. This article proposes a methodology in order to develop a sector analysis taking into account operation features. A case study is presented to illustrate this methodology. (author)

  6. Avaliacao de projeto de promocao da saude para adolescentes

    Jovino Oliveira Ferreira


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar programa de promoção de atividade física e de escolhas alimentares entre adolescentes. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal realizado com 911 adolescentes de 13 a 18 anos de idade, de escolas públicas de Goiânia, GO, em 2010. Os participantes foram divididos em dois grupos: intervenção (escolas participantes do Projeto Viver Saudável e controle. Foram considerados como atividade física: deslocamento, aulas de educação física na escola, atividade física fora da escola e no lazer. Foram definidos como ativos aqueles que acumularam 300 ou mais minutos por semana. Quanto às escolhas alimentares, foi classificado como adequado o consumo de alimentos protetores em cinco ou mais dias da semana. Foram realizadas análises estatísticas com teste de Qui-quadrado de Pearson. RESULTADOS: A maioria dos adolescentes foi identificada como inativos ou insuficientemente ativos, com 65,7% no grupo intervenção e 65,2% no grupo controle, sem diferenças significativas entre os grupos e com prevalência maior entre o sexo feminino. Pouco mais da metade dos adolescentes consumiam alimentos protetores da saúde em cinco ou mais dias da semana, sendo 56,6% e 50,4%, respectivamente, nos grupos intervenção e controle (p = 0,373. CONCLUSÕES: A ausência de diferenças quanto a escolhas alimentares e prática de atividade física entre os grupos intervenção e controle indica que o projeto Viver Saudável precisa ser reavaliado visando melhorar a efetividade no cumprimento dos seus objetivos.

  7. Radiologic evaluation of facial injury; Avaliacao radiologica dos traumatismos faciais

    Souza, Ricardo Pires de; Volpato, Richard [Complexo Hospitalar Heliopolis, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Servico de Diagnostico por Imagem]. E-mail:; Nascimento, Lia Paula [Complexo Hospitalar Heliopolis, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    A detailed radiological investigation of the maxillofacial injuries is essential to achieve good treatment results. The images should identify every lesion and guide the treatment, thus improving esthetic and functional results. With the aim of simplifying the diagnostic task, the face may be seen as a five regions structure that may suffer a regional fracture or combined fractures involving the adjacent regions. These regions represent areas of focus for pre surgical planning and are as follows: nasal, orbital, zygomatic, maxillary, and mandibular. In order to understand the injury mechanisms and their consequences it is useful to know the supporting buttresses, which are divided in five sagittal planes, three horizontal planes and two coronal planes. We reviewed the cases of patients with facial trauma treated at Complexo Hospitalar Heliopolis, Sao Paulo, Brazil. A review of the relevant issues concerning radiological investigation of these injuries is presented. This study allowed standardization and ordering of the radiological investigation in patients with facial trauma. (author)

  8. Calcaneal tendon: imaging findings; Tendao calcaneo: avaliacao por imagem

    Montandon, Cristiano; Fonseca, Cristiano Rezio; Montandon Junior, Marcelo Eustaquio [Colegio Brasileiro de Radiologia e Diagnostico por Imagem, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail:; Lobo, Leonardo Valadares; Ribeiro, Flavia Aparecida de Souza; Teixeira, Kim-Ir-Sen Santos [Goias Univ., Goiania, GO (Brazil). Hospital de Clinicas. Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem e Anatomia Patologica


    We reviewed the radiological and clinical features of 23 patients with calcaneal tendon diseases, who were submitted to ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging. The objective of this study was to characterize the lesions for a precise diagnosis of calcaneal tendon injuries. A wide range of calcaneal tendon diseases include degenerative lesions, inflammation of the peritendinous tissue such as peritendinitis and bursitis, and rupture. Imaging methods are essential in the diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of calcaneal tendon diseases. (author)

  9. Aproximación al suelo habitable en la Ribeira Sacra durante los siglos XIV y XV

    José Antonio López Sabatel


    Full Text Available Este estudio pretende establecer un acercamiento a la parte del espacio agrario destinada por el individuo para habitar en él, siempre en el seno del área de influencia de cinco cenobios situados a ambas márgenes del río Sil, en el tramo precedente a su desembocadura en el Miño. No será objeto de este trabajo, por consiguiente, centrarse en el hábitat derivado de la ordenación del poder sobre el espacio ocupado. Por el contrario, este estudio se orientará hacia la observación del hábitat generado por la explotación del espacio ocupado, es decir el casal, como explotación campesina familiar y sus anexos y dependencias.This study tries to establish an approach to the part of the agrarian space destined by the individual to always live in him in the area of influence of five monasteries located to both margins of the Sil river in the preceding section to its opening in the Miño. It will not be object of this work, therefore, to be centered in the habitat derived from the arrangement of the power on the occupied space. On the contrary, this study will orient towards the observation of the habitat generated by the operation of the occupied space that is to say, the country place, like operation familiar farmer and her annexed and dependencies.

  10. Situation of breastfeeding and complementary feeding in a medium-sized municipality in the Ribeira Valley, São Paulo

    Gislene dos Anjos Tamasia


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the situation of breastfeeding and complementary feeding in the city of Registro, São Paulo. METHODS: This cross-sectional study collected sociodemographic and feeding information of infants aged less than one year who participated in the 2011 multiple vaccine campaign. Breastfeeding and complementary feeding were analyzed by indicators proposed by the World Health Organization. The association between outcomes (exclusive breastfeeding and introduction to complementary feeding and the explanatory variables (maternal and child characteristics was investigated by the Poisson model with a robust error variance. RESULTS: We analyzed 713 children. The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding was 50.0%. Children who were breastfed exclusively on the first day at home (PR=2.40; 95%CI=1.42-4.06 and not given pacifiers (PR=1.95; 95%CI=1.153.30 were more likely to be exclusively breastfed. The complementary feeding indicators showed that 62.1% of the children aged 6 to 8.9 months consumed fruit plus savory mashes. None of the explanatory variables was significantly associated with this outcome. CONCLUSION: The study identified inappropriate infant feeding practices. Such studies can contribute to the proposal of policies, which is particularly important in an unfavorable social development context characterized by the study city.

  11. Relationship between the prevalence of antibodies to arbovirus and hepatitis B virus in the Vale do Ribeira region, Brazil

    Cláudio Sérgio Pannuti


    Full Text Available 280 students, between 6 and 14 years old, residents in the Iguape county, southern coast of the State of São Paulo, were studied in order to identify the existence of a possible association between the prevalence of specific antibodies to the hepatitis B virus and the exposure to haematophagous mosquitoes, evaluated indirectly through the prevalence of antibodies to 17 arboviruses isolated in Brazil. The children were from 4 areas with different topographical characteristics: 89 of the children were from the urban zone of the town of Iguape, 89 were from the periurban zone, 30 were from the rural area with extensive banana plantations, and 72 were from the jungle zone. Previous studies had shown significantly higher prevalence of antibodies to different arboviruses in the cultivated zone and the jungle zone, when compared to the urban and periurban zones of Iguape. The detection of antibodies to the HBV surface antigen (HBs Ag was done through the radioimmunoassay (Ausab, Abbott Laboratory. The cases considered positive were confirmed through the presence of anti-core HBV antibodies (anti-HBc-EIA Roche. A significantly higher prevalence of anti-HBV antibodies was observed in children from the jungle zone (26/72 = 36,1% when compared to those from the urban zone (5/89 = 5,6%, peri-urban (6/89 = 6,7% or from the cultivated zone (0/30 = 0%. The result suggest the existence of a common factor in the dissemination of the arboviruses and the hepatitis B virus, supporting the hypothesis that mosquitoes may play an important role in the HBV transmission in tropical forested region.

  12. Semantics of Statebuilding

    Grasten, Maj Lervad


    Book review of: Semantics of Statebuilding: Language, Meanings & Sovereignty / (eds) Nicolas Lemay-Hébert, Nicholas Onuf, Vojin Rakić, Petar Bojanić. Abingdon: Routledge, 2014. 200 pp.......Book review of: Semantics of Statebuilding: Language, Meanings & Sovereignty / (eds) Nicolas Lemay-Hébert, Nicholas Onuf, Vojin Rakić, Petar Bojanić. Abingdon: Routledge, 2014. 200 pp....

  13. Heavy and viscous oil evaluation in a deep water environment: an integrated evaluation process; Avaliacao de oleo pesado e viscoso em aguas profundas: um processo integrado de avaliacao

    Barreto, Wesley S.; Armacanqui, Gina [Schlumberger, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (United States)


    There are many challenges related to heavy and viscous oil reserves evaluation. When this includes a deep-water offshore environment the challenges, including safety issues, increase in complexity. In this paper we share some experiences obtained during the preparation and execution of heavy oil evaluation activities. The process uses the petrophysical and fluid characterization preliminary results obtained during the logging phase as well as prior information from correlation field/wells in order to design the appropriate ESP configuration and location in the DST string as well as the sampler location which should allow monophasic sampling. During the operation a real time interpretation is performed validating the data obtained and sensitizing parameters such as pump frequency, bubble point pressure, GOR and viscosities, allowing the diagnostic of the operation and consequent appropriated flow conditions in order to provide a optimum picture supporting decisions regarding sampling time and other specific evaluation objectives. The examples presented illustrate the methodology proposed of integrated evaluation applied to heavy oil and its benefits. (author)

  14. Geochemical and isotopic evidence for the petrogenesis and emplacement tectonics of the Serra dos Órgãos batholith in the Ribeira belt, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Machado, Rômulo; Philipp, Ruy Paulo; McReath, Ian; Peucat, Jean Jacques


    The Serra dos Órgãos batholith in the State of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) is a NE-SW-trending elongated body that occupies ca. 5000 km2 in plan view. It is a foliated intrusion, especially at its borders and is crosscut by syn-magmatic shear zones, with foliations that are moderately-to steeply-dipping to the northwest and moderately-to shallow-dipping in the center and to the southeast, in a configuration of a large laccolith. It was emplaced between 560 and 570 Ma, during an extensional episode that was part of a series of events that comprise the Brasiliano Orogeny in SE Brazil, and which includes deformation, metamorphism and granite intrusion during the interval between 630 and 480 Ma. The two main rock types in the batholith are biotite-hornblende monzogranite, and biotite leucogranite, with subordinate tonalite, granodiorite, diorite, quartz diorite (enclaves), aplite and pegmatite. Harker-type diagrams help show two rock groups with similar trends of evolution: a dioritic and a granitic. The first one is tholeiitic, whereas the second is calc-alkaline, with medium-to high-K calc-alkaline affinity and metaluminous to slightly peraluminous character. In both groups strong decrease in Al2O3, MgO, FeOT and CaO relative to silica contents are observed, which is compatible with trends of fractional crystallization involving clinopyroxene and/or hornblende, plagioclase, opaque minerals, apatite, microcline and biotite. The Sr and Nd isotopic data suggest recycling of a Paleoproterozoic crust as an important petrological process to generate the batholith rocks. Geothermometry (amphibole composition) and geobarometry (saturation in zircon and apatite) indicate that most of the batholith solidified at mid to lower crustal levels at about 750 °C and between 5 and 5.5 kbar. We consider that Serra dos Órgãos crustal protoliths underwent melting caused by the interaction with hotter mafic magma at the base of the crust. These two magmas, with distinct initial compositions and rheology, probably underwent mixing and mingling. This process continued during the rise of the magma through the crust, which was accompanied by magmatic differentiation. The main feature that characterizes the post-collisional Serra dos Órgãos granite magmatism is the connection with high angle ductile shear zones of continental scale and presence to a greater or lesser extent of mafic magmas.

  15. Análise populacional de Anomalocardia brasiliana (Gmelin, 1791, na Praia do Saco da Ribeira, Ubatuba, Estado de São Paulo

    Y Schaeffer-Novelli


    Full Text Available Monthly quantitative sampling of the beach benthic macro fauna was made from June 1972 through December 1974. Determinations of the distribution index, length |dry weight correlation and vertical distribution pattern was also made.

  16. Soil and water conservation strategies in Cape Verde (Cabo Verde in Portuguese) and their impacts on livelihoods: an overview from the Ribeira Seca Watershed

    Baptista, I.; Fleskens, L.; Ritsema, C.; Querido, A.; Ferreira, A.D.; Tavares, J.; Reis, E.A.; Gomes, S.; Varela, A.


    Severe land degradation has strongly affected both people’s livelihood and the environment in Cape Verde (Cabo Verde in Portuguese), a natural resource poor country. Despite the enormous investment in soil and water conservation measures (SWC or SLM), which are visible throughout the landscape, and

  17. Saccharomyces cerevisiae como biossensor de arsénio na água: caso de estudo da Ribeira do Bodelhão e do Rio Zêzere

    Alegre, Ana Filipa Nunes Leitão


    Dissertação para obtenção do Grau de Mestre em Tecnologia e Segurança Alimentar O metalóide arsénio encontra-se disperso na crosta terrestre. Porém, em Portugal encontram-se níveis elevados de arsénio na água pontualmente nalgumas cidades situadas a Norte, devido a processos geológicos. O arsénio é altamente tóxico para o organismo, sendo 10 μg/L a concentração máxima permitida por Lei para a água para consumo humano, o principal veículo através do qual o arsénio inorgânico se propaga n...

  18. Paisaje agrario y prácticas agrícolas en la Ribeira Sacra (Galicia durante los siglos XIV y XV

    López Sabatel, José Antonio


    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to approach what appears to be the physical contour and extent of the land recovered for agricultural use at the heart of the area falling under the influence of five monasteries situated on both banks of the River Sil in the stretch immediately preceding its flowing into the mouth of the Miño during the 14th and 15th centuries. It will also focus on the various agrarian practices used in chestnut and vine cultivation as well as work on the lands growing cereal crops. These are practices which in the relative system of cultivation will have an effect on the physiognomy of the agrarian lands throughout this period.

    Este artículo pretende un acercamiento a lo que debió ser el semblante físico y extensión de los terrenos ganados en beneficio de la actividad agrícola en el seno del área de influencia de cinco cenobios situados a ambos márgenes del río Sil en el tramo precedente a su desembocadura en el Miño durante los siglos XIV y XV. También se centrará en las diversas prácticas agrícolas destinadas al cuidado de la castaña y la vid así como al trabajo en las tierras de cereal. Prácticas éstas que en lo relativo al sistema de cultivos tendrán incidencia en la fisonomía del espacio agrario a lo largo de este periodo.

  19. The potential of Ecotourism in Brazil Ecoturismo – Chapada dos Veadeiros (GO, Pantanal Mato-Grossense (MT, e Vale do Ribeira (SP

    Paula Simas de Andrade


    Full Text Available Brazil has a variety of biomes with great potential for ecotourism. They include plateaus, waterfalls, beaches, sand dunes, native forests, mountains and other attractions in regions that are home to poor populations struggling to make their living on smallholder agriculture and that frequently do not have their land rights guaranteed. Implementing ecotourism in these regions can mean environmental preservation and a more sustainable livelihood for the local population. The government has a fundamental role to leverage this activity, providing the means to stimulate sustainable forms of agriculture and infrastructure construction parallel to ecotourism. It is also important to train community members to ensure environmental preservation and well serve the visitors, in addition to implementing measures such as waste recycling and efficient water use.O Brasil tem diversos biomas com grande potencial para o ecoturismo. Eles abrangem chapadas, cachoeiras, praias, dunas, matas nativas, montanhas e outros atrativos, em regiões que abrigam populações pobres que vivem da pequena agricultura e que, muitas vezes, não têm a propriedade da terra. Implantar o ecoturismo nessas regiões pode significar a preservação ambiental e um meio de vida mais sustentável para a população local. O governo tem papel fundamental para alavancar essa atividade, fornecendo os meios para estimular, paralelamente ao ecoturismo, formas sustentáveis de agricultura e a construção de infraestrutura. É importante também capacitar os membros das comunidades para garantir a preservação ambiental e bem atender os visitantes, além de implantar medidas como a reciclagem de lixo e o uso racional de água.

  20. Planejamento e implantação participativos de programa de interpretação em trilhas na “RPPN Paiol Maria”, Vale do Ribeira (SP)

    Neiman, Zysman; Cardoso-Leite, Eliana; Podadera, Diego Sotto


    As trilhas utilizadas em atividades turísticas são importantes instrumentos para inclusão social e Educação Ambiental. No entanto, a participação de populações locais na gestão de áreas protegidas é incipiente no Brasil. O objetivo deste trabalho foi elaborar o roteiro de interpretação ambiental de uma trilha na RPPN Paiol Maria, a partir de um curso de capacitação de monitores ambientais, de modo que os mesmos pudessem se apropriar do processo de definição dos temas e possibilidades educativ...

  1. Genome Sequence of Thermotoga sp Strain RQ2, a Hyperthermophilic Bacterium Isolated from a Geothermally Heated Region of the Seafloor near Ribeira Quente, the Azores

    Swithers, Kristen S [University of Connecticut, Storrs; DiPippo, Jonathan L [University of Connecticut, Storrs; Bruce, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Detter, J. Chris [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Woyke, Tanja [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pitluck, Sam [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pennacchio, Len [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Nolan, Matt [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Lykidis, A [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Stetter, Karl O [Universitat Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany; Nelson, Karen E [J. Craig Venter Institute; Gogarten, Peter [University of Connecticut, Storrs; Noll, Kenneth M [University of Connecticut, Storrs


    Thermotoga sp. strain RQ2 is probably a strain of Thermotoga maritima. Its complete genome sequence allows for an examination of the extent and consequences of gene flow within Thermotoga species and strains. Thermotoga sp. RQ2 differs from T. maritima in its genes involved in myo-inositol metabolism. Its genome also encodes an apparent fructose phosphotransferase system (PTS) sugar transporter. This operon is also found in Thermotoga naphthophila strain RKU-10 but no other Thermotogales. These are the first reported PTS transporters in the Thermotogales.

  2. The Mesoproterozoic volcano-sedimentary Serra do Itaberaba Group of the Central Ribeira Belt, Sao Paulo State, Brazil: implications for the age of the overlying Sao Roque Group

    Juliani, Caetano [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias]. E-mail:; Hackspacher, Peter; Fetter, Allen Hutchenson [UNESP, Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias e Ciencias Exatas]. E-mail:;; Dantas, Elton Luiz [Brasilia Univ., DF (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias]. E-mail:


    One of the fundamental problems to understanding the evolution of volcano-sedimentary sequences in southeastern Brazil is constraining their depositional ages. Brasiliano tectonic and metamorphic either obscured or destroyed primary features, such as unconformities, as well as other geologic relationships. This problem is exemplified by the Serra do Itaberaba and Sao Roque groups, where the lack of data about the timing of their deposition has prevented resolution of proposed one-and two-stage geotectonic/depositional models. Recent U-Pb zircon data obtained from metavolcanic rocks in the Sao Roque Group indicate that it was deposited between 628 and 607 Ma. New U-Pb zircon data of 1395{+-} 10 Ma for a metandesite in the basal Morro da Pedra Preta Formation (Serra do Itaberaba Group) indicate the maximum age for the beginning of the deposition of the pelites overlying MORB-like basalt. A metarhyolite of the upper unit, the Nhangucu Formation, contains two zircon populations. One yielded an age of 619 {+-}3 Ma, which defines the crystallization age of the rock, and the other an age of 1449 {+-}3 Ma, interpreted as inherited xenocrystal grains from older units of the Serra do Itaberaba Group. The younger metarhyolite was affected only by the S{sub 2} foliation, generated during the Brasiliano orogenesis, whereas the Middle Proterozoic metavolcano-sedimentary sequence records additional metamorphic and deformational events, confirming the presence of two different geotectonic cycles. (author)

  3. Cerebral toxoplasmosis in AIDS - computerized tomography evaluation; Toxoplasmose cerebral na SIDA - avaliacao por tomografia computadorizada

    Alves, Regina Coeli Fonseca [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Hospital Universitario Antonio Pedro. Servico de Radiologia; Narchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia


    Cerebral toxoplasmosis is a disease that affects many AIDS's patients. FOr this paper 46 patients with confirmed cases of cerebral toxoplasmosis who did a CT scan between March, 1994 and September, 1997 were examined. Single lesions were found in 28.3% of the patients. The lesions were more frequently detected in the basal ganglia and the frontal lobes. No lesion was larger than 4 cm. As regards the contrast enhancing of the lesions on a CT scan we observed that 54.5% of the lesions had a ring-like contrast enhancing, 36.4% had a nodular contrast enhancing and 6% had a heterogeneous form. After the 21st day of treatment we noticed an improvement in the aspect of the patients'lesions. The improvement of the lesions could be seen through a reduction of the edematous halo, a reduction of the lesion size and a modification in the contrast enhancing on the CT scan. The CT scan was an important method to demonstrate the lesions compatibility enhancing on the CT scan. The CT scan was an important method to demonstrate the lesions compatibility with cerebral toxoplasmosis, as well as to monitor these patients during treatment. (author)

  4. Dose assessment in pediatric computerized tomography; Avaliacao de doses em tomografia computadorizada pediatrica

    Vilarinho, Luisa Maria Auredine Lima


    The objective of this work was the evaluation of radiation doses in paediatric computed tomography scans, considering the high doses usually involved and the absence of any previous evaluation in Brazil. Dose values were determined for skull and abdomen examinations, for different age ranges, by using the radiographic techniques routinely used in the clinical centers investigated. Measurements were done using pencil shape ionization chambers inserted in polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) phantoms. These were compact phantoms of different diameters were specially designed and constructed for this work, which simulate different age ranges. Comparison of results with published values showed that doses were lower than the diagnostic reference levels established to adults exams by the European Commission. Nevertheless, doses in paediatric phantoms were higher than those obtained in adult phantoms. The paediatric dose values obtained in Hospitals A and B were lower than the reference level (DRL) adopted by SHIMPTON for different age ranges. In the range 0 - 0.5 year (neonatal), the values of DLP in Hospital B were 94 por cent superior to the DRL For the 10 years old children the values of CTDI{sub w} obtained were inferior in 89 por cent for skull and 83 por cent for abdomen examinations, compared to the values published by SHRIMPTON and WALL. Our measured CTDI{sub w} values were inferior to the values presented for SHRIMPTON and HUDA, for all the age ranges and types of examinations. It was observed that the normalized dose descriptors values in children in the neonatal range were always superior to the values of doses for the adult patient. In abdomen examinations, the difference was approximately 90% for the effective dose (E) and of 57%.for CTDI{sub w} . (author)

  5. Evaluation of protection measurements for rural environments; Avaliacao de medidas de protecao para ambientes rurais

    Silva, Diogo N.G.; Silva, Fernanda L.; Conti, Luiz F., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Wasserman, Maria Angelica V., E-mail: maria.wasserman@pq.cnpq.b [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rochedo, Elaine R.R., E-mail: [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CODIN/CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coord. de Instalacoes Nucleares


    Among the planning activities of actuation in nuclear/radiological emergences, it is included the efficiency evaluation of protection and remediation measurements. From the development of a data base on such measurements for the agricultural areas, the program SIEM was used for effectuation the simulations involving the {sup 137}Cs, {sup 131}I and {sup 90}Sr radionuclides, in scenery previously established for simulation those areas of a 50 km surrounding the Admiral Alvaro Alberto nuclear power plant. The obtained results indicate that the scenery is determinant of efficiency measurements involving various specific factors of each place, such as: agricultural and cattle breeding products, consumption habits of population and the grade of subsistence by the diet items, making not practical the elaboration of predefined generic sceneries. The great dependence on seasoning related to the moment of accident makes inadequate any previous evaluation what soever for evaluation of efficiency of protection and remediation measurements. Therefore, previous decisions are not recommended about the relevance of protection measurements for rural areas. Two classification criteria were defined: (i) the efficiency in reduction the doses in the firs year; and, (i i) efficiency in reduction the dose at long term

  6. Metastasis dosimetric evaluation applied to systemic radiotherapy; Avaliacao dosimetrica em metastases aplicada a radioterapia sistemica

    Mendes, Bruno Melo; Campos, Tarcisio Passos Ribeiro [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Curso de Pos-graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnicas Nucleares


    In the cancer pathology the metastases are the major reason for death. The systemic radiotherapy proposes the prescription of systemic radiopharmaceuticals that, through their many ways of affinity with the cancerous cells, will concentrate radioisotopes on the tumor and in its metastasis, generating a possible control dose for the colony propagation. Herein, a Monte Carlo based computational model is proposed to evaluate the physical dose in an arbitrary cancerous colony of {approx}10{sup 4} small lung cancer cells, considering all possible nuclear, biological, and morphological parameters, as well as the specific compartment cellular uptakes. As result, physical absorbed dose in MeV/g was obtained in the cell's nucleus, in the cytoplasm and in the interstice, provided by x-rays, gamma rays, Auger electrons and Beta particles emitted from the following radioisotope decays: Es-89, Y-90, In-111, Sm-153, Dy-165, Ho-166, Er-169 e Re-188. It can be verified, from the reduced colony model, that the Auger electrons are responsible for a large part of the total absorbed dose, despite of the Beta energy emitted. Issuing the Auger electrons emitted by radioisotopes, as In-111 and Sm-153, reached the largest doses in the nucleus of the colony's model. The present data, conjugated with a simple biokinetics model, histological data, and medical cintilographic images allow an improvement in the evaluation of the radiopharmaceutical concentration to be prescribed for the patient. (author)

  7. Instrumentos em Lingua Brasileira de Sinais para avaliacao da qualidade de vida da populacao surda

    Neuma Chaveiro


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Construir a versão em Língua Brasileira de Sinais dos instrumentos WHOQOL-BREF e WHOQOL-DIS para avaliar a qualidade de vida da população surda brasileira. MÉTODOS: Utilizou-se metodologia proposta pela Organização Mundial da Saúde (WHOQOL-BREF e WHOQOL-DIS para a construção dos instrumentos adaptados para população surda em Língua Brasileira de Sinais (Libras. A pesquisa para execução do instrumento consistiu de 13 etapas: 1 criação do sinal qualidade de vida; 2 desenvolvimento das escalas de respostas em Libras; 3 tradução por um grupo bilíngue; 4 versão reconciliadora; 5 primeira retrotradução; 6 produção da versão em Libras a ser disponibilizada aos grupos focais; 7 realização dos grupos focais; 8 revisão por um grupo monolíngue; 9 revisão pelo grupo bilíngue; 10 análise sintática/semântica e segunda retrotradução; 11 reavaliação da retrotradução pelo grupo bilíngue; 12 filmagem da versão para o software; 13 desenvolvimento do software WHOQOL-BREF e WHOQOL-DIS em Libras. RESULTADOS: Características peculiares da cultura da população surda apontaram a necessidade de adaptações na metodologia de aplicação de grupos focais quando compostos por pessoas surdas. As convenções ortográficas da escrita das línguas sinalizadas não estão consolidadas, o que trouxe dificuldades em registrar graficamente as etapas de tradução. As estruturas linguísticas que causaram maiores problemas de tradução foram as que incluíram expressões idiomáticas do português, muitas sem conceitos equivalentes entre o português e a Libras. Foi possível construir um software do WHOQOL-BREF e WHOQOL-DIS em Libras. CONCLUSÕES: O WHOQOL-BREF e o WHOQOL-DIS em Libras possibilitarão que os surdos se expressem autonomamente quanto a sua qualidade de vida, o que permitirá investigar com maior precisão essas questões.

  8. MRI evaluation of fetal vitality and maturity; Avaliacao da vitalidade e maturidade fetal pela ressonancia magnetica

    Rego, Salete J.F. [Instituto Nacional do Cancer, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Secaf, Eduardo [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Magalhaes, Alvaro Cebrian A. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina, Dept. de Radiologia


    Assessment of fetal vitality is an essential part of feto-maternal medicine. In clinical practice, this is carried out by investigation of the fetal growth pattern and biochemical or biophysical tests of fetal heath. MRI has the ability of characterizing different soft tissues and is the only technique that can display in the uterus the process of physiological myelinization and may well present a noninvasive method to determine lung maturity. MRI is more powerful technique allowing more detailed visualization of the fetal brain, better images can be obtained of areas such as posterior fossa. The major advantage of MRI over imaging modalities is the potential for biochemical and metabolic studies and it will make an important contribution to obstetric research. (author)., 10 refs., 7 figs p.

  9. Evaluation of operation strategies of hybrid systems; Avaliacao de estrategias de operacao de sistemas hibridos

    Hauschild, Luciano; Zilles, Roberto [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Lab. de Sistemas Fotovoltaicos]. E-mail:


    This article evaluates the operation strategies of photovoltaic-eolic-diesel hybrid systems used for the rural area applied to two cases studies placed at the Cardoso Island, SP. The operation strategies evaluation is performed by simulation using data collected at the Cardoso Island such as electric power consumption profile and the solar and wind potential. With those data, simulation have been done considering different operation strategies and different levels of renewable energies penetration in the total energy produced by the system, in order to obtain system operation results such as Diesel oil consumption and depth of average discharge of the battery banks. From the simulation results an economic analysis have been done by using elements data from the cost of life average cycle (LAC) for determining which strategy is the most adequate for operation the electric power supply hybrid system.

  10. Imaging assessment of osteitis pubis; Avaliacao por imagem da osteite pubica

    Lopes, Alexia Abuhid; Ferreira, Ana Paula Alves; Leite, Ana Rachel Albuquerque de Moura; Guido, Daniela Araujo; Rodrigues, Rogeria Nobre [Axial Centro de Imagem, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail:; Araujo, Rodrigo Otavio Dias [Minas Tenis Clube, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Lasmar, Rodrigo Campos Pace [Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Curso de Fisioterapia


    Objective: to assess the physiopathological aspects of osteitis pubis and the findings seen on imaging methods, emphasizing the usefulness of Flamingo view radiographs and the diagnostic aspects of Magnetic resonance images. Material and Method: magnetic resonance images of ten patients (eight of them professional athletes) referring symptoms in the inguinal regional were retrospectively evaluated. For some of these patients Flaming view radiographs were performed. Results: in all studied patients magnetic resonance imaging was the only diagnostic method capable of showing the different phases os osteitis pubis, from acute cases with pubic bone marrow edematous changes to chronic cases with involvement of other pelvic joints. Flamingo view radiographs were performed in six patients and three of them were diagnosed with vertical pubis symphyseal instability greater than 2 mm of vertical displacement. This diagnosis was confirmed by instability tests using orthopedic manoeuvres. Conclusion: magnetic resonance imaging was the most helpful method for the diagnosis of different phases of osteitis pubis whereas conventional X-ray was inconclusive in the initial phases. Flamingo view radiographs were extremely important to show vertical instability of the pubic symphysis, which in combination with osteitis pubis can be the cause of failure of nonoperative treatment. (author)

  11. Crystallinity evaluation of polyhydroxybutyrate and polycaprolactone blends; Avaliacao da cristalinidade de blendas de polihidroxibutirato e policaprolactona

    Cavalcante, Maxwell P.; Rodrigues, Elton Jorge R.; Tavares, Maria Ines B., E-mail: [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Macromoleculas


    Polyhydroxybutyrate, PHB, is a polymer obtained through bacterial or synthetic pathways. It has been used in the biomedical field as a matrix for drug delivery, medical implants and as scaffold material for tissue engineering. PHB has high structural organization, which makes it highly crystalline and brittle, making biodegradation difficult, reducing its employability. In order to enhance the mechanical and biological properties of PHB, blends with other polymers, biocompatible or not, are researched and produced. In this regard, blends of PHB and polycaprolactone, PCL, another biopolymer widely used in the biomedical industry, were obtained via solution casting and were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and low field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR). Results have shown a dependence between PHB's crystallinity index and PCL quantity employed to obtain the blends.(author)

  12. Computing system of staff evaluation; Sistema informatizado de avaliacao de pessoal

    Lopes, Marcelo Garcez; Aguiar, Joao Eugenio Lopes [TRANSPETRO, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    Accidents with lost time: using a different concept to deal with safety, focusing directly on the behavior of the worker, leading the worker to a shaper perception of the risks and thus enabling a change of behavior towards a safer attitude. 'Sounds and Links' Project: the programmatic content was made through musical dynamics because music has the power to evoke feelings, stimulating the participants to live intra personal and interpersonal relationships in order to promote safe behaviors. The methodology used was: 'Andragogic (adult education) Model'; multi discipline language; Methodology of 'experiencing and living'; and Focus on the day-to-day situations of work and life. The project was applied to four groups with 60 people, consisting of employees from TRANSPETRO and its contractors, other group with 60 people, composed by leaders, and one group with all participants of the five groups for the general closing session. Expecting Results and consequence of the Project: to turn the concept of safety into a real value to the worker; to preserve the integrity and to value the life; pursuit a lasting and stable changing of behavior, with culture base on safety; and to support the management safety system and reduction of the accidents. (author)

  13. Avaliacao da Relacao entre a Doenca Hepatica Nao Gordurosa e CAD utilizando TCMF

    Duran Efe


    Full Text Available Fundamento: Alguns fatores de risco para a aterosclerose são acompanhados pela doença hepática gordurosa não alcoólica (DHGNA. Desejamos usar a tomografia computadorizada multi-fatias (TCMF como a técnica para encontrar relação entre a DHGNA e a doença arterial coronariana (DAC. Objetivo: A relação entre a DHGNA e a DAC foi investigada através de TCMF. Métodos: Um total de 372 indivíduos com ou sem sintomas cardíacos, que foram submetidos à angiografia por TCMF, foram incluídos no estudo. Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos, de acordo com a presença da DHGNA. Os segmentos arteriais coronarianos foram avaliados visualmente via angiografia por TCMF. Com base no grau de estenose arterial coronariana, aqueles com placas ausentes ou mínimas foram considerados como normais, enquanto aqueles que apresentavam estenose de menos do que 50% e no mínimo uma placa foram considerados como portadores da doença arterial coronariana não obstrutiva (não-obsDAC. Os pacientes que apresentaram no mínimo uma placa e estenose arterial coronariana de 50% ou mais foram considerados como portadores de doença arterial coronariana obstrutiva (obsDAC. A DHGNA foi determinada de acordo com o protocolo de TCMF, utilizando a densidade hepática. Resultados: De acordo com a densidade hepática, o número de pacientes com doença hepática gordurosa não alcoólica (grupo 1 foi de 204 (149 homens, 54,8% e com fígado normal (grupos 2 foi de 168 (95 homens, 45.2%. Houve 50 (24,5% não-obsDAC e 57 (27,9% casos de obsDAC no Grupo 1, e 39 (23,2% não-obsDAC e 23 (13,7% casos de obsDAC no Grupo 2. Conclusões: O presente estudo utilizando TCMF demonstrou que a frequência da doença arterial coronariana em pacientes com NAFDL foi significativamente superior do que nos pacientes em NAFDL.

  14. Marine terminal baseline criteria and assessment OCIMF; Avaliacao de terminais maritimos - criterio OCIMF

    Soares, Fabio Lindoso; Garcia, Luciano Maldonado [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    The development of PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. corporate standards, specifically meant for the marine terminals segment and based on the 'Marine Terminal Baseline Criteria and Assessment Questionnaire', published by 'Oil Companies International Marine Forum' was accomplished by a Team of in-house staff with the assistance of international outsourced consultancy. This project resulted in the adjustment of the company's processes to international practices enabling consistent management and operating assessment of marine terminals. (author)

  15. Evaluation of pelvic masses using magnetic resonance imaging; Avaliacao por ressonancia magnetica das massas pelvicas

    Souza, Luis Ronan Marques Ferreira de; Faintuch, Salomano; Goldman, Susan Menasce; Louveira, Maria Helena; Ajzen, Sergio Aron; Szejnfeld, Jacob [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem]. E-mail:


    To demonstrate the main magnetic resonance imaging findings in patients with adnexal masses. We reviewed the images of 33 patients submitted to magnetic resonance scans of the pelvis due to suspicion of adnexal masses. Images were obtained using the following magnetic resonance imaging sequences: T1 TSE axial, T2 TSE coronal, sagittal and axial, and T 1 SPIR axial pre- and post-gadolinium injection. Among the 33 patients studied, 17 had benign ovarian masses, five had uterine tube diseases, two had sub serous myomas, one had an ectopic pregnancy, one had an embryonic cyst and one had a urachal cyst. One of the advantages of magnetic resonance imaging is multiplanar analysis that allows evaluation of the extension of the expansive adnexal lesions. The excellent contrast between structures as well as the different characteristics of the lesions in each sequence allow diagnostic precision, particularly in patients with mature cystic teratomas, endometriomas and hemorrhagic cysts. (author)

  16. Algorithms evaluation for transformers differential protection; Avaliacao de algoritmos para protecao diferencial de transformadores

    Piovesan, Luis Sergio


    The appliance of two algorithms is evaluated, one based in Fourier analysis and other based in a rectangular transform technique over Fourier analysis, to be used in digital logical circuits (digital protection relays) for the purpose of differential protection of power transformers (ANSI 87T). The first chapter has a brief introduction about electrical protection. The second chapter discusses the general problems of transform protection, the development of digital technology and, with more detail, the differential protection associated to this technology. In this chapter are presented the particular aspects of transformers differential protection concerning sensibility, inrush current situations and harmonic distortions caused by transformer core saturations and the differential protection algorithms and their applications in a specific relay design. In chapter three, a method to make possible testing the protection performance is developed. This work applies digital simulations using EMTP to generate current signal of transformer operation and fault conditions. Digital simulation using Matlab is used to simulate the protection. The EMTP generated field signals are sent to the relay under test, furnishing data of normal operation, internal and external faults. The relay logic simulator at Matlab will work this data and so, it will be possible to verify and evaluate the algorithm behavior and performance. Chapter 4 shows the protection operation over simulations of several of transformer operation and fault conditions. The last chapter presents a conclusion about the protection performance, discussions about all the methods applied in this work and suggestions for further studies. (author)

  17. Evaluation of protection measurements for urban environments; Avaliacao de medidas de protecao para ambientes urbanos

    Rochedo, Elaine R.R., E-mail: [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CODIN/CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coord. de Instalacoes Nucleares; Silva, Diogo N.G.; Nascimento, Udilma; Conti, Luiz F., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Wasserman, Maria Angelica V., E-mail: maria.wasserman@pq.cnpq.b [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    Radioactive accidents has shown the necessity of a previous evaluation planning of exposure and directives for implementation of protection measurements. The description or measurements in the literature usually is associated to reduction of concentrations in the medium where they are applied. For verification the efficiency in dose reduction, it is necessary to proceed simulations. Through the development of data base on protection measurements, it was established basic sceneries, typically tropical as far the building type is concerned and the construction material. The program SIEM was used for simulation of contamination with {sup 137}Cs. The results indicates that generic solutions persuade not to and the decision make processes should be effectuated according to the real conditions of contamination and the use of affected area. For affected areas, two classification criteria were defined: (1) efficiency in reducing the dose in the first year; and (2) efficiency in dose reducing at long term

  18. Microhardness evaluation alloys Hf-Si-B; Avaliacao de microdureza de ligas Hf-Si-B

    Gigolotti, Joao Carlos Janio; Costa, Eliane Fernandes Brasil [Centro Universitario de Volta Redonda (UNIFOA), Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil); Nunes, Carlos Angelo; Rocha, Elisa Gombio; Coelho, Gilberto Carvalho, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Lorena, SP (Brazil)


    The technological advance has generated increasing demand for materials that can be used under high temperature, what includes intermetallic MR-Si-B (MR = refractory metal) alloys with multiphase structures, that can also be applied in oxide environments. Thus, this work had for objective the micro hardness study of the Hf-Si-B system alloys, heat treated at 1600 deg C, in the Hf rich region. Hf-Si-B alloys had been produced with blades of Hf (min. 99.8%), Si (min. 99.998%) and B (min. 99.5%), in the voltaic arc furnace and heat treated at 1600 deg C under argon atmosphere. The relationship of the phases had been previously identified by X-ray diffraction and contrast in backscattered electron imaging mode. The alloys had their hardness analyzed by method Vickers (micro hardness) with load of 0.05 kgf and 0.2 kgf and application time of 20 s. The results, obtained from the arithmetic mean of measurements for each alloy on the heterogeneous region, showed a mean hardness of 11.08 GPA, with small coefficient of variation of 3.8%. The borides HfB2 (19.34 GPa) e HfB - 11.76 GPa, showed the hardness higher than the silicides Hf2Si (8.57 GPa), Hf5Si3 (9.63 GPa), Hf3Si2 (11.66 GPa), Hf5Si4 (10.00 GPa), HfSi (10.02 GPa) e HfSi2 (8.61 GPa). (author)

  19. Intracranial arterial anatomy: evaluation by computed tomography angiography; Anatomia arterial intracraniana: avaliacao por angiotomografia computadorizada

    Regattieri, Neysa Aparecida Tinoco, E-mail: [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Haetinger, Rainer Guilherme; Liberti, Edson Aparecido [Universidade de Sao Paulo (ICB III/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biomedicas; Piske, Ronie Leo [Hospital Beneficencia Portuguesa de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    By many decades, the intracranial arteries study was realized exclusively by angiography through selective arterial catheterization. Nowadays, with the technologic evaluation of computerized tomography devices with multi detectors allowing acquisitions with even more thinner slices, higher speed and better resolution, it had appeared a new modality of investigation: the computed tomography angiography, less invasive and with minor morbidity than conventional arteriography. Many studies in the literature have been analyzing the sensibility of the new method for the detection of intracranial aneurysms and comparing them with the conventional arteriography. There is a necessity to recognize the normal intracranial arterial anatomy and its variations using images obtained from multiplanar reformations, in order to give important information for surgeries strategies, such as wall calcifications, aneurismatic neck position and relationships with surrounding anatomical structures. (author)

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of traumatic muscle injuries; Avaliacao por ressonancia magnetica das injurias musculares traumaticas

    Dias, Elisa Pompeu [Santa Casa de Misericordia do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia; Coutinho Junior, Antonio Carlos; Domingues, Romulo Cortes; Domingues, Romeu Cortes [Centro Medico Barrashopping, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Clinica de Diagnostico por Imagem (CDPI)


    We evaluated 43 magnetic resonance scans of the leg or thigh of patients suffering from sports trauma. Strains were the most frequent lesions observed. These lesions presented iso- or hypointense signal on T1 and hyperintense signal on T2 images, and were classified according to the intensity of the injury of the fibers into grades 1, 2 and 3. The second most common lesions in these series were contusions that appeared iso- or hypointense on T1 and hyperintense on T2 images. Fibrosis was also observed as low signal lesions on T1 and T2 images. (author)

  1. Radionuclide evaluation in malignant external otitis; Avaliacao com radionuclideos da otite externa maligna

    Wolosker, Sara; Penha Costa Marques, Marise da [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Fonseca, Lea Miriam Barbosa da [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina]|[Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Medicina Nuclear


    Malignant external otitis (MEO) is a severe infection of the external auditory canal that can result in osteomyelitis of the skull base. Twenty-eight patients with MEO (19 diabetics, 8 with AIDS and 1 with acute mielogenous leukemia) were evaluated using {sup 99m} Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy. {sup 67} Ga citrate and computed tomography (CT) at the time of diagnosis for establishing the MEO extent. {sup 67} Ga scans were obtained periodically in order to assess the evolution of the treatment. {sup 99m} Tc scans had shown high sensitivity and specificity in assessing the bone disease. Serial {sup 67} Ga scans had shown to be valuable indicators of infection remission. CT scans provided poor diagnosis of early bone involvement. (author). 26 refs., 4 figs.

  2. Model of global evaluation for energetic resources; Modelo de avaliacao global de recursos energeticos

    Fujii, Ricardo Junqueira; Udaeta, Miguel Edgar Morales; Galvao, Luiz Claudio Ribeiro [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Energia e Automacao Eletricas. Grupo de Energia]. E-mail:;;


    The traditional energy planning usually takes into account the technical economical costs, considered alongside environmental and a few political restraints; however, there is a lack of methods to evenly assess environmental, economical, social and political costs. This work tries to change such scenario by elaborating a model to characterize an energy resource in all four dimensions - environmental, political, social and economical - in an integrated view. The model aims at two objectives: provide a method to assess the global cost of the energy resource and estimate its potential considering the limitations provided by these dimensions. To minimize the complexity of the integration process, the model strongly recommends the use of the Full Cost Accounting - FCA - method to assess the costs and benefits from any given resource. The FCA allows considering quantitative and qualitative costs, reducing the need of quantitative data, which are limited in some cases. The model has been applied in the characterization of the region of Aracatuba, located in the west part of the state of Sao Paulo - Brazil. The results showed that the potential of renewable sources are promising, especially when the global costs are considered. Some resources, in spite of being economically attractive, don't provide an acceptable global cost. It became clear that the model is a valuable tool when the conventional tools fail to address many issues, especially the need of an integrated view on the planning process; the results from this model can be applied in a portfolio selection method to evaluate the best options for a power system expansion. It has to be noticed that the usefulness of this model can be increased when adopted with a method to analyze demand side management measures, thus offering a complete set of possible choices of energy options for the decision maker. (author)

  3. Atresia of the gastrointestinal tract: imaging evaluation; Atresia do trato gastrintestinal: avaliacao por metodos de imagem

    Figueiredo, Sizenildo da Silva; Nobrega, Bruno Barcelos da; Ribeiro, Luiza Helena Vilela; Costa, Marlos Augusto Bittencourt; Monteiro, Soraya Silveira; Lederman, Henrique Manoel [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem]. E-mail:; Oliveira, Galba Leite [Irmandade Santa Casa de Misericordia de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem; Esteves, Edward [Goias Univ., Goiania, GO (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Cirurgia e Urologia Pediatrica


    A wide spectrum of congenital anomalies may affect the gastrointestinal tract at any level from the esophagus to the anus. Atresia is an important cause of gastrointestinal obstruction with high morbidity rate in neonates. Different pathogenetic mechanisms could cause this malformation and the two classical explanations are: a defect of recanalization of the intestinal tube or an interruption of blood supply during intrauterine life. The authors present a literature review with an iconographic essay of imaging findings in children with gastrointestinal atresia. (author)

  4. Avaliacao de Desempenho de Sistemas de Saude: um modelo de analise

    Viacava, Francisco; Uga, Maria Alicia Dominguez; Porto, Silvia; Laguardia, Josue; Moreira, Rodrigo da Silva


    ... do desempenho dos servicos de saude: efetividade, acesso, eficiencia e adequacao. Descreve o processo de selecao dos indicadores utilizados e uma sintese dos resultados para cada subdimensao do desempenho...

  5. Avaliacao da seguranca de diferentes doses de suplementos de acido folico em mulheres do Brasil

    Quenia dos Santos


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO Avaliar a distribuição da ingestão de ácido fólico e a segurança de diferentes doses de suplementos em mulheres em idade reprodutiva. MÉTODOS Foram utilizados dados de consumo a partir de dois dias não consecutivos de registro alimentar de 6.837 mulheres em idade reprodutiva (19 a 40 anos participantes do Inquérito Nacional de Alimentação, módulo da Pesquisa de Orçamentos Familiares 2008-2009. Médias e percentis de consumo habitual de folato natural e ácido fólico foram estimados utilizando o método do National Cancer Institute . Cinco cenários foram simulados somando-se diferentes doses diárias de fortificação (400 mcg, 500 mcg, 600 mcg, 700 mcg e 800 mcg ao ácido fólico oriundo dos alimentos consumidos pelas mulheres. Comparou-se o total de ácido fólico (dieta + suplemento com o nível máximo de ingestão tolerável (UL = 1.000 mcg para definir a dose segura de suplementação. RESULTADOS Mulheres com ingestão habitual de ácido fólico acima do nível máximo de ingestão tolerável foram observadas para doses de suplemento de 800 mcg (7,0% das mulheres. Abaixo desse valor, qualquer dose de suplementação mostrou-se segura. CONCLUSÕES O uso de suplementos de até 700 mcg de ácido fólico mostrou-se seguro.

  6. LNG businesses evaluation: strategic positioning; Avaliacao de negocios de GNL: posicionamento estrategico

    Toste, Ana Cristina Leitao Goncalves; Frozza, Eduardo [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    Given the global development of the LNG industry and the changes it has suffered along the recent years, companies must evaluate how they should better position themselves towards this business, in order to optimize resources and maximize gains. The present work discusses three fictitious cases, in an effort to delineate and understand the several issues that impact a business decision in the LNG industry. In each case, business evaluation is performed taking into consideration project economics, as well as risk and strategy issues. (author)

  7. Integrity assessment of pipelines - additional remarks; Avaliacao da integridade de dutos - observacoes adicionais

    Alves, Luis F.C. [PETROBRAS S.A., Salvador, BA (Brazil). Unidade de Negocios. Exploracao e Producao


    Integrity assessment of pipelines is part of a process that aims to enhance the operating safety of pipelines. During this task, questions related to the interpretation of inspection reports and the way of regarding the impact of several parameters on the pipeline integrity normally come up. In order to satisfactorily answer such questions, the integrity assessment team must be able to suitably approach different subjects such as corrosion control and monitoring, assessment of metal loss and geometric anomalies, and third party activities. This paper presents additional remarks on some of these questions based on the integrity assessment of almost fifty pipelines that has been done at PETROBRAS/E and P Bahia over the past eight years. (author)

  8. Methodologies for assessment of three phase induction motors; Metodologias para avaliacao de motores de inducao trifasicos

    Ramos, Mario Cesar E.S.; Tatizawa, Hedio [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil); Ramos, Mario Cesar Giacco [Universidade de Mogi das Cruzes (UMC), SP (Brazil)


    National and international methodologies are presented existing for determination of the yield of industrial three phase induction motors, viewing the energy consumption reduction and assessment of possible equipment replacement. So, measurement results were analysed, conducted by five enterprises specialized on motor efficiency. Also, it is presented a case study using the described methodologies.

  9. Quality evaluation of blood irradiation process;Avaliacao da qualidade do processo de irradiacao de hemocomponentes

    Goto, R.E.; Medeiros, R.B. [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (DDI/UNIFESP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem. Coordenadoria de Fisica e Higiene das Radiacoes


    An adverse reaction in blood transfusion is the graft versus host disease (GVHD). This disease affects immunodeficient or immunosuppressed patients where transfused T cells proliferate and initiate a host's immune system reaction. Blood gamma irradiation is the most efficient way to inhibit lymphocyte T blastic transformation and mitotic activity and it is the most effective method to combat this disorder. However, there is no fast and effective system to analyze the dose distribution in the irradiation process and guarantee that the absorbed doses are in agreement with FDA recommendations. This study aims to establish a periodic quality control of the gammacell irradiators using radiochromic films properly calibrated. The quality control is simply and effective to combat GVHD as well as is useful to detect mechanical fails at rotation set system through the dose uniformity analysis. It was possible to verify the uniformity ranged from -72.38% to 106.33% and some blood bag received doses not compatible with recommended international threshold. (author)

  10. Business evaluation by the maximum leverage; Avaliacao de negocios pela alavancagem maxima

    Ribas, Jose Roberto; Mendes, Antonio Geraldo S. [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Transportes


    It has been observed that the approach adopted by the entrepreneur for cash flow construction has been focused principally on the way the lender usually faces up the investment, that means, to consider the loan as project oriented rather then business oriented. Such behavior makes a big difference, as the concentration of investment and operations strength in a single direction rejects the advantages that come through diversification, like risk mitigation by hedging and asset combination techniques. This paper brings up the analysis on the benefits of maximum leverage or, in other words, deals with the available rewards in the capital market when interest rate alternatives and risk evaluation when the company is already receiving revenues. Such procedure helps to establish loan terms agreement during the project phase establish loan terms agreement during the project phase and minimize collateral barriers during securities placement. (author) 2 refs., 1 fig.

  11. Avaliacao de interacoes medicamentosas potenciais em prescricoes da atencao primaria de Vitoria da Conquista (BA, Brasil

    Danyllo Fabio Lessa Leao


    Full Text Available As interações medicamentosas são fatores de risco para a ocorrência de reações adversas a medicamentos. Este estudo teve o objetivo de avaliar as interações medicamentosas potenciais em prescrições da atenção primária de Vitória da Conquista (BA, visando preencher a lacuna de conhecimento sobre essa temática no Brasil. Foram coletadas informações sobre diversas variáveis de prescrições oriundas da atenção primária e as interações medicamentosas avaliadas a partir dos bancos de dados do Medscape e Micromedex(r. Verificou-se ainda a frequência de polifarmácia e associação desta com a ocorrência de interações medicamentosas. Os resultados mostraram frequência de 48,9% de interações medicamentosas, 74,9% delas de gravidade moderada ou maior, e 8,6% de prescrições em polifarmácia que, em teste qui-quadrado, mostrou associação positiva com ocorrência de interações medicamentosas potenciais (p < 0,001. As prescrições oriundas da atenção primária de Vitória da Conquista (BA apresentaram uma alta frequência de interações medicamentosas, porém faz-se necessária a análise de outros fatores de risco para ocorrência destas nesse nível de atenção à saúde.

  12. Avaliacao da gestao ambiental dos hoteis de selva na Amazonia, Brasil

    Gomes de Moraes, Adriana


    Full Text Available In the challenge of desvelar of that it forms the hoteleiros enterprises they manage its ambient action without causing great impacts in one of biggest ecosystems of the world, the Amazonian forest, was tried to know in this research the forms of ambient management of the located hotels of forest in the legal Amazônia. The norteadora question of the research was to know that type of ambient management is made by the hotels of selva?Foi used as instrument of collection of data the questionnaire, that if subdividiui in four great subjects to be searched. The first one was relative questions to the planning of the place, according to to the profile of the customer, third to the room and the relative questions architecture the building subject relative questions to the energy resources and infrastructure of the public services. As result of this analysis was concluded that two of three hotels searched are practising management ambient of form less impactante, since type of construction adopted until services offered to guests, or either shows objective that its hotel is coadjuvante for customer that visits this type of place, that stops it does not import luxury, comfort and amenities, more yes contact with the fauna and flora and way of life of the natives.

  13. Persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous: imaging evaluation; Persistencia hiperplastica do vitreo primitivo: avaliacao por metodos de imagem

    Jacob, Beatriz Mahmud; Teixeira, Kim-Ir-Sen Santos; Figueiredo, Sizenildo da Silva; Nobrega, Bruno Barcelos da [Universidade Federal de Goias, Goiania (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem]. E-mail:


    Persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous (PHPV) is a congenital developmental anomaly of the eye that primarily affects premature infants. PHPV results from failure of regression of the embryogenic primary vitreous and hyaloid vasculature, and proliferation of connective tissue. Three types of PHPV may be found: anterior, posterior and a combination of anterior and posterior. The clinical findings include leukocoria (white pupillary reflex) and microphthalmic eye. This anomaly is usually unilateral and unassociated with other systemic findings. The differential diagnosis between PHPV and other ocular diseases may be difficult due to similar features such as leukocoria, detached retina, retinal folds and cataract. Other diseases with similar features include retinoblastoma, isolated congenital cataract, retinopathy of prematurity and pseudo gliomas or leukocorias. Direct visualization of the remnants of the fetal hyaloid vascular system offers the best evidence of PHPV. However, diagnosis using the ophthalmoscope is sometimes impossible because of opaque tissues. In this circumstance an indirect visualization by ultrasound, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging may be useful. These imaging methods provide valuable information for the differentiation from other diseases, particularly retinoblastoma. The authors present a review of the literature and an iconographic study of the imaging findings in patients with PHPV. (author)

  14. Performance evaluation of three-phase electric motors; Avaliacao do desempenho de motores eletricos trifasicos

    Burgoa, Jaime Antonio; Simoes, Nelson Wander Beirao [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Cogo, Joao Roberto [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)


    Tests and analysis of performance to the electric generators made by Brazilian industry, is related. The tests program was developed in the Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba under the patronage of Programa Nacional de Conservacao de energia Eletrica. The results of tests,the parameters which define the performance of these motors, are also showed 8 refs., 6 tabs.

  15. Evaluation of occupational exposure in intraoral radiography; Avaliacao da dose ocupacional em radiografia intraoral

    Miguel, Cristiano; Barros, Frieda S.; Rocha, Anna S.P.S.; Godoi, Walmor C., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Tilly Junior, Joao G., E-mail: [Universidade Federal do Parana (HC/UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas


    The intraoral radiography is widely performed in the dental office due to low cost and agility. The doses in intraoral radiology are considered low, however it is known that doses below the threshold for deterministic radiation has the potential to induce stochastic effects. An intraoral radiography has a risk of inducing fatal cancer or serious in order of 1:10,000,000. Besides the patient, the dentist may also be being exposed to radiation during the work with the radiographics practices. The bibliographies demonstrates the lack of information on radiation protection of dentists, however, the occupational dose reduction was observed in radiology over the past 14 years. This work aims to evaluate the effective dose of radiation to which workers can be exposed dentists in dental offices to perform intraoral radiographs. In this context, a study was be conducted between June 2013 and May 2014 with 44 professionals in Curitiba city. For each dentist was given a personal dosimeter to be used for 30 days. During this period, the number of radiographies and the length of the cable triggers of the X-ray equipment was registered and, the dosimeter´s dose was read. It was observed that the cables triggers meet regulatory standards and allow dentists to get the mean minimum distance of two meters from the radiation source in 93% of cases. Through analysis of the doses, it was concluded that occupational exposures of these workers are within the recommended threshold by regulatory 453/1998 of the Ministry of Health from Brazil. (author)

  16. Castor oil biodiesel: an economic evaluation; Biodiesel de mamona: uma avaliacao economica

    Pires, Monica de Moura; Alves, Jaenes Miranda; Almeida Neto, Jose Adolfo de; Almeida, Cezar Menezes; Sousa, Geovania Silva de; Cruz, Rosenira Serpa da; Monteiro, Renata; Lopes, Beatriz Sampaio; Robra, Sabine [Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilheus, BA (Brazil). Grupo Bioenergia e Meio Ambiente]. E-mails:;;;


    The production cost of castor oil biodiesel by methyl way and its economic viability, using as reference the production cost data of castor oil and the implantation of the pilot plant at UESC - state university of Santa Cruz, Bahia State, Brazil was determined. From this information, it was seen that the estimated price of castor oil biodiesel is close to the diesel price in the Itabuna market, Bahia state, Brazil. The indicators show economic viability of the mini-power plant installation. Such information are preliminary estimative for the market and can be modified as function of changes in the main factors used to have the production costs, as well as the sectorial policies that drives the activity as much in levels of raw material production as in biodiesel.

  17. Avaliacao da confiabilidade e validade do Indice de Qualidade da Dieta Revisado

    Samantha Caesar de Andrade


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO Avaliar a confiabilidade e a validade do Índice de Qualidade da Dieta Revisado de acordo com as propriedades psicométricas. MÉTODOS Estudo transversal em amostra probabilística do município de São Paulo, SP, com 2.375 indivíduos com idade maior ou igual a 12 anos, de ambos os sexos, incluídos no Inquérito de Saúde, realizado em 2003. As informações sobre características da população foram obtidas por meio de questionário. Dados do consumo alimentar foram obtidos pela aplicação do Recordatório de 24 horas, utilizado para calcular o Índice de Qualidade da Dieta Revisado (IQD-R. Foram avaliados (1 validade de conteúdo, comparando os componentes com as recomendações do Guia Alimentar para a População Brasileira; (2 validade de constructo, por meio da análise fatorial pelo método dos componentes principais e verificando se o índice consegue mensurar a qualidade da dieta independente da energia ingerida; (3 validade discriminante; e (4 a confiabilidade do IQD-R pela análise da consistência interna dos itens utilizando o coeficiente alfa de Cronbach. RESULTADOS As correlações entre os escores dos componentes e a energia consumida foram fracas (r # 1 que representaram 67% da variância do índice. A validade discriminante do IQD-R foi observada comparando os indivíduos por sexo e hábito de fumar, identificando diferenças estatisticamente significativas entre as médias dos componentes do IQD-R e o escore final. O valor do alfa de Cronbach (α = 0,7 indicou a presença de consistência interna entre os componentes do IQD-R. O componente Gord_AA, seguido dos componentes frutas totais e frutas integrais, apresentaram maior correlação com a pontuação final do índice. CONCLUSÕES O Índice de Qualidade da Dieta Revisado mostrou-se confiável e estruturalmente válido quando utilizado para avaliar e monitorar a qualidade da dieta de brasileiros.

  18. Impacts evaluation: recent experience in rural electrification; Avaliacao de impactos: experiencia recente em eletrificacao rural

    Pereira, Marcio Giannini; Rodrigues, Alexia de Freitas; Paz, Luciana Rocha Leal da [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Camacho, Cristiane Farias [Fundacao Padre Leonel Franca (FPLF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    The electric power is one of the important requirements for the promotion of the social inclusion and of the development, especially in rural areas. In order to fill out this gap, the Brazilian government established as a goal reaches the universalization of the public electric energy services to provide conditions for the improvement of the quality of life of the urban and rural population. In this sense, the evaluation of the recent experiences in rural electrification can be of great help to achieve this objective in an efficient way. The results of such evaluation can point out some actions for the universalization of the attendance seeking for the continuous improvement of the planning and decision making process, either in the direction of the attendance of the proposed goals or in the poverty mitigation. (author)

  19. Probabilistic evaluation of the Brazilian interconnected power systems; Avaliacao probabilistica do desempenho do sistema interligado brasileiro

    Melo, A.C.G.; Mello, J.C.O.; Romero, S.P.; Oliveira, G.C. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Fontoura Filho, R.N. [ELETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    This paper describes the main features of the NH{sub 2} model, developed for the probabilistic evaluation of the adequacy of large scale power systems. The system analysis is carried out through a full set of indicators, including reliability indices and probability distributions of selected variables, such as area interchanges, power flow in circuits, voltage in buses etc. These indicators are calculated in two stages: before and after the introduction of remedial actions. Also, the model yields the representation of system hourly load curve, with uncertainty around the load levels. The flexibility and performance of the NH2 model are illustrated in case studies with a 1400-bus, configuration of the Brazilian system. (author) 12 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  20. Imperfect twinning - evaluation by imaging methods; Gemelidade imperfeita - avaliacao pelos metodos de imagem

    Teixeira, Arildo Correa; Julio, Hamilton [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Disciplina de Ginecologia e Obstetricia; Mazer, Sergio; Urban, Linei Augusta Brolini Delle [Parana Univ., Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Radiologia]. E-mail:


    Conjoined twins are rare malformations and a challenge for both radiologists and pediatric surgeons. Antenatal evaluation is essential for the identification of anatomic fusions and other associated abnormalities, which will enable an adequate surgical planning and the assessment of fetal prognosis. The authors present the clinical and imaging findings of thoracopagus twins, joined by the anterior portion of the thorax, sharing the heart and the liver. Diagnosis was made by ultrasonography and confirmed with fetal magnetic resonance imaging. (author)

  1. Computed tomography evaluation of mast cell tumours; Avaliacao por tomografia computadorizada dos mastocitomas

    Lorigados, Carla Aparecida Batista; Matera, Julia Maria; Macedo, Thais; Pinto, Ana Carolina Brandao Fonseca, E-mail: [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia. Dept. de Cirurgia


    The mast cell tumours are common tumours of the canine skin. Computed tomography (CT) has assumed an important role in tumours evaluation and staging. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of CT as a method of assessing characteristics of mast cell tumors. Ten dogs with mast cell tumor were evaluated. CT was performed before and after the intravenous injection of hydro soluble ionic iodine. Attenuation, contrast enhancement, cleavage with adjacent tissues and the unidimensional measurement of each lesion was determined in it maximum diameter, in transversal plane. Concerning the attenuation characteristic, 50% were homogeneous and 50% heterogeneous. The contrast enhancement was homogeneous in 50% of cases, heterogeneous in 40% and peripheral in 10%. Fifty percent of the tumours showed loss of plane of cleavage and 30% partial loss. This information can help in directing the patients that will be undergoing chemotherapy or surgery. (author)

  2. Severe bronchiectasis in a dog: tomographic evaluation; Severa bronquiectasia em um cao: avaliacao tomografica

    Babicsak, Viviam Rocco; Campos, Lidice Araujo; Belotta, Alexandra Frey; Oliveira, Hugo Salvador de; Inamassu, Leticia Rocha; Charlier, Murilo Gomes de Soutello; Mamprim, Maria Jaqueline; Vulcano, Luiz Carlos, E-mail: [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FMVZ/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia. Dept. de Reproducao Animal e Radiologia Veterinaria


    Bronchiectasis is a bronchial dilatation caused by changes in the bronchial wall usually due to infectious processes. Computed tomography is an important imaging modality for the evaluation of this alteration due to its high sensitivity. In this study we describe the case report of a 6-year-old female mixed breed dog with severe and generalized bronchiectasis on computed tomography. Due to the severe extent of bronchiectasis, the method of measurement of the adjacent pulmonary artery and its relationship to the bronchus did not have to be performed. An indirect sign of bronchiectasis identified in the patient was the bronchial wall thickening, possibly due to the infiltration of inflammatory components, edema and even by peri-bronchial abscesses. (author)

  3. Empreendimentos imobiliarios com permuta: avaliacao pela abordagem da teoria das opcoes reais (TOR)

    Goulart Serra, Ricardo; Martelanc, Roy; Ferreira de Sousa, Almir


    .... A abordagem pela teoria das opcoes reais (TOR) supre essa deficiencia. Este artigo avalia um empreendimento imobiliario com permuta com flexibilidade de adiamento e constata que o valor obtido atraves da abordagem da TOR foi 22,6...

  4. Magnetomotive colon elastography: preliminary assessment; Elastografia magnetomotriz da regiao do colon: avaliacao preliminar em phantoms

    Bruno, A. Colello, E-mail: [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina; Grillo, F.W.; Sampaio, D.R.T.; Carneiro, A.A.O. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia Ciencias e Letras


    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common malignant neoplasm worldwide and early diagnosis reduces morbidity. The standard preventive exams methods are uncomfortable for the patient, invasive, and /or are ionizing. Here, we evaluate the potential of magneto-motive ultrasound (MMUS) as a new, minimally invasive CRC screening technique. We developed a hybrid transducer (comprised of an ultrasound probe and a magnetic coil system) to construct relative elastography maps in a paraffin phantom with isoechoic inclusions. The electromagnetic component of our system manipulated ferromagnetic fluid located inside of our synthetic colon, and the captured ultrasound images were used to produce relative elastography maps. The MMUS images reveal by otherwise invisible structures based on differences in stiffness. Ultrasound elastography (relative) images by MMUs technique complements usual preventive CRC exams, is minimally invasive, has relative low cost when compared with others image methods. Also is fast diagnose and more comfortable for patient which prevents withdrawal of the screening. (author)

  5. Implementation and evaluation of a batch digester; Implementacao e avaliacao de um biodigestor de producao discontinua

    Duarte Neto, Ely Dias; Alvarenga, Leonardo Henrique; Costa, Lilian de Melo; Nascimento, Paulo Henrique; Silveira, Rafael Zanini; Leite, Leonardo Henrique de Melo [Centro Universitario de Belo Horizonte (UniBH), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mails:,,,,,


    The human development is intrinsically linked to the types of energy that had access. The control of the fire was the first big step for mankind. The use of Natural gas begins in the twentieth century in America, but with exports to Russia with the largest reserves on the planet, natural gas took place in the coal fired power. Today natural gas has become the world more energy used in power plants and is the fastest growing energy use in the world. This article describes an experimental implementation of a digester showing the equivalence between the production of biogas and the amount of material used and the practice that seeks to provide a small producer of an energy source. The biomass, after passing through the digester and producing biogas, also produces bio fertilizer for fertilization of soils. (author)

  6. Väitekiri Balkani ja Baltimaade keelte evidentsiaalsusest / Hannu Tommola

    Tommola, Hannu


    Arvustus: Kehayov, Petar. An areal-typological perspective to evidentiality: the cases of the Balkan and Baltic linguistic areas. Tartu : Tartu University Press, 2008. (Dissertationes linguisticae Universitatis Tartuensis ; 10)

  7. Väitekiri Balkani ja Baltimaade keelte evidentsiaalsusest / Hannu Tommola

    Tommola, Hannu


    Arvustus: Kehayov, Petar. An areal-typological perspective to evidentiality: the cases of the Balkan and Baltic linguistic areas. Tartu : Tartu University Press, 2008. (Dissertationes linguisticae Universitatis Tartuensis ; 10)

  8. O papel da mídia na construção social do risco: o caso Adrianópolis, no Vale do Ribeira The role of the media in the social construction of risk: the Adrianópolis case in Ribeira valley

    Gabriela Marques Di Giulio


    Full Text Available Analisa a influência da mídia na construção social do risco, a partir das diferentes percepções e atitudes de moradores de uma comunidade exposta à contaminação por chumbo. O estudo contemplou análise documental e pesquisa de campo com o objetivo de compreender o papel da mídia no processo de amplificação social do risco nesse caso e observar como as respostas a uma situação de risco interagem com processos psicológicos, sociais, institucionais e culturais. Além da influência direta da mídia, este estudo de caso revelou a incidência de outros fatores a moldar as percepções do risco da comunidade, como a falta de confiança nas instituições e nos políticos, a relação do risco com as atividades ocupacionais e os valores culturais e sociais.This article analyzes the influence of the media on the social construction of risk, from the different perceptions and attitudes of the residents of a community exposed to lead poisoning. The study used a combination of documental analysis and field research to build up an understanding of the role the media had taken in the social amplification of risk in this particular case and to observe how the responses to a situation of risk interacted with psychological, social, institutional and cultural processes. Aside from the direct influence of the media, this case study reveals the importance of other factors in molding the community's risk perceptions, such as a mistrust of institutions and politicians, the relationship between risk and work activities and cultural and social values.

  9. Relationship between the prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen and arbovirus in fishermen from the Ribeira Valley, Brazil Relação entre as prevalências de anticorpos para hepatite B (anti-HBc e arbovirus em pescadores da região do Vale do Ribeira, São Paulo, Brasil

    Lygia Busch Iversson


    Full Text Available Sera from 299 fishermen 16 to 80 years old, residents in Cananeia and Iguape counties, southern cost of São Paulo State, Brazil, were studied in order to identify a possible association between the prevalence of specific antibodies to the hepatitis B virus (HBV and exposure to haematophagus mosquitoes evaluated by the prevalence of arbovirus antibodies. This professional group presented the highest prevalence of arbovirus antibodies (54.1% in past investigations carried out in this heavily forested region. Detection of antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc in the sera was done by enzyme immunoassay (Roche. Prevalence of anti-HBc antibodies in this group was 31.4% (94/299 which is very high compared with 7.2% to 15.0% for different groups of healthy adults in State of São Paulo. No significant difference is observed between the prevalences of HBV antibodies in Iguape and Cananeia. Prevalence of anti-HBc and anti-arbovirus antibodies increases with age. There is a concordance in the distribution according to age groups of the frequency of anti-HBc and anti-arbovirus positive sera. Ag HBs was detected in 4% of the studied sera. These results support the hypothesis that the transmission of the hepatitis B virus and the arboviruses may be due to the same factor, one of the possibilities would be by anthropophilic mosquitoes.Soros de 299 pescadores de 18 a 80 anos de idade, residentes nos municípios de Iguape e Cananéia, região sul do Estado de São Paulo, foram estudados com o objetivo de identificar uma possível associação entre a prevalência de anticorpos específicos para a hepatite B e a exposição a mosquitos hematófagos, avaliada indiretamente pela prevalência de anticorpos de arbovírus. Esse grupo profissional apresentou, em pesquisas anteriores nessa área extensamente coberta por mata, a mais alta prevalência de anticorpos de arbovírus (54,1%. Utilizou-se teste imunoenzimático para detecção de anti-HBc e HBs Ag. Em 31,4% dos soros estavam presentes anticorpos anti-HBc, proporção significativamente mais alta que as detectadas em adultos sadios examinados no Estado de São Paulo (7,2% a 15,0%. HBs Ag foi observado em 4% dos soros examinados. As prevalências de anticorpos de arbovírus e hepatite B aumentaram significante-mente com a idade (p < 0,05, ocorrendo concordância na distribuição das freqüências segundo idade entre os soros positivos para hepatite B e para arbovírus. Os resultados sugerem uma forma semelhante de transmissão desses agentes apoiando a hipótese da transmissão de hepatite B por mosquitos antropofílicos.

  10. Teores de gordura e acidos graxos de clones de cacau nas condições do Vale do Ribeira (SP Fat and fatty acids content of cocoa clones under the conditions of Vale do Ribeira, State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Maria Luiza Sant'Anna Tucci


    Full Text Available O Estado de São Paulo é uma das regiões em que se cultiva o cacaueiro (Theobroma cacao L. mais afastadas do equador, com características climáticas distintas daquelas registradas nas regiões tradicionais de cultivo. A manteiga de cacau apresenta características físico-químicas peculiares, estreitamente relacionadas aos teores dos ácidos graxos que a constituem, os quais são influenciados pelas condições climáticas, especialmente a temperatura do ar. No presente trabalho, caracterizaram-se treze genótipos de cacau, da coleção do Instituto Agronômico, em Pariquera-Açu a 24°43' S, 47°53' W e 25 m de altitude, com base no teor de gordura e na composição em ácidos graxo. Os clones estudados foram os seguintes: SCA 6, SCA 12, IAC 1, ICS 39, ICS 60, ICS 95, UF29, UF 613, UF 667, UF 668, UF 677, P 7 e IMC 67. Houve diferenças significativas entre os clones quanto ao teor de gordura, que variou de 50,7%, para o ICS 95, a 57,6%, para o IAC 1. A composição de ácidos graxos diferiu significativamente entre os clones, exceto para o ácido araquídico. A relação entre ácidos graxos saturados e insaturados variou de 1,37 a 1,74: os clones SCA 12, SCA 6 e P 7 diferiram estatisticamente dos clones ICS 39, 60, 95, IMC 67 e UF 668.The State of São Paulo (Brazil represents the farthest region from the equator in which cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. is cultivated, with different climatic conditions from those observed in the traditional growing areas. Cocoa butter shows peculiar physical and chemical characteristics closely related to fatty acids balance, which are influenced by climatic conditions, mainly air temperature. This paper deals with the characterization of 13 clones of cocoa, growing in the State of São Paulo, based on fat content and fatty acid composition for the climatic conditions of Pariquera-Açu Experimental Station, at 24°43' S, 47°53' W and 25 m of altitude. The clones studied were: SCA 6, SCA 12, IAC 1, ICS 39, ICS 60, ICS 95, OF 29, OF 613, OF 667, OF 668, OF 677, P 7 e IMC 67. Significant differences were found for fat content, which varied from 50.7% for ICS 95 to 57.6% for IAC 1. Fatty acid composition differed significantly among the clones, except for araquidic acid. The saturated and unsaturated fatty acids ratio varied from 1.37 to 1.74, and the clones of SCA 12, SCA 6 and P 7 differed statistically for ICS 39, ICS 60, ICS 95, IMC 67 and OF 668 clones.

  11. Phlebotomines (Diptera, Psychodidae in the Ribeira Valley Speleological Province - 1. Parque Estadual Intervales, state of São Paulo, Brazil Phlebotominae (Diptera, Psychodidae na Província Espeleológica do Vale do Ribeira - 1. Parque Estadual Intervales (PEI, estado de São Paulo, Brasil

    Eunice Aparecida Bianchi Galati


    Full Text Available The identification of the sandfly fauna and investigation of some ecological aspects of its populations in areas frequented by tourists of the PEI, an Atlantic forest reserve with many caves, were the objective of this study. Captures were undertaken monthly from January 2001 to December 2002, with automatic light traps installed in 13 ecotopes, including caves, forests, domiciliary and peridomiciliary environments, and by aspiration in armadillo burrows. Additionally, although not at regular intervals, Shannon traps were installed in forests and anthropic environments, aspirations were made on cave walls, among roots and fallen leaves, and some insects were captured while biting researchers. A total of 891 sandflies belonging to 21 species were captured. Six hundred specimens representing 19 species were captured with light traps, 215 in anthropic (2.24 insects/trap and 385 in extra-domiciliary (1.46 insects/trap environments. Brumptomyia troglodytes was the most abundant species (the Standardised Index of Species Abundance = 0.705. Pintomyia monticola predominated in the Shannon traps and showed anthropophilic and diurnal activity. Psathyromyia pascalei predominated in the aspirations; the largest number being in armadillo burrows. Eleven species were captured in caves; although some might be troglophiles, the majority used these ecotopes as resting places. Nyssomyia intermedia, Nyssomyia neivai and Migonemyia migonei, implicated in the transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Southeastern Brazilian region, were all found, though in such low densities as to suggest minimal risk of the disease in the PEI.A identificação da fauna flebotomínea e de alguns aspectos ecológicos de suas populações em áreas freqüentadas por turistas no PEI, situado em reserva de mata Atlântica, constituem-se nos objetivos deste estudo. As capturas foram mensais de janeiro/2001 a dezembro/2002, com armadilhas automáticas luminosas em 13 ecótopos, incluindo cavernas, matas e peridomicílio e aspiração em tocas de tatus. Sem intervalos regulares, foram realizadas capturas com armadilhas de Shannon na mata e ambientes antrópicos, aspiração em paredes de cavernas e entre raízes e folhedo e em membros da equipe quando picados por flebotomíneos. No total foram capturados 891 flebotomíneos pertencentes a 21 espécies. Com as armadilhas automáticas luminosas capturou-se 19 espécies e 600 espécimes, 215 em ambiente antrópico (2,24 insetos/armadilha e 385 em ambiente natural (1,46 insetos/armadilha. Brumptomyia troglodytes foi a mais abundante, com o índice de abundância das espécies padronizado = 0,705. Pintomyia monticola predominou nas armadilhas de Shannon, mostrando-se antropofílica e com atividade hematofágica diurna e noturna. Psathyromyia pascalei predominou nas aspirações, com a maioria dos espécimes aspirados de tocas de tatu. Das 11 espécies capturadas em cavernas, embora algumas possam ser consideradas troglófilas, a maioria usa este ecótopo como local de abrigo. Nyssomyia intermedia, Nyssomyia neivai e Migonemyia migonei, implicados na transmissão da leishmaniose tegumentar na Região Sudeste do Brasil foram capturados, todavia em tão baixa densidade que sugere risco mínimo da doença no PEI.

  12. Avaliação da qualidade da dieta pelo Índice de Alimentação saudável e suas variações: uma revisão bibliográfica.

    Previato, Helena Dória Ribeiro de Andrade; Volp, Ana Carolina Pinheiro; Freitas, Renata Nascimento de


    O Indice de Alimentacao Saudavel (IAS) e um indicador da qualidade da dieta desenvolvido de acordo com as diretrizes alimentares americanas. De uma maneira geral, os indices de avaliacao da qualidade da dieta, a exemplo do IAS e suas variacoes, sao instrumentos usados para analisar e guiar a ingestao de nutrientes e de grupos de alimentos. A composicao dos indices tem sido constantemente atualizada e revisada de acordo com as recomendacoes de guias alimentares e diretrizes nutricionais especi...

  13. Dose evaluation in special fluoroscopy procedures: Hysterosalpingography and Dacryocystography; Avaliacao de dose em procedimentos especiais de fluoroscopia: histerossalpingografia e dacriocistografia

    Lopes, Cintya Carolina Barbosa


    The hysterosalpingography (HSG) and dacryocystography (DCG) are among the special fluoroscopy procedures. The HSG is a radiodiagnostic technique used to detect uterine and tubal pathologies and it is fundamental for the investigation of infertility. The DCG is a form of lacrimal system imaging, being important to show the level of obstruction, the presence of dilatation of the lacrimal sac, as well as alterations in nearby structures. At this research, the study of skin entrance dose was evaluated for these two special fluoroscopy procedures, besides the analyses of staff doses whose performs the exams. The exams of 22 HSG patients and 8 DCG patients were evaluated using TL-100 dosimeters attached on patient' skin at anatomical landmarks evolved on each exam. In the case of HSG, the results showed that skin entrance doses varied from 0.5 mGy to 73.4 mGy, with an average value of 22.1 mGy. The estimated uterus dose was 5.5 mGy, and 6.6 mGy was the average dose estimated to the ovaries. The patient' skin entrance dose undergoing to DCG examinations varied from 2.1 mGy to 10.6 mGy, and the average eye's dose was 6.1 mGy. The results of staff dose showed that, on HSG, the average dose on doctor's right hand was 4.3 mGy per examination. This value had to the fact that the physician introduces the contrast manually while all contrast exposures. In relation of DCG, the staff's dose values were nearby background radiation, evidencing that, inside of permitted limits, there is no risk for the physicians at this procedure. (author)

  14. External exposure assessment in dwelling built with phosphogypsum; Avaliacao da exposicao externa em residencia construida com fosfogesso

    Villaverde, Freddy Lazo


    In this study it was evaluated the viability of the use of phosphogypsum plates as a building material in the dwelling construction. Thus, the effective dose due to external gamma exposure was assessed through the {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, {sup 210}Pb e {sup 40}K activity concentration in phosphogypsum plates. Samples of this material were analyzed by high resolution gamma spectrometry for their natural radionuclide activity concentration. The radium equivalent activity and extern ai and inter nai hazard indices were also calculated. The plates were made with phosphogypsum from fertilizer industries located in Cajati, Cubatao and Uberaba. The samples were identified according to phosphogypsum origin, Cajati (CA), Cubatao (CT) and Uberaba (UB). The activity concentrations results varied from 15.9 to 392 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 226}Ra, 26.1 to 253 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 232}Th, and 27.4 to 852 Bq kg{sup -1} for {sup 210}Pb. The results of {sup 40}K were lower than 81 Bq kg{sup -1}. The annual effective dose was obtained through the dosimetric model with reference standard room concept, the results were 0.02 mSv y{sup -1} for a house built with phosphogypsum from origin CA, 0.2 mSvy{sup -1} for CT phosphogypsum and 0.14 mSvy{sup -1} for UB phosphogypsum, everything the effective doses were below 1 mSvy{sup -1}, an annual effective dose limit for public exposure by International Commission on Radiological Protection. (author)

  15. Evaluation of radioiodinetherapy protocol for patients with Plummer disease; Avaliacao do protocolo da radioiodoterapia para pacientes com doenca de Plummer

    Mendonca, Keyla Mary Cavalheiro; Antonio Filho, Joao; Brandao, Simone Cristina Soares, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Santos, Marcus Aurelio P. dos, E-mail: [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)


    The disease Plummer (DP) is generated by the thyroid cells that function autonomously, independent the rest of the organ parenchyma. The DP presents a prevalence of 1% to 9%, higher in regions with iodine deficiency, affecting six women for every man. The study was conducted at the Department of Nuclear Medicine of Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE) from {sup 99m}Tc data capture and mass existing in the thyroid records of 54 patients with PD who underwent radioiodine therapy with fixed activities 1110 megabecquerels (MBq) from 2004 to 2008. For capitation of {sup 99m}Tc from a group of 22 patients were used 5 ml syringes, measured by a Capintec CRC-7 model activimeter, having scintigraphy after 20 minutes and results in a region of interest. Mass evaluation was based on method of palpation of the thyroid, considering the mass standard. It is observed that 68.2% of patients received more activity than needed, 31.8% were less active, and none received activity in accordance with your needs. There was a statistically significant difference (p <0.05) between the fixed activities and activities computed for all patients, according to Chi-square test for independence with 21 degrees of freedom. The cure rate of a group of 32 patients was 75% after one year of follow-up. It is suggested that the RIT is preceded by an assessment of the maximum percentage of uptake and thyroid mass.

  16. Competencies evaluation of the petroleum industry local suppliers; Avaliacao de competencias dos fornecedores locais da industria do petroleo

    Marzani, Bianca Santos; Furtado, Andre Tosi [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Politica Cientifica e Tecnologica]. E-mail:;


    This article presents a research proposition that focuses on competencies evaluation of the local suppliers of goods and services in the petroleum industry. Because of the new context created by the opening of the petroleum market the suppliers to face a new competition environment, exposed to the foreign suppliers that operate in a higher production scale and have great financial and technological capacities. This justifies the development of the current study because the final diagnosis will help the studied companies in their decision process by the divulgation of their weaknesses and potentialities, which will motivate an improvement in the sector. In this paper, we include technological, organizational and relational competencies. Moreover, some of the main contributions of the literature about these topics are presented, including Lall, Kim, Figueiredo, Furtado, Munier, etc. (author)

  17. Application of nuclear magnetic resonance in osteoporosis evaluation; Aplicacoes de ressonancia magnetica nuclear na avaliacao de osteoporose

    Giannoni, Ricardo A., E-mail: [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Montrazi, Elton T.; Bonagamba, Tito J., E-mail:, E-mail: [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IFSC/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Cesar, Reinaldo, E-mail: [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EESC/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia


    In this work, initially ceramic samples of known porosity were used. These ceramic samples were saturated with water. The nuclear magnetic resonance signal due to relaxation processes that the hydrogen nucleus water contained in the pores of this ceramic material was measured. Then these samples were subjected to a process of drying and measures successively. As the water contained in pores greater evaporates the intensity of signal decreases and shows the sign because of the smaller pores. The analysis of this drying process gives a qualitative assessment of the pore size of the material. In a second step, bones of animals of unknown porosity underwent the same methodology for evaluating osteoporosis. Also a sample of human vertebra in a unique manner, with the same purpose was measured. Combined with other techniques is a quantitative evaluation of the possible porosity.

  18. Dosimetric evaluation in panoramic and tele-radiography procedures; Avaliacao dosimetrica em procedimentos de radiografia panoramica e teleradiografias

    Oliveira, Georgge Gomes


    The present work had as an objective to evaluate the skin surface entrance dose in panoramic and tele radiography procedures in three clinics in Recife - Pernambuco - Brazil, and to contribute with data for the determination of reference levels for super cited extra oral procedures, for this purpose, operational conditions in 3 clinics were evaluated in Recife, aiming to evaluate the existence and integrity of the radioprotection equipment, manner and conditions of image processing; and radiographic equipment parameters such as the dimension of the irradiation filed, the total filtration, the exposure time and the potential applied to the X ray tube. For an estimation of the skin entrance dose of the patient, the phantom Randon Alderson and thermoluminescence dosemeters were used. From these values and the conversion factors determined by the Monte Carlo technique, with the phantom MAX it was possible to estimate the dose absorbed in the organ due to the tele radiography procedures. Regarding panoramic radiography the study showed that the more elevated doses occurred in the parotid gland region which is near rotational venters. In the case of tele radiography the highest dose value occurred in the regions corresponding to the temporal lobe of the brain, followed by linfonodes, ears and parotid glands. The doses absorbed in the eyes and the thyroid gland were, 0.037 mGy and 0.002 mGy in Clinic A and 0.062 mGy and 0.003 mGy in Clinic C, respectively. Regarding equipment test, inadequacy was found in the beam collimation in Clinic A and in the reproducibility of the X ray exposure in Clinic C. The total filtration in both clinics was inadequate.(author)

  19. Scintigraphic evaluation of bone lengthening by Ilizarov technique; Avaliacao cintigrafica do alongamento osseo pela tecnica de Ilizarov

    Wolosker, Sara; Knackfuss, Irocy; Marchiori, Edson


    One of the main problems in limb lengthening is the difficulty on the assessment of the regenerated bone healing, since there are no reliable methods for its in vitro evaluation of restoration and mechanical integrity. New bone formation depends on the interaction between blood supply and mechanical distraction. The uptake of 99m-Tc-MDP has been shown to be a function of both regional blood flow and bone formation. Therefore, we propose the use of sequential three phase bone scans as another method in monitoring the regenerated bone formation in the Ilizarov technique of limb lengthening. Our preliminary results are shown in this paper. (author)

  20. Evaluation of personal protective devices used in diagnostic radiology; Avaliacao de dispositivos de protecao individual utilizados em radiologia diagnostica

    Soares, Fernanda Cristina Salvador


    In this work protective devices of five manufacturers were evaluated according to the NBR/IEC 61331-1 and NBR/IEC 61331-3 standards. Three different methodologies (linear interpolation, Archer model and sum of exponentials) were applied for the determination of the attenuation equivalent, since the standard does not indicate how it must be determined. Moreover, the uncertainties associated to each method, and the influence of the number of measurements in the combined uncertainty were estimated. The evaluated manufacture characteristics were: accompanying document, design, materials, dimensions and label marking. For this evaluation a check list about the requirements of the NBR/IEC 61331-3 standard was elaborated. The results showed a great difference between nominal and measured attenuation equivalent values. The comparison of the results using the three methodologies showed small variations among the obtained values and among the associated uncertainties in the different methodologies. It was possible to observe that the number of measurements does not contribute significantly for the increase of the uncertainty in all three methodologies. The best methodology for the laboratory routine is the linear interpolation methodology, with five measurements for each air kerma rate value. The discrepancy between the results obtained in this work and the requirements of the applied standards show the need to adopt a compulsory certification process for protective devices, thus contributing for the increase of the radiation protection of the users. (author)

  1. Tetra-combined cogeneration system. Exergy and thermo economic evaluation; Sistema tetra combinado de cogeracao. Avaliacao exergetica e termoeconomica

    Arriola, Domingo Wilson Garagatti [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail:; Oliveira Junior, Silvio de [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas (IPT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail:


    This paper presents the description and the exergy and thermo economic evaluation of a new cogeneration system, called tetra-combined cogeneration system, that generates electricity and chilled water (for air conditioning purposes) and eventually steam. This system is composed of a gas turbine, a heat recovery steam generator, a condensation/extraction steam turbine and a hybrid absorption/steam ejection chiller. The exergy and thermo economic performance (exergy based costs of electricity, steam and chilled water production) of this system is compared with the performances of conventional cogeneration systems, pointing out the advantages and disadvantages of this new system. (author)

  2. Comparative exergoeconomic analysis of prime movers of cogeneration plants; Avaliacao exergoeconomica comparativa de acionadores primarios de plantas de cogeracao

    Donatelli, Joao L.M. [Espirito Santo Univ., Vitoria, ES (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail:; Vieira, Leonardo S.R. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Area de Conhecimento de Materiais e Mecanica]. E-mail:; Cruz, Manuel E.C. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail:


    In this paper we apply exergoeconomic principles to perform a comparative analysis of the use of internal combustion engines or gas turbines as prime movers of cogeneration plants. A preliminary comparison of these movers can be obtained by analysing them individually, considering the complete utilization of the generated products rated on a common exergetic basis. However, when these movers are integrated in a cogeneration plant, it is necessary to perform a global system analysis, which will consider the coupling between generation capacity and demand, under the design conditions. The design of a cogeneration plant should, ideally, consider all the aspects that affect its performance. In this paper we take into account several aspects which are not normally collectively considered in similar analyses encountered in the literature. Specifically, the comparative procedure considers the electrical tariff on an hourly basis, the electrical and thermal load profiles, the influence of the environmental conditions on the performance of the prime movers, sizing and operation mode options to meet plant loads, part-load efficiency, different criteria for cost partitioning, and, finally, the effect of size on plant cost. Once the operating conditions of the cogeneration plant are defined, the procedure attributes costs to all the fluxes, allowing for the identification of the ranges of capacity where each mover is economically advantageous. We apply the procedure to the energetic supply analysis of a typical process of Brazilian shopping centers. (author)

  3. Technological developments for environmental monitoring and assessment at PETROBRAS; O desenvolvimento de tecnologia de avaliacao e monitoramento ambiental na PETROBRAS

    Guimaraes, Pedro Penido D.; Veiga, Leticia Falcao [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Borges, Heloisa V.


    Since 2000 PETROBRAS adopted strategies and actions to establish excellence in Environmental Management and Operational Safety - PEGASO, having invested around 6.1 billions of reais in the last four years to reduce emissions, residues, effluents, and to improve prevention and accident control in its units. In this context, PETROBRAS Research and Development Center has been expanding knowledge about the ecosystems where the company operates, providing essential information to evaluate viability and sustainability on its enterprises, as well as for environmental licensing. Reinforcing its corporative strategy, it was created in 2002 the Environmental Assessment and Monitoring Section, a group that counts nowadays with 48 professionals. This group develops technology and methodology for monitoring in social and environmental context for the petroleum industry, gas and energy, evaluating the impacts of PETROBRAS activities and products life cycle, contributing for reduction of negative effects and to improve the company's environmental management. The research areas are: land, coastal and marine ecosystems monitoring, atmospheric monitoring and air quality, environmental chemistry, ecotoxicology, social and economic evaluation and environmental damage valuation. Working partnerships with the scientific community established several contacts with Brazilian and international universities. Among these various projects related to activities in the Brazilian offshore we present some aspects of the project Campos Basin Deep Sea Environmental Monitoring. (author)

  4. Evaluation of sulphonated polycarbonate membranes for fuel cells; Avaliacao de membranas de policarbonato sulfonado para celulas a combustivel

    Machado, Isabela M.M.; Gomes, Ana C.; Pessan, Luiz A. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais], e-mail:; Paranhos, Caio [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica


    Fuel cells based on ion conducting polymer membranes offer an alternative for the conventional energetic matrices. Among many advantages of this system, we can mention the reduction on the emission of pollutants, high efficiency and simplicity. This work presents the modification of polycarbonate by sulfonation reaction using acetyl sulfate, in order to increase the conductor ionic character of the membranes used as electrolytes for hydrogen fuel cells. The sulfonated polycarbonate membranes were obtained by casting and then characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, water vapor transmission, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis and viscosimetry. (author)

  5. Tetra-combined cogeneration system. Exergy and thermoeconomic evaluation; Sistema tetra combinado de cogeracao. Avaliacao exergetica e termoeconomica

    Arriola, Domingo Wilson Garagatti [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail:; Oliveira Junior, Silvio de [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas (IPT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail:


    The description and the exergy and thermo economic evaluation of a new cogeneration system, called tetra-combined cogeneration system, that generates electricity and chilled water (for air conditioning purposes) and eventually steam is presented. This system is composed of a gas turbine, a heat recovery steam generator, a condensation/extraction steam turbine and a hybrid absorption/steam ejection chiller.The exergy and thermo economic performance (exergy based costs of electricity, steam and chilled water production) of this system is compared with the performances of conventional cogeneration systems, pointing out the advantages and disadvantages of this new system. (author)

  6. Evaluation of external exposure in a radioactive waste deposit; Avaliacao da exposicao externa em um deposito de rejeitos radioativos

    Oliveira, Sergio Quinet de; Pereira, Wagner de Souza; Py Junior, Delcy de Azevedo; Dores, Luis Augusto de Carvalho Bresser; Dantas, Marcelino Vicente de Almeida; Silva, Ana Claudia Antunes; Garcia Filho, Oswaldo, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: marcelino@inb.go.b, E-mail:, E-mail: [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (UTM/INB), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Tratamento de Minerio


    The ore treatment unit (OTU) of Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), located at Caldas municipality - Minas Gerais, Brazil, posses a radioactive deposit, coming mainly from the chemical processing of monazite sands for obtention of 'rare earths'. The main components of these waste are the 'torta II (thorium rich residues) and the 'mesothorium' ({sup 228}Ra rich residues) - conditioned in steel drums (200 liters), plastic pumps (100 liters) or underground silos. These loaders are deposited in waste loading warehouses existent at the OTU and periodic evaluations of the external exposure rates (mR/h) are part of the 'Programa de Monitoracao Radiologica Ocupacional' of the unit. This paper presents a brief history of origins of this waste deposit and the material found there, and also the result of a routine monitoring of the external exposure rates

  7. Evaluation of process variables in obtaining of organo clays; Avaliacao das variaveis de processo na obtencao de argilas organofilicas

    Costa, D.L.; Cardoso, M.A.F.; Ferreira, H.S.; Neves, G.A.; Ferreira, H.C. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (CCT/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Centro de Ciencais e Tecnologia. Unidade Academica de Engenharia de Materiais], e-mail:


    The Paraiba state is the greater producing of bentonite in Brazil, for several industrial uses. In this production the Na{sup +} bentonite are distinguished, that when treated with ionic surfactants are used in based oil drilling fluids. The national production of organoclays for based oil drilling fluids is very poor, so this product is imported by PETROBRAS, from America. This present work has as objective the study of involved basic organofilization variable process such as: speed of agitation, temperature and time of cure preparation of organoclays, using bentonite clays Brasgel PA and Cloisite NA{sup +}, later treated with the ionic surfactant Praepagem WB. Organoclays had been characterized by X-ray and swell of Foster to determine the organoclays compatibility with the oil ways and to correlate the variable studied with the gotten results. (author)

  8. Evaluation of new polymers for enhanced oil recovery; Avaliacao de novos polimeros para recuperacao aumentada de petroleo

    Maia, Ana M.S.; Chagas, Emanuel F.; Costa, Marta; Garcia, Rosangela B. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)


    The main polymers used nowadays for enhanced oil recovery, partially hydrolysed polyacrylamides and xanthan gum, show some limitations, such as low tolerance to salt presence and biological degradation. Therefore, it is necessary the improvement of the polymeric properties. With this goal, a new class of polymers, named 'water-soluble polymers hydrophobically modified' or simply 'amphiphilic polymers', has been developed. In this work, it was obtained a water-soluble acrylamide polymer hydrophobically modified with N,N-dihexyl acrylamide, using the micellar copolymerization technique. After the structural and rheological characterization of the copolymer, its performance in porous medium was evaluated through core flood tests in Botucatu sandstone. In the presence of sodium chloride, the amphiphilic copolymer presented a great increase of viscosity, besides values of resistance factor and of residual resistance factor higher than for the commercial polyacrylamide. This behavior can favor the oil recovery, mainly in high salinity and permeability reservoirs, by improving the water flooding sweep efficiency. (author)

  9. Methodology to evaluation of the density in radiographic image; Metodologia para avaliacao de densidade em imagem radiografica

    Louzada, M.J.Q. [UNESP, Aracatuba, SP (Brazil). Curso de Medicina Veterinaria; Pela, C.A. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciencias e Letras; Belangero, W.D. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas; Santos-Pinto, R. [UNESP, Aracatuba, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia


    This study was designed in order to optimize the optical densitometry technique in radiographic images by the setorization of the characteristic curves of the radiographic films. We used 24 radiographs of a stepped aluminium wedge that were taken without rigorous control development and manually revealed. The densitometric values of the steps images and its thickness, for each radiographic, was utilized to generate its particular mathematics expressions that represent its characteristic densitometric curves and then it were used for setorization. The densitometric values were obtained by a Macbeth TD528 densitometer. The study showed an optimization in the representation of the relationship between the optical density of the steps images of the wedge and its correspondent thickness, provided by the setorization, with mean square error around 10{sup -5}. This optimization will allow the use of this methodology in quantitative evaluations of bone mass, by radiographic images. (author)

  10. Leitura rapida do KDIGO 2012: Diretrizes para avaliacao e manuseio da doenca renal cronica na pratica clinica

    Gianna Mastroianni Kirsztajn


    Full Text Available Os autores desta "leitura rápida" apresentam os dados que consideraram mais relevantes na versão 2012 do KDIGO referente à avaliação e manuseio da doença renal crônica. Não se trata da opinião dos autores, mas sim de uma apresentação mais concisa das diretrizes, que podem ser úteis na prática clínica.

  11. Avaliacao da espessura medio-intimal em pacientes com doenca renal cronica nao dialitica: estudo prospectivo de 24 meses

    Andrea Gaspar Marcos


    Full Text Available Introdução: O aumento da espessura média-intimal (EMI avaliada por ultrassom é um preditor de risco cardiovascular na população geral. Porém, em pacientes com doença renal crônica nos estágios iniciais, essa associação ainda não está bem estabelecida. Objetivo: Avaliar a associação EMI com a ocorrência de eventos cardiovasculares e mortalidade em pacientes nos estágios iniciais da doença renal crônica. Métodos: A análise post hoc de uma coorte de pacientes nos estágios 2-4 da DRC. Foram avaliados dados laboratoriais, ultrassom da artéria carótida e tomografia coronariana no início do estudo e a ocorrência de óbito, em seguimento por 24 meses. Resultados: Um total de 117 pacientes (57 ± 11 anos, 61% sexo masculino foram avaliados. A taxa de filtração glomerular foi 36 ± 17 mL/min, 96% dos pacientes eram hipertensos, 23% diabéticos e 27% obesos. Calcificação arterial coronariana esteve presente em 48% dos pacientes, sendo mais prevalente em pacientes nos estágios mais avançados da DRC (p = 0,02. EMI foi 0,6 mm (0,4-0,7 mm. Comparado aos pacientes com EMI < 0,6mm, aqueles com EMI ≥ 0,6 mm eram mais velhos (p = 0,001, apresentavam maior prevalência do sexo masculino (p = 0,001, menor taxa de filtração glomerular (p = 0,01 e maior proporção de pacientes com calcificação (p = 0,001. Não foi observada relação entre a espessura média-intimal e a ocorrência de evento cardiovascular e óbito. Conclusão: A espessura médio-intimal em pacientes DRC se associou à calcificação coronariana, mas não à ocorrência de eventos cardiovasculares e óbito, em um seguimento de 24 meses.

  12. Assessment of petroleum resources discoveries: a proposal of standardization; Avaliacao de descobertas de recursos petroliferos: uma proposta de padronizacao

    Rosa, Henrique [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencias e Engenharia de Petroleo]. E-mail:; Suslick, Saul B. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Geologia]. E-mail:


    This paper presents the framework of a standardization proposal for the existing information flow among the Brazilian regulator office of the petroleum industry (ANP) and the concessionaire companies which run activities of petroleum exploration in the Brazilian sedimentary basins in case of the discovery of any potentially commercial hydrocarbon resources inside their concession areas. The framework is oriented towards the Brazilian oil and gas regulatory model which employs a guide called Plan of Discoveries Assessment (PAD) which outlines the main procedures that the oil companies have to comply with. Based on the main aspects of the Brazilian regulatory model and upon a small sample of PADs, a standard procedure routine was developed in order to introduce a significant gain in the quality level of the information content of the PADs. In this sense the proposed framework needs to have a broad view to include the information flow in order to achieve better evaluation efficiencies from the discovery process and the decision process. The approach uses a consistency scheme and an evaluation test in the six information blocks in the PADs: Executive Summary, Discovery Description, Geology and Reservoirs Description, Evaluation Program, Safety and Environment and Interpretation Project. Simulation performed with a small group of PADs allowed detecting the prospects characteristics that deserve improvement in the level of information, provoking a substantial gain in the dealing with the geological data. (author)

  13. Rheological evaluation of clays used for extruded refractory products; Avaliacao reologica de argilas para produtos refratarios extrudados

    Pagliosa Neto, Carlos; Diniz, Claudia Villa [Ceramica Safran, Betim, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento; Pandolfelli, Victor Carlos [Sao Carlos Univ., SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais


    This paper correlates the rheological properties of different lots of clays from the same extractive area, with their performances to conceive extruded refractories. So as to explain the different rheological behaviours, physical and chemical evaluation was carried out, in addition to an investigation on the particle mineralogy. The technique and the study of clay viscosimetry proved to be a suitable tool to select and control raw materials for the extrusion process. (author) 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Developing pipeline risk methodology for environmental license permit; Metodologia para avaliacao do risco em dutos, no licenciamento ambiental

    Arruda, Paulo; Naime, Andre [Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renovaveis (IBAMA), Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Diretoria de Licenciamento e Qualidade Ambiental; Serpa, Ricardo [Companhia de Tecnologia de Saneamento Ambiental (CETESB), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Setor de Analise de Riscos; Mendes, Renato F. [PETROBRAS Engenharia, RJ (Brazil); Ventura, Gilmar [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transportes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    Some new pipelines undertakings aim to establish connection between gas provinces in the Southeast and consumers in the Northeast of Brazil, in order to supply medium consuming centers and regions with minor potential of development. Consulting companies are carrying out Environmental Assessments studies and among them is the Risk Analyses of these pipeline transmission systems, in order to receive environmental permits by IBAMA, the Federal Brazilian Environmental Agency. In addition, existing interstate pipeline systems which are under IBAMA regulation will also require the same attention. For the purpose of defining a Pipeline Risk Analysis Protocol with methodology and risk criteria, with minimum risk analysis information on a comprehensive process, it has been decided for a 'tour de force' formed by experts from IBAMA and PETROBRAS engineers. The risk assessment protocol is focus on the risk to communities in the neighborhood of these pipelines and on the potential damage to the environment near and far from the ROW. The joined work ended up in two protocols, which attempt to provide environmental license permits for oil pipeline and gas pipelines with minimum contents for risk analysis studies. Another aspect is the environmental risk that has been focused on the contingency plan approach, since there are no consolidated environmental risk criteria for application as a common worldwide sense. The environmental risk mapping - MARA methodology will indicate areas with potential to be affected by leakages along a pipeline system. (author)

  15. Evaluation for turbine implementation for a micro hydroelectric power plant; Avaliacao para implantacao de uma turbina para uma microcentral hidreletrica

    Alves, Gilberto Manoel; Halmeman, Maria Cristina Rodrigues; Oliveira, Franciene Gois [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Energia na Agricultura; Seraphim, Odivaldo Jose [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Dep. de Engenharia Rural


    In this work it was analyzed the viability technical and economical of turbines to micro hydroelectric headquarters as an alternative to consumers not served by electric energy in isolated areas. It was used a experimental methods to create an estimative and a evaluation of the hydroelectric potential, through hydrological criteria in the area and, thus, be able to note if there is viability for its use. Some kinds of turbines made by the national industry were verified, analyzing the technical and economical characteristics and in function of the hydro energetic-conditions of the area. The results shoed that a micro-headquarters serves the necessities and expectations of the owner at the electric energy supply. It was noted that the expenses are smaller comparing to the other expenses know in the literature, from national factories. Even though the limiting factor is the distance from the production to the consumer, the potency of 18.4 kw was enough to satisfy the local necessities. The installation of de micro headquarters will bring enhances and facilities by the fact that it represents a big social importance for the area. (author)

  16. Risks associated to liquefied petroleum gas: evaluation and management; Riscos do gas liquefeito de petroleo: avaliacao e gerenciamento

    Camacho Gonzalez, Amelia Beatriz [Universidad Nacional de Ingenieria, Lima (Peru). Facultad de Ingenieria Ambiental; Rocha, Aristides Almeida [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Saude Publica


    This work presents the discussion and evaluation of the environmental risks related to the use of liquefied petroleum gas (GLP) when the safety standards and proceedings are not obeyed. It also presents a bibliographic review mainly concerning the actual legislation and a case study in a industrial plant. The methodologies used in such a study are based in the HAZOP and WHAZAM models. (author) 15 refs., 2 figs.

  17. DTS technology: evaluation in steam injection pilots in PETROBRAS; Tecnologias DTS: avaliacao em pilotos de injecao de vapor na PETROBRAS

    Triques, Adriana Lucia Cerri; Rodrigues, Renato Cunha; Souza, Carlos Francisco Sales de; Izetti, Ronaldo Goncalves [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    In oil and gas industry, downhole pressure and temperature distributed sensors can provide strategic information for production optimization throughout the field. Upon the successful implementation of a pilot for optical fiber distributed temperature monitoring of observer wells in a steam injection field, two new pilots have been implemented to also monitor injectors and producers in both cyclic and continuous injection fields strongly influenced by H2S. The pilots demonstrated that this technology is suitable to monitor producers in onshore fields under the conditions above without risks to the production. The sensors did not prove to be suitable for long term monitoring of injectors under continuous steam injection if fiber is installed inside the injection tubing. For cyclic injection applications, the development of steam injection packers is needed to guarantee casing integrity during the injection cycle. The application of the technology in offshore wells is nowadays restricted to dry completion situation. The potential applicability in submarine wells is tightly linked to the development of downhole and wellhead wet mate optical fiber connectors. (author)

  18. Lung scintigraphy evaluation in workers exposed to abrasive dusts; Avaliacao cintilografica pulmonar em trabalhadores de industria de abrasivos

    Terra Filho, Mario


    The production process of abrasives use aluminium, or silicon carbide a synthetic material with a hardness only slightly less than that of a diamond. It is popularly known as carborundum since it was first manufactured as an abrasive in 1891, produced by the fusion of high grade silica and petroleum coke with sawdust. For many years silicon carbide was thought not to give rise to pulmonary lesions. Recently several researchers suggested the existence of a carborundum pneumoconiosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the pulmonary clearance of {sup 99m} Technetium chelated to diethylene-triamine penta-acetate ({sup 99m} Tc DTPA), and {sup 67} Gallium lung scanning in workers exposed to abrasive dusts. Thirty seven subjects, 13 smokers and 24 nonsmokers and ex smokers were studied. In 32 (86,48%) {sup 67} Gallium lung scanning was positive including 13 (40,62%) retired workers. We conclude that non smoking workers of abrasives plants have a pulmonary alveolar epithelial permeability disturbance similar as observed in smoking workers and smoking controls. Most workers, ex-workers of these industries and in patients with carborundum pneumoconiosis there is an evidence of pulmonary inflammation measured with abnormal {sup 67} Gallium lung scan. (author) 101 refs., 2 figs., 11 tabs.

  19. Mechanical And Microstructural Evaluation Of A Wear Resistant Steel; Avaliacao mecanica e microestrutural de um aco resistente ao desgaste

    Santos, F.L.F. dos; Vieira, A.G.; Correa, E.C.S.; Pinheiro, I.P., E-mail: [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais (CEFET/MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais


    In the present work, the analysis of the mechanical properties and the microstructural features of a high strength low alloy steel, containing chromium, molybdenum and boron, subjected to different heat treatments, was conducted. After austenitizing at 910 deg C for 10 minutes, three operations were carried out: oil quenching, oil quenching followed by tempering at 200 deg C for 120 minutes and austempering at 400 deg C for 5 minutes followed by water cooling. The analysis was performed through tensile and hardness tests, optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The bainitic structure led to high strength and toughness, both essential mechanical properties for wear resistant steels. The occurrence of allotriomorphic ferrite and retained austenite in the samples also increased the wear resistance. This phenomenon is related to the fact that both structures are able to be deformed and, in the case of the retained austenite, the transformation induced plasticity TRIP effect may take place as the material is used. (author)

  20. Evaluation of the biotissue of PCL and {beta}-TCP; Avaliacao de um biotecido de PCL e {beta}-TCP

    Solomao, Zenaide; Zavaglia, Cecilia A.C., E-mail: [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DEMa/FEM/LABIOMEC/INCT), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Biofabris; Dias, Carmen G.B.T. [Universidade Federal do Para - FEM/ITEC-UFPA, Belem, PA (Brazil)


    The use of biomaterials to replace, repair injured tissues and organs of human beings has increased due to population growth and its higher life expectancy. The tissue engineering is an interdisciplinary field that integrates principles of biology, chemistry, genetics, materials science and biomedical engineering, to produce composite three-dimensional, capable of replacing biological tissues. The development of new biomaterials using the method of evaporation of the solvent can help to solvent this problem. This work aimed to characterized the membranes of poly ({epsilon}-caprolactone) dense and porous (scaffolds) of PCL/B-TCP; and make an in vitro evaluation. Techniques were used to: SEM, EDS, XRD, TGA, DSC, mechanical traction tests, test cell viability and activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The hydrolytic degradation was analyzed in phosphate buffer (PBS) and the biocompatibility through standards (ASTM and ABNT) concluding that the materials are biocompatible and are used with great potential for replacement of the bone tissue. (author)

  1. Evaluation of skin dose in tomographic radiographs of temporomandibular joint; Avaliacao da dose pele em radiografias tomograficas da articulacao tempromandibular

    Oliveira, S.B.; Chaves, F.C.; Rocha, F.E.F.C. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Clinica e Odontologia Preventiva; Khoury, H.J. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear]. E-mail:


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the skin entrance dose, in patients with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunctions submitted to computerized tomography. For this purpose, in a private medical establishment, in the city of Recife-Pe/Br, 40 patients were evaluated, in according to radiation doses received in eyes, thyroid and TMJ regions. The value found for eye region range from 0.004 to 0.125 mGy, for thyroid range from 0.002 to 0.113 mGy and for TMJ range from 0.112 to 0.541 mGy.

  2. Evaluation of essential minerals in carioquinha beans by EDXRF; Avaliacao de minerais essenciais em feijao carioquinha por EDXRF

    Paula, Ellen Cristina Alves de; Aquino, Reginaldo R. [Faculdades Metropolitanas Unidas (FMU), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Scapin, Marcos A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    In this study, the levels of essential minerals in the carioquinha beans were analyzed by Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence technique (EDXRF), searching determine the possible minerals, quantities and the correlation among different sources of same variety and the possible contribution of each to the human diet.

  3. Evaluation of level of impregnation monomers in hydrotalcite; Avaliacao do grau de impregnacao de monomeros em hidrotalcita

    Carmo, Danieli M. do, E-mail: [Instituto de Macromoleculas Professora Eloisa Mano - IMA, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ, RJ (Brazil); Machado, Jacson S.C.; Oliveira, Marcelo F.L.; Oliveira, Marcia G. [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia - INT, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Soares, Bluma G. [Instituto de Macromoleculas Professora Eloisa Mano - IMA, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ, RJ (Brazil)


    To evaluate the impregnation degree of 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate and 1,4-butanediol monomers in hydrotalcite clays it was prepared dispersions with mixing ratio 1:100 (clay/monomer), using the Ultraturrax and Ultrasound. Subsequently the samples were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and X-ray Diffraction. Swelling tests and Tyndall effect were used to illustrate the different dispersions. The results indicated a strong interaction between the hydrotalcite with 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate, favoring the formation of intercalated structures. (author)

  4. Evaluation of the absorbed dose in odontological computerized tomography; Avaliacao da dose absorvida em tomografia computadorizada odontologica

    Legnani, Adriano; Schelin, Hugo R.; Rocha, Anna Silvia P.S. da, E-mail:, E-mail: [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Khoury, Helen J., E-mail: khoury@ufpe.b [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)


    This paper evaluated the absorbed dose at the surface entry known as 'cone beam computed tomography' (CBCT) in odontological computerized tomography. Examination were simulated with CBCT for measurements of dose. A phantom were filled with water, becoming scatter object of radiation. Thermoluminescent dosemeters were positioned on points correspondent to eyes and salivary glands

  5. Energetic evaluation of a mechanical dryer (flex) to familiar agriculture; Avaliacao energetica de um secador mecanico (FLEX) para cafeicultura familiar

    Donzeles, Sergio M.L. [Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuaria de Minas Gerais (CTZM/EPAMIG), Vicosa, MG (Brazil). Centro Tecnologico da Zona da Mata], E-mail:; Silva, Juarez S.; Martin, Samuel; Nogueira, R.M.; Silva, Jadir N.; Zanata, Fabio L. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (DEA/UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola], Emails:,,


    Actually, the coffee is one of the most important exportation crops of the country. The utilization of obsolete or unsuitable processes, specifically related to the coffee drying, it can to damage the final quality of the product, besides to result in a low profitability of the coffee growing. In this work a mechanical drier (flex) was built, for the familiar coffee growing, being subsequently evaluated, to the drying of peeled cherry coffee, by the realization of two tests: one with heating of the air using vegetable coal and other combining the use of solar heater with vegetable coal. Basing on the results, it was possible to conclude that the drying of coffee in the mechanical drier Flex can be carried out using vegetable coal as fuel as well as associating the use of the vegetable coal with the solar collector, to save energy. (author)

  6. Evaluation of PHB nanocomposite by low field NMR;Avaliacao de nanocompositos de PHB por RMN de baixo campo

    Silva, Mariana Bruno Rocha e; Tavares, Maria Ines Bruno, E-mail: mibt@ima.ufrj.b [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IMA/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas Eloisa Mano


    Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) based on nanocomposites containing different amounts of a commercial organically modified clay (viscogel B8) were prepared employing solution intercalation method. The relationship among the processing conditions; molecular structure and intermolecular interaction, between both nanocomposite components, were investigated using a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), as a part of characterization methodology, which has been used by Tavares et al. It involves the proton spin-lattice relaxation time, T1 H, by solid state nuclear magnetic resonance, employing low field NMR. X-ray diffraction was also employed because it is a conventional technique, generally used to obtain the first information on nanocomposite formation. Changes in PHB crystallinity were observed after the organophilic nanoclay had been incorporated in the polymer matrix. These changes, in the microstructure, were detected by the variation of proton nuclear relaxation time values and by X-ray, which showed an increase in the clay interlamellar space due to the intercalation of the polymer in the clay between lamellae. (author)

  7. Evaluation of harmonic distortions using small scale computers; Avaliacao de distorcoes harmonicas utilizando-se computadores de pequeno porte

    Paschoareli Junior, Dionizio


    The emergence more and more constant of non-linear loads in the power systems, with the consequent distortion in the voltage wave forms and of current, turns necessary complementary analyses in the planning of the systems, in way the if understands and to minimize the effects caused by the harmonic distortions. Among the methods used in this analysis are the computational programs that determine the flow of harmonic current and the voltages distorted in the buses. The objective of this work is the optimization of a program developed for large computers, turning possible its utilization in microcomputers. Besides, several models of components and two electric systems have its answers to the presence of multiple frequencies of the fundamental (harmonic frequency) evaluated and the results of the simulations will be presented. It also accomplishes simulations that make possible the visualization of the distortions in the voltage wave forms of the buses. Finally, the work offers a global and qualitative vision of this phenomenon that has been reason increasing preoccupation for mainly among the responsible for the quality of the supplied energy.

  8. Evaluation of essential minerals in pumpkin seeds by EDXRF; Avaliacao de minerais essenciais em sementes de abobora moranga por EDXRF

    Boaro, Flavia Araujo; Zacari, Cristiane Z. [Faculdades Metropolitanas Unidas (FMU), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Scapin, Marcos A.; Aquino, Reginaldo R. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP(Brazil)


    Pumpkin seeds, marketed in the Municipal Market of Sao Paulo, Brazil, were analyzed using the Energy Dispersive of X-ray Fluorescence technique (EDXRF) seeking to evaluate the content of the main essential minerals present in these seeds, and their contribution to human nutrition.

  9. Rural electrification based on photovoltaic systems: systemic evaluation and analysis; Eletrificacao rural com sistemas fotovoltaicos: avaliacao e analise sistemicas

    Orellana Lafuente, Renan Jorge


    In spite of all advances made by modern technology, there are still regions which remoteness has made electrification of poor rural localities very difficult or impossible. The only practical solution for these localities is a local, decentralized form of electrical generation, such as solar energy. Based on its availability and potential, together with the scientific and technical advances made in photovoltaic conversion, solar energy is an alternative which is viable for many rural areas in developing countries. The technology has matured sufficiently, but in its application there is still a need for systematization for experiences, especially in the areas of planning and management. The present work deals with a project carried in the community of Chimboata, Chimboata department, Bolivia. The implementation aspects are analysed and the implementation methodology described. Finally, the forms of managing and funding this type of systems are analysed. (author)

  10. Evaluation of collective protection equipment in a hemodynamic room; Avaliacao dos equipamentos de protecao coletiva em uma sala de hemodinamica

    Casagrande, Saman; Silva, Ana Maria Marques da, E-mail:, E-mail: [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Real, Jessica Villa; Luz, Renata Matos da, E-mail:, E-mail: [Hospital Sao Lucas (HSL/PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)


    Interventional radiology has high occupational dose rates. The use of personal protective equipment (PPE) and collective protection (ECP) help to reduce the dose delivered to the individuals occupationally exposed (IOE). In order to minimize the exposure of IOE's in interventionists procedures, evaluated the attenuation of the secondary radiation produced by collective protection equipment (CPE), was used a chest non-anthropomorphic phantom of polymethylmethacrylates (PMMA), with column simulator in aluminum, with variable thicknesses and kerma rate measures the air by varying the frequency tables 15 and 30 frames / s and different exposure modes. Data were acquired initially at the height of 1.25 m, using the following combinations of the ECP: (I) unshielded, (II) with plumbum display, (III) combining skirt + display. Measured at a height of 0.5 m were acquired with and without skirt. The attenuation ranged from 83.8% to 95.4% for a thickness of 25 cm. The maximum attenuation occurred with the combination of display and skirt. There was a 5 time increase in air kerma rate to be used cine display mode, when compared to the low mode. By analyzing the frequency of the frames were obtained differences up to 3 times higher for 30 frames / s, when compared with 15 frames / s. The results show the importance of using ECP in hemodynamics services, which together with the PPE, ensure adequate protection for IOEs.

  11. Thermodynamic evaluation for cogeneration plant of a shopping center; Avaliacao termodinamica de uma planta cogerativa de um shopping center

    Santana, Gean C.S.; Torres, Ednildo A. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil); Campos, Michel F. [PETROBRAS S.A., Salvador, BA (Brazil)


    Recent instability in the Brazilian electrical energy supply, together with the re-structuring of the power sector and government initiatives to increase natural gas participation in the system have led to discussion over the possibility of implementing cogeneration plants that utilize natural gas as an energy source in power generating for use in cooling and heating systems. Given this context, the use of cogeneration plants is an alternative for service sector companies (such as retail centers, universities, schools, and hospitals) that would like to implement with the goal of producing electricity and cooling for indoor environmental climate control. In this study, an energetic analysis (based on the first law of thermodynamics) and an exergetic analysis (based on the second law) were performed on two cogeneration plants. (author)

  12. Evaluation of the carburized surface of steels with Magnetic Barkhausen Noise; Avaliacao de superficie cementada de acos com efeito Barkhausen

    Campos, M.F. de; Santos, R.; Silva, F.S. da; Ribeiro, S.B.; Lins, J.F.C., E-mail: mcampos@metal.eeimvr.uff.b [Universidade Federal Fluminense (PUVR/UFF), Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil). Polo Universitario de Volta Redonda; Franco, F.A.; Padovese, L.R. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EPUSP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica


    Steels with different carbon content, 0.11%C and 0.48%C were submitted to a heat treatment for carburization in the surface. The samples were analyzed in the conditions: normalized, only carburized and carburized and quenched as received. The Magnetic Barkhausen Noise (MBN) was measured in all samples. A better understanding of the relation between microstructure and MBN is of large interest for nondestructive characterization. X-ray diffraction (XRD) has revealed large peak broadening for the samples carburized and quenched, which have martensite. This is due to the high density of dislocations and high internal stress in the martensite. It is also found that the MBN peaks are quite distinct for the samples with martensite, which present nanocrystalline structure. When martensite is present, domain rotation occurs more significantly, reducing the permeability and the MBN envelope signal intensity. MBN is a suitable method for non-destructive evaluation of the quality of the carburization process. (author)

  13. Imaging assessment of isolated lesions affecting cranial nerve III; Avaliacao por imagem das lesoes isoladas do III par craniano

    Garcia, Marcelo de Mattos [Colegio Brasileiro de Radiologia e Diagnostico por Imagem (CBR), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail:; Martins, Jose Carlos Tadeu [Sociedade Brasileira de Neuroradiologia, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    The aim of this study is to review the anatomy and main pathologic conditions affecting cranial nerve III using imaging studies, particularly magnetic resonance imaging. Imaging methods are essential in the evaluation of patients with suspected lesions of the oculomotor nerve once signs and symptoms are unspecific and a large number of diseases can affect cranial nerve III. A brief review of the literature is also presented. (author)

  14. AIDS related thoracic lymphoma: evaluation by computed tomography; Linfoma toracico na sindrome da imunodeficiencia adquirida: avaliacao por tomografia computadorizada

    Siciliano, Antonio Alexandre de Oliveira [Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Radiodiagnostico; Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Curso de Pos-graduacao em Radiologia


    The authors reviewed five cases of patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) related lymphoma to describe the thoracic findings on computed tomography. The patients were followed at Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Hospital Universitario Antonio Pedro and Hospital da Lagoa, from November, 1989 to March 1998. Epidemiological, clinical and pathological data from these patients were quiet variable and pulmonary nodules and masses, hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy, and thoracic wall masses were observed. AIDS related lymphomas involving the chest are pleomorphic and most commonly extranodal. (author)

  15. Evaluation of conformal radiotherapy techniques through physics and biologic criteria; Avaliacao de tecnicas radioterapicas conformacionais utilizando criterios fisicos e biologicos

    Bloch, Jonatas Carrero


    In the fight against cancer, different irradiation techniques have been developed based on technological advances and aiming to optimize the elimination of tumor cells with the lowest damage to healthy tissues. The radiotherapy planning goal is to establish irradiation technical parameters in order to achieve the prescribed dose distribution over the treatment volumes. While dose prescription is based on radiosensitivity of the irradiated tissues, the physical calculations on treatment planning take into account dosimetric parameters related to the radiation beam and the physical characteristics of the irradiated tissues. To incorporate tissue's radiosensitivity into radiotherapy planning calculations can help particularize treatments and establish criteria to compare and elect radiation techniques, contributing to the tumor control and the success of the treatment. Accordingly, biological models of cellular response to radiation have to be well established. This work aimed to study the applicability of using biological models in radiotherapy planning calculations to aid evaluating radiotherapy techniques. Tumor control probability (TCP) was studied for two formulations of the linear-quadratic model, with and without repopulation, as a function of planning parameters, as dose per fraction, and of radiobiological parameters, as the α/β ratio. Besides, the usage of biological criteria to compare radiotherapy techniques was tested using a prostate planning simulated with Monte Carlo code PENELOPE. Afterwards, prostate planning for five patients from the Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirao Preto, USP, using three different techniques were compared using the tumor control probability. In that order, dose matrices from the XiO treatment planning system were converted to TCP distributions and TCP-volume histograms. The studies performed allow the conclusions that radiobiological parameters can significantly influence tumor control calculations and that the TCP-volume histograms can provide important information for treatment techniques evaluation. However, the establishment of quantitative comparison parameters using radiobiological criteria demands the establishment of prescription protocols based on these same parameters. Also, the literature recently showed large variations in radiobiological parameters, meaning that the inclusion of those in treatment planning calculations should require a careful endeavor. (author)

  16. Synthesis and evaluation of antimalarial activity of curcumin derivatives; Sintese e avaliacao da atividade antimalarica de compostos derivados da curcumina

    Gomes, Patricia Ramos; Miguel, Fabio Balbino; Almeida, Mauro Vieira de; Couri, Mara Rubia Costa [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFSJ), MG (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencias Exatas. Departamento de Quimica; Oliveira, Michael Eder de; Ferreira, Vanessa Viana; Guimaraes, Daniel Silqueira Martins; Lima, Aline Brito de; Barbosa, Camila de Souza; Oliveira, Mariana Amorim de; Almeida, Mauro Vieira de; Viana, Gustavo Henrique Ribeiro; Varotti, Fernando de Pilla, E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Sao Joao Del Rei (UFSJ), MG (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude; and others


    ne of the main challenges in the development of new antimalarial drugs is to achieve a viable lead candidate with good pharmacokinetic properties. Curcumin has a broad range of biological activities, including antimalarial activity. Herein, we report the antimalarial activity of six curcumin derivatives (6-12) and an initial analysis of their pharmacokinetic properties. Five compounds have demonstrated potent activity against the P. falciparum in vitro (IC{sub 50} values ranging from 1.7 to 15.2 μg mL{sup -1}), with moderate or low cytotoxicity against the HeLa cell line. The substitution of the carbonyl group in 6 by a 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone group (to afford 11) increases the Selective Index. These preliminary results indicate curcumin derivatives as potential antimalarial compounds. (author)

  17. Comparative evaluation of online oil and gas monitor; Avaliacao de monitores de teor de oleo e graxa em linha

    Louvisse, Ana Maria Travalloni; Pereira Junior, Oswaldo de Aquino; Jesus, Rafael Ferreira de; Santos, Lino Antonio Duarte dos; Lopes, Humberto Eustaquio [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    Petroleum is predominantly recovered in form of water in oil emulsions, which are stabilised by petroleum resins and asphaltenes, the colloidal disperse components of crude oil. The water phase, separated during the production process, consists of a dilute oil in water emulsion, commonly called produced water.There are a wide variety of methods for determination of oil in produced water that are commercially based on a number of technique. On line continuously monitoring shall be particularly useful in providing information to assist in optimising the separation process and also to attend the environmental legislation for discharge the produced water. There are a wide variety of on line oil in water monitors that are commercially available based on a number of technique. In this paper, a comparative evaluation was made between some methods of on line oil in water detecting. These are light scattering and ultraviolet fluorescence technique. A brief description of the optical methods will be discussed and some of associated problems and limitation are pointed. The work was done in a specific experimental set up that allows the simultaneous pumping of crude oil and water through a calibrated restriction in a pipe has been used. A permanent pressure drop induced by the restriction leads to the dispersion of the oil droplets in the water phase. The monitors based on light scattering technique tested show good agreement between monitor reading and the oil dispersion used. Otherwise for ultraviolet fluorescence based monitors show a significant effect of the variation of oil type. (author)

  18. The flicker phenomenon: causes, effects, limits, evaluation and correction; O fenomeno da cintilacao (flicker): causas, efeitos, limites, avaliacao e correcao

    Wierda, Rene [Schneider Electric (France)


    This paper analyzes the light flicker, and describes the voltage fluctuations induced by power variable loads in the lamps luminosity. The paper defines the visual discomfort and presents flicker measurement methods imposed by the normalization, including two calculation examples. The paper also shows the possible corrective actions for diminishing the effects.

  19. Evaluation of a quality control program in radiodiagnosis; Radiologia diagnostica e programa de garantia de qualidade: avaliacao critica

    Yacovenco, Alejandro; Infantosi, A.F.C. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Biomedica; Lira, S.H. [Hospital Central da Policia Militar do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Tauhata, L. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Supervisao de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes


    A quality assurance program, implemented at the Radiologic Service of the Hospital of the Military Police in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, is evaluated. The results show a reduction around of 70% in the number of rejected films and 75% in the costs. A return to the former conditions is reported as after the discontinuation of the program 2 refs., 2 figs.

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging in the assessment of the myocardial viability; Ressonancia magnetica cardiaca na avaliacao da viabilidade miocardica

    Andrade, Joalbo; Baptista, Luciana; Favaro, Daniele; Loureiro, Ricardo; Parga Filho, Jose; Avila, Luiz F.; Rochitte, Carlos E.; Piva, Rosa M.V.; Castro, Claudio C. [Hospital das Clinicas, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto do Coracao. Secao de Ressonancia Magnetica]. E-mail:; Cerri, Giovanni G. [Hospital das Clinicas, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto do Coracao. Div. de Diagnostico por Imagem


    The assessment of myocardial viability in patients with coronary artery disease and ventricular dysfunction is important in order to differentiate viable from nonviable myocardium. Magnetic resonance imaging allows assessment of myocardial viability by evaluating the contractility of the heart and the analysis of post-gadolinium images using a T1-weighted spoiled gradient echo sequences with a preparation inversion pulse to null the normal myocardial signal. The aim of this study is to describe the magnetic resonance imaging technical parameters and image acquisition approach using a recently validated gadolinium-enhanced technique for the assessment of myocardial viability. (author)

  1. Evaluation of radiation doses in paediatric patients undergoing voiding cystourethrography; Avaliacao das doses de radiacao em uretrocistografia miccional de criancas

    Travassos, Leonardo Vieira [Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Fernandes Figueira; Boechat, Marcia Cristina Bastos; Santos, Eloa Nunez [Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Fernandes Figueira. Servico de Radiologia; Santos, Eloa Nunez; Oliveira, Sergio Ricardo de; Silva, Marcos Otaviano da [Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Carvalho, Antonio Carlos Pires [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept . de Radiologia


    To evaluate dose-area product, skin entrance dose and doses from fluoroscopy and radiography in voiding cystourethrography studies of pediatric patients. Procedures performed in 37 patients by four physicians of the institution were evaluated. Measurements were performed with an equipment including an ionization chamber directly coupled to the x-ray tube window and an electrometer (Diamentor) connected to a computer for data collection. Some procedures heterogeneity was observed and guidelines for good radiographic techniques were not followed. On average, 11 radiographs are performed for each study, with extended fluoroscopy time delivering a higher average final dose than those reported in the literature. The adoption of radiography with high kilo voltage technique and restricted utilization of fluoroscopy can result in a significant reduction of doses during this procedure, considering that the major contribution to the final dose comes from fluoroscopy. (author)

  2. Cementing quality evaluation with ultrasonic logs in fiberglass casings; Avaliacao da qualidade do cimento em revestimentos de fibra de vidro

    Campos, Wellington; Lazaro, Andre F. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    The sonic and ultrasonic profiles are used as the main tools in assessing the cementing quality between formation and casing in oil wells. This assessment is important, because, if there is a failure in the primary cementing, both the structural integrity and zone isolation will be compromised. The sonic profiles are based on the acoustic energy attenuation in casing, cement and formation, while the ultrasonic profiles are based on the resonance of the wave pulse within the media where they travel (casings, cement and formation). The attenuation and resonance are due to the difference in the way the wave travel within these media. The acoustic impedance is the quantification of this difference, determining the refraction and reflection between the environments, and wave attenuation as well. In steel casings, this difference is meaningful, allowing the captured signals (reflected pulses) to be interpreted as good adhesion between cement and casing, or a lack of adhesion at some interval. In fiber glass casings, the impedance contrast between glass and cement is small and not detectable with the CBL/VDL sensors. The CBL/VDL tools provide an inefficient assessment of the quality of the cementing. The ultrasonic profile does not have this problem, theoretically. The goal of this work is to demonstrate and recommend the ultrasonic tool as the main instrument to assess the cementation quality in fiber glass casings. (author)

  3. Evaluation of internal organ variation for pelvic patients using CBCT;Avaliacao de variacoes anatomicas em neoplasias pelvicas utilizando CBCT

    Gandini, G.B. [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Radioterapia; Lopes, C.P.; Sakuraba, R.K.; Goncalves, V.D.; Cruz, J.C. [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Servico de Fisica Medica; Chen, M.J. [Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. Radioterapia. Radioterapia Oncologica


    To evaluate the organ at risk (OAR)variations for the bladder and rectum, the prostate or bed of prostate clinical target volume (CTV) movement, the external anatomy modification, using Image Guided Radiotherapy (IGRT) with Cone beam CT (CBCT) in pelvic patients. In 90 CBCTs the OR was drawn and the CTV in 41. The mean + sigma variation against the original volumes of the ORs, as well as, the overlapping regions between PTV and OR (Ov{sub r}eto and Ov{sub b}exiga) was analysed. It was also evaluated the patient external anatomy variation measuring the lateral-lateral (DLL) and antero-posterior (DAP) dimensions in CBCT against the reference CT. In average, 3,9 (1-9) CBCTs were acquired per patient. The bladder and rectum OR was in average -52%+-30% e -12%+-40% lower then the original. The overlapping volumes Ov{sub r}eto and Ov{sub b}exiga was in average 9%+-14% e 5%+-17% different then the original. The mean difference, in module, of the DAP and DLL was 0,4+-0,3 cm (maximum 1,2 cm) and -0,3+-0,4 cm (maximum 1,7 cm). (author)

  4. Evaluation of methods for wax determination in crude oil; Avaliacao de metodos de determinacao de parafinas em petroleo

    Dias, Julio Cesar M.; Silva, Maria do Socorro A.J. da; Vasconcellos, Rosa C.U. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas; Tamanqueira, Juliana B. [Fundacao Gorceix, Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil)


    Determining the wax content of crude oil is of great importance for petroleum industry, especially for production, storage and transportation of crude oils. Many different methodologies of wax determining are available in the technical literature. However, the selection of the most suitable method must be in accordance with the aim of the analysis and observing the specificities of each technique. The purpose of this work was to determine the performance of different techniques of wax determining applied to characterization of precipitation properties of waxy compounds in crude oils. Twelve samples of crude oils proceeding from the main Brazilian oil producing sedimentary basins were selected for this study. These samples were analyzed by three important analytical techniques of wax determining: precipitation by cooled solvent; liquid chromatography with precipitation by cooled solvent; and liquid chromatography followed by gas chromatography. Differential scanning calorimetry data related to the wax crystallization in these oils were used as parameters of validation. The results obtained in this study indicate that the liquid chromatography followed by gas chromatography method has the best performance for wax determining in crude oils. (author)

  5. Methodology to evaluate operational safety in offshore wells; Uma metodologia para a avaliacao da seguranca operacional em pocos maritimos

    Miura, Kazuo [PETROBRAS, RJ (Brazil). Unidade de Negocio de Exploracao e Producao da Bacia de Campos. Gerencia de Engenharia de Poco], e-mail:; Morooka, Celso Kazuyuki; Mendes, Jose Ricardo Pelaquim [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)], e-mail:; Guilherme, Ivan Rizzo [Universidade Estadual de Sao Paulo (UNESP), SP (Brazil)], e-mail:


    The main concern with activities developed in oil and gas well construction is safety. The safety assessment during the well construction process is not a trivial issue. Today's risk evaluation approaches are based on static analyses of existent systems, not allowing a dynamic evaluation of the risk at each alteration of circumstances. This work proposes the use of quantitative and dynamic risk assessment (QDRA) to assess the degree of safety of each planned job. The QDRA is a type of 'safe job analysis' approach, developed to quantify the degree of safety in the entire well construction process, as well as during maintenance activities. The QDRA is intended to be applied during the planning stages of well construction and maintenance, where the effects of hazard on the job sequence are important unknowns. The definitions of 'barrier' and 'barriers integrated set (BIS)', as well as a modeling technique showing their relationships, are presented. (author)

  6. Evaluation of elemental composition of clays from Campos Gerais (MG); Avaliacao da composicao elementar de argilas de Campos Gerais (MG)

    Martins, Joao P.M.; Maduar, Marcelo F.; Silva, Paulo S.C da, E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    There are numerous applications given to clays including oil and water adsorbent, ceramic, whitening of beverages, porcelain, waste treatment, organic carrier molecules in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals, support for catalysts. In the pharmaceutical industry, the clays are used as excipients, diluents, desiccants, emulsifiers, to mask undesirable flavors, isotonic agent such as charger and delivery of active substances. These characteristics have contributed to the expansion of the search for applications of clay minerals in the cosmetic industry. The aim of this study was to determine the elemental composition of clays from Campos Gerais, Minas Gerais, with a view to their applicability in the production of cosmetics. The elements As, Ba, Br, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th,U, Yb and Zn were determined by neutron activation analysis and radionuclide activity concentration of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228} Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 40}K were determined by gamma spectrometry. It was verified that the activity concentration of radionuclides was in the same concentration as the global average, indicating that these samples do not present a risk of increased radiation exposure. The concentration of most elements determined is less than or equal to the overall mean concentrations, indicated by the values of Continental Upper Crust. (author)

  7. Decantation time of evaluation on bentonite clays fractionation; Avaliacao do tempo de decantacao no fracionamento de argilas bentonitas

    Gomes, J.; Menezes, R.R.; Neves, G.A.; Lira, H.L; Santana, L.N.L., E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais


    Bentonite clays present a great number of industrial uses, from petroleum to pharmaceutics and cosmetic industry. The bentonite clay present particles with very fine particles that is responsible by the vast application of these materials. However, commercial clays present wide particle size distribution and a significant content of impurities, particularly quartz, in the form of silt and fine silt. So, the aim of this work is to analyze the effect of the stirring and decantation time in the deagglomeration, purification and size separation of the bentonite clay particles from Paraiba. The clays were characterized by X-ray diffraction and particle size distribution. Based on the results it was observed the decantation time give the elimination of the agglomerates formed by submicrometric particles. The uses of decantation column give separation of the fraction below 200nm. (author)

  8. Experimental evaluation of the objective virtual mass coefficient; Avaliacao experimental do coeficiente de massa virtual apoiada em uma formulacao objetiva

    Heilbron Filho, Paulo Fernando Lavalle


    This work is a continuation of many others studies that have been made in the field of two-phase flow, concerning the influence of the void fraction in a parameter known as 'induced mass' that appears in the constitutive equation of the inter-phase force called 'virtual mass force'. The determination of the influence of the void fraction in the induced mass is done using experiment involving a bubble flow in a vertical tube filled with water. Using the two-phase flow model together with some hypothesis concerning the bubble flow experience and the constitutive equation for the virtual mass force, we achieve through the analysis of the filming of the experiment our purpose in determining the influence of the void fraction on the induced mass. (author)

  9. Sulfur content standards homogeneity evaluation in diesel fuel; Avaliacao da homogeneidade de padroes de teor de enxofre em oleo diesel

    Zucchini, Ricardo Rezende; Sakai, Patricia Naomi


    The Reference Materials Group, from Chemistry Division of the Technological Research Institute from Sao Paulo State is developing new reference materials, employed to assure traceability to a number of tests carried out by laboratories of Petroleum Industry, amongst them, a set of reference materials with certified sulfur content. A standard must have its homogeneity assured, once it is certified through measurement on a limited number of units, but certified values must be valid throughout the entire lot. Assuring homogeneity of a lot is a specialized task, which demands the proper use of adequate statistical methods. In this paper it is presented a study accomplished in order to evaluate homogeneity of a Diesel fuel, candidate to the certification as a sulfur content reference material. (author)

  10. Evaluation of the ocular protection for low intensity therapeutic lasers; Avaliacao da protecao ocular para lasers terapeuticos em baixa intensidade

    Cordon, Rosely


    The low intensity laser therapy (LILT) has been extensively used in medicine and dentistry presenting positive effects. However, the laser radiation can also cause adverse effects. Due to the ocular focalization property, in the wavelength from 400 to 1400 nm, the retina is more susceptible to damage by radiation than any other part of the human body. Then, the ocular protection is frequently emphasized. This protection must attenuate the radiation to a safe level. The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standard IEC 60825-1 suggests safety requirements for medical laser equipment, including the ocular protection, based on maximum permissible exposure levels. The Brazilian legislation adopts a corresponding IEC standard, the NBR IEC 601.2.22, for safety requirements. The aim of this study was to analyze the adequacy of the ocular protectors furnished by four laser equipment manufacturers, commercially available in Brazil, commonly used for LILT. For this purpose, the laser equipment and the respective ocular protectors were characterized. The adequacy was verified according to the IEC standards. It was found, among other results, ocular protectors attenuating to safe levels the radiation emitted by the respective laser equipment, however, presenting inadequate visual transmission. Inefficient protection and protection indicated in cases where they were not necessary were also observed. (author)

  11. Evaluation of integrity of radiation sources of nuclear gauges; Avaliacao da integridade de fontes radioativas de medidores nucleares

    Torohate, Wiclif Francisco


    Nuclear equipment meters are mainly used in the industry in quality control and process control. The principle of operation consists in a shielded radioactive source together with a radiation detector such that the radiation interacts with the material to be analyzed before reaching the detector, providing real time data. Can be as their fixed and mobile mobility, the unique properties of ionizing radiation are used in three basic modes, transmission, backscatter or dispersion or induced (reactive). With the advancement and technological modernization in the world, the demand for nuclear gauges becomes increasingly larger. Currently in Brazil there are about 465 process control plants and 21 portable systems and Mozambique about 45 facilities using nuclear gauges. This font registration is done through a process called source inventory that allows also to know the category of the source, the danger or risk to human health that the source offers. The handling of this equipment requires personnel, certified, skilled and well trained in radiation protection area in accordance with the requirements of the various CNEN Rules. Due to the presence of radioactive source and because these devices are used by workers risk because there external radiation. In this context, we made the smear test in two fixed meters from the IRD industry laboratory, which determines the integrity of the source package, mandatory item in periodic integrity testing of the radiation source of this type of device. A set of procedures is made for its implementation as an evaluation of the radiological risk by radiological survey. It was intended to contribute to the learning handling and safe use of these meters. (author)

  12. Assessment of irradiated rice bran as iron source.; Avaliacao do farelo de arroz irradiado como fonte de ferro

    Wada, Heden Katsue


    Rice is the largest cereal crop in Brazil. To obtain the polish grain, its external peel is extracted after abrasive process. As a result, rice bran is obtained. It has low cost and high nutritional level, which has been include into malnourished children feeding. There is a considerable controversy related to the rice bran effect on the prevention and control of undernutrition and iron deficiency. The aim os this study was to assess the availability of in vitro iron of in natura and treated rice brans, after different levels of irradiation were applied. Both sorts of bran had their composition analyzed emphasizing the iron and phytate contents. The microbiological quality of the rice bran was also assessed. The pathogenic microorganisms were destroyed only in the in natura rice bran. As the irradiation level applied on the stabilized bran increased, its lipidic fraction reduced an the progressive destruction of the phytates occurred. The high iron content follow its availability in the rice bran, despite of the irradiation level applied, on the rice bran products and its dietetic preparations. (author)

  13. Probabilistic model for primary distribution networks performance evaluation; Modelo probabilistico para avaliacao do desempenho de redes de distribuicao primaria

    Valente, Andre Luiz de Carvalho


    A method for performance evaluation of primary feeders with respect to voltage drop, loss and level of reliability to use, specially in studies of investment planning is focused. The probabilistic model is the chronological minimum length tree. The work consists of: analysis of model; proposition of modifications in model necessary to brazilian electrical sector reality, introducing parameter representing the load density; model adaptation to reliability studies, with evaluation of principal indicators in use in the country; development of software for microcomputer; the simulation of some cases with the software; based in the results, attainment of laws to facilitate the use of model. Eventually, the conclusions are made with considerations about possible applications of the method and research topics for further developments are settled. (author)

  14. Pulmonary leukemic involvement: high-resolution computed tomography evaluation; Comprometimento pulmonar nas leucemias: avaliacao por tomografia computadorizada de alta resolucao

    Oliveira, Ana Paola de [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Programa de Pos-graduacao em Radiologia; Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia]. E-mail:; Souza Junior, Arthur Soares [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia


    Objective: To evaluate the role of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in patients with leukemia and pulmonary symptoms, to establish the main patterns and to correlate them with the etiology. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study of the HRCT of 15 patients with leukemia and pulmonary symptoms. The examinations were performed using a spatial high-resolution protocol and were analyzed by two independent radiologists. Results: The main HRCT patterns found were ground-glass opacity (n=11), consolidation (n=9), airspace nodules (n=3), septal thickening (n=3), tree-in-bud pattern (n=3), and pleural effusion (n=3). Pulmonary infection was the most common finding seen in 12 patients: bacterial pneumonia (n=6), fungal infection (n = 4), pulmonary tuberculosis (n=1) and viral infection (n=1). Leukemic pleural infiltration (n=1), lymphoma (n=1) and pulmonary hemorrhage (n=1) were detected in the other three patients. Conclusion: HRCT is an important tool that may suggest the cause of lung involvement, its extension and in some cases to guide invasive procedures in patients with leukemia. (author)

  15. Laboratory evaluation of hot metal de siliconizing process in ladle; Avaliacao laboratorial do processo de dessiliciacao do gusa na panela

    Passos, Sergio R.M.; Furtado, Henrique S.; Bentes, Miguel A.G.; Almeida, Pedro S. de [Companhia Siderurgica Nacional, Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas


    The attractiveness of hot metal de siliconizing in ladle, relative to the process in blast furnace runner, is the previous knowledge of silicon content of hot metal, without the constraints of slag removing by skimmer met in torpedo car, and the better efficiency in low range silicon content, making easier the process controllability. Meanwhile, the main question about this technology is the extent of the resulfurization of hot metal that may occur due to process be performed after the desulfurization. This work simulates de de siliconizing process in ladle by experiments in induction furnace to compare the efficiencies of various de siliconizing agents available at CSN iron and steel making plant, and to evaluate the resulfurization intensity able to occur during the process, as well as, unexpected increasing of refractory wear. (author) 4 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. Appraisal of a HDPE internal liner; Avaliacao de revestimento interno de duto em polietileno de alta densidade

    Meniconi, Luiz C.M.; Perrut, Valber A.; Castellares, Lizabeth G. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES); Medeiros, Raimundo C. [PETROBRAS, SP (Brazil). Setor de Qualificacao e Certificacao (SEQUI)


    The mechanical properties of a high density polyethylene were evaluated by tensile and tearing tests, after ageing for up to 28 days of immersion in crude oil at 55 deg C. After that, the performance of the polymer as a liner of a metallic pipeline was appraised. A situation was simulated in which an infinitely long defect was supposed to exist along the inner bottom of the pipeline, due to pitting corrosion. Under internal pressure, the liner is pushed and bent against the empty space behind it, causing a tensile stress on its outer surface. The abrasion between the liner and the pipeline during liner installation can create scratches in the liner. The scratches would behave as notches for the initiation of a propagating defect, under the tensile load mentioned above. Finite Element Modeling was used to define the limit values of internal pressure, liner thickness and defect size that would cause defect propagation. The simulation was performed for typical values of pipeline diameter, defect size and liner thickness. (author)

  17. Evaluation of kerma rate in radioactive waste disposal; Avaliacao da taxa de kerma em deposito de rejeitos radioativos

    Rosa, Rodolfo O.; Silva, Joao C.P.; Santos, Joao R. dos, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    This study aims to assess the progression of kerma rate levels in the air due to the increase of collection, storing and storage of radioactive waste in the new building (after expansion) of the radioactive waste disposal (RWD) of the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Brazil. This review is carried out every six months at IEN with thermoluminescent dosimeter lithium fluoride LiF: Mg, Cu, P (TLD-100H). Here are the average values of kerma rate for the period 2008- 2012. In this context, the methodology used for selection and choices of detectors used in dosimeters is presented. The detectors were chosen through homogeneity criteria of the pack, standardization factor and coefficient of variation (CV%). The monitoring points and the exposure time of the detectors are chosen considering various factors, including the rate of occupation and indoor and outdoor positions to RWD. These evaluations showed that the contribution of the new waste disposal in increasing kerma rate of IEN, has proved to be insignificant, that is, the presence of RWD does not contribute to increased environmental kerma rate in the region around this installation.

  18. Methodology aggregated to technical losses evaluation in distribution systems; Metodologia agregada para avaliacao de perdas tecnicas em sistemas de distribuicao

    Hashimoto, Kleber; Gouvea, Marcos Roberto [Comissao de Servicos Publicos de Energia (CSPE), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Maliuk, Igor Rafaelievich Perez; Tahan, Carlos Marcio Vieira [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EPUSP), SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica


    This work proposes an aggregated methodology for the evaluation of the technical losses in distribution networks, based on statistical methods and complemented by deterministic simplified methods, taking into account the compromise between precision in the results and quantity of necessary data.

  19. Unilateral pulmonary veins atresia: evaluation by computed tomography; Atresia unilateral das veias pulmonares: avaliacao por tomografia computadorizada

    Eifer, Diego Andre; Arsego, Felipe Veras, E-mail: [Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA), RS (Brazil). Serv. de Radiologia; Torres, Felipe Soares [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Escola de Medicina


    Unilateral pulmonary vein atresia is a rare congenital condition. In addition to cardiac malformations or pulmonary hypertension, patients may present with recurrent pulmonary infections or hemoptysis in childhood or adolescence. The authors report a case where the typical findings of such condition were observed at computed tomography in an adult patient. (author)

  20. Thermal behavior of Brazilian oil heavy fractions by thermogravimetry; Avaliacao termica de fracoes pesadas de um petroleo brasileiro por termogravimetria

    Goncalves, Maria Luisa Aleixo [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail:; Mota, Deusa Angelica Pinto da; Teixeira, Ana Maria de Figueiredo [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Programa de Pos-graduacao em Quimica]. E-mails:;; Teixeira, Marco Antonio Gomes [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento de Gas, Energia e Desenvolvimento Sustentavel]. E-mail:


    The thermal decomposition of heavy residues (atmospheric, vacuum and asphalt residues) and of some medium fractions (decanted oil and heavy gasoil) from a 19 deg API oil refine was assessed by the thermogravimetry technique. The results provided, in addition to the determination of material released during the thermal cracking thereof, the determination of the contents of generated residual material. The determination of kinetic parameters of the reaction of fraction thermal decomposition was also possible. (author)

  1. Evaluation of the agricultural tractor using biofuel and diesel oil; Avaliacao de um trator agricola utilizando biocombustivel e oleo diesel

    Lopes, Reny Adilmar Prestes; Pinheiro Neto, Raimundo; Meyer, Wagner; Mendonca, Elton Costa de; Roberti, Marcelo [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil)], Emails:,


    Test with alternative fuels is essential to evaluate the performance of machines and engines. In this paper, the performance of a tractor in chiseling operation was evaluated using oil diesel and biofuel (oil diesel + soybean vegetable oil mixture). Speed of displacement, slip wheels, force traction bar and fuel consumption was evaluated in areas under tillage and no-tillage. The speed of displacement of the set presented similar behavior in tillage and no-tillage. Bigger values mean force in the bar of traction, slip and fuel consumptions had been observed for no-tillage with the tractor operating with diesel. Bigger values mean consumption the biofuel had been observed in areas under tillage. The coverings of the soil had influenced in the values of force bar traction, slip wheels, speed of displacement and fuel consumption. In the studied conditions, the tests demonstrate that the mixture oil diesel + soybean vegetable oil had not influenced in the performance of the tractor. (author)

  2. Gas geochemistry: a new technology to evaluate petroleum systems; Geoquimica de gases: uma nova tecnologia em avaliacao de sistemas petroliferos

    Santos Neto, Eugenio Vaz dos [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Gerencia de Geoquimica]. E-mail:


    In the last decade hydrocarbon gas geochemistry has significantly evolved especially regarding to the widespread use of GC-C-IRMS (Gas chromatography-combustion-ion ratio monitoring system) techniques that allowed accurate measurements of {delta}{sup 13} C in the C{sub 1}-C{sub 4} fraction. Also, due to the improvement of the sampling procedures, sample collection - relatively small amounts of gas samples at low pressure - has become easier, sample transportation has become safer - the risk of accidents has been reduced - and analysis has become faster. The 'state-of-the-art' of the use of gas geochemistry to study processes within petroleum systems is discussed in this paper. The discussion is mainly focused on the identification of the hydrocarbon gas origin (biogenesis versus thermo genesis, mixing) and hydrocarbon gas generation (primary versus secondary cracking), including the inference of the relative thermal evolution and possible secondary alterations caused by biodegradation, secondary migration and eventually leakage from petroleum accumulations. Brief comments were also made about the new technologies involving noble gases and their potential use as tracers of processes in petroleum systems. Additionally, the origin of non-hydrocarbon gases in petroleum accumulations is succinctly discussed, as well as their possible economic impacts. The use of gas geochemistry techniques has brought a significant improvement in the understanding of petroleum systems under exploration in Brazil and in other parts of the world. Besides, on-going research projects suggest that there is a great potential for technological advances, e.g., adding the hydrogen isotopic composition of hydrocarbons to the interpretations, and also integrating the available results to the isotopic variations of noble gases. (author)

  3. Decision theory on the quality evaluation of medical images; A teoria da decisao na avaliacao da qualidade da imagem medica

    Lessa, Patricia Silva


    The problem of quality has been a constant issue in every organization.One is always seeking to produce more, to do it at a lower cost, and to do it with better quality. However, in this country, there is no radiographic film quality control system for radiographic services. The tittle that actually gets done is essentially ad hoc and superficial. The implications of this gap, along with some other shortcomings that exist in process as a whole (the state of the x-ray equipment, the adequate to use in order to obtain a radiography, the quality of the film, the processing of the film, the brightness and homogeneity of the viewing boxes, the ability of the radiologist), have a very negative impact on the quality of the medical image, and, as result, to the quality of the medical diagnosis and therapy. It frequently happens that many radiographs have to be repeated, which leads to an increase of the patient's exposure to radiation, as well as of the cost of the procedure for the patient. Low quality radiographs that are not repeated greatly increase the probability of a wrong diagnosis, and consequently, of inadequate therapeutical procedures, thus producing increased incidence of bad outcomes and higher costs. The paradigm proposed in order to establish a system for the measurement of the image's quality is Decision Theory. The problem of the assessment of the image is studied by proposing a Decision Theory approach. The review of the literature reveals a great concern with the quality of the image, along with an absence of an adequate paradigm and several essentially empirical procedures. Image parameters are developed in order to formalize the problem in terms of Decision Theory, and various aspects of image digitalisation are exposed. Finally, a solution is presented, including a protocol for quality control. (author)

  4. Evaluation of the dispersion of oil refinery liquid effluent; Avaliacao da dispersao de efluente liquido de refinaria de petroleo

    Mariano, Adriano Pinto; Silva, Ariovaldo Jose da; Oliveira, Valdenilson Jose Alves de; Angelis, Dejanira de Franceschi de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica e Microbiologia. Inst. de Biociencias], e-mail:


    In this paper, two techniques to evaluate the dispersion of the effluent of an oil refinery are presented. Thus, the dispersion plume was characterized by field measurements of electrical conductivity and by computational simulation (Cormix simulator). An oil refinery whose effluent is discharged on the Atibaia river (Paulinia/SP) is taken as study case. The behavior of the effluent was evaluated until 1000 m after the discharge. The results show that the measurement of electrical conductivity is a suitable technique to evaluate the dispersion of oil refinery wastewaters, since they have high conductivity and for this reason there is a strong contrast between the values of the wastewater and the ambient background. Furthermore, other water quality parameters had a dispersion behavior similar to that shown by the conductivity. The dispersion plume generated by the computational simulator showed high concordance with the field data. In this manner, computational simulation can be a useful tool to evaluate the dispersion of discharges considering hypothetical scenarios, as well as to design the discharge channel. (author)

  5. Evaluation of the energetic equivalence of goat manure biogas; Avaliacao da equivalencia energetica do biogas de esterco de caprinos

    Canafistula, Francisco Jose Firmino; Carvalho, Paulo Cesar Marques de [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica], e-mails:,


    The present paper shows the results of a research about a new production system model based on goats; part of the animals manure is used for biogas production. The biogas is used as fuel for water pumping for the irrigation of the animals pasture. For the viability of the project, a photovoltaic powered electrified fence was used. Additional to the positive results of sustainability, innovative solutions were developed for sizing, optimization and costs reduction by the use of digesters in small rural communities of the semi-arid of the Brazilian Northeast Region. (author)

  6. Evaluation of welding by MIG in martensitic stainless steel; Avaliacao da soldagem pelo processo MIG em aco inoxidavel martensitico

    Fernandes, M.A. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil); Mariano, N.A.; Marinho, D.H.C. Marinho, E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Alfenas (UNIFAL), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil)


    This work evaluated structure's characterization and mechanical properties after the welding process of the stainless steel CA6NM. The employed welding process was the metal active gas with tubular wire. The control of the thermal cycle in the welding process has fundamental importance regarding the properties of the welded joint, particularly in the thermally affected zone. The mechanical properties were appraised through impact resistance tests and the hardness and microstructure through metallographic characterization and Ray-X diffraction. The parameters and the process of welding used promoted the hardness and toughness appropriate to the applications of the steel. Welding energy's control becomes an essential factor that can affect the temperature of carbide precipitation and the nucleation of the retained austenite in the in the region of the in the thermally affected zone. (author)

  7. Evaluation of measurement methods for diffuse solar radiation; Avaliacao de metodos de medicao da radiacao solar difusa

    Ricieri, Reinaldo Prandini; Escobedo, Joao Francisco; Almeida Frisina, Valeria de [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Ciencias Ambientais


    The evaluation results from measuring methods of the diffuse solar radiation, disc and shadow ring are described compared to the method by difference between the global radiation and the direct radiation projected in a horizontal plane. The disc method is dependent on the diffuse radiation anisotropy, with an average relative deviation around 7.1% with percentages according to the sky cover; 11.56% for open sky days; 4.8% for partly cloudy days and 2.43% for cloudy days. The shadow ring method is also sky cover dependent with an average relative deviation 8.0% ranging from 8.99% for open sky days; 7.70% for partly cloudy and 2.5% for cloudy days. (author)

  8. Aproximación a la fisonomía del terreno cultivado y a las prácticas agrícolas en la Ribeira Sacra durante los siglos XIV y XV

    López Sabatel, José Antonio


    Full Text Available This article tries an approach to which it had to be the physical semblante and extension of terrain taken in benefit of the agricultural activity in the area of influence of five monasteries located to both margins of the Sil river in the preceding section to his opening in the Miño. Also it will be centered in the diverse agricultural practices destined to the care of the chestnut and the grapevine as well as to the work in territories of cereal. Practices these that with respect to the system of cultures will have incidence in the appearance of the agrarian space.

    Este artículo pretende un acercamiento a lo que debió ser el semblante físico y extensión de los terrenos ganados en beneficio de la actividad agrícola en el seno del área de influencia de cinco cenobios situados a ambos márgenes del río Sil en el tramo precedente a su desembocadura en el Miño.
    También se centrará en las diversas prácticas agrícolas destinadas al cuidado de la castaña y la vid así como al trabajo en las tierras de cereal. Prácticas éstas que en lo relativo al sistema de cultivos tendrán incidencia en la fisonomía del espacio agrario.


    Emerson Galvani


    Full Text Available The researches developed on the climatology have been in their majority, turned to the region and local scale. Nevertheless, due to the attention that have been given to the environmental studies nowadays, and the necessity of studies in inferior climate’s scales, with detailed analysis, the microclimatic studies gained eminence. The mangroves that have eminence in the Cananéia - Iguape Costal System represent the vegetable community adapted to various physical conditioning in operation in the costal zones, among its, the climatic. Therefore, the vegetation of one determined area is related to the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the environment that it’s inserted. Afterward, this research has the purpose to realize the mangrove vegetation’s phisionomic analysis and to identify the relation existent between the principal physical characteristics of the environment,eminently to the microclimatic factor, aiming the comprehension of the active dynamic along the Cananéia - Iguape Costal System. When comparing the structural data of the vegetation and relating them with the climatic attributes, the importance of the vegetation was confirmed it as controlling climatic, mainly when the work scale is the microclimatic one.

  10. Space-temporal dynamics of limnological variables in a floodplain wetland located at Ribeira do Iguape Valley (São Paulo, Brazil at different hydrological periods Dinâmica espaço-temporal de variáveis limnológicas em uma área alagada localizada no Vale do Ribeira do Iguape (São Paulo, Brasil em diferentes períodos hidrológicos

    Roseli Frederigi Benassi


    Full Text Available AIM: The main goal of this research was to investigate the influence of the hydrological pulses on the space-temporal dynamics of physical and chemical variables in a wetland adjacent to Jacupiranguinha River (São Paulo, Brazil; METHODS: Eleven sampling points were distributed among the wetland, a tributary by its left side and the adjacent river. Four samplings were carried out, covering the rainy and the dry periods. Measures of pH, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity and redox potential were taken in regular intervals of the water column using a multiparametric probe. Water samples were collected for the nitrogen and total phosphorus analysis, as well as their dissolved fractions (dissolved inorganic phosphorus, total dissolved phosphorus, ammoniacal nitrogen and nitrate. Total alkalinity and suspended solids were also quantified; RESULTS: The Multivariate Analysis of Variance showed the influence of the seasonality on the variability of the investigated variables, while the Principal Component Analysis gave rise in two statistical significant axes, which delimited two groups representative of the rainy and dry periods. Hydrological pulses from Jacupiranguinha River, besides contributing to the inputs of nutrients and sediments during the period of connectivity, accounted for the decrease in spatial gradients in the wetland. This "homogenization effect" was evidenced by the Cluster Analysis. The research also showed an industrial raw effluent as the main point source of phosphorus to the Jacupiranguinha River and, indirectly, to the wetland; CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, considering the scarcity of information about the wetlands in the study area, this research, besides contributing to the understanding of the influence of hydrological pulses on the investigated environmental variables, showed the need for adoption of conservation policies of these ecosystems face the increase anthropic pressures that they have been submitted, which may result in lack of their ecological, social and economic functions.OBJETIVO: O objetivo desta pesquisa foi investigar a influência dos pulsos de inundação sobre a dinâmica espaço-temporal de variáveis físicas e químicas em uma área alagada adjacente ao Rio Jacupiranguinha (São Paulo, Brasil. Onze pontos de amostragem foram distribuídos entre a área alagada, incluindo um tributário pela margem esquerda e o canal do rio adjacente; MÉTODOS: Quatro campanhas de amostragem foram realizadas, cobrindo os períodos seco e chuvoso. Medidas de pH, oxigênio dissolvido, condutividade elétrica e potencial redox foram realizadas em intervalos regulares da coluna d'água usando uma sonda multiparâmetros. Amostras de água foram coletadas para análise de nitrogênio e fósforo total, além de suas frações dissolvidas (fósforo inorgânico dissolvido, fósforo total dissolvido, nitrogênio amoniacal e nitrato. Alcalinidade total e sólidos suspensos também foram quantificados; RESULTADOS: A Análise Multivariada de Variância mostrou influência da sazonalidade sobre a variabilidade das variáveis investigadas, enquanto que a Análise de Componentes Principais deu origem a dois eixos estatisticamente significativos, os quais delimitaram dois grupos representativos dos períodos seco e chuvoso. Os pulsos hidrológicos do Rio Jacupiranguinha, além de contribuírem para o aporte de nutrientes e sedimentos durante o período de conectividade, foram responsáveis pela diminuição dos gradientes espaciais na área alagada. Este "efeito de homogeneização" foi evidenciado pela Análise de Cluster. A pesquisa também mostrou um efluente bruto industrial como a principal fonte pontual de fósforo para o Rio Jacupiranguinha e, indiretamente, para a área alagada; CONCLUSÕES: Portanto, considerando a escassez de informações sobre os ecossistemas aquáticos da área de estudo, esta pesquisa, além de contribuir para o entendimento da influência dos pulsos hidrológicos sobre as variáveis ambientais da área alagada investigada, mostrou a necessidade da adoção de medidas de conservação destes ecossistemas frente crescente pressão antrópica a que estão submetidos, as quais podem resultar em perdas de suas funções ecológicas, sociais e econômicas.

  11. Anemia ferropriva em populações da região sul do Estado de São Paulo Iron deficiency anaemia in populations of the Southern area of the State of S. Paulo, Brazil

    Sophia Cornblüth Szarfarc


    Full Text Available Foi feito um levantamento da ocorrência de anemia ferropriva no Vale do Ribeira, nas localidades de Iguape, Apiaí, Ribeira, Barra do Chapéu e Pontal do Ribeira, através de dosagens, no sangue, de Hemoglobina, Hematócrito, Ferro sérico e Capacidade de Ligação de Ferro. Na mesma amostra populacional, pelo estudo da composição dos alimentos consumidos, foi obtida a ingestão de ferro, média, diária, "per capita" nas seis localidades referidas. Os resultados da adequação de consumo foram: em Iguape, 91%; Pontal do Ribeira, 63%; Icapara, 81%; Apiaí, 122%; Ribeira, 99% e em Barra do Chapéu, 125%. Através dos índices aplicados, evidenciou-se a existência de anemia como problema de Saúde Pública na grande maioria das áreas estudadas.A study of iron deficiency anaemia in seaside and mountain population of the southern area of the state of S. Paulo, Brazil, was carried out. The towns studies were, Iguape, Pontal do Ribeira, Icapara, Apiai, Ribeira and Barra do Chapeu. Studying the composition of food-stuff consumed a "per capita" average iron consumption was stablished for each town. Results showed that consumption of iron in Iguape was 91% of minimum needs, Pontal do Ribeira, 63%, Icapara, 81%, Apiai, 122%, Ribeira, 99% and Barra do Chapeu, 125%. It was found that in most localities iron deficiency anaemia constitutes a public health problem.

  12. About Eosinophilic Disorders

    ... Fish, MD Jonathan A. Flick, MD Andrew B. Grossman, MD Janice A. Kelly, MD, FAGA Judith R. Kelsen, MD Melissa A. Kennedy, MD Chris A. Liacouras, MD Petar Mamula, MD Asim Maqbool, MD Maria R. Mascarenhas, MBBS Jamie Merves, MD Amanda Muir, MD David A. Piccoli, MD Matthew J. Ryan, MD Edisio ...

  13. Succinctness of epistemic languages

    French, Tim; Hoek, Wiebe van der; Iliev, Petar; Kooi, Barteld; Walsh, T.


    Tim French, Wiebe van der Hoek, Petar Iliev and Barteld Kooi. Succinctness of Epistemic Languages. In: T. Walsh (editor). Proceedings of the Twenty-Second International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence (IJCAI-11), pp. 881-886, AAAI Press, Menlo Park.

  14. Metaplasia gástrica em duodeno e infecçao pelo Helicobacter pylori

    Souza, Raquel Canzi Almada de


    Resumo: A doenca ulcerosa peptica duodenal e uma condicao multifatorial, na qual a infeccao pelo H elico b a cter p y lo r i tem participacao relevante. O presente trabalho avaliou 52 pacientes com ulcera duodenal (Grupo 1) e 30 com dispepsia nao ulcerosa - endoscopia digestiva alta normal- (Grupo 2), com o objetivo de determinar a prevalencia da metaplasia gastrica superficial (MGS) no duodeno e infeccao gastrica e duodenal pelo H. p y lo r i nesses dois grupos. Durante a avaliacao endoscopi...

  15. Determination and environmental estimation of NORMs in marine sediment environment of offshore platforms; Determinacao e avaliacao ambiental de NORMs em sedimento marinho entorno de plataformas offshore

    Vegueria, Sergio F. Jerez, E-mail: [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Quimica Analitica; Godoy, Jose M., E-mail:, E-mail: [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    The natural radioactive materials (NORM known as) are found in the earth's crust, and during the process of production of oil and gas are concentrated in the produced water and the fouling (scale) pipes used for extraction. The production of oil and gas from produced water comes, comprising: forming water (water naturally present in the well ); injection water , usually sea water previously injected into the well to maintaining the pressure while the oil is removed; and water condensed in some cases of gas production. A high radioactivity of {sup 226}Ra (natural grade of {sup 238}U) and {sup 228}Ra (from the natural series of {sup 232}Th) is detected in produced water due to the high solubility of radio in formation water as uranium and thorium, which are insoluble in this medium, remain the rock matrix. The study was conducted in the area of offshore oil production in the state of Rio de January and included the determination of uranium, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 228}Ra in marine sediment near the points of discharge of produced water from oil platforms. After the pre-treatment and digestion of samples, the determination of the natural uranium was performed on a mass spectrometer with inductively coupled plasma (ICP -MS). The activities of {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ra were determined by high resolution gamma spectrometry through {sup 214}Bi and {sup 228}Ac , respectively. And in the case of {sup 210}Pb, a correction was made for self-absorption employing an external source of this radionuclide. The results showed that there is no impact in sediments in the vicinity of the studied platforms.

  16. Evaluation of knee meniscus lesions using MRI - a comparative study of pulse sequences; Avaliacao da lesao meniscal por meio de ressonancia magnetica do joelho - estudo comparativo das sequencias

    Fernandes, Artur da Rocha C.; Vilela, Sonia de Aguiar; Turrini, Elisabeth; Lederman, Henrique M. [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina. Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem


    The frequency of knee disability after injuries has become higher, in this context meniscal lesions keep an important role. This study evaluated 34 MR exams using 1.5-T system (Signa; GE). In this group 26 had 4 sequences (5 acquisitions); 2 coronal (T1, MPGR), 3 sagittal (T1, T2, proton density). The aim of this study was to evaluate the MR pulse sequence`s reproducibility and observer variability. Two readers (A and B) reviewed the exams using the same criteria. The reader A reviewed all sequences for each patient; the reader B reviewed the individual sequences at random on two separate occasions, 6 months apart. The signal expression of meniscal lesion is more evident with T1 (short TR/short TE) sagittal; however, in this sequence the results were less consistent. The sagittal proton density (long TR/short TE) was very close to be the idea sequence: had good concordance among the readings of readers A and B. Kappa concordance test showed best result for sagittal proton density images (Kw = 0.84). (author) 47 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Evaluation of the performance of diagnosis monitors in use in Salvador city: pilot study; Avaliacao do desempenho de monitores diagnostico em uso na cidade de Salvador: estudo piloto

    Garcia, Igor; Geambastiani, Paulo; Ferreira, Mario; Macedo, Eric; Navarro, Marcus; Navarro, Valeria; Pereira, Lara; Jesus, Evandro de; Leite, Handerson Jorge Dourado, E-mail: [Instituto Federal da Bahia (LABPROSAUD/IFBA), Salvador , BA (Brazil). Lab. de Produtos para Saude; Lins, Carolina [Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saude Publica, Salvador, BA (Brazil)


    Radiologically, the image quality is the accuracy of the representation of the patient's anatomy. Considering the importance of the performance of the monitors to the overall effectiveness of a practice of diagnostic imaging, the objective of this study is to evaluate the performance of diagnostic monitors in use, using the method described in the report 03 of the AAPA and Spanish protocol, using calibrated instrumentation traceable to NIST and to RBC. The results of the monitors evaluated to date show 100% compliance for geometric distortion tests and internal reflection and 0% compliance to the dependence of luminance test. (author)

  18. Critical evaluation of the external occupational exposure in nuclear medicine services in Brazil; Avaliacao critica da exposicao ocupacional externa nos servicos de medicina nuclear no Brasil

    Kubo, Ana Luiza Silva Lima


    Currently in Brazil (2016), there are 421 Nuclear Medicine Services (NMS). In nuclear medicine, the possibility of occupational internal contamination and external exposure is unavoidable. The chest individual monitoring, to estimate the effective dose, is mandatory, but the extremity monitoring is not always made. The aim of this study was to conduct a survey of data for external exposure of NMS professionals in Brazil from 1987 to 2010, analysing them in terms of trends and comparing them with measurements carried out in this work and in other countries. Although most of the NMS is still located in large urban centres (54% in the Southeast region), there is no state without any NMS. The increasing number of NMS has generated the need for more professionals. In the year 1987, they were 755 workers and, in 2010, 4134, with the following distribution of specialties: 29% of Nuclear Medicine Technicians (NMT), 23% of Nursing professionals, 29% of Physicians and 3% of Physicists. The average annual effective dose reached more than 3.0 mSv in some regions of the country, from 1987 to 2010, but tends to 1.0 mSv in 2010. The highest doses, as expected, are received by NMT and Nursing. The professionals who handle radiopharmaceuticals have their hands much more exposed than the chest. During 2010, only 31% of NMT and 16% of Nursing used extremity dosimeters as compared to chest dosimeters. The data from the measurements indicate that not all individual dosimeters are used properly. Generally, both in the measurements as in national registries, the hand doses were higher for professionals who prepared the radiopharmaceutical (NMT) than those who injected (Nursing). The value measured by chest dosimeters can be used to estimate the equivalent dose to the eye lenses, except for NMT at preparation practices at conventional NMS, where the equivalent dose of the lens is about 2 times higher than the dose at the chest. The most exposed areas of the hands are the tips of the index and middle fingers of the non-dominant hand for professionals who carry out preparation of the radiopharmaceutical and the index finger of the dominant hand for those who perform injection in conventional NMS and making fractionation and injection in the case of Positron Emission Tomography (PET). Thus, measurements with dosimetric rings estimate better the extremity equivalent dose than bracelets, which can underestimate the hand equivalent dose by a factor between 10 and 20. Unlike the effective dose, the possibility that an occupational equivalent dose value exceeds the annual limit is real. The ability of the operator and the use of shielding seem to be more important to the magnitude of the dose than the used fractionation technique, which is highly relevant for the dose distribution in the hands. (author)

  19. Evaluation of personal dosimetry in abdominal aorta endo prosthesis procedures; Avaliacao da dosimetria pessoal em procedimentos de endoproteses de aorta abdominal

    Bacchim Neto, Fernando A.; Alves, Allan F.F.; Freitas, Carlos C.M. de; Pina, Diana R. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FMB/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina


    The objective of this paper is to evaluate the currently dosimetry technique employed in the medical staff during interventional radiology procedures. Thermoluminescent dosimeters were positioned in different regions of the primary interventionist during procedures of stent graft in abdominal aortic aneurysms. The equivalent dose rate profile shows a tendency of difference between dose rate found in the chest in relation to the abdomen, hands and feet. Statistically, dose rates found in the hands differ from those found in the chest with p=0.05. These results suggest that only a dosimeter placed on the chest does not describe faithfully the radiation doses to which these professionals are occupationally exposed. (author)

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging pre- and postoperative evaluation of tetralogy of Fallot; Avaliacao pre e pos-operatoria da tetralogia de Fallot por ressonancia magnetica

    Bernardes, Renata Junqueira Moll; Simoes, Luiz Carlos [Instituto Nacional de Cardiologia (INC), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Cardiologia da Crianca e do Adolescente; Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia]. E-mail:; Bernardes, Paulo Manuel de Barros; Gonzaga, Maria Beatriz Albano Monzo [Rede Labs/D' Or, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    The purpose of this study was to assess the usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the pre- and postoperative evaluation of patients with tetralogy of Fallot. Twenty patients aged 1 to 29 years were prospectively evaluated with black-blood and contrast-enhanced angiographic techniques, 11 with the classic form of tetralogy of Fallot and 9 with tetralogy of Fallot and pulmonary atresia. MRI studies provided adequate visualization of the aorta that was classified as dilated or not dilated, and definition of its position in all cases. The use of contrast-enhanced MR angiographic techniques provided excellent imaging of the main right and left pulmonary arteries. The results suggest that MRI, including contrast-enhanced angiography techniques, is a useful tool in the evaluation of patients with tetralogy of Fallot before and after cardiac surgery since it provides important anatomical information that is not always obtained with echocardiography. MRI can be considered an alternative to cardiac catheterization, particularly in the evaluation of the pulmonary vascular anatomy. (author)

  1. Evaluation of pulp and mortar to pack bitumen radioactive waste; Avaliacao de pastas e argamassas para o embalado de rejeitos radioativos betuminizados

    Gregorio, Marina da S.; Vieira, Vanessa M.; Tello, Cledola C.O., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)


    According to international experience, for the deposition of cement in surface repository, is necessary the use of cement mortar pastes to immobilize the product. Determining the most efficient folder or for the packed mortar, as well as its ideal formulation, is the goal of this study. To do various experiments with samples of cement paste and mortar, with presence of fluxing and / or clay were performed. Viscosity, density, setting time and compressive strength were evaluated. This study will be presented only the results found in testing of compressive strength to be an essential parameter in the transport, storage and disposal of the product. From the results found will be selected the best formulations for use in packed bitumen tailings from the National Radioactive Waste Repository.

  2. Evaluation of the photo-fenton reaction in the decomposition of tick residues; Avaliacao da reacao foto-fenton na decomposicao de residuos de carrapaticida

    Gromboni, Caio Fernando; Ferreira, Antonio Gilberto [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Kamogawa, Marcos Yassuo [Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz. Dept. de Ciencias Exatas; Nogueira, Ana Rita de Araujo [Embrapa Pecuaria Sudeste, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail:


    Experimental procedures based on factorial design and surface response methodology were applied to establish experimental conditions for the decomposition of a 1:400 (v/v) Supocade (chlorfenvinphos 13.8% and cypermethrin 2.6%) solution, used to control cattle ticks. Experiments exploring photo-oxidative reactions were performed with and without UV radiation, fixing exposition time and pesticide volume, and varying the oxidant mixture. The use of 3.6 mmol L{sup -1} Fe{sup 2+} plus 1.9 mol L-1 H{sub 2}O{sub 2} plus UV radiation provided destruction of 94% of the original carbon content and reduction of aromatic, aliphatic and carbinolic compounds, evaluated by determination of residual carbon content by ICP OES and NMR analysis. (author)

  3. Assessing the quality of energy supplied by small renewable energy systems; Avaliacao da qualidade da energia fornecida por sistemas renovaveis isolados de pequeno porte

    Galhardo, Marcos Andre Barros; Pinho, Joao Tavares [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Grupo de Estudos e Desenvolvimento de Alternativas Energeticas], e-mail:, E-mail:


    This paper makes an analysis of the power quality supplied by small renewable energy systems with energy storage in a battery bank and its DC/AC conversion by an inverter. It is shown that the power quality supplied by stand-alone renewable systems depends on the used inverter, specially of its voltage waveform, the load supplied and the voltage level in the battery bank, which has a direct influence on the value of the rms output voltage of the inverter. For these analysis, measurements are presented for typical loads used in these systems as illumination, TV, refrigerator, etc., and combinations of these loads, supplied by different waveforms. (author)

  4. Evaluation of the natural radioactivity at sands of anomalous regions of Espirito Santo state, Brazil; Avaliacao da radioatividade natural em areias de regioes anomalas do Espirito Santo, Brasil

    Aquino, Reginaldo Ribeiro de; Pecequilo, Brigitte Roxana Soreanu, E-mail: raquino@ipen.b, E-mail: brigitte@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    The natural radioactivity in sands of anomalous regions of the state of Espirito Santo, Brazil, were calculated from the concentration of activity of {sup 40}K, {sup 225}Ra and {sup 232}Th for the places of south and central of Camburi, Curva da Jurema, Ilha do Boi, Setibinha, south and central area of Praia da Areia Preta, denominated Black Spot. The samples were sealed and measured by high resolution gamma spectrometry and after a expectation time pf 30 days, until to reach a radioactive equilibrium

  5. Biodegradation evaluation of recycled polyethylene doped with Moringa oleifera oil; Avaliacao da biodegradacao de filmes de polietileno reciclado dopados com oleo de Moringa oleifera

    Bicalho, Luciana A.; Novack, Katia M.; Melo, Tania M.S., E-mail: [Dept. de Quimica (DEQUI) - Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (UFOP), Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil)


    Chemical modifications and use of additives are some of the mainly ways to obtain polymer materials with especial properties. Vegetable oils incorporated to polymers preserve their structure while make possible a reduction of degradation rate. This work proposed the use of polyethylene, one of the most common polymer commodities, because of its low cost and wide application. In this project it was verified the possibility of making polymer materials with properties of a natural product through the incorporation of Moringa oleifera oil to recycled low density polyethylene (LDPEr) in different proportions. The films were buried for different times and their degradation was evaluated.) Samples were characterized by DSC, TGA and XRD. It was observed that samples doped with Moringa oil showed lower degradation time. (author)

  6. Evaluation of kraft paper chemical byproducts in insulating mineral oil of energized transformers; Avaliacao de subprodutos quimicos de papel tipo kraft em oleo mineral isolante de transformadores energizados

    Portella, Mariana d' Orey Gaivao; Portella, Kleber Franke; Swinka Filho, Vitoldo; Silva, Guilherme Cunha da; Stocco, Guilherme Barrachina; Batista, Douglas Antonio; Sabec, Daiane Cristina; Deger, Claudio Adriano [Instituto de Tecnologia para o Desenvolvimento (LATEC), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)], E-mails:,; Andreoli, Mario Carlos [Centro de Transmissao de Energia Eletrica Paulista (CTEEP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail:


    The insulating paper is a major determinant of the remaining lifetime of an electrical transformer, since it is not possible to analyse or replace this equipment during operation. However, using the quantification of the furanic compounds concentration formed in mineral oil, it is possible to infer about the quality of the material, confirming the presence of degradation. Given the existence of new kinds of solid insulation, this research aimed at studying a new analytical methodology, using the techniques of liquid chromatography with mass detection of these substances in order to increase the reliability of the results, assisting the preventive maintenance. (author)

  7. Evaluation of the strengthening of the conditions of voltage security using sensitivity analysis; Avaliacao do reforco das condicoes da seguranca de tensao utilizando a analise de sensibilidade

    Rosa, A.L.S.; Costa, V.M. da; Peres, W. [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFJF), MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia], Emails:,,; Prada, R.B. [Pontificia Universidade Catolica (PUC-Rio), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica], Email:


    Voltage stability or voltage security analysis has motivated an expressive attention of power systems researchers. In this work, a simple and fast method evaluates voltage security and proposes conditions to improve the loading margin. System analysis is carried out in terms of active power transmission path. Sensitivity analysis provides the most adequate buses to active and reactive power redispatch. A sequential iterative methodology to reinforce system conditions is presented. (author)

  8. Evaluation of drilling fluids flow regime in annular sections; Avaliacao do regime de escoamento de fluidos de perfuracao em secoes anulares

    Silva, Maria das Gracas Pena [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Setor de Tecnologia de Perfuracao


    The determination of the transition zone between the laminar and turbulent flow regimes of particular importance in optimizing the hydraulics of drilling operations. The principal advantage which laminar flow in the annular space has in drilling operations in the avoidance of wall enlargement (wash-outs), maintaining formation integrity as much as possible. On the other hand, a lower-energy regime such as laminar flow does not provide the same cuttings-carrying capacity as that obtained when the drilling fluid is in turbulent flow. However, to be able to optimize the hydraulics it is necessary to have determined, among other parameters, the transition zone, in order to maximize the drilling rate while obtaining the hole clear of cuttings and maintaining the hole diameter constant over the whole of the section drilled. This paper presents, based on experimental results obtained on the SHS physical simulator, the transition zone expressed through the critical Reynolds numbers and those for low stable turbulence of various drilling fluids tested over the temperature range of 25-80 deg C. (author) 20 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Situational quality evaluation of mammography services at state of Minas Gerais, Brazil; Avaliacao situacional da qualidade dos servicos de mamografia do estado de Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Joana, Georgia S.; Oliveira, Mauricio de; Andrade, Mauricio C. de; Cesar, Adriana C.Z., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Secretaria de Estado da Saude de Minas Gerais (SVS/SES-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Superintendencia de Vigilancia Sanitaria; Oliveira, Marcio A.; Nogueira, Maria do S., E-mail:, E-mail: mnogue@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Peixoto, Joao E. [Instituto Nacional de Cancer (INCA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in women. Currently, the most effective method for early detection of this cancer is the mammography, and to achieve the standard definition and contrast, the whole system of imaging must operate under optimal conditions. This paper presents the results of the assessment of mammography centers in the state of Minas Gerais, which was held with the aim of supporting the actions of the State Program of Quality Control in Mammography. These results indicated that less than half of mammography achieved the minimum standard of image quality, endorsing the need of a monitoring more efficient and effective, which led to the establishment, in Minas Gerais, of the monthly monitoring of image quality in mammography. (author)

  10. Dynamic evaluation of the nominal capacity for connection of wind parks; Avaliacao dinamica da capacidade nominal para conexao de parques eolicos

    Yip, Tony; Lloyd, Graeme; An, Chang [Areva T and D, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Aten, Martin; Ferris, Bob [E.ON Central Networks (United Kingdom)


    The capacity dynamic determination was applied to 132 kV line, for protection and load management purposes, increasing the possibility of wind generation connection. The capacity was calculated based on climatic measurements, coordinate the automatic dispatch. To guarantee that the capacity was not surmounted, a backup system was used composed by relay. (author)

  11. Evaluation of the mineral impurities and wear down in alcohol and sugar industry; Avaliacao das impurezas minerais e desgaste na industria sucroalcooleira atraves de analise por ativacao neutronica

    Bacchi, Marcio A.


    A tropical clime culture, the sugar cane is planted mainly in underdeveloped countries, being a important economic source. The agricultural sector received during many years funds for technological development, but the sugar cane pressing system did not receive significant technical evolution since the fifties. One of the problem needs solution is the low quality of the raw material, caused by the difficulty of the reaping operation, it causes exaggerated addiction of impurities. The industrial ware down in plants and distilleries does not come exclusively from the action from mineral impurities, occurring also in the processing of pure raw material, free of soil, but is known that the great increase in ware down especially in the extraction system due to the presence of soil on the cane. Keeping the level of minerals to the minimum, makes the ware down to follow to acceptable technical and economical levels. This paper discusses the possibility of quantify the ware down of the extraction equipment by neutron activation of samples collected in one sugar cane plant. For that, the study of the behavior of the elements from sugar cane itself and soil present as impurity and the ware down of the metallic equipment. It was not possible quantify any addition of ware down elements in cane and its derivatives, by the processing system. The iron demonstrated to be a potential tracer element of ware down but the high rates of soil makes difficult the measurement of this element, when proceeding from of the ware down. The reason iron/scandium might be useful in identification of iron of mechanical ware down origin, serving as label of soil origin. Iron and thorium are good tracers of soil in sugar cane loads, being usable for the determination of the impurities levels once known their concentration in the sugar cane original soils. 70 refs., 9 figs., 16 tabs.

  12. Evaluation of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) and collagen by Low Field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy; Avaliacao da polivinilpirrolidona e do colageno por ressonancia magnetica nuclear de baixo campo

    Costa, Paula de M.; Tavares, Maria I.B. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas Professora Eloisa Mano]. E-mail:


    Blends of natural and synthetic polymers represent a new class of materials with better mechanical properties and biocompatibility than those of the single components. Collagen and poly(vinylpyrrolidone) are well known for their important biological properties. The blending of collagen with poly(vinylpyrrolidone) makes it possible to obtain new materials in which strong interactions between the synthetic and biological components occur. Do to the excellent biocompatibility of these polymers, this blend has been much studied intending biomedical applications. And a one technique that can provide important information on molecular mobility, compatibility and even evaluate the interactions that can occur with these polymers is the Low Field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Thus, the purpose of this work is to evaluate collagen and poly(vinylpyrrolidone) by Low Field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. From the values of relaxation times obtained, we can conclude that these materials have different interactions, and different mobility domains, confirming the heterogeneity and complexity of these materials. (author)

  13. Characterization and evaluation of residue 'grits' of the cellulose industry; Caracterizacao e avaliacao do resisduo 'grits' da industria de celulose

    Destefani, A.Z.; Santos, M.M.; Holanda, J.N.F. [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (LAMAV/CCT/UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Materiais Avancados


    The cellulose industry generates huge amounts of solid waste residue called 'grits'. These wastes have been willing over time in landfills near the mills. However, this type of disposal is not environmentally friendly and can cause degradation and environmental pollution. In addition, environmental legislation increasingly severe and the high costs of landfill have led the search for new alternatives for final disposition of this abundant waste. In this context, this study is to characterize waste grits, generated by the cellulose industry in the region of Aracruz-ES. The residue samples were characterized in terms of chemical composition, X-ray diffraction, particle size distribution and thermal analysis (DTA and TGA). The characterization of the residual 'grits' demonstrated its potential as a feedstock for production of soil-cement bricks. (author)

  14. Evaluation of the bleaching flux in clays containing hematite and different clay minerals; Avaliacao do fundente descolorante em argilas contendo hematita e diferentes argilominerais

    Silva Junior, E.M.; Lusa, T.; Silva, T.M.; Medeiros, B.B.; Santos, G.R. dos [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (DAMEC/UFTPR), Pato Branco, PR (Brazil); Morelli, M.R., E-mail:, E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (DEMa/PPGCEM/UFSCar), SP (Brazil)


    Previous studies have shown that the addition of a synthetic flux in a clay mineral constituted by illite phase in the presence of iron oxide with the hematite, promotes color change of the firing products, making the reddish color firing into whiteness. This flow is constituted of a vitreous phase of the silicates family obtained by fusion/solidification of oxides and carbonates. Thus, the objective of this work was that of studying the interaction of the iron element in the final color mechanism of the different types of mineral crystal phase of the clays. In order to study the phenomenon, we obtained different compositions between the select clays and the synthetic flow, and characterization using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and visual analysis. The results showed that the action of the synthetic flow as a modifying agent for color depends on the mineral crystal phase of the clays. The color firing modification does not occur in the clays content high levels of kaolinite mineral phase. (author)

  15. Evaluation of nanofiltration membranes for treatment of liquid radioactive waste; Avaliacao de membranas de nanofiltracao para o tratamento de rejeito radioativo liquido

    Oliveira, Elizabeth Eugenio de Mello


    The physicochemical behavior of two nanofiltration membranes for treatment of a low-level radioactive liquid waste (carbonated water) was investigated through static, dynamic and concentration tests. This waste was produced during conversion of uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) to uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2}) in the cycle of nuclear fuel. This waste contains about 7.0 mg L{sup -1} of uranium and cannot be discarded to the environment without an adequate treatment. In static tests membrane samples were immersed in the waste for 24 to 5000 h. Their transport properties (hydraulic permeability, permeate flux, sulfate and chloride ions rejection) were evaluated before and after immersion in the waste using a permeation flux front system under 0.5 MPa. The selective layer (polyamide) was characterized by zeta potential, contact angle, scanning electron microscopy for field emission, atomic force microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, x-ray fluorescence and thermogravimetric analysis before and after static tests. In dynamic tests the waste was permeated under 0.5 MPa, and the membranes showed rejection to uranium above 85% were obtained. The short-term static tests (24-72 h) showed that the selective layer and surface charge of the membranes were not chemical changed, according infrared spectra data. After 5000 h a coating layer was released from the membranes, poly(vinyl alcohol), PVA. After this loss the rejection for uranium decreased. Permeation and concentration of the waste were carried out in permeation flux tangential system under 1.5 MPa. The rejection of uranium was around 90% for permeation tests. In concentration tests the permeated was collected continuously until about 80% reduction of the feed volume. The rejection of uranium was of the 97%. The nanofiltration membranes tested were efficient to concentrate the uranium from the waste. (author)

  16. Evaluation of the life cycle of integrated production of ethanol and biodiesel; Avaliacao do ciclo de vida da producao integrada de etanol e biodiesel

    Souza, Simone Pereira de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)], email:; Pacca; Sergio Almeida [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola de Artes, Ciencias e Humanidades], email:


    Sugarcane and palm are amongst the crops with the highest yields, which can reach 6 to 7.5 thousand liters of ethanol per hectare year and 4 to 6 metric tons of oil per hectare year, respectively. A joint production of biofuels from these crops is an interesting alternative for life cycle assessment improvement through fossil fuel and greenhouse gas emissions reduction, besides energy efficiency gains. The objective of this work is comparing the Brazilian production system sugarcane ethanol with an integrated system proposal where the ethanol and palm biodiesel are produced together. This comparative study is based on a life cycle approach using the ISO 14.044/2006 and appropriate indicators. Production systems in Cerrado, Cerradao and grassland ecosystem were considered. The energy balance, carbon balance and land use change were evaluated. The integrated system includes a 100% substitution of biodiesel by diesel, which is used in life cycle agriculture stages. Distinct fractions of sugarcane used for sugar production were assessed. When all sugarcane is sent to sugar production, ethanol is produced by molasses. The data were collected by direct observation method by questionnaire and secondary sources. Three sugarcane mills situated in Sao Paulo state and a palm mill located in Para state were surveyed. Results showed a 164% increase in energy balance for the joint production system in comparison to the traditional system. Besides this, the joint production system demonstrated a 24% GHG emission reduction. For ethanol production by molasses, the energy balance was up to 59% and 162% higher in scenarios 1 and 2, respectively, which differ each other through of the boiler that was utilized. For GHG emission, the reduction can reach 91%. The land use change identify an average ecosystem carbon payback time for Cerrado, Cerradao and Degraded Grassland of 5, 10, and -5 years, respectively. In conclusion, the joint production system of sugarcane ethanol and palm biodiesel presents an improvement in energy balance, GHG emissions and land use change impacts in comparison to the traditional ethanol system. (author)

  17. Synthesis and evaluation of phytotoxic activity of {alpha}-Santonin derivatives; Sintese e avaliacao da atividade fitotoxica de derivados da {alpha}-Santonina

    Alvarenga, Elson S.; Barbosa, Luiz C.A.; Saliba, William A.; Arantes, Francisco F.P.; Demuner, Antonio J. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail:; Silva, Antonio A. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Fitotecnia


    Mixtures of {alpha}-Santonin and various solvents were irradiated by either high or low pressure mercury lamps. The photochemical reactions afforded lumisantonin (11) (76% in acetonitrile), (3 S,3a S,9{beta}S)-3,6,6-trimethyl-3,3a,4,5-tetrahydronafto[1,2-b]furan-2,7({eta}6,9{beta}{eta}) dione (12) (100% in acetonitrile), 10{alpha}-acetoxy-3-oxo-1,7{alpha}H{eta},6,11{alpha}a{eta}-guaia-4-en-6,12-oli= de (8) (26% in acetic acid), 10{alpha}-hydroxy-3-oxo-1,7{alpha}a{eta},6,11{alpha}{eta}-guaia-4-en-6,12-olid= e (10) (32%) and (E)-3-((3 S,3a S,7{alpha}S)-3-methyl-2-oxo-6-(propan-2-ylidene)hexahydrobenzofuran- 7 - (7{alpha}{eta})-ylidene)propanoic acid (9) (44%) (in water/ acetic acid 1:1, v/v). Lactone 12 was also prepared by irradiation of lumisantonin in diethyl ether. Lactones 8 and 10 were converted, respectively, into the 10 {alpha}-acetoxy-3{alpha}-hydroxy-1,7{alpha}H,6,11{alpha}H-guaia-4-en-6,12-olid= e (13) (87%) and 3a,10a-dihydroxy-1,7{alpha}H,6,11{alpha}H-guaia-4-en-6,12-olide (14) (75%) by sodium borohydride reduction. The effects of the compounds on the development of radicle of Sorghum bicolor and Cucumis sativus were evaluated. (author)

  18. Evaluation of nano emulsion containing asphaltenes dispersant additive in dehydration of oil; Avaliacao de nanoemulsoes contendo aditivo dispersante de asfaltenos na desidratacao de petroleo

    Oliveira, Priscila F. de; Rodrigues, Jessica S.; Mansur, Claudia R.E. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro/ Instituto de Macromoleculas/ Laboratorio de Macromoleculas e Coloides na Industria de Petroleo, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail:


    Due to the problem of the formation of emulsions type water-oil during oil production, new alternatives of the breakdown of these emulsions have been proposed over the years. Several polymers have been used to destabilize these emulsions and among them are those based on polyphenylene ether. The aim of this study was to develop nanoemulsions type oil / water, where an asphaltenes dispersant additive was dissolved in dispersed phase in order to evaluate them as a new alternative in the breakdown of oil emulsions. The nanoemulsions were prepared in the presence of surfactant based on polyoxide using a high pressure homogenizer (HPH). We obtained stable nanoemulsions for more than 30 days in the presence or absence of additive. These nanoemulsions were effective in water /oil phase separation, and the nanoemulsion containing the dispersant additive provided a faster separation of these phases. (author)

  19. Evaluation of the chemical modifications in petroleum asphalt cement with the addition of polypropylene; Avaliacao das modificacoes quimicas no cimento asfaltico de petroleo com a adicao de polipropileno

    Marcondes, C.P.; Sales, M.J.A.; Resck, I.S., E-mail: mjsales@unb.b [Universidade de Brasilia (LabPol/UnB), DF (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Lab. de Pesquisa em Polimeros; Farias, M.M.; Souza, M.V.R. [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Civil e Ambiental


    Studies show that the common distress mode in the Brazilian highway network are fatigue cracks and plastic deformation, which are associated with the type of material used in the pavement layers, structural project, excessive traffic load and weathering. To minimize these defects, research on modifiers such as polymers, added to asphalt binders have been developed to provide physical, chemical and rheological improvement. This paper investigates chemical modifications of the binders with the addition of PP by FTIR, NMR and DSC. FTIR spectra of pure and modified binder showed no differences in absorption. NMR analysis showed no strong chemical bonds between the binder and PP. DSC curve of PP showed a melting temperature of 160 deg C ({Delta}H = 94J/g) and the pure binder presented an endothermic transition between 20 and 40 deg C ({Delta}H = 2J/g). In the DSC curves of mixtures, these transitions are not significant, indicating possible interactions between asphalt binder and PP. (author)

  20. Value of ultrasound in the evaluation of blunt abdominal trauma;O valor da ultra-sonografia na avaliacao do traumatismo abdominal fechado

    Jayanthi, Shri Krishna


    Trauma is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in an age group including from teenagers to young adults, in a male dominant proportion, resulting in great economic and social impact. Within the complex of trauma, blunt abdominal trauma (BAT) is frequent event and presents difficulty in the evaluation and management since the clinical examination shows low sensitivity and specificity. The detection of hemo peritoneum is one of the methods of evaluation of possible indirect intra-abdominal injuries, initially using direct diagnostic abdominal paracentesis and posteriorly the diagnostic peritoneal lavage, that despite the effectiveness, have drawbacks such as invasiveness and the inability of hemo peritoneum quantification and the lesion staging, resulting in non-therapeutic laparotomies. Imaging methods provide useful information in the investigation of abdominal injuries, such as conventional and contrast radiology, ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT), which is the best effective method, but has its own drawbacks, such as cost, accessibility, use of ionizing radiation and contrast media and the displacement of the patient to the machine. US presents itself as an alternative in the initial evaluation of these patients as noninvasive method, with lack of harmfulness, low cost, fast answer and portability. Nevertheless, this method also has its limitations, as in cases of abdominal injuries without free fluid. This study was conducted in order to establish the performance of the US in this setting, allowing to rationalise the use of CT. For this purpose we studied 163 patients treated in the ER of HC/FMUSP, with the completion of consecutive US and CT. The population fits the usual profile of trauma victims, with 83% male, 56% in the age group between 20 and 39 years and in 73% of cases victims of traffic accidents. They were brought to the service in an average time of 51 minutes, mainly stable and with satisfactory level of consciousness. US took on average 5 minutes to be performed and the average interval until CT completion was 155 minutes. 31 (19%) of 163 patients showed positive US and 132 (81%) had negative US. 33 (20.2%) of the same 163 patients had positive CT and 130 (79.8%) had negative CT, resulting in a sensitivity of 73%, specificity of 95%, accuracy of 90% in 20% prevalence, with 77% of positive predictive value and 93% of negative predictive value. Correcting the detection of free fluid, results in 64% of sensitivity 98% of specificity 89% of accuracy in 28% of prevalence, with 93% of positive predictive value and 88% of negative predictive value of 88%. Considering the evolution of the patients, US performance was similar to that of CT. Considering need for surgery the US presented accuracy of 87%, positive predictive value of 58% and negative predictive value of 94%, near CT, with accuracy of 91%, predictive value of 67% and negative predictive value of 97%. 24% of patients with abdominal injuries did not have free fluid, as recorded by CT. The hepatorenal space and pelvis were the most frequent sites fluid finding, 74% and 67% at US and 51% and 62% at CT, respectively. Among the factors that showed a tendency for surgery requirement were the presence of fluid in hepatorenal space (14 of 20 patients) and the sum of liquid pockets over 3.0 cm. Detection of parenchymal lesions was low: 4 cases in 33, while only 2 of them confirmed. Among the factors that limit the US study are parenchymal lesions not associated with free fluid and retroperitoneal hematomas. Examiner experience did not influence the number of negative or positive cases, but there was a tendency to false positive with most experienced examiners and false negative with less experienced. Thus, US is an useful tool in the initial evaluation of blunt abdominal trauma, providing information for clinical evaluation, which associated with other data, tailors the management. (author)

  1. Comparison of the automated evaluation of phantom mama in digital and digitalized images; Comparacao da avaliacao automatizada do phantom mama em imagens digitais e digitalizadas

    Santana, Priscila do Carmo, E-mail: pcs@cdtn.b [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias e Tecnicas Nucleares; Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina. Dept. de Propedeutica Complementar; Gomes, Danielle Soares; Oliveira, Marcio Alves; Nogueira, Maria do Socorro, E-mail: mnogue@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)


    Mammography is an essential tool for diagnosis and early detection of breast cancer if it is provided as a very good quality service. The process of evaluating the quality of radiographic images in general, and mammography in particular, can be much more accurate, practical and fast with the help of computer analysis tools. This work compare the automated methodology for the evaluation of scanned digital images the phantom mama. By applied the DIP method techniques was possible determine geometrical and radiometric images evaluated. The evaluated parameters include circular details of low contrast, contrast ratio, spatial resolution, tumor masses, optical density and background in Phantom Mama scanned and digitized images. The both results of images were evaluated. Through this comparison was possible to demonstrate that this automated methodology is presented as a promising alternative for the reduction or elimination of subjectivity in both types of images, but the Phantom Mama present insufficient parameters for spatial resolution evaluation. (author)

  2. Morpho-functional study of ionizing radiation effects on the rabbits` femoral vein; Avaliacao morfofuncional do efeito da radiacao ionizante sobre a veia femoral. Estudo experimental em coelhos

    Sakiyama, Mauro Yoshimitsu


    In this study we evaluate the effects of the ionizing radiation on the rabbits femoral vein. The samples of femoral vein were obtained from 56 New Zealand rabbits, male with ageing from 90 to 120 days, that were divided into 4 groups of 14 animals: one control group non-irradiated and three animal groups sacrificed 2 days, 14 days and 90 days after irradiation. In the three irradiated rabbits groups, each animal received the total dose 4000 cGy (rads) divided in 10 sessions of 400 cGy, a dose equivalent that utilized on clinical therapeutic. A morpho functional study of vein samples was carried out with: light microscopy: stained by hematoxin - eosin, Masson`s tricromic, and Verhoeff. Immunohistochemical: reactions of immunoperoxidase with monoclonal mouse anti-human endothelial cell factor CD-31 and anti-human Von Willebrand factor (factor VIII), to study the vein endothelium. Histomorphometry of elastic fiber system stained by Weigert`s resorcin-fuchsin with and without prior oxidation with oxone; for the study of mature, elaunin or pre-mature and oxytalan or young elastic fibers. Electronic microscopy: transmission and scanning. With the methodology utilized we observe changes in the femoral vein of the animals submitted to irradiation in relation to the control group, thus described: there is formation of vacuoles between the endothelium and the basal membrane, called sub endothelial vacuoles, in focal areas. The factor VIII and CD-31 endothelial antigens are preserved with no changes in their functions. Focal alterations are present in the endothelial surface with disorder in the setting and orientation of the endothelial cells. there is degeneration of the elastic fibers with significant decrease in their quantity in the stage, 2 days and 14 days after irradiation. There is increase in the quantity of elastic fibers in the late stage, 90 days after irradiation, tending to normality. In this present study, the changes described are not accompanied by venous thrombosis. (author) 101 refs., 22 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Dose evaluation in medical staff during diagnostics procedures in interventional radiology; Avaliacao da dose na equipe medica durante procedimentos diagnoticos de radiologia intervencionista

    Bacchim Neto, Fernando A.; Alves, Allan F.F.; Rosa, Maria E.D.; Miranda, Jose R.A. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Biociencias. Departamento de Fisica e Biofisica; Moura, Regina [Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Cirurgia e Ortopedia; Pina, Diana R., E-mail: [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Departamento de Doencas Tropicais e Diagnostico por Imagem


    Studies show that personal dosimeters may underestimate the dose values in interventional physicians, especially in extremities and crystalline. The objective of this work was to study the radiation exposure levels of medical staff in diagnostic interventional radiology procedures. For this purpose LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100) dosimeters were placed in different regions of the physician body. When comparing with reference dose levels, the maximum numbers of annual procedures were found. This information is essential to ensure the radiological protection of those professionals. (author)

  4. Evaluation of the soil-seed environment through computerized tomography; Avaliacao do ambiente solo-semente por meio da tomografia computadorizada

    Modolo, Alcir Jose [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Pato Branco, PR (Brazil)). E-mail:; Fernandes, Haroldo Carlos [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola]. E-mail:; Naime, Joao de Mendonca [Embrapa Instrumentacao Agropecuaria, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail:; Schaefer, Carlos Ernesto G.R. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Solos]. E-mail:; Santos, Nerilson Terra [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Informatica]. E-mail:; Silveira, Joao Cleber Modernel da [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Mecanizacao Agricola]. E-mail:


    The physical conditioning of the soil around seeds is of great importance for an adequate initial development of a crop, ensuring a healthy plant population. A suitable soil-seed contact is a prerequisite for a fast crop germination and good establishment. In this study, computerized tomography of millimeter resolution was used to determine the soil-seed environment in a no tillage system, immediately after soybean planting. A split plot design was used, in which the plots consisted of three contents of soil water, corresponding to 0.27; 0,31 and 0.36 kg kg{sup -1}, respectively, and the split plots of four load levels applied by the compaction wheel, corresponding to 0, 50, 90 and 140 N, respectively. It was used a random block design, with four replications. The medium soil density in the seed area and the medium density profile in the sowing furrow were evaluated. According to the results, it may be concluded that: the loads applied by the compaction wheel increased soil density at the vertical planting level beneath planting depth as compared with values obtained before planting, and; the combination of wheel loads and soil water contents did not influence the mean soil density in the seed area. (author)

  5. Thermal analysis of Brazilian standards proposals for social residential buildings; Avaliacao termica das propostas de normas brasileiras para edificacoes de interesse social

    Dilkin, Pedro [Universidade Regional do Noroeste do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Ijui, RSA (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica, Estatistica e Matematica]. E-mail:; Schneider, Paulo Smith [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail:


    This work presents a critical analysis of national proposals of standards for the thermal performance of simple residential buildings. A review of some international standards is performed together with the description of the national proposals of standards, and a prototype of a house is assembled, following each one of the texts. Results are displayed and the prototypes are simulated using the TRNSYS environment, concerning winter and summer periods of Porto Alegre. Finally, the national proposal that achieved the best performance is improved by means new simulations. (author)

  6. The use of MATLAB-SIMULINK for evaluation of thermal building behavior; O uso do MATLAB-SIMULINK para avaliacao do comportamento termico de ambientes

    Mendes, Nathan; Oliveira, Gustavo H.C.; Araujo, Humberto X. de [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Lab. de Sistemas Termicos]|[Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Lab. de Automacao e Sistemas]. E-mail:; oliv@; araujo@


    We describe a mathematical model applied to both building thermal analysis and control systems design. We use a lumped approach to model the room air temperature and a multi-layer model for the building envelope. The capacitance model allows to study the transient analysis of room air temperature when it is submitted to sinusoidal variation of external air temperature, representing a case study for the city of Curitiba-PR, Brazil. To evaluate the building performance with thermal parameters, we use MATLAB/SIMULINK. In the results section, we show the influences of thermal capacitance on the building air temperature and energy consumption and the advantages of using MATLAB/SIMULINK in building thermal and energy analysis as well. (author)

  7. Assessment of the supramolecular structures presents into biological samples by SAXS technique;Avaliacao das estrutras supramoleculares presentes em amostras biologicas atraves da tecnica de SAXS

    Conceicao, A.L.C.; Antoniassi, M.; Poletti, M., E-mail: [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica e Matematica


    In this work was made an assessment of the supramolecular structures presents into human breast tissue normal and pathological samples, as well as into two types of animals samples (tendon chicken and pork fat) using the small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) technique. The scattering profiles of the samples were determined at the momentum transfer range O.150nm{sup -1}<=5:q(=4pi.sin({theta}/2)/{lambda})<=8.500nm{sup -1}. In this range, it was possible identify structures corresponding to collagen fibrils (glandular tissue) and to triacylglycerides (adipose tissue) from the correlation between the information extracted from the human breast tissues scattering profiles and those extracted from animals samples. (author)

  8. Evaluation by instrumented indentation of the damage caused by gamma radiation on polymeric materials; Avaliacao por indentacao instrumentada dos danos causados pela radiacao gama em materiais polimericos

    Rosa, M.P.; Azevedo, E.C.; Miquelin, C.A.; Soboll, D.S., E-mail: [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (DAFIS/UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. Academico de Fisica


    Several materials with densities close to water are used as phantoms in dosimetry. Such materials are damaged because they are exposed to radiation, the surface layers suffer the largest changes. This damage can be assessed by instrumented indentation. This paper investigates the variations in hardness and elastic modulus of samples of polymethyl-methacrylate, polyvinyl chloride, polyacetal and polypropylene before and after being irradiated with gamma radiation dose 500 Gy, using a Nanoindeter XP, with applied loads between 1 mN and 400 mN. The results are discussed correlating the variations in the mechanical properties of polymers with their applications. (author)

  9. Geographic information systems as a tool for environmental evaluation of hydropower potential; Sistemas de informacoes geograficas como ferramenta para avaliacao ambiental de potenciais hidreletricos

    Dzedzej, Maira; Correa, Fabio; Malta, Joao [IX Consultoria e Representacoes Ltda, Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Flauzino, Barbara Karoline [IX Consultoria e Representacoes Ltda, Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil); Santos, Afonso Henriques Moreira [MS Consultoria Ltda, Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil)


    The hydropower plants are responsible for much of the energy generated in the country, there is also a large hydro potential in Brazilian rivers. This form of power generation is considered renewable and fits into the concept of sustainable development, however, social and environmental impacts from the implementation of hydropower projects are known and widely discussed, especially when it comes to large plants. In this context, study the environmental analysis of potential hydropower was incorporated at various stages of the studies implementation, in order to, identify environmental factors and that will restrict or impede construction, to obtain the best option for the environment, evaluate the role and of social and environmental impacts, contribute to improving the design and functionality of the enterprises in order to reduce overall costs, minimize conflicts and assist in preserving the environment. To fulfill these functions to a satisfactory and reliable level, it the study has increasingly used the techniques, tools and applications of Geographic Information Systems in the process of environmental assessment, since they provide procurement, integration, visualization and data analysis of natural resources, its uses and protection, offering greater security and speed in decision making. This paper presents some applications of GIS in environmental assessment processes, developed mainly in the steps of estimating hydropower potential, hydropower inventory, basic design and environmental licensing. (author)

  10. Evaluation of low toxicity mineral oil base drilling fluids; Avaliacao de fluidos de perfuracao a base de oleo mineral de baixa toxidez

    Ponte, Ielton Frederico da [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Div. de Explotacao


    In order to introduce low toxicity mineral oil base drilling fluids in Brazil, we carried out a series with a low aromatic content basic oil for lubricants, produced by PETROBRAS: the Lubrax Industrial OB-9 (Lubind OB-9). This oil, as well as its mixture with aviation kerosene to reduce viscosity, was found adequate for use in drilling fluids together with other national products developed by companies that supply additives for drilling fluids in Brazil. We present the results of laboratory tests with systems of four different manufacturers, one of which was chosen for initial field tests. These tests, which were carried out at the Miranga and Bu River Fields, in the Drilling District of Bahia, produced satisfactory results. We anticipate the use of these fluids in other areas where the company operates. (author) 2 refs., 3 tabs.

  11. Evaluation of pollution effects in transmission lines located in industrial areas; Avaliacao dos efeitos da poluicao em linhas de transmissao situadas em regiao industrial

    Kanashiro, Arnaldo G.; Burani, Geraldo F. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia; Nascimento, Iara R. [Eletricidade de Sao Paulo SA, SP (Brazil)


    This work aims to determinate a correlation between the pollution levels and electric power transmission lines maintenance procedures in order to establish the necessary procedures for specific pollution levels. The methodology is presented. The results obtained in field tests and bench scale tests are presented and discussed. The so called pollution equivalent is determined for each site of the transmission line studied and maintenance procedures are established 6 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. The National program of the production and use of biodiesel and strategic environmental assessment; O Programa nacional de producao e uso de biodiesel e a avaliacao ambiental estrategica

    Alves, Victor Rafael Fernandes [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)


    This work analyzes the use of biodiesel in Brazil under the applied perspective of this renewable fuel in the environmental assessment in the productive chain. It inwards the appearance of biodiesel, its evolution in Brazil and in the world, the structured regulatory framework, beyond these points this work also gives a main focus on the advent of National Program of Production and Usage of Biodiesel (NPPUB - originally PNPUB) and on the defined productive arrangement. It scrutinizes the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA), and delimits the pivotal hindrances to the development of biodiesel production sector, claiming to point out all the possible and viable scenarios, profiting the economic development of this activity in harmony with the urgent need to implement Environmentally Safe projects. (author)

  13. Performance evaluation of an automatic positioning system for photovoltaic panels; Avaliacao de desempenho de um sistema de posicionamento automatico para paineis fotovoltaicos

    Alves, Alceu Ferreira; Cagnon, Jose Angelo [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FEB/UNESP), Bauru, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia], Emails:,


    The need of using electric energy in localities not attended by the utilities has motivated the development of this research, whose main approach was photovoltaic systems and the search for better performance of these systems with the solar panels positioning toward the sun. This work presents the performance evaluation of an automatic positioning system for photovoltaic panels taking in account the increase in generation of electric energy and its costs of implantation. It was designed a simplified electromechanical device, which is able to support and to move a photovoltaic panel along the day and along the year, keeping its surface aimed to the sun rays, without using sensors and with optimization of movements, due the adjustment of panel's inclination take place only once a day. The obtained results indicated that the proposal is viable, showing a compatible cost compared to the increase in the generation of electricity. (author)

  14. Evaluation of effective dose in consequence of Para chestnut ingestion; Avaliacao da dose efetiva em consequencia da ingestao de castanha do Para

    Bellintani, Sandra A.; Oliveira, Joselens de; Carvalho, Jurandyr S. de; Hiromoto, Goro [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    Commercial samples of Brazil nut tree seed (Bertholletia excelsa) were analysed for the presence or uranium and thorium series of natural radionuclides. The samples were analysed for the content of {sup 238} U, {sup 226} Ra, {sup 210} Pb, {sup 232} Th, {sup 228} Th. Mean values 1.4 {+-} 0.4 Bq/kg for {sup 238} U, 26.3{+-}4.1 Bq/kG for {sup 226} Ra, 4.7{sup {+-}}1.8 Bq/kg for {sup 210} Pb, 16.5{+-}4.3 Bq/kg for {sup 232} Th, 31.3{+-}6.4 Bq/Kg for {sup 228} Ra and 12.3{+-}5.1 Bq/kg for {sup 228} Th. The effective dose due to the ingestion of natural radionuclides contained in the Brazil nuts, is 2.6 x 10{sup -2} mSv/kg ingested per year. (author). 9 refs., 1 tab.

  15. Evaluation of mineral kaolinite present in portuguese clays for use in porcelain stoneware; Avaliacao do mineral caulinita presente em argilas portuguesas para uso em gres porcelanato

    Luna da Silveira, G.C. [Instituto Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (IFRN), RN (Brazil); Acchar, W.; Gomes, U.U.; Luna da Silveira, R.V. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grnde do Norte (UFRN), RN (Brazil); Labrincha, A.; Miranda, C.M.P., E-mail: [Universidade de Aveiro (Portugal)


    Kaolinite is a mineral from the kaolin, product resulting from transformation in depth of alumino silicate mineral type, such as feldspars, plagioclase and feldspars contained in the rocks. Clays are raw materials that have as main characteristic the plasticity property, which gives the product, after applying a certain pressure, a defined shape and an increase in the mechanical resistance when they become from green to dry and then to sintered. Given these characteristics, this paper analyzes the presence of the existing mineral kaolinite in two portuguese clays who are used in the preparation of formulations of porcelain stoneware tiles. The analyzes of the two clays were made by fluorescence x-ray diffraction of x-rays, thermal analysis, particle size and scanning electron microscopy, to better use of this mineral in the formulations. In both clays were found aluminum oxide, as well as mineral quartz, kaolinite and illite. (author)

  16. Imaging of acquired non-traumatic cochlear lesions: iconographic essay; Avaliacao por imagem das lesoes cocleares adquiridas (nao-traumaticas): ensaio iconografico

    Garcia, Marcelo de Mattos; Gonzaga, Juliana Gontijo [Clinica Axial - Centro de Imagem, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail:;


    Different non-traumatic acquired cochlear lesions are shown in this article with imaging methods. They may be responsible for neuro sensorial hearing loss or vertigo. The method of choice is computed tomography when evaluating the osseous labyrinth whereas magnetic resonance imaging has superior resolution in the studies of the membranaceous labyrinth. (author)

  17. Cytogenetic evaluation of persons exposed to Cesium-137 radiation accident in Goiania (Brazil); Avaliacao citogenetica de individuos expostos acidentalmente a radiacao ionizante de Cesio-137 em Goiania (Brasil)

    Silva, Claudio Carlos da


    This dissertation describes a cytogenetic evaluation of individuals exposed to cesium-137 gamma radiation during the radioactive accident of Goiania in 1987. The study group is comprised of 14 individuals who had absorbed doses varying from 1 to 7 Gy. In order to obtain metaphase spreads,peripheral blood collected from exposed individuals 1-1,5 year after ionizing radiation exposure, was cultured following basic protocols for PHA-Lymphocyte stimulation. Individual slides were kept for 12 years at room temperature and in the dark. A control group of unexposed individuals was chosen from the Goiania population. Both groups donated blood voluntarily and the unexposed population had no history of exposure to genotoxic agents. The ordinary methodology, consisting of staining chromosomes with Giemsa 4%, was used to determine the biological half-life of unstable chromosomes aberrations. Using Buckston's model (1967) we predicted the half-life of T-cells carrying unstable chromosome aberrations to be between 204-312 days, which is in agreement with the results of Ramalho (1993) who reported a half-life of 140 days a similar for population. Additionally, we used fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) as the chosen method to evaluate 12-year old metaphase spreads. To date, we have no knowledge of the use of FISH methodology applied to samples as old as our. Prior to hybridization, chromosomes showed intense dehydration and signs of severe degradation. A pretreatment of aged slides in Carnoy's fixative for 16 hours, followed by exposing the slides to water vapour at 60 deg C for 4 hours improved the fluorescent signal of whole chromosomes probes, making it possible to evaluate old metaphase spreads. Our results suggest that is possible to validate FISH as a viable tool for retrospective biodosimetric studies, even in those cases when chromosome preparations were dehydrated and showed signs of chromosome degradation. (author)

  18. Residential gamma evaluation in the Brazilian northeast phosphate region; Avaliacao da exposicao gama em residencias da regiao fosfatica do nordeste do Brasil

    Lima, Ricardo de Andrade; Amaral, Romilton dos Santos [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Carvalho, Ricardo Nunes de; Mazzilli, Barbara Paci [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    This study is part of a program that has been carried out by our research group aiming to determine the contents of natural radionuclides in the environment, especially the ones pertaining to the {sup 238} U series. The data collected will be useful in estimating the commitment dose to the population. The studies were located in the phosphate-rich area in the coastal region of the States of Pernambuco and Paraiba, Brazil. This work was undertaken with the purpose of determining the committed effective dose derived from external gamma radiation exclusively inside the houses. The results show effective doses ranged from 0.7 mSv/y to 1.15 mSv/y. (author) 8 refs., 1 tab.; e-mail: ral at

  19. Water drilling fluids: evaluation of lubricity and clay swelling control; Fluidos de perfuracao a base de agua: avaliacao de lubricidade e controle de inchamento de argilas

    Felix, Thiago de Freitas; Arruda, Jefferson Teixeira; Medeiros, Ana Catarina; Garcia, Rosangela Balaban [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)


    During the oil well drilling, drilling fluids are used in order to transport the cuttings until the surface. This fluid is also responsible for the mechanical sustentation of the well walls, the control of undesirable production of fluids in the formation, the lubricity and the cooling of the bit. The drilling fluids based on water are extensively applied due to their lower cost, thermal stability, biodegradability, easiness of pumping and treatment, resulting in smaller environmental impacts. However, some situations, such as hydrophilic shale drilling, request the use of additives to avoid the hydration of them and, consequently, the tool imprisonment or migration (filtration) of the drilling fluids into the rock. The goal of this work was to develop and test formulations of water-base drilling fluids with high capacity of inhibition of clay swelling and lubricity, obtaining drillings with larger penetration rate and calipers without enlargements. The results showed that the appropriate combination of commonly used commercial products can promote the obtaining of fluids with equal or better performance than those used by world companies. (author)

  20. Evaluation of the degree of dispersion of organoclay on nanocomposites with PP/EPDM; Avaliacao do grau de dispersao de argilas organofilicas em nanocompositos de PP/EPDM

    Braga, F.C.F.; Oliveira, M.G., E-mail: [Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia (DPCM/INT), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Processamento e Caracterizacao de Materiais; Furtado, C.R.G. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    Nanocomposites of thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) composed by PP/EPDM 1/1 blend and organoclay were obtained by the melt intercalation in an internal chamber mix. Initially, a masterbatch of maleinized polypropylene (PP-MA) and clay modified with alkyl ammonium salt in the ratio 3:1 was prepared, and then, added to TPE matrix to obtain loads of 2,5; 5 and 7 wt% of clay in the nanocomposite. The dispersion degree of clay in TPE matrix was evaluated by X-ray diffraction and parallel plate rheometry. The intercalation/exfoliate degree or the degree of dispersion varied with clay content, as observed by X-ray diffraction. This behavior was confirmed by the profile of the curves of elastic modulus versus frequency, which presented different slopes in the region of low frequency, due to the presence of clay and PP-MA. (author)

  1. Evaluation of glycerol derivative as emulsifier for oil based drilling fluids; Avaliacao de derivados de glicerina como emulsificante para fluidos de perfuracao de base oleo

    Andrade, Susan A. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica; Cavalcanti, Milena Y.; Rodrigues Junior, Jorge; Lachter, Elizabeth R.; Nascimento, Regina Sandra V. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica


    In view of the growing search for new applications for the surplus glycerine of biodiesel production, the use of a glycerine derivative as emulsifier in oil based muds is proposed in this work. Glycerine monooleate was synthesized through esterification reaction, and characterized by NMR{sup 13}C. Its applicability as emulsifier was verified through electric stability tests performed on inverted phase drilling fluids. The obtained results were compared with two formulations containing different emulsifiers (sorbitol monooleate and trimethylolpropane monooleate). It was also evaluated the rheological properties of the formulated fluids through standard tests. It was verified that the fluid that contained the glycerine derivative showed considerably better electric stability results than the other systems. It also presented rheological properties similar to the ones shown by the system that contained the commercial emulsifier (sorbitol monooleate). Thus, it was found that glycerine monooleate is a potential substitute to the currently emulsifiers (author)

  2. Evaluation of the sprinkling irrigation system with application of inverter frequency drive; Avaliacao de um sistema de irrigacao por aspersao com aplicacao do inversor de frequencia

    Araujo, Joao Alberto Borges de [Faculdade de Tecnologia de Botucatu (FATEC), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Producao], e-mail:; Seraphim, Odivaldo Jose [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Engenharia Rural], e-mail:; Siqueira, Jair Antonio Cruz [UNIOESTE, Cascavel, PR (Brazil)], e-mail:; Abrao Neto, Felix [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil)], e-mail:


    This work had the objective of to evaluate the application of inverter frequency drive on the electric and hydraulic parameters in the sprinkling irrigation system handling. Was used a water pump conventional system for sprinkling with 4 handled lines alternately, consisting the handling of the opening of 1, simultaneously 2, 3 and 4 lines and enrolling the electric energy consumption and the hydraulic parameters of the system. Later on, in the conventional system was coupled an starting system with variable rotation, composed by a pressure transducer and a inverter frequency drive, which acted varying the water pump rotation and adapting the preset pressure in relation to flow variation requested by the system. The found results allowed to evaluate that for the handling of 1, 2 and 3 lines simultaneously the system with inverter frequency drive, there was reduction of the electric energy consumption and the service pressure of the sprinkling was maintained, just varying the requested flow, according to the lines handling. (author)

  3. Assessment of conditions of service to maximum demand in decennial horizon; Avaliacao das condicoes de atendimento a demanda maxima em horizonte decenal

    Guimaraes, Flavio Borsato; Nasser, Ivana Costa [Wise Systems, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Andrade, Danielle Bueno de; Machado, Renato Simoes; Morozowski Filho, Marciano [Empresa de Pesquisa Energetica (EPE), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    Planning the future hydro capacity in Brazil includes considering power reinforcements in the peak hours due to the increasing numbers of run-of-river plants. It means that the Brazilian's reservoir profile has been changing over the years from five years regularization to monthly regularization. This article presents a deterministic methodology to evaluate the capacity reserve of the Brazilian power system. It is based on the 'capacity reserve margin' calculation done by a monthly comparison between peak availability and maximum peak load. This methodology was applied to the Decennial Energy Expansion Plan 2019 (PDE 2019) and its final results are shown here through Peak Balances considering different operation conditions and the whole inflows historical records. Additionally, it is presented a suggestion about the evolution of peak evaluation criteria to be applied to the Brazilian power system on its expansion planning. (author)

  4. Glass forming ability of the Al-Ce-Ni system; Avaliacao da capacidade de formacao vitrea do sistema Al-Ce-Ni

    Triveno Rios, C. [Engenharia Mecanica, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Rondonopolis, MT (Brazil)], e-mail:; Surinach, S.; Baro, M.D. [Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais - Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Bolfarini, C.; Botta, W.J.; Kiminami, C.S. [Departamento de Fisica da Universidade Autonoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra (Spain)


    In the present work, the glass forming ability (GFA) and its compositional dependence on Al-Ni-Ce system alloys were investigated in function of several thermal parameters. Rapidly quenched Al{sub 85}Ni{sub 15}-{sub X}Ce{sub X} (X=4,5,6,7,10), Al{sub 90}Ni{sub 5}Ce{sub 5}, Al{sub 89}Ni{sub 2}.{sub 4}Ce{sub 8}.{sub 6}, Al{sub 80}Ni{sub 15.6}Ce{sub 4}.{sub 4} and Al{sub 78}Ni{sub 18.5}Ce{sub 3.5} amorphous ribbons were produced by melt-spinning and the structural transformation during heating was studied using a combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results showed that the GFA and the thermal stability in the Al-rich corner of Al- Ni-Ce system alloys were enhanced by increasing the solute content and specifically the Ce content (author)

  5. A model for economic evaluation of the use of Adsorbed Natural Gas (ANG); Modelo de avaliacao economica do uso do Gas Natural Adsorvido (GNA)

    Azevedo, Diana C.S.; Cavalcante Junior, Celio L.; Torres, A. Eurico B.; Oliveira Junior, Jose A.; Medeiros, Vanildo M. de [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Campos, Flavio B.; Moura, Newton R. de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Gerencia de Gas e Energia; Campos, Michel F. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Gerencia de Tecnologia de Gas e Energia; Alexandre, Francisco de Assis Souza


    Natural gas is currently transported by two main ways: through pipelines and stored in reservoirs, under compressed (CNG) or liquefied (LNG) forms. Adsorbed natural gas (ANG) is a third alternative to vessel storage, which has been intensively reported in the scientific and technical literature. Working pressures are considerably lower for ANG (3,5 MPa as compared to 25 MPa for CNG), which results in lower costs with vessel construction and compression and safer handling. The project ADSPOR, sponsored by PETROBRAS and part of the R and D portfolio of RedeGasEnergia, aims to assess the technical and economical feasibility of storing and transporting natural gas confined in carbon adsorbents. The objectives of this project are the production of high-capacity active carbons, the collection of adsorption data for NG storage and the economic evaluation of ANG. The present work presents a model for cost estimation of the ANG business, which comprises from the compression into ANG vessels until the distribution to the final costumer, taking into account several shipping modes. The variables involved in the model were: compression costs, equipment and materials technical data, costs with product handling and shipping costs for motor ways, railways and inland waterways. These variables were linked so as to generate a cost matrix that may be used to assess investment and calculate the final cost for GNA transport. The model may be used to carry out parameter sensitivity analysis, for decision-making and management purposes. (author)

  6. Methodology for priorities definition on the environmental evaluation of abandoned wells; Metodologia de definicao de prioridades na avaliacao ambiental de pocos abandonados

    Duarte, Katia S.; Castro, Jonas Q.; Rezende, Marcus A.; Pombo, Eduardo R. [Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    In August 2004, the corporative databank of the Brazilian Petroleum Agency included the records of 21,508 wells drilled in the country, of which 17,621 onshore. Evaluation of the suitability of well abandonment and decommissioning procedures in areas explored by the oil industry, particularly those lacking the legal protection by contracts signed with the Agency, has demanded the definition of priorities compatible with the limited human and financial resources. Excluding the wells covered by concession contracts in exploration blocks and production fields, 1,127 onshore wells still remained in the priority's list, of which 730 drilled from the 1920's through the 70's, 207 during the 80's, and 90 in the past decade until August 1998. In regard to the oldest 730 wells, all drilled in a period when environmental concerns were still irrelevant, and abandonment and decommissioning most likely inadequate, geo processing resources have been used to select the priority-determining criteria for evaluation of the various well groups. This work presents the methodology followed in the selection of the most critical cases. (author)

  7. Phytochemical study and evaluation of the molluscicidal activity of Calophyllum brasiliense Camb (Clusiaceae); Estudo fitoquimico e avaliacao da atividade moluscicida do Calophyllum brasiliense Camb (Clusiaceae)

    Gasparotto Junior, Arquimedes; Brenzan, Mislaine Adriana; Piloto, Izabel Cristina; Cortez, Diogenes Aparicio Garcia [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacia e Farmacologia]. E-mail:; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Dias Filho, Benedito Prado [Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Analises Clinicas; Rodrigues Filho, Edson; Ferreira, Antonio Gilberto [Sao Carlos Univ., SP (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica


    The bioassay-guided fractionation against Biomphalaria glabrata of hydroalcoholic extracts of Calophyllum brasiliense aerial parts led to the isolation of the coumarin, named (-) mammea A/BB. The compound had its structure determined by both spectroscopic techniques (NMR {sup 1}H, NMR {sup 13}C, gHSQC, gHMBC and MS) and some literature comparison data. The probit analysis of (-) mammea A/BB showed LD{sub 50} = 0.67 ppm and LD{sub 90} = 1.47 ppm. In addition, the dichloromethane extract obtained from C. brasiliense leaves with significant molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata was analyzed by HPLC-UV. (author)

  8. Isolation and evaluation of cytotoxic potential of phenolic derivatives from Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae); Isolamento e avaliacao do potencial citotoxico de derivados fenolicos de Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae)

    Santana, Jeferson S.; Sartorelli, Patricia; Lago, Joao Henrique G. [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Diadema, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Ambientais, Quimicas e Farmaceuticas; Matsuo, Alisson L., E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Micro, Imuno e Parasitologia


    The EtOH extract from leaves of S. terebinthifolius was subjected to partition between EtOH:H{sub 2}O and hexane, CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}, and EtOAc. The phases obtained were evaluated in vitro against human tumoral cell lines and the EtOAc phase exhibited activity. Chromatographic procedures afforded gallic acid (1), methyl (2) and ethyl (3) gallates, trans-catechin (4), quercitrin (5), and afzelin (6), being the first occurrence of 1, 4 and 6 in S. terebinthifolius. In vitro cytotoxic evaluation of 1 - 6 indicated that gallic acid (1) displayed higher activity than ethyl gallate (3) against HL-60 and HeLa cells, while compounds 2, 4 - 6 were inactive. (author)

  9. Evaluation of environmental impacts in the mining of solid fossil fuels; Avaliacao de impactos ambientais na mineracao de combustiveis fosseis solidos

    Ferreira, Gilda Carneiro


    This study evaluates the environmental problems caused by the mining works of coal, peat and oil schists; also it evaluates the kind of treatment used by the mining companies against water, air and ground pollution, as well as the necessary control according to the mine activities and the affected environment. the studied areas are situated at brasilian states of Santa Catarina (Criciuma, Urussanga and Sideropolis), Rio Grande do Sul (Charqueada, Bage, Cachoeira do Sul, Butia and Arroio dos Ratos), Parana (Figueira and Sao Mateus do Sul), and Sao Paulo (Iguape and Sao Jose dos Campos). This study was done through a direct inquiry, by sending questionnaire to fifteen coal mining companies, three of peat ones and one of oil schists one. besides it was done a compilation of federal and state laws concerning to the environment and on the rights and duties of the mining companies. The information brought up in this way were compiled into a data bank, which allowed and sample surveys of environmental condition in the different industries and further it enabled a comparison between the real facts and the bibliography suggestions about adequate monitoring of the air, waters and ground, during mining activities. this analysis showed that the environment problems, created by the three former kind of mining works, are under control through projects of environment restoring and monitoring in phase of implantation and that these projects are restricted to that less expensive and easier to construct (holding back in pools or reservoirs, pouring in pits and aspersion). It was not notices a significant monitoring of parameters considered to be critical to the environment (metals, cyanides, sulphide and general bacteria). Almost all the companies have not yet exact data about the efficiency of each kind of environmental treatment because it is new ones and are just in follow-up and consequently they have not yet parameters to change the adequate the steps of the treatment, because of lack of information. Any way it is not a justification to the present condition of environment control of these companies, just because its of their responsibility the consequences of their producing activities. (author)

  10. Evaluation of the morphological alteration of the root surface radiated with a diode laser; Avaliacao da alteracao morfologica da superficie cimentaria irradiada com laser de diodo

    Gulin, Mauricio


    The diode laser has been studied for periodontal therapy, as much for removal of calculus as for microbial reduction of periodontal pockets, as well as the visible analgesic effects and biomodulation capacity. For this reason the purpose of this study was to evaluate the morphological alteration of the root surface after radiation with the diode laser, 808 nm through analysis by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Besides this, to verify the temperature variations caused during the radiation, a thermometer put into the dentinal wall of the root canal was used. In all, 18 teeth were used, 15 of which for the SEM study, and the other 3 were used to temperature variation analysis. The 25 samples were scraped on the root surface and planed with manual instruments. The other 5 were not subjected to any type of treatment. This, 6 groups of 5 samples each were formed. Control Group C whose samples had not received any treatment; Control Group C 1 was only scraped and polished conventionally with Hu-Friedy Gracey curettes 5 and 6; the other samples groups L1, L2, L3, L4 were radiated by diode laser using parameters of power 1,0 W; 1,2 W; 1,4 W; and 1,6 W respectively, 2 times for 10 seconds with 20 seconds intervals between each radiation in continuous mode. The results with relation to the increase of temperature in the interior of the root canal demonstrated that there was an increase of more than 5 degree Celsius. The results of the scanning electron microscope analysis of Control Group C demonstrated great irregularity and ridges on the root surface, with the presence of a dentine layer. Control Group C1 presented a similar aspect to Group L 1's, smoother and more homogeneous surface. Groups L2, L3, and L4 presented scratches alternating with smoother areas showing that fiber contacted the surface of the sample. The results reconfirmed the necessity of further studies using diode laser, with a beam of light emitted in an interrupted mode to improve the control of the increase of temperature during radiation, and probably followed by a new scraping and root polishing with conventional instruments in an attempt to obtain a smoother and more homogeneous root surface. (author)

  11. Economic impact evaluation of the Procap 1000: Deep Water Qualification Program from PETROBRAS; Avaliacao de impactos economicos do Procap 1000: Programa de Capacitacao em Aguas Profundas da PETROBRAS

    Furtado, Andre T.; Pereira, Newton M. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Politica Cientifica e Tecnologica; Suslick, Saul [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Dept. de Administracao e Politica de Recursos Minerais; Freitas, Adriana G. de [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Planejamento de Sistemas Energeticos; Bach, Laurent [Universite Louis Pasteur, 67 -Strasbourg (France). Bureau d' Economie Theorique et Appliquee


    PETROBRAS, a Brazilian petroleum company, managed between 1986 and 1992 a program with purpose to dominate the necessary technology for the petroleum production up to 1000 meters depth. This program was going called Procap 1000. The aim of the work was to evaluate the impacts of Procap 1000. The proposed evaluation method by Beta was going used. The results are presented.

  12. Assessment of natural radioactivity of sands in beaches from Great Vitoria, ES, Brazil; Avaliacao da radioatividade natural em areias das praias da Grande Vitoria, ES

    Aquino, Reginaldo Ribeiro de


    In this work the concentrations of natural radionuclides {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K were determined in superficial sand samples for 16 locations throughout the coast of the Great Victory, metropolitan region of the state of Espirito Santo, Southeast of Brazil. The assessed beaches were Manguinhos and Jacaraipe in Serra county, Camburi, Praia do Canto and Curva da Jurema in Vitoria county, Praia da Costa and Itapua in Vila Velha county, Setibao, Setibinha, Praia do Morro, Praia das Castanheiras and Areia Preta in Guarapari county and sand of the Paulo Cesar Vinha Reserve also located in Guarapari county. Three sand samples of each beach were sealed in 100 mL high density polyethylene flasks. After approximately 4 weeks in order to reach secular equilibrium in the {sup 238}U and {sup 2}'3{sup 2}Th series, the samples were measured by high resolution gamma spectrometry and the spectra analyzed with the WinnerGamma software. The self absorption correction was performed for all samples. The {sup 226}Ra concentration was determined from the weighted average concentrations of {sup 214}Pb and {sup 21}'4Bi, the {sup 232}Th concentration was determined from the weighted average concentrations of {sup 228}Ac, {sup 2}'1{sup 2}Pb and {sup 212}Bi and the concentration of {sup 40}K is determined by its single gamma transition of 1460 keV. The radium equivalent concentration and the external hazard index where obtained from the concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 4}'0K. {sup 226}Ra concentrations show values varying from 3 +- 1 to 738 +- 38{sup -1}, with the highest values for the central locality of the Camburi beach. {sup 232}Th concentrations show values varying from 7 +- 3{sup -1} to 7422 +- 526{sup -1}, with the highest values for Areia Preta beach. {sup 40}K concentrations show values varying from 14 +- 6{sup -1} to 638 +- 232{sup -1}, with the highest values for Areia Preta beach. Calculation of the radium equivalent and the external hazard index showed two distinct groups. In the first one, for the majority of the beaches, the radium equivalent activities are in the range from 15 +- 6{sup -1} to 257 +- 18{sup -1}, below the lower limit of 370{sup -1} recommended by OECD for the safe use of building materials and external hazard index was below the acceptable limit of 1 suggested by UNSCEAR. In the second one, for Setibinha, Curva da Jurema, South and Central locations of Camburi and Areia Preta beaches, the radium equivalent results are in the range from 820 +- 40{sup -1} to 11200 +- 580{sup -1}, exceeding 2 to 30 times the recommended minimum value for safe application in the civil construction industry and the external hazard index surpassed almost 3 to 40 times the UNSCEAR suggested limit. (author)

  13. Environmental evaluation in the electric sector expansion planing: an strategic approach; Avaliacao ambiental no planejamento da expansao do setor eletrico: uma abordagem estrategica

    Pires, Silvia Helena [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail:; Medeiros, Alexandre [Fundacao Padre Leonel Franca, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Lacorte, Ana; Aquino, Luiz C.S.; Farah, Pedro; Menezes, Paulo C. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia


    This paper presents a resume of the methodology developed for the Socio Environmental Studies Committee - CTSA - of the CCPE, aiming the incorporation of the environment dimension in the expansion indicative planning of the electric sector. The first results of the partial application to the 2001-2010 planning cycle are also presented.

  14. Renewability emergy index calculation in the evaluation of the sustainability of a national economy; Calculo do indice de renovabillidade emergetica na avaliacao da sustentabilidade de uma economia nacional

    Siche Jara, Raul Benito [Universidad Nacional de Trujillo, La Libertad (Peru). Fac. de Ciencias Agropecuarias. Escuela de Ingenieria Agroindustrial], e-mail:; Ortega Rodriguez, Enrique [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DEA/FEA/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Lab. de Engenharia Ecologica e Informatica Aplicada], e-mail:


    In this study, the emergy methodology was used to analyze the sustainability of the Peruvian economic system. The resources (natural and not natural) and importations had been accounting in units of solar emergy using data of the Peruvian economy for the year 2004. Emergy is an energy measure based in the contribution of the resources and its influence, defined as the energy of a type required producing a flow or storage of another type. The focus of this study is the calculation of the emergy index call 'renewability' (REN), considered as a general measure of the ecological sustainability. In a long period, only systems or processes with high REN are sustainable. This index is calculated by the accounting of the resources renewed used in the economy in emergy units (2.17E+23 seJ) and divided by emergy total that enters to the economic system (6.93E+23 seJ), resulting a REN of 0.31. The renewable resources that use Peru almost represent 20% of the total of renewable resources available in the system. The great amount of renewable resources that Peru can potentially use was calculated in 11.44E+23 seJ, meaning that the system can be more sustainable if the economy is based on increasing the use of renewable resources and to diminish the use of non-renewable resources and imported resources. These data show that Peru has a relatively sustainable economy that can improve or get worse, depending of its politics in the use of resources. (author)

  15. Evaluation of plate type fuel options for small power reactors; Avaliacao de alternativas de combustivel tipo placa para reatores de pequeno porte

    Andrzejewski, Claudio de Sa


    Plate type fuels are generally used in research reactor. The utilization of this kind of configuration improves significantly the overall performance fuel. The conception of new fuels for small power reactors based in plate-type configuration needs a complete review of the safety criteria originally used to conduce power and research reactor projects. In this work, a group of safety criteria is established for the utilization of plate-type fuels in small power reactors taking into consideration the characteristics of power and research reactors. The performance characteristics of fuel elements are strongly supported by its materials properties and the adopted configuration for its fissile particles. The present work makes an orientated bibliographic investigation searching the best material properties (structural materials and fuel compounds) related to the performance fuel. Looking for good parafermionic characteristics and manufacturing exequibility associated to existing facilities in national research centres, this work proposes several alternatives of plate type fuels, considering its utilization in small power reactors: dispersions of UO{sub 2} in stainless steel, of UO{sub 2} in zircaloy, and of U-Mo alloy in zircaloy, and monolithic plates of U-Mo cladded with zircaloy. Given the strong dependency of radiation damage with temperature increase, the safety criteria related to heat transfer were verified for all the alternatives, namely the DNBR; coolant temperature lower than saturation temperature; peak meat temperature to avoid swelling; peak fuel temperature to avoid meat-matrix reaction. It was found that all alternatives meet the safety criteria including the 0.5 mm monolithic U-Mo plate cladded with zircaloy. (author)

  16. Radiographic and tomographic evaluation of total hybrid hip replacement in dogs; Avaliacao radiografica e tomografica de caes submetidosa artroplastia coxofemoral total hibrida

    Minto, B.W., E-mail: [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil); Brandao, C.V.S.; Pereira, G.J.C.; Babicsak, V.R.; Vulcano, L.C.; Rossetto, V.J.V. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil)


    The total hip arthroplasty is the most effective surgical technique for the treatment of severe canine hip dysplasia. Currently, the radiographic examination is the most common method used to assess this procedure in dogs, but has some limitations. CT scan by computed tomography instead enables the acquisition of images without overlap, thereby determining the positioning of prosthetic components with greater accuracy. This research aimed to evaluate by radiography and CT scan examinations the use of a hybrid modular total hip prosthesis developed and made in Brazil, applied experimentally in healthy dogs. Six skeletally mature dogs, which previously underwent surgery on the left hip joint were used. The dogs underwent CT scan at 360 days and three years after surgery. All animals showed good positioning of prosthetic components, and proper joint reduction. In the CT scan, however, it was possible to detect irregular fill areas in some animals. In addition, CT scan allowed the detection and monitoring of areas of bone resorption around the acetabular component. Therefore, the CT scan was useful in the evaluation of prosthetic joints, with the advantage of optimum sharpness of the images and allowing for the possibility of quantifying peri-prosthetic changes and measure joint, fundamental relations for late postoperative follow-up. (author)

  17. Evaluation of parametric and nonparametric models to predict water flow; Avaliacao entre modelos parametricos e nao parametricos para previsao de vazoes afluentes

    Marques, T.C.; Cruz Junior, G.; Vinhal, C. [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFG), Goiania, GO (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia Eletrica e de Computacao], Emails:,,


    The goal of this paper is to present a methodology to carry out the seasonal stream flow forecasting using database of average monthly inflows of one Brazilian hydroelectric plant located at Grande, Tocantins, Paranaiba, Sao Francisco and Iguacu river's. The model is based on the Adaptive Network Based Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS), the non-parametric model. The performance of this model was compared with a periodic autoregressive model, the parametric model. The results show that the forecasting errors of the non-parametric model considered are significantly lower than the parametric model. (author)

  18. Development of a pilot molecular distillation unit; Desenvolvimento de unidade de destilacao molecular nacional e aplicacao na avaliacao de petroleos extrapesados

    Rocha, Erica Roberta Lovo da; Maciel, Maria Regina Wolf; Maciel Filho, Rubens; Batistella, Cesar Benedito [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil); Medina, Lilian Carmem [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)


    Due to the importance and the need in studies with heavy and extra heavy petroleums and their residues, it was designed and built up by the oil research group of LOPCA/LDPS/FEQ/UNICAMP, in partnership with the Laboratory of Valuation Processes of CENPES / PETROBRAS, a pilot plant of falling film molecular distiller (national prototype), where some specific operational facilities were introduced. This project resulted in a suitable system for distillation of products of high molecular weight and thermally sensitive, without degradation of them. This work aims the achievement of distillate fractions of atmospheric residue 400 deg C+, using the new molecular distillation equipment. The experiments were carried out according to factorial design to assess the significant process variables in the molecular distillation prototype. The results showed that the evaporator temperature has high influence on the process and the feed flow rate has minimum influence, as it is desired. Additionally, the equipment showed easy handing operation, high operational stability and results varying around 1%. (author)

  19. Evaluation of X ray attenuation by means of radiographic images; Avaliacao da atenuacao da radiacao X por meio de imagens radiograficas

    Barros, Frieda Saicla, E-mail: [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Paredes, Ramon S.C., E-mail: ramon@ufpr.b [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Godoi, Walmor C., E-mail: [Faculdade de Tecnologia Camoes (FATEC), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Souza, Gabriel Pinto de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), SP (Brazil)


    This paper's main goal is to adopt a qualitative methodology to evaluate the attenuation of x-radiation through X-ray images in polymeric materials plus residual lead. To determinate the images it was initially used an experimental setup at the Laboratory for Materials Diagnostics LACTEC. These results correspond to a more qualitative analysis, even with quantitative answers. Through analysis of radiographic images we can measure the intensity of radiation that goes through the plate, making possible to establish a relationship between the attenuation coefficient and the thickness of the material. (author)

  20. Bacteriological evaluation of fresh chicken sausage submitted to gamma radiation; Avaliacao bacteriologica da linguica de frango Frescal submetida a radiacao gama

    Borges, Alexandre


    Many developed countries have established a goal of self-sufficiency in food production, while many other obtain their principal foreign exchange through food exports. For these reasons, it is essential to eliminate losses in food products. It is no less important to prevent or combat food-transmitted diseases, principally across poultry and poultry derivatives, which play a major role in certain infections and is the focus of national public health goals in order to increase the international commerce. In tropical countries, perishable products represent the largest markets. The population lives in a constant battle against the deterioration of these foods. Such loss is enormous where the climate favors the proliferation of agents of decomposition and acceleration of putrification. Increasing the useful life of these perishable products will provide producers the option of commercializing them in low harvest season, thus achieving higher prices, and providing sensible growth to the agro-industrial market. Treatment of perishables with gamma radiation presently constitutes one of the most modern, safe, and efficient methods for increasing food preservation. The irradiation of foods can offer various special advantages such as: kill or sterilize pathogenic organisms in food, improving their quality and duration, reducing the level of toxics, slow or stop the aging of roots and tubers, disinfect products of animal and vegetable origin thus slowing their decomposition, increasing their shelf-life, and prolonging their conservation refrigeration. The practice of irradiating foods for the treatment of microorganisms has begun to gain momentum in Brazil, where roughly 25% of all food produced annually is lost to disease and insects activity, increased by lack of adequate storage treatments. Various countries have already adopted the method that, when practiced properly by qualified professionals, does not cause side effects other than the extension of useful life. In light of the lack of present data on the irradiation of fresh chicken sausage, the objective of this study is to evaluate determine the efficiency of this method as a process for reducing the microbial load via measurement of the bacteriology of the product before and after gamma radiation. 45 sample of chicken sausage(acquired directly from the poultry industry) were prepared divided in 3 treatments: the first is a control, the second and third using application of 1,5 and 3,0 kGy, respectively. The chicken sausages irradiated with a dose of 1,5 kGy did not have, statistically significant results apparent in the bacteriological measures. Samples irradiated with 3,0 kGy did experience statistically significant reductions. It is concluded that the irradiating the product with a dose of 3,0 kGy is more effective for the reduction of bacterial population, with the data in these trials indicating a 95,3% reduction in total coliforms, 100% removal of fecal coliforms, and 84,0% reduction of mesophiles, relative to the control samples. (author)

  1. Evaluation of the rheological behavior of drilling fluids in annular flow conditions; Avaliacao do comportamento reologico de fluidos de perfuracao no escoamento anular

    Silva, Maria das Gracas Pena; Martins, Andre Leibsohn; Oliveira, Antonio Augusto Junqueira de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Div. de Explotacao


    The rheological behavior of drilling fluids during annular flow in a physical simulator well (Surface Hydraulic System - SHS)was investigated. Measurement of volumetric flow and pressure drop the 10-meter simulator well was used to assess applicability of the Bingham, power Law, Casson, and Herschell-Bulkley models to the annular flow of water and oil-based fluids under different temperatures. Additionally, under different pre-set deformation ranges, SHS-observed behavior was compared with behavior observed using the traditional Fann VG 35 A viscometer. (author) 8 refs., 21 figs., 15 tabs.

  2. Atmospheric emissions as a tool in evaluation of sustainability research in oil industry; Emissao atmosferica como uma ferramenta na avaliacao do desenvolvimento sustentavel na industria do petroleo

    Zanella, Nicolas P.; Baich, Paulo R.M.; Machado, Maria I. [Fundacao Universidade do Rio Grande (FURG), RS (Brazil)


    This work is directly to analysis of atmosphere surrounding Ipiranga Refinery; witch is located in the city of Rio Grande, in estate of Rio Grande do Sul. The refinery is surrounded by neighborhood, witch are impacted by atmospheric emissions of refinery. The objective of this work is correlating the refinery to the inhabitants that lives near the refinery, using an environmental sustainability index. This work will be achieve by analysis of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) bounded in particulate matter with diameter of 100 {mu}m (PTS), the acquisition of health data on the city hospitals and correlation of this data with PAH concentrations in Particulate Matter. The Samples were obtain by FEPAM, witch have three samples sites in the center of city. The samples was obtained by a High Volume Sampler equipped with quartz fiber filters. The meteorological data important to this work, like wind direction and speed, will be obtain in Meteorological Station on FURG. The results expect to this work are the quantification of PAH bounded with PM-100 and the quantification of PAH emitted by Ipiranga Refinery. And possibly, to correlate this data to made the Environmental Sustainability index. (author)

  3. Hydraulic conductivity how subsidy in evaluation of the contaminated area in the petrochemical industry; Condutividade hidraulica como subsidio na avaliacao de area contaminada em industria petroquimica

    Sousa, Julia Brazil; Polivanov, Helena; Moraes, Patricia [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail:


    The activities here described were undertaken in the scope of the Environmental Management System (EMS) of Petroflex Ind. e Com. S.A., done in cooperation with the Geosciences Institute (Instituto de Geociencias) of the UFRJ. In order to determine the hydraulic conductivity of the media in the lab, and to estimate the influence of this property on the retention of a contamination plume resulted from unsuitable disposal of industrial residues, five undisturbed samples of marine organic clay were tested. The hydraulic conductivity values obtained in laboratory vary from 10{sup -5} to 10{sup -7} cm/s. Slug tests done by the company personnel yielded results with a magnitude of 10{sup -8} cm/s. The small values of hydraulic conductivity, associated to chemical and mineralogical properties from the material, lead to the conclusion that the possibly existing contamination plume would hardly pass through the organic clay layer without having its concentration modified, since many factors provide interaction between soil and contaminant, reducing the substance concentration in fluid (water) and providing good conditions to remediation measures. (author)

  4. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) evaluation of carotenoids in irradiated guavas; Avaliacao por cromatografia liquida de alta eficiencia (CLAE) de carotenoides em goiabas irradiadas

    Lima, Keila S. Cople; Vital, Helio C. [Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (CTEx), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Defesa Nuclear]. E-mail:; Lima, Antonio L. Santos; Pereira, Maria Helena G. [Centro Tecnologico do Exercito (CTEx), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Secao de Quimica]. E-mail:; Godoy, Ronoel L. Oliveira; Fonseca, Marcos J.O. [Embrapa Agroindustria de Alimentos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail:


    The use of ionizing gamma irradiation has shown very effective as an auxiliary technology for the decrease of post-harvest waste, grains disinfestation, pathogenic microorganisms control, increase in shelf life for meats, fruits, vegetables and bulbs and tubercles sprouts inhibition, maintaining nutritional quality. The carotenoids are pigments widely found in fruits and vegetables and are beneficial to human being health. This work was undergone using the irradiator with cesium source at the Army Technological Center, Brazil, with maximum dose rate of 2 kGy per hour. The objective is to evaluate the low gamma radiation doses (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy) influence in the total carotenoid and content lycopene in guavas CV Pal uma, with excellent weight classification. The total carotenoid content was extracted from the guava with acetone and moved to petroleum ether and determined by spectrophotometer at 450 nm. The determination of lycopene was accomplished by HPLC. The results showed that, in spite of lycopene loss with irradiation, the best dose was 0.5 kGy. (author)

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging of sella turcica: evaluation of patients with galactorrhea, amenorrhea and hyperprolactinemia; Ressonancia magnetica da sela turca: avaliacao de pacientes com galactorreia, amenorreia e hiperprolactinemia

    Santos, Alair Augusto Sarmet M.D. dos [Hospital Universitario Antonio Pedro, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia; Moreira, Denise Madeira [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia; Andreiuolo, Pedro Angelo [Beneficencia Portuguesa de Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Radiologia Santa Cruz Scan


    We have selected 135 cases of patients who have done magnetic resonance imaging of sella region, carried out from September, 1991 to August, 1996, who had galactorrhea (G), amenorrhea(A), and hyperprolactinemia (H), isolated or in association. The patients were divided in seven groups, according to the presence of these symptoms and signs. All examinations were made in a private clinic in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Correlating these patients with the results of the magnetic resonance images, we found 57 micro adenomas, 31 normal examinations, 22 macro adenomas, 11 pituitary hyperplasias, 7 empty sella and 7 cases included in other aspects. The micro adenoma predominated in groups 1 (GAH), 2 (GH), 3 (HA) and 5 (H), that is, in all groups whose patients had hyperprolactinemia. In macro adenomas, a bright signal on T 1-weighted images indicates pituitary apoplexy with intratumoral hemorrhage. All in all, the magnetic resonance imaging is excellent method to be used in the evaluation of patients with changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. (author)

  6. Analysis of an in-line diesel production system through event driven simulation; Avaliacao do esquema de producao em linha de diesel atraves da simulacao por eventos discretos

    Monteiro, Gilsa P.; Naegeli, Guilherme S.T. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES); Santos, Nilza M.Q. [PETROBRAS S.A., Mataripe, Salvador, BA (Brazil). Refinaria Landulfo Alves (RLAM); Netto, Joaquim D.A. [DNV Energy Solutions, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)


    The interactions between refining processes (such as distillation, hydrotreatment, etc.) and typical transfer and storage operations (mixtures, decantation, storage, etc.) provide a high complexity to the refineries production systems of petroleum derivatives. These production systems are characterized by many aspects, such as: blending rules, feed composition, petroleum campaigns, storage tanks limitations, continuous and batch processes interactions, etc. Besides these operational aspects, the equipment and systems' reliability has strong influence on the level of production goals achievement and petroleum derivatives quality specification. Looking for a higher economic efficiency and in order to provide refineries with orientation about resources optimization for their petroleum derivatives' production systems, the development of a methodology capable of being applied since the design phase to identify systems limitations and improvement opportunities, considering all the raised aspects, is a very important task. With this objective, this article presents the main points of an evaluation that was conducted during the conceptual design for a diesel in-line blending production system proposed by a Brazilian refinery, detailing the main steps of the methodology that was developed through this analysis, based on discrete event simulation. (author)

  7. Quality assessment of radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine services at Northeast states, Brazil; Avaliacao da qualidade de radiofarmacos em servicos de medicina nuclear de estados da regiao nordeste

    Andrade, Wellington Gomes de


    The radiopharmaceuticals are used in the field nuclear medicine services (NMS) as tracer in the diagnoses and treatment of many diseases. Radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine and usually have a minimum of pharmacological effect. The procedures for labelling Radiopharmaceuticals should be observed in order to minimize risks to patients, employees and individuals from the public, and to be administered in humans, must be sterile and free of pyrogens and possess elements all measures of quality controls required a conventional drug. The 'Agencia Nacional de Vigilancia Sanitaria (ANVISA)' in its 'Resolucao de Diretoria Colegiada' (RDC) No. 38 of June 4{sup th} 2008, decided that the NMS must perform quality control in the generators eluate and radiopharmaceuticals according to recommendations of manufacturers and scientific evidence accepted by ANVISA. Thus, this study proposes to evaluate the quality of the generator {sup 99M}o-{sup 99m}Tc eluate and radiopharmaceuticals labeled with {sup 99m}Tc used in most NMS of some states in the Northeast, in relation to radionuclide, chemical, radiochemical purity and pH and promote the inclusion of procedure for quality control of radiopharmaceuticals in routine NMS. The results show that 90% radionuclidic purity, 98.2% purity chemical and radiochemical purity of 46% and 100% of the eluates are in agreement with international pharmacopoeias; already radiopharmaceuticals showed 82.6% purity and all radiochemical pH values are also in accordance with international pharmacopoeias. Even with so many positive results, staff the majority of MNS was not able to perform the quality control of the eluates and radiopharmaceuticals. Showing the importance of implementing of quality control programs of the eluates and radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine. (author)

  8. Combined heat and power generation: encouraged insertion plan systemic appraisal; Cogeracao no setor eletrico: avaliacao sistemica de um plano de insercao incentivada

    Paula, Claudio P.; Sauer, Ildo L. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Programa Interunidades de Pos-Graduacao em Energia


    The principal objective of this paper is to evaluate the potential for self-production of combined heat and power - CHP generation - in the expansion of the Brazilian electric power supply system. The potential was determined by simulating operation of CHP plants in industries which had previously used oil derivates to supply process heat, as well as of plants for service sectors, which had consumed electricity for air conditioning. The final part of the thesis describes the policy incentives which should be implemented so that CHP can make a significant contribution at the national level, permitting better use of natural resources and leverage the penetration of natural gas in the energy market, with favorable impacts on national development. (author)

  9. A regulatory model for conformity evaluation in natural gas building installations; Um modelo regulatorio para avaliacao da conformidade das instalacoes prediais de gas natural

    Fossa, Alberto Jose; Santos, Edmilson Moutinho dos [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia


    The challenge of the Brazilian growth needs to consider necessarily the energy arrangements, and natural gas has relevant participation in this matter. The possibility of its end use that make possible an effective adequacy of our energy matrix must be supported by modern concepts of quality and conformity. In this particular, the program of 'Tecnologia Industrial Basica' (TIB), including concepts and application of conformity evaluation processes, is considered basic for the construction of a consistent gas market. This paper present the Brazilian reality related to TIB aspects and elements, from which it constructs a technician and regulatory building gas installations model proposal for a conformity evaluation program in the country. (author)

  10. Assessment of occupational risk and radiation protection conditions of the dental radiological diagnosis services; Avaliacao de condicoes de radioprotecao e risco ocupacional em servicos de radiodiagnostico odontologico

    Andrade, Lilia M.; Kastner, Geraldo F.; Carneiro, Orozimbo J.; Maia, Margareth; Pereira, Claubia [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear]. E-mail:;


    The radiograph constitutes an important complementary method to the dental diagnosis , inside of the universe of the diagnosis for images. The emission of X-ray during the radiograph exam it requests special attention concerning the so much radiological protection for the patient as for the professional. Referring norms to the theme regulate the operation of the radiological diagnosis services and are specified in the Portaria 453 from June 1, 1998 of the Secretaria Nacional de Vigilancia Sanitaria. Based on this entrance, they were appraised the conditions of operation of services of dental radiological diagnosis in public and private establishments, in the city of Belo Horizonte, with relationship the radiological protection, occupational risk and it structures physics of the establishment. (author)

  11. Monitoring of standalone photovoltaic systems applied to rural electrification areas; Avaliacao de desempenho e identificacao de falhas em sistemas fotovoltaicos isolados aplicados a eletrificacao rural

    Machado-Neto, L. V. B.; Cabral, C. V. T.; Oliveira-Filho, D.; Diniz, A. s. A. C.


    The sustainability of standalone photovoltaic systems passes through an accompaniment of the systems installed in the field. To subsidize this accompaniment it had been developed procedures for monitoring a similar system in laboratory. The standalone photovoltaic system monitored is similar to the systems installed by Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais - CEMIG in the schools of isolated communities, inside the Solar Light Program. The system was simulated and the aims were to optimize the project and carry out a comparative study with the monitored results. The assembly procedure of the facility consisted of the implantation of the sensors, installation of acquisition boards and development of the monitoring program. The results presented here will allow the development of a program of preventive maintenance of the systems installed by CEMIG. (Author)

  12. Assessment of natural radioactivity in wall paints of commercial use in Brazil; Avaliacao da radioatividade natural em tintas de uso comercial no Brasil

    Fonseca, Leandro Milhomens da


    Natural radioactivity in soils, rocks and construction materials, due to {sup 40}K and the natural series of {sup 232}Th and {sup 2}'3{sup 8}U, is the main contribution to external exposure in mankind. In this work, activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra ({sup 238}U series), {sup 232}Th and {sup 4}'0K were determined for 50 white latex wall paints samples, commercialized in Brazil, namely 15 Economic quality samples, 15 Standard quality samples and 20 Premium quality samples and for a single titanium dioxide sample. The samples were tightly sealed and stored for a minimum period of 30 days, to reach the radioactive secular equilibrium from {sup 238}U and {sup 232}Th series, then measured by high resolution gamma ray spectrometry. The activity concentration was determined using the weighted average concentrations of {sup 214}Pb and {sup 214}Bi for {sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Ac, {sup 212}Pb and {sup 212}Bi for {sup 232}Th. The {sup 4}'0K activity concentration was determined by its single transition of 1460.8 keV. Self attenuation correction factors of the samples whose densities are higher than 1.0{sup -3}, were determined and used to make the necessary corrections. The radiological indices radium equivalent activity (Ra{sub eq}), activity concentration index (I{sub γ}), internal exposure risk index (H{sub in}) and external exposure risk index (H{sub ex}) and also the absorbed dose rate (D) and annual effective dose (D{sub ef}) were calculated from the activity concentrations of {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K. The activity concentration values for {sup 226}Ra ranged from under the minimum detectable activity to 38.7{sup -1}, for {sup 232}Th from under the minimum detectable activity to 101.2{sup -1} and for {sup 40}K from under the minimum detectable activity to 256{sup -1}. Ra{sub eq} ranged from 1.41{sup -1} to 203{sup -1}, I{sub γ} ranged from 0.0047 to 0.720, H{sub in} from 0.0076 to 0.653 and H{sub ex} from 0.0038 to 0.549. The absorbed dose rate ranged from 0.170 nGy.h{sup -1} and 21.3 nGy.h{sup -1} and the annual effective dose ranged from 0.83 μSv and 104.2 μSv. The results show that the activity concentrations of the wall paints studied in this work are below the recommended limits by Hassan et al. for Ra{sub eq} (370{sup -1}), by European Commission for I{sub γ} (limit of 2 for superficial materials) and by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development for H{sub in} and H{sub ex} (both with limit of 1), for all the 50 samples, assuring the safety of these wall paints with respect to radiological protection. (author)

  13. Evaluation of gels obtained from acetylation of chitosan in heterogeneous medium; Avaliacao de geis obtidos a partir da acetilacao da quitosana em meio heterogeneo

    Garcia, Rosangela Balaban; Silva, Dayse Luzia Pinheiro da; Costa, Marta [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail:; Raffin, Fernanda Nervo [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRGN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude. Dept. de Quimica, Tecnologia Farmaceutica e de Alimentos; Ruiz, Naira Machado da Silva [Centro de Pesquisa Leopoldo A. Miguez de Mello (CENPES), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    Chitosan was acetylated during 2, 5 and 10 h and physical gels were obtained at different polymer concentrations in N,N-dimethylacetamide containing 5% of LiCl. Acetylation was confirmed by infrared spectroscopy and {sup 13}C NMR, and degrees of acetylation in the range of 0.82-0.91 were determined by NMR. The O-acetylation degree (0.12-0.15) was exclusively determined by a volumetric method. Rheological studies showed that the storage modulus values were smaller for the more acetylated samples and increased with the temperature and the polymer concentration. All the gels presented storage modulus superior to loss modulus, evidencing more elastic than viscous characteristics. The results obtained in this work suggest a gelation process based on a balance between O and N-acetylation and intermolecular bonds. (author)

  14. Quality of life evaluation of workers for diagnostic radiology services; Avaliacao da qualidade de vida dos trabalhadores de servicos de radiodiagnostico

    Fernandes, Ivani Martins


    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of life (QOL) of diagnostic radiology services workers at a hospital of Sao Paulo city. It aimed also to draw the profile of these workers identifying the variables, as its influence on their quality of life. A descriptive exploratory study with qualitative and quantitative approaches was carried out. The data were collected using the questionnaires: the abbreviated instrument for the assessment of the QOL, World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument bref (WHOQOL-bref) and a questionnaire including the social demographic variables, work conditions and the variables that express the lifestyle of individuals, both questionnaires self-applied. The sample was formed by 118 workers, among them: physicians, technologists/technicians in radiology, nurses, technicians and assistants in nursing, and others health professionals. The data analysis included descriptive statistics, nonparametric tests and the use of a linear regression model. The reliability of the instrument for the studied sample was verified by Cronbach's Alpha Coefficient ({alpha}). The WHOQOL-bref proved to be an adequate instrument, with a good level of internal consistency ({alpha}=0.884), being easily and quickly administrated for the evaluation of the QOL. The study provided an overview of the perception of quality of life of the studied group. (author)

  15. Effects of blue light irradiation on dental enamel remineralization in vitro; Avaliacao dos efeitos promovidos pela radiacao azul na remineralizacao do esmalte dentario in vitro

    Kato, Ilka Tiemy


    This study aimed to investigate the effects of blue radiation on dental enamel remineralization. In addition, a methodology of analysis was developed to evaluate alterations of enamel mineral content by optical coherence tomography. Artificial lesions were formed in bovine dental enamel slabs by immersing the samples in under saturated acetate buffer (2 mL/mm{sup 2} e 6.25 mL/mm{sup 2}). The lesions were irradiated with blue LED (l=455{+-}20nm), with radiant power of 110 mW, irradiance of 1.4 W/cm{sup 2}, radiant exposure of 13.8 J/{sup c}m2 and exposure time of 10 s. Remineralization was induced by pH-cycling model during 8 days. Cross-sectional hardness and optical coherence tomography (OCT) were used to assess mineral changes after remineralization. Hardness data showed that non-irradiated enamel lesions presented higher mineral content than irradiated ones and this difference was more evident in lesions formed in higher solution volume. The analysis of OCT signal also demonstrated that the mineral content of non-irradiated group was higher than in irradiated one; however, no significant difference was observed. Furthermore, significant differences in OCT sign were detected between sound and demineralized enamel. Based on the results obtained in the present study it can be concluded that blue radiation caused an inhibition of enamel remineralization. The methodology adopted for OCT analysis allowed the quantification of enamel mineral loss; however, the remineralization process could not be evaluated by this technique. (author)

  16. Test for evaluation of the main parameters required to dimension three-phase gravitational separators; Ensaio para avaliacao dos principais parametros necessarios ao dimensionamento de separadores gravitacionais trifasicos

    Ramalho, Joao Batista Vianey da Silva [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Setor de Tecnologia de Processamento e Transporte


    Removal of great portion of the water present in crude oil production processes is usually carried out through the use of gravitational separator vessels. Two basic process parameters are normally used in the design of these vessels: temperature and residence time needed for the separation of the liquid phases (oil and water). The other equipment and systems pertaining to the process (boilers, heaters, exchangers, electrostatic treating equipment, transfer and pumping system, oily water treatment system, etc.) are designed aiming at the efficiency attained in the oil-water gravitational separation. Since there has not been to date a methodology capable of predicting the behavior of the oil-water gravitational separation, nearly empirical procedures have been employed to dimension such vessels making use of the experience accumulated in some systems already installed, in connection with some oil characteristics. Due to this, many systems are either over dimensioned or under dimensioned, bringing on either loss of efficiency or excessive costs of designed facilities. Tests conducted in laboratory to evaluate the performance of oil-water gravitational separation as a function of temperature and segregation time is presented herein. Performance curves are sketched from the experiments made; such curves shall be used to dimension the gravitational separators that will process the oil which is the object of concern. (author)

  17. Ultrasound stress measurements for API X65 pipes; Avaliacao por ultra-som das tensoes impostas em tubo API X-65

    Medeiros, Raimundo C.; Santos, Ramon Loback Medeiros [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Bittencourt, Marcelo S.Q.; Lamy, Carlos A. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Donato, Guilherme V.P. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    Risks of damages or even premature collapse of buried pipelines caused by their interaction with geologically unstable soils are well-established phenomena. Therefore, both monitoring and measurements of the actual loads transmitted by the soil to the pipeline are mandatory requirements, and define the necessity of developing new nondestructive techniques capable to carry out through evaluations of these loads in field. The aim of this paper has been placed on the presentation of a cutting-edge ultrasonic technology applied to stress measurements. To accomplish this purpose a series of ultrasonic tests were conducted on tensile specimens extracted from API 5L Grade X-65 steel pipe to determine its acoustic birefringence. The results have evidenced the acoustic birefringence to be a technique sufficiently consistent and, consequently, it shall be considered as a promising tool for the evaluation of the structural integrity of metallic structures in the near future. In addition, it was also observed that the use of this technique allows measuring the residual stress resulting from the pipe manufacturing process. (author)

  18. Stresses and residual stresses optical measurements systems evaluation; Avaliacao de sistemas opticos de medicao de tensoes e tensoes residuais em dutos

    Peixoto Filho, Flavio Tito; Goncalves Junior, Armando Albertazzi [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Lab. de Metrologia e Automatizacao (LABMETRO)


    There is always a constant concern about the pipelines' integrity. An important control parameter is the level of total mechanical stresses acting over the pipeline. However, the loading and residual stresses acting on a pipeline are not measured in the field as much as necessary. Technical difficulties and the high cost of the nowadays techniques and the hostile measurement conditions are the main reason for that. An alternative method has been developed at the Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC) since 1992. A new optical measurement device is used to measure strains, mechanical stresses and residual stresses acting over the structure. A metrological and functional evaluation of this system is the main focus of this paper. (author)

  19. Study and evaluation of radiometry in photo therapeutic treatment of the neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia; Estudo e avaliacao da radiometria no tratamento fototerapico da hiperbilirrubinemia neonatal

    Caly, Jose Pucci


    Phototherapy is a procedure established more than 50 years ago in the treatment of the newborn jaundice. However there is no a standard method to quantify the photo therapeutic dose in published clinical studies, hindering the comparison of previous studies on photo therapeutic effectiveness, as well as the establishment of safe and predictable doses. The photo therapeutic dose depends, among other factors, on the effective mean irradiance produced by the photo therapeutic unit. There are no standard procedures, however, neither to quantify the effective irradiance, nor to estimate the mean effective irradiance. As a consequence, large measurement variations in a same photo therapeutic unit are observed using different commercially available radiometers, as a consequence of the vast diversity of spectral responsivities of the instruments. An objective of this work was to adapt and to apply the bases of the wideband ultraviolet radiometry to quantify the available irradiance from photo therapeutic units, establishing procedures that allow us to compare measured irradiances from different sources, using radiometers presenting different spectral responsivities. Another objective was to characterize samples of photo therapeutic units commonly used, focusing the problem of the estimation of the effective mean irradiance from photo therapeutic units, proposing a method to estimate of the effective irradiance from focused sources. The experimental results allow us to conclude that it is not only necessary to standardize the photo therapeutic radiometry, but also the method of estimation of the effective mean irradiance. (author)

  20. Contribution of ultrasonography and scintillography to the evaluation of parothyroid glands; Contribuicao da ultra-sonografia na avaliacao das glandulas paratireoideas

    Craide, Rosany Helena [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Ultra-som; Cerri, Giovanni Guido [Instituto do Coracao, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem; Custodio, Melani Ribeiro; Jorgetti, Vanda [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Nefrologia; Oliveira, Ilka Regina S. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Inst. de Radiologia; Vermelho, Marli B.F. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Ultra-sonografia


    Sonography and scintilography are good methods for imaging the parathyroid adenomas and hyperplasias. The diagnostic methods were correlated in order to determine the sensitivity of sonographic evaluation with that of scintigraphy in the preoperative examinations for hyperparathyroidism suspected on clinical groups. Scintigraphic examinations were obtained using technetium-9 9 m and technetium-99m-sestamibi as radionuclide agents. A group of 36 patients was evaluated with sonography 19 being correlated with sestamibi. Our results suggest that sonography yields a sensitivity of 77 and 78.5%in comparison with scintigraphy with technetium-99m and with technetium-99m-sestamibi, respectively. The sonographic limitations are ectopic glands, enlarged thyroid goiter and posteriorly displaced adenomas. (author)

  1. Evaluation of renal allografts using {sup 99m} Tc mononuclear leukocytes; Avaliacao de transplantes renais utilizando-se {sup 99m} Tc-leucocitos mononucleares

    Souza, Sergio Augusto Lopes de; Martins, Flavia Paiva Proenca; Carvalho, Antonio Carlos Pires; Gutfilen, Bianca [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia]. E-mail:; Goncalves, Renato Torres; Pontes, Daniela Salomao [Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Nefrologia; Fonseca, Lea Mirian Barbosa da [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Medicina Nuclear


    Renal allograft acute rejection must be promptly diagnosed since its reversibility is related to the readiness in which treatment is initiated. The aim of this study was: to establish a quantitative method to evaluate kidney rejection and acute tubular necrosis (Attn); to assess the potential role of {sup 99m} Tc-mononuclear leukocytes scintigraphy in the diagnosis of renal rejection and differential diagnosis of Attn. One hundred and sixty studies were performed in 80 renal transplant patients at the first and fifth day after transplantation. Autologous cells were used for labeling. Images were obtained at 30 minutes, 3 hours and 24 hours after intravenous administration of 444 MBq (12 mCi) of labeled cells. There was abnormal labeled cells uptake in 27 of 31 cases of rejection and in 6 of 8 cases of Attn. The results of each patient were compared with clinical findings. Doppler scanning detected 18 of 31 cases of rejection. Rejection diagnosis sensitivity and specificity rates using scintigraphy were 87.1 per cent and 100 per cent, respectively, and 58.1 per cent and 100 per cent, respectively using ultrasound. Renal biopsy was performed in eight patients which demonstrated seven cases of rejection and one case of ATN. These results suggest that {sup 99m} Tc-mononuclear leukocytes imaging may be useful in the early diagnosis of rejection and in the differential diagnosis of ATN. (author)

  2. Comparative evaluation of hybrid systems of natural gas cogeneration and sugar cane bagasse; Avaliacao comparativa de sistemas hibridos de cogeracao a gas natutral e bagaco de cana

    Zamboni, Leonardo Moneci; Tribess, Arlindo [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail:;


    The consumption of electricity in Brazil and mainly in the State of Sao Paulo is increasing gradually. On the other hand, the hydraulic potential is practically exhausted and the government has no resources for such new investments. One solution is the construction of thermo electrical plants with the use of the natural gas and sugar cane bagasse. The natural gas has the advantage of being available in great amount and less pollutant. And the sugar cane bagasse, besides being a by-product of low value, does not cause a global pollution. The work consists of the determination of the best option considering criterion of minimum cost for kWh of energy produced. For such, thermo economic analysis with electricity and steam production costs evaluation in exergetic basis, was accomplished. In the evaluations the consumption of natural gas and the costs of the sugar cane bagasse were varied. The results show that the cogeneration plant with combined cycle using natural gas and burning sugar cane bagasse in the recovery boiler presents the smallest cost of electricity and steam generation (even not being the cycle with larger exergetic efficiency). On the other hand, for a natural gas cost of 140 US$/t and a cost of sugar cane bagasse superior to 10,50 US$/t the cogeneration plant with combined cycle using only natural gas (and, therefore not burning or gasifying sugar cane bagasse) presented the smallest cost of electricity and steam generation. (author)

  3. Selection and ordering of contingencies for evaluation of voltage safety conditions; Selecao e ordenacao de contingencias para avaliacao das condicoes de seguranca de tensao

    Moura, Ricardo Drumond de


    Although the use of compensation of reactive power allows a higher loading in the electric system, it leads it to work closer to voltage collapse situations. Therefore it's necessary to assess the behavior of the system regarding to this phenomena in the occurrence of the contingencies. In this work some existing methods are studied to check the capacity of ranking the contingencies that might affect the system, and how these methods rank them by severity and select those which are more damaging. The methods are studied having as the main focus the real-time operation. This work proposes a method which is able to rank and select a list of probable contingencies, having as a basis, nodal indexes of voltage security conditions assessment. These indexes are based on MV A margin to the maximum loading, indicate the region of operation on V x P,Q curve, and the relative importance among buses. The sensitivity index which indicates the reduction of the power margin before a contingency, is studied in detail. Besides the nodal analysis, it is proposed a form of a systemic analysis which is able to rank and select the contingencies according to their influence upon all electrical system. (author)

  4. Evaluation of the solar energy potential in Piracicaba, Sao Paulo State, Brazil; Avaliacao do potencial de energia solar no municipio de Piracicaba, SP, Brasil

    Villa Nova, Nilson Augusto [Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz. Dept. de Fisica e Meterorologia; Pereira, Andre Belmont [Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencia do Solo e Engenharia Agricola


    This paper presents a development of a mathematical model for evaluation of the solar energy potential available in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil, as function of only a radiometric measurement in the zenital passage. Solar energy potential values determined by the proposed methodology will allow the evaluation of the maximum possible performance of the energy capture systems. These potential values will be very important in engineering projects which have the objective of solar energy utilization in its various forms.

  5. μSPECT: image evaluation using collimator type pinhole. Preliminary results; μSPECT: avaliacao da imagem utilizando colimador tipo pinhole: resultados preliminares

    Miady, Leandro Sunao [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil); Squair, Peterson Lima [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Pozzo, Lorena, E-mail: [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)


    At scintigraphy, the method of obtaining tomographic image is called SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography), as well as the equipment able to acquire such tomographic images involving small animals can be called μSPECT. Although the equipment is directed to the acquisition of three-dimensional images, a need exists in certain studies to obtain two-dimensional images. This study aims to verify and analyze the two-dimensional image magnification factor for later application to the study of {sup 131}I dosimetry in mice. The experimental results allowed to analyze and compare the magnification factors for each parameter used for future experiments. (author)

  6. Evaluation of radon measuring technique using passive detector activated carbon; Avaliacao da tecnica de medicao do radonio utilizando detector passivo com carvao ativado

    Ferreira, Paulo Roberto Rocha; Lessa, Edmilson de Lima; Oliveira, Evaldo Paulo de, E-mail: [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Radioprotecao Ambiental e Ocupacional


    This study aims to evaluate the efficiency of measuring the radioactive gas Radon ({sup 222} Rn) with passive detector activated carbon. Alpha Guard, exposure chamber, air sampler, default font Radio, calibrator flow, flow adjuster, ducts drivers: For this, various equipment to make the measurement system as were used. An assembly of such equipment, with specific sequence was used allowing for more efficient exposure of passive detectors Radon gas. Twenty samples were heated to remove moisture and then stored in desiccator until the experiment were made. The exhibition was held passive dosimeters being removed from the chamber, and one hour after, subjected to analysis by gamma spectrometry in germanium (HPGe) for an hour. Subsequently, other measurements were made at scheduled times and sequential for one hour. The results were presented in report form and spectra, measures and graphs generated by Alpha Guard were also extracted. Finally we calculated the efficiency of the passive meter activated carbon. (author)

  7. Evaluation of the use of red mud as a pozzolanic additive in Portland cement; Avaliacao do uso de residuo de bauxita como aditivo pozolanico no cimento Portland

    Fortes, Gustavo Mattos; Balbino, Thiago Gabriel Ferreira; Lourenco, Rafaela Roberta; Rodrigues, Jose de Anchieta [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (GEMM/DEMa/UFSCar), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia de Materias. Grupo de Engenharia de Microestrutura de Materiais; Montini, Marcelo [Alcoa Aluminio S.A., Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil)


    It is estimated that the aluminum industry generates approximately 13.7 million tones/year of red mud (RB) in Brazil. Although, being the RB rich in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SiO{sub 2} and partially amorphous, a potential pozzolanic activity is suggested. Thus, this work aims to evaluate the application of 15w-% of RB, as a pozzolanic additive, to the ordinary Portland cement (CPI), simulating a pozzolanic compost Portland cement (CPII-Z). To study the pozzolanic activation of the RB, this one was added without calcination, calcinated at 400°C and at 600°C. The compressive strength was measured in mortars of CPI with additions of RB, of CPI and CPII (references), after 28 days of curing. The analysis of the apparent porosity and the characterization of the hydration products were done to complement the evaluation. The mortars with calcinated RB showed good results of mechanical strength, reaching more than 85% (45 MPa) of the CPI's strength and higher values than the CPII-Z32. (author)

  8. Residual stress evaluation and curvature behavior of aluminum 7050 peen forming processed; Avaliacao da tensao residual em aluminio 7050 conformado pelo processo peen forming

    Oliveira, Rene Ramos de


    Shot peening is a superficial cold work process used to increase the fatigue life evaluated by residual stress measurements. The peen forming process is a variant of the shot peening process, where a curvature in the plate is obtained by the compression of the grains near to the surface. In this paper, the influence of the parameters such as: pressure of shot, ball shot size and thickness of aluminum 7050 samples with respect to residual stress profile and resulting arc height was studied. The evaluation of the residual stress profile was obtained by sin{sup 2} {psi} method. The results show that the formation of the curvature arc height is proportional to the shot peening pressure, of spheres size and inversely proportional to the thickness of the sample, and that stress concentration factor is larger for samples shot peened with small balls. On final of this paper presents an additional study on micro strain and average crystallite size, which can evaluate the profile of the samples after blasting. (author)

  9. Evaluation of the aging of polymeric drilling fluids to oil wells; Avaliacao do envelhecimento de fluidos de perfuracao polimericos para pocos de petroleo

    Farias, K.V.; Amorim, L.V. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia Mecanica, UAEM/CCT - UFCG], e-mail:; Leite, R.S. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Graduacao Engenharia de Materiais; Lira, H.L. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia de Materiais, UAEMa/ CCT - UFCG


    The aim of this work is to evaluate the aging of polymeric drilling fluids to oil wells, from the rheological, filtration and lubricity properties in the temperatures 100 degree F ({approx} 38 degree C) and 150 degree F ({approx} 66 degree C). The results had been compared with a standard fluid used for the oil industry and had evidenced that the polymeric fluids had presented good thermal stability, presenting a small reduction in the rheological properties and better values of lubricity coefficient that a reference fluid. (author)

  10. Appreciation of environmental risks analysis methodologies in the offshore well drilling activities; Analise de metodologias na avaliacao de riscos ambientais relacionados as atividades de perfuracao de pocos maritimos

    Zampolli, Daniella M. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil); Morooka, Celso K. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Engenharia de Petroleo


    Nowadays, the projects of products and processes are supposed to integrate environmental risks criteria, in addition to their inherent operation impacts. Industrial activities, in general, generate risks to the environment, and, in case of incidents occurrence, many of the possible consequences can be translated into serious impacts. The Risk Analysis is destined to act as a decision tool in the environmental area, and therefore, the use of one of these during the project phase of an enterprise becomes important, aiming the guarantee of the system reliability. The present article has the purpose of analyzing methodologies that are being employed for the environmental risk analysis, as well as usual procedures applied in the oil industry, specially for the offshore wells drilling, evaluating and discussing their peculiarities and possible improvement. It was intended to obtain a general overview of risk analysis methodologies, with the objective of verifying the existence of some characteristics that would positively contribute for the knowledge of the inherent risks in the activities of petroleum installations, where this kind of learning is something extremely technically necessary and legally mandatory. (author)

  11. Phytochemical study and evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of Aeschynomene fluminensis Vell. (Fabaceae); Estudo fitoquimico e avaliacao da atividade anti-inflamatoria de Aeschynomene fluminensis Vell. (Fabaceae)

    Ignoato, Marlene Capelin; Fabrao, Rodrigo Monteiro; Schuquel, Ivania Teresinha Albrecht; Botelho, Marcos Felipe Pinatto; Santin, Silvana Maria de Oliveira [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM) PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Arruda, Laura Licia Milani de; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar Aparecida [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM) PR (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacologia e Terapeutica; Souza, Maria Conceicao de, E-mail: [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM) PR (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia


    Phytochemical investigation of Aeschynomene fluminensis leaves and branches led to isolation of the flavonoid glycosides kaempferol 3,7-di-O-{alpha}-L-rhamnopyranoside, kaempferol 7-O-{alpha}-L-rhamnopyranoside, kaempferol 3-O-apiofuranosil-7-O- rhamnopyranoside, quercetin 3-O-{alpha}-L-rhamnopyranoside, quercetin 3-O-arabinofuranoside, 8-{beta}-D-glucopyranosyl 4',5,7-trihydroxyflavanone, the isoflavonoid 4',7-di-hydroxy-isoflavone, the dimer epicatechin-(2{beta} ->7, 4{beta} ->8)- epicatechin, the polyol 3-O-methyl-chiro-inositol and two steroids in sitosterol and stigmasterol mixture. These compounds were identified by NMR {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C and compared with literature data. Anti-inflammatory activity of the crude methanolic extract and its fractions was evaluated (author)

  12. Evaluation of thermoluminescent BeO samples in standard radiotherapy beams; Avaliacao de amostras termoluminescentes de BeO em feixes padroes de radioterapia

    Groppo, Daniela P.; Silva, Jonas O.; Caldas, Linda V.E., E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    Beryllium oxide thermoluminescent samples were evaluated in standard radiotherapy beams of low energy. Results for response reproducibility, dose-response curve and energy dependence were obtained. The lower detection limit was determined. The pellets of BeO showed their usefulness for beam dosimetry. (author)

  13. Evaluation of the introduction of cogeneration for refrigeration in the fisheries sector of the Amazon; Avaliacao da introducao da cogeracao para refrigeracao no setor pesqueiro do Amazonas

    Cruz, Ricardo Wilson Aguiar da [Universidade Estadual do Amazonas (UEA), Manaus (Brazil)], e-mail:; Nebra, Silvia Azucena [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica], e-mail:; Cartaxo, Elizabeth Ferreira [Universidade Federal do Amazonas (UFAM), Manaus, AM (Brazil)], e-mail:


    This work analyses the opportunity to introduce cogeneration for the production of aquammonia absorption refrigeration in the autonomous Amazons State power system, by one hand as a means to improve its efficiency and by another, solve the deficiency the State has to store its fish-ing production. (author)

  14. Evaluation of the increase of superficial dose due to thermoplastic immobilizing in radiotherapy; Avaliacao dos efeitos de superficializacao de dose por imobilizadores termoplasticos em radioterapia

    Barbosa, Patricia O., E-mail: [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (IF/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Batista, Delano V.S. [Instituto Nacional de Cancer (INCA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Setor de Fisica Medica


    Perforated thermoplastic masks are used to provide patients immobilization. This procedure inserts a material in the path of the radiation beam, that attenuates and modifies the beam fluence and flatness. The present study evaluates the increase in skin dose as a result of using thermoplastic masks. Relative doses were measured on the surface of a solid water phantom, in the presence and absence of masks. These masks were stretched according to deformation patterns observed in clinical routine. The measurements were obtained with a plane-parallel chamber (Markus type 23343) and radiochromic film (EBT Gafchromic) for 6MV X-rays from a linear accelerator, and for a radiation beam from a cobalt therapy unit. The results showed that thermoplastic masks, whose thickness varied between 2 and 3 mm, increased the dose on the surface by a factor of 3. Due to the variations in the skin dose distribution, clinical procedures were suggested to minimize radiobiological damages in subcutaneous tissue, and to keep the skin sparing effect. (author)

  15. Assessment of activity of nitrate-reducing bacterial souring control; Avaliacao da atividade de bacterias redutoras de nitrato no controle de acidificacao de reservatorios de petroleo

    Sousa, Kally A. de; Cammarota, Magali C.; Servulo, Eliana F.C. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica


    The effect of nitrate addition in relation to NRB concentration was evaluated on biogenic H{sub 2}S generation in anaerobic microcosms with produced water. A 2{sup k} factorial experimental design was performed by using as response variables nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup -}) and sulfate (SO{sub 4}{sup =}) consumption and nitrite (NO{sub 2}{sup -}) and sulfide (H{sub 2}S) production and as independent variables the SRB and NRB (10{sup 1} - 10{sup 7} MPN/mL) and NO{sub 3}{sup -} (127.5 - 727.5 mg/L) initial concentrations. Each condition was carried out under incubation at 30 deg C during 7, 14 and 28 days. The lowest sulfide production (0.4 - 0.8 mg/L) was achieved for 10{sup 4} MPN/mL of SRB and NRB and 427.5 mg/L nitrate. Also, a reduction of sulfide generation was obtained by nitrate addition when low SRB and NRB concentrations were established. In such condition, the produced sulfide is rather dependent of nitrate concentration. The increase of the NRB concentration has not resulted in the reduction of sulfide production, even when higher nitrate concentrations were used. (author)

  16. Chemical properties of gutta-percha endodontic filling material: investigation of five commercial brands; Propriedades quimicas de cones de guta-percha: avaliacao de diferentes marcas comerciais

    Silva Junior, Joao Batista A.; Paula, Regina C.M.; Feitosa, Judith P.A. [Ceara Univ., Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica]. E-mail:;;; Gurgel Filho, Eduardo; Teixeira, Fabricio B [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia.Dept. de Odontologia Restauradora]. E-mail:


    Chemical composition e thermal stability of five brands of gutta-percha endodontic filling material were investigated. Samples with higher amount of organic materials possess higher thermal stability. Investigation of gutta-percha polymer extracted from the endodontic filling by IR and NMR shows that the polymer is predominantly trans-polyisoprene. The thermal stability and molar mass were similar for four brands, however the 'Tanari' brand has got lower molar mass value than the other ones. (author)

  17. Ergonomics in the licensing and evaluation of nuclear reactors control room; A ergonomia no licenciamento e na avaliacao de salas de controle de reatores nucleares

    Santos, Isaac Jose Antonio Luquetti dos [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Vidal, Mario Cesar Rodriguez [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia de Producao


    A nuclear control room is a complex system that controls a thermodynamic process used to produce electrical energy. The operators interact with the control room through interfaces that have significant implications to nuclear plant safety and influence the operator activity. The TMI (Three Mile Island) accident demonstrated that only the anthropometric aspects were not enough for an adequate nuclear control room design. The studies showed that the accident was aggravated because the designers had not considered adequately human factor aspects. After TMI accident, the designers introduce in the nuclear control room development only human factors standards and human factors guidelines. The ergonomics approaches was not considered. Our objective is introduce in nuclear control room design and nuclear control room evaluation, a methodology that. includes human factors standards, human factors guidelines and ergonomic approaches, the operator activity analysis. (author)

  18. Evaluation of operational management in the oil terminals using human factor indicator; Avaliacao da gestao operacional em terminais com o uso do indicador de fator humano

    Mendes, George L.D. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Lima, Gilson Brito Alves [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). LATEC. Mestrado Profissional em Sistemas de Gestao


    This research has as objective to analyze the continuous improvement in a management system at TRANSPETRO in Madre de Deus Terminal (BA), environment and occupational health, particularly in the reduction of the accident levels. We consider relevant in this research the effective implementation of the human factor that includes the boarding of the work system relating them it three points: individual activities, organizational processes of work and activities, emphasizing the management of these resources and the communication between them. The case study it was make in a company of logistic of fuels. The methodology was lead through bibliographical research and applied closed questionnaire (adaptation's baseline API 770 - Manager's Guide to Reducing Human Errors Improving - Improving in the Process Industries) in 2003 and 2005 with the manager, coordinators, supervisors, operators and others technician. Were analyzed results of the company in management security and occupational health, such as: pointers of the tax of frequency of accidents with and without removal, volume of leaked product and results of internal and external audits. We conclude that the importance of the human factor in the Safety Management that propitiated significant progress in the organization during the development of the research. (author)

  19. Bone injuries in the post-traumatic knee: evaluation by magnetic resonance imaging; Comprometimento osseo do joelho pos-trauma: avaliacao pela ressonancia magnetica

    De Grossi, Carla Martins [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Curso de Pos-graduacao em Radiologia; Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Radiologia; Santos, Alair Augusto S.M.D. dos [Hospital Santa Cruz, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Radiologia]. E-mail:


    This paper presents the results of 50 patients with trauma of the knee submitted to magnetic resonance imaging in the period of January 1996 to December 1997. The appearance and incidence of the main bone lesions were evaluated and correlated with the mechanisms of aggression and with clinical data. Associated lesions were also evaluated. Bone contusions were the most commonly findings encountered and were observed in 38 patients (76%). Osteochondral fractures occurred in five patients (10%) and bone fractures were detected in five patients (10%), of which two were associated with contusions in other adjoining bone compartments. Chondromalacia of the patella was observed only in two patients (4%). We concluded that magnetic resonance imaging is the imaging method of choice for the diagnosis of bone lesions in patients with trauma of the knee. (author)

  20. Assessment and epidemiology of Chagas' disease in patients treated in Araguaina - Tocantins; Avaliacao e epidemiologia da cardiopatia chagasica em pacientes atendidos em Araguaina - Tocantins

    Correa, Valeria Rita


    Chagas disease (AD) was described by Carlos Chagas in 1909. It is caused by a parasite T. cruzi, transmitted by bugs, by blood transfusion, vertical and orally. The DC has two phases: acute and chronic. The evolution to the cardiac form occurs in about 30% of chronic cases and is the largest cause of mortality in chronic Chagas disease. The aim of this study was to Chagas' disease in patients of Tocantins, compared with other heart patients and asymptomatic from the standpoint of non-invasive exams using radiant energies such as echocardiography and ECG and RX. The descriptive study included 80 patients, 20 chronic form of Chagas disease, 20 indeterminate, 20 with other heart diseases, and 20 controls. There was a prevalence of 9.5% of chagasic patients treated in outpatient cardiology at Araguaina Tocantins, and 7.3% in chronic and 2.21% in the indeterminate. Of the chronic patients in the study 50% had mega esophagus and megacolon 4 (20%). Most patients had no family history of AD, nor was a smoker or drinker. Major electrocardiographic abnormalities found refer to driving. The evaluation of ICT, the chronic chagasic showed that increased by 40% of patients, 40% had esophageal changes and 20% of patients had megacolon s. The echocardiogram was abnormal in 42%). 27% of patients had EF below 55% changed. Changes in segmental contractility and Asynchrony septum were found in 80% of chronic Chagas disease. In 80% of the patients was observed diastolic dysfunction. The valvular changes occurred in 75%. Electrocardiographic abnormalities occurred in 80% of patients with CCC, while the other heart had ECG changes. Arterial hypertension had an incidence of 45% in patients with CCC and 40% in FCI. The systolic and diastolic ventricular dysfunction was more prevalent in groups that had an abnormal ECG and arrhythmia. Observed that the group of chagasic decreased ejection fraction is correlated to a higher incidence of arrhythmias besides diastolic dysfunction and related increased atrio-left, ICT correlates with LV size and EF and LA. The abnormal ECG also are related to the dysfunction. (author)

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging of the hip in rheumatoid arthritis patients: a descriptive study; A ressonancia magnetica do quadril na avaliacao de pacientes com artrite reumatoide: estudo descritivo

    Caldana, Wanda Chiyoko Iwakami; Fernandes, Artur da Rocha Correa [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem]. E-mail:; Ciconelli, Rozana Mesquita [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil); Juliano, Yara [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Epidemiologia e Bioestatistica


    Objective: To assess the usefulness of MRI as a diagnostic method in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, and to evaluate the frequency of changes in the hip in symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. Materials and methods: Forty patients (17 symptomatic and 23 asymptomatic) were evaluated by 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after intravenous contrast media injection. MRI findings were divided in inflammatory, degenerative, combined (inflammatory and degenerative) and extra-articular changes. Results: The most frequent findings seen were degenerative and extra-articular changes (22.5% each). Inflammatory changes were seen in only five (12.5%) symptomatic patients, four of them with degenerative findings associated (10%). Conclusion: The use of MRI of the hip allowed the evaluation of the main articular abnormalities seen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The most frequent findings were degenerative and extra-articular changes. Inflammatory findings were seen in only five patients, four of them with degenerative changes associated. (author)

  2. Evaluation of antimony efficiency on nickel passivation in PETROBRAS refineries; Avaliacao da efetividade do antimonio para passivacao de niquel nas refinarias da PETROBRAS

    Cerqueira, Henrique Soares; Pimenta, Ricardo Drolhe M. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Setor de Pesquisa, Desenvolvimento e Engenharia de Abastecimento]. E-mail:; Baugis, Guintar Luciano; Tan, Mauricio Hoansan [PETROBRAS, Maua, SP (Brazil). Refinaria de Capuava (RECAP)


    In the present paper, a brief review concerning the use of antimony as nickel passivator is presented. X-ray fluorescence analysis of equilibrium catalysts from several fluid catalytic cracking units in Petrobras refineries indicates that the Sb/ Ni ratio currently in use is very low (approx. 0.1) and that neither the coke nor the gas factor obtained in laboratory tests (MAT) are correlated with eh Sb/Ni ratio. An experiment in the cyclic deactivation unit doping the feedstock (GOP cabiunas) with Ni, V naphthenates as well as antimony, aiming at simulating the levels found in PETROBRAS refineries, showed that under those conditions the antimony does not deposit significantly over the catalyst. Analysis of antimony content in the catalyst fines and decanted oil from one FCC unit confirms the non-retention of antimony under the applied industrial conditions. (author)

  3. Technological evaluation of fuel cells using natural gas for distributed power generation; Avaliacao tecnologica da utilizacao de gas natural em celulas a combustivel para geracao distribuida de energia

    Brandao, Mauricio O. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Engenharia Mecanica; Giannini, Marcio P.; Arouca, Mauricio C. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Planejamento Energetico


    The search for sustainable and more rational means of power generation motivates the scientific crew to search for more efficient and cleaner systems. Oil dependence becomes from the kind of development that the humanity had and cannot be dismissed. The question is how to use this source in a more intelligent way. Fuel Cells are electrochemical devices that convert into electric energy the chemical energy from oxi-reduction reactions between a fuel and an oxidant. The current fuel used in a Fuel Cell is hydrogen and oxygen is the oxidant. The great advantage of this device is its efficiency, higher than the one achieved with internal combustion engines. Also Fuel Cells are not limited by Carnot's efficiency. This paper is about the implementation of a distributed generation system using Fuel Cells. Technical aspects are approached together with economical and environmental needs. The already existence of Gas pipelines and the grown production of Natural Gas presented by Brazil turns it into a good market for the implementation of this energy source. The evaluation of this paper shows that is technically possible to use NG in Fuel Cells, mostly in South and Southeast regions, applying the distributed generation of energy concept. The most interesting in a strategic manner is that Brazil already have an indication that it's capable of developing this technology, opening a new market tuning with world's new technological developments. Many research centers develop this technology, not only from the cell composition itself, but also manufacturing techniques. (author)

  4. Development and evaluation of a high performance lubricant for industrial gears; Desenvolvimento e avaliacao de lubrificantes de alto desempenho para engrenagens industriais

    Araujo, Laura Denise Santiago de; Silva, Ademir Oliveira da [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Oliveira, Adelci Menezes de [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)


    Nowadays, new machines are submitted to higher efforts with smaller clearances. For them it is necessary to develop high performance lubricants in order to reduce friction, wear and emissions for internal combustion engines. In this work it was developed two lubricants, prepared with MoS{sub 2} (Molybdenum Disulfide) and LIC (Lubricant Intermetallic Compound), and they were compared to commercial oil, at the same viscosity grade ISO VG 320. The oils were tested in a four ball tribometer, at 1200 rpm, at initial temperature of 40 deg C and at 80 kgf. The friction reduction was of 13 % and 18 % for MoS{sub 2} and LIC oil, respectively. The wear was the same for all tested oils. Besides tests in the four ball machine, all oils were characterized by viscosity, demulsibility and atomic emission spectroscopy. The lubricants formulated with solids particles were considered as high performance. (author)

  5. Covering localization, mapping and evaluation of ducts, using Pipeline Current Mapper Methods (PCM); Localizacao, mapeamento e avaliacao de revestimento de dutos, utilizando o metodo Pipeline Current Mapper (PCM)

    Furquim, Antonio Jorge [ESTEIO Engenharia e Aerolevantamentos S.A., Curitiba, PR (Brazil)


    Esteio Engenharia e Aerolevantamentos S.A., together with the PETROBRAS - Petroleo Brasileiro S.A., comes accomplishing the Location, Geo positioning, Mapping and Inspection of the Coating in more than 5.000 km of pipes in several areas of the country. The works come being executed seeking the obtaining of the real position of Ducts (They-Built) and the conditions in that meets the coating of the same ones. The risings base on the method Pipeline Current Mapper (PCM), using the equipment of production of Radio detection to locate and to inspect the conditions of the coating. This work presents the results, analyses, precision, benefits and difficulties found during the execution of the surveying. (author)

  6. Chemical treatment and biomimetic coating evaluating in zirconia-alumina ceramics; Avaliacao de tratamentos quimicos e recobrimento biomimetico em ceramicas de alumina-zirconia

    Aguiar, Amanda Abati


    Ceramic materials, as alumina and zirconia have been explored along the years as biomaterials application. The bio inert nature has been stimulating the development of new alternatives, as chemical treatments to improve the biological application of these ceramics. The biomimetic process of bio inert ceramics for coating apatite is based on soaking the implant in a simulated body fluid, SBF, with ion concentrations nearly equal to those of human blood plasma. The bioactivity of the material is related with the formation of a layer constituted of hydroxyapatite low crystalline, similar to the biological apatite. The biocompatibility associated to the structural properties of the alumina and zirconia has been stimulating the clinical use of these materials, mainly in areas of larger mechanical requests, places not recommended for bioactive hydroxyapatite, for instance. In this work samples of alumina, zirconia doped with Yttria (3% mol) and composites of alumina and zirconia doped with Yttria (3% mol) were prepared by co-precipitation method, calcinate, sintered, chemically treated with solutions of acid phosphoric and sodium hydroxide and them immersed in 1.0 M and 1.5 M SBF. The calcinate powders were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), gas adsorption (BET) and laser diffraction. The XRD results indicate that the samples are low crystalline. It was observed for BET that the samples present high specific surface area. The results of laser diffraction and SEM showed that the powders are agglomerates. The sintered samples were analyzed by XRD, SEM and X-ray fluorescence (XRF). The phases quantified by Rietveld method were: cubic, tetragonal and monoclinic of the zirconia, besides the phase alpha of the alumina. The chemical treatment with phosphoric acid didn't present a tendency of larger apatite formation in relation to the samples no chemically treated. The treatment with sodium hydroxide provoked accentuated transformation of the cubic phase for tetragonal phase and of tetragonal phase for the monoclinic phase of the zirconia. The immersion of samples in SBF provided apatite coating formation on the surfaces of the samples, identified by XRD, and the coating thickness was measured by XRF. (author)

  7. Evaluation of homogeneity and dose conformity in IMRT planning in prostate radiotherapy; Avaliacao da homogeneidade e conformidade de dose em planejamentos de IMRT de prostata em radioterapia

    Lopes, Juliane S.; Leidens, Matheus; Estacio, Daniela R., E-mail: [Hospital Sao Lucas (PUC-RS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Servico de Radioterapia; Razera, Ricardo A.Z.; Streck, Elaine E.; Silva, Ana M.M. da [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUC-RS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Faculdade de Fisica


    The goal of this study was to evaluate the dose distribution homogeneity and conformity of radiation therapy plans of prostate cancer using IMRT. Data from 34 treatment plans of Hospital Sao Lucas of PUCRS, where those plans were executed, were retrospectively analyzed. All of them were done with 6MV X-rays from a linear accelerator CLINAC IX, and the prescription doses varied between 60 and 74 Gy. Analyses showing the homogeneity and conformity indices for the dose distribution of those plans were made. During these analyses, some comparisons with the traditional radiation therapy planning technic, the 3D-CRT, were discussed. The results showed that there is no correlation between the prescribed dose and the homogeneity and conformity indices, indicating that IMRT works very well even for higher doses. Furthermore, a comparison between the results obtained and the recommendations of ICRU 83 was carried out. It has also been observed that the indices were really close to the ideal values. 82.4% of the cases showed a difference below 5% of the ideal value for the index of conformity, and 88.2% showed a difference below 10% for the homogeneity index. Concluding, it is possible to confirm the quality of the analyzed radiation therapy plans of prostate cancer using IMRT. (author)

  8. A review of the methods to evaluate the level of dentifrice abrasiveness; Uma revisao de metodos para avaliacao do grau de abrasao dos dentifricios

    Zoppe, Carla C.C.; Saiki, Mitiko; Vasconcellos, Marina B.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    The purpose of this work is to review briefly the methods to evaluate the dentifrice abrasiveness, including weight loss technique, surface profile method, laser diffusometric, electron microscopy and radiometric method. The comparison is made between the tests in vivo and in vitro used to determine dentifrice abrasiveness. Dentifrice abrasiveness results obtained by using the radiometric method and two standard reference materials calcium pyrophosphate and carbon are presented. The factors which affect the precision of these results are also discussed. (author). 16 refs., 2 tabs.

  9. Evaluation of ethinylestradiol effect on labelling red blood cells with Tc-99m; Avaliacao do efeito do etinilestradiol sobre a marcacao de hemacias com tecnecio-99m

    Braga, A.C.S.; Oliveira, J.F.; Santos, J.S.; Oliveira, M.B.N.; Gutfilen, B.; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria


    Significant alterations on the radiopharmaceutical distribution in humans are caused by drug interactions. The labeling red blood cells with technetium-99m is a daily routine procedure in nuclear medicine. Here, we investigated if the ethinylestradiol, an oral contraceptive, could alter the labeling of RBC with Tc-99m. Samples of blood with acid citrate dextrose were incubated with ethynilestradiol. Then, different concentrations of Sn C L{sub 2} were added and, after that, Tc-99m was added. Samples were centrifuged and plasma (P) and cells (C) were separated. the results showed that the drug studied decreased the uptake of radioactivity (%ATI) in the C to the reducing agent in the concentration of 1.2 (from 92.3 to 78.0) and increased in 12.0 (18.8 to 36.0) and in 24.0 (22.8 to 32.0){mu}/ml of Sn C L{sub 2}. The obtained results can be explained by the fact that this drug could alter the membrane permeability to the transport of stannous and/or pertechnetate ions. (author) 18 refs., 2 tabs.

  10. Evaluation of radiosensitivity hemocytes of Biomphalaria glabrata exposed to gamma radiation; Avaliacao da radiossensibilidade de hemocitos de Biomphalaria glabrata expostos a radiacao gama

    Silva, L.R.S.; Amaral, A.J., E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife-PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Silva, E.B. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Vitoria de Santo Antao, PE (Brazil). Centro Academico de Vitoria; Amancio, F.F.; Melo, A.M.M.A. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Radiobiologia


    The mollusc Biomphalaria glabrata have characteristics that allow them to be identified as an animal model ideal for monitoring areas exposed to chemical agents and physical. This study evaluated the effect of ionizing radiation from Cobalt-60 in haemocytes present in the hemolymph of Biomphalaria glabrata, with the goal of using these cells as indicators of the presence of radiation in aquatic environments. The mollusks were divided into five groups: one control and four subjected doses of 25, 35, 45 and 55 Gy of gamma radiation. After 48 hours of irradiation, the clam hemolymph was collected and slides were prepared and stained with Giemsa for analyses under a light microscope. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA and Tukey's test, p <0.05. The results showed that the total number of cells after irradiation reduced compared to control except at a dose of 55 Gy. During data analysis, morphological changes were observed in haemocytes of mollusks subjected to doses of 35, 45 and 55 Gy. These modifications consisted of nucleus bilobulated and nucleo plasmatic bridges. Another change was exclusively observed in the cellular exposure of 55 Gy, where hemocytes showed misshapen nuclei and cytoplasm vacuolisation, suggestive of apoptosis. It is concluded that hemocytes are sensitive to radiation and can be used as indicators of the presence of high doses of ionizing radiation in aquatic environments. (author)

  11. Evaluation of thermal stability of paraffin wax by differential scanning calorimetry; Avaliacao da estabilidade termica de parafina por calorimetria diferencial de varredura

    Godinho, K.O.; Silva, A.G.P.; Holanda, J.N.F. [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (LAMAV/UENF), Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ (Brazil). Grupo de Materiais Ceramicos], Email:


    Phase change materials for heat storage are used as passive solar energy storage materials, which can be impregnated into construction materials. In this work the thermal stability (heating/cooling cycle) of the paraffin wax was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry. The latent heat and fusion temperature were determined for the following thermal cycles: 0, 30, 180 and 360. The thermal stability for paraffin wax infiltrated in support of gypsum was also determined. The experimental results showed that the paraffin wax showed good thermal stability in the states pure and infiltrated for up to 360 thermal cycles. (author)

  12. Evaluation of dosimetry and image quality of computerized tomography abdomen protocols; Avaliacao de dose e qualidade da imagem em protocolos de abdomen em tomografia computadorizada

    Maues, Nadine H.P.B.; Alves, Allan F.F.; Bacchim Neto, Fernando A.; Pina, Diana R. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil)


    In this study, we evaluate the dosimetry and image quality of computed tomography multislice abdomen protocols for different tube current modulation techniques (ATCM). We used the 16-slice Toshiba Activion CT scanner with the 'SureExposure3D' ATCM system. Thermoluminescent dosimeters were placed inside the anthropomorphic phantom Alderson-Rando for dosimetric assessments. An analytical phantom was used for the objective evaluation of image quality. It is observed that the higher standard deviation technique (SD) has the lowest value of effective dose. The use of different tube current modulation techniques showed significant reduction of radiation doses for the abdomen exams in computed tomography. The ATCM protocols can be an excellent alternative to dose reduction in CT scans, since it does not impair the diagnostic image quality. (author)

  13. Evaluation of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) processed by radiation; Avaliacao do palmito pupunha (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) processado por radiacao ionizante

    Silva, Priscila Vieira da


    The peach palm can be obtained from several species of palms, but the peach palm has attracted great interest by producers, as has characteristics of precocity, rusticity and tillering, producing a palm-quality differentiating it from other palmettos for their sweet flavor and yellowish . The food irradiation has been used as a treatment to ensure microbiological food safety of products to avoid infection. Its use combined with minimal processing could increase the safety and quality of minimally processed vegetables. We aimed at evaluating the effect of gamma radiation and electron beams to control bacteria; assess the physical characteristics through analysis of color and texture in peach palm in natura minimally processed and subjected to ionizing radiation stored at 8 deg C as well as evaluating the sensory characteristics. The results in the microbiological analysis showed that ionizing radiation promotes reduction of microbial load in both treatments. In the analysis of color we can conclude that among all the treatments the sample irradiated with 1.5 kGy showed more differences when compared with the other samples. Observing texture characteristics we could conclude that irradiation changed the texture of the palm, unlike the treatment by electron beams that showed no difference between samples. For the sensory analysis, the gamma radiation with dose of 1.5 kGy, induced changes in sensory properties to the attributes and overall appearance. The dose of 1 kGy caused no significant difference, so a recommended dose for the irradiation of the studied product. (author)

  14. Evaluation of quality control tools for patients submitted to IMRT; Avaliacao das ferramentas de controle da qualidade para pacientes submetidos ao IMRT

    Lavor, Milton; Rodrigues, Laura N.; Silva, Marco A., E-mail: [Universidade de Sao Paulo (HCFMRP/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Radioterapia


    Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is currently being implemented in a rapidly growing number of centers in Brazil. As consequence many institutions are now facing the problem of performing a comprehensive quality control program before and during the implementation of IMRT in the clinical practice. This paper proposes a methodology for quality control and presents the results and evaluations of the data obtained from the proposed methodology. Ionization chamber and two-dimensional array detector were performed in IMRT treatment planning in order to assess the absolute value of the total dose of all fields. The relative total dose distribution of all fields was measured with a radiochromic film and a two-dimensional array in a phantom. A comparison between measured and calculated dose distributions was performed using the gamma-index method, assessing the percentage of points that meet the criteria of ±3% dose difference and ±3mm distance to agreement. As a result and review of 113 tested IMRT beams using ionization chamber and 81 using two-dimensional array, the proposal was to take an action level of about ±5% compared to the treatment planning systems and measurements, for the verification of the dose in a single point at the low gradient dose region. Analysis of the two-dimensional array measurements showed that the gamma value was <1 for 97.7% of the data and for the film the gamma value was <1 for 96.6% of the data. This work can establish action levels required for quality control program proposed and implemented in the Department of Radiotherapy - Hospital das Clinicas in Sao Paulo that allows an accurate delivery of dose in 'sliding-window' IMRT with micro multi leaf collimator. (author)

  15. Pipeline integrity evaluation: 10 years experience at Campos basin; Avaliacao de integridade de dutos submarinos de transferencia: 10 anos de atividades na Bacia de Campos

    Bueno, Sergio Ibaje Oliveira; Franzoi, Aldo Renato [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    PETROBRAS E and P department (up-stream segment) had assigned first contract for pipeline inspection using smart pigs in 1995. Up to this time only TRANSPETRO (down-stream segment) had an experience with those inspections mainly focused on first generation tools. On this contract, it was first time required high resolution tools, which had bigger defect detection capability and sizing accuracy as advantages but with higher cost. It was regarded necessary due to high costs involved on a virtual sub sea survey or repair. The investment was regarded fair as there is no way to establish correlation digs as well as normally done after on shore pipelines surveys. Actually the first internal inspection was carried out in 1997. From this period it has been realized the enormous importance on verifying all platforms installations and all procedures involving cleaning runs. We have taken many lessons from these inspections. Commissioning using all kinds of cleaning pigs (some was invented) that could be specially contracted on scaling removing jobs; diesel batch to make easy US pigs inspection, cleaning steps that should be gradual to allow receiving of debris without disturbing platforms process efficiency; special tools designed in-house to meet some specific installations requirements as limited pigability; were some issues that demanded efforts on this period. PETROBRAS/E and P through its Campos Basin Production Unit has been strongly involved on looking for solutions to keep its sub sea pipeline net integrity; a strategic asset that will guarantee the Brazilian development on oil and gas production. (author)

  16. Microstructural evaluation of a varistor block utilized in high voltage surge arresters; Avaliacao microestrutural de um bloco varistor utilizado em para-raios de alta tensao

    Andrade, J.M. de; Dias, R.; Furtado, J.G. de M., E-mail: [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Assuncao, F.C.R. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil)


    Varistor is a semiconductor ceramic device characterized to have a high non-linear electrical resistance, it is used as active element of surge arresters with purpose of protecting of electro-electronics systems. Its properties are directly dependents of chemical composition and microstructural characteristics, such as grain size, porosity, twins and phases distribution. This work has the objective to characterize microstructurally a commercial varistor block of ZnO used in high voltage surge arrest and from this characterization to infer aspects about of its electrical macroscopic performance. DRX and SEM-EDS were used for microstructural analysis. The microstructural evaluation allows pointing the critical points of microstructure and, suggest relevant aspects to the improvement of commercial varistor microstructure, optimizing the electrothermal behavior of the device. (author)

  17. Characterization of deactivated catalytic cracking catalyst and evaluation as absorbent material; Caracterizacao de catalisador de craqueamento catalitico desativado e avaliacao como material adsorvente

    Valt, R.B.G.; Kaminari, N.M.S.; Cordeiro, B.; Ponte, M.J.J.S.; Ponte, H.A. [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)


    One of the main uses of catalysts in the petroleum industry is in step catalytic cracking, which after use and regeneration cycles generates large quantities of waste material. In this research the deactivated FCC catalyst was characterized before and after the electrokinetic remediation process, in order to assess the change of its structure and possible adsorptive capacity. Analyses of X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy and BET surface area measurement were performed. The analysis showed no structural change due to the process employed and that electrokinetic remediation has recovered 42% of adsorption capacity of the material, by removing about 89% of heavy metals adhered initially in the catalyst surface. (author)

  18. Radiographic evaluation of adenoidal size in children: methods of measurement and parameters of normality; Avaliacao radiografica da adenoide em criancas: metodos de mensuracao e parametros da normalidade

    Araujo Neto, Severino Aires de [Centro de Assistencia Integral a Saude da Mulher (CAISM), Campinas, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail:; Queiroz, Suelio Marinho de [Tomovale, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Baracat, Emilio Carlos Elias [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas. Dept. de Pediatria; Pereira, Ines Minniti Rodrigues [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas. Dept. de Radiologia


    Radiograph of the nasopharynx is still the most commonly used imaging method to investigate the adenoidal tissue. Due to the variety and complexity of proposed methods to measure the adenoid size, some radiologists prefer subjective evaluation, which can, however, be imprecise and inaccurate. We review and describe several methods to determine the adenoid size, taking into account the practicity, accuracy and precision with the aim of pointing out the best methods to be applied in daily routine practice. (author)

  19. Evaluation of safety requirements of erbium laser equipment used in dentistry; Avaliacao de requisitos de seguranca de um equipamento a laser de erbio para fins odontologicos

    Braga, Flavio Hamilton


    The erbium laser (Er:YAG) has been used in several therapeutic processes. Erbium lasers, however, operate with energies capable to produce lesions in biological tissues. Aiming the safe use, the commercialization of therapeutic laser equipment is controlled in Brazil, where the equipment should comply with quality and safety requirement prescribed in technical regulations. The objective of this work is to evaluate the quality and safety requirements of a commercial therapeutic erbium laser according to Brazilian regulations, and to discuss a risk control program intended to minimize the accidental exposition at dangerous laser radiation levels. It was verified that the analyzed laser can produce lesions in the skin and eyes, when exposed to laser radiation at distances smaller than 80 cm by 10 s or more. In these conditions, the use of protection glasses is recommended to the personnel that have access to the laser operation ambient. It was verified that the user's training and the presence of a target indicator are fundamental to avoid damages in the skin and buccal cavity. It was also verified that the knowledge and the correct use of the equipment safety devices, and the application of technical and administrative measures is efficient to minimize the risk of dangerous expositions to the laser radiation. (author)

  20. Evaluation of a new irradiation left breast method in the inhalation phase; Avaliacao de uma nova metodologia de irradiacao de mama esquerda na fase de inspiracao

    Silva, Laura E. da; Gullo, Rafael G.; Ferreira, Diogo A.V.; Silva, Leonardo P. da, E-mail: [Instituto Nacional de Cancer (INCA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    Radiation therapy is the primary therapeutic approach to breast cancer and involves significant exposure of heart and lungs, especially in cases of left breast. The implementation of a methodology to reduce the dose in these sites is important to ensure better quality of life to the patient. This work aims reduced heart and lung dose when performing the radiotherapy planning considering only the inhalation phase. Three patients with breast left present were scanning with CT during free breathing and respiratory monitoring and the planning has done on both images series. The results showed a reduction in mean heart dose of 53% on average. As for lung volumes, was obtained a mean reduction of 44.6% and 51% of the left lung which received 10 Gy and 20 Gy, respectively. This study showed that the use of the respiratory gating radiotherapy in the left breast in inhalation phase can reduce heart and lung doses. (author)

  1. Computed tomography of mast cell tumors in dogs: assessment before and after chemotherapy; Tomografia computadorizada de mastocitomas em caes: avaliacao pre e pos-tratamento quimioterapico

    Lorigados, Carla A.B.; Matera, Julia Maria; Pinto, Ana Carolina B.C.F.; Macedo, Thais R., E-mail: [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FMVZ/USP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia. Dept. de Cirurgia; Coppi, Antonio A.; Ladd, Fernando V.L. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (LSSCA/USP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia. Lab. de Estereologia Estocastica e Anatomia Quimica; Souza, Vanessa A.F. de [Faculdades Metropolitanas Unidas (FMU), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Curso de Medicina Veterinaria


    Nineteen dogs with mast cell tumors treated with chemotherapy were evaluated by computed tomography (CT). Were evaluated aspects related to contours, attenuation, postcontrast enhancement and presence of cleavage with adjacent structures. The RECIST criteria and volumetric measurement of lesions were performed to assess the response to treatment. The mast cell tumors presented a homogeneous or heterogeneous attenuation, presented more frequently a well delineated and regular contours and moderate enhancement after intravenous administration of the iodinated contrast media. The methods RECIST and volumetric measurements showed an excellent agreement to the classification of therapeutic response, providing a good parameter of the response to treatment. The CT examination proved to be useful in the delimitation of the tumor and an important tool for planning of surgical margins. (author)

  2. Economic evaluation of organic deposition inhibition treatment: case study; Avaliacao economica de tratamentos de inibicao de deposicao organica: estudo de casos

    Lechuga, Fernanda Curty; Seidl, Peter Rudolf; Guimaraes, Maria Jose de Oliveira [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica; Lucas, Elizabete Fernandes [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas


    During the production process the temperature and pressure decrease along the well, that generate an increase in viscosity, changes in the composition of the oil and chemical changes in the balance of oil. These changes in the balance may lead to precipitation and deposition of organic components of heavy oil. These occurrences cause serious economic consequences. To solve problems related to organic deposition, it is proposed some actions to prevent the formation of these deposits. Chemical additives interfere in precipitation of paraffins and aggregation of asphaltenes, increasing stability. This paper aims to examine, in economic terms, treatments prevention in different wells by the mechanism of inhibition of organic deposition by the action of chemical additives. The methodology applied for the economic analysis was the return on investment (ROI - Return-on-investments) that could estimate when there was an economic gain in problems of organic deposition treated with chemical additives. The results showed that if these wells use prevention methods it could get a return of more than $ 100.00 per dollar invested in treatment, which would be beneficial, since these treatments increase the production of oil and reduce the idle time in wells. (author)

  3. Electric energy deficit marginal cost: historic, evaluation and proposition of a new method; Custo marginal do deficit de energia eletrica: historico, avaliacao e proposta de uma nova metodologia

    Loureiro, Paulo Gerson Cayres


    The optimization model actually used to the energy operation planning of the National Interconnected System - NIS has as objective function the minimization of expected total cost operation. To achieve this goal the model provides optimal allocation of hydrothermal resources during the study horizon, employing aggregated subsystems. The deficit marginal cost is a parameter which is explicitly informed to the model, and does a part in the operation total cost calculation being a predominant factor in the service conditions evaluation of national electric energy market, affecting the energy costs and the risk of deficit on NIS. In this work is realized an integral study about the electric energy deficit marginal cost, starting with a historical review, followed by a actualization of your actual value and a propose of a new method for the calculation of deficit marginal cost value. The studies shows the impact of the values found over service conditions to the electric energy market in the energy operation planning, focusing on some usual indicators adopted in studies of the electrical sector. (author)

  4. Sensory evaluation of black beans submitted to gamma radiation from Cobalt-60; Avaliacao sensorial de feijao preto submetido a radiacao de Cobalto-60

    Moura, Neila Camargo de; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin; Spoto, Marta Helena Fillet, E-mail: sgcbraza@esalq.usp.b [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Agroindustria, Alimentos e Nutricao; Arthur, Valter [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Secao de Entomologia e Irradiacao de Alimentos


    The objective of this research was to evaluate the sensory aspects of black beans submitted to gamma radiation from {sup 60}Co. The study involved eight panelists, between 17 to 23 years old, who were selected and trained for the descriptive analysis of appearance, aroma, flavor and texture. The panelists analyzed alterations of appearance, aroma, flavor and texture of non-irradiated and irradiated black beans with doses 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10kGy. The results were analyzed by test F, ANOVA and the Tukey test (5%), with the use of computers and the sensory analysis software Compusense Five and SAS. The results showed that irradiated samples decreased the bitter flavor, accentuated color and brightness and samples non-irradiated dry texture. The radiation treatment is a good method for conservation of black beans in doses evaluated in this study.(author)

  5. Evaluation of Trichogramma spp. for the control of Trichoplusia ni;Avaliacao de Trichogramma spp. para o controle de Trichoplusia ni

    Milanez, Andre Malacarne, E-mail: [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Agronomia e Entomologia; Pratissoli, Dirceu; Polanczyk, Ricardo Antonio; Tufik, Camila Borges Antonio, E-mail: pratissoli@cca.ufes.b, E-mail: ricardo@cca.ufes.b, E-mail: [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES), Alegre, ES (Brazil). Dept. de Producao Vegetal; Bueno, Adeney de Freitas, E-mail: adeney@pq.cnpq.b [EMBRAPA Soja, Londrina, PR (Brazil)


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the biological characteristics of the parasitoids Trichogramma acacioi, T. atopovirilia, T. marandobai, T. demoraesi, T. exiguum (two lines), and T. pretiosum (six lines), reared on eggs of Trichoplusia ni. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design, with 15 replicates. The biological characteristics evaluated were: parasitism, viability, sexual ratio and number of individuals per egg. The parasitism percentage varied between 7.66 and 53%, with highest value observed for Trichogramma pretiosum Tspd line, and the lowest for the T. pretiosum Trecife line. There was no significant difference for the viability, which remained higher than 85%. The sex ratio varied from 0.75 to 1, and Tspd line showed the lowest value. The number of individuals per egg varied between 2.39 for T. marandobai (Tm1 line) and 1.34 for T. exiguum (Te1 line). T. pretiosum (Tspd line) was the species with the best performance in laboratory with the highest values observed in parasitism and in viability. (author)

  6. Aspects of the Iea-R1 research reactor seismic evaluation; Aspectos da avaliacao sismica do reator de pesquisa IEA-R1

    Mattar Neto, Miguel [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    Codes and standards for the seismic evaluation of the research reactor IEA-R1 are presented. An approach to define the design basis earthquake based on the local seismic map and on simplified analysis methods is proposed. The site seismic evaluation indicates that the design earthquake intensity is IV MM. Therefore, according to the used codes and standards, no buildings, systems, and components seismic analysis are required. (author)

  7. Synthesis and preliminary evaluation of N-acylhydrazone compounds as antibacterial and antifungal agents; Sintese e avaliacao preliminar da atividade antibacteriana e antifungica de derivados N-acilidrazonicos

    Cachiba, Thomas Haruo; Carvalho, Bruno Demartini; Carvalho, Diogo Teixeira [Universidade Federal de Alfenas, MG (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Dept. de Alimentos e Medicamentos; Cusinato, Marina; Prado, Clara Gaviao; Dias, Amanda Latercia Tranches, E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Alfenas, MG (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biomedicas


    We describe the synthesis and evaluation of N-acylhydrazone compounds bearing different electron-donating groups in one of its aromatic rings, obtained using a four-step synthetic route. IC{sub 50} values against pathogenic fungi and bacteria were determined by serial microdilution. Compounds showed low activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. By contrast, a derivative with a meta-oriented electron-donating group showed significant activity (IC50) against Candida albicans (17 {mu}M), C. krusei (34 {mu}M) and C. tropicalis (17 {mu}M). Results suggest this is a promising lead-compound for synthesis of potent antifungal agents. (author)

  8. Synthesis optimization of calcium aluminate cement phases for biomedical applications; Avaliacao da sintese das fases de cimento de aluminato de calcio

    Andrade, T.L.; Santos, G.L.; Oliveira, I.R. [Universidade do Vale do Paraiba (UNIVAP), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Pandolfelli, V.C. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil)


    Calcium aluminate cement (CAC) has been studied as a potential material for applications in the areas of health such as, endodontics and bone reconstruction. These studies have been based on commercial products consisting of a mixture of phases. Improvements can be attained by investigating the synthesis routes of CAC aiming the proper balance between the phases and the control of impurities that may impair its performance for biomedical applications. Thus, the aim of this work was to study the CAC synthesis routes in the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-CaCO{sub 3} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-CaO systems, as well as the phase characterization attained by means of X ray analysis. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-CaO route enabled the production of the target phases (CA, CA{sub 2}, C{sub 3}A and C{sub 12}A{sub 7}) with a higher purity compared to the Al2O3-CaCO3 one. As a result the particular properties of these phases can be evaluated to define a more suitable composition that results in better properties for an endodontic cement and other applications. (author)

  9. Evaluation of the practical peak voltage quantity for clinical equipment in diagnostic radiology; Avaliacao da grandeza tensao de pico pratica em equipamentos clinicos utilizados em radiodiagnostico

    Pires, Joao dos Santos Justo


    The objective of this work is to evaluate the calculation of the Practical Peak Voltage (PPV) from the voltage waveform and the kerma contrast for two kinds of X-ray equipment: a single phase clinical equipment, a three phase clinical equipment. The PPV from a mammography system voltage waveform will also be established. The development of this work involves intermediate objectives that indicate the quality of the used methods to calculate the PPV. One of these intermediate objectives is the comparison between the invasive calculations of PPV (using a voltage divider) with the response of kVp meter that calculate the PPV. Another intermediate objective is to compare the PPV with the Contrast Equivalent Voltage (the original non-invasive PPV definition). The variation of the PPV with quantities that influence in the voltage waveform like ripple and sample rate will also be contemplated in this work. The results showed that the PPV quantity could be invasive determined trustworthy. Therefore, the ripple quantity is the mainly influence to determinate the PPV that affecting the non-invasive determination. This fact suggest that the non-invasive instruments manufacturers must reevaluate the calculation of the PPV quantity in their instruments. (author)

  10. Method of evaluation of diagnostics reference levels in computerized tomography; Metodo de avaliacao de niveis de referencia de radiodiagnostico em tomografia computadorizada

    Vega, Walter Flores


    Computerized tomography is a complex technique with several selectable exposition parameters delivering high doses to the patient. In this work it was developed a simple methodology to evaluate diagnostic reference levels in computerized tomography, using the concept of Multiple Scan Average Dose (MSAD), recently adopted by the Health Ministry. For evaluation of the MSAD, a dose distribution was obtained through a measured dose profile on the axial axis of a water phantom with thermoluminescence dosemeters, TLD-100, for different exam technique. The MSAD was evaluated hrough two distinct methods. First, it was evaluated by the integration of the dose profile of a single slice and, second, obtained by the integration on central slice of the profile of several slices. The latter is in of accordance with the ionization chamber method, suggesting to be the most practical method of dose evaluation to be applied in the diagnostic reference level assessment routine for CT, using TLDs. (author)

  11. Evaluation of commercial and sulfated ZrO{sub 2} aiming application catalysis; Avaliacao de ZrO{sub 2} comercial e sulfatada visando aplicacao em catalise

    Silva, F.N.; Dantas, J.; Costa, A.C.F.M., E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia de Materiais; Pallone, E.M.J.A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Pirassununga, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Ciencias Basicas; Dutra, R.C.L. [Instituto de Aeronautica e Espaco (AQI/IAE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Divisao de Quimica


    This study evaluates the performance of commercial and sulfated ZrO{sub 2} for future application in catalysis. Commercial ZrO{sub 2} was provided by the company Saint-Gobain Zirpro. The sulfation occurred with SO{sub 4}{sup -2} ion content of 30% compared to the mass of ZrO{sub 2}. The samples were characterized by XRD, FTIR, EDX and GD. The results revealed the formation of a monoclinic phase for the commercial sample, and a monoclinic major phase with tetragonal traces for the sulfated sample. The commercial ZrO{sub 2} showed a narrow, bimodal and asymmetric agglomerates distribution, while the sulfated sample showed a narrow, tetramodal and asymmetric agglomerates distribution. The presence of traces of the tetragonal phase in the SO{sub 4}{sup -2}/ZrO{sub 2} XRD, and the presence of SO{sub 3} in the EDX were good indicators for future use in catalysis to provide ester. (author)

  12. Wood density variation in Gmelina arborea trees using X-ray densitometry; Avaliacao da densidade da madeira de Gmelina arborea pela aplicacao da densitometria de raios-X

    Roque, Roger Moya [Instituto Tecnologico da Costa Rica, Cartago (Costa Rica). Centro de Investigacao em Integracao Bosque-Industria. Dept. de Engenharia Florestal]. E-mail:; Tomazello, Mario [Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz. Dept. de Ciencias Florestais]. E-mail:


    The wood density constitutes the main wood quality parameter by its relationship with anatomical, physical and chemical properties and wood utilization. The modern and accurate methods - like X-ray densitometry - are applied to determine the density spatial distribution in wood sections and pith-bark direction. On the other hand, emphasis to wood utilization from fast growing plantations, like Gmelina arborea in Costa Rica, has been done. The objectives of this study were to determinate the influence of 2 climatic conditions of Costa Rica on radial wood density variation of gmelina trees form fast growing plantations using the X-ray densitometry method. Wood samples were cut at DBH of gmelina trees and transversal thin laths were selected at north-south direction and conditioned at 12% moisture content equilibrium and X-rayed. The radiographic films were revealed and scanned a 256 gray scale with 1000 dpi resolution and the intra tree-ring density were determined by CRAD and CERD software. The results demonstrated that the climatic and forest management affects the wood density variability and the distinctness of tree-ring boundaries of gmelina trees, as well as, the applicability of X-ray densitometry in wood quality analysis. (author)

  13. Evaluation of mechanical properties in stainless alloy ferritic with 5 % molybdenum; Avaliacao das propriedades mecanicas em ligas inoxidaveis ferriticas com 5% de molibdenio

    Lima Filho, V.X.; Gomes, F.H.F.; Guimaraes, R.F.; Saboia, F.H.C.; Abreu, H.F.G. de [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Ceara (IFCE). Campus Maracanau, CE (Brazil)], e-mail:


    The deterioration of equipment in the oil industry is caused by high aggressiveness in processing the same. One solution to this problem would increase the content of molybdenum (Mo) alloys, since this improves the corrosion resistance. As the increase of Mo content causes changes in mechanical properties, we sought to evaluate the mechanical properties of alloys with 5% Mo and different levels of chromium (Cr). Were performed metallography and hardness measurement of the alloys in the annealed condition. Subsequent tests were performed tensile and Charpy-V, both at room temperature. The results showed that 2% difference in the content of Cr did not significantly alter the mechanical properties of alloys. The alloys studied had higher values in measured properties when compared to commercial ferritic alloys with similar percentages of Cr. The high content of Mo resulted in a brittle at room temperature but ductile at temperatures above 70 degree C. (author)

  14. Integrity assessment of the tubes of the boilers 8 and 9 at power plant; Avaliacao da integridade dos tubos das caldeiras 8 e 9 da Central Termoeletrica 1

    Silva, Luiz Antonio da; Lage, Andre do Carmo [Companhia Siderurgica Nacional (CSN), Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil)


    This work presents the results of the integrity analysis made in the boiler number 8 and 9 of Thermoelectric Center number 1 of CSN to evaluate the residual life of components tubes, as well as the implementation of best recommended actions, after results of the tests of endoscopy, metallography, measurement of oxide layer and dimensional (US, a/b Scan and Eddy current). This work evaluates the studies performed in the main components of the boilers, which were applied modern techniques to analyse the failure mechanisms. The non-destructive testing (NDT) used allowed indicate its damage accumulative and critical points for correction. The realization of this work had the benefit increased operational reliability and availability of boilers. (author)

  15. Kerma rate evaluation in the air in a room interventional cardiology; Avaliacao da taxa de Kerma no ar em uma sala de cardiologia intervencionista

    Real, Jessica V.; Luz, Renata M. da, E-mail:, E-mail: [Hospital Sao Lucas (HSL/PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Fröhlich, Bruna D.; Silva, Ana Maria Marques da, E-mail:, E-mail: [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)


    In recent years, the number of interventional cardiology procedures is increasing. However, due to the long time of fluoroscopy in these procedures, care teams can receive high doses of radiation. The radiation scattered by the patient is not uniform, and their assessment is of utmost importance. This study aimed to estimate and map the kerma rate in the air at the time of the gonads, in an interventional cardiology room, seeking to optimize the dose absorbed by individuals occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation. For data collection, the room was divided into quadrants of 1m{sup 2}, totaling 40 collection points. The simulator was positioned so that its entry surface was located in the interventional reference point. Were chosen the conditions that simulate angiography and angioplasty procedures performed in the service. The data were obtained for height of 1 meter, gonad region. The results obtained for kerma rates in air, in quadrants, show that higher measured values was in the vicinity of the X-ray tube. Has been found that the medical staff are more exposed, because of its location during the procedure, around the table. The law of the inverse square distance of the farthest points of the X-ray tube were verified.

  16. Semi-empirical model to evaluate the performance of natural gas powered diesel engines; Modelo semi-empirico para avaliacao do desempenho de motores diesel consumindo gas natural

    Pereira, Ricardo Hernandez [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU), MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica], e-mail:; Braga, Carlos Valois Maciel; Braga, Sergio Leal [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (DEM/PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], e-mails:,


    The performance of four different engines were measured, all powered by the dual fuels diesel/natural gas and mounted on a dynamometer bench. The tested engines were selected for their construction and operational characteristics, representing diesel engines for different applications (capacity, speed range, with/without turbo charging and combustion air cooling). Experimental points were obtained for wide parameter ranges with influence on engine performance. The replacement rate of diesel with natural gas was varied to identify the mix where the dual fuel operation was possible. Although the study focus was on performance, data on particulate pollutant emissions were also recorded, not only during the original diesel operation but also for the dual fuels. The results indicate that, for most operational fields of the engines tested, only part of the gas actually burns. (author)

  17. An evaluation of the potential impacts of the 'gas aid'; Uma avaliacao dos impactos potenciais do 'auxilio gas'

    Biazotto, Ana Lidia; Anuatti Neto, Francisco [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Economia, Administracao e Contabilidade


    In May of 2001, the prices to the final consumer of GLP were set free in the whole country; this procedure had the intention, to continue process of deregulation in the fuel sector, in accord with the Oil Law. The release of the prices of sale and shipping subsidies elimination, along with the elimination of the crossed subsidy, required the adoption of a 'gas aid' social program, aimed to guarantee the low profit families necessities attendance that would pay the additional fuel costs. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the gas aid program as its covering level and the economic and distributive efficiency. The study encloses the metropolitans regions investigated in the IBGE Family Budget Research of 1996. With base in the previously identification of the potential beneficiary of the program, and with them consumption profile, it was possible to evaluate the potential impact of the withdrawal of the subsidy in the hypothesis of the family be or not beneficiary of the program. Assuming that the targeting is perfect, it is compared the transference politics to the low profit families in relation to the previous politics of subsidize crossed. (author)

  18. The automotive gasoline quality evaluation formulated from different petrochemical streams; Avaliacao da qualidade da gasolina automotiva formulada a partir de diferentes correntes petroquimicas

    Reboucas, Marcio das Virgens [Braskem, Camacari, BA (Brazil). Unidade de Insumos Basicos. Laboratorio]. E-mail:; Gomes, Amenson Trindade [Bahia Univ. , Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail:; Teixeira, Leonardo Sena Gomes [Universidade Salvador - UNIFACS, Salvador, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia e Arquitetura]. E-mail:


    By the end of the year 2000, ANP (the Brazilian federal petroleum agency) authorized petrochemical industries to produce and formulate gasoline from petrochemical streams. Since then, refineries are not the exclusive players in the fuels market anymore. Therefore, technical works concerning the processing and blending of refineries and petrochemical streams used for fuels production has gained special attention. In the present work the influence of saturates and aromatic compounds on the most important fuel chemical properties has been investigated. The quality of several blends, formulated in the lab from different petrochemical streams, were evaluated by means of physical and chemical characterization essays. The results of distillation, octane numbers, specific gravity, gum and chemical composition were compared to the specification limits established by brazilian regulation for gasoline production and trading in Brazil. (author)

  19. Evaluation of medical residents exposed to X-ray during surgical procedures; Avaliacao dos medicos residentes expostos aos raios-X durante procedimentos cirurgicos

    Alabarse, F.G.; Leal, R.; Amador, G.B.; Bacelar, A. [Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Fisica Medica. Servico de Engenharia Biomedica; Westphal, M.; Furtado, A.P.A. [Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Fisica Medica. Servico de Radiologia]. E-mail:


    This work present some evaluations in relation to the Medical Resident that work with X-rays during surgery procedures. The objective is discovery what the staff that make more use of this kind of radiation during their procedures and evaluate the relation with their respective doses. The information was toke during the activities that make some use of X-rays. This information was connected with the respective dose of Medical Resident. The results is that the worker of Medical Resident is the worker that are most in exposure in a surgery unit. The staff that use X-rays with more frequency and have the biggest time in exposure is Orthopedy and Traumathology. The highest dose that they received were of 22,72 mSv, in a Resident of the Urology group. (author)

  20. Evaluation of dynamic behavior in startup and shutdown of gearboxes; Avaliacao do comportamento dinamico em partidas e paradas de caixas de engrenagens de eixos paralelos

    Leixas, Aluizio G.; Barreiros Junior, Carlos Cesar [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Crespo, Afonso C.T. [VGK Engenharia e Comercio Ltda., RJ (Brazil)


    The great majority of the gear boxes (reducing and multiplying) installed in the turbomachinery of the Unidades de Negocio of the Exploracao e Producao segment of the PETROBRAS, is of the type parallel axis. In function of its type of construction and application, some boxes present high levels of vibration in very low rotations, during transient conditions of start up and shut down. The behavior is perceived by de sensors of radial vibration of the axis (displacement sensors) and many times arrive to in this manner reach levels of alarm and stop the equipment, hindering the operation of the same. After an evaluation of the dynamic behavior, we can identify and diagnosis the real behavior of the equipment, certifying its good condition or diagnosing problems. The objective of this work is to supply information to the operation and maintenance staff on the characteristics of dynamic behavior that are typical of some types of gear boxes. (author)

  1. PET-CT imaging fusion in the assessment of head and neck carcinoma; Fusao de imagens PET-TC na avaliacao do carcinoma espinocelular de cabeca e pescoco

    Santos, Denise Takehana dos [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia; Chojniak, Rubens [Hospital do Cancer A.C. Camargo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Imagem; Lima, Eduardo Nobrega Pereira [Hospital do Cancer A.C. Camargo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Medicina Nuclear; Cavalcanti, Marcelo Gusmao Paraiso [Universidade de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia. Dept. de Estomatologia]. E-mail:


    Objective: The authors have established a methodological approach to evaluate head and neck squamous cell carcinoma aiming at identifying and distinguishing high metabolic activity inside the lesion, combining in a single examination, functional, metabolic and morphological data simultaneously acquired by means of different non-dedicated positron emission tomography (PET)-computed tomography (CT) device. Materials and Methods: The study population included 17 patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma submitted to a non-dedicated {sup 18} F-FDG-PET imaging at Department of Diagnostic Imaging of Hospital do Cancer, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil. CT and {sup 18} F-FDG-PET images were simultaneously acquired in a non-dedicated device. The original data were transferred to an independent workstation by means of the Entegra 2 NT software to generate PET-CT imaging fusion. Results: The findings were defined as positive in the presence of a well defined focal area of increased radiopharmaceutical uptake in regions not related with the normal biodistribution of the tracer. Conclusion: The fusion of simultaneously acquired images in a single examination ({sup 18}F-FDGPET and CT) has allowed the topographic-metabolic mapping of the lesion as well as the localization of high metabolic activity areas inside the tumor, indicating recidivation or metastasis and widening the array of alternatives for radiotherapy or surgical planning. (author)

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging textural evaluation of posterior cranial fossa tumors in childhood; Avaliacao textural por ressonancia magnetica dos tumores da fossa posterior em criancas

    Santos, Joelson Alves dos; Costa, Maria Olivia Rodrigues da; Otaduy, Maria Concepcion Garcia; Lacerda, Maria Teresa Carvalho de; Leite, Claudia da Costa [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia]. E-mail:; Matsushita, Hamilton [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Neurologia


    Objective: To distinguish healthy from pathological tissues in pediatric patients with posterior cranial fossa tumors using calculated textural parameters from magnetic resonance images. Materials And Methods: We evaluated 14 pediatric patients with posterior cranial fossa tumors using the software MaZda to define the texture parameters in selected regions of interest representing healthy and pathological tissues based on T2-weighted magnetic resonance images. Results: There was a statistically significant difference between normal and tumoral tissues as well as between supposedly normal tissues adjacent and distant from the tumoral lesion. Conclusion: Magnetic resonance textural evaluation is an useful tool for determining differences among various tissues, including tissues that appear apparently normal on visual analysis. (author)

  3. Evaluation of advanced oxidative processes in contaminated soil of the Pernambuco state; Avaliacao dos processos oxidativos avancados num solo contaminado do estado de Pernambuco

    Silva, Paula T.S. e [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Santos, Suenia S. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica; Barros Neto, Benicio de [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Fundamental; Dorea, Haroldo S. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Aracaju, SE (Brazil); Motta Sobrinho, Mauricio A. da; Silva, Valdinete L. da [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)


    In this work were used the following techniques of advanced oxidative processes: hydrogen peroxide, Fenton reagent and heterogeneous photocatalysis (TiO2). These processes have shown as an alternative technology to the treatment of some environmental matrices. The soil studied was contaminated by an oil mixture proceeding from an emptying in the patio of an industry of the state of Pernambuco. This soil has about 14,5 g/Kg of total organic carbon and 3400 mg/kg of TPH. Two planning factorial 23 were composed: one in relation to hydrogen peroxide and the other to titanium dioxide, in order to find the best conditions for the contaminant degradation. The variables and the studied levels for the former was: FeSO4 - 0,18 M (without, 4 and 8 ml); Adjustment of pH (3, without, without); Time of exposition to the sun (8h, 12h, 16h). The volumes of used peroxide in the assays were 80 and 40 ml. In relation to the second planning, were studied the following conditions: TiO2 (g) (without,5;0,75;1,0), volume H2O (0, 2,5 and 5 ml) and time of exposition to the sun (8, 40, 72h). In relation to the first planning a destruction of 84% of the oil was achieved. However, in relation to 2nd the planning non-significant degradation was obtained, and to study other conditions ought to be investigated. (author)

  4. Evaluation of secondary crystallization effect in poly hydroxybutyrate and silanized coir dust composites; Avaliacao do efeito da cristalizacao secundaria em compositos de polihidroxibutirato e po de coco silanizado

    Mello, Carolina C. de; Costa, Marysilvia F. da; Thire, Rossana M.S.M., E-mail: [Programa de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais/Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ - Centro de Tecnologia, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    Polyhydroxybutyrate is a natural and biodegradable polyester, susceptible to secondary crystallization when it is stored at environment temperature. Coir dust is an agroindustrial waste which has good prospects for use as filler in composites. In this context, PHB-coir dust composites were produced. The compatibilization was made by coir dust silanization. The secondary crystallization evolution on materials was evaluated by x-ray diffraction. Its effect was verified by tension tests which presented that elastic modulus increases when crystallinity increases. (author)

  5. Evaluation of the reconstruction method and effect of partial volume in brain scintiscanning; Avaliacao do metodo de reconstrucao e efeito do volume parcial em cintilografia cerebral

    Pinheiro, Monica Araujo


    Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder, on which occurs a progressive and irreversible destruction of neurons. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) 35.6 million people are living with dementia, being recommended that governments prioritize early diagnosis techniques. Laboratory and psychological tests for cognitive assessment are conducted and further complemented by neurological imaging from nuclear medicine exams in order to establish an accurate diagnosis. The image quality evaluation and reconstruction process effects are important tools in clinical routine. In the present work, these quality parameters were studied, and the effects of partial volume (PVE) for lesions of different sizes and geometries that are attributed to the limited resolution of the equipment. In dementia diagnosis, this effect can be confused with intake losses due to cerebral cortex atrophy. The evaluation was conducted by two phantoms of different shapes as suggested by (a) American College of Radiology (ACR) and (b) National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) for Contrast, Contrast-to-Noise Ratio (CNR) and Recovery Coefficient (RC) calculation versus lesions shape and size. Technetium-99m radionuclide was used in a local brain scintigraphy protocol, for proportions lesion to background of 2:1, 4:1, 6:1, 8:1 and 10:1. Fourteen reconstruction methods were used for each concentration applying different filters and algorithms. Before the analysis of all image properties, the conclusion is that the predominant effect is the partial volume, leading to errors of measurement of more than 80%. Furthermore, it was demonstrate that the most effective method of reconstruction is FBP with Metz filter, providing better contrast and contrast to noise ratio results. In addition, this method shows the best Recovery Coefficients correction for each lesion. The ACR phantom showed the best results assigned to a more precise reconstruction of a cylinder, which does not occur with spherical lesions in the NEMA simulator. The obtained RC values can be applied to correct the lesions quantification for different sizes and intake relations, assisting medical staff in the quantification process and an accurate diagnosis. Each Nuclear Medicine Service should establish its own RC levels to improve quality of the service provided to the population. (author)

  6. Economic and financial evaluation of the wind power project in Northeast region, Brazil; Avaliacao economico-financeira de projeto de central eolica na regiao nordeste

    Rocha, Paulo Glicio da; Lima, Maria Angela de Queiroz; Melo Junior, Adalberto de Bastos [Companhia Hidro Eletrica do Sao Francisco (DFPL/CHESF), Recife, PE (Brazil). Div. de Planejamento Economico-Financeiro], Emails:,,; Bezerra, Pedro; Bittencourt, Rogerio [Companhia Hidro Eletrica do Sao Francisco (DEFA/CHESF), Recife, PE (Brazil). Div. de Projetos de Fontes Alternativas], E-mails:,


    This work deals with the analysis of economic and financial feasibility of using wind power in the Northeast region for electric power production, considering the new electricity sector model. The case study presented here refers to the design of a 50 MW Wind Farm in the region, based on preliminary data from wind collected in the period from 1993 to 1995. Some programs were used to evaluate this project: ALWIN, which estimates the potential for wind energy production; NEWAVE for determination operating marginal costs and generation plants values and ANAFIN, for economic and financial evaluation of the project, using scenarios, through the deterministic and probabilistic analysis.

  7. Evaluation of mathematical methods and linear programming for optimization of the planning in radiotherapy; Avaliacao de metodos matematicos e programacao linear para otimizacao do planejamento em radioterapia

    Fernandes, Marco A.R., E-mail: mfernandes@fmb.unesp.b [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina. Dept. de Dermatologia e Radioterapia; Fernandes, David M.; Florentino, Helenice O. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biociencias


    The work detaches the importance of the use of mathematical tools and computer systems for optimization of the planning in radiotherapy, seeking to the distribution of dose of appropriate radiation in the white volume that provides an ideal therapeutic rate between the tumor cells and the adjacent healthy tissues, extolled in the radiotherapy protocols. Examples of target volumes mathematically modeled are analyzed with the technique of linear programming, comparing the obtained results using the Simplex algorithm with those using the algorithm of Interior Points. The System Genesis II was used for obtaining of the isodose curves for the outline and geometry of fields idealized in the computer simulations, considering the parameters of a 10 MV photons beams. Both programming methods (Simplex and Interior Points) they resulted in a distribution of integral dose in the tumor volume and allow the adaptation of the dose in the critical organs inside of the restriction limits extolled. The choice of an or other method should take into account the facility and the need of limiting the programming time. The isodose curves, obtained with the Genesis II System, illustrate that the adjacent healthy tissues to the tumor receives larger doses than those reached in the computer simulations. More coincident values can be obtained altering the weights and some factors of minimization of the objective function. The prohibitive costs of the computer planning systems, at present available for radiotherapy, it motivates the researches to look for the implementation of simpler and so effective methods for optimization of the treatment plan. (author)

  8. Evaluation of effects of ionizing radiation on materials used in dental restorations;Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao ionizante em materiais utilizados em restauracoes dentarias

    Maio, Mireia Florencio


    This work consisted of quantitative studies of the effects caused by ionizing radiation on materials used in dental restorations (Titanium, Amalgam, Resin Composite and Glass Ionomer) aiming the deleterious effects of radiotherapy when patients with tumors in head and neck, arising when the teeth are restored within in the field of radiation. Samples were submitted to X-ray beams of 6 MV from a linear accelerator, VARIAN 2100C model. The samples were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence techniques to compare the chemical composition before and after the irradiation. The sample were submitted to Geiger-Mueller detectors and the ionization chambers in order to verify any residual radiation in the samples. The samples were also analyzed by gamma spectrometry by a Germanium detector. These tests were performed to determine small changes in the composition in the samples due to the radiation interaction. The results of this study may encourage the development of new research for alternative materials in dental restorations that can contribute to improve the quality of life of those patients with tumors of the mouth. (author)

  9. Evaluation of chemical compatibility of polymeric additives used in petroleum industry; Avaliacao da compatibilidade quimica de aditivos polimericos utilizados na industria do petroleo

    Spinelli, Luciana S.; Machado Junior, Dilon L.P.; Lucas, Elizabete F. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas]. E-mail:; Louvisse, Ana Maria T. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas - CENPES]. E-mail:


    In a complex operation such as oil and gas production (Bacia de Campos) it is often necessary and important to use chemical additives in order to prevent operational problems. These chemicals are formed mainly by polymeric materials. The combination of two or more chemical additives, in a same fluid, can provoke synergetic effects. In this work, demulsifiers, flocculants and deposition inhibitors were combined in order to study the compatibility problems in brine and produced water, by superficial tension, gravimetric and photometric measurements. The results of superficial tension indicate that the additives mixture promotes a decrease of demulsifiers effectiveness. In addition, the gravimetric tests show that there are synergistic effects between the additives, since that residue was formed . The results of photometric tests agree with all results mentioned. It was concluded that the combination of different additives can cause incompatibility of the system, forming undesirable residue, and it depends on the brine composition. (author)

  10. Evaluation of the crude oil viscosity variation in function of the demulsifiers addition; Avaliacao da variacao da viscosidade de oleo cru em funcao da adicao de desemulsificante

    Lopes, Jansen M.; Lucas, Elisabete F. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas]. E-mail:; Neves, Guilherme B.M. [COMAB Especialidades Quimicas Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail:


    One way of improving well production is the addition of demulsifier already in the gas lift. This is due to the apparent viscosity of water-in-oil emulsions being higher than apparent viscosity of crude oil, which in turn is higher than the apparent viscosity of an water-in-oil dual phase admixture and is also higher than the apparent viscosity of an oil-in-water emulsion. However, there are some situations where, in order to obtain separate flows of oil and water phases, demulsifier should be added in specific amounts in order to promote the desired phase separation. In heavy oils water and oil phase separation may be hard to obtain, however, the right demulsifier amount may imply in a considerable decrease in petroleum viscosity even without the appearance of two phases, making the flow easier. This work has evaluated the viscosity of a heavy crude having API degree 14 and BSW 52%, as a function of the addition of different amounts of DEMTROL BR 67, manufactured by Dow Quimica/Comab, Brazil, as demulsifier. (author)

  11. Isolation and cytotoxicity evaluation of some oxoaporphine alkaloids from Annonaceae; Isolamento e avaliacao da atividade citotoxica de alguns alcaloides oxaporfinicos obtidos de annonaceae

    Silva, Denise Brentan da; Matos, Maria de Fatima Cepa; Nakashita, Simone T.; Misu, Carina K.; Yoshida, Nidia Cristiane; Carollo, Carlos Alexandre; Fabri, Joao Roberto; Miglio, Hercules da Silva; Siqueira, Joao Maximo de [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Biologicas e da Saude. Dept. de Farmacia]. E-mail:


    A different methodology was used to isolate and purify oxoaporphine alkaloids, as they are difficult to separate by the usual workup when in mixture. Alkaloid extracts from Annonaceae species were obtained by base/acid extraction. The extracts were concentrated and submitted to partition in solutions of acids of different pKa values, followed by separation by preparative TLC using 1 mm thick silica gel impregnated with oxalic acid (11.2% w/w). Liriodenine, lisycamine, lanuginosine, and O-methylmoschatoline were obtained and tested against tumoral cells (line Hep{sub 2}, ATCC-CCL 23, larynx carcinoma). Only O-methylmoschatoline (IC{sub 50} 12.4 muM) was more active than cisplatin (18.0 muM). (author)

  12. Interstitial pulmonary alterations in visceral leishmaniasis: evaluation with high-resolution computed tomography; Alteracoes pulmonares intersticiais na leishmaniose visceral: avaliacao pela tomografia computadorizada de alta resolucao

    Costa, Norma Selma Santos; Cerri, Giovanni Guido [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia


    Visceral leishmaniasis, also called kala-azar, is a disease caused by a protozoan, the Leishmania donovani chagasi, that comprises reticuloendothelial system with involvement of the liver, spleen and bone marrow. It is endemic in some areas of northeastern Brazil and other countries of Latin America and Africa. The pathogenesis is related to the immunologic system of patients that present with the inability to activate the phagocytosis of the macrophages. As occurs in the liver and kidneys, the lungs are also involved with interstitial abnormalities caused by Leishmania that are not dependent upon the presence of the parasite. The histopathologic changes described are the involvement of inter alveolar septal in three different phases, irregularly and diffusely throughout the whole pulmonary parenchyma. This work analyzed high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the thorax in 17 patients with visceral leishmaniasis in order to detect and characterize the abnormalities described in the anatomo pathologic findings reported in the literature. The HRCT is being used to evaluate chronic interstitial lung disease in a good correlation with histologic findings. The most common findings detected by HRCT were the reticular opacities that include peribronchovascular interstitial thickening and interlobular septal thickening an ground-glass opacity. The HRCT suggests that similar changes to that found in alveolar structures may occur in the secondary pulmonary lobule and that the involvement in the parenchymal interstitium represents the findings reported by pathological studies in visceral leishmaniasis. (author)

  13. Evaluation of mobility potential of {sup 90}Sr in Brazilian soils; Avaliacao do potencial de mobilidade do {sup 90}Sr em solos brasileiros

    Viana, Aline Gonzalez


    In this document, the transfer mechanisms of {sup 90}Sr were studied in soil-plant systems from Brazil, integrating field and laboratory experiments. Some soil classes, with different physical and chemical properties, relevant to Brazil were selected. The soil classes included in this study were Oxisol, Alfisol and Nitisol. These soils were artificially contaminated with {sup 90}Sr for crop cultivation in lysimeters located at the experimental area of the Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria. The selected crops chosen to the root uptake studies were: corn (Zea mays, L.), cabbage (Brassica oleracea) and radish (Raphanus sativus L.). These cultures were chosen because they have varying absorption rates due to differences in the physiologic structures analyzed: grain, leaf and root. This study identified Nitisol, which contains clay of high activity, as having smaller transfer factor for all crops and these values were in the same order of magnitude as temperate climate values reported in the specialized literature: FT{sub corn}: 5,78E-3 (n=2); FT{sub radish}: 1,78 E0 (n=2); FT {sub cabbage}: 9,16E-1 (n=2). All other soils presented higher TF values, ranging from 1,93E0 to 4,06 E + 01 for radish (n=8), from 9,99 E-2 to 8,80 E0 for cabbage (n=16) and from 9,94 E-3 to 1,60 E-2 for corn (n=14). It was verified that the TF values for corn presented a significant linear correlation with the following properties of the soils: exchangeable Ca and Mg, Cation Exchange Capacity and Organic matter content (p=99,9%), corroborating the behavior described in the related literature. The TF values for cabbage presented significant correlation with exchangeable Ca and pH (p=99,9%), while no correlation between TF and soil properties where observed for radish. The results of sequential extraction evidenced the great {sup 90}Sr availability for transfer in the soil-plant system; nevertheless, physiological processes occurring in such unfertile soils (low CEC, low pH and low OM and nutrients content) improved the migration to lower layers in sol instead of uptake by roots. (author)

  14. Using of scanner on the evaluation of pesticides mobility by thin-layer chromatography; Utilizacao do scanner na avaliacao da mobilidade de agrotoxicos por cromatografia de camada delgada

    Tornisielo, V.L.; Costa, M.A.; Furlan, G.R. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)


    Knowledge of pesticide leaching potential is an essential information to preview environmental fate. The experiment confirms the possibility of using radiochromatogram scanning as a substitute for X-ray autoradiography, when Thin Layer Chromatografy (TLC) methodogy is used to determine mobility of a pesticide. Three types of soil from Sao Paulo state and five herbicides (metolachlor, asulan, simazing, 2,4-D and trifluralin), labeled with {sup 14} C, were used. The radiochromatogram scanners permits a quick detection of the position of the radioactive spots to determine the Rf for each pesticide, while X-ray film has to be placed on the plate on the dark room for several days or weeks and then developed to detect spots, subsequently measure and calculate Rf. The results showed that the evaluation by scanner and X-ray were similar. Hence we conclude that the use of the scanner should be considered since this methodology is faster and as accurate as the X-ray methodology. (author). 4 refs, 1 fig, 2 tabs.

  15. Evaluation of the effective dose in an anthropomorphic phantom in radiation emergencies; Avaliacao da dose efetiva em um fantoma antropomorfico em situacoes de emergencia radiologica

    Silva, L.K.; Santos, D.S., E-mail: [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    This study aims to perform a modeling of the human anatomy using Voxel models applied to Monte Carlo code and the Visual Monte Carlo software, simulating irradiation of the human body, so you can make the dose assessment in individuals who have been exposed to any external ionizing radiation source. Making the future, an assessment of both results with limits of validity of TECDOC-1162 expressions of the IAEA in case of point source.

  16. Performance evaluation of cast iron pipe for crude oil and salt water transportation; Avaliacao e desempenho de duto de aco fundido no transporte de petroleo com aguas salgadas

    Silva, Carlos Alexandre Martins da [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mainier, Fernando B. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)


    The present paper aims to study and to evaluate the performance of casting iron pipe for transportation of salty and produced waters, presented in the oil industry, where salt contents ranging on very large values. The cast iron above mentioned has an yield strength of 23 kg/mm{sup 2}, tensile strength of de 46 kg/mm{sup 2} (minimum) and an elongation of 15%, and contents of some chemical alloys, such as Cr (0,8 -1,3 %), Mn (1,5 % max) and Si (1,%). Nevertheless it is an exploratory study, the dynamic tests of weight loss carried out in laboratory, with specimens machined from a used pipe piece, with salty solution (3,5 % NaCl) aerated media, has shown very promising results, enabling to qualify, satisfactorily, such material for using in transportation and transferring operations of fluids with a high salty contents, such as crude oil. (author)

  17. Economic evaluation of the industrial induction electric motors utilization of high performance; Avaliacao economica da utilizacao de motores eletricos industriais de inducao de alto rendimento

    Soares, Goeorge A. [CEPEL, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Herszterg, I. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia; Arouca, Mauricio C. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia


    The current work makes a cost-benefit analysis of the agents` view point involved, that is, the consumer and the electric utilities. In relation to the final consumer the energy economic potential calculus due to high performance motor application was taken into consideration in three different situations: in new installations, as an alternative the damaged motor recoil and substituting motors that are operating normally. The electricity rates show a strong influence in the financial-economic evaluation as much from the consumer view point as the electric utilities. The return internal rate criteria and payback period have been used, therefore the last one not so much recommended for not portraying the real investment rentability. 6 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  18. Evaluation of impact strength of polyamide 6/bentonite clay nanocomposites; Avaliacao da resistencia mecanica sob impacto de nanocompositos de poliamida 6/argila bentonitica

    Paz, Rene A.; Leite, Amanda M.D.; Medeirosa, Vanessa da N., E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Curso de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais; Araujo, Edcleide M.; Melo, Tomas J.A. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais; Pessan, Luiz A. [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (DEMa/UFSCAR), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais


    Nanocomposites of polymer/clay have had much attention in recent years, particularly those developed with layered silicates due to the need of engineering materials more efficient than pure polymers for certain applications. The level of exfoliation of layered silicates in crystalline structure of polymer matrices has been studied and has been observed that they affect the crystalline behavior and the physical and mechanical properties. In this study, nanocomposites of polyamide 6 were obtained by the melt intercalation method, using a regional bentonite modified with a quaternary ammonium salt in an amount of 3% by weight. XRD results showed that incorporation of salt among the layers of clay, making it organophilic and obtaining exfoliated and/or partially exfoliated structures. The impact properties of the nanocomposites showed inferior in relation to pure polyamide, in other words, lost of toughness. (author)

  19. Evaluation of the usability of a mobile Digital Food Guide based on user perception/Avaliacao da usabilidade do Guia Alimentar Digital movel segundo a percepcao dos usuarios

    Caivano, Simone; Ferreira, Beatriz Jansen; Domene, Semiramis Martins Alvares


    ...), which is a mobile smartphone app with guidelines on healthy eating. A cross-sectional study evaluated the user perception of the app using the Likert scale, built with 24 assertions organized in three dimensions of analysis...

  20. Evaluation of parameters associated with monitoring in vivo of uranium isotopes in the lungs; Avaliacao de parametros associados a monitoracao in vivo de isotopos de uranio nos pulmoes

    Juppa, Silvia P.; Lucena, Eder A.; Dantas, Bernardo M.; Dantas, Ana Leticia A., E-mail: [Instiluto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Laboratorio de Monitoracao In Vivo. Divisao de Dosimetria


    The objective of this study is to evaluate the parameters associated with the technique of monitoring individuals exposed to uranium isotopes, aiming to optimize the technique and reduced uncertainties associated.

  1. Use of different simulators to quality evaluation of image quality in digital mammography; Utilizacao de diferentes simuladores na avaliacao da qualidade da imagem em mamografia digital

    Pereira, Leslie S.; Coutinho, Celia M.C., E-mail:, E-mail: [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Magalhaes, Luis A.G.; Almeida, Carlos Eduardo de, E-mail:, E-mail: [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (LCR/UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Laboratorio de Ciencias Radiologicas


    In this study, the digital images were acquired with different exposure simulators to evaluate the quality of the image, noting the tumor mass detection, microcalcification fiber and representing regions of interest during mammography. The technical parameters of exposure depends on the thickness and composition of the breast, thus affecting the dose and image quality. The simulators were used: ACR, SBP 1054, BREAST PHANTOM CIRS and for evaluation of image quality, as well as measures kerma incident on the entrance surface (Ki) and calculating the mean glandular dose (MGD)

  2. Evaluation of average glandular dose in mammography services in 10 cities of Colombia; Avaliacao de dose glandular media em servicos de mamografia de 10 cidades de Colombia

    Alejo-Martinez, H.; Salazar-Hurtado, E.; Puerto-Jimenez, D. [Grupo de Prevencion Temprana Del Cancer, Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Bogota D.C. (Colombia)


    The objective of this study was to conduct an assessment of dose in 60 mammography services that have screening programs for breast cancer in 10 cities of Colombia. The third quartile of the average glandular dose was 2,29 mGy, range between 1,0 and 5,6 mGy, for the phantom equivalent to a standard breast. This study included mammography units with conventional and digital technology. (author)

  3. Optimization of the operational conditions and analysis of the metallurgical performance of the ladle furnace; Otimizacao dos parametros operacionais e avaliacao da performance metalurgica do forno panela

    Barbosa, Aldo H.A.; Vianna, Jose F.; Rios, Geraldo L.C. [USIMINAS, Ipatinga, MG (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas


    The operational results have shown that the ladle furnace has the capability to increase the steel quality decrease the tapping temperature, to adjust the operational pattern of the BOF Shop and to produce ultra low sulfur steel. (author). 4 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  4. Evaluation of patients skin dose undergoing interventional cardiology procedure using radiochromic films; Avaliacao da dose na pele de pacientes submetidos a procedimentos de cardiologia intervencionista usando filmes radiocromicos

    Silva, Mauro W. Oliveira da; Canevaro, Lucia V. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Servico de Fisica Medica; Rodrigues, Barbara B. Dias [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear


    In interventional cardiology (IC), coronary angiography (CA) and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) procedures are the most frequent ones. Since the 1990s, the number of IC procedures has increased rapidly. It is also known that these procedures are associated with high radiation doses due to long fluoroscopy time (FT) and large number of cine-frames (CF) acquired to document the procedure. Mapping skin doses in IC is useful to find the probability of skin injuries, to detect areas of overlapping field, and to get a permanent record of the most exposed areas of skin. The purpose of this study was to estimate the maximum skin dose (MSD) in patients undergoing CA and PTCA, and to compare these values with the reference levels proposed in the literature. Patients' dose measurements were carried out on a sample of 38 patients at the hemodynamic department, in four local hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, using Gafchromic XR-RV2 films. In PTCA procedures, the median and third quartile values of MSD were estimated at 2.5 and 5.3 Gy, respectively. For the CA procedures, the median and third quartile values of MSD were estimated at 0.5 and 0.7 Gy, respectively. In this paper, we used the Pearson's correlation coefficient (r), and we found a fairly strong correlation between FT and MSD (r=0.8334, p<0.0001), for CA procedures. The 1 Gy threshold for deterministic effects was exceeded in nine patients. The use of Gafchromic XR-RV2 films was shown to be an effective method to measure MSD and the dose distribution map. The method is effective to identify the distribution of radiation fields, thus allowing the follow-up of the patient to investigate the appearance of skin injuries. (author)

  5. Ultrasonic evaluation of heat treatment for stress relief in steel; Avaliacao por ultra-som do tratamento termico para alivio de tensoes em aco

    Bittencourt, Marcelo de S.Q.; Lamy, Carlos A.; Goncalves Filho, Orlando J.A. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Payao Filho, Joao da C. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais


    Residual stresses in materials arise due to the manufacturing processes. As a consequence, in the nuclear area some components must suffer a stress relief treatment according to strict criteria. Although these treatments are carefully carried on, concern with nuclear safety is constantly growing. This work proposes a nondestructive ultrasonic method to guarantee the efficiency of the heat treatment. It was used a short peened steel plate with tensile and compressive stresses which was submitted to a stress relief treatment. The results show that the proposed ultrasonic method could be used to confirm the efficiency of the stress relief heat treatment. (author)

  6. Evaluation of testosterone serum levels in testicular interstitial fluid under thyroxine influence; Avaliacao da testosterona no fluido intersticial testicular sob influencia da tiroxina

    Silva, Isvania Maria S. da; Pereira, Simey de L.S.; Souza, Grace Mary L.; Carvalho, Elaine F.M.B.; Catanho, Maria Teresa J. de A. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Radiobiologia; Silveira, Maria de Fatima G. da [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Anatomia; Lima Filho, Guilherme L. [Universidade de Pernambuco (UPE), Nazare da Mata, PE (Brazil). Faculdade de Formacao de Professores


    The thyroid hormones possibly exert a reciprocal action between testicular steroids and Sertoli's cells during the premature period. This work aims to evaluate thyroxine effect on testosterone serum levels and in the testicular interstitial fluid (TIF) in rats. Wistar males rats, 22 days old, 80g of body weight, were induced to hyperthyroidism with thyroxine (20{mu}g/kg) in periods of 5, 10, 15 and 20 consecutive days. After the treatment the animals were weighed and sacrificed for blood and testis collection. From the blood serum and from the TIF drained from the testis were performed testes in order to obtain testosterone attached to {sup 125} I with a specific activity of 36,86 MBq/ig. The results have shown a testosterone significant lineal increase in both - serum and TIF - in the group treated with thyroxine as a time function. In the control group, testosterone levels remained low in both serum and TIF dosages. As a result, we were able to verify that the testosterone levels could be modified by thyroxine in serum and TIF. And so, it could affect luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels in hypophysis. (author)

  7. Method for evaluating natural gas demand scenarios (Demangas Project); Metodologia para avaliacao de cenarios de demanda pelo gas natural (Projeto Demangas)

    Lindau, Luis Antonio [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Lab. de Sistemas de Transportes; Santos, Gilberto T. dos; Silva, Silvio C. da; Ribeiro, Jose Luis D.; Fogliatto, Flavio S. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Lab. de Otimizacao de Produtos e Processos


    This paper presents the methodology developed for the evaluation of the existing and potential market for natural gas in the industrial, automotive, residential and commercial sectors of Rio Grande do Sul. The methodology is based upon a marketing research framework and consists of the definition of the problem; application of qualitative, quantitative and stated-preference enquiries; review of the state-of-the-art and state-of-the-practice; and, also, interviews with specialists. The methodology is consolidated in four software that enable the simulation of different demand scenarios of natural gas up to the year 2010. The development of this methodology comprised the participation of more than 1,000 potential users of natural gas and allowed the state company in charge of distributing natural gas to: structure the problem of forecasting the consumption of natural gas within a new context of competition in the energy industry; help the formulation of the strategic plan of the company with regard to investment strategies and incrementing the number of clients; and propose marketing efforts to promote the adoption of natural gas as an alternative energy source. (author)

  8. Evaluation of radiation effects on dental enamel hardness and dental restorative materials; Avaliacao do efeito da irradiacao na dureza do esmalte dental e de materiais odontologicos

    Adachi, Lena Katekawa; Saiki, Mitiko [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Supervisao de Radioquimica; Campos, Tomie Nakakuki [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Odontologia. Dept. de Protese


    This research presents the results of the microhardness of human dental enamel and of the following dental restorative materials: three dental porcelains - Ceramco II, Finesse and Noritake, and two resin restorative materials - Artglass and Targis, for materials submitted to different times of irradiation at the IEA-R1m nuclear reactor under a thermal neutron flux of 10{sup 12}n cm{sup -2}.s{sup -1} . The results obtained indicated that there is a decrease of the surface microhardness when the enamel is irradiated for 1 h and when dental materials are irradiated for 3 h. However, enamels irradiated for 30 min. did not show significant change of their surface hardness. Therefore, the selection of irradiation time is an important factor to be considered when irradiated teeth or dental materials are used in the investigations of their properties. (author)

  9. Exploiting the use of compact heat exchangers on preheating trains; Avaliacao de desempenho de trocadores compactos em bateria de pre-aquecimento - REDUC

    Villas Boas, Alan Trugilho; Bolsoni, Adair [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Refinaria de Duque de Caxias (REDUC); Kuboski, Claudio; Cesario, Diomedes [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)


    The U-1210 distillation unit of Holding has being expected to suffer a metallurgical adaptation in order to process petroleum with higher naphthenic acids concentration. A heat integration study (pinch analysis) was realized, with the restriction of limited plot area and shut-down time. A full compabloc preheat train was preliminary concept. During conceptual design, REDUC found it to be a good idea to have a performance test. A compabloc CP30 unit has been installed, in order to evaluate the performance of this equipment under unit conditions. The operation service chosen was vacuum residue preheating crude before the dessalter, low crude temperature (100 deg C to 115 deg C). The objective was operational and maintenance experience. (author)

  10. Hydrates removal during the exploration evaluation of the 3-SES-149A well; Remocao de hidrato na avaliacao exploratoria do poco 3-SES-149A

    Barros Filho, Armando F.; Franco, Marcus L. de A. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Gomes, Luiz A.Q.M. [Schlumberger, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    The 3-SES-149A well, at a water depth of 1164 meters, is part of the SEAL-100 block located offshore of the State of Sergipe. The objective of the intervention was to evaluate the 3674-3682 meters interval of the Riachuelo Formation. Bottom hole gauges and real time data transmission to the surface were deployed for this test, during which the target interval produced gas and condensate, without any evidence of formation of hydrate at the surface. After the test, while pulling out the electrical cable with the Link Running Tool, it got stuck close to the subsea well-test tree at a depth of 1257 meters. The formation of hydrate not only kept the cable from moving up, but also rendered impossible the reverse circulation in the column and consequently pulling out the test string. Removing the hydrate would allow releasing the logging cable, thus enabling fluid circulation in the string and its safe retrieval. The goal was achieved via the injection of solvent through the subsea well-test tree, drilling fluid circulation through the annulus above the BOP, and fluid circulation on the top of the hydrate plug through Coiled Tubing. The greatest challenge was running the Coiled Tubing in the string with the electrical cable inside. (author)

  11. Methodology for probability of failure assessment of offshore pipelines; Metodologia qualitativa de avaliacao da probabilidade de falha de dutos rigidos submarinos estaticos

    Pezzi Filho, Mario [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    In this study it is presented a methodology for assessing the likelihood of failure for every failure mechanism defined for carbon steel static offshore pipelines. This methodology is aimed to comply with the Integrity Management policy established by the Company. Decision trees are used for the development of the methodology and the evaluation of the extent and the significance of these failure mechanisms. Decision trees enable also the visualization of the logical structure of algorithms which eventually will be used in risk assessment software. The benefits of the proposed methodology are presented and it is recommended that it be tested on static offshore pipelines installed in different assets for validation. (author)

  12. Development of a methodology for automated assessment of the quality of digitized images in mammography; Desenvolvimento de metodologia para avaliacao automatizada da qualidade de imagens digitalizadas em mamografia

    Santana, Priscila do Carmo


    The process of evaluating the quality of radiographic images in general, and mammography in particular, can be much more accurate, practical and fast with the help of computer analysis tools. The purpose of this study is to develop a computational methodology to automate the process of assessing the quality of mammography images through techniques of digital imaging processing (PDI), using an existing image processing environment (ImageJ). With the application of PDI techniques was possible to extract geometric and radiometric characteristics of the images evaluated. The evaluated parameters include spatial resolution, high-contrast detail, low contrast threshold, linear detail of low contrast, tumor masses, contrast ratio and background optical density. The results obtained by this method were compared with the results presented in the visual evaluations performed by the Health Surveillance of Minas Gerais. Through this comparison was possible to demonstrate that the automated methodology is presented as a promising alternative for the reduction or elimination of existing subjectivity in the visual assessment methodology currently in use. (author)

  13. Rational analysis and index of plasticity of clays for extrusion evaluation; Analise racional e indices de plasticidade para avaliacao de extrusao

    Silva, A.R.; Guimaraes Filho, M.A.S.; Santos, C.V.P.; Fagury Neto, E.; Rabelo, A.A., E-mail: [Universidade Federal do Para (FEMAT/UFPA), Maraba, PA (Brazil). Laboratorio de Materiais Ceramicos


    In the microregion Maraba, in the southeast paraense, there's a important industrial park in the area of red ceramic due to the quality of the extracted clays in the proximities of their rivers. With the intention of collaborating for the production of tiles and structural blocks of quality, in this work the rational analysis of clays was accomplished, through the relationship of the qualitative X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence results. Was possible to quantify the present phases in the collected clays and these results were correlated to the Atterberg's limits - plasticity and liquidity limitsand the respective plasticity indexes - making possible to classify the clays in areas of great and acceptable extrusion. The results of the rational analysis demonstrated that the analyzed clays are plastic kaolinites and don't present quantitative differences very accentuated among the present phases detected besides they possess an area of acceptable extrusion naturally. (author)

  14. Evaluation of chemical elements migration from food packaging plastics into food; Avaliacao da migracao de elementos quimicos das embalagens plasticas para alimentos

    Kamiya, Adriana M.; Fulfaro, Roberto; Saiki, Mitiko [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Supervisao de Radioquimica


    This work presents results of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Sb, Se, Sn, and Zn obtained in the analysis of plastics from food packing materials by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The radiometric method was also applied to evaluate the migration of Co and Sb from the plastic into the food simulant. The possible sources of the toxic elements in plastic materials and the advantages of radiometric method in the migration evaluation are discussed. (author)

  15. Preliminary evaluation of radionuclides incorporation in biocompatible and biodegradable seeds; Avaliacao preliminar da incorporacao de radionuclideos em sementes biocompativeis e biodegradaveis

    Roberto, Wanderley dos Santos [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Ouro Preto (CEFET-OP), MG (Brazil); Pereira, Marivalda M.; Campos, Tarcisio P.R. de [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear


    The present work aims the development of radioactive seeds, biocompatible and biodegradable, with the objective of adding options in the cancer treatment. The work focus on the production of seeds biodegradable that incorporate radioisotopes with half life inferior than the degradation time of the material. The idea of producing devices with biodegradable materials impregnated with radioisotopes of short half life will offer new possibilities in the cancer treatment, since they can be used following the same procedures of the permanent interstitial brachytherapy, but using degradable materials compatible with the physiological environment. It will be discussed in particular the possible application of these seeds in the treatment of prostate cancer. A review of the subject and a preliminary evaluation of the viability of production of the seeds will be presented. The method of production of the seeds is based on the incorporation of Iodine and Samarium in glass matrixes obtained by sol-gel processing, XRF, and was done in the samples produced and the incorporation of Iodine and Samarium atoms was confirmed. (author)

  16. Density evaluation by computerized tomography in plain soils over different manipulation systems; Avaliacao da densidade pelo metodo da tomografia computadorizada de um planossolo sob diferentes sistemas de manejo

    Pedrotti, Alceu [Lavras Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencia do Solo; Pauletto, Eloy Antonio [Pelotas Univ., RS (Brazil). Dept. de Solos; Crestana, Silvio [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria (EMBRAPA), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Centro Nacional de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento de Instrumentacao Agropecuaria (CNPDIA)


    The objective of this paper is the evaluation of a plain soil density in different culture systems determined by X ray computerized tomography.It was observed a larger variation in densities in soils profiles analysed. The identification of layers is better utilising computerized tomography than others technic 1 fig.

  17. Importance of critical evaluation in quality control of scintillation cameras;Importancia da avaliacao criteriosa no controle de qualidade de camaras de cintilacao

    Menezes, V.O.; Machado, M.A.D.; Sampaio, L.J.L.; Silva, D.C. [Hospital Sao Rafael, Salvador, BR (Brazil)


    The evaluation of quality control results in nuclear medicine must be performed with a critical view over the conditions the tests are executed. This paper is a result of observations in the routine quality control where we set up didactic 'findings' to show the importance of evaluating critical situations while executing the procedures. (author)

  18. Evaluation of technological alternative for low emission gasoline in PETROBRAS; Avaliacao de alternativas tecnologicas para gasolina de baixa emissao na PETROPBRAS

    Gilbert, William Richard [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Gerencia de Tecnologia de Catalisadores de FCC - TFCC


    More than 30% of the total NO and CO emitted to the atmosphere and up to 20% of the CO{sub 2} are produced by automobiles. New smart fuel injection systems and the three-way catalytic converter in the automobile tail pipes have dramatically reduced NO and CO emissions, but have also required a profound change in gasoline specifications, particularly in the case of sulfur content. In Brazil, the refining of Campos basin heavy crude oils with a high concentration of nitrogen and the gasoline production strongly dependent of the FCC process, have introduced additional challenges. In this work, classic solutions such as FCC feed hydrotreatment, cracked naphta post-treatment, and the use of FCC gasoline sulfur reduction catalyst additives applied to the PETROBRAS scenario will be discussed. Changes to the FCC process to produce future fuels with lower aromaticity and lower emissions in new HCCI motors, which have hybrid characteristics between Diesel and Otto power-trains will also be discussed. (author)

  19. Helical computed tomography of the paranasal sinuses in children: evaluation of sinus inflammatory diseases; Tomografia computadorizada helicoidal dos seios paranasais na crianca: avaliacao das sinusopatias inflamatorias

    Dutra, Luiz Dias [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia; Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia]. E-mail:


    We conducted a retrospective analysis of 71 selected pediatric patients, aged 1 to 7 years, which were submitted to helical computed tomography examination of the paranasal sinuses in the period between March, 1997 and April, 1998 due to recurrent acute sinusitis and chronic sinusitis. Clinical and helical computed tomography findings were compared by evaluating the pneumatization of the paranasal sinuses, ostiomeatal complexes, anatomic variants, the status of mucosal surface and lesion extension. The most common CT findings were total or partial opacification of one or more paranasal cavities (92.9%), followed by mucosal thickening (67.6%). In the majority of cases there was association between sinusitis and ostiomeatal obstruction. Anatomic variants were identified from the age of one year. The most common anatomic variant was septonasal deviation (14.1%) that was associated to sinusitis in about 71% of the patients. (author)

  20. Structural evaluation using SAXS of polyurethanes modified with inorganic nanocomponents obtained from aqueous dispersions; Avaliacao estrutural via SAXS de poliuretanos derivados de dispersoes aquosas modificados com nanocomponentes inorganicos

    Ayres, Eliane; Orefice, Rodrigo L.; Mansur, Herman S. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Metalurgica e de Materiais]. E-mail:


    The main goal of this work was to evaluate how the structure of polyurethanes (PU) is modified when inorganic nanocomponents are introduced. Nanocomponents in the form of nanoparticles derived from clay minerals were used to modify the nanostructure of PU. Two different experimental procedures were used to produce PU nanocomposites: mixing the nanoparticles within the PU prepolymer before curing; preparing an aqueous dispersion of PU containing also the dispersed nanoparticles. The obtained nanocomposites were characterized by small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). SAXS results showed that the incorporation of inorganic species into PU by using the aqueous dispersion yielded nanocomposites with nanocomponents intercalated to larger distances and exfoliated. On the other hand, materials derived from the insertion of the nanoparticles within the pre-polymer showed structures very similar to the ones related to the native clays. (author)

  1. Combustion process evaluation in Diesel engines using the Second law analysis; Avaliacao do processo de combustao em motores diesel usando analise de segunda lei

    Alegre, Jose Velasquez; Milanez, Luiz Fernando [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia


    Exergy balance equations are applied to a thermodynamic model in order to evaluate the combustion process for diesel engines. Thermomechanical and chemical availabilities are determined as well as the irreversibility produced. Finally the model is used to analyze experimental data obtained for a single cylinder diesel engine, at full load condition. (author) 14 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Evaluation of ultrasonic technique to characterize the concentration of boric acid in liquid medium; Avaliacao de tecnica ultrassonica para medida de concentracao de acido borico em meio liquido

    Kohara, Richard Yuzo Ramida


    This dissertation is to analyze the viability of using ultrasonic technique to characterize the concentration of boric acid in liquid medium non-invasively, therefore, ultrasonic tests were performed relating different boric acid concentrations with the travel time of the ultrasonic wave, also were evaluated factors able to mask the characterization of these concentrations by ultrasonic technique. The results showed that the ultrasonic technique allows the characterization of boric acid concentrations in liquid medium in very simple terms by the ultrasonic wave travel time, requiring further studies in complex conditions. (author)

  3. Dosimetric evaluation in mammary glands radiotherapy using expansive prosthesis with magnetic valve; Avaliacao dosimetrica de tratamentos de radioterapia de mama usando proteses expansivas com valvula magnetica

    Lizar, J.C.; Pavoni, J.F.; Baffa, O. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto (Brazil); Krutman, Y. [Rabin Medical Center (RMC), (Israel)


    This work aims to verify the influence on dose distribution that the expansive prosthesis (SILIMED/470), containing a magnetic valve, generates in radiotherapy postoperative treatment of patients who have undergone mastectomy. (author)

  4. Evaluation of the repeatability of dosimetric parameters of a linear accelerator beam; Avaliacao da repetibilidade de parametros dosimetricos do feixe de um acelerador linear

    Morelli, Humberto A.S.; Oliveira, Harley F. de; Silva, Maelson do N.; Pavoni, Juliana F., E-mail: [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Servico de Radioterapia


    This study aims to evaluate the repeatability of symmetry and flatness of the photon beam of 6 MV linear accelerator Oncor Impression, Siemens, from the Radiotherapy Department of the Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirao Preto - USP. In total they were collected 102 measures, weekly, through two-dimensional detector of ionization chambers, Matrixx Evolution, IBA Dosimetry, connected to a computer with software OmniProI'mrt. The isocenter of the linear accelerator was placed in the center of the sensitive volume of the detector with solid water plates above and below these. Data were collected with 100 UM, with field size 10 x 10 cm². The flatness and symmetry values were calculated by the software used. The first measurement of this work was used as reference, the others were compared with it, taking into account the values of permissible variation for these parameters. The minimum, maximum and average value were analyzed. The literature indicates that the flatness and symmetry values should not vary by more than 2 and 3%, respectively. The results of this work show that the values of these parameters for the linear accelerator study are within the permissible variations in protocols and are therefore able to appropriate clinical use. (author)

  5. Impact evaluation of distributed generation on distribution networks due to reclosing operations; Avaliacao do impacto de geracao distribuida em sistemas de distribuicao devido a operacoes de religamento

    Almeida, Carlos Frederico Meschini; Kagan, Nelson [Universidade de Sao Paulo (ENERQ/USP), SP (Brazil). Centro de Estudos em Regulacao e Qualidade de Energia], Emails:,; Arefifar, Seyed Ali; Xu, Wilsun [University of Alberta (Canada)], Emails:,


    This paper investigates the impact of Distributed Generators (DG) re-closing inrush current on the power distribution system. The current is compared with the fault current of the supply system to determine if an asynchronous reclosing of DG will affect the power distribution system. For this purpose, a model of a power distribution feeder has been developed using PSCAD/EMTP and several simulations were carried out varying the size of the DG. Finally an analytical formula is developed to determine the maximum DG size that can be connected to the system without leading to excessive synchronization current for the utility. (author)

  6. Evaluation of a wood chipping system for eucalyptus tops for energy; Avaliacao de um sistema de cavaqueamento de ponteiras de eucalipto para aproveitamento energetico

    Canto, Juliana Lorensi do [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Machado, Carlos Cardoso; Souza, Amaury Paulo de; Sant' Anna, Cleverson de Mello [Departamento de Engenharia Florestal da Universidade Federal de Vicosa, UFV, MG (Brazil)], E-mails:,,; Seixas, Fernando [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz, ESALQ], E-mail:


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance and to estimate costs of a wood chipping system for tree tops, which are considered residuals from wood harvesting, to be used for energy. The study was developed in a forest industry in the Para State, located in the north region of Brazil. The system was comprised by one wood chipper, two forwarders and one front loader. Data collection was based on time study, fuel consumption and chips load weighting. System average productivity was 17.51 tonnes per effective hour. Machine utilization rate was 51.9% due to many delays, mainly for repair and maintenance of the chipper. Chips transportation was considered to be the critical point of the system, due to some lack of trucks available for blowing chips. The system can produce between 94 and 162 times more energy than the energy consumed. System cost per effective hour was R$ 376.56, which means R$ 21.51/tonne of chips or R$ 2.70/G J. (author)

  7. Evaluation of emissions in gas powered electric generator engine with vegetable oil; Avaliacao das emissoes de gases em motor gerador eletrico alimentado com oleo vegetal

    Oliveira, Thalita C. de; Cunha, Joao Paulo Barreto; Cotrim, Suzane Santana; Brito, Gustavo Mendes; Delmond, Josue Gomes [Universidade Estadual de Goias (UNUCET/UEG), Anapolis, GO (Brazil). Unidade Universitaria de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas], E-mail:


    The use of vegetable oils as fuel in diesel engines is a good alternative to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere from the use of fossil fuels, either in pure form or as biodiesel. The soybean, oilseed single high-availability in Brazil, is the most viable feedstock for the production of oil and its use as a fuel because of the structure of production, distribution and grain crushing. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of a duty diesel generator fueled with blends of diesel and soybean oil at concentrations of 10%, 25%, 50% and 75%, and soybean oil pure, 100%. During the tests we evaluated the energy consumption of the generator and the emission of greenhouse gases (O{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2}), according to the demand of electric charges (0, 500, 1000, 1500 and 2000 Watts) connected to the group generator. The results, using the F test, showed that the hourly consumption of fuel increased with increasing concentration in the mixture of diesel fuel and engine load demand from the generator. It follows that in the environment, increasing the oil concentration in the mixture caused a reduction in emissions, except for the emission of oxygen. The best choice for the operation for the engine generator using vegetable oil soya be provided for up to 60 % oil in the mixture and load demand up to 1000W, in which occurred lower emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) and therefore improved efficiency in the combustion process. (author)

  8. Evaluation of morphological changes of the skin after radiation-induced injury in Wistar rats;Avaliacao de alteracoes morfologicas da pele apos lesao radioinduzida em ratos Wistar

    Andrade, Cherley Borba Vieira de


    The cancer covers a heterogeneous group of more than 100 diseases with different etiology and prognosis. Radiotherapy is one of the most commonly used treatment modalities, aiming at the destruction of cancer cells, using ionizing radiation. One of the limiting factors of radiotherapy is that radiation promotes the death of tumor cells in addition to injure healthy tissue neighboring the tumor, and may cause their death. Irradiation of the skin, accidental or for therapeutic purposes can trigger many injuries culminating in fibrosis, which implies functional alteration of the body. The evaluation of morphological effects associated with skin irradiation becomes essential to develop more effective radiation strategies and decreased morbidity; and in case of accidents, proper handling of the victim.Evaluate radio-induced dermal changes using a Wistar rats model irradiated with 10, 40 and 60Gy. Male Wistar rats, aged approximately three months, were pre-anesthetized with midazolam and xylazine and anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital, shaved in the back, immobilized on polystyrene support in the prone position and irradiated with doses of 10, 40 and 60 Gy, with 4MeV nominal energy electron beams. The skin was irradiated in a 3cm{sup 2} field, and used 0.5cm of tissue equivalent material, to obtain a homogeneous dose distribution. After irradiation, the animals remained on constant evaluation, and the lesions were recorded photographically. The animals were divided into groups and were killed on the irradiation day, 5, 10, 15, 25 and 100 days after irradiation. The skin was fixed in 10% formaldehyde; the samples were embedded in paraffin and cut. The sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, picrosirius red and immuno stained with antibody anti-TGF beta1. Another part of the tissue was fixed in 2.5% glutaraldehyde and processed for scanning electron microscopy. It was observed macroscopically the appearance of skin lesions similar to burns on the entire irradiated area. The optical microscope verified the early development of lesions in the 5 days group. After 10 days of irradiation it was already possible to see evidences of epidermal healing under the crust formed by the lesion. At 15 days after irradiation the tissue beneath the lesion had reconstructed epidermis. It was also observed the characteristics of tissue healing. It was also seen a significant polymorphonuclear cells infiltration. After 25 days at the higher doses the lesions remained, which did not occur at the lower dose, where the irradiated area of the animals were already completely healed. After 100 days of irradiation at 40Gy dose the wound was healed with the emergence of a well defined healed tissue. At the 60Gy dose, the lesion persisted in some animals, and in those that healing occurred the epidermis was a hypertrophied (acanthosis). It was visualized a tissue with their morphological aspect completely mis characterized, where it's possible to view a necrotic tissue. The results of the scanning electron microscopy analysis corroborate with the in optical microscopy findings, where it's possible to visualize the distortion of collagen fibers at the higher dosages. The results indicate that the used doses induced an important skin inflammatory process, activating the immune system. This fact leads to an increase in the expression of TGF beta1, one of the responsible for the increased production of extracellular matrix (ECM) by various cell types, mainly fibroblasts in injured tissues. Besides the increased expression of ECM, the TGF beta1 also promotes the inhibition of the degradation processes of the same. The intense expression of cytokines in irradiated skin can trigger the fibrosis process; consequently, affect the homeostasis of this organ due to the accumulation of ECM. (author)

  9. Evaluation of thermoplastic starch/MMT nanocomposites by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR); Avaliacao de nanocompositos de amido termoplastico e argila por RMN

    Schlemmer, D.; Rodrigues, Tiago C.A.F.; Resck, I.S.; Sales, M.J.A., E-mail: danielas@unb.b [Universidade de Brasilia (LabPol/UnB), DF (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Lab. de Pesquisa em Polimeros


    Starch has been studied for replace petrochemical plastics for short shelf life. However, the starch films have limitations: sensitivity to moisture and poor mechanical strength. This can be improved by incorporating loads such as montmorillonite, forming nanocomposites. Nanocomposites were prepared with 1, 3, 5 and 10% of montmorillonite, using vegetable oils of Brazilian Cerrado as plasticizers. The NMR spectra of oils are similar, but the intensities of the signals varying with the proportion of fatty acids. The molar mass of the oils was also calculated by NMR. The spectrum of CP/MAS {sup 13}C NMR for starch presented a duplet in 97 and 98 ppm, on the amorphous domains of C-1, indicating a crystal type A. The spectra of the nanocomposites are similar to those of starch and oils. No new peaks appear, suggesting that there are no strong chemical bonds between components. (author)

  10. Evaluation of average glandular dose in digital and conventional systems of the mammography; Avaliacao da dose glandular media em sistemas digitais e convencionais de mamografia

    Xavier, Aline C.S.; Barros, Vinicius S.M.; Khoury, Hellen J., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear; Mello, Francisca A. de, E-mail: [Hospital das Clinicas do Recife (HCR/UFPE), PE (Brazil)


    Mammography is currently the most effective method of diagnosis and detection of breast pathologies. The main interest in this kid of exam comes from the high incidence rate of breast cancer and necessity of high quality images for accurate diagnosis. Digital mammography systems have several advantages compared to conventional systems, however the use of digital imaging systems is not always integrated to an image acquisition protocol. Therefore, it is questionable if digital systems truly reduce the dose received by the patient, because many times is introduced in the clinics without optimization of the image acquisition protocols. The aim of this study is to estimate the value of incident air Kerma and average glandular dose (AGD) in patients undergoing conventional and digital mammography systems in Recife. This study was conducted with 650 patients in three hospitals. The value of incident air Kerma was estimated from the measurement of the yield of equipment and irradiation parameters used for each patient. From these results and using the methodology proposed by Dance et al. the value of the average glandular dose was calculated. The results obtained show that the lowest value of AGD was found with conventional screen-film system, indicating that the parameters for image acquisition with digital systems are not optimized. It was also observed that the institutions with digital systems use lower breast compression values than the conventional. (author)

  11. Assesment of the behavior of chitosan emulsions in the treatment of oily waters; Avaliacao do comportamento de emulsoes de quitosana no tratamento de aguas oleosas

    Grem, Izabel Cristina S.; Almeida, Sarah M.; Queiros, Yure G.C.; Mansur, Claudia R.E. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro/ Instituto de Macromoleculas/Laboratorio de Macromoleculas e Coloides na Industria de Petroleo, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mails:,,


    Chitosan, due to the presence of amino and hydroxyl groups in its structure has been applied in different fields, but the use of chitosan in the treatment of oily waters is still a subject rarely addressed. Thus, emulsions of chitosan solutions in hexane or water were prepared and their behavior were evaluated in reducing the oil content in synthetic oily waters. Experimental results obtained in this initial study showed that the emulsions prepared were effective in oil removal of treated water. Moreover, we observed that this efficiency seems to be related to the droplets size distribution of chitosan solution dispersed in the nanoemulsions. (author)

  12. Synthesis and antimicrobial activities of new 4-thiazolidones derived from formipyridine thiosemicarbazones; Sintese e avaliacao da atividade antimicrobiana de novas 4-tiazolidinonas obtidas a partir de formilpiridina tiossemicarbazonas

    Vercoza, George Leonardo; Feitoza, Danniel Delmondes; Alves, Antonio Jose; Aquino, Thiago Mendonca de; Lima, Jose Gildo de [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas], e-mail:; Araujo, Janete Magali; Cunha, Ivana Glaucia B.; Goes, Alexandre Jose da Silva [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Antibioticos


    Twelve novel 4-thiazolidinone derivatives (2a-l) have been synthesized by reacting formylpyridine thiosemicarbazones (1a-l) and anhydride maleic in toluene. Their chemical structures were confirmed by IR, {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR. The new compounds were submitted to in vitro evaluation against pathogenic Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria and yeasts. The findings obtained showed that the compounds 2a, 2d, 2e and 2g were effective against some of the bacterial strains used, whereas the compounds 2d, 2e and 2i exhibited a moderate antifungal activity against the yeast strains evaluated. An initial structure activity relationship (SAR) was established. (author)

  13. Synthesis and preliminary evaluation of antinociceptive activity of novel isoxazolyl-aryl-hydrazones; Sintese e avaliacao preliminar de atividade antinociceptiva de novas isoxazolil-aril-hidrazonas

    Reis, Silvio Leandro Goncalves Bomfim; Almeida, Valderes Moraes de; Almeida, Gleybson Correia de; Boaviagem, Karinna Moura; Mendes, Charles Christophe du Barriere; Faria, Antonio Rodolfo de, E-mail: rodolfo@ufpe.b [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas; Goes, Alexandre Jose da Silva; Magalhaes, Laudelina Rodrigues; Silva, Teresinha Goncalves da [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Antibioticos


    New 2-isoxazoline aldehydes were synthesized, in good yields, from cycloadduct of the 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction between endocyclic enecarbamate and carboethoxyformonitrile oxide (CEFNO). Condensation of these 2-isoxazoline aldehydes with several phenyl-hydrazines produced new isoxazolyl-aryl-hydrazones, which showed low toxicity and excellent antinociceptive activity, when compared to dipyrone. The antinociceptive activity of isoxazolyl-aryl-hydrazones was performed using the acetic acid-induced mice abdominal constrictions test. (author)

  14. Impact limiters for radioactive materials transport packagings: a methodology for assessment; Amortecedores de impacto em embalagens para transporte de materiais radioativos: uma metodologia para sua avaliacao

    Mourao, Rogerio Pimenta


    This work aims at establishing a methodology for design assessment of a cellular material-filled impact limiter to be used as part of a radioactive material transport packaging. This methodology comprises the selection of the cellular material, its structural characterization by mechanical tests, the development of a case study in the nuclear field, preliminary determination of the best cellular material density for the case study, performance of the case and its numerical simulation using the finite element method. Among the several materials used as shock absorbers in packagings, the polyurethane foam was chosen, particularly the foam obtained from the castor oil plant (Ricinus communis), a non-polluting and renewable source. The case study carried out was the 9 m drop test of a package prototype containing radioactive wastes incorporated in a cement matrix, considered one of the most severe tests prescribed by the Brazilian and international transport standards. Prototypes with foam density pre-determined as ideal as well as prototypes using lighter and heavier foams were tested for comparison. The results obtained validate the methodology in that expectations regarding the ideal foam density were confirmed by the drop tests and the numerical simulation. (author)

  15. Evaluation of occupational exposure during the exploration and physical processing of monazite; Avaliacao das exposicoes ocupacionais durante as etapas de exploracao e beneficiamento fisico da monazita

    Farias, Joao Torres de


    In Brazil the most important concentrations of monazite sands occur in the beaches and sandbanks that extend throughout the coast, from the State of Rio Grande do Norte down to the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Nowadays, the most important Brazilian monazite concentrations - considered as being the fourth worldwide reservoir of rare-earth elements - are located at the north seacoast of the State of Rio de Janeiro, near Buena town. At this location the Brazilian Nuclear Industries - INB - manages an industrial complex for prospecting, mining and physical separation and concentration of monazite sands. Among the elements present at the monazite sands there are the radioelements thorium and uranium, which make the monazite sand a radioactive mineral. Monazite is constituted basically of 62% in TR{sub 2}0{sub 3} (rare-earth oxides), 5,5% of thorium in Th0{sub 2} (thorium oxide) and 0,25% of uranium in U{sub 3}0{sub 8} (uranium oxide). The general objective of the present work was to estimate the occupational doses at the industrial complex for prospecting, mining and physical separation and concentration of monazite sands located at Buena, at the north of the State of Rio de Janeiro. The occupational exposures occur mainly through the inhalation of airbone dust particles of mineraIs containing thorium and uranium, during the prospection and physical separation and concentration of monazite. To evaluate the impact of the occupational exposures during the physical separation and concentration of monazite, it was necessary to evaluate the effective equivalent doses due to thorium contamination of the air and the exposures due to the daughter radionuclides from the natural series of uranium and thorium. The results obtained at the present work showed that, although occupational doses are within the annual dose limits established by the Brazilian regulatory authority - CNEN - in some of the working places within the industrial complex the concentrations of radionuclides in air are above the maximum recommended levels. (author)

  16. Enzymes evaluation for the polymeric filter cake removal; Avaliacao de enzimas para remocao de reboco formado por fluidos polimericos de base agua

    Kameda, Etel; Coelho, Maria Alice Z. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica; Langone, Marta A.P. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Queiroz Neto, Joao C. de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)


    In the drilling wells in horizontal or complex configurations, the drilling fluid contact with the productive zone can reduce the productivity by fluid invasion in the borehole wall. Drilling fluids usually comprise natural polymers as starch and xanthan gum. These polymers are deposited as the filter-cake on the wellbore wall. A common approach to remove this filter-cake is the application of acids or strong oxidative solutions. However, these are non-specific species which will react with any encountered that is acid soluble or oxidizable. An alternative is the use of enzymatic preparations that are able to hydrolyze such polymers. The enzymes catalyze only certain specific substrates, are inherently environmentally friendly, the enzymatic degradation rate is slower than that achieved by the oxidative species, so the enzymes produces an uniform filter cake degradation. In this work, the kinetic behaviors of an enzymatic filter-cake breaker and a commercial thermo stable enzymatic complex were analyzed. Both kinetic profiles were very similar, as well as its electrophoresis analysis. The protein in each product showed identical molecular weight. The commercial enzymatic complex stability remained 58.56% of enzymatic activity after 30 days at 40 deg C. Stability at wellbore conditions can be considered similar for both products. At 65 deg C they showed the same enzymatic activity after 8 hours. After 3 hours at 80 deg C, the commercial enzymatic complex remained 29.89% of the initial activity and the filter-cake breaker 61.73%, while at 95 deg C remained 4.39% and 11.60% of the initial activity, respectively, after 15 minutes. (author)

  17. Evaluation of polymers with drag reduction potential used in drilling fluids; Avaliacao de polimeros com potencial de reducao de arraste usado em fluidos de perfuracao

    Ferreira, Marcus V.D.; Costa, Francileide G. da [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES)]. E-mail:; Lopes, Lea; Figueiredo, Marcos S.; Lucas, Elizabete F. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas]. E-mail:


    The employment of linear chain polymers with high molecular weight in fluids as drag reducers became a current practice in the chemical industry. The petroleum industry presents several potential applications for drag reducers. Although some commercial products are available for specific applications, the major drag reduction mechanisms are, still unknown nowadays, despite of several theories about the phenomena. The aim of this work is to evaluate the rheological behavior of partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (PHPA) and xanthan and diu tan gums solutions that have drag reduction characteristics. It is expected that these polymers present a good drag reduction potential. All these polymers will be evaluated as drag reducers in a pressure drop flow loop. The final step is to correlate drag reduction tendency with rheological properties and molecular structure. (author)

  18. Evaluation of the toxicity of fluids employed in the metallic tool industrial machining using aquatic ecotoxicology;Avaliacao da toxicidade de fluidos de usinagem atraves da ecotoxicologia aquatica

    Coelho, Ricardo dos Santos


    Eco toxicological analyses have being used to monitor environmental samples, industrial effluents and complex substances. With the objective to analyze the toxicity of cutting fluids used in the machinery industry, acute toxicity test with species of three different trophic levels: Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia similis, Daphnia laevis e Danio rerio, were performing. The samples of fluids were analyzed by COD, phenol, pH, color, density and surfactants. The physical and chemical parameters are the according with the brazilian law, CONAMA 357 (D.O.U. 2005). The results of the toxicity tests showed that the cutting fluids have high toxicity to the organisms used in this study and the gamma radiation treatment was not efficient to decrease the matrix. The biodegradation in soil demonstrated be effective to the cutting fluids and the indigenous bacteria were identified and isolated to possible treatment of soils contaminated with these kinds of substances. The monitoring and management of residues of cutting fluids are necessary to preservation of aquatic live, in consequence of their high toxicity. (author)

  19. Silicone fluids intercalation into montmorillonite clay. SAXS/WAXD morphological evaluation; Intercalacao de fluidos de silicona em argila montmorillonita. Avaliacao morfologica por SAXS/WAXD

    Kaneko, Manuela L.Q.A.; Yoshida, Inez Valeria P. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail:;; Torriani, Iris [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica Gleb Wataglin; Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS), Campinas, SP (Brazil)


    The morphological aspects related to the intercalation of three different silicone fluids into montmorillonite clay (MMT) were investigated by small and wide angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXD). The MMT dispersions prepared with the different silicone fluids showed an intercalated morphology. The extent of intercalation into the gallery, swelling and orientation of the platelets varied according to the nature of the silicone fluid. Particle thickness of 78 and 63 Angstrom for some of the silicone/MMT dispersions was calculated from the X-ray scattering profiles. (author)

  20. Liver and spleen magnetic resonance imaging evaluation in patients with chronic Schistosoma mansoni infection; Avaliacao hepatica e esplenica por ressonancia magnetica em pacientes portadores de esquitossomose mansonica cronica

    Bezerra, Alexandre Sergio de Araujo; D' Ippolito, Giuseppe; Caldana, Rogerio Pedreschi; Cecin, Alexandre Oliveira; Szejnfeld, Jacob [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (UNIFESP/EPM), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem]. E-mail:


    The objective was to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate the morphological changes of the liver and spleen using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with chronic infection by Schistosoma mansoni and the reproducibility of MRI findings in the hepatosplenic evaluation of these patients. We prospectively studied 28 schistosomiasis patients submitted to MRI of the upper abdomen. The scans were performed using a high field equipment (1.5 T), a body coil and a power injector for administration of intravenous contrast. The scans were interpreted by two independent examiners who evaluated the presence of morphological changes in the liver and spleen. Interobserver and intra observer agreement were measured using the kappa and intra class correlation tests. The results showed qualitative variables presenting good interobserver and intra observer agreement ({kappa} {>=} 0.65 and r {>=} 0.66, respectively). The best interobserver agreement was for the anteroposterior diameter of the spleen (r = 0.98). The observers identified reduction of the right hepatic lobe, enlargement of the left hepatic lobe and caudate lobes associated with splenomegaly in almost all patients, and also identified fissure widening, heterogeneity of hepatic parenchyma, irregularity of hepatic contours, presence of peripheral hepatic vessels and peri portal fibrosis in almost all patients. Hepatic morphological changes are characterized by reduction of the right lobe and enlargement of the caudate and left lobes, and morphological changes in the spleen are characterized by the presence of splenomegaly and siderotic nodules. MRI presents high reproducibility for the evaluation of these changes in patients with chronic infection by Schistosoma mansoni. (author)

  1. Evaluation of differential risk of arrest of drilling and polymeric fluids; Avaliacao do risco de prisao diferencial de fluidos de perfuracao hidroargilosos e polimericos

    Sarmento, L.R.B.; Lira, D.S.; Nascimento, R.C.A.M.; Amorim, L.V. [Universidadde Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil)], Email:


    This work evaluates the risk of differential sticking (DS) of clay and water based drilling fluids, before and after adding polymer and lubricant additives, and polymeric fluids. From the results, it was concluded that the addition of lubricant to the clay and water based fluids reduces the torque necessary to free the pipes that are stuck by differential pressure, as for the polymeric fluids presented the lowest filtration losses, cake thickness, differential sticking coefficient and DS risk. (author)

  2. Occupational exposure prevention program to oil and gas industry; Antecipacao, reconhecimento, avaliacao e controle dos riscos ambientais em uma planta de petroleo e gas

    Moraes, Paulo Sergio de [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Palierini, Renato Martins [TWA Brasil, Sao Caetano do Sul, SP (Brazil)


    PETROBRAS/TRANSPETRO Pipelines and Terminals have 500 regular employees and 5.064 out sourced workers in its Southeast Division. The out sourced employees work under 125 contracts involving a wide range of activities such as maintenance, pipeline operation, pipeline launching, engineering, administrative and auxiliary services. Among these workers, 1.200 peoples are subjected to occupational exposure, which may be present in the industrial process or in the products transported in our pipelines, e.g. industrial noise, sulfidric gas, toluene, xylene and benzene (recognized as a carcinogen according to ACGIH and Brazilian Ministry of Labour). Our PPRA (acronym in Portuguese for Occupational Exposure Prevention Program) involves the workforce and fosters health by anticipation, recognition, evaluation and control of the situations that may result in injuries. Further actions include the procurement of equipment for detection of these agents not only in the air but also diluted in liquids and the introduction of state-of the- art technologies for a better process control. The priority is the acquisition of equipment for collective protection not forgetting the individual protection equipment (IPE) and the required training. Implementation of this program counted on the effective involvement of the managers, contract supervisors and HSE professionals whose main task was to advise all involved parts on the use the Risk Analysis Methods tailored for Occupational Hygiene. Furthermore, these information will be used in a info system called SD-2000 that will gather and compare Health, Hygiene e Human Resources data in order to support the professional in the management and decision making process. (author)

  3. Evaluation of the impacts of the gas aid program in Sao Paulo state, Brazil; Avaliacao dos impactos do programa do auxilio-gas no estado de Sao Paulo

    Guimaraes, Thiago Pamplona [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FEARP-USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Economia, Administracao e Contabilidade; Anuatti Neto, Francisco [Universidade de Sao Paulo (PIPGE/USP), SP (Brazil). Programa Interunidades de Pos-Graduacao em Energia


    The objective of this article is to evaluate the coverage and the economic impact of the Federal Government Program Aid Gas (Auxilio Gas) , started in the year of 2002. The evaluation covers only the state of Sao Paulo, using as source the Research of Familiar Budgets of IBGE 2002/2003. To evaluate the coverage of 'Aid-Gas' the targeted population is compared with the population that effectively received the benefit. To evaluate the economic impact of the program a test of significance of dummy variable that differentiate weight gas consumption on income for those attended by the program, controlled by Working-Leser function that models the covariates of gas expenses. A low coverage of the program was evidenced, only 32,098 families had received the benefit (4,01%) out of 786.929 families targeted group, those with per capita income was inferior the half minimum wage. The economic impact had mixed results. In one hand program beneficiaries would spend a larger percentage of income with gas consumption than those not reached; on the other hand, they would have access larger quantities of the product. If the food consumption and the gas consumption are correlated, and the families not benefited by the program are rationed, it is possible to confirm that the introduction of the program would increase welfare of families. (author)

  4. Evaluation of a special pencil ionization chamber by the Monte Carlo method; Avaliacao de uma camara de ionizacao tipo lapis especial pelo metodo de Monte Carlo

    Mendonca, Dalila; Neves, Lucio P.; Perini, Ana P., E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (INFIS/UFU), Uberlandia, MG (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica; Santos, William S.; Caldas, Linda V.E. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleres (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    A special pencil type ionization chamber, developed at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, was characterized by means of Monte Carlo simulation to determine the influence of its components on its response. The main differences between this ionization chamber and commercial ionization chambers are related to its configuration and constituent materials. The simulations were made employing the MCNP-4C Monte Carlo code. The highest influence was obtained for the body of PMMA: 7.0%. (author)

  5. Evaluation of performance of electronic dosimeters for individual monitoring: tests in laboratory; Avaliacao do desempenho de dosimetros eletronicos para monitoracao individual: testes em laboratorio

    Garzon, W.J.; Khoury, H.J.; Barros, V.S.M. de, E-mail: [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife (Brazil). Departamento de Energia Nuclear. Laboratorio de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes; Medeiros, R.B. [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Diagnostico por Imagem


    Electronic dosimeters based on direct ion storage technology are being widely used in many countries for individual monitoring in many applications of ionizing radiation. However, their use as routine dosimeter has been established in a few countries due to lack of accreditation or intercomparison programs. The objective of this study is to evaluate the performance of two direct íon storage dosimeters model available in the international market: the Miriom-Instadose-1 and RADOS DIS-1 to be eventually accepted for individual monitoring in Brazil. (author)

  6. Evaluation of occupational exposure in interventionist procedures using Monte Carlo Method; Avaliacao das exposicoes dos envolvidos em procedimentos intervencionistas usando metodo Monte Carlo

    Santos, William S.; Neves, Lucio P.; Perini, Ana P.; Caldas, Linda V.E., E-mail: [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Belinato, Walmir; Maia, Ana F. [Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil). Departamento de Fisica


    This study presents a computational model of exposure for a patient, cardiologist and nurse in a typical scenario of cardiac interventional procedures. In this case a set of conversion coefficient (CC) for effective dose (E) in terms of kerma-area product (KAP) for all individuals involved using seven different energy spectra and eight beam projections. The CC was also calculated for the entrance skin dose (ESD) normalized to the PKA for the patient. All individuals were represented by anthropomorphic phantoms incorporated in a radiation transport code based on Monte Carlo simulation. (author)

  7. Evaluation of occupational dose from the special procedures guided by fluoroscopy: cardiac catheterism; Avaliacao da dose ocupacional oriunda dos procedimentos especiais guiados por fluoroscopia: cateterismo cardiaco

    Silva, Amanda Juliene da


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dose received by health professionals in the hemodynamic sector of a university hospital in Sao Paulo city. A self-applied questionnaire was used to delineate the profile of health professionals, taking into account sociodemographic variables and variables related to the work with ionizing radiation. The assessment of occupational doses was performed by consulting of the individual dose records of the institution database from 2000 to 2009. A total of 240 records was evaluated, corresponding to 38 active professionals (2009), divided in different professional category: physician, nurses, radiologic technologists and nursing assistants. The annual doses were compared with the limits established by national regulatory authorities. Based on the effective doses received and recorded during the studied period, experimental measures were performed with TL dosimeters in five physicians to evaluate the equivalent dose, in the left hand, during hemodynamic procedures. In addition, the radioprotection measures adopted by health professionals were verified. This study allowed delineating the profile of medical staff that integrates the hemodynamic service as well as knowing the distribution of their doses in relation to limits over the years. (author)

  8. The Protium heptaphyllum resin: isolation, structural characterization and evaluation of thermal properties; Resina de Protium heptaphyllum: isolamento, caracterizacao estrutural e avaliacao das propriedades termicas

    Vieira Junior, Gerardo Magela; Souza, Cleide Maria Leite de; Chaves, Mariana Helena [Piaui Univ., Teresina, PI (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail:


    Three mixtures of triterpenes (maniladiol and breine; {alpha} and {beta}-amyrin; lupenone, {alpha} and {beta}-amyrinone) were isolated from Protium heptaphyllum March resin. The structural identification was based on NMR and mass spectrometry data. Lupenone, and {alpha} and {beta}-amyrinone were not reported before as constituents of this resin. The resin was submitted to methylation and acetylation reactions. The pure and derivatized resins and the mixtures (maniladiol and breine; {alpha} and {beta}-amyrin) were analyzed by TG and DSC. The TG curves revealed that the derivatization decreases the thermal stability of the resin. The DSC curves showed peaks that can be assigned to evaporation and phase transitions processes. (author)

  9. Performance evaluation on projects of energy efficiency of AES ELETROPAULO - indicators proposition; Avaliacao de desempenho de projetos do programa de eficiencia energetica da AES Eletropaulo - proposicao de indicadores

    Saidel, Marco Antonio; Gimenes, Andre Luiz Veiga; Braga, Lillian Kariny Queiroz Serra; Rangel, Paulo Jose da Silva Mourao; Sigoli, Jose Marcelo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia de Energia e Automacao Eletricas. Grupo de Energia; AES ELETROPAULO, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail:;;;;


    This work proposes a series of quality and performance indicators for quantitatively and qualitatively evaluation of Energy Efficiency of the Law 9991/2000, through a punctuation criterion, and to evaluate the performance of the Energy Service Companies (ESC), from the results of the projects presented and executed considering their final results related to presented proposals.

  10. Evaluation and analysis of the energetic efficiency of center pivot irrigation systems; Avaliacao e analise da eficiencia energetica na irrigacao em sistemas pivo central

    Lima, Aureo C. de [Universidade Federal da Grande Dourados (UFGD), Dourados, MS (Brazil). Unidade II], email:; Guimaraes Junior, Sebastiao C.; Camacho, Jose R. [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU), MG (Brazil). Nucleo de Energia Rural e Fontes Alternativas de Energia], emails:,; Fietz, Carlos R. [EMBRAPA Agropecuaria Oeste, Dourados, MS (Brazil)], email:


    With an irrigated area of approximately 710,500 ha in Brazil, it is possible to estimate an annual electricity consumption of 1,928 G Wh per year due to center pivot systems. Considering the need of optimization of the irrigated agricultural production, the energies that are dissipated in the suction pipes, water supply, lateral lines and sprinkler systems are analyzed in this study and an equation is proposed to determine the useful power of center pivot irrigation systems. Three center pivot systems located in Itamarati I (a Government settlement for the landless in the city of Ponta Pora, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil) were evaluated and measures of energetic efficiency were simulated in order to determine a viable economic configuration to meet the life span of the equipment. The systems were characterized by the energy use and results show that the average irrigation energetic efficiency may be raised from 14.9 to 25.9% leading to a possible reduction of R$ 118,800 per year over 7,200 ha, equivalent to 11% of the yearly expenses with electricity of the whole area. (author)

  11. Birds heater adaptation and performance using biogas as fuel; Avaliacao do desempenho de um aquecedor para aves adaptado para utilizar biogas como combustivel



    It was carried out a trial to evaluate the adaptation (injector diameter) and performance (biogas consumption and heating efficiency) of a heating adapted to burn biogas. It was tried a common heater, burning liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), operating with low gas pressure (28 cm water column), with calorific capacity of 5024 kJ/h and recommended for 500 birds. The heater was evaluated with the original fuel (LPG) without any modification in the gas injector and after adapting to biogas burning. Five injectors were evaluated with drillings of 1,0053; 1,5080; 1,5708; 1,7672 and 1,980 mm{sup 2}. It also was varied the biogas pressures in the heater entrance of 10, 12, 15, 17 and 20 cm of water column. Results showed that expressions for theoretical calculation and proposed parameters in the literature can be used for aviaries heaters adaptation. The adaptation is simple, indicating the viability for utilization of existing heaters in farms and in the market. Air temperatures were similar to the obtained with the original fuel (LPG). (author)

  12. Chemical modification of poly(vinyl alcohol): evaluation of hydrophilic/lipophilic balance; Poli(alcool vinilico) modificado com cadeias hidrocarbonicas: avaliacao do balanco hidrofilo/lipofilo

    Aranha, Isabele B.; Lucas, Elizabete F. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas Eloisa B. Mano]. E-mail:


    Poly(vinyl alcohol) terpolymers have been obtained by reaction of partially hydrolized poly(vinyl alcohol) with different acid chlorides. The objective is the preparation of polymers with slight differences in their hydrophilic/lipophilic balance and in the interfacial activities of their solutions. The chemical modifications were characterized by means of {sup 1}H NMR and the polymer properties were evaluated in terms of changes in solubility and surface tension. By chemical modification, polymers with low percentage of hydrophobic group were obtained. The water-soluble polymers obtained did not have the surface tension of their solutions altered. The solubility of the modified polymers decreased markedly, even with low contents of hydrophobic groups. (author)

  13. Residual stress evaluation and curvature behavior of aluminium 7050 peen forming processed; Avaliacao da tensao residual em aluminio 7050 conformado pelo processo peen forming

    Oliveira, R.R. de; Lima, N.B., E-mail: rolivier@ipen.b, E-mail: nblima@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Braga, A.P.V.; Goncalves, M., E-mail: anapaola@ipt.b, E-mail: mgoncalves@ipt.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas (IPT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    Shot peening is a superficial cold work process used to increase the fatigue life evaluated by residual stress measurements. The peen forming process is a variant of the shot peening process, where a curvature in the plate is obtained by the compression of the grains near to the surface. In this paper, the influence of the parameters such as: pressure of shot, ball shot size and thickness of aluminum 7050 samples with respect to residual stress profile and resulting arc height was studied. The evaluation of the residual stress profile was obtained by sin{sup 2} {Psi} method. (author)

  14. Performance evaluation of cast iron pipe for crude oil and salt water transportation; Avaliacao e desempenho de duto de aco fundido no transporte de petroleo com aguas salgadas

    Silva, Carlos Alexandre Martins da [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mainier, Fernando B. [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)


    The present paper aims to study and to evaluate the performance of casting iron pipe for transportation of salty and produced waters, presented in the oil industry, where salt contents ranging on very large values. The cast iron above mentioned has an yield strength of 23 kg/mm{sup 2}, tensile strength of de 46 kg/mm{sup 2} (minimum) and an elongation of 15%, and contents of some chemical alloys, such as Cr (0,8 -1,3 %), Mn (1,5 % max) and Si (1,%). Nevertheless it is an exploratory study, the dynamic tests of weight loss carried out in laboratory, with specimens machined from a used pipe piece, with salty solution (3,5 % NaCl) aerated media, has shown very promising results, enabling to qualify, satisfactorily, such material for using in transportation and transferring operations of fluids with a high salty contents, such as crude oil. (author)