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Sample records for rhodope metamorphic province

  1. Tracing high-pressure metamorphism in marbles: Phase relations in high-grade aluminous calcite-dolomite marbles from the Greek Rhodope massif in the system CaO-MgO-Al 2O 3-SiO 2-CO 2 and indications of prior aragonite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proyer, A.; Mposkos, E.; Baziotis, I.; Hoinkes, G.

    2008-08-01

    Four different types of parageneses of the minerals calcite, dolomite, diopside, forsterite, spinel, amphibole (pargasite), (Ti-)clinohumite and phlogopite were observed in calcite-dolomite marbles collected in the Kimi-Complex of the Rhodope Metamorphic Province (RMP). The presence of former aragonite can be inferred from carbonate inclusions, which, in combination with an analysis of phase relations in the simplified system CaO-MgO-Al 2O 3-SiO 2-CO 2 (CMAS-CO 2) show that the mineral assemblages preserved in these marbles most likely equilibrated at the aragonite-calcite transition, slightly below the coesite stability field, at ca. 720 °C, 25 kbar and aCO 2 ~ 0.01. The thermodynamic model predicts that no matter what activity of CO 2, garnet has to be present in aluminous calcite-dolomite-marble at UHP conditions.

  2. Kinematics of the southern Rhodope Core Complex (North Greece).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brun, J.P.; Sokoutis, D.

    2007-01-01

    The Southern Rhodope Core Complex is a wide metamorphic dome exhumed in the northern Aegean as a result of large-scale extension from mid-Eocene to mid-Miocene times. Its roughly triangular shape is bordered on the SW by the Jurassic and Cretaceous metamorphic units of the Serbo-Macedonian in the

  3. Metamorphers

    KAUST Repository

    Sorger, Johannes; Mindek, Peter; Rautek, Peter; Grö ller, Eduard; Johnson, Graham; Viola, Ivan

    2018-01-01

    In molecular biology, illustrative animations are used to convey complex biological phenomena to broad audiences. However, such animations have to be manually authored in 3D modeling software, a time consuming task that has to be repeated from scratch for every new data set, and requires a high level of expertise in illustration, animation, and biology. We therefore propose metamorphers: a set of operations for defining animation states as well as the transitions to them in the form of re-usable storytelling templates. The re-usability is two-fold. Firstly, due to their modular nature, metamorphers can be re-used in different combinations to create a wide range of animations. Secondly, due to their abstract nature, metamorphers can be re-used to re-create an intended animation for a wide range of compatible data sets. Metamorphers thereby mask the low-level complexity of explicit animation specifications by exploiting the inherent properties of the molecular data, such as the position, size, and hierarchy level of a semantic data subset. We demonstrate the re-usability of our technique based on the authoring and application of two animation use-cases to three molecular data sets.

  4. Metamorphers

    KAUST Repository

    Sorger, Johannes

    2018-01-18

    In molecular biology, illustrative animations are used to convey complex biological phenomena to broad audiences. However, such animations have to be manually authored in 3D modeling software, a time consuming task that has to be repeated from scratch for every new data set, and requires a high level of expertise in illustration, animation, and biology. We therefore propose metamorphers: a set of operations for defining animation states as well as the transitions to them in the form of re-usable storytelling templates. The re-usability is two-fold. Firstly, due to their modular nature, metamorphers can be re-used in different combinations to create a wide range of animations. Secondly, due to their abstract nature, metamorphers can be re-used to re-create an intended animation for a wide range of compatible data sets. Metamorphers thereby mask the low-level complexity of explicit animation specifications by exploiting the inherent properties of the molecular data, such as the position, size, and hierarchy level of a semantic data subset. We demonstrate the re-usability of our technique based on the authoring and application of two animation use-cases to three molecular data sets.

  5. Fore arc tectonothermal evolution of the El Oro metamorphic province (Ecuador) during the Mesozoic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riel, Nicolas; Martelat, Jean-Emmanuel; Guillot, Stéphane; Jaillard, Etienne; Monié, Patrick; Yuquilema, Jonatan; Duclaux, Guillaume; Mercier, Jonathan

    2014-10-01

    The El Oro metamorphic province of SW Ecuador is a composite massif made of juxtaposed terranes of both continental and oceanic affinity that has been located in a fore-arc position since Late Paleozoic times. Various geochemical, geochronological, and metamorphic studies have been undertaken on the El Oro metamorphic province, providing an understanding of the origin and age of the distinct units. However, the internal structures and geodynamic evolution of this area remain poorly understood. Our structural analysis and thermal modeling in the El Oro metamorphic province show that this fore-arc zone underwent four main geological events. (1) During Triassic times (230-225 Ma), the emplacement of the Piedras gabbroic unit at crustal-root level ( 9 kbar) triggered partial melting of the metasedimentary sequence under an E-W extensional regime at pressure-temperature conditions ranging from 4.5 to 8.5 kbar and from 650 to 900°C for the migmatitic unit. (2) At 226 Ma, the tectonic underplating of the Arenillas-Panupalí oceanic unit (9 kbar and 300°C) thermally sealed the fore-arc region. (3) Around the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary, the shift from trench-normal to trench-parallel subduction triggered the exhumation and underplating of the high-pressure, oceanic Raspas Ophiolitic Complex (18 kbar and 600°C) beneath the El Oro Group (130-120 Ma). This was followed by the opening of a NE-SW pull-apart basin, which tilted the massif along an E-W subhorizontal axis (110 Ma). (4) In Late Cretaceous times, an N-S compressional event generated heterogeneous deformation due to the presence of the Cretaceous Celica volcanic arc, which acted as a buttress and predominantly affected the central and eastern part of the massif.

  6. Alkaline / peralkaline gneisses near the northern margin of the Natal structural and metamorphic province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scogings, A.J.

    1990-01-01

    Alkaline / peralkaline gneisses occur within three granitoid complexes at Ngoye, Bull's Run and Wangu, near the northern margin of the Natal Structural and Metamorphic Province. A wide range of rock types is present, from nepheline syenite gneisses through to peralkaline granite gneisses, with minor carbonatite and monzodiorite gneiss intrusive phases noted within two of the bodies. It is suggested that the three alkaline gneiss occurences so far mapped constitute the remnants of a metamorphosed alkaline magmatic province, and that such magmatism occured either in a post-collisional or anorogenic post-D1, pre-D2 tectonic setting. The three complexes are described with respect to mineralogy and chemistry, followed by a brief overview of the possible tectonic setting at the time of their intrusion. 1 tab., 3 refs

  7. Coronitic metagabbro and eclogite from the Grenville Province of western Quebec: interpretation of U-Pb geochronology and metamorphism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indares, A.; Dunning, G.

    1997-01-01

    We present new U-Pb and metamorphic data on high-pressure coronitic metagabbros from three distinct structural settings in the Parautochthonous belt of the Grenville Province in western Quebec. Intrusive ages are (i) 1217 -10 +15 Ma, for metagabbro close to the Grenville Front, correlative with the Sudbury dykes, defined in Ontario; (ii) 1403 -11 +14 Ma for an eclogitized lens at the base of the highest structural level (SL4), a new age for mafic magmatism in the western Grenville; and (iii) 1218 -34 +53 Ma for metagabbro from SL4, interpreted as correlative with metagabbros from the Algonquin and Shawanaga domains in Ontario. Metamorphism in all cases is Grenvillian, with the best constrained age of 1069 ± 3 Ma for the metagabbro of SL4. Metamorphic grade increases from the Grenville Front to the south. The mafic rocks preserve relict igneous textures overprinted by garnet + clinopyroxene that developed as coronas and (or) pseudomorphs after igneous phases. The highest grade metagabbros contain omphacite and some lack primary plagioclase, therefore being eclogites. However, interpretation of textures and mineral chemistry indicates that they were equilibrated during decompression (at 1350 MPa and 720 o C, sample 51: and at 1200 MPa and 740 o C, sample 29), so maximum depths of burial remain unconstrained. Their evolution is interpreted as follows: (i) high-pressure metamorphism by burial of the Laurentian margin under accreted terranes thrust toward the northwest between 1080 and 1060 Ma; (ii) residence at intermediate crustal levels, for a few tens of millions of years; and (iii) rapid exhumation by renewed thrusting that led to the emplacement of the high-pressure units over the northerly adjacent structural units of the Parautochthonous Belt. (author)

  8. The geochemistry and geochronology of some proterozoic granitoid rocks from the Natal structural and metamorphic province, Southeastern Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, A.; Milne, G.C.; Eglington, B.M.

    1987-01-01

    The Natal Structural and Metamorphic Province is thought to be an eastern extension of the Namaqua Metamorphic Province. Until recently few geochemical and isotopic data have been available on many of the rocks of this mobile belt. This paper presentes initial geochemical and geochronological information on the granitoids and associated rocks from three areas NSMP. Together, these areas provide a traverse through central and southern parts of the Mapumulo Group. Supracrustal gneisses, of uncertain age, are the oldest rocks in all areas, while the granitic intrusives range from 1,200-850 Ma, with a tendency for younger dates towards dates towards the south. Low initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios for these plutonic units suggest that the rocks were the products of partial melting of a relatively juvenile (circa 1,400 Ma) protolith. A type granites are common within the NSMP and give a range of ages, indicating that conditions suitable for their formation persited in this part of the African continent for an extended period of time. Economic deposits are lacking in eastern (Natal) sector of the mobile belt. Reconnaissance studies, however indicate that syn-tolate-Kinematic granitoids, intruded circa 1,000 Ma, are enriched in uranium and thorium irrespective of bulk chemistry, textural nature,mineralogy,structural setting, and isotopic characteristics. (author) [pt

  9. Pressure-temperature evolution of eclogites from the Kechros complex in the Eastern Rhodope (NE Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mposkos, E.; Baziotis, I.; Proyer, A.

    2012-06-01

    The Rhodope Domain in NE Greece consists of different tectonometamorphic complexes involved in the Alpine collisional history between the Eurasian and African plates. In the Kechros Complex, which is the lowermost tectonic unit in the East Rhodope, a lense of kyanite eclogite occurs within orthogneiss and common eclogites are found between serpentinized peridotite and underlying pelitic gneisses. In kyanite eclogite, the high-pressure (HP) mineral assemblage is Grt + Omp (Jd35-55) + Ky + Ph + Qz + Rt + (indirectly inferred Tlc + Law); a Na-rich tremolite and zoisite formed at or near peak metamorphic conditions. In common eclogites, the HP mineral assemblage is Grt + Omp (Jd29-41) + Rt and, with less certainty, Amp (Gln-rich + Brs + Wnc + Hbl) ± Czo. The inclusions in garnet are glaucophane, actinolite, barroisite, hornblende, omphacite, clinozoisite, titanite, rutile and rarely paragonite and albite. In kyanite eclogite, peak P- T conditions are constrained at 2.2 GPa and 615°C using garnet-omphacite-phengite geothermobarometry and very similar values of 585 ± 32°C and 2.17 ± 0.11 GPa with the average P- T method, by which conditions of formation could also be narrowed down for the common eclogite (619 ± 53°C and 1.69 ± 0.17 GPa) and for a retrogressed eclogite (534 ± 36°C and 0.77 ± 0.11 GPa). Ages for the HP metamorphism in the Kechros Complex are not yet available. A Rb-Sr white mica age of 37 Ma from orthogneiss records a stage of the exhumation. The HP event may be coeval with the Eocene HP metamorphism (49-55 Ma) recorded in the Nestos Shear Zone in Central Rhodope and in the Attic-Cycladic crystalline belt, where it is interpreted as the result of subduction and final closure of the Axios/Vardar ocean and subsequent subduction of the Apulian continental crust (a promontory of the Africa continent) under the southern margin of the European continent in the late Cretaceous and early Tertiary.

  10. Study on Kalimantan uranium province: The assessment on uranium mineralization of metamorphic and granitic rocks at Schwaner mountains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjokrokardono, Soeprapto

    2002-01-01

    Uranium exploration activities done by CEA-BATAN had discovered uranium occurrences as the radiometric and uranium content anomalies at metamorphic and granite rocks of Schwaner Mountains, Kalimantan. A part of the occurrences on metamorphic rocks at Kalan basin has been evaluated and be developed onto follow-up step of prospecting by construction of some drilling holes and an exploration adit. In order to increase the national uranium resources, it is necessarily to extent the exploration activity to out side or nearby of Kalan basin. The goal of this assessment is to understand the uranium accumulation mechanism at Pinoh metamorphic rocks of Kalan Kalimantan and to delineate areas that uranium may exist. The assessment was based on the aspect of geology, anomaly of radioactivity and uranium contents, tectonics and alterations. Pinoh metamorphic rocks which is influenced by Sukadana granite intrusion are the high potential rocks for the uranium accumulation, because the intrusion contains a relatively high of U, Th, Cu, Zn, Nb, Mn, and W. The potential rock distributions are in between G. Ransa granite intrusion at the east and Kotabaru granite intrusions at the west. The mineralizations are categorized as vein type deposits of granitic association

  11. A study of the Eocene S-type granites of Chapedony metamorphic core complex (northeast of Yazd province, Central Iran)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakipour, A.; Torabi, Gh.

    2016-01-01

    The Eocene Chapedony metamorphic core complex, is located in western part of the Posht-e-Badam block. This complex is consisting of migmatite, gneiss, amphibolite, marble, micaschist and various types of granitoids. In middle part of this complex (Kalut-e-Chapedony), an Eocene granitic rock unit cross cuts the other rocks. The minerals of this granite are plagioclase (An 9 Ab 8 7O r 4), potassium feldspars (orthoclase), quartz, euhedral garnet (Alm 7 7Sps 1 3Prp 9 Grs 1 ), zircon, apatite, fibrolitic sillimanite and muscovite. Petrology and geochemical studies reveal calc-alkaline, peraluminous and S-type nature of the studied granites. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns represent evident negative anomaly of Eu and low values of the REEs. Continental crust and North American shale composite (NASC) - normalized multi-elements spider diagrams indicate trace elements depletion. These granites are formed by melting of continental crust sedimentary rocks, resulted by emplacement of mantle-derived magma at the bottom of continental crust which formed the Chapedony metamorphic core complex. The source rock of these granites should be a clay-rich sedimentary rock with low amount of plagioclase and CaO/Na 2 O ratio.

  12. Evaluation of hydrologic isolation from evidence in mine openings in igneous and metamorphic rocks in the Maritime Provinces of Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, J.D.

    1975-09-01

    Conditions in the mines inspected ranged from very wet to very dry. The Heath Steele Mine certainly provided an example of severe leakage through either the country rock, the ore, or both. By way of contrast, the Brunswick Mine is very dry, particularly at the 2800 foot level. A note of caution is raised by this dissimilarity, inasmuch as the local geologic setting for both mines is very much alike. The Buchans Mine also provided evidence of dry conditions at the depth inspected (3215 ft). The Ming Mine at Baie Verte is also nearly dry with a decrease in water leakage with depth. It seems reasonable to tentatively conclude that mined openings in the rock types investigated (volcanics and sediments metamorphosed to a low or subgreen schist facies and intensely deformed) would provide hydraulic isolation at depths on the order of 2800-3200 feet below the surface or greater. It is disturbing to have found one mine that is very wet at shallow depths and to have received reports of some water problems in shaft construction. This report in conjunction with other more comprehensive studies should provide a point of departure for more detailed studies of the nature and causes of hydraulic isolation provided by igneous and metamorphic rocks. 27 figs

  13. New record of cryoseston in the Rhodope Mountains, Bulgaria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lukavský, Jaromír; Cepák, Vladislav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 99, 3-4 (2014), 453-466 ISSN 0029-5035 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE01020080; GA TA ČR TA03011027 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Aphanocapsa nivalis * Bulgaria, cryoseston * Rhodope Mountains * snow algae Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 1.195, year: 2014

  14. Influence of the Istranca-Rhodope Massifs and strands of the North Anatolian Fault on oil potential of Thrace Basin, NW Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coskun, B.

    2000-01-01

    The Thrace Basin (NW Turkey) is an intermontane trough bounded to the north and west by the granitic and metamorphic rocks of the Istranca and Rhodope Massifs. Recent subsurface studies of the NW portion of the Thrace Basin have led to the identification of two trends in geothermal gradient, both of which are oriented approximately NW-SE (i.e. parallel to the depositional axis of the basin). Geological and geophysical data indicate that, due to the thrust of the Istranca Massif upon the Rhodope Massif, the subsurface temperature may have increased in the northern part of the basin. Other controls were wrench-fault activity of the Splays of the North Anatolian Fault (SNAF) and continuing basinal subsidences. The thermal history of the southern part of the basin was affected by Miocene ophiolitic emplacement to the west in Greece. The presence of a belt of intrabasinal palaeotopography (mainly Palaeozoic rocks) also contributed to increased geothermal gradients in the southern part of the study area. The basin is divisible into northern and southern zones of subsidence, which are separated by the Kuleli-Babaeski High. During the Oligocene, subsidence rates were highest in the northern zone and in the western sector of the southern zone. Later, during the Miocene, basin subsidence was associated with intense tectonic activity of the SNAF and with the emplacement of ophiolites to the west. A map of the top of the oil generation zone, based on TTI values calculated by the Lopatin method, indicates the presence of two maturation zones in the basin ; these were separated by the Late Oligocene Kuleli-Babaeski High. Oil generation in these zones was influenced by rapid subsidence, by a NW-SE oriented wrench fault system associated with the NAF and also by tectonic activity of the Istranca and Rhodope Massifs in the study area

  15. K/Ar dating of the Eastern Rhodope Paleogene magmatism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilov, P.; Yanev, Y.; Marchev, P.

    1987-12-01

    Paleogene magmatic rocks from the Eastern Rhodope Mountains have seldom been an object of radiogeochronological studies and very few data are available from the geological literature. Until now their dating relied heavily on paleontological data from fossil-bearing sediments, alternating with the lava flows. However, there are also many cross bodies (extrusions, dikes and intrusions) as well as volcanic areas of no sediments or of fossil-free sediments which require the combined use of both methods. This paper aims at characterizing geochronologically the Eastern Rhodope Paleogene volcanism. The K/Ar method was used to date reference volcanoes (mostly with well-defined positions in the Paleogene sequence) associated with the various phases of volcanic activity, as well as some separate intrusive bodies. Nomenclature of volcanics followed the classification of the Soviet Petrographic Commission and that of Peccerillo and Taylor as supplemented by Marchey. The paper characterizes only two of the three main volcanic districts, the Momcilgrad-Arda and the Borovica districts. The third one, Susica district, has restricted exposures near the state boundary between Bulgari and Greece and was excluded from the study. The results obtained are compared with the geochronological scales proposed by Odin and Cavelier and Pomerol which correlate radiogeochronological and paleontological data (nannoplancton data included).

  16. The Keimoes Suite redefined: The geochronological and geochemical characteristics of the ferroan granites of the eastern Namaqua Sector, Mesoproterozoic Namaqua-Natal Metamorphic Province, southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailie, Russell; Macey, Paul Hugh; Nethenzheni, Sedzani; Frei, Dirk; le Roux, Petrus

    2017-10-01

    Voluminous granite gneisses and granites straddle the boundary between the Kakamas and Areachap Terranes in the eastern Namaqua Sector (NS) of the Mesoproterozoic Namaqua-Natal Metamorphic Province (NNMP). These rocks have been previously poorly defined and loosely grouped into the Keimoes Suite, but a recent U-Pb age study has suggested the suite be subdivided into syn-tectonic and post-tectonic groups relative to the main phase of the Namaqua Orogeny. This study adds new whole rock geochemical, isotopic and age data for these granites that confirms the subdivision is appropriate. The older group of syn-tectonic granite gneisses, dated between 1175 and 1146 Ma, have penetrative foliations and are largely derived from fractionated, leucogranitic metaluminous to peraluminous magmas with low maficity, low Ti, Mn and Ca. They were derived from mildly depleted sources (εNd(t): -1.47 to 1.78), with Meso-to Paleoproterozoic Nd model ages (1.57-1.91 Ga), and high initial Sr ratios (0.71970-0.75567) suggesting mixing between younger depleted and older, arc-like sources imparting an arc-like signature to the magmas. High initial Sr ratios appear to be an intrinsic character of these granites reflecting those of granites in the region and the highly radiogenic nature of the NS. The weakly to unfoliated late-to post-tectonic megacrystic granodiorites and monzogranites, including charnockites, intruded between 1110 and 1078 Ma and constitute the Keimoes Suite proper. They have I-type characteristics, being strongly metaluminous and locally hornblende- and orthopyroxene-bearing with moderate SiO2 and with arc-type affinities (LILE enrichment relative to the HFSE, Ta-Nb, Ti and P anomalies). However, the granitoids also have high Fe/Mg ratios, along with high HFSE, LILE and REE contents more indicative of A-type granites. They show an increasing maficity, metaluminous character, and general decreasing degree of fractionation with decreasing age. They are similar to the syn

  17. Study of Plant Species Composition of Grasslands in Mugla Village Region (Western Rhodopes, South Bulgaria

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    Plamen S. Stoyanov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study presents data on the diversity of grass species in the region of the village of Mugla (the Western Rhodopes. One hundred forty-one species of higher plants belonging to 40families were registered. (Apiaceae, Aspleniaceae, Asteraceae, Boraginaceae, Brassicaceae,Campanulaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Cistaceae, Cyperaceae, Dipsacaceae, Equisetaceae, Ericaceae,Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Gentianaceae, Geraniaceae, Gesneriaceae, Hypericaceae, Juncaceae,Lamiaceae, Lemnaceae, Liliaceae, Linaceae, Menyanthaceae, Oleacea, Onagraceae, Orchidaceae,Parnassiaceae, Plantaginaceae, Plumbaginaceae, Poaceae, Polygalaceae, Primulaceae,Ranunculaceae, Rosaceae, Rubiaceae, Saxifragaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Valerianaceae andViolaceae. Their conservation status was presented, as well as medicinal plants.

  18. Book Review: Lubańska Magdalena, Muslims and Christians in the Bulgarian Rhodopes. Studies on Religious (AntiSyncretism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Bielenin-Lenczowska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Book Review: Lubańska Magdalena, Muslims and Christians in the Bulgarian Rhodopes. Studies on Religious (AntiSyncretism "Muslims and Christians in the Bulgarian Rhodopes. Studies on Religious (AntiSyncretism", a book by Magdalena Lubańska is a summary of her research carried out for many years among the Christian Orthodox and Muslim Pomaks in Rhodope mountains of Bulgaria. There Lubańska conducted in-depth interviews and carried out ethnographic observation about the knowledge regarding neighbours of different religion, their beliefs and religious practices.   Recenzja książki: Lubańska Magdalena, Muslims and Christians in the Bulgarian Rhodopes. Studies on Religious (AntiSyncretism Książka Magdaleny Lubańskiej jest podsumowaniem jej badań prowadzonych od wielu lat wśród prawosławnych oraz muzułmanów w Rodopach, w Bułgarii. Lubańska przeprowadziła pogłębione wywiady i obserwację etnograficzną, dotyczącą sąsiadowania mieszkańców różnych religii, ich wierzeń i praktyk religijnych.

  19. Fluids in metamorphic rocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Touret, J.L.R.

    2001-01-01

    Basic principles for the study of fluid inclusions in metamorphic rocks are reviewed and illustrated. A major problem relates to the number of inclusions, possibly formed on a wide range of P-T conditions, having also suffered, in most cases, extensive changes after initial trapping. The

  20. Late- and post-glacial vegetation dynamics in Western Rhodopes (Bulgaria) based on pollen analysis and radiocarbon dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipovitch, L.; Lazarova, M.

    2002-01-01

    This study offers a reconstruction of Quaternary vegetation in the region of Shiroka Polyana (Western Rhodopes mountains) on the basis of pollen analysis and 14 C dating. It helps to trace out the trends in vegetation dynamics. The palaeosuccession cycle providing valuable floristic and coenotic information about the Late Glacial (13000 BP) and the entire Holocene throughout several major stages is recreated: grassy communities, thermophilus deciduous forests, fir-hornbeam-beech forests, spruce-pine forests, pine-spruce forests. (authors)

  1. Materials on the diet of the Otter (Lutra lutra L. in the West Rhodopes Mountain, South Bulgaria

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    Dilian G. Georgiev

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Otter spraints were collected from the West Rhodopes from Batak Dam, Chaya and Parvenetska River areas during 2005-2007. Main food resources in Batak Dam during autumn were the frogs dominated by representatives of the family Ranidae, followed by different fish species. In both rivers the main food was the fish with predominance of Barbus cyclolepis, the frogs, and the crabs.

  2. Metamorphic Testing for Cybersecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tsong Yueh; Kuo, Fei-Ching; Ma, Wenjuan; Susilo, Willy; Towey, Dave; Voas, Jeffrey; Zhou, Zhi Quan

    2016-06-01

    Testing is a major approach for the detection of software defects, including vulnerabilities in security features. This article introduces metamorphic testing (MT), a relatively new testing method, and discusses how the new perspective of MT can help to conduct negative testing as well as to alleviate the oracle problem in the testing of security-related functionality and behavior. As demonstrated by the effectiveness of MT in detecting previously unknown bugs in real-world critical applications such as compilers and code obfuscators, we conclude that software testing of security-related features should be conducted from diverse perspectives in order to achieve greater cybersecurity.

  3. Metamorphic Testing for Cybersecurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tsong Yueh; Kuo, Fei-Ching; Ma, Wenjuan; Susilo, Willy; Towey, Dave; Voas, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Testing is a major approach for the detection of software defects, including vulnerabilities in security features. This article introduces metamorphic testing (MT), a relatively new testing method, and discusses how the new perspective of MT can help to conduct negative testing as well as to alleviate the oracle problem in the testing of security-related functionality and behavior. As demonstrated by the effectiveness of MT in detecting previously unknown bugs in real-world critical applications such as compilers and code obfuscators, we conclude that software testing of security-related features should be conducted from diverse perspectives in order to achieve greater cybersecurity. PMID:27559196

  4. Soil salinization in the agricultural lands of Rhodope District, northeastern Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisinaras, V; Tsihrintzis, V A; Petalas, C; Ouzounis, K

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this study was to identify seasonal and spatial trends and soil salinization patterns in a part of Rhodope District irrigated land, northeastern Greece, located east of Vistonis Lagoon. The study area is irrigated from a coastal aquifer, where salt water intrusion occurs because of extensive groundwater withdrawals. Fourteen monitoring sites were established in harvest fields in the study area, where soil samples were collected. Electrical conductivity (ECe), pH, and ion concentrations were determined in the saturated paste extract of the soil samples in the laboratory using standard methods. A clear tendency was observed for ECe to increase from April to September, i.e., within the irrigation period, indicating the effect of saline groundwater to soil. In the last years, the change from moderately sensitive (e.g., corn) to moderately tolerant crops (e.g., cotton) in the south part of the study area indicates the impacts of soil salinity. The study proposes management methods to alleviate this problem.

  5. Phases of metamorphism in the metamorphic base of Xiangshan uranium orefield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Zhenpin; Dong Yongjie; Hu Rongquan; Wu Shuilin

    2008-01-01

    Metamorphic rocks in the basement of Xiangshan uranium orefield, experienced long-term complex metamorphic-deformational evolution. From Jinning period to later Mesozoic era. It had suffered from four phase of superimposed metamorphism: regional dynamo thermal metamorphism in Mesoproterozoic era, contact-thermal metamorphism after mesoproterozoic era, dynamic metamorphism in Mesozoic era and contact-thermal metamorphism in the later of Mesozoic era. Multi-phase superimposed metamorphism show that Xiangshan area is a geothermally anomalous area ever since Proterozoic Eon. In Xiangshan area, the uranium mineralization are the outcome of superimposition of tectonism-magmatism-metamorphism. (authors)

  6. Preliminary Data on the Plant and Vertebrate Animal Diversity in the Area of Dedovo Village (West Rhodopes Mts.

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    Krasimir Todorov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Dedovo Village (Rodopi Municipality, Plovdiv District is located at 25 km from Plovdiv City in the Western Rhodopes Mts., at an altitude of 1000 to 1060 meters. Its proximity to the city and relatively preserved natural environment make it a more attractive place during the last years for relaxation, especially in the summer. However, the increased tourist presence in the area leads to an increase of anthropogenic pressure on the natural ecosystems. Aim of this study is to assess the plant and vertebrate animal diversity in the area of Dedovo Village and to identify the potential threats and risks to its conservation. More than 70 plant species were described, including one rare species and 5 Balkan endemics and 30 species, listed in the Bulgarian Medicinal plants Act. From the vertebrate animals 39 species were described, including 15 mammals (3 species with conservation status, 15 birds (4 species with conservation status, 6 reptiles and 2 amphibians.

  7. Petrología y Estructura del Complejo Ígneo-Metamórfico Aluminé, Provincia de Neuquén, Argentina Petrology and Structure of the Aluminé Igneous-Metamorphic Complex, Neuquén province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana A Urraza

    2011-01-01

    andinas (cretácicas o más modernas y el sector sur donde dominan los granitoides preandinos de edades permotriásicas-jurásicas, emplazados en un basamento paleozoico. Si bien los diagramas geoquímicos permiten diferenciar los diferentes petrotipos definidos petrográficamente y sus tendencias evolutivas podrían indicar procesos de cristalización fraccionada, la distribución areal de los mismos, sus características petrográfico-microestructurales y la geocronología, indican que podrían corresponder a diferentes pulsos-eventos magmáticos separados en el tiempo, aunque desarrollados en un contexto de características tectónicas similares.In the present contribution, the partial results of a detailed study of the magmatic, metamorphic and tectonic events developed in the Aluminé Igneous-Metamorphic Complex (AIMC are given. We define the AIMC as the set of pre-andean and andean intrusive igneous and metamorphic rocks, outcropping in the área located between the Aluminé, Moquehue, Ñorquinco and Pulmarí lakes in the Neuquén province, Argentina. Based on field and petrographic observations and geochemical characteristics, the granitic rocks forming part of the AIMC have been classified as: 1. quartz diorites, 2. tonalites-granodiorites, 3. granodiorites and 4. granites. The geochemical parameters indícate that the defined lithologies derive from calcic to weakly calcalkaline magmas of metaluminous composition, typical of Type I Cordilleran batholiths associated with active continental margins. Intercalated between the magmatic rocks, some outcrops of metamorphic basement composed mainly of schists, gneisses, amphibolites and scarce quartzose sandstones. Andesites, tuffs and basalts cover in part the metamorphites and granitoids are exposed. The structure of the sector is characterized by the presence of three main sets of regional lineaments, with NE-SW, NW-SE and N-S orientations. These directions coincide with the orientations of the three groups of

  8. Origin and distribution of saline groundwaters in the upper Miocene aquifer system, coastal Rhodope area, northeastern Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petalas, C. P.; Diamantis, I. B.

    1999-06-01

    This paper describes the origins and distribution of saline groundwaters in the coastal area of Rhodope, Greece. The aquifer system includes two aquifers within coarse-grained alluvial sediments in the coastal part of the study area. Two major water-quality groups occur in the study area, namely Ca2+-rich saline groundwater and Ca2+-poor, almost fresh groundwater. The main process controlling the groundwater chemistry is the exchange of calcium and sodium between the aquifer matrix and intruding seawater. The natural salt water in the study area is probably residual water that infiltrated the aquifer system during repeated marine transgressions in late Pleistocene time. Seawater intrusion into the coastal aquifer system occurs as a result of overpumping in two seawater wedges separated vertically by a low-permeability layer. The rate of intrusion averages 0.8 m/d and is less than expected due to a decline of the aquifer's permeability at the interface with the seawater. The application of several hydrochemical techniques (Piper and Durov diagrams; Na+/Cl-, Ca2+/Cl-, Mg2+/Cl-, and Br-/Cl- molar ratios; Ca2+/Mg2+ weight ratio; and chloride concentrations), combined with field observations, may lead to a better explanation of the origin of the saline groundwater.

  9. Effects of a High Intensity Fire on the Abundance and Diversity of Reptiles in the Eastern Rhodopes Mountains, Southeastern Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgi S. Popgeorgiev

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The numerous fires during the past decade in the Eastern Rhodopes (southeastern Bulgaria resulted in extensive loss of habitat for multiple species. In this study on the reptilian fauna found near Kolets village (Haskovo District, Bulgaria we compared two adjacent territories during 2004–2006, a control and a recently burned. We found no effect on the Shannon-Wiener index of biological diversity (mean for the three years: Hburned = 0.488, Hcontrol = 0.498. However, fire led to decrease of abundance (Ab, individuals / 1000 m, best detected for the following species: Testudo hermanni (Abburned = 1.8, Abcontrol = 5.6; p = 0.003316, T. graeca (Abburned = 1.1, Abcontrol = 3.2; p = 0.071786, Lacerta viridis (Abburned = 16.8, Abcontrol = 40.6; p = 0.000263, and L. trilineata (Abburned = 6.8, Abcontrol = 19.2; p = 0.000879, where values for Ab are combined for 2004–2006.

  10. First evidence of the Ellesmerian metamorphism on Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kośmińska, Karolina; Majka, Jarosław; Manecki, Maciej; Schneider, David A.

    2016-04-01

    metapelites were formed under amphibolite facies conditions at c. 7-9 kbar and 550-650 °C (Kośmińska et al., 2015b). Monazite dating was performed on samples from these three metamorphic zones. The chemical zonation of monazite allows the identification of several monazite populations, which likely developed during different stages of Barrovian metamorphism. The geochronology demonstrate protracted monazite growth from the early prograde stage at c. 370 Ma to the peak conditions at c. 355 Ma. Thus it is evident that the Ellesmerian event was not limited to the relatively cold deformation as previously thought. The amphibolite facies metamorphism of c. 370-355 Ma that was documented in our study sheds new light on understanding of the character of this tectonothermal event. This project is financed by NCN research project No 2013/11/N/ST10/00357 and partially funded by AGH research grant no 11.11.140.319. References: Faehnrich et al., 2016. A tectonic window into the crystalline basement of Prins Karls Forland, Spitsbergen. EGU General Assembly 2016. Kośmińska et al., 2015b. Metamorphic evolution of the Pinkie unit metapelites from Svalbard (High Arctic): P-T-t study including Quartz-in-garnet barometry (QuiG). GSA 2015: Annual Meeting, Baltimore. Kośmińska et al., 2015a. Detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology of metasediments from southwestern Svalbard's Caledonian Province. EGU General Assembly 2015. Piepjohn et al., 2015. Tectonic map of the Ellesmerian and Eurekan deformation belts on Svalbard, North Greenland, and the Queen Elizabeth Islands (Canadian Arctic). Arktos, DOI 10.1007/s41063-015-0015-7.

  11. Measuring metamorphic history of unequilibrated ordinary chondrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sears, D.W.; Grossman, J.N.; Melcher, C.L.; Ross, L.M.; Mills, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    A thermoluminescence sensitivity technique is used to give a new measurement of the degree of metamorphism of unequilibrated ordinary chondrites. Consequently the petrological assignment of these meteorites is modified. (author)

  12. Age and duration of eclogite-facies metamorphism, North Qaidam HP/UHP terrane, Western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattinson, C.G.; Wooden, J.L.; Liou, J.G.; Bird, D.K.; Wu, C.L.

    2006-01-01

    Amphibolite-facies para-and orthogneisses near Dulan, at the southeast end of the North Qaidam terrane, enclose minor eclogite and peridotite which record ultra-high pressure (UHP) metamorphism associated with the Early Paleozoic continental collision of the Qilian and Qaidam microplates. Field relations and coesite inclusions in zircons from paragneiss suggest that felsic, mafic, and ultramafic rocks all experienced UHP metamorphism and a common amphibolite-facies retrogression. SHRIMP-RG U-Pb and REE analyses of zircons from four eclogites yield weighted mean ages of 449 to 422 Ma, and REE patterns (flat HREE, no Eu anomaly) and inclusions of garnet, omphacite, and rutile indicate these ages record eclogite-facies metamorphism. The coherent field relations of these samples, and the similar range of individual ages in each sample suggests that the ???25 m.y. age range reflects the duration of eclogite-facies conditions in the studied samples. Analyses from zircon cores in one sample yield scattered 433 to 474 Ma ages, reflecting partial overlap on rims, and constrain the minimum age of eclogite protolith crystallization. Inclusions of Th + REE-rich epidote, and zircon REE patterns are consistent with prograde metamorphic growth. In the Lu??liang Shan, approximately 350 km northwest in the North Qaidam terrane, ages interpreted to record eclogite-facies metamorphism of eclogite and garnet peridotite are as old as 495 Ma and as young as 414 Ma, which suggests that processes responsible for extended high-pressure residence are not restricted to the Dulan region. Evidence of prolonged eclogite-facies metamorphism in HP/UHP localities in the Northeast Greenland eclogite province, the Western Gneiss Region of Norway, and the western Alps suggests that long eclogite-facies residence may be globally significant in continental subduction/collision zones.

  13. Metamorphic quantum dots: Quite different nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seravalli, L.; Frigeri, P.; Nasi, L.; Trevisi, G.; Bocchi, C.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we present a study of InAs quantum dots deposited on InGaAs metamorphic buffers by molecular beam epitaxy. By comparing morphological, structural, and optical properties of such nanostructures with those of InAs/GaAs quantum dot ones, we were able to evidence characteristics that are typical of metamorphic InAs/InGaAs structures. The more relevant are: the cross-hatched InGaAs surface overgrown by dots, the change in critical coverages for island nucleation and ripening, the nucleation of new defects in the capping layers, and the redshift in the emission energy. The discussion on experimental results allowed us to conclude that metamorphic InAs/InGaAs quantum dots are rather different nanostructures, where attention must be put to some issues not present in InAs/GaAs structures, namely, buffer-related defects, surface morphology, different dislocation mobility, and stacking fault energies. On the other hand, we show that metamorphic quantum dot nanostructures can provide new possibilities of tailoring various properties, such as dot positioning and emission energy, that could be very useful for innovative dot-based devices.

  14. Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes and their uranium favorability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coney, P.J.; Reynolds, S.J.

    1980-11-01

    The objective of this report is to provide a descriptive body of knowledge on Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes including their lithologic and structural characteristics, their distribution within the Cordillera, and their evolutionary history and tectonic setting. The occurrence of uranium in the context of possibility for uranium concentration is also examined. This volume contains appendices of the following: annotated bibliography of Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes; annotated bibliography of the uranium favorability of Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes; uranium occurrences in the Cordilleran metamorphic core complex belt; and geology, uranium favorability, uranium occurrences and tectonic maps of individual Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes; and locations, lithologic descriptions, petrographic information and analytical data for geochemical samples

  15. Uranium and thorium migration under dislocative metamorphism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titov, V.K.; Bilibina, T.V.; Dashkova, A.D.; Il'in, V.K.; Makarova, L.I.; Shmuraeva, L.Ya.

    1978-01-01

    Investigated were peculiarities of uranium and thorium behaviour in the process of dislocation metamorphism on the basis of regional fracture zones of early-proterozoic embedding of Ukrainian, Aldan and Baltic shields. The studied zones correspond to tectonite of green-shale and almandin-amphibolite facies of regional metamorphism according to mineral associations. The most peculiar feature of the tectonites of green-shale facies is uranium presence in migrationally able forms, which can be involved afterwards into the ore process by hydrothermal solutions. Adsorved forms of uranium on the crystal surface or separate grains and in the cracks, as well as microinclusions of uranium minerals, selectively timed to mineral structure defects prevail among easily mobile uranium compounds. Dissolved uranium is present, evidently in gas-liquid inclusions in minerals and pore waters. There forms of uranium presence are peculiar for epidote-chlorite mylonites, as well as cataclasites and diaphthorites related to them by blastomylonites of almandin-amphibolite facies. Wide range of manifestation of this process, caused by multikilometer extension of deep fracture zones permit to consider the formations of green-shale facies of dislocation metamorphism as one of the main uranium sources in deposit formation in different uranium-ore associations different age

  16. Metamorphic evolution of the eastern part

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faryad Shah Wali

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The Inner to Central parts of the Western Carpathians consist of several tectonic units that provide unique opportunity to investigate Alpine and Pre-Alpine tectonothermal evolution in the Western Carpathians. Lithological and geochemical composition of sedimentary and igneous rocks indicate the presence of Alpine-Meliata and Pre-Alpine Rakovec suture zones. The Meliata blueschists are the only evidence of subducted Triassic Meliata-Hallstatt oceanic basin and adjacent continental wedge which occurred during the Jurassic time. These processes were followed by the Cretaceous collision that suffered not only the Gemer but also the Vepor Belts. Since Alpine and Variscan metamorphism occurred in most tectonic units under similar pressure and/or temperature conditions, for reconstruction of Alpine development is necessary to understand Pre-Alpine history of each tectonic unit. The Field Meeting is aimed to comprehend Alpine and Pre-Alpine tectonothermal evolution in the eastern parts of the Western Carpathians with a special respect to subduction and exhumation history of the Jurassic Meliata blueschists, as well as of Cretaceous collision in the Western Carpathians. In order to clear metamorphic characteristic and geological position of each unit a brief outline on structure and metamorphism of the Central Western Carpathians is given in the excursion guide. The manuscript of this work was improved by helpful suggestions of S. Jacko, D. Plašienka and M. Janák. This work was supported by Slovak Academic Agency, project WEGA-1/5003/98

  17. Anisotropy effect on strengths of metamorphic rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Özbek

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the effect of anisotropy on strengths of several metamorphic rocks of southern (Çine submassif of Menderes metamorphic massif in southwest Turkey. Four different metamorphic rocks including foliated phyllite, schist, gneiss and marble (calcschist were selected and examined. Discontinuity surveys were made along lines for each rock and evaluated with DIPS program. L-type Schmidt hammer was applied in the directions parallel and perpendicular to foliation during the field study. Several hand samples and rock blocks were collected during the field study for measurements of dry and saturated densities, dry and saturated unit weights and porosity, and for petrographic analysis and strength determination in laboratory. L- and N-type Schmidt hammers were applied in the directions perpendicular (anisotropy angle of 0° and parallel (anisotropy angle of 90° to the foliation on selected blocks of phyllite, schist, gneiss and marble (calcschist. The phyllite and schist have higher porosity and lower density values than the other rocks. However, coarse crystalline gneiss and marble (calcschist have higher rebound values and strengths, and they are classified as strong–very strong rocks. Generally, the rebound values in the direction perpendicular to the foliation are slightly higher than that in the direction parallel to foliation. Rebound values of N-type Schmidt hammer are higher than the L-type values except for phyllite. Sometimes, the rebound values of laboratory and field applications gave different results. This may result from variable local conditions such as minerals differentiation, discontinuities, water content, weathering degree and thickness of foliated structure.

  18. Breccia pipes in the Karoo Basin, South Africa, as conduits for metamorphic gases to the Early Jurassic atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silkoset, Petter; Svensen, Henrik; Planke, Sverre

    2014-05-01

    The Toarcian (Early Jurassic) event was manifested by globally elevated temperatures and anoxic ocean conditions that particularly affected shallow marine taxa. The event coincided with the emplacement of the vast Karoo-Ferrar Large Igneous Province. Among the suggestions for trigger mechanisms for the climatic perturbation is metamorphic methane generation from black shale around the sills in the Karoo Basin, South Africa. The sill emplacement provides a mechanism for voluminous in-situ production and emission of greenhouse gases, and establishes a distinct link between basin-trapped and atmospheric carbon. In the lower stratigraphic levels of the Karoo Basin, black shales are metamorphosed around sills and the sediments are cut by a large number of pipe structures with metamorphic haloes. The pipes are vertical, cylindrical structures that contain brecciated and baked sediments with variable input of magmatic material. Here, we present borehole, petrographic, geochemical and field data from breccia pipes and contact aureoles based on field campaigns over a number of years (2004-2014). The metamorphism around the pipes show equivalent metamorphic grade as the sediments around nearby sills, suggesting a more prominent phreatomagmatic component than previously thought. The stratigraphic position of pipes and the breccia characteristics strengthens the hypothesis of a key role in the Toarcian carbon isotope excursion.

  19. Early planetary metamorphism in chondritic meteorites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanan, B.B.; Tilton, G.R.

    1985-01-01

    Lead isotope relations were studied in whole rock and separated phases of Mezoe-Madaras (L3) and Sharps (H3) chondrites in order to study the record of early events in the solar system and to seek further information on the isotopic composition of primordial lead. The internal 207 Pb/ 206 Pb ages are 4.480+-0.011 AE (1 AE=10 9 years) for Mezoe-Madaras and 4.472+-0.005 AE for Sharps. The ages are not significantly changed when Canyon Diablo troilite lead is included in the data sets, suggesting that the initial Pb isotopic composition in both meteorites was the same as that in the troilite. U-Pb data from both meteorites plot along chords in concordia diagrams that indicate recent disturbances in U/Pb ratios. The chords are poorly defined owing to the relatively non-radiogenic character of the lead isotopes. Rb-Sr measurements on Sharps likewise fail to yield an isochron, in agreement with the U-Pb data. Data from the literature indicate a similar disturbance in the Rb-Sr system for Mezoe-Madaras. The 4.48 AE ages could be caused by pre-analysis contamination with terrestrial lead, however statistical comparison of isotope correlations between the acid-washes of analyzed samples and the residual washed samples suggests that the ages are real and not due to terrestrial contamination. The 4.48 AE age, which is distinctly younger than the well-established ages of 4.54-4.56 AE for the Allende chondrite and Angra dos Reis achondrite, appears to date an early metamorphic event rather than the formation of the chondrites. Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd and K-Ar ages in support of the 4.48 AE metamorphic event are reviewed. Such a metamorphic age is not necessarily in conflict with 129 I/ 129 Xe data which indicate that the parent material of most chondrites, including those of type 3, cooled through temperatures sufficient to retain radiogenic Xe within a time interval of ca. 0.02 AE. (orig.)

  20. Metamorphic Perspectives of Subduction Zone Volatiles Cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebout, G. E.

    2008-12-01

    Field study of HP/UHP metamorphic rocks provides "ground-truthing" for experimental and theoretical petrologic studies estimating extents of deep volatiles subduction, and provides information regarding devolatilization and deep subduction-zone fluid flow that can be used to reconcile estimates of subduction inputs and arc volcanic outputs for volatiles such as H2O, N, and C. Considerable attention has been paid to H2O subduction in various bulk compositions, and, based on calculated phase assemblages, it is thought that a large fraction of the initially structurally bound H2O is subducted to, and beyond, subarc regions in most modern subduction zones (Hacker, 2008, G-cubed). Field studies of HP/UHP mafic and sedimentary rocks demonstrate the impressive retention of volatiles (and fluid-mobile elements) to depths approaching those beneath arcs. At the slab-mantle interface, high-variance lithologies containing hydrous phases such as mica, amphibole, talc, and chlorite could further stabilize H2O to great depth. Trench hydration in sub-crustal parts of oceanic lithosphere could profoundly increase subduction inputs of particularly H2O, and massive flux of H2O-rich fluids from these regions into the slab-mantle interface could lead to extensive metasomatism. Consideration of sedimentary N concentrations and δ15N at ODP Site 1039 (Li and Bebout, 2005, JGR), together with estimates of the N concentration of subducting altered oceanic crust (AOC), indicates that ~42% of the N subducting beneath Nicaragua is returned in the corresponding volcanic arc (Elkins et al., 2006, GCA). Study of N in HP/UHP sedimentary and basaltic rocks indicates that much of the N initially subducted in these lithologies would be retained to depths approaching 100 km and thus available for addition to arcs. The more altered upper part of subducting oceanic crust most likely to contribute to arcs has sediment-like δ15NAir (0 to +10 per mil; Li et al., 2007, GCA), and study of HP/UHP eclogites

  1. The Metamorphic Rocks-Hosted Gold Mineralization At Rumbia Mountains Prospect Area In The Southeastern Arm of Sulawesi Island, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasria Hasria

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, in Indonesia gold exploration activities  are not only focused along volcanic-magmatic belts, but also starting to shift along metamorphic and sedimentary terrains. The study area is located in Rumbia mountains, Bombana Regency, Southeast Sulawesi Province. This paper is aimed to describe characteristics of alteration and ore mineralization associated  with metamorphic rock-related gold deposits.  The study area is found the placer and  primary gold hosted by metamorphic rocks. The gold is evidently derived from gold-bearing quartz veins hosted by Pompangeo Metamorphic Complex (PMC. These quartz veins are currently recognized in metamorphic rocks at Rumbia Mountains. The quartz veins are mostly sheared/deformed, brecciated, irregular vein, segmented and  relatively massive and crystalline texture with thickness from 1 cm to 15.7 cm. The wallrock are generally weakly altered. Hydrothermal alteration types include sericitization, argillic, inner propylitic, propylitic, carbonization and carbonatization. There some precious metal identified consist of native gold and ore mineralization including pyrite (FeS2, chalcopyrite (CuFeS2, hematite (Fe2O3, cinnabar (HgS, stibnite (Sb2S3 and goethite (FeHO2. The veins contain erratic gold in various grades from below detection limit <0.0002 ppm to 18.4 ppm. Based on those characteristics, it obviously indicates that the primary gold deposit present in the study area is of orogenic gold deposit type. The orogenic gold deposit is one of the new targets for exploration in Indonesia

  2. A Novel Workflow for Geothermal Prospectively Mapping Weights-of-Evidence in Liaoning Province, Northeast China

    OpenAIRE

    Xuejia Sang; Linfu Xue; Jiwen Liu; Liang Zhan

    2017-01-01

    Geological faults are highly developed in the eastern Liaoning Province in China, where Mesozoic granitic intrusions and Archean and Paleoproterozoic metamorphic rocks are widely distributed. Although the heat flow value in eastern Liaoning Province is generally low, the hot springs are very developed. It is obvious that the faults have significant control over the distribution of hot springs, and traditional methods of spatial data analysis such as WofE (weight of evidence) usually do not ta...

  3. Radiogeochemical provinces of the Eastern Central Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baratov, R.B.; Kozyrev, V.I.; Shchukin, S.I.

    1977-01-01

    The principal space-time regularities are studied of the U and Th geochemical evolution as well as ratios of values of the U and Th accumulation in dominating formations of the region to their probable concentrations in a basaltic (0.6x10 -4 per cent of U and 2.2x10 -4 per cent of Th) and a granite-metamorphic (2.7x10 -4 per cent of U and 18x10 -4 per cent of Th) layers. Six types of radiogeochemical provinces are distinguished; 1 - of simatic profile with the continuous tendency to the accumulation of Th accompanied with the deficit of U; 2 - of sialitic profile with the normal distribution of radioactive elements; 3 - of simatic profile with the normal distribution of radioactive elements and with the tendency to the sialitic accumulation; 4 - of sialitic profile with the disturbed distribution of radioactive elements and with the tendency to the U accumulation; 5 - of sialitic profile with the tendency towards the accumulation of radioactive elements; 6 - of sialitic profile with the tendency towards the U accumulation - regions of the spread of Mezozoic - Cenozoic formations of the mantle of Turans plateau. For the U and Th accumulation in provinces of the first four principal types endogeneous factors have been the most essential, the degree of the accumulation of these elements being the function of their concentration in a granite - metamorphic and a basaltic layers. For the 5-th and 6-th types exogenous factors have been determination

  4. Metamorphic reprocessing of a serpentinized carbonate-bearing peridotite after detachment from the mantle wedge: A P-T path constrained from textures and phase diagrams in the system CaO-MgO-Al 2O 3-SiO 2-CO 2-H 2O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mposkos, E.; Baziotis, I.; Proyer, A.

    2010-08-01

    In the central Rhodope mountains of Greece a carbonate-bearing metaperidotite lens ˜ 200 × 500 m in size crops out as part of the high- to ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic Upper Sidironero Complex ˜ 500 m SE of the Gorgona Village, north of Xanthi town. It is composed primarily of coarse grained (3-20 mm in size) olivine and orthopyroxene, medium grained clinohumite and medium to fine grained tremolite, chlorite, dolomite, magnesite, talc, antigorite and various spinel phases. Whole-rock chemistry, mineral textures and compositions, and phase diagram calculations show that the metaperidotite was subjected to a prograde HP metamorphism, isofacial with the surrounding migmatitic gneisses, metapelites and amphibolites. The prograde character of metamorphism is demonstrated by inclusions of talc, antigorite, chlorite, dolomite, magnesite and Ti-clinohumite in ferrit-chromite, olivine, and orthopyroxene, as well as of olivine in orthopyroxene, and by the typical change in composition of zoned spinel minerals from ferrit-chromite in the core to chromian spinel at the rim. The prograde path is characterized by successive growth of amphibole, Ti-clinohumite, olivine and orthopyroxene, followed by the breakdown of Ti-clinohumite to olivine + Mg-ilmenite and of chlorite to olivine + spinel, probably during exhumation. The construction of a partial petrogenetic P- T grid in the system CaO-MgO-Al 2O 3-SiO 2-CO 2-H 2O (CMASCH) for Ca-poor ultramafic bulk compositions has proven highly useful for the reconstruction of the metamorphic evolution and a P- T path, indicating that the use of univariant reactions in mixed volatile systems is highly warranted. The P- T path is clearly constrained to pressures below 1.5-1.7 GPa by the absence of clinopyroxene. These pressures are slightly lower than those recorded in the closely associated Jurassic eclogites and much lower than those recorded in the diamond-bearing gneisses 5 km to the south in the same tectonic unit. The carbonate

  5. High Radiation Resistance Inverted Metamorphic Solar Cell, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation in this SBIR Phase II project is the development of a unique triple junction inverted metamorphic technology (IMM), which will enable the...

  6. Petrographic and Geochemical Study of Low Grade Metamorphic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: Low grade metamorphic rocks, Base metal mineralization, Petrography,. Hydrogeochemistry, Negash ... Use of mineral deposit genetic models has become an important ..... The clasts show elongation due to deformation, parallel.

  7. The magmatism and metamorphism at the Malayer area, Western Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahadnejad, V.; Valizadeh, M. V.; Esmaeily, D.

    2009-04-01

    The Malayer area is located in the NW-SE aligned Sanandaj-Sirjan metamorphic belt, western Iran and consists mainly of Mesozoic schists so-called Hamadan Phyllites, Jurassic to Tertiary intrusive rocks and related contact metamorphic aureoles, aplites and pegmatites. The Sanandj-Sirjan Zone is produced by oblique collisional event between Arabian plate and Central Iran microcontinent. Highest level of regional metamorphism in the area is greenschist facies and injection of felsic magmas is caused contact metamorphism. Magmatism is consist of a general northwest trend large felsic to intermediate intrusive bodies. The main trend of structural features i.e. faults, fractures and other structural features is NW-SE. The Malayer granitoid complex is ellipsoid in shape and has NW-SE foliation especially at the corners of the intrusions. Petrography of the magmatic rocks revealed recrystallization of quartz and feldspars, bending of biotite, and aligment of minerals paralle to the main trend of magmatic and metamorphic country rocks. These indicated that intrusion of felsic magma is coincide to the regional metamorphism and is syn-tectoinc. Non-extensive contact metamorphism aureoles and rareness of pegmatite and aplite in the area are interpreted as injection of felsic magmas into the high-strain metamorphic zone. The regional metamorphic rocks mainly consist of meta-sandstone, slate, phyllite, schist. These gray to dark metasedimentary rocks are consist of quartz, muscovite, turmaline, epidote, biotite and chlorite. Sheeted minerals form extended schistosity and study of porphyroblast-matrix relationships shows that injection of granitic magma into the country rocks is syn to post-tectonic. Syn-tectonic indicating porphyroblast growth synchronous with the development of the external fabric. The thermal contact area of the granite can be observed in the contact margin of granite and regional metamorphic rocks, where it produced hornfelses, andalusit-garnet schists and

  8. Recycling argon through metamorphic reactions: The record in symplectites

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Christopher S.; Regis, Daniele; Warren, Clare J.; Kelley, Simon P.; Sherlock, Sarah C.

    2018-02-01

    The 40Ar/39Ar ages of metamorphic micas that crystallized at high temperatures are commonly interpreted as cooling ages, with grains considered to have lost 40Ar via thermally-driven diffusion into the grain boundary network. Recently reported laser-ablation data suggest that the spatial distribution of Ar in metamorphic micas does not always conform to the patterns predicted by diffusion theory and that despite high metamorphic temperatures, argon was not removed efficiently from the local system during metamorphic evolution. In the Western Gneiss Region (WGR), Norway, felsic gneisses preserve microtextural evidence for the breakdown of phengite to biotite and plagioclase symplectites during near isothermal decompression from c. 20-25 to c. 8-12 kbar at 700 °C. These samples provide an ideal natural laboratory to assess whether the complete replacement of one K-bearing mineral by another at high temperatures completely 'resets' the Ar clock, or whether there is some inheritance of 40Ar in the neocrystallized phase. The timing of the high-temperature portion of the WGR metamorphic cycle has been well constrained in previous studies. However, the timing of cooling following the overprint is still much debated. In-situ laser ablation spot dating in phengite, biotite-plagioclase symplectites and coarser, texturally later biotite yielded 40Ar/39Ar ages that span much of the metamorphic cycle. Together these data show that despite residence at temperatures of 700 °C, Ar is not completely removed by diffusive loss or during metamorphic recrystallization. Instead, Ar released during phengite breakdown appears to be partially reincorporated into the newly crystallizing biotite and plagioclase (or is trapped in fluid inclusions in those phases) within a close system. Our data show that the microtextural and petrographic evolution of the sample being dated provides a critical framework in which local 40Ar recycling can be tracked, thus potentially allowing 40Ar/39Ar dates

  9. Initiation of continental accretion: metamorphic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Conand; Frederic, Mouthereau; Gianreto, Manatschal; Adbeltif, Lahfid

    2017-04-01

    The physical processes involved at the beginning of the continental collision are largely unknown because they are transient and therefore hardly identifiable from the rock record. Despite the importance of key parameters for understanding mountain building processes, especially the formation of deep mountain roots and their impacts on earthquakes nucleation, rock/fluid transfers and oil/gas resources in the continental crust, observations from the earliest collision stages remain fragmentary. Here, we focus on the example of Taiwan, a young and active mountain belt where the transition from oceanic subduction, accretion of the first continental margin to mature collision can be followed in space and time. We present preliminary results and provide key questions regarding the reconstruction of time-pressure-temperature paths of rocks & fluids to allow discriminating between rift-related thermal/rheological inheritance and burial/heating phases during convergence. Previous studies have focused on peak temperatures analyzed by Raman Spectrometry of Carbonaceous Matter from the deeper structural layers exposed in the Central Range of Taiwan. In the pre-rift sediments, these studies reported a positive gradient from West to Est, and values from geothermal gradients (up to 60°C/km) known in the region, and higher temperature closer to the pre-rift units. Cross sections and maps with high resolution peak temperatures are in process as well as pressure estimations to determine how the sediments were metamorphosed. In addition to this work, we report a few inherited temperatures in the 390-570 °C range, indicating recycling of organic matter from metasediments that recorded HT events, likely originated from higher grade metamorphic units of mainland China, which have been eroded and deposited in the post-rift sediments.

  10. Towards an integrated magmatic, structural and metamorphic model for the 1.1-0.9 Ga Sveconorwegian orogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slagstad, Trond; Roberts, Nick M. W.; Røhr, Torkil S.; Marker, Mogens K.

    2013-04-01

    Orogeny involves magmatic, metamorphic, deformational and erosional processes that are caused by or lead to crustal thickening and the development of high topography. In general, these processes operate along the margins of continental plates, either as a result of subduction of oceanic crust (accretionary) or collision between two or more continental plates (collisional). Many of these processes are common to accretionary and collisional orogeny, and do not uniquely discriminate between the two. With only a fragmented geological record, unravelling the style of orogenesis in ancient orogens may, therefore, be far from straightforward. Adding to the complexity, modern continental margins, e.g., the southern Asian margin, display significant variation in orogenic style along strike, rendering along-strike comparisons and correlations unreliable. The late Mesoproterozoic Sveconorwegian province in SW Baltica is traditionally interpreted as the eastward continuation of the Grenville province in Canada, resulting from collision with Amazonia and forming a central part in the assembly of the Rodinia supercontinent. We recently proposed that the Sveconorwegian segment of this orogen formed as a result of accretionary processes rather than collision. This hypothesis was based mainly on considerations of the Sveconorwegian magmatic evolution. Here, we show how the metamorphic/structural record supports (or at least may be integrated in) our model as well. The key elements in our accretionary model are: 1) formation of the Sirdal Magmatic Belt (SMB) between 1070 and 1020 Ma, most likely representing a continental arc batholith. Coeval deformation and high-grade metamorphism farther east in the orogen could represent deformation in the retroarc. 2) cessation of SMB magmatism at 1020 Ma followed by UHT conditions at 1010-1005 Ma, with temperatures in excess of 1000°C at 7.5 kbar. Subduction of a spreading ridge at ca. 1020 Ma would result in an end to arc magmatism and

  11. The search for the youngest granites in the southern part of the Natal Metamorphic Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.J.; Eglington, B.M.

    1990-01-01

    It is clear that the Belmont Pluton and the dykes are geochemically, isotopically and therefore, genetically distinct. The Belmont pluton is probably related to the garnet leucogranite phase of the Margate Complex. It is suggested that the dykes (∼ 965 Ma) are younger than the Belmont pluton (∼1055 Ma). The relatively low initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr are typical of the granites intruded at ∼1000 Ma. The age of the dykes is comparable with the 951 ± 16 Ma (R o =.70320 ± 13) given for the Sezela pluton. The high R o (∼0.715) of the dykes is similar to other, minor granite sheets from southern Natal, and is compatible with an origin by late-stage melting of pre-existing radiogenic material. Both the dykes and the Sezela pluton are unequivocally younger than the D 3 deformation, whereas the young dates from the Oribi Gorge Suite are controversial. Thus, although it is possible that some of the minor, intrusive granitic sheets could yet be shown to be of Pan-African age, it is evident that no significant Pan-African magmatism or thermal overprinting has affected the Natal sector of the Namaqua-Natal-Maudheim belt. 1 fig., 7 refs

  12. Corona textures in Proterozoic olivine melanorites of the equeefa suite, Natal metamorphic province, South-Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grantham, GH

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available took place during a prolonged history of cooling and partial hydration of the magmatic olivine melanorites from over 1000-degrees-C down to approximately 600-degrees-C. The P-T conditions indicated by the reactions suggest this cooling process...

  13. Features of geology in Anyuan hot spot area of southern Jiangxi Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Jinrong; Li Ziying; Pang Yaqing; Hu Zhihua; Gao Fei; Wang Yongjian; Zhong Qilong

    2013-01-01

    Based on the synthetical research on the characteristics of regional geology and structure, magmatic activity and metamorphism, it is considered that Anyuan area in southern Jiangxi Province has features of continent hot spot, and Anyuan hot spot area is an integrated geology body effected by the metamorphism. magmatism, tectonism and hydrothermal metallogenesis originated by the mantle upheaving. Anyuan hot spot area is a mineralization cluster area of uranium and poly-metal, which has the feature of ring structure, negative abnormity of gravity and high field of radioactivity. It is considered that metallogenesis of uranium and poly-metal is close to crust-mantle mixing and fluid of deep source. (authors)

  14. Earthquakes, fluid pressures and rapid subduction zone metamorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viete, D. R.

    2013-12-01

    High-pressure/low-temperature (HP/LT) metamorphism is commonly incomplete, meaning that large tracts of rock can remain metastable at blueschist- and eclogite-facies conditions for timescales up to millions of years [1]. When HP/LT metamorphism does take place, it can occur over extremely short durations (the role of fluids in providing heat for metamorphism [2] or catalyzing metamorphic reactions [1]. Earthquakes in subduction zone settings can occur to depths of 100s of km. Metamorphic dehydration and the associated development of elevated pore pressures in HP/LT metamorphic rocks has been identified as a cause of earthquake activity at such great depths [3-4]. The process of fracturing/faulting significantly increases rock permeability, causing channelized fluid flow and dissipation of pore pressures [3-4]. Thus, deep subduction zone earthquakes are thought to reflect an evolution in fluid pressure, involving: (1) an initial increase in pore pressure by heating-related dehydration of subduction zone rocks, and (2) rapid relief of pore pressures by faulting and channelized flow. Models for earthquakes at depth in subduction zones have focussed on the in situ effects of dehydration and then sudden escape of fluids from the rock mass following fracturing [3-4]. On the other hand, existing models for rapid and incomplete metamorphism in subduction zones have focussed only on the effects of heating and/or hydration with the arrival of external fluids [1-2]. Significant changes in pressure over very short timescales should result in rapid mineral growth and/or disequilibrium texture development in response to overstepping of mineral reaction boundaries. The repeated process of dehydration-pore pressure development-earthquake-pore pressure relief could conceivably produce a record of episodic HP/LT metamorphism driven by rapid pressure pulses. A new hypothesis is presented for the origins of HP/LT metamorphism: that HP/LT metamorphism is driven by effective pressure

  15. Evolution and relationships between volcanism and tectonics in the central-eastern part of the Oligocene Borovitsa caldera (Eastern Rhodopes, Bulgaria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhont, Damien; Yanev, Yotzo; Bardintzeff, Jacques-Marie; Chorowicz, Jean

    2008-04-01

    The nested Borovitsa caldera emplaced during the collision-related Paleogene volcanism in the Eastern Rhodopes. The pre-caldera succession consists in Priabonian to Early Oligocene sediments and lavas (absarokites, shoshonites, latites). The caldera filling corresponds to an acid volcanism Early Oligocene in age. The tectono-magmatic evolution of the caldera can be divided into six main stages. (1) Ignimbritic units (more than 1.5 km thick) with a trachydacitic to trachytic composition deposited. The K-Ar method yields an age of 34-33.5 Ma. The volcanic products are either strongly or not welded in the western and eastern parts of the caldera, respectively. (2) An initial Murga caldera, 7-10 km in diameter, collapsed. This event was accompanied by the intrusion of a circular body consisting of lenses-bearing rocks of trachyrhyodacitic to rhyolitic composition within the border faults. (3) The emission of pyroclastic rocks continued and a large sub-volcanic body (33 Ma) of trachydacitic to trachyrhyolitic composition intruded in the western part of the circular body. (4) The Borovitsa caldera (15 km × 34 km) collapsed. Rhyolitic and trachydacitic dykes dated at 32.5 Ma intruded along its border faults. (5) High-Si trachyrhyolitic-perlitic domes intruded in the eastern part of the Borovitsa caldera at 30-32 Ma and the Dushka caldera collapsed within the Borovitsa structure. (6) Dykes of various compositions (from shoshonite to rhyolite) and trachydacitic to rhyolitic sub-volcanic stocks finally intruded within the caldera and along its rims at 27.5-29.5 Ma. Observations on radar and optical satellite imagery allowed both a new mapping of the structural pattern in the Borovitsa caldera and the understanding of the relationships between faulting and volcanism in this area. Horse-tail features accommodating the right-lateral throw component at the termination of NW-SE and N-S right-lateral strike-slip faults are superimposed upon the Murga caldera and the eastern part

  16. Geochemistry of granitoid rocks from the western Superior Province: Evidence for 2- and 3-stage crustal evolution models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beakhouse, G. P.; errane) are discussed.

    1986-01-01

    The Superior Province is divisible into subprovinces that can be classified as greenstone-tonalite, paragneiss, or batholitic terranes and are distinguished by differences in lithologic proportions, metamorphic grade, and structural style. The origin and significance of contrasting geochemical characteristics of plutonic rocks from the Winnipeg River subprovince (a batholithic terrane) and the Wabigoon subprovince (a greenstone-tonalite terrane) are discussed.

  17. contact metamorphism in the supracrustal rocks of the sukumaland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mgina

    University of Dar es Salaam, College of Natural and Applied Sciences, Department of Geology,. P. O. Box 35052, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania ... bounded by rational crystal faces (decussate texture). Keywords. Contact metamorphism, intrusions ..... electron microbeam X-ray analysis of thick polished materials, thin films and.

  18. Analysis of lineament swarms in a Precambrian metamorphic rocks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Addressing the geologic significance of lineaments and their correlation with joints/fractures is still unclear. The present study attempts to analyse the lineament swarms developed in a Precambrian metamorphic terrain in India using both unfiltered and filtered techniques. The unfiltered analysis technique shows that the ...

  19. Peak metamorphic temperatures from cation diffusion zoning in garnet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smit, Matthijs Arjen; Scherer, Erik; Mezger, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    ) to develop a tool that uses the diffusion zoning of these cations in garnet to constrain peak temperature conditions for garnet-bearing rocks. The thermometric approach was externally tested by applying it to garnet crystals from various metamorphic terranes worldwide and comparing the results to published...

  20. Shear heating and metamorphism in subduction zones, 1. Thermal models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, M. J.; Castro, A. E.; Spear, F. S.

    2017-12-01

    Popular thermal-mechanical models of modern subduction systems are 100-500 °C colder at c. 50 km depth than pressure-temperature (P-T) conditions determined from exhumed metamorphic rocks. This discrepancy has been ascribed by some to profound bias in the rock record, i.e. metamorphic rocks reflect only anomalously warm subduction, not normal subduction. Accurately inferring subduction zone thermal structure, whether from models or rocks, is crucial for predicting depths of seismicity, fluid release, and sub-arc melting conditions. Here, we show that adding realistic shear stresses to thermal models implies P-T conditions quantitatively consistent with those recorded by exhumed metamorphic rocks, suggesting that metamorphic rock P-T conditions are not anomalously warm. Heat flow measurements from subduction zone fore-arcs typically indicate effective coefficients of friction (µ) ranging from 0.025 to 0.1. We included these coefficients of friction in analytical models of subduction zone interface temperatures. Using global averages of subducting plate age (50 Ma), subduction velocity (6 cm/yr), and subducting plate geometry (central Chile), temperatures at 50 km depth (1.5 GPa) increase by c. 200 °C for µ=0.025 to 700 °C for µ=0.1. However, at high temperatures, thermal softening will reduce frictional heating, and temperatures will not increase as much with depth. Including initial weakening of materials ranging from wet quartz (c. 300 °C) to diabase (c. 600 °C) in the analytical models produces concave-upward P-T distributions on P-T diagrams, with temperatures c. 100 to 500 °C higher than models with no shear heating. The absolute P-T conditions and concave-upward shape of the shear-heating + thermal softening models almost perfectly matches the distribution of P-T conditions derived from a compilation of exhumed metamorphic rocks. Numerical models of modern subduction zones that include shear heating also overlap metamorphic data. Thus, excepting the

  1. Metamorphism and partial melting of ordinary chondrites: Calculated phase equilibria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, T. E.; Benedix, G. K.; Bland, P. A.

    2016-01-01

    Constraining the metamorphic pressures (P) and temperatures (T) recorded by meteorites is key to understanding the size and thermal history of their asteroid parent bodies. New thermodynamic models calibrated to very low P for minerals and melt in terrestrial mantle peridotite permit quantitative investigation of high-T metamorphism in ordinary chondrites using phase equilibria modelling. Isochemical P-T phase diagrams based on the average composition of H, L and LL chondrite falls and contoured for the composition and abundance of olivine, ortho- and clinopyroxene, plagioclase and chromite provide a good match with values measured in so-called equilibrated (petrologic type 4-6) samples. Some compositional variables, in particular Al in orthopyroxene and Na in clinopyroxene, exhibit a strong pressure dependence when considered over a range of several kilobars, providing a means of recognising meteorites derived from the cores of asteroids with radii of several hundred kilometres, if such bodies existed at that time. At the low pressures (recorders of peak conditions. The intersection of isopleths of these variables may allow pressures to be quantified, even at low P, permitting constraints on the minimum size of parent asteroid bodies. The phase diagrams predict the onset of partial melting at 1050-1100 °C by incongruent reactions consuming plagioclase, clinopyroxene and orthopyroxene, whose compositions change abruptly as melting proceeds. These predictions match natural observations well and support the view that type 7 chondrites represent a suprasolidus continuation of the established petrologic types at the extremes of thermal metamorphism. The results suggest phase equilibria modelling has potential as a powerful quantitative tool in investigating, for example, progressive oxidation during metamorphism, the degree of melting and melt loss or accumulation required to produce the spectrum of differentiated meteorites, and whether the onion shell or rubble pile

  2. Kanfenggou UHP Metamorphic Fragment in Eastern Qinling Orogen and Its Relationship to Dabie-Sulu UHP and HP Metamorphic Belts, Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suo Shutian; Zhong Zengqiu; Zhou Hanwen; You Zhendong

    2003-01-01

    In the Central Orogenic Belt, China, two UHP metamorphic belts are discriminated mainly based on a detailed structural analysis of the Kanfenggou UHP metamorphic fragment exposed in the eastern Qinling orogen, and together with previous regional structural, petrological and geochronological data at the scale of the orogenic domain. The first one corresponds to the South Altun-North QaidamNorth Qinling UHP metamorphic belt. The other is the Dabie-Sulu UHP and HP metamorphic belts. The two UHP metamorphic belts are separated by a series of tectonic slices composed by the Qinling rock group, Danfeng rock group and Liuling or Foziling rock group etc. respectively, and are different in age of the peak UHP metamorphism and geodynamic implications for continental deep subduction and collision. Regional field and petrological relationships suggest that the Kanfenggou UHP metamorphic fragment that contains a large volume of the coesite- and microdiamond-bearing eclogite lenses is compatible with the structures recognized in the South Altun and North Qaidam UHP metamorphic fragments exposed in the western part of China, thereby forming a large UHP metamorphic belt up to 1 000 km long along the orogen strike. This UHP metamorphic belt represents an intercontinental deep subduction and collision belt between the Yangtze and Sino-Korean cratons, occurred during the Paleozoic. On the other hand, the well-constrained Dabie-Sulu UHP and HP metamorphic belts occurred mainly during Triassic time (250-220 Ma), and were produced by the intrucontinental deep subduction and collision within the Yangtze craton. The Kanfenggou UHP metamorphic fragment does not appear to link with the Dabie-Sulu UHP and HP metamorphic belts along the orogen. There is no reason to assume the two UHP metamorphic belts us a single giant deep subduction and collision zone in the Central Orogenic Belt situated between the Yangtze and Sino-Korean cratons. Therefore, any dynamic model for the orogen must account

  3. Metamorphic history and age of aluminous gneisses of the Belomorian belt of the Baltic shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibikova, E.V.; Borisova, E.Yu.; Makarov, V.A.; Drugova, G.M.

    1997-01-01

    Metamorphic conditions and age are determined for the early metamorphic stage of aluminous gneisses in the Chupa nappe in the Belomorian Mobile Belt. The granulite-facies metamorphic conditions during Late Archean time are determined based on the composition of garnet and biotie from the metapelites. The early metamorphic stage was dated at 2860 ± 30 Ma based on the U-Pb systematics of granulitic zircon from the metapelites. The U-Pb isotopic system of the zircon was strongly affected by Svecogennian metamorphism (at 1750 Ma). The geodynamic evolution of the Belomorian Mobile Belt is discussed in light of the data of this work

  4. A study of radioactive elements of various rocks in Pattani Province with gamma ray spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaewtubtim, P.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The radioactivity of the three elements, potassium, uranium and thorium, in rocks of various types in Pattani Province was investigated by using a gamma ray spectrometer. It was found that potassium contents in igneous rocks, sedimentary rocks and metamorphic rocks were 6.29 %, 2.21% and 1.54 % respectively. Uranium equivalent contents in igneous rock, sedimentary rocks and metamorphic rocks were found to be 22.51 ppm, 11.25 ppm and 14.13 ppm, while thorium contents in these rocks were 21.78 ppm, 18.88 ppm and 18.15 ppm respectively. The results obtained were similar to those reported by Pungtip Ranglek (1995 for igneous rock at Liwong Pluton site in Thepha, Na Thawi, Chana and Saba Yoi Districts, Songkhla Province, and were about six times higher than those reported by Kittichai Wattananikorn (1994 for igneous rock in the northern part of Thailand.

  5. Metamorphic and geochronogical study of the Triassic El Oro metamorphic complex, Ecuador: Implications for high-temperature metamorphism in a forearc zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riel, N.; Guillot, S.; Jaillard, E.; Martelat, J.-E.; Paquette, J.-L.; Schwartz, S.; Goncalves, P.; Duclaux, G.; Thebaud, N.; Lanari, P.; Janots, E.; Yuquilema, J.

    2013-01-01

    In the forearc of the Andean active margin in southwest Ecuador, the El Oro metamorphic complex exhibits a well exposed tilted forearc section partially migmatized. We used Raman spectroscopy on carbonaceous matter (RSCM) thermometry and pseudosections coupled with mineralogical and textural studies to constrain the pressure-temperature (P-T) evolution of the El Oro metamorphic complex during Triassic times. Our results show that anatexis of the continental crust occurred by white-mica and biotite dehydration melting along a 10 km thick crustal domain (from 4.5 to 8 kbar) with increasing temperature from 650 to 700 °C. In the biotite dehydration melting zone, temperature was buffered at 750-820 °C in a 5 km thick layer. The estimated average thermal gradient during peak metamorphism is of 30 °C/km within the migmatitic domain can be partitioned into two apparent gradients parts. The upper part from surface to 7 km depth records a 40-45 °C/km gradient. The lower part records a quasi-adiabatic geotherm with a 10 °C/km gradient consistent with an isothermal melting zone. Migmatites U-Th-Pb geochronology yielded zircon and monazite ages of 229.3 ± 2.1 Ma and 224.5 ± 2.3 Ma, respectively. This thermal event generated S-type magmatism (the Marcabeli granitoid) and was immediately followed by underplating of the high-pressure low-temperature (HP-LT) Arenillas-Panupalí unit at 225.8 ± 1.8 Ma. The association of high-temperature low-pressure (HT-LP) migmatites with HP-LT unit constitutes a new example of a paired metamorphic belt along the South American margin. We propose that in addition to crustal thinning, underplating of the Piedras gabbroic unit before 230 Ma provided the heat source necessary to foster crustal anatexis. Furthermore, its MORB signature shows that the asthenosphere was involved as the source of the heat anomaly. S-type felsic magmatism is widespread during this time and suggests that a large-scale thermal anomaly affected a large part of the

  6. Gold, uranium and thorium in zones of greenschist displacement metamorphism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrilenko, B.V.; Savitskij, A.V.; Titov, V.V.

    1987-01-01

    Distribution of gold, uranium (bar and mobile) and thorium in 15 zones of greenschist dislocated metamorphism in different structures of the Karelo-Kola region carried out by geologic formations of the Early-Archean-Late-Proterozoic age has been studied. More than 200 samples of well core from 0-200 m depths have been analyzed. The results obtained testify to the increase of gold, uranium and less thorium content in zones of green-schist dislocated metamorphism in comparison with the enclosing rocks 1.4-3.1 times. The variation coefficient of gold, uranium and thorium content in green-schist dislocated tectonites increases 1.5-2.9 times. The correlation coefficient of Au/U mob. pair is +0.69, and Au/U bar pair -+0.87. Essential correlation between concentrations of all three elements in enclosing rocks is absent

  7. Petrology of blueschist facies metamorphic rocks of the Meliata Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faryad Shah Wali

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Meliata blueschists originated from basalts, limestones, pelites, psammitic and amphibolite facies basement rocks. Compositionally, the metabasalts have a geochemical signature mostly indicative of a transitional arc-MORB origin, but some mafic rocks having affinity with within plate basalts also present. The mafic blueschists consist of blue amphibole, epidote and albite, rarely also garnet, Na-pyroxene and chloritoid. Apart from phengite and quartz the metapelites and metapsammites contain one or more of the minerals: chloritoid, paragonite, glaucophane, albite, chlorite, occasionally also Na-pyroxene and garnet. Amphibolite facies rocks contain relic garnet, plagioclase and hornblende, the latter two replaced by albite and blue amphibole, respectively. The zoning patterns of blue amphibole, garnet and chloritoid suggest their formation during prograde stage of metamorphism. P-T conditions of meta-morphism are estimated to be about 350-460 oC and 10-12 kbar.

  8. Metamorphic rocks in the deep boreholes near Maribor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirka Trajanova

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Six research-captive boreholes for thermal water passed through a pile of metamorphic rocks near Maribor (Eastern Slovenia that is on average about 1000 m thick. The succession of metamorphic rocks is characteristic for the Pohorje Mt. and eastern Kobansko region. In the area of the boreholes two tectonic zones are more pronounced: the upper one, at a depth of about 510 to 550 m at the contact of the Štelenska Gora and Phyllite formations and the deeper one at a depth of about 460 to 590 m, indicating the reverse fault junction of the Phyllite and Kobansko formations. They belong to the second andthe third thrust unit of the accretionary wedge formed at the collision of the European and African plates. Four Alpine nappe units are proven in the Slovenian part of the Eastern Alps.

  9. The post collisional metamorphic evolution from Ultra High Temperature to Amphibolite facies metamorphism in the Odesan area during the Triassic collision between the North and South China cratons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung Choon; Oh, Chang Whan; Kim, Tae Sung; Yi, Kee Wook

    2015-04-01

    The Odaesan Gneiss Complex (OGC) is the eastern end of the Hongseong-Odesan collision belt in Korean Peninsula which is the extension of the Dabie-Sulu collision belt between the North and South China blocks. The OGC mainly consists of banded and migmatitic gneiss with porphyritic granitoid and amphibolite. The banded gneiss can be subdivided into garnet-biotite and garnet-orthopyroxene banded gneisses. The highest metamorphic P/T conditions of the migmatitic and garnet-biotite banded gneiss were 760-820°C/6.3-7.2kbar and 810-840°C/7.2-7.8kbar respectively. On the other hand, the garnet-orthopyroxene banded gneiss records 940-950°C/10.5-10.7kbar that is corresponded to UHT metamorphic condition. These data indicate that the peak UHT metamorphic condition of the study area was preserved only within the garnet-orthopyroxene banded gneiss because its lower water content than other gneisses and UHT metamorphic mineral assemblage was completely replaced by the granulite facies metamorphism in other gneisses due to their higher water content than the garnet-orthopyroxene banded gneiss. Finally all gneisses experienced amphibolite facies retrograde metamorphism which is observed locally within rocks, such as garnet rim and surrounding area. The peak UHT metamorphism is estimated to occur at ca. 250-230 Ma using SHRIMP zircon U-Pb age dating and was caused by the heat supplied from asthenospheric mantle through the opening formed by slab break-off during early post collision stage. The calculated metamorphic conditions represent that geothermal gradient of the study area during the post collision stage was 86°C/kbar indicating the regional low-P/T metamorphic event. Besides the Triassic metamorphic age, two Paleoproterozoic metamorphic ages of ca. 1930 and 1886 Ma are also recognized by the SHRIMP age dating from the banded gneisses and Paleoproterozoic emplacement age of ca. 1847 Ma is identified from the porphyritic granitoid which formed in the within plate tectonic

  10. Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes and their uranium favorability. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coney, P.J.; Reynolds, S.J.

    1980-11-01

    The objective of this report is to provide a descriptive body of knowledge on Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes including their lithologic and structural characteristics, their distribution within the Cordillera, and their evolutionary history and tectonic setting. The occurrence of uranium in the context of possibility for uranium concentration is also examined. Chapter 1 is an overview of Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes which describes their physical characteristics, tectonic setting and geologic history. This overview is accompanied by a tectonic map. Chapter 2 is a discussion of the mantled gneiss dome concept. The purpose of including this work is to provide a basic history of this concept and to describe the characteristics and distribution of gneiss domes throughout the world to enable one to compare and contrast them with the metamorphic core complexes as discussed in this report. Some gneiss domes are known producers of uranium (as are also some core complexes). Chapter 3 is an examination of the effects of the core complex process on adjacent sedimentary and volcanic cover terranes. Also included is a discussion of the kinematic significance of these cover terranes as they are related to process within the cores of the complexes. Some of the cover terranes have uranium prospects in them. Chapter 4 is a detailed discussion of uranium in Cordilleran metamorphic core complexes and includes the conceptual basis for the various types of occurrences and the processes that might favor concentration of uranium. The report is supported by a 5-part Appendix. The majority of the core complexes discussed in this report either do not appear or are not recognizable on existing published geologic maps

  11. Pathway to 50% Efficient Inverted Metamorphic Concentrator Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geisz, John F [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Steiner, Myles A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jain, Nikhil [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Schulte, Kevin L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); France, Ryan M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McMahon, William E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Perl, Emmett [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Horowitz, Kelsey A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Friedman, Daniel J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-06

    Series-connected five (5J) and six junction (6J) concentrator solar cell strategies have the realistic potential to exceed 50% efficiency to enable low-cost CPV systems. We propose three strategies for developing a practical 6J device. We have overcome many of the challenges required to build such concentrator solar cell devices: We have developed 2.1 eV AlGaInP, 1.7 eV AlGaAs, and 1.7 eV GaInAsP junctions with external radiative efficiency greater than 0.1%. We have developed a transparent tunnel junction that absorbs minimal light intended for the second junction yet resists degradation under thermal load. We have developed metamorphic grades from the GaAs to the InP lattice constant that are transparent to sub-GaAs bandgap light. We have grown and compared low bandgap junctions (0.7eV - 1.2 eV) using metamorphic GaInAs, metamorphic GaInAsP, and GaInAsP lattice-matched to InP. And finally, we have demonstrated excellent performance in a high voltage, low current 4 junction inverted metamorphic device using 2.1, 1.7, 1.4, and 1.1 eV junctions with over 8.7 mA/cm2 one-sun current density that operates up to 1000 suns without tunnel junction failure.

  12. Diffusion models in metamorphic thermo chronology: philosophy and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munha, Jose Manuel; Tassinari, Colombo Celso Gaeta

    1999-01-01

    Understanding kinetics of diffusion is of major importance to the interpretation of isotopic ages in metamorphic rocks. This paper provides a review of concepts and methodologies involved on the various diffusion models that can be applied to radiogenic systems in cooling rocks. The central concept of closure temperature is critically discussed and quantitative estimates for the various diffusion models are evaluated, in order to illustrate the controlling factors and the limits of their practical application. (author)

  13. Syn-extensional plutonism and peak metamorphism in the albion-raft river-grouse creek metamorphic core complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, A.; Miller, E.L.; Wooden, J.L.; Kozdon, R.; Valley, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    The Cassia plutonic complex (CPC) is a group of variably deformed, Oligocene granitic plutons exposed in the lower plate of the Albion-Raft River- Grouse Creek (ARG) metamorphic core complex of Idaho and Utah. The plutons range from granodiorite to garnet-bearing, leucogranite, and during intrusion, sillimanite- grade peak metamorphism and ductile attenuation occurred in the country rocks and normal-sense, amphibolite-grade deformation took place along the Middle Mountain shear zone. U-Pb zircon geochronology from three variably deformed plutons exposed in the lower plate of the ARG metamorphic core complex revealed that each zircon is comprised of inherited cores (dominantly late Archean) and Oligocene igneous overgrowths. Within each pluton, a spread of concordant ages from the Oligocene zircon overgrowths is interpreted as zircon recycling within a long-lived magmatic system. The plutons of the CPC have very low negative whole rock ??Nd values of -26 to -35, and initial Sr values of 0.714 to 0.718, consistent with an ancient, crustal source. Oxygen isotope ratios of the Oligocene zircon overgrowths from the CPC have an average ??18O value of 5.40 ?? 0.63 permil (2SD, n = 65) with a slight trend towards higher ??18O values through time. The ??18O values of the inherited cores of the zircons are more variable at 5.93 ?? 1.51 permil (2SD, n = 29). Therefore, we interpret the plutons of the CPC as derived, at least in part, from melting Archean crust based on the isotope geochemistry. In situ partial melting of the exposed Archean basement that was intruded by the Oligocene plutons of the CPC is excluded as the source for the CPC based on field relationships, age and geochemistry. Correlations between Ti and Hf concentrations in zircons from the CPC suggest that the magmatic system may have become hotter (higher Ti concentration in zircon) and less evolved (lower Hf in zircon concentration) through time. Therefore, the CPC represents prolonged or episodic magmatism

  14. Isotopic chronometry of zoned garnets: Growth kinetics and metamorphic histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, D.; O'Nions, R.K.

    1990-01-01

    Basic information on the chronological and pressure-temperature evolution of regional metamorphic terrains may in principle be derived from metamorphic garnets because of the similarly low diffusivities of Sm, Nd and major cations in this mineral. We report here Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr isotopic and major element data on prograde garnets from regionally metamorphosed pelites from Newfoundland. The garnets preserve a prograde major element zonation as well as a sympathetic variation in Sm/Nd ratio. Sm-Nd data for separated portions of the garnet from core to rim provide both upper limits on the time for garnet growth and demonstrate synchronous growth of different garnet grains on a hand specimen scale. The Rb-Sr data on the same garnet fractions are in general agreement with these results but in some cases cannot be interpreted in terms of growth. A minimum heating rate of 3 K Ma -1 is derived by combining the estimates for garnet growth time with the apparent temperature interval over which the garnet grew, deduced from the major element zonation. This value is similar to the minimum suggested by theoretical models for the thermal evolution of thickened continental crust. The growth rate is within the range of 1.3-19 mm Ma -1 , set respectively by the isotopic data and the likely upper limit for heating rate during regional metamorphism. These growth rates appear too slow to be controlled by surface reaction and suggest that other factors, such as transport, may be rate-limiting. In this case, the limits set of the effective diffusion coefficient for material transport to the growth site (=0.4-6.1x10 -17 m 2 s -1 ) suggest that grain boundary diffusion is probably the transport mechanism for supply of material to the growing garnet. (orig.)

  15. Teaching Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology Through Guided Inquiry Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, N. J.

    2003-12-01

    Undergraduate Petrology at New Mexico State University (GEOL 399) has been taught using three, 5-6 week long projects in place of lectures, lab, and exams for the last six years. Reasons for changing from the traditional format include: 1) to move the focus from identification and memorization to petrologic thinking; 2) the need for undergraduate students to apply basic chemical, structural, and field concepts to igneous and metamorphic rocks; 3) student boredom in the traditional mode by the topic that has captivated my professional life, in spite of my best efforts to offer thrilling lectures, problems, and labs. The course has three guided inquiry projects: volcanic, plutonic, and pelitic dynamothermal. Two of the rock suites are investigated during field trips. Each project provides hand samples and thin sections; the igneous projects also include whole-rock major and trace element data. Students write a scientific paper that classifies and describes the rocks, describes the data (mineralogical and geochemical), and uses data to interpret parameters such as tectonic setting, igneous processes, relationship to phase diagrams, geologic history, metamorphic grade, metamorphic facies, and polymetamorphic history. Students use the text as a major resource for self-learning; mini-lectures on pertinent topics are presented when needed by the majority of students. Project scores include evaluation of small parts of the paper due each Friday and participation in peer review as well as the final report. I have found that petrology is much more fun, although more difficult, to teach using this method. It is challenging to be totally prepared for class because students are working at different speeds on different levels on different aspects of the project. Students enjoy the course, especially the opportunity to engage in scientific investigation and debate. A significant flaw in this course is that students see fewer rocks and have less experience in rock classification

  16. Semantically Enabling Knowledge Representation of Metamorphic Petrology Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, P.; Fox, P. A.; Spear, F. S.; Adali, S.; Nguyen, C.; Hallett, B. W.; Horkley, L. K.

    2012-12-01

    More and more metamorphic petrology data is being collected around the world, and is now being organized together into different virtual data portals by means of virtual organizations. For example, there is the virtual data portal Petrological Database (PetDB, http://www.petdb.org) of the Ocean Floor that is organizing scientific information about geochemical data of ocean floor igneous and metamorphic rocks; and also The Metamorphic Petrology Database (MetPetDB, http://metpetdb.rpi.edu) that is being created by a global community of metamorphic petrologists in collaboration with software engineers and data managers at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. The current focus is to provide the ability for scientists and researchers to register their data and search the databases for information regarding sample collections. What we present here is the next step in evolution of the MetPetDB portal, utilizing semantically enabled features such as discovery, data casting, faceted search, knowledge representation, and linked data as well as organizing information about the community and collaboration within the virtual community itself. We take the information that is currently represented in a relational database and make it available through web services, SPARQL endpoints, semantic and triple-stores where inferencing is enabled. We will be leveraging research that has taken place in virtual observatories, such as the Virtual Solar Terrestrial Observatory (VSTO) and the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO); vocabulary work done in various communities such as Observations and Measurements (ISO 19156), FOAF (Friend of a Friend), Bibo (Bibliography Ontology), and domain specific ontologies; enabling provenance traces of samples and subsamples using the different provenance ontologies; and providing the much needed linking of data from the various research organizations into a common, collaborative virtual observatory. In addition to better

  17. Tectono-metamorphic evolution of the Jomolhari massif: Variations in timing of syn-collisional metamorphism across western Bhutan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regis, Daniele; Warren, Clare J.; Young, David; Roberts, Nick M. W.

    2014-03-01

    Our current understanding of the rates and timescales of mountain-building processes is largely based on information recorded in U-bearing accessory minerals such as monazite, which is found in low abundance but which hosts the majority of the trace element budget. Monazite petrochronology was used to investigate the timing of crustal melting in migmatitic metasedimentary rocks from the Jomolhari massif (NW Bhutan). The samples were metamorphosed at upper amphibolite to granulite facies conditions (~ 0.85 GPa, ~ 800 °C), after an earlier High-Pressure stage (P > 1.4 GPa), and underwent partial melting through dehydration melting reactions involving muscovite and biotite. In order to link the timing of monazite growth/dissolution to the pressure-temperature (P-T) evolution of the samples, we identified 'chemical fingerprints' in major and accessory phases that were used to back-trace specific metamorphic reactions. Variations in Eu anomaly and Ti in garnet were linked to the growth and dissolution of major phases (e.g. growth of K-feldspar and dehydration melting of muscovite/biotite). Differences in M/HREE and Y from garnet core to rim were instead related to apatite breakdown and monazite-forming reactions. Chemically zoned monazite crystals reacted multiple times during the metamorphic evolution suggesting that the Jomolhari massif experienced a prolonged high-temperature metamorphic evolution from 36 Ma to 18 Ma, significantly different from the P-T-time path recorded in other portions of the Greater Himalayan Sequence (GHS) in Bhutan. Our data demonstrate unequivocally that the GHS in Bhutan consists of units that experienced independent high-grade histories and that were juxtaposed across different tectonic structures during exhumation. The GHS may have been exhumed in response to (pulsed) mid-crustal flow but cannot be considered a coherent block.

  18. Uranium, rare metals, and granulite-facies metamorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Cuney

    2014-09-01

    The Tranomaro metasomatized marbles recrystallizing under granulite-facies conditions represent a demonstrative example of fluid transfer from granulite-facies supracrustals to traps represented by regional scale skarns. Such fluids may be at the origin of the incompatible element enrichment detected in leucosomes of migmatites from St Malo in Brittany (France and Black Hills in South Dakota. The northern French Massif Central provides us with an example of a potential association between incompatible element enrichment of granitic melts and granulite-facies metamorphism. U- and F-enriched fine-grained granites are emplaced along a crustal scale shear zone active during the emplacement within the St Sylvestre peraluminous leucogranitic complex. We propose that during granulite-facies metamorphism dominated by carbonic waves in a deep segment of the continental crust, these shear zones control: (i the percolation of F-, LILE-, rare metal-rich fluids liberated primarily by the breakdown of biotite; (ii the enhancement of partial melting by F-rich fluids at intermediate crustal levels with the generation of F-, LILE-, rare metal-rich granitic melts; (iii their transfer through the crust with protracted fractionation facilitated by their low viscosity due to high F-Li contents; and finally (iv their emplacement as rare metal intrusions at shallow crust levels.

  19. A metamorphic controller for plant control system design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Klopot

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the major problems in the design of industrial control systems is the selection and parameterization of the control algorithm. In practice, the most common solution is the PI (proportional-integral controller, which is simple to implement, but is not always the best control strategy. The use of more advanced controllers may result in a better efficiency of the control system. However, the implementation of advanced control algorithms is more time-consuming and requires specialized knowledge from control engineers. To overcome these problems and to support control engineers at the controller design stage, the paper describes a tool, i.e., a metamorphic controller with extended functionality, for selection and implementation of the most suitable control algorithm. In comparison to existing solutions, the main advantage of the metamorphic controller is its possibility of changing the control algorithm. In turn, the candidate algorithms can be tested through simulations and the total time needed to perform all simulations can be less than a few minutes, which is less than or comparable to the design time in the concurrent design approach. Moreover, the use of well-known tuning procedures, makes the system easy to understand and operate even by inexperienced control engineers. The application was implemented in the real industrial programmable logic controller (PLC and tested with linear and nonlinear virtual plants. The obtained simulation results confirm that the change of the control algorithm allows the control objectives to be achieved at lower costs and in less time.

  20. Explosive volcanism, shock metamorphism and the K-T boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desilva, S.L.; Sharpton, V.L.

    1988-01-01

    The issue of whether shocked quartz can be produced by explosive volcanic events is important in understanding the origin of the K-T boundary constituents. Proponents of a volcanic origin for the shocked quartz at the K-T boundary cite the suggestion of Rice, that peak overpressures of 1000 kbars can be generated during explosive volcanic eruptions, and may have occurred during the May, 1980 eruption of Mt. St. Helens. Attention was previously drawn to the fact that peak overpressures during explosive eruptions are limited by the strength of the rock confining the magma chamber to less than 8 kbars even under ideal conditions. The proposed volcanic mechanisms for generating pressures sufficient to shock quartz are further examined. Theoretical arguments, field evidence and petrographic data are presented showing that explosive volcanic eruptions cannot generate shock metamorphic features of the kind seen in minerals at the K-T boundary

  1. Alkali control of high-grade metamorphism and granitization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg G. Safonov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We review petrologic observations of reaction textures from high-grade rocks that suggest the passage of fluids with variable alkali activities. Development of these reaction textures is accompanied by regular compositional variations in plagioclase, pyroxenes, biotite, amphibole and garnet. The textures are interpreted in terms of exchange and net-transfer reactions controlled by the K and Na activities in the fluids. On the regional scale, these reactions operate in granitized, charnockitized, syenitized etc. shear zones within high-grade complexes. Thermodynamic calculations in simple chemical systems show that changes in mineral assemblages, including the transition from the hydrous to the anhydrous ones, may occur at constant pressure and temperature due only to variations in the H2O and the alkali activities. A simple procedure for estimating the activity of the two major alkali oxides, K2O and Na2O, is implemented in the TWQ software. Examples of calculations are presented for well-documented dehydration zones from South Africa, southern India, and Sri Lanka. The calculations have revealed two end-member regimes of alkalis during specific metamorphic processes: rock buffered, which is characteristic for the precursor rocks containing two feldspars, and fluid-buffered for the precursor rocks without K-feldspar. The observed reaction textures and the results of thermodynamic modeling are compared with the results of available experimental studies on the interaction of the alkali chloride and carbonate-bearing fluids with metamorphic rocks at mid-crustal conditions. The experiments show the complex effect of alkali activities in the fluid phase on the mineral assemblages. Both thermodynamic calculations and experiments closely reproduce paragenetic relations theoretically predicted by D.S. Korzhinskii in the 1940s.

  2. An innovative approach for testing bioinformatics programs using metamorphic testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Huai

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent advances in experimental and computational technologies have fueled the development of many sophisticated bioinformatics programs. The correctness of such programs is crucial as incorrectly computed results may lead to wrong biological conclusion or misguide downstream experimentation. Common software testing procedures involve executing the target program with a set of test inputs and then verifying the correctness of the test outputs. However, due to the complexity of many bioinformatics programs, it is often difficult to verify the correctness of the test outputs. Therefore our ability to perform systematic software testing is greatly hindered. Results We propose to use a novel software testing technique, metamorphic testing (MT, to test a range of bioinformatics programs. Instead of requiring a mechanism to verify whether an individual test output is correct, the MT technique verifies whether a pair of test outputs conform to a set of domain specific properties, called metamorphic relations (MRs, thus greatly increases the number and variety of test cases that can be applied. To demonstrate how MT is used in practice, we applied MT to test two open-source bioinformatics programs, namely GNLab and SeqMap. In particular we show that MT is simple to implement, and is effective in detecting faults in a real-life program and some artificially fault-seeded programs. Further, we discuss how MT can be applied to test programs from various domains of bioinformatics. Conclusion This paper describes the application of a simple, effective and automated technique to systematically test a range of bioinformatics programs. We show how MT can be implemented in practice through two real-life case studies. Since many bioinformatics programs, particularly those for large scale simulation and data analysis, are hard to test systematically, their developers may benefit from using MT as part of the testing strategy. Therefore our work

  3. The discovery of hornblende-garnet-zoisite hornfels in the metamorphic basement of Xiangshan uranium ore field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Zhenpin; Dong Yongjie; Yu Jianfa; Hu Rongquan; Wu Shuilin

    2007-01-01

    Some vein rocks are found among mica schist in the metamorphic rock area of the Xiangshan uranium ore field. They are petrologically denominated as hornblende-garnet-zoisite hornfels. The primitive rocks are basic vein rocks. The hornfels are formed under thermal metamorphism with the temperature about 640 degree C and belong to low-pressure faces. This is closed to the form condition of EarlyMiddle Proterozoic metamorphic rocks in the area. The metamorphism forming the hornfels means that the Early-Middle Proterozoic metamorphic rocks was superimposed to another thermal metamorphism and produced the second phase metamorphic minerals such as staurolite, almandine and biotite. The lattice of the second phase metamorphic mineral developed continuously with the first phase minerals. The overlapping metamorphism made the first phase metamorphic mineral suffer recrystallization, auto purification and idiomorphism. The discovery of hornfelsed basic rock veins discloses that strong geologic process with the activity of fault, magma and metamorphism were still taken placed in Paleozoic era within the metamorphic basement of the Xiangshan uranium ore field. (authors)

  4. Regional metamorphism at extreme conditions: Implications for orogeny at convergent plate margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yong-Fei; Chen, Ren-Xu

    2017-09-01

    Regional metamorphism at extreme conditions refers either to Alpine-type metamorphism at low geothermal gradients of geothermal gradients of >30 °C/km. Extreme pressures refer to those above the polymorphic transition of quartz to coesite, so that ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) eclogite-facies metamorphism occurs at mantle depths of >80 km. Extreme temperatures refer to those higher than 900 °C at crustal depths of ≤80 km, so that ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) granulite-facies metamorphism occurs at medium to high pressures. While crustal subduction at the low geothermal gradients results in blueschist-eclogite facies series without arc volcanism, heating of the thinned orogenic lithosphere brings about the high geothermal gradients for amphibolite-granulite facies series with abundant magmatism. Therefore, UHP metamorphic rocks result from cold lithospheric subduction to the mantle depths, whereas UHT metamorphic rocks are produced by hot underplating of the asthenospheric mantle at the crustal depths. Active continental rifting is developed on the thinned lithosphere in response to asthenospheric upwelling, and this tectonism is suggested as a feasible mechanism for regional granulite-facies metamorphism, with the maximum temperature depending on the extent to which the mantle lithosphere is thinned prior to the rifting. While lithospheric compression is associated with subduction metamorphism in accretionary and collisional orogens, the thinned orogenic lithosphere undergoes extension due to the asthenospheric upwelling to result in orogen-parallel rifting metamorphism and magmatism. Thus, the rifting metamorphism provides a complement to the subduction metamorphism and its operation marks the asthenospheric heating of the orogenic lithosphere. Because of the partial melting and melt extraction of the lower continental crust, contemporaneous granite-migmatite-granulite associations may serve as a petrological indicator of rifting orogeny that is superimposed on

  5. The giant Jiaodong gold province: The key to a unified model for orogenic gold deposits?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David I. Groves

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Although the term orogenic gold deposit has been widely accepted for all gold-only lode-gold deposits, with the exception of Carlin-type deposits and rare intrusion-related gold systems, there has been continuing debate on their genesis. Early syngenetic models and hydrothermal models dominated by meteoric fluids are now clearly unacceptable. Magmatic-hydrothermal models fail to explain the genesis of orogenic gold deposits because of the lack of consistent spatially – associated granitic intrusions and inconsistent temporal relationships. The most plausible, and widely accepted, models involve metamorphic fluids, but the source of these fluids is hotly debated. Sources within deeper segments of the supracrustal successions hosting the deposits, the underlying continental crust, and subducted oceanic lithosphere and its overlying sediment wedge all have their proponents. The orogenic gold deposits of the giant Jiaodong gold province of China, in the delaminated North China Craton, contain ca. 120 Ma gold deposits in Precambrian crust that was metamorphosed over 2000 million years prior to gold mineralization. The only realistic source of fluid and gold is a subducted oceanic slab with its overlying sulfide-rich sedimentary package, or the associated mantle wedge. This could be viewed as an exception to a general metamorphic model where orogenic gold has been derived during greenschist- to amphibolite-facies metamorphism of supracrustal rocks: basaltic rocks in the Precambrian and sedimentary rocks in the Phanerozoic. Alternatively, if a holistic view is taken, Jiaodong can be considered the key orogenic gold province for a unified model in which gold is derived from late-orogenic metamorphic devolatilization of stalled subduction slabs and oceanic sediments throughout Earth history. The latter model satisfies all geological, geochronological, isotopic and geochemical constraints but the precise mechanisms of auriferous fluid release, like many

  6. Stable isotope study of serpentinization and metamorphism in the Highland Border Suite, Scotland, UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikin, N.P. (University Coll., Cardiff (UK)); Harmon, R.S. (Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (USA))

    1983-02-01

    D/H and /sup 18/O//sup 16/O ratios have been measured for whole-rock samples and mineral separates from the mafic and ultramafic rocks of the Cambro-Ordovician Highland Border Suite. The H- and O-isotopic compositions of these rocks record individual stages in a relatively complex 500 Myr old hydrothermal/ metamorphic history. Lizardite serpentinites record a premetamorphic history and indicate that parent harzburgites, dunites, and pyroxenites were serpentinized through low-temperature interaction with meteoric waters during cooling. The other rocks of the Highland Border Suite record subsequent interaction with metamorphic fluids. Amphibolite facies hornblende schists were produced through thrust-related metamorphism of spilitic pillow lavas. During dehydration, D-enriched fluids were driven off from the spilites thus leaving the hornblende schists to equilibrate with a relatively D-depleted internal fluid reservoir. The expelled D-enriched fluids may have mixed with more typical Dalradian metamorphic waters which then exchanged with the remaining mafic rocks and lizardite serpentinites during greenschist facies regional metamorphism to produce antigorite serpentinites and greenschist metaspilites with similar H- and O-isotopic compositions. Serpentinites which have been only partially metamorphosed show intermediate H-isotopic compositions between that of metamorphic antigorite and non-metamorphic lizardite end members.

  7. A stable isotope study of serpentinization and metamorphism in the Highland Border Suite, Scotland, UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikin, N.P.; Harmon, R.S.

    1983-01-01

    D/H and 18 O/ 16 O ratios have been measured for whole-rock samples and mineral separates from the mafic and ultramafic rocks of the Cambro-Ordovician Highland Border Suite. The H- and O-isotopic compositions of these rocks record individual stages in a relatively complex 500 Myr old hydrothermal/ metamorphic history. Lizardite serpentinites record a premetamorphic history and indicate that parent harzburgites, dunites, and pyroxenites were serpentinized through low-temperature interaction with meteoric waters during cooling. The other rocks of the Highland Border Suite record subsequent interaction with metamorphic fluids. Amphibolite facies hornblende schists were produced through thrust-related metamorphism of spilitic pillow lavas. During dehydration, D-enriched fluids were driven off from the spilites thus leaving the hornblende schists to equilibrate with a relatively D-depleted internal fluid reservoir. The expelled D-enriched fluids may have mixed with more typical Dalradian metamorphic waters which then exchanged with the remaining mafic rocks and lizardite serpentinites during greenschist facies regional metamorphism to produce antigorite serpentinites and greenschist metaspilites with similar H- and O-isotopic compositions. Serpentinites which have been only partially metamorphosed show intermediate H-isotopic compositions between that of metamorphic antigorite and non-metamorphic lizardite end members. (author)

  8. Structural evolution of the Semail Ophiolite metamorphic sole, Wadi Hawasina and Northern Jebel Nakhl Culmination, Oman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, C.; Bailey, C.; Visokay, L.; Scharf, A.

    2017-12-01

    The Semail ophiolite is the world's largest and best-exposed ophiolite sequence, however the processes associated with both oceanic detachment and later emplacement onto the Arabian continental margin remain enigmatic. This study examines the upper mantle section of the ophiolite, its associated metamorphic sole, and the autochthonous strata beneath the ophiolite at two locations in northern Oman. Our purpose is to understand the structural history of ophiolite emplacement and evaluate the deformation kinematics of faulted and sheared rocks in the metamorphic sole. At Wadi Hawasina, the base of the ophiolite is defined by a 5- to 15-m thick zone of penetratively-serpentinized mylonitic peridotite. Kinematic indicators record top-to-the SW (reverse) sense-of-shear with a triclinic deformation asymmetry. An inverted metamorphic grade is preserved in the 300- to 500-m thick metamorphic sole that is thrust over deep-water sedimentary rocks of the Hawasina Group. The study site near Buwah, in the northern Jebel Nakhl culmination, contains a N-to-S progression of mantle peridotite, metamorphic sole, and underlying Jurassic carbonates. Liswanite crops out in NW-SE trending linear ridges in the peridotite. The metamorphic sole includes well-foliated quartzite, metachert, and amphibolite. Kinematic evidence indicates that the liswanite and a serpentinized mélange experienced top to-the north (normal) sense-of-shear. Two generations of E-W striking, N-dipping normal faults separate the autochthonous sequence from the metamorphic sole, and also cut out significant sections of the metamorphic sole. Fabric analysis reveals that the metamorphic sole experienced flattening strain (K<0.2) that accumulated during pure shear-dominated general shear (Wk<0.4). Normal faulting and extension at the Buwah site indicates that post-ophiolite deformation is significant in the Jebel Akhdar and Jebel Nakhl culminations.

  9. Age dynamics and secular changes of indices characterizing the neurocranium and facial cranium in ethnic Bulgarian 7-17-year-old children from the region of the Eastern Rhodopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tineshev, Slavi At

    2010-01-01

    It is impossible to give an objective anthropologic assessment of the overall physical development of a child's body during the time of intensive growth (7-17 years) without taking into account the age and gender changes in the absolute and relative head and face measurements. Head growth has specific characteristics that makes it different from the growth of other parts of the body. The head of a child differs from the head of an adult not only by metric characteristics but also by the proportions between the different head measurements. Growth and proportionality of the head comply with the general growth pattern, but there are also certain regional, populational and temporal differences. That was the reason why we conducted a study targeted at children and adolescents from the region of the Eastern Rhodopes. The aim Of the present study was to determine the growth dynamics in between-gender and between-age aspects of the variables characterizing the neurocranium and facial cranium, and establish the tendency and direction of the secular changes, The study included 1481 children and adolescents (699 boys and 782 girls) aged 7 to 17 years that were examined using the classical methodology of Martin-Saller (1957). Head length, width, height and circumference, as well as face width, mandible width, morphological and physiognomic height of the face were measured. Head index, morphological face index and jugulormandibular index were calculated using standard formulas. The secular changes were analyzed comparing data from 1907 and 1960 with the data of the present study. The head index classified the children from both genders and all age groups as mesocephals. The girls from the study region had a relatively greater mandible width and boys - relatively greater face width. In the beginning of the growth period wider face forms prevailed especially in the girls, while narrower face forms were more characteristic for the adolescence and postadolescence and better

  10. The carbonate-hosted willemite prospects of the Zambezi Metamorphic Belt (Zambia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boni, Maria; Terracciano, Rosario; Balassone, Giuseppina; Gleeson, Sarah A.; Matthews, Alexander

    2011-10-01

    Zambian willemite (Zn2SiO4) deposits occur in the metasedimentary carbonate rocks of the Proterozoic Katangan Supergroup. The most important orebodies are located around Kabwe and contain both sulphides and willemite in dolomites of low metamorphic grade. The Star Zinc and Excelsior prospects (Lusaka area), discovered in the early 1920s, occur in the metamorphic lithotypes of the late Proterozoic Zambezi Supracrustal sequence, which were deposited in a transtensional basin formed during the oblique collision of the Kalahari and Congo cratons. The deposits are hosted by the limestone and dolomitic marbles of the Cheta and Lusaka Formations. Structural analysis indicates that several fracture sets host the deposits, which may be genetically related to the Pan-African Mwembeshi dislocation zone (a major geotectonic boundary between the Lufilian Arc and the Zambezi Belt). In both prospects, willemite replaces the marbles and is found along joints and fissures with open-space filling textures and locally may develop colloform and vuggy fabrics as well. Silver as well as traces of germanium and cadmium have been detected within the willemite ore, and lead or zinc sulphides are scarce or absent. Calcite locally replaces willemite. Willemite is associated with specular hematite and franklinite and post-dates the Zn-spinel gahnite in the paragenesis. Genthelvite [Zn4Be3(SiO4)3S] occurs as a minor phase in irregular aggregates. The willemites from the Lusaka area, though Mn-poor, show green cathodoluminescence colours and bright green fluorescence in short-wave UV (as the high-temperature willemites in USA). Thermometric analyses of primary fluid inclusions in willemite yield homogenization temperatures that range from 160°C to 240°C and salinities of 8-16 wt.% equiv. NaCl. The homogenization temperatures suggest a hypogene-hydrothermal origin for the willemite concentrations. The geochemistry of fluid inclusion leachates suggests that the hydrothermal fluids were brines

  11. Uraniferous leukogranites from the Namaqualand metamorphic complex: Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robb, L.J.

    1986-01-01

    A number of small leucogranite or alaskite bodies intrude the Modderfontein augen gneiss on the farm Nooitgedacht, south-west of Springbok. These intrusions, correlated with the Kweekfontein Granite of the Spektakel Suite, are anomalously enriched in uranium and thorium, and certain of them have been assessed as potential low-grade deposits. The leucogranites are highly differentiated and are characterized by a pervasive alteration which has sericitized the feldspars and propylitized the biotite. Alteration was probably of a deuteric nature, associated with the late magmatic-early subsolidus stages, and was neither a low-temperature, open-system event, nor was it related to regional retrogressive metamorphism. The leucogranite bodies have I-type characteristics and appear to have been derived by partial melting of lower crustal material. A subset of eight leucogranites were analysed by neutron activation analysis for the rare-earth elements. Typical depleted lower crust is ruled out as a source, however, because of the necessity to markedly enrich the leucogranite magma in elements such as K, Rb, U, and Th. Scatter in Rb-Sr isotope ratios for the Nooitgedacht alaskites indicates that the source may have been heterogeneous and/or anomalously fertile in certain selected elements. In addition, a component of scatter was probably introduced during the extensive alteration of the rocks

  12. The Functions of Metamorphic Metallothioneins in Zinc and Copper Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krężel, Artur; Maret, Wolfgang

    2017-06-09

    Recent discoveries in zinc biology provide a new platform for discussing the primary physiological functions of mammalian metallothioneins (MTs) and their exquisite zinc-dependent regulation. It is now understood that the control of cellular zinc homeostasis includes buffering of Zn 2+ ions at picomolar concentrations, extensive subcellular re-distribution of Zn 2+ , the loading of exocytotic vesicles with zinc species, and the control of Zn 2+ ion signalling. In parallel, characteristic features of human MTs became known: their graded affinities for Zn 2+ and the redox activity of their thiolate coordination environments. Unlike the single species that structural models of mammalian MTs describe with a set of seven divalent or eight to twelve monovalent metal ions, MTs are metamorphic. In vivo, they exist as many species differing in redox state and load with different metal ions. The functions of mammalian MTs should no longer be considered elusive or enigmatic because it is now evident that the reactivity and coordination dynamics of MTs with Zn 2+ and Cu⁺ match the biological requirements for controlling-binding and delivering-these cellular metal ions, thus completing a 60-year search for their functions. MT represents a unique biological principle for buffering the most competitive essential metal ions Zn 2+ and Cu⁺. How this knowledge translates to the function of other families of MTs awaits further insights into the specifics of how their properties relate to zinc and copper metabolism in other organisms.

  13. The Functions of Metamorphic Metallothioneins in Zinc and Copper Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Krężel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent discoveries in zinc biology provide a new platform for discussing the primary physiological functions of mammalian metallothioneins (MTs and their exquisite zinc-dependent regulation. It is now understood that the control of cellular zinc homeostasis includes buffering of Zn2+ ions at picomolar concentrations, extensive subcellular re-distribution of Zn2+, the loading of exocytotic vesicles with zinc species, and the control of Zn2+ ion signalling. In parallel, characteristic features of human MTs became known: their graded affinities for Zn2+ and the redox activity of their thiolate coordination environments. Unlike the single species that structural models of mammalian MTs describe with a set of seven divalent or eight to twelve monovalent metal ions, MTs are metamorphic. In vivo, they exist as many species differing in redox state and load with different metal ions. The functions of mammalian MTs should no longer be considered elusive or enigmatic because it is now evident that the reactivity and coordination dynamics of MTs with Zn2+ and Cu+ match the biological requirements for controlling—binding and delivering—these cellular metal ions, thus completing a 60-year search for their functions. MT represents a unique biological principle for buffering the most competitive essential metal ions Zn2+ and Cu+. How this knowledge translates to the function of other families of MTs awaits further insights into the specifics of how their properties relate to zinc and copper metabolism in other organisms.

  14. Analysis of Geothermal Pathway in the Metamorphic Area, Northeastern Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C.; Wu, M. Y.; Song, S. R.; Lo, W.

    2016-12-01

    A quantitative measure by play fairway analysis in geothermal energy development is an important tool that can present the probability map of potential resources through the uncertainty studies in geology for early phase decision making purpose in the related industries. While source, pathway, and fluid are the three main geologic factors in traditional geothermal systems, identifying the heat paths is critical to reduce drilling cost. Taiwan is in East Asia and the western edge of Pacific Ocean, locating on the convergent boundary of Eurasian Plate and Philippine Sea Plate with many earthquake activities. This study chooses a metamorphic area in the western corner of Yi-Lan plain in northeastern Taiwan with high geothermal potential and several existing exploration sites. Having high subsurface temperature gradient from the mountain belts, and plenty hydrologic systems through thousands of millimeters annual precipitation that would bring up heats closer to the surface, current geothermal conceptual model indicates the importance of pathway distribution which affects the possible concentration of extractable heat location. The study conducts surface lineation analysis using analytic hierarchy process to determine weights among various fracture types for their roles in geothermal pathways, based on the information of remote sensing data, published geologic maps and field work measurements, to produce regional fracture distribution probability map. The results display how the spatial distribution of pathways through various fractures could affect geothermal systems, identify the geothermal plays using statistical data analysis, and compare against the existing drilling data.

  15. The timing of tertiary metamorphism and deformation in the Albion-Raft River-Grouse Creek metamorphic core complex, Utah and Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, A.; Miller, E.L.; Wooden, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    The Albion-Raft River-Grouse Creek metamorphic core complex of southern Idaho and northern Utah exposes 2.56-Ga orthogneisses and Neoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks that were intruded by 32-25-Ma granitic plutons. Pluton emplacement was contemporaneous with peak metamorphism, ductile thinning of the country rocks, and top-to-thewest, normal-sense shear along the Middle Mountain shear zone. Monazite and zircon from an attenuated stratigraphic section in the Middle Mountain were dated with U-Pb, using a SHRIMP-RG (reverse geometry) ion microprobe. Zircons from the deformed Archean gneiss preserve a crystallization age of 2532 ?? 33 Ma, while monazites range from 32.6 ?? 0.6 to 27.1 ?? 0.6 Ma. In the schist of the Upper Narrows, detrital zircons lack metamorphic overgrowths, and monazites produced discordant U-Pb ages that range from 52.8 ?? 0.6 to 37.5 ?? 0.3 Ma. From the structurally and stratigraphically highest unit sampled, the schist of Stevens Spring, narrow metamorphic rims on detrital zircons yield ages from 140-110 Ma, and monazite grains contained cores that yield an age of 141 ??2 Ma, whereas rims and some whole grains ranged from 35.5 ?? 0.5 to 30.0 ?? 0.4 Ma. A boudinaged pegmatite exposed in Basin Creek is deformed by the Middle Mountains shear zone and yields a monazite age of 27.6 ?? 0.2 Ma. We interpret these data to indicate two periods of monazite and metamorphic zircon growth: a poorly preserved Early Cretaceous period (???140 Ma) that is strongly overprinted by Oligocene metamorphism (???32-27 Ma) related to regional plutonism and extension. ?? 2011 by The University of Chicago.

  16. Isotopic evidence for two neoproterozoic high-grade metamorphic events in the Brazilia belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimentel, Marcio Martins; Fuck, Reinhardt Adolfo; Piuzanna, Danielle; Moraes, Renato de; Gioia, Simone Maria C.L

    2001-01-01

    The Brasilia Belt is part of a Brasiliano/Pan African orogen developed between the Amazon and Sao Francisco cratons. The stabilization of the belt occurred after the last metamorphic event at ca. 620 Ma. There has been increasing geochronological evidence, however, for an older Neoproterozoic metamorphic event at ca. 780 Ma, observed mainly in high grade rocks of three large mafic-ultramafic complexes in the northern part of the belt. In this study we present: (i) new U-Pb and Sm-Nd geochronological data, (ii) a review of the existing metamorphic ages in the Brasilia Belt, and (iii) a discussion on the tectonic model to explain the two Neoproterozoic metamorphic ages (au)

  17. Measured versus calculated thermal conductivity of high-grade metamorphic rocks – inferences on the thermal properties of the lower crust at ambient and in-situ conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ray, Labani; Förster, Hans-Jürgen; Förster, Andrea

    in the literature are applied. Thus, if appropriate samples (in terms of sample size or physical-chemical-mechanical condition) for laboratory measurement are not available, bulk TC of high-grade metamorphic rocks with low anisotropy and porosity could be satisfactorily good assessed from modal mineralogy, using......The bulk thermal conductivity (TC) of 26 rock samples representing felsic, intermediate and mafic granulites, from the Southern Granulite Province, India, is measured at dry and saturated conditions with the optical-scanning method. Thermal conductivity is also calculated from modal mineralogy...... (determined by XRD and EPMA), applying mixing models commonly used in thermal studies. Most rocks are fine- to medium -grained equigranular in texture. All samples are isotropic to weakly anisotropic and possess low porosities (

  18. Thermal effects of metamorphic reactions in a three-component slab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chemia, Zurab; Dolejš, David; Steinle-Neumann, Gerd

    2010-01-01

    Thermal evolution of a subducting crust is of primary importance for understanding physical properties, phase transformations, fluid migration and melting regimes at convergent plate boundaries. Various factors influencing the thermal structure of a subduction zone have been considered previously......), and moderately serpentinized harzburgite (SHB). These layers are examined over the range of pressure-temperature conditions of interest by computing metamorphic phase diagrams and retrieving whole-rock thermodynamic properties. Our results suggest that metamorphic reactions consume a significant amount of slab...

  19. Geochronology and structuring of the Ceara State: Borborema Province northwestern part, NE Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetter, A.; Van Schmus, W.R.; Santos, Ticiano J. Saraiva dos; Arthaud, M.; Nogueira Neto, J.

    1997-01-01

    The work confirms that the geochronological new data U/Pb in zircon and Samarium/Neodymium from the Ceara State furnished a refined chronology of the geological activity in the NW part of the Borborema Province, indicating an evolutive history since 2,78 Ga and 532 Ma. Furthermore, these data facilitated the different crust domain outlines in the region, putting age maximum limits in the pre-brasilianas supracrusts rocks deposition, and evidencing the epoch and duration of the Brasiliano magmatism and metamorphism in the northwest part of the State

  20. Relationships between crustal structure and extension in the Basin and Range Province and East Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, G R [University of Oklahoma, School of Geology and Geophysics, Norman, Oklahoma, 73019 (United States)], E-mail: grkeller@ou.edu

    2008-07-01

    The Basin and Range Province of the western United States and northern Mexico is often cited as a classic example of a wide rift. It is also a region where metamorphic core complexes such as the ones observed in the Aegean region are observed. On the other hand, the eastern arm (Kenya rift) of the East African rift is considered to be the classic example of a continental rift, which is by some definitions narrow. In this paper, these two features are briefly compared in terms of crustal structure and associated manifestations of extension.

  1. Cathodoluminescence (CL Characteristics of Quartz from Different Metamorphic Rocks within the Kaoko Belt (Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Sittner

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Quartz of metamorphic rocks from the Kaoko belt (Namibia representing metamorphic zones from greenshist to granulite facies were investigated by cathodoluminescence (CL microscopy and spectroscopy to characterize their CL properties. The samples cover P-T conditions from the garnet zone (500 ± 30 °C, 9 ± 1 kbar up to the garnet-cordierite-sillimanite-K-feldspar zone (750 ± 30 °C, 4.0–5.5 kbar. Quartz from 10 different localities and metamorphic environments exclusively exhibits blue CL. The observed CL colors and spectra seem to be more or less independent of the metamorphic grade of the host rocks, but are determined by the regional geological conditions. Quartz from different localities of the garnet-cordierite-sillimanite-K-feldspar zone shows a dominant 450 nm emission band similar to quartz from igneous rocks, which might be related to recrystallization processes. In contrast, quartz from different metamorphic zones in the western part of the central Kaoko zone (garnet, staurolite, kyanite, and kyanite-sillimanite-muscovite zone is characterized by a heterogeneous blue-green CL and a dominant 500 nm emission band that strongly decreases in intensity under electron irradiation. Such CL characteristics are typical for quartz of pegmatitic and/or hydrothermal origin and indicate the participation of fluids during neoformation of quartz during metamorphism.

  2. Tectono-metamorphic evolution and magmatic processes in the thermo-metamorphic aureole of the Monte Capanne pluton (Elba Island, Northern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, M.; Pandeli, E.; Principi, G.

    2003-04-01

    Introduction In this work we present new structural and petrographic data collected in the thermo-metamorphic aureole of Monte Capanne (western Elba Island) and its metamorphic evolution. In the western Elba Island the Monte Capanne monzogranitic body (ca. 7 Ma) and its thermo-metamorphic aureole crop out. At least two different tectonic units can be distinguished: the Punta Le Tombe Unit, weak re-crystallized, and the Punta Nera Unit. In the latter one the re-crystallization is strong and a pre-intrusion tectono-metamorphic framework is evident (Morelli et al., 2002). The latter is mainly constituted by thermo-metamorphosed meta-ophiolites and meta-sedimentary successions previously correlated by Barberi et al. (1969) with the un-metamorphic ones (Complex IV and V of Trevisan, 1950) cropping out in the central-eastern Elba. According to Perrin (1975) and Reutter &Spohn (1982) a pre-intrusion tectono-metamorphic framework was recognized into such rocks. As suggested by Daniel &Jolivet (1995) complex relationships between metamorphic evolution and magmatic events are also recognizable. Geological Data The Punta Nera Unit crops out all around the Monte Capanne magmatic body and the primary contact with the underlying granitoid is somewhere preserved. This unit, strongly re-crystallized and locally crosscut by aplitic and porphyritic dikes, is represented by (Coli &Pandeli, 1997; Morelli, 2000) tectonized meta-serpentinites, meta-gabbros with rodingitic dikes, rare meta-basalts and meta-ophicalcites, meta-cherts, marbles, cherty meta-limestones, phyllites and meta-limestones with rare meta-arenites intercalations. A "pre-magmatic" tectono-metamorphic framework of this unit is well evident only in its meta-sedimentary portion. The meta-sediments are deformed by syn-metamorphic isoclinal folds caractherized by N-S trending axes, west dipping axial planes and easternward vergence. A later folding and flattening event clearly post-dated the above said folds and associated

  3. Material Evidence for Ocean Impact from Shock-Metamorphic Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Y.; Takayama, K.; Iancu, O. G.

    1993-07-01

    Continental impact reveals an excavated crater that has few fresh fine ejecta showing major high shock metamorphism due to weathering [1]. A giant ocean impact rarely remains as an excavated crater mainly due to crushing by dynamic plate-tectonic movements on the crust [2]. However, all impact materials, including fine-grained ejecta, can be obtained with artificial impact experiments [3]. The purpose of this study is to discuss material evidence for ocean impact based on shock-metamorphic experiments. Artificial impact experiments indicate that fine shocked quartz (SQ) aggregates can be formed on several target rocks (Table 1) [1]. It is found in Table 1 that (1) the largest-density deviation of SQ grain is found not at the wall-rock or the impact crater but at fine-grained ejecta, and (2) silica-poor rocks of basalt, gabbro, and anorthosite can also make fine SQ aggregates by impact. Table 1, which appears here in the hard copy, shows formations of fine shocked quartz aggregates from ocean-floor rocks of basalt, gabbroic anorthosite, and granite [3]. An asteroid (about 10 km across) hits the Earth ~65 m.y. ago [4] to result in global catastrophe by titanic explosion and climate change. But shocked quartz grains found in the K/T boundary layer were considered to come from crystalline continental rocks [5]. The present result as listed in Table 1 indicates that fine SQ aggregates can also be formed at sea-floor basaltic and gabbroic rocks [3]. The present result of formation of the SQ grains from sea- floor target rocks is nearly consistent with the finding of a sea-impact crater at the K/T boundary near the Caribbean [6]. Impact-induced volcanism at the K/T boundary can explained by the penetration from thin ocean crust to upper mantle reservoirs, if giant impact of a 10-km- diameter asteroid hit the ocean [2,7]. The present result can explain "phreatomagmatic (magmatic vapor) explosion," which is created by abrupt boiling between high-temperature magma and cold

  4. Dissecting the dynamic conformations of the metamorphic protein lymphotactin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Sophie R; Porrini, Massimiliano; Konijnenberg, Albert; Clarke, David J; Tyler, Robert C; Langridge-Smith, Patrick R R; MacPhee, Cait E; Volkman, Brian F; Barran, Perdita E

    2014-10-30

    A mass spectrometer provides an ideal laboratory to probe the structure and stability of isolated protein ions. Interrogation of each discrete mass/charge-separated species enables the determination of the intrinsic stability of a protein fold, gaining snapshots of unfolding pathways. In solution, the metamorphic protein lymphotactin (Ltn) exists in equilibrium between two distinct conformations, a monomeric (Ltn10) and a dimeric (Ltn40) fold. Here, we use electron capture dissociation (ECD) and drift tube ion mobility-mass spectrometry (DT IM-MS) to analyze both forms and use molecular dynamics (MD) to consider how the solution fold alters in a solvent-free environment. DT IM-MS reveals significant conformational flexibility for the monomer, while the dimer appears more conformationally restricted. These findings are supported by MD calculations, which reveal how salt bridges stabilize the conformers in vacuo. Following ECD experiments, a distinctive fragmentation pattern is obtained for both the monomer and dimer. Monomer fragmentation becomes more pronounced with increasing charge state especially in the disordered regions and C-terminal α-helix in the solution fold. Lower levels of fragmentation are seen in the β-sheet regions and in regions that contain salt bridges, identified by MD simulations. The lowest charge state of the dimer for which we obtain ECD data ([D+9H](9+)) exhibits extensive fragmentation with no relationship to the solution fold and has a smaller collision cross section (CCS) than charge states 10-13+, suggesting a "collapsed" encounter complex. Other charge states of the dimer, as for the monomer, are resistant to fragmentation in regions of β-sheets in the solution fold. This study provides evidence for preservation and loss of global fold and secondary structural elements, providing a tantalizing glimpse into the power of the emerging field of native top-down mass spectrometry.

  5. The Chicxulub crater - impact metamorphism of sulfate and carbonate lithologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, A.; Langenhorst, F.; Hornemann, U.; Ivanov, B. A.

    2003-04-01

    It is discussed whether in the aftermath of the Chicxulub event, impact-released CO_2 and SO_x have changed the Earth's climate, acting also as lethal thread for life. Undoubtedly, vaporization of carbonates and sulfates, which are major target lithologies at the Chicxulub impact site, occurred in the footprint of the projectile. What happened to these lithologies outside this very restricted zone was so far unconstrained. Petrologic observations on PEMEX and UNAM as well as on the CSDP cores allow to set up a general classification for shock-related pro-grade effects on sulfate and carbonate sedimentary rocks. Shock effects in lithic breccias are restricted to brecciation and formation of twins in calcite. Suevites mostly lack melted carbonate clasts; annealing effects in anhydrite fragments are absent. The underlying melt breccias contain anhydrite fragments still displaying a sedimentary texture, and limestone clasts, whose texture reflect crystallization from melt. Impact melt breccias from deeper levels frequently contain partially resorbed anhydrite clasts and a melt matrix with the Ca-rich mineral assemblage quartz + plagioclase + clinopyroxene; this mineral assemblage provides evidence for partial dissociation of CaSO_4. Large clasts of anhydrite consist of equant crystals with 120^o triple junctions, a feature indicative for re-crystallization in the solid state. Tagamites (impact melt rocks) are virtually free of clasts from sedimentary lithologies. These rocks have an extremely high formation temperature, which caused total dissociation of CaSO_4 and CaCO_3. Finally, up to 100 μm wide veins of anhydrite + calcite + quartz cut the matrix of all lithologies except the tagamites. They probably represent "degassing vents". The given scheme is in qualitative accordance with data of shock recovery and annealing experiments as well as with modeling results. In addition, it substantiates that annealing plays a fundamental role in the impact metamorphism of

  6. Histamine is a modulator of metamorphic competence in Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutherby Josh

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A metamorphic life-history is present in the majority of animal phyla. This developmental mode is particularly prominent among marine invertebrates with a bentho-planktonic life cycle, where a pelagic larval form transforms into a benthic adult. Metamorphic competence (the stage at which a larva is capable to undergo the metamorphic transformation and settlement is an important adaptation both ecologically and physiologically. The competence period maintains the larval state until suitable settlement sites are encountered, at which point the larvae settle in response to settlement cues. The mechanistic basis for metamorphosis (the morphogenetic transition from a larva to a juvenile including settlement, i.e. the molecular and cellular processes underlying metamorphosis in marine invertebrate species, is poorly understood. Histamine (HA, a neurotransmitter used for various physiological and developmental functions among animals, has a critical role in sea urchin fertilization and in the induction of metamorphosis. Here we test the premise that HA functions as a developmental modulator of metamorphic competence in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Results Our results provide strong evidence that HA leads to the acquisition of metamorphic competence in S. purpuratus larvae. Pharmacological analysis of several HA receptor antagonists and an inhibitor of HA synthesis indicates a function of HA in metamorphic competence as well as programmed cell death (PCD during arm retraction. Furthermore we identified an extensive network of histaminergic neurons in pre-metamorphic and metamorphically competent larvae. Analysis of this network throughout larval development indicates that the maturation of specific neuronal clusters correlates with the acquisition of metamorphic competence. Moreover, histamine receptor antagonist treatment leads to the induction of caspase mediated apoptosis in competent larvae. Conclusions We

  7. Metamorphic complexes in accretionary orogens: Insights from the Beishan collage, southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dongfang; Xiao, Wenjiao; Windley, Brian F.; Han, Chunming; Yang, Lei

    2016-10-01

    The sources of ancient zircons and the tectonic attributions and origins of metamorphic complexes in Phanerozoic accretionary orogens have long been difficult issues. Situated between the Tianshan and Inner Mongolia orogens, the Beishan orogenic collage (BOC) plays a pivotal role in understanding the accretionary processes of the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), particularly the extensive metamorphic and high-strained complexes on the southern margin. Despite their importance in understanding the basic architecture of the southern CAOB, little consensus has been reached on their ages and origins. Our new structural, LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb and Hf isotopic data from the Baidunzi, Shibandun, Qiaowan and Wutongjing metamorphic complexes resolve current controversial relations. The metamorphic complexes have varied lithologies and structures. Detrital zircons from five para-metamorphic rocks yield predominantly Phanerozoic ages with single major peaks at ca. 276 Ma, 286 Ma, 427 Ma, 428 Ma and 461 Ma. Two orthogneisses have weighted mean ages of 294 ± 2 Ma and 304 ± 2 Ma with no Precambrian inherited zircons. Most Phanerozoic zircons show positive εHf(t) values indicating significant crustal growth in the Ordovician, Silurian and Permian. The imbricated fold-thrust deformation style combined with diagnostic zircon U-Pb-Hf isotopic data demonstrate that the metamorphic rocks developed in a subduction-accretion setting on an arc or active continental margin. This setting and conclusion are supported by the nearby occurrence of Ordovician-Silurian adakites, Nb-rich basalts, Carboniferous-Permian ophiolitic mélanges, and trench-type turbidites. Current data do not support the presence of a widespread Precambrian basement in the evolution of the BOC; the accretionary processes may have continued to the early Permian in this part of the CAOB. These relationships have meaningful implications for the interpretation of the tectonic attributions and origins of other

  8. Pressure-temperature evolution of Neoproterozoic metamorphism in the Welayati Formation (Kabul Block), Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, Stephen; Faryad, Shah Wali

    2015-11-01

    The Welayati Formation, consisting of alternating layers of mica-schist and quartzite with lenses of amphibolite, unconformably overlies the Neoarchean Sherdarwaza Formation of the Kabul Block that underwent Paleoproterozoic granulite-facies and Neoproterozoic amphibolite-facies metamorphic events. To analyze metamorphic history of the Welayati Formation and its relations to the underlying Sherdarwaza Formation, petrographic study and pressure-temperature (P-T) pseudosection modeling were applied to staurolite- and kyanite-bearing mica-schists, which crop out to the south of Kabul City. Prograde metamorphism, identified by inclusion trails and chemical zonation in garnet from the micaschists indicates that the rocks underwent burial from around 6.2 kbar at 525 °C to maximum pressure conditions of around 9.5 kbar at temperatures of around 650 °C. Decompression from peak pressures under isothermal or moderate heating conditions are indicated by formation of biotite and plagioclase porphyroblasts which cross-cut and overgrow the dominant foliation. The lack of sillimanite and/or andalusite suggests that cooling and further decompression occurred in the kyanite stability field. The results of this study indicate a single amphibolite-facies metamorphism that based on P-T conditions and age dating correlates well with the Neoproterozoic metamorphism in the underlying Sherdarwaza Formation. The rocks lack any paragenetic evidence for a preceding granulite-facies overprint or subsequent Paleozoic metamorphism. Owing to the position of the Kabul Block, within the India-Eurasia collision zone, partial replacement of the amphibolite-facies minerals in the micaschist could, in addition to retrogression of the Neoproterozoic metamorphism, relate to deformation associated with the Alpine orogeny.

  9. K-Ar ages of the low-grade metamorphic rocks in the Altar massif, Northwest Sonora, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayama, Yoshikazu; Shibata, Ken; Takeda, Hideo.

    1984-01-01

    The K-Ar ages of low-grade regional metamorphism, granodiorite intrusion and its contact metamorphism were studied in the Altar massif of Northwest Sonora, Mexico. The results gave the ages of 55 Ma for metamorphic hornblende and 15 to 17 Ma for mica of metamorphic rocks and granodiorite. About the meaning of these discordant ages and the too young ages of 15 to 17 Ma against the previously presented data, we pointed out the following two possibilities; 1) the contact effect of the Miocene granodiorite on the regional metamorphic rocks of the Laramide phase, 2) both regional metamorphism and granodiorite intrusion took place during the Laramide phase, whereas the young ages, 15 to 17 Ma, show the time of temperature release after the low-angle thrust movement, which is well known in the hinterland of the Sevier orogenic belt in Nevada and Utah. (author)

  10. River Valley pluton, Ontario - A late-Archean/early-Proterozoic anorthositic intrusion in the Grenville Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwal, Lewis D.; Wooden, Joseph L.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents Nd, Sr, and Pb isotopic data indicating a late-Archean/early-Proterozoic age for the River Valley anorthositic pluton of the southwestern Grenville Province of Sudbury, Ontario. Pb-Pb isotopic data on 10 whole-rock samples ranging in composition from anorthosite to gabbro yield an age of 2560 + or - 155 Ma. The River Valley pluton is thus the oldest anorthositic intrusive yet recognized within the Grenville Province. The Sm-Nd isotopic system records an age of 2377 + or - 68 Ma. High Pb-208/Pb-204 of deformed samples relative to igneous-textured rocks implies Th introduction and/or U loss during metamorphism in the River Valley area. Rb-Sr data from igneous-textured and deformed samples and from mineral separates give an age of 2185 + or - 105 Ma, indicating substantial disturbance of the Rb-Sr isotopic system.

  11. U-Pb SHRIMP and Sm-Nd geochronology of the Anapolis-Itaucu complex, Araxa group and associated granites: Neoproterozoic high grade metamorphism and magmatism in the Central part of the Brasilia Belt, Goias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischel, D.P.; Pimentel, M.M.; Fuck, R.A; Armstrong, R

    2001-01-01

    The Tocantins Province (Almeida et al. 1981) in central Brazil is a Neoproterozoic orogenic zone developed between the Amazon and Sao Francisco cratons and possibly a third continental block, known as Parapanema Block, hidden below the sedimentary rocks of the Parana Basin. The Tocantins Province comprises the eastward vergent Brasilia Belt, adjacent to the Sao Francisco Craton (Marini et al. 1984), and the westward vergent Paraguay and Araguaia belts, developed on the eastern margin of the Amazon Craton. According to Trompette (1997), the Brasilia and Araguaia belts had sedimentation starting at around 1.1-1.0 Ga and final closure at 0.6 Ga. In the northern part of the Brasilia Belt occur the Barro Alto, Canabrava and Niquelandia maficultramafic layered complexes. Inconclusive U-Pb isotopic data indicate ages between ca. 1600 and 2000 Ma for these intrusions that were affected by highgrade metamorphism ca. 740-790 Ma ago, during the Neoproterozoic (Ferreira Filho et al. 1994; Suita et al. 1994; Correia et al. 1997). In the southern part of the Brasilia Belt, in central Goias , is the Anapolis-Itaucu granulite complex. It consists of a large complex of high-grade rocks, volcano-sedimentary sequences and granites, exposed in between metasediments of the Araxa Group, the main constituent of the internal zone of the Neoproterozoic Brasilia Belt (Fuck et al. 1994). These granulites have traditionally been interpreted as the exposure of Archean sialic basement to the sediments of the Brasilia Belt (Danni et al. 1982, Marini et al. 1984; Lacerda Filho and Oliveira 1995). This work reports the results of a regional Sm- Nd isotopic investigation and U-Pb SHRIMP data in order to assess (i) the nature of the protoliths of the Araxa Group in this area; (ii) the nature and the high grade metamorphism of rocks from Anapolis-Itaucu Complex; (iii) the crystallization and metamorphism of aluminous granites (au)

  12. Development of III-Sb metamorphic DBR membranes on InP for vertical cavity laser applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addamane, S. J.; Mansoori, A.; Renteria, E. J.; Dawson, N.; Shima, D. M.; Rotter, T. J.; Hains, C. P.; Dawson, L. R.; Balakrishnan, G.

    2016-04-01

    Sb-based metamorphic DBR membranes are developed for InP-based vertical cavity laser applications. The reflectivity of the metamorphic DBR membrane is compared to the reflectivity of a lattice-matched DBR to characterize the optical quality of the DBR membrane. The metamorphic interface between InP and the III-antimonides is found to degrade the reflectivity of the DBR. Therefore, the growth temperature for the metamorphic DBR is optimized in order to obtain highly reflective (>99.8%) III-Sb thin-film membranes.

  13. Effect of food on metamorphic competence in the model system Crepidula fornicata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Dianna K; McCann, Michael J; Glenn, Mica McCarty; Hooks, Alexandra P; Shumway, Sandra E

    2014-12-01

    Food quality and quantity, as well as temperature, are all factors that are expected to affect rates of development, and are likely to be affected by expected climatic change. We tested the effect of a mixed diet versus a single-food diet on metamorphic competence in the emerging model species Crepidula fornicata. We then compared our results with other published studies on this species that examined time to metamorphic competence across a range of food concentrations and rearing temperatures. Ours was the only study to test the effects of single food versus a mixed diet on metamorphic competence for this species. Diet composition did not affect metamorphic competence or survivorship. Comparing results across studies, we found that the shortest time to metamorphic competence was typically found when the food availability per larva was the greatest, independent of rearing temperature. Unfortunately, some published studies did not include important metadata needed for comparison with other studies; these data included larval rearing density, food density, frequency of feeding, and rearing temperature. Mortality rates were not always reported and when reported were often measured in different ways, preventing comparison. Such metadata are essential for comparisons among studies as well as among taxa, and for the determination of generalizable patterns and evolutionary trends. Increased reporting of all such metadata is essential if we are to use scientific studies performed to their fullest potential. © 2014 Marine Biological Laboratory.

  14. Evolutionary genetics of metamorphic failure using wild-caught vs. laboratory axolotls (Ambystoma mexicanum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, S R; Shaffer, H B

    2000-09-01

    In many organisms metamorphosis allows for an ecologically important habitat-shift from water to land. However, in some salamanders an adaptive life cycle mode has evolved that is characterized by metamorphic failure (paedomorphosis); these species remain in the aquatic habitat throughout the life cycle. Perhaps the most famous example of metamorphic failure is the Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum), which has become a focal species for developmental biology since it was introduced into laboratory culture in the 1800s. Our previous genetic linkage mapping analysis, using an interspecific crossing design, demonstrated that a major gene effect underlies the expression of metamorphic failure in laboratory stocks of the Mexican axolotl. Here, we repeated this experiment using A. mexicanum that were sampled directly from their natural habitat at Lake Xochimilco, Mexico. We found no significant association between the major gene and metamorphic failure when wild-caught axolotls were used in the experimental design, although there is evidence of a smaller genetic effect. Thus, there appears to be genetic variation among Mexican axolotls (and possibly A. tigrinum tigrinum) at loci that contribute to metamorphic failure. This result suggests a role for more than one mutation and possibly artificial selection in the evolution of the major gene effect in the laboratory Mexican axolotl.

  15. Isotopic studies of marbles in the Sanbagawa metamorphic terrain, central Shikoku, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Hideki; Enami, Masaki; Yanagi, Takeru.

    1984-01-01

    Carbon, oxygen and strontium isotopic studies were carried out on marbles occurring in crystalline schists and epidote amphibolites of the Sanbagawa metamorphic terrain, central Shikoku, Japan, in order to estimate metamorphic temperatures and to elucidate their origin. Carbon isotopic fractionation between calcite and graphite shows the metamorphic temperature of 460 deg C at the transitional part between the garnet and albite-biotite zones. Marbles are isotopically classified into two groups. (1) some marbles in epidote amphibolite masses show characteristically negative delta 13 C values and low 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios. These marbles are interpreted as have been derived from magmatic or deep-seated carbonates. (2) marbles collected from the crystalline schists and from the marginal part of epidote amphibolite masses, have high 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios and delta 13 C values similar to those of typical sedimentary carbonates. They were probably derived from sedimentary carbonates and/or carbonates re-equilibrated with metamorphic fluid segregated from crystalline schists during the Sanbagawa metamorphism. (author)

  16. Monazite behaviours during high-temperature metamorphism: a case study from Dinggye region, Tibetan Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia-Min; Wu, Fu-Yuan; Rubatto, Daniela; Liu, Shi-Ran; Zhang, Jin-Jiang

    2017-04-01

    Monazite is a key accessory mineral for metamorphic geochronology, but its growth mechanisms during melt-bearing high-temperature metamorphism is not well understood. Therefore, the petrology, pressure-temperature and timing of metamorphism have been investigated in pelitic and psammitic granulites from the Greater Himalayan Crystalline Complex (GHC) in Dinggye, southern Tibet. These rocks underwent an isothermal decompression process from pressure conditions of >10 kbar to armour effect of matrix crystals (biotite and quartz). Most monazite grains formed at the M3-stage (21-19 Ma) through either dissolution-reprecipitation or recrystallization that was related to biotite dehydration melting reaction. These monazite grains record HREE and Y signatures in local equilibrium with different reactions involving either garnet breakdown or peritectic garnet growth. Another peak of monazite growth occurs during melt crystallization ( 15 Ma), and these monazites are unzoned and have homogeneous compositions. Our results documented the widespread recrystallization to account for monazite growth during high-temperature metamorphism and related melting reactions that trigger monazite recrystallization. In a regional sense, our P-T-t data along with published data indicate that the pre-M1 eclogite-facies metamorphism occurred at 39-30 Ma in the Dinggye Himalaya. Our results are in favour of a steady exhumation of the GHC rocks since Oligocene that was contributed by partial melting. Key words: U-Th-Pb geochronology, Monazite, Recrystallization, Pelitic granulite, Himalaya

  17. Geochemistry and paleotectonomagmatic setting of metabasites protolith from Asalem metamorphic complex (northwest Rasht

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Nasrabady

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Asalem metamorphic complex consists mostly of metabasite, metapelite and serpentinite. Metabasites display metamorphic features of greenschist and blueschist facies. Greenschist facies rocks that found as both foliated and massive types contain mineralogical assemblage of actinolite, chlorite, albite and epidote. Blueschists contain mineralogical assemblage of sodic amphibole, epidote and phengite. Whole rock analyses of the metabasites indicate basaltic to andesitic composition with mainly calcalkaline nature of their protolith. According to the discrimination diagrams of tectonomagmatic setting, the protolith of investigated metabasites has been islands arc and somewhat mid ocean ridge. The patterns of rare earth elements and spider diagrams of the Asalem metabasites resemble to the basic and intermediate magmatism of islands arc or suprasubduction setting as well. Greenschists and blueschists facies rocks of the Asalem metamorphic complex have been probably equivalent to islands arc or young and hot oceanic crust of suprasubduction zone setting. This portion of oceanic basin unlike the subducted even and thick oceanic lithosphere of Paleotethys during accretion in the shallower levels of accretionary prisms, have underwent metamorphic conditions of blueschist and greenschist facies and finally gave rise to the formation of the metabasites of the Asalem metamorphic complex.

  18. U-Pb geochronologic constraints on Paleoproterozoic orogenesis in the northwestern Makkovik Province, Labrador, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketchum, J.W.F.; Dunning, G.R.; Dunning, G.R.

    1997-01-01

    A 45 km wide, shear-zone-bounded segment of the northwestern Makkovik Province, Labrador, is underlain by Archean gneisses derived from the adjacent Nain craton. This lithotectonic block (Kaipokok domain) was reworked at high metamorphic grade, overthrust by supracrustal sequences (Lower Aillik and Moran Lake groups), and intruded by granitoid plutons during the Paleoproterozoic. Initial amphibolite-facies reworking of the Kaipokok domain at 1896 ± 6 Ma is indicated by U-Pb ages of metamorphic zircon from a foliated Kikkertavak metadiabase dyke. This is one of the oldest Paleoproterozoic tectonic events dated thus far in northeast Laurentia and may be linked with ca. 1890 Ma plutonism documented elsewhere in the Kaipokok domain. Intrusion of granitoid plutons at 1882 -6 +10 , 1877 ± 5, and 1871 -3 +4 Ma in the Kaipokok Bay area postdates early thick- and thin-skinned thrusting (possibly east to northeast directed) that involved Lower Aillik Group strata. U-Pb titanite ages of 1866 - 1847 Ma in part record a metamorphic event that followed this plutonic-tectonic activity. These early events are temporally and kinematically difficult to reconcile with accretion of juvenile Makkovikian terranes in the southeast and may instead be related to early stages of the ca. 1.91 - 1.72 Ga Torngat orogeny along the western margin of the Nain craton. In contrast, high-grade metamorphism, dextral shearing, and northwestward thrusting between 1841 and 1784 Ma, including crystallization of an Iggiuk granitic vein at 1811 ± 8 Ma, are in accord with accretion of Makkovikian terranes in a dextral transpressional regime (Makkovikian orogeny sensu stricto). Coeval sinistral transpression in the Torngat orogen suggests that both orogenic belts accommodated relative northward tectonic escape of the Nain craton during this interval. (author)

  19. Distributed consensus for metamorphic systems using a gossip algorithm for CAT(0) metric spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellachehab, Anass; Jakubowicz, Jérémie

    2015-01-01

    We present an application of distributed consensus algorithms to metamorphic systems. A metamorphic system is a set of identical units that can self-assemble to form a rigid structure. For instance, one can think of a robotic arm composed of multiple links connected by joints. The system can change its shape in order to adapt to different environments via reconfiguration of its constituting units. We assume in this work that several metamorphic systems form a network: two systems are connected whenever they are able to communicate with each other. The aim of this paper is to propose a distributed algorithm that synchronizes all the systems in the network. Synchronizing means that all the systems should end up having the same configuration. This aim is achieved in two steps: (i) we cast the problem as a consensus problem on a metric space and (ii) we use a recent distributed consensus algorithm that only make use of metrical notions.

  20. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN METAMORPHISM DEGREE AND LIBERATION SIZE OF COMPACT ITABIRITES FROM THE IRON QUADRANGLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Fina Ferreira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Iron ore exploited in Brazil can be classified into several lithological types which have distinct features. The progress of mining over time leads to scarcity of high grade iron ores, leading to the exploitation of poor, contaminated and compact ores. There is a growing trend of application of process flowsheets involving grinding to promote mineral liberation, essential condition for concentration processes. Several authors have correlated metamorphism processes of banded iron formations to mineralogical features observed on itabirites from the Iron Quadrangle, mainly the crystals size. This paper presents the implications of such variation in defining the mesh of grinding. Mineralogical characterization and grinding, desliming and flotation tests have been carried out with samples from two regions of the Iron Quadrangle subjected to different degrees of metamorphism. It was found a trend of reaching satisfactory liberation degree in coarser size for the itabirite of higher metamorphic degree, which has larger crystals. The flotation tests have confirmed the mineralogical findings.

  1. Radioactive occurrences in veins and igneous and metamorphic rocks of New Mexico with annotated bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLemore, V.T.

    1982-02-01

    The primary objectives of this report are to list known radioactive occurrences in veins and igneous and metamorphic rocks in New Mexico, and to provide an annotated bibliography of geologic reports concerning these regions. Only plutonic, metamorphic, vein, and Precambrian quartz-pebble conglomerate uranium deposits are considered in this report; other nonsandstone uranium deposits (such as shale, limestone, phosphorite, coal, evaporative precipitates, and fossil placer deposits) will be considered at a later time. These objectives were achieved through a literature search. Some field examinations of some of the radioactive occurrences have been completed. A table of known radioactive occurrences in veins and igneous and metamorphic rocks was compiled from the literature (Appendix I)

  2. The Katmandu and Gosainkund nappes, central Nepal Himalaya (cartography, structure, metamorphism, geochemistry and radio-chronology)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rai, S.M.

    1998-10-01

    In central Nepal, a multidisciplinary study has been carried out to characterize and distinguish the crystalline nappes of Katmandu and Gosainkund from the Midland formations. Two principal deformations are recorded: one ductile, syn-metamorphic, marked by microstructures (stretching lineation, S-C structures, etc. ), another, post-metamorphic, recorded by an anticline, roughly EW -directed, and by NNE-SSW -directed folds. The syn-metamorphic P-T conditions show differences between Katmandu Crystalline Nappe (900-720 MPa; 700-480 deg C) and Gosainkund Crystalline Nappe (890-580 MPa; 750-590 deg C). They exhibit well preserved inverted metamorphism between the Upper Midland Formations (750 Mpa; 560 deg C) and the Gosainkund Nappe. In central Nepal, the augen gneisses and the 'Lesser Himalayan' Cambro-Ordovician granites bear similar petrographic and geochemical characteristics which suggest a common origin. However, the geological setting and age of the Proterozoic Ulleri augen gneiss rule out correlation with these formations. 40 Ar/ 39 Ar analyses of muscovite, indicate cooling ages younger from south to north: 22 to 13 Ma in the Katmandu Nappe, 16 to 5 Ma in the Gosainkund Nappe, and 12 to 6 Ma in the Midland Formation. The principal points summarized by this study are the following: clear distinction between two nappes marked by their litho-stratigraphy and metamorphism; the ductile movement of MCT in the north of Katmandu is blocked since approximately 25 Ma; the late emplacement and late or common post metamorphic history of the two nappes; but earlier cooling history of the Katmandu nappe; the present uplift of the Katmandu region, underlined by the intense micro-seismicity, concerns indifferently the two nappes that form a single tectonic block at present; the combined uplift of the two nappes is due to the displacement on a ramp of major decollement surface. (author)

  3. Fluid heterogeneity during granulite facies metamorphism in the Adirondacks: stable isotope evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valley, J.W.; O'Neil, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    The preservation of premetamorphic, whole-rock oxygen isotope ratios in Adirondack metasediments shows that neither these rocks nor adjacent anorthosites and gneisses have been penetrated by large amounts of externally derived, hot CO2-H2O fluids during granulite facies metamorphism. This conclusion is supported by calculations of the effect of fluid volatilization and exchange and is also independently supported by petrologic and phase equilibria considerations. The data suggest that these rocks were not an open system during metamorphism; that fluid/rock ratios were in many instances between 0.0 and 0.1; that externally derived fluids, as well as fluids derived by metamorphic volatilization, rose along localized channels and were not pervasive; and thus that no single generalization can be applied to metamorphic fluid conditions in the Adirondacks. Analyses of 3 to 4 coexisting minerals from Adirondack marbles show that isotopic equilibrium was attained at the peak of granulite and upper amphibolite facies metamorphism. Thus the isotopic compositions of metamorphic fluids can be inferred from analyses of carbonates and fluid budgets can be constructed. Carbonates from the granulite facies are on average, isotopically similar to those from lower grade or unmetamorphosed limestones of the same age showing that no large isotopic shifts accompanied high grade metamorphism. Equilibrium calculations indicate that small decreases in ??18O, averaging 1 permil, result from volatilization reactions for Adirondack rock compositions. Additional small differences between amphibolite and granulite facies marbles are due to systematic lithologie differences. The range of Adirondack carbonate ??18O values (12.3 to 27.2) can be explained by the highly variable isotopic compositions of unmetamorphosed limestones in conjunction with minor 18O and 13C depletions caused by metamorphic volatilization suggesting that many (and possibly most) marbles have closely preserved their

  4. Pre-Alpine contrasting tectono-metamorphic evolutions within the Southern Steep Belt, Central Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roda, Manuel; Zucali, Michele; Li, Zheng-Xiang; Spalla, Maria Iole; Yao, Weihua

    2018-06-01

    In the Southern Steep Belt, Italian Central Alps, relicts of the pre-Alpine continental crust are preserved. Between Valtellina and Val Camonica, a poly-metamorphic rock association occurs, which belongs to the Austroalpine units and includes two classically subdivided units: the Languard-Campo nappe (LCN) and the Tonale Series (TS). The outcropping rocks are low to medium grade muscovite, biotite and minor staurolite-bearing gneisses and micaschists, which include interlayered garnet- and biotite-bearing amphibolites, marbles, quartzites and pegmatites, as well as sillimanite-bearing gneisses and micaschists. Permian intrusives (granitoids, diorites and minor gabbros) emplaced in the metamorphic rocks. We performed a detailed structural, petrological and geochronological analysis focusing on the two main lithotypes, namely, staurolite-bearing micaschists and sillimanite-bearing paragneisses, to reconstruct the Variscan and Permian-Triassic history of this crustal section. The reconstruction of the tectono-metamorphic evolution allows for the distinction between two different tectono-metamorphic units during the early pre-Alpine evolution (D1) and predates the Permian intrusives, which comprise rocks from both TS and LCN. In the staurolite-bearing micaschists, D1 developed under amphibolite facies conditions (P = 0.7-1.1 GPa, T = 580-660 °C), while in the sillimanite-bearing paragneisses formed under granulite facies conditions (P = 0.6-1.0 GPa, T> 780 °C). The two tectono-metamorphic units coupled together during the second pre-Alpine stage (D2) under granulite-amphibolite facies conditions at a lower pressure (P = 0.4-0.6 GPa, T = 620-750 °C) forming a single tectono-metamorphic unit (Languard-Tonale Tectono-Metamorphic Unit), which comprised the previously distinguished LCN and TS. Geochronological analyses on zircon rims indicate ages ranging between 250 and 275 Ma for D2, contemporaneous with the emplacement of Permian intrusives. This event developed under

  5. First data on Sm-Nd systematization of Khanka Massif metamorphic rocks, Primor'e

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishkin, M.A.; Khanchuk, A.I.; Zhuravlev, D.Z.; Lavrik, S.N.

    2000-01-01

    The age of the metamorphic rocks of the Khanka massif, Primor'e, is determined through the method of the Sm-Nd isotopic dating. The results of the isotopic studies on the amphibolites of the Nakhimov suite of the Khanka massif indicated that the rocks of this suite are not older than 1.7 billion years. The obtained age corresponds to the time of the amphibolite protolith formation, the source whereof is the moderately depleted mantle. The isotopic age of the amphibole and plagioclase mineral fractions constitutes 733 ± 25 mln years, which reflects the time of the Nakhimov suite rocks metamorphism [ru

  6. Mobility enhancement in tensile-strained Ge grown on InAlP metamorphic templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Kai; Gong, Qian; Zhou, Haifei; Kang, Chuanzhen; Yan, Jinyi; Liu, Qingbo; Wang, Shumin

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the growth of tensile-strained Ge on InAlP metamorphic templates by gas source molecular beam epitaxy. Good control of biaxial tensile strain in the Ge layer was demonstrated in the range of 0.5–2.0% by adjusting the In content of the metamorphic template. It was found that the growth of Ge was layer-by-layer (2D) even under high tensile strain of 2.0%, resulting in a smooth surface with roughness less than 1.5 nm. Hall results showed that the electron mobility of Ge increased monotonically with tensile strain.

  7. Tectono-metamorphic evolution of the Chinese Altai, central Asia: new insights from microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yingde; Zhang, Jian; Schulmann, Karel; Sun, Min; Zhao, Guochun

    2013-04-01

    The Altai Orogen, extending from Russia, through northeast Kazakhstan and northwest China, to western and southern Mongolia, occupies a pivotal position in understanding the accretionary process of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt and has drawn much attention in recent years. However, its orogenic evolution remains poorly constrained, because previous studies were mainly focused on the geochronological and geochemical signatures and much less work has been done on metamorphic and structural studies. Metamorphic rocks widely occur in the southern Altai Range and have previously been separated into high-T/low-P and medium-P types. Recent studies demonstrated that these two kinds of rocks may have similar protoliths, i.e. early Paleozoic arc-related assemblages, but experienced different metamorphic histories. The development of biotite, garnet, staurolite and kyanite metamorphic zonal sequences in the low- to medium- grade rocks, demonstrate typical medium-pressure metamorphism that has been suggested as a major consequence of the orogenesis. The high-T/low-P metamorphism, represented by the growth of garnet+cordierite+sillimanite+k-feldspar and was accompanied by extensive anatexis, remains its tectonic significance poorly constrained. Field structural investigation in the Chinese Altai reveals that the high-T/low-P metamorphic rocks have major S-L fabrics (defined by the strongly aligned biotite and sillimanite) exactly in the same orientations as those developed in the associated medium-P grade rocks. Geochronological studies constrain the major fabrics in both kinds of rocks developed during mid-Devonian, coeval with the strong magmatism in the region. Micro-structural investigation on both kinds of rocks show similar prograde metamorphic history featured by clockwise P-T path evolution. Phase equilibrium modeling in the MnNCKFMASH system indicates that the development of major fabrics in the medium-P metamorphic rocks mainly recorded the notable increase of

  8. Uranium deposits in the metamorphic basement of the Rouergue massif. Genesis and extension of related albitization processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, J.M.

    1982-02-01

    Albitization processes in the Rouergue metamorphic basement, probably Permian aged is evidenced. Late development of uranium orebodies occured within albitized zones. The detection of the latter serves as a highly valuable indirect guide for prospecting this type of deposits in a metamorphic basement [fr

  9. Amphiboles and their host rocks in the high-grade metamorphic Precambrin of Rogaland/Vest-Agder, Sw. Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, A.G.C.

    1978-01-01

    In the high-grade metamorphic Precambrian of the Sirdal-¢rsdal area, Rogaland/Vest-Agder,south-west Norway, the Ca-amphiboles show a change in pleochroic colours, not only with changes in metamorphic grade, but also to some extend in bulk composition. A regional study was performed on the

  10. Amphiboles and their host rocks in the high-grade metamorphic Precambrin of Rogaland/Vest-Agder, Sw. Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, A.G.C.

    1978-01-01

    In the high-grade metamorphic Precambrian of the Sirdal-¢rsdal area, Rogaland/Vest-Agder,south-west Norway, the Ca-amphiboles show a change in pleochroic colours, not only with changes in metamorphic grade, but also to some extend in bulk composition. A regional study was performed on the amphiboles

  11. Entrepreneur achievement. Liaoning province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, R

    1994-03-01

    This paper reports the successful entrepreneurial endeavors of members of a 20-person women's group in Liaoning Province, China. Jing Yuhong, a member of the Family Planning Association at Shileizi Village, Dalian City, provided the basis for their achievements by first building an entertainment/study room in her home to encourage married women to learn family planning. Once stocked with books, magazines, pamphlets, and other materials on family planning and agricultural technology, dozens of married women in the neighborhood flocked voluntarily to the room. Yuhong also set out to give these women a way to earn their own income as a means of helping then gain greater equality with their husbands and exert greater control over their personal reproductive and social lives. She gave a section of her farming land to the women's group, loaned approximately US$5200 to group members to help them generate income from small business initiatives, built a livestock shed in her garden for the group to raise marmots, and erected an awning behind her house under which mushrooms could be grown. The investment yielded $12,000 in the first year, allowing each woman to keep more than $520 in dividends. Members then soon began going to fairs in the capital and other places to learn about the outside world, and have successfully ventured out on their own to generate individual incomes. Ten out of twenty women engaged in these income-generating activities asked for and got the one-child certificate.

  12. Rare earth elements in the banded iron formation of the Griqualand West sequence, northern Cape Province, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horstmann, U.E.; Haelbich, I.W.; Cornell, D.H.

    1990-01-01

    The Proterozoic banded iron-formations (BIF) of the Griqualand West sequence of the Transvaal Supergroup in the northern Cape Province of South Africa have been investigated for their rare earth elements (REE) contents. Twenty three REE analyses were completed using an ICP-AES method. Despite diagenetic and metamorphic processes, it can be concluded from the so far available REE data that the conspicuous differences in REE patterns to those reported from elsewhere indicate the BIF of the Transvaal Supergroup to have originated in relative restricted parts or basins of the Precambrian ocean. 7 refs., 1 fig

  13. Using a Differential Scanning Calorimeter to Teach Phase Equilibria to Students of Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria, Anton H.; Millam, Evan L.; Wright, Carrie L.

    2011-01-01

    As an aid for teaching phase equilibria to undergraduate students of igneous and metamorphic petrology, we have designed a laboratory exercise that allows them to create a phase diagram from data produced by differential scanning calorimetry. By preparing and analyzing samples of naphthalene and phenanthrene, students acquire hands-on insight into…

  14. The ammonium content in the Malayer igneous and metamorphic rocks (Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone, Western Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahadnejad, Vahid; Hirt, Ann Marie; Valizadeh, Mohammad-Vali; Bokani, Saeed Jabbari

    2011-04-01

    The ammonium (NH4+) contents of the Malayer area (Western Iran) have been determined by using the colorimetric method on 26 samples from igneous and metamorphic rocks. This is the first analysis of the ammonium contents of Iranian metamorphic and igneous rocks. The average ammonium content of metamorphic rocks decreases from low-grade to high-grade metamorphic rocks (in ppm): slate 580, phyllite 515, andalusite schist 242. In the case of igneous rocks, it decreases from felsic to mafic igneous types (in ppm): granites 39, monzonite 20, diorite 17, gabbro 10. Altered granitic rocks show enrichment in NH4+ (mean 61 ppm). The high concentration of ammonium in Malayer granites may indicate metasedimentary rocks as protoliths rather than meta-igneous rocks. These granitic rocks (S-types) have high K-bearing rock-forming minerals such as biotite, muscovite and K-feldspar which their potassium could substitute with ammonium. In addition, the high ammonium content of metasediments is probably due to inheritance of nitrogen from organic matter in the original sediments. The hydrothermally altered samples of granitic rocks show highly enrichment of ammonium suggesting external sources which intruded additional content by either interaction with metasedimentary country rocks or meteoritic solutions.

  15. Post-peak metamorphic evolution of the Sumdo eclogite from the Lhasa terrane of southeast Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dadi; Cheng, Hao; Zhang, Lingmin; Wang, Ke

    2017-08-01

    A reconstruction of the pressure-temperature-time (P-T-t) path of high-pressure eclogite-facies rocks in subduction zones may reveal important information about the tectono-metamorphic processes that occur at great depths along the plate interface. The majority of studies have focused on prograde to peak metamorphism of these rocks, whereas after-peak metamorphism has received less attention. Herein, we present a detailed petrological, pseudosection modeling and radiometric dating study of a retrograded eclogite sample from the Sumdo ultrahigh pressure belt of the Lhasa terrane, Tibet. Mineral chemical variations, textural discontinuities and thermodynamic modeling suggest that the eclogite underwent an exhumation-heating period. Petrographic observations and phase equilibria modeling suggest that the garnet cores formed at the pressure peak (∼2.5 GPa and ∼520 °C) within the lawsonite eclogite-facies and garnet rims (∼1.5 GPa and spans an interval of ∼7 million years, which is a minimum estimate of the duration of the eclogite-facies metamorphism of the Sumdo eclogite.

  16. Reaction induced nucleation and growth v. grain coarsening in contact metamorphic, impure carbonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, Alfons; Brodhag, Sabine; Herwegh, Marco

    2010-01-01

    aureole of the Adamello pluton (N-Italy). As a function of increasing distance from the pluton contact, the investigated samples have peak metamorphic temperatures ranging from the stability field of diopside/tremolite down to diagenetic conditions. All samples consist of calcite as the dominant matrix...

  17. Grain coarsening in polymineralic contact metamorphic carbonate rocks: The role of different physical interactions during coarsening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodhag, Sabine; Herwegh, Marco; Berger, Alfons

    2011-01-01

    ) and microstructures with considerable second-phase volume fractions of up to 0.5. The variations might be of general validity for any polymineralic rock, which undergoes grain coarsening during metamorphism. The new findings are important for a better understanding of the initiation of strain localization based...... on the activation of grain size dependent deformation mechanisms....

  18. Enzyme clusters during the metamorphic period of Ambystoma mexicanum: role of thyroid hormone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, W. H.; Mooren, P. G.; de Graaf, A.

    1982-01-01

    Enzyme activities and DNA content have been measure in axolotl liver during the metamorphic period (4-8 months after spawning). Three different types of enzyme activity profiles were observed. In the type I profile (carbamoyl-phosphate synthase, arginase, ornithine transcarbamoylase, and glutamate

  19. Review of the intrusive, structural and metamorphic history of the Namaqualand geotraverse and environs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blignault, H.J.; Van Aswegen, G.; Van der Merwe, S.W.

    1981-01-01

    The Namaqualand excursion is concerned with the geologic strata, stratigraphy and metamorhic history of the Namaqualand geotraverse and its environs. The general aim of the project was to decipher the history and interactions of tectonic, metamorphic and magmatic processes. Isotope dating were used to determine the ages of various rock formations

  20. Fluid-driven metamorphism of the continental crust governed by nanoscale fluid flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plümper, O.; Botan, Alexandru; Los, Catharina; Liu, Yang; Malthe-Sorenssen, Anders; Jamtveit, Bjørn

    2017-01-01

    The transport of fluids through the Earth’s crust controls the redistribution of elements to form mineral and hydrocarbon deposits, the release and sequestration of greenhouse gases, and facilitates metamorphic reactions that influence lithospheric rheology. In permeable systems with a

  1. Assessment of fire-damaged concrete. Combining metamorphic petrology and concrete petrography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larbi, J.A.; Nijland, T.G.

    2001-01-01

    Metamorphic petrology is a branch of geology that deals with the study of changes in rocks due changing physio-chemical conditions. As conditions shift in or out of the thermodynamic stability field of phases, new phases may appear whereas others disappear. A basic approach is mapping of so-called

  2. Metamorphic history of the Central Pyrenees Part II, Valle de Arán, Sheet 4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, H.J.

    1963-01-01

    The structural geology and metamorphic petrology of the Bosost area in the Valle de Arán (Central Pyrenees) is discussed. The rocks exposed in this area consist of Cambro-Ordovician mica-schists with numerous granite and pegmatite bodies, phyllites and limestones; Silurian slates and schists and

  3. Assessment of role of metamorphic remobilization in genesis of uranium ores from Ralston Buttes area, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, S.K.

    1984-01-01

    The Ralston Buttes mining district, the principal source of commercial uranium in the Front Range since the late 1940s, is located northeast of Golden and southeast of the Front Range mineral belt. Uranium ore occurs in veins emplaced in fault breccia in Precambrian metamorphic rocks. The progenitors of the metamorphic rocks are a possible source for the uranium. Hornblende gneisses of the Idaho Springs Formation is the major rock type in the area, thus its origin is a major consideration in assessing the quantity of uranium that might have been contributed by metamorphic processes. To evaluate this, 41 rock samples (19 hornblende gneisses, 7 biotite gneisses, 5 chlorite gneisses, and 10 metapelites) were analyzed for major elements, and 3 rock samples (16 hornblende gneisses, 8 biotite gneisses, 4 chlorite gneisses, and 5 mica schists) were analyzed for trace metals (Rb, Sc, Zr, V, Ni, Co, Cr, Ba, U, and Th). Four samples of hornblende gneiss and 1 sample of mica schists were also analyzed for rare earth elements. Major elements are rare earth data indicate that the hornblende gneiss was derived from sediments and tholeiitic basalts. Trace element data suggest a volcanic provenance for these sediments. Rare earth patterns and uranium and thorium abundances of metapelites are similar to average North American shales. Low uranium and thorium values and low thorium-uranium ratios in hornblende gneisses and mica schists preclude large-scale uranium remobilization during metamorphism of these source rocks

  4. SHRIMP U-Pb dating of detrital zircons in metamorphic rocks from northern Kyushu, western Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsutsumi, Yukiyasu; Yokoyama, Kazumi; Terada, Kentaro; Sano, Yuji

    2003-01-01

    Radiometric ages of detrital zircons in psammitic schists from the Nagasaki, Kurume, Konoha and Kiyama areas, northern Kyushu, were obtained from 238 U/ 206 Pb ratio and isotopic compositions of Pb using a Sensitive High Resolution Ion Microprobe (SHRIMP II). Zircons from the Nagasaki, Kurume and Konoha areas show bimodal age distribution with peaks at ca. 1900 Ma and 250 Ma. It is suggested from this study that the older zircons were derived from Proterozoic landmass and the Korean Peninsula. Zircons from the Kiyama metamorphic rock show a different pattern with ages concentrated at 380-590 Ma. Such zircons are rare in rock samples from the Nagasaki, Kurume and Konoha areas, indicating that Kiyama rocks and a different origin than those from the other three areas. The youngest zircons from the Kiyama, Nagasaki, Kurume and Konoha areas show ages of 382±23 Ma, 238±13 Ma, 249±13 Ma, and 175±4 Ma, respectively, These data mark the upper age limit of their deposition. Since a continuous igneous activity occurred during the period from 300 to 170 Ma in Far East Asia, and the metamorphic age has been close to the zircon age of each area, these youngest ages for the Nagasaki, Kurume and Konoha areas are considered nearly contemporary to the depositional ages. An evaluation of the nature of metamorphism and available ages suggest the possibility that the Nagasaki metamorphic rocks as well as the schist from the Kurume area belong to the Suo zone of the Sangun belt, whereas the metamorphic rocks in the Konoha area may belong to the Ryoke belt or Suo zone of the Sangun belt. (author)

  5. Solar PV Industry in Jiangsu Province [China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-03-01

    Jiangsu Province is a leading province in China both in terms of Solar PV application as well as its implementation. The Netherlands Business Support Office in Nanjing reports on the photovoltaic solar cell industry in Jiangsu Province with details on opportunities for foreign investors; applications of solar energy in the province; Chinese government; relevant organizations; and key Chinese players in this sector.

  6. Metamorphic and tectonic evolution of the Greater Himalayan Crystalline Complex in Nyalam region, south Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia-Min; Zhang, Jin-Jiang; Rubatto, Daniela

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies evoke dispute whether the Himalayan metamorphic core - Greater Himalayan Crystalline Complex (GHC) - was exhumed as a lateral crustal flow or a critical taper wedge during the India-Asia collision. This contribution investigated the evolution of the GHC in the Nyalam region, south Tibet, with comprehensive studies on structural kinematics, metamorphic petrology and geochronology. The GHC in the Nyalam region can be divided into the lower and upper GHC. Phase equilibria modelling and conventional thermobarometric results show that peak temperature conditions are lower in the lower GHC (~660-700°C) and higher in the upper GHC (~740-780°C), whereas corresponding pressure conditions at peak-T decrease from ~9-13 kbar to ~4 kbar northward. Monazite, zircon and rutile U-Pb dating results reveal two distinct blocks within the GHC of the Nyalam region. The upper GHC underwent higher degree of partial melting (15-25%, via muscovite dehydration melting) that initiated at ~32 Ma, peaked at ~29 Ma to 25 Ma, possibly ended at ~20 Ma. The lower GHC underwent lower degree of melting (0-10%) that lasted from 19 to 16 Ma, which was produced mainly via H2O-saturated melting. At different times, both the upper and lower blocks underwent initial slow cooling (35 ± 8 and 10 ± 5°C/Myr, respectively) and subsequent rapid cooling (120 ± 40°C/Myr). The established timescale of metamorphism suggests that high-temperature metamorphism within the GHC lasted a long duration (~15 Myr), whereas duration of partial melting lasted for ~3 Myr in the lower GHC and lasted for 7-12 Myr in the upper GHC. The documented diachronous metamorphism and discontinuity of peak P-T conditions implies the presence of the Nyalam Thrust in the study area. This thrust is probably connected to the other thrusts in Nepal and Sikkim Himalaya, which extends over ~800 km and is named the "High Himalayan Thrust". Timing of activity along this thrust is at ~25-16 Ma, which is coeval with active

  7. The effects of metamorphism on iron mineralogy and the iron speciation redox proxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotznick, Sarah P.; Eiler, John M.; Fischer, Woodward W.

    2018-03-01

    As the most abundant transition metal in the Earth's crust, iron is a key player in the planetary redox budget. Observations of iron minerals in the sedimentary record have been used to describe atmospheric and aqueous redox environments over the evolution of our planet; the most common method applied is iron speciation, a geochemical sequential extraction method in which proportions of different iron minerals are compared to calibrations from modern sediments to determine water-column redox state. Less is known about how this proxy records information through post-depositional processes, including diagenesis and metamorphism. To get insight into this, we examined how the iron mineral groups/pools (silicates, oxides, sulfides, etc.) and paleoredox proxy interpretations can be affected by known metamorphic processes. Well-known metamorphic reactions occurring in sub-chlorite to kyanite rocks are able to move iron between different iron pools along a range of proxy vectors, potentially affecting paleoredox results. To quantify the effect strength of these reactions, we examined mineralogical and geochemical data from two classic localities where Silurian-Devonian shales, sandstones, and carbonates deposited in a marine sedimentary basin with oxygenated seawater (based on global and local biological constraints) have been regionally metamorphosed from lower-greenschist facies to granulite facies: Waits River and Gile Mountain Formations, Vermont, USA and the Waterville and Sangerville-Vassalboro Formations, Maine, USA. Plotting iron speciation ratios determined for samples from these localities revealed apparent paleoredox conditions of the depositional water column spanning the entire range from oxic to ferruginous (anoxic) to euxinic (anoxic and sulfidic). Pyrrhotite formation in samples highlighted problems within the proxy as iron pool assignment required assumptions about metamorphic reactions and pyrrhotite's identification depended on the extraction techniques

  8. Eclogite-high-pressure granulite metamorphism records early collision in West Gondwana: new data from the Southern Brasilia Belt, Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reno II, Barry Len; Brown, Michael; Kobayashi, Katsura

    2009-01-01

    constrain the age of. (1) retrograded eclogite from a block along the tectonic contact beneath the uppermost nappe in a stack of passive margin-derived nappes; (2) high-pressure granulite-facies metamorphism in the uppermost passive margin-derived nappe; (3) high-pressure granulite-facies metamorphism...... in the overlying arc-derived nappe. Rare zircons from a retrograded eclogite yield a Pb-206/U-238 age of 678 +/- 29 Ma. which we interpret as most likely to (late close-to-peak-P metamorphism and to provide a minimum age for detachment of the overlying passive margin-derived nappe from the subducting plate. Zircon...

  9. Uranium cycle and tectono-metamorphic evolution of the Lufilian Pan-African orogenic belt (Zambia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eglinger, Aurelien

    2013-01-01

    Uranium is an incompatible and lithophile element, and thus more concentrated in silicate melt produced by the partial melting of the mantle related to continental crust formation. Uranium can be used as a geochemical tracer to discuss the generation and the evolution of continental crust. This thesis, focused on the Pan-African Lufilian belt in Zambia, combines structural geology, metamorphic petrology and thermos-barometry, fluid inclusions, geochemistry and geochronology in order to characterize the uranium cycle for this crustal segment. Silici-clastic and evaporitic sediments have been deposited within an intra-continental rift during the dislocation of the Rodinia super-continent during the early Neo-proterozoic. U-Pb ages on detrital zircon grains in these units indicate a dominant Paleo-proterozoic provenance. The same zircon grains show sub-chondritic εHf (between 0 and -15) and yield Hf model ages between ∼2.9 and 2.5 Ga. These data suggest that the continental crust was generated before the end of the Archean (< 2.5 Ga) associated with uranium extraction from the mantle. This old crust has been reworked by deformation and metamorphism during the Proterozoic. Uranium has been re-mobilized and reconcentrated during several orogenic cycles until the Pan-African orogeny. During this Pan-African cycle, U-Pb and REY (REE and Yttrium) signatures of uranium oxides indicate a first mineralizing event at ca. 650 Ma during the continental rifting. This event is related to late diagenesis hydrothermal processes at the basement/cover interface with the circulation of basinal brines linked to evaporites of the Roan. The second stage, dated at 530 Ma, is connected to metamorphic highly saline fluid circulations, synchronous to the metamorphic peak of the Lufilian orogeny (P=9±3 kbar; T=610±30 deg. C). These fluids are derived from the Roan evaporite dissolution. Some late uranium re-mobilizations are described during exhumation of metamorphic rocks and their

  10. Mantle accretion evidence during the neoproterozoic of the Pernambuco-Alagoas terrane, and its significance to the evolution of the Borborema Province, NE Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Filho, A.F.; Guimaraes, I.P; Van Schmus, W.R

    2001-01-01

    The Borborema Province is located in NE Brazil, corresponding to the western part of a major fold belt, which extends from Brazil to West Africa. According to paleogeographic reconstruction, it is located between the Congo, Sao Francisco and West Africa cratons. The Pernambuco-Alagoas Terrane is a major tectonic unit of the Borborema Province and comprises high-grade metamorphic sequences and the greatest granitic batholiths of this province. The granitic batholiths Maribondo-Correntes, Buique-Paulo Afonso and Aguas Belas-Caninde and their ortho derived country rocks show metaluminous and peraluminous compositions, and εNd(0,60 Ga) between +3,2 and -2,0 and T DM between 0,90 Ga and 1,20 Ga. These Nd isotope data favour a crustal evolution hypothesis involving accretion of juvenile material at least during the Brasiliano orogenesis collision and perhaps the formation of a juvenile lithosphere during the end of the Mesoproterozoic (au)

  11. Age of origin of the polymetamorphosed Copperton Formation, Namaqua-Natal Province, determined by single grain zircon Pb-Pb dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornell, D.H.; Griffin, G.; Kroener, A.; Humphreys, H.

    1990-01-01

    The Copperton Formation of the Areachap Group in the Northern Cape Province is a strongly metamorphosed, predominantly metavolcanic unit which contains several massive sulphide deposits. Previous work on this unit has established a complex metamorphic history, the four main phases of which are fairly well dated by a combination of methods; however, the age of origin is still poorly constrained. Zircons extracted from the Smouspan Gneiss Member of the Copperton formation are euhedral and show a crystal habit which indicates an igneous and probably volcanic origin, with no discernable metamorphic component. Whole-grain thermal evaporation on four such zircon grains yielded a precise set of 207 Pb/ 206 Pb data which establishes a 1 285 ± 14 Ma age for the origin of the Smouspan Gneiss and Copperton Formation. Indications of a ∼1 600 Ma age from other parts of the Areachap Group should be treated with caution until more reliable data are obtained. 9 figs., 2 tabs., 29 refs

  12. Epitaxial nanowire formation in metamorphic GaAs/GaPAs short-period superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Nan; Ahrenkiel, S. Phillip

    2017-07-01

    Metamorphic growth presents routes to novel nanomaterials with unique properties that may be suitable for a range of applications. We discuss self-assembled, epitaxial nanowires formed during metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of metamorphic GaAs/GaPAs short-period superlattices. The heterostructures incorporate strain-engineered GaPAs compositional grades on 6°-B miscut GaAs substrates. Lateral diffusion within the SPS into vertically aligned, three-dimensional columns results in nanowires extending along A directions with a lateral period of 70-90 nm. The microstructure is probed by transmission electron microscopy to confirm the presence of coherent GaAs nanowires within GaPAs barriers. The compositional profile is inferred from analysis of {200} dark-field image contrast and lattice images.

  13. Anatexis and metamorphism in tectonically thickened continental crust exemplified by the Sevier hinterland, western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patino Douce, Alberto E.; Humphreys, Eugene D.; Johnston, A. Dana

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a thermal and petrologic model of anatexis and metamorphism in regions of crustal thickening exemplified by the Sevier hinterland in western North America, and uses the model to examine the geological and physical processes leading to crustally derived magmatism. The results of numerical experiments show that anatexis was an inevitable end-product of Barrovian metamorphism in the thickened crust of the late Mesozoic Sevier orogenic belt and that the advection of heat across the lithosphere, in the form of mantle-derived mafic magmas, was not required for melting of metasedimentary rocks. It is suggested that, in the Sevier belt, as in other intracontinental orogenic belts, anatexis occurred in the midcrust and not at the base of the crust.

  14. Heat production rate from radioactive elements in igneous and metamorphic rocks in Eastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbady, Adel G.E.; El-Arabi, A.M.; Abbady, A.

    2006-01-01

    Radioactive heat-production data of Igneous and Metamorphic outcrops in the Eastern Desert are presented. Samples were analysed using a low level gamma-ray spectrometer (HPGe) in the laboratory. A total of 205 rock samples were investigated, covering all major rock types of the area. The heat-production rate of igneous rocks ranges from 0.11 (basalt) to 9.53 μW m -3 (granite). In metamorphic rocks it varies from 0.28 (serpentinite ) to 0.91 μW m -3 (metagabbro). The contribution due to U is about 51%, as that from Th is 31% and 18% from K. The corresponding values in igneous rocks are 76%, 19% and 5%, respectively. The calculated values showed good agreement with global values except in some areas containing granites

  15. Research advances in contact model and mechanism configuration for nut shelling manipulation based on metamorphic method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiulan BAO

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nuts are the important economic forest tree species of China. De-shell is the key operation of nut deep processing. There are some problems in the current nut cracking devices such as the low decorticating rate, the high nuts losses rate and nutmeat integrity problems, etc.. The foundation of force analysis is to establish contact model for nut and mechanical. The nut surface is rough and irregular, so the contact area cannot be modeled as regular shape. How to set up contact constraint model is the key problem to accomplish non-loss shelling. In order to study the shell-breaking mechanism and structural design of the nut shelling manipulation, a multi-fingered metamorphic manipulator is presented. An overview of the nut shelling technology and the contact manipulator modeling are proposed. The origin and application of metamorphic mechanisms are introduced. Then the research contents and development prospects of nut shelling manipulator are described.

  16. Ammonium in Witwatersrand reefs: a possible indicator of metamorphic fluid flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, F.M.

    1991-01-01

    Ammonium concentrations and NH 4 + /K ratios in the Kimberley Reef indicate chemical interaction with metamorphic fluids. The data, although preliminary, also suggests a gold-ammonium association in that higher gold levels are related to higher NH 4 + /K ratios. Samples from the Ventersdorp Contact Reef are also hydrothermally altered but no ammonium was detected. The low ammonium concentrations suggest that over-printing by NH 4 -bearing metamorphic fluids was negligible. From this it is concluded that chemically different fluid systems must have been operative, probably at different times, during Witwatersrand history. It appears, therefore, that ammonium geochemistry is potentially useful in the study of fluid flow and related gold (re)distribution in Witwatersrand reefs. 17 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  17. Mid amphibolite facies metamorphism of harzburgites in the Neoproterozoic Cerro Mantiqueiras Ophiolite, southernmost Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HARTMANN LÉO A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Valuable information is retrieved from the integrated investigation of the field relationships, microstructure and mineral compositions of harzburgites from the Neoproterozoic Cerro Mantiqueiras Ophiolite. This important tectonic marker of the geological evolution of southernmost Brazilian Shield was thoroughly serpentinized during progressive metamorphism, because the oldest mineral assemblage is: olivine + orthopyroxene + tremolite + chlorite + chromite. This M1 was stabilized in mid amphibolite facies - 550-600ºC as calculated from mineral equilibria. No microstructural (e.g. ductile deformation of olivine or chromite or compositional (e.g. mantle spinel remnant of mantle history was identified. A metamorphic event M2 occurred in the low amphibolite facies along 100 m-wide shear zones, followed by intense serpentinization (M3 and narrow 1-3 m-wide shear zones (M4 containing asbestos.

  18. Radioactive occurrences in veins and igneous and metamorphic rocks of New Mexico with annotated bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLemore, V.T.

    1982-01-01

    From an extensive literature search and field examination of 96 nonsandstone radioactive occurrences, the author compiled an annotated bibliography of over 600 citations and a list of 327 radioactive occurrences in veins and igneous and metamorphic rocks of New Mexico. The citations are indexed by individual radioactive occurrence, geographic area, county, fluorspar deposits and occurrences, geochemical analyses, and geologic maps. In addition, the geology, mineralization, and uranium and thorium potential of 41 geographic areas in New Mexico containing known radioactive occurrences in veins and igneous and metamorphic rocks or that contain host rocks considered favorable for uranium or thorium mineralization are summarized. A list of aerial-radiometric, magnetic, hydrogeochemical, and stream-sediment survey reports is included

  19. Metamorphic Testing Integer Overflow Faults of Mission Critical Program: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanwei Hui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For mission critical programs, integer overflow is one of the most dangerous faults. Different testing methods provide several effective ways to detect the defect. However, it is hard to validate the testing outputs, because the oracle of testing is not always available or too expensive to get, unless the program throws an exception obviously. In the present study, the authors conduct a case study, where the authors apply a metamorphic testing (MT method to detect the integer overflow defect and alleviate the oracle problem in testing critical program of Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS. Experimental results show that, in revealing typical integer mutations, compared with traditional safety property testing method, MT with a novel symbolic metamorphic relation is more effective than the traditional method in some cases.

  20. Heat production rate from radioactive elements in igneous and metamorphic rocks in eastern desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbady, A G.E.; Arabi, A.M.; Abbay, A.

    2005-01-01

    Radioactive heat - production data of igneous and metamorphic rocks cropping out from the eastern desert are presented. Samples were analysed using low level gamma-ray spectrometer (HPGe) in the laboratory. A total of 205 rock samples were investigated, covering all major rock types of the area. The heat-production rate of igneous rocks ranges from 0.11 (basalt) to 9.53 Μ Wm-3 (granite). In metamorphic rocks it varies from 0.28 (serpentinite) to 0.91 (metagabroo) Μ W.m-3. The contribution due to U is about (51%), whereas that of Th (31%) and (18%) by K. The corresponding values in igneous rocks are 76%: 19%: 5%, respectively. The calculated values showed good agreement with global values expect in some areas contained granite rocks

  1. A Novel Workflow for Geothermal Prospectively Mapping Weights-of-Evidence in Liaoning Province, Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuejia Sang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Geological faults are highly developed in the eastern Liaoning Province in China, where Mesozoic granitic intrusions and Archean and Paleoproterozoic metamorphic rocks are widely distributed. Although the heat flow value in eastern Liaoning Province is generally low, the hot springs are very developed. It is obvious that the faults have significant control over the distribution of hot springs, and traditional methods of spatial data analysis such as WofE (weight of evidence usually do not take into account the direction of the distribution of geothermal resources in the geothermal forecast process, which seriously affects the accuracy of the prediction results. To overcome the deficiency of the traditional evidence weight method, wherein it does not take the direction of evidence factor into account, this study put forward a combination of the Fry and WofE methods, Fry-WofE, based on geological observation, gravity, remote sensing, and DEM (digital elevation model multivariate data. This study takes eastern Liaoning Province in China as an example, and the geothermal prospect was predicted respectively by the Fry-WofE and WofE methods from the statistical data on the spatial distribution of the exposed space of geothermal anomalies the surface. The result shows that the Fry-WofE method can achieve better prediction results when comparing the accuracy of these two methods. Based on the results of Fry-WofE prediction and water system extraction, 13 favorable geothermal prospect areas are delineated in eastern Liaoning Province. The Fry-WofE method is effective in study areas where the geothermal distribution area is obviously controlled by the fault. We provide not only a new method for solving the similar issue of geothermal exploration, but also a new insight into the distribution of geothermal resources in Liaoning Province.

  2. On the K-Ar ages of the rocks of two kinds existed in the Kamuikotan metamorphic rocks located in the Horokanai district, Hokkaido

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaizumi, Masayuki; Ueda, Yoshio.

    1981-01-01

    In the Fransiscan metamorphic rocks known as the typical high-pressure type metamorphic belts, existence of the blocks of high grade metamorphic rocks of older age in the widely distributed low grade ones of younger age is commonly noticed. This feature has been explained as a phenomenon that the blocks had been tectonically mixed with the surroundings - so-called tectonic blocks - based on the absolute age determination of the component minerals. The Kamuikotan tectonic belt is a melange zone in which occur various kinds of metamorphic rocks of high-pressure and low-pressure types. The high-pressure Kamuikotan metamorphic rocks can be classified into two kinds based upon the modes of occurrence and mineral paragenesis. One is the low grade metamorphic rocks of greenschist and glaucophane schist and the other, the high grade metamorphic rocks of epidote glaucophane schist and epidote amphibolite. The high grade metamorphic rocks always occur as isolated blocks in the low grade metamorphics and associated serpentinite. The report discusses the age of muscovites separated from the two types of high-pressure Kamuikotan metamorphic rocks in the Horokanai district, central Hokkaido. The muscovites separated from the low grade metamorphics of the district give the age of 72 - 116 m.y., while those separated from the high grade metamorphics give the age of 132 - 145 m.y. These ages seem to agree with the idea that the blocks of high grade metamorphics (epidote glaucophane schist and epidote amphibolite) would be the ''tectonic blocks'' - namely the fragments tectonically mixed into the low grade metamorphics of younger age. (author)

  3. Impact Metamorphism of Subsurface Organic Matter on Mars: A Potential Source for Methane and Surface Alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehler, D. Z.; Allen, C. C.; McKay, D. S.

    2005-01-01

    Reports of methane in the Martian atmosphere have spurred speculation about sources for that methane [1-3]. Discussion has centered on cometary/ meteoritic delivery, magmatic/mantle processes, UV-breakdown of organics, serpentinization of basalts, and generation of methane by living organisms. This paper describes an additional possibility: that buried organic remains from past life on Mars may have been generating methane throughout Martian history as a result of heating associated with impact metamorphism.

  4. The age of the rocks and the metamorphic episodes from the Southeastern of Sao Paulo state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tassinari, C.C.G.; Kawashita, K.; Schmuss, R. van; Taylor, P.N.

    1988-01-01

    Rb-Sr, Pb-Pb and U-Pb geochronologic studies carried out on precambrian rocks from the southeastern Sao Paulo state suggest a Complex geologic evolution during the Archean and Proterozoic times. This region is divided in five differents allochthonous terranes named Itapira-Amparo, Piracaiba-Jundiai, Sao Roque, Embu and Costeiro, separated by thrust and strike-slip faults. The Itapira-Amparo domain has a original history dating back to 3.4 Ga. and since 2.6 to 2.5 Ga. and 2.2 to 1.9 Ga. metamorphic rockformation episode occurred involving both mantle-derived magmas and recycled material. Supracrustal sequences developed around 1.4 Ga. The domain was locally reworked in 0.8 - 0.65 Ga. In the Piracaia-Jundiai the main rock-formation event occurred at 1.4 Ga., but this domian was affected by strong granization and migmatization episodes during the period 1.1 - 0.6 Ga. The third terrain is characterized by the Sao Roque metavolcanossedimentary sequence developed during the time period 1.8 - 0.7 Ga., and comprising two metamorphic superimposed events (1.4 and 0.8 - 0.7 Ga.). the post-tectonics granites ranging in ages from 0.7 to 0.55 Ga. Within the Embu terrain ages of 2.5, 1.4 and 0,75 Ga. were obtained for the metamorphic terrain, with post-tectonic activities around 650 Ma. In the Costeiro domain all the metamorphic rocks developed in late-Proterozoic time, with syntectonic phase around 650 Ma [pt

  5. Rb-Sr dating of low-grade metamorphics in the U.S.S.R

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorokhov, I.M.; Varshavskaya, E.S.; Kutyavin, E.P.; Melnikov, N.N.

    1982-01-01

    Geologically well-dated low-grade metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks from five localities have been studied using the whole-rock Rb-Sr age method. All age values obtained are younger than those suggested by stratigraphy. When whole-rock points fit either an isochron or an errorchron with low value of the mean square of weighted deviates, the slope of this line gives the age of metamorphism. (Auth.)

  6. Micro-Raman spectroscopy of plagioclase and maskelynite in Martian meteorites: Evidence of progressive shock metamorphism

    OpenAIRE

    Fritz,Jorg; Greshake,Ansgar; Stoffler,Dieter

    2005-01-01

    We present the first systematic Micro-Raman spectroscopic investigation of plagioclase of different degree of shock metamorphism in Martian meteorites. The equilibrium shock pressure of all plagioclase phases of seventeen unpaired Martian meteorites was determined by measuring the shock-induced reduction of the refractive index. Systematic variations in the recorded Raman spectra of the plagioclase phases correlate with increasing shock pressure. In general, the shock induced deformation of t...

  7. Dating of retrograde metamorphism in Western Carpathians by K-Ar analysis of muscovites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambel, B.; Korikovskij, S.P.; Krasivskaya, I.S.; Arakelyants, M.M.

    1986-01-01

    Using the K-Ar isotope dating method of muscovites it was found that many retrogradely metamorphosed rocks are the results of Variscan retrograde metamorphism and are not pre-Cambrian or Alpine metamorphites (diaphthorites). Samples for dating were taken from the Western Carpathian crystalline formation. The content of radiogenic argon was determined by mass spectrometry using the method of isotope dilution. (M.D.)

  8. Metal mobility during metamorphism and formation of orogenic gold deposits: Insights from the Dalradian of Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Engström, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Orogenic gold deposits occur within metamorphic belts throughout the world and have through time represented the source for over 25% of the world’s gold production. Although orogenic gold deposits are of great economic importance, controversies exist on the subject of fluid and metal sources and there have been few studies of gold´s distribution and mobility outside of large economic deposits. Research made by Pitcairn et al. (2006), on the Mesozoic Otago and Alpine schists of New Zealand, ob...

  9. Design and accuracy analysis of a metamorphic CNC flame cutting machine for ship manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shenghai; Zhang, Manhui; Zhang, Baoping; Chen, Xi; Yu, Wei

    2016-09-01

    The current research of processing large size fabrication holes on complex spatial curved surface mainly focuses on the CNC flame cutting machines design for ship hull of ship manufacturing. However, the existing machines cannot meet the continuous cutting requirements with variable pass conditions through their fixed configuration, and cannot realize high-precision processing as the accuracy theory is not studied adequately. This paper deals with structure design and accuracy prediction technology of novel machine tools for solving the problem of continuous and high-precision cutting. The needed variable trajectory and variable pose kinematic characteristics of non-contact cutting tool are figured out and a metamorphic CNC flame cutting machine designed through metamorphic principle is presented. To analyze kinematic accuracy of the machine, models of joint clearances, manufacturing tolerances and errors in the input variables and error models considering the combined effects are derived based on screw theory after establishing ideal kinematic models. Numerical simulations, processing experiment and trajectory tracking experiment are conducted relative to an eccentric hole with bevels on cylindrical surface respectively. The results of cutting pass contour and kinematic error interval which the position error is from-0.975 mm to +0.628 mm and orientation error is from-0.01 rad to +0.01 rad indicate that the developed machine can complete cutting process continuously and effectively, and the established kinematic error models are effective although the interval is within a `large' range. It also shows the matching property between metamorphic principle and variable working tasks, and the mapping correlation between original designing parameters and kinematic errors of machines. This research develops a metamorphic CNC flame cutting machine and establishes kinematic error models for accuracy analysis of machine tools.

  10. Enhanced Contacts for Inverted Metamorphic Multi-Junction Solar Cells Using Carbon Nanotube Metal Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-18

    substrates through a shadow mask. The native oxide was removed by HCl (hydrochloric acid) immersion immediately before the deposition process...34Pushing Inverted Metamorphic Multijunction Solar Cells Toward Higher Efficiency at Realistic Operating Conditions," IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, vol. 3...Multijunction Solar Cells," IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, vol. 2, pp. 377-381, Jul 2012. [7] F. Newman, et al., "PROGRESS IN ADAPTING INVERTED

  11. Metamorphism and plutonism around the middle and south forks of the Feather River, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hietanen, Anna Martta

    1976-01-01

    The area around the Middle and South Forks of the Feather River provides information on metamorphic and igneous processes that bear on the origin of andesitic and granitic magmas in general and on the variation of their potassium content in particular. In the north, the area joins the Pulga and Bucks Lake quadrangles studied previously. Tectonically, this area is situated in the southern part of an arcuate segment of the Nevadan orogenic belt in the northwestern Sierra Nevada. The oldest rocks are metamorphosed calcalkaline island-arc-type andesite, dacite, and sodarhyolite with interbedded tuff layers (the Franklin Canyon Formation), all probably correlative with Devonian rocks in the Klamath Mountains. Younger rocks form a sequence of volcanic, volcaniclastic, and sedimentary rocks including some limestone (The Horseshoe Bend Formation), probably Permian in age. All the volcanic and sedimentary rocks were folded and recrystallized to the greenschist facies during the Nevadan (Jurassic) orogeny and were invaded by monzotonalitic magmas shortly thereafter. A second lineation and metamorphism to the epidote-amphibolite facies developed in a narrow zone around the plutons. In light of the concept of plate tectonics, it is suggested that the early (Devonian?) island-arc-type andesite, dacite, and sodarhyolite (the Franklin Canyon Formation) were derived from the mantle above a Benioff zone by partial melting of peridotite in hydrous conditions. The water was probably derived from an oceanic plate descending to the mantle. Later (Permian?) magmas were mainly basaltic; some discontinuous layers of potassium-rich rhyolite indicate a change into anhydrous conditions and a deeper level of magma generation. The plutonic magmas that invaded the metamorphic rocks at the end of the Jurassic may contain material from the mantle, the subducted oceanic lithosphere, and the downfolded metamorphic rocks. The ratio of partial melts from these three sources may have changed with time

  12. Petrographic and EMP study of metamorphic rocks from the Variscan basement of Dinarides (Vranica Mountains, Bosnia and Herzegovina)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrvanovic, S [Department of Mineralogy and Petrology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University, 84215 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2012-04-25

    The Vranica Mountains are located in the middle part of Bosnia and Herzegovina or in the southeastern part of the Mid - Bosnian schist Mountains (MBSM). The Mid - Bosnian schist Mountains represent one of the largest allochtonous Paleozoic terranes in the Dinarides. This region is characterized by a multistage geodynamic evolution. The presented results concern Variscan metamorphism of the Silur-Devonian protolith formations that occurred mainly during the Early Carboniferous in LT/MP greenschist facies. Petrographical description of metamorphic rocks is completed by EMPA of muscovite, chlorite and chloritoid. The Early Alpine metamorphic overprint is related to the closure of a Tethyan Basin and Early Cretaceous collision of the Adria microplate with the Tissia-Moesia continental Blocks. The Neo-Alpine metamorphic overprint occurred due to the collision of the African and Euroasian Plates. (authors)

  13. Gneiss Macuira: tectonic evolution of Paleozoic metamorphic rocks of the Alta Guajira, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez I; A Julian; Zuluaga C; A, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    The Macuira Gneiss is a Paleozoic metamorphic unit that outcrops in the Simarua, Jarara and Macuira ranges, Alta Guajira. It is composed by a lithologies metamorphosed under amphibolite facies P-T conditions and consist of amphibolitic and quartz feldspathic gneisses, amphibolites, schists, pegmatites, calc-silicated rocks and marbles, with migmatization evidences in gneisses and amphibolites. Five foliations (S1-5) and three folding events (F1-3) were identified and interpreted as product of two metamorphic events, developed in a progressive barrovian metamorphic gradient of intermediate pressure with intermediate P-T ratio, interpreted as product of continental collision tectonics. This unit is important in understanding of the tectonic evolution of the Alta Guajira and Caribbean because it records different deformational phases pre-, syn- and post-migmatitic, that could be related with different tectonic episodes: the first associated with the collision between Laurasia and Gondwana (Alleghanian Orogeny - Late Paleozoic), and the second related with the Caribbean Plate evolution (Andean Orogeny - Meso-Cenozoic).

  14. Study of the metamorphic belts and tectonics; Henseitai kenkyu to tectonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, T. [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    1997-10-25

    Study of metamorphic belts and tectonics is introduced. Minerals supposedly originating in the transitional zone and the lower mantle, that is, inclusions in diamond in kimberlite, are deemed to carry information about the depth level of 670km and lower. The place of origin of peridotite, Alpe Arami of Switzerland, is again estimated at a level of 300km or deeper. In the tectonic cross section in this region, the oceanic crust is bent and folded, and such a structure enables the supposition that fragments off the transitional zone may be carried upward to the ground surface. This region is now being limelighted, with plume tectonics enjoying popularity. The split of Pangaea is related with the ascent of plume. In the eastern part of Australia, there are alkali rocks attributable to the plume that was supposedly active at the end of the Proterozoic. Zircon U-Pb dating by SHRIMP offers a new approach to the tectonics of metamorphic rocks, and is reinforcing the position of metamorphic petrology relative to the study of collision and split of continents. 64 refs., 10 figs.

  15. Post-Metamorphic Thermal Anomaly across the Nacimiento Block, Central California: a Hydrothermal Overprint?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, B.; Hughes, J.; Lahfid, A.; Delchini, S.

    2017-12-01

    The thermal history of the Nacimiento block located within the Franciscan Complex (California, USA) has been previously proposed based on both vitrinite reflectance (Rm) and illite cristallinity methods (Underwood et al., 1995). These authors suggest that the Nacimiento block is locally perturbed by a thermal anomaly (up to 300ºC), probably caused by post-metamorphic hydrothermal activity linked to the emplacement of an Au-deposit: the Los Burros Gold deposit. Although both thermal anomaly and deposit seem spatially correlated, their relationship is still poorly constrained. Detailed geological and structural mapping within the Los Burros Mining District (LBMD) coupled with a thermal study was conducted to better understand processes responsible for the anomalous temperatures recorded near the deposit. The regional maximum temperature reached by metasediments from the Nacimiento block have been first investigated using the Raman Spectroscopy of Carbonaceous Materials (RSCM) method. In addition, through careful fluid-inclusion and stable isotopes (O and C) studies on the deposit, the temperature and the potential source of the fluid responsible for the Los Burros Au-deposit emplacement were investigated. RSCM technique confirms the presence of a thermal anomaly in the range 260-320ºC near LBMD. However, our structural and petrographic results suggest that the thermal anomaly is not correlated to a post-metamorphic hydrothermal overprint but rather to a late, transpressive deformation uplifting buried metamorphic rocks.

  16. Evaluating the importance of metamorphism in the foundering of continental crust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Timothy; Clarke, Geoffrey L; Piazolo, Sandra; Daczko, Nathan R

    2017-10-12

    The metamorphic conditions and mechanisms required to induce foundering in deep arc crust are assessed using an example of representative lower crust in SW New Zealand. Composite plutons of Cretaceous monzodiorite and gabbro were emplaced at ~1.2 and 1.8 GPa are parts of the Western Fiordland Orthogneiss (WFO); examples of the plutons are tectonically juxtaposed along a structure that excised ~25 km of crust. The 1.8 GPa Breaksea Orthogneiss includes suitably dense minor components (e.g. eclogite) capable of foundering at peak conditions. As the eclogite facies boundary has a positive dP/dT, cooling from supra-solidus conditions (T > 950 ºC) at high-P should be accompanied by omphacite and garnet growth. However, a high monzodioritic proportion and inefficient metamorphism in the Breaksea Orthogneiss resulted in its positive buoyancy and preservation. Metamorphic inefficiency and compositional relationships in the 1.2 GPa Malaspina Pluton meant it was never likely to have developed densities sufficiently high to founder. These relationships suggest that the deep arc crust must have primarily involved significant igneous accumulation of garnet-clinopyroxene (in proportions >75%). Crustal dismemberment with or without the development of extensional shear zones is proposed to have induced foundering of excised cumulate material at P > 1.2 GPa.

  17. Chemical-Petrographic Types and Shock Metamorphism of 184 Grove Mountains Equilibrated Ordinary Chondrites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deqiu Dai

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available We reported the petrography and mineral chemistry of 184 equilibrated ordinary chondrites collected from Grove Mountains, Antarctica. The chemical-petrographic types and shock metamorphism degrees of these chondrites were assigned. They were classified into 46 H groups (22 H4, 20 H5, and four H6, 133 L groups (eight L4, 75 L5, and 50 L6, and five LL groups (four LL4 and one LL5. Some of these chondrites could be paired; however, both H and L group meteorites were affected. Further studies such as terrestrial ages and thermal luminescence are required in order to confirm the pairings. The relative abundances of H, L, and LL are different in Grove Mountain meteorites, when compared to those in Transcontinental Ridge meteorites. Based on the shock effects, the shock metamorphism degrees of these chondrites were assigned. Compared to previous studies, the heavily shocked samples of S4 and S5 have a higher fraction (59 out of 184 in Grove Mountain ordinary chondrites. The L group (54 out of 59 is the dominant chemical group in the heavily shocked chondrites, except for five meteorites which belong to the H group. The shock metamorphism degrees of the H and L groups are distinct, which may indicate different surface properties in their parent bodies. In addition, the petrologic types and shock degrees are probably closely related, with the most heavily shocked chondrites observed in types 5 and 6.

  18. Reconnaissance and economic geology of Copper Mountain metamorphic complex, Owl Creek Mountains, Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausel, W.D.

    1983-01-01

    The Copper Mountain metamorphic complex lies within a westerly trending belt of Precambrian exposures known as the Owl Creek Mountains uplift. The metamorphic complex at Copper Mountain is part of a larger complex known as the Owl Creek Mountains greenstone belt. Until more detailed mapping and petrographic studies can be completed, the Copper Mountain area is best referred to as a complex, even though it has some characteristics of a greestone belt. At least three episodes of Precambrian deformation have affected the supracrustals, and two have disturbed the granites. The final Precambrian deformation event was preceded by a weak thermal event expressed by retrogressive metamorphism and restricted metasomatic alteration. During this event, a second phase of pegmatization was accompanied by hydrothermal solutions. During the Laramide orogeny, Copper Mountain was again modified by deformation. Laramide deformation produced complex gravity faults and keystone grabens. Uranium deposits were formed following major Laramide deformation. The genesis of these deposits is attributable to either the leaching of granites or the leaching of overlying tuffaceous sediments during the Tertiary. Production of metals and industrial minerals has been limited, although some gold, copper, silver, tungsten, beryl, feldspar, and lithium ore have been shipped from Copper Mountain. A large amount of uranium was produced from the Copper Mountain district in the 1950s

  19. The role of evaporites in the formation of gems during metamorphism of carbonate platforms: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Gaston; Dubessy, Jean; Ohnenstetter, Daniel; Banks, David; Branquet, Yannick; Feneyrol, Julien; Fallick, Anthony E.; Martelat, Jean-Emmanuel

    2018-01-01

    The mineral and fluid inclusions trapped by gemstones during the metamorphism of carbonate platform successions are precious markers for the understanding of gem genesis. The nature and chemical composition of inclusions highlight the major contribution of evaporites through dissolution or fusion, depending on the temperature of formation from greenschist to granulite facies. The fluids are highly saline NaCl-brines circulating either in an open system in the greenschist facies (Colombian and Afghan emeralds) and with huge fluid-rock metasomatic interactions, or sulphurous fluids (ruby, garnet tsavorite, zoisite tanzanite and lapis-lazuli) or molten salts formed in a closed system with a low fluid mobility (ruby in marble) in the conditions of the amphibolite to granulite facies. These chloride-fluoride-sulphate ± carbonate-rich fluids scavenged the metals essential for gem formation. At high temperature, the anions SO4 2-, NO3 -, BO3 - and F- are powerful fluxes which lower the temperature of chloride- and fluoride-rich ionic liquids. They provided transport over a very short distance of aluminium and/or silica and transition metals which are necessary for gem growth. In summary, the genetic models proposed for these high-value and ornamental gems underline the importance of the metamorphism of evaporites formed on continental carbonate shelves and emphasise the chemical power accompanying metamorphism at moderate to high temperatures of evaporite-rich and organic matter-rich protoliths to form gem minerals.

  20. Metamorphic core complex formation by density inversion and lower-crust extrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, F; Goodliffe, A M; Taylor, B

    2001-06-21

    Metamorphic core complexes are domal uplifts of metamorphic and plutonic rocks bounded by shear zones that separate them from unmetamorphosed cover rocks. Interpretations of how these features form are varied and controversial, and include models involving extension on low-angle normal faults, plutonic intrusions and flexural rotation of initially high-angle normal faults. The D'Entrecasteaux islands of Papua New Guinea are actively forming metamorphic core complexes located within a continental rift that laterally evolves to sea-floor spreading. The continental rifting is recent (since approximately 6 Myr ago), seismogenic and occurring at a rapid rate ( approximately 25 mm yr-1). Here we present evidence-based on isostatic modelling, geological data and heat-flow measurements-that the D'Entrecasteaux core complexes accommodate extension through the vertical extrusion of ductile lower-crust material, driven by a crustal density inversion. Although buoyant extrusion is accentuated in this region by the geological structure present-which consists of dense ophiolite overlaying less-dense continental crust-this mechanism may be generally applicable to regions where thermal expansion lowers crustal density with depth.

  1. Preliminary isotopic data from some amphibolites of the metamorphic basement of the Colombian Central Cordillera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa M, Ana Maria; Martens K, Uwe; Ordonez C, Oswaldo; Pimentel, Marcio M; Restrepo A, Jorge Julian

    2001-01-01

    Various amphibolite bodies are exposed in the Antioquia Department, Colombia, mainly around the cities of Medellin and El Retiro. Two types of amphibolites occur in the study area; the first one is considered as part of an ophiolite complex and the second one correspond to amphibolites associated to metasediments from the basement of the Colombian Central Cordillera. The present work refers to these last ones. The relationships between amphibolite bodies and other lythological units are the following ones: Intercalation of amphibolites layers with metasediments in the unit migmatites and granulites of El Retiro. The Medellin amphibolites are conformably overlaid by the paragneisses of Las Penas. The granodiorite body represented by the Antioquian Batolith is intrusive in the metamorphic rocks and the Medellin Dunites unit is in thrust fault contact with Medellin amphibolites. These amphibolites have been studied by Botero (1963), Gonzalez (1976 and 1980), Restrepo and Toussaint (1984), Ardila (1986), Restrepo (1986), Rendon (1999) and, Correa and Martens (2000). Available radiometric ages on the amphibolites come from former works by Restrepo y Toussaint (1978), Restrepo et al. (1991) that presented K-Ar ages in amphiboles and a Rb-Sr isochron which yielded a Cretaceous age that they interpreted as a metamorphic age. This work presents new evidences, obtained from field work, petrography, rock geochemistry and specially the first isotopic data on these amphibolites from the Central Cordillera Metamorphic Basement (au)

  2. Evolution of Migmatitic Granulite Complexes: implications from Lapland Granulite Belt, Part I: metamorphic geology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekka Tuisku

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Palaeoproterozoic Lapland granulite belt was juxtaposed between Archaean and Proterozoic terrains in the NE part of the Fennoscandian Shield concurrently with the accretion of Svecofennian arc complexes at ~1.9 Ga. The belt consists mainly of aluminous migmatiticmetagreywackes. Abundant noritic to enderbitic magmas were intruded concordantly into the metasediments and were probably an important heat source for metamorphism, which took place during the crystallization of the magmas. This is supported by structural and contact relations of metasediments and igneous rocks, and by the lack progressive metamorphic reaction textures in the igneous rock series. The peak of metamorphism took place above the dehydration melting temperature of the biotite-sillimanite-plagioclase-quartz assemblageat 750−850°C and 5−8.5 kbar which lead to formation of a restitic palaeosome and peraluminous granitic melt in metapelites. Subsequently, the rocks were decompressed and cooled below the wet melting temperature of pelitic rocks (650°C under the stability field of andalusite coexisting with potassium feldspar (2−3 kbar. Cooling was accompanied by the crystallization of the neosomes, often carrying aluminium-rich phases. Postmetamorphic duplexing of the LGB is clearly seen in the distribution of calculated PT conditions.

  3. Geology and genesis of uranium deposits in sedimentary and metamorphic formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danchev, V.I.; Belevtsev, Ya.N.

    1980-01-01

    Main genetic types of uranium deposits in sedimentary cover are described. Their genetic classification is based on the principle of conjugation of ore-forming process with the stages of lithogenesis of ore-enclosing rocks. Examples of poligeneity of uranium mineralization are presented. Texture-structural peculiarities of ores and types of ore-controlling zonality are considered as criteria of definite deposits belonging to various genetic classes. The analysis is given of main regularities of location of exogenous and poligenic uranium deposits. Processes of uranium ore-formation under the conditions of low and high degrees of metamorphism are considered. On the basis of separate types of deposits shown is the possibility of mobilization, transfer and concentration of ore substance, its transformation from primary to secondary forms. Metamorphous and ultrametamorphous deposits are formed as a result of ore element translocation within considerable distances under the effect of endogenous solutions and their concentration in favourable structures. Conclusions on the effect of lithogenesis and metamorphism processes on the ore formation are substantiated by field observations, analyses (including methods of isotopic geochemistry) as well as by experiments

  4. Tectonic superposition of the Kurosegawa Terrane upon the Sanbagawa metamorphic belt in eastern Shikoku, southwest Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Hisashi; Isozaki, Yukio; Itaya, Tetsumaru.

    1990-01-01

    Weakly metamorphosed pre-Cenozoic accretionary complex in the northern part of the Chichibu Belt in Kamikatsu Town, eastern Shikoku, consists of two distinct geologic units; the Northern Unit and Southern Unit. The Northern Unit is composed mainly of phyllitic pelites and basic tuff with allochthonous blocks of chert and limestone, and possesses mineral paragenesis of the glaucophane schist facies. The Southern Unit is composed mainly of phyllitic pelites with allochthonous blocks of sandstone, limestone, massive green rocks, and chert, and possesses mineral paragenesis of the pumpellyite-actinolite facies. The Southern Unit tectonically overlies the Northern Univ by the south-dipping Jiganji Fault. K-Ar ages were dated for the recrystallized white micas from 11 samples of pelites and basic tuff in the Northern Unit, and from 6 samples of pelites in the Southern Unit. The K-Ar ages of the samples from the Northern Unit range in 129-112 Ma, and those from the Southern Unit in 225-194 Ma. In terms of metamorphic ages, the Northern Unit and Southern Unit are referred to the constituents of the Sanbagawa Metamorphic Belt, and to those of the Kurosegawa Terrane, respectively. Thus, tectonic superposition of these two units in the study area suggests that the Kurosegawa Terrane occurs in a higher structural position over the Sanbagawa Metamorphic Belt in eastern Shikoku. (author)

  5. Rubidium-strontium chronology of the metamorphism and prehistory of central Australian granulites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, C M [La Trobe Univ., Bundoora (Australia); Compston, W

    1978-11-01

    Rubidium-strontium isotopic study of intermediate-pressure granulites at Mt. Aloysius, central Australia reveals total rock isochrons that either record the metamorphism or predate it. The gneisses involved, typically quartz + feldspar + orthopyroxene + garnet granulites, occur in five lithological units which outline a simple fold structure. The distribution of isotopic ages in a 25 km/sup 2/ area is tested using 74 samples collected in groups of 2 to 4 both along and across strike in each of the units. Two total rock isochron ages of 1200 and 1550 Myr occur, and both are found at different sites in one unit. Mineral ages are younger and independent of location, with feldspars giving 800 Myr and biotites 730 Myr. The 1200 Myr isochrons show the features of outcrop-scale Sr isotopic homogenisation and are taken to record the time of metamorphism. Contemporaneous regional depletion of U, commonly associated with granulite facies metamorphism, confirms the interpretation. The 1550 Myr isochrons describe entire lithological units and are best assigned to the supracrustal genesis of the rocks. The preservation of two ages indicates that isotopic equilibration of anhydrous total rocks is incomplete even within the granulite facies. Careful interpretation is required to assign geological meaning to granulite isochrons.

  6. Metamorphic history and geodynamic significance of the Early Cretaceous Sabzevar granulites (Sabzevar structural zone, NE Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nasrabady

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The Iranian ophiolites are part of the vast orogenic suture zones that mark the Alpine-Himalayan convergence zone. Few petrological and geochronological data are available from these ophiolitic domains, hampering a full assessment of the timing and regimes of subduction zone metamorphism and orogenic construction in the region. This paper describes texture, geochemistry, and the pressure-temperature path of the Early Cretaceous mafic granulites that occur within the Tertiary Sabzevar ophiolitic suture zone of NE Iran. Whole rock geochemistry indicates that the Sabzevar granulites are likely derived from a MORB-type precursor. They are thus considered as remnants of a dismembered dynamo-thermal sole formed during subduction of a back-arc basin (proto-Sabzevar Ocean formed in the upper-plate of the Neotethyan slab. The metamorphic history of the granulites suggests an anticlockwise pressure-temperature loop compatible with burial in a hot subduction zone, followed by cooling during exhumation. Transition from a nascent to a mature stage of oceanic subduction is the geodynamic scenario proposed to accomplish for the reconstructed thermobaric evolution. When framed with the regional scenario, results of this study point to diachronous and independent tectonic evolutions of the different ophiolitic domains of central Iran, for which a growing disparity in the timing of metamorphic equilibration and of pressure-temperature paths can be expected to emerge with further investigations.

  7. Supracrustal suite of the Precambrian crystalline crust in the Ghor Province of Central Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gediminas Motuza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Proterozoic pre-Ediacaran metamorphic basement of the southern Tajik (North Afghanistan continental block and the adjacent Band-e-Bayan zone is exposed in the Ghor Province of Central Afghanistan. It is predominantly composed of the EW-striking supracrustal succession consisting of interbedded felsic schists and gneisses (metapsammites, amphibolites (metabasalts, calcite and dolomite marbles. The metamorphic facies changes from greenschist in the Band-e-Bayan zone to amphibolite facies in the Tajik block. The supracrustal rocks of the Band-e-Bayan zone and Tajik block possess common features suggesting that the former represents a tectonized part of the latter. The geochemical characteristics of metapsammites indicate derivation of the clastic material from a continental arc and, partly from a passive continental margin, whereas the composition of metabasalts suggests their possible formation in a continental rift basin. The tectonic setting of supracrustal unit could be interpreted as a back-arc type basin. We presume that the Tajik microcontinent split off the Gondwana supercontinent along an ancient rift zone during the late Paleozoic.

  8. The Lagoa Real uranium province, Bahia state, Brazil: some petrographic aspects and fluid inclusion studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuzikawa, K.; Alves, J.V.; Cuney, M.; Kostolanyl, C.; Poti, B.

    1988-01-01

    The Lagoa Real Uranium Province in the central-southern Bahia State, consisting of six deposits and several prospects, has a reserve of near one hundred tons of U 3 O 8 . The main lithological unit in the area is the Lagoa Real Complex which is formed by granites and gneisses derived from them. The unit overthrusts the Espinhaco metasediments the west. The Complex is the host of albities which may contain uraninite. The mineralization is manly associated with pyroxene and garnet. Petrographic and field relations indicate the overthrusting as the latest event, having left implants in the orebodies and their hosts. Fluid inclusion studies indicated fluids of different characteristics in the Espinhaco and the Lagoa Real Complex although they were similar in composition (carbonic and aqueous). The types inclusions detected are in agreement with the geologic processes suggested for the area: emplacement of the Sao Timoteo granite at 1.72 Ga; albitization and uranium mineralization at ∼ 1.4 Ga; and metamorphism at ∼ 0.49 Ga. The study is an example of fluid inclusion behaviour in a metamorphic process with very limited amount of fluids. (author) [pt

  9. New data on tectono-metamorphic evolution of the Peri-Trasmontano domain (Schistose Domain) in Northeastern Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias da Silva, I.; Gonzalez Clavijo, E.

    2010-01-01

    Under the main Tras-os-Montes thrust plane, in the easternmost region of the Morais Allochthonous Complex, a geologic unit has been identified. It shows syn-tectonic S 2 -related andalusite blastesis, representative of low pressure thermal metamorphism. In the studied sector this metamorphism affects essentially the black slaty lithologies present in Neoproterozoic to Silurian formations. This kind of thermal metamorphism is easily distinguishable from the late to post S 3 plutonic-related metamorphism, due to the existence of evidence of syn kinematic mineral blastesis with rotation and boudinage, synchronously with S 2 development. Syn-kinematic andalusite blastesis seems to affect only the autochthonous Central Iberian Zone rocks and it could be associated to crustal extensional phenomena like the ones identified in the Tormes Gneissic Dome. It is proposed that at least part of this andalusite blast generation could have a distinct origin, reflecting earlier low pressure thermal metamorphic events in inner Variscan orogen zones that were tectonically imbricated to present coordinates during the second Variscan phase. The vertical proximity of only a few hundred meters between extensional structures, to the East, and the compressive ones, to the West of the studied sector, could justify the presence of both pre- and syn-S 2 andalusite blasts inside the above mentioned tectono-metamorphic unit. The kinematic criteria (top to SE) are consistent with the ones of the Variscan synorogenic extensional structures placed nearby to the SE, pointing to a possible genetic relation with those crustal thinning processes. (Author) 42 refs.

  10. Prospects of gold mineralization in the Gilgit-Baltistan Province of Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, M. T.; Khan, S. D.; Tahirkheli, T.; Ahmad, L.; Miandad, S.; Rehman, A. U.; Ali, L.

    2012-12-01

    Gilgit-Baltistan province is the northern most province of Pakistan having its eastern, northern and western boarders with India, China and Afghanistan respectively. The geology of this province is unique as it has the spectacular tectonic entities of Asiatic plate (AP), Indian plate (IP) and the Kohistan-Ladakh arc (KLA). The Northern Suture Zone (NSZ) or Main Karakoram Thrust (MKT) separate the KLA from AP in the north while the Maim Mantle Thrust (MMT) separate the KLA from IP in the south. These different tectonic events have generated various types of igneous and metamorphic rocks in the form of gigantic mountain chains in the region. Considering the metallogenic provinces related to such types of tectonic environments world over, it can be suggested that the Gigit-Baltistan province may have the potential for the occurrence of economic mineral deposits. The present study is the follow-up of the previous studies for exploration of gold and base metals conducted by the Austrominerals and the Pakistan Mineral Development Corporation (PMDC) in the region. On the basis of PMDC extensive stream sediments geochemical survey of the province and delineated number of anomalous catchment areas for gold mineralization. In order to find the source bed-rock of gold, we have identified various alteration zones in these catchment areas by applying Remote sensing techniques by using both multispectral (LANDSAT, ASTER and Geoeye) and hyperspectral (Hyperion) data. Most of the alteration zones were found in steep high altitude inaccessible terrains. During this study, few of the accessible alteration zones in Golo Das, Bagrot valley, Shigri Bala, Machulu and Ranthak areas were selected for geological filed work and collection of proper samples from the alteration zones and host rocks for the identification of possible gold mineralization. In all these localities, the alteration zones are present along shear zones where the sulfide mineralization commonly occurs in the form of

  11. 1. The Province of Philosophers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 4. Mapmakers - The Province of Philosophers. Harini Nagendra. Series Article Volume 4 Issue 4 April 1999 pp 6-11. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/04/0006-0011 ...

  12. Metamorphic brines and no surficial fluids trapped in the detachment footwall of a Metamorphic Core Complex (Nevado-Filábride units, Betics, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyja-Person, Vanessa; Tarantola, Alexandre; Richard, Antonin; Hibsch, Christian; Siebenaller, Luc; Boiron, Marie-Christine; Cathelineau, Michel; Boulvais, Philippe

    2018-03-01

    The ductile-brittle transition zone in extensional regimes can play the role of a hydrogeological barrier. Quartz veins developed within an orthogneiss body located in the detachment footwall of a Metamorphic Core Complex (MCC) in the Nevado-Filábride units (Betics, Spain). The detachment footwall is composed mainly of gneisses, schists and metacarbonates from the Bédar-Macael sub-unit. Schist and metacarbonate bodies show evidence of ductile deformation at the time the gneiss was already undergoing brittle deformation and vein opening during exhumation. The vein system provides the opportunity to investigate the origin, composition and PVTX conditions of the fluids that circulated in the detachment footwall while the footwall units were crossing the ductile-brittle transition. The analysis of fluid inclusions reveals the presence of a single type of fluid: 30-40 mass% NaCl > KCl > CaCl2 > MgCl2 brines, with trace amounts of CO2 and N2 and tens to thousands of ppm of metals such as Fe, Sr, Li, Zn, Ba, Pb and Cu. δDfluid values between -39.8 and -16.7‰ and δ18Ofluid values between 4.4 and 11.7 ± 0.5‰ show that the brines have undergone protracted interaction with the host orthogneissic body. Coupled salinity and Cl/Br ratios (200 to 4400) indicate that the brines originate from dissolution of Triassic metaevaporites by metamorphic fluids variably enriched in Br by interaction with graphitic schists. This study highlights the absence of any record of surficial fluids within the veins, despite the brittle deformation conditions prevailing in this orthogneiss body. The fact that fluids from the detachment footwall were isolated from surficial fluid reservoirs may result from the presence of overlying schists and metacarbonates that continued to be affected by ductile deformation during vein formation in the gneiss, preventing downward circulation of surface-derived fluids.

  13. The conjunction of factors that lead to formation of giant gold provinces and deposits in non-arc settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, David I.; Goldfarb, Richard J.; Santosh, M.

    2016-01-01

    It is quite evident that it is not anomalous metal transport, nor unique depositional conditions, nor any single factor at the deposit scale, that dictates whether a mineral deposit becomes a giant or not. A hierarchical approach thus is required to progressively examine controlling parameters at successively decreasing scales in the total mineral system to understand the location of giant gold deposits in non-arc environments. For giant orogenic, intrusion-related gold systems (IRGS) and Carlin-type gold deposits and iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) deposits, there are common factors among all of these at the lithospheric to crustal scale. All are sited in giant gold provinces controlled by complex fundamental fault or shear zones that follow craton margins or, in the case of most Phanerozoic orogenic giants, define the primary suture zones between tectonic terranes. Giant provinces of IRGS, IOCG, and Carlin-type deposits require melting of metasomatized lithosphere beneath craton margins with ascent of hybrid lamprophyric to granitic magmas and associated heat flux to generate the giant province. The IRGS and IOCG deposits require direct exsolution of volatile-rich magmatic-hydrothermal fluids, whereas the association of such melts with Carlin-type ores is more indirect and enigmatic. Giant orogenic gold provinces show no direct relationship to such magmatism, forming from metamorphic fluids, but show an indirect relationship to lamprophyres that reflect the mantle connectivity of controlling first-order structures.

  14. Metamorphic Evolution of Garnet-bearing Epidote-Barroisite Schist from the Meratus Complex in South Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nugroho Imam Setiawan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available DOI:10.17014/ijog.2.3.139-156This paper presents metamorphic evolution of metamorphic rocks from the Meratus Complex in South Kalimantan, Indonesia. Eight varieties of metamorphic rocks samples from this location, which are garnet-bearing epidote-barroisite schist, epidote-barroisite schist, glaucophane-quartz schist, garnet-muscovite schist, actinolite-talc schist, epidote schist, muscovite schist, and serpentinite, were investigated in detail its petrological and mineralogical characteristics by using polarization microscope and electron probe micro analyzer (EPMA. Furthermore, the pressure-temperature path of garnet-bearing epidote-barroisite schist was estimated by using mineral parageneses, reaction textures, and mineral chemistries to assess the metamorphic history. The primary stage of this rock might be represented by the assemblage of glaucophane + epidote + titanite ± paragonite. The assemblage yields 1.7 - 1.0 GPa in assumed temperature of 300 - 550 °C, which is interpreted as maximum pressure limit of prograde stage. The peak P-T condition estimated on the basis of the equilibrium of garnet rim, barroisite, phengite, epidote, and quartz, yields 547 - 690 °C and 1.1 - 1.5 GPa on the albite epidote amphibolite-facies that correspond to the depth of 38 - 50 km. The retrograde stage was presented by changing mineral compositions of amphiboles from the Si-rich barroisite to the actinolite, which lies near 0.5 GPa at 350 °C. It could be concluded that metamorphic rocks from the Meratus Complex experienced low-temperature and high-pressure conditions (blueschist-facies prior to the peak metamorphism of the epidote amphibolite-facies. The subduction environments in Meratus Complex during Cretaceous should be responsible for this metamorphic condition.

  15. Electron microprobe Th-U-Pb monazite dating and metamorphic evolution of the Acaiaca Granulite Complex, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros Junior, Edgar Batista; Marques, Rodson Abreu, E-mail: edgarjr@ymail.com, E-mail: rodson.marques@ufes.br [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES), Alegre, ES (Brazil). Departamento de Geologia; Jordt-Evangelista, Hanna; Queiroga, Glaucia Nascimento, E-mail: hanna@degeo.ufop.br, E-mail: glauciaqueiroga@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (UFOP), Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil). Escola de Minas. Departamento de Geologia; Schulz, Bernhard, E-mail: bernhard.schulz@mineral.tu-freiberg.de [TU Bergakademie - Institute of Mineralogy, Freiberg - Saxony (Germany)

    2016-01-15

    The Acaiaca Complex (AC) is located in southeastern Minas Gerais state, and comprises felsic, mafic, ultramafic, and aluminous granulite as well as lower grade gneisses and mylonite. The complex is distributed over an area of ca. 36 km by 6 km, surrounded by amphibolite facies gneisses of the Mantiqueira Complex (MC). The discrepancy in the metamorphic grade between both complexes led to the present study aiming to understand the metamorphic history of the AC by means of geothermobarometry calculations and electron microprobe Th-U-Pb monazite dating. Estimates of the metamorphic conditions of the granulite based on conventional geothermobarometry and THERMOCALC resulted in temperatures around 800 deg C and pressures between of 5.0 and 9.9 kbar and a retro metamorphic path characterized by near-isobaric cooling. Part of the granulite was affected by anatexis. The melting of felsic granulite resulted in the generation of pegmatites and two aluminous lithotypes. These are: 1) garnet-sillimanite granulite with euhedral plagioclase and cordierite that show straight faces against quartz, and is the crystallization product of an anatectic melt, and 2) garnet-kyanite-cordierite granulite, which is probably the restite of anatexis, as indicated by textures and high magnesium contents. Th-U-Pb monazite geochronology of two granulite samples resulted in a metamorphic age around 2060 Ma, which is similar to the age of the MC registered in the literature. The similar Paleoproterozoic metamorphic ages of both complexes lead to the conclusion that the Acaiaca Complex may be the high grade metamorphic unit geochronological related to the lower grade Mantiqueira Complex. (author)

  16. Central Ukraine Uranium Province: The genetic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emetz, A.; Cuney, M.

    2014-01-01

    Ukraine produces ~1,100 t U per year from the Michurinske, Centralne, Novokostantynivske and Vatutinske U deposits in the Kirovograd U district of the Central Ukraine Uranium Province (CUUP) consisting of about 20 deposits and numerous showings related to ~1.8 Ga sodium metasomatites developed in the Lower Paleoproterozoic granite-gneiss and iron formations of the Ingul Megablock of the Ukrainian Shield. Two deposits (the Zhovta Richka and Pervomayske) were mined out tens kilometers eastward in iron formations of the Kryvy Rig – Kremenchug mining district. Nametasomatite fields with scarce sub-economical U-mineralization were revealed by geophysical (magnetometry and gravimetry) and drilling programs northward in granitised gneisses around the younger Korsun-Novomyrgorod rapakivi pluton consisting of A2-type within plate granitoids which were emplaced during decompression melting at ~1.75 Ga. The present work aims to demonstrate structural and geochemical factors related to Na-metasomatism, and to mark out geochemical and tectonical parameters which were favorable for U-accumulation using data on deep seismic survey, geological structure analysis, and mineralogical and geochemical investigations of metasomatites. In the Ingul Megablock, Na-metasomatites occur along shear fault zones mostly oriented N-S. Metasomatites form complicate systems of plate- and lens-like bodies of aegirine-riebeckite albitites surrounded by dequartzified host rocks. Elemental alteration during Na-metasomatism demonstrates simple exchange of Si, K, Rb, Ba and Cs by Na, Ca, and locally V and U. δ 18 O H 2 O (300-400ºC) for albitizing hydrothermal solutions is near “zero”, typically for surficial water. These data suggest host rock interaction with hot marine waters. Persistent Na-metasomatic alterations extend along major tectonic faults for several kilometres with variable thicknesses reaching some hundreds meters in the zones of intense brecciation developed in the places of fault

  17. Prograde and retrograde metamorphic processes in high-pressure subduction zone serpentinites from East Thessaly, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsovitis, Petros

    2016-04-01

    The East Thessaly region, Central Greece, includes metaophiolitic mélange formations which extend from the eastern foothills of Mt. Olympus and Ossa, throughout the Agia basin, Mt. Mavrovouni (Sklithro region), South Pelion and reaching up to northeast Othris (regions of Aerino and Velestino). They appear in the form of dispersed and deformed thrust sheets having been variably emplaced onto Mesozoic platform series rocks of the Pelagonian tectonostratigraphic zone[1]. These formations consist mainly of serpentinites, as well as metasediments, metagabbros, metadolerites, rodingites, ophicalcites, talc-schists and chromitites. Based upon petrographic observations, mineral chemistry data and XRD patterns, the subduction zone-related serpentinites from the regions of Potamia, Anavra, Aetolofos and Kalochori-Chasanbali (Agia basin), as well as from the regions of Aerino and Velestino, are characterized by the progressive transformation of lizardite to antigorite and are distinguished into two groups. The first group includes serpentinites from the metaophiolitic formations of Potamia, Anavra, Aerino and Velestino, which are marked by destibillization of lizardite to antigorite, mostly along the grain boundaries of the lizardite mesh textured relics. The presence of lizardite and antigorite in almost equal amounts indicates medium-temperature blueschist facies metamorphic conditions (˜340-370 ° C; P≈10-11 kbar)[2,3,4]. The second serpentinite group appears in the regions of Aetolofos and Kalochori, characterized by the predominance of antigorite, the minor occurrence of lizardite and the complete replacement of spinel by Cr-magnetite. The absence of metamorphic olivine suggests that these serpentinites were most likely formed at slightly higher temperature and pressure conditions compared to the first serpentinite group, corresponding to medium or high temperature blueschist facies metamorphism (˜360-380 ° C; P≈12 kbar)[2,3,4]. These metamorphic conditions are

  18. Mapping contact metamorphic aureoles in Extremadura, Spain, using Landsat thematic mapper images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, L.C.; Anton-Pacheco, C.; Brickey, D.W.; Kingston, M.J.; Payas, A.

    1987-01-01

    In the Extremadura region of western Spain, Ag, Pb, Zn, and Sn deposits occur in the pieces of late Hercynian granitic plutons and near the pluton contacts in late Proterozoic slate and metagraywacke that have been regionally metamorphosed to the green schist facies. The plutons generally are well exposed and have distinctive geomorphological expression and vegetation; poor exposures of the metasedimentary host rocks and extensive cultivation, however, make delineation of the contact aureoles difficult. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images have been used to distinguish soil developed on the contact metamorphic rocks from soil formed on the stratigraphically equivalent slate-metagraywacke sequence. The mineral constituents of these soils are similar, except that muscovite is more common in the contact metamorphic soil; carbonaceous material is common in both soils. Contact metamorphic soil have lower reflectance, especially in the 1.6-micrometers wavelength region (TM 5), and weaker Al-OH, Mg-OH, and Fe3+ absorption features than do spectra of the slate-metagraywacke soil. The low-reflectance and subdued absorption features exhibited by the contact metamorphic soil spectra are attributed to the high absorption coefficient f the carbonaceous material caused by heating during emplacement of the granitic plutons. These spectral differences are evident in a TM 4/3, 4/5, 3/1 color-composite image. Initially, this image was used to outline the contact aureoles, but digital classification of the TM data was necessary for generating internally consistent maps of the distribution of the exposed contact metamorphic soil. In an August 1984, TM scene of the Caceras area, the plowed, vegetation-free fields were identified by their low TM 4/3 values. Then, ranges of TM 4/5 and 3/1 values were determine for selected plower fields within and outside the contact aureoles; TM 5 produced results similar to TM 4/5. Field evaluation, supported by X-ray diffraction and petrographic

  19. Late-Paleozoic-Mesozoic deformational and deformation related metamorphic structures of Kuznetsk-Altai region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinoviev, Sergei

    2014-05-01

    Kuznetsk-Altai region is a part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. The nature and formation mechanisms of the observed structure of Kuznetsk-Altai region are interpreted by the author as the consequence of convergence of Tuva-Mongolian and Junggar lithospheric block structures and energy of collision interaction between the blocks of crust in Late-Paleozoic-Mesozoic period. Tectonic zoning of Kuznetsk-Altai region is based on the principle of adequate description of geological medium (without methods of 'primary' state recovery). The initial indication of this convergence is the crust thickening in the zone of collision. On the surface the mechanisms of lateral compression form a regional elevation; with this elevation growth the 'mountain roots' start growing. With an approach of blocks an interblock elevation is divided into various fragments, and these fragments interact in the manner of collision. The physical expression of collision mechanisms are periodic pulses of seismic activity. The main tectonic consequence of the block convergence and collision of interblock units is formation of an ensemble of regional structures of the deformation type on the basis of previous 'pre-collision' geological substratum [Chikov et al., 2012]. This ensemble includes: 1) allochthonous and autochthonous blocks of weakly deformed substratum; 2) folded (folded-thrust) systems; 3) dynamic metamorphism zones of regional shears and main faults. Characteristic of the main structures includes: the position of sedimentary, magmatic and PT-metamorphic rocks, the degree of rock dynamometamorphism and variety rock body deformation, as well as the styles and concentrations of mechanic deformations. 1) block terranes have weakly elongated or isometric shape in plane, and they are the systems of block structures of pre-collision substratum separated by the younger zones of interblock deformations. They stand out among the main deformation systems, and the smallest are included into the

  20. Book review: Large igneous provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Bray, Edward A.

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive compilation of all aspects of large igneous provinces (LIPs). Published in 2014, the book is now the definitive source of information on the petrogenesis of this type of globally important, voluminous magmatic activity. In the first few pages, LIPs are characterized as magmatic provinces with areal extents >0.1 Mkm2 that are dominated by mafic magmas emplaced or erupted in intraplate settings during relatively short (1–5 m.y.) time intervals. Given these parameters, particularly areal extent, LIPs clearly represent significant contributions to global geologic evolution through time. This point is underscored, also in the introductory chapter, by a series of figures that aptly characterize the global time-space distribution of LIPs; an accompanying, particularly useful table identifies individual LIPs, quantifies their basic characteristics, and enumerates pertinent references. Accordingly, this compilation is a welcome addition to the geologic literature.

  1. Neotectonics in the maritime provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, G.L.

    1988-03-01

    Seismic risk assessment in the Maritime Provinces requires input from not just historical, but also geological sources. A detailed search through published and unpublished geological literature reveals many examples - some probable, some possible -of neotectonic movement in the area. Examples range in tectonic significance from those that reflect exaggerated local imbalance to those that signify deep-seated stress. Evidence for neotectonism in the Maritimes is multidisciplined. It includes deformation in bedrock and quaternary deposits, and regional warping. Recent movement also is indicated by changes in relative sea level, in situ stress fields and geodetic fluctuations. Finally, and most unequivocally, neotectonism in the Maritime Provinces is manifested as the seismic events that have sporadically affected the area throughout its recent geological history, and continue up to the present day. 288 refs

  2. Mineral chemistry and geothemobarometry of mantle harzburgites in the Eastern Metamorphic Complex of Khoy ophiolite -NW Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morovvat Faridazad

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Khoy ophiolite at the global scale is in the middle part of the Alp-Himalaya orogenic belt and it is extended over 3900 Km2 which indicates remnant Neotethys oceanic lithosphere in the Mesozoic era (Kananian et al., 2010. In this paper, in addition to a review of previous investigations about Khoy ophiolite, we will try to determine the nature and kind of minerals, origin and partial melting rate as well as the equilibrium pressure and temperature of harzburgites from the Eastern Metamorphic Complex of Khoy ophiolite. Materials and methods Thin sections microscopy studies were carried out following field investigations. EPMA analysis was carried out with using a Superprobe JEOL, JXA 8200 Microprobe unit at the state of WDS and under condition of 15kv accelerating voltage, 10nA current beam, 1µm beam diameter and collection of natural and synthetic standards for calibration. Results The study area is located at the NW of Iran and north of the Khoy city in the west Azarbaijan province. This area is part of the ophiolitic complex of NW Iran and belongs to its Eastern Metamorphic Complex. This metamorphic zone has large tectonically segments of the metamorphic ophiolites which mainly include serpentinized peridotites with associated metagabbros. There are three types of peridotitic rocks in this area which are: Lherzolites, harzburgites and dunites. Lherzolites are composed of olivine (60-70%, orthopyroxene (10-30% and clinopyroxene (~10-20% with minor amounts (~2% of Cr-spinel mineral. Harzburgites are composed of olivine (70-80%, orthopyroxene (10-20% and clinopyroxene (~5% with minor amounts (~2% of Cr-spinel mineral. Dunites are composed of olivine (90-95%, orthopyroxene (5-10% with minor amounts (~1-2% of Cr-spinel mineral. Composition range of olivines is between Fo89.46 Fa10.37 to Fo89.86 Fa10.0 as well as NiO content range is 018-046 (wt %. The calculated Mg# of olivines is 0.90 and the composition of olivines in Fo-Fa diagram

  3. Geology of uranium vein deposits (including Schwartzwalder Mine) in Proterozoic metamorphic rocks, Front Range, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voto, R.H. de; Paschis, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    The Schwartzwalder uranium deposit is one of many uranium vein occurrences in the Lower Proterozoic metamorphic rocks of the Front Range, Colorado. The principal veins of significant uranium content occur marginal to the Colorado Mineral Belt; are localized by structural dilation zones, vein junctions, fault deflections or branching; and occur dominantly within or at the contact of certain preferred metamorphic-stratigraphic units, particularly the siliceous, garnetiferous gneisses, where these rock units are broken by faults and fractures associated with the north-northwest-trending throughgoing faults. Uranium at the Schwartzwalder mine occurs primarily as open-space brecciated vein filling along the steeply west-dipping Illinois vein and numerous east-dipping subsidiary veins where they cut preferred metamorphic host rocks that are tightly folded. Uraninite occurs with molybdenite, adularia, jordisite, ankerite, pyrite, base-metal sulphides, and calcite in vein-filling paragenetic sequence. Minor wall-rock alteration is mainly hematite alteration and bleaching. Vertical relief on the developed ore deposit is 900 metres and still open-ended at depth. No vertical zonation of alteration, vein mineralogy, density of the subsidiary veins, or ore grade has been detected. The Schwartzwalder uranium deposit is of substantial tonnage (greater than 10,000 metric tons of U 3 O 8 ) and grade (averaging 0.57% U 3 O 8 ). Structural mapping shows that the Illinois vein-fault is a Proterozoic structure. Discordant Proterozoic (suggested) and Laramide dates have been obtained from Schwartzwalder ore. The data suggest, therefore, a Proterozoic ancestry of this heretofore presumed Laramide (Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary) hydrothermal uranium deposit. The authors suggest a polygenetic model for the origin of the Schwartzwalder uranium deposit

  4. Extensional ductile tectonics of the Sioule metamorphic series (Variscan French Massif Central)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, M.; Grolier, J.; Pons, J.

    1993-09-01

    In the Northern part of the Variscan French Massif Central, the Sioule series, from top to bottom, consists of a pre-Viséan granite, migmatite, gneiss and mica schist. Two ductile deformations have been recognized. The earlier phase is characterized by a north-east-south-west trending stretching lineation; the second phase, characterized by a north-west-south-east trending mineral, stretching and crenulation lineation, is better marked in the lower mica schist part than in the upper granito-gneissic part. This second phase occurred during retrogression of the metamorphic rocks; related shear criteria indicate a top to the south-west shear. The Namurian-Westphalian magmatic bodies such as the Echassières leucogranite, Pouzol-Servant microgranite and numerous north-east -south-west trending microgranite dykes are emplaced in extensional fractures related to the same north-west-south-east maximum stretching direction. The asymmetrical shapes of the two granitic massifs indicate that they intruded towards the south-east. The synkinematic retrogression of the metamorphic rocks, the shape of the magmatic bodies and a re-examination of the numerous available data support the interpretation that the deformation is due to the extensional tectonic regime related to the Variscan crustal re-quilibration. This interpretation is in agreement with the correlation of the Sioule series with the Chavanon series. The two series belong to a unique tectono-metamorphic unit left-laterally offset by the Stephanian motion of the Sillon Houiller fault. This study also shows that the Sillon Houiller did not play a significant part during the Namurian-Westphalian extensional tectonics of the Massif Central.

  5. A versatile digitally-graded buffer structure for metamorphic device applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yingjie; Zhang, Yonggang; Chen, Xingyou; Gu, Yi; Shi, Yanhui; Ji, Wanyan; Du, Ben

    2018-04-01

    Exploring more effective buffer schemes for mitigating dislocation deficiencies is the key technology towards higher performance metamorphic devices. Here we demonstrate a versatile metamorphic grading structure consisting of 38-period alternated multilayers of In0.52Al0.48As and In0.82Al0.18As on InP substrate, thicknesses of which in each period were gradually varied in opposite directions from 48.7 and 1.3 nm to 1.3 and 48.7 nm, respectively, akin to a digital alloy. Both preferentially dislocation nucleation and blocking of threading dislocation transmission are observed near the In0.82Al0.18As/In0.52Al0.48As interfaces, which help relax the strain and lower the residual defect density. A 2.6 μm In0.83Ga0.17As pin photodetector is fabricated on this pseudo-substrate, attaining a low dark current density of 2.9  ×  10‑6 A cm‑2 and a high detectivity of 1.8  ×  1010 cmHz1/2W‑1 at room temperature, comparable with the states of the art that on linearly-graded buffer layers. These results indicate such digitally-graded buffer structures are promising for enhancing performances of metamorphic devices, and can be easily generalized to other lattice-mismatched material systems.

  6. Investigating the response of biotite to impact metamorphism: Examples from the Steen River impact structure, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, E. L.; Sharp, T. G.; Hu, J.; Tschauner, O.

    2018-01-01

    Impact metamorphic effects from quartz and feldspar and to a lesser extent olivine and pyroxene have been studied in detail. Comparatively, studies documenting shock effects in other minerals, such as double chain inosilicates, phyllosilicates, carbonates, and sulfates, are lacking. In this study, we investigate impact metamorphism recorded in crystalline basement rocks from the Steen River impact structure (SRIS), a 25 km diameter complex crater in NW Alberta, Canada. An array of advanced analytical techniques was used to characterize the breakdown of biotite in two distinct settings: along the margins of localized regions of shock melting and within granitic target rocks entrained as clasts in a breccia. In response to elevated temperature gradients along shock vein margins, biotite transformed at high pressure to an almandine-Ca/Fe majorite-rich garnet with a density of 4.2 g cm-3. The shock-produced garnets are poikilitic, with oxide and silicate glass inclusions. Areas interstitial to garnets are vesiculated, in support of models for the formation of shock veins via oscillatory slip, with deformation continuing during pressure release. Biotite within granitic clasts entrained within the hot breccia matrix thermally decomposed at ambient pressure to produce a fine-grained mineral assemblage of orthopyroxene + sanidine + titanomagnetite. These minerals are aligned to the (001) cleavage plane of the original crystal. In this and previous work, the transformation of an inosilicate (pargasite) and a phyllosilicate (biotite) to form garnet, an easily identifiable, robust mineral, has been documented. We contend that in deeply eroded astroblemes, high-pressure minerals that form within or in the environs of shock veins may serve as one of the possibly few surviving indicators of impact metamorphism.

  7. Geochronologic constraints of the uplift and metamorphism along the Alpine Fault, South Island, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlain, C.P.; Zeitler, P.K.; Cooper, A.F.

    1995-01-01

    Geochronological studies of pegmatites and Alpine Schist exposed east of the Alpine Fault, South Island, New Zealand, reveal a complex history beginning with magmatism and metamorphism at c. 68 m.y. ago and ending with rapid uplift and exhumation in the last 5 m.y. Pegmatites exposed in the Mataketake Range give conventional U-Pb monazite and SHRIMP ion-probe zircon ages of 68 ± 2.6 Ma and 67.9 ± 2.5 Ma, respectively. Inasmuch as petrologic and isotopic data indicate that the Alpine pegmatites are melts derived from the Alpine Schist, the age of the pegmatites suggests that, at least locally, the high-grade metamorphism is considerably younger than previously assumed. We tentatively suggest that metamorphism, in at least some areas of the Alpine Schist, may be associated with Late Cretaceous transtension rather than resulting from the consequences of collision during the Rangitata Orogeny. 40 Ar/ 39 Ar studies of hornblendes from the Alpine Schist, collected from the Haast River to the Franz Josef Glacier area, reveal highly disturbed spectra. Despite this complexity, these analyses define a systematic decrease in ages both across-strike toward the Alpine Fault (Haast River traverse) and northwards along-strike towards Mt Cook. This pattern of decreasing 40 Ar/ 39 Ar hornblende ages is also observed in lower closure temperature systems such as zircon and apatite fission-track ages. We interpret the decrease in ages toward the fault to be the result of deeper exhumation in the immediate vicinity of the Alpine Fault, whereas we interpret the northward younging of fault-proximal samples to be a result of both more recent and possibly more extensive exhumation than occurred in areas to the south. (author). 55 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Miocene metamorphism of pan-African granites in the Edough Massif (NE Algeria)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammor, D.; Lancelot, J.

    1998-01-01

    The Edough Massif is the eastern most crystalline core of the Maghrebides that represents the African segment of the west Mediterranean Alpine belt. U-Pb zircon dating provides upper intercept ages of 595± My and 606±55 My and orthogneiss of the lower unit and a deformed leucogranite of the upper pelitic unit, respectively. These ages suggest emplacement of the two granitoids during the Pan-African orogeny. Monazites from a paragneiss sample gave a 18± My U-Pb age that points to a Miocene age of the high-temperature metamorphism. (authors)

  9. Metaultramafic schists and dismembered ophiolites of the Ashe Metamorphic Suite of northwestern North Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Loren A.; Merschat, Arthur J.; Vance, R. Kelly

    2016-01-01

    Metaultramafic rocks (MUR) in the Ashe Metamorphic Suite (AMS) of northwestern North Carolina include quartz ± feldspar-bearing QF-amphibolites and quartz-deficient, locally talc-, chlorite-, and/or Mg-amphibole-bearing TC-amphibolites. Some workers divide TC-amphibolites into Todd and Edmonds types, based on mineral and geochemical differences, and we provisionally add a third type – olivine ± pyroxene-rich, Rich Mountain-type rocks. Regionally, MUR bodies range from equant, Rich Mountain- to highly elongate, Todd-TC-amphibolite-type bodies. The MURs exhibit three to five mineral associations containing assemblages with olivine, anthophyllitic amphibole, Mg-hornblende, Mg-actinolite, cummingtonite, and serpentine representing decreasing eclogite to greenschist facies grades of metamorphism over time. MUR protoliths are difficult to determine. Southwestern MUR bodies have remnant olivine ± pyroxene-rich assemblages representing ultrabasic-basic, dunite-peridotite-pyroxenite protoliths. Northeastern TC-amphibolite MURs contain hornblende and actinolitic amphiboles plus chlorites – aluminous and calcic assemblages suggesting to some that metasomatism of basic, QF-amphibolites yields all TC-amphibolites. Yet MgO-CaO-Al2O3 and trace element chemistries of many TC-amphibolites resemble compositions of plagioclase peridotites. We show that a few AMS TC-amphibolites had basaltic/gabbroic protoliths, while presenting arguments opposing application of the metasomatic hypothesis to all TC-amphibolites. We establish that MUR bodies are petrologically heterolithic and that TC-amphibolites are in contact with many rock types; that those with high Cr, Ni, and Mg have olivine- or pyroxene-dominated protoliths; that most exhibit three or more metamorphic mineral associations; and that contacts thought to be metasomatic are structural. Clearly, different MUR bodies have different chemistries representing various protoliths, and have different mineral assemblages, reflecting

  10. Research of the chemical activity of microgrinding coals of various metamorphism degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdukov, A. P.; Butakov, E. B.; Kuznetsov, A. V.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate the effect of mechanically activating grinding of coals of various degrees of metamorphism by two different methods - determination of the flash time in a vertical tubular furnace and thermogravimetric analysis. In the experiments, the coals that had been processed on a vibrating centrifugal mill and a disintegrator, aged for some time, were compared. The experiments showed a decrease in the ignition temperature of mechanically activated coals - deactivation of fuel, as well as the effect of mechanical activation on the further process of thermal-oxidative degradation.

  11. Forecast of promising areas for uranium prospection at the metamorphic Massif of Isla de la Juventud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gongora, L.E.; Macola, E.; Sanchez, J.; Torres, J.C.; Alaminos, C.; LLanes, A.; Morales, M.

    1995-01-01

    A mineralization conceptual model for uranium of the metamorphic Massif of Isla de la Juventud was established taking into account the study of the geological and metallogenic characteristic of the territory. The determined indications of mineralization were plotted on the geological map in order to conform a forecasting map and the selection of 22 hypothetical promising areas was carried out. As result of the field words three really promising areas were selected. A group of exploration techniques needed to evaluate the targets areas is presented

  12. Dating by fission tracers of some metamorphic rocks within the city of Rio de Janeiro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, A.C.; Poupeau, G.

    1984-01-01

    Fission-Track (FT) ages were measured in apatites from metamorphic rocks outcropping within the city of Rio de Janeiro. One apatite presented a 'substraction age' of 124 + - 10 my (2σ) and a second one a 'plateau age' of 117 + - 5 my. These ages are supposed to be related to the isostatic uplift related to the opening of the South-Atlantic Ocean. A younger plateau age of 85 + - 5 my might possibly be related to a later readjustment phase. Based on these and Fonseca et al. (1984) results, a cooling history for the rocks in Rio de Janeiro city is proposed. (Author) [pt

  13. Preliminary radiometric analyses of zircons from the Mount Copeland syenite gneiss, Shuswap metamorphic complex, British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okulitch, A.V.; Laveridge, W.D.; Sullivan, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    The isotopic ratios resulting from Pb and U analyses on three zircon fractions from syenite gneiss intrusive into metasediments of the Shuswap Metamorphic Complex are collinear on a concordia plot and yield upper and lower intercepts of about 773 Ma and 70 Ma. The upper intercept is tentatively interpreted as the minimum age of emplacement. The lower intercept is suggested to be the time of uplift and cooling associated with tectonic denudation of the Shuswap Complex. The implied age of the country rocks is pre-late Proterozoic and they may be correlatives of the Purcell Supergroup. (auth)

  14. Uranium mineralization possibilities in metamorphic Massif of Isla de Juventud, Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gongora Dominguez, L.E.; Llanes Castro, A.I.; Pena Fortes, B.; Capote Rodriguez, G.

    1996-01-01

    The geologic and metallogenic characteristic of the metamorphic Massif shows the presence of possible uranium vein type mineralization as a result of a hidrotermal genetic process. Metalliferous fluids rising along the fault system were responsible for the deposition of the uranium in the reduction zones, i.e. presence of pyrite, organic matter and others. This type of uranium minerization is proposed for the Bibijagua area and for the Revolucion and Lela area the same type is expected. The gamma spectrometric analysis was used to evaluate the geological samples

  15. Nanodiamond Formation at the Lithogenesis and Low-Stages of Regional Metamorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simakov, S. K.; Melnik, N. N.; Vyalov, V. I.

    2018-02-01

    Samples of gilsonite from Adzharia, anthraxolite and graphite of coal from Taimyr, shungite from Karelia, and anthracite from Donbass are studied using Raman spectroscopy. Peaks at 1600 cm-1, indicating the presence of nanographite, are recorded in all samples. The anthracite sample from Donbass, 1330 cm-1, corresponds to the sp 3-line of carbon hybridization conforming to a nanodiamond. It is concluded that in nature diamonds can be formed at late stages of lithogenesis (catagensis, metagenesis), and for coals, it can occur at the zeolite stage of regional metamorphism of rocks, before the green schist stage.

  16. Comparative study of the thermoluminescence properties of natural metamorphic quartz belonging to Turkey and Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topaksu, M.; Dogan, T.; Yüksel, M.; Kurt, K.; Topak, Y.; Yegingil, Z.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the sensitization of the thermoluminescence (TL) peak of metamorphic quartzes from Adiyaman in Turkey (TMQ) and from Madrid in Spain (SMQ). Quartz samples of two different origins were β-irradiated between ∼6.689 Gy and 4816 Gy at room temperature. X-ray diffraction analysis has indicated that both TMQ and SMQ have the same crystal structure. Chemical analyses of both TMQ and SMQ were performed using the XRF technique. The preheat processes were carried out at 125 °C for 10 s in the TL measurement. TMQ and SMQ samples have different TL properties in two ways. First TMQ has four first order TL glow peaks while SMQ has five first order TL peaks and secondly, the observed dose sensitivity of TMQ samples is higher than the SMQ samples. - Highlights: • The thermoluminescence (TL) peak of metamorphic quartzes was investigated. • Comparable differences were seen between low and high dose levels. • AD and CGCD methods were used

  17. Mineral chemistry of garnet in pegmatite and metamorphic rocks in the Hamedan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ahmadi Khalaji

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The area of this study is located near Hamadan within the Sanandaj - Sirjan tectonic zone. In the Hamadan area, consisting mainly of Mesozoic plutonic and metamorphic rocks, aplites and pegmatites locally contain garnets.(Baharifar et al., 2004, Amidi and Majidi, 1977; Torkian, 1995. Garnet-bearing schists and hornfelses in the area are products of regional metamorphism shown by slate and phyllite (Baharifar, 2004. In this investigation the distribution of elements in garnet in different rock type was studied to determine their mineral types and conditions of formation. Garnet samples from igneous and metamorphic rocks were analyzed by electron microprobe (EMPA, the results of which are presented in this article. Materials and methods Thirty-five samples were selected for thin section preparation and twenty thin-polished sections were prepared for mineralogical and microprobe analysis. Thin sections of garnet-bearing igneous (pegmatite and metamorphic rocks (schist and hornfels were studied by polarizing microscope. Chemical analysis was performed on the garnets (38 points using a Caimeca SX100 electron microprobe at an acceleration voltage of 15 kV and electric current of 15 nA in the Mineral Processing Research Center, Iran. Separation of iron (II and Fe (III was calculated by Droop’s method (1987 and the structural formulas of the garnets were calculated using 24 oxygens to determine the relative proportions of the end-members using the mineral spreadsheet software of Preston and Still (2001. Results Based on the analyses, almandine (Fe - Al garnet and spessartine (Mn - Al garnet are the principal types of the (Kamari metamorphic and (Abaro pegmatitic garnets, that belong to the well-known pyralspite garnet group. Chemical zoning patterns of the garnets in the metamorphic rocks (schists differ from those in the igneous rocks (pegmatite, showing different compositions from core to rim. Petrographic evidence such as: co

  18. Results of Rb-Sr dating of metamorphic rocks of crystalline complexes of Male Karpaty Mts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagdasaryan, G.P.; Gukasyan, P.Kh.; Cambel, B.; Veselsky, J.

    1983-01-01

    The paper follows up on a recently published paper on Rb-Sr isochrone dating of granitoid rocks of the Male Karpaty Mts. Data are given on comparative statistical analysis of isochrones obtained for the Bratislava and Modra massifs (isochrone of the latter is complemented with the analyses of two new samples) and the results of age determination of metasedimentary rocks of the Pezinok-Pernek zone and the Bratislava area by the Rb-Sr isochrone. Regression analysis shows that there is no statistically significant difference between the age of the Bratislava massif (347+-4 m.y.) and the Modra massif (326+-22 m.y.) and between their initial ratios 87 Sr/ 86 Sr (i.e., they are synchronous, having the same magma source) which makes it possible to calculate uniform value for age. Whole-rock samples of metamorphic and crystalline schists (gneisses) of the Male Karpaty Mts. also determine the isochrone corresponding to the age 387+-38 m.y. (2σ) and initial ratio ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr)=0.7100+-0.00O8 (2σ). Rb-Sr isotope analyses of several pairs of biotite-crystalline schist (from which biotite was separated) point out that redistribution of Sr isotopes among the mineral phases of rocks takes place during the periplutonic metamorphism, while the whole-rock samples remain chemically closed systems. (author)

  19. Constraint-plane-based synthesis and topology variation of a class of metamorphic parallel mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan, Dongming; Dias, Jorge; Seneviratne, Lakmal; Dai, Jian S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates various topologies and mobility of a class of metamorphic parallel mechanisms synthesized with reconfigurable rTPS limbs. Based on the reconfigurable Hooke (rT) joint, the rTPS limb has two phases which result in parallel mechanisms having ability of mobility change. While in one phase the limb has no constraint to the platform, in the other it constrains the spherical joint center to lie on a plane which is used to demonstrate different topologies of the nrTPS metamorphic parallel mechanisms by investigating various relations (parallel or intersecting) among the n constraint planes (n = 2,3,..,6). Geometric constraint equations of the platform rotation matrix and translation vector are set up based on the point-plane constraint, which reveals mobility and redundant geometric conditions of the mechanism topologies. By altering the limbs into the non-constraint phase without constraint plane, new mechanism phases are deduced with mobility change based on each mechanism topology.

  20. The metamorphic basement of the Cordillera Frontal of Mendoza: New geochronologic and isotopic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basei, Miguel; Ramos, Victor A.; Vujovich, Graciela I.; Poma, Stella

    1998-01-01

    The metamorphic rocks of the Cordillera Frontal exposed in the Cordon del Portillo, Mendoza were examined by Rb/Sr geochronology and Nd/Sm isotopic analysis. The Rb/Sr data defined a Devonian age for the last metamorphic episode, similar to the previous K/Ar and Ar/Ar ages obtained in this region and western Precordillera. The isotopic analysis identified three sets of model ages: 1.- The oldest corresponds to a set of meta sedimentary rocks with a model age of 1,400 to 1,700 Ma; 2.- A monzogranodiorite with a model age of 1,000 Ma; and 3.- Metabasites with model ages between 577 and 330 Ma. These rocks are interpreted as 1.- A typical Grenvillian derived basement; 2.- Late Paleozoic granitoids derived from a different Proterozoic basement; and 3.- Some Eopaleozoic metabasites tectonically inter fingered with the Grenvillian basement. These new data are coherent with the existence of a Laurentia derived terrane, Chilenia, that was separated by oceanic rocks from the basement of Pre cordillera during Eopaleozoic times. This last basement known as the Cuyania terrane, was also derived from Laurentia. (author)

  1. Ontogeny of the vertebral column of Eleutherodactylus johnstonei (Anura: Eleutherodactylidae) reveals heterochronies relative to metamorphic frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza-Joya, Fabio Leonardo; Ramos-Pallares, Eliana Patricia; Ramírez-Pinilla, Martha Patricia

    2013-07-01

    Over the last century, the morphogenesis of the vertebral column has been considered as a highly conserved process among anurans. This statement is based on the study of few metamorphic taxa, ignoring the role of developmental mechanisms underlying the evolution of specialized life-histories. Direct development in anurans has been regarded as evolutionarily derived and involves developmental recapitulation and repatterning at different levels in all amphibian taxa studied so far. Herein, we analyze the vertebral column morphogenesis of the direct-developing frog Eleutherodactylus johnstonei, describing the sequence of chondrification and ossification, based on cleared and double-stained specimens from early stage embryos to adults. In general, our results show that the morphogenesis of the vertebral column in E. johnstonei recapitulates the ancestral tadpole-like pattern of development. However, the analysis of the sequence of events using heterochrony plots shows important heterocronies relative to metamorphic species, such as a delay in the chondrification of the vertebral centra and in osteogenesis. These ontogenetic peculiarities may represent derived traits in direct-developing frogs and are possibly correlated with its unusual life history. In addition, several features of the vertebral column of E. johnstonei are highly variable from its typical morphology. We report some malformations and small deviations, which do not seem to affect the survival of individuals. These anomalies have also been found in other frogs, and include many vertebral defects, such as vertebral fusion, and vertebral preclusion and/or induction. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The petrogenesis of metamorphosed carbonatites in the Grenville Province, Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moecher, D.P.; Anderson, E.D.; Cook, C.A.; Mezger, K.

    1997-01-01

    Veins and dikes of calcite-rich rocks within the Central Metasedimentary Belt boundary zone (CMBbz) in the Grenville Province of Ontario have been interpreted to be true carbonatites or to be pseudocarbonatites derived from interaction of pegmatite melts and regional Grenville marble. The putative carbonatites have been metamorphosed and consist mainly of calcite, biotite, and apatite with lesser amounts of clinopyroxene, magnetite, allanite, zircon, titanite, cerite, celestite, and barite. The rocks have high P and rare earth element (REE) contents, and calcite in carbonatite has elevated Sr, Fe, and Mn contents relative to Grenville Supergroup marble and marble melange. Values of δ 18 O SMOW (9.9 - 13.3o/oo) and δ 13 C PDB (-4.8 to -1.9o/oo) for calcite are also distinct from those for marble and most marble melange. Titanites extracted from clinopyroxene -calcite-scapolite skarns formed by metasomatic interaction of carbonatites and silicate lithologies yield U-Pb ages of 1085 to 1035 Ma. Zircon from one carbonatite body yields a U-Pb age of 1089 ± 5 Ma; zircon ages from two other bodies are 1170 ± 3 and 1143 ± 8 Ma, suggesting several carbonatite formation events or remobilization of carbonatite during deformation and metamorphism around 1080 Ma. Values of ε Nd (T) are 1.7 - 3.2 for carbonatites, -1.5 -1.0 for REE-rich granite dikes intruding the CMBbz, and 1.6 - 1.7 for marble. The mineralogy and geochemical data are consistent with derivation of the carbonatites from a depleted mantle source. Mixing calculations indicate that interaction of REE-rich pegmatites with regional marbles cannot reproduce selected major and minor element abundance, REE contents, and O and Nd isotope compositions of the carbonatites. (author)

  3. Silicate-Oxide Equilibria in the Wilson Lake Terrane, Labrador - Evidence for a Pre- Metamorphic Oxidizing Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, F. J.; Stout, J. H.

    2006-05-01

    The presence of Fe3+ and Ti in silicates and their presumed equilibration with Fe2+-Fe3+-Ti oxide minerals has long been recognized as an important factor in metamorphic phase equilibria. The Red Wine Mountains massif is a granulite facies unit in the Wilson Lake terrane of central Labrador, where this equilibration is especially important for estimating both temperature and fO2 during peak metamorphism. Peak assemblages are sapphirine + quartz, and orthopyroxene + sillimanite + quartz. The coexisting oxides, which are largely responsible for the pronounced aeromagnetic high of the massif, consist of nearly pure magnetite and an exsolved titanohematite. Estimates of fO2 based on magnetite + integrated titanohematite compositions are slightly below that defined by the pure magnetite-hematite buffer. This assemblage is also responsible for the magnetic signature of metagabbro and metanorite dikes, a fact which challenges the conventional wisdom that the high Fe3+ content of the host paragneisses was inherited from a highly oxidized ferruginous shale. We suggest here that prior to granulite facies metamorphism, an oxidizing hydrothermal event either coeval or following the emplacement of mafic dikes into the paragneiss host was responsible for the highly oxidized nature of the massif as a whole. Subsequent metamorphism then produced the observed assemblages. This scenario is supported by recent U-Pb zircon and monazite ages of ca. 1626 ± 10 Ma, which indicate that both metagabbro dikes and host paragneiss were metamorphosed at the same time. Dike emplacement and the oxidizing event must have preceded 1626 Ma. The implications of this pre-metamorphic oxidizing event is that Fe3+ becomes an inherent and fixed component in the chemical system during metamorphism. Phase relationships, preliminary thermodynamic modeling, and geothermobarometric constraints indicate that peak temperatures are lower than those previously determined for Fe3+-absent systems. More appropriate

  4. Transamazonic foundation from Borborema Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackpacher, P.C.; Dantas, E.L.; Van Schums, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    Geochronological data obtained in plutonic rocks of the Sao Vicente/Caico Groups present U/Pb values around 2.15 Ga. These rocks may have involved from an initial mantle or lower crust melting and fractionation process by 2.62-2.65 Ga., that is evidenced from Sm/Nd model ages. Relation betwen TTG-sequence and tectonic setting of the area and other localities in NE-Brazil suggest that the Transamazonic orogeny was the main crust-forming episode of the Borborema Province. (author)

  5. Chemical zoning and homogenization of Pasamonte-type pyroxene and their bearing on thermal metamorphism of a howardite parent body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, M.; Duke, M. B.; Mckay, D. S.

    1985-01-01

    The Mg-Fe zoning of pyroxenes in Pasamonte and Juvinas eucrites is examined in order to gain a better understanding of the metamorphism in the surface layer of a eucrite/howardite parent body. Three distinct types of Ca-Mg-Fe zoning of Pasamonte pyroxenes are identified. The wide compositional range of the zoned pyroxenes suggests that Pasamonte is less metamorphosed than previously believed. It is also found that a Pasamonte-type pyroxene may yield a Juvinas-type pyroxene by thermal metamorphism. Calculations imply that the homogenization of Juvinas pyroxenes may have occurred during later reheating events rather than during initial cooling.

  6. Cristal size distribution in metamorphic rocks: an example for the relationship between nucleation and growth rates with overstepping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homan, S. M.

    2003-01-01

    Crystal size distribution in metamorphic rocks provide fundamental information about crystal nucleation and growth rate, growth time and the degree of overstepping. Crystal size distribution data for garnet, saluretil, keynote, and and alusite crystals from the aureole demonstrate that the earliest formed of this minerals, garnet, has the highest population density and the shortest growth time. The last formed mineral, and alusite, has the lowest population density and longest growth time. keynote and saluretil have the similar population density and growth times intermediate between those of overstepping on the nucleation and growth rates of minerals during metamorphism

  7. Tectonic origin and deformation process of the Mayer Kangri medium-high pressure metamorphic dome in Central Qiangtang of Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Liang, X.

    2016-12-01

    The metamorphic characteristics, deformation process, geochronology of the medium-high pressure metamorphic rocks in blueschist bearing Central Qiangtang Metamorphic belt (CQMB) of Tibet were less well constrained. It is, however, commonly assumed that these rock slices in the margin also contain important implications on the evolution of the entire metamorphic belt. The well-exposed Mayer Kangri medium-high pressure metamorphic dome in north flank of the CQMB provides an unique opportunity to investigate the outer part of the CQMB, which could facilitate the study on the subduction-exhumation-post orogenic scenarios of the Triassic accretionary orogeny in Central Qiangtang. Field structural analyses indicate the Mayer Kangri metamorphic dome are bounded by low-angle normal faults (LANF) within the hanging wall of low-green schist facies mélange. It majorly consists of epidote-amphibolites, quartz-phengite schist, epidote-albite schist. The outcrop and micro structural observations of footwall metamorphic rocks show an open anticline with multiple foliation replacement, which largely differentiate themselves from the dextral strike-slip shearing of the hanging wall. Well-zoned amphiboles were found within the epidote-amphibolite after micro-structural observations and electron probe microanalyses (EPMA), which indicate that the amphibole zonation demonstrates a Hastingsite core, a Ferro-actinolite mantle and a Ferro-winchite rim in most cases. The mean temperature and pressure estimates of the zoned amphibolites change from 544 °, 0.98Gpa in the core, to 426°, 0.34Gpa in the mantle, and to ca.364° and 0.70 GPa in the rim. The detailed analyses on the stepwise-heating Ar-Ar results of the zoned amphiboles provide good constrains on the episodic deformation process of the CQMB. For Hast-cores, we obtained near plateau ages of 242.4-241.2 Ma, indicating the onset of the oceanic subduction is earlier than the Anisian stage of Middle Triassic. The subsequent

  8. Telescoping metamorphic isograds: Evidence from 40Ar/39A dating in the Orange-Milford belt, southern Connecticut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunk, Michael J.; Walsh, Gregory J.; Growdon, Martha L.; Wintsch, Robert P.

    2013-01-01

    New 40Ar/39Ar ages for hornblende and muscovite from the Orange-Milford belt in southern Connecticut reflect cooling from Acadian amphibolite facies metamorphism between ∼380 to 360 Ma followed by retrograde recrystallization of fabric-forming muscovite and chlorite during lower greenschist facies Alleghanian transpression at ∼280 Ma. Reported field temperature and pressure gradients are improbably high for these rocks and a NW metamorphic field gradient climbing from chlorite-grade to staurolite-grade occurs over less than 5 km. Simple tilting cannot account for this compressed isograd spacing given the geothermal gradient of ∼20 °C/km present at the time of regional metamorphism. However, post-metamorphic transpression could effectively telescope the isograds by stretching the belt at an oblique angle to the isograd traces. Textures in the field and in thin section reveal several older prograde schistosities overprinted by lower greenschist facies fabrics. The late cleavages commonly occur at the scale of ∼100 μm and these samples contain multiple age populations of white mica. 40Ar/39Ar analysis of these poly-metamorphic samples with mixed muscovite populations yield climbing or U-shaped age spectra. The ages of the low temperature steps are late Paleozoic, while the ages of the older steps are late Devonian. These results support our petrologic interpretation that the younger cleavage developed under metamorphic conditions below the closure temperature for Ar diffusion in muscovite, that is, in the lower greenschist facies. The correlation of a younger regionally reproducible age population with a pervasive retrograde muscovite ± chlorite cleavage reveals an Alleghanian (∼280 Ma) overprint on the Acadian metamorphic gradient (∼380 Ma). Outcrop-scale structures including drag folds and imbricate boudins suggest that Alleghanian deformation and cleavage development occurred in response to dextral transpression along a northeast striking boundary

  9. Major uranium provinces: Yilgarn block and Gascoyne Province, Western Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, C.R.M.

    1988-01-01

    The Archaean Yilgarn Block and the adjacent Proterozoic Gascoyne Province, Western Australia, form the basement and source rocks for numerous occurrences of surficial uranium mineralization, the largest being the Yeelirrie deposit (35 million tonnes at 0.15% U 3 O 8 ). The mineralization, almost exclusively in the form of carnotite, has been deposited in the regolith and appears to be less than 1 Ma old, with some deposits still forming. The nature and distribution of the mineralization are controlled by basement and surface geology, geomorphology, hydrology and climate, being restricted to deeply weathered, semi-arid terrain with granitoid source rocks. A few small occurrences in the Gascoyne Province may be pedogenic in origin but the majority, in the north of Yilgarn Block, occur in unrejuvenated palaeodrainage channels now choked by colluvial, alluvial and chemical sediments. These sediments, which are aquifers for the present, predominantly sub-surface, drainage, can exceed 10-15 m. Uranium released from the weathering granitoids has been transported in groundwaters in uranyl carbonate complexes and precipitated as carnotite where, (i) concentrations of uranium and potassium have been elevated by evaporation and, (ii) dissolved vanadium has been oxidized to the 5-valent state. Precipitation is in calcretes and associated sediments in the drainage axes, in 'chemical deltas' where the drainages enter playas and in the playas themselves. This style of mineralization was first recognized in 1969-1970 as the result of investigations into the source of radiometric anomalies delineated by airborne surveys. The majority of discoveries have similarly been by radiometric surveys but hydrogeochemical surveys have promise and may become important in future search for blind mineralization and/or young deposits not in radioactive equilibrium. (author). 61 refs, 6 figs

  10. Wind potential assessment of Quebec Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilinca, A.; Chaumel, J.-L.; Retiveau, J.-L.

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents the development of a comprehensive wind atlas of the Province of Quebec. This study differs from previous studies by 1) use of a standard classification index to categorize the wind resource, 2) extensive review of surface and upper air data available for the Province to define the wind resource, and 3) integration of available wind data with the topography of the Province. The wind resource in the Province of Quebec is classified using the scheme proposed by Battelle-Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The Battelle-PNL classification is a numerical one which includes rankings from Wind Power Class 1 (lowest) to Wind Power Class 7 (highest). Associated with each numerical classification is a range of wind power and associated mean wind speed at 10 m and 50 m above ground level. For this study, a classification for 30 m above ground level was interpolated and used. A significant amount of wind data was gathered for the Province. These data were obtained from Atmospheric Environment Service (AES), Canada, from wind project developers, and from climatological summaries of surface and upper air data. A total of 35 primary data sites were selected in the Province. Although a number of wind data sites in the Province were identified and used in the analysis, large areas of the Province lacked any specific wind information. The Province was divided into grid blocks having dimensions of 1/4 o latitude by 1/3 o longitude. Each grid block is assigned a numerical Wind Power Class value ranging from 1 to 7. This value is based on the integration of the available wind data and the topography within the square. The majority of the Province was classified as 1 or 2. Coastal locations and topographic features in the interior of the Province typically have Wind Power Class 3 or higher. (author)

  11. The Taili-Yiwulüshan metamorphic core complex corridor: Diachronous exhumation and relationships to the adjacent basins based on new 40Ar/39Ar and (U-Th-Sm)/He mineral ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chenyue; Neubauer, Franz; Liu, Yongjiang; Genser, Johann; Dunkl, István; Heberer, Bianca; Jin, Wei; Zeng, Zuoxun; Li, Weimin; Wen, Quanbo; Li, Jing

    2015-04-01

    The Xingcheng-Taili ductile shear zone (western Liaoning Province in China) formed during latest Jurassic to Early Cretaceous crustal extension of the eastern North China craton, and exhumed low to medium metamorphic grade Archean, Upper Triassic and Upper Jurassic granitic rocks. The Mesozoic Yiwulüshan metamorphic core complex (Yiwulüshan MCC) is dominated by a NNE-SSW elongated dome with a left-lateral shear zone, which is located in the northeastern part of Xingcheng-Taili ductile shear zone, and combine as Taili-Yiwulüshan metamorphic core complex corridor. To the east, it is bounded by the NNE-trending Cretaceous to Eocene Liaohe basin (the northern extension of the Bohai Bay basin), and to the west by the Cretaceous-aged Fuxin-Yixian basin, which could potentially interpreted as supra-detachment basins. Here, we present results from a multi-method thermochronological study and coupled with structural investigations and sections of adjacent supra-detachment basins, which constrain the timing of regional deformation as well as the cooling history and exhumation processes of the low- to middle-grade metamorphic complex in the Taili-Yiwulüshan MCC corridor, in order to understand the mode of lithospheric scale reactivation, extension and thinning of the North China craton. The new40Ar/39Ar muscovite, biotite, K-feldspar and (U-Th)/He apatite ages from granitic rocks help constrain the thermal evolution during its exhumation. The thermochronologic studies have shown at least three stages of exhumation and cooling from late Jurassic to Eocene in Xingcheng-Taili shear zone should be distinguished, e.g., ~ 150-130 Ma, 130-115 Ma and 115-52 Ma, respectively. Diachronous onset and subsequent parallel cooling and exhumation characterize the early thermal history. The Yiwulüshan MCC has a similar exhumation history from 135 to 97 Ma with a similar cooling history. The development of Taili-Yiwulüshan MCC corridor is associated with synkinematic emplacement

  12. Isolation and characterization of the metamorphic inducer of the common mud crab, Panopeus herbstii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, W R.; Targett, N M.; Epifanio, C E.

    2001-06-15

    Several items from the natural habitat of adult Panopeus herbstii were examined to determine if they had the ability to produce a metamorphic cue. These included adult conspecifics, natural rock/shell substratum, the co-occurring species Hemigrapsus sanguineus and bacterial biofilms. Adult conspecifics, H. sangineus and natural rock/shell all accelerated metamorphosis. However, adult conspecifics accelerated metamorphosis to the greatest extent. The cue associated with adult conspecifics was found to be water-soluble, stable following boiling and freezing, and of relatively small molecular size (<1 kDa). Furthermore, the cue appears to be produced from the conspecifics themselves, rather than from biofilms colonizing the surfaces of the crabs. The results of this experiment suggest that postlarvae of P. herbstii are able to distinguish suitable habitat through chemical signals, thus greatly increasing their chances for survival.

  13. Thermal effects of variable material properties and metamorphic reactions in a three-component subducting slab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chemia, Zurab; Dolejš, David; Steinle-Neumann, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    We explore the effects of variable material properties, phase transformations, and metamorphic devolatilization reactions on the thermal structure of a subducting slab using thermodynamic phase equilibrium calculations combined with a thermal evolution model. The subducting slab is divided...... into three layers consisting of oceanic sediments, altered oceanic crust, and partially serpentinized or anhydrous harzburgite. Solid-fluid equilibria and material properties are computed for each layer individually to illustrate distinct thermal consequences when chemical and mechanical homogenization...... indicate that subducting sediments and oceanic crust warm by 40 and 70°C, respectively, before the effect of wedge convection and heating is encountered at 1.7 GPa. Retention of fluid in the slab pore space plays a negligible role in oceanic crust and serpentinized peridotites. By contrast, the large...

  14. The effects of weathering on the physical and mechanical properties of igneous and metamorphic saprolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rocchi, Irene; Coop, M. R.; Maccarini, M.

    2017-01-01

    The present paper presents three extensive datasets of laboratory testing on weathered geomaterials, which are emblematic of soil types widely found worldwide. The overall dataset includes soils originating from igneous and metamorphic rocks, either coarse or fine grained and having either felsic...... or mafic minerals. In particular, the data are interpreted to highlight the effects that weathering has on the physical and mechanical properties of these natural geomaterials comparing them with published data with the aim to provide a general framework of interpretation that takes into account...... this geological process and links soil mechanics to engineering geology. Generally, weathering induces a reduction in the grain size, both due to physical actions (e.g. opening of grain contacts) and to the chemical decomposition of minerals resulting in the formation of clay minerals. As weathering proceeds...

  15. Protracted fluid-induced melting during Barrovian metamorphism in the Central Alps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubatto, Daniela; Hermann, Jörg; Berger, Alfons

    2009-01-01

    that repeated melting events occurred within a single Barrovian metamorphic cycle at roughly constant temperature; that in the country rocks zircon formation was limited to the initial stages of melting, whereas further melting concentrated in the segregated leucosomes; that melting occurred at different times......The timing and dynamics of fluid-induced melting in the typical Barrovian sequence of the Central Alps has been investigated using zircon chronology and trace element composition. Multiple zircon domains in leucosomes and country rocks yield U-Pb ages spanning from ~32 to 22 Ma. The zircon formed...... in samples a few meters apart because of the local rock composition and localized influx of the fluids; and that leucosomes were repeatedly melted when fluids became available. The geochronological data force a revision of the temperature-time path of the migmatite belt in the Central Alps. Protracted...

  16. [The spectrum studies of structure characteristics in magma contact metamorphic coal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dun; Sun, Ruo-Yu; Liu, Gui-Jian; Yuan, Zi-Jiao

    2013-10-01

    The structural parameters evolution of coal due to the influence of intrusions of hot magma was investigated and analyzed. X-ray diffraction and laser confocal microscope Raman spectroscopy were used to test and analyze 4 coal samples undergoing varying contact-metamorphism by igneous magmas in borehole No. 13-4 of Zhuji coal mine, Huainan coalfield. The result showed that coal XRD spectrum showed higher background intensity, with the 26 degrees and 42 degrees nearby apparent graphite diffraction peak. Two significant vibration peaks of coal Raman spectra were observed in the 1 000-2 000 cm(-1) frequency range: broad "D" peak at 1 328-1 369 cm(-1) and sharp "G" peak at 1 564-1 599 cm(-1). With the influence of magma intrusion, the relationship between coal structural parameters and coal ranks was excellent.

  17. INAA of CAIs from the Maralinga CK4 chondrite: Effects of parent body thermal metamorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, D. J.; Keller, L. P.; Martinez, R. R.

    1993-01-01

    Maralinga is an anomalous CK4 carbonaceous chondrite which contains numerous Ca-, Al-rich inclusions (CAI's) unlike the other members of the CK group. These CAI's are characterized by abundant green hercynitic spinel intergrown with plagioclase and high-Ca clinopyroxene, and a total lack of melilite. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) was used to further characterize the meteorite, with special focus on the CAI's. High sensitivity INAA was done on eight sample disks about 100-150 microns in diameter obtained from a normal 30 micron thin section with a diamond microcoring device. The CAI's are enriched by 60-70X bulk meteorite values in Zn, suggesting that the substantial exchange of Fe for Mg that made the spinel in the CAI's hercynitic also allowed efficient scavenging of Zn from the rest of the meteorite during parent body thermal metamorphism. Less mobile elements appear to have maintained their initial heterogeneity.

  18. Device characterization for design optimization of 4 junction inverted metamorphic concentrator solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geisz, John F.; France, Ryan M.; Steiner, Myles A.; Friedman, Daniel J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); García, Iván [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO 80401 USA and Instituto de Energía Solar, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Avda Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-09-26

    Quantitative electroluminescence (EL) and luminescent coupling (LC) analysis, along with more conventional characterization techniques, are combined to completely characterize the subcell JV curves within a fourjunction (4J) inverted metamorphic solar cell (IMM). The 4J performance under arbitrary spectral conditions can be predicted from these subcell JV curves. The internal radiative efficiency (IRE) of each junction has been determined as a function of current density from the external radiative efficiency using optical modeling, but this required the accurate determination of the individual junction current densities during the EL measurement as affected by LC. These measurement and analysis techniques can be applied to any multijunction solar cell. The 4J IMM solar cell used to illustrate these techniques showed excellent junction quality as exhibited by high IRE and a one-sun AM1.5D efficiency of 36.3%. This device operates up to 1000 suns without limitations due to any of the three tunnel junctions.

  19. New P-T and U-Pb constraints on Alpine Schist metamorphism in south Westland, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, J.M.; Auer, A.; Muhling, J.R.; Czertowicz, T.A.; Cooper, A.F.; Billia, M.A.; Kennedy, A.K.

    2015-01-01

    Metamorphic mineral compositions of a staurolite-bearing greyschist from the middle reaches of the Moeraki River valley in south Westland reveal peak equilibration at c. 558±50 degrees C and c. 6.1±1.2 kbar. Two c. 83 Ma U-Pb monazite age populations from the cores of monazite-apatite-allanite-epidote corona structures in mylonitised schists from near Fox Glacier confirm that Alpine Schist metamorphism occurred during the Late Cretaceous. The published spread in Late Cretaceous metamorphic ages indicates that metamorphism was diachronous or was a protracted event. Further dating is required to pin down the cryptic transition into the Jurassic-Early Cretaceous metamorphosed Otago Schist, but the Alpine Schist must extend at least 11 km east of the Alpine Fault in south Westland and overprint the suture between the Pounamu and Rakaia terranes. The P-T-t results imply that the Late Cretaceous crust represented by portions of the Alpine Schist was probably of similar thickness to that beneath the Southern Alps today, but with dehydration and partial melting occurring near the base. The crust under Westland and Otago may be dry and therefore strong. (author).

  20. Short-Wavelength Infrared (SWIR) spectroscopy of low-grade metamorphic volcanic rocks of the Pilbara Craton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abweny, Mohammad S.; van Ruitenbeek, Frank J A; de Smeth, Boudewijn; Woldai, Tsehaie; van der Meer, Freek D.; Cudahy, Thomas; Zegers, Tanja; Blom, Jan Kees; Thuss, Barbara

    This paper shows the results of Short-Wavelength Infrared (SWIR) spectroscopy investigations of volcanic rocks sampled from low-grade metamorphic greenstone belts of the Archean Pilbara Craton in Western Australia. From the reflectance spectra a range of spectrally active minerals were identified,

  1. UHP metamorphism recorded by kyanite-bearing eclogite in the Seve Nappe Complex of northern Jämtland, Swedish Caledonides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janák, M.; Van Roermund, H.; Majka, J.; Gee, D.

    The first evidence for ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphism in the Seve Nappe Complex of the Scandinavian Caledonides is recorded by kyanite-bearing eclogite, found in a basic dyke within a garnet peridotite body exposed close to the lake Friningen in northern Jämtland (central Sweden). UHP

  2. Charnockites and UHT metamorphism in the Bakhuis Granulite Belt, western Suriname : Evidence for two separate UHT events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, Martijn; de Roever, Emond W F; Nanne, Josefine A M; Mason, Paul R D; Davies, Gareth R.

    The Bakhuis Granulite Belt in western Suriname is an ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) metamorphic terrain in the centre of the Paleoproterozoic (Transamazonian) Guiana Shield. Next to the UHT granulites, the belt contains a 30 by 30km body of orthopyroxene-bearing granitoids: the Kabalebo charnockites.

  3. Evaluation of defect density by top-view large scale AFM on metamorphic structures grown by MOVPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gocalinska, Agnieszka, E-mail: agnieszka.gocalinska@tyndall.ie; Manganaro, Marina; Dimastrodonato, Valeria; Pelucchi, Emanuele

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Metamorphic buffer layers of In{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}As were grown by MOVPE and characterised by AFM and TEM. • It was found that AFM provides sufficient information to estimate threading defect density in metamorphic structures, even when significant roughness is present. • When planar-view TEM is lacking, a combination of cross-sectional TEM and large scale AFM can provide good evaluation of the material quality. • It is fast, cheap and non-destructive – can be very useful in development process of complicated structures, requiring multiple test growths and characterisation. - Abstract: We demonstrate an atomic force microscopy based method for estimation of defect density by identification of threading dislocations on a non-flat surface resulting from metamorphic growth. The discussed technique can be applied as an everyday evaluation tool for the quality of epitaxial structures and allow for cost reduction, as it lessens the amount of the transmission electron microscopy analysis required at the early stages of projects. Metamorphic structures with low surface defectivities (below 10{sup 6}) were developed successfully with the application of the technique, proving its usefulness in process optimisation.

  4. Late Cretaceous extension and exhumation of the Stong and Taku magmatic and metamorphic complexes, NE Peninsular Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    François, T.; Md Ali, M.A.; Matenco, L.; Willingshofer, E.; Ng, T.F.; Taib, N.I.; Shuib, M.K.

    2017-01-01

    Fragmentation of large continental areas by post-orogenic extension requires favourable geodynamic conditions and frequently occurs along pre-existing suture zones or nappe contacts, as exemplified by the Stong and Taku magmatic and metamorphic complexes of northern Peninsular Malaysia. For this

  5. Pinite-cordierite from spotted slate of the Brajkovac contact metamorphic aureole (Dudovica locality, central Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasković Nada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Paleozoic very low to low-grade metamorphic rocks of the Bukulja-Lazarevac Unit designated as Drina, Golija and Birač formations are contact metamorphosed by the intrusion of the Tertiary Brajkovac granodiorite into spotted slates and hornfelses. In some parts, they are slightly migmatized at the contact. In addition to their outcrops found at the western, eastern and northern parts of the formation, these rocks are also found in boreholes near Dudovica at about 8 km south-west from the pluton. There, at a depth of 110 m, the spotted slates comprise oval to ellipsoid pinite-rich spots which can be regarded as incipient cordierite porphyroblasts (up to 5 mm in diameter overgrowing the existing regional foliation. They are composed of cryptocrystalline mixture of a very fine sericitic material ± light glassy orange „film“ (some kind of an amorphous gel-like material often mixed with limonite matter and are abundant in inclusions: minute quartz and dusty ore minerals (magnetite prevail. In addition, within some spots an increased number of xenotime and monazite inclusions are noted. Minute flakes of neobiotite are formed at the expense of quartz-sericite-chlorite matrix. The secondary chlorite occurring as overgrowths on pinite-cordierite spots shows variable composition (brunsvigite to diabandite. The Mg/Fe+Mg ratio of cryptocrystalline pinitic mixture ranges from 0.14-0.67. The Si vs AlIV+AlVI relations deviate from the ideal muscovite-phengite join due to Tschermak substitution towards chloritic composition or a more complex mixture, including clay minerals (which reflected a decrease of Altot and Si with increase of Fe2+. Obtained data indicates that the cordierite-pinite spots can be related to contact metamorphic processes that occurred within the temperature range 300-450°C. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176019 i br. 176016

  6. High resolution TEM of chondritic carbonaceous matter: Metamorphic evolution and heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Guillou, Corentin; Rouzaud, Jean-Noël.; Bonal, Lydie; Quirico, Eric; Derenne, Sylvie; Remusat, Laurent

    2012-03-01

    The insoluble carbonaceous matter from 12 chondrites (CI, CM, CO, CV, EH, and UOC), was characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). Besides ubiquitous nanoglobules, the insoluble organic matter from petrologic type 1 and 2 chondrites and Semarkona (LL 3.0) is composed of a highly disordered polyaromatic component. No structural differences were observed between these IOMs, in agreement with the limited thermal metamorphism they all experienced. In chondrites of petrologic type >3.0, the evolution of the IOM is controlled by the extent of thermal metamorphism. The polyaromatic layers, shorter than 1 nm in petrologic type ≤3.0 chondrites, grow up to sizes between 5 and 10 nm in petrologic type >3.6 chondrites, contributing to the increase of the degree of structural order. In addition, we find rare, but ubiquitous onion-like carbons, which may be the product of nanodiamond graphitization. The insoluble carbonaceous matter of the enstatite chondrite Sahara 97096 (EH 3) is different from the other meteorites studied here. It is more heterogeneous and displays a high abundance of graphitized particles. This may be the result of a mixture between (1) the disordered carbon located in the matrix, and (2) catalytic graphitized phases associated with metal, potentially originating from partial melting events. The structural and nanostructural evolution are similar in all IOMs. This suggests that the structure of the accreted precursors and the parent body conditions of their secondary thermal modifications (temperature, duration, and pressure) were similar. The limited degree of organization of the most metamorphosed IOMs compared with terrestrial rocks submitted to similar temperature suggests that the conditions are not favorable to graphitization processes, due to the chemical nature of the precursor or the lack of confinement pressure.

  7. Rb-Sr measurements on metamorphic rocks from the Barro Alto Complex, Goias, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuck, R.A.; Neves, B.B.B.; Cordani, U.G.; Kawashita, K.

    1988-01-01

    The Barro Alto Complex comprises a highly deformed and metamorphosed association of plutonic, volcanic, and sedimentary rocks exposed in a 150 x 25 Km boomerang-like strip in Central Goias, Brazil. It is the southernmost tip of an extensive yet discontinuous belt of granulite and amphibolite facies metamorphic rocks which include the Niquelandia and Cana Brava complexes to the north. Two rock associations are distinguished within the granulite belt. The first one comprises a sequence of fine-grained mafic granulite, hypersthene-quartz-feldspar granulite, garnet quartzite, sillimanite-garnet-cordierite gneiss, calc-silicate rock, and magnetite-rich iron formation. The second association comprises medium-to coarse-grained mafic rocks. The medium-grade rocks of the western/northern portion (Barro Alto Complex) comprise both layered mafic rocks and a volcanic-sedimentary sequence, deformed and metamorphosed under amphibolite facies conditions. The fine-grained amphibolite form the basal part of the Juscelandia meta volcanic-sedimentary sequence. A geochronologic investigation by the Rb-Sr method has been carried out mainly on felsic rocks from the granulite belt and gneisses of the Juscelandia sequence. The analytical results for the Juscelandia sequence are presented. Isotope results for rocks from different outcrops along the gneiss layer near Juscelandia are also presented. In conclusion, Rb-Sr isotope measurements suggest that the Barro Alto rocks have undergone at least one important metamorphic event during Middle Proterozoic times, around 1300 Ma ago. During that event volcanic and sedimentary rocks of the Juscelandia sequence, as well as the underlying gabbro-anorthosite layered complex, underwent deformation and recrystallization under amphibolite facies conditions. (author)

  8. Mechanics of lung ventilation in a post-metamorphic salamander, Ambystoma Tigrinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, R S; Bennett, W O; Brainerd, E L

    2000-03-01

    The mechanics of lung ventilation in frogs and aquatic salamanders has been well characterized, whereas lung ventilation in terrestrial-phase (post-metamorphic) salamanders has received little attention. We used electromyography (EMG), X-ray videography, standard videography and buccal and body cavity pressure measurements to characterize the ventilation mechanics of adult (post-metamorphic) tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum). Three results emerged: (i) under terrestrial conditions or when floating at the surface of the water, adult A. tigrinum breathed through their nares using a two-stroke buccal pump; (ii) in addition to this narial two-stroke pump, adult tiger salamanders also gulped air in through their mouths using a modified two-stroke buccal pump when in an aquatic environment; and (iii) exhalation in adult tiger salamanders is active during aquatic gulping breaths, whereas exhalation appears to be passive during terrestrial breathing at rest. Active exhalation in aquatic breaths is indicated by an increase in body cavity pressure during exhalation and associated EMG activity in the lateral hypaxial musculature, particularly the M. transversus abdominis. In terrestrial breathing, no EMG activity in the lateral hypaxial muscles is generally present, and body cavity pressure decreases during exhalation. In aquatic breaths, tidal volume is larger than in terrestrial breaths, and breathing frequency is much lower (approximately 1 breath 10 min(-)(1 )versus 4-6 breaths min(-)(1)). The use of hypaxial muscles to power active exhalation in the aquatic environment may result from the need for more complete exhalation and larger tidal volumes when breathing infrequently. This hypothesis is supported by previous findings that terrestrial frogs ventilate their lungs with small tidal volumes and exhale passively, whereas aquatic frogs and salamanders use large tidal volumes and and exhale actively.

  9. Relationships among developmental stage, metamorphic timing, and concentrations of elements in bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snodgrass, J.W.; Hopkins, W.A.; Roe, J.H. [Towson University, Towson, MD (United States). Dept. for Biological Science

    2003-07-01

    We collected bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) larvae from a coal combustion waste settling basin to investigate the effects of developmental stage and timing of metamorphosis on concentrations of a series of trace elements in bullfrog tissues. Bullfrogs at four stages of development (from no hind limbs to recently metamorphosed juveniles) and bullfrogs that metamorphosed in the fall or overwintered in the contaminated basin and metamorphosed in the spring were analyzed for whole-body concentrations of Al, V, Cr, Ni, Cu, As, Pb, Cd, Zn, Ag, Sr, and Se. After the effects of dry mass were removed, tissue concentrations of six elements (Al, V, Cr, Ni, Cu, As, and Pb) decreased from the late larval stage through metamorphosis. Decreases in concentrations through metamorphosis ranged from 40% for Cu to 97% for Al. Tissue concentrations of these elements were also similar or higher in spring; Al and Cr concentrations were 34 and 90% higher in the spring, respectively, whereas As, Ni, Cu, and Pb concentrations were {lt} 10% higher. Concentrations of Cd, Se, and Ag varied among seasons but not among stages; Cd and Ag concentrations were 40 and 62% lower, respectively, and Se concentrations were 21% higher in spring. Concentrations of Zn varied only among stages; concentrations decreased gradually through late larval stage and then increased through metamorphosis. Concentrations of Sr varied among stages, but this variation was dependent on the season. Concentrations of Sr were higher in larval stages during the spring, but because concentrations of Sr increased 122% through metamorphosis in the fall and only 22% in the spring, concentrations were higher in fall metamorphs when compared with spring metamorphs. Our results indicate that metamorphosis and season of metamorphosis affects trace element concentrations in bullfrogs and may have important implications for the health of juveniles and the transfer of pollutants from the aquatic to the terrestrial environment.

  10. First report of garnet corundum rocks from southern India: Implications for prograde high-pressure (eclogite-facies?) metamorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimpo, Makoto; Tsunogae, Toshiaki; Santosh, M.

    2006-02-01

    We report here for the first time the occurrence of garnet and corundum in Mg-Al-rich rocks at Sevitturangampatti (Namakkal district) in the Palghat-Cauvery Shear Zone System (PCSS), southern India. The rocks contain several rare mineral assemblages such as garnet-corundum-sillimanite-cordierite-sapphirine-spinel-Mg-rich staurolite, garnet-corundum-sodic gedrite-cordierite-sillimanite/kyanite, garnet-Mg-rich staurolite-sillimanite/kyanite, sodic gedrite-Mg-rich staurolite-corundum-sapphirine, biotite-corundum-sapphirine and sodic gedrite-sapphirine-spinel-cordierite. Both garnet and corundum in these rocks occur as coarse-grained (1 mm to 10 cm) porphyroblasts in the matrix of sillimanite, cordierite and gedrite. Kyanite is common as inclusions in garnet, but matrix aluminosilicates are mainly sillimanite. The presence of rare garnet + corundum, which has so far been reported from kimberlite xenoliths, aluminous eclogites and ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks as well as in high-pressure experiments, suggests that the assemblage is an indicator of an unusually high-pressure event, which has not been recorded in previous studies from southern India. Phase analysis of quartz-absent MAS system also suggests high-pressure stability of the assemblage. The inference of high pressure metamorphism is also supported by the presence of Mg-rich [Mg/(Fe + Mg) = 0.51] staurolite, which has been reported from high-pressure rocks, included from cores of coarse-grained garnet and gedrite. Porphyroblastic occurrence of garnet + corundum as well as staurolite and kyanite inclusions suggests that the area underwent prograde high-pressure metamorphism, probably in the eclogite field. The rocks subsequently underwent continuous heating at 940 to 990 °C, suggesting ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) metamorphism along a clockwise trajectory. Sapphirine + cordierite and spinel + cordierite symplectites between garnet and sillimanite suggest near isothermal decompression after the peak event

  11. Neoarchean metamorphism recorded in high-precision Sm-Nd isotope systematics of garnets from the Jack Hills (Western Australia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eccles, K. A.; Baxter, E. F.; Mojzsis, S. J.; Marschall, H.; Williams, M. L.; Jercinovic, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    Studies of metasedimentary rocks from the Jack Hills, which host Earth's oldest known detrital minerals, have focused on zircon and occasionally monazite or xenotime, but no attention has been directed toward one of the most common mineral markers of metamorphism: garnet. Garnet can provide a record of the post-depositional, prograde metamorphic history of Archean metasedimentary rocks. Additionally, the use of a newly developed detrital garnet dating technique [1,2] may reveal information about pre-depositional metamorphism that could address lingering questions about the nature and timing of Earth's earliest tectonometamorphic events. Here we investigate garnet from the Jack Hills metasedimentary rocks to test whether they record in situ metamorphism or are a detrital relict of even older metamorphic events. We identified garnet in two bulk quartz-pebble conglomerate samples collected from the 'discovery' outcrop at Eranondoo Hill in the Jack Hills of Western Australia. Electron microprobe analyses of polished grains and SEM measurements of unpolished grain surfaces are consistent, revealing garnet composition indicative of a single generation/population of predominantly almandine-spessartine solid solution (~10-35% mole fraction spessartine). Compositional maps of garnet grains reveal little zoning and no discontinuities, most consistent with a single growth event. Dating Jack Hills' garnet via the Sm-Nd system is possible due to continued development of small sample analysis techniques, including running NdO+ TIMS analyses with Ta2O5 activator [3] permitting Ma for two point isochrons between clean garnet (Sm/Nd ≥ 1.0) and their leached inclusion populations [2]. Four grouped garnet grain separates from one sample yield preliminary dates of 2703.6×6.0Ma, 2612.4×6.0Ma, 2605.0×5.5Ma, and 2567.3×8.3Ma, while the second sample yielded a date of 2579.6×4.6 Ma (2σ). Compositional and geochronologic data indicate likely in situ garnet growth during a late

  12. Customary Homicides in Diyarbakir Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Eyyup; Canturk, Nergis; Erkol, Zerrin; Kumral, Bahadir; Okumus, Ali M

    2015-09-01

    This study presents an analysis of the causes of so-called honor killings in the context of "customary homicide" and a discussion of preventive measures. Finalized case files of customary homicide between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2012 were retrospectively examined in Diyarbakir Province, Turkey. Of a total of 28 case victims, 17 (60.7%) were females and 11 (39.3%) were males. All perpetrators were male. There was a significant difference between male and female victims in terms of economic independence (p=0.000). A direct blood relationship or relationship by marriage (such as brother-in-law) was found to have a significant association with the gender of the victim (phomicide, which represents a multifaceted problem. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  13. On protolith-, metamorphic overprint, microstructure and rheology of mineral assemblages in orogenic peridotites of the central Scandinavian Caledonides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilio, Mattia; Clos, Frediano; Van Roermund, Herman L. M.

    2013-04-01

    The Scandinavian Caledonides (SC) are a deeply eroded Alpine-type orogenic belt formed by closure of the Iapetus ocean and collision between Baltica and Laurentia (500-380 Ma). The SC consists of a stack of Nappe Complexes (from bottom to top called Lower, Middle, Upper and Uppermost Allochthons) thrusted to the east over the Baltic Shield (Brueckner and Van Roermund, 2004; Gee et al., 2008). Fossil lithospheric mantle fragments, called orogenic peridotites, have been found within the (upper part of) middle, upper and uppermost Allochthons, as well as in the reworked basement gneisses (a.o Western Gneiss Complex (WGC)) along the Norwegian west coast. They occur as isolated lenses that contain diverse mineral parageneses and/or bulk rock compositions. Crustal incorporation of orogenic peridotite is classically interpreted to be the result of plate collisional processes related to orogeny (Brueckner and Medaris, 2000). The WGC and parts of the upper part of the Middle Allochthon (a.o. Seve Nappe Complex (SNC) in N Jämtland/S Västerbotten, central Sweden), are well known for the occurrence of high (HP) and ultrahigh pressure (UHP) metamorphic terranes (of Caledonian age). The (U)HPM evidence clearly demonstrates the deep metamorphic origin of these rocks interpreted to be caused by continental subduction and/or collision. Other metamorphic rocks (of Caledonian age) exposed in allochthonous nappes are solely characterised by greenschist-, amphibolite- and/or MP granulite "facies" mineral assemblages that can be interpreted, in the absence of retrogression, to have formed in less deeply subducted (and/or metamorphic) environments. This duality in metamorphic "facies" allows for a discrimination (at least theoretically) between "deep" versus "shallow" rooted nappes (in central parts of the Scandinavian Caledonides). Conform this reasoning, this duality should also be present within the Caledonian mineral assemblages (= metamorphic overprint) of orogenic peridotites (in

  14. Potential uranium provinces in some arabian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salman, A A [Nuclear materials authority, El Maadi, Cairo, (Egypt)

    1995-10-01

    This work represents an attempt to delineate potential uranium provinces in some Arabian countries using various related recognition criteria. Definition of these provinces is based on the available geologic and tectonic setting beside geochronological sequence and some geochemical characteristics. This trial would be of a great help for interchanging the ideas and necessary data for the development in the fields of uranium exploration and production. As a result of this study, a number of promising potential uranium provinces are recommended in some arabian countries. 5 figs.

  15. Isostatic model for the Tharsis province, Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sleep, N.H.; Phillips, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    A crust-upper mantle configuration is proposed for the Tharsis province of Mars which is isostatic and satisfies the observed gravity data. The model is that of a low density upper mantle compensating loads at both the surface and crust-mantle boundary. Solutions are found for lithospheric thickness greater than about 300 km, for which the stress differences are less than 750 bars. This model for Tharsis is similar to the compensation mechanism under the Basin and Range province of the western United States. These provinces also compare favorably in the sense that they are both elevated regions of extensional tectonics and extensive volcanism

  16. Potential uranium provinces in some arabian countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salman, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    This work represents an attempt to delineate potential uranium provinces in some Arabian countries using various related recognition criteria. Definition of these provinces is based on the available geologic and tectonic setting beside geochronological sequence and some geochemical characteristics. This trial would be of a great help for interchanging the ideas and necessary data for the development in the fields of uranium exploration and production. As a result of this study, a number of promising potential uranium provinces are recommended in some arabian countries. 5 figs

  17. Erosion of the Alps: use of Rb-Sr isotopic data from molassic sediments to identify the ages of the metamorphism recorded by the eroded rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, P.; Deloule, E.

    1994-01-01

    Rb-Sr isotopic data from Oligocene and Miocene peri-alpine molassic sediments allow us to identify the different periods for which the eroded rocks have or have not recorded an alpine metamorphism. The Chattian and the Burdigalian sediments result from the erosion of rocks for which the latest metamorphic event was variscan, while the Stampian, Aquitanian and ''Helvetian'' sediments show evidence for the erosion of rocks which have recorded alpine metamorphic events. The application of this method to old detrital sediments could permit determination of the ages of the tectonic events which occurred in the sediment source regions. (authors). 18 refs., 6 figs

  18. Determination of fluorine by proton induced gamma ray emission (PIGE) spectrometry in igneous and metamorphic charnockitic rocks from Rogaland (S.W. Norway)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roelandts, I.; Robaye, G.; Weber, G.; Delbrouck, J.M.; Duchesne, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    More than 200 specimens from different occurrences of the Rogaland igneous complex and surrounding granulite facies metamorphic rocks (S.W. Norway) have been analysed by a direct non-destructive proton induced gamma ray emission (PIGE) technique. The fluorine contents vary from < 25 ppm to 3500 ppm. There is a good correlation between the concentration of fluorine and that of phosphorus for igneous rocks, suggesting a control of apatite on the F content. In metamorphic rocks, amphibole and biotite besides apatite are the principal concentrations of fluorine indicating that fluorine in the system is controlled by granulite facies metamorphism conditions. (author)

  19. X-ray color maps of the zoned garnets from Silgará Formation metamorphic rocks,SantanderMassif, Eastern Cordillera (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takasu Akira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The metamorphic rocks of the Lower Paleozoic Silgará Formation of the Santander Massif, Eastern Cordillera (Colombia, were affected by a Barrovian-type metamorphism under low to high temperature and medium pressure conditions. These rocks contain garnet porphyroblasts, which show several kinds of chemical zoning patterns. The garnet grains behave as closed systems with respect to the rock matrix. Most of the observed zoning patterns are due to gradual changes in physicochemical conditions during growth. However, some garnet grains show complex zoning patterns during multiple deformation and metamorphic events.

  20. Investigation of In0.7Ga0.3As/In0.7Al0.3As metamorphic HEMT- heterostructures by photoluminescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LETT', Prof. Popova 5, St. Petersburg 197376 (Russian Federation))" data-affiliation=" (Saint-Petersburg Electrotechnical University LETT', Prof. Popova 5, St. Petersburg 197376 (Russian Federation))" >Romanovskiy, D S; LETT', Prof. Popova 5, St. Petersburg 197376 (Russian Federation))" data-affiliation=" (Saint-Petersburg Electrotechnical University LETT', Prof. Popova 5, St. Petersburg 197376 (Russian Federation))" >Tarasov, S A; Galiev, G B; Pushkarev, S S

    2014-01-01

    Low-temperature photoluminescence and photoreflectance have been studied in several metamorphic HEMT- (MHEMT-) heterostructures with the same active regions and different buffer layer designs grown by solid-source molecular beam epitaxy. The indium mole fraction in InAlAs/InGaAs/InAlAs single quantum well (QW) is 0.7. It was found that structures with step-graded metamorphic buffer have better quality. Also it was shown that mismatched superlattices in metamorphic buffer can influence on the half-width of photoluminescence spectra. The possible attribution of photoluminescence and photoreflectance spectral lines and their thermal behaviour are critically discussed

  1. Subduction metamorphism in the Himalayan ultrahigh-pressure Tso Morari massif: An integrated geodynamic and petrological modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palin, Richard M.; Reuber, Georg S.; White, Richard W.; Kaus, Boris J. P.; Weller, Owen M.

    2017-06-01

    The Tso Morari massif is one of only two regions where ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphism of subducted crust has been documented in the Himalayan Range. The tectonic evolution of the massif is enigmatic, as reported pressure estimates for peak metamorphism vary from ∼2.4 GPa to ∼4.8 GPa. This uncertainty is problematic for constructing large-scale numerical models of the early stages of India-Asia collision. To address this, we provide new constraints on the tectonothermal evolution of the massif via a combined geodynamic and petrological forward-modelling approach. A prograde-to-peak pressure-temperature-time (P-T-t) path has been derived from thermomechanical simulations tailored for Eocene subduction in the northwestern Himalaya. Phase equilibrium modelling performed along this P-T path has described the petrological evolution of felsic and mafic components of the massif crust, and shows that differences in their fluid contents would have controlled the degree of metamorphic phase transformation in each during subduction. Our model predicts that peak P-T conditions of ∼2.6-2.8 GPa and ∼600-620 ∘C, representative of 90-100 km depth (assuming lithostatic pressure), could have been reached just ∼3 Myr after the onset of subduction of continental crust. This P-T path and subduction duration correlate well with constraints reported for similar UHP eclogite in the Kaghan Valley, Pakistan Himalaya, suggesting that the northwest Himalaya contains dismembered remnants of what may have been a ∼400-km-long UHP terrane comparable in size to the Western Gneiss Region, Norway, and the Dabie-Sulu belt, China. A maximum overpressure of ∼0.5 GPa was calculated in our simulations for a homogeneous crust, although small-scale mechanical heterogeneities may produce overpressures that are larger in magnitude. Nonetheless, the extremely high pressures for peak metamorphism reported by some workers (up to 4.8 GPa) are unreliable owing to conventional thermobarometry

  2. Thermodynamic modeling using BINGO-ANTIDOTE: A new strategy to investigate metamorphic rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanari, Pierre; Duesterhoeft, Erik

    2016-04-01

    BINGO-ANTIDOTE is a new program, combing the achievements of the two petrological software packages XMAPTOOLS[1] and THERIAK-DOMINO[2]. XMAPTOOLS affords information about compositional zoning in mineral and local bulk composition of domains at the thin sections scale. THERIAK-DOMINO calculates equilibrium phase assemblages from given bulk rock composition, temperature T and pressure P. Primarily BINGO-ANTIDOTE can be described as an inverse THERIAK-DOMINO, because it uses the information provided by XMAPTOOLS to calculate the probable P-T equilibrium conditions of metamorphic rocks. Consequently, the introduced program combines the strengths of forward Gibbs free energy minimization models with the intuitive output of inverse thermobarometry models. In order to get "best" P-T equilibrium conditions of a metamorphic rock sample and thus estimating the degree of agreement between the observed and calculated mineral assemblage, it is critical to define a reliable scoring strategy. BINGO uses the THERIAKD ADD-ON[3] (Duesterhoeft and de Capitani, 2013) and is a flexible model scorer with 3+1 evaluation criteria. These criteria are the statistical agreement between the observed and calculated mineral-assemblage, -proportions (vol%) and -composition (mol). Additionally, a total likelihood, consisting of the first three criteria, allows the user an evaluation of the most probable equilibrium P-T condition. ANTIDOTE is an interactive user interface, displaying the 3+1 evaluation criteria as probability P-T-maps. It can be used with and without XMAPTOOLS. As a stand-alone program, the user is able to give the program macroscopic observations (i.e., mineral names and proportions), which ANTIDOTE converts to a readable BINGO input. In this manner, the use of BINGO-ANTIDOTE opens up thermodynamics to students and people with only a basic knowledge of phase diagrams and thermodynamic modeling techniques. This presentation introduces BINGO-ANTIDOTE and includes typical examples

  3. Crystallography of hornblende amphibole in LAP04840 R chondrite and implication for its metamorphic history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ota, Kouhei; Mikouchi, Takashi; Sugiyama, Kazumasa

    2009-01-01

    LAP04840 is an unusual R chondrite that includes abundant hornblende amphibole. LAP04840 shows a texture of equilibrated chondrite composed of 59.3% olivine, 13.5% orthopyroxene, 13.3% hornblende, 6.2% plagio-clase, 6.0% Fe-Ni sulfide, and 1.7% accessory minerals. Hornblende replaces olivine and pyroxene in both chondrules and matrices, suggesting its secondary origin. All major phases in LAP04840 are homogeneous: olivine (Fa 37 ), orthopyroxene (En 70 Wo 1 ), and plagioclase (An 8 Or 2 ). Hornblende is also nearly homogeneous, but the total sum by electron microprobe analysis is 96-98 wt%, suggesting the presence of Fe 3+ and a hydroxyl group. Synchrotron Fe-XANES analysis gives a Fe 3+ /ΣFe ratio of ∼0.6 and micro-FT-IR analysis confirms the presence of a hydroxyl group. Thus, the structural formula is (Na 0.40 K 0 . 04 ) (Ca 1.46 Mn 0.02 Fe 0.06 2+ Na 0.46 ) (Al 0.08 Fe 0.43 2+ Fe 0.75 3+ Cr 0.08 Mg 3.60 ) (Si 7.02 Al 0.98 )O 22 (OH) 2 . Single crystal X-ray diffraction of LAP04840 hornblende gives the following lattice constants: a=9.7957(9) A, b=18.0788(12) A, c=5.2949(5) A, β=104.747(3)deg. The relatively short distances of [M(1)-O=2.069 A], [M(2)-O=2.081 A], and [M(3)-O=2.058 A] suggest the feasible preference of small Fe 3+ at these sites. The mineralogy and petrology of LAP04840 are consistent with its classification as an R6 chondrite. However, the presence of hornblende and biotite is quite unique among not only R chondrites but also asteroidal meteorites in general. The presence of these hydrous minerals suggests metamorphism under high pressure and an aqueous environment probably at depth in the parent body. A thermometer using hornblende and plagioclase equilibria gives T=670-690degC. Further, a barometer using Al content in hornblende gives P=∼0.1 GPa. Although these estimates bear some uncertainties, it is likely that the size of the R chondrite parent body was large enough to induce such metamorphism. (author)

  4. Study on Banana Cooperatives in Hainan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Huide; Zhang, Wanzhen; Liu, Enping; Zhang, Xizhu

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the distribution, member scale, production and operation of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province, and points out the market risk and natural risk faced by the production of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province. In order to promote the banana cooperatives to form new agricultural management system integrating organization and intensification, this paper puts forth the production and operation recommendations, such as joint production of banana cooperatives, ...

  5. The next chapter in experimental petrology: Metamorphic dehydration of polycrystalline gypsum captured in 3D microtomographic time series datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, John; Fusseis, Florian; Leclere, Henry; Wheeler, John; Faulkner, Dan

    2016-04-01

    Nucleation and growth of new minerals in response to disequilibrium is the most fundamental metamorphic process. However, our current kinetic models of metamorphic reactions are largely based on inference from fossil mineral assemblages, rather than from direct observation. The experimental investigation of metamorphism has also been limited, typically to concealed vessels that restrict the possibility of direct microstructural monitoring. Here we present one of the first time series datasets that captures a metamorphic reaction, dehydration of polycrystalline gypsum to form hemihydrate, in a series of three dimensional x-ray microtomographic datasets. We achieved this by installing an x-ray transparent hydrothermal cell (Fusseis et al., 2014, J. Synchrotron Rad. 21, 251-253) in the microtomography beamline 2BM at the Advanced Photon Source (USA). In the cell, we heated a millimetre-sized sample of Volterra Alabaster to 388 K while applying an effective pressure of 5 MPa. Using hard x-rays that penetrate the pressure vessel, we imaged the specimen 40 times while it reacted for approximately 10 hours. Each microtomographic dataset was acquired in 300 seconds without interrupting the reaction. Our absorption microtomographic data have a voxel size of 1.3 μm, which suffices to analyse the reaction progress in 4D. Gypsum can clearly be distinguished from hemihydrate and pores, which form due to the large negative solid volume change. On the resolved scale, the first hemihydrate needles appear after about 2 hours. Our data allow tracking of individual needles throughout the entire experiment. We quantified their growth rates by measuring their circumference. While individual grains grow at different rates, they all start slowly during the initial nucleation stage, then accelerate and grow steadily between about 200 and 400 minutes before reaction rate decelerates again. Hemihydrate needles are surrounded by porous haloes, which grow with the needles, link up and

  6. Metamorphic distributed Bragg reflectors for the 1440–1600 nm spectral range: Epitaxy, formation, and regrowth of mesa structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, A. Yu.; Karachinsky, L. Ya.; Novikov, I. I.; Babichev, A. V.; Berezovskaya, T. N.; Nevedomskiy, V. N.

    2015-01-01

    It is shown that metamorphic In 0.3 Ga 0.7 As/In 0.3 Al 0.7 As distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) with a reflection band at 1440–1600 nm and a reflectance of no less than 0.999 can be fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on a GaAs substrate. It is demonstrated that mesa structures formed from metamorphic DBRs on a GaAs substrate can be regrown by MBE and microcavities can be locally formed in two separate epitaxial processes. The results obtained can find wide application in the fabrication of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with a buried tunnel junction

  7. An ethnobotanical survey on hormozgan province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Safa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study is based on an ethnobotanical research project conducted in Hormozgan province that is located in south of Iran, bordering waters of the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea. This survey was carried out in order to recover the ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal knowledge of the residents of this province. They are using medicinal and functional plants for treating or preventing several diseases. Materials and Methods: Ethnobotanical data sheets were run with the native inhabitants and people of the province by arranging frequent field trips to different parts of the province and direct interviews with them especially those who were more familiar with the plants and their usage.Results: A total of 150 plant species belonging to 53 families were recorded for their ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal uses among the people of province. The records were developed by scientific names, family names, local names, medicinal parts used, different ways of their application, and traditional uses of the plants. There was high compliance in the use of plants in painful disorders, gastrointestinal, and dermatological diseases.Conclusion: This study revealed that the people of Hormozgan province have a rich knowledge of natural resources. The use and consumption of medicinal plants are still important parts of their life. Rational use of native medicinal plants may benefit and improve their living standards and quality of life. The results of this study can be used as a basis for selecting herbs for further pharmacological, phytochemical, and pharmacognostical studies.

  8. Mineralogy of asbestos from the metamorphic complex from north eastern Takab-NW Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajialioghli, R.; Moazzen, M.

    2016-01-01

    The ultramafic rocks from the Takht-e-Soleyman metamorphic complex, in Precambrian age, are classified as serpentinized meta peridotites and serpentinites, based on degree of serpentinization. Serpentine forms more than 90 volume% of the serpentinites. On the basis of serpentine polymorphs, textural relations and micro-structure features, variety of serpentinites are determined as massive serpentinites, serpentinite schists and chrysotile-bearing serpentinites. Chrysotile in serpentinites has been formed due to static condition and brittle deformations. During static state chrysotile and lizardite after olivine and pyroxene are formed as pseudomorphic mesh and bastite textures in the massive serpentinites. Then serpentinization processes reactivated by formation and development of joints and fractures related to brittle deformations at the local sheared zones. Chrysotile occur as fine grained crystals in the serpentinite matrix and veinlets with mm thickness filling fractures of the chrysotile-bearing serpentinites. Slight thickness of chrysotile veinlet in the investigated serpentinites can be attributed to the olivine rich composition of protolite. Low amounts of Cr 2 O 3 in composition of the analyzed chrysotile supports low clinopyroxene and high olivine in protolite of serpentinites. Serpentinite schists are formed under ductile deformation condition at the regional sheared zones. Amphibole asbestos occur as veins having meter scale thickness filling of joints and fractures at the regional sheared zone. Length of thin and long asbestos amphibole arrives up to cm. On the basis of petrography, Raman spectroscopy, XRD and microprope analysis, both chrysotile- and amphibole asbestos have been recognized in the Takht-e-Soleyman serpentintes.

  9. Regional trend of coal metamorphism in the major Gondwana basins of India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, A K; Alam, M M; Bunerjee, B

    1983-04-01

    The coal-bearing Gondwana sedimentaries are of great economic importance as they possess over 98% of coal resources of India. Within the Gondwana supergroup coal-bearing formations are confined in the Lower Gondwana sequence (Damuda group). The development of coal seams in the different basins were genetically related to the evolutionary pattern of each basin. The imprint of such diverse tectono-geomorphic conditions prevailing over the vast Peninsular Shield, and their regional impact in individual basins are well preserved in the different lithofacies of this thick-pile of sedimentary sequence. In fact constituting coal facies served as a sensitive recorder of the past episode enacted for long geological time span in each basin of the Gondwana grabens. In the present paper an attempt is made to incorporate the salient features of the operative processes in the major Gondwana basins with special reference to coal metamorphism. This has been done considering mass of analytical and sub-surface data available from the physico-chemical survey of coal seams of major coalfields, and extensive drilling operations carried out over the vast virgin tracts of important coalfields.

  10. Ecology and silvicultural management for the rehabilitation in rain forests of low altitude on complex metamorphic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Cantos Cevallos

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to characterize ecology and silvicultural management for the rehabilitation of the low altitude rain forest on a metamorphic complex, Quibiján-Naranjal del Toa sector, a floristic inventory was carried out, 36 sample plots of 20 x 25 m in the forest in both sides of Toa's riverside. Tree species with d1,3 e» 5 cm were measured, a total of 1507 individuals represented in 52 species belonging to 49 genera and 24 families were identified and evaluated. Both forests were statistically compared in terms of richness, composition, structure, diversity and abundance, with a high alpha and beta diversity. The species with the highest value index of ecological importance were determined. The families Fabaceae, Moraceae, Lauraceae and Meliaceae are the most representative in terms of species and genera. The most important species are Hibiscus elatus, Calophyllum utile, Carapa guianensis, Buhenavia capitata, y Guarea guara, among others, which stand out as the most abundant. Economic occupation was adequate in a few plots and incomplete in most of the sampling units. Taking into account the results obtained, we propose silvicultural actions aimed at sustainable forest management through the application of improvement shorts and the method of enrichment in dense spaced-groups for the rehabilitation and the achievement of the expected multiethane forest.

  11. Metamorphism of cosmic dust: Processing from circumstellar outflows to the cometary regolith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuth, J.A. III.

    1989-01-01

    Metamorphism of refractory particles continues in the interstellar medium (ISM) where the driving forces are sputtering by cosmic ray particles, annealing by high energy photons, and grain destruction in supernova generated shocks. Studies of the depletion of the elements from the gas phase of the interstellar medium tell us that if grain destruction occurs with high efficiency in the ISM, then there must be some mechanism by which grains can be formed in the ISM. Most grains in a cloud which collapses to form a star will be destroyed; many of the surviving grains will be severely processed. Grains in the outermost regions of the nebula may survive relatively unchanged by thermal processing or hydration. It is these grains which one hopes to find in comets. However, only those grains encased in ice at low temperature can be considered pristine since a considerable degree of hydrous alteration might occur in a cometary regolith if the comet enters the inner solar system. The physical, chemical and isotopic properties of a refractory grain at each stage of its life cycle will be discussed

  12. A self-reconfiguring metamorphic nanoinjector for injection into mouse zygotes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aten, Quentin T.; Jensen, Brian D.; Howell, Larry L.; Burnett, Sandra H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a surface-micromachined microelectromechanical system nanoinjector designed to inject DNA into mouse zygotes which are ≈90 μm in diameter. The proposed injection method requires that an electrically charged, DNA coated lance be inserted into the mouse zygote. The nanoinjector's principal design requirements are (1) it must penetrate the lance into the mouse zygote without tearing the cell membranes and (2) maintain electrical connectivity between the lance and a stationary bond pad. These requirements are satisfied through a two-phase, self-reconfiguring metamorphic mechanism. In the first motion subphase a change-point six-bar mechanism elevates the lance to ≈45 μm above the substrate. In the second motion subphase, a compliant folded-beam suspension allows the lance to translate in-plane at a constant height as it penetrates the cell membranes. The viability of embryos following nanoinjection is presented as a metric for quantifying how well the nanoinjector mechanism fulfills its design requirements of penetrating the zygote without causing membrane damage. Viability studies of nearly 3000 nanoinjections resulted in 71.9% of nanoinjected zygotes progressing to the two-cell stage compared to 79.6% of untreated embryos

  13. Continuous Static Gait with Twisting Trunk of a Metamorphic Quadruped Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural quadrupeds, such as geckos and lizards, often twist their trunks when moving. Conventional quadruped robots cannot perform the same motion due to equipping with a trunk which is a rigid body or at most consists of two blocks connected by passive joints. This paper proposes a metamorphic quadruped robot with a reconfigurable trunk which can implement active trunk motions, called MetaRobot I. The robot can imitate the natural quadrupeds to execute motion of trunk twisting. Benefiting from the twisting trunk, the stride length of this quadruped is increased comparing to that of conventional quadruped robots.In this paper a continuous static gait benefited from the twisting trunk performing the increased stride length is introduced. After that, the increased stride length relative to the trunk twisting will be analysed mathematically. Other points impacting the implementation of the increased stride length in the gait are investigated such as the upper limit of the stride length and the kinematic margin. The increased stride length in the gait will lead the increase of locomotion speed comparing with conventional quadruped robots, giving the extent that natural quadrupeds twisting their trunks when moving. The simulation and an experiment on the prototype are then carried out to illustrate the benefits on the stride length and locomotion speed brought by the twisting trunk to the quadruped robot.

  14. Vitamin A Affects Flatfish Development in a Thyroid Hormone Signaling and Metamorphic Stage Dependent Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Fernández

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A (VA and retinoid derivatives are known morphogens controlling vertebrate development. Despite the research effort conducted during the last decade, the precise mechanism of how VA induces post-natal bone changes, and particularly those operating through crosstalk with the thyroid hormones (THs remain to be fully understood. Since effects and mechanisms seem to be dose and time-dependent, flatfish are an interesting study model as they undergo a characteristic process of metamorphosis driven by THs that can be followed by external appearance. Here, we studied the effects of VA imbalance that might determine Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis skeletogenetic phenotype through development of thyroid follicles, THs homeostasis and signaling when a dietary VA excess was specifically provided during pre-, pro- or post-metamorphic stages using enriched rotifers and Artemia as carriers. The increased VA content in enriched live prey was associated to a higher VA content in fish at all developmental stages. Dietary VA content clearly affected thyroid follicle development, T3 and T4 immunoreactive staining, skeletogenesis and mineralization in a dose and time-dependent fashion. Gene expression analysis showed that VA levels modified the mRNA abundance of VA- and TH-specific nuclear receptors at specific developmental stages. Present results provide new and key knowledge to better understand how VA and TH pathways interact at tissue, cellular and nuclear level at different developmental periods in Senegalese sole, unveiling how dietary modulation might determine juvenile phenotype and physiology.

  15. The first find of spinel peridotite in the Southern Kazakhstan: Structure, composition, and parameters of high-pressure metamorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilitsyna, A. V.; Tretyakov, A. A.; Alifirova, T. A.; Degtyarev, K. E.; Kovalchuk, E. V.

    2017-09-01

    Spinel peridotite, metamorphosed in high-pressure conditions, was first described within the Western part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. The spinel peridotite has the characteristics of Mg-Cr ultramafites indicating the mantle origin of its protolith. The preliminary estimation of the metamorphism peak for the model system MgO-Al2O3—SiO2-Cr2O3 (MASCr) is 10-19 kbar at 680-800°C.

  16. Metamorphic chlorite and "vermiculitic" phases in mafic dikes from the Maláguide Complex (Betic Cordillera, Spain)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ruiz Cruz, M. D.; Novák, Jiří Karel

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 1 (2003), s. 1-14 ISSN 0935-1221 Grant - others:Ministerio de Educación y Cultura(ES) BTE-2000-1150; Research Group(ES) RNM-199 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3013912 Keywords : low-grade metamorphism * vermiculite * Betic Cordillera Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.185, year: 2003

  17. Thermal modeling of pluton emplacement and associated contact metamorphism:Parashi stock emplacement in the Serranía de Jarara (Alta Guajira, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuluaga C. Carlos A.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

    In the northernmost portion of the Serrania de Jarara (Alta Guajira, Colombia, low - medium grade metamorphic rocks from the Etpana Metamorphic Suite were thermally affected by emplacement of a small calc-alkaline intrusion (Parashi Stock. Detailed petrographic analysis in collected rock samples across the NE and NW plutonic contacts show occurrences of textural and mineralogical changes in the country rock fabric that evidence contact metamorphism overprinting regional metamorphism of the Etpana Suite. These changes include growth of andalusite (chiastolite, calcic clinopyroxeneand amphibole porphyroblast crosscutting Sn+1 metamorphicfoliation. Hornblende-plagioclase barometry (ca. 3.1 kbar and cooling models for the stock show maximum time temperature evolution in the country rock at the interpreted depth of intrusion (ca. 11 km and help to evaluate the behavior of the country rock with the changing local geotherm.

  18. Optimization of structural and growth parameters of metamorphic InGaAs photovoltaic converters grown by MOCVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rybalchenko, D. V.; Mintairov, S. A.; Salii, R. A.; Shvarts, M. Z.; Timoshina, N. Kh.; Kalyuzhnyy, N. A., E-mail: nickk@mail.ioffe.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    Metamorphic Ga{sub 0.76}In{sub 0.24}As heterostructures for photovoltaic converters are grown by the MOCVD (metal–organic chemical vapor deposition) technique. It is found that, due to the valence-band offset at the p-In{sub 0.24}Al{sub 0.76}As/p-In{sub 0.24}Ga{sub 0.76}As (wide-gap window/emitter) heterointerface, a potential barrier for holes arises as a result of a low carrier concentration in the wide-gap material. The use of an InAlGaAs solid solution with an Al content lower than 40% makes it possible to raise the hole concentration in the widegap window up ~9 × 10{sup 18} cm{sup –3} and completely remove the potential barrier, thereby reducing the series resistance of the device. The parameters of an GaInAs metamorphic buffer layer with a stepwise In content profile are calculated and its epitaxial growth conditions are optimized, which improves carrier collection from the n-GaInAs base region and provides a quantum efficiency of 83% at a wavelength of 1064 nm. Optimization of the metamorphic heterostructure of the photovoltaic converter results in that its conversion efficiency for laser light with a wavelength of 1064 nm is 38.5%.

  19. Expression profile of a Laccase2 encoding gene during the metamorphic molt in Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera,Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moysés Elias-Neto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Expression profile of a Laccase2 encoding gene during the metamorphic molt in Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera, Apidae. Metamorphosis in holometabolous insects occurs through two subsequent molting cycles: pupation (metamorphic molt and adult differentiation (imaginal molt. The imaginal molt in Apis mellifera L. was recently investigated in both histological and physiological-molecular approaches. Although the metamorphic molt in this model bee is extremely important to development, it is not well-known yet. In the current study we used this stage as an ontogenetic scenario to investigate the transcriptional profile of the gene Amlac2, which encodes a laccase with an essential role in cuticle differentiation. Amlac2 expression in epidermis was contrasted with the hemolymph titer of ecdysteroid hormones and with the most evident morphological events occurring during cuticle renewal. RT-PCR semiquantitative analyses using integument samples revealed increased levels of Amlac2 transcripts right after apolysis and during the subsequent pharate period, and declining levels near pupal ecdysis. Compared with the expression of a cuticle protein gene, AmelCPR14, these results highlighted the importance of the ecdysteroid-induced apolysis as an ontogenetic marker of gene reactivation in epidermis for cuticle renewal. The obtained results strengthen the comprehension of metamorphosis in Apis mellifera. In addition, we reviewed the literature about the development of A. mellifera, and emphasize the importance of revising the terminology used to describe honey bee molting cycles.

  20. Unified Singularity Modeling and Reconfiguration of 3rTPS Metamorphic Parallel Mechanisms with Parallel Constraint Screws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufeng Zhuang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a unified singularity modeling and reconfiguration analysis of variable topologies of a class of metamorphic parallel mechanisms with parallel constraint screws. The new parallel mechanisms consist of three reconfigurable rTPS limbs that have two working phases stemming from the reconfigurable Hooke (rT joint. While one phase has full mobility, the other supplies a constraint force to the platform. Based on these, the platform constraint screw systems show that the new metamorphic parallel mechanisms have four topologies by altering the limb phases with mobility change among 1R2T (one rotation with two translations, 2R2T, and 3R2T and mobility 6. Geometric conditions of the mechanism design are investigated with some special topologies illustrated considering the limb arrangement. Following this and the actuation scheme analysis, a unified Jacobian matrix is formed using screw theory to include the change between geometric constraints and actuation constraints in the topology reconfiguration. Various singular configurations are identified by analyzing screw dependency in the Jacobian matrix. The work in this paper provides basis for singularity-free workspace analysis and optimal design of the class of metamorphic parallel mechanisms with parallel constraint screws which shows simple geometric constraints with potential simple kinematics and dynamics properties.

  1. Carboniferous high-pressure metamorphism of Ordovician protoliths in the Argentera Massif (Italy), Southern European Variscan belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubatto, Daniela; Ferrando, Simona; Compagnoni, Roberto; Lombardo, Bruno

    2010-04-01

    The age of high-pressure metamorphism is crucial to identify a suitable tectonic model for the vast Variscan orogeny. Banded H P granulites from the Gesso-Stura Terrain in the Argentera Massif, Italy, have been recently described (Ferrando et al., 2008) relicts of high-pressure metamorphism in the western part of the Variscan orogen. Bulk rock chemistry of representative lithologies reveals intermediate silica contents and calc-alkaline affinity of the various cumulate layers. Enrichment in incompatible elements denotes a significant crustal component in line with intrusion during Ordovician rifting. Magmatic zircon cores from a Pl-rich layer yield scattered ages indicating a minimum protolith age of 486 ± 7 Ma. Carboniferous zircons (340.7 ± 4.2 and 336.3 ± 4.1 Ma) are found in a Pl-rich and a Pl-poor layer, respectively. Their zoning, chemical composition (low Th/U, flat HREE pattern and Ti-in-zircon temperature) and deformation indicate that they formed during the high-pressure event before decompression and mylonitisation. The proposed age for high-pressure metamorphism in the Argentera Massif proves that subduction preceded anatexis by less than 20 Ma. The new data allow a first-order comparison with the Bohemian Massif, which is located at the eastern termination of the Variscan orogen. Similarities in evolution at either end of the orogen support a Himalayan-type tectonic model for the entire European Variscides.

  2. Photoelectric properties of the metamorphic InAs/InGaAs quantum dot structure at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golovynskyi, S. L., E-mail: golovynskyi@isp.kiev.ua [Institute of Semiconductor Physics, National Academy of Sciences, pr. Nauki 45, 03028 Kyiv (Ukraine); Seravalli, L.; Trevisi, G.; Frigeri, P.; Gombia, E. [Institute of Materials for Electronics and Magnetism, CNR-IMEM, Parco delle Scienze 37a, I-43100 Parma (Italy); Dacenko, O. I.; Kondratenko, S. V. [Department of Physics, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, 64 Volodymyrska St., 01601 Kyiv (Ukraine)

    2015-06-07

    We present the study of optical and photoelectric properties of InAs quantum dots (QDs) grown on a metamorphic In{sub 0.15}Ga{sub 0.85}As buffer layer: such nanostructures show efficient light emission in the telecom window at 1.3 μm (0.95 eV) at room temperature. We prepared a sample with vertical geometry of contacts isolated from the GaAs substrate. The structure is found to be photosensitive in the spectral range above 0.9 eV at room temperature, showing distinctive features in the photovoltage and photocurrent spectra attributed to QDs, InAs wetting layer, and In{sub 0.15}Ga{sub 0.85}As metamorphic buffer, while a drop in the photoelectric signal above 1.36 eV is related to the GaAs layer. No effect of defect centers on the photoelectrical properties is found, although they are observed in the absorption spectrum. We conclude that metamorphic QDs have a low amount of interface-related defects close to the optically active region and charge carriers can be effectively collected into InAs QDs.

  3. Sr and Nd isotope composition of the metamorphic, sedimentary and ultramafic xenoliths of Lanzarote (Canary Islands): Implications for magma sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Alfredo; Tassinari, Colombo C. G.; García, Roberto; Araña, Vicente

    2010-01-01

    The lavas produced by the Timanfaya eruption of 1730-1736 (Lanzarote, Canary Islands) contain a great many sedimentary and metamorphic (metasedimentary), and mafic and ultramafic plutonic xenoliths. Among the metamorphosed carbonate rocks (calc-silicate rocks [CSRs]) are monomineral rocks with forsterite or wollastonite, as well as rocks containing olivine ± orthopyroxene ± clinopyroxene ± plagioclase; their mineralogical compositions are identical to those of the mafic (gabbros) and ultramafic (dunite, wherlite and lherzolite) xenoliths. The 87Sr/ 86Sr (around 0.703) and 143Nd/ 144Nd (around 0.512) isotope ratios of the ultramafic and metasedimentary xenoliths are similar, while the 147Sm/ 144Nd ratios show crustal values (0.13-0.16) in the ultramafic xenoliths and mantle values (0.18-0.25) in some CSRs. The apparent isotopic anomaly of the metamorphic xenoliths can be explained in terms of the heat source (basaltic intrusion) inducing strong isotopic exchange ( 87Sr/ 86Sr and 143Nd/ 144Nd) between metasedimentary and basaltic rocks. Petrofabric analysis also showed a possible relationship between the ultramafic and metamorphic xenoliths.

  4. The Marbat metamorphic core-complex (Southern Arabian Peninsula) : reassessment of the evolution of a Neoproterozoic island-arc from petrological, geochemical and U-Pb zircon data

    OpenAIRE

    Barbey, P.; Denele, Y.; Paquette, J. L.; Berger, J.; Ganne, Jérôme; Roques, D.

    2018-01-01

    The Marbat basement (Sultanate of Oman) belongs to the Neoproterozoic accretion domain of the Arabian-Nubian shield. We present new geochronological, petrological and geochemical data as an extension of our previous study (Denele et al., 2017) re-interpreting this basement as a metamorphic core complex (MCC). We showed that this MCC consists of a metamorphic unit (Juffa complex) separated by an extensional detachment from a plutonic unit (Sadh complex and Tonalite plutons). Geochemical data s...

  5. Spatiotemporal evolution of magmatic pulses and regional metamorphism during a Cretaceous flare-up event: Constraints from the Ryoke belt (Mikawa area, central Japan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatsuka, Kota; Kawakami, Tetsuo; Skrzypek, Etienne; Sakata, Shuhei; Obayashi, Hideyuki; Hirata, Takafumi

    2018-05-01

    The spatiotemporal relationship between granitoid intrusions and low-pressure/temperature type regional metamorphism in the Ryoke belt (Mikawa area) is investigated to understand the tectono-thermal evolution of the upper- to middle-crust during a Cretaceous flare-up event at the Eurasian active continental margin. Three plutono-metamorphic stages are recognized; (1) 99-84 Ma: intrusion of granitoids (99-95 Ma pulse) into the upper crust and high-T regional metamorphism reaching sillimanite-grade (97.0 ± 4.4 Ma to 88.5 ± 2.5 Ma) in the middle crust, (2) 81-75 Ma: intrusion of gneissose granitoids (81-75 Ma Ma pulse) into the middle crust at 19-24 km depth, and (3) 75-69 Ma: voluminous intrusions of massive to weakly-foliated granitoids (75-69 Ma pulse) at 9-13 km depth and formation of contact metamorphic aureoles. Cooling of the highest-grade metamorphic zone below the wet solidus of granitic rocks is estimated at 88.5 ± 2.5 Ma. At ca. 75 Ma, the upper-middle crustal section underwent northward tilting, resulting in the exhumation of regional metamorphic zones to 9-13 km depth. Although the highest-grade metamorphic rocks and the 99-95 Ma pulse granitoids preserve similar U-Pb zircon ages, the absence of spatial association suggests that the regional metamorphic zones were mainly produced by a transient thermal anomaly in the mantle and thermal conduction through the crust, supplemented by localized advection due to granitoid intrusions. The successive emplacement of granitoids into shallow, deep and shallow levels of the crust was probably controlled by the combination of change in thermal structure of the crust and tectonics during granitoid intrusions.

  6. Sc, Y, La-Lu. Rare earth elements. Vol. A 6a. Y, La, and the lanthanoids. Geochemistry: Sedimentary cycle. Metamorphic cycle. 8. rev. ed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ditz, R; Sarbas, B; Schubert, P; Toepper, W

    1988-01-01

    The present volume 'Rare Earth Elements' A 6a describes origin, mode of occurrence, and behavior of Y and RE elements in the sedimentary and metamorphic cycles, and completes the series of volumes describing cosmo- and geochemistry of these elements. In the chapter 'Sedimentary Cycle', the behavior of Y and RE during the weathering process is first outlined under both marine and terrestrial conditions, including a short compilation for migration and precipitation in surficial weathering and oxidation zones. The main part of the chapter treats, in addition to the mode of occurrence, predominantly the distribution of Y and RE in the different types of sedimentary rocks in relation to genetic processes (comprising physical and/or spatial factors such as geological age of the deposition). A concluding part gives a description of mobilization, migration, and precipitation of Y and RE during the diagenetic transformation of sediments, especially in relation to the various types of ferromanganese concretions. In the chapter 'Metamorphic Cycle', the first, extensive part gives examples of mode of occurrence and behavior of Y and RE during both the contact-metamorphic and prograde and retrograde regional-metamorphic processes affecting sedimentary and igeneous source rocks. The second part briefly describes behaviour of Y and RE during ultrametamorphism of metamorphic rocks, and during metamorphic processes in connection with special types of geologic events (as, e.g., subduction of crustal material into the earth's mantle and impact of extraterrestrial material). (orig.) With 4 figs.

  7. Argon and fission track dating of Alpine metamorphism and basement exhumation in the Sopron Mts. (Eastern Alps, Hungary): thermochronology or mineral growth?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balogh, K.; Dunkl, I.

    2005-01-01

    The crystalline basement rocks of the Sopron Mountains are the easternmost and most isolated outcrops of the Austroalpine basement of the Eastern Alps. Ar/Ar and K/Ar dating of phengitic mica indicates that the Eoalpine high-pressure metamorphism of the area occurred between 76 and 71 Ma. Short-lived metamorphism is characterized by fluid-poor conditions. Fluid circulation was mostly restricted to shear zones, thus the degree of Alpine overprint has an extreme spatial variation. In several metamorphic slices Variscan mineral assemblages have been preserved and biotite yielded Variscan and Permo-Triassic Ar ages. Different mineral and isotope thermometers (literature data) yielded temperatures of 500-600 o C for the peak of Alpine metamorphism in the Sopron Mountains, but muscovite and biotite do not show complete argon resetting. Thus, we consider this crystalline area as a well constrained natural test site, which either indicates considerably high closure temperatures (around 550 o C) for Ar in muscovite and biotite in a dry metamorphic environment, or which is suitable for testing the widely applied methods of temperature estimations under disequilibrium conditions. Apatite fission track results and their thermal modeling, together with structural, mineralogical and sedimentological observations, allows the identification of a post-metamorphic, Eocene hydrothermal event and Late Miocene-Pliocene sediment burial of the crystalline rocks of the Sopron Mountains. (author)

  8. K-Ar and Ar-Ar dating of the Palaeozoic metamorphic complex from the Mid-Bosnian Schist Mts., Central Dinarides, Bosnia and Hercegovina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pamic, J.; Balogh, K.; Hrvatovic, H.; Balen, D.; Palinkas, L.; Jurkovic, I.

    2004-01-01

    K-Ar and Ar-Ar whole rock and mineral ages are presented for 25 samples of metamorphic rocks from the Mid-Bosnian Schist Mts., representing one of the largest allochthonous Palaeozoic terranes incorporated within the Internal Dinarides. Four main age groups can be distinguished: 1) Variscan (∼ 343 Ma), 2) post-Variscan (288-238 Ma), 3) Early Cretaceous (mainly 121-92 Ma), and 4) Eocene (59--35 Ma) ages. Apart from this, an Oligocene (31 Ma) age was obtained on Alpine vein hyalophane. The radiometric dating indicates a polyphase metamorphic evolution of the Palaeozoic formations and suggests a pre-Carboniferous age of the volcano-sedimentary protoliths, an Early Carboniferous age of Variscan metamorphism and deformation, post-Variscan volcanism, an Early Cretaceous metamorphic overprint related to out-of-sequence thrusting of the Palaeozoic complex, and an Eocene and Oligocene metamorphic overprint related to the main Alpine compressional deformation and subsequent strike-slip faulting, and uplift of the metamorphic core. Accordingly, the Mid-Bosnian Schist Mts. can be correlated in its multistage geodynamic evolution with some Palaeozoic tectonostratigraphic units from the Austroalpine domain in the Eastern Alps. (author)

  9. New evidence for an old idea: Geochronological constraints for a paired metamorphic belt in the central European Variscides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, T. M.; Schmädicke, E.; Ling, X.-X.; Li, X.-H.; Li, Q.-L.

    2018-03-01

    New geochronological data reveal a prolonged tectonothermal evolution of the Variscan Odenwald-Spessart basement, being part of the Mid-German Crystalline Zone in central Europe. We report the results from (i) secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) U-Pb dating of zircon, rutile and monazite, (ii) SIMS zircon oxygen isotope analyses, (iii) laser ablation-multicollector-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-MC-ICPMS) zircon Lu-Hf isotope analyses and, (iv) LA-ICPMS zircon and rutile trace element data for a suite of metamorphic rocks (five amphibolite- and eclogite-facies mafic meta-igneous rocks and one granulite-facies paragneiss). The protoliths of the mafic rocks formed from juvenile as well as depleted mantle sources in distinct tectonic environments at different times. Magmatism took place at a divergent oceanic margin (possibly in a back-arc setting) at 460 Ma, in an intraoceanic basin at ca. 445 Ma and at a continental margin at 329 Ma. Regardless of lithology, zircon in eclogite, amphibolite and high-temperature paragneiss provide almost identical Carboniferous ages of 333.7 ± 4.1 Ma (eclogite), 329.1 ± 1.8 to 328.4 ± 8.9 Ma (amphibolite), and 334.0 ± 2.0 Ma (paragneiss), respectively. Rutile yielded ages of 328.6 ± 4.7 and 321.4 ± 7.0 Ma in eclogite and amphibolite, and monazite in high-temperature paragneiss grew at 330.1 ± 2.4 Ma (all ages are quoted at the 2σ level). The data constrain coeval high-pressure eclogite- and high-temperature granulite-facies metamorphism of the Odenwald-Spessart basement at ca. 330 Ma. Amphibolite-facies conditions were attained shortly afterwards. The lower plate eclogite formed in a fossil subduction zone and the upper plate high-temperature, low-pressure rocks are the remains of an eroded Carboniferous magmatic arc. The close proximity of tectonically juxtaposed units of such radically different metamorphic conditions and thermal gradients is characteristic for a paired metamorphic belt sensu Miyashiro

  10. Granitoid magmatism of Alarmaut granite-metamorphic dome, West Chukotka, NE Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchitskaya, M. V.; Sokolov, S. D.; Bondarenko, G. E.; Katkov, S. M.

    2009-04-01

    Main tectonic elements of West Chukotka are Alazey-Oloy, South-Anyui and Anyui-Chukotka fold systems, formed as a result of collision between structures of North-Asian continent active margin and Chukotka microcontinent [1-3]. South-Anyui fold system, separating Alazey-Oloy and Anyui-Chukotka systems, is considered as suture zon, formed as a result of oceanic basin closing [4-6]. Continent-microcontinent collision resulted in formation of large orogen with of northern and southern vergent structures, complicated by strike-slip deformations [7, 8]. Within Anyui-Chukotka fold system several rises, where most ancient deposits (crystalline basement and Paleozoic cover of Chukotka microcontinent) are exposed, were distinguished [2, 9-11]. Later they were considered as granite-metamorphic domes [12-14]. Alarmaut dome is located at West Chukotka to the north from Bilibino city and is traced from south to north in more than 120 km. General direction of structure is discordant to prevailing NW extensions of tectonic elements of the region. Paleozoic-Triassic deposits are exposed within the Alarmaut dome: 1) D3-C1 - crystalline schists, quartz-feldspar metasandstones, quartzites, marbles (700 m) [11]; 2) C1 - marblized limestones, quartz-feldspar metasandstones, quartzites, amphibole-pyroxene crystalline schists. Limestones contain corals, indicating Visean age of deposits [11]. Metamorphism reaches amphibolite facies, maximum P-T conditions are 660°С and 5 kbar. Migmatites, indicating in situ partial melting, are observed. Intensity of deformations of Paleozoic rocks increases at the boundary with Triassic deposits [11]; in the western part of dome slices of Pz rocks are separated by blastomylonite horizons [14]. Within Alramaut dome granitoids of Lupveem batholith (central part of dome), Bystrinsky pluton (southeastern part), and small Koyvel' and Kelil'vun plutons were studied. New U-Pb SHRIMP zircon data indicate Early Cretaceous (117-112 m.a.) age of granitoids [15

  11. Inheritance, Variscan tectonometamorphic evolution and Permian to Mesozoic rejuvenations in the metamorphic basement complexes of the Romanian Carpathians revealed by monazite microprobe geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Săbău, Gavril; Negulescu, Elena

    2014-05-01

    Monazite U-Th-Pb chemical dating reaches an acceptable compromise between precision and accuracy on one side, and spatial resolution and textural constraints on the other side. Thus it has a powerful potential in testing the coherence of individual metamorphic basement units, and enabling correlations among them. Yet, sensitivity and specificity issues in monazite response to thermotectonic events, especially in the case of superposed effects, remain still unclear. Monazite dating at informative to detailed scale in the main metamorphic basement units of the Carpathians resulted in complex age spectra. In the main, the spectra are dominated by the most pervasive thermal and structural overprint, as checked against independent geochronological data. Post-peak age resetting is mostly present, but statistically subordinate. Resetting in case of superposed events is correlated with the degree of textural and paragenetic overprinting, inheritances being always indicated by more or less well-defined age clusters. The lack of relict ages correlating with prograde structural and porphyroblast zonation patterns is indicative for juvenile formations. Age data distribution in the Carpathians allowed distinction of pre-Variscan events, syn-metamorphic Variscan tectonic stacking of juvenile and reworked basement, post-Variscan differential tectonic uplift, as well as prograde metamorphic units ranging down to Upper Cretaceous ages. In the South Carpathians, the Alpine Danubian domain consists of several Variscan and Alpine thrust sheets containing a metamorphic complex dominated by Upper Proterozoic to Lower Cambrian metamorphic and magmatic ages (Lainici-Păiuş), and several complexes with metamorphic overprints ranging from Carboniferous to Lower Permian. Any correlation among these units, as well as geotectonic models placing a Lower Paleozoic oceanic domain between pre-existing Lainici-Păiuş and Drăgşan terranes are precluded by the age data. Other basement of the

  12. Fluid and mass transfer at subduction interfaces-The field metamorphic record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebout, Gray E.; Penniston-Dorland, Sarah C.

    2016-01-01

    The interface between subducting oceanic slabs and the hanging wall is a structurally and lithologically complex region. Chemically disparate lithologies (sedimentary, mafic and ultramafic rocks) and mechanical mixtures thereof show heterogeneous deformation. These lithologies are tectonically juxtaposed at mm to km scales, particularly in more intensely sheared regions (mélange zones, which act as fluid channelways). This juxtaposition, commonly in the presence of a mobile fluid phase, offers up huge potential for mass transfer and related metasomatic alteration. Fluids in this setting appear capable of transporting mass over scales of kms, along flow paths with widely varying geometries and P-T trajectories. Current models of arc magmatism require km-scale migration of fluids from the interface into mantle wedge magma source regions and implicit in these models is the transport of any fluids generated in the subducting slab along and ultimately through the subduction interface. Field and geochemical studies of high- and ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks elucidate the sources and compositions of fluids in subduction interfaces and the interplay between deformation and fluid and mass transfer in this region. Recent geophysical studies of the subduction interface - its thickness, mineralogy, density, and H2O content - indicate that its rheology greatly influences the ways in which the subducting plate is coupled with the hanging wall. Field investigation of the magnitude and styles of fluid-rock interaction in metamorphic rocks representing "seismogenic zone" depths (and greater) yields insight regarding the roles of fluids and elevated fluid pore pressure in the weakening of plate interface rocks and the deformation leading to seismic events. From a geochemical perspective, the plate interface contributes to shaping the "slab signature" observed in studies of the composition of arc volcanic rocks. Understanding the production of fluids with hybridized chemical

  13. Organic metamorphism in the California petroleum basins; Chapter B, Insights from extractable bitumen and saturated hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Leigh C.

    2000-01-01

    Seventy-five shales from the Los Angeles, Ventura, and Southern San Joaquin Valley Basins were extracted and analyzed. Samples were chosen on the basis of ROCK-EVAL analyses of a much larger sample base. The samples ranged in burial temperatures from 40 ? to 220 ? C, and contained hydrogen-poor to hydrogen-rich organic matter (OM), based on OM visual typing and a correlation of elemental kerogen hydrogen to carbon ratios with ROCK-EVAL hydrogen indices. By extractable bitumen measurements, rocks with hydrogen- poor OM in the Los Angeles Basin began mainstage hydrocarbon (HC) generation by 90 ? C. The HC concentrations maximized by 165 ? C, and beyond 165 ? C, HC and bitumen concentrations and ROCK-EVAL hydrogen indices all began decreasing to low values reached by 220 ? C, where HC generation was largely complete. Rocks with hydrogen-poor OM in the Southern San Joaquin Valley Basin commenced mainstage HC generation at 135 ? C and HC concentrations maximized by 180 ? C. Above 180 ? C, HC and bitumen concentrations and ROCK-EVAL hydrogen indices all decreased to low values reached by 214 ? C, again the process of HC generation being largely complete. In both cases, bell-shaped HC-generation curves were present versus depth (burial temperature). Mainstage HC generation had not yet begun in Ventura Basin rocks with hydrogen-poor OM by 140 ? C. The apparent lower temperature for initiation of mainstage generation in the Los Angeles Basin is attributed to very recent cooling in that basin from meteoric-water flow. Thus, HC generation there most probably occurred at higher burial temperatures. In contrast, mainstage HC generation, and all aspects of organic metamorphism, were strongly suppressed in rocks with hydrogen-rich OM at temperatures as high as 198 ? C. For example, shales from the Wilmington field (Los Angeles Basin) from 180 ? to 198 ? C retained ROCK-EVAL hydrogen indices of 550- 700 and had saturated-HC coefficients of only 4-15 mg/g organic carbon. The rocks

  14. Geochronological synthesis of magmatism, metamorphism and metallogeny of Costa Rica, Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarado, Guillermo E.; Gans, Phillipe B.

    2012-01-01

    A comprehensive compilation of 651 (since 1968) radiometric ages determinations (415 40 Ar/ 39 Ar, 211 K/Ar, 5 U/Th, 4 Rb/Sr, 2 U/Pb, and 13 fission track thermochronology ages using zircon) have provided a complete picture of the igneous stratigraphy of Costa Rica, and information about the age of the major metamorphic and metallogenic events in the region. Igneous rocks of Late Jurassic to Middle Eocene age (∼ 160 to ∼ 41 Ma), mainly accreted ophiolites. The actual subduction zone was established, represented by volcano-sedimentary rocks of basic to felsic composition, at the beginning of Campanian time (∼ 71 Ma). However, voluminous subalkaline, primary volcanic rocks have appeared only after ∼ 29 Ma. Intrusive to hypabyssal granitic to gabboic plutons, stocks, equivalent dykes and sills, are widely exposed in the Talamanca range (∼ 12,4 - 7,8 Ma), hills of Escazu (∼ 6,0 - 5,9 Ma), and Fila Costena (∼ 18,3 - 16,8 and ∼ 14,8 - 11,1 Ma), Tapanti-Montes del Aguacate-Carpintera (∼ 4,2 - 2,2 Ma) and Guacimal (∼ 6,4 - 5,2 Ma). Arc rocks between 29 and 11 Ma (called Photo-Volcanic Front) are known in the San Carlos plains and in southern Costa Rica. The location and age of the igneous rocks have indicated that there was a 20 degrees counterclockwise rotation of the arc (termed as Proto-Volcanic Front) between 15 and 8 Ma, with a pole of rotation that has centered on southern Costa Rica. This rotation is attributed to deformation in the overriding plate (shortening in the south coeval with extension in the NW), accompanied by trench retreat in the south. At ∼ 3,45 Ma, arc-related volcanism has shut off in southern part of the region, but local acid-adakite volcanism has persisted in the Talamanca range (4,2 - 0,95 Ma) due to the subduction of the Cocos Ridge. The Paleo-Volcanic Front is represented by arc-related rocks (8 - 3,5 Ma) along the length of Costa Rica, parallel to but in front of the modern arc. This activity was followed by the

  15. Thermochronology of the Sulu ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic terrane: Implications for continental collision and lithospheric thinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Ping; Li, Zheng-Xiang; Danišík, Martin; Li, Sanzhong; Evans, Noreen; Jourdan, Fred; Tao, Ni

    2017-08-01

    The thermal history of the Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt provides important constraints on the collision process between the South China and North China blocks during the Mesozoic, and possible lithospheric thinning event(s) in the eastern North China Block. This study reports on the thermal evolution of the Sulu ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic (UHP) terrane using zircon U-Pb geochronology and multiple thermochronology methods such as mica and hornblende 40Ar/39Ar, zircon and apatite fission track, and zircon and apatite (U-Th)/He dating. 40Ar/39Ar and zircon (U-Th)/He data show that the UHP terrane experienced accelerated cooling during 180-160 Ma. This cooling event could be interpreted to have resulted from extensional unroofing of an earlier southward thrusting nappe, or, more likely, an episode of northward thrusting of the UHP rocks as a hanging wall. A subsequent episode of exhumation took place between ca. 125 Ma and 90 Ma as recorded by zircon (U-Th)/He data. This event was more pronounced in the northwest section of the UHP terrane, whereas in the southeast section, the zircon (U-Th)/He system retained Jurassic cooling ages of ca. 180-160 Ma. The mid-Cretaceous episode of exhumation is interpreted to have resulted from crustal extension due to the removal of thickened, enriched mantle. A younger episode of exhumation was recorded by apatite fission track and apatite (U-Th)/He ages at ca. 65-40 Ma. Both latter events were linked to episodic thinning of lithosphere along the Sulu UHP terrane in an extensional environment, likely caused by the roll-back of the Western Pacific subduction system.

  16. Timing of isoclinal folds in multiply deformed high metamorphic grade region using FIA succession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hui; Cai, Zhihui

    2013-04-01

    Multiply deformed and isoclinally folded interlayered high metamorphic grade gneisses and schists can be very difficult rocks for resolving early formed stratigraphic and structural relationships. When such rocks contain porphyroblasts a new approach is possible because of the way in which porphyroblast growth is affected by crenulation versus reactivation of compositional layering. The asymmetries of the overprinting foliations preserved as inclusion trails that define the FIAs can be used to investigate whether an enigmatic isoclinal fold is an antiform or synform. This approach also reveals when the fold first formed during the tectonic history of the region. Isoclinally folded rocks in the Arkansas River region of Central Colorado contain relics of fold hinges that have been very difficult to ascertain whether they are antiforms or synforms because of younger refolding effects and the locally truncated nature of coarse compositional layering. With the realization that rocks with a schistosity parallel to bedding (S0 parallel S1) have undergone lengthy histories of deformation that predate the obvious first deformation came recognition that large scale regional folds can form early during this process and be preserved throughout orogenesis. This extensive history is lost within the matrix because of reactivational shear on the compositional layering. However, it can be extracted by measuring FIAs. Recent work using this approach has revealed that the trends of axial planes of all map scale folds, when plotted on a rose diagram, strikingly reflect the FIA trends. That is, although it was demonstrated that the largest scale regional folds commonly form early in the total history, other folds can form and be preserved from subsequent destruction in the strain shadows of plutons or through the partitioning of deformation due to heterogeneities at depth.

  17. Progress in the development of metamorphic multi-junction III-V space solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinharoy, S.; Patton, M.O.; Valko, T.M.; Weizer, V.G. [Essential Research Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2002-07-01

    Theoretical calculations have shown that highest-efficiency III-V multi-junction solar cells require alloy structures that cannot be grown on a lattice-matched substrate. Ever since the first demonstration of high efficiency metamorphic single-junction 1.1 and 1.2 eV InGaAs solar cells, interest has grown in the development of multi-junction cells of this type, using graded buffer layer technology. Essential Research Incorporated (ERI) is currently developing a dual-junction 1.6 eV InGaP/1.1 eV InGaAs tandem cell (projected practical air-mass zero (AMO), one-sun efficiency of 27%, and 100-sun efficiency of 31.1%) under a Ballistic Missile Defense Command (BMDO) SBIR Phase II program. A second ongoing research effort involves the development of a 2.1 eV A1GaInP/1.6 eV InGaAsP/1.2 eV InGaAs triple-junction concentrator tandem cell (projected practical AMO efficiency 36.5% under 100 suns) under a SBIR Phase II program funded by the Air Force. We are in the process of optimizing the dual-junction cell performance. For the triple-junction cell, we have developed the bottom and the middle cell, and are in the process of developing the layer structures needed for the top cell. A progress report is presented in this paper. (author)

  18. A Geothermochronologic Investigation of the Coyote Mountains Metamorphic Core Complex (AZ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borel, M.; Gottardi, R.; Casale, G.

    2017-12-01

    The Coyote Mountains metamorphic core complex (CM-MCC) makes up the northern end of the Baboquivari Mountain complex, which is composed of Mesozoic rocks, Tertiary granites, pegmatites, and metasediments. The CM-MCC expose the Pan Tak granite, a 58 Ma intrusive muscovite-biotite-garnet peraluminous granite. The Pan Tak and other intrusions within the Baboquivari Mountains have been interpreted as anatectic melts representing the culmination of a Laramide crustal shortening orogenic event started in the Late Cretaceous ( 70 Ma). Evidence of this magmatic episode includes polysynthetic twinning in plagioclase, myrmekitic texture in alkali feldspars, and garnet, mica and feldspar assemblages. The magmatic fabric is overprinted by a Tertiary tectonic fabric, associated with the exhumation of the CM-MCC along the Ajo road décollement and associated shear zone. In the shear zone, the Pan Tak mylonite display N-dipping foliation defined by gneissic layering and aligned muscovite, and N-trending mineral stretching lineation. Various shear sense indicators are all consistent with a top-to the-N shear sense. Preliminary argon geochronology results suggest that the shear zone was exhumed 29 Ma ago, an age similar to the onset of detachment faulting in other nearby MCCs (Catalina, Rincon, Pinaleño). In the Pan Tak mylonite, quartz grains display regime 2 to 3 microstructures and shows extensive recrystallization by subgrain rotation and grain boundary migration. The recrystallized grain size ranges between 20 and 50 µm in all samples. Quartz crystallographic preferred orientation measured using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) shows that recrystallization was accommodated by dominant prism and minor rhomb slip, suggesting deformation temperature ranging from 450°C to 550°C. These preliminary results constrain the timing of uplift and exhumation, and thermomechanical evolution of the CM-MCC, and improve our understanding of recycling of the continental crust in

  19. Geochemical Characteristics of Metamorphic Rock-Hosted Gold Deposit At Onzon-Kanbani Area, Central Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aung Tay Zar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Gold and associated base metal mineralization of Onzon-Kabani area located in the western border of generally N-S trending Mogoke Metamorphic Belt where well-known Sagaing fault is served as a western boundary of this area. In this research area, many artisanal and small-scale gold mines were noted in last three decades. Gold mineralization is hosted in marble and gneiss unit of research area but most common in marble unit. Variety of igneous intrusions are also observed in research area. Mineralizations are observed as fissure filling veins as well as lesser amount of disseminated nature in marble unit. Mineralogically, gold are associated with other base metal such as pyrite, galena, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, marcasite and arsenopyrite. Hydrothermal alteration halos are developed in peripheral of hydrothermal conduits or mineralization veins from proximal to distal such as 1 silicic, 2 sericite-illite, and 3 propylitic alteration.  Most of hydrothermal minerals from each altered zones showed that near neutral condition of pH (e.g. adularia, calcite, illite, sericite and chlorite. Alternatively, hydrothermal alteration zones that show with ore minerals such as native gold, electrum, sphalerite, galena, chalcopyrite, arsenopyrite and marcasite which mostly observed in silicic alteration zone. Typical boiling characters of vein textures and fluid inclusion petrography are observed in hydrothermal system of research area. Boiling, cooling and mixing are possiblily responsible for gold deposition in hydrothermal system. In this paper, authors are documented to clarify the type of mineralization based on hydrothermal alterations, ore and gangue mineral assemblages and fluid inclusion study. All of these data can describe and play an important role for both with respect to understanding deposit genesis and in mineral exploration.

  20. Textural and chemical evolution of pyroxene during hydration and deformation: A consequence of retrograde metamorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centrella, Stephen; Putnis, Andrew; Lanari, Pierre; Austrheim, Håkon

    2018-01-01

    Centimetre-sized grains of Al-rich clinopyroxene within the granulitic anorthosites of the Bergen Arcs, W-Norway undergo deformation by faults and micro-shear zones (kinks) along which fluid has been introduced. The clinopyroxene (11 wt% Al2O3) reacts to the deformation and hydration in two different ways: reaction to garnet (Alm41Prp32Grs21) plus a less aluminous pyroxene (3 wt% Al2O3) along kinks and the replacement of the Al-rich clinopyroxene by chlorite along cleavage planes. These reactions only take place in the hydrated part of a hand specimen that is separated from dry, unreacted granulite by a sharp interface that defines the limit of hydration. We use electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and X-Ray mapping together with electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) mapping to investigate the spatial and possible temporal relationships between these two parageneses. Gresens' analysis (Gresens, 1967) has been used to determine the mass balance and the local volume changes associated with the two reactions. The reaction to garnet + low-Al clinopyroxene induces a loss in volume of the solid phases whereas the chlorite formation gains volume. Strain variations result in local variation in undulose extinction in the parent clinopyroxene. EBSD results suggest that the density-increasing reaction to garnet + low-Al clinopyroxene takes place where the strain is highest whereas the density-decreasing reaction to chlorite forms away from shear zones where EBSD shows no significant strain. Modelling of phase equilibria suggest that the thermodynamic pressure of the assemblage within the shear zones is > 6 kbar higher than the pressure conditions for the whole rock for the same range of temperature ( 650 °C). This result suggests that the stress redistribution within a rock may play a role in determining the reactions that take place during retrograde metamorphism.

  1. Nitric oxide is not a negative regulator of metamorphic induction in the abalone Haliotis asinina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuo eUeda

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is a second messenger molecule synthesized by the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS that requires the molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (HSP90 for normal enzymatic activity. Past studies have revealed that both NO and HSP90 act as negative regulators (repressors of metamorphosis in a diverse range of marine invertebrates, including several molluscan species. Here, we test the role of NO in the metamorphic induction of a vetigastropod mollusc, the tropical abalone Haliotis asinina. Specifically, we 1 test the effects of NO-manipulating pharmacological agents, 2 measure the temporal expression of NOS and HSP90 genes through metamorphosis, and 3 assess the spatial expression of NOS and HSP90 in larvae. We find that inhibition of NOS reduces rates of metamorphosis, indicating that NO facilitates, rather than represses, induction of metamorphosis in H. asinina. The marked increase in NOS expression in putative sensory cells localized to the anterior foot of competent larvae is consistent with NO as an inductive molecule for metamorphosis. In contrast to NOS, HSP90 transcript abundance decreases at competence and there is no evidence of NOS and HSP90 transcript co-localization. This study provides the first evidence of NO as an inductive facilitator of molluscan metamorphosis. Our experimental data suggest that NO modulates signals derived from live inductive substrates via the larval foot to regulate metamorphosis. Inter-specific comparisons of spatial NOS expression in molluscs suggest that the localized pattern of NOS or its protein product is related to the regulatory action of NO in metamorphosis.

  2. Environmental isotope investigation of groundwaters in the region of Taiyuan, Shanxi Province of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Keqin; Lin Ruifen; Wang Zhixiang

    1988-01-01

    A comprehensive environmental isotope investigation of several complex groundwater systems and the mixing of groundwater with surface water in the region of Taiyuan, Shanxi Province of China, is presented. Environmental isotopes, including stable isotopes, tritium and uranium series in water and its activity ratio 234 U/ 238 U are applied to divide karstic groundwaters into separate Xishan and Dongshan systems. The Xishan karstic water system shows a great scattering of isotope data. This results from the mixing of karstic groundwater and surface water from the Fenhe River. The Dongshan system is homogeneous and karstic water is tritium free and its age should be more than 50-100 a. The increase in uranium activity ratio, which is correlated with the length of the flow paths, shows the run-off direction of the Dongshan karstic water system towards the major natural outlet, the Lancun Spring. The altitudes of recharge of Xishan and Dongshan karstic waters are evaluated as 1400 m and 1300 m, respectively. The ages of fissure groundwaters in metamorphic rocks are determined in terms of their tritium content. Some practical considerations upon groundwater management are also drawn from isotope results. (author). 9 refs, 10 figs, 9 tabs

  3. Review of potential host rocks for radioactive waste disposal in the Piedmont Province of Georgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenner, D.B.; Gillon, K.A.

    1980-10-01

    A literature study was conducted on the Piedmont province of Georgia to designate areas that may be favorable for field exploration for consideration of a repository for storage of radioactive waste. The criteria utilized in such a designation was based upon consideration of the rock unit having favorable geological, geotechnical, and geohydrological features. The most important are that the rock unit have: (1) satisfactory unit dimensions (> 100 km 2 outcrop area and at least 1500 meters (approx. 5000 feet) depth of a continuous rock type); and (2) acceptable geohydrological conditions. Among all rock types, it is concluded that the granites of the large post-metamorphic plutons and large, homogeneous orthogneissic units offer the most favorable geologic settings for exploration for siting a radioactive waste repository. Virtually all other rock types, including most metavolcanic and metasedimentary lithologies have unacceptable unit dimensions, generally unfavorable geohydrologic settings, and deleterious mechanical and physical geotechnical properties. After consideration of all major lithologies that comprise the Georgia Piedmont, the following units were deemed favorable: (1) the Elberton Pluton; (2) the Siloam Pluton; (3) the Sparta Pluton; (4) two unnamed plutons adjacent to the Snelson body of S.W. Georgia; (5) the Lithonia Gneiss; (6) basement orthogneisses and charnockites of the Pine Mountain Belt

  4. Landsat TM data processing for lithological discrimination in the Caraculo area (Namibe Province, SW Angola)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, A.; Alessandro, V.; Pieruccini, U.; Pranzini, E.

    1993-10-01

    Landsat TM data were used for lithological discrimination and mapping in the little-known, semiarid 900 km 2 area around Caraculo station and the middle course of the Rio Giraul (Namibe Province, SW Angola) following two main procedures. The first of these was based on visual evaluation of three-band composites, band-ratio composites and Principal Component Analysis. The second method relied on the extraction of spectral signatures, and their use to obtain automatic classifications. Satisfactory results were reached with the first procedure, thus allowing - with limited support of ground information — the draft of a lithological map, while the second method was not systematically efficient, even for confirmation of data acquired with the first procedure. Image interpretation suggests that an extensive but hithertoun differentiated metasedimentary complex consisting of a heterogeneous supracrustal sequence should be subdivided into at least two units. Field observations proved that one of these is marked by a notable frequency of marbles and the other is characterized by a widespread occurrence of amphibolitic bodies. Moreover, a belt of undetermined (thermally metamorphosed ?) metamorphic rocks is interposed between them. The distinction of so far unidentified units, though restricted to interpretation of processed Landsat TM data, has significant geological implications also in the regional context and will be helpful in guiding future work with conventional geological methods.

  5. Uraniferous albitites from the Lagoa Real Uranium Province, state of Bahia, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, W. de; Raposo, C.; Matos, E.C. de

    1984-01-01

    The Uranium Province of Lagoa Real is located in the region of Caetite, throughout the south-central portion of the state of Bahia. The basic chronostratigraphic units are the metamorphic rocks - granitic rocks and gneisses of the Archean basement - and cataclastic metasomatic rocks - albitites and quartzo-feldspathic lithologies of the lower Proterozoic. The albitites, host rocks for the uranium mineralization, occur regionally as numerous lenticular and discontinuos bodies arranged submeridionally according to two main alignments forming an arc, and are therefore called linear albities in allusion to similar features in Kasachstan, Russia, where they were first given this designation. The name albitite was employed to designate the metasomatites in which albitite dominates over the other minerals. The uranium mineralization consists of uraninite and pitchblende and is confined to the ore zones of those albitites containing aegirine, alkali-amphiboles, andradite, biotite and carbonates Furthermore, it displays lithologic-structural control, the morphology being controlled by the location of shear zones. This mineralization usually takes the shape of ore shoots which pitch in the direction and dip of the lineation. The authors describe the various types of albitites (mineralized or unmineralized) and their structural and petrographic characteristics, mode of occurence, geometry, metasomatic alterations, chemistry, uranium mineralization, as well as their genetic aspects. (Author) [pt

  6. The uranium provinces of the Lagoa Real District-Bahia (Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geisel Sobrinho, E.; Raposo, C.; Alves, J.V.; Brito, W. de; Vasconcelos, T.G.

    1980-01-01

    The Lagoa Real Project from NUCLEBRAS represents one of the most important uranium provinces in Brazil today. The project is limited by the 42 0 00' - 42 0 30'W and 13 0 30' - 14 0 15'S geographic coordinates, covering an area of 4,540 square kilometres in the South-Central part of Bahia State. Since 1977, 13 radiometric anomalies have been detected. As part of the Archean basement, metasomatized and cataclastic metamorphic rocks outcrop in the area. The uranium mineralization occurs in albitite bodies parallel to its foliation and is represented by fine grained uraninite. Lying roughly in N-S direction the albitite bodies are tabular and elongated. Each albitite body may reach over 1 Km of extensoin, 100m of width, and 350m of depth. 207 Pb/ 206 Pb age determination indicated 820 my as the age of uraninite crystallization. An ore reserve of 27,000 ton of U 3 O 8 at an average grade of 0.15% U 3 O 8 has been determined following geologic, topographic, and radiometric survey over an area of 700 hectares and the completion of 160 drill-holes totalizing 23,000 metres. The potential uranium reserve of the Lagoa Real District has not as yet been properly evaluated because from the known orebodies only six have been sistematically investigated to date. (Author) [pt

  7. The geology of the area south of Vioolsdrif, Cape Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, J.H.W.

    1977-10-01

    Geological reconnaissance of an area of 1 500 square km to the South of Vioolsdrif in northern Namaqualand has revealed that this region straddles the boundary between the upper crustal Richtersveld domain and the subjacent Namaqualand Metamorphic Complex. The Vioolsdrif batholith, which underlies much of the Richtersveld, is a composite body, essentially granodioritic, which was emplaced in a number of epizonal magmatic pulses into an overlying comagmatic canopy of intermediate to felsic lavas and pyroclastics during Bushveld times. It is unlikely that this volcanic carapace exceeded 9 km in thickness. During or following consolidation at about 1 800 Ma, the southern margin of the batholith was affected by a thermotectonic episode of regional extent during which the rocks of the igneous complex were foliated and lineated in sympathy with the dominant tectonic fabric of the contiguous metamorphic complex. Metamorphic mineral parageneses indicate that during the climax of this dynamothermal episode, rocks along the southern margin of the batholith were subjected to temperatures of 620 - 670 degrees and pressures of 0,4 - 0,5 MPa (4 - 5 kbar). During this deformational episode the batholith acted as a tectonic resister which preserved the overlying volcanics from incorporation into the metamorphic complex. More or less coincident with the boundary between the metamorphic complex and the Vioolsdrif batholith is a zone about 10 km in width which is characterised by the development of abundant pegmatites [af

  8. Uranium provinces and the exploration industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, J.; Michie, U.McL.

    1988-01-01

    There is little doubt that exploration by mining companies in established districts or 'provinces' has led to the discovery of substantial additional ore reserves. However, the competition for, and expenses of, land acquisitions in these known districts often prompts companies to search further afield. In some cases, new discoveries can merely be regarded as extensions of known provinces while others are located in completely new areas. Whether the explorers utilized concepts of metallogenic provinces in the course of such discoveries is questionable; rather, they would have sought the particular combinations of geological circumstances required by the model. Once a new deposit is found, however, the concept of a province, whether correct in that situation or not, is usually responsible for stimulating further activity. Recent examples of such behaviour are the Arizona Strip and NE Nebraska (USA) in provincial extensions and Roxby Downs, Lone Gull (NW Territories, Australia) and Lagoa Real (Brazil) in new areas. More routine and scientific application of metallogenic province theory by the uranium exploration industry would require evidence that not only the bulk of the world's uranium reserves but also the majority of the individual world-class deposits fall into geologically definable provinces. Such evidence should include the demonstration that particular areas of the Earth's crust had been enriched in uranium (with or without related elements) and that this enrichment had persisted through periods of crustal reworking and been responsible for concentrations of the metal ore deposits. The evidence described in the volume is critically reviewed in this context. (author). Refs, 4 figs

  9. A long-lived Late Cretaceous-early Eocene extensional province in Anatolia? Structural evidence from the Ivriz Detachment, southern central Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürer, Derya; Plunder, Alexis; Kirst, Frederik; Corfu, Fernando; Schmid, Stefan M.; van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.

    2018-01-01

    Central Anatolia exposes previously buried and metamorphosed, continent-derived rocks - the Kırşehir and Afyon zones - now covering an area of ∼300 × 400 km. So far, the exhumation history of these rocks has been poorly constrained. We show for the first time that the major, >120 km long, top-NE 'Ivriz' Detachment controlled the exhumation of the HP/LT metamorphic Afyon Zone in southern Central Anatolia. We date its activity at between the latest Cretaceous and early Eocene times. Combined with previously documented isolated extensional detachments found in the Kırşehir Block, our results suggest that a major province governed by extensional exhumation was active throughout Central Anatolia between ∼80 and ∼48 Ma. Although similar in dimension to the Aegean extensional province to the east, the Central Anatolian extensional province is considerably older and was controlled by a different extension direction. From this, we infer that the African slab(s) that subducted below Anatolia must have rolled back relative to the Aegean slab since at least the latest Cretaceous, suggesting that these regions were underlain by a segmented slab. Whether or not these early segments already corresponded to the modern Aegean, Antalya, and Cyprus slab segments remains open for debate, but slab segmentation must have occurred much earlier than previously thought.

  10. High-pressure granulites in the Fuping Complex of the central North China Craton: Metamorphic P-T-t evolution and tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jiahui; Yin, Changqing; Zhang, Jian; Ma, Li; Wang, Luojuan

    2018-04-01

    Mafic granulites in the Fuping Complex occur as lenses or boudins within high-grade TTG (Trondhjemite-Tonalite-Granodiorite) gneisses. Petrographic observations reveal four generations of mineral assemblage in the granulites: an inclusion assemblage of hornblende + plagioclase + ilmenite + quartz within garnet core; an inferred peak assemblage composed of garnet ± hornblende + plagioclase + clinopyroxene + rutile/ilmenite + quartz; a decompression assemblage characterized by symplectites of clinopyroxene ± orthopyroxene + plagioclase, coronae of plagioclase ± clinopyroxene ± hornblende around embayed garnet porphyroblasts or a two-pyroxene association; and a late amphibolite-facies retrogressive assemblage. Two representative samples were used for pseudosection modeling in NCFMASHTO model system to determine their metamorphic evolution. The results show that these granulites experienced a high-pressure stage of metamorphism with peak P-T conditions of 12-13 kbar and 760-800 °C (Pmax) and a post-peak history under P-T conditions of ∼9.0 kbar and 805-835 °C (Tmax), indicating a nearly isothermal decompression process (ITD) with a slight heating. Metamorphic evolution from the Pmax to the Tmax is predicted to be dominated by garnet breakdown through continuous metamorphic reactions of garnet + quartz ± diopside = hornblende + plagioclase + liquid and garnet + quartz + hornblende = plagioclase + diopside + liquid + orthopyroxene. Further metamorphic evolution after the Tmax is dominated by cooling, suggesting that high-pressure (HP) granulites may also exist in the Fuping Complex. Metamorphic zircons in the Fuping HP mafic granulites have left inclined REE patterns, Ti contents of 1.68-6.88 ppm and crystallization temperatures of 602-712 °C. SIMS zircon U-Pb dating on these zircons yields 207Pb/206Pb ages of 1891 ± 14 Ma and 1849 ± 6 Ma, interpreted to represent the cooling stage of metamorphism. The P-T-t evolution of the Fuping HP mafic granulites records

  11. Multiple tectonic mode switches indicate short-duration heat pulses in a Mio-Pliocene metamorphic core complex, West Papua, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, L. T.; Hall, R.; Gunawan, I.

    2017-12-01

    The Wandaman Peninsula is a narrow (2 km) promontory in remote western New Guinea. The peninsula is almost entirely composed of medium- to high-grade metamorphic rocks considered to be associated with a Mio-Pliocene metamorphic core complex. Previous work has shown that the uplift and exhumation of the core complex has potentially brought some extremely young eclogite to the surface. These might be comparable to the world's youngest (4.3 Ma) eclogites found in the D'Entrecasteaux Islands at the opposite end of New Guinea. We show that tectonic history of this region is complex. This is because the metamorphic sequences in the Wandaman Peninsula record multiple phases of deformation, all within the last few million years. This is demonstrated through methodical collation of cross-cutting relations from field and microstructural studies across the peninsula. The first phase of deformation and metamorphism is associated with crustal extension and partial melting that took place at 5-7 Ma according to new U-Pb data from metamorphic zircons. This extensional phase ceased after a tectonic mode switch and the region was shortened. This is demonstrated by two phases of folding (1. recumbent and 2. open) that overprint the earlier extensional fabrics. All previous structures were later overprinted by brittle extensional faults and uplift. This extensional phase is still taking place today, as is indicated by submerged forests exposed along the coastline associated with recent earthquakes and hot springs. The sequence of metamorphic rocks that are exposed in the Wandaman Peninsula show that stress and thermal conditions can change rapidly. If we consider that the present is a key to the past, then such results can identify the duration of deformation and metamorphic events more accurately than in much older orogenic systems.

  12. The Punta del Este terrain and its volcano sedimentary cover, metamorphic and sedimentary: geology, geochemistry and geochronology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preciozzi, F.

    2015-01-01

    Gariep belt it develops over the West Africa coastal region of Namibia underlying on Namaqua metamorphic complex.It characterized by supra crustal rocks affected for a very low to low metamorphism and in two tecto no-stratigraphic units identified by Base i et al 2005 showing that sediments of Formation Rocha in Uruguay and the Group Oranjemund Gariep in S E Africa have similar ages in the provenance of the zircons, suggesting that they were probably deposited in the same basin. This unit exhibits detrital zircons around 600my, sedimentation and metamorphism and deformación occur in a narrow time interval from 600-610 to 574 m (Granite de Castillo intrusion) .Cam pal et al, 2005 proposed to the Cerros Aguirre Formation similar in a range of age of different events. To the east separated from the Punta del Este Terrane –Pelotas. Aigua .Florianopolis batholith s by the shear zone Alferez Cordillera (Preciozzi et al. 1999, Basei et al. 2000) Another option develops this granitic belt is an integral part of Land Punta del Este Terrane(Preciozzi in this work), being deployed on a thin cratonic granite edge. The climax of the post-brasilian magmatism is 580my, strongly related to trans current movements (eg shear zones Major Gercino-Alferez- Cordillera and Sierra Ballena.In South America an old west domain is formed by the Piedra Alta Terrane which integrate the Río de la Pl ata Craton, a central domain intensely reworked by Neoproterozoic events known so far as Nico Perez . The primary coverage is integrated by two volcano-sedimentary basins (San Carlos Formation and Cerros de Aguirre Formation)In this study are considered the Geology,Geochemistry and Geochronology of the different units of Rocha Formation

  13. Thermal and impact history of the H chondrite parent asteroid during metamorphism: Constraints from metallic Fe-Ni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Edward R. D.; Krot, Tatiana V.; Goldstein, Joseph I.; Wakita, Shigeru

    2014-07-01

    We have studied cloudy taenite, metallographic cooling rates, and shock effects in 30 H3-6 chondrites to elucidate the thermal and early impact history of the H chondrite parent body. We focused on H chondrites with old Ar-Ar ages (>4.4 Gyr) and unshocked and mildly shocked H chondrites, as strongly shocked chondrites with such old ages are very rare. Cooling rates for most H chondrites at 500 °C are 10-50 °C/Myr and do not decrease systematically with increasing petrologic type as predicted by the onion-shell model in which types 3-5 are arranged in concentric layers around a type 6 core. Some type 4 chondrites cooled slower than some type 6 chondrites and type 3 chondrites did not cool faster than other types, contrary to the onion-shell model. Cloudy taenite particle sizes, which range from 40 to 120 nm, are inversely correlated with metallographic cooling rates and show that the latter were not compromised by shock heating. The three H4 chondrites that were used to develop the onion-shell model, Ste. Marguerite, Beaver Creek, and Forest Vale, cooled through 500 °C at ⩾5000 °C/Myr. Our thermal modeling shows that these rates are 50× higher than could be achieved in a body that was heated by 26Al and cooled without disturbance by impact. Published Ar-Ar ages do not decrease systematically with increasing petrologic type but do correlate inversely with cloudy taenite particle size suggesting that impact mixing decreased during metamorphism. Metal and silicate compositions in regolith breccias show that impacts mixed material after metamorphism without causing significant heating. Impacts during metamorphism created Portales Valley and two other H6 chondrites with large metallic veins, excavated the fast-cooled H4 chondrites around 3-4 Myr after accretion, and mixed petrologic types. Metallographic data do not require catastrophic disruption by impact during cooling.

  14. Tectonic evolution of part of the Southern Metamorphic Belt of the Armorican Massif including the Ile de Groix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Lawrence Edward

    The Southern Metamorphic Belt (SMB) of the Armorican Massifextends 400km along the south coast of Brittany and into Vendee. It is separated from the Central Armorican Domain by a major, late-Hercynian shear belt, known as the South Armorican Shear Zone. In the area studied, belts of metasedimentary and metavolcanic schist of uncertain age are separated by belts of granitic gneiss; areas of migmatite and Hercynian granite plutons cross-cut these belts. Three distinctive lithologic assemblages have been identified in the schist belts, characteristic of different depositional environments: the Le Pouldu Group, Kerleven and Gouesnach formations probably originated as abyssal black shales deposited on oceanic crust; the St. Laurent Formation and Melgven Schists probably formed as distal greywacke deposits on a deep continental shelf; the Nerly and Beg-Meil formations probably formed in a proximal marine or fluviatile environment. These disparate assemblages were tectonically juxtaposed by overthrusting (obduction) before an amphibolite facies metamorphism and deformation during the Cadomian Orogeny. The Moelan Gneiss, a Lower Ordovician alkali-granite intrusion, postdates M1/D1 and probably formed in a rifting environment at the onset of ocean-floor spreading along an axis south of the present Armorican Massif. The famous blueschists of the Ile de Groix probably formed in a subduction zone on the south side of the ocean and were obducted onto the passive southern margin of the Armorican Massif following closure of the ocean and continental collision. A second phase of regional deformation, producing a cataclastic foliation in the Moelan Gneiss, probably resulted from the collision. Large-scale overthrusting of the southern continent onto the Armorican Massif took place, causing metamorphism with partial melting at depth generating migmatites. A third phase of pervasive deformation may correlate with oroclinal bending of the Ibero-Armorican Arc during the Hercynian

  15. Exhumation And Evolution Of Al-Taif Metamorphic Core Complex (Western Arabian Shield) During Dextral Transpressional Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Fakharani, Abdelhamid; El-Shafei, Mohamed; Hamimi, Zakaria

    2013-04-01

    Al-Taif metamorphic belt is a NE-trending belt decorating steeply dipping major transpressional shear zone in western central Arabian Shield. It comprises gneisses and migmatites that were syn-kinematically invaded under relatively high-grade metamorphic conditions by voluminous granitic bodies and a confluence of pegmatitic veins. Field mapping and outcrop investigation reveal that the belt was evolved during at least three Neoproterozoic deformations (D1-D3). D1 and D2 were progressive deformations, took place during a contractional regime, and resulted in SW-mildly plunging isoclinal folds, superimposed by NE- gently to moderately plunging folds. The prevailed tectonic regime during D3was primordially plastic, accompanied with a NE-oriented oblique shearing that was subsequently evolved as semi ductile-semi brittle shearing during an episode of exhumation. Mesoscopic kinematic indicators, as well as microstructural analysis of the collected rock samples, reflect dextral sense of shearing. Such style of shearing is most probably the conjugate trend of the NNW- to NW- oriented sinistral Najd Fault System. Various cross cutting structures and overprinting relations were detected at both the outcrop- and microscopic scales, including; ductile S2folia with ESE-plunging amphibole mineral lineations; narrow, steeply dipping ductile D2 shear zones; and semi brittle to brittle fault zones. S-C' fabrics, asymmetric strain shadows around porphyroclasts and drag fault indicate a top-to-the-NE sense of shear for most structures. The geometry and style of deformation, together with map pattern highlighted in this study attest a simple shear rotational strain origin for the domed mylonitic foliation (S1) and mineral elongation lineation (L1). This result is in congruent with the landform pattern recorded in the inner parts of the metamorphic core complexes.

  16. Relationships among seismic velocity, metamorphism, and seismic and aseismic fault slip in the Salton Sea Geothermal Field region

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Jeffrey J.; Lohman, Rowena B.; Catchings, Rufus D.; Rymer, Michael J.; Goldman, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    The Salton Sea Geothermal Field is one of the most geothermally and seismically active areas in California and presents an opportunity to study the effect of high-temperature metamorphism on the properties of seismogenic faults. The area includes numerous active tectonic faults that have recently been imaged with active source seismic reflection and refraction. We utilize the active source surveys, along with the abundant microseismicity data from a dense borehole seismic network, to image the 3-D variations in seismic velocity in the upper 5 km of the crust. There are strong velocity variations, up to ~30%, that correlate spatially with the distribution of shallow heat flow patterns. The combination of hydrothermal circulation and high-temperature contact metamorphism has significantly altered the shallow sandstone sedimentary layers within the geothermal field to denser, more feldspathic, rock with higher P wave velocity, as is seen in the numerous exploration wells within the field. This alteration appears to have a first-order effect on the frictional stability of shallow faults. In 2005, a large earthquake swarm and deformation event occurred. Analysis of interferometric synthetic aperture radar data and earthquake relocations indicates that the shallow aseismic fault creep that occurred in 2005 was localized on the Kalin fault system that lies just outside the region of high-temperature metamorphism. In contrast, the earthquake swarm, which includes all of the M > 4 earthquakes to have occurred within the Salton Sea Geothermal Field in the last 15 years, ruptured the Main Central Fault (MCF) system that is localized in the heart of the geothermal anomaly. The background microseismicity induced by the geothermal operations is also concentrated in the high-temperature regions in the vicinity of operational wells. However, while this microseismicity occurs over a few kilometer scale region, much of it is clustered in earthquake swarms that last from

  17. Transient porosity pulses and microfracturing during a stress-generating retrograde metamorphic reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, F.; Zheng, X.; Cordonnier, B.; Zhu, W.; Jamtveit, B.

    2017-12-01

    Several geological processes involve mineral transformations where nominally dry rocks transform into hydrated ones when left in contact with water (i.e. eclogitization, serpentinization). In these systems, the transformation induces stress if the rock is confined, and the new minerals create a so-called force of crystallization. Here, we study a model retrograde metamorphic reaction, the hydration of periclase, MgO, into brucite, Mg(OH)2, to quantify the coupling between reaction, stress generation, porosity evolution and fracturing. This hydration reaction generates a volume increase of 110%, and a density decrease of 33.8% of the solid. Samples of a microporous MgO ceramics were reacted at 170-211°C, 5-80 MPa confining pressure, 6-95 MPa differential stress and 5 MPa pore fluid pressure. They were installed into an X-ray transparent triaxial deformation rig, called Hades, and mounted on a synchrotron microtomography stage. Each experiment lasted between 2 and 5 hours, during which between 35 and 130 three-dimensional images were acquired, allowing to follow the chemical transformation and the deformation of the sample. Below 30 MPa mean pressure, the hydration reaction was coupled to fracturing of the MgO ceramics, and the transformation rate followed a sigmoidal kinetics curve with a slow initiation, a fast reaction coupled to fracturing and the generation of a transient porosity pulse, and a slow-down until an almost complete transformation of periclase into brucite.. Conversely, above 30 MPa, the reaction kinetics was very slow, without fracturing over the time scale of the experiment. When considering the driving force of the hydration reaction, stress generation should be several hundreds MPa, whereas the present experiments show that fracturing occurred only below 30 MPa. This indicates that the potential energy due to phase transformation generates much lower stress than what is estimated from non-equilibrium thermodynamics. A possible interpretation of

  18. Dating an actively exhuming metamorphic core complex, the Suckling Dayman Massif in SE Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oesterle, J.; Seward, D.; Little, T.; Stockli, D. F.; Mizera, M.

    2016-12-01

    Low-temperature thermochronology is a powerful tool for revealing the thermal and kinematic evolution of metamorphic core complexes (MCCs). Most globally studied MCCs are ancient, partially eroded, and have been modified by deformation events that postdate their origin. The Mai'iu Fault is a rapidly slipping active low-angle normal fault (LANF) in the Woodlark Rift in Papua New Guinea that has exhumed a >25 km-wide (in the slip direction), and over 3 km-high domal fault surface in its footwall called the Suckling-Dayman massif. Some knowledge of the present-day thermal structure in the adjacent Woodlark Rift, and the pristine nature of this active MCC make it an ideal candidate for thermochronological study of a high finite-slip LANF. To constrain the thermal and kinematic evolution of this MCC we apply the U/Pb, fission-track (FT) and (U-Th)/He methods. Zircon U/Pb analyses from the syn-extensional Suckling Granite that intrudes the footwall of the MCC yield an intrusion age of 3.3 Ma. Preliminary zircon FT ages from the same body indicate cooling below 300 °C at 2.7 Ma. Ages decrease to 2.0 Ma with increasing proximity to the Mai'iu Fault and imply cooling controlled by tectonic exhumation. Almost coincident zircon U/Pb and FT ages from the nearby syn-extensional Mai'iu Monzonite, on the other hand, record extremely rapid cooling from magmatic temperatures to 300 °C at 2 Ma. As apparent from the preliminary He extraction stage, these syn-extensional plutons have young zircon and apatite (U-Th)/He ages. These initial results suggest that the Mai'iu Fault was initiated as an extensional structure by 3.3 Ma. We infer that it reactivated an older ophiolitic suture that had emplaced the Papuan Ultramafic body in the Paleogene. Rapid cooling of the Mai'iu Monzonite indicates that it was intruded into a part of the MCC's footwall that was already shallow in the crust by 2 Ma. This inference is further supported by the mineral andalusite occurring in the contact

  19. The granulite suite: Impact melts and metamorphic breccias of the early lunar crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing, J. A.; Taylor, G. J.; Norman, M. D.; Keil, K.

    1993-03-01

    The granulite suite consists of two major types of rocks. One is coarse-grained and poikilitic with many euhedral crystals of olivine and plagioclase. These characteristics indicate crystallization from a melt; the poikilitic granulites are impact melt breccias. The other group is finer-grained and granoblastic, with numerous triple junctions; the granoblastic granulites are metamorphic rocks. Compositional groups identified by Lindstrom and Lindstrom contain both textural types. Two pyroxene thermometry indicates that both groups equilibrated at 1000 to 1150 C. Calculations suggest that the granoblastic group, which has an average grain size of about 80 microns, was annealed for less than 6 x 10 exp 4 y at 1000 C, and for less than 2500 y at 1150 C. Similar equilibration temperatures suggest that both groups were physically associated after impact events produced the poikilitic melts. Granulitic impactites hold important information about the pre-Nectarian bombardment history of the Moon, and the composition and thermal evolution of the early lunar crust. Granulitic impactites are widely considered to be an important rock type in the lunar crust, but how they formed is poorly understood. Metal compositions and elevated concentrations of meteoritic siderophile elements suggest that most lunar granulites are impact breccias. Their occurrence as clasts in approximately 3.9 Ga breccias, and Ar-(40-39) ages greater than or = 4.2 Ga for some granulites show that they represent a component of the lunar crust which formed prior to the Nectarian cataclysm. Petrographic characteristics of lunar granulites indicate at least two endmember textural variants which apparently formed in fundamentally different ways. One type has granoblastic textures consisting of equant, polygonal to rounded grains, and abundant triple junctions with small dispersions around 120 degrees indicating a close approach to textural equilibrium. As suggested by many authors, granoblastic granulites

  20. Crustal composition in the Hidaka Metamorphic Belt estimated from seismic velocity by laboratory measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, K.; Ishikawa, M.; Sato, H.; Iwasaki, T.; Toyoshima, T.

    2015-12-01

    To understand the dynamics of the lithosphere in subduction systems, the knowledge of rock composition is significant. However, rock composition of the overriding plate is still poorly understood. To estimate rock composition of the lithosphere, it is an effective method to compare the elastic wave velocities measured under the high pressure and temperature condition with the seismic velocities obtained by active source experiment and earthquake observation. Due to an arc-arc collision in central Hokkaido, middle to lower crust is exposed along the Hidaka Metamorphic Belt (HMB), providing exceptional opportunities to study crust composition of an island arc. Across the HMB, P-wave velocity model has been constructed by refraction/wide-angle reflection seismic profiling (Iwasaki et al., 2004). Furthermore, because of the interpretation of the crustal structure (Ito, 2000), we can follow a continuous pass from the surface to the middle-lower crust. We corrected representative rock samples from HMB and measured ultrasonic P-wave (Vp) and S-wave velocities (Vs) under the pressure up to 1.0 GPa in a temperature range from 25 to 400 °C. For example, the Vp values measured at 25 °C and 0.5 GPa are 5.88 km/s for the granite (74.29 wt.% SiO2), 6.02-6.34 km/s for the tonalites (66.31-68.92 wt.% SiO2), 6.34 km/s for the gneiss (64.69 wt.% SiO2), 6.41-7.05 km/s for the amphibolites (50.06-51.13 wt.% SiO2), and 7.42 km/s for the mafic granulite (50.94 wt.% SiO2). And, Vp of tonalites showed a correlation with SiO2 (wt.%). Comparing with the velocity profiles across the HMB (Iwasaki et al., 2004), we estimate that the lower to middle crust consists of amphibolite and tonalite, and the estimated acoustic impedance contrast between them suggests an existence of a clear reflective boundary, which accords well to the obtained seismic reflection profile (Iwasaki et al., 2014). And, we can obtain the same tendency from comparing measured Vp/Vs ratio and Vp/Vs ratio structure model

  1. Petrological and zircon evidence for the Early Cretaceous granulite-facies metamorphism in the Dabie orogen, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiao-Ying; Zhang, Qiang-Qiang; Zheng, Yong-Fei; Chen, Yi-Xiang

    2017-07-01

    An integrated study of petrology, mineralogy, geochemistry, and geochronology was carried out for contemporaneous mafic granulite and diorite from the Dabie orogen. The results provide evidence for granulite-facies reworking of the ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic rock in the collisional orogen. Most zircons from the granulite are new growth, and their U-Pb ages are clearly categorized into two groups at 122-127 Ma and 188 ± 2 Ma. Although these two groups of zircons show similarly steep HREE patterns and variably negative Eu anomalies, the younger group has much higher U, Th and REE contents and Th/U ratios, much lower εHf(t) values than the older group. This suggests their growth is associated with different types of dehydration reactions. The older zircon domains contain mineral inclusions of garnet + clinopyroxene ± quartz, indicating their growth through metamorphic reactions at high pressures. In contrast, the young zircon domains only contain a few quartz inclusions and the garnet-clinopyroxene-plagioclase-quartz barometry yields pressures of 4.9 to 12.5 kb. In addition, the clinopyroxene-garnet Fe-Mg exchange thermometry gives temperatures of 738-951 °C. Therefore, the young zircon domains would have grown through peritectic reaction at low to medium pressures. The younger granulite-facies metamorphic age is in agreement not only with the adjacent diorite at 125 ± 1 Ma in this study but also the voluminous emplacement of coeval mafic and felsic magmas in the Dabie orogen. Mineral separates from both mafic granulite and its adjacent diorite show uniformly lower δ18O values than normal mantle, similar to those for UHP eclogite-facies metaigneous rocks in the Dabie orogen. In combination with major-trace elements and zircon Lu-Hf isotope compositions, it is inferred that the protolith of mafic granulites shares with the source rock of diorites, both being a kind of mafic metasomatites at the slab-mantle interface in the continental subduction channel

  2. Felsic granulite with layers of eclogite facies rocks in the Bohemian Massif; did they share a common metamorphic history?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlicka, Radim; Faryad, Shah Wali

    2017-08-01

    High pressure granulite and granulite gneiss from the Rychleby Mountains in the East Sudetes form an approximately 7 km long and 0.8 km wide body, which is enclosed by amphibolite facies orthogneiss with a steep foliation. Well preserved felsic granulite is located in the central part of the body, where several small bodies of mafic granulite are also present. In comparison to other high pressure granulites in the Bohemian Massif, which show strong mineral and textural re-equilibration under granulite facies conditions, the mafic granulite samples preserve eclogite facies minerals (garnet, omphacite, kyanite, rutile and phengite) and their field and textural relations indicate that both mafic and felsic granulites shared common metamorphic history during prograde eclogite facies and subsequent granulite facies events. Garnet from both granulite varieties shows prograde compositional zoning and contains inclusions of phengite. Yttrium and REEs in garnet show typical bell-shaped distributions with no annular peaks near the grain rims. Investigation of major and trace elements zoning, including REEs distribution in garnet, was combined with thermodynamic modelling to constrain the early eclogite facies metamorphism and to estimate pressure-temperature conditions of the subsequent granulite facies overprint. The first (U)HP metamorphism occurred along a low geothermal gradient in a subduction-related environment from its initial stage at 0.8 GPa/460 °C and reached pressures up to 2.5 GPa at 550 °C. The subsequent granulite facies overprint (1.6-1.8 GPa/800-880 °C) affected the rocks only partially; by replacement of omphacite into diopside + plagioclase symplectite and by compositional modification of garnet rims. The mineral textures and the preservation of the eclogite facies prograde compositional zoning in garnet cores confirm that the granulite facies overprint was either too short or too faint to cause recrystallisation and homogenisation of the eclogite

  3. Environmental sustainability model and biodiversity preservation in Central Rhodopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatka Grigorova

    2013-03-01

    In fact that model is composed of many components and considers a number of important aspects. Its application will contribute to the sustainable use of natural resources and preserved biodiversity for future generations.

  4. Atmospheric pollution assessment with mosses in Western Rhodopes, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gana Gecheva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The moss analysis technique was applied to monitor 10 heavy metals and toxic elements deposition. Our study was the first attempt to assess spatial patterns in a border mountain region (area 8732 km2 with a low population density and high proportion of protected territories. The obtained results did not correlate to the results from areas with low air pollution and could be linked to the impact of old and open mines.

  5. Sedimentary rocks Uranium in Cerro Largo Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaron, P.; Garau Tous, M.

    1976-01-01

    With the aim of the uranium minerals exploration has been carried out several studies by UTE technicians in Cerro Largo Province from 1968 to 1969. In uranium concentration has been found pyrite, phosphate, iron oxides and manganese in uranium. Furthermore in La Divisa Ore were studied concentration Uranium enrichment has been studied in La Divisa ore

  6. Policing powers, Politics, Pragmatism and the Provinces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The draft Western Cape Community Safety Bill, introduced in the provincial legislature in February 2012, is part of a broader provincial government initiative to tackle issues of safety in the province. The Bill sets out to concretise the powers allocated to provincial governments by the Constitution. Specific provisions reflect the ...

  7. Payenia volcanic province, southern Mendoza, Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søager, Nina; Holm, Paul Martin; Llambias, Eduardo Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The Pleistocene to Holocene Payenia volcanic province is a backarc region of 60,000 km2 in Mendoza, Argentina, which is dominated by transitional to alkaline basalts and trachybasalts. We present major and trace element compositions of 139 rocks from this area of which the majority are basaltic...

  8. Cogeneration opportunities in the maritime provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacPherson, S.W.

    1999-01-01

    With the arrival of natural gas in New Brunswick in November 1999, the province will be faced with new power generation development opportunities in four different categories of power projects. These include industrial self generation (including cogeneration), merchant power plants, power projects to replace aging facilities, and power projects to help meet future environmental needs. New Brunswick's competitive advantage in harnessing the power generation development opportunities lies in the fact that it is close to major electricity markets in Quebec and New England. It also has many available generation sites. The province's many pulp and paper plants with large process steam needs are also ideal candidates for cogeneration. Some of the major competitive advantages of natural gas over coal are its lower operation and maintenance costs, it is thermally more efficient, produces lower emissions to the environment and prices are competitive. One of the suggestions in New Brunswick Power's new restructuring proposal is to unbundle electricity service in the province into generation and transmission and distribution services. Three gas-fired projects have already been proposed for the province. The 284 MW Bayside Power Project at the Courtenay Bay Generating Station is the most advanced

  9. Petrological and geochemical characterization of the plutonic rocks of the Sierra de La Aguada, Province of San Luis, Argentina: Genetic implications with the Famatinian magmatic arc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Cristofolini

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a synthesis on the geology of the crystalline complex that constitute the Sierra de la Aguada, San Luis province, Argentine, from an approach based on field relations, petrologic and structural features and geochemical characteristic. This mountain range exposes a basement dominated by intermediate to mafic calcalkaline igneous rocks and peraluminous felsic granitoids, both emplaced in low to medium grade metamorphic rocks stabilized under low amphibolite facies. All this lithological terrane has been grouped in the El Carrizal-La Aguada Complex. Field relations, petrographic characterization and geochemical comparison of the plutonic rocks from the study area with those belonging to the Ordovician Famatinian suit exposed in the Sierra Grande de San Luis, suggest a genetic and temporal relation linked to the development of the Famatinian magmatic arc.

  10. Stacking and metamorphism of continuous segments of subducted lithosphere in a high-pressure wedge: The example of Alpine Corsica (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale Brovarone, Alberto; Beyssac, Olivier; Malavieille, Jacques; Molli, Giancarlo; Beltrando, Marco; Compagnoni, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Alpine Corsica consists of a stack of variably metamorphosed units of continental and Tethys-derived rocks. It represents an excellent example of high-pressure (HP) orogenic belt, such as the Western Alps, exposed over a small and accessible area. Compared to the Western Alps, the geology of Alpine Corsica is poorly unraveled. During the 1970s-80s, based on either lithostratigraphic or metamorphic field observations, various classifications of the belt have been proposed, but these classifications have been rarely matched together. Furthermore, through time, the internal complexity of large domains has been progressively left aside in the frame of large-scale geodynamic reconstructions. As a consequence, major open questions on the internal structure of the belt have remained unsolved. Apart from a few local studies, Alpine Corsica has not benefited of modern developments in petrology and basin research. This feature results in several uncertainties when combining lithostratigraphic and metamorphic patterns and, consequently, in the definition of an exhaustive architecture of the belt. In this paper we provide a review on the geology of Alpine Corsica, paying particular attention to the available lithostratigraphic and metamorphic classifications of the metamorphic terranes. These data are completed by a new and exhaustive metamorphic dataset obtained by means of thermometry based on Raman Spectroscopy of Carbonaceous Material (RSCM). This technique provides reliable insights on the peak temperature of the metamorphic history for CM-bearing metasediments. A detailed metamorphic characterization of metasediments, which have been previously largely ignored due to retrogression or to the lack of diagnostic mineralogy, is thus obtained and fruitfully coupled with the available lithostratigraphic data. Nine main tectono-metamorphic units are defined, from subgreenschist (ca. 280-300 °C) to the lawsonite-eclogite-facies (ca. 500-550 °C) condition. These units are

  11. Regional geologic characteristics of uranium ores and assessment of metallogenetic potentials in the central part of Eastern Liaoning Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wenguang; Tao Quan; Zhang Shouben

    1997-10-01

    Regional geologic characteristics, metallogenetic conditions and prospects of uranium ores in the central part of the Eastern Liaoning Province of North China is studied systematically. It demonstrates that the Archaean basement of the study area consists of a special type of granite-greenstone belts in China. It is called the granite-greenstone belts of the Liaoning-model, in which the granitic rocks are mainly migmatitic granite and granite-gneiss of migmatitic genesis. The greenstone belts in this area have undergone strong metamorphism. Large amounts of Precambrian geochronological studies have been made with U-Pb isotopic method on zircon; and a new Precambrian geologic time scale has been established. It is also proved that multistage activation of the Early Precambrian basement and the proto-platform took place in Early Proterozoic. Emphases are laid on uranium and thorium abundances and their variations as well as primary uranium contents of rocks in the granite-greenstone terrain and those of the Lower Proterozoic. At the same time, uraninite as accessory mineral in granitic rocks is found to exist more or less. Early Precambrian strata and many kinds of mineral deposits occurring in the strata are in origin chiefly of syngenetic hot brine sedimentation and of submarine extrusive gas-hydrothermal sedimentation superimposed by metamorphism. Metallogenetic features and models of various types of uranium deposits are studied emphatically and compared with similar large deposits abroad. In addition, overall synthetical appraisals are made for this area; and on this basis, prospecting directions and favourable sections of uranium metallization are suggested. (4 refs., 4 tabs.)

  12. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Brucellosis in Jazan Province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    this study was to determine the sero-prevalence of brucellosis in Jazan Province, Saudi Arabia and assess the ... Conclusion: These results indicate the need for a vaccination program in Jazan Province and for public .... from blue to yellow.

  13. The Heart of China revisited: II Early Paleozoic (ultra)high-pressure and (ultra)high-temperature metamorphic Qinling orogenic collage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Thomas; Franz, Leander; Ratschbacher, Lothar; de Capitani, Christian; Webb, A. Alexander G.; Yang, Zhao; Pfänder, Jörg A.; Hofmann, Mandy; Linnemann, Ulf

    2013-07-01

    Orogens with multiple (ultra)high-pressure ((U)HP) and (ultra)high-temperature ((U)HT) metamorphic events provide a complex but telling record of oceanic and continental interaction. The Early Paleozoic history of the "Heart of China," the Qinling orogenic collage, offers snapshots of at least three (U)HP and two (U)HT metamorphic events. The preservation of remnants of both oceanic and continental domains together with a ≥110 Myr record of magmatism allows the reconstruction of the processes that resulted in this disparate metamorphism. Herein, we first illuminate the pressure-temperature-time (P-T-t) evolution of the Early Paleozoic (U)HP and (U)HT events by refining the petrographic descriptions and P-T estimates, assess published, and employ new U/Th-Pb zircon, monazite, and titanite, and 40Ar-39Ar phengite geochronology to date the magmatic and metamorphic events. Then we explore how the metamorphic and magmatic events are related tectonically and how they elucidate the affinities among the various complexes in the Qinling orogenic collage. We argue that a Meso-Neoproterozoic crustal fragment—the Qinling complex—localized subduction-accretion events that involved subduction, oceanic-arc formation, and back-arc spreading along its northern margin, and mtantle-wedge exhumation and spreading-ridge subduction along its southern margin.

  14. Magnetotelluric investigation in and around southern part of Hidaka metamorphic belt in Hokkaido, Japan; Hidaka henseitai nanbuiki ni okeru MT kansoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, H; Utsugi, M; Hirano, K; Doi, T; Nishida, Y; Arita, K [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    An MT observation was conducted in the Hidaka district, Hokkaido, for the estimation of the 2D resistivity structure in the southern part of the metamorphic belt, when frequencies of the VLF, ELF, and ULF bands were used. An approximately 42km-long traverse line was set to cross the Hidaka metamorphic belt from east to west. As for the observation points, 48 VLF points, 16 ELF points, and 4 ULF points were provided. During the data processing, impedance tensor was calculated in the frequency domain for the determination of the apparent resistivity relative to frequency and the phase difference. As the result, it was found that there is a fairly large resistivity gap between observation spots MNS and KWR and that the boundary corresponds to the Hidaka metamorphic belt, that the metamorphic belt that is reflected as a conspicuous high-resistivity layer in the VLF-, ELF-MT slopes down toward the east and has a distribution as deep as 10km in the vicinity of observation point KWR, that this high-resistivity layer sandwiches a low-resistivity layer at a depth of 5-7km, and that on the east side of the metamorphic belt there is a medium-resistivity layer creeping under the belt from the east side toward the west side. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  15. Oxygen isotope thermometry of quartz-Al2SiO5veins in high-grade metamorphic rocks on Naxos island (Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putlitz, Benita; Valley, John; Matthews, Alan; Katzir, Yaron

    2002-04-01

    Diffusion models predict that peak metamorphic temperatures are best recorded by the oxygen isotope fractionation between minerals in a bi-mineralic rock in which a refractory accessory mineral with slow oxygen diffusion rate is modally minor to a mineral with a faster diffusion rate. This premise is demonstrated for high-grade metamorphism on the island of Naxos, Greece, where quartz-kyanite oxygen isotope thermometry from veins in high-grade metamorphic pelites gives temperatures of 635-690 °C. These temperatures are in excellent agreement with independent thermometry for the regional M2 peak metamorphic conditions and show that the vein minerals isotopically equilibrated at the peak of metamorphism. Quartz-sillimanite fractionations in the same veins give similar temperatures (680+/-35 °C) and suggest that the veins grew near to the kyanite-sillimanite boundary, corresponding to pressures of 6.5 to 7.5 kbar for temperatures of 635-685 °C. By contrast, quartz-kyanite and quartz-biotite pairs in the host rocks yield lower temperature estimates than the veins (590-600 and 350-550 °C, respectively). These lower apparent temperatures are also predicted from calculations of diffusional resetting in the polyphase host-rock system. The data demonstrate that bimineralic vein assemblages can be used as accurate thermometers in high-temperature rocks whereas retrograde exchange remains a major problem in many polymineralic rocks.

  16. Tectono-metamorphic evolution of high-P/T and low-P/T metamorphic rocks in the Tia Complex, southern New England Fold Belt, eastern Australia: Insights from K-Ar chronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Shiro; Tsujimori, Tatsuki; Watanabe, Teruo; Itaya, Tetsumaru

    2012-10-01

    The Tia Complex in the southern New England Fold Belt is a poly-metamorphosed Late Paleozoic accretionary complex. It consists mainly of high-P/low-T type pumpellyite-actinolite facies (rare blueschist facies) schists, phyllite and serpentinite (T = 300 °C and P = 5 kbar), and low-P/high-T type amphibolite facies schist and gneiss (T = 600 °C and P Tia granodiorite). White mica and biotite K-Ar ages distinguish Carboniferous subduction zone metamorphism and Permian granitic intrusions, respectively. The systematic K-Ar age mapping along a N-S traverse of the Tia Complex exhibits a gradual change. The white mica ages become younger from the lowest-grade zone (339 Ma) to the highest-grade zone (259 Ma). In contrast, Si content of muscovite changes drastically only in the highest-grade zone. The regional changes of white mica K-Ar ages and chemical compositions of micas indicate argon depletion from precursor high-P/low-T type phengitic white mica during the thermal overprinting and recrystallization by granitoids intrusions. Our new K-Ar ages and available geological data postulate a model of the eastward rollback of a subduction zone in Early Permian. The eastward shift of a subduction zone system and subsequent magmatic activities of high-Mg andesite and adakite might explain formation of S-type granitoids (Hillgrove suite) and coeval low-P/high-T type metamorphism in the Tia Complex.

  17. Large igneous provinces (LIPs) and carbonatites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Richard E.; Bell, Keith

    2010-03-01

    There is increasing evidence that many carbonatites are linked both spatially and temporally with large igneous provinces (LIPs), i.e. high volume, short duration, intraplate-type, magmatic events consisting mainly of flood basalts and their plumbing systems (of dykes, sills and layered intrusions). Examples of LIP-carbonatite associations include: i. the 66 Ma Deccan flood basalt province associated with the Amba Dongar, Sarnu-Dandali (Barmer), and Mundwara carbonatites and associated alkali rocks, ii. the 130 Ma Paraná-Etendeka (e.g. Jacupiranga, Messum); iii. the 250 Ma Siberian LIP that includes a major alkaline province, Maimecha-Kotui with numerous carbonatites, iv. the ca. 370 Ma Kola Alkaline Province coeval with basaltic magmatism widespread in parts of the East European craton, and v. the 615-555 Ma CIMP (Central Iapetus Magmatic Province) of eastern Laurentia and western Baltica. In the Superior craton, Canada, a number of carbonatites are associated with the 1114-1085 Ma Keweenawan LIP and some are coeval with the pan-Superior 1880 Ma mafic-ultramafic magmatism. In addition, the Phalaborwa and Shiel carbonatites are associated with the 2055 Ma Bushveld event of the Kaapvaal craton. The frequency of this LIP-carbonatite association suggests that LIPs and carbonatites might be considered as different evolutionary ‘pathways’ in a single magmatic process/system. The isotopic mantle components FOZO, HIMU, EM1 but not DMM, along with primitive noble gas signatures in some carbonatites, suggest a sub-lithospheric mantle source for carbonatites, consistent with a plume/asthenospheric upwelling origin proposed for many LIPs.

  18. The effect of gold mining and processing on biogeochemical cycles in Muteh area, Isfahan province, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarzi, B.; Moore, F.

    2009-04-01

    The environmental impacts of gold mining and processing on geochemical and biogeochemical cycles in Muteh region located northwest of Esfahan province and northeast of Golpaygan city is investigated. For this purpose systematic sampling was carried out in, rock, soil, water, and sediment environments along with plant, livestocks and human hair samples. Mineralogical and Petrological studies show that ore mineral such as pyrite and arsenopyrite along with fluorine-bearing minerals like tremolite, actinolite, biotite and muscovite occur in green schist, amphibolite and lucogranitic rocks in the area. The hydrochemistry of the analysed water samples indicate that As and F display the highest concentrations among the analysed elements. Indeed arsenic has the highest concentration in both topsoil and subsoil samples when compared with other potentially toxic elements. Anthropogenic activity also have it s greatest effect on increasing arsenic concentration among the analysed samples. The concentration of the majority of the analysed elements in the shoots and leaves of two local plants of the region i.e Artemesia and Penagum is higher than their concentration in the roots. Generally speaking, Artemesia has a greater tendency for bioaccumulating heavy metals. The results of cyanide analysis in soil samples show that cyanide concentration in the soils near the newly built tailing dam is much higher than that in the vicinity of the old tailing dam. The high concentration of fluorine in the drinking water of the Muteh village is the main reason of the observed dental fluorosis symptoms seen in the inhabitants. One of the two drinking water wells which is located near the metamorphic complex and supplies part of the tap water in the village, probably has the greatest impact in this regard. A decreasing trend in fluorine concentration is illustrated with increasing distance from the metamorphic complex. Measurements of As concentration in human hair specimens indicate that As

  19. Physical and microbiological properties of alluvial calcareous Çumra province soils (Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Sami Erol

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Alluvial calcareous soils in Central Anatolia (Konya province, Çumra district has a heavy granulometric composition (average clay, low organic carbon content (less than 1%, but stable pore space structure and favorable agrophysical properties. Studies of the water regime in drip irrigation confirm favorable hydrological properties of these soils. It is assumed that the favorable structure of the pore space due to vigorous activity a large and diverse soil biota. Four phyla dominate in soil biota, among which predominate Actinobacteria. The higher (Streptomyces, and lower (three species Rhodococcus actinobacteria are predominant in large amounts as a part of this phyla. Large biodiversity at a sufficiently high bacteria richness formed the structure of the microbial community that contribute to the balanced production of specific metabolites, including gases (CO2, N2, which allows the soil to function actively, preventing compaction of the pore space and maintaining optimal density, porosity, hydrologic properties of the studied silty clay soils. m the uppermost soil horizons. Analyses of heavy mineral fraction show presence of metamorphic and igneous minerals which indicate participation of weathering products from other rock types in the nearby area. The types of heavy minerals in soils depend more on composition of parent rocks and geomorphic position than on climate type. Soils from Nova Lovcha show similar composition, but the quantity of goethite and hematite significantly increase in soil from plain. Typical high-metamorphic minerals as andalusite, kyanite and sillimanite present only in Nova Lovcha, while garnet dominates in Petrovo and opaque minerals - in Dobrostan. Red soils, formed on slopes, where erosion prevails over accumulation, contain more illite, smectite and vermiculite-smectite, and very few or no kaolinite, whereas the kaolinite is dominant in soils formed on plain. The mineralogical composition of clays in different

  20. Coal comprehensive utilization is the gateway for Shanxi Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, L.; Gui, G.

    1997-01-01

    Shanxi Province is abundant in coal reserve. Taiyuan Coal Gasification Corporation is a large sized union enterprise engaged in comprehensive use of coal in Shanxi province, and significant economic, social, environmental benefits have been brought forth with it. This leads people to believe that coal comprehensive utilization is the gateway for Shanxi Province in the fields of improvement of environment and development of economy

  1. Fabrics produced mimetically during static metamorphism in retrogressed eclogites from the Zermatt-Saas zone, Western Italian Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, D. D.; Wheeler, J.; Pearce, M.; Prior, D. J.

    2012-11-01

    Lattice preferred orientations (LPOs) are commonly interpreted to form by dislocation creep. Consequently they are used to infer deformation at the metamorphic grade at which the minerals were stable, especially if those minerals show a shape fabric. Here we show that LPOs can occur through mimicry of a pre-existing LPO, so they formed statically, not during deformation. Omphacite and glaucophane LPOs occur in eclogite facies rocks from the Zermatt-Saas Unit of the Northwest Italian Alps. Barroisite grew during greenschist facies retrogression and has an LPO controlled significantly by the eclogite facies omphacite and glaucophane LPOs, rather than directly by deformation. Using spatially resolved lattice orientation data from the three key minerals, collected using electron backscatter diffraction, we deploy a new technique of interphase misorientation distribution analysis to prove this. Barroisite LPO develops by mimicry of omphacite (via a particular lattice orientation relationship) and by direct topotactic and epitactic replacement of glaucophane. LPO in turn influenced anisotropic grain growth, resulting in a barroisite grain shape fabric. Thus regional retrogression during exhumation of the Zermatt-Saas high-pressure rocks was, in large part, static, rather than dynamic as previously interpreted. In general the possibility of mimetic fabrics forming during metamorphic reactions must be borne in mind when interpreting direct structural observations and seismic anisotropy data in terms of deformation, in both crust and mantle.

  2. Comparison of different pathways in metamorphic graded buffers on GaAs substrate: Indium incorporation with surface roughness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Rahul, E-mail: rkp203@gmail.com [Advanced Technology Development Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Mukhopadhyay, P. [Rajendra Mishra School of Engineering Entrepreneurship, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Bag, A.; Jana, S. Kr. [Advanced Technology Development Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Chakraborty, A. [Department of Electronics and Electrical Communication Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302 (India); Das, S.; Mahata, M. Kr. [Advanced Technology Development Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Biswas, D. [Department of Electronics and Electrical Communication Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302 (India)

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • In(Al,Ga)As metamorphic buffers on GaAs have been grown. • Surface morphology, strain relaxation and compositional variation have been studied. • Al containing buffers shows inferior surface roughness. • Surface roughness modulates the indium incorporation rate. - Abstract: In this work, compositionally graded In(Al,Ga)As metamorphic buffers (MBs) on GaAs substrate have been grown by MBE through three different paths. A comparative study has been done to comprehend the effect of underlying MB on the constant composition InAlAs healing layer by analyzing the relaxation behaviour, composition and surface morphology of the grown structures. The compositional variation between the constant composition healing layers on top of graded MB has been observed in all three samples although the growth conditions have been kept same. Indium incorporation rate has been found to be dependent on underlying MB. By combining the result of atomic force microscopy, photo-luminescence and X-ray reciprocal space mapping, varying surface roughness has been proposed as the probable driving force behind different Indium incorporation rate.

  3. Comparison of different pathways in metamorphic graded buffers on GaAs substrate: Indium incorporation with surface roughness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Rahul; Mukhopadhyay, P.; Bag, A.; Jana, S. Kr.; Chakraborty, A.; Das, S.; Mahata, M. Kr.; Biswas, D.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • In(Al,Ga)As metamorphic buffers on GaAs have been grown. • Surface morphology, strain relaxation and compositional variation have been studied. • Al containing buffers shows inferior surface roughness. • Surface roughness modulates the indium incorporation rate. - Abstract: In this work, compositionally graded In(Al,Ga)As metamorphic buffers (MBs) on GaAs substrate have been grown by MBE through three different paths. A comparative study has been done to comprehend the effect of underlying MB on the constant composition InAlAs healing layer by analyzing the relaxation behaviour, composition and surface morphology of the grown structures. The compositional variation between the constant composition healing layers on top of graded MB has been observed in all three samples although the growth conditions have been kept same. Indium incorporation rate has been found to be dependent on underlying MB. By combining the result of atomic force microscopy, photo-luminescence and X-ray reciprocal space mapping, varying surface roughness has been proposed as the probable driving force behind different Indium incorporation rate

  4. Seismic evidence for multiple-stage exhumation of high/ultrahigh pressure metamorphic rocks in the eastern Dabie orogenic belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yinhe; Zhao, Kaifeng; Tang, Chi-Chia; Xu, Yixian

    2018-05-01

    The Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt in China contains one of the largest exposures of high and ultrahigh pressure (HP and UHP) metamorphic rocks in the world. The origin of HP/UHP metamorphic rocks and their exhumation to the surface in this belt have attracted great interest in the geologic community because the study of exhumation history of HP/UHP rocks helps to understand the process of continental-continental collision and the tectonic evolution of post-collision. However, the exhumation mechanism of the HP-UHP rocks to the surface is still contentious. In this study, by deploying 28 broadband seismic stations in the eastern Dabie orogenic belt and combining seismic data from 40 stations of the China National Seismic Network (CNSN), we image the high-resolution crustal isotropic shear velocity and radial anisotropy structure using ambient noise tomography. Our high-resolution 3D models provide new information about the exhumation mechanism of HP/UHP rocks and the origin of two dome structures.

  5. Low temperature step-graded InAlAs/GaAs metamorphic buffer layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang, X Z; Wu, S D; Liu, C; Wang, W X; Guo, L W; Huang, Q; Zhou, J M

    2006-01-01

    Low-temperature step-graded InAlAs metamorphic buffer layers on GaAs substrate grown by molecular beam epitaxy were investigated. The strain relaxation and the composition of the top InAlAs layer were determined by high-resolution triple-axis x-ray diffraction measurements, which show that the top InAlAs layer is nearly fully relaxed. Surface morphology was observed by reflection high-energy electron diffraction pattern and atomic force microscopy. Under a selected range of growth parameters, the root mean square surface roughness of the sample grown at 380 deg. C is 0.802 nm, which has the smallest value compared with those of other samples. Furthermore, The ω-2θ and ω scans of the triple-axis x-ray diffraction, and photoluminescence show the sample grown at 380 deg. C has better crystalline quality. With decreasing As overpressure at this growth temperature, crystalline quality became poor and could not maintain two dimensional growth with increasing overpressure. The carrier concentrations and Hall mobilities of the InAlAs/ InGaAs/GaAs MM-HEMT structure on low-temperature step-graded InAlAs metamorphic buffer layers grown in optimized conditions are high enough to make devices

  6. Late Cretaceous extension and exhumation of the Stong and Taku magmatic and metamorphic complexes, NE Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, T.; Md Ali, M. A.; Matenco, L.; Willingshofer, E.; Ng, T. F.; Taib, N. I.; Shuib, M. K.

    2017-08-01

    Fragmentation of large continental areas by post-orogenic extension requires favourable geodynamic conditions and frequently occurs along pre-existing suture zones or nappe contacts, as exemplified by the Stong and Taku magmatic and metamorphic complexes of northern Peninsular Malaysia. For this case, we have employed a field and microstructural kinematic study combined with low temperature thermo-chronology to analyse the tectonic and exhumation history. The results show that the Late Palaeozoic - Triassic Indosinian orogeny created successive phases of burial related metamorphism, shearing and contractional deformation. This orogenic structure was subsequently dismembered during a Cretaceous thermal event that culminated in the formation of a large scale Late Santonian - Early Maastrichtian extensional detachment, genetically associated with crustal melting, the emplacement of syn-kinematic plutons and widespread migmatisation. The emplacement of these magmatic rocks led to an array of simultaneously formed structures that document deformation conditions over a wide temperature range, represented by amphibolite- and greenschist- facies mylonites and as well as brittle structures, such as cataclastic zones and normal faults that formed during exhumation in the footwall of the detachment. The formation of this detachment and a first phase of Late Cretaceous cooling was followed by renewed Eocene - Oligocene exhumation, as evidenced from our fission track ages. We infer that an initial Cretaceous thermal anomaly was responsible for the formation of an extensional gneiss dome associated with simple shear and rotation of normal faults. These Cretaceous processes played a critical role in the establishment of the presently observed crustal structure of Peninsular Malaysia.

  7. Lithium, boron and chlorine as tracers for metasomatism in high-pressure metamorphic rocks: a case study from Syros (Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschall, Horst R.; Altherr, Rainer; Gméling, Katalin; Kasztovszky, Zsolt

    2009-03-01

    High-pressure metamorphic (HPM) rocks (derived from igneous protoliths) and their metasomatised rinds from the island of Syros (Greece) were analysed for their B and Cl whole-rock abundances and their H2O content by prompt-gamma neutron-activation analysis (PGNAA) and for their Li and Be whole-rock abundances by ICP-OES. In the HPM rocks, B /Be and Cl /Be ratios correlate with H2O contents and appear to be controlled by extraction of B and Cl during dehydration and prograde metamorphism. In contrast, samples of the metasomatised rinds show no such correlation. B /Be ratios in the rinds are solely governed by the presence or absence of tourmaline, and Cl /Be ratios vary significantly, possibly related to fluid inclusions. Li/Be ratios do not correlate with H2O contents in the HPM rocks, which may in part be explained by a conservative behaviour of Li during dehydration. However, Li abundances exceed the vast majority of published values for Li abundances in fresh, altered, or differentiated oceanic igneous rocks and presumably result from metasomatic enrichment of Li. High Li concentrations and highly elevated Li/Be ratios in most metasomatised samples demonstrate an enrichment of Li in the Syros HP mélange during fluid infiltration. This study suggests that B and Cl abundances of HPM meta-igneous rocks can be used to trace prograde dehydration, while Li concentrations seem to be more sensitive for retrograde metasomatic processes in such lithologies.

  8. Deep levels in metamorphic InAs/InGaAs quantum dot structures with different composition of the embedding layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovynskyi, S.; Datsenko, O.; Seravalli, L.; Kozak, O.; Trevisi, G.; Frigeri, P.; Babichuk, I. S.; Golovynska, I.; Qu, Junle

    2017-12-01

    Deep levels in metamorphic InAs/In x Ga1-x As quantum dot (QD) structures are studied with deep level thermally stimulated conductivity (TSC), photoconductivity (PC) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and compared with data from pseudomorphic InGaAs/GaAs QDs investigated previously by the same techniques. We have found that for a low content of indium (x = 0.15) the trap density in the plane of self-assembled QDs is comparable or less than the one for InGaAs/GaAs QDs. However, the trap density increases with x, resulting in a rise of the defect photoresponse in PC and TSC spectra as well as a reduction of the QD PL intensity. The activation energies of the deep levels and some traps correspond to known defect complexes EL2, EL6, EL7, EL9, and EL10 inherent in GaAs, and three traps are attributed to the extended defects, located in InGaAs embedding layers. The rest of them have been found as concentrated mainly close to QDs, as their density in the deeper InGaAs buffers is much lower. This an important result for the development of light-emitting and light-sensitive devices based on metamorphic InAs QDs, as it is a strong indication that the defect density is not higher than in pseudomorphic InAs QDs.

  9. Mesozoic monazite in Neoproterozoic metasediments. Evidence for low-grade metamorphism of Sinian sediments during Triassic continental collision, Liaodong Peninsula, NE China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Yusheng; Song Tianrui; Liu Dunyi; Yang Tiannan; Yin Xiaoyan; Zhang Qiaoda; Chen Zhenyu

    2007-01-01

    Sericite phyllite from the Sinian Shisanlitai Formation, Dalian area, Liaodong Peninsula, NE China, contains an assemblage of newly-formed lower-greenschist facies minerals (sericite, chlorite, Fe minerals and Ti minerals) plus aggregates of fine-grained monazite. The texture of the monazite, its mineral inclusions, and its close association with Fe oxide minerals show that it is not detrital or diagenetic, but a product of the low-grade metamorphism. SHRIMP U-Th-Pb dating of the monazite at 217±15 Ma shows that the metamorphism, and associated regional deformation and fluid flow, occurred in the Late Triassic, coeval with the waning stages of the Dabie-Sulu orogeny. The Dabie-Sulu tectonothermal event has produced both deformation and metamorphism in rocks of the eastern North China Block at least up to ∼200 km north of the main continent-continent collision zone. (author)

  10. At what conditions does zircon grow/dissolve during high-T metamorphism? Relating zircon textures to PT-conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Barbara E.; Regis, Daniele; Manzotti, Paola; Engi, Martin

    2015-04-01

    A key question in ziconology is when and how zircon grows during metamorphism. To shed light on zircon forming processes and the corresponding PT-conditions during high-T metamorphism a case study was undertaken. The Ivrea Zone (N-Italy) exposes a lower continental crustal section in which a continuous metamorphic field gradient from amphibolite to granulite facies is documented. This field gradient is thought to reflect protracted heating during late Paleozoic times, with a probable high-T peak in the Permian. We present first results from a primarily textural study supported by U-Pb ages, Th/U ratios and Ti-in-Zrn thermometry. Four types of zircon were identified based on their overgrowth proportions and the preservation of detrital cores. Zircon grains were thus classified as Type1 - detrital grains with no overgrowth or very narrow rims (300 Ma) and appears to reflect an early dehydration phase. Rim2b has Permian ages (median 275 Ma), is by far the most common overgrowth type, found in a wide PT-range. Its development appears related to biotite breakdown. Rim3 is texturally indicative of magmatic zircon, occurs only in diatexites. Rim4 is the latest overgrowth and is locally found at all metamorphic grades. Textural features suggest late fluid-related recrystallization of existing zircon. At lowest grade (675±35°C, 6±2 kbar) zircons show type1 only, overgrowths are too thin to clearly identify the rim type. Further upgrade (~700°C, 7 kbar) type1 and type2 dominate. Type2 zircons show rim1, rim2a and occasionally rim4. At the Mu-out isograd (750±50°C, 8.2±1.4 kbar) most zircons are of type2, now with rim2b instead of 2a, in addition to rim1 and rim4. Near and in granulite facies (to 800°C, 8±2 kbar) mostly zircon type2 and type4 are present. While rim1 gets more narrow with increasing metamorphic grade, rim2b grows significantly thicker. Occasionally rim2a and rim4 occur. Close to the Bt-out isograd (~860°C, 9.2±1.7 kbar), mostly type3 and type4 are

  11. Metamorphism, P-T-t Conditions of Formation, and Prospects for the Practical Use of Al2SiO5 Polymorphs, Chloritoid, and Staurolite (Yenisei Ridge)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, P. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Yenisei Ridge is an accretion-collisional orogen located in the southwestern frame of the Siberian Craton in the interfluve between Podkamennaya Tunguska, Angara, Kan, and Yenisei rivers. The Precambrian mono- and polymetamorphic complexes composed predominantly of the Mesoarchean-Neoproterozoic metapelitic rocks have been studied. Based on the typification of metamorphic complexes by pressure, temperature, metamorphic gradient, as well as age of metamorphism, the location scheme of the fields of the Precambrian sedimentary-metamorphic rock which are prospective for searching deposits of high-alumina metamorphic minerals (andalusite, kyanite, and sillimanite, chloritoid, and staurolite) in the Trans-Angara segment of the Yenisei Region, was compiled. The Teya sillimanite and Panimbinsk andalusite deposits, which are confined to the fields of regional metamorphic complexes of iron-alumina metapelites of the And-Sill facies series, are recommended as a priority for the organization of prospecting works and the subsequent involvement to the metallurgical industry. These metapelites are classified as monomineral. Owing to widespread occurrence and abundance of andalusite and sillimanite, the above deposits have significant inferred resources. Stratiform deposits of garnet-staurolite and chloritoid high-alumina rocks are still insufficiently studied and should be investigated further. The prospects for the possible use of high-alumina andalusite and sillimanite together with Middle Tatarka and Kiya nepheline syenite massifs and the bauxites of the Chadobets uplift, already being explored in the region, for production of aluminum oxide, silumin, and aluminum, as well as, the prospects for the expansion of the raw material base of the Boguchansk Electrometallurgical Complex, brought into operation in 2016 in the Lower Angara region, are considered.

  12. Granite intrusion in a metamorphic core complex: the example of the Mykonos laccolith (Cyclades, Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denèle, Yoann; Lecomte, Emmanuel; Jolivet, Laurent; Huet, Benjamin; Labrousse, Loïc.; Le Pourhiet, Laetitia; Lacombe, Olivier

    2010-05-01

    Numerical and analogical modelling underlined the importance of a pre-existing anomaly of viscosity-density such as a granite or migmatitic body below the brittle-ductile transition as a primary cause of metamorphic core complex (MCC) developpement. While field studies of MCC show a spatial and temporal link between MCC formation and plutonic activity, thermochronological studies show that there is no link between the intrusion of granites and the velocity of slip on the detachement plane. The Aegean domain is a good natural laboratory for studying the formation of MCC and syn-tectonic granites. In the northern Cyclades, the Mykonos-Delos-Rhenia MCC is characterised by the intrusion of a plurikilometric Late Miocene pluton of I-type granite within a migmatitic gneiss dome. AMS (Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility) and microstructural studies in the Mykonos granites combined with recent cooling rate data allow us to use the granites as strain marker. The Mykonos granitoïds form a plurikilometric laccolith slightly deeping to the east and presenting an elliptical shape with a N170°E long axis. The laccolith is strongly asymmetrical with an outlying root zone in the SW cropping out on Delos and Rhenia islands and a major body mainly developed to the NE and cropping out on Mykonos Island. The laccolith consists of various petrographic facies presenting straight contacts that demonstrate emplacement by successive pulses of more or less differentiated magmas. The laccolith was developed at the interface between the Cycladic Basement and the Blueschists Unit and within the Blueschist Unit. Two events of deformation have been recorded in the granites. The first event is characterized by submagmatic and high to middle temperature protomylonite microstructures developped during or just after the intrusion. The second event of deformation characterized by low temperature mylonites and cataclasites close to the major detachment fault corresponds to the localization of

  13. Political rotations and cross-province acquisitions in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muratova, Yulia; Arnoldi, Jakob; Chen, Xin

    2018-01-01

    The underdeveloped institutional framework and trade barriers between China’s provinces make cross-province acquisitions challenging. We explore how Chinese firms can mitigate this problem. Drawing on social network theory we propose that cross-province rotation of political leaders—a key element...... of the promotion system of political cadres in China—is a mechanism enabling growth through cross-province acquisitions. We conceptualize rotated leaders as brokers between two geographically dispersed networks. We contribute to the literature on the characteristics of Chinese social networks, the effect...... of political connections on firm strategy, and the impact of political rotations on firm growth in China’s provinces....

  14. Analysis on the inbound tourist source market in Fujian Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    YU, Tong

    2017-06-01

    The paper analyzes the development and structure of inbound tourism in Fujian Province by Excel software and conducts the cluster analysis on the inbound tourism market by SPSS 23.0 software based on the inbound tourism data of Fujian Province from 2006 to 2015. The results show: the rapid development of inbound tourism in Fujian Province and the diversified inbound tourist source countries indicate the stability of inbound tourism market; the inbound tourist source market in Fujian Province can be divided into four categories according to the cluster analysis, and tourists from the United States, Japan, Malaysia, and Singapore are the key of inbound tourism in Fujian Province.

  15. Crustal-scale shear zones recording 400 m.y. of tectonic activity in the North Caribou greenstone belt, western Superior Province of Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalbfleisch, Netasha

    A series of crustal-scale shear zones demarcates the northern and eastern margins of the North Caribou greenstone belt (NCGB), proximal to a Mesoarchean terrane boundary in the core of the western Superior Province of Canada. The dominant deformation produced a pervasive steeply dipping fabric that trends broadly parallel to the doubly arcuate shape of the belt and was responsible for tight folding the banded iron formation host to Goldcorp's prolific gold deposit at Musselwhite mine. The shear zones in the North Caribou greenstone belt are of particular interest because of their ability to channel hydrothermal fluids with the potential to bear ore and cause alteration of the middle to shallow crust. Shear zones are commonly reactivated during subsequent tectonism, but exhibit a consistent and dominant dextral shear sense across the belt; fabric-forming micas and chlorite are generally Mg-rich. Although garnets samples from within the shear zones are dominantly almandine, they possess variable geochemical trends (HREEs of >2 orders of magnitude) and can be syn-, intra-, or post-tectonic in origin. In situ geochronological analysis of zircon (U-Pb) and monazite (total-Pb) in high strain rocks in and around the NCGB, interpreted in light of in situ geochemical analysis of garnet and fabric-forming micas and chlorite, reveals four relatively discrete events that span 400 million years. Metamorphism of the mid-crust was coeval with magmatism during docking of the Island Lake domain at c. 2.86 Ga and subsequent terrane accretion at the north and south margins of the North Caribou Superterrane from c. 2.75 to 2.71 Ga. Transpressive shear at c. 2.60 to 2.56 Ga and late re-activation of shear zones at c. 2.44 Ga produced a steeply-dipping pervasive fabric, and channeled fluids for late crystallization of garnet and monazite recorded in the Markop Lake deformation zone. These observations implicate a horizontal tectonic model similar to the modern eastern Pacific plate

  16. Ediacaran ( 620 Ma) high grade regional metamorphism in the northern Arabian Nubian Shield: U/Th-Pb monazite ages of the Elat schist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elisha, Bar; Katzir, Yaron; Kylander-Clark, Andrew

    2017-04-01

    Ediacaran times witnessed a hemisphere-scale orogenesis forming the extensive Pan-African mountain ranges and resulting in the final assembly of Gondwana supercontinent. The Elat metamorphic basement (S Israel) located at the northernmost tip of a major Pan-African orogenic suture, the Arabian Nubian Shield (ANS), comprises amphibolite facies schists and gneisses and was most likely shaped by this major continental collision. However the timing, number and duration of metamorphic events in Elat and elsewhere in the ANS are non-conclusive and a major emphasis was given to pre-Ediacaran island-arc related tectonics. This is mostly because U-Pb dating of zircon, widely used in Elat and elsewhere, is very successful in constraining the ages of the igneous and sedimentary protoliths, but is 'blind' to metamorphism at grades lower than granulite. Here U/Th-Pb dating of monazite, a precise chronometer of metamorphic mineral growth, is systematically applied to the Elat schist and unveils the tectono-metamorphic evolution of the Elat basement. Previous U-Pb dating of detrital zircon has shown that the sedimentary protoliths of the Elat schist are the oldest basement components (≥800 Ma), and detailed structural observations of the schists portrayed a complex deformation history including four successive phases (Shimron, 1972). The earliest three phases were defined as ductile and penetrative, but some of the available geochronological data apparently contradict field relations. In-situ analysis of metamorphic monazites by LASS (Laser Ablation Split Stream) involves simultaneous measurement of U/Th-Pb isotope ratios and REE contents in a single 10 μm sized grain or domain, thus allowing determining the age of specific texture and metamorphic assemblage. Monazite dating of the Elat schist yielded two concordant age clusters at 712±6 and 613±5 Ma. The corresponding REE patterns of the dated monazite grains indicate that porphyroblast growth, either garnet or staurolite

  17. First results of U-Pb dating of metamorphic rocks of the Greater Antilles arc: age of the Mabujina complex (Cuba)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibikova, E.V.; Somin, M.L.; Gracheva, T.V.; Makarov, V.A.; Mil'yan, G.; Shukolyukov, Yu.A.; AN SSSR, Moscow

    1988-01-01

    U-Pb-dating of zircons, entering the composition of metamorphic rocks of the Mabujina complex, was conducted in order to solve the problem concerming the place of metamorphic complexes in the structure and tectonic evolution of the Greater Antilles arc. The accuracy of uranium and lead determination was equal to ± 1%, the accuracy of lead isotopic ratio determination with the use of TSN-206A mass-spectrometer- ±0.15%. Isotope data showed, that all examined zircons crystallized about 100 mil. years ago

  18. K-Ar dating celadonite: A contribution to timing of a very low-grade metamorphism in the Central Andes of Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belmar, M; Schmidt, S.; Frey, M

    2001-01-01

    Clay minerals have been used in several studies to date very low-grade metamorphism processes and hydrothermal episodes. The technique of using the K-Ar isotopic dating was demonstrated by many authors (e.g. Hunziker et al., 1986; Clauer et al., 1995; Kirschner et al 1995; Zhao et al., 1997; Glasmacher et al., 2001). White mica and illitic materials of different size are usually analysed, whereasceladonite mineral with high potassium content has been low developed and few data are published. Successful dating of continental Andean celadonite could mean that is possible to date the very low-grade metamorphism (zeolites facies) in which celadonites are very often observed (au)

  19. Paleozoic age of high-pressure metamorphic rocks of the Dakh salient, North-Western Caucasus: results of U-Pb-geochronological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somin, M.L.; Levchenkov, O.A.; Kotov, A.B.; Makeev, A.F.; Komarov, A.N.; Ro, N.I.; Lavrishchev, V.A.; Lebedev, V.A.

    2007-01-01

    U-Pb geochronological studies of an ancient component of the Dakh salient, i.e. metaaplites, which are vein fine-grained rocks made up by albite, microcline, quartz and potash mica, were made. Besides, K-Ar dating of granodiorites breaking through metamorphic rocks was conducted. U-Pb dating of accessory zircons (353 mln. years) defines the lower age boundary of the Dakh salient rock metamorphism. Its upper boundary was identified by K-Ar dating (301 ± 10 mln. years) of hornfels blende of nonmetamophized granodiorites [ru

  20. Structural and metamorphic evolution of the Mid-Late Proterozoic Rayner Complex, Cape Bruce, East Antarctica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunkley, D.J.; Clarke, G.L.; White, R.W.

    2002-01-01

    Granulite to transitional granulite facies gneisses exposed at Cape Bruce, Rayner Complex, East Antarctica, record three main orogenic/magmatic phases: (1) intrusion of c. 1000-980 Ma felsic orthogneisses into Mid-Proterozoic metasediments, contemporary with the development of north-trending reclined to recumbent folds; (2) extensive c. 980-900 Ma felsic magmatism, including equivalents of the Mawson Charnockite, which accompanied the development of upright, east-northeast-trending folds; and (3) ultramylonite zones of uncertain age. The first two phases are known as the Rayner Structrual Episode, the effects of which are similar in rocks to the east of Cape Bruce, at Mawson, and in the northern Prince Charles Mountains. Archaean rocks immediately to the west of Cape Bruce were tectonically reworked during the Rayner Structural Episode. The first orogenic phase is inferred to represent the collision between a wedge-shaped Proterozoic block comprising rocks of the Mawson Coast and Eastern Ghats Province, with the Archaean Napier Complex. The second orogenic phase included a major period of crustal growth through emplacement of the Mawson Charnockite and equivalents. (author). 41 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  1. USMC Rethinking Coin in Helmand Province Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    the national power of Afghanistan, but continued to challenge each other for control at the provincial level . The Akhundzadek clan dominated...external powers dominating the central government of the province through the capital of Lashkar Gah, but demanded some autonomy at the local level .18...commands in a MAGTF are the ground combat element ( GCE ), air combat element (ACE), and logistic combat element (LCE). Flexibility and tempo are the

  2. A Glance at Bohai Bay Oil Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Shoubai

    1995-01-01

    @@ Chinese oil industry keeps on developing in 1994. The oil production of Bohai Bay Oil Province located in East China also keeps on growing. Geologically,the total area of Bohai Bay Basin is about 200 000 km2 and the main structural units are: Liaohe Depression, Huanghua Depression,Jizhong Depression, Linqing Depression, Jiyang Depression, Changwei Depression, Bozhong Depression,Chengning Uplift and Cangjing Uplift (see figure 1). Area of the main structural units is listed in following:

  3. An ethnobotanical survey on hormozgan province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Safa

    2012-12-01

    Conclusion: This study revealed that the people of Hormozgan province have a rich knowledge of natural resources. The use and consumption of medicinal plants are still important parts of their life.Rational use of native medicinal plants may benefit and improve their living standards and quality of life. The results of this study can be used as a basis for selecting herbs for further pharmacological, phytochemical, and pharmacognostical studies.

  4. Migmatization and low-pressure overprinting metamorphism as record of two pre-Cretaceous tectonic episodes in the Santander Massif of the Andean basement in northern Colombia (NW South America)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuluaga, C. A.; Amaya, S.; Urueña, C.; Bernet, M.

    2017-03-01

    The core of the Santander Massif in the northern Andes of Colombia is dominated by migmatitic gneisses with a 7.5 kbar. Lithologies are overprinted by low-pressure metamorphism, related to extensive Jurassic intrusions and linked with growth of cordierite and equilibration of low-pressure mineral assemblages, recorded metamorphic conditions are Pangaea.

  5. Resetting of Mg isotopes between calcite and dolomite during burial metamorphism: Outlook of Mg isotopes as geothermometer and seawater proxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhongya; Hu, Wenxuan; Wang, Xiaomin; Lu, Yizhou; Wang, Lichao; Liao, Zhiwei; Li, Weiqiang

    2017-07-01

    Magnesium isotopes are an emerging tool to study the geological processes recorded in carbonates. Calcite, due to its ubiquitous occurrence and the large Mg isotope fractionation associated with the mineral, has attracted great interests in applications of Mg isotope geochemistry. However, the fidelity of Mg isotopes in geological records of carbonate minerals (e.g., calcite and dolomite) against burial metamorphism remains poorly constrained. Here we report our investigation on the Mg isotope systematics of a dolomitized Middle Triassic Geshan carbonate section in eastern China. Magnesium isotope analysis was complemented by analyses of Sr-C-O isotopic compositions, major and trace element concentrations, and petrographic and mineralogical features. Multiple lines of evidence consistently indicated that post-depositional diagenesis of carbonate minerals occurred to the carbonate rocks. Magnesium isotope compositions of the carbonate rocks closely follow a mixing trend between a high δ26Mg dolomite end member and a low δ26Mg calcite end member, irrespective of sample positions in the section and calcite/dolomite ratio in the samples. By fitting the measured Mg isotope data using a two-end member mixing model, an inter-mineral Δ26Mgdolomite-calcite fractionation of 0.72‰ was obtained. Based on the experimentally derived Mg isotope fractionation factors for dolomite and calcite, a temperature of 150-190 °C was calculated to correspond to the 0.72‰ Δ26Mgdolomite-calcite fractionation. Such temperature range matches with the burial-thermal history of the local strata, making a successful case of Mg isotope geothermometry. Our results indicate that both calcite and dolomite had been re-equilibrated during burial metamorphism, and based on isotope mass balance of Mg, the system was buffered by dolomite in the section. Therefore, burial metamorphism may reset Mg isotope signature of calcite, and Mg isotope compositions in calcite should be dealt with caution in

  6. Aspects of the structural and late thermal evolution of the Redbank Thrust system, central Australia: constraints from the Speares Metamorphics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biermeier, C.; Wiesinger, M.; Stuewe, K.; Foster, D.A.

    2003-01-01

    We present new data on the field geology and late thermal evolution of the Redbank Thrust system in the Arunta Block of central Australia. Geochronological and field data from the Speares Meta-morphics are also used to relate the thermal evolution of the Redbank Thrust system to the structural evolution of the region. We show that several stages in the evolution might be discerned. An originally sedimentary sequence was intruded by mafic intrusions and then deformed during partial melting to form the principal foliation observed in the region (D1). This sequence was then folded during D2 into upright folds with north- to northeast-plunging fold axes. These events are likely to correlate with the Strangways and/or Argilke and Chewings Orogenies known from previous studies. Subsequently, the Redbank Thrust was initiated during D3. This event is recognised by deflection of the host rocks into the shear zone and might therefore have been associated with a component of strike-slip motion. It occurred probably at or before 1500-1400 Ma. Subsequent north-over-south thrust motion in the Redbank Thrust formed the intense mylonitic fabric and folded the mylonitic fabric during D4 into asymmetric folds with shallow fold axes. New 40 Ar/ 39 Ar K-feldspar ages from three samples collected from variably deformed branches of the Redbank Thrust and undeformed rocks in the Speares Metamorphics suggest that most parts of the Redbank Thrust system cooled relatively slowly after metamorphism and deformation in the Mesoproterozoic so that the D4 thrusting might have been very long-lived. Minimum ages of the K-feldspar age spectra show that the entire region cooled below 200 deg C by approximately 300 Ma. Apatite fission track ages from nine samples show that cooling through the apatite partial annealing zone occurred during Cretaceous time (ca 150-70 Ma) and modelled cooling histories are consistent with the cooling rates obtained from the K-feldspar data. They indicate that final

  7. Physiological effects and cellular responses of metamorphic larvae and juveniles of sea urchin exposed to ionic and nanoparticulate silver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magesky, Adriano; Ribeiro, Ciro A Oliveiro; Pelletier, Émilien

    2016-05-01

    The widespread use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) would likely result in their discharge into wastewater and inevitable release in densely populated coastal areas. It is known that AgNPs can cause harmful effects to marine fauna, but how they affect development stages is still an open question. In order to understand in details how polymer-coated AgNPs (PAAm-AgNPs) (from 0.19 to 4.64mM as Ag) can affect critical stages of marine invertebrate development, metamorphic larvae and juveniles of sea urchins were used as biological models. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) approach based on Bray-Curtis similarity matrix with PERMANOVA showed organisms in a multivariate space undergoing through different physiological conditions as a function of time, chemical forms of silver, nominal concentrations, and presence or absence of food. Sublethal effects such as lethargy, oedema and immobility mainly characterized PAAm-AgNPs effects with juveniles and postlarvae, whereas necrosis and death arose in Ag(+) conditions in short-term tests. Chronically exposed metamorphic larvae had their morphogenic processes interrupted by PAAm-AgNPs and a high mortality rate was observed in recovery period. On the contrary, Ag(+) ions caused progressive mortality during exposure, but a quick recovery in uncontaminated seawater was observed. By means of fluorescent markers we showed that nanosilver could be transferred between consecutive stages (swimming larvae and postlarvae) and highlighted how important is food to enhance PAAm-AgNPs uptake. Using TEM we observed that unfed juveniles had nanosilver aggregates mostly restricted to their coelomic sinuses, while metamorphic larvae already had nano-contamination overspread in different tissues and blastocoel. Our main hypothesis for nanotoxicity of PAAM-AgNPs relies on the slow dissolution of nano-core over time, but in this study the effects of particulate silver form itself are also evoked. Main mechanisms governing tissular and cellular responses

  8. Carbide-metal assemblages in a sample returned from asteroid 25143 Itokawa: Evidence for methane-rich fluids during metamorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, Dennis; Langenhorst, Falko

    2018-02-01

    We found that the particle RA-QD02-0115 returned by the Hayabusa spacecraft from near-Earth asteroid 25143 Itokawa contains the iron carbide haxonite (Fe21.9-22.7Co0.2-0.3Ni0.2-0.8)C6 and several Fe,Ni alloys, including multi-domain tetrataenite and spinodally decomposed taenite. Ellipsoidal to nearly spherical voids occur throughout the particle and suggest the presence of a fluid phase during textural and chemical equilibration of the host rock within the parent asteroid of 25143 Itokawa. The calculated solubility of carbon in Fe,Ni metal indicates that the carbide formed at temperatures larger than 600 °C during thermal metamorphism of the LL-chondritic mineral assemblage. Haxonite formed metastably with respect to graphite and cohenite, probably due to its high degree of lattice match with neighboring taenite, a low cooling rate at peak metamorphic temperatures, and the hindered nucleation of graphite. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations indicate that the fluid present was dry (H2O-poor) and dominated by methane. The reactive fluid most plausibly had an atomic H/C ratio of 4-5 and was derived from the reduction of macromolecular, insoluble organic matter (IOM) that initially co-accreted with water ice. The initial presence of water is a necessary assumption to provide sufficient hydrogen for the formation of methane from hydrolyzed IOM. Metallic iron was in turn partially oxidized and incorporated into the ferromagnesian silicates during the high-temperature stage of metamorphism. An exemplary bulk reaction from unequilibrated material on the left to an equilibrated assemblage on the right may be written as: 330 CH0.8O0.2(IOM) + 500 H2O(ice/g) + 681 Fe(in alloy) + 566 FeSiO3(in Opx) → 300 CH4(g) + 32 H2(g) + 5 Fe23C6(in Hx) + 566 Fe2SiO4(in Ol) (Opx = orthopyroxene, Hx = haxonite, Ol = olivine, g = fluid species). The best estimate of the fluid/rock ratio in the region of the LL parent body where RA-QD02-0115 formed is about 3 × 10-3 and corresponds to

  9. Precipitation of Oriented Rutile and Ilmenite Needles in Garnet, Northeastern Connecticut, USA: Evidence for Extreme Metamorphic Conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ague, J. J.; Eckert, J. O.

    2011-12-01

    We report the discovery of oriented needles of rutile and, less commonly, ilmenite in the cores of garnets from northeastern CT, USA. The rocks preserve granulite facies mineral assemblages, form part of the Merrimack Synclinorium, and underwent metamorphism and deformation during the Acadian orogeny. The needles appear identical to those reported from a number of extreme P-T environments worldwide, including UHP metamorphic rocks, high-P granulites, and garnet peridotites. The needles are predominantly oriented along directions in garnet. The long axes of the rutile needles commonly do not go extinct parallel to the cross hairs under cross-polarized light (e.g., Griffin et al., 1971). This anomalous extinction indicates that the needles do not preserve a specific crystallographic relationship with their garnet hosts (e.g., Hwang et al., 2007). The needles range from a few hundred nm to a few um in diameter, and can be mm-scale in length. Micrometer-scale plates of rutile, srilankite and crichtonite have also been observed in some garnets together with the Fe-Ti oxide needles. Several origins for the needles have been proposed in the literature; we investigate the hypothesis that they precipitated in situ from originally Ti-rich garnet. Chemical profiles across garnets indicate that some retain Ti zoning, with elevated-Ti concentrations in the cores dropping to low values in the rims. For these zoned garnets, high-resolution, 2-D chemical mapping using the JEOL JXA-8530F field emission gun electron microprobe at Yale University reveals that the needles are surrounded by well-defined Ti-depletion halos. Chemical profiles also document strong depletions of Cr (which is present in both rutile and ilmenite) directly adjacent to needles. The observed Ti-depletions demonstrate that the needles precipitated from Ti-bearing garnet, probably during cooling and/or decompression associated with exhumation. The rutile precipitates must be largely incoherent with respect to the

  10. Structural, metamorphic and geochronological insights on the Variscan evolution of the Alpine basement in the Belledonne Massif (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fréville, Kévin; Trap, Pierre; Faure, Michel; Melleton, Jérémie; Li, Xian-Hua; Lin, Wei; Blein, Olivier; Bruguier, Olivier; Poujol, Marc

    2018-02-01

    A structural and petrochronological study was carried out in the southern part of the Belledonne crystalline massif. A first tectonometamorphic event, Dx, corresponds to the eastward thrusting of the Chamrousse ophiolitic complex characterized by a low-temperature-moderate-pressure metamorphism reaching 0.535 ± 0.045 GPa and 427.5 ± 17.5 °C. A subsequent D1 deformation is defined by a penetrative S1 foliation that mostly dips toward the west and displays an E-W- to NE-SW-trending mineral and stretching lineation L1. D1 is associated with a top-to-the east shearing and is responsible for the crustal thickening accommodated by the eastward nappe stacking and the emplacement of the Chamrousse ophiolitic complex upon the Rioupéroux-Livet unit. This event is characterized by an amphibolite facies metamorphism (0.58 GPa ± 0.06; 608 ± 14 °C) that attains partial melting at the base of the nappe pile (0.78 ± 0.07 GPa; 680.5 ± 11.5 °C). LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating of monazite grains from the mica schists of the Rioupéroux-Livet unit constrain the age of D1 to 337 ± 7 Ma. The D2 tectono-metamorphic event is characterized by NE-SW trending, upright to NE-verging synfolial folding. Folding associated with D2 is pervasively developed in all lithotectonic units with the development of a steeply-dipping S2 foliation. In particular, D2 involves the uppermost weakly metamorphosed Taillefer unit. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating performed on detrital zircon grains shows that the Taillefer conglomerates was deposited during the Visean. A zircon SIMS U-Pb age of 352 ± 1 Ma from a plagioglase-rich leucocratic sill of the Rioupéroux-Livet unit is interpreted as the age of magmatic emplacement. Our results suggest that the D2 event took place between 330 Ma and 310 Ma. We propose a new interpretation of the tectonometamorphic evolution of the southern part of the Belledonne massif, focusing on the Middle Carboniferous stages of the Variscan orogeny.

  11. Pseudo- and real-inverted metamorphism caused by the superposition and extrusion of a stack of nappes: a case study of the Southern Brasília Orogen, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Motta, Rafael Gonçalves; Moraes, Renato

    2017-10-01

    The Southern Brasília Orogen is a Neoproterozoic belt that occurs along the southernmost border of the São Francisco Craton where the Andrelândia Nappe System represents the subducted sedimentary domain and is divided into three allochthonous groups, of which the ages and P-T conditions of metamorphism are studied here. The basal unit, the Andrelândia Nappe, exhibits an inverted metamorphic pattern. The base of the structure, composed of staurolite, garnet, biotite, kyanite, quartz, and muscovite, marks the metamorphic peak, whereas at the top, the association of the metamorphic peak does not contain staurolite. The Liberdade Nappe, the middle unit, presents a normal metamorphic pattern; its base, close to the Andrelândia Nappe, shows paragneiss with evidence of in situ partial melting, and towards the top, coarse-grained staurolite schist is found. The staurolite-out and melt-in isograds are coincident and parallel to the main foliation. Thus, the shear zone that limits the nappes is syn-metamorphic, reheating the underlying Andrelândia Nappe and influencing the establishment of metamorphic inversion. This suggestion is supported by the monazite chemical ages, which indicates that the Andrelândia Nappe metamorphic peak (586 ± 15 Ma) is younger than that of the Liberdade Nappe (622.3 ± 7.6 Ma). The upper unit, the Serra da Natureza Klippe, bears a typical high-pressure granulite mineral assemblage that is composed of kyanite, garnet, K-feldspar, rutile, and leucosome, as well as a metamorphic peak at 604.5 ± 6.1 Ma. This tectonic assembly, with inverted and non-inverted metamorphic patterns and generation of klippen structures, is consistent with exhumation models and a strong indentor located in the lower continental crust.

  12. Temperature dependence of ballistic mobility in a metamorphic InGaAs/InAlAs high electron mobility transistor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jongkyong; Gang, Suhyun; Jo, Yongcheol; Kim, Jongmin; Woo, Hyeonseok; Han, Jaeseok; Kim, Hyungsang; Im, Hyunsik

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated the temperature dependence of ballistic mobility in a 100 nm-long InGaAs/InAlAs metamorphic high-electron-mobility transistor designed for millimeter-wavelength RF applications. To extract the temperature dependence of quasi-ballistic mobility, our experiment involves measurements of the effective mobility in the low-bias linear region of the transistor and of the collision-dominated Hall mobility using a gated Hall bar of the same epitaxial structure. The data measured from the experiment are consistent with that of modeled ballistic mobility based on ballistic transport theory. These results advance the understanding of ballistic transport in various transistors with a nano-scale channel length that is comparable to the carrier's mean free path in the channel.

  13. Petrologic and geochemical characterization and mineralization of the metavolcanic rocks of the Heib Formation, Kid Metamorphic Complex, Sinai, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim H. Khalifa

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Metavolcanic rocks hosting base metal sulphide mineralization, and belonging to the Kid Metamorphic Complex, are exposed in the Samra-Tarr area, Southern Sinai. The rocks consist of slightly metamorphosed varicolored porphyritic lavas of rhyolite-to-andesite composition, and their equivalent pyroclastics. Geochemically, these metavolcanics are classified as high-K calc-alkaline, metaluminous andesites, trachyandesites, dacites, and rhyolites. The geochemical characteristics of these metavolcanics strongly point to their derivation from continental crust in an active continental margin. The sulphide mineralization in these metavolcanics occurs in two major ore zones, and is represented by four distinct styles of mineralization. The mineralization occurs either as low-grade disseminations or as small massive pockets. The associated hydrothermal alterations include carbonatization, silicification, sericitization and argillic alterations. The base metal sulphide mineralization is epigenetic and was formed by hydrothermal solutions associated with subduction-related volcanic activity.

  14. Millimeter-wave small-signal modeling with optimizing sensitive-parameters for metamorphic high electron mobility transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, S-W; Baek, Y-H; Han, M; Rhee, J-K; Kim, S-D; Oh, J-H

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present a simple and reliable technique for determining the small-signal equivalent circuit model parameters of the 0.1 µm metamorphic high electron mobility transistors (MHEMTs) in a millimeter-wave frequency range. The initial eight extrinsic parameters of the MHEMT are extracted using two S-parameter (scattering parameter) sets measured under the pinched-off and zero-biased cold field-effect transistor conditions by avoiding the forward gate biasing. Furthermore, highly calibration-sensitive values of the R s , L s and C pd are optimized by using a gradient optimization method to improve the modeling accuracy. The accuracy enhancement of this procedure is successfully verified with an excellent correlation between the measured and calculated S-parameters up to 65 GHz

  15. Death Valley turtlebacks: Mesozoic contractional structures overprinted by Cenozoic extension and metamorphism beneath syn-extensional plutons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlis, T. L.; Miller, M.; Serpa, L.

    2008-07-01

    The term turtleback was first coined to describe the curvilinear fault surfaces that produced a distinctive geomorphic form in the Black Mountains east of Death Valley, and although it was decades before their full significance was appreciated, they remain one of the most distinctive features of the extensional structure of the Death Valley region. Historically the interpretation of the features has varied markedly, and misconceptions about their character continue to abound, including descriptions in popular field guides for the area. It the 1990's, however, the full history of the systems began to be apparent from several key data: 1) the dating of the plutonic assemblage associated with the turtlebacks demonstrated that late Miocene, syn-extensional plutonism was fundamental to their formation; 2) the plutonic assemblage forms an intrusive sheet structurally above the turtlebacks, indicating a tie between much of the high grade metamorphism and Cenozoic plutonism; 3) a modern analog for the syn-extensional plutonism in the Black Mountains was recognized beneath Death Valley with the imaging of a mid-crustal magma body; 4) the Neogene structural history was worked out in the turtlebacks showing that folding of early-formed shear zones formed the turtleback anticlinoria but overprinting by brittle faults produced the final form as they cut obliquely across the older structure; and 5) the pre-extensional structural history was clarified, demonstrating that Mesozoic basement-involved thrust systems are present within the turtlebacks, but have been overprinted by the extensional system. An unresolved issue is the significance of Eocene U-Pb dates for pegmatites within the region, but presumably these relate somehow to the pre-extensional history. Miller and Pavlis (2005; E. Sci. Rev.) reviewed many features of the turtlebacks, and our working model for the region is that the turtlebacks originated as mid-crustal ductile-thrust systems within the Cordilleran fold

  16. Sapphirine granulites from Panasapattu, Eastern Ghats belt, India: Ultrahigh-temperature metamorphism in a Proterozoic convergent plate margin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.V. Dharma Rao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report equilibrium sapphirine + quartz assemblage in biotite–orthopyroxene–garnet granulites from a new locality in Panasapattu of Paderu region in the Eastern Ghats granulite belt, which provide new evidence for ultrahigh-temperature (UHT metamorphism at 1030–1050 °C and 10 kbar in this region. The development of migmatitic texture, stabilization of the garnet–orthopyroxene–plagioclase–K-feldspar association, prograde biotite inclusions within garnet and sapphirine as well as sapphirine and cordierite inclusions within garnet in these granulites indicate that the observed peak assemblages probably formed during prograde dehydration melting of a Bt–Sill–Qtz assemblage, and constrain the prograde stage of the p–T path. The core domains of orthopyroxene porphyroblasts have up to w(Al2O3 9.6%, which suggest that the temperatures reached up to 1150 °C suggesting extreme crustal metamorphism. These conditions were also confirmed by the garnet–orthopyroxene thermobarometery, which yields a p–T range of 1012–960 °C and 9.4 kbar. The p–T phase topologies computed using isochemical sections calculated in the model system Na2O–CaO–K2O–FeO–MgO–Al2O3–SiO2–H2O (NCKFMASH for metapelites, garnet-free sapphirine granulites and garnet-bearing sapphirine granulites match the melt-bearing assemblages observed in these rocks. Isochemical sections constructed in the NCKFMASH system for an average sub-aluminous metapelite bulk composition, and contoured for modal proportions of melt and garnet, as well as for the compositional isopleths of garnet, predict phase and reaction relations that are consistent with those observed in the rocks. Garnet and orthopyroxene contain Ti-rich phlogopite inclusions, suggesting formation by prograde melting reactions at the expense of phlogopite during ultrahigh-temperature conditions. These p–T results underestimate ‘peak’ conditions, in part as a result of the modification

  17. High-performance CPW MMIC LNA using GaAs-based metamorphic HEMTs for 94-GHz applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Keun-Kwan; Kim, Sung-Chan; An, Dan; Rhee, Jin-Koo

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we report on a high-performance low-noise amplifier (LNA) using metamorphic high-electron-mobility transistor (MHEMT) technology for 94-GHz applications. The 100 nm x 60 μm MHEMT devices for the coplanar MMIC LNA exhibited DC characteristics with a drain current density of 655 mA/mm and an extrinsic transconductance of 720 mS/mm. The current gain cutoff frequency (f T ) and the maximum oscillation frequency (f max ) were 195 GHz and 305 GHz, respectively. Based on this MHEMT technology, coplanar 94-GHz MMIC LNAs were realized, achieving a small signal gain of more than 13 dB between 90 and 100 GHz and a small signal gain of 14.8 dB and a noise figure of 4.7 dB at 94 GHz.

  18. Evidence of contrasting low-grade metamorphic conditons from clay mineral assablages in Triassic Alpujárride-Maláguide transtional units in the Betic Cordilleras, Spain

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ruiz Cruz, M. D.; Franco, F.; Sanz de Galdeano, C.; Novák, Jiří Karel

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 41, 2 (2006), s. 621-638 ISSN 0009-8558 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : low-grade metamorphism * clay minerals * Betic Cordilleras Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.974, year: 2006

  19. Genomics of a Metamorphic Timing QTL: met1 Maps to a Unique Genomic Position and Regulates Morph and Species-Specific Patterns of Brain Transcription

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Robert B.; Boley, Meredith A.; Kump, David K.; Voss, Stephen R.

    2013-01-01

    Very little is known about genetic factors that regulate life history transitions during ontogeny. Closely related tiger salamanders (Ambystoma species complex) show extreme variation in metamorphic timing, with some species foregoing metamorphosis altogether, an adaptive trait called paedomorphosis. Previous studies identified a major effect quantitative trait locus (met1) for metamorphic timing and expression of paedomorphosis in hybrid crosses between the biphasic Eastern tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum tigrinum) and the paedomorphic Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum). We used existing hybrid mapping panels and a newly created hybrid cross to map the met1 genomic region and determine the effect of met1 on larval growth, metamorphic timing, and gene expression in the brain. We show that met1 maps to the position of a urodele-specific chromosome rearrangement on linkage group 2 that uniquely brought functionally associated genes into linkage. Furthermore, we found that more than 200 genes were differentially expressed during larval development as a function of met1 genotype. This list of differentially expressed genes is enriched for proteins that function in the mitochondria, providing evidence of a link between met1, thyroid hormone signaling, and mitochondrial energetics associated with metamorphosis. Finally, we found that met1 significantly affected metamorphic timing in hybrids, but not early larval growth rate. Collectively, our results show that met1 regulates species and morph-specific patterns of brain transcription and life history variation. PMID:23946331

  20. Evidence of an upper ordovician thermo-metamorphic event in the SW-Corner of the Cantabrian Mountains (N-Spain

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    Krumm, S.

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available According to Illite «crystallinity» (IC data, the metamorphic evolution of the SW Cantabrian Mountains took place in several steps. After a Precambrian deformation with accompanying low-grade metamorphism a thermal event during the Upper Ordovician affected the Cambro-Ordovician sediments. This event is marked by anchizonal IC values in the Pre-Silurian sequence contrasting the diagenetic data obtained from Siluro-Devonian rocks.Apparently, the metamorphic history in that part of the Cantabrian Mountains ended during the Late Ordovician, a Hercynian metamorphism cannot be proven conclusively.Segun la cristalinidad de Illita (IC la evolución metamórfica de la zona sudoeste de la Cordillera Cantábrica tuvo lugar en varias etapas. Siguiendo una deformación precámbrica con un metamorfismo de bajo grado, un evento térmico durante el Ordovícico Superior afecto a la secuencia Cambro-Ordovícica. Este evento esta marcado en las rocas pre-Silúricas por valores de IC indicando la anchizona. Estos datos contrastan con valores obtenidos de la secuencia Siluro-Devónica, que son característicos de la diagénesis.Aparentemente, la evolución metamórfica del sudoeste de la Cordillera Cantábrica termino durante el Ordovícico, un metamorfismo Hercínico no pudo ser comprobado.

  1. The Lost South Gobi Microcontinent: Protolith Studies of Metamorphic Tectonites and Implications for the Evolution of Continental Crust in Southeastern Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Heumann

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Central Asian Orogenic Belt, or Altaids, is an amalgamation of volcanic arcs and microcontinent blocks that records a complex late Precambrian–Mesozoic accretionary history. Although microcontinents cored by Precambrian basement are proposed to play an integral role in the accretion process, a lack of isotopic data hampers volume estimates of newly produced arc-derived versus old-cratonic crust in southeastern Mongolia. This study investigates metamorphic tectonites in southern Mongolia that have been mapped as Precambrian in age, largely on the basis of their high metamorphic grade and high strain. Here we present results from microstructural analyses and U-Pb zircon geochronology on samples from Tavan Har (44.05° N, 109.55° E and the Yagan-Onch Hayrhan metamorphic core complex (41.89° N, 104.24° E. Our results show no compelling evidence for Precambrian basement in southeastern Mongolia. Rather, the protoliths to all tectonites examined are Paleozoic–Mesozoic age rocks, formed during Devonian–Carboniferous arc magmatism and subsequent Permian–Triassic orogenesis during collision of the South Mongolia arc with the northern margin of China. These results yield important insights into the Paleozoic accretionary history of southern Mongolia, including the genesis of metamorphic and igneous basement during the Paleozoic, as well as implications for subsequent intracontinental reactivation.

  2. Investigation into the metamorphic Nappes of the Central Scandinavian Caledonides on the basis of Rb-Sr and K-Ar age determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reymer, A.P.S.

    1979-01-01

    This study concerns age determinations on several rock units of metamorphic nappes in the central Scandinavian Caledonides. Rb-Sr analyses on whole-rocks and minerals (biotite, muscovite/phengite, feldspars, garnet) were made as well as K-Ar determinations on biotite, muscovite/phengite, amphibole and feldspar. (Auth.)

  3. Distinct metamorphic evolution of alternating silica-saturated and silica-deficient microdomains within garnet in ultrahigh-temperature granulites: An example from Sri Lanka

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    P.L. Dharmapriya

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Here we report the occurrence of garnet porphyroblasts that have overgrown alternating silica-saturated and silica deficient microdomains via different mineral reactions. The samples were collected from ultrahigh-temperature (UHT metapelites in the Highland Complex, Sri Lanka. In some of the metapelites, garnet crystals have cores formed via a dehydration reaction, which had taken place at silica-saturated microdomains and mantle to rim areas formed via a dehydration reaction at silica-deficient microdomains. In contrast, some other garnets in the same rock cores had formed via a dehydration reaction which occurred at silica-deficient microdomains while mantle to rim areas formed via a dehydration reaction at silica-saturated microdomains. Based on the textural observations, we conclude that the studied garnets have grown across different effective bulk compositional microdomains during the prograde evolution. These microdomains could represent heterogeneous compositional layers (paleobedding/laminations in the precursor sediments or differentiated crenulation cleavages that existed during prograde metamorphism. UHT metamorphism associated with strong ductile deformation, metamorphic differentiation and crystallization of locally produced melt may have obliterated the evidence for such microdomains in the matrix. The lack of significant compositional zoning in garnet probably due to self-diffusion during UHT metamorphism had left mineral inclusions as the sole evidence for earlier microdomains with contrasting chemistry.

  4. Metamorphism and Shear Localization in the Oceanic and Continental Lithosphere: A Local or Lithospheric-Scale Effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesi, L.

    2017-12-01

    Ductile rheologies are characterized by strain rate hardening, which favors deformation zones that are as wide as possible, thus minimizing strain rate and stress. By contrast, plate tectonics and the observation of ductile shear zones in the exposed middle to lower crust show that deformation is often localized, that is, strain (and likely strain rate) is locally very high. This behavior is most easily explained if the material in the shear zone is intrinsically weaker than the reference material forming the wall rocks. Many origins for that weakness have been proposed. They include higher temperature (shear heating), reduced grain size, and fabric. The latter two were shown to be the most effective in the middle crust and upper mantle (given observational limits restricting heating to 50K or less) but they were not very important in the lower crust. They are not sufficient to explain the generation of narrow plate boundaries in the oceans. We evaluate here the importance of metamorphism, especially related to hydration, in weakening the lithosphere. Serpentine is a major player in the dynamics of the oceanic lithosphere. Although its ductile behavior is poorly constrained, serpentine is likely to behave in a brittle or quasi-plastic manner with a reduced coefficient of friction, replacing stronger peridotite. Serpentinization sufficiently weakens the oceanic lithosphere to explain the generation of diffuse plate boundaries and, combined with grain size reduction, the development of narrow plate boundaries. Lower crust outcrops, especially in the Bergen Arc (Norway), display eclogite shear zones hosted in metastable granulites. The introduction of water triggered locally a metamorphic reaction that reduces rock strength and resulted in a ductile shear zone. The presence of these shear zones has been used to explain the weakness of the lower crust perceived from geodesy and seismic activity. We evaluate here how much strain rate may increase as a result of

  5. Crustal metamorphic fluid flux beneath the Dead Sea Basin: constraints from 2-D and 3-D magnetotelluric modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meqbel, Naser; Weckmann, Ute; Muñoz, Gerard; Ritter, Oliver

    2016-12-01

    We report on a study to explore the deep electrical conductivity structure of the Dead Sea Basin (DSB) using magnetotelluric (MT) data collected along a transect across the DSB where the left lateral strike-slip Dead Sea transform (DST) fault splits into two fault strands forming one of the largest pull-apart basins of the world. A very pronounced feature of our 2-D inversion model is a deep, subvertical conductive zone beneath the DSB. The conductor extends through the entire crust and is sandwiched between highly resistive structures associated with Precambrian rocks of the basin flanks. The high electrical conductivity could be attributed to fluids released by dehydration of the uppermost mantle beneath the DSB, possibly in combination with fluids released by mid- to low-grade metamorphism in the lower crust and generation of hydrous minerals in the middle crust through retrograde metamorphism. Similar high conductivity zones associated with fluids have been reported from other large fault systems. The presence of fluids and hydrous minerals in the middle and lower crust could explain the required low friction coefficient of the DST along the eastern boundary of the DSB and the high subsidence rate of basin sediments. 3-D inversion models confirm the existence of a subvertical high conductivity structure underneath the DSB but its expression is far less pronounced. Instead, the 3-D inversion model suggests a deepening of the conductive DSB sediments off-profile towards the south, reaching a maximum depth of approximately 12 km, which is consistent with other geophysical observations. At shallower levels, the 3-D inversion model reveals salt diapirism as an upwelling of highly resistive structures, localized underneath the Al-Lisan Peninsula. The 3-D model furthermore contains an E-W elongated conductive structure to the northeast of the DSB. More MT data with better spatial coverage are required, however, to fully constrain the robustness of the above

  6. Growth and characterization of metamorphic InAs/GaSb tunnel heterojunction on GaAs by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jheng-Sin; Clavel, Michael B.; Hudait, Mantu K., E-mail: mantu.hudait@vt.edu [Advanced Devices and Sustainable Energy Laboratory (ADSEL), Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Pandey, Rahul [Electrical Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Datta, Suman [Electrical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Meeker, Michael; Khodaparast, Giti A. [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States)

    2016-06-28

    The structural, morphological, optical, and electrical transport characteristics of a metamorphic, broken-gap InAs/GaSb p-i-n tunnel diode structure, grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs, were demonstrated. Precise shutter sequences were implemented for the strain-balanced InAs/GaSb active layer growth on GaAs, as corroborated by high-resolution X-ray analysis. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy and detailed micrograph analysis demonstrated strain relaxation primarily via the formation of 90° Lomer misfit dislocations (MDs) exhibiting a 5.6 nm spacing and intermittent 60° MDs at the GaSb/GaAs heterointerface, which was further supported by a minimal lattice tilt of 180 arc sec observed during X-ray analysis. Selective area diffraction and Fast Fourier Transform patterns confirmed the full relaxation of the GaSb buffer layer and quasi-ideal, strain-balanced InAs/GaSb heteroepitaxy. Temperature-dependent photoluminescence measurements demonstrated the optical band gap of the GaSb layer. Strong optical signal at room temperature from this structure supports a high-quality material synthesis. Current–voltage characteristics of fabricated InAs/GaSb p-i-n tunnel diodes measured at 77 K and 290 K demonstrated two bias-dependent transport mechanisms. The Shockley–Read–Hall generation–recombination mechanism at low bias and band-to-band tunneling transport at high bias confirmed the p-i-n tunnel diode operation. This elucidated the importance of defect control in metamorphic InAs/GaSb tunnel diodes for the implementation of low-voltage and high-performance tunnel field effect transistor applications.

  7. Mechanisms of strain accommodation in plastically-deformed zircon under simple shear deformation conditions during amphibolite-facies metamorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovaleva, Elizaveta; Klötzli, Urs; Wheeler, John; Habler, Gerlinde

    2018-02-01

    This study documents the strain accommodation mechanisms in zircon under amphibolite-facies metamorphic conditions in simple shear. Microstructural data from undeformed, fractured and crystal-plastically deformed zircon crystals are described in the context of the host shear zone, and evaluated in the light of zircon elastic anisotropy. Our work challenges the existing model of zircon evolution and shows previously undescribed rheological characteristics for this important accessory mineral. Crystal-plastically deformed zircon grains have axis oriented parallel to the foliation plane, with the majority of deformed grains having axis parallel to the lineation. Zircon accommodates strain by a network of stepped low-angle boundaries, formed by switching between tilt dislocations with the slip systems {010} and {110} and rotation axis [001], twist dislocations with the rotation axis [001], and tilt dislocations with the slip system {001} and rotation axis [010]. The slip system {110} is newly described for zircon. Most misorientation axes in plastically-deformed zircon grains are parallel to the XY plane of the sample and have [001] crystallographic direction. Such behaviour of strained zircon lattice is caused by elastic anisotropy that has a direct geometric control on the rheology, deformation mechanisms and dominant slip systems in zircon. Young's modulus and P wave velocity have highest values parallel to zircon [001] axis, indicating that zircon is elastically strong along this direction. Poisson ratio and Shear modulus demonstrate that zircon is also most resistant to shearing along [001]. Thus, [001] axis is the most common rotation axis in zircon. The described zircon behaviour is important to take into account during structural and geochronological investigations of (poly)metamorphic terrains. Geometry of dislocations in zircon may help reconstructing the geometry of the host shear zone(s), large-scale stresses in the crust, and, possibly, the timing of

  8. Metamorphic Rock-Hosted Orogenic Gold Deposit Type as a Source of Langkowala Placer Gold, Bombana, Southeast Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arifudin Idrus

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v6i1.114In 2008, placer gold was discovered in Langkowala area (Bombana Regency, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia, and more than 60,000 traditional gold miners in the early 2009 have been operating by digging vertical pits and panning active stream sediments. The grade of placer gold ranges from 50 to 140 g/t. Local geological framework indicates that the placer gold is not related to volcanic rock-related hydrothermal gold deposit, e.g. epithermal, skarn or porphyry. This paper describes a preliminary study on possible primary deposit type as a source of the Langkowala (Bombana secondary placer gold. A field study indicates that the Langkowala (Bombana placer/paleoplacer gold is possibly related to gold-bearing quartz veins/veinlets hosted by metamorphic rocks particularly mica schist and metasediments in the area. These quartz veins/veinlets are currently recognized in metamorphic rocks at Wumbubangka Mountains, a northern flank of Rumbia Mountain Range. Sheared, segmented quartz veins/veinlets are of 2 cm to 2 m in width and contain gold in a grade varying between 2 and 61 g/t. At least, there are two generations of the quartz veins. The first generation of quartz vein is parallel to foliation of mica schist and metasediments with general orientation of N 300oE/60o; the second quartz vein generation crosscut the first quartz vein and the foliation of the wallrock. The first quartz veins are mostly sheared/deformed, brecciated, and occasionally sigmoidal, whereas the second quartz veins are relatively massive. The similar quartz veins/veinlets types are also probably present in Mendoke Mountain Range, in the northern side of Langkowala area. This primary gold deposit is called as ‘orogenic gold type’. The orogenic gold deposit could be a new target of gold exploration in Indonesia in the future.

  9. Another dimension to metamorphic phase equilibria: the power of interactive movies for understanding complex phase diagram sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulas, E.; Caddick, M. J.; Tisato, N.; Burg, J.-P.

    2012-04-01

    The investigation of metamorphic phase equilibria, using software packages that perform thermodynamic calculations, involves a series of important assumptions whose validity can often be questioned but are difficult to test. For example, potential influences of deformation on phase relations, and modification of effective reactant composition (X) at successive stages of equilibrium may both introduce significant uncertainty into phase diagram calculations. This is generally difficult to model with currently available techniques, and is typically not well quantified. We present here a method to investigate such phenomena along pre-defined Pressure-Temperature (P-T) paths, calculating local equilibrium via Gibbs energy minimization. An automated strategy to investigate complex changes in the effective equilibration composition has been developed. This demonstrates the consequences of specified X modification and, more importantly, permits automated calculation of X changes that are likely along the requested path if considering several specified processes. Here we describe calculations considering two such processes and show an additional example of a metamorphic texture that is difficult to model with current techniques. Firstly, we explore the assumption that although water saturation and bulk-rock equilibrium are generally considered to be valid assumptions in the calculation of phase equilibria, the saturation of thermodynamic components ignores mechanical effects that the fluid/melt phase can impose on the rock, which in turn can modify the effective equilibrium composition. Secondly, we examine how mass fractionation caused by porphyroblast growth at low temperatures or progressive melt extraction at high temperatures successively modifies X out of the plane of the initial diagram, complicating the process of determining best-fit P-T paths for natural samples. In particular, retrograde processes are poorly modeled without careful consideration of prograde

  10. Genesis and petrology of Late Neoproterozoic pegmatites and aplites associated with the Taba metamorphic complex in southern Sinai, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelfadil, K.M.; Asimow, P.D.; Azer, M.K.; Gahlan, H.A.

    2016-07-01

    We present new field, petrographical, mineralogical and geochemical data from late Neoproterozoic pegmatites and aplites in southern Sinai, Egypt, at the northernmost limit of the Arabian-Nubian Shield. The pegmatites cross-cut host rocks in the Taba Metamorphic Complex (TMC) with sharp contacts and are divided into massive and zoned pegmatites. Massive pegmatites are the most common and form veins, dykes and masses of variable dimensions; strikes range mainly from E-W through NW-SE to N-S. Mineralogically, the massive pegmatites are divided into K-feldspar-rich and albite-rich groups. Zoned pegmatites occur as lenses of variable dimensions, featuring a quartz core, an intermediate zone rich in K-feldspars and an outer finer-grained zone rich in albite. All compositions are highly evolved and display geochemical characteristics of post-collisional A-type granites: high SiO2, Na2O+K2O, FeO*/MgO, Ga/Al, Zr, Nb, Ga and Y alongside low CaO, MgO, Ba and Sr. They are rich in Rare Earth Elements (REE) and have extreme negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu*= 0.03–0.09). A genetic linkage between the pegmatites, aplites and alkali granite is confirmed by their common mild alkaline affinity and many other geochemical characteristics. These pegmatites and aplites represent the last small fraction of liquid remaining after extensive crystallization of granitic magma, injected along the foliation and into fractures of the host metamorphic rocks. The extensional tectonic regime and shallow depth of emplacement are consistent with a post-collisional environment. (Author)

  11. Extremadura (Spain): a case to be considered as Global Heritage Stone Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Maribel; Tejado, Juanjo; Pereira, Dolores

    2015-04-01

    Extremadura is geologically located in the Iberian Massif, belonging part of the Central Iberian Zone, in the north of the region, and the Ossa Morena zone, in the south of it. The Central Iberian Zone is characterized by the abundance of clastic metasedimentary rocks and greywacke, sandstones, shales, conglomerates, quartzites and lesser amounts of carbonate materials such as limestone and dolomite (600-300 Ma). Also featured are Hercynian granitic intrusions. The rocks from the Ossa-Morena zone are metamorphic, intrusive igneous and volcanic (650-300 Ma). Extremadura, given its strategic geographical position, has been the site of human settlement since ancient times, and this civilisation has left its influence on the building materials used in buildings and monuments. The rocks used in building, are directly related to the geology of the immediate area, since rock outcrops, near the construction are mostly granites, slates and marbles. The historic and artistic heritage from Extremadura includes Roman treasures (like the bridges located in the Via de la Plata, dams, walls and milestones), Islamic and Christian treasures as well as medieval and Renaissance Jewish treasures. Extremadura has three World Heritage Sites declared by UNESCO: the old town of Cáceres, the archaeological site at Merida and the monastery of Guadalupe. The latter is built mainly of bricks and masonry. In Merida, granites and diorites of various facies of the batholiths located north of the city are used together with Sierra Carija's marble and quartzite alluvial gravels from the river Guadiana. Among the constructions in Merida, granite utilisation in the theater and amphitheater, aqueduct of Miracles and the Proserpina dam, are remarkable. The old town of Cáceres is characterised by the presence of narrow streets and monuments, medieval churches and Renaissance palaces, built with granite and flanked by a wall constructed during the Muslim period. This granite comes from the quarries

  12. Petrological evolution of subducted rodingite from seafloor metamorphism to dehydration of enclosing antigorite-serpentinite (Cerro del Almirez massif, southern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laborda-López, Casto; López Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Vicente; Marchesi, Claudio; Gómez-Pugnaire, María Teresa; Garrido, Carlos J.; Jabaloy-Sánchez, Antonio; Padrón-Navarta, José Alberto

    2016-04-01

    Rodingites are common rocks associated with serpentinites in exhumed terrains that experienced subduction and high pressure metamorphism. However, the response of these rocks to devolatilization and redox reactions in subduction settings is not well constrained. In the Cerro del Almirez ultramafic massif (southern Spain) rodingites constitute about 1-2% of the total volume of exposed rocks. Metarodingites are enclosed in antigorite-serpentinite and chlorite-harzburgite separated by a transitional zone that represents the front of prograde serpentinite-dehydration in a paleo-subduction setting (Padrón-Navarta et al., 2011). Metarodingites occur as boudin lenses, 1 to 20 m in length and 30 cm to 2 m in thickness. During serpentinization of peridotite host rocks, dolerites and basalts precursor of rodingites underwent intense seafloor metasomatism, causing the enrichment in Ca and remobilization of Na and K. Subsequent metamorphism during subduction transformed the original igneous and seafloor metamorphic mineralogy into an assemblage of garnet (Ti-rich hydrogrossular), diopside, chlorite, and epidote. During prograde metamorphism, garnet composition changed towards higher andradite contents. High-pressure transformation of enclosing antigorite-serpentinite to chlorite-harzburgite released fluids which induced breakdown of garnet to epidote in metarodingites. Ti liberation by this latter reaction produced abundant titanite. Released fluids also triggered the formation of amphibole by alkalis addition. Highly recrystallized metarodingites in chlorite-harzburgite present a new generation of idiomorphic garnet with composition equal to 10-30% pyrope, 30-40% grossular and 35-55% almandine + spessartine. This garnet has titanite inclusions in the core and rutile inclusions in the rim. The contact between metarodingites and ultramafic rocks consists of a metasomatic zone (blackwall) with variable thickness (7 to 40 cm) constituted by chlorite, diopside, and titanite

  13. Late Mesoproterozoic to Early Paleozoic history of metamorphic basement from the southeastern Chiapas Massif Complex, Mexico, and implications for the evolution of NW Gondwana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Bodo; González-Guzmán, Reneé; Manjarrez-Juárez, Román; Cisneros de León, Alejandro; Martens, Uwe; Solari, Luigi; Hecht, Lutz; Valencia, Victor

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, U-Pb zircon geochronology, Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd isotope systematics, geochemistry and geothermobarometry of metaigneous basement rocks exposed in the southeastern Chiapas Massif Complex are presented. Geologic mapping of the newly defined "El Triunfo Complex" located at the southeastern edge of the Chiapas Massif reveals (1) partial melting of a metamorphic basement mainly constituted by mafic metaigneous rocks (Candelaria unit), (2) an Ediacaran metasedimentary sequence (Jocote unit), and (3) occurrence of massif-type anorthosite. All these units are intruded by undeformed Ordovician plutonic rocks of the Motozintla suite. Pressure and temperature estimates using Ca-amphiboles, plagioclase and phengite revealed prograde metamorphism that reached peak conditions at 650 °C and 6 kbar, sufficient for partial melting under water saturated conditions. Relict rutile in titanite and clinopyroxene in amphibolite further indicate a previous metamorphic event at higher P-T conditions. U-Pb zircon ages from felsic orthogneiss boudins hosted in deformed amphibolite and migmatite yield crystallization ages of 1.0 Ga, indicating that dry granitic protoliths represent remnants of Rodinia-type basement. Additionally, a mid-Tonian ( 920 Ma) metamorphic overprint is suggested by recrystallized zircon from a banded gneiss. Zircon from folded amphibolite samples yield mainly Ordovician ages ranging from 457 to 444 Ma that are indistinguishable from the age of the undeformed Motozintla plutonic suite. Similar ages between igneous- and metamorphic- zircon suggest a coeval formation during a high-grade metamorphic event, in which textural discrepancies are explained in terms of differing zircon formation mechanisms such as sub-solidus recrystallization and precipitation from anatectic melts. In addition, some amphibolite samples contain inherited zircon yielding Stenian-Tonian ages around 1.0 Ga. Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd isotopes and geochemical data indicate that the protoliths of

  14. Constraining metamorphic rates through allanite and monazite petrochronology: a case study from the Miyar Valley (High Himalayan Crystalline of Zanskar, NW India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robyr, Martin; Goswami-Banerjee, Sriparna

    2014-05-01

    Dating metamorphic rocks raises specific issues because metamorphism comprises a complex sequence of structural changes and chemical reactions that can be extended over millions or tens of millions of years so that metamorphic rocks cannot in general be said to have "an age". Therefore, an accurate interpretation of radiometric age data from metamorphic rocks requires first to establish the behavior of the isotopic system used for dating relative to the pressure and temperature (P-T) conditions that a metamorphic rock experienced. As the U-Th-Pb system in LREE-accessory phases like monazite and allanite is not easily reset during subsequent temperature increase, allanite and monazite U-Th-Pb ages are collectively interpreted as reflecting crystallization ages. As a consequence, to correctly interpret allanite and monazite crystallization ages, it is essential to accurately determine the physical conditions of their crystallization. A meticulous account of the chemical and textural evolution of monazite and allanite along a well constrained prograde pelitic sequence of the High Himalayan Crystalline of Zanskar (Miyar Valley; e.g. Robyr et al., 2002; 2006; 2014) reveals that: (1) the occurrence of the first metamorphic allanite coincides with the biotite-in isograd and (2) the formation of the first metamorphic monazite occurs at the staurolite-in isograd. The finding of both monazite and allanite as inclusion in staurolite porphyroblasts indicates that the breakdown of allanite and the formation of monazite occurred during staurolite crystallization. Thermobarometry results show that the metamorphic allanites are appeared in the 400-420 °C, while the signature of the first metamorphic monazite is found at ~ 600 °C with staurolite-in isograd. Allanite and monazite U-Th-Pb ages thus constrain the timing when the rocks reached the ~ 420 °C and ~ 600 °C isotherms respectively. In situ LA-ICPMS dating of coexisting allanite and monazite inclusions in garnet

  15. Assessing Hospital Disaster Preparedness of Bushehr province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakimeh Vahedparast

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: In disasters, large number of causalities rash into the hospitals in order to get health facilities. So, hospitals are the reference point for delivering the health services in all levels for helping to the most percent of injured people. Aim of study was to assess hospital disaster preparedness of Bushehr province. Maretial and Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study which has been done in all Bushehr province hospitals. In order to collect data, we used 210 questions checklist with 10 different aims each aim had consisted of 6 different domains (equipment, working stuff, physical space, structure, protocols and functional chart. The checklists were completed by direct observation and evaluation of equipment, programs and documents based on their domains with different people. Results: The hospital preparedness in traffic base was very poor with mean number of 19/04±16/10 evaluation of security education and management domain with mean number 35/29±26/52, 38/65±19/46, 36/36±24/05, respectively were poor. In logistics, workforce, communications, excused transportation and addition to the hospitals with the mean number of 53/26±26/31, 49/65±27/61, 45/53±18/29, 43/33±19/72, and 40/47±20/37 were estimated as average. The most number was belonged to the emergency with the mean number of 53/80±19/18. Conclusion: The Bushehr province hospitals have not enough preparation against unexpected disasters and cannot be a good supporter for disaster happening, and in the occasions of happenings so many serious problems will occur. It will be suggested that the hospital managers should pay more attention to the unexpected disasters.

  16. Timing of metamorphism of the Lansang gneiss and implications for left-lateral motion along the Mae Ping (Wang Chao) strike-slip fault, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palin, R. M.; Searle, M. P.; Morley, C. K.; Charusiri, P.; Horstwood, M. S. A.; Roberts, N. M. W.

    2013-10-01

    The Mae Ping fault (MPF), western Thailand, exhibits dominantly left-lateral strike-slip motion and stretches for >600 km, reportedly branching off the right-lateral Sagaing fault in Myanmar and extending southeast towards Cambodia. Previous studies have suggested that the fault assisted the large-scale extrusion of Sundaland that occurred during the Late Eocene-Early Oligocene, with a geological offset of ˜120-150 km estimated from displaced high-grade gneisses and granites of the Chiang Mai-Lincang belt. Exposures of high-grade orthogneiss in the Lansang National Park, part of this belt, locally contain strong mylonitic textures and are bounded by strike-slip ductile shear zones and brittle faults. Geochronological analysis of monazite from a sample of sheared biotite-K-feldspar orthogneiss suggests two episodes of crystallization, with core regions documenting Th-Pb ages between c. 123 and c. 114 Ma and rim regions documenting a significantly younger age range between c. 45-37 Ma. These data are interpreted to represent possible magmatic protolith emplacement for the Lansang orthogneiss during the Early Cretaceous, with a later episode of metamorphism occurring during the Eocene. Textural relationships provided by in situ analysis suggest that ductile shearing along the MPF occurred during the latter stages of, or after, this metamorphic event. In addition, monazite analyzed from an undeformed garnet-two-mica granite dyke intruding metamorphic units at Bhumipol Lake outside of the Mae Ping shear zone produced a Th-Pb age of 66.2 ± 1.6 Ma. This age is interpreted to date the timing of dyke emplacement, implying that the MPF cuts through earlier formed magmatic and high-grade metamorphic rocks. These new data, when combined with regional mapping and earlier geochronological work, show that neither metamorphism, nor regional cooling, was directly related to strike-slip motion.

  17. The diagenesis-metamorphism limit in pelitic rocks: an X-ray diffraction and decomposition study of illite and interstratified illite/smectite minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gharrabi, M.

    1995-01-01

    The definition of the limit between diagenesis and metamorphism has long been debated. Various approaches have been used to describe this limit including mineral reaction such as the appearance of pyrophyllite, illite crystallinity and rock textures (i.e. the development of schistosity). The aim of this study is to characterize the illite clays transformation during this transition. Study of the (001) and (003) XRD peaks of illite and illite-rich interstratified illite/smectite (I/S) by decomposition of XRD spectra allows to define the transformation that affect these minerals in the transition from extensive diagenesis to low grade metamorphism. We studied Paleozoic pelites from the Illinois Basin (USA), Cornwall (UK), Brittany (France) and the Anti-Atlas mountains and the Eastern-Haou/Basin (Morocco) that have undergone this transition. Illite clays pass through three evolutionary stages during the transition from diagenesis to metamorphism: advanced diagenesis where the population of illite particles is composed of the following phases: interstratified illite/smectite (I/S), small illite crystallites (PCI) and large illite crystallites (WCI). The composition of I/S particles that contain approximately 95 % illite layers changes very little at low temperatures even over long periods of time. The most important change during this stage is the reduction in the amount of this phase. These I/S particles (<5% smectite layers) dissolve and furnish the chemical constituents necessary for the growth of PCI and WCI before they are transformed into 100 % illite. Particles of PCI also contain smectite interlayers in their structure. These smectite interlayers may be considered as a characteristic of diagenetic conditions. The second stage, corresponding to anchizone metamorphism is characterized by the disappearance of I/S. The disappearance is caused by higher thermal regime. In the last stage corresponding to epizone metamorphism there exists only one population of illite

  18. Metamorphic P-T conditions and CO2 influx history of medium-grade metapelites from Karakorum, Trans-Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachan, Himanshu K.; Santosh, M.; Prakash, Divya; Kharya, Aditya; Chandra Singh, P.; Rai, Santosh K.

    2016-07-01

    The medium grade metapelites of Pangong-Tso area in the trans-Himalayan region underwent sillimanite-grade metamorphism initiated during the Cretaceous, associated with the collision of the Kohistan arc and the Indian plate with Asia. This paper present results from a petrological and fluid inclusion study to understand the metamorphic P-T conditions and fluid history of these rocks. The calculated phase equilibria in the Na2O-CaO-K2O-FeO-MgO-MnO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O-TiO2 (NCKFMMnASHT) system suggest P-T conditions of 8 kbar and 650 °C for the peak metamorphic event. Primary fluid inclusions occur in staurolite and garnet, whereas quartz carries mostly secondary fluid inclusions. The trapped fluids in primary inclusions show initial melting temperatures in the range of -56.9 to -56.6 °C, suggesting nearly pure CO2 composition. The secondary fluids are of mixed carbonic-aqueous nature. The re-equilibrated inclusions show annular morphology as well as necking phenomena. The CO2 isochores for the primary inclusions indicate pressures of 6.1-6.7 kbar, suggesting that the CO2-rich fluids were trapped during post-peak exhumation of the rocks, or that synmetamorphic carbonic fluids underwent density reversal during isothermal decompression. The secondary CO2-H2O fluids must have been trapped during the late exhumation stage, as their isochores define further lower pressures of 4.8 kbar. The morphology of re-equilibrated fluid inclusions and the rapid decrease in pressure are consistent with a near-isothermal decompression trajectory following the peak metamorphism. The carbonic fluids were probably derived locally from decarbonation reactions of the associated carbonate rocks during metamorphism or from a deep-seated reservoir through Karakorum fault.

  19. Usher syndrome clinical characterization. Holguin province

    OpenAIRE

    Santana Hernández, Elayne Esther; Lantigua Cruz, Paulina Araceli

    2016-01-01

    Fundamento: El síndrome de Usher es una enfermedad determinada genéticamente, con una gran heterogeneidad clínica y genética; está caracterizada por hipoacusia neurosensorial de moderada a severa, retinosis pigmentaria progresiva y puede acompañarse de alteración vestibular. Por la alta prevalencia de esta enfermedad en la provincia de Holguín, se considera necesario este estudio. Objetivo: Caracterizar clínicamente todos los enfermos con diagnóstico clínico de síndrome de Usher en la provinc...

  20. Sedimentary response to orogenic exhumation in the northern rocky mountain basin and range province, flint creek basin, west-central Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portner, R.A.; Hendrix, M.S.; Stalker, J.C.; Miggins, D.P.; Sheriff, S.D.

    2011-01-01

    Middle Eocene through Upper Miocene sedimentary and volcanic rocks of the Flint Creek basin in western Montana accumulated during a period of significant paleoclimatic change and extension across the northern Rocky Mountain Basin and Range province. Gravity modelling, borehole data, and geologic mapping from the Flint Creek basin indicate that subsidence was focused along an extensionally reactivated Sevier thrust fault, which accommodated up to 800 m of basin fill while relaying stress between the dextral transtensional Lewis and Clark lineament to the north and the Anaconda core complex to the south. Northwesterly paleocurrent indicators, foliated metamorphic lithics, 64 Ma (40Ar/39Ar) muscovite grains, and 76 Ma (U-Pb) zircons in a ca. 27 Ma arkosic sandstone are consistent with Oligocene exhumation and erosion of the Anaconda core complex. The core complex and volcanic and magmatic rocks in its hangingwall created an important drainage divide during the Paleogene shedding detritus to the NNW and ESE. Following a major period of Early Miocene tectonism and erosion, regional drainage networks were reorganized such that paleoflow in the Flint Creek basin flowed east into an internally drained saline lake system. Renewed tectonism during Middle to Late Miocene time reestablished a west-directed drainage that is recorded by fluvial strata within a Late Miocene paleovalley. These tectonic reorganizations and associated drainage divide explain observed discrepancies in provenance studies across the province. Regional correlation of unconformities and lithofacies mapping in the Flint Creek basin suggest that localized tectonism and relative base level fluctuations controlled lithostratigraphic architecture.

  1. The evolutionary characteristics and study of uranium mineralization conditions of early precambrian basement and old granitoids in Northern Hebei province of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Yuliang; Rong Jiashu; Lin Jinrong; Zheng Maogong; Wen Xiyuan

    1993-05-01

    Based on the systematic studies of petrology, geochemistry and isotope geochronology, the Early Precambrian metamorphic complex in Northern Hebei province of China can be divided into three different series, i.e. granulite series, khondalite series and amphibolitic-felsic rock series. The so called 'magmatic granitoids' in that area are actually some magmagranites with different ages and different geneses, and they are not formed by migmatization. Up to now, the discovered Huaian complex which was formed in 3.5 Ga ago is the oldest nuclear area in the northern margin of North-China Platform. The granulite series, khondalite series and amphibolitic-felsic rock series belong to Early Archaean (>3.0 +- 0.1 Ga), Middle Archaean (>2.7 +- 0.1 Ga) and Later Archaean (>2.4 +- 0.1 Ga) respectively. The geological time scale of the Early Precambrian for Northern Hebei Province has been built. According to the synthetic analyses of various factors there is no prospect of uranium mineralization in the ancient terrain. However, the Mesozoic volcanic basins covering over the Hercynian Period granites would be main goal for looking for large uranium deposits in north part in that area

  2. Sustainable Development of Rural Tourism in An Giang Province, Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen Thanh Long; Thanh-Lam Nguyen

    2018-01-01

    This study aims at sustainably developing rural tourism in An Giang Province, an agricultural province located in the South of Vietnam, by identifying the determinants of the satisfaction and revisit intention of tourists based on both qualitative and quantitative approaches. From exploratory interviews with experts and comprehensive group discussions, we developed a questionnaire for an official survey of 507 tourists at different tour-sites in An Giang Province. It is found that: (1) there ...

  3. Dynamic biogeochemical provinces in the global ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reygondeau, Gabriel; Longhurst, Alan; Martinez, Elodie; Beaugrand, Gregory; Antoine, David; Maury, Olivier

    2013-12-01

    In recent decades, it has been found useful to partition the pelagic environment using the concept of biogeochemical provinces, or BGCPs, within each of which it is assumed that environmental conditions are distinguishable and unique at global scale. The boundaries between provinces respond to features of physical oceanography and, ideally, should follow seasonal and interannual changes in ocean dynamics. But this ideal has not been fulfilled except for small regions of the oceans. Moreover, BGCPs have been used only as static entities having boundaries that were originally established to compute global primary production. In the present study, a new statistical methodology based on non-parametric procedures is implemented to capture the environmental characteristics within 56 BGCPs. Four main environmental parameters (bathymetry, chlorophyll a concentration, surface temperature, and salinity) are used to infer the spatial distribution of each BGCP over 1997-2007. The resulting dynamic partition allows us to integrate changes in the distribution of BGCPs at seasonal and interannual timescales, and so introduces the possibility of detecting spatial shifts in environmental conditions.

  4. Coupling of Oceanic and Continental Crust During Eocene Eclogite-Facies Metamorphism: Evidence From the Monte Rosa Nappe, Western Alps, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapen, T. J.; Johnson, C. M.; Baumgartner, L. P.; Skora, S.; Mahlen, N. J.; Beard, B. L.

    2006-12-01

    Subduction of continental crust to HP-UHP metamorphic conditions requires overcoming density contrasts that are unfavorable to deep burial, whereas exhumation of these rocks can be reasonably explained through buoyancy-assisted transport in the subduction channel to more shallow depths. In the western Alps, both continental and oceanic lithosphere has been subducted to eclogite-facies metamorphic conditions. The burial and exhumation histories of these sections of lithosphere bear directly on the dynamics of subduction and the stacking of units within the subduction channel. We address the burial history of the continental crust with high precision U-Pb rutile and Lu-Hf garnet geochronology of the eclogite-facies Monte Rosa nappe (MR), western Alps, Italy. U-Pb rutile ages from quartz-carbonate-white mica-rutile veins that are hosted within eclogite and schist of the MR, Gressoney Valley, Italy, indicate that it was at eclogite-facies metamorphic conditions at 42.6 +/- 0.6 Ma. The sample area (Indren glacier, Furgg zone; Dal Piaz, 2001) consists of eclogite boudins that are surrounded by micaceous schist. Associated with the eclogite and schist are quartz-carbonate-white mica-rutile veins that formed in tension cracks in the eclogite and along the contact between eclogite and surrounding schist. Intrusion of the veins occurred at eclogite-facies metamorphic conditions (480-570°C, >1.3-1.4 GPa) based on textural relations, oxygen isotope thermometry, and geothermobarometry. Lu-Hf geochronology of garnet from a chloritoid-talc-garnet-phengite-quartz-calcite-pyrite - chalcopyrite bearing boudin within talc-chloritoid whiteschists of the MR, Val d'Ayas, Italy (Chopin and Monie, 1984; Pawlig, 2001) yields an age of 40.54 +/- 0.36 Ma. The talc-chloritoid whiteschists from the area record pressures and temperatures of 1.6-2.4 GPa and 500-530°C (Chopin and Monie, 1984; Le Bayon et al., 2006) indicating near UHP metamorphic conditions. Based on the age, P-T, and textural

  5. Tectonic and metamorphic discontinuities in the Greater Himalayan Sequence in Central Himalaya: in-sequence shearing by accretion from the Indian plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carosi, Rodolfo

    2016-04-01

    The Greater Himalayan Sequence (GHS) is the main metamorphic unit of the Himalayas, stretching for over 2400 km, bounded to the South by the Main Central Thrust (MCT) and to the North by the South Tibetan Detachment (STD) whose contemporanous activity controlled its exhumation between 23 and 17 Ma (Godin et al., 2006). Several shear zones and/or faults have been recognized within the GHS, usually regarded as out of sequence thrusts. Recent investigations, using a multitechnique approach, allowed to recognize a tectonic and metamorphic discontinuity, localized in the mid GHS, with a top-to-the SW sense of shear (Higher Himalayan Discontinuity: HHD) (Carosi et al., 2010; Montomoli et al., 2013). U-(Th)-Pb in situ monazite ages provide temporal constraint of the acitivity of the HHD from ~ 27-25 Ma to 18-17 Ma. Data on the P and T evolution testify that this shear zone affected the tectono-metamorphic evolution of the belt and different P and T conditions have been recorded in the hanging-wall and footwall of the HHD. The HHD is a regional tectonic feature running for more than 700 km, dividing the GHS in two different portions (Iaccarino et al., 2015; Montomoli et al., 2015). The occurrence of even more structurally higher contractional shear zone in the GHS (above the HHD): the Kalopani shear zone (Kali Gandaki valley, Central Nepal), active from ~ 41 to 30 Ma (U-Th-Pb on monazite) points out to a more complex deformation pattern in the GHS characterized by in sequence shearing. The actual proposed models of exhumation of the GHS, based exclusively on the MCT and STD activities, are not able to explain the occurrence of the HHD and other in-sequence shear zones. Any model of the tectonic and metamorphic evolution of the GHS should account for the occurrence of the tectonic and metamorphic discontinuities within the GHS and its consequences on the metamorphic paths and on the assembly of Himalayan belt. References Godin L., Grujic D., Law, R. D. & Searle, M. P. 2006

  6. Geothermal modelling of faulted metamorphic crystalline crust: a new model of the Continental Deep Drilling Site KTB (Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalaiová, Eva; Rabbel, Wolfgang; Marquart, Gabriele; Vogt, Christian

    2015-11-01

    The area of the 9.1-km-deep Continental Deep Drillhole (KTB) in Germany is used as a case study for a geothermal reservoir situated in folded and faulted metamorphic crystalline crust. The presented approach is based on the analysis of 3-D seismic reflection data combined with borehole data and hydrothermal numerical modelling. The KTB location exemplarily contains all elements that make seismic prospecting in crystalline environment often more difficult than in sedimentary units, basically complicated tectonics and fracturing and low-coherent strata. In a first step major rock units including two known nearly parallel fault zones are identified down to a depth of 12 km. These units form the basis of a gridded 3-D numerical model for investigating temperature and fluid flow. Conductive and advective heat transport takes place mainly in a metamorphic block composed of gneisses and metabasites that show considerable differences in thermal conductivity and heat production. Therefore, in a second step, the structure of this unit is investigated by seismic waveform modelling. The third step of interpretation consists of applying wavenumber filtering and log-Gabor-filtering for locating fractures. Since fracture networks are the major fluid pathways in the crystalline, we associate the fracture density distribution with distributions of relative porosity and permeability that can be calibrated by logging data and forward modelling of the temperature field. The resulting permeability distribution shows values between 10-16 and 10-19 m2 and does not correlate with particular rock units. Once thermohydraulic rock properties are attributed to the numerical model, the differential equations for heat and fluid transport in porous media are solved numerically based on a finite difference approach. The hydraulic potential caused by topography and a heat flux of 54 mW m-2 were applied as boundary conditions at the top and bottom of the model. Fluid flow is generally slow and

  7. On the Magnitude and Orientation of Stress during Shock Metamorphism: Understanding Peak Ring Formation by Combining Observations and Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, A.; Poelchau, M.; Collins, G. S.; Timms, N.; Cavosie, A. J.; Lofi, J.; Salge, T.; Riller, U. P.; Ferrière, L.; Grieve, R. A. F.; Osinski, G.; Morgan, J. V.; Expedition 364 Science Party, I. I.

    2017-12-01

    Shock metamorphism occurs during the earliest moments after impact. The magnitude and orientation of shock leaves recordable signatures in rocks, which spatially vary across an impact structure. Consequently, observations of shock metamorphism can be used to understand deformation and its history within a shock wave, and to examine subsequent deformation during crater modification. IODP-ICDP Expedition 364 recovered nearly 600 m of shocked target rocks from the peak ring of the Chicxulub Crater. Samples from the expedition were used to measure the magnitude and orientation of shock in peak ring materials, and to determine the mechanism of peak-ring emplacement. Here, we present the results of petrographic analyses of the shocked granitic target rocks of the Chicxulub peak ring; using universal-stage optical microscopy, back-scattered electron images, and electron back-scatter diffraction. Deformation microstructures in quartz include planar deformation features (PDFs), feather features (FFs), which are unique to shock conditions, as well as planar fractures and crystal-plastic deformation bands. The assemblage of PDFs in quartz suggest that the peak-ring rocks experienced shock pressures of 15 GPa throughout the recovered drill core, and that the orientation of FFs are consistent with the present-day orientation of the maximum principal stress direction during shock is close to vertical. Numerical impact simulations of the impact event were run to determine the magnitude and orientation of principal stresses during shock and track those orientations throughout crater formation. Our results are remarkably consistent with the geological data, and accurately predict both the shock-pressure magnitudes, and the final near-vertical orientation of the direction of maximum principal stress in the shock wave. Furthermore, analysis of the state of stress throughout the impact event can be used to constrain the timing of fracture and fault orientations observed in the core

  8. Medicinal plants used in traditional herbal medicine in the province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Phyto-therapy studies on Chimborazo province in Ecuador are really limited. This area, located within the Andes, is considered a millenarian and intercultural province, where multiples cultures and ethnic groups coexist. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted through direct interviews with 84 ...

  9. Migrant Rights in Fujian Province (China) | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Migrant Rights in Fujian Province (China). China has the largest internal migrant population in the world, and women account for nearly half of it. Fujian province has been a traditional source of large numbers of Chinese migrants to Southeast Asia and the United States. Now, with the burgeoning economies of southeast ...

  10. Challenges for emerging livestock farmers in Limpopo province ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Challenges for emerging livestock farmers in Limpopo province, South Africa. ND MacLeod, CK McDonald, FP van Oudtshoorn. Abstract. Land redistribution schemes (e.g. Settlement Land Acquisition Grant and Land Redistribution for Agricultural Development) initiated since the mid-1990s in Limpopo province under ...

  11. Province of Ontario nuclear emergency plan. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-06-01

    The Province of Ontario Nuclear Emergency Plan has been developed pursuant to Section 8 of the Emergency Plans Act, 1983. This plan replaces the Province of Ontario Nuclear Contingency Off-Site Plan (June 1980) which is no longer applicable. The wastes plan includes planning, preparation, emergency organization and operational responsibilities and policy

  12. U-Pb (LA-ICPMS) zircon ages and Nd isotopes for granitoids of the Tamboril-Santa Quiteria Complex, Ceara Central Domain: implication for neoproterozoic syncollisional magmatism in north Borborema Province, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Felipe Grandjean da; Araujo, Carlos Eduardo Ganade de; Vasconcelos, Antonio Maurilio, E-mail: felipe.costa@cprm.gov.br, E-mail: caegeo@gmail.com, E-mail: maurilio.vasconcelos@cprm.gov.br [Servico Geologico do Brasil (CPRM), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Amaral, Wagner da Silva, E-mail: wamaral@ufc.br [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Departamento de Geologia; Rodrigues, Joseneusa Brilhante, E-mail: joseneusa.rodrigues@cprm.gov.br [Servico Geologico do Brasil (CPRM), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2013-06-15

    The Tamboril-Santa Quiteria Complex (TSQC) is one of the largest Neoproterozoic plutonic manifestations in the north Borborema Province (NE Brazil). It represents an anatectic/igneous association characterized by a number of magmatic pulses that occurred in the 650-610 Ma interval. In this paper, we present U-Pb (LA-MC-ICP-MS) zircon ages and Nd isotopes for quartz monzonite and quartz diorites of the southern part of TSQC. The quartz monzonite belong to a hybrid granitoid association, including monzonite, syenites and quartz syenites, all with abundant mafic magmatic enclaves. A quartz monzonite sample yielded a U-Pb zircon age of 634 {+-} 10 Ma and a TDM age of 2.69 Ga. The quartz diorites are much more homogeneous in composition and yielded a U-Pb zircon age of 618 {+-} 23 Ma and a TDM age of 2.19 Ga. The presence of coeval mantle-derived magmatism and diatexites (crustal anatexis) post-dating high-pressure metamorphism (ca. 650 Ma), and together with high-temperature metamorphism (ca. 630-610 Ma), suggests that this large magmatic manifestation evolved in a collisional setting, probably related to slab break off during the Western Gondwana amalgamation. (author)

  13. A Tiny Bilbao in the Province?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Line Marie Bruun

    2014-01-01

    the size of the province communities have in relation to the application of experience economy thinking in cultural planning. The paper presents a reading of the current 13 Danish “Culture Agreements” made between the ministry of culture and the cultural regions (Kulturstyrelsen) The reading has a special...... the utilization of cultural institutions, creative industries and the demands of the creative class were drivers in the development of the major cities, i.e. the ”Bilbao Effect”. From the major cities these ideas spread to smaller cities, which raised questions about critical mass, etc. This ”second wave...... of the welfare state, which focus on accessibility, a democratic and inclusive approach expressed in the form of culture projects that will enhance the quality of life and liveability in the local community. The paper discusses how and if the two rationales can be executed in the same projects: economic growth...

  14. Geochemistry of volcanic series of Aragats province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meliksetyan, Kh.B.

    2012-01-01

    In this contribution we discuss geochemical and isotope characteristics of volcanism of the Aragats volcanic province and possible petrogenetical models of magma generation in collision zone of Armenian highland. We talk about combination of some specific features of collision related volcanism such as dry and high temperature conditions of magma generation, that demonstrate some similarities to intraplate-like petrogenesis and presence of mantle source enriched by earlier subductions, indicative to island-arc type magma generation models. Based on comprehensive analysis of isotope and geochemical data and some published models of magma generation beneath Aragats we lead to a petrogenetic model of origin of Aragats system to be a result of magma mixture between mantle originated mafic magma with felsic, adakite-type magmas

  15. Mutational spectrum of phenylketonuria in Jiangsu province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ya-fen; Jia, Hai-tao; Chen, Zhong-hai; Song, Jia-ping; Liang, Yu; Pei, Jing-jing; Wu, Zhi-jun; Wang, Jing; Qiu, Ya-li; Liu, Gang; Sun, Dong-mei; Jiang, Xin-ye

    2015-10-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) is caused by variants in the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene. We systematically investigated all 13 exons of the PAH gene and their flanking introns in 31 unrelated patients and their parents using next-generation sequencing (NGS). A total of 33 different variants were identified in 58 of 62 mutant PAH alleles. The prevalent variants with a relative frequency of 5 % or more were c.721C > T, c.1068C > A, c.611A > G, c.1197A > T, c.728G > A, c.331C > T, and c.442-1G > A. One novel variant was identified in this study-c.699C > G. We studied genotype-phenotype correlations using the Guldberg arbitrary value (AV) system, which revealed a consistency rate of 38 % (8/21) among the 21 predicted phenotypes. The genotype-based prediction of BH4 responsiveness was also evaluated, and 14 patients (45.2 %) were predicted to be BH4 responsive. This study presents the spectrum of PAH variants in Jiangsu province. The information obtained from the genotype-based prediction of BH4 responsiveness might be used for the rational selection of candidates for BH4 testing. • Phenylketonuria (PKU) is caused by variants in the phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) gene. • The spectrum of PAH variants in different Chinese populations has been reported. What is new: • This is the first report on the spectrum of PAH variants in Jiangsu province. • This study identified one novel PAH variant-c.699C>G-and and tries to show a genotype-phenotype relationship also regarding BH4-responsiveness.

  16. 1.8 billion years of fluid-crust interaction: A zircon oxygen isotope record for the lower crust, western Churchill Province, Canadian Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petts, Duane C.; Moser, Desmond E.; Longstaffe, Frederick J.; Davis, William J.; Stern, Richard A.

    2014-04-01

    The western Churchill Province of the Canadian Shield experienced a prolonged and complex formation history (ca. 4.04 to 1.70 Ga), with evidence for multiple episodes of orogenesis and regional magmatic activity. Here we report on the oxygen isotopic compositions of garnet and zircon recovered from lower crustal xenoliths, which have U-Pb ages between ca. 3.5 and 1.7 Ga. Overall, zircon from four metabasite xenoliths from the Rankin Inlet sample suite have δ18O values ranging from + 5.5 to + 8.6‰. Zircon from three metatonalite/anorthosite xenoliths and five metabasite xenoliths from the Repulse Bay sample suite have δ18O values of + 5.6 to + 8.3‰. High δ18O values (> + 6.0‰) for the oldest igneous zircon cores (ca. 3.5 Ga and 3.0-2.6 Ga) indicate that their metatonalite/anorthosite protolith magmas were generated from, or had assimilated, supracrustal rocks that interacted previously with surface-derived fluids. Igneous zircon cores (ca. 2.9-2.6 Ga) from one metabasite xenolith have δ18O values of + 5.6 to + 6.4‰, which suggests a formation from a mantle-derived basaltic/gabbroic magma. Metamorphic zircon cores (ca. 2.0-1.9 Ga) from one metabasite xenolith commonly have δ18O values between + 6.0 and + 6.3‰, which is indicative of a basalt/gabbro protolith and localized reworking of the lower crust caused by regional-scale plate convergence. The wide range of δ18O values (+ 5.5 to + 8.3‰) for ca. 1.75-1.70 Ga metamorphic zircon rims (identified in all xenoliths) indicates regional transient heating and reworking of mantle- and supracrustal-derived crust, induced by magmatic underplating along the crust-mantle boundary.

  17. Possible zircon U-Pb evidence for Pan-African granulite-facies metamorphism in the Mozambique belt of southern Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coolen, J.J.M.M.M.

    1982-01-01

    Four zircon fractions of garnet-bearing two-pyroxene granulite, from the Furua granulite complex of southern Tanzania, plot very close to concordia. A discordia yields a lower intercept at 652 +- 10 Ma, an age slightly higher than the Rb-Sr whole-rock and mineral ages reported from the surrounding amphibolite-facies rocks. The U-Pb systematics indicate the presence of a very small amount of older (2-3 Ga) radiogenic lead. The zircon data may be interpreted as indicating an event of granulite-facies metamorphism during the Pan-African thermotectonic episode. This interpretation is at variance with current models postulating that the granulite complexes in the Mozambique belt are relicts of older, possibly Archaean events of metamorphism. (Auth.)

  18. Rb-Sr geochronology from Barro Alto Complex, Goias: metamorphism evidence of high degree and continental collision around 1300 Ma ago in Central Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuck, R.A.; Neves, B.B.B.; Cordani, U.G.; Kawashita, K.

    1989-01-01

    Rb-Sr geochronologic investigation carried out on rocks from the Barro Alto Complex, Goias, yielded iso chronic ages of 1266 +- 17 Ma, for felsic rocks from the granulite belt and 1330 +- 67 Ma, for gneisses belonging to the Juscelandia Sequence. Rb-Sr isotope measurements suggest that Barro Alto rocks have undergone an important metamorphic event during middle Proterozoic times, around 1300 Ma ago. During that event, volcanic and sedimentary rocks of Juscelandia Sequence, as well as the underlying gabbros-anorthosite layered complex, underwent deformation and recrystallization under amphibolite facies conditions. Deformation and metamorphism took place during the collision of two continental blocks, which resulted in a southeastward directed thrust complex, allowing the exposure of granulite slices from the middle-lower crust of the overthrusted block. (author)

  19. Behaviour of uranium during late-Hercynian and alpine metamorphisms in the Aiguilles rouges and Belledonne (Valorcine, Lauziere) massifs. Western Alps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negga, H.S.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this research thesis is to define the origin of numerous uranium anomalies in the external crystalline Alpine massifs, more precisely the massif of the Aiguilles Rouges and the massif of Belledonne. The primary cause of uranium mineralization in the first massif appears to have been the retrograde metamorphism events of the late-Hercynian age. In the second massif, the same conditions of uranium mineralization appear to have been realised, but with a much higher calcium activity in the fluids. After having explained the choice of the selected areas, the sampling and the chemical analysis performed, the author describes the geological and structural framework of Western Alps: geological history of the paleozoic platform, regional geology of the studied massifs. The next part reports the petrographic and geochemical study, the analysis of the mineral chemistry, of the alteration and the metamorphism. Then the author describes the geochemistry of uranium and thorium within the studied structures

  20. On the metamorphic history of an Archaean granitoid greenstone terrane, East Pilbara, Western Australia, using the 40Ar/39Ar age spectrum technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijbrans, J.R.; McDougall, I.

    1987-01-01

    Age spectrum analyses of blue-green hornblendes from amphibolites from the Western Shaw Belt, East Pilbara, Western Australia, indicate an age of at least 3200 Ma for early regional metamorphism. Ages on hornblende and muscovite from the narrow contact zone with the adjacent Yule Batholith probably data updoming of the granitoid gneiss terranes at 2950 Ma. Hornblendes from within the Shaw Batholith and from a contact zone of a post-tectonic granitoid yield ages of 2840-2900 Ma, indicating either prolonged high temperatures within the granitoid gneiss terranes or a separate thermal pulse associated with the intrusion of post-tectonic granitoids. The preservation of very old hornblendes in a narrow greenstone belt surrounded by massive granitoid gneiss domes indicates that remarkable contrasts in metamorphic geotherms existed over short distances during the Late Archaean, suggesting that updoming occurred during a period of rapid tectonism. (orig.)

  1. On the metamorphic history of an Archaean granitoid greenstone terrane, East Pilbara, Western Australia, using the /sup 40/Ar//sup 39/Ar age spectrum technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijbrans, J.R.; McDougall, I.

    1987-07-01

    Age spectrum analyses of blue-green hornblendes from amphibolites from the Western Shaw Belt, East Pilbara, Western Australia, indicate an age of at least 3200 Ma for early regional metamorphism. Ages on hornblende and muscovite from the narrow contact zone with the adjacent Yule Batholith probably data updoming of the granitoid gneiss terranes at 2950 Ma. Hornblendes from within the Shaw Batholith and from a contact zone of a post-tectonic granitoid yield ages of 2840-2900 Ma, indicating either prolonged high temperatures within the granitoid gneiss terranes or a separate thermal pulse associated with the intrusion of post-tectonic granitoids. The preservation of very old hornblendes in a narrow greenstone belt surrounded by massive granitoid gneiss domes indicates that remarkable contrasts in metamorphic geotherms existed over short distances during the Late Archaean, suggesting that updoming occurred during a period of rapid tectonism.

  2. U-Th-PbT Monazite Gechronology in the South Carpathian Basement: Variscan Syn-Metamorphic Tectonic Stacking and Long-Lasting Post-Peak Decompressional Overprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Săbău, G.; Negulescu, E.

    2012-12-01

    Dating metamorphic events appears to be unsatisfactorily addressed by most of the widely-employed and otherwise accurate and productive isotopic techniques, because the phases and systems investigated do not directly relate to the metamorphic events themselves. An adequate answer to this challenge is instead provided by microprobe-assisted chemical U-Th-PbT monazite geochronology, by its spatial resolution, truly in situ character and the possibility to reference analyses against well-defined textural environments and features, as well as a qualitative timeframe derived therefrom. Though chemical U-Th-PbT monazite geochronology is increasingly applied to seek answers ranging form a general characterization to fine details of the thermotectonic evolution of magmatic and metamorphic rocks, there are so far, unlike in the case of isotopic geochronological methods, no clearly defined standard analytical and data processing protocols. Two main reasons for this have to be mentioned, namely that chemical U-Th-PbT chronology is actually a proxy for isotopic geochronology, and the quantification of the errors and their propagation cannot be directly assessed because apparent ages are related to the measured element concentrations by an implicit function, the law of radioactive decay. Current approaches rely on treating calculated individual age values as primary data, a priori grouping of analyses supposed (and subsequently tested) to be coeval, and their statistical processing in order to obtain age values. An alternative approach we applied in basement units of the South Carpathians consists in an explicit approximation of the age formula and associated errors propagated from element concentrations to age values, and individual treatment of each age datum. The separation of the age clusters from the overall age spectrum of each sample was operated by tracing the variations of the normalized age gradient on the age spectrum sorted by increasing age values, and fine

  3. A transamazonic age for magmatism, metamorphism and deformation on the northern limit of Jequie nucleous (Itaberaba, Bahia, Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, P.C.D.; Mcreath, I.; Lafon, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    A Rb/Sr isochron of 2154 ± 20 M.y., with Ro = 0,705 ± (MSWD=2,85) has been obtained for the Itaberaba and Pedra d'Agua granites, located on the northern limit between the Archean Jequie cratonic nucleous and the Early Proterozoic Salvador - Curaca mobile belt. The age so obtained dates peraluminous magmatism and Molybdenum mineralization, anatexis and granulite facies metamorphism, besides a N-S deformation phase (Fn+1). The Itaberaba and Pedra d'Agua massifs are the most important bodies in a context of extensive granite emplacement. A number of small granitic bodies can be found over the area. One of these dykes is emplaced in migmatitic kinzigites and has been dated along with the massifs above. It has shown itself to be the same age as those ones. Mingling between the dyke magma and anatectic leucosomes from the kinzigites has allowed dating anatexis in the migmatites. Crustal recycling processes have been involved in the generation of these granites, as suggested by petrographical/chemical features and high isotopic initial ratio. The age of the geological phenomena here described characterizes the area as a transitional interface between two tectonic blocks, helps typifying Early Proterozoic magmatism and metallogenesis in Central Bahia State and opens the discussion on the validity of 2,450 M. y. ages obtained previously. (author)

  4. Timing of tertiary extension in the Southern Canadian Cordillera: constraints from fission-track analysis in the Shuswap metamorphic complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorencak, M.; Seward, D.; Burg, J.-P.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Nine zircon and eighteen apatite fission-track analyses have been made in order to determine the low temperature cooling history of the Shuswap metamorphic core complex, western Canada. The zircons vary in apparent age from 53.9 ± 5.6 to 37.5 ± 5.0 Ma and the apatites from 48.5 ± 3.2 to 27.7 ± 3.4 Ma. In the footwall of the detachment faults defining the core complex, the cooling histories show a similarity until temperatures of ∼250 C were reached at about 45 Ma. From then on, activity on two normal faults, the Columbia River Fault and the Victor Creek Fault, controlled the regional cooling pattern. The ages and the combination of ages fall into four groups and on the basis of the fission-track data, we suggest that the region can now be divided into four thermotectonic units which are the result of differing tectonic controls during regional extension. Additionally, a complete cooling history of the Shuswap core complex can now be reconstructed, using constraints from U-Pb, Rb-Sr and K-Ar age data from several authors as well as the fission track results presented here. Copyright (1999) Geological Society of Australia

  5. Death Valley turtlebacks: Mesozoic contractional structures overprinted by Cenozoic extension and metamorphism beneath syn-extensional plutons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlis, T L; Serpa, L [Department of Geological Sciences, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX 7996 (United States); Miller, M [Department of Geological Sciences, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403 (United States)], E-mail: tlpavlis@utep.edu

    2008-07-01

    The term turtleback was first coined to describe the curvilinear fault surfaces that produced a distinctive geomorphic form in the Black Mountains east of Death Valley, and although it was decades before their full significance was appreciated, they remain one of the most distinctive features of the extensional structure of the Death Valley region. Historically the interpretation of the features has varied markedly, and misconceptions about their character continue to abound, including descriptions in popular field guides for the area. It the 1990's, however, the full history of the systems began to be apparent from several key data: 1) the dating of the plutonic assemblage associated with the turtlebacks demonstrated that late Miocene, syn-extensional plutonism was fundamental to their formation; 2) the plutonic assemblage forms an intrusive sheet structurally above the turtlebacks, indicating a tie between much of the high grade metamorphism and Cenozoic plutonism; 3) a modern analog for the syn-extensional plutonism in the Black Mountains was recognized beneath Death Valley with the imaging of a mid-crustal magma body; 4) the Neogene structural history was worked out in the turtlebacks showing that folding of early-formed shear zones formed the turtleback anticlinoria but overprinting by brittle faults produced the final form as they cut obliquely across the older structure; and 5) the pre-extensional structural history was clarified, demonstrating that Mesozoic basement-involved thrust systems are present within the turtlebacks, but have been overprinted by the extensional system. An unresolved issue is the significance of Eocene U-Pb dates for pegmatites within the region, but presumably these relate somehow to the pre-extensional history. Miller and Pavlis (2005; E. Sci. Rev.) reviewed many features of the turtlebacks, and our working model for the region is that the turtlebacks originated as mid-crustal ductile-thrust systems within the Cordilleran fold

  6. Death Valley turtlebacks: Mesozoic contractional structures overprinted by Cenozoic extension and metamorphism beneath syn-extensional plutons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlis, T L; Serpa, L; Miller, M

    2008-01-01

    The term turtleback was first coined to describe the curvilinear fault surfaces that produced a distinctive geomorphic form in the Black Mountains east of Death Valley, and although it was decades before their full significance was appreciated, they remain one of the most distinctive features of the extensional structure of the Death Valley region. Historically the interpretation of the features has varied markedly, and misconceptions about their character continue to abound, including descriptions in popular field guides for the area. It the 1990's, however, the full history of the systems began to be apparent from several key data: 1) the dating of the plutonic assemblage associated with the turtlebacks demonstrated that late Miocene, syn-extensional plutonism was fundamental to their formation; 2) the plutonic assemblage forms an intrusive sheet structurally above the turtlebacks, indicating a tie between much of the high grade metamorphism and Cenozoic plutonism; 3) a modern analog for the syn-extensional plutonism in the Black Mountains was recognized beneath Death Valley with the imaging of a mid-crustal magma body; 4) the Neogene structural history was worked out in the turtlebacks showing that folding of early-formed shear zones formed the turtleback anticlinoria but overprinting by brittle faults produced the final form as they cut obliquely across the older structure; and 5) the pre-extensional structural history was clarified, demonstrating that Mesozoic basement-involved thrust systems are present within the turtlebacks, but have been overprinted by the extensional system. An unresolved issue is the significance of Eocene U-Pb dates for pegmatites within the region, but presumably these relate somehow to the pre-extensional history. Miller and Pavlis (2005; E. Sci. Rev.) reviewed many features of the turtlebacks, and our working model for the region is that the turtlebacks originated as mid-crustal ductile-thrust systems within the Cordilleran fold

  7. The geology of the surrounding metamorphic rock of Zaer granite (Morocco): contribution to the search for uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathias, Laurent

    1984-01-01

    This research thesis reports a study which aimed at reconstituting the geological history of the Zaer region in Morocco with objectives of mining exploration and of assessment of its uranium metallogenic potential. The author examined the whole geological context by studying stratigraphy, sedimentology, tectonic, and petrography of rocks belonging to the concerned area. The main objective was to determine the origin of uranium between a granitic one and a sedimentary one. This meant a reconstitution of the geological history, and therefore the study of the metamorphized sedimentary surrounding rock, of the intrusive granite and of their different possible relationships. On a first part, the author analysed outcropping formations and tried to assign them with a stratigraphic position. He also tried to define the deposition modalities of these formations which could have conditioned sedimentary sites. In a second part, the author reports the study of geological structures and tectonic in order to try to recognise possible structures which could have promoted uranium deposition and trapping in the surrounding rock as well as in granite. The last part addresses the petrography of the different rocks met in the area, and mineralization, notably that of uranium [fr

  8. Strain induced effects on the transport properties of metamorphic InAlAs/InGaAs quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capotondi, F.; Biasiol, G.; Ercolani, D.; Grillo, V.; Carlino, E.; Romanato, F.; Sorba, L.

    2005-01-01

    The relationship between structural and low-temperature transport properties is explored for In x Al 1 - x As/In x Ga 1 - x As metamorphic quantum wells with x > 0.7 grown on GaAs by molecular beam epitaxy. Different step-graded buffer layers are used to gradually adapt the in-plane lattice parameter from the GaAs towards the InGaAs value. We show that using buffer layers with a suitable maximum In content the residual compressive strain in the quantum well region can be strongly reduced. Samples with virtually no residual strain in the quantum well region show a low-temperature electron mobility up to 29 m 2 /V s while for samples with higher residual compressive strain the low-temperature mobility is reduced. Furthermore, for samples with buffers inducing a tensile strain in the quantum well region, deep grooves are observed on the surface, and in correspondence we notice a strong deterioration of the low-temperature transport properties

  9. Isotopic dating of low-grade metamorphic shales in northern Namibia (South West Africa) and implications for the orogenic evolution of the Pan-African Damara Belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroener, A.; Clauer, N.

    1979-01-01

    The fine mineral fractions (<2 μm) from pelitic sediments of the molasse-type Mulden Group in the Pan-African Damara belt of Namibia were dated by the Rb-Sr and K-Ar methods. The sediments contain two major parageneses of metamorphic origin which can be related to two separate low-grade regional tectono-thermal events of anchizonal intensity at about 535 (545) Ma and 455 (465) Ma respectively. (Auth.)

  10. Chemical and oxygen isotopic properties of ordinary chondrites (H5, L6) from Oman: Signs of isotopic equilibrium during thermal metamorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Arshad; Nasir, Sobhi J.; Jabeen, Iffat; Al Rawas, Ahmed; Banerjee, Neil R.; Osinski, Gordon R.

    2017-10-01

    Mean bulk chemical data of recently found H5 and L6 ordinary chondrites from the deserts of Oman generally reflect isochemical features which are consistent with the progressive thermal metamorphism of a common, unequilibrated starting material. Relative differences in abundances range from 0.5-10% in REE (Eu = 14%), 6-13% in siderophile elements (Co = 48%), and >10% in lithophile elements (exceptions are Ba, Sr, Zr, Hf, U = >30%) between H5 and L6 groups. These differences may have accounted for variable temperature conditions during metamorphism on their parent bodies. The CI/Mg-normalized mean abundances of refractory lithophile elements (Al, Ca, Sm, Yb, Lu, V) show no resolvable differences between H5 and L6 suggesting that both groups have experienced the same fractionation. The REE diagram shows subtle enrichment in LREE with a flat HREE pattern. Furthermore, overall mean REE abundances are 0.6 × CI with enriched La abundance ( 0.9 × CI) in both groups. Precise oxygen isotope compositions demonstrate the attainment of isotopic equilibrium by progressive thermal metamorphism following a mass-dependent isotope fractionation trend. Both groups show a slope-1/2 line on a three-isotope plot with subtle negative deviation in Δ17O associated with δ18O enrichment relative to δ17O. These deviations are interpreted as the result of liberation of water from phyllosilicates and evaporation of a fraction of the water during thermal metamorphism. The resultant isotope fractionations caused by the water loss are analogous to those occurring between silicate melt and gas phase during CAI and chondrule formation in chondrites and are controlled by cooling rates and exchange efficiency.

  11. Vapor flux and recrystallization during dry snow metamorphism under a steady temperature gradient as observed by time-lapse micro-tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. R. Pinzer

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Dry snow metamorphism under an external temperature gradient is the most common type of recrystallization of snow on the ground. The changes in snow microstructure modify the physical properties of snow, and therefore an understanding of this process is essential for many disciplines, from modeling the effects of snow on climate to assessing avalanche risk. We directly imaged the microstructural changes in snow during temperature gradient metamorphism (TGM under a constant gradient of 50 K m−1, using in situ time-lapse X-ray micro-tomography. This novel and non-destructive technique directly reveals the amount of ice that sublimates and is deposited during metamorphism, in addition to the exact locations of these phase changes. We calculated the average time that an ice volume stayed in place before it sublimated and found a characteristic residence time of 2–3 days. This means that most of the ice changes its phase from solid to vapor and back many times in a seasonal snowpack where similar temperature conditions can be found. Consistent with such a short timescale, we observed a mass turnover of up to 60% of the total ice mass per day. The concept of hand-to-hand transport for the water vapor flux describes the observed changes very well. However, we did not find evidence for a macroscopic vapor diffusion enhancement. The picture of {temperature gradient metamorphism} produced by directly observing the changing microstructure sheds light on the micro-physical processes and could help to improve models that predict the physical properties of snow.

  12. Pb-Pb zircon ages of the Porto Nacional high-grade metamorphic terrain, northern portion of the Goias Massif, central Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorayeb, Paulo Sergio de Sousa; Moura, Candido Augusto Veloso [Para Univ., Belem, PA (Brazil). Centro de Geociencias]. E-mail: gorayebp@ufpa.br; c_moura@ufpa.br; Barros, Gisele Ribeiro de [Para Univ., Belem, PA (Brazil). Programa Institucional de Bolsas de Iniciacao Cientifica (PIBIC)]. E-mail: agbarros@amazon.com.br

    2000-03-01

    Single zircon Pb-evaporation ages were determined for a mafic granulite, two enderbites and a kinzigite of the Porto Nacional High-Grade Metamorphic Terrain (PNHGT) in the Goias massif. Zircons from mafic granulites and one of the enderbites of yielded average {sup 207} Pb/{sup 206} Pb ages of 2125{+-}3 Ma and 2153{+-}1 Ma, respectively, being interpreted as minimum ages of the igneous protoliths. The other enderbite, whose zircons presented round terminations, yielded an average {sup 207} Pb/{sup 206} Pb age of 2097 {+-} 2 Ma. Zircons from the kinzigite, displaying cores and rims overgrowth, presented {sup 207} Pb/{sup 206} Pb ages ranging between 2027 and 2115 Ma. However, a very homogeneous zircon crystal without overgrowth yielded age of 2100 {+-} 2 Ma, with a distinctive low Th/U value (0.02). This zircon is interpreted as a metamorphic crystal and its age probably sets the age of the granulite facies metamorphism, indicating that the PNHGT is a result of the Transamazonian thermotectonic event. (author)

  13. Metamorphic evolution and U-Pb zircon SHRIMP geochronology of the Belizário ultramafic amphibolite, Encantadas Complex, southernmost Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartmann Léo A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The integrated investigation of metamorphism and zircon U-Pb SHRIMP geochronology of the Belizário ultramafic amphibolite from southernmost Brazil leads to a better understanding of the processes involved in the generation of the Encantadas Complex. Magmatic evidence of the magnesian basalt or pyroxenite protolith is only preserved in cores of zircon crystals, which are dated at 2257 ± 12 Ma. Amphibolite facies metamorphism M1 formed voluminous hornblende in the investigated rock possibly at 1989 ± 21 Ma. This ultramafic rock was re-metamorphosed at 702±21 Ma during a greenschist facies eventM2; the assemblage actinolite + oligoclase + microcline + epidote + titanite + monazite formed by alteration of hornblende. The metamorphic events are probably related to the Encantadas Orogeny (2257±12 Ma and Camboriú Orogeny (~ 1989 Ma of the Trans-Amazonian Cycle, followed by an orogenic event (702±21 Ma of the Brasiliano Cycle. The intervening cratonic period (2000-700 Ma corresponds to the existence of the Supercontinent Atlantica, known regionally as the Rio de la Plata Craton.

  14. CellDyM: A room temperature operating cryogenic cell for the dynamic monitoring of snow metamorphism by time-lapse X-ray microtomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calonne, N.; Flin, F.; Lesaffre, B.; Dufour, A.; Roulle, J.; Puglièse, P.; Philip, A.; Lahoucine, F.; Geindreau, C.; Panel, J.-M.; Roscoat, S. Rolland; Charrier, P.

    2015-05-01

    Monitoring the time evolution of snow microstructure in 3-D is crucial for a better understanding of snow metamorphism. We, therefore, designed a cryogenic cell that precisely controls the experimental conditions of a sample while it is scanned by X-ray tomography. Based on a thermoelectrical regulation and a vacuum insulation, the cell operates at room temperature. It is, thus, adaptable to diverse scanners, offering advantages in terms of imaging techniques, resolution, and speed. Three-dimensional time-lapse series were obtained under equitemperature and temperature gradient conditions at a 7.8 μm precision. The typical features of each metamorphism and the anisotropic faceting behavior between the basal and prismatic planes, known to occur close to -2°C, were observed in less than 30 h. These results are consistent with the temperature fields expected from heat conduction simulations through the cell. They confirm the cell's accuracy and the interest of relatively short periods to study snow metamorphism.

  15. Deciphering igneous and metamorphic events in high-grade rocks of the Wilmington complex, Delaware: Morphology, cathodoluminescence and backscattered electron zoning, and SHRIMP U-Pb geochronology of zircon and monazite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleinikoff, J.N.; Schenck, W.S.; Plank, M.O.; Srogi, L.A.; Fanning, C.M.; Kamo, S.L.; Bosbyshell, H.

    2006-01-01

    High-grade rocks of the Wilmington Complex, northern Delaware and adjacent Maryland and Pennsylvania, contain morphologically complex zircons that formed through both igneous and metamorphic processes during the development of an island-arc complex and suturing of the arc to Laurentia. The arc complex has been divided into several members, the protoliths of which include both intrusive and extrusive rocks. Metasedimentary rocks are interlayered with the complex and are believed to be the infrastructure upon which the arc was built. In the Wilmingto n Complex rocks, both igneous and metamorphic zircons occur as elongate and equant forms. Chemical zoning, shown by cathodoluminescence (CL), includes both concentric, oscillatory patterns, indicative of igneous origin, and patchwork and sector patterns, suggestive of metamorphic growth. Metamorphic monazites are chemically homogeneous, or show oscillatory or spotted chemical zoning in backscattered electron images. U-Pb geochronology by sensitive high resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) was used to date complexly zoned zircon and monazite. All but one member of the Wilmington Complex crystallized in the Ordovician between ca. 475 and 485 Ma; these rocks were intruded by a suite of gabbro-to-granite plutonic rocks at 434 ?? Ma. Detrital zircons in metavolcanic and metasedimentary units were derived predominantly from 0.9 to 1.4 Ga (Grenvillian) basement, presumably of Laurentian origin. Amphibolite to granulite facies metamorphism of the Wilmington Complex, recorded by ages of metamorphic zircon (428 ?? 4 and 432 ?? 6 Ma) and monazite (429 ?? 2 and 426 ?? 3 Ma), occurred contemporaneously with emplacement of the younger plutonic rocks. On the basis of varying CL zoning patterns and external morphologies, metamorphic zircons formed by different processes (presumably controlled by rock chemistry) at slightly different times and temperatures during prograde metamorphism. In addition, at least three other thermal episodes are

  16. An Attempt to Construction of Seismotectonic Province Map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, Myung Hyun; Shim, Taek Mo

    2010-01-01

    A seismotectonic province is a kind of seismic source where, in general, seismic characteristics are assumed to be uniform. It is different from earthquake-generating geological structures such as faults or folds. It is an area or a zone where earthquakes diffusely occur but no specific geological structure is identified to be responsible for those earthquakes. The terminology, a seismotectonic province is originated from a tectonic province of U.S. federal code, with emphasis on earthquakes. The seismotectonic province is called the seismogenic source in the regulatory guides of U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), and the zone of diffuse seismicity in a guide of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). In Korea, existing seismotectonic province maps were constructed based on the geological information due to insufficient earthquake data. As understood in its name, however, a seismotectonic province map should be based on the seismic information. Moreover, it should be noted that the Korean (geologic) tectonic structures cannot correctly represent the current tectonic regime because they were formed before the Cenozoic. In this context, we attempted to construct a seismotectonic province map by using seismic and geophysical information as well as geologic information

  17. Highlights from Johannesburg, Gauteng Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Although the extraction of mineral wealth has been the major influence in the history of Johannesburg and the surrounding Witwatersrand regions (with about 45% of all gold ever mined coming from there), the discovery of now-famous hominid fossils at the Sterkfontein Caves, and the convening of the world's largest-ever conference on environment and development, are setting a new stage for the future. The United Nations began the second Development and Environment Conference in Johannesburg on August 26, 2002. This meeting addresses the implementation of international goals to fight poverty and protect the global environment that were established at the first such conference held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. The Johannesburg summit involves about forty thousand participants, and perhaps 100 world leaders. One of several official opening ceremonies for the conference was held at the Sterkfontein Caves to recognize the outstanding universal value of the paleo-anthropological fossils found there.These views from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) highlight a number of the land use, vegetation, and geological features found within Gauteng Province (including the urban center of Johannesburg and the capital city Pretoria) and parts of the North West and Free State Provinces. The image on the right displays vegetation in red hues and is a false-color view utilizing data from MISR's near-infrared, red and blue bands. Both the natural-color view (left) and the false-color version were acquired by MISR's nadir camera on June 16, 2002. The urban areas appear as gray-colored pixels in the natural-color view, and exhibit colors corresponding with the relative abundance of vegetation found in the urban parts of this arid region.The mountains trending east-west near the center of the images extend from Pretoria in the east to Rustenberg in the west. These ranges, the Magaliesberg and Witwatersberg, separate the low-lying, hotter bushveld to the north from the cooler

  18. Electrical and structural characteristics of metamorphic In0.38Al0.62As/In0.37Ga0.63As/In0.38Al0.62As HEMT nanoheterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galiev, G. B.; Klimov, E. A.; Klochkov, A. N.; Maltsev, P. P.; Pushkarev, S. S.; Zhigalina, O. M.; Imamov, R. M.; Kuskova, A. N.; Khmelenin, D. N.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of the metamorphic buffer design and epitaxial growth conditions on the electrical and structural characteristics of metamorphic In 0.38 Al 0.62 As/In 0.37 Ga 0.63 As/In 0.38 Al 0.62 As high electron mobility transistor (MHEMT) nanoheterostructures has been investigated. The samples were grown on GaAs(100) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. The active regions of the nanoheterostructures are identical, while the metamorphic buffer In x Al 1−x As is formed with a linear or stepwise (by Δ x = 0.05) increase in the indium content over depth. It is found that MHEMT nanoheterostructures with a step metamorphic buffer have fewer defects and possess higher values of two-dimensional electron gas mobility at T = 77 K. The structures of the active region and metamorphic buffer have been thoroughly studied by transmission electron microscopy. It is shown that the relaxation of metamorphic buffer in the heterostructures under consideration is accompanied by the formation of structural defects of the following types: dislocations, microtwins, stacking faults, and wurtzite phase inclusions several nanometers in size

  19. Political Ideology and Economic Freedom across Canadian Provinces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Potrafke, Niklas

    This paper examines how political ideology influenced economic freedom in the Canadian provinces. We analyze the dataset of economic freedom indicators compiled by the Fraser Institute in 10 Canadian provinces over the 1981-2005 period and introduce two different indices of political ideology......: government and parliament ideology. The results suggest that government ideology influenced labor market reforms: market-oriented governments promoted liberalization of the labor market. Parliamentary ideology did not influence economic liberalization at all. This finding (1) identifies differences between...... leftist and rightwing governments concerning the role of government in the economy and (2) indicates that ideological polarization concerns governments but less parliamentary fractions in the Canadian provinces. ...

  20. Zircon and monazite petrochronologic record of prolonged amphibolite to granulite facies metamorphism in the Ivrea-Verbano and Strona-Ceneri Zones, NW Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guergouz, Celia; Martin, Laure; Vanderhaeghe, Olivier; Thébaud, Nicolas; Fiorentini, Marco

    2018-05-01

    In order to improve the understanding of thermal-tectonic evolution of high-grade terranes, we conducted a systematic study of textures, REE content and U-Pb ages of zircon and monazite grains extracted from migmatitic metapelites across the amphibolite to granulite facies metamorphic gradient exposed in the Ivrea-Verbano and Strona-Ceneri Zones (Italy). This study documents the behaviour of these accessory minerals in the presence of melt. The absence of relict monazite grains in the metasediments and the gradual decrease in the size of inherited zircon grains from amphibolite to granulite facies cores indicate partial to total dissolution of accessory minerals during the prograde path and partial melting. The retrograde path is marked by (i) growth of new zircon rims (R1 and R2) around inherited cores in the mesosome, (ii) crystallisation of stubby zircon grains in the leucosome, especially at granulite facies, and (iii) crystallisation of new monazite in the mesosome. Stubby zircon grains have a distinctive fir-tree zoning and a constant Th/U ratio of 0.20. Together, these features reflect growth in the melt; conversely, the new zircon grains with R1 rims have dark prismatic habits and Th/U ratios ages obtained on both types are similar, indicating contemporaneous growth of stubby zircon and rims around unresorbed zircon grains, reflecting the heterogeneous distribution of the melt at the grain scale. In the Ivrea-Verbano Zone the interquartile range (IQR) of U-Pb ages on zircon and monazite are interpreted to represent the length of zircon and monazite crystallisation in the presence of melt. Accordingly, they provide an indication on the minimum duration for high-temperature metamorphism and partial melting of the lower crust: 20 Ma and 30 Ma in amphibolite and granulite facies, respectively. In amphibolite facies, zircon crystallisation between 310 and 294 Ma (IQR) is interpreted to reflect metamorphic peak condition and earlier retrograde history; conversely

  1. Eclogite-facies metamorphism in impure marble from north Qaidam orogenic belt: Geodynamic implications for early Paleozoic continental-arc collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Xu, Rongke; Schertl, Hans-Peter; Zheng, Youye

    2018-06-01

    In the North Qaidam ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic belt, impure marble and interbedded eclogite represent a particular sedimentary provenance and tectonic setting, which have important implications for a controversial problem - the dynamic evolution of early Paleozoic subduction-collision complexes. In this contribution, detailed field work, mineral chemistry, and whole-rock geochemistry are presented for impure marble to provide the first direct evidence for the recycling of carbonate sediments under ultrahigh-pressures during subduction and collision in the Yuka terrane, in the North Qaidam UHP metamorphic belt. According to conventional geothermobarometry, pre-peak subduction to 0.8-1.3 GPa/485-569 °C was followed by peak UHP metamorphism at 2.5-3.3 GPa/567-754 °C and cooling to amphibolite facies conditions at 0.6-0.7 GPa/571-589 °C. U-Pb dating of zircons from impure marble reveals a large group with ages ranging from 441 to 458 Ma (peak at 450 Ma), a smaller group ranging from 770 to 1000 Ma (peak at 780 Ma), and minor >1.8 Ga zircon aged ca. 430 Ma UHP metamorphism. The youngest detrital zircons suggest a maximum depositional age of ca. 442 Ma and a burial rate of ca. 1.0-1.1 cm/yr when combined with P-T conditions and UHP metamorphic age. The REE and trace element patterns of impure marble with positive Sr and U anomalies, negative high field strength elements (Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf, and Ti), and Ce anomalies imply that the marble had a marine limestone precursor. Impure marble intercalated with micaschist and eclogite was similar to limestone and siltstone protoliths deposited in continental fore-arc or arc setting with basic volcanic activity. Therefore, the Yuka terrane most likely evolved in a continental island arc setting during the Paleozoic. These data suggest that metasediments were derived from a mixture of Proterozoic continental crust and juvenile early Paleozoic oceanic and/or island arc crust. In addition, their protoliths were likely

  2. Sending our child to college. Heilongjiang province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W

    1994-03-01

    An educational program for female farmers in Keshan County, Heilongjiang Province, originally limited to the topics of women's health care and family planning has not only improved health status, but has also helped increase income level among the participants. Keshan County is one of China's grain bases composed of seventeen townships with a total population of 460,000. The education program resulted from the health check-up for women conducted in 1985 which found 62.1% of local women with gynecological diseases, largely ignorant of health care, and too shy to visit doctors. A textbook was subsequently compiled on women's health care and family planning, and lectures were commenced on the topics. Lectures were soon expanded to cover health care for teenagers, newlyweds, pregnant women, young mothers, and middle-aged and elderly people. It was also found after some time that farmers wanted to be wealthier, to secure good educations for their children, and enjoy good health and longevity. Education topics were again expanded to include subjects relevant to farmers' income-production desires. These education sessions are now being replicated in most rural areas countrywide.

  3. ICT Strategic Planning for Mazandaran Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Shojaie

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Today, regarding rapid changes in the environment, any organization, institution or country that overlooks its capabilities, strengths and weaknesses, will face real challenges. Strategic planning in organizations is a common response to these challenges which also facilitate achieving goals in an organization. Today, the importance of ICT is increased, which necessitates ICT strategic planning to use ICT in organizations. So, this study aimed to propose ICT strategic plans for Mazandaran province. For this end, at first using stakeholders' viewpoints, the vision, mission and goals are provided. Then, Internal & External Matrix was suggested and identified factors were ranked using Analytic Network Processing (ANP. Then, concerning strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats, and using SWOT analysis, ICT strategies were provided. Finally, using QSPM matrix, the strategies were ranked. Regarding this ranking, dedicated budget to ICT in governmental organizations, using integration architecture, developing organizational and inter-organizational information systems, developing mechanisms to absorb national and local financial resources for extending ICT infrastructures and finally concerning ICT trainings for managers and people, were in the top of the list.

  4. Bovine trypanosomosis in north province of cameroon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ndamkou, C N; Nchare, A [Laboratoire National Veterinaire de Bokle (LANAVET), Garoua (Cameroon)

    1997-02-01

    The results of the examination of 2959 bovine blood samples collected from four divisions of North Province of Cameroon showed a prevalence of 1.72 for T. brucei, 0.98 for T. congolense and 4.03 for T. vivax using parasitological techniques, such as the buffy coat technique (BCT) and the microhaematrocrit centrifugation technique (MHCT). Prevalence rates in tsetse infested areas were higher than in tsetse free areas for T. brucei and T. congolense, but not for T. vivax. The Antigen ELISA was used to detect trypanosomal antigens in serum samples of a subset of the same animals. By using the Ag-ELISA many more animals were detected positive for T. brucei and T. vivax, but not for T. congolense, than when just the two parasitological techniques were used. As a matter of fact 90% of the T. brucei infections were detected by the Ag-ELISA and 10% by using either the BCT or the MHCT. (author).6 refs, 5 figs, 6 tabs.

  5. Dinoflagellates of the Trentino Province, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna FLAIM

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The Trentino Province (Italy has more than 320 lakes diverse in size, geological substrate, altitude and trophic status, and representing most physico-chemical types of temperate lakes. A recent research project (SALTO offered the opportunity to study the dinoflagellate flora of 27 of these water bodies representing all lake types. In this paper 34 taxa of dinoflagellates assigned to eight genera (Ceratium, Glenodiniopsis, Glochidinium, Gymnodinium, Gyrodinium, Peridinium, Peridiniopsis and Tovellia in five families (Ceratiaceae, Glenodiniopsidaceae, Gymnodiniaceae, Peridiniaceae and Tovelliaceae and four genera of uncertain collocation (Baldinia, Borghiella, Durinskia and Staszicella are described. Two previously undescribed species and two new combinations are also included. Classification is based in part on Popovsk´y and Pfiester (1990, modified according to the results of recent molecular and ultrastructural analyses. Dinoflagellate taxonomy is currently undergoing extensive revision, and taxonomic decisions in the present article follow the recent orientations in dinoflagellate systematics. The taxonomical issues of the more problematic genera are discussed. Where appropriate, comments on ecological features of the species are also given.

  6. Bovine trypanosomosis in north province of cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ndamkou, C.N.; Nchare, A.

    1997-01-01

    The results of the examination of 2959 bovine blood samples collected from four divisions of North Province of Cameroon showed a prevalence of 1.72 for T. brucei, 0.98 for T. congolense and 4.03 for T. vivax using parasitological techniques, such as the buffy coat technique (BCT) and the microhaematrocrit centrifugation technique (MHCT). Prevalence rates in tsetse infested areas were higher than in tsetse free areas for T. brucei and T. congolense, but not for T. vivax. The Antigen ELISA was used to detect trypanosomal antigens in serum samples of a subset of the same animals. By using the Ag-ELISA many more animals were detected positive for T. brucei and T. vivax, but not for T. congolense, than when just the two parasitological techniques were used. As a matter of fact 90% of the T. brucei infections were detected by the Ag-ELISA and 10% by using either the BCT or the MHCT. (author).6 refs, 5 figs, 6 tabs

  7. Floristic study of Khargushan Mountain, Lorestan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Dehshiri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was plant identification, introduction to the flora, determination of life forms and geographical distribution in Khargushan Mountain. This Mountain, with 6000 hectares, situated on the east of Poldokhtar and south-west of Khorramabad. The maximum altitude of this mountain is thought 2329 m. Plant specimens were collected from different parts of the area during two growing seasons 2013-2014. The plant biological spectrum of the area was plotted by means of life forms results. The position of the area within Iran’s phytogeography classification was studied based on geographical distribution data and references. From 211 identified species in the studied area, 3 Pteridophytes, 1 Gymnosperm, 176 dicotyledons and 31 monocotyledons were presented. These species belong to 50 families and 150 genera. The important families are Fabaceae, Asteraceae, Apiaceae and Lamiaceae with 12.79%, 10.42%, 8.05% and 7.58%, respectively. Life forms of the plant species include Therophytes 36.49%, Hemicryptophytes 31.28%, Cryptophytes 18.96%, Phanerophytes 8.06%, and Chamaephytes 5.21%. 138 species (65.4% were endemics of Irano-Turanian region; 32 species of them were endemics of Iran which among them, distribution of 4 species (Astragalus lurorum, Dionysia gaubae, Hedysarum gypsophilum and Phlomis lurestanica limited to Lorestan province.

  8. Church Tourism in Batangas Province, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAYZEL ANN. T. DE CASTRO

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Church tourism has clearly increased over the past ten years. Churches are an important part of the tourism product of many parts of the country. This study aimed to determine the contribution of the churches in terms of social, cultural and economic aspects of the place, to identify the problems encountered in the promoting church tourism and propose plan of action to sustain the tourism of the Province of Batangas through churches. The researchers used the descriptive method of research and utilized self-made questionnaire as the main data gathering instrument of the study. The respondents were consisting of 5 people in the offices of the pilgrim churches from Batangas City and 10 churchgoers. The respondents agree that pilgrim churches contribute to tourism in terms of social and economics aspect while they strongly agree in term of cultural aspect. The most commonly experienced problems were the accessibility of the transportation and an action plan was proposed to address the problems encountered. The recommendation addressed that roving guards should be provided to ensure the safety and security of the tourists during their visit in the church. The church personnel may provide creative and command activities that will encourage people. Also they may have a briefing about the history of the church so that if visitor needs information it easy for them to answer and an action plan may be implemented to solve the problem encountered.

  9. OXYGEN ISOTOPIC COMPOSITIONS OF THE ALLENDE TYPE C CAIs: EVIDENCE FOR ISOTOPIC EXCHANGE DURING NEBULAR MELTING AND ASTEROIDAL THERMAL METAMORPHISM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krot, A N; Chaussidon, M; Yurimoto, H; Sakamoto, N; Nagashima, K; Hutcheon, I D; MacPherson, G J

    2008-02-21

    that CAIs 100, 160 and CG5 experienced melting in an {sup 16}O-rich ({Delta}{sup 17}O < -20{per_thousand}) nebular gas in the CAI-forming region. The Type C and Type-B-like portions of CAI 6-1-72 experienced melting in an {sup 16}O-depleted ({Delta}{sup 17}O {ge} -13{per_thousand}) nebular gas. CAIs ABC, TS26 and 93 experienced isotopic exchange during re-melting in the presence of an {sup 16}O-poor ({Delta}{sup 17}O {ge} -10{per_thousand}) nebular gas in the chondrule-forming region(s). Subsequently, Allende Type C CAIs experienced post-crystallization isotopic exchange with an {sup 16}O-poor reservoir that affected largely melilite and anorthite. Because pseudomorphic replacement of lacy melilite by grossular, monticellite and forsterite occurred during thermal metamorphism, some oxygen isotopic exchange of melilite and anorthite must have continued after formation of these secondary minerals. We suggest that some or all oxygen isotopic exchange in melilite and anorthite occurred during fluid-assisted thermal metamorphism on the CV parent asteroid. Similar processes may have also affected melilite and anorthite of CAIs in metamorphosed CO chondrites.

  10. Weathering of Igneous, Metamorphic, and Sedimentary Rocks in a Semi-arid Climate - An Engineering Application of Petrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, W. J.; Wendlandt, R. F.

    2003-12-01

    Over the last 10 years, analytical methods have been introduced to students in CSM's undergraduate geological engineering program through a multi-year and multi-course approach. Beginning with principles and simple applications of XRD and SEM in sophomore Mineralogy and building on these skills in subsequent junior and senior year courses, geological engineers acquire proficiency in analytical methods. Essential workplace skills are thus acquired without adding an extra course in the undergraduate program. The following exercise is completed by juniors in an integrated Ig.-Met.-Sed. petrology course. The identification of clay mineral assemblages in soils provides a unique opportunity to demonstrate how basic principles of petrology and geochemistry are applied to engineering design criteria in construction site preparation. Specifically, the problem investigates the conditions leading to the formation of smectite in soils and the resulting construction risk due to soil expansion. Students examine soils developed on igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks near Denver, Colorado. The field locations are areas of suburban growth and several have expansive soil problems. The 2-week exercise includes sample collection, description, and preparation, determining clay mineralogy by XRD, and measurement of Atterberg Plasticity Indices. Teaching materials may be found at: http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/petrology03/. This exercise accomplishes three objectives: First, skills in XRD analysis are developed by introducing students to concepts of particle size separation, particle orientation, and sequential analysis steps which are standard practices in clay characterization. Second, lecture material on the geochemistry of weathering of different rock types is reinforced. Students interpret the origin of clay mineral assemblages developed in soils derived from Precambrian gneisses, lower Paleozoic feldspathic sandstones, upper Paleozoic marine shales, and Tertiary

  11. Seismic imaging of the metamorphism of young sediment into new crystalline crust in the actively rifting Imperial Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Liang; Hole, John; Stock, Joann; Fuis, Gary S.; Williams, Colin F.; Delph, Jonathan; Davenport, Kathy; Livers, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Plate-boundary rifting between transform faults is opening the Imperial Valley of southern California and the rift is rapidly filling with sediment from the Colorado River. Three 65–90 km long seismic refraction profiles across and along the valley, acquired as part of the 2011 Salton Seismic Imaging Project, were analyzed to constrain upper crustal structure and the transition from sediment to underlying crystalline rock. Both first arrival travel-time tomography and frequency-domain full-waveform inversion were applied to provide P-wave velocity models down to ∼7 km depth. The valley margins are fault-bounded, beyond which thinner sediment has been deposited on preexisting crystalline rocks. Within the central basin, seismic velocity increases continuously from ∼1.8 km/s sediment at the surface to >6 km/s crystalline rock with no sharp discontinuity. Borehole data show young sediment is progressively metamorphosed into crystalline rock. The seismic velocity gradient with depth decreases approximately at the 4 km/s contour, which coincides with changes in the porosity and density gradient in borehole core samples. This change occurs at ∼3 km depth in most of the valley, but at only ∼1.5 km depth in the Salton Sea geothermal field. We interpret progressive metamorphism caused by high heat flow to be creating new crystalline crust throughout the valley at a rate comparable to the ≥2 km/Myr sedimentation rate. The newly formed crystalline crust extends to at least 7–8 km depth, and it is shallower and faster where heat flow is higher. Most of the active seismicity occurs within this new crust.

  12. Thermal ecology of the post-metamorphic Andean toad (Rhinella spinulosa) at elevation in the monte desert, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanabria, Eduardo A; Rodríguez, César Y; Vergara, Cristina; Ontivero, Emanuel; Banchig, Mariana; Navas, Ana L; Herrera-Morata, Mario A; Quiroga, Lorena B

    2015-08-01

    Rhinella spinulosa is an anuran toad species distributed latitudinal and altitudinal (1200-5000m) from Peru to Argentina, inhabiting mountain valleys in the Andes. Considering the broad range of habitats where they live, it is important to understand the thermal physiological mechanisms, thermal tolerances and physiological adaptations for surviving in rigorous environments. We investigated the thermal parameters (field body temperature, selected body temperature, locomotor performance in field and laboratory conditions, and thermal extremes) during diurnal activity for a population of juvenile, post-metamorphosed toads (Rhinella spinulosa) from the Monte Desert of San Juan, Argentina. Post-metamorphic toads are active from approximately 1100-1900 (in contrast to nocturnal adult toads). Our findings show that these toads have a wide thermal tolerance range, ranging from a critical thermal maximum of 36.9°C to crystallization temperatures below 0°C. During their active period, toads always showed suboptimal thermal conditions for locomotion. Despite the suboptimal condition for the locomotion, diurnal activity is likely to confer thermal advantages, allowing them to search for food and increase digestion and growth rates. We also found that the toads are capable of super-cooling, which prevents mortality from freezing when the environmental temperatures drop below 0°C. The environmental temperatures are below zero at night, when toads are inactive and take refuge under rocks. In summary, this toad population demonstrates high thermal plasticity, as shown by a relatively high level of activity sustained over a wide range of ambient temperature (~35°C). These thermal adaptations allow this species of juvenile toads to inhabit a wide range of altitudes and latitudes. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Very low-temperature metamorphism in Ordovician metasedimentary rocks above and below the Sardic unconformity, SW Sardinia, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschelli, M.; Battaglia, S.; Cruciani, G.; Pasci, S.; Puxeddu, M.

    2017-03-01

    In the Iglesiente region, the Cabitza and Monte Argentu Formations are separated by an angular unconformity known as the Sardic unconformity. This is related to an early Ordovician mild compressional phase, known as the "Sardic phase". The pelitic samples from the structurally lower Cabitza Formation consist of alternating reddish phyllosilicate-rich and whitish phyllosilicate-poor, sialic layers, whose S0 bedding plane is parallel to a pre-Variscan S1P schistosity overprinted by the Variscan S1V schistosity. Pelitic samples from the Monte Argentu Formation are characterized by a Variscan S1V axial plane schistosity. Samples from the two formations consist of quartz and phyllosilicates. The latter are potassic white mica, chlorite, paragonite, locally kaolinite, and pyrophyllite. The illite crystallinity values determined for the Cabitza samples are 0.25-0.31, with an average of 0.29; meanwhile, the Monte Argentu samples produce values of 0.33-0.38, with an average of 0.35. The chlorite crystallinity and b0 of potassic white mica values show greater heterogeneity in the Cabitza than the Monte Argentu samples. The b0 values and P-T pseudosections allow us to confirm that there is no significant difference in the P-T metamorphism conditions between the Cabitza and Monte Argentu samples. The Iglesiente region, which is considered to be the rift zone behind the Middle Ordovician Sarcidano-Barbagia volcanic arc, underwent the "Sardic phase", giving rise to E-W folds. These were first overprinted by weak E-W, and then by stronger N-S-oriented Variscan deformation events.

  14. Mineralogy, geochemistry and low grade metamorphism of green tuffs of Karaj formation in Hesarbon area (south west Firoozkooh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Bahrami

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Green tuffs of middle Eocene age in Hesarbon area, south west of Firoozkuh (East of Central Alborz consist of a thick sequence of lithic-, crystal-,vitric-and calcareous-tuffs. Microscopic and x-ray diffraction studies show plagioclase (albite and oligoclase, alkali feldspar (sanidine, quartz, cristobalite, biotite and hornblende are the major minerals in the rocks studied. Secondary minerals such as analcime, chlorite, prehnite and clay minerals are mainly present in the groundmass of the rocks. Extensive tectonic activities have created a variety of structural features including numerous folds and faults and therefore, have caused the green tuffs to be crushed and converted to breccia tuffs in many parts. Veins and cavities are filled by considerable amounts of zeolitic minerals including heulandite group, clinoptilolite and natrolite along with calcite and secondary quartz. Based on geochemical data, they lie on the dacite and rhyodacite field showing a calc-alkaline nature in the corresponding diagrams. According to the chondrite and primitive mantle normalized diagrams of trace elements, negative anomalies of Eu, Nb, Ti, P and depletion of HFSE together with their position in the petrogenesis discrimination diagrams, it is most likely that these rocks are formed in the active continental margin of a subduction zone. The existence of analcime and prehnite in the groundmass demonstrate that these rocks have undergone some degrees of low-grade metamorphism due to the overburden of the layers in the temperature range 200-300 °C. The present study shows that zeolite minerals filling the fractures and cavities of tuffs are precipitated by hydrothermal fluids with a neutral pH to acidic

  15. Heterogeneity of groundwater storage properties in the critical zone of Irish metamorphic basement from geophysical surveys and petrographic analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comte, Jean-Christophe; Cassidy, Rachel; Caulfield, John; Nitsche, Janka; Ofterdinger, Ulrich; Wilson, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    Weathered/fractured bedrock aquifers contain groundwater resources that are crucial in hard rock basement regions for rural water supply and maintaining river flow and ecosystem resilience. Groundwater storage in metamorphic rocks is subject to high spatial variations due to the large degree of heterogeneity in fracture occurrence and weathering patterns. Point measurements such as borehole testing are, in most cases, insufficient to characterise and quantify those storage variations because borehole sampling density is usually much lower than the scale of heterogeneities. A suite of geophysical and petrographic investigations was implemented in the weathered/fractured micaschist basement of Donegal, NW Ireland. Electrical Resistivity Tomography provided a high resolution 2D distribution of subsurface resistivities. Resistivity variations were transferred into storage properties (i.e. porosities) in the saturated critical zone of the aquifer through application of a petrophysical model derived from Archie's Law. The petrophysical model was calibrated using complementary borehole gamma logging and clay petrographic analysis at multi-depth well clusters distributed along a hillslope transect at the site. The resulting distribution of porosities shows large spatial variations along the studied transect. With depth, porosities rapidly decrease from about a few % in the uppermost, highly weathered basement to less than 0.5% in the deep unweathered basement, which is encountered at depths of between 10 and 50m below the ground surface. Along the hillslope, porosities decrease with distance from the river in the valley floor, ranging between 5% at the river to less than 1% at the top of the hill. Local traces of regional fault zones that intersect the transect are responsible for local increases in porosity in relation to deeper fracturing and weathering. Such degrees of spatial variation in porosity are expected to have a major impact on the modality of the response of

  16. Seismic imaging of the metamorphism of young sediment into new crystalline crust in the actively rifting Imperial Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Liang; Hole, John A.; Stock, Joann M.; Fuis, Gary S.; Williams, Colin F.; Delph, Jonathan R.; Davenport, Kathy K.; Livers, Amanda J.

    2016-11-01

    Plate-boundary rifting between transform faults is opening the Imperial Valley of southern California and the rift is rapidly filling with sediment from the Colorado River. Three 65-90 km long seismic refraction profiles across and along the valley, acquired as part of the 2011 Salton Seismic Imaging Project, were analyzed to constrain upper crustal structure and the transition from sediment to underlying crystalline rock. Both first arrival travel-time tomography and frequency-domain full-waveform inversion were applied to provide P-wave velocity models down to ˜7 km depth. The valley margins are fault-bounded, beyond which thinner sediment has been deposited on preexisting crystalline rocks. Within the central basin, seismic velocity increases continuously from ˜1.8 km/s sediment at the surface to >6 km/s crystalline rock with no sharp discontinuity. Borehole data show young sediment is progressively metamorphosed into crystalline rock. The seismic velocity gradient with depth decreases approximately at the 4 km/s contour, which coincides with changes in the porosity and density gradient in borehole core samples. This change occurs at ˜3 km depth in most of the valley, but at only ˜1.5 km depth in the Salton Sea geothermal field. We interpret progressive metamorphism caused by high heat flow to be creating new crystalline crust throughout the valley at a rate comparable to the ≥2 km/Myr sedimentation rate. The newly formed crystalline crust extends to at least 7-8 km depth, and it is shallower and faster where heat flow is higher. Most of the active seismicity occurs within this new crust.

  17. Basin and Range Province, Western US, USGS Grids #3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These grid files were used to produce gravity and basin depth maps of the Basin and Range Province, western United States. The maps show gravity values and modeled...

  18. Basin and Range Province, Western US, USGS Grids #2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These grid files were used to produce gravity and basin depth maps of the Basin and Range Province, western United States. The maps show gravity values and modeled...

  19. Basin and Range Province, Western US, USGS Grids, #1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These grid files were used to produce gravity and basin depth maps of the Basin and Range Province, western United States. The maps show gravity values and modeled...

  20. Lagoa Real uranium province - The History of an example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raposo, C.; Matos, E.C. de

    1982-01-01

    It is narrated a historic about the anomalies descovered in Lagoa Real province (BA), focusing the aspects related to geology, mineralization, drillings data and reserves evaluation. Geologic and radiometric maps of the anomalies are shown. (A.B.) [pt

  1. Metallogenic epoch of the Jiapigou gold belt, Jilin Province, China

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Metallogenic epoch of the Jiapigou gold belt, Jilin Province, China: ... The Jiapigou gold belt is located on the northern margin of the North China Craton, and is one of the ... 29, Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100083, People's Republic of China.

  2. Zoning Of Apple Trees In Province Of Khorasan Razavi Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhtar Karami

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of prone areas for apple cultivation in Razavi Khorasan province. Therefore in this study criteria and sub criteria were considered to determine suitable areas for growing apple trees and due to the importance of data integration Analytic Hierarchy Process AHP was selected to determine the weight of layers. The software ArcGIS version 10.2.2 was used to analyze the spatial and overlapping layers after data analysis in terms of growing apple trees Razavi Khorasan province was divided into four levels very good good average and bad. The results showed that suitable areas for growing apple trees in the studied area are located in the south east northeast and center of the province including Sarakhs Neyshaboor Gonabad and Kashmar stations with an area of over 4364789.32 hectares which is about 48.34 of the total area of the province.

  3. Basin and Range Province, Western US, USGS Grids #5

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These grid files were used to produce gravity and basin depth maps of the Basin and Range Province, western United States. The maps show gravity values and modeled...

  4. Basin and Range Province, Western US, USGS Grids #4

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These grid files were used to produce gravity and basin depth maps of the Basin and Range Province, western United States. The maps show gravity values and modeled...

  5. Evidences for a volcanic province in the Central Indian Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iyer, S.D.; Sudhakar, M.

    Based on various lines of evidence such as the widespread occurrence of basalts, pumice, volcanic glass shards and their transformational products (zeolites, palagonites, and smectite-rich sediments), we suggest the presence of a volcanic province...

  6. Infertility in Mazandaran province - north of Iran: an etiological study

    OpenAIRE

    Nadali Musanejad; Gholamali Jursarayee; Ayyub Barzegarnejad; Sepideh Peivandi; Narges Moslemizadeh; Amir Esmailnejad Moghaddam; Abbasali Karimpour Malekshah

    2011-01-01

    Background: The prevalence and etiology of infertility are not similar in different parts of the world. There are only few reports of this topic in Iran. Objective: This study was conducted to determine the clinical patterns and major causes of infertility in Mazandaran province in north of Iran. Materials and Methods: The medical records of 3734 consecutive couples attending two infertility clinics in Mazandaran province, from 2003 to 2008, were reviewed. The couples had not had a viable bir...

  7. The Path Analysis of Farmers' Income Structure in Yunnan Province

    OpenAIRE

    XIAO, Yongtian; CUI, Yu; HU, Lijia

    2015-01-01

    The problem of farmers' income growth is the key of issues concerning agriculture, countryside and farmers, so the farmers’ income growth is the fundamental starting point for agricultural and rural economic development. In this paper, we use the statistics concerning farmers' income in Yunnan Province from 1995 to 2012, to perform the path analysis of components of farmers' income in Yunnan Province, study the path of influence of components of farmers' income on farmers' net income, and t...

  8. Self-Burns in Fars Province, Southern Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi, Ali Akbar; Tohidinik, Hamid Reza; Zardosht, Mitra; Seyed Jafari, Seyed Morteza

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The alarming incidence of self- burning provoked to set up a multidisciplinary preventive program to decrease the incidence and complications of this harmful issue. This study investigated the incidence and the preventive measures in self-burn in Fars Province, southern Iran. METHODS This study was a longitudinal prospective design on trend of self-inflicted burn injuries in Fars province after setting up a regional multidisciplinary preventive plan (2009-2012). RESULTS From 18862 ...

  9. The The geothermal potentials for electric development in Maluku Province

    OpenAIRE

    Isnaniawardhani, Vijaya; Sukiyah, Emi; Sudradjat, Adjat; Nanlohy, Martha Magdalena

    2018-01-01

    The characteristic of small to medium size islands is the limited amount of natural resources for electric generation. Presently the needs of energy in Maluku Province are supplied by the diesel generation units. The electricity distributes through an isolated grid system of each island. There are 10 separate systems in Maluku Province, namely Ambon, Namlea, Tual, Saumlaki, Mako, Piru, Bula, Masohi, Dobo and Langgur. From the geothermal point of view, this condition is suitable because the na...

  10. DEMAND FOR BEEF IN THE PROVINCE OF YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistiya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available RACT Protein consumption level of society in Yogyakarta Province has yet to meet the target, but the beef is a source of animal protein that is easily obtainable. Therefore, research on the analysis of demand for beef in this province needs to be done. Objective: (1 Determine the factors that affect the demand for beef in Yogyakarta. (2 Determine the own price elasticity and income elasticity of demand for beef in this province, and to know the cross-price elasticity of demand for beef to changes in the price of mutton, chicken, rice, and cooking oil. Metode: descriptive statistics, followed by inductive statistics , and hypothesis testing. The data used are primary and secondary data. Data were analyzed by multiple linear regression with the value of t and F tests, and analysis of the coefficient of determination. Results: Taken together, the factors that affect the demand for beef in the province is the price of beef, mutton, chicken, rice, cooking oil, income, number of inhabitants. Individually, beef demand is influenced by the price of beef and income residents. Beef inelastic demand means that beef is the daily necessities that are affordable and easy to obtain population of Yogyakarta Province. The increase in income population does not add to demand for beef. Substitutes of beef in the province is goat and chicken, while the complementary goods are rice and cooking oil.

  11. Geochemical modeling of orogenic gold deposit using PCANN hybrid method in the Alut, Kurdistan province, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadzadeh, Mohammadjafar; Nasseri, Aynur

    2018-03-01

    In this paper stream sediments based geochemical exploration program with the aim of delineating potentially promising areas by a comprehensive stepwise optimization approach from univariate statistics, PCA, ANN, and fusion method PCANN were under taken for an orogenic gold deposit located in the Alut, Kurdistan province, NW of Iran. At first the data were preprocessed and then PCA were applied to determine the maximum variability directions of elements in the area. Subsequently the artificial neural network (ANN) was used for quick estimation of elemental concentration, as well as discriminating anomalous populations and intelligent determination of internal structure among the data. However, both the methods revealed constraints for modeling. To overcome the deficiency and shortcoming of each individual method a new methodology is presented by integration of both "PCA & ANN" referred as PCANN method. For integrating purpose, the detected PCs pertinent to ore mineralization selected and intruded to neural network structure, as a result different MLPs with various algorithms and structures were produced. The resulting PCANN maps suggest that the gold mineralization and its pathfinder elements (Au, Mo, W, Bi, Sb, Cu, Pb, Ag & As) are associated with metamorphic host rocks intruded by granite bodies in the Alut area. In addition, more concealed and distinct Au anomalies with higher intensity were detected, confirming the privileges of the method in evaluating susceptibility of the area in delineating new hidden potential zones. The proposed method demonstrates simpler network architecture, easy computational implementation, faster training speed, as well as no need to consider any primary assumption about the behavior of data and their probability distribution type, with more satisfactory predicting performance for generating gold potential map of the area. Comparing the results of three methods (PCA, ANN and PCANN), representing the higher efficiency and more

  12. Magnetite as the indicator of ore genesis for the Huangshaping polymetallic deposit, southern Hunan Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, T.; Ma, D.; Lu, J.; Zhang, R.

    2017-12-01

    Huangshaping polymetallic deposit, located in southern Hunan Province, China, hosts abundant W-Mo-Pb-Zn mineralization which linked with the skarn system located between late Mesozoic high-K calc-alkaline to shoshonitic granitoids and the Carboniferous carbonate in this deposit. In this study, concentrations of trace and minor elements of the magnetites from different skarn stages are obtained by in situ LA-ICP-MS analysis, in order to further understand the polymetallic mineralization processes within this deposit. The generally high concentrations of spinel elements, including Mg, Al, Ti, Mn, V, Cr, Co, Ni, Ga, Ge, and Sn, in all magnetites from this deposit suggest that these elements are incorporated into magnetite lattice by substituting Fe3+ and/or Fe2+. However, the various concentrations of Na, Si, K, Ca, and W elements in magnetites, combining the abnormal time-resolved analytical signals of LA-ICP-MS analyses, suggest that these elements are significantly affected by the fluid inclusions in magnetites. Two groups of magnetites can be further distinguished based on their trace and minor elements concentrations: Group-1 magnetites, including those in medium grain garnets and calcite, have obvious lower Na, Si, K, Ca, Sn, W, but higher Mg, Al, Ti, V, Co, Ni, Zn concentrations compared with Group-2 magnetites, which including those in coarse grain garnets, tremolite, and bulk magnetite ores. This suggests that the hydrothermal fluids where Group-2 magnetites precipitated are evolved magmatic fluids which have undergone the crystal fractionation during the early skarn stages (eg. Garnet and tremolite), the high Na, Si, K, and Ca in the hydrothermal fluids probably result from the dissolution of the host rocks, such as limestone, sandstone, and evaporite horizons in this deposit. However, the Group-1 magnetites probably precipitated in the hydrothermal fluids with low salinity, which result the low Na, Si, K, and Ca in these magnitites. Furthermore, these

  13. Crust structure beneath Jilin Province and Liaoning Province in China based on seismic ambient noise tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Guanghua; Feng, Jikun; Lin, Jun

    2016-11-01

    We imaged the crust structure beneath Jilin Province and Liaoning Province in China with fundamental mode Rayleigh waves recorded by 60 broadband stations deployed in the region. Surface-wave empirical Green's functions were retrieved from cross-correlations of inter-station data and phase velocity dispersions were measured using a frequency-time analysis method. Dispersion measurements were then utilized to construct 2D phase velocity maps for periods between 5 and 35 s. Subsequently, the phase-dispersion curves extracted from each cell of the 2D phase velocity maps were inverted to determine the 3D shear wave velocity structures of the crust. The phase velocity maps at different periods reflected the average velocity structures corresponding to different depth ranges. The maps in short periods, in particular, were in excellent agreement with known geological features of the surface. In addition to imaging shear wave velocity structures of the volcanoes, we show that obvious low-velocity anomalies imaged in the Changbaishan-Tianchi Volcano, the Longgang-Jinlongdingzi Volcano, and the system of the Dunmi Fault crossing the Jingbohu Volcano, all of which may be due to geothermal anomalies.

  14. Laboratory quality improvement in Thailand's northernmost provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanitvittaya, S; Suksai, U; Suksripanich, O; Pobkeeree, V

    2010-01-01

    In Thailand nearly 1000 public health laboratories serve 65 million people. A qualified indicator of a good quality laboratory is Thailand Medical Technology Council certification. Consequently, Chiang Rai Regional Medical Sciences Center established a development program for laboratory certification for 29 laboratories in the province. This paper seeks to examine this issue. The goal was to improve laboratory service quality by voluntary participation, peer review, training and compliance with standards. The program consisted of specific activities. Training and workshops to update laboratory staffs' quality management knowledge were organized. Staff in each laboratory performed a self-assessment using a standard check-list to evaluate ten laboratory management areas. Chiang Rai Regional Medical Sciences Center staff supported the distribution of quality materials and documents. They provided calibration services for laboratory equipment. Peer groups performed an internal audit and successful laboratories received Thailand Medical Technology Council certification. By December 2007, eight of the 29 laboratories had improved quality sufficiently to be certified. Factors that influenced laboratories' readiness for quality improvement included the number of staff, their knowledge, budget and staff commitment to the process. Moreover, the support of each hospital's laboratory working group or network was essential for success. There was no clear policy for supporting the program. Laboratories voluntarily conducted quality management using existing resources. A bottom-up approach to this kind of project can be difficult to accomplish. Laboratory professionals can work together to illustrate and highlight outcomes for top-level health officials. A top-down, practical approach would be much less difficult to implement. Quality certification is a critical step for laboratory staff, which also encourages them to aspire to international quality standards like ISO. The

  15. The Teles Pires volcanic province: A paleogeoproterozoic silicic-dominated large igneous province in southwest Amazon craton and tectonic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite, Jayme Alfredo Dexheimer; Saes, Gerson Souza; Macambira, Moacir Jose Buenano

    2001-01-01

    Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) are important features of the Earth history especially recognized during Paleo to Mezosoic times when they are related to the break up of supercontinents (Coffin and Eldhom, 1994). These provinces occur in several different tectonic settings such as volcanic passive margins, submarine ridges and continental and oceanic plateaux. Mafic-dominanted provinces are the most well known among the LIPs and the best examples are the Karoo, Kerguelem and Ontong-Java. LIPs including an important silicic component have been described in some basaltic provinces of southern Africa (Milner et al. 1992). More recently, silicic-dominated LIPs have been recognized in eastern Australia (Bryan et al., 2000), in southern South America (Pankhurst et al. 1998) and in Antartica Penninsula (Riley and Leat, 1999). The common characteristics of this kind of LIP include: 1) large volume of silicic rocks with dominance of ignimbrites, 2) active over 40 to 50 m.y.; and 3) spatially and temporally associated with plate break up. In this paper we present the main geologic and geochronologic characteristics of the Teles Pires volcanic province from southwest Amazon Craton, which allow its classification as a Paleoprotorozoic silicic-dominated LIP. Geologic implications of this suggestion includes the existence of a large cratonic plate as old as 1.81Ga for the Amazon Craton, therefore the proposed 1.85-1.55 Ga magmatic arc of Rio Negro-Juruena Province should be reviewed (au)

  16. Response of zircon to melting and metamorphism in deep arc crust, Fiordland (New Zealand): implications for zircon inheritance in cordilleran granites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Shrema; Kemp, A. I. S.; Collins, W. J.

    2018-04-01

    The Cretaceous Mount Daniel Complex (MDC) in northern Fiordland, New Zealand was emplaced as a 50 m-thick dyke and sheet complex into an active shear zone at the base of a Cordilleran magmatic arc. It was emplaced below the 20-25 km-thick, 125.3 ± 1.3 Ma old Western Fiordland Orthogneiss (WFO) and is characterized by metre-scale sheets of sodic, low and high Sr/Y diorites and granites. 119.3 ± 1.2 Ma old, pre-MDC lattice dykes and 117.4 ± 3.1 Ma late-MDC lattice dykes constrain the age of the MDC itself. Most dykes were isoclinally folded as they intruded, but crystallised within this deep-crustal, magma-transfer zone as the terrain cooled and was buried from 25 to 50 km (9-14 kbar), based on published P-T estimated from the surrounding country rocks. Zircon grains formed under these magmatic/granulite facies metamorphic conditions were initially characterized by conservatively assigning zircons with oscillatory zoning as igneous and featureless rims as metamorphic, representing 54% of the analysed grains. Further petrological assignment involved additional parameters such as age, morphology, Th/U ratios, REE patterns and Ti-in-zircon temperature estimates. Using this integrative approach, assignment of analysed grains to metamorphic or igneous groupings improved to 98%. A striking feature of the MDC is that only 2% of all igneous zircon grains reflect emplacement, so that the zircon cargo was almost entirely inherited, even in dioritic magmas. Metamorphic zircons of MDC show a cooler temperature range of 740-640 °C, reflects the moderate ambient temperature of the lower crust during MDC emplacement. The MDC also provides a cautionary tale: in the absence of robust field and microstructural relations, the igneous-zoned zircon population at 122.1 ± 1.3 Ma, derived mostly from inherited zircons of the WFO, would be meaningless in terms of actual magmatic emplacement age of MDC, where the latter is further obscured by younger (ca. 114 Ma) metamorphic overgrowths

  17. Timing and duration of Variscan high-pressure metamorphism in the French Massif Central: A multimethod geochronological study from the Najac Massif

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotout, Caroline; Pitra, Pavel; Poujol, Marc; Anczkiewicz, Robert; Van Den Driessche, Jean

    2018-05-01

    Accurate dating of eclogite-facies metamorphism is of paramount importance in order to understand the tectonic evolution of an orogen. An eclogite sample from the Najac Massif (French Massif Central, Variscan belt) displays a zircon-bearing garnet-omphacite-amphibole-rutile-quartz peak assemblage. Pseudosection modeling suggests peak pressure conditions of 15-20 kbar, 560-630 °C. Eclogite-facies garnet displays Lu-enriched cores and Sm-rich rims and yields a Lu-Hf age of 382.8 ± 1.0 Ma and a Sm-Nd age of 376.7 ± 3.3 Ma. The ages are interpreted as marking the beginning of the prograde garnet growth during the initial stages of the eclogite-facies metamorphism, and the high-pressure (and temperature) peak reached by the rock, respectively. Zircon grains display chondrite-normalized REE spectra with variably negative, positive or no Eu anomalies and are characterized by either enriched or flat HREE patterns. However, they yield a well constrained in situ LA-ICP-MS U-Pb age of 385.5 ± 2.3 Ma, despite this REE pattern variability. Zr zonation in garnet, Y content in zircon and the diversity of zircon HREE spectra may suggest that zircon crystallized prior to and during incipient garnet growth on the prograde P-T path, recording the initial stages of the eclogite-facies conditions. Consequently, the zircon age of 385.5 ± 2.3 Ma, comparable within error with the Lu-Hf age obtained on garnet, is interpreted as dating the beginning of the eclogite-facies metamorphism. Accordingly, the duration of the prograde part of the eclogite-facies event is estimated at 6.1 ± 4.3 Myr. Subsequent exhumation is constrained by an apatite U-Pb age at 369 ± 13 Ma.

  18. Petrology, geochemistry and zirconology of impure calcite marbles from the Precambrian metamorphic basement at the southeastern margin of the North China Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi-Can; Zhang, Pin-Gang; Wang, Cheng-Cheng; Groppo, Chiara; Rolfo, Franco; Yang, Yang; Li, Yuan; Deng, Liang-Peng; Song, Biao

    2017-10-01

    Impure calcite marbles from the Precambrian metamorphic basement of the Wuhe Complex, southeastern margin of the North China Craton, provide an exceptional opportunity to understand the depositional processes during the Late Archean and the subsequent Palaeoproterozoic metamorphic evolution of one of the oldest cratons in the world. The studied marbles are characterized by the assemblage calcite + clinopyroxene + plagioclase + K-feldspar + quartz + rutile ± biotite ± white mica. Based on petrography and geochemistry, the marbles can be broadly divided into two main types. The first type (type 1) is rich in REE with a negative Eu anomaly, whereas the second type (type 2) is relatively poor in REE with a positive Eu anomaly. Notably, all marbles exhibit remarkably uniform REE patterns with moderate LREE/HREE fractionation, suggesting a close genetic relationship. Cathodoluminescence imaging, trace elements and mineral inclusions reveal that most zircons from two dated samples display distinct core-rim structures. Zircon cores show typical igneous features with oscillatory growth zoning and high Th/U ratios (mostly in the range 0.3-0.7) and give ages of 2.53 - 2.48 Ga, thus dating the maximum age of deposition of the protolith. Zircon rims overgrew during granulite-facies metamorphism, as evidenced by calcite + clinopyroxene + rutile + plagioclase + quartz inclusions, by Ti-in-zircon temperatures in the range 660-743 °C and by the low Th/U (mostly marbles are ascribed to syn-depositional felsic hydrothermal activity which occurred at 2.53 - 2.48 Ga. Our results, together with other published data and the inferred tectonic setting, suggest that the marbles' protolith is an impure limestone, rich in detrital silicates of igneous origin, deposited in a back-arc basin within an active continental margin during the late Archean and affected by synchronous high-T hydrothermalism at the southeastern margin of the North China Craton.

  19. Mayer Kangri metamorphic complexes in Central Qiangtang (Tibet, western China): implications for the Triassic-early Jurassic tectonics associated with the Paleo-Tethys Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yixuan; Liang, Xiao; Wang, Genhou; Yuan, Guoli; Bons, Paul D.

    2018-03-01

    The Mesozoic orogeny in Central Qiangtang Metamorphic Belt, northern Tibet, provides important insights into the geological evolution of the Paleo-Tethys Ocean. However, the Triassic-early Jurassic tectonics, particularly those associated with the continental collisionstage, remains poorly constrained. Here we present results from geological mapping, structural analysis, P-T data, and Ar-Ar geochronology of the Mayer Kangri metamorphic complex. Our data reveal an E-W-trending, 2 km wide dome-like structure associated with four successive tectonic events during the Middle Triassic and Early Jurassic. Field observations indicate that amphibolite and phengite schist complexes in this complex are separated from the overlying lower greenschist mélange by normal faulting with an evident dextral shearing component. Open antiform-like S2 foliation of the footwall phengite schist truncates the approximately north-dipping structures of the overlying mélange. Microtextures and mineral chemistry of amphibole reveal three stages of growth: Geothermobarometric estimates yield temperatures and pressures of 524 °C and 0.88 GPa for pargasite cores, 386 °C and 0.34 GPa for actinolite mantles, and 404 °C and 0.76 GPa for winchite rims. Peak blueschist metamorphism in the phengite schist occurred at 0.7-1.1 GPa and 400 °C. Our Ar-Ar dating of amphibole reveals rim-ward decreasing in age bands, including 242.4-241.2 Ma, ≥202.6-196.8, and 192.9-189.8 Ma. The results provide evidence for four distinct phases of Mesozoic tectonic evolution in Central Qiangtang: (1) northward oceanic subduction beneath North Qiangtang ( 244-220 Ma); (2) syn-collisional slab-break off (223-202 Ma); (3) early collisional extension driven by buoyant extrusion flow from depth ( 202.6-197 Ma); and (4) post-collision contraction and reburial (195.6-188.7 Ma).

  20. The LaPaz Icefield 04840 meteorite: Mineralogy, metamorphism, and origin of an amphibole- and biotite-bearing R chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCanta, M. C.; Treiman, A. H.; Dyar, M. D.; Alexander, C. M. O.'D.; Rumble, D., III; Essene, E. J.

    2008-12-01

    The R chondrite meteorite LaPaz Icefield (LAP) 04840 is unique among metamorphosed, non-carbonaceous chondrites in containing abundant OH-bearing silicate minerals: ˜13% ferri-magnesiohornblende and ˜0.4% phlogopite by volume. Other minerals include olivine (Fo 62), orthopyroxene (En 69Fs 30Wo 1), albite (An 8Ab 90Or 2), magnetite, pyrrhotite, pentlandite, and apatite. Ferromagnesian minerals are rich in Fe 3+, as determined by Mössbauer spectrometry and electron microprobe chemical analyses. Fe 3+/Fe tot values are olivine ⩽5%, amphibole 80%, phlogopite 65%, and magnetite 42%. Mineral compositions are nearly constant across grains and the section, except for a small variability in amphibole compositions reflecting the edenite exchange couple ( ANa + IVAl ↔ A□ + Si). These mineral compositions, the absence of Fe-Ni metal, and the oxygen isotope data support its classification as an R (Rumuruti) chondrite. LAP 04840 is classified as petrologic grade 5, based on the chemical homogeneity of its minerals, and the presence of distinctly marked chondrules and chondrule fragments in a fine-grained crystalline matrix. The mineral assemblage of LAP 04840 allows calculation of physical and chemical conditions at the peak of its metamorphism: T = 670 ± 60 °C from a amphibole-plagioclase thermometer; PO between 250 and 500 bars as constrained by the assemblage phlogopite + orthopyroxene + olivine + feldspar and the absence of diopside; P unconstrained; f at QFM + 0.5 log units; log(f/fO)≈-5.8;log(f/fO)≈-3.3;andlog(f/f)≈-2.6. The hydrogen in LAP 04840 is very heavy, an average δD value of +3660 ± 75‰ in the magnesiohornblende. Only a few known sources of hydrogen have such high δD and are suitable sources for LAP 04840: ordinary chondrite phyllosilicates (as in the Semarkona chondrite), and insoluble organic matter (IOM) in ordinary chondrites and CR chondrites. Hydrogen from the IOM could have been released by oxidation, and then reacted with an anhydrous

  1. New age data and geothermobarometric estimates from the Apuseni Mountains (Romania); evidence for Cretaceous amphibolite-facies metamorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiser, Martin; Schuster, Ralf; Spikings, Richard; Tropper, Peter; Fügenschuh, Bernhard

    2014-05-01

    New Ar-Ar ms, Rb-Sr bt and Sm-Nd grt age data in combination with microprobe analyses and structural data from the Apuseni Mountains provide new constraints for the tectonic evolution of the Tisza and Dacia Mega-Units during the Late Jurassic-Late Cretaceous time interval, whic