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Sample records for rhizopus

  1. Rhizopus in Kalanchoë

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paternotte, S.J.

    2001-01-01

    In 2001 is door PPO-glastuinbouw onderzoek gedaan aan Rhizopus stolonifer in Kalanchoë ( verslag PPO 533). Naar aanleiding van dit onderzoek en na gesprekken met de begeleidingscommissie en telers van Kalanchoë moerplanten is de conclusie getrokken dat vooral grote schommelingen in watergehalte van

  2. Radiation resistance of Rhizopus stolonifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robbertse, P.J.; Du Toit, T.L.; Van der Merwe, L.J.; Koekemoer, M.L.; Eilers, I.M.I.

    1983-01-01

    A problem encountered with the irradiation of food is that certain micro-organisms are highly resistant to gamma rays. This includes the fungus, Rhizopus stolonifer, associated with most fruits. The Nuclear Development Corporation of South Africa (NUCOR) has found that a combination of radiation and mild heat treatment reduces the radiation dose necessary to kill 90% of R. stolonifer by approximately half. Treatment at 50 degrees Celsius for 10 minutes or at 55 degrees Celsius for five minutes is sufficient. The article discusses the mechanism of radiation resistance in R. stolonifer and the way in which heating affects this resistance

  3. Phylogenetic and Phylogenomic Definition of Rhizopus Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrii P. Gryganskyi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Phylogenomic approaches have the potential to improve confidence about the inter-relationships of species in the order Mucorales within the fungal tree of life. Rhizopus species are especially important as plant and animal pathogens and bioindustrial fermenters for food and metabolite production. A dataset of 192 orthologous genes was used to construct a phylogenetic tree of 21 Rhizopus strains, classified into four species isolated from habitats of industrial, medical and environmental importance. The phylogeny indicates that the genus Rhizopus consists of three major clades, with R. microsporus as the basal species and the sister lineage to R. stolonifer and two closely related species R. arrhizus and R. delemar. A comparative analysis of the mating type locus across Rhizopus reveals that its structure is flexible even between different species in the same genus, but shows similarities between Rhizopus and other mucoralean fungi. The topology of single-gene phylogenies built for two genes involved in mating is similar to the phylogenomic tree. Comparison of the total length of the genome assemblies showed that genome size varies by as much as threefold within a species and is driven by changes in transposable element copy numbers and genome duplications.

  4. Reduction of hexavalent chromium by Rhizopus Oryzae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    reduction data and the specific growth rate constant value was calculated as 0.082 and the ... Key words: Hexavalent chromium, Rhizopus Oryzae, leather tanning, Monod and Haldane models. ... composition; Glucose 1 g; K2HPO4 0.5 g; NaCl 0.5 g; MgCl2 1.0 g; ... ficantly, because of the inhibitor role of high concentration.

  5. Rhizopus Soft Rot on Lily Caused by Rhizopus oryzae in Korea

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    Soo-Sang Hahm

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Rhizopus soft rot of lily (Lilium longiflorum caused by Rhizopus oryzae was observed in the experimental field in Taean Lily Experiment Station in Korea, 2012. The typical symptoms were water-soaked lesions on bottom stem and leaf rot. The lesion rapidly expanded and the plant was softened totally. The fungus grew vigorously at an optimum temperature (25oC and brownish colony and black sporangia were formed on potato dextrose agar medium. Sporangiophores formed on end of sporangia were sub-globose, brownish and 6-10 μm in size. Sporangia were globose, blackish and 87-116 μm in size. Sporangiospores were irregularly oval and sub-globose, brownish 4-8 μm in size. On the basis of mycological characteristics, analyzing sequences of internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA, and pathogenicity test on host plants, the causal fungus was identified as R. oryzae. This is the first report of Rhizopus soft rot on lily caused by R. oryzae in Korea.

  6. Screening of allyl alcohol resistant mutant of Rhizopus oryzae and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethanol is a main by-product in the fermentation broth of Rhizopus oryzae during the production of high-optical purity L-lactic acid. By screening the lower activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) mutant, thus decreasing the flux of pyruvic acid to ethanol may be a virtual method for increasing the conversion rate of glucose ...

  7. Species boundaries and nomenclature of Rhizopus arrhizus (syn. R. oryzae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolatabadi, Somayeh; de Hoog, G Sybren; Meis, Jacques F; Walther, Grit

    2014-01-01

    Rhizopus arrhizus (Mucorales, Mucoromycotina) is the prevalent opportunist worldwide among the mucoralean species causing human infections. On the other hand the species has been used since ancient times to ferment African and Asian traditional foods and condiments based on ground soybeans. As

  8. Biosorptive removal of Hg(II) ions by Rhizopus oligosporus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, corn processing wastewater was used as a new low-cost substrate to produce Rhizopus oligosporus. Dried biomass of R. oligosporus was evaluated as a biosorbent for treatment of synthetically contaminated waters with Hg(II) ions. The biosorption process was carried out in a batch process and the effects of ...

  9. Secretory expression of Rhizopus oryzae α-amylase in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kluyveromyces lactis is a non-conventional yeast species extensively used in the expression of heterologous genes. In this study, a genetically modified K. lactis with high-level expression of α- amylase from Rhizopus oryzae was obtained, which could successfully hydrolyze and use starch for growth very well. Shake flask ...

  10. Reduction of hexavalent chromium by Rhizopus Oryzae | Sukumar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ability of Rhizopus oryzae to reduce Cr6+ was evaluated in batch microcosms. The optimum pH of R. oryzae growth was between 6.0 and 7.0. The maximum chromium reduction efficiency of 91.15% and biomass growth was achieved at a pH of 7, temperature of 37°C, with an initial Cr6+ concentration of 400 ppm and ...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1420 - Lipase enzyme preparation derived from Rhizopus niveus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Lipase enzyme preparation derived from Rhizopus... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1420 Lipase enzyme preparation derived from Rhizopus niveus. (a) Lipase enzyme preparation contains lipase enzyme (CAS Reg. No...

  12. Pemeraman untuk meningkatkan kualitas keju yang diinnokulasi Rhizopus oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOLIKAH ANA ESTIKOMAH

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Estikomah SA, Sutarno, Pangastuti A. 2010. Pemeraman untuk meningkatkaan kualitas keju yang diinokulasi Rhizopus oryzae. Bioteknologi 7: 55-62. Keju merupakan makanan hasil fermentasi dari susu yang proses fermentasinya dilakukan oleh bakteri asam laktat maupun jamur. Rhizopus oryzae diketahui mampu menghasilkan asam laktat, protease, dan lipase. Perubahan cita rasa dan tekstur keju terjadi selama pemeraman keju. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk meningkatkan kualitas keju yang diinokulasi R. oryzae melalui pemeraman. Pemeraman dilakukan dengan variasi waktu (7, 14 hari dan suhu (5ºC, 10ºC, 15ºC. Penelitian ini terdiri dua tahap, yaitu pembuataan keju mentah diikuti pemeraman keju mentah tersebut. Keju penelitian dianalisis nilai pH, kadar lemak, kadar protein, kadar asam amino dan diidentifikasi mikrobanya. Data hasil penellitian dianalisis dengan uji siidik ragam (ANAVA, kemudian dilanjutkan dengan uji berjarak ganda Duncan (DMRT pada taraf signifikansi 5%. Data hasil tingkat kesukaan dianalisis dengan statistik nonparametrik uji Fridman yang dilanjutkaan dengan Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test (WSRT pada taraf sigifikansi 5%. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa keju peram yang disukai panelis adalah keju peram pada suhu 15ºC selama 14 hari. Kondisi pemeraman berpengaruh terhadap nilai pH, kadar lemak,, kadar proteinn dan tidak berpengaruh pada kadar asam amino. Kualitas keju peram terbaik terdapat pada kondisi suhu 15°C selama 14 hari, memiliki nilai pH 4,40, kadar protein tertinggi yaitu sebesar 99,78%, dan kadar lemak sebesar 35,02%. Hasil identifikasi mikroba pada keju mentah dan keju peram meliputi Enterococcus hirae (Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus subtilis, dan Aspergillus sp.

  13. Ripening for improving the quality of inoculated cheese Rhizopus oryzae

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    ARTINI PANGASTUTI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Estikomah SA, Sutarno, Pangastuti A 2010. Ripening for improving the quality of inoculated cheese Rhizopus oryzae. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 1-6. Cheese is dairy product resulted from fermented milk in which the fermentation process can be done by lactic acid bacteria or fungus. Rhizopus oryzae is able to produce lactic acid, protease and lipase. The ripening process changes the taste and texture. The purpose of this study is ripening to improve the quality of inoculated cheese R. oryzae. In this research the ripening was conducted the concentration variation of temperature (5oC, 10oC, 15oC, and time (7 days, 14 days. The procedure of research consisted of two steps, namely un-ripened cheese preparation followed by ripening cheese preparation. Cheese produced in this study analyzed the value of pH, fat content, protein content, amino acid levels and identification of microbe with ANOVA then followed by DMRT at 5% level of significance. Data results were analyzed with the like’s nonparametric statistical test, followed by Fridman Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test (WSRT at 5% level significance. The results showed that the preferred ripened cheese panelist was at a temperature of 15oC for 14 days. Ripening conditions affect pH, fat content, protein content and do not affect the levels of amino acids that formed ripened cheese. The best quality ripened cheese i.e. at a temperature of 15°C for 14 days, had a pH value of 4.40, the highest protein content of 9.78%, and fat content of 35.02%. The results of identified microbe in un-ripened cheese and ripened cheese include Enterococcus hirae (Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus subtilis, and Aspergillus sp.

  14. Characterization of two thermostable inulinases from Rhizopus oligosporus NRRL 2710

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    Saleh A. Mohamed

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Two inulinases (Inu2 and Inu3 were purified from Rhizopus oligosporus NRRL 2710 by chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose and Sephacryl S-200 columns. The molecular weight of Inu2 and Inu3 were determined to be 76 and 30 kDa, respectively. Inu2 and Inu3 had the same pH optimum at 5.0, temperature optimum at 50 and 60 °C, and thermal stability up to 60 and 70 °C for 1 h, respectively. Inu2 and Inu3 had low km values (0.93 and 0.70 mM, respectively indicating the high affinity toward inulin. Mg2+, Ca2+, Zn2+ and EDTA did not significantly influence the enzyme activity. Ni2+, Cu2+, Fe2+ and Co2+ showed a partial inhibitory effect, and Hg2+ had a strong inhibitory effect. p-Chloromercuribenzoate had a partial inhibitory effect on Inu2. From these findings, R. oligosporus inulinases can be beneficial enzymes for industrial enzymatic production of high fructose syrup.

  15. Metalaxyl Degradation by Mucorales Strains Gongronella sp. and Rhizopus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Maria Rosário; Santos, Cledir; Pereira, Pablo; Cruz-Morais, Júlio; Lima, Nelson

    2017-12-14

    In this study, the degradation of metalaxyl was investigated in the presence of two Mucorales strains, previously isolated from soil subjected to repeated treatments with this fungicide and selected after enrichment technique. Fungal strains were characterised by a polyphasic approach using phylogenetic analysis of the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) gene region, phenotypic characterisation by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) spectral analysis, and growth kinetics experiments. The strains were identified as Gongronella sp. and Rhizopus oryzae . The fungal growth kinetics in liquid cultures containing metalaxyl fits with Haldane model. Under laboratory conditions, the ability of Gongronella sp. and R. oryzae cultures to degrade metalaxyl was evaluated in liquid cultures and soil experiments. Both species were able to: (a) use metalaxyl as the main carbon and energy source; and (b) degrade metalaxyl in polluted soils, with rates around 1.0 mg kg - ¹ d - ¹. This suggests these strains could degrade metalaxyl in soils contaminated with this fungicide.

  16. Karakterisasi ekstrak kasar lipase Rhizopus stolonifer UICC 137

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    Sri Sumiarsih

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing commercial interest in enzymatic production of biologically active component, because there are a number of well-known advantages compared to chemical synthesis. One of the most valuable synthetic features of enzyme is their ability to discriminate between enantiomers of racemic substrates. Lipase have become of great interest to the chemical industries wing their usefulness in both hydrolytic and synthesis reactions. The aim of this work was to study the production of lipase by Rhizopus stolonifer UICC 137, and determine the crude lipase preparation characteristics. The lipolytic activity was determined by titrimetric method toward oil-arabic gum emultion as a substrate. The strain produced lipase at appreciable lipolytic when cultivated for 72 hours in medium containing 3% glucose and 1% olive oil. Our data suggest that the strain produced lipase since the exponential phase of its growth. Lipase with optimum lipolytic activity was obtained at late stationary phase. The optimum condition for lipolytic activity measurement were pH of 7.5 and temperature 37oC, the crude enzyme had a specific activity 20.2 unit/ mg protein, the Vmax was 15.1 mol/ min and KM was 12.5 mg/ ml. The crude enzyme retained 79.9%, 68.0% and 52.6% of its lipolytic activity, when incubated for 90 minutes at temperature of 40, 50, and 60oC respectively.

  17. Biosorption of americium-241 by immobilized Rhizopus arrihizus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Jiali; Yang Yuanyou; Luo Shunzhong; Liu Ning; Jin Jiannan; Zhang Taiming; Zhao Pengji

    2004-01-01

    Rhizopus arrihizus (R. arrihizus), a fungus, which in previous experiments had shown encouraging ability to remove 241 Am from solutions, was immobilized by calcium alginate and other reagents. The various factors affecting 241 Am biosorption by the immobilized R. arrihizus were investigated. The results showed that not only can immobilized R. arrihizus adsorb 241 Am as efficiently as free R. arrihizus, but that also can be used repeatedly or continuously. The biosorption equilibrium was achieved within 2 h, and more than 94% of 241 Am was removed from 241 Am solutions of 1.08 MBq/l by immobilized R. arrihizu in the pH range 1-7. Temperature did not affect the adsorption on immobilized R. arrihizus in the range 15-45 deg. C. After repeated adsorption for 8 times, the immobilized R. arrihizus still adsorbed more than 97% of 241 Am. At this time, the total adsorption of 241 Am was more than 88.6 KBq/g, and had not yet reached saturation. Ninety-five percent of the adsorbed 241 Am was desorbed by saturated EDTA solution and 98% by 2 mol/l HNO 3

  18. Metalaxyl Degradation by Mucorales Strains Gongronella sp. and Rhizopus oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rosário Martins

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the degradation of metalaxyl was investigated in the presence of two Mucorales strains, previously isolated from soil subjected to repeated treatments with this fungicide and selected after enrichment technique. Fungal strains were characterised by a polyphasic approach using phylogenetic analysis of the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS gene region, phenotypic characterisation by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS spectral analysis, and growth kinetics experiments. The strains were identified as Gongronella sp. and Rhizopus oryzae. The fungal growth kinetics in liquid cultures containing metalaxyl fits with Haldane model. Under laboratory conditions, the ability of Gongronella sp. and R. oryzae cultures to degrade metalaxyl was evaluated in liquid cultures and soil experiments. Both species were able to: (a use metalaxyl as the main carbon and energy source; and (b degrade metalaxyl in polluted soils, with rates around 1.0 mg kg−1 d−1. This suggests these strains could degrade metalaxyl in soils contaminated with this fungicide.

  19. Extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Rhizopus stolonifer

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    Khalid AbdelRahim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs has become a necessary field of applied science. Biological method for synthesis of AgNPs by Rhizopus stolonifer aqueous mycelial extract was used. The AgNPs were identified by UV–visible spectrometry, X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR. The presence of surface plasmon band around 420 nm indicates AgNPs formation. The characteristic of the AgNPs within the face-centered cubic (fcc structure are indicated by the peaks of the X-ray diffraction (XRD pattern corresponding to (111, (200 and (220 planes. Spherical, mono-dispersed and stable AgNPs with diameter around 9.47 nm were prepared and affirmed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR shows peaks at 1426 and 1684 cm−1 that affirm the presence of coat covering protein the AgNPs which is known as capping proteins. Parameter optimization showed the smallest size of AgNPs (2.86 ± 0.3 nm was obtained with 10−2 M AgNO3 at 40 °C. The present study provides the proof that the molecules within aqueous mycelial extract of R. stolonifer facilitate synthesis of AgNPs and highlight on value-added from R. stolonifer for cost effectiveness. Also, eco-friendly medical and nanotechnology-based industries could also be provided. Size of prepared AgNPs could be controlled by temperature and AgNO3 concentration. Further studies are required to study effect of more parameters on size and morphology of AgNPs as this will help in the control of large scale production of biogenic AgNPs.

  20. Evaluation of Rhizopus oligosporus in nursery pig diets on growth performance and nutrient digestibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    The thin stillage leftover from ethanol production contains biodegradable organic compounds and sufficient micronutrients that are ideal for fungal cultivation of Rhizopus oligosporus (RO). This fungus removes about 60% of the organic material, including the suspended solids and even more of some sp...

  1. Possible pulmonary Rhizopus oryzae infection in a previously healthy child after a near-drowning incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Magdalena M; Lippmann, Norman; Kobelt, Louise; Petzold-Quinque, Stefanie; Ritter, Lutz; Kiess, Wieland; Siekmeyer, Manuela

    2016-06-01

    This article reports on a previously healthy 17-month-old boy who developed pulmonary mucormycosis after a near-drowning incident in a goose pond. The patient survived without neurological sequelae and recovered, under treatment with amphotericin B, from the rare and often invasive fungal infection with Rhizopus spp., usually occurring in immunodeficient patients.

  2. Rheology, microstructure and baking characteristics of frozen dough containing Rhizopus chinensis lipase and transglutaminase

    Science.gov (United States)

    The beneficial effects of a new recombinant lipase (Rhizopus chinensis lipase, RCL) and transglutaminase (TG) were investigated on frozen dough systems and their breadmaking quality. Rheological properties and microstructure of doughs were measured using a dynamic rheometer, rheofermentometer F3, an...

  3. An unusual ulcer: A case of cutaneous mucormycosis caused by Rhizopus oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley J. Gardiner

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Mucormycoses are high-mortality infections feared by clinicians worldwide. They predominantly affect immunocompromised hosts and are associated with a spectrum of disease. We describe a case of cutaneous mucormycosis caused by Rhizopus oryzae in a patient with multiple risk factors cured with complete surgical excision and a short course of antifungal therapy.

  4. Variation in accumulation of isoflavonoids in Phaseoleae seedlings elicited by Rhizopus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aisyah, Siti; Gruppen, Harry; Andini, Silvia; Bettonvil, Monique; Severing, Eduard; Vincken, Jean Paul

    2016-01-01

    Seeds from seven species of tribe Phaseoleae, i.e. Phaseolus, Vigna, Lablab and Psophocarpus, were investigated for inducibility of isoflavonoids by germination with or without subsequent elicitation with Rhizopus oryzae. Germination alone poorly induced isoflavonoid production (in the range of

  5. Production of α-amylase by solid state fermentation by Rhizopus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-02-18

    Feb 18, 2015 ... However, only a few strains of fungi and bacteria meet the criteria for production of ... amylase production, but solid-state fermentation (SSF) is emerging as a ..... synthesis of lactic acid in R. oryzae and Rhizopus arrhizus using ...

  6. FERMENTASI BUNGKIL KOPRA DENGAN Rhizopus sp. DAN PEMANFAATANNYA DALAM PAKAN PEMBESARAN IKAN BANDENG DI TAMBAK

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    Usman Usman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bungkil kopra (BK hasil fermentasi dengan Rhizopus sp. memiliki kandungan protein yang lebih tinggi dan lemak yang lebih rendah dibandingkan yang tidak difermentasi, sehingga memiliki potensi dan perlu dimanfaatkan sebagai sumber protein dalam pakan ikan-ikan herbivora-omnivora seperti ikan bandeng. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengamati pemanfaatan bungkil kopra hasil fermentasi dengan Rhizopus sp. sebagai sumber protein dalam pakan untuk pembesaran ikan bandeng di tambak. Penelitian dilakukan dengan menggunakan empat petak tambak masing-masing berukuran 2.500 m2/petak. Ikan uji yang digunakan adalah yuwana ikan bandeng berukuran awal rata-rata 10 g/ekor yang ditebar dengan kepadatan 1.500 ekor/petak, dan diaplikasikan pakan uji pada saat ikan berukuran rata-rata 65 g. Pakan uji yang digunakan adalah pakan buatan yang berbahan baku utama (A tepung bungkil kopra tanpa fermentasi, dan (B tepung bungkil kopra hasil fermentasi dengan Rhizopus sp. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa laju pertumbuhan spesifik ikan, rasio konversi pakan, dan sintasan ikan tidak berbeda nyata (P>0,05 di antara kedua perlakuan. Namun ikan yang diberi pakan uji B memiliki produksi yang lebih tinggi (P<0,05 daripada yang diberi pakan uji A. Bungkil kopra yang difermentasi dengan Rhizopus sp. dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai sumber protein dalam pakan ikan bandeng.

  7. Comparative study on the antifungal activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Iranian Propolis and Royal jelly against Rhizopus oryzae

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    Moghim Hassan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Mucormycosis is an opportunistic fungal infection. Rhizopus oryzae is major cause of mucormycosis in humans. This disease is the most common form of the acute fungal infection with rapid progress. Iranian Propolis extract and Royal jelly are honey bee products which have been used by human over the past centuries in traditional medicine. In this study the effects of Iranian Propolis and Royal jelly were investigated against Rhizopus oryzae and Candida albicans. Methods: The used method in this study was microdilution. To perform it, the prepared dilutions of Royal jelly and alcoholic extract of Iranian Propolis were added to tubes containing Sabouraud dextrose broth culture media except to control group and then Rhizopus oryzae suspension was added to all microtubes. In the next stage, microtubes were maintained in incubator at 25oC for 48 hours and then 10 ml of the content of each microtube was transferred to Sabouraud dextrose agar media. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC of the agents were calculated. Results: In this study, the MIC and MFC of Iranian Propolis alcoholic extract on Rhizopus oryzae were respectively 0.1 and 0.25 mg/ml and the MFC of Royal jelly on Rhizopus oryzae were respectively 100 ± 34 and 133 ± 46 mg/ml. Conclusion: The results indicate that Propolis might be used as an ideal combination for the treatment of fungal infections like Rhizopus oryzae. However, clinical studies are needed to confirm the effects of these drugs.

  8. KINETIC STUDY OF PALMITIC ACID ESTERIFICATION CATALYZED BY Rhizopus oryzae RESTING CELLS

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    JONH J MÉNDEZ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the present study, a kinetic model for the biocatalytic synthesis of esters using Rhizopus oryzae resting cells is proposed. The kinetic study has been made in a range of 30-50 °C and atmospheric pressure. The Influence of operating variables, water content, pH, amount of mycelium was studied. Different values of temperature, initial mycelium concentration and acid/alcohol molar ratio were tested. Initial rates were estimated from the slope of the concentration of palmitic acid, or their corresponding ester at conversions of less than 10%, versus time and reported as mmol l-1 min -1. The values of kinetic constants were computed using the freeware program SIMFIT (http:\\\\www.simfit.man.ac.uk. Key words: bound lipase, esterification, fungal resting cells, Rhizopus oryzae, palmitic acid, propanol. RESUMEN En el presente estudio, un modelo cinético para la síntesis de esteres usando Rhizopus oryzae resting cells es propuesto. El estudio cinético fue realizado en un rango de temperatura de 30-50 ºC a presión atmosférica reducida. La influencia de las variables de operación tales como temperatura, pH y contenido de agua fueron estudiadas. Diferentes valores de concentración de micelio y relación molar de ácido/alcohol son ensayadas, Las velocidades iníciales se estimaron de la curva de concentración de acido palmítico, y su correspondiente conversión a ester en menos del 10%, frente a tiempo y reportadas en mmol I-1 min -1. Los valores de las constantes cinéticas fueron calculados usando el programa freeware SIMFIT (http:\\\\www.simfit.man.ac.uk. Palabras clave: Lipasas, esterificación, resting cells, Rhizopus oryzae, acido palmítico, propanol.

  9. High-level expression and characterization of a chimeric lipase from Rhizopus oryzae for biodiesel production

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Xiao-Wei; Sha, Chong; Guo, Yong-Liang; Xiao, Rong; Xu, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Background Production of biodiesel from non-edible oils is receiving increasing attention. Tung oil, called ?China wood oil? is one kind of promising non-edible biodiesel oil in China. To our knowledge, tung oil has not been used to produce biodiesel by enzymatic method. The enzymatic production of biodiesel has been investigated extensively by using Rhizopus oryzae lipase as catalyst. However, the high cost of R. oryzae lipase remains a barrier for its industrial applications. Through differ...

  10. Self-induction system for cellulase production by cellobiose produced from glucose in Rhizopus stolonifer

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yingying; Tang, Bin; Du, Guocheng

    2017-01-01

    Cellulolytic fungi have evolved a sophisticated genetic regulatory network of cellulase synthesis to adapt to the natural environment. Even in the absence of lignocellulose, it still secretes low levels of ?constitutive? cellulase for standby application. However, the mechanisms of this constitutive expression remain incompletely understood. Here we identified a cellobiose synthetase (CBS) from Rhizopus stolonifer, which has the capacity to catalyse the synthesis of cellobiose from uridine di...

  11. Biosynthesis of tannase and gallic acid from tannin rich substrates by Rhizopus oryzae and Aspergillus foetidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Gargi; Banerjee, Rintu

    2004-01-01

    Modified solid-state fermentation (MSSF) of tannin-rich substrates for production of tannase and gallic acid was carried out using two fungal cultures, Rhizopus oryzae (RO IIT RB-13, NRRL 21498) and Aspergillus foetidus (GMRB013 MTCC 3557). The tannin rich substrates included powdered fruits of Terminalia chebula and Caesalpinia digyna pod cover powder. The different environmental parameters for the maximum production of tannase and gallic acid were optimized through media engineering. The highest yield of tannase and gallic acid was obtained after 60 h in case of Rhizopus oryzae and after 72 h by Aspergillus foetidus with 3 ml of induced inoculum. The optimum initial pH of the fermentation was found to be 4.5 in case of Rhizopus oryzae and 5.0 for Aspergillus foetidus. MSSF was carried out at the optimum conditions of 30 degrees C and 80% relative humidity. Collectively, the data reveal the potential of the modified solid-state fermentation process for the production of tannase and gallic acid from tannin-rich substrates with R. oryzae and A. foetidus.

  12. Differentiation of clinically relevant Mucorales Rhizopus microsporus and R. arrhizus by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolatabadi, Somayeh; Kolecka, Anna; Versteeg, Matthijs; de Hoog, Sybren G; Boekhout, Teun

    2015-07-01

    This study addresses the usefulness of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) MS for reliable identification of the two most frequently occurring clinical species of Rhizopus, namely Rhizopus arrhizus with its two varieties, arrhizus and delemar, and Rhizopus microsporus. The test-set comprised 38 isolates of clinical and environmental origin previously identified by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing of rDNA. Multi-locus sequence data targeting three gene markers (ITS, ACT, TEF ) showed two monophylic clades for Rhizopus arrhizus and Rhizopus microsporus (bootstrap values of 99 %). Cluster analysis confirmed the presence of two distinct clades within Rhizopus arrhizus representing its varieties arrhizus and delemar. The MALDI Biotyper 3.0 Microflex LT platform (Bruker Daltonics) was used to confirm the distinction between Rhizopus arrhizus and Rhizopus microsporus and the presence of two varieties within the species Rhizopus arrhizus. An in-house database of 30 reference main spectra (MSPs) was initially tested for correctness using commercially available databases of Bruker Daltonics. By challenging the database with the same strains of which an in-house database was created, automatic identification runs confirmed that MALDI-TOF MS is able to recognize the strains at the variety level. Based on principal component analysis, two MSP dendrograms were created and showed concordance with the multi-locus tree; thus, MALDI-TOF MS is a useful tool for diagnostics of mucoralean species.

  13. Effect of Rhizopus oryzae Fermentation on Kenaf-Based Polylactic Acid’s Monomer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Aimi Mohd Nasir

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Kenaf biomass is the potential as raw materials used to produce polylactic acid's monomer which is lactic acid via fermentation by Rhizopus oryzae. Kenaf biomass' structure is complex due to its lignin and cellulose content. This matter had encouraged it to undergo pre- treatment process as the initial step before fermentation process can be done. In this paper, kenaf biomass was treated with dilute sulphuric acid (H2SO4 to hydrolyze the cellulose content in it as well as to convert the cellulose into glucose- a carbon source for Rhizopus to grow. Then, the fermentation process was carried out in shake flask for 3 days at pH 6. Several conditions for fermentation process had been chosen which were 25oC at 150 rpm, 25 oC at 200 rpm, 37 oC at 150 rpm and 37oC at 200 rpm. In this fermentation process, 0.471 g/L, 0.428 g/L, 0.444 g/L and 0.38 g/L of lactic acid was produced respectively. Sample at 25oC at 200 rpm produced maximum amount of lactic acid compared to others.ABSTRAK: Biojisim kenaf berpotensi sebagai bahan mentah dalam penghasilan monomer asid polylactic (poliester alifatik termoplastik diterbitkan daripada sumber boleh diperbaharu seperti kanji jagung yang merupakan asid laktik menerusi penapaian oleh Rhizopus oryzae (sejenis fungus yang hidup dalam jirim organik yang telah mati. Struktur biojisim kenaf adalah kompleks disebabkan kandungan lignin dan selulosanya. Hal ini menyebabkan ia perlu melalui proses pra-rawatan sebagai langkah awal sebelum proses penapaian dijalankan. Dalam kertas ini, biojirim kenaf dirawat dengan asid sulfurik (H2SO4 yang dicairkan untuk menghidrolisis kandungan selulosa di dalamnya di samping menukar selulosa menjadi glukosa - sumber karbon bagi tumbesaran Rhizopus. Kemudian, proses penapaian dijalankan di dalam kelalang goncang selama 3 hari pada pH 6. Beberapa ciri proses penapaian telah dipilih iaitu 25 oC pada 150 rpm, 25 oC pada 200 rpm, 37 oC pada 150 rpm dan 37 oC pada 200 rpm. Dalam proses penapaian

  14. Promoter sequence of 3-phosphoglycerate kinase gene 1 of lactic acid-producing fungus rhizopus oryzae and a method of expressing a gene of interest in fungal species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Johnway [Richland, WA; Skeen, Rodney S [Pendleton, OR

    2002-10-15

    The present invention provides the promoter clone discovery of phosphoglycerate kinase gene 1 of a lactic acid-producing filamentous fungal strain, Rhizopus oryzae. The isolated promoter can constitutively regulate gene expression under various carbohydrate conditions. In addition, the present invention also provides a design of an integration vector for the transformation of a foreign gene in Rhizopus oryzae.

  15. Promoter sequence of 3-phosphoglycerate kinase gene 2 of lactic acid-producing fungus rhizopus oryzae and a method of expressing a gene of interest in fungal species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Johnway [Richland, WA; Skeen, Rodney S [Pendleton, OR

    2003-03-04

    The present invention provides the promoter clone discovery of phosphoglycerate kinase gene 2 of a lactic acid-producing filamentous fungal strain, Rhizopus oryzae. The isolated promoter can constitutively regulate gene expression under various carbohydrate conditions. In addition, the present invention also provides a design of an integration vector for the transformation of a foreign gene in Rhizopus oryzae.

  16. Inhibition of lipases from Chromobacterium viscosum and Rhizopus oryzae by tetrahydrolipstatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potthoff, A P; Haalck, L; Spener, F

    1998-01-15

    Tetrahydrolipstatin is known as an inhibitor for pancreatic lipase but not for microbial lipases. In this paper we demonstrate that in the presence of water-insoluble substrates like tributyrin or olive oil, tetrahydrolipstatin inhibits the lipases of Chromobacterium viscosum and Rhizopus oryzae, although with different potency. In contrast to porcine pancreatic lipase, which forms an irreversible and covalent enzyme-inhibitor complex with tetrahydrolipstatin, the inhibition of the microbial lipases is reversible as the inhibitor can be removed from the enzyme-inhibitor complex by solvent extraction. Moreover, after inhibition of Chromobacterium viscosum lipase tetrahydrolipstatin remains chemically unchanged.

  17. Production of extracellular lipases by Rhizopus oligosporus in a stirred fermentor

    OpenAIRE

    Iftikhar, Tehreema; Niaz, Mubashir; Zia, Muhammad Anjum; Haq, Ikram ul

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation deals with the kinetics of submerged extracellular lipases fermentation by both wild and mutant strains of Rhizopus oligosporus var. microsporus in a laboratory scale stirred fermentor. Other parameters studied were inoculum size, pH, agitation and rate of aeration. It was found that the growth and lipases production was increased gradually and reached its maximum 9.07± 0.42ª U mL-1 (W) and 42.49 ± 3.91ª U mL-1 (M) after 30h of fermentation for both wild and mutant s...

  18. Effect of Rhizopus oryzae Fermentation on Kenaf-Based Polylactic Acid’s Monomer

    OpenAIRE

    Nur Aimi Mohd Nasir; Mohd Adlan Mustafa Kamalbahrin; Nurhafizah Mohamad; Hazleen Anuar; Maizirwan Mel; and Rashidi Othman

    2011-01-01

    Kenaf biomass is the potential as raw materials used to produce polylactic acid's monomer which is lactic acid via fermentation by Rhizopus oryzae. Kenaf biomass' structure is complex due to its lignin and cellulose content. This matter had encouraged it to undergo pre- treatment process as the initial step before fermentation process can be done. In this paper, kenaf biomass was treated with dilute sulphuric acid (H2SO4) to hydrolyze the cellulose content in it as well as to convert the cell...

  19. Proteolysis in tempeh-type products obtained with Rhizopus and Aspergillus strains from grass pea (Lathyrus sativus) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starzyńska-Janiszewska, Anna; Stodolak, Bożena; Wikiera, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Tempeh is a food product obtained from legumes by means of solid-state fermentation with Rhizopus sp. Our previous research proved that mixed-culture inoculum may also be successfully applied. The objective of present research was to study the proteolytic activity of R. microsporus var. chinensis and A. oryzae during tempeh-type fermentation of grass pea seeds, and the effect of inoculum composition on the protein level and in vitro protein bioavailability in products. Fermentation substrate were soaked and cooked grass pea seeds. Material was mixed with single- or mixed-culture inoculum, and incubated in perforated plastic bags at 30°C for 32 hrs. In the products, the proteolytic activity (pH 3, 5 and 7), glucosamine, total protein and free amino acids levels, as well as protein in vitro bioavailability and degree of protein hydrolysis were obtained. The significant correlation was found between glucosamine content and proteolytic activity in grass pea seeds fermented with Rhizopus or Aspergillus. The activities of Rhizopus proteases were higher than Aspergillus ones, which corresponded with the degree of seed protein hydrolysis. Both strains showed the highest activity of protease at pH 3. Tempeh made with pure culture of Rhizopus had 37% protein of 69% in-vitro bioavailability. Mixed-culture fermentation improved nutritional parameters of products only when the dose of Aspergillus spores in the inoculum was equal and lower than that of Rhizopus. This process resulted in higher in-vitro bioavailability of protein, slightly more efficient protein hydrolysis and higher level of free amino acids, as compared to standard tempeh. The activity of A. oryzae in tempeh-type fermentation is beneficial as long as it does not dominate the activity and/or growth of Rhizopus strain.

  20. Pyogenic liver abscess and peritonitis due to Rhizopus oryzae in a child with Papillon-Lefevre syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalgic, Buket; Bukulmez, Aysegul; Sari, Sinan

    2011-06-01

    Papillon-Lefevre syndrome (PLS) is an autosomal recessive disease that is characterized by symmetric palmoplantar keratodermatitis and severe periodontal destruction. Mutations in the cathepsin C gene (CTSC) have recently been detected in PLS. Immune dysregulation, due to a mutation in CTSC, increases the risk of pyogenic infections in PLS patients. A child with PLS is presented here with liver abscesses and peritonitis caused by Rhizopus oryzae. His liver abscess and peritonitis were cured with amphotericin B without surgical care. This is the first case in the literature liver abscess due to Rhizopus oryzae in a child with PLS.

  1. Evaluasi Perlakuan Pendahuluan Menggunakan Kalsium Hidroksida untuk Biokonversi Jerami Padi Menjadi L-Asam Laktat oleh Rhizopus oryzae AT3 (Evaluation of Lime Pretreatment for Bioconversion of Rice Straw to L-Lactic Acid by Rhizopus Oryzae AT3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhina Aprilia Nurani Widyahapsari

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available L-lactic acid can be used as a precursor of polylactic acid (PLA. PLA is a biodegradable biomaterial commonly used for biodegradable plastics. Lactic acid can be produced from lignocelluloses materials such as rice straw. Rice straw is composed of cellulose and hemicellulose that can be hydrolyzed to fermentable sugar by cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic enzymes then converted to L-lactic acid by Rhizopus oryzae. As most cellulose and hemicellulose present in lignocellulose biomass are not readily accessible for these enzyme, pretreatment is required to alter the structure of lignocellulose substrates. This research aimed to investigate the effect of lime pretreatment on rice straw bioconversion to L-lactic acid by Rhizopus oryzae AT3. Rice straw was pretreated with lime (Ca(OH2 at 85 °C for 16 hours. Unpretreated and pretreated rice straw were hydrolyzed using crude enzyme that produced by Trichoderma reesei Pk1J2. Enzyme production was carried out by solid state fermentation using rice straw and rice brand as substrate. Enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out in flasks. Each flask was added with unpretreated or pretreated rice straw, buffer citrate solution and crude enzyme then hydrolyzed for 0-96 hours. Hydrolysate was fermented by Rhizopus oryzae AT3 for 0-6 days by using adsorbed carrier solid-state fermentation method with polyurethane foam as inert support material. Lime pretreatment at 85 °C for 16 hour led to significant solubilisation of lignin and hemicellulose. It involved lignocellulose structure modified that enhance enzymatic hydrolysis and resulted higher reducing sugars than unpretreated rice straw. The high reducing sugars was not related to high lactic acid yields. Fermentation of pretreated rice straw hydrolysate by Rhizopus oryzae AT3 did not only produce L-lactic acid but also other compound. On the other hand, fermentation of unpretreated rice straw hydrolysate only produced L-lactic acid.   ABSTRAK Polimerisasi asam

  2. Identification of prenylated pterocarpans and other isoflavonoids in Rhizopus spp. elicited soya bean seedlings by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simons, R.; Vincken, J.P.; Bohin, M.C.; Kuijpers, T.F.M.; Verbruggen, M.A.; Gruppen, H.

    2011-01-01

    Phytoalexins from soya are mainly characterised as prenylated pterocarpans, the glyceollins. Extracts of non-soaked and soaked soya beans, as well as that of soya seedlings, grown in the presence of Rhizopus microsporus var. oryzae, were screened for the presence of prenylated flavonoids with a

  3. Kinetic properties of two Rhizopus exo-polygalacturonase enzymes hydrolyzing galacturonic acid oligomers using isothermal titration calorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The kinetic characteristics of two Rhizopus oryzae exo-polygalacturonases acting on galacturonic acid oligomers (GalpA) were determined using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). RPG15 hydrolyzing (GalpA)2 demonstrated a Km of 55 uM and kcat of 10.3 s^-1^ while RPG16 was shown to have greater af...

  4. Producing biodiesel from cotton seed oil using Rhizopus oryzae ATTC #34612 whole cell biocatalysts: Culture media and cultivation period optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of culture medium composition and cultivation time on biodiesel production by Rhizopus oryzae ATCC #34612 whole cell catalysts, immobilized on novel rigid polyethylene biomass supports, was investigated. Supplementation of the medium with carbon sources led to higher lipase activity and i...

  5. Biosorption of Acid Blue 290 (AB 290) and Acid Blue 324 (AB 324) dyes on Spirogyra rhizopus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozer, Ayla; Akkaya, Goenuel; Turabik, Meral

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the biosorption of Acid Blue 290 and Acid Blue 324 on Spirogyra rhizopus, a green algae growing on fresh water, was studied with respect to initial pH, temperature, initial dye concentration and biosorbent concentration. The optimum initial pH and temperature values for AB 290 and AB 324 biosorption were found to be 2.0, 30 deg. C and 3.0, 25 deg. C, respectively. It was observed that the adsorbed AB 290 and AB 324 amounts increased with increasing the initial dye concentration up to 1500 and 750 mg/L, respectively. The Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich-Peterson and Koble-Corrigan isotherm models were applied to the experimental equilibrium data and the isotherm constants were determined by using Polymath 4.1 software. The monolayer coverage capacities of S. rhizopus for AB 290 and AB 324 dyes were found as 1356.6 mg/g and 367.0 mg/g, respectively. The intraparticle diffusion model and the pseudo-second order kinetic model were applied to the experimental data in order to describe the removal mechanism of these acidic dyes by S. rhizopus. The pseudo-second order kinetic model described very well the biosorption kinetics of AB 290 and AB 324 dyes. Thermodynamic studies showed that the biosorption of AB 290 and AB 324 on S. rhizopus was exothermic in nature

  6. Development of a system for integrative and stable transformation of the zygomycete Rhizopus oryzae by Agrobacterium-mediated DNA transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielse, C.B.; Salim, K.; Ragas, P.; Ram, A.F.J.; Kudla, B.; Jarry, B.; Punt, P.J.; Hondel, C.A.M.J.J. van den

    2004-01-01

    Two transformation systems, based on the use of CaCl2/PEG and Agrobacterium tumefaciens, respectively, were developed for the zygomycete Rhizopus oryzae. Irrespective of the selection marker used, a pyr4 marker derived from R. niveus or a dominant amdS+ marker from Aspergillus nidulans, and

  7. Comparative proteomics of Rhizopus delemar ATCC 20344 unravels the role of amino acid catabolism in fumarate accumulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Odoni, Dorett I.; Tamayo-Ramos, Juan A.; Sloothaak, Jasper; Heck, van Ruben; Martins dos Santos, Vitor A.P.; Graaff, de Leo H.; Suarez-Diez, Maria; Schaap, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Rhizopus delemar naturally accumulates relatively high amounts of fumarate. Although the culture conditions that increase fumarate yields are well established, the network underlying the accumulation of fumarate is not yet fully understood. We set out to increase the

  8. Fob1 and Fob2 proteins are virulence determinants of Rhizopus oryzae via facilitating iron uptake from ferrioxamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dialysis patients with chronic renal failure receiving deferoxamine for treating iron overload are uniquely predisposed for mucormycosis. Although not secreted by Mucorales, previous studies established that Rhizopus species utilize iron from ferrioxamine (iron-rich form of deferoxamine). Here we de...

  9. The lipolytic activity of Rhizopus microsporus var rhizopodiformis isolat UICC No. 6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doni Prayudi

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to examine the effect of peptone concentration (2,5% or 5%, inoculum concentration (0,1%, 0,5% or 1% and incubation period (0 – 96 hours, interval 12 hours on the lipolytic activity of Rhizopus microsporus var rhizopodiformis isolat UICC No. 6. Fermentation was done using the basal medium from Samad and the lipolytic activity on olive oil substrate was measured employing titration method with 0,05M NaOH. Lipolytic activity is expressed as unit/ml and one unit is defined as 1 Ωmol fatty acid liberated per minute. Results show that optimum lipolytic activity was obtained from 1 % inoculum, 5% peptone after 72 hours incubation period.

  10. Cloning and heterologous expression of the antibiotic peptide (ABP) genes from Rhizopus oligosporus NBRC 8631.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Osamu; Sakamoto, Kazutoshi; Tominaga, Mihoko; Nakayama, Tasuku; Koseki, Takuya; Fujita, Akiko; Akita, Osamu

    2005-03-01

    We carried out protein sequencing of purified Antibiotic Peptide (ABP), and cloned two genes encoding this peptide as abp1 and abp2, from Rhizopus oligosporus NBRC 8631. Both genes contain an almost identical 231-bp segment, with only 3 nucleotide substitutions, encoding a 77 amino acid peptide. The abp gene product comprises a 28 amino acid signal sequence and a 49 amino acid mature peptide. Northern blot analysis showed that at least one of the abp genes is transcribed in R. oligosporus NBRC 8631. A truncated form of abp1 encoding only the mature peptide was fused with the alpha-factor signal peptide and engineered for expression in Pichia pastoris SMD1168H. Culture broth of the recombinant Pichia displayed ABP activity against Bacillus subtilis NBRC 3335 after induction of heterologous gene expression. This result indicates that mature ABP formed the active structure without the aid of other factors from R. oligosporus, and was secreted.

  11. KAJIAN PENGARUH KONSENTRASI Rhizopus sp. SEBAGAI AGEN PENGIKIS PROTEIN TERHADAP MUTU KULIT IKAN GURAMI TERSAMAK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratri Nur Hayati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to assess the effect of protease activity of Rhizopus sp. as a bating agent on the tanned carp leather quality, and their use for commercial leather products. The study was designed with a completely randomized design with four treatment, namely: the concentration of protease from Rhizopus sp. 0.5% (a1, 1.0% (a2, 1.5% (a3 and palkobat 1.0% (a4/control with 3 replications. Parameters were observed that is (1 protease activity of Rhizopus sp and palcobat; (2 Thickness (mm, tensile strength (N/cm2, tear strength (N/cm, elongation (%, enervation (mm, shrinkage temperature (ºC, fat/oil content (% of tanned leather; and (3 level of consumer acceptance (% and added valuead of comercial leather product. The data of tanned leather quality is then compared with SNI 06-4586-1998 concenring freshwater snake skin leather and chrome Burk’s Bay (1996 on the raw material quality leather products. The test results of protease activity of Rhizopus sp. = 7.97 mg/50mg/ jam and palkobat = 13.62 mg/50 mg/hour. The results of the analysis of tanned leather carp qulity sample from each treatment and comparison with the SNI as follows: (1 Thickness: 0.41 (a1, 0.38 (a2, 0.43 (a3, 0.41mm (a4 and ≥ 0.22 (SNI 06-4586-1998. Tensile strength: 1682.67; 1818.17; 1195.57; 1670.55 and 1,000N/cm2 (SNI. Tear strength: 314.87; 310.95; 332.06; 462.22, and 150.00 N/cm (SNI. Elongation: 93.33; 62.67; 56.67; 97.33, and <30.00% (SNI. Enervation: 1.87; 2.20; 1.63, 2.49, and ≥ 2.0 mm (Burk’s Bay, 1996. Shrinkage temperature: 74.00; 95.33; 96.33; 97.33, and ≥ 70.33ºC (SNI. The fat/oil content: 7.84; 8.17; 5.25; 8.49, and 2.00 to 6.00% (SNI. All treatments were tested has met the SNI quality, except elongation and fat/oil content. The level of consumer acceptance of the Oval HP Cover that is (1 aspects of the display (76.67% like and 23.33% dislike, (2 the use of convenience (66.67% like and 33.33% dislike , and (3 price (63.33% accepted and 23.67 reject. The

  12. Low Lactose Milk Production of Soybean by Fermentation Technique Using Rhizopus oligosporus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Salahudin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Milk is an important food for baby that contains lactose. Normally, a baby could produce lactase enzyme that digest lactose, but in the diarrhea case lactose could not be digested. So, Low Lactose Milk is needed. Low Lactose Milk usually produced from rice or almonds that have low protein. Soybean (Glycine max is the commodity with rich of protein and also contains raffinose and stachyose, which can lead flatulence. Raffinose and stachyose could be reduced by Rhizopus oryzae at tempe process from lamtoro beans.  So the aim in this research is to know the optimum time of soybean fermentation with R. oryzae to reduce stachyiose  and raffinose. The research was done with innoculation of R. oryzae isolate in the soybeans fermentation for 72 hours. N index, raffinose and stachyose level was tested. The result shows that optimum fermentation time is 48 hour and using 5% skim milk as filler.

  13. Rhizopus oryzae - Ancient microbial resource with importance in modern food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londoño-Hernández, Liliana; Ramírez-Toro, Cristina; Ruiz, Héctor A; Ascacio-Valdés, Juan A; Aguilar-Gonzalez, Miguel A; Rodríguez-Herrera, Raúl; Aguilar, Cristóbal N

    2017-09-18

    Filamentous fungi are microorganisms widely known for their diverse biochemical features. Fungi can efficiently invade a wide variety of substrates under operational conditions producing numerous bioproducts of interest, such as enzymes, organic acids, aromatic compounds and colorants. An additional interesting characteristic of some fungi is their safety classification for different uses, which guarantees that the bioproducts obtained from them do not contain any toxic component deleterious to humans. Rhizopus oryzae is among this group of fungi and is classified as a GRAS filamentous fungus, commonly used for production of some oriental traditional foods. It is mainly recognized as a good producer of lactic acid; however, its potential for other biotechnological processes is under study. This review analyzes and discusses the current scientific and technical contributions which may maximize the potential of R. oryzae as a producer of different compounds of industrial interest. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Enhanced L-(+)-lactic acid production by an adapted strain of Rhizopus oryzae using corncob hydrolysate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bai, Dongmei; Li, S.Z.; Liu, Z.L.

    2008-01-01

    -added production of a variety of bioproducts. Lactic acid can be used as a precursor for poly-lactic acid production. Although current industrial lactic acid is produced by lactic acid bacteria using enriched medium, production by Rhizopus oryzae is preferred due to its exclusive formation of the......-isomer and a simple nutrition requirement by the fungus. Production of-L-(+)-lactic acid by R. oryzae using xylose has been reported; however, its yield and conversion rate are poor compared with that of using glucose. In this study, we report an adapted R. oryzae strain HZS6 that significantly improved efficiency...... of substrate utilization and enhanced production of L-(+)-lactic acid from corncob hydrolysate. It increased L-(+)-lactic acid final concentration, yield, and volumetric productivity more than twofold compared with its parental strain. The optimized growth and fermentation conditions for Strain HZS6 were...

  15. Growth Simulation and Discrimination of Botrytis cinerea, Rhizopus stolonifer and Colletotrichum acutatum Using Hyperspectral Reflectance Imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Sun

    Full Text Available This research aimed to develop a rapid and nondestructive method to model the growth and discrimination of spoilage fungi, like Botrytis cinerea, Rhizopus stolonifer and Colletotrichum acutatum, based on hyperspectral imaging system (HIS. A hyperspectral imaging system was used to measure the spectral response of fungi inoculated on potato dextrose agar plates and stored at 28°C and 85% RH. The fungi were analyzed every 12 h over two days during growth, and optimal simulation models were built based on HIS parameters. The results showed that the coefficients of determination (R2 of simulation models for testing datasets were 0.7223 to 0.9914, and the sum square error (SSE and root mean square error (RMSE were in a range of 2.03-53.40×10(-4 and 0.011-0.756, respectively. The correlation coefficients between the HIS parameters and colony forming units of fungi were high from 0.887 to 0.957. In addition, fungi species was discriminated by partial least squares discrimination analysis (PLSDA, with the classification accuracy of 97.5% for the test dataset at 36 h. The application of this method in real food has been addressed through the analysis of Botrytis cinerea, Rhizopus stolonifer and Colletotrichum acutatum inoculated in peaches, demonstrating that the HIS technique was effective for simulation of fungal infection in real food. This paper supplied a new technique and useful information for further study into modeling the growth of fungi and detecting fruit spoilage caused by fungi based on HIS.

  16. Damage to Aspergillus fumigatus and Rhizopus oryzae Hyphae by Oxidative and Nonoxidative Microbicidal Products of Human Neutrophils In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Diamond, Richard D.; Clark, Robert A.

    1982-01-01

    Our previous studies established that human neutrophils could damage and probably kill hyphae of Aspergillus fumigatus and Rhizopus oryzae in vitro, primarily by oxygen-dependent mechanisms active at the cell surface. These studies were extended, again quantitating hyphal damage by reduction in uptake of 14C-labeled uracil or glutamine. Neither A. fumigatus nor R. oryzae hyphae were damaged by neutrophils from patients with chronic granulomatous disease, confirming the importance of oxidative...

  17. Comparative proteomics of Rhizopus delemar ATCC 20344 unravels the role of amino acid catabolism in fumarate accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Odoni, Dorett I.; Tamayo-Ramos, Juan A.; Sloothaak, Jasper; van Heck, Ruben G.A.; Martins dos Santos, Vitor A.P.; de Graaff, Leo H.; Suarez-Diez, Maria; Schaap, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Rhizopus delemar naturally accumulates relatively high amounts of fumarate. Although the culture conditions that increase fumarate yields are well established, the network underlying the accumulation of fumarate is not yet fully understood. We set out to increase the knowledge about fumarate accumulation in R. delemar. To this end, we combined a transcriptomics and proteomics approach to identify key metabolic pathways involved in fumarate production in R. delemar, and ...

  18. PRODUCTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CELLULOLYTIC ENZYMES BY ASPERGILLUS NIGER AND RHIZOPUS SP . BY SOLID STATE FERMENTATION OF PRICKLY PEAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAMIRES CARVALHO DOS SANTOS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Prickly palm cactus husk was used as a solid - state fermentation support substrate for the production of cellulolytic enzymes using Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus sp. A Box - Behnken design was used to evaluate the effects of water activity, fermentation time and temperature on endoglucanase and total cellulase production. Response Surface Methodology showed that optimum conditions for endoglucanase production were achieved at after 70.35 h of fermentation at 29.56°C and a water activity of 0.875 for Aspergillus niger and after 68.12 h at 30.41°C for Rhizopus sp. Optimum conditions for total cellulase production were achieved after 74.27 h of fermentation at 31.22°C for Aspergillus niger and after 72.48 h and 27.86°C for Rhizopus sp . Water activity had a significant effect on Aspergillus niger endoglucanase production only. In industrial applications, enzymatic characterization is important for optimizing variables such as temperature and pH. In this study we showed that endoglucanase and total cellulase had a high level of thermostability and pH stability in all the enzymatic extracts. Enzymatic deactivation kinetic experiments indicated that the enzymes remained active after the freezing of the crude extract. Based on the results, bioconversion of cactus is an excellent alternative for the production of thermostable enzymes.

  19. High-level expression and characterization of a chimeric lipase from Rhizopus oryzae for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Wei; Sha, Chong; Guo, Yong-Liang; Xiao, Rong; Xu, Yan

    2013-02-21

    Production of biodiesel from non-edible oils is receiving increasing attention. Tung oil, called "China wood oil" is one kind of promising non-edible biodiesel oil in China. To our knowledge, tung oil has not been used to produce biodiesel by enzymatic method. The enzymatic production of biodiesel has been investigated extensively by using Rhizopus oryzae lipase as catalyst. However, the high cost of R. oryzae lipase remains a barrier for its industrial applications. Through different heterologous expression strategies and fermentation techniques, the highest expression level of the lipase from R. oryzae reached 1334 U/mL in Pichia pastoris, which is still not optimistic for industry applications. The prosequence of lipases from Rhizopus sp. is very important for the folding and secretion of an active lipase. A chimeric lipase from R. oryzae was constructed by replacing the prosequence with that from the R. chinensis lipase and expressed in P. pastoris. The maximum activity of the chimera reached 4050 U/mL, which was 11 fold higher than that of the parent. The properties of the chimera were studied. The immobilized chimera was used successfully for biodiesel production from tung oil, which achieved higher FAME yield compared with the free chimeric lipase, non-chimeric lipase and mature lipase. By response surface methodology, three variables, water content, methanol to tung oil molar ratio and enzyme dosage were proved to be crucial parameters for biosynthesis of FAME and the FAME yield reached 91.9±2.5% at the optimized conditions by adding 5.66 wt.% of the initial water based on oil weight, 3.88 of methanol to tung oil molar ratio and 13.24 wt.% of enzyme concentration based on oil weight at 40°C. This is the first report on improving the expression level of the lipase from R. oryzae by replacing prosequences. The immobilized chimera was used successfully for biodiesel production from tung oil. Using tung oil as non-edible raw material and a chimeric lipase

  20. Purification and Characterisation of a Fibrinolytic Enzyme from Rhizopus micro sporus var. tuberosus

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    Shuli Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular fibrinolytic enzyme from Rhizopus microsporus var. tuberosus was purified and characterised. The microorganism was isolated in a distillery from daqu, a fermentative agent used in the production of Chinese liquor and vinegar at diff erent temperatures. The fibrinolytic enzyme was partially purifi ed by ammonium sulphate precipitation, dialysis, DEAE Sepharose® Fast Flow ion exchange chromatography and Sephadex G-75 gel filtration chromatography. The molecular mass of the fi brinolytic enzyme was estimated to be 24.5 kDa by SDS-PAGE. The purified enzyme showed optimal activity at pH=7.0 and 37 °C by fibrin plate method. It showed stronger resistance to the inhibition by trypsin and was stable at 37 °C retaining 96.1 % residual activity aft er 4 h of incubation. The fibrinolytic activity of the enzyme was enhanced by Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and Mn2+. Conversely, Zn2+ and Cu2+ partly inhibited enzymatic activity. Using fibrin plate method, we found that the enzyme not only degrades fibrin directly, but also activates plasminogen into plasmin to degrade fibrin. The results indicate that the pure enzyme has a potential in dissolving blood clot, and the possibility for application in the treatment of thrombosis.

  1. Extra-cellular isoamylase production by Rhizopus oryzae in solid-state fermentation of agro wastes

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    Barnita Ghosh

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Extra-cellular isoamylase was produced by Rhizopus oryzae PR7 in solid-state fermentations of various agro wastes, among which millet, oat, tapioca, and arum (Colocasia esculenta showed promising results. The highest amount of enzyme production was obtained after 72 h of growth at 28°C. The optimum pH for enzyme production was - 8.0. Among the various additives tested, enzyme production increased with ions such as Ca2+, Mg2+ and also with cysteine, GSH, and DTT. The enzyme synthesis was reduced in the presence of thiol inhibitors like Cu2+ and pCMB. The surfactants like Tween-40, Tween-80 and Triton X-100 helped in enhancing the enzyme activity. The production could be further increased by using the combinations of substrates. The ability to produce high amount of isoamylase within a relatively very short period and the capability of degrading wastes could make the strain suitable for commercial production of the enzyme.

  2. Protein concentrations of sweet soysauces from Rhizopus oryzae and R. oligosporus fermentation without moromi fermentation

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    NOOR SOESANTI HANDAJANI

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Soy sauce was produce from soybean that fermented with koji/tempeh fungi and thenfermented under salt solution or moromi fermentation. The objectives of this experiment was to compare of protein (total and soluble content of sweet soy sauce that produced from soybean fermented with Rhizopus oryzae and R. oligosporus without moromi fermentation to the sweet soysauce with moromi fermentation one. The total and soluble proteins of sweet soy sauces that produce from soybean without moromi fermentation were higher that sweet soy sauces that produce with moromi fermentation. Soluble protein of sweet soy sauce that produced from soybean fermented with R. oligosporus without moromi fermentation was 8.2% and meet to the highest quality of sweet soy sweet sauce based on Indonesia Industrial Standard. Soluble protein of sweet soy sauce that produced from soybean fermented with R. oryzae without moromi fermentation was 4.1% and meet to the medium quality of sweet soy sweet sauce based on Indonesia Industrial Standard.

  3. Protein enrichment of brewery spent grain from Rhizopus oligosporus by solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canedo, Marianny Silva; de Paula, Fernanda Gomes; da Silva, Flávio Alves; Vendruscolo, Francielo

    2016-07-01

    Brewery spent grain represents approximately 85 % of total by-products generated in a brewery. Consisting of carbohydrates, fiber, minerals and low amounts of protein, the use of brewery spent grain is limited to the feeding of ruminants; however, its potential use should be investigated. The reuse of this by-product using microorganisms by solid-state fermentation process as the case of protein enrichment by single-cell protein incorporation is an alternative to ensure sustainability and generate commercially interesting products. In this context, the aim of this study was to grow Rhizopus oligosporus in brewery spent grain under different initial moisture contents and nitrogen sources to increase the protein content of the fermented material. After 7 days of fermentation, increase of 2-4 times in the crude protein and soluble protein content was verified, respectively, compared to unfermented brewery spent grain. The kinetics of protein enrichment demonstrated the possibility of application of this technique, which can be a great alternative for use in diets for animals.

  4. Kinetics Study of Extracellular Detergent Stable Alkaline Protease from Rhizopus oryzae

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    Zareena Mushtaq

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, extracellular alkaline protease was produced from Rhizopus oryzae in submerged fermentation using dairy waste (whey as a substrate. Fermentation kinetics was studied and various parameters were optimized. The strain produced maximum protease at initial medium pH of 6.0 medium depth of 26 mm, inoculum size of 2% at incubation temperature of 35ºC for 168 h of fermentation. Alkaline protease was purified to homogeneity by ammonium sulphate fractionation followed by sephadex G-100 chromatography. The molecular mass of alkaline protease was 69 kDa determined by 10% SDS-PAGE. The optimum pH and temperature of alkaline protease was 9.0 and 40ºC, respectively. Metal profile of the enzyme showed that the enzyme was non-metallic in nature. The Km , Kcat , Vmax and Kcat/Km values of purified protease were 7.0 mg/mL, 3.8 x102S-1, 54.30 µmol/min and 54.28 s-1mg -1.mL respectively, using casein as substrate. The purified alkaline protease had stability with commercial detergents.

  5. Construction of the yeast whole-cell Rhizopus oryzae lipase biocatalyst with high activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei-ling; Guo, Qin; Wang, Rui-zhi; Xu, Juan; Zhou, Chen-wei; Ruan, Hui; He, Guo-qing

    2011-07-01

    Surface display is effectively utilized to construct a whole-cell biocatalyst. Codon optimization has been proven to be effective in maximizing production of heterologous proteins in yeast. Here, the cDNA sequence of Rhizopus oryzae lipase (ROL) was optimized and synthesized according to the codon bias of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and based on the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell surface display system with α-agglutinin as an anchor, recombinant yeast displaying fully codon-optimized ROL with high activity was successfully constructed. Compared with the wild-type ROL-displaying yeast, the activity of the codon-optimized ROL yeast whole-cell biocatalyst (25 U/g dried cells) was 12.8-fold higher in a hydrolysis reaction using p-nitrophenyl palmitate (pNPP) as the substrate. To our knowledge, this was the first attempt to combine the techniques of yeast surface display and codon optimization for whole-cell biocatalyst construction. Consequently, the yeast whole-cell ROL biocatalyst was constructed with high activity. The optimum pH and temperature for the yeast whole-cell ROL biocatalyst were pH 7.0 and 40 °C. Furthermore, this whole-cell biocatalyst was applied to the hydrolysis of tributyrin and the resulted conversion of butyric acid reached 96.91% after 144 h.

  6. Production of extracellular lipases by Rhizopus oligosporus in a stirred fermentor

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    Tehreema Iftikhar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation deals with the kinetics of submerged extracellular lipases fermentation by both wild and mutant strains of Rhizopus oligosporus var. microsporus in a laboratory scale stirred fermentor. Other parameters studied were inoculum size, pH, agitation and rate of aeration. It was found that the growth and lipases production was increased gradually and reached its maximum 9.07± 0.42ª U mL-1 (W and 42.49 ± 3.91ª U mL-1 (M after 30h of fermentation for both wild and mutant strain. There is overall increase of 109% (W and 124% (M in the production of extracellular lipases as compared to shake flask. Another significant finding of the present study is that the fermentation period is reduced to 30 h in case of wild and 23 h in case of mutant from 48 h in shake flask studies. The specific productivity of mutant strain (qp = 377.3 U/g cells/h was several folds higher than wild strain. The specific production rate and growth coefficient revealed the hyperproducibility of extracellular lipases using mutant IIB-63NTG-7.

  7. Mitochondrial respiratory pathways inhibition in Rhizopus oryzae potentiates activity of posaconazole and itraconazole via apoptosis.

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    Fazal Shirazi

    Full Text Available The incidence of mucormycosis has increased drastically in immunocompromised patients. Also the array of targets whose inhibition results in Mucorales death is limited. Recently, researchers identified mitochondria as important regulators of detoxification and virulence mechanisms in fungi. In this context, targeting the mitochondrial respiratory chain may provide a new platform for antifungal development. We hypothesized that targeting respiratory pathways potentiates triazoles activity via apoptosis. We found that simultaneous administration of antimycin A (AA and benzohydroxamate (BHAM, inhibitors of classical and alternative mitochondrial pathways respectively, resulted in potent activity of posaconazole (PCZ and itraconazole (ICZ against Rhizopus oryzae. We observed cellular changes characteristic of apoptosis in R. oryzae cells treated with PCZ or ICZ in combination with AA and BHAM. The fungicidal activity of this combination against R. oryzae was correlated with intracellular reactive oxygen species accumulation (ROS, phosphatidylserine externalization, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, and increased caspase like activity. DNA fragmentation and condensation assays also revealed apoptosis of R. oryzae cells. These apoptotic features were prevented by the addition of the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-cysteine. Taken together, these findings suggest that the use of PCZ or ICZ in combination with AA and BHAM makes R. oryzae exquisitely sensitive to treatment with triazoles via apoptosis. This strategy may serve as a new model for the development of improved or novel antifungal agents.

  8. Chitosan production by psychrotolerant Rhizopus oryzae in non-sterile open fermentation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasar, Ozden Canli; Erdal, Serkan; Taskin, Mesut

    2016-08-01

    A new chitosan producing fungus was locally isolated from soil samples collected around Erzurum, Turkey and identified as Rhizopus oryzae PAS 17 (GenBank accession number KU318422.1). Cultivation in low cost non-sterile conditions was achieved by exploiting its ability to grow at low temperature and pH, thus, undesired microbial contamination could be eliminated when appropriate culture conditions (incubation temperature as 15°C and initial pH of the medium as 4.5) were selected. Medium composition and culture conditions were optimized using Taguchi orthogonal array (OA) design of experiment (DOE). An OA layout of L16 (4(5)) was constructed with five most influensive factors at four levels on chitosan production like, carbon source (molasses), metal ion (Mg(2+)), inoculum amount, agitation speed and incubation time. The optimal combinations of factors (molasses, 70ml/l; MgSO4·7H2O, 0.5g/l; inoculum, 6.7×10(6) spores/disc; agitation speed, 150rpm and incubation time, 8days) obtained from the proposed DOE methodology was further validated by analysis of variance (ANOVA) test and the results revealed the increment of chitosan and biomass yields of 14.45 and 8.58 folds from its unoptimized condition, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Influence of rice straw-derived dissolved organic matter on lactic acid fermentation by Rhizopus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xingxuan; Wang, Xiahui; Xue, Yiyun; Zhang, Tian-Ao; Li, Yuhao; Hu, Jiajun; Tsang, Yiu Fai; Zhang, Hongsheng; Gao, Min-Tian

    2018-01-31

    Rice straw can be used as carbon sources for lactic acid fermentation. However, only a small amount of lactic acid is produced even though Rhizopus oryzae can consume glucose in rice straw-derived hydrolysates. This study correlated the inhibitory effect of rice straw with rice straw-derived dissolved organic matter (DOM). Lactic acid fermentations with and without DOM were conducted to investigate the effect of DOM on lactic acid fermentation by R. oryzae. Fermentation using control medium with DOM showed a similar trend to fermentation with rice straw-derived hydrolysates, showing that DOM contained the major inhibitor of rice straw. DOM assay indicated that it mainly consisted of polyphenols and polysaccharides. The addition of polyphenols and polysaccharides derived from rice straw confirmed that lactic acid fermentation was promoted by polysaccharides and significantly inhibited by polyphenols. The removal of polyphenols also improved lactic acid production. However, the loss of polysaccharides during the removal of polyphenols resulted in low glucose consumption. This study is the first to investigate the effects of rice straw-derived DOM on lactic acid fermentation by R. oryzae. The results may provide a theoretical basis for identifying inhibitors and promoters associated with lactic acid fermentation and for establishing suitable pretreatment methods. Copyright © 2018 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Enhancement of L(+)-Lactic Acid Production of Immobilized Rhizopus Oryzae Implanted by Ion Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Yonghong; Yang Yingge; Zheng Zhiming; Li Wen; Wang Peng; Yao Liming; Yu Zengliang

    2008-01-01

    Immobilized Rhizopus oryzae culturing may be a solution to the inhibited production of L(+)-lactic acid in submerged fermentation, which is caused by aggregated mycelia floc. In the present study, a R. oryzae mutant (RL6041) with a 90% conversion rate of glucose into L-lactic acid was obtained by N + implantation under the optimized conditions of a beam energy of 15 keV and a dose of 2.6 x 10 15 ions/cm 2 . Using polyurethane foam as the immobilization matrix, the optimal L-lactic acid production conditions were determined as 4 mm polyurethane foam, 150 r/min, 50 g/L ∼ 80 g/L of initial glucose, 38 deg. C and pH 6.0. 15-cycle repeated productions of L-lactic acid by immobilized RL6041 were performed under the optimized culturing conditions and over 80% of the glucose was converted into L-lactic acid in 30 hours on average. The results show that immobilized RL6041 is a promising candidate for continuous L-lactic acid production.

  11. Mutation induced enhanced biosynthesis of lipases by Rhizopus oligosporus var. microsporus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iftikhar, T.; Ikram-ul-Haq; Niaz, M.; Abbas, S.Q.; Zia, M.A.; Ashraf, I.; Lee, K.J.

    2010-01-01

    The present study describes the isolation, identification and screening of fugal strain Rhizopus oligosporus (var. microsporus) for the production of extracellular lipases. One hundred and sixty seven cultures of fungi were isolated from different environments such as soil, air, milk, pickle, oily bread, decayed fruits and vegetables by serial dilution method. The strains were initially selected qualitatively on Tween 80-Agar plates and were shifted to the slants of PDA for maintenance and storage at 4 deg. C. Quantitative screening for extracellular lipase production by isolated strains was carried out in shake flasks and the most potent strain producing 3.20 +- 0.003 U mL/sup -1/ of enzyme was selected. The strain was then identified on the basis of standard morphological measurements and was assigned the code IIB-63. The selected strain was then subjected to physical (UV and Gamma radiations) and chemical mutagenic (MNNG/NTG, NA, EtBr) treatments in order to improve its lipolytic potential. During the treatment, mutants were qualitatively and quantitatively selected and IIB-63 NTG-7 was found to be the mutant showing highest lipases production (10.37 +- 0.06a U mL/sup -1/) with a zone size of 12.3 mm on Luria-Bertani-tributyrin agar plates. This mutant showed an overall 325% increase in activity over its parent strain for the production of extracellular lipase. (author)

  12. Biodiesel production from Nannochloropsis gaditana lipids through transesterification catalyzed by Rhizopus oryzae lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro López, Elvira; Robles Medina, Alfonso; González Moreno, Pedro Antonio; Esteban Cerdán, Luis; Martín Valverde, Lorena; Molina Grima, Emilio

    2016-03-01

    Biodiesel (fatty acid methyl esters, FAMEs) was produced from saponifiable lipids (SLs) extracted from wet Nannochloropsis gaditana biomass using methanolysis catalyzed by Rhizopus oryzae intracellular lipase. SLs were firstly extracted with ethanol to obtain 31 wt% pure SLs. But this low SL purity also gave a low biodiesel conversion (58%). This conversion increased up to 80% using SLs purified by crystallization in acetone (95 wt% purity). Polar lipids play an important role in decreasing the reaction velocity - using SLs extracted with hexane, which have lower polar lipid content (37.4% versus 49.0% using ethanol), we obtained higher reaction velocities and less FAME conversion decrease when the same lipase batch was reused. 83% of SLs were transformed to biodiesel using a 70 wt% lipase/SL ratio, 11:1 methanol/SL molar ratio, 10 mL t-butanol/g SLs after 72 h. The FAME conversion decreased to 71% after catalyzing three reactions with the same lipase batch. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Optimization of xylanase production by Mucor indicus, Mucor hiemalis, and Rhizopus oryzae through solid state fermentation

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    Sanaz Behnam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Xylan is the main hemicellulosic polymer in a number of lignocelluloses which can be hydrolyzed by xylanolytic enzymes. One of the main ways for enzymes production is solid state fermentation (SSF. The ability of three fungal strains (Mucor indicus, Mucor hiemalis, and Rhizopus oryzae for xylanase production on wheat bran by SSF was investigated. Materials and methods: The effects of cultivation temperature, medium moisture content, and cultivation time on the enzyme production were investigated. Experiments were designed with an orthogonal central composite design on three variables using response surface methodology (RSM. Analysis of variance was applied and the enzyme production was expressed with a mathematical equation as a function of the three factors. The optimum operating conditions for the enzyme production was obtained. Results: For xylanase production by M. indicus, M. hiemalis and R. oryzae the optimum temperatures were 40.0, 43.4 and 43.4ºC respectively. These values were 49.8, 54.2 and 71.8% for moisture percent and 51.3, 53.2 and 53.5 h for cultivation time. The highest enzyme activities per g of dry substrate (gds were 43.1, 43.8 and 25.9 U/gds for M. indicus, M. hiemalis and R. oryzae respectively. Discussion and conclusion: All the fungi were able to produce xylanase. Maximum xylanase production was predicted by M. indicus and M. hiemalis at similar optimum conditions, while R. oryzae produced relatively lower xylanase activity even at the best condition. 

  14. The Role of Aquaporins in pH-Dependent Germination of Rhizopus delemar Spores.

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    Tidhar Turgeman

    Full Text Available Rhizopus delemar and associated species attack a wide range of fruit and vegetables after harvest. Host nutrients and acidic pH are required for optimal germination of R. delemar, and we studied how this process is triggered. Glucose induced spore swelling in an acidic environment, expressed by an up to 3-fold increase in spore diameter, whereas spore diameter was smaller in a neutral environment. When suspended in an acidic environment, the spores started to float, indicating a change in their density. Treatment of the spores with HgCl2, an aquaporin blocker, prevented floating and inhibited spore swelling and germ-tube emergence, indicating the importance of water uptake at the early stages of germination. Two putative candidate aquaporin-encoding genes-RdAQP1 and RdAQP2-were identified in the R. delemar genome. Both presented the conserved NPA motif and six-transmembrane domain topology. Expressing RdAQP1 and RdAQP2 in Arabidopsis protoplasts increased the cells' osmotic water permeability coefficient (Pf compared to controls, indicating their role as water channels. A decrease in R. delemar aquaporin activity with increasing external pH suggested pH regulation of these proteins. Substitution of two histidine (His residues, positioned on two loops facing the outer side of the cell, with alanine eliminated the pH sensing resulting in similar Pf values under acidic and basic conditions. Since hydration is critical for spore switching from the resting to activate state, we suggest that pH regulation of the aquaporins can regulate the initial phase of R. delemar spore germination, followed by germ-tube elongation and host-tissue infection.

  15. Structure, function, and phylogeny of the mating locus in the Rhizopus oryzae complex.

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    Andrii P Gryganskyi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Rhizopus oryzae species complex is a group of zygomycete fungi that are common, cosmopolitan saprotrophs. Some strains are used beneficially for production of Asian fermented foods but they can also act as opportunistic human pathogens. Although R. oryzae reportedly has a heterothallic (+/- mating system, most strains have not been observed to undergo sexual reproduction and the genetic structure of its mating locus has not been characterized. Here we report on the mating behavior and genetic structure of the mating locus for 54 isolates of the R. oryzae complex. All 54 strains have a mating locus similar in overall organization to Phycomyces blakesleeanus and Mucor circinelloides (Mucoromycotina, Zygomycota. In all of these fungi, the minus (- allele features the SexM high mobility group (HMG gene flanked by an RNA helicase gene and a TP transporter gene (TPT. Within the R. oryzae complex, the plus (+ mating allele includes an inserted region that codes for a BTB/POZ domain gene and the SexP HMG gene. Phylogenetic analyses of multiple genes, including the mating loci (HMG, TPT, RNA helicase, ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA, RPB2, and LDH genes, identified two distinct groups of strains. These correspond to previously described sibling species R. oryzae sensu stricto and R. delemar. Within each species, discordant gene phylogenies among multiple loci suggest an outcrossing population structure. The hypothesis of random-mating is also supported by a 50:50 ratio of plus and minus mating types in both cryptic species. When crossed with tester strains of the opposite mating type, most isolates of R. delemar failed to produce zygospores, while isolates of R. oryzae produced sterile zygospores. In spite of the reluctance of most strains to mate in vitro, the conserved sex locus structure and evidence for outcrossing suggest that a normal sexual cycle occurs in both species.

  16. Ethanol production by Mucor indicus and Rhizopus oryzae from rice straw by separate hydrolysis and fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abedinifar, Sorahi [Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran); Karimi, Keikhosro [Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran); School of Engineering, University of Boraas, SE-501 90 Boraas (Sweden); Khanahmadi, Morteza [Isfahan Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Centre, Isfahan (Iran); Taherzadeh, Mohammad J. [School of Engineering, University of Boraas, SE-501 90 Boraas (Sweden)

    2009-05-15

    Rice straw was successfully converted to ethanol by separate enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation by Mucor indicus, Rhizopus oryzae, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The hydrolysis temperature and pH of commercial cellulase and {beta}-glucosidase enzymes were first investigated and their best performance obtained at 45 C and pH 5.0. The pretreatment of the straw with dilute-acid hydrolysis resulted in 0.72 g g{sup -1} sugar yield during 48 h enzymatic hydrolysis, which was higher than steam-pretreated (0.60 g g{sup -1}) and untreated straw (0.46 g g{sup -1}). Furthermore, increasing the concentration of the dilute-acid pretreated straw from 20 to 50 and 100 g L{sup -1} resulted in 13% and 16% lower sugar yield, respectively. Anaerobic cultivation of the hydrolyzates with M. indicus resulted in 0.36-0.43 g g{sup -1} ethanol, 0.11-0.17 g g{sup -1} biomass, and 0.04-0.06 g g{sup -1} glycerol, which is comparable with the corresponding yields by S. cerevisiae (0.37-0.45 g g{sup -1} ethanol, 0.04-0.10 g g{sup -1} biomass and 0.05-0.07 glycerol). These two fungi produced no other major metabolite from the straw and completed the cultivation in less than 25 h. However, R. oryzae produced lactic acid as the major by-product with yield of 0.05-0.09 g g{sup -1}. This fungus had ethanol, biomass and glycerol yields of 0.33-0.41, 0.06-0.12, and 0.03-0.04 g g{sup -1}, respectively. (author)

  17. In vitro antifungal susceptibility of clinical species belonging to Aspergillus genus and Rhizopus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachuei, R; Khodavaisy, S; Rezaie, S; Sharifynia, S

    2016-03-01

    Among filamentous fungal pathogens, Aspergillus spp. and zygomycetes account for highest rates of morbidity and mortality among immunocompromised patients. Recently developed antifungal drugs offer the potential to improve management and therapeutic outcomes of fungal infections. The aim of this study was to analyse the in vitro activities of voriconazole, itraconazole, amphotericin B and caspofungin against clinical isolates of Aspergillus spp. and Rhizopus oryzae. The in vitro antifungal susceptibility of 54 isolates belonging to different clinical isolates of Aspergillus spp. and R. oryzae was tested for four antifungal agents using a microdilution reference method (CLSI, M38-A2). All isolates were identified by typical colony and microscopic characteristics, and also characterized by molecular methods. Caspofungin (MEC range: 0.008-0.25 and MEC50: 0.0023μg/mL) was the most active drug in vitro against Aspergillus spp., followed by voriconazole (MIC range: 0.031-8 and MIC50: 0.5μg/mL), itraconazole (MIC range: 0.031-16 and MIC50: 0.25μg/mL), and amphotericin B (MIC range: 0.125-4 and MIC50: 0.5μg/mL), in order of decreasing activity. The caspofungin, voriconazole, and itraconazole demonstrated poor in vitro activity against R. oryzae isolates evaluated, followed by amphotericin B. This study demonstrates that caspofungin had good antifungal activity and azole agents had better activity than amphotericin B against Aspergillus species. Although, azole drugs are considered ineffective against R. oryzae. This result is just from a small scale in vitro susceptibility study and we did not take other factors into consideration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. The Production of Biodiesel from Cottonseed Oil Using Rhizopus oryzae Whole Cell Biocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athalye, Sneha Kishor

    Biodiesel is an environmentally friendly alternative to fossil fuels which have become increasingly expensive in recent times. An alternate approach to alkaline biodiesel production is needed as catalyst miscibility with the glycerol by-product, generation of large amounts of waste water, and saponification of the feedstock are major disadvantages associated with the process. Lipases are water soluble enzymes which act as catalysts in many lipid based reactions. Reuse of lipases can significantly reduce cost of enzymatic biodiesel production; however retention of lipolytic activity still remains a challenge. Use of microbial cells immobilized on various surfaces like sponge, foam and plastics as biocatalysts instead of extracted enzyme could help overcome this problem. A novel, rigid biomass support with high surface area made from recyclable polyethylene (Bioblok(TM)) was used in this study. Several fungal and bacterial species have been reported to possess appreciable levels of lipase activity. The biomass production and immobilization as well as lipase activity of three different species; Candida rugosa (ATCC #38772), Aspergillus oryzae (ATCC #58299), and Rhizopus oryzae (ATTC #34612) were tested. C. rugosa did not attach well to the support particles while A.oryzae had lower biomass accumulation of 6.1 g (dry cell wt)/L compared to 11.8 g (dry cell wt)/L for R.oryzae. Hence Rhizopus oryzae, fungal specie with cell surface bound lipase was selected for the current study. The study investigated the influence of media composition and growth time of the R.oryzae whole cell biocatalysts, immobilized on the BSPs, for FAME production from cottonseed oil. R.oryzae BSPs grown in basal media supplemented with 1% (w/v) of glucose or oil or both for 48 h, 72 h or 90 h were used in a 36 h transesterification reaction with cottonseed oil and methanol. BSPs grown in both glucose and oil supplemented medium for 72 h had the highest conversion of 22.4% (wt/wt) and a biomass

  19. Comparative proteomics of Rhizopus delemar ATCC 20344 unravels the role of amino acid catabolism in fumarate accumulation

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    Dorett I. Odoni

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The filamentous fungus Rhizopus delemar naturally accumulates relatively high amounts of fumarate. Although the culture conditions that increase fumarate yields are well established, the network underlying the accumulation of fumarate is not yet fully understood. We set out to increase the knowledge about fumarate accumulation in R. delemar. To this end, we combined a transcriptomics and proteomics approach to identify key metabolic pathways involved in fumarate production in R. delemar, and propose that a substantial part of the fumarate accumulated in R. delemar during nitrogen starvation results from the urea cycle due to amino acid catabolism.

  20. The effect of different phosphate ion concentrations and ph of the phosphate buffer on lipase bioproduction by rhizopus oligosporus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haq, I.; Ali, S.; Awan, U.F.; Javed, W.; Mirza, S.

    2005-01-01

    In the present investigation, we report the effect of phosphate ion concentration and different ph of the phosphate buffer (as diluent) on lipase bioproduction by Rhizopus oligosporus. For this purpose, solid state fermentation was employed. Different agricultural by-products such as wheat bran, rice husk, almond meal, soybean meal and sunflower meal were used as substrate. The maximum lipase activity (72.60 U/g) was observed with the almond meal. Addition of phosphate ions (K/sub 2/HPO/sub 4/) influenced the lipase production. The ph of the phosphate buffer (7.0) was found to be effective for higher yield of lipase. (author)

  1. Effect of solid-state fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus on bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of raw and roasted buckwheat groats

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    Wronkowska Małgorzata

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of solid-state fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus on the changes in the total phenolic compounds, rutin, vitamin B and C, tocopherol, phytic acid and antioxidant capacity of raw and roasted buckwheat groats was studied. The roasted groats contained reduced level of studied bioactive compounds as compared to raw groats. In this study was evidenced that the solidstate fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus enhanced water soluble vitamins (thiamine, pyridoxine and L-ascorbic acid as well as tocopherols contents. In contrast the decrease of the inositol hexaphosphate, phenolic compounds, the rutin content and antioxidant capacity determined by ACL and ABTS methods was noticed.

  2. Identification of prenylated pterocarpans and other isoflavonoids in Rhizopus spp. elicited soya bean seedlings by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry.

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    Simons, Rudy; Vincken, Jean-Paul; Bohin, Maxime C; Kuijpers, Tomas F M; Verbruggen, Marian A; Gruppen, Harry

    2011-01-15

    Phytoalexins from soya are mainly characterised as prenylated pterocarpans, the glyceollins. Extracts of non-soaked and soaked soya beans, as well as that of soya seedlings, grown in the presence of Rhizopus microsporus var. oryzae, were screened for the presence of prenylated flavonoids with a liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS)-based screening method. The glyceollins I-III and glyceollidins I-II, belonging to the isoflavonoid subclass of the pterocarpans, were tentatively assigned. The formation of these prenylated pterocarpans was accompanied by that of other prenylated isoflavonoids of the subclasses of the isoflavones and the coumestans. It was estimated that approx. 40% of the total isoflavonoid content in Rhizopus-challenged soya bean seedlings were prenylated pterocarpans, whereas 7% comprised prenylated isoflavones and prenylated coumestans. The site of prenylation (A-ring or B-ring) of the prenylated isoflavones was tentatively annotated using positive-ion mode MS by comparing the (1,3) A(+) retro-Diels-Alder (RDA) fragments of prenylated and non-prenylated isoflavones. Furthermore, the fragmentation pathways of the five pterocarpans in negative-ion (NI) mode were proposed, which involved the cleavage of the C-ring and/or D-ring. The absence of the ring-closed prenyl (pyran or furan) gave exclusively -H(2) O(x,y) RDA fragments, whereas its presence gave predominantly the common RDA fragments. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Production of Cellulases by Rhizopus stolonifer from Glucose-Containing Media Based on the Regulation of Transcriptional Regulator CRE.

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    Zhang, Yingyiing; Tang, Bin; Du, Guocheng

    2017-03-28

    Carbon catabolite repression is a crucial regulation mechanism in microorganisms, but its characteristic in Rhizopus is still unclear. We extracted a carbon regulation gene, cre , that encoded a carbon catabolite repressor protein (CRE) from Rhizopus stolonifer TP-02, and studied the regulation of CRE by real-time qPCR. CRE responded to glucose in a certain range, where it could significantly regulate part of the cellulase genes ( eg, bg, and cbh2 ) without cbh1 . In the comparison of the response of cre and four cellulase genes to carboxymethylcellulose sodium and a simple carbon source (lactose), the effect of CRE was only related to the concentration of reducing sugars. By regulating the reducing sugars to range from 0.4% to 0.6%, a glucose-containing medium with lactose as the inducer could effectively induce cellulases without the repression of CRE. This regulation method could potentially reduce the cost of enzymes produced in industries and provide a possible solution to achieve the large-scale synthesis of cellulases.

  4. L-lactic acid production by Aspergillus brasiliensis overexpressing the heterologous ldha gene from Rhizopus oryzae.

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    Liaud, Nadège; Rosso, Marie-Noëlle; Fabre, Nicolas; Crapart, Sylvaine; Herpoël-Gimbert, Isabelle; Sigoillot, Jean-Claude; Raouche, Sana; Levasseur, Anthony

    2015-05-03

    Lactic acid is the building block of poly-lactic acid (PLA), a biopolymer that could be set to replace petroleum-based plastics. To make lactic acid production cost-effective, the production process should be carried out at low pH, in low-nutrient media, and with a low-cost carbon source. Yeasts have been engineered to produce high levels of lactic acid at low pH from glucose but not from carbohydrate polymers (e.g. cellulose, hemicellulose, starch). Aspergilli are versatile microbial cell factories able to naturally produce large amounts of organic acids at low pH and to metabolize cheap abundant carbon sources such as plant biomass. However, they have never been used for lactic acid production. To investigate the feasibility of lactic acid production with Aspergillus, the NAD-dependent lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) responsible for lactic acid production by Rhizopus oryzae was produced in Aspergillus brasiliensis BRFM103. Among transformants, the best lactic acid producer, A. brasiliensis BRFM1877, integrated 6 ldhA gene copies, and intracellular LDH activity was 9.2 × 10(-2) U/mg. At a final pH of 1.6, lactic acid titer reached 13.1 g/L (conversion yield: 26%, w/w) at 138 h in glucose-ammonium medium. This extreme pH drop was subsequently prevented by switching nitrogen source from ammonium sulfate to Na-nitrate, leading to a final pH of 3 and a lactic acid titer of 17.7 g/L (conversion yield: 47%, w/w) at 90 h of culture. Final titer was further improved to 32.2 g/L of lactic acid (conversion yield: 44%, w/w) by adding 20 g/L glucose to the culture medium at 96 h. This strain was ultimately able to produce lactic acid from xylose, arabinose, starch and xylan. We obtained the first Aspergillus strains able to produce large amounts of lactic acid by inserting recombinant ldhA genes from R. oryzae into a wild-type A. brasiliensis strain. pH regulation failed to significantly increase lactic acid production, but switching nitrogen source and changing culture feed

  5. Differentiation of Clinically Relevant mucorales Rhizopus microsporus and R. arrhizus by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolatabadi, S.; Kolecka, A.; Versteeg, Matthijs; de Hoog, Sybren G; Boekhout, Teun

    This study addresses the usefulness of Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) for reliable identification of the two most frequently occuring clinical species of Rhizopus, namely R. arrhizus with its two varieties arrhizus and delemar and R.

  6. Rhizopus oryzae hyphae are damaged by human natural killer (NK) cells, but suppress NK cell mediated immunity.

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    Schmidt, Stanislaw; Tramsen, Lars; Perkhofer, Susanne; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia; Hanisch, Mitra; Röger, Frauke; Klingebiel, Thomas; Koehl, Ulrike; Lehrnbecher, Thomas

    2013-07-01

    Mucormycosis has a high mortality and is increasingly diagnosed in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. In this setting, there is a growing interest to restore host defense to combat infections by adoptively transferring donor-derived immunocompetent cells. Natural killer (NK) cells exhibit antitumor and antiinfective activity, but the interaction with Mucormycetes is unknown. Our data demonstrate that both unstimulated and IL-2 prestimulated human NK cells damage Rhizopus oryzae hyphae, but do not affect resting conidia. The damage of the fungus is mediated, at least in part, by perforin. R. oryzae hyphae decrease the secretion of immunoregulatory molecules by NK cells, such as IFN-γ and RANTES, indicating an immunosuppressive effect of the fungus. Our data indicate that NK cells exhibit activity against Mucormycetes and future research should evaluate NK cells as a potential tool for adoptive immunotherapy in HSCT. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Isolation and optimization of pectinase enzyme production one of useful industrial enzyme in Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus oryzae, Penicilium chrysogenum

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    akram songol

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pectinase enzyme is one of the most important industrial enzymes which isolated from a wide variety of microorganisms such as bacteria and filamentous fungi. This enzyme has been usually used in the fruit and textile industry. In this study, the isolation and optimization of pectinase-producing fungi on decaying rotten fruits were studied. Materials and methods: Isolation and screening of pectinase producing fungi performed through plate culture on pectin medium and staining with Lugol's iodine solution. The best strains were identified by ITS1, 4 sequencing as Aspergillus fumigatus, Rhizopus oryzae, Penicilium chrysogenum. The enzyme production was optimized by application of the five factorial design, each at three levels. These factors are carbon sources (whey, glucose and stevia, ammonium sulfate, manganese sulfate, temperature, and pH. Pectinase concentration was measured by the Miller method. Results: The results indicate that optimum condition for enzyme production for three fungi strains was obtained at 32 °C, pH = 6, 3g / L manganese sulfate, 2.75g / L of ammonium sulfate and 10g / L of each carbon source. The best experiment in obtaining the optimum enzyme contained 1.328 mg / ml of glucose for Aspergillus niger 1.284 and 1.039 mg / ml of whey for Rhizopus oryzae and Penicilium chrysogenum. Molecular weight of enzyme was about 40 and 37 kDa which was obtained by SDS- PAGE. Discussion and conclusion: The results indicate that three strains could grow in a wide range of carbon source, pH and temperature, which could be a good candidate for industrial application.

  8. Fob1 and Fob2 Proteins Are Virulence Determinants of Rhizopus oryzae via Facilitating Iron Uptake from Ferrioxamine.

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    Mingfu Liu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Dialysis patients with chronic renal failure receiving deferoxamine for treating iron overload are uniquely predisposed for mucormycosis, which is most often caused by Rhizopus oryzae. Although the deferoxamine siderophore is not secreted by Mucorales, previous studies established that Rhizopus species utilize iron from ferrioxamine (iron-rich form of deferoxamine. Here we determined that the CBS domain proteins of Fob1 and Fob2 act as receptors on the cell surface of R. oryzae during iron uptake from ferrioxamine. Fob1 and Fob2 cell surface expression was induced in the presence of ferrioxamine and bound radiolabeled ferrioxamine. A R. oryzae strain with targeted reduced Fob1/Fob2 expression was impaired for iron uptake, germinating, and growing on medium with ferrioxamine as the sole source of iron. This strain also exhibited reduced virulence in a deferoxamine-treated, but not the diabetic ketoacidotic (DKA, mouse model of mucormycosis. The mechanism by which R. oryzae obtains iron from ferrioxamine involves the reductase/permease uptake system since the growth on ferrioxamine supplemented medium is associated with elevated reductase activity and the use of the ferrous chelator bathophenanthroline disulfonate abrogates iron uptake and growth on medium supplemented with ferrioxamine as a sole source of iron. Finally, R. oryzae mutants with reduced copies of the high affinity iron permease (FTR1 or with decreased FTR1 expression had an impaired iron uptake from ferrioxamine in vitro and reduced virulence in the deferoxamine-treated mouse model of mucormycosis. These two receptors appear to be conserved in Mucorales, and can be the subject of future novel therapy to maintain the use of deferoxamine for treating iron-overload.

  9. PENGGUNAAN PROTEASE ASPERGILLUS sp. DAN RHIZOPUS sp. DENGAN KONSENTRASI YANG BERBEDA DALAM TAHAPAN UNHAIRING TERHADAP KUALITAS FISIK DAN LIMBAH CAIR PADA PENYAMAKAN KULIT DOMBA

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    Yunus Syafie

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui aktivitas proteolitik yang dihasilkan jamur Aspergillus sp. dan Rhizopus sp. dalam tahapan unhairing (buang rambut pada proses penyamakan kulit domba serta pengaruh penggunaan dengan konsentrasi berbeda, terhadap kuat tarik, kemuluran, suhu kerut, dan kualitas limbah (pH, BOD, dan COD. Materi yang digunakan yaitu 15 lembar kulit domba awetan garam dibagi 2 bagian sepanjang garis lurus punggung sehingga diperoleh 30 lembar kulit, kulit dibagi secara acak menjadi 10 kelompok. Perlakuan terdiri dari dua belas kombinasi yaitu protease dari Aspergillus sp., Rhizopus sp. serta gabungan antara Aspergillus sp. dan Rhizopus sp. dengan konsentrasi protease 2% (P1, 2,5% (P2, 3% (P3, dan sebagai kontrol P0. Proses unhairing secara konvensional menggunakan bahan kimia Na2S (3% dan kapur Ca(OH2 6% dengan 3 ulangan. Sampel air limbah setelah proses unhairing diambil dan dibawa ke laboratorium untuk uji kualitas. Kulit diproses lebih lanjut menjadi kulit samak glazed. Data yang diperoleh dianalisis menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap pola faktorial 3 x 4, apabila berbeda nyata dilakukan uji banding dengan uji Duncan’s new Multiple Range Test (DMRT. Hasil uji aktivitas proteolitik paling tinggi adalah gabungan antara protease dari Aspergillus sp. dan Rhizopus sp. yaitu sebesar 1.079,17 μM/ml/menit, sedangkan protease Aspergillus sp. dan Rhizopus sp. masing-masing memiliki aktivitas proteolitik sebesar 542,96 μM/ml/menit dan 392,89 μM/ml/menit. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penggunaan protease dengan konsentrasi yang berbeda dapat memberikan efek yang positif terhadap kualitas fisik dan limbah cair proses unhairing kulit domba. Konsentrasi protease 2,5% dan 3% dapat meningkatkan nilai kuat tarik dan suhu kerut kulit domba serta menghasilkan kulit yang bersih tanpa ada rambut yang menempel dan struktur serabut kolagen terbuka. Perlakuan protease sangat potensial karena dapat menekan angka BOD dan COD limbah

  10. Rhizopus-associated soft tissue infection in an immunocompetent air-conditioning technician after a road traffic accident: A case report and review of the literature

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    Nada B. Rabie

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Rhinocerebral or sinopulmonary mucromycosis is a well-recognized human fungal infection found among immunocompromised and diabetic patients. However, the infection is rare among immunocompetent hosts. We are reporting the case of an adult immunocompetent male patient working as an air-conditioning technician. The patient was a victim of a road traffic accident (RTA and sustained multiple fractures in the proximal part of the left tibia, distal femur, and scapula. Two weeks postoperatively, Rhizopus microspores were isolated from an infected traumatic wound over the distal femur. Surgical debridement was performed, and the patient was started on amphotericin B. Occupational exposure history and workplace environmental sanitation are crucial for the prevention of this potentially fatal yet preventable infection. Keywords: Rhizopus, Immunocompetent, Air conditioning

  11. Caffeine degradation by Rhizopus delemar in packed bed column bioreactor using coffee husk as substrate Degradação de cafeína por Rhizopus delemar em biorreator de colunas usando casca de café como substrato

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    Cristiane Vanessa Tagliari

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Various microorganisms including bacteria, yeast and fungi can degrade caffeine. There are few publications about caffeine degradation pathway in filamentous fungi, mainly by solid-state fermentation (SSF. Studies were carried out on degradation of caffeine and their metabolites by filamentous fungi in SSF using coffee husk as substrate. The purpose of this work was to investigate the caffeine degradation pathway by Rhizopus delemar in packed bed column fermenter and to compare this degradation metabolism with glass flasks fermentation. The methylxanthines were quantified by HPLC analysis. The experiments were realized with the optimized conditions in previous experiments: pH 6.5, 28ºC, inoculation rate 10(6 spores/g substrate, aeration rate 60 mL/min and initial moisture 73%. Under these conditions, after 72 hous of fermentation was achieved only 0.19% of caffeine and 0.014% of theophylline in the coffee husk. The strain proved to be able for caffeine and theophylline degradation by SSF in packed bed column bioreactor.Diversos microrganismos incluindo bactérias, fungos e leveduras são capazes de assimilar a cafeína de meios sintéticos ou de resíduos de café. Existem poucos trabalhos sobre a via de degradação da cafeína em fungos filamentosos, principalmente por fermentação no estado sólido (FES. Estudos de degradação da cafeína por fungos filamentosos em FES usando casca de café como substrato vêm sendo realizados. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a via de degradação da cafeína por Rhizopus delemar em biorreator de colunas aeradas e comparar este metabolismo de degradação com o da fermentação em frascos de vidro. As metilxantinas foram quantificadas por análises em HPLC. Os experimentos foram realizados com as condições otimizadas previamente: pH 6,5, 28ºC, 10(6 espores/g substrato, vazão de ar 60 mL/min e 73% de umidade inicial. Após 90 horas de fermentação, 65% da cafeína foi reduzida, resultando 0

  12. Effect of Inoculum Dosage Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae mixture with Fermentation Time of Oil Seed Cake (Jatropha curcas L) to the content of Protein and Crude Fiber

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    Kurniati, T.; Nurlaila, L.; Iim

    2017-04-01

    Jatropha curcas L already widely cultivated for its seeds pressed oil used as an alternative fuel. This plant productivity per hectare obtained 2.5-5 tonnes of oil/ha / year and jatropha seed cake from 5.5 to 9.5 tonnes/ha/year, nutrient content of Jatropha curcas seed L potential to be used as feed material, However, the constraints faced was the low crude protein and high crude protein. The purpose of the research was to determine the dosage of inoculum and fermentation time of Jatropha seed cake by a mixture of Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae on crude protein and crude fibre. The study was conducted by an experimental method using a Completely Randomised Design (CRD) factorial design (3×3). The treatment consisted of a mixture of three dosage levels of Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae (= 0.2% d1, d2 and d3 = 0.3% = 0.4%) and three levels of fermentation time (w1 = 72 hours, 96 hours and w2 = w3 = 120 hours) each repeated three times. The parameters measured were crude protein and crude fibre. The results showed that dosages of 0.3% (Aspergillus niger Rhizopus oryzae 0.15% and 0.15%) and 72 hours (d2w1) is the dosage and the optimal time to generate the highest crude protein content of 21.11% and crude fibre amounted to 21.36%.

  13. Purification and characterization of an extracellular lipase from a thermophilic Rhizopus oryzae strain isolated from palm fruit.

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    Hiol; Jonzo; Rugani; Druet; Sarda; Comeau

    2000-03-01

    We have isolated a lipolytic strain from palm fruit that was identified as a Rhizopus oryzae. Culture conditions were optimized and highest lipase production amounting to 120 U/ml was achieved after 4 days of cultivation. The extracellular lipase was purified 1200-fold by ammonium sulfate precipitation, sulphopropyl-Sepharose chromatography, Sephadex G 75 gel filtration and a second sulphopropyl-Sepharose chromatography. The specific activity of the purified enzyme was 8800 U/mg. The lipolytic enzyme has a molecular mass of 32 kDa by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and gel filtration. The enzyme exhibited a single band in active polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and its isoelectric point was 7.6. Analysis of Rhizopus oryzae lipase by RP-HPLC confirmed the homogeneity of the enzyme preparation. Determination of the N-terminal sequence over 19 amino acid residues showed a high homology with lipases of the same genus. The optimum pH for enzyme activity was 7.5. Lipase was stable in the pH range from 4.5 to 7.5. The optimum temperature for lipase activity was 35 degrees C and about 65% of its activity was retained after incubation at 45 degrees C for 30 min. The lipolytic enzyme was inhibited by Triton X100, SDS, and metal ions such as Fe(3+), Cu(2+), Hg(2+) and Fe(2+). Lipase activity against triolein was enhanced by sodium cholate or taurocholate. The purified lipase had a preference for the hydrolysis of saturated fatty acid chains (C(8)-C(18)) and a 1, 3-position specificity. It showed a good stability in organic solvents and especially in long chain-fatty alcohol. The enzyme poorly hydrolyzed triacylglycerols containing n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and appeared as a suitable biocatalyst for selective esterification of sardine free fatty acids with hexanol as substrate. About 76% of sardine free fatty acids were esterified after 30 h reaction whereas 90% of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was recovered in the unesterified fatty acids.

  14. High-Level Expression of Pro-Form Lipase from Rhizopus oryzae in Pichia pastoris and Its Purification and Characterization

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    Jian-Rong Wang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A gene encoding Rhizopus oryzae lipase containing prosequence (ProROL was cloned into the pPICZαA and electrotransformed into the Pichia pastoris X-33 strain. The lipase was functionally expressed and secreted in Pichia pastoris with a molecular weight of 35 kDa. The maximum lipase activity of recombinant lipase (rProROL was 21,000 U/mL, which was obtained in a fed-batch cultivation after 168 h induction with methanol in a 50-L bioreactor. After fermentation, the supernatant was concentrated by ultrafiltration with a 10 kDa cut off membrane and purified with ion exchange chromatography using SP Sepharose Fast Flow chromatography. The optimum pH and temperature of the rProROL were pH 9.0 and 40 °C, respectively. The lipase was stable from pH 4.0 to 9.0 and from 25 to 55 °C. The enzyme activity was enhanced by Ca2+ and inhibited by Hg2+ and Ag+. The lipase showed high activity toward triglyceride-Tripalmitin (C16:0 and triglyceride-Trilaurin (C12:0.

  15. Antioxidant activity of raw, cooked and Rhizopus oligosporus fermented beans of Canavalia of coastal sand dunes of Southwest India.

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    Niveditha, Vedavyas R; Sridhar, Kandikere R

    2014-11-01

    The raw and processed (cooked and cooked + solid-state fermented with Rhizopus oligosporus) split beans of two landraces of coastal sand dune wild legumes (Canavalia cathartica and Canavalia maritima) of the southwest coast of India were examined for bioactive compounds (total phenolics, tannins and vitamin C) and antioxidant potential (total antioxidant activity, ferrous-ion chelating capacity, DPPH free radical-scavenging activity and reducing activity). One-way ANOVA revealed significant elevation of bioactive compounds as well as antioxidant activities in fermented beans compared to raw and cooked beans in both legumes (p beans of both legumes were significantly lowest compared to raw and cooked beans (p beans of C. cathartica, while total antioxidant and free radical-scavenging activities of fermented beans of C. maritima were clustered. The present study demonstrated that split beans of coastal sand dune Canavalia fermented by R. oligosporus endowed with high bioactive principles as well as antioxidant potential and thus serve as future nutraceutical source.

  16. Lead Biosorption by Self-Immobilized Rhizopus nigricans Pellets in a Laboratory Scale Packed Bed Column: Mathematical Model and Experiment

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    Adela Kogej

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The biosorption of lead ions from aqueous solution on a self-immobilized Rhizopus nigricans biomass has been studied. Experiments were performed in a laboratory scale packed bed column at different liquid flow rates and biosorbent bed heights. Recorded experimental breakthrough curves were compared to those predicted by a mathematical model, which was developed to simulate a packed bed biosorption process by a soft, self-immobilized fungal biosorbent. In the range of examined experimental conditions, the biomass characteristics such as pellet porosity and biosorption capacity substantially affected the predicted response curve. General correlations for the estimation of the intra-pellet effective diffusivity, the external mass transfer coefficient, as well as axial dispersion were successfully applied in this biological system with specific mechanical properties. Under the experimental conditions, mass transfer is controlled by the external film resistance, while the intra-pellet mass transfer resistance, as well as the effect of axial dispersion, can be neglected. A new parameter α, the fraction of active biomass, with an average value of α=0.7, was introduced to take into account the specific biomass characteristics, and consequently the observed non-ideal liquid flow through the bed of fungal pellets.

  17. Immobilized Rhizopus oryzae lipase catalyzed synthesis of palm stearin and cetyl alcohol wax esters: Optimization by Response Surface Methodology

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    Gargouri Youssef

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Waxes are esters of long-chain fatty acids and long-chain alcohols. Their principal natural sources are animals (sperm whale oil and vegetables (jojoba which are expensive and not easily available. Wax esters synthesized by enzymatic transesterification, using palm stearin as raw material, can be considered as an alternative to natural ones. Results Palm stearin is a solid fraction obtained by fractionation of palm oil. Palm stearin was esterified with cetyl alcohol to produce a mixture of wax esters. A non-commercial immobilized lipase from Rhizopus oryzae was used as biocatalyst. Response surface methodology was employed to determine the effects of the temperature (30-50°C, the enzyme concentration (33.34-300 IU/mL, the alcohol/palm stearin molar ratio (3-7 mol/mol and the substrate concentration (0.06-0.34 g/mL on the conversion yield of palm stearin. Under optimal conditions (temperature, 30°C; enzyme concentration, 300 IU/mL; molar ratio 3 and substrate concentration 0.21 g/mL a high conversion yield of 98.52% was reached within a reaction time of 2 h. Conclusions Response surface methodology was successfully applied to determine the optimum operational conditions for synthesis of palm stearin based wax esters. This study may provide useful tools to develop economical and efficient processes for the synthesis of wax esters.

  18. One-pot conjugated linoleic acid production from castor oil by Rhizopus oryzae lipase and resting cells of Lactobacillus plantarum.

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    Khaskheli, Abid Ali; Talpur, Farah Naz; Cebeci Aydin, Aysun; Jawaid, Sana; Surhio, Muhammad Ali; Afridi, Hassan Imran

    2017-10-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has attracted as novel type of fatty acids having unusual health-promoting properties such as anticarcinogenic and antiobesitic effects. The present work employed castor oil as substrate for one-pot production of CLA using washed cells of Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) and lipases as catalysts. Among the screened lipases, the lipase Rhizopus oryzae (ROL) greatly assisted resting cells to produce CLA. Mass spectral analysis of the product showed that two major isomers of CLA were produced in the reaction mixture i.e. cis-9, trans-11 56.55% and trans-10, cis-12 43.45%. Optimum factors for CLA synthesis were found as substrate concentration (8 mg/mL), pH (6.5), washed cell concentration (12% w/v), and incubation time of 20 h. Hence, the combination of ROL with L. plantarum offers one pot production of CLA selectively using castor oil as a cost-effective substrate.

  19. The impact of Rhizopus oryzae cultivation on rice bran: Gamma-oryzanol recovery and its antioxidant properties.

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    Massarolo, Kelly Cristina; Denardi de Souza, Taiana; Collazzo, Carolina Carvalho; Badiale Furlong, Eliana; Souza Soares, Leonor Almeida de

    2017-08-01

    This study evaluated the effect of the solid state cultivation (SSC) time of rice bran by Rhizopus oryzae on γ-oryzanol recovery and its antioxidant properties. Gamma-oryzanol was extracted with organic solvents and its extracts were characterized by GC-FID and HPLC-UV. The antioxidant capacity was assessed by DPPH and ABTS + assays, β-carotene/linoleic acid system, and reduction of oxidation in lipid system. The biomass showed the γ-oryzanol recovery increased by 51.5% (20.52mg/g), and 5.7% in polyunsaturated fatty acids. The γ-oryzanol major components changing in their profile. The γ-oryzanol extract from biomass (72h) showed the greatest DPPH inhibition (59.0%), while 90.5% inhibition of oxidation of β-carotene/linoleic acid system, and 30% reduction of the indicators of oxidation in olive oil was observed in the one cultivated at 96h, these behaviors were confirmed by PCA analyses. SSC provides an increase in the γ-oryzanol recovery followed by improving of the functional properties of rice bran. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Antifungal Activity of Colistin against Mucorales Species In Vitro and in a Murine Model of Rhizopus oryzae Pulmonary Infection▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ami, Ronen; Lewis, Russell E.; Tarrand, Jeffrey; Leventakos, Konstantinos; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.

    2010-01-01

    In immunosuppressed hosts, mucormycosis is a life-threatening infection with few treatment options. We studied the activity of colistin (polymyxin E) against Mucorales species in vitro and in a murine model of pulmonary Rhizopus oryzae infection. Colistin exhibited fungicidal activity in vitro against Mucorales spores and mycelia. At the colistin MIC, initial R. oryzae hyphal damage was followed by rapid regrowth; however, regrowth was prevented by combining colistin with a subinhibitory concentration of amphotericin B. Using electron microscopy and FM4-64 staining, we demonstrated that colistin disrupts R. oryzae cytoplasmic and vacuolar membranes, resulting in the leakage of intracellular contents. The prophylactic intranasal treatment of immunosuppressed mice with colistimethate significantly reduced the mortality rate and pulmonary fungal burden resulting from inhalational challenge with R. oryzae spores, whereas intraperitoneal colistimethate treatment had no effect. We conclude that colistin has modest in vitro and in vivo fungicidal activity against Mucorales spp. Further studies are warranted to assess the use of this drug in the prevention and treatment of mucormycosis. PMID:19858263

  1. Antifungal activity of colistin against mucorales species in vitro and in a murine model of Rhizopus oryzae pulmonary infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ami, Ronen; Lewis, Russell E; Tarrand, Jeffrey; Leventakos, Konstantinos; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P

    2010-01-01

    In immunosuppressed hosts, mucormycosis is a life-threatening infection with few treatment options. We studied the activity of colistin (polymyxin E) against Mucorales species in vitro and in a murine model of pulmonary Rhizopus oryzae infection. Colistin exhibited fungicidal activity in vitro against Mucorales spores and mycelia. At the colistin MIC, initial R. oryzae hyphal damage was followed by rapid regrowth; however, regrowth was prevented by combining colistin with a subinhibitory concentration of amphotericin B. Using electron microscopy and FM4-64 staining, we demonstrated that colistin disrupts R. oryzae cytoplasmic and vacuolar membranes, resulting in the leakage of intracellular contents. The prophylactic intranasal treatment of immunosuppressed mice with colistimethate significantly reduced the mortality rate and pulmonary fungal burden resulting from inhalational challenge with R. oryzae spores, whereas intraperitoneal colistimethate treatment had no effect. We conclude that colistin has modest in vitro and in vivo fungicidal activity against Mucorales spp. Further studies are warranted to assess the use of this drug in the prevention and treatment of mucormycosis.

  2. Optimization of lactic acid production by pellet-form Rhizopus oryzae in 3-L airlift bioreactor using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneeboon, Thanapoom; Vanichsriratana, Wirat; Pomchaitaward, Chaiyaporn; Kitpreechavanich, Vichien

    2010-05-01

    The influence of two key environmental factors, pH and oxygen transfer coefficient (k(L)a), was evaluated on the lactic acid production as the main answer and, on the size of cell pellets of the fungal strain Rhizopus oryzae KPS106, as second dependant answer by response surface methodology using a central composite design. The results of the analysis of variance and modeling demonstrated that pH and k(L)a had a significant effect on lactic acid production by this strain. However, no interaction was observed between these two experimental factors. pH and k(L)a had no significant influence on the pellet size. Optimal pH and k(L)a of the fermentation medium for lactic acid production from response surface analysis was 5.85 and of 3.6 h(-1), respectively. The predicted and experimental lactic acid maximal values were 75.4 and 72.0 g/l, respectively, with pellets of an average of 2.54 +/- 0.41 mm. Five repeated batches in series were conducted with a mean lactic acid production of 77.54 g/l. The productivity was increased from 0.75 in the first batch to 0.99 g/l h in the last fifth batch.

  3. Cosmeceutical potentials and bioactive compounds of rice bran fermented with single and mix culture of Aspergillus oryzae and Rhizopus oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dang Lelamurni Abd Razak

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, rice bran, one of the most abundant agricultural by-products in Malaysia, was fermented with single and mixed cultures of Aspergillus oryzae and Rhizopus oryzae. The fermented rice bran extracts were tested for their functional properties and compared to the non-fermented counterparts. Antioxidant activities as well as phenolics and organic acid contents were evaluated. Skincare-related functionalities were also tested by evaluating tyrosinase and elastase inhibition activities. Tyrosinase inhibition activity, measured to determine the anti-pigmentation effect of extracts, was found to be the highest in the extract of rice bran fermented with A. oryzae (56.18% compared to other extracts. In determining the anti-aging effect of fermented rice bran extracts, the same extract showed the highest elastase inhibition activity with a value of 60.52%. Antioxidant activities were found to be highest in the mix-cultured rice bran extract. The results of phenolic and organic acid content were varied; the major phenolic acid detected was ferulic acid with a value of 43.19 μg/ml in the mix-cultured rice bran extract. On the other hand, citric acid was the major organic acid detected, with the highest content found in the same extract (214.6 mg/g. The results of this study suggest that the fermented rice bran extracts may have the potential to be further exploited as ingredients in cosmetics as well as in antioxidant-rich products.

  4. Two unique ligand-binding clamps of Rhizopus oryzae starch binding domain for helical structure disruption of amylose.

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    Ting-Ying Jiang

    Full Text Available The N-terminal starch binding domain of Rhizopus oryzae glucoamylase (RoSBD has a high binding affinity for raw starch. RoSBD has two ligand-binding sites, each containing a ligand-binding clamp: a polyN clamp residing near binding site I is unique in that it is expressed in only three members of carbohydrate binding module family 21 (CBM21 members, and a Y32/F58 clamp located at binding site II is conserved in several CBMs. Here we characterized different roles of these sites in the binding of insoluble and soluble starches using an amylose-iodine complex assay, atomic force microscopy, isothermal titration calorimetry, site-directed mutagenesis, and structural bioinformatics. RoSBD induced the release of iodine from the amylose helical cavity and disrupted the helical structure of amylose type III, thereby significantly diminishing the thickness and length of the amylose type III fibrils. A point mutation in the critical ligand-binding residues of sites I and II, however, reduced both the binding affinity and amylose helix disruption. This is the first molecular model for structure disruption of the amylose helix by a non-hydrolytic CBM21 member. RoSBD apparently twists the helical amylose strands apart to expose more ligand surface for further SBD binding. Repeating the process triggers the relaxation and unwinding of amylose helices to generate thinner and shorter amylose fibrils, which are more susceptible to hydrolysis by glucoamylase. This model aids in understanding the natural roles of CBMs in protein-glycan interactions and contributes to potential molecular engineering of CBMs.

  5. Study of energetic-particle-irradiation induced biological effect on Rhizopus oryzae through synchrotron-FTIR micro-spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinghua; Qi, Zeming; Huang, Qing; Wei, Xiaoli; Ke, Zhigang; Fang, Yusheng; Tian, Yangchao; Yu, Zengliang

    2013-01-01

    Energetic particles exist ubiquitously and cause varied biological effects such as DNA strand breaks, lipid peroxidation, protein modification, cell apoptosis or death. An emerging biotechnology based on ion-beam technique has been developed to serve as an effective tool for mutation breeding of crops and microbes. In order to improve the effectiveness of ion-beam biotechnology for mutation breeding, it is indispensible to gain a better understanding of the mechanism of the interactions between the energetic ions and biological systems which is still elusive. A new trend is to conduct more comprehensive research which is based on micro-scaled observation of the changes of the cellular structures and compositions under the interactions. For this purpose, advanced synchrotron FTIR (s-FTIR) microscopy was employed to monitor the cellular changes of single fungal hyphae under irradiation of α-particles from 241Am. Intracellular contents of ROS, MDA, GSSG/GSH and activities of CAT and SOD were measured via biochemical assay. Ion-irradiation on Rhizopus oryzae causes localized vacuolation, autolysis of cell wall and membrane, lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and conformational changes of proteins, which have been clearly revealed by the s-FTIR microspectroscopy. The different changes of cell viability, SOD and CAT activities can be explained by the ROS-involved chemical reactions. Evidently, the elevated level of ROS in hyphal cells upon irradiation plays the key role in the caused biological effect. This study demonstrates that s-FTIR microspectroscopy is an effective tool to study the damage of fungal hyphae caused by ionizing radiation and it facilitates the exploit of the mechanism for the interactions between the energetic ions and biological systems.

  6. Determination of volatile components in fermented soybean prepared by a co-culture of Bacillus subtilis and Rhizopus oligosporus

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    Chukeatirote, E.,

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Fermented soybeans are traditional foods widely consumed in many countries (i.e., Natto in Japan, Jang in Korea, Kinema in India, Douichi in China, and Thua Nao in Thailand. In this study, an attempt was made with an expectation to improve the fermentation process using a co-culture of Bacillus subtilis and Rhizopus oligosporus. Initially, the raw soybeans were washed, sterilized by autoclaving, and inoculated with two inocula; for this, three different ratios between B. subtilis and R. oligosporus used were 100:0, 50:50, and 0:100. The fermentation was then carried out at 30°C for 3 days. The volatile compounds in the non-fermented and the fermented soybean products were determined by gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry (GC/MS and extracted using a solid phase microextraction (SPME technique. In total, 165 compounds were identified in the non-fermented and the fermented soybean products. For the non-fermented products, the predominant volatile compounds were alcohols (25.81%, aldehydes (13.64%, acids and esters (7.57%, furans (6.13% and ketones (0.88%. In contrast, the major volatiles compounds presented in the fermented soybeans were as follows: i The treatment of 100:0 consisted of acids and esters (35.89%, alcohols (14.55%, aldehydes (8.72%, ketones (4.97%, pyrazines (4.87%, and furans (4.22%; ii 50:50 comprised of acids and esters (55.62%, alcohols (16.22%, aldehydes (7.80%, pyrazine (3.65%, ketones (2.55%, furans (1.67%, and aromatic compounds (1.46%; and iii 0:100 included acids and esters (66.50%, alcohols (15.44%, aldehydes (2.59%, ketones (2.72%, furans (1.89%, aromatic compounds (1.80%, pyrazines (1.35%, and sulphur containing compounds (0.24% respectively.

  7. IN VITRO BIOACTIVITY OF CREOSOTE BUSH EXTRACTS (LARREA TRIDENTATA ON THE INHIBITION OF POSTHARVEST FUNGI: PENICILLIUM POLONICUM, ASPERGILLUS NIGER, RHIZOPUS ORYZAE Y ALTERNARIA TENUISSIMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Peñuelas-Rubio

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available En el presente estudio se evaluó la eficiencia de extractos vegetales deLarrea tridentataobtenidos con diclorometano, etanol, metanol y agua, sobre el crecimiento radial in vitro de cuatro hongos fitopatógenos, los cuales primeramente fueron identificados en género y especie empleando claves taxonómicas y técnicas moleculares. Para los bioensayosin vitrose aplicaron diseños completamente al azar con cuatro tratamientos y tres repeticiones en cada hongo, utilizando las concentraciones: 0, 250, 500 y 750 ppm paraAlternaria sp.; 0, 2000, 2500 y 3000 paraAspergillus sp.; 0, 1500, 1750 y 2000 paraPenicillium sp. y 0, 150, 200 y 250 ppm paraRhizopus sp. Cada tratamiento tuvo tres repeticiones. El análisis molecular determinó la especie tenuissima paraAlternaria,nigerparaApergillus,polonicumparaPenicilliumyoryzaeparaRhizopus. En cuanto a las pruebasin vitro, se determinaron inhibiciones del 100% para tres de los hongos en estudio:Alternaria tenuissimacon extracto EtOH a 750 ppm;Aspergillus nigercon extracto DCM a 3000 ppm yRhizopus oryzaea partir de 150 ppm y 250 ppm de los extractos DCM y EtOH respectivamente. Se presentó una inhibición del 82% a 2000 ppm paraPenicillium polonicum. Se concluye que a pesar de las diferencias en susceptibilidad entre las especies fúngicas, los extractos deLarrea tridentataobtenidos con etanol y dicloromentano son efectivos para el control de los hongos fitopatógenos bajo estudioin vitro.

  8. Stimulation with lysates of Aspergillus terreus, Candida krusei and Rhizopus oryzae maximizes cross-reactivity of anti-fungal T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deo, Shivashni S; Virassamy, Balaji; Halliday, Catriona; Clancy, Leighton; Chen, Sharon; Meyer, Wieland; Sorrell, Tania C; Gottlieb, David J

    2016-01-01

    Invasive fungal diseases caused by filamentous fungi and yeasts are significant causes of morbidity and mortality in immunosuppressed hematology patients. We previously published a method to expand Aspergillus fumigatus-specific T cells for clinical cell therapy. In the present study, we investigated expansion of T cells specific for other fungal pathogens and creation of a broadly reactive panfungal T-cell product. Fungal strains selected were those frequently observed in the clinical hematology setting and included Aspergillus, Candida, Fusarium, Rhizopus and Lomentospora/Scedosporium. Four T-cell cultures specific to each fungus were established. We selected lysates of Aspergillus terreus, Candida krusei and Rhizopus oryzae to expand panfungal T cells. Allelic restriction of anti-fungal activity was determined through the use of specific major histocompatibility complex class II-blocking antibodies. Individual T-cell cultures specific to each fungus could be expanded in vitro, generating predominantly CD4(+) T cells of which 8% to 20% were fungus-specific. We successfully expanded panfungal T cells from the peripheral blood (n = 8) and granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor-primed stem cell products (n = 3) of normal donors by using a combination of lysates from Aspergillus terreus, Candida krusei and Rhizopus oryzae. Anti-fungal activity was mediated through human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR alleles and was maintained when antigen-presenting cells from partially HLA-DRB1-matched donors were used to stimulate T cells. We demonstrate a method to manufacture panfungal T-cell products with specificity against a range of clinical fungal pathogens by use of the blood and stem cells of healthy donors as the starting material. The safety and efficacy of these products will need to be tested clinically. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Estudio de la producción heteróloga de una lipasa del hongo Rhizopus oryzae en la levadura metilotrófica Pichia pastoris

    OpenAIRE

    Serrano González, Alicia

    2004-01-01

    Consultable des del TDX Títol obtingut de la portada digitalitzada El trabajo recoge los principales aspectos de la producción recombinante de una lipasa del hongo Rhizopus oryzae (ROL) expresada en la levadura Pichia pastoris. El sistema de expresión empleado está basado en la utilización del promotor de la alcohol oxidasa (PAOX1) de la levadura y, por lo tanto es dependiente de la utilización de metanol como substrato inductor. El trabajo recoge una serie de estudios de producción en ...

  10. Production of L-lactic acid from Cassava peel wastes using single and mixed cultures of Rhizopus oligosporus and Lactobacillus plantarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwokoro Ogbonnaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of L-lactic acid using cultures of Rhizopus oligosporus and Lactobacillus plantarum was investigated. Cassava peels were hydrolyzed by boiling for 1 h in either NaOH or HCl solutions followed by neutralization to a pH of 6.2. Reducing sugar produced from the hydrolysates increased with increasing concentrations of alkali or acid. Samples hydrolyzed with HCl produced a maximum reducing sugar concentration of 402 mg/g substrate while alkali hydrolyzed samples produced a maximum reducing sugar concentration of 213 mg/g substrate. Hydrolysates were amended with 0.5% ammonium sulphate solution and inoculated with either single or mixed cultures of Rhizopus oligosporus and Lactobacillus plantarum and incubated for 48 h for lactic acid production. The best lactic acid production of 50.2 g/100g substrate was observed in a mixed culture fermentation of acid hydrolyzed peels. Mixed culture fermentation of alkali hydrolyzed peels produced a maximum lactic acid concentration of 36.4 g/100g substrate. Un hydrolyzed cassava peels inoculated with a mixed culture of the microorganisms produced only 4.6 g/100g substrate. This work reports an efficient use of cassava peels for bio-product formation through microbial fermentation.

  11. Silver nanoparticle production by Rhizopus stolonifer and its antibacterial activity against extended spectrum β-lactamase producing (ESBL) strains of Enterobacteriaceae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banu, Afreen; Rathod, Vandana; Ranganath, E.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Silver nanoparticle production by using Rhizopus stolonifer. → Antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles against extended spectrum β-lactamase producing (ESBL) strains of Enterobacteriaceae. → Synergistic effect of antibiotics with silver nanoparticles towards ESBL-strains. → Characterization of silver nanoparticles made by UV-vis spectra, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM). -- Abstract: This report focuses on the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the fungus, Rhizopus stolonifer and its antimicrobial activity. Research in nanotechnology highlights the possibility of green chemistry pathways to produce technologically important nanomaterials. Characterization of newly synthesized silver nanoparticles was made by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and atomic force microscope (AFM). TEM micrograph revealed the formation of spherical nanoparticles with size ranging between 3 and 20 nm. The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) showed excellent antibacterial activity against ESBL-strains which includes E. coli, Proteus. sp. and Klebsiella sp.

  12. Carbohydrate-active enzymes from the zygomycete fungus Rhizopus oryzae: a highly specialized approach to carbohydrate degradation depicted at genome level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrissat Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhizopus oryzae is a zygomycete filamentous fungus, well-known as a saprobe ubiquitous in soil and as a pathogenic/spoilage fungus, causing Rhizopus rot and mucomycoses. Results Carbohydrate Active enzyme (CAZy annotation of the R. oryzae identified, in contrast to other filamentous fungi, a low number of glycoside hydrolases (GHs and a high number of glycosyl transferases (GTs and carbohydrate esterases (CEs. A detailed analysis of CAZy families, supported by growth data, demonstrates highly specialized plant and fungal cell wall degrading abilities distinct from ascomycetes and basidiomycetes. The specific genomic and growth features for degradation of easily digestible plant cell wall mono- and polysaccharides (starch, galactomannan, unbranched pectin, hexose sugars, chitin, chitosan, β-1,3-glucan and fungal cell wall fractions suggest specific adaptations of R. oryzae to its environment. Conclusions CAZy analyses of the genome of the zygomycete fungus R. oryzae and comparison to ascomycetes and basidiomycete species revealed how evolution has shaped its genetic content with respect to carbohydrate degradation, after divergence from the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota.

  13. Influence of the Oil Pequi in the Growth Mycelial and Sporulation of Colletotrichum Musae and Growth Micelial Of Rhizopus sp. in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. L. Mendes

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum musae and soft rot caused by Rhizopus sp are post-harvest diseases that influenced quality of exported fruits. To control these diseases fungicides are used, but in light of these waste products in the fruit and the environment, alternative control methods such as using biofungicides have been studied. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of pequi oil on mycelia growth and sporulation of Colletotrichum musae and mycelia growth of Rhizopus sp. in vitro. The oil was added in aliquots of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 50L in the center of Petri dishes containing approximately 15mL of Potato-Dextrose-ar (PDA and distributed over the surface of the medium with Drigalskys handle. After 24 hours, a disc of 8mm diameter from mycelium of fungi was peaked to the center of the plates. As a control, were used Petri dishes containing only PDA. Five replicates were used for each aliquot. After analysis, it was concluded that the pequi oil is ineffective for controlling these pathogens because induced mycelium growth and sporulation.Key Words: Phytopathogens, alternative control, anthracnose, soft rot

  14. Silver nanoparticle production by Rhizopus stolonifer and its antibacterial activity against extended spectrum {beta}-lactamase producing (ESBL) strains of Enterobacteriaceae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banu, Afreen [Department of Microbiology, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga 585106, Karnataka (India); Rathod, Vandana, E-mail: drvandanarathod@rediffmail.com [Department of Microbiology, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga 585106, Karnataka (India); Ranganath, E. [Department of Microbiology, Gulbarga University, Gulbarga 585106, Karnataka (India)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} Silver nanoparticle production by using Rhizopus stolonifer. {yields} Antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles against extended spectrum {beta}-lactamase producing (ESBL) strains of Enterobacteriaceae. {yields} Synergistic effect of antibiotics with silver nanoparticles towards ESBL-strains. {yields} Characterization of silver nanoparticles made by UV-vis spectra, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM). -- Abstract: This report focuses on the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the fungus, Rhizopus stolonifer and its antimicrobial activity. Research in nanotechnology highlights the possibility of green chemistry pathways to produce technologically important nanomaterials. Characterization of newly synthesized silver nanoparticles was made by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and atomic force microscope (AFM). TEM micrograph revealed the formation of spherical nanoparticles with size ranging between 3 and 20 nm. The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) showed excellent antibacterial activity against ESBL-strains which includes E. coli, Proteus. sp. and Klebsiella sp.

  15. Pb(II) and Cd(II) removal from aqueous solution, shipyard wastewater, and landfill leachate by modified Rhizopus oryzae biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeimi, Behrouz; Foroutan, Rauf; Ahmadi, Bahram; Sadeghzadeh, Farzaneh; Ramavandi, Bahman

    2018-04-01

    This study was designed to remove Pb(II) and Cd(II) from aqueous solution, shipyard wastewater, and sanitary landfill leachate using an alkaline-modified Rhizopus oryzae biomass. According to the Fourier transform infrared test, different functional groups like O–H, N–H, C=O, and P–O were detected in the bioadsorbent. The x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis showed that CaO, P2O3, and SO3 oxides have the highest content in the bioadsorbent. The surface area of modified Rhizopus oryzae was obtained as 20.32 m2 g‑1. The effect of initial pH, temperature, contact time, and bioadsorbent dose on the metals removal was discussed. At optimal conditions, maximum Pb(II) and Cd(II) removal was obtained 95.66% and 94.55%, respectively. Freundlich model was well- accurately described the equilibrium data. Among four studied models, the pseudo-second-order was better able to describe the kinetic behavior of the bioadsorption process. The amount of enthalpy, free energy of Gibbs, and entropy parameters indicated that the bioadsorption process of studied heavy metals is negative, exothermic, and spontaneous. The amount of heavy metals in a shipyard wastewater and sanitary landfill leachate was significantly decreased by using the developed bioadsorbent.

  16. Effect of Meadowsweet Flower Extract-Pullulan Coatings on Rhizopus Rot Development and Postharvest Quality of Cold-Stored Red Peppers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicja Synowiec

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The study involved an examination of the antifungal activity on red peppers of pullulan coating (P and pullulan coating containing either water-ethanol (P + eEMF or ethanol extract of meadowsweet flowers (P + eEMF. Pullulan was obtained from a culture of Aureobasidium pullulans B-1 mutant. Both non-inoculated peppers and those artificially inoculated with Rhizopus arrhizus were coated and incubated at 24 °C for 5 days. The intensity of the decay caused by Rhizopus arrhizus in the peppers with P and P + eEMF coatings was nearly 3-fold lower, and in the case of P + weEMF 5-fold lower, than that observed in the control peppers. Additionally, the P + weEMF coating decreased, almost two-fold the severity of pepper decay compared to other samples. The influence of coating of pepper postharvest quality was examined after 30 days of storage at 6 °C and 70%–75% RH. All coatings formed a thin and well-attached additional layer of an intensified gloss. During storage, color, total soluble solid content and weight loss of coated peppers were subject to lower changes in comparison with uncoated ones. The results indicate the possibility of the application of pullulan coatings containing MFEs as an alternative to the chemical fungicides used to combat pepper postharvest diseases.

  17. The influence of inoculum composition on selected bioactive and nutritional parameters of grass pea tempeh obtained by mixed-culture fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus and Aspergillus oryzae strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starzynska-Janiszewska, A; Stodolak, B; Dulinski, R; Mickowska, B

    2012-04-01

    Tempeh is a popular Indonesian product obtained from legume seeds by solid-state fermentation with Rhizopus sp. The aim of this research was to study the effect of simultaneous mixed-culture fermentation of grass pea seeds on selected parameters of products as compared to traditional tempeh. The inoculum contained different ratios of Rhizopus oligosporus and Aspergillus oryzae spores. The simultaneous fermentation of grass pea seeds with inoculum consisting of 1.2 × 10(6) R. oligosporus and 0.6 × 10(6) A. oryzae spores (per 60 g of seeds) resulted in a product of improved quality, as compared with traditionally made tempeh (obtained after inoculation with 1.2 × 10(6) R. oligosporus spores), at the same fermentation time. This product had radical scavenging ability 70% higher than the one obtained with pure R. oligosporus culture and contained 2.23 g/kg dm of soluble phenols. The thiamin and riboflavin levels were above three (340 µg/g dm) and two (50.50 µg/g dm) folds higher than in traditionally made tempeh, respectively. The product had 65% in vitro bioavailability of proteins and 33% in vitro bioavailability of sugars. It also contained 40% less 3-N-oxalyl-L-2, 3-diaminopropionic acid (0.074 g/kg dm), as compared to traditional tempeh.

  18. Transcriptional response of P. pastoris in fed-batch cultivations to Rhizopus oryzae lipase production reveals UPR induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valero Francisco

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The analysis of transcriptional levels of the genes involved in protein synthesis and secretion is a key factor to understand the host organism's responses to recombinant protein production, as well as their interaction with the cultivation conditions. Novel techniques such as the sandwich hybridization allow monitoring quantitatively the dynamic changes of specific RNAs. In this study, the transcriptional levels of some genes related to the unfolded protein response (UPR and central metabolism of Pichia pastoris were analysed during batch and fed-batch cultivations using an X-33-derived strain expressing a Rhizopus oryzae lipase under control of the formaldehyde dehydrogenase promoter (FLD1, namely the alcohol oxidase gene AOX1, the formaldehyde dehydrogenase FLD1, the protein disulfide isomerase PDI, the KAR2 gene coding for the BiP chaperone, the 26S rRNA and the R. oryzae lipase gene ROL. Results The transcriptional levels of the selected set of genes were first analysed in P. pastoris cells growing in shake flask cultures containing different carbon and nitrogen sources combinations, glycerol + ammonium, methanol + methylamine and sorbitol + methylamine. The transcriptional levels of the AOX1 and FLD1 genes were coherent with the known regulatory mechanism of C1 substrates in P. pastoris, whereas ROL induction lead to the up-regulation of KAR2 and PDI transcriptional levels, thus suggesting that ROL overexpression triggers the UPR. This was further confirmed in fed-batch cultivations performed at different growth rates. Transcriptional levels of the analysed set of genes were generally higher at higher growth rates. Nevertheless, when ROL was overexpressed in a strain having the UPR constitutively activated, significantly lower relative induction levels of these marker genes were detected. Conclusion The bead-based sandwich hybridization assay has shown its potential as a reliable instrument for quantification of

  19. The production of corn kernel miso based on rice-koji fermented by Aspergillus oryzae and Rhizopus oligosporus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah Ratnaningrum

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The suitability of corn kernel as raw material to produce miso fermented by rice-koji containing Aspergillus oryzae and Rhizopus oligosporus has been investigated. The optimization was conducted on two important factors in miso production namely mold composition in rice-koji and salt concentration. The mold composition was prepared by inoculating the spores of 2% A. oryzae, 2% R. oligosporus, and 2% the mixture of both in a ratio of 1:1, 2:1, and 1:2 (v/v into different rice media. The mold composition was optimized to produce rice-koji with high α-amylase and protease activity. Different NaCl concentrations of 10%, 15%, and 20% were subjected to optimization process and added to each mixture after five days of fermentation. The salt concentration was also optimized to produce corn kernel miso with high glucose and high dissolved protein concentration. The result showed that rice-koji containing A. oryzae and R. oligosporus in the ratio of 1:1 had the highest α-amylase and protease activity of 0.42 U/mL and 0.45 U/mL respectively. In addition, the presence of 10% NaCl in corn kernel miso fermented by A. oryzae and R. oligosporus in the ratio of 1:1 exhibited the highest glucose and dissolved protein concentration of 0.64 mg/mL and 8.80 mg/mL respectively. The optimized corn kernel miso by A. oryzae and R. oligosporus in the ratio of 1:1 with 10% NaCl was subjected to nutrient content analysis and compared to the result before the corn kernel was fermented. The nutrient content analysis showed nutrient enhancement after corn kernel was fermented and transformed into a miso. Glucose, dissolved protein, and fat content increased 6.74, 1.34, 7.63 times respectively. This study concludes corn kernel could be utilized to produce a novel corn kernel miso for dietary diversification and for improving nutritional and health status.

  20. Rhizopus stolonifer exhibits dimorphism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-05-16

    May 16, 2011 ... C. O. Omoifo. Department of ... stolonifer could utilize glucose for growth, this study examined the effect ... H54Ar meter balance and added to the beaker. The pH was .... This work was done at the MTCC-1, Institute of Microbial. Technology ... Mucor circinelloides life cycle by on-line image analysis. J. Appl.

  1. Rhizopus-associated soft tissue infection in an immunocompetent air-conditioning technician after a road traffic accident: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabie, Nada B; Althaqafi, Abdulhakeem O

    2012-03-01

    Rhinocerebral or sinopulmonary mucromycosis is a well-recognized human fungal infection found among immunocompromised and diabetic patients. However, the infection is rare among immunocompetent hosts. We are reporting the case of an adult immunocompetent male patient working as an air-conditioning technician. The patient was a victim of a road traffic accident (RTA) and sustained multiple fractures in the proximal part of the left tibia, distal femur, and scapula. Two weeks postoperatively, Rhizopus microspores were isolated from an infected traumatic wound over the distal femur. Surgical debridement was performed, and the patient was started on amphotericin B. Occupational exposure history and workplace environmental sanitation are crucial for the prevention of this potentially fatal yet preventable infection. Copyright © 2011 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Optimization of L(+)-Lactic Acid Fermentation Without Neutralisation of Rhizopus Oryzae Mutant RK02 by Low-Energy Ion Implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wen; Wang Tao; Yang Yingge; Liu Dan; Fan Yonghong; Wang Dongmei; Yang Qian; Yao Jianming; Zheng Zhiming; Yu Zengliang

    2008-01-01

    In order to get an industrial strain which can yield a high concentration of lactic acid for ISPR (in situ product removal), the original strain Rhizopus oryzae RE3303 was mutated by low-energy ion beam implantation. A mutant RK02 was screened, and the factors such as the substrate concentration, nitrogen source concentration, inoculum size, seed age, aeration and temperature that affect the production of lactic acid were studied in detail. Under optimal conditions, the maximum concentration of L(+)-lactic acid reached 34.85 g/L after 30 h shake-flask cultivation without adding any neutralisation (5% Glucose added), which was a 146% increase in lactic acid production after ion implantation compared with the original strain. It was also shown that RK02 can be used in ISPR to reduce the number of times of separation.

  3. Effect of dietary supplementation with Rhizopus oryzae or Chrysonilia crassa on growth performance, blood profile, intestinal microbial population, and carcass traits in broilers exposed to heat stress

    OpenAIRE

    S. Sugiharto; T. Yudiarti; I. Isroli; E. Widiastuti; F. D. Putra

    2017-01-01

    Dietary supplementation of additives has recently been part of strategies to deal with the detrimental effects of heat stress (HS) on the performance and carcass traits in broiler chicks. This study aimed to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with the fungi Rhizopus oryzae or Chrysonilia crassa on growth, blood profile, intestinal microbial population and carcass traits in broiler chicks subjected to HS. R. oryzae and C. crassa are filamentous fungi isolated from...

  4. The Production of Benzaldehyde by Rhizopus oligosporus USM R1 in a Solid State Fermentation (SSF System of Soy Bean Meal: Rice Husks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norliza, A. W.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation of Rhizopus oligosporus USM R1 for the production of benzaldehyde, a bitter cherry almond flavour was performed using soya bean meal and rice husks as the substrates. The identification of R. oligosporus USM R1 was performed based on the observation made under light microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM. The optimum conditions for the SSF in a 250-ml Erlenmeyer flask system were 40% (v/w water content, substrate particle size of 0.7 mm; inoculum size of 1 x 10^5 spores/g substrate; incubation temperature of 30C; substrate amount of 7 g and the ratio of soy bean meal: rice husks of 50:50%. A maximum benzaldehyde production was obtained when the substrate was agitated after 48 hour for a 96 hour fermentation time. The highest benzaldehyde production obtained after 96 hour cultivation was 5.47 mg g-1 substrate. The supplementation of carbon and nitrogen sources in the substrate mixture revealed an enhancement in the growth and benzyldehyde production. A maximum production of benzaldehyde was obtained with the supplementation of L-phenylalanine, a precursor for benzaldehyde biosynthesis which gave 38.69 mg benzaldehyde/g substrate. This is approximately 6-folds higher compared to the substrates without the supplementation of L-phenylalanine.

  5. Enhanced production of raw starch degrading enzyme using agro-industrial waste mixtures by thermotolerant Rhizopus microsporus for raw cassava chip saccharification in ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trakarnpaiboon, Srisakul; Srisuk, Nantana; Piyachomkwan, Kuakoon; Sakai, Kenji; Kitpreechavanich, Vichien

    2017-09-14

    In the present study, solid-state fermentation for the production of raw starch degrading enzyme was investigated by thermotolerant Rhizopus microsporus TISTR 3531 using a combination of agro-industrial wastes as substrates. The obtained crude enzyme was applied for hydrolysis of raw cassava starch and chips at low temperature and subjected to nonsterile ethanol production using raw cassava chips. The agro-industrial waste ratio was optimized using a simplex axial mixture design. The results showed that the substrate mixture consisting of rice bran:corncob:cassava bagasse at 8 g:10 g:2 g yielded the highest enzyme production of 201.6 U/g dry solid. The optimized condition for solid-state fermentation was found as 65% initial moisture content, 35°C, initial pH of 6.0, and 5 × 10 6 spores/mL inoculum, which gave the highest enzyme activity of 389.5 U/g dry solid. The enzyme showed high efficiency on saccharification of raw cassava starch and chips with synergistic activities of commercial α-amylase at 50°C, which promotes low-temperature bioethanol production. A high ethanol concentration of 102.2 g/L with 78% fermentation efficiency was achieved from modified simultaneous saccharification and fermentation using cofermentation of the enzymatic hydrolysate of 300 g raw cassava chips/L with cane molasses.

  6. Biocatalytic Behaviour of Immobilized Rhizopus oryzae Lipase in the 1,3-Selective Ethanolysis of Sunflower Oil to Obtain a Biofuel Similar to Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Luna

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A new biofuel similar to biodiesel was obtained in the 1,3-selective transesterification reaction of sunflower oil with ethanol using as biocatalyst a Rhizopus oryzae lipase (ROL immobilized on Sepiolite, an inorganic support. The studied lipase was a low cost powdered enzyme preparation, Biolipase-R, from Biocon-Spain, a multipurpose additive used in food industry. In this respect, it is developed a study to optimize the immobilization procedure of these lipases on Sepiolite. Covalent immobilization was achieved by the development of an inorganic-organic hybrid linker formed by a functionalized hydrocarbon chain with a pendant benzaldehyde, bonded to the AlPO4 support surface. Thus, the covalent immobilization of lipases on amorphous AlPO4/sepiolite (20/80 wt % support was evaluated by using two different linkers (p-hydroxybenzaldehyde and benzylamine-terephthalic aldehyde, respectively. Besides, the catalytic behavior of lipases after physical adsorption on the demineralized sepiolite  was also evaluated. Obtained results indicated that covalent immobilization with the p-hydroxybenzaldehyde linker gave the best biocatalytic behavior. Thus, this covalently immobilized lipase showed a remarkable stability as well as an excellent capacity of reutilization (more than five successive reuses without a significant loss of its initial catalytic activity. This could allow a more efficient fabrication of biodiesel minimizing the glycerol waste production.

  7. Biosorption of Cr(VI) in Aqueous Solution using Microorganisms: Comparison of the Use of Rhizopus oryzae, Bacillus firmus, and Trichoderma viride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safitri, Anna; Mahardini, Putri; Prasetyawan, Sasangka; Roosdiana, Anna

    2018-01-01

    In this work, the study of biosorption of Cr(VI) from aqueous solution was conducted using Rhizopus oryzae, Bacillus firmus, and Trichoderma viride as microorganisms that can absorb Cr(VI). The research is focused on determination of optimum conditions including pH, the number of R. oryzae, B. firmus, and T. viride (inoculums), and initial concentrations of Cr(VI) used. Optimum pH was obtained at pH 5, 4.5 and 6, for biosorption of Cr(VI) with R. oryzae, B. firmus, and T. viride, respectively, in the capacity of 45.3%, 24.5%, and 90.3%. The highest amount of Cr(VI) adsorbed for biosorption with R. oryzae, B. firmus, and T. viride, were 55.4%, 18.5%, and 74.5%, respectively, using 6-mL inoculums. The equilibrium concentrations achieved for R. oryzae, B. firmus, and T. viride were 60 mg/mL, 40 mg/mL, and 40 mg/mL, with the amount of Cr(VI) adsorbed were 32.4%, 28.2%, and 89.3%, respectively. The adsorption capacity for R. oryzae, B. firmus, and T. viride were 45.3 mg/1×106 colonies, 36.2 mg/1×106 cells, and 77.8 mg/1×106 colonies, respectively. Overall, the biosorbents effectivity order in the biosorption process of Cr(VI) are T. viride > R. oryzae > B. firmus.

  8. Eco-friendly methodology for efficient synthesis and scale-up of 2-ethylhexyl-p-methoxycinnamate using Rhizopus oryzae lipase and its biological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinod; Jahan, Firdaus; Kameswaran, Karthikeya; Mahajan, Richi V; Saxena, Rajendra Kumar

    2014-06-01

    Lipase-mediated synthesis of phenolic acid esters is a green and economical alternative to current chemical methods. Octyl methoxycinnamate, an important UVB-absorbing compound, was synthesized by the esterification of p-methoxycinnamic acid with 2-ethyl hexanol using Rhizopus oryzae lipase. A molar ratio of 1:2 of p-methoxycinnamic acid and 2-ethyl hexanol was found to give an optimum yield using cyclo-octane (50 ml) as reaction solvent, at a temperature of 45 °C, and 750 U of lipase, resulting in a yield of 91.3 % in 96 h. This reaction was successfully scaled up to 400-ml reaction size where 88.6 %bioconversion was achieved. The synthesized compound was found to have superior antioxidant activity as compared to ascorbic acid. The synthesized compound also exhibited good antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aures, Candida albicans (yeast), Aspergillus niger, Alternaria solani, and Fussarium oxysporum by well diffusion method in terms of zone of inhibitions (in mm).

  9. [State of Fungal Lipases of Rhizopus microsporus, Penicillium sp. and Oospora lactis in Border Layers Water-Solid Phase and Factors Affecting Catalytic Properties of Enzymes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasanov, Kh T; Davranov, K; Rakhimov, M M

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrated that a change in the catalytic activity of fungal lipases synthesized by Rhizopus microsporus, Penicillium sp. and Oospora lactis and their ability to absorb on different sorbents depended on the nature of groups on the solid phase surface in the model systems water: lipid and water: solid phase. Thus, the stability of Penicillium sp. lipases increased 85% in the presence ofsorsilen or DEAE-cellulose, and 55% of their initial activity respectively was preserved. In the presence of silica gel and CM-cellulose, a decreased rate of lipid hydrolysis by Pseudomonas sp. enzymes was observed in water medium, and the hydrolysis rate increased by 2.4 and 1.5 times respectively in the presence of aminoaerosil and polykefamid. In an aqueous-alcohol medium, aminoaerosil and polykefamid decreased the rate of substrate hydrolysis by more than 30 times. The addition of aerosil to aqueous and aqueous-alcohol media resulted in an increase in the hydrolysis rate by 1.2-1.3 times. Sorsilen stabilized Penicillium sp. lipase activity at 40, 45, 50 and 55 degrees C. Either stabilization or inactivation of lipases was observed depending on the pH of the medium and the nature of chemical groups localized on the surface of solid phase. The synthetizing activity of lipases also changed depending on the conditions.

  10. Omics-based approaches reveal phospholipids remodeling of Rhizopus oryzae responding to furfural stress for fumaric acid-production from xylose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xinrong; Liu, Huanhuan; Liu, Jiao; Wang, Cheng; Wen, Jianping

    2016-12-01

    In order to relieve the toxicity of furfural on Rhizopus oryzae fermentation, the molecular mechanism of R. oryzae responding to furfural stress for fumaric acid-production was investigated by omics-based approaches. In metabolomics analysis, 29 metabolites including amino acid, sugars, polyols and fatty acids showed significant changes for maintaining the basic cell metabolism at the cost of lowering fumaric acid production. To further uncover the survival mechanism, lipidomics was carried out, revealing that phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol and polyunsaturated acyl chains might be closely correlated with R. oryzae's adapting to furfural stress. Based on the above omics analysis, lecithin, inositol and soybean oil were exogenously supplemented separately with an optimized concentration in the presence of furfural, which increased fumaric acid titer from 5.78g/L to 10.03g/L, 10.05g/L and 12.13g/L (increased by 73.5%, 73.8% and 110%, respectively). These findings provide a methodological guidance for hemicellulose-fumaric acid development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Antifungal effect of phenolic extract of fermented rice bran with Rhizopus oryzae and its potential use in loaf bread shelf life extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denardi-Souza, Taiana; Luz, Carlos; Mañes, Jordi; Badiale-Furlong, Eliana; Meca, Giuseppe

    2018-03-30

    In this study the antifungal potential of a phenolic extract obtained from rice bran fermented with Rhizopus oryzae CECT 7560 and its application in the elaboration of bread was assessed. Eighteen compounds with antifungal potential were identified by LC-ESI-qTOF-MS in the extract: organic acids, gallates and gallotannins, flavonoids, ellagic acid and benzophenone derivatives. The extract was active against strains of Fusarium, Aspergillus and Penicillium, with minimum inhibitory concentration ranging from 390 to 3100 µg mL -1 and minimum fungicidal concentration variable from 780 to 6300 µg mL -1 . The strains that were most sensitive to the phenolic extract were F. graminearum, F. culmorum, F. poae, P. roqueforti, P. expansum and A. niger. The phenolic extract added at 5 and 1 g kg -1 concentrations in the preparation of bread loaves contaminated with P. expansum produced a reduction of 0.6 and 0.7 log CFU g -1 . The bread loaves treated with calcium propionate and 10 g kg -1 of the phenolic extract evidenced an improvement in their shelf lives of 3 days. The phenolic extract assessed in this study could be considered as an alternative for inhibiting toxigenic fungi and as a substitute for synthetic compounds in food preservation. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. An optimized fed-batch culture strategy integrated with a one-step fermentation improves L-lactic acid production by Rhizopus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yongqian; Sun, Xiaolong; Zhu, Huayue; Jiang, Ru; Luo, Xi; Yin, Longfei

    2018-05-21

    In previous work, we proposed a novel modified one-step fermentation fed-batch strategy to efficiently generate L-lactic acid (L-LA) using Rhizopus oryzae. In this study, to further enhance efficiency of L-LA production through one-step fermentation in fed-batch cultures, we systematically investigated the initial peptone- and glucose-feeding approaches, including different initial peptone and glucose concentrations and maintained residual glucose levels. Based on the results of this study, culturing R. oryzae with initial peptone and glucose concentrations of 3.0 and 50.0 g/l, respectively, using a fed-batch strategy is an effective approach of producing L-LA through one-step fermentation. Changing the residual glucose had no obvious effect on the generation of L-LA. We determined the maximum LA production and productivity to be 162 g/l and 6.23 g/(l·h), respectively, during the acid production stage. Compared to our previous work, there was almost no change in L-LA production or yield; however, the productivity of L-LA increased by 14.3%.

  13. Preparation of hydrolytic liquid from dried distiller's grains with solubles and fumaric acid fermentation by Rhizopus arrhizus RH 7-13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan; Yue, Xuemin; Jin, Yuhan; Wang, Meng; Deng, Li; Wang, Fang; Tan, Tianwei

    2017-10-01

    Fumaric acid production from lignocellulosic materials is an alternative chemicals production system. This work investigated the suitable conditions for hydrolysis of dried distiller's grains with solubles (DDGS). The hydrolytic liquid was subsequently used for the production of fumaric acid. After optimizing the hydrolysis conditions, the most suitable concentration of H 2 SO 4 (2%), hydrolysis temperature (120 °C), hydrolysis time (100min) and solid/liquid ratio (1:10) were obtained. The yield of monosaccharides reached 258 mg/g DDGS and 15.88 g/L glucose, 7.53 g/L xylose and 2.35 g/L arabinose were obtained in unprocessed hydrolytic liquid. The furfural inhibitor in the hydrolytic liquid was also detected and the yield of it was reducing progressively in the pretreatment process. The ferment ability of the hydrolytic liquid from DDGS was tested through the process of fumaric acid production by Rhizopus arrhizus RH 7-13. The unprocessed hydrolytic liquid was not appropriate for the fermentation process. The yield of fumaric acid from the concentrated processed hydrolytic liquid reached 18.93 g/L, which was close to the yield of fermenting 80 g/L glucose. This result indicated that the commonly used carbon resource glucose could to some extent be replaced by processed hydrolytic liquid. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Response surface optimization for the transesterification of karanja oil using immobilized whole cells of Rhizopus oryzae in n-hexane system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganesan, Devanesan; Rajendran, Aravindan; Thangavelu, Viruthagiri [Annamalai University, Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Biochemical Engineering Laboratory, Annamalai Nagar, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2012-03-15

    Non-edible oils represent one of the most viable alternative feed stocks for the production of large volumes of biodiesel at cheaper cost in tropical countries. The objective of the present study is to investigate the ability of the immobilized whole cells of Rhizopus oryzae MTCC 262 to catalyze the biodiesel production from karanja oil in n-hexane system. Response surface methodology was employed to evaluate the effects of synthesis parameters, such as molar ratio of oil to alcohol, reaction temperature and reaction time on percentage biodiesel (methyl esters) yield. Transesterification was performed in shake flasks containing immobilized cells in the reaction mixture with 10% oil weight of n-hexane. The quadratic effects of molar ratio of oil to alcohol and reaction time proved to be the significant at 1% and 5% levels, respectively. The optimum synthesis conditions were found to be: molar ratio of oil to alcohol 1:2.73, reaction temperature 41.39 C and reaction time 73.97 h. Biodiesel yield (methyl ester) was 75.98 (wt.%) under the optimal conditions and the subsequent verification experiments with biodiesel yield of 78.0 (wt.%) confirmed the validity of the proposed model. (orig.)

  15. Role of N-terminal 28-amino-acid region of Rhizopus oryzae lipase in directing proteins to secretory pathway of Aspergillus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hama, Shinji; Tamalampudi, Sriappareddy; Shindo, Naoki; Numata, Takao; Yamaji, Hideki; Fukuda, Hideki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2008-07-01

    To develop a new approach for improving heterologous protein production in Aspergillus oryzae, we focused on the functional role of the N-terminal region of Rhizopus oryzae lipase (ROL). Several N-terminal deletion variants of ROL were expressed in A. oryzae. Interestingly, a segment of 28 amino acids from the C-terminal region of the propeptide (N28) was found to be critical for secretion of ROL into the culture medium. To further investigate the role of N28, the ROL secretory process was visualized in vivo using ROL-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion proteins. In cells producing ROL with N28, fluorescence observations showed that the fusion proteins are transported through endoplasmic reticulum (ER), Golgi, and cell wall, which is one of the typical secretory processes in a eukaryotic cell. Because the expression of the mature ROL-GFP fusion protein induced fluorescence accumulation without its translocation into the ER, N28 is considered to play a crucial role in protein transport. When N28 was inserted between the secretion signal and GFP, fluorescence observations showed that GFP, which is originally a cytoplasmic protein, was efficiently translocated into the ER of A. oryzae, resulting in an enhanced secretion of mature GFP after proteolytic cleavage of N28. These findings suggest that N28 facilitates protein translocation into ER and can be a promising candidate for improving heterologous protein production in A. oryzae.

  16. Occurrence of fungus Rhizopus sp in bioassays with Allium cepa germinated in the presence of uranium to study the effect of natural radioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xavier, Magno N.; Oliveira, Andressa L.; Maffei, Eliane M.D.; Campos, Simara S., E-mail: simaracampos@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia (UESB), Vitoria da Conquista, BA (Brazil). Departamento de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas; Gennari, Roseli F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica. Departamento de Fisica Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    The demographic and global economic growth has promoted increasing power consumption. In this context, several studies point to nuclear energy as being promising to meet such demand. Although Brazil composes the seventh position in the world ranking of uranium reserves, the ore is still little explored in Brazil, considering its vast existing arsenal. On the one hand, despite nuclear energy has brought great benefits, technological and socio-economic development, it generates controversy about environmental contamination and risks to public health. Studies on this subject indicate that areas where uranium ore concentration is high, natural environmental radiation exposure levels are already higher than in other regions. The aim of this study is to observe the simple germination of the bio-indicator (Allium cepa), typically used to assess potential chromosomal aberrations, suffer any adverse effect caused by natural radiation uranium. The choice of this bio-indicator is based on its potential for evaluating the mutation caused by countless chemical compounds. Four treatments with three replicates were designed. In each treatment, 10 seeds of onion A. cepa without any pesticides were packed in the Petri dish lined with germination paper and room temperature (25°C) was kept until the root reaches approximately 1cm long. As a result, growth of the fungus Rhizopus sp was observed, in the experiments where uranium ore was added. It is important to mention according to the literature, this fungus can cause serious infections (and often fatal) in humans and animals, due to its high growth rate and also to their ability on surviving in relatively high temperatures. (author)

  17. Occurrence of fungus Rhizopus sp in bioassays with Allium cepa germinated in the presence of uranium to study the effect of natural radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xavier, Magno N.; Oliveira, Andressa L.; Maffei, Eliane M.D.; Campos, Simara S.; Gennari, Roseli F.

    2015-01-01

    The demographic and global economic growth has promoted increasing power consumption. In this context, several studies point to nuclear energy as being promising to meet such demand. Although Brazil composes the seventh position in the world ranking of uranium reserves, the ore is still little explored in Brazil, considering its vast existing arsenal. On the one hand, despite nuclear energy has brought great benefits, technological and socio-economic development, it generates controversy about environmental contamination and risks to public health. Studies on this subject indicate that areas where uranium ore concentration is high, natural environmental radiation exposure levels are already higher than in other regions. The aim of this study is to observe the simple germination of the bio-indicator (Allium cepa), typically used to assess potential chromosomal aberrations, suffer any adverse effect caused by natural radiation uranium. The choice of this bio-indicator is based on its potential for evaluating the mutation caused by countless chemical compounds. Four treatments with three replicates were designed. In each treatment, 10 seeds of onion A. cepa without any pesticides were packed in the Petri dish lined with germination paper and room temperature (25°C) was kept until the root reaches approximately 1cm long. As a result, growth of the fungus Rhizopus sp was observed, in the experiments where uranium ore was added. It is important to mention according to the literature, this fungus can cause serious infections (and often fatal) in humans and animals, due to its high growth rate and also to their ability on surviving in relatively high temperatures. (author)

  18. Effect of hydrolysis enzymatic process of corn using protease crude (Rhizopus oligosporus-C1) to produce corn hydrolisate rich folic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maryati, Yati; Susilowati, Agustine; Melanie, Hakiki; Lotulung, Puspa D.

    2017-11-01

    Corn hydrolyzate (Zea mays L) as a functional food fortificant derived from natural folic acid has been evaluated through a hydrolysis process using protease enzyme Rhizopus oligosporus strain C1. Enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out on two types of corn; yellow and white pearl variety corn, at concentration of protease enzyme (rough) 0.025; 0.125; and 0.225% (v/w of soluble nixtamal corn protein) with a hydrolysis time of 24 h at 30 °C, and pH 5.0. The results showed that the concentration of protease enzymes can increase the folic acid to the optimum condition, from the beginning to the end of the process time. Folic acid optimization of hydrolysis results in each corn was at the concentration of protease enzyme 0.225% (v/w of soluble nixtamal corn protein) in white corn and yellow corn at 24 hours hydrolysis, with folic acid composition, 283.56 µg/mL and 412.52 µg/mL, 1.07 and 1.04 mg/mL of soluble proteins, proteolytic activity 2.09 and 2.06 U/mL, total solids of 21.74 and 17.85%, total sugars of 0.56 and 2.22 mg/mL, and reducing sugar 91.72 and 48.47 mg/mL. In this condition, the increase of optimum folic acid for white corn was 33.57% and for yellow corn was 71.60% after hydrolysis.

  19. Comparative analysis for the production of fatty acid alkyl esterase using whole cell biocatalyst and purified enzyme from Rhizopus oryzae on waste cooking oil (sunflower oil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, Bharathiraja; Sudalaiyadum Perumal, Ayyappasamy; Jayaraman, Jayamuthunagai; Mani, Jayakumar; Ramanujam, Praveenkumar

    2012-08-01

    The petroleum fuel is nearing the line of extinction. Recent research and technology have provided promising outcomes to rely on biodiesel as the alternative and conventional source of fuel. The use of renewable source - vegetable oil constitutes the main stream of research. In this preliminary study, Waste Cooking Oil (WCO) was used as the substrate for biodiesel production. Lipase enzyme producing fungi Rhizopus oryzae 262 and commercially available pure lipase enzyme were used for comparative study in the production of Fatty Acid Alkyl Esters (FAAE). The whole cell (RO 262) and pure lipase enzyme (PE) were immobilized using calcium alginate beads. Calcium alginate was prepared by optimizing with different molar ratios of calcium chloride and different per cent sodium alginate. Entrapment immobilization was done for whole cell biocatalyst (WCB). PE was also immobilized by entrapment for the transesterification reaction. Seven different solvents - methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, n-butanol, iso-propanol, iso-butanol and iso-amyl alcohol were used as the acyl acceptors. The reaction parameters like temperature (30°C), molar ratio (1:3 - oil:solvent), reaction time (24 h), and amount of enzyme (10% mass ratio to oil) were also optimized for methanol alone. The same parameters were adopted for the other acyl acceptors too. Among the different acyl acceptors - methanol, whose reaction parameters were optimized showed maximum conversion of triglycerides to FAAE-94% with PE and 84% with WCB. On the whole, PE showed better catalytic converting ability with all the acyl acceptor compared to WCB. Gas chromatography analysis (GC) was done to determine the fatty acid composition of WCO (sunflower oil) and FAAE production with different acyl acceptors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization of a Thermotolerant Phytase Produced by Rhizopus microsporus var. microsporus Biofilm on an Inert Support Using Sugarcane Bagasse as Carbon Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Vanessa Sayuri; Jorge, João Atílio; Guimarães, Luis Henrique Souza

    2016-06-01

    The Rhizopus microsporus var. microsporus biofilm was able to produce increased levels of an extracellular thermotolerant phytase using polyethylene and viscose as an inert support in both modified NBRIP medium and modified Khanna medium containing sugarcane bagasse as the carbon source. The enzyme production was strictly regulated by the phosphorus content with optimal production at 0.5 mM of sodium phytate and KH2PO4. The extracellular phytase, RMPhy1, was purified 4.18-fold with 4.78 % recovery using DEAE-cellulose and CM-cellulose. A single protein band with a molecular mass of 35.4 kDa was obtained when the samples were subjected to 10 % SDS-PAGE. The optimum temperature for activity was 55 °C and the optimum pH was 4.5. R. microsporus var. microsporus phytase exhibited high stability at 30 and 40 °C with a half-life of 115 min at 60 °C. The enzyme activity increased in the presence of Ca (2+) and was inhibited by Zn(2+), arsenate, and sodium phosphate. Phytase demonstrated high substrate specificity for sodium phytate with K m = 0.72 mM and V max = 94.55 U/mg of protein and for p-NPP with K m = 0.04 mM and V max = 106.38 U/mg of protein. The enzyme also hydrolyzed ATP, AMPc, glucose 6-phosphate, glucose 1-phosphate, and UDPG. This is the first report on phytase characterization delivered with biofilm technology. The properties of the enzyme account for its high potential for use in biotechnology and the possibility of application in different industrial sectors as feed in the future.

  1. Effect of dietary supplementation with Rhizopus oryzae or Chrysonilia crassa on growth performance, blood profile, intestinal microbial population, and carcass traits in broilers exposed to heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sugiharto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Dietary supplementation of additives has recently been part of strategies to deal with the detrimental effects of heat stress (HS on the performance and carcass traits in broiler chicks. This study aimed to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with the fungi Rhizopus oryzae or Chrysonilia crassa on growth, blood profile, intestinal microbial population and carcass traits in broiler chicks subjected to HS. R. oryzae and C. crassa are filamentous fungi isolated from the ileum of indigenous Indonesian chickens which exhibited probiotic and antioxidant properties. Two hundred and forty 21-day-old male broiler chicks were randomly allotted into six groups, including birds reared under normal temperature (28 ± 2 °C (CONT, birds reared under HS conditions (35 ± 2 °C (HS-CONT, birds reared under HS and provided with commercial anti-stress formula (HS-VIT, birds reared under HS and provided with R. oryzae (HS-RO, birds reared under HS and provided with C. crassa (HS-CC and birds reared under HS and provided with rice bran (HS-RB. Body weight gain was highest (P < 0. 01 and lowest (P < 0. 01 in CONT and HS-CONT birds, respectively. The heart was heavier (P < 0. 05 in CONT than in HS-CONT and HS-VIT birds. CONT birds had heavier duodenum (P < 0. 05 and jejunum (P < 0. 01 than other birds. Eosinophils was higher (P < 0. 05 in HS-CC than in other birds. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL was higher (P < 0. 05 in HS-CONT than in CONT, HS-VIT and HS-CC birds. Total triglyceride was highest (P < 0. 05 and lowest (P < 0. 05 in HS-RB and HS-RO birds, respectively. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT was higher (P < 0. 05 in HS-CONT than in other HS birds. Total protein was lowest and highest (P < 0. 05 in CONT and HS-CONT birds, respectively. Albumin was higher (P < 0. 05 in HS-CONT and HS-VIT than in HS-RO birds. Globulin was lower (P < 0. 05 in CONT than in HS

  2. Biosorption of zinc (II) by Rhizopus arrhizus: equilibrium and kinetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in light of the Lagergren equation and the process followed a second order rate kinetics. The equilibrium data were analyzed using the Langmuir, Freundlich, ... All the isotherms provided the best correlation for zinc (II) onto the R. arrhizus.

  3. Optimization of lactic acid production with immobilized Rhizopus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sule

    2012-04-26

    Apr 26, 2012 ... Lactic acid is the most widely utilized organic acid in the food, pharmaceutical, cosmetics and chemical industries. One of its most promising applications is for used biodegradable and ... polymer supports, by embedding with natural polymers like alginate gels and synthetic polymers (Tamada et al.,. 1992).

  4. Fumaric acid production by Rhizopus oryzae and its facilitated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anupreet

    2014-03-05

    Mar 5, 2014 ... membrane' setup for a 'fumaric acid' source, with toluene as organic membrane and sodium hydroxide as strip phase. The liquid ... polymer films can be extended to include liquids. They are defined as Liquid .... Membrane solutions were prepared by dissolution of trioctylamine. (TOA) (Fluka A.G. ...

  5. PENGARUH RHIZOPUS ORYZAE DAN ASPERGILLUS ORYZAE TERHADAP KUALITAS KECAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Sabita Slamet

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Telah diteliti pengganti fermentasi mikroorganisme Aspergillus oryzae Rhyzopus oryzae dan campuran Aspergillus dan Rhyzopus oryzae, dengan perendaman dalam larutan garam 20% dalam waktu yang berbeda terhadap kualitas kecap.Lamanya perendaman dalam larutan garam 20% yang berbeda menghasilkan kadar protein kecap yang berbeda. Aspergillus oryzae lebih baik dalam menghasilkan enzima protease dari pada Rhyzopus oryzae.Uji organoleptik menunjukkan perbedaan tidak bermakna dalam hal rasa maupun aroma antar kecap yang dibuat dengan strain jamur yang berlainan serta waktu perendaman yang berbeda. Untuk membuat kecap, sebaiknya dilakukan perendaman dalam larutan garam 20% selama 14 hari.

  6. Fumaric acid production by Rhizopus oryzae and its facilitated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anupreet

    2014-03-05

    Mar 5, 2014 ... Currently, fumaric acid is produced from petroleum based derivative maleic ... best possible option that came up for the strip phase was an alkaline medium. .... Future directions of membrane gas separation technology. Indus.

  7. Analysis of survival curves for Rhizopus, Mucor and Penicillia irradiated with gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiguro, Etsuji; Danno, Akibumi; Miyazato, Mitsuru

    1994-01-01

    This study was aimed to understand the survival pattern of some microorganisms which were treated by γ-sterilization. Though most of the works were concentrated and reported with D 10 -values, it was presently found that the γ-irradiated survival curves showed sigmoid pattern and L-values were reached about half of the D 10 -value for each strains. It was further confirmed that if L-values were used for practical sterilization with D 10 -values, the estimation of sterilized levels would become more accurate. (author). 10 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  8. Case of early-disseminated Rhizopus microsporus var. microsporus mucormycosis in a renal transplant patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma D

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dikshya Sharma,1 Kumud Dahal,2 Bandana Pathak,3 Udip Dahal4 1Staten Island University Hospital, Staten Island, NY, 2University of Illinois College of Medicine, 3OSF Saint Francis Medical Center, Peoria, IL, 4University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA Abstract: Mucormycosis is a rare infection caused by the ubiquitous filamentous fungi of the order Mucorales and class Zygomycetes. These species are vasotropic, causing rapid onset of tissue infarctions and necrosis and subsequent thrombosis by invading vascular bed. The disease spectrum ranges from involvement of skin, sinuses, lung, and brain to disseminated and mostly fatal infections, especially in immunocompromised hosts. Here, we present a case of a fatal disseminated mucormycosis in a 56-year-old female who had deceased donor renal allograft transplantation ~2 weeks prior to presentation. She presented with shortness of breath and dry cough. Despite being on broad-spectrum antibiotics/antifungals and proper management by transplant, infectious disease, and primary team, she died within 3 weeks of admission. Autopsy showed disseminated mucormycosis of lungs and thyroid. Disseminated infection within 2 weeks of solid organ transplantation in this patient was one of the rare features of mucormycosis. Keywords: Zygomycetes, immunocompromised, transplant

  9. Effects of combined action of temperature and irradiation on growth and crypt forming in fungi rhizopus nigricans and penicillium italicum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lezhneva, M.L.; Petrash, I.P.; Koval'skaya, L.P.

    1974-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of incubation temperature on the vegetative growth and sporulation of non-irradiated and irradiated molds. The behavior of irradiated molds at various incubation temperatures was found to depend on their physiological condition. By combining irradiation with exposure to properly selected storage temperatures, the microbial damage to fruits may apparently be reduced, even in the case of fruits containing radioresistant fungi adapted to growth at low above-zero C temperatures. (E.T.)

  10. The effect of olive cake types on lipase production by isolated Rhizopus sp. and process statistical optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholam Khayati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the production of extracellular lipase by solid-state fermentation with different olive cakes varieties including Mary, Shenghe and Yellow from isolated fungi using agro-industries waste such as rice straw, rice barn and wheat straw. The highest yields of enzyme were obtained in solid-state fermentation using rice straw as solid substrate in combination with 40% Mary olive cakes as inducer. The initial screening by using Plackett-Burman's design demonstrated that among the tested factors, lactose and ammonium sulfate of the medium significantly (p < 0.05 enhanced the lipase production. Further optimization of lipase production by isolated fungi in solid-state fermentation by applying response surface methodology was achieved, which revealed these as follows: 0.42 (% w/v for lactose and 0.09 (% w/v for ammonium sulfate. Also the enzyme kinetics parameters, biochemical properties, thermodynamic of thermal deactivation and deactivation rate constant of enzyme were determined.

  11. Compositional changes in (iso)flavonoids and estrogenic activity of three edible Lupinus species by germination and Rhizopus-elicitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aisyah, Siti; Vincken, Jean Paul; Andini, Silvia; Mardiah, Zahara; Gruppen, Harry

    2016-01-01

    The effects of germination and elicitation on (iso)flavonoid composition of extracts from three edible lupine species (Lupinus luteus, Lupinus albus, Lupinus angustifolius) were determined by RP-UHPLC-MS. n The total (iso)flavonoid content of lupine increased over 10-fold upon

  12. Maximization of Intracellular Lipase Production in a Lipase-Overproducing Mutant Derivative of Rhizopus oligosporus DGM 31: A Kinetic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tehreema Iftikhar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Regulation and maximization of lipase production in a mutant derivative of R. oligosporus has been investigated using different substrates, inoculum sizes, pH of the medium, temperature, and nitrogen sources in shake flask experiments and batch fermentation in a fermentor. The production of intracellular lipase was improved 3 times following medium optimization involving one-at-a-time approach and aeration in the fermentor. Interestingly, intracellular lipase was poorly induced by oils, instead its production was induced by sugars, mainly starch, lactose, sucrose, xylose, glucose and glycerol. Dependent variables studied were cell mass, lipase activity, lipase yield, lipase specific and volumetric rate of formation. It was confirmed that lipase production in the derepressed mutant is sufficiently uncoupled from catabolite repression. The results of average specific productivities at various temperatures worked out according to the Arrhenius equation revealed that mutation decreased the magnitude of enthalpy and entropy demand in the inactivation equilibrium during product formation, suggesting that mutation made the metabolic network of the organism thermally more stable. The highest magnitudes of volumetric productivity (QP=490 IU/(L·h and other product attributes of lipase formation occurring on optimized medium in the fermentor are greater than the values reported by other workers. The purified enzyme is monomeric in nature and exhibits stability up to 80 °C and pH=6.0–8.0. Activation energy, enthalpy and entropy of catalysis at 50 °C, and magnitudes of Gibbs free energy for substrate binding, transition state stabilization and melting point indicated that this lipase is highly thermostable.

  13. Production of oat-based synbiotic beverage by two-stage fermentation with Rhizopus oryzae and Lactobacillus acidophilus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, F.; Cai, S.; Nout, M.J.R.; Wang, Y.; Xia, Y.; Li, Y.; Ji, B.

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have reported that oats could effectively reduce the serum cholesterol levels in humans, and the ß-glucan in oat is believed to be responsible for this physiologic effect. Probiotics are live microorganisms that can confer a healthy benefit on the host when administered in adequate

  14. Engineering a disulfide bond in the lid hinge region of Rhizopus chinensis lipase: increased thermostability and altered acyl chain length specificity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Wei Yu

    Full Text Available The key to enzyme function is the maintenance of an appropriate balance between molecular stability and structural flexibility. The lid domain which is very important for "interfacial activation" is the most flexible part in the lipase structure. In this work, rational design was applied to explore the relationship between lid rigidity and lipase activity by introducing a disulfide bond in the hinge region of the lid, in the hope of improving the thermostability of R. chinensis lipase through stabilization of the lid domain without interfering with its catalytic performance. A disulfide bridge between F95C and F214C was introduced into the lipase from R. chinensis in the hinge region of the lid according to the prediction of the "Disulfide by Design" algorithm. The disulfide variant showed substantially improved thermostability with an eleven-fold increase in the t(1/2 value at 60°C and a 7°C increase of T(m compared with the parent enzyme, probably contributed by the stabilization of the geometric structure of the lid region. The additional disulfide bond did not interfere with the catalytic rate (k(cat and the catalytic efficiency towards the short-chain fatty acid substrate, however, the catalytic efficiency of the disulfide variant towards pNPP decreased by 1.5-fold probably due to the block of the hydrophobic substrate channel by the disulfide bond. Furthermore, in the synthesis of fatty acid methyl esters, the maximum conversion rate by RCLCYS reached 95% which was 9% higher than that by RCL. This is the first report on improving the thermostability of the lipase from R. chinensis by introduction of a disulfide bond in the lid hinge region without compromising the catalytic rate.

  15. Phytase production by Rhizopus microsporus var. microsporus biofilm: characterization of enzymatic activity after spray drying in presence of carbohydrates and nonconventional adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Vanessa Sayuri; Jorge, João Atílio; Oliveira, Wanderley Pereira; Souza, Claudia Regina Fernandez; Guimarães, Luis Henrique Souza

    2014-02-28

    Microbial phytases are enzymes with biotechnological interest for the feed industry. In this article, the effect of spray-drying conditions on the stability and activity of extracellular phytase produced by R. microsporus var. microsporus biofilm is described. The phytase was spray-dried in the presence of starch, corn meal (>150 μm), soy bean meal (SB), corn meal (drying adjuvants. The residual enzyme activity after drying ranged from 10.7% to 60.4%, with SB and CM standing out as stabilizing agents. Water concentration and residual enzyme activity were determined in obtained powders as a function of the drying condition. When exposed to different pH values, the SB and CM products were stable, with residual activity above 50% in the pH range from 4.5 to 8.5 for 60 min. The use of CM as drying adjuvant promoted the best retention of enzymatic activity compared with SB. Spray drying of the R. microsporus var. microsporus phytase using different drying adjuvants showed interesting results, being quite feasible with regards their biotechnological applications, especially for poultry diets.

  16. eNose technology can detect and classify human pathogenic molds in vitro: a proof-of-concept study of Aspergillus fumigatus and Rhizopus oryzae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Heer, K.; Vonk, S. I.; Kok, M.; Kolader, M.; Zwinderman, A. H.; van Oers, M. H. J.; Sterk, P. J.; Visser, C. E.

    2016-01-01

    Invasive pulmonary mold disease (IPMD) is often fatal in neutropenic patients. This is because IPMD is difficult to diagnose timely, especially when non-Aspergillus molds are the causative agent, as they are usually not associated with a positive galactomannan assay. In 2013 we showed that exhaled

  17. Biodegradação de deoxinivalenol por aspergillus oryzae e rhizopus sp.: um estudo bioquímico de degradação e toxicidade

    OpenAIRE

    Buffon, Jaqueline Garda

    2008-01-01

    A contaminação aleatória de alimentos por micotoxinas afeta as condições de sanidade das dietas de humanos e animais. Dentre as toxinas fúngicas, deoxinivalenol (DON) se destaca pela freqüente contaminação de produtos agrícolas e alimentos e pela sua resistência a degradação pelo emprego de métodos tradicionais de processamento, o que motiva políticas de controle e a busca por técnicas de descontaminação. A descontaminação biológica empregando processsos fermentativos tem sido ...

  18. Isolation of Mucorales from processed maize (Zea mays L.) and screening for protease activity

    OpenAIRE

    de Azevedo Santiago, Andr? Luiz Cabral Monteiro; de Souza Motta, Cristina Maria

    2008-01-01

    Mucorales were isolated from maize flour, corn meal and cooked cornflakes using surface and depth plate methods. Rhizopus oryzae, Circinella muscae, Mucor subtilissimus, Mucor hiemalis f. hiemalis, Syncephalastrum racemosum, Rhizopus microsporus var. chinensis and Absidia cylindrospora showed protease activity.

  19. Examination of mycological samples by means of the scanning electron microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Thibaut

    1973-04-01

    Full Text Available Three species of Siphomycetes: Rhizopus arhizus, Rhizopus equinus and Rhizopus nigricans, as well as a Septomycete: Emericella nidulans, have been examined by means of a scanning electron microscope. Among the difjerent Rhizopus, this technique showed differences in the appearance of the sporangia. In Emericella nidulans, scanning microscopy enábled one to ascertain that the "Hull cells" were completely hollow and also demonstrated the ornemented aspect of the ascospores.

  20. Examination of mycological samples by means of the scanning electron microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Thibaut

    1973-04-01

    Full Text Available Three species of Siphomycetes: Rhizopus arhizus, Rhizopus equinus and Rhizopus nigricans, as well as a Septomycete: Emericella nidulans, have been examined by means of a scanning electron microscope. Among the difjerent Rhizopus, this technique showed differences in the appearance of the sporangia. In Emericella nidulans, scanning microscopy enábled one to ascertain that the "Hull cells" were completely hollow and also demonstrated the ornemented aspect of the ascospores.Três espécies de Sifomicetas: Rhizopus arhizus, Rhizopus equinus, Rhizopus nigricans e um Septomiceta: Emericella nidulans foram examinados em microscopia de exploração. Esta técnica mostrou detalhes não evidenciáveis ao poder de resolução do microscópio óptico, demonstrando ser útil para o diagnóstico em micologia.

  1. 18 Evaluation of Microbial Spoilage of Some Aquacultured Fresh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    `123456789jkl''''#

    bacteria species namely; Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella sp., Salmonella sp., Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas sp., and four fungi species namely; Aspergillis niger, Geotrichum sp., Rhizopus sp. and .... Penicillium sp .... FERMENTATION.

  2. Isolation of Mucorales from processed maize (Zea mays L. and screening for protease activity Isolamento de Mucorales de milho processado (Zea mays L. e seleção quanto à atividade proteásica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Cabral Monteiro de Azevedo Santiago

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Mucoraleswere isolated from maize flour, corn meal and cooked cornflakes using surface and depth plate methods. Rhizopus oryzae, Circinella muscae, Mucor subtilissimus,Mucor hiemalis f. hiemalis, Syncephalastrum racemosum, Rhizopus microsporus var. chinensis and Absidia cylindrospora showed protease activity.Mucorales foram isolados da farinha de milho, fubá e flocos de milho pré-cozidos pelos métodos de plaqueamento em superfície e em profundidade. Rhizopus oryzae, Circinella muscae, Mucor subtilissimus,Mucor hiemalis f. hiemalis, Syncephalastrum racemosum, Rhizopus microsporus var. chinensis e Absidia cylindrospora exibiram atividade proteásica.

  3. Isolation and identification of fungi responsible for leaf spots disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The diseased plant leaves were taken to the laboratory for culture, isolation, and ... These included; Alternaria longipes, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, ... Phomopsis mangiferae, Pseudofusicoccum spp. and Rhizopus oryzae.

  4. Microbial Metabolism and Inhibition Studies of Phenobarbital

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    techniques, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), mass spectrometry (MS) ... Keywords: Microbial metabolism, Phenobarbital, Inhibition studies, Rhizopus stolonifer, CYP 2C9, .... 24 h of incubation 0.5 ml of drug solution was ... mode, positive: spray voltage, 3.5 KV: ... Rhizopus stolonifer showed an extra peak at.

  5. Fungi and some mycotoxins contaminating rice ( Oryza Sativa ) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The major fungal genera contaminating rice were Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, Alternaria, Mucor, Rhizopus, Trichoderma, Curvularia, elminthosporium and Cladosporium. The most prevalent fungal species on rice were .Penicillium spp., A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. niger, Mucor spp., Rhizopus spp. and Alternaria spp.

  6. Isolation of Mucorales from processed maize (Zea mays L.) and screening for protease activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azevedo Santiago, André Luiz Cabral Monteiro; de Souza Motta, Cristina Maria

    2008-01-01

    Mucorales were isolated from maize flour, corn meal and cooked cornflakes using surface and depth plate methods. Rhizopus oryzae, Circinella muscae, Mucor subtilissimus, Mucor hiemalis f. hiemalis, Syncephalastrum racemosum, Rhizopus microsporus var. chinensis and Absidia cylindrospora showed protease activity. PMID:24031292

  7. Influence of processing methods on mycoflora changes during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-05-07

    0.001) amount of mycoflora, which ... of dry edible products, thus decreasing the value of food materials. ... The fish smoking kiln was operated by first loading firewood into the ..... common and mortality rates are very high Rhizopus.

  8. Open Access Public Health Implication of Mycotoxin Contaminated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Mycotoxins were detected from pawpaw samples inoculated with Rhizopus, Aspergillus and. Fusarium, before and after ... purification and storage under refrigeration .... detected in the urine of the Philippine woman that consumed ...

  9. Cells How does cobalamin (vitamin B12) enter and traverse ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    activity of glucoamylase from Aspergillus candidus and Rhizopus ... Diabetes. Mode of action of lipoic acid in diabetes. 59. Diethylhexyl phthalate. Increase in hepatic ... Definition of physical integrity of synaptosomes and myelosomes by ...

  10. Analysis of growth characteristics of filamentous fungi in different nutrient media.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meletiadis, J.; Meis, J.F.G.M.; Mouton, J.W.; Verweij, P.E.

    2001-01-01

    A microbroth kinetic model based on turbidity measurements was developed in order to analyze the growth characteristics of three species of filamentous fungi (Rhizopus microsporus, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Scedosporium prolificans) characterized by different growth rates in five nutrient media

  11. Quality of Ghana herbal tea: microflora and control measures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fungal species isolated varied from one sample to another. Sixteen fungal species were isolated from Hibiscus, belonging to the genera Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Eurotium, Manoascus. Paecilomyces, Penicillium, Septodochium, Rhizopus and Syncephalastrum; thirteen fungal species belonging to the genera Aspergillus ...

  12. Germination as a processing technique for soybeans in small-scale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    charlesk

    2013-06-15

    Jun 15, 2013 ... the feed and food industry, and contains about 40% crude protein and 20% oil. ... used to reduce or eliminate the ANFs that affect protein utilisation. ..... legume seeds with food grade fungal Rhizopus oligoporus stress.

  13. Heavy Metal Biosorption sites in Penicillium cyclopium *a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. MIKE HORSFALL

    ABSTRACT: The biomass of Penicillium cyclopium was subjected to chemical treatment to study the role of the functional groups ... fermentation industries to produce varied metabolites ..... biosorption potential of Aspergillus and Rhizopus sp.

  14. BKR.2014.003 (Kareem)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Femi Olorunniji

    2014-03-31

    Mar 31, 2014 ... glucoamylase from Rhizopus oligosporus SK5 mutant obtained through UV radiation and chemical mutagenesis. Sarafadeen ... and yeast. A large ..... hydrophobic residues of the enzyme, thereby inducing resistance to ...

  15. 36 Mycoflora of Some Smoked Fish Varieties in Benin City Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    `123456789jkl''''#

    Six fungal isolates encountered in the study were Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, Penicillium sp, Fusarium sp. Rhizopus sp. and Trichoderma sp. in their order of decreasing frequency in ... poured into petri dishes containing antibiotic mixture and ...

  16. Development of Volatile Oil of Mustard and Vanillin as an Effective Food Preservation System for Military Bread and Baked Goods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Muller, Wayne S; Sikes, Anthony; Yeomans, Walter; Anderson, Danielle; Senecal, Andy

    2006-01-01

    ...) vanillin is an effective food preservation system for molds and yeast. Four bread spoilage organisms were evaluated in the study Penicillium notatum, Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus niger, and Saccharomycopsis fibuligera...

  17. Outbreaks and Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Who Gets Fungal Infections? People living with HIV/AIDS Organ Transplant Patients Cancer Patients Hospitalized Patients Stem Cell Transplant Patients Medications that Weaken Your Immune System Outbreaks Rhizopus Investigation CDC at Work Global Fungal Diseases Cryptococcal Meningitis ...

  18. Screening of systemic fungicides and biochemicals against seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-18

    Jul 18, 2011 ... Aspergillus flavus showed highest percentage that is, 27.3% followed by Rhizopus stolonifer 17.98%,. Alternaria .... characteristics were cultured on PDA medium. ..... Fungi of Rice (Oryzae sativa L) Variety Faro 15 In Vitro.

  19. Identification and characterization of milk-clotting proteases ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-03-12

    Mar 12, 2014 ... Two strains of fungi were isolated and identified as Aspergillus tamarii and Penicillium pinophilum ... for milk clotting enzymes by fermentation at acid pH on culture medium containing whey ..... Rhizopus oryzae NBRC 4749.

  20. A survey of the microflora of Hibiscus sabdariffa (Roselle) and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Rhizopus oligosporus, Penicillium citrinum, Mucor spp., Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Candida krusei, while Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Serratia spp., Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus fermentum represented the bacterial ...

  1. Successful treatment of cutaneous mucormycosis in a young ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Successful treatment of cutaneous mucormycosis in a young diabetic with end- stage renal disease ... Ketone reductase, the enzyme present in Rhizopus organisms, allows .... burns, malnutrition and intravenous drug abuse.3 The prevalence.

  2. Separation of uranium by biosorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volesky, B.; Tsezos, M.

    1983-01-01

    This invention relates to metal ion separation processes and more particularly to processes of extraction of specific ions of or containing heavy metals from waste liquids by means of biosorption. The invention is based upon the discovery that the biomass produced as the result of the growth of a certain carefully selected microbial genus, namely species of the genus Rhizopus, such as Rhizopus arihizus, has an outstanding ability for selective adsorption of uranium and thorium ions from aqueous solution or suspension

  3. Degradação de deoxinivalenol (DON) e a atividade da enzima peroxidase durante fermentação submersa

    OpenAIRE

    Garda-Buffon, Jaqueline; Kupski, Larine; Badiale-Furlong, Eliana

    2011-01-01

    This work aims to evaluate deoxynivalenol degradation by Aspergillus oryzae and Rhizopus oryzae in a submerged fermentation system and to correlate it to the activity of oxydo-reductase enzymes. The submerged medium consisted of sterile distilled water contaminated with 50 μg of DON and 4 × 10(6) spore.mL-1 inoculum of Aspergillus oryzae and Rhizopus oryzae species, respectively in each experiment. Sampling was performed every 24 hours for monitoring the peroxidase specific activity, and ever...

  4. Biopretreatment of palm oil mill effluent by thermotolerant polymer-producing fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masao Ukita

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil industry is one of the three major agro-industries in Southern Thailand and generates large quantities of effluent with high organic matter (BOD and COD values of 58,000 and 110,000 mg/l, respectively, total solids and suspended solids (70,000 and 40,000 mg/l, respectively, oil & grease (25,600 mg/l, and has a low pH (4.5. Conventional anaerobic ponding system is normally employed in palm oil mills to treat the effluent. To increase its efficiency, biopretreatment to remove the organic matter and oil & grease by thermotolerant polymer-producing fungi was investigated. The palm oil mill effluent (POME was treated by the two thermotolerant polymer-producing fungi, Rhizopus sp. ST4 and Rhizopus sp. ST29, at 45ºC under aseptic and septic conditions. Rhizopus sp. ST4 gave the same oil & grease removal (84.2% under both conditions but COD removal under septic condition (62.2% was 8.8% higher than that under aseptic condition (53.4%. On the contrary, Rhizopus sp. ST 29 under aseptic condition showed 11% and 25.4% higher oil & grease removal (91.4% and COD removal (66.0% than those under septic condition. Comparison between the two isolates under aseptic condition revealed that Rhizopus sp. ST29 exhibited higher oil & grease removal (91.4% as well as COD removal (66.0% than those of Rhizopus sp. ST4 (84.2% and 53.4%, respectively. Under septic condition, Rhizopus sp. ST4 gave higher oil & grease removal (84.2% and COD removal (62.2% than did Rhizopus sp. ST 29 (80.5 and 40.6%, respectively.

  5. Fungal Burn Wound Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Aspergillus), Blasto- T he use of effective topical chemotherapeutic agents to myces (Candida), and Zygomycetes ( Mucor , Rhizopus).6 reduce...species, 18%; Mucor species and Rhizopus species, acetate in the morning and silver sulfadiazine in the evening. Prophy- 9.1%; and Microspora species and...sensitivity reports, and the patient’s sue, including one patient who required a hip disarticulation response. to control an invasive Mucor burn wound

  6. The effects of irradiated fungi to produce glucose from sago starch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andini, L.S.; Sjarief, Sri Hariani; Sumartono, Agustin; Sudradjat, Dadang; Anastasia, S.D.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of irradiated fungi to produce glucose from sago starch had been studied. Fungi used in this experiment were Aspergillus niger K-23, Rhizopus oryzae K-22, and Rhizopus oligosporus K-18. The experiment was carried out to find the optimum doses of irradiation for glucose production of sago starch. Irradiation dose at 0; 0.25; 0.5; and 0.75 kGy respectively from cobalt-60 gamma-cell 220 at a dose rate of 0.42 kGy/h. Concentration of sago starch is 6%. Total glucose and pH were measured on the 3rd and 6th day after incubation at 30 Celcius degrees in shaker incubator. The optimum irradiation doses obtained were 0.25 kGy for Rhizopus oryzae K-22, and 0.75 kGy for Aspergillus niger K-23, and Rhizopus oligosporus K-18. Higher dose of irradiation decreased the pH value of sago substrat, for Aspergillus niger K-23 and Rhizopus oligosporus K-18, but the opposite result was obtained for Rhizopus oryzae K-22. The glucose content at 3 days incubation was higher than at 6 days. (author). 13 refs, 5 tabs, 3 figs

  7. SOLID-STATE FERMENTATIVE PRODUCTION AND BIOACTIVITY OF FUNGAL CHITOSAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Aigbodion Omogbai

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan production was investigated using a laboratory-scale solid substrate fermentation (SSF technique with four species of fungi: Penicillium expansum, Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus oryzae and Fusarium moniliforme.The peak growth for the organisms was after 16 days. Aspergillus niger had the highest growth with a maximal dry cell biomass of 15.8g/kg after 16 days cultivation on corn straw under solid substrate fermentation. This was closely followed by Rhizopus oryzae (14.6g/kg, Penicillium expansum (13.8g/kg and Fusarium moniliforme (10.6g/kg respectively. The fungus Rhizopus oryzae had the highest chitosan production with a maximum of 8.57g/kg in 16 days under solid substrate fermentation (SSF with a medium containing corn straw. Aspergillus niger showed a modest chitosan yield of 6.8g/kg. Penicillium expansum and Fusarium moniliforme had low chitosan yields of 4.31g/kg and 3.1g/kg respectively. The degree of deacetylation of fungal chitosans ranged between 75.3-91.5% with a viscosity of 3.6-7.2 centipoises (Cp.Chitosan extracted from Rhizopus oryzae was found to have antibacterial activity on some bacterial isolates. At a concentration of 50mg/L, Rhizopus oryzae chitosan paralleled crab chitosan in susceptibility testing against some food-borne bacterial pathogens. Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis showed inhibition rates of 83.2%, 67.9%, 63.8% and 62.4% respectively in response to 50mg/l Rhizopus oryzae chitosan in 24 h. The rate of inhibition (% increased with increase in chitosan concentration.

  8. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15493-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rongyloides ratti L2 SL1 TOPO v2 Str... 100 3e-33 2 ( FE846057 ) CAFI528.fwd CAFI Pichia stipitis aerobic dextrose..... 62 2e-32 6 ( FE846193 ) CAFI603.fwd CAFI Pichia stipitis aerobic dextrose... 62 2e-32 6 ( GE907061 ) 9545...erobic dextros... 62 3e-32 6 ( FE846897 ) CAFI976.rev CAFI Pichia stipitis aerobic dextrose... 62 3e-32 6 ( ...Pichia stipitis aerobic dextrose... 62 4e-33 7 ( FG074107 ) UI-FF-IF0-abh-b-20-0-...Pichia stipitis aerobic dextrose... 62 3e-32 6 ( EE006326 ) ROE00003876 Rhizopus oryzae Company Rhizopus ory

  9. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15589-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DV288387 ) NAAHZ89TF Aedes aegypti - Fat Bodies Normalized (... 111 7e-31 3 ( DW611127 ) CLJ261-B09.y1d-s S...251 Rhizopus oryzae Company Rhizopus oryz... 84 2e-29 3 ( DV279302 ) NAAF564TF Aedes aegypti - Fat Bodies No...2 ( DV281619 ) NAAGT04TF Aedes aegypti - Fat Bodies Normalized (... 74 2e-27 4 ( ...404141 ) 293792124 Nasonia vitripennis Female Pupae Nasoni... 105 3e-27 2 ( DV288878 ) NAAHH95TF Aedes aegypti - Fat Bodie...-25 7 ( DV279303 ) NAAF564TR Aedes aegypti - Fat Bodies Normalized (... 119 5e-25 2 ( GE353884 ) 289177336 N

  10. Annual Research Progress Report (U.S. Army Institute of Surgical Research)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-09-30

    fungi were recovered from biopsy, and 10 from autopsy tissue. The predominant genus was As r illus. Pathogenic genera included Coccidioides, Mucor and...Alternaria. The most rapid nd lethal fungal mycoses have occurred with Mucor and Rhizopus spp, but’these species are still relatively rare in burn wounds. As...Sepodonium 1 0 0 3 0 0 Penicillium 1 3 0 1 0 1 Alternaria 2 3 1 3 6 1 Trichophyton 0 0 0 1 0 0 Mucor 2 0 0 1 4 0 Rhizopus 2 0 0 0 0 0 Curvularium 2 3 0 0 0

  11. Mucorales (Zygomycotina da Mata Atlântica da Reserva Biológica do Alto da Serra de Paranapiacaba, Santo André, SP Mucorales (Zygomycotina of the Atlantic Rainforest in the "Reserva Biológica do Alto da Serra de Paranapiacaba", Santo André, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iracema Helena Schoenlein-Crusius

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Treze táxons de Mucorales (Zygomycotina, distribuídos num total de 266 registros, foram isolados de folhas de Alchornea triplinervia (Spreng. Müll. Arg. colocadas em ambientes terrestre e aquático, e de amostras de solo e de água de riacho, coletadas mensalmente, de julho de 1988 a maio de 1990 na Reserva Biológica do Alto da Serra de Paranapiacaba, no município de Santo André, SP. As espécies que apresentaram os maiores números de registro de ocorrência foram Mucor hiemalis Wehmer (78 registros, Mucor circinelloides van Tieghem f. janssenii (Ledner Schipper (42 registros e Rhizopus arrhizus Fischer (30 registros. Cinqüenta por cento dos Mucorales encontrados na região são constituídos por espécies que estão sendo citadas pela primeira vez para a Mata Atlântica: Mucor hiemalis Wehmer f. silvaticus (Hagem Schipper, Rhizopus arrhizus Fischer, Rhizopus oligosporus Fischer, Rhizopus oryzae (Went. & Prinsen Geerlings, Zygorhynchus japonicus Vuill. e Zygorhynchns macrocarpus Ling-Young.Thirteen taxa of Mucorales (Zygomycotina, distributed in 266 occurrences were isolated from leaves of Alchornea triplinervia (Spreng. Müll. Arg. disposed in the terrestrial and aquatic environment, and of soil and stream water samples, monthly taken from July of 1988 to May of 1990, in the "Reserva Biológica do Alto da Serra de Paranapiacaba", in the municipality of Santo André, São Paulo State, Brazil. Mucor hiemalis Wehmer (78 records, Mucor circinelloides van Tieghem f. janssenii (Ledner Schipper (42 records and Rhizopus arrhizus Fischer (30 records were the most frequent species. Fifty percent of the Mucorales found are formed by species that are mentioned for the first time in the Atlantic Rainforest: Mucor hiemalis Wehmer f. silvaticus (Hagem Schipper, Rhizopus arrhizus Fischer, Rhizopus oligosporus Fischer, Rhizopus oryzae (Went. & Prinsen Geerlings, Zygorhynchus japonicus Vuill. and Zygorhynchus macrocarpus Ling-Young.

  12. Acidithiobacillus caldus, Leptospirillum spp., Ferroplasma spp. and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    conditions such as pH, temperature, time, volume and metal concentration on the efficiency of the biosorption process was ... metals by micro-organisms are achieved, this should afford a cost-effective method of removing metal species from water ..... TSEZOS M (1983) The role of chitin in uranium adsorption by Rhizopus.

  13. Antifungal activity of olive cake extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Ghandi H. Anfoka; Khalil I. Al-Mughrabi; Talal A. Aburaj; Wesam Shahrour

    2001-01-01

    Powdered, dried olive (Olea europaea) cake was extracted with hexane, methanol and butanol. Six phenolic compounds, coumaric acid, ferulic acid, oleuropein, caffeic acid, protocatechuic acid and cinnamic acid, were isolated from these extracts after fractionation. The fractions were tested for their antifungal activity against Verticillium sp., Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizopus sp., Penicillium italicum, Rhizoctonia solani, Stemphylium solani, Cladosporium sp., Mucor sp., Colletotrichu...

  14. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aderibigbe, EY. Vol 14, No 1 (2003) - Articles Propagation of tempeh Rhizopus oligosporus I: Use of organic food wastes. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 01891731. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of ...

  15. DETERMINATION OF INHIBITORS, DORMANCY BREAKING AND SEED HEALTH IN CUTIEIRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Maria Gomes Neves2

    2013-12-01

    was completely randomized, factorial 2 x 5, with two types of seed from freshly harvested fruits and remnants and five pre-germination treatments. The seed coat removal promotes increased germination and seed vigor derived from harvested fruits. Fungi identified in the cutieira seeds were Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium sp. and Rhizopus sp.

  16. 27 CFR 24.247 - Materials authorized for the treatment of distilling material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... fermentable carbohydrates The amylase enzyme activity shall be derived from Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus... starches to fermentable carbohydrates The amylase enzyme actvity shall be derived from Aspergillus niger or Aspergillus oryzae per FDA advisory opinion dated 8/18/83 or from Rhizopus oryzae per 21 CFR 173.130 or from...

  17. Natural occurrence of aflatoxins in bread in Nigeria | Efuntoye ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted in Nigeria on samples of brown bread for growth of moulds and natural occurrence of aflatoxins. Mycological analysis showed the presence of six genera of filamentous fungi, Aspergillus, Rhizopus, Mucor, Penicillium, Alternaria and Geotrichum. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) analysis of bread ...

  18. Effect of fermented soya beans on diarrhoea and feed efficiency in weaned piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, J.L.; Meijer, J.C.; Nout, M.J.R.; Rombouts, F.M.; Nabuurs, M.J.A.; Meulen, van der J.

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate anti-diarrhoeal and growth enhancing properties of fermented soya beans in weaned piglets. Methods and Results: In a first phase piglet diet, toasted full-fat soya beans (20%) were replaced with either cooked soya beans or Rhizopus microsporus or Bacillus subtilis fermented soya

  19. Fermentative intensity of L-lactic acid production using self ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tuoyo Aghomotsegin

    2016-05-25

    May 25, 2016 ... Full Length Research Paper. Fermentative ... This study investigated the medium compositions for .... shaker for 12 or 24 h (12 h for stirred tank fermentor, 24 h for flask) at 32°C, with ..... was about 5% of relative error when compared with .... Rhizopus Oryzae in 3-L airlift bioreactor using response surface.

  20. Biological studies on albino rats fed with Sorghum bicolor starch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Partially purified amylase was extracted from the culture medium of Rhizopus sp. grown in potato dextrose broth for 48 h at room temperature by precipitation with 96.9% ethanol. The enzyme was used to hydrolyze sorghum starch. The hydrolyzed product was afterwards formulated into rat feed, which was fed to albino rats ...

  1. Intra-particle oxygen diffusion limitation in solid-state fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostra, J.; Comte, le E.P.; Heuvel, van den J.C.; Tramper, J.; Rinzema, A.

    2001-01-01

    Oxygen limitation in solid-state fermentation (SSF) has been the topic of modeling studies, but thus far, there has been no experimental elucidation on oxygen-transfer limitation at the particle level. Therefore, intra-particle oxygen transfer was experimentally studied in cultures of Rhizopus

  2. Subsite binding energies of an exo-polygalacturonase using isothermal titration calorimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thermodynamic parameters for binding of a series of galacturonic acid oligomers to an exo-polygalacturonase, RPG16 from Rhizopus oryzae, were determined by isothermal titration calorimetry. Binding of oligomers varying in chain length from two to five galacturonic acid residues is an exothermic proc...

  3. Antifungal properties of Musa paradisiaca (Plantain) peel and stalk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of plantain (Musa paradisiaca (L) AAB genomic group) peel and stalk extracts were investigated using percentage inhibition test. Complete inhibition of growth (100%) was observed for Aspergillusniger, Aspergillus oryzae and Rhizopus stolonifer at 1.0 mg/ml concentration of stalk extract. Peel extract inhibited A.

  4. EAMJ April Profile.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-04-04

    Apr 4, 2009 ... niger, Fusarium, Rhizopus, Altenaria spp, Candida spp and Cryptococcus were isolated. Conclusion: Money coins harbour potentially pathogenic bacteria and fungi that may pose a public health risk. Hand hygiene is therefore strongly recommended, especially for those who simultaneously handle food ...

  5. Bio-deterioration of sweet potato (ipomoea batatas lam) in storage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    ABSTRACT: The biodeterioration of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) was investigated at Port. Harcourt, south southern Nigeria. Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizopus stolonifer,. Botryodiplodia theobroma and Penicillium sp. were found to be associated with deteriorating sweet potato tubers and used for ...

  6. The preservative potentials of sweet orange seed oil on leather ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Orange seed oil was extracted using the steam distillation method. The fungi isolated from the leather samples were Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Paecilomyces sp., Penicillium sp., Rhizopus nigricans and Alternaria sp. However, the fungal species vary from person to person. The orange seed ...

  7. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research - Vol 13, No 1 (2014)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Design and Development of Halogenated Chalcone Derivatives as Potential Anticancer Agents · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD ... Antimicrobial, Cytotoxic and Phytotoxic Potency of Ethyl Acetate Extract of Rhizopus stolonifer Culture · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT

  8. Microbial deterioration of surface paint coatings. | Ogbulie | Global ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacterial and fungal species associated with the normal and deteriorated painted surface in Owerri, Imo State were isolated and identified. The bacteria genera isolated were Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Micrococcus, Staphylococcus, Enterobacter and Streptomces, whereas the fungal genera isolated were Rhizopus, ...

  9. Biodeterioration of the African star apple (Chrysophylum albidum) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biodeterioration of the African star apple fruits in storage was investigated at Ibadan, southwestern Nigeria. Eight fungal isolates were found associated with the deteriorating fruits. The fungi are Botryodiplodia theobromae, Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus niger, A. tamarii, A. flavus, Fusarium spp, Penicilium spp and ...

  10. Effect of moisture content and storage conditions on the storability of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... Rhizopus sp. were more abundant with increasing moisture content. Air-tight .... jute bag. The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of moisture and storage .... be due to contamination as a result of local method of processing.

  11. Mycoflora of Some Smoked Fish Varieties in Benin City Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rhizopus sp. and Trichoderma sp. in their order of decreasing frequency in all the fish samples. The highest mean mycoflora count (17.833 x103cfu) was recorded in Tilapia sp., while the lowest mean value (11.16 x103cfu) was recorded in Drepane africana. Aspergillus species are known to produce aflatoxins which are ...

  12. Petroleum degrading potentials of single and mixed microbial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ability of three bacterial isolates (Bacillus spp, Micrococcus spp and Proteus spp.) and some fungal species (Penicillin spp., Aspergillus spp. and Rhizopus spp.) isolated from two rivers and refinery effluent to degrade two Nigerian Crude oils was studied. The results showed changes in pH, optical density and total ...

  13. Bioremoval Capacity Of Phenol By Green Micro-Algal And Fungal Species Isolated From Dry Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah T. Al-fawwaz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Phenol is an organic hazardous pollutant that exerts toxic effects on living cells at relatively at low concentrations. Moreover accumulation of phenol exhibit toxicity towards the biotic components of the environment. Phenol bioremoval is a very useful approach to clean up the residual phenol from the environment. This study aims at isolating green microalgae and fungi from local dry environment to test their ability to remove phenol. Subsequently two green microalgal species have been isolated and identified as Desmodesmus sp. and Chlamydomonas sp.. Also two fungal species have been isolated and identified as Rhizopus sp. and Mucor sp. Phenol bioremoval capacity as well as the effects of some physicochemical factors on the bioremoval process were then studied. These factors include initial phenol concentration contact time and the synergistic effect Desmodesmus sp. and Rhizopus sp. on the bioremoval process. Both microalgae and fungi showed phenol bioremoval capacity. The highest phenol removal percentage among algae was found 75 by Desmodesmus sp. after 25 days at 25 mgL while the highest phenol removal percentage among fungi was found 86 by Rhizopus sp. after 25 days at 100 mgL. Bioremoval of phenol by the consortium Desmodesmus sp. and Rhizopus sp. was found to be 95 at the phenol concentration 25 mgL.

  14. Fungal species associated with Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp (Cowpea)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aspergillus niger Van Tieghem, Botryodiplodia theobromae (Pat) Novel, Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht and Rhizopus stolonifer Ehrenb ex Link were isolated from both blotter and agar methods. Botryodiplodia theobromae had the highest mean occurrence (42.37%) followed by Fusarium oxysporum (30.02%), Aspergillus ...

  15. Production and properties of fungal cellulase from native isolates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Orange bagasse was employed as the sole carbon source for production of cellulase having adapted the organisms on cellulose and on orange bagasse. The extracellular cellulase produced by Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus species were partially purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation in a single step and dialyzed ...

  16. Effect of Depuration on Microbial Content of Mangrove Oyster ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mangrove oysters and water samples collected from Benya lagoon, located at Elmina in the Central Region of Ghana were investigated for microbial contamination. A total of nine fungal isolates were identified. These were Aspergilus niger, A. sulphurus, species of Penicillium, Rhizopus, Trichoderma, Fusarium, ...

  17. Seed-borne mycoflora of local and improved wheat ( Triticum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three varieties each of local and improved wheat (Triticum sativum) cultivars were investigated for seed-borne pathogenic mycoflora using the plate technique and laid on completely randomized design. A total 99 fungal isolate grouped into five fungal species namely; Rhizopus nigricans, Mucor spp, Penillium jenseni, ...

  18. Storage rot fungi and seed-borne pathogens of onion | Adongo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rotten onion bulbs obtained from the four markets (Abinchi, Anloga, Kwadaso and Central markets) were infected by five fungal species: Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, Penicillium sp., Rhizopus stolonifer and Fusarium oxysporum. Of these, A. niger and Penicillium sp. were the most frequently isolated fungi. A. flavus was the ...

  19. Use of agricultural by-products for the production of xylitol. I. The production of xylose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Menezes, H C

    1976-01-01

    A Rhizopus species capable of converting xylan into xylose was isolated from the soil, and purified. The xylanase produced by this fungus was capable of producing xylose from corn cob, wheat bran, and rice hulls without prior extraction of the xylan.

  20. Mutation induced enhanced biosynthesis of lipase | Bapiraju ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the present investigation is to enhance production of biomedically important enzyme lipase by subjecting the indigenous lipase producing strain Rhizopus sp. BTS-24 to improvement by natural selection and random mutagenesis (UV and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitroso guanidine, NTG). The isolation of mutants ...

  1. Effects of Fusarium verticilloides , its metabolites and neem leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    41.18%), Fusarium spp. (29.41%) and Rhizopus spp. (23.53%). F. verticilloides metabolite was extracted using dichloromethane and phosphoric acid (10:1) while powdered neem leaf was extracted with ethanol for 72 h. The experiment, which ...

  2. Mycological investigation of compounded poultry feeds used in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Different feed types (chicks, growers and layers mash) were collected from some large and medium scale farms in south west of Nigeria and subjected to mycological examination. Four different types of fungi identified include Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium spp., Rhizopus spp. and Aspergillus niger. The result revealed that no ...

  3. Isolation and identification of fungal flora associated with groundnut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 25 colonies were isolated from all the samples from which 6 fungal species were identified, namely Mucor, Aspergillus, Rhizophus, Curvularia, Pencillium and Fusarium spp. Of these, Mucor and Rhizopus were most prevalent having been isolated from the three storage facilities studied. Curvularia and Penicillium ...

  4. Mycological Assessment of Suya Sold in Some Parts of Minna, Niger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    different locations A total of fifty seven (57) fungi isolates were obtained from suya in all sampled locations. Fungi species such as Candida tropicalis, Penicillium chrysogenum,. Aspergillus niger Mucor spp, Aspergillus flavus ,Fusarium oxysporum, Penicillium digitatum,. Fusarium solanii, Rhizopus stolonifer and Aspergillus ...

  5. Biodegradation of cassava root sieviate with enzymes extracted from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to investigate changes in proximate, sugars and cell wall components of cassava root sieviates (CRS) treated with extracted enzymes obtained from Aspergillus niger (An), Trichoderma viridae (Tv), Rhizopus stolonifer (Rs) and Mucor mucedo (Mm) applied on autoclaved CRS at 250ml/kg. Another ...

  6. Effects of Fusarium verticilloides, its metabolites and neem leaf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-18

    Jul 18, 2008 ... from the seeds samples were Aspergillus spp. (41.18%), Fusarium spp. (29.41%) and Rhizopus spp. (23.53%). F. verticilloides metabolite was extracted using dichloromethane and phosphoric acid (10:1) while powdered neem leaf was extracted with ethanol for 72 h. The experiment, which was made up of.

  7. Rhinocerebral zygomycosis in a diabetic patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirella Alves da Cunha

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Rhinocerebral zygomycosis is the most frequent form of fungal infection caused by members of the Zygomycetes class. A fatal case of rhinocerebral zygomycosis caused by Rhizopus (oryzae arrhizus with histopathological and mycological diagnosis is reported in a diabetic patient.

  8. In vitro digestibility of processed and fermented soya bean, cowpea and maize

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, J.L.; Nout, M.J.R.; Rombouts, F.M.

    2000-01-01

    Tropical legumes, ie soya bean and cowpea, were pre-treated and subsequently fermented using pure cultures of Rhizopus spp. Impact of soaking, cooking and fermentation of the legumes on their digestibility was determined using an in vitro digestion method. Processing of white maize included, amongst

  9. Kwoseh et al

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PUBLICATIONS1

    Black mould, blue mould, soft rot, neck rot and basal plate rot were the major storage rots iden- tified in a dry .... holes made in healthy bulbs. Observation for ... Aspergillus flavus. 9.0. Penicillium sp. 27.0. Rhizopus stolonifer. 14.5. Fusarium oxysporum. 14.5. Market. Post-harvest disease incidence (%). Black mould. Dry Wet.

  10. Integrated genomics of Mucorales reveals novel therapeutic targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucormycosis is a life-threatening infection caused by Mucorales fungi. We sequenced 30 fungal genomes and performed transcriptomics with three representative Rhizopus and Mucor strains with human airway epithelial cells during fungal invasion to reveal key host and fungal determinants contributing ...

  11. Quantifying Fungal Viability in Air and Water Samples using Quantitative PCR after Treatment with Propidium Monoazide (PMA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A method is described to discriminate between live and dead cells of the infectious fungi Aspergillus fumigatus, A. flavus, A. terreus, Mucor racemosus, Rhizopus stolonifer and Paecilomyces variotii. To test the method, conidial suspensions were heat inactivated at 85oC or held ...

  12. Isolation and Identification of Spoilage Fungi Associated With Rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The spoilage fungi isolated were Aspergillus species, Rhizopus, Penicilluim, Fusarium, Eurotium, Mucor, Geotrichum, Alternaria, Cladosporium and Actinomyces species. The predominant spoilage fungi in the grains were Aspergillus species. The populations of some spoilage fungi isolated from the grains were not high ...

  13. Activity of Deferasirox in Mucorales: Influences of Species and Exogenous Iron▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Russell E.; Pongas, Georgios N.; Albert, Nathaniel; Ben-Ami, Ronen; Walsh, Thomas J.; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.

    2011-01-01

    Differences in deferasirox susceptibility among members of the order Mucorales are unknown. Here we show that Cunninghamella bertholletiae (four isolates) and Mucor species (five isolates) display higher deferasirox MICs and minimal fungicidal concentrations compared to Rhizopus species (six isolates). Exogenous iron further attenuated the deferasirox susceptibility of Mucorales isolates with low MICs. Vital staining revealed damage to subapical compartments in susceptible strains. PMID:20956598

  14. Activity of deferasirox in Mucorales: influences of species and exogenous iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Russell E; Pongas, Georgios N; Albert, Nathaniel; Ben-Ami, Ronen; Walsh, Thomas J; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P

    2011-01-01

    Differences in deferasirox susceptibility among members of the order Mucorales are unknown. Here we show that Cunninghamella bertholletiae (four isolates) and Mucor species (five isolates) display higher deferasirox MICs and minimal fungicidal concentrations compared to Rhizopus species (six isolates). Exogenous iron further attenuated the deferasirox susceptibility of Mucorales isolates with low MICs. Vital staining revealed damage to subapical compartments in susceptible strains.

  15. Activity of Deferasirox in Mucorales: Influences of Species and Exogenous Iron▿

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Russell E.; Pongas, Georgios N.; Albert, Nathaniel; Ben-Ami, Ronen; Walsh, Thomas J.; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.

    2010-01-01

    Differences in deferasirox susceptibility among members of the order Mucorales are unknown. Here we show that Cunninghamella bertholletiae (four isolates) and Mucor species (five isolates) display higher deferasirox MICs and minimal fungicidal concentrations compared to Rhizopus species (six isolates). Exogenous iron further attenuated the deferasirox susceptibility of Mucorales isolates with low MICs. Vital staining revealed damage to subapical compartments in susceptible strains.

  16. Physiochemical Properties and Antinutrient Content of Fermented ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Popcorn and groundnut composite flours were fermented using pure strains of Rhizopus nigricans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae by solid substrate fermentation method. There was decrease in pH with increase in total titrable acidity in all the samples. The result of the proximate analysis revealed that there was an ...

  17. Statistical screening of factors affecting glucoamylase production by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-10-25

    Oct 25, 2010 ... advantages of cooling-costs reduction during fermentation and high thermostable enzyme production. ... by various microorganisms, including bacteria, fungi and .... shown to be a better substrate than corn starch for .... L-lactic acid-producing thermotolerant Rhizopus fungi. Biosci. ... GP-21 in solid state.

  18. Purification and characterization of a thermostable glucoamylase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-06-07

    Jun 7, 2010 ... was 6.0 and the optimum temperature was 60°C. GA was found to be stable at temperatures up to .... on starch plates were inoculated to test for amylase secretion, ..... starch-digesting glucoamylase production of Rhizopus sp.

  19. Biosynthesis and Characterization of Zearalenone-14-Sulfate, Zearalenone-14-Glucoside and Zearalenone-16-Glucoside Using Common Fungal Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Borzekowski

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Zearalenone (ZEN and its phase II sulfate and glucoside metabolites have been detected in food and feed commodities. After consumption, the conjugates can be hydrolyzed by the human intestinal microbiota leading to liberation of ZEN that implies an underestimation of the true ZEN exposure. To include ZEN conjugates in routine analysis, reliable standards are needed, which are currently not available. Thus, the aim of the present study was to develop a facilitated biosynthesis of ZEN-14-sulfate, ZEN-14-glucoside and ZEN-16-glucoside. A metabolite screening was conducted by adding ZEN to liquid fungi cultures of known ZEN conjugating Aspergillus and Rhizopus strains. Cultivation conditions and ZEN incubation time were varied. All media samples were analyzed for metabolite formation by HPLC-MS/MS. In addition, a consecutive biosynthesis was developed by using Fusarium graminearum for ZEN biosynthesis with subsequent conjugation of the toxin by utilizing Aspergillus and Rhizopus species. ZEN-14-sulfate (yield: 49% is exclusively formed by Aspergillus oryzae. ZEN-14-glucoside (yield: 67% and ZEN-16-glucoside (yield: 39% are formed by Rhizopus oryzae and Rhizopus oligosporus, respectively. Purities of ≥73% ZEN-14-sulfate, ≥82% ZEN-14-glucoside and ≥50% ZEN-16-glucoside were obtained by 1H-NMR. In total, under optimized cultivation conditions, fungi can be easily utilized for a targeted and regioselective synthesis of ZEN conjugates.

  20. Preliminary investigation on the conversion of aquaculture solid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conversion of aquaculture solid wastes into single cell protein (SCP) for fish feed through solid state fermentation using three fungi species, Aspergilus niger, Trichodema viride and Rhizopus species were investigated. Solid aquaculture waste was collected from the sedimentation unit of a re-circulating aquaculture farm in ...

  1. Bio-deterioration of breadfruit (Artocarpus Communis) in storage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bio-deterioration of breadfruit in storage and its effects on the nutrient composition of the fruit was investigated at Ibadan, Southwestern Nigeria. Freshly dropped fruits were stored under laboratory conditions for a period of 9 days. Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus stolonifer, Botryodiplodia theobromae, Mycovellosiella fulva, ...

  2. 6409 Volume 12 No. 5 August 2012 IMPROVEMENT OF INJERA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MAHGOUB, S. (DR.)

    2012-08-05

    Aug 5, 2012 ... The major quality attribute of a good injera is its slightly sour taste, which is due to the acidic (low. pH)nature of injera [5]. Unfortunately, injera storage period ... levels to control mould spoilage and improve shelf life of injera. ... Penicillium and Rhizopus were assessed by inoculating spores on ISA media.

  3. Control of Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei by treatment with mycelial extracts from cultured fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, H.; Jørgensen, H.J.L.; Lyngkjær, M.F.

    2001-01-01

    , Trichoderma harzianum, Pythium ultimum and Rhizopus stolonifer). Three mycelial extracts from the taxonomically different fungi B. oryzae, A ultimum and R. stolonifer were selected for detailed study. In general the number of colonies formed was reduced by 70-98% compared with controls. Furthermore, the few...

  4. Antifungal susceptibility and phylogeny of opportunistic members of the order mucorales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Roxana G; de Hoog, G Sybren; Schwarz, Patrick; Dannaoui, Eric; Deng, Shuwen; Machouart, Marie; Voigt, Kerstin; van de Sande, Wendy W J; Dolatabadi, Somayeh; Meis, Jacques F; Walther, Grit

    2012-01-01

    The in vitro susceptibilities of 66 molecularly identified strains of the Mucorales to eight antifungals (amphotericin B, terbinafine, itraconazole, posaconazole, voriconazole, caspofungin, micafungin, and 5-fluorocytosine) were tested. Molecular phylogeny was reconstructed based on the nuclear ribosomal large subunit to reveal taxon-specific susceptibility profiles. The impressive phylogenetic diversity of the Mucorales was reflected in susceptibilities differing at family, genus, and species levels. Amphotericin B was the most active drug, though somewhat less against Rhizopus and Cunninghamella species. Posaconazole was the second most effective antifungal agent but showed reduced activity in Mucor and Cunninghamella strains, while voriconazole lacked in vitro activity for most strains. Genera attributed to the Mucoraceae exhibited a wide range of MICs for posaconazole, itraconazole, and terbinafine and included resistant strains. Cunninghamella also comprised strains resistant to all azoles tested but was fully susceptible to terbinafine. In contrast, the Lichtheimiaceae completely lacked strains with reduced susceptibility for these antifungals. Syncephalastrum species exhibited susceptibility profiles similar to those of the Lichtheimiaceae. Mucor species were more resistant to azoles than Rhizopus species. Species-specific responses were obtained for terbinafine where only Rhizopus arrhizus and Mucor circinelloides were resistant. Complete or vast resistance was observed for 5-fluorocytosine, caspofungin, and micafungin. Intraspecific variability of in vitro susceptibility was found in all genera tested but was especially high in Mucor and Rhizopus for azoles and terbinafine. Accurate molecular identification of etiologic agents is compulsory to predict therapy outcome. For species of critical genera such as Mucor and Rhizopus, exhibiting high intraspecific variation, susceptibility testing before the onset of therapy is recommended.

  5. Use of radiation for the improvement of fungal strains as the nutritional additive in the carbohydrate-rich root crops of Nigeria. Coordinated programme on radiation microbiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balogh, E.

    1976-04-01

    After a short introduction describing the use of West African root plants (yams, cassava) as food and ways of increasing the protein content of this food, experiments on protein production by microbial fermentation of starches are described. Cassava starch was fermented as solid extrusions and in liquid phase with Rhizopus oligosporus wild and mutant strains (mutants obtained by irradiation with Co 60 source). The mutant strain was found to produce more proteins both on solid cassava starch extrusions and in liquid starch media. Experiments were carried out also with combinations of Rhizopus and other micro-organisms (Candida, Endomycopsis, Geotrichum, Saccharomyces) and with cassava starch supplemented with sugar cane molasses. The cyanogen glucoside content of cassava and the effect of cyanide on the protein production was also investigated

  6. Fungi from interior organs of free-living small mammals in Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubálek, Z; Rosický, B; Otcenásek, M

    1980-01-01

    A total of 308 fungi was isolated from interior organs (lungs, spleen, liver) of 529 small mammals belonging to 21 species, 7 families and 3 orders (Insectivora, Chiroptera, Rodentia), some of these being potentially pathogenic to vertebrates (e.g. Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, Geotrichum candidum, Mucor pusillus, Rhizopus arrhizus). In one vole (Microtus arvalis) captured in South Moravia, adiaspiromycosis (Emmonsia crescens) was demonstrated. Comparison of mycoflora of hair and that of interior organs of wild small mammals revealed that out of the total number of isolates the following fungi were represented in a higher proportion from visceral organs than from the hair: Aspergillus (A. amstelodami, A. flavus, A. repens), Aureobasidium (A. pullulans), Candida, Cladosporium (C. herbarum), Cryptococcus, Fusarium, Gliocladium (G. deliquescens), Helminthosporium, Kloeckera, Mucor (M. fragilis, M. hiemalis, M. pusillus), Paecilomyces marquandii, Penicillium (P. purpurogenum), Phoma, Rhizopus arrhizus, Scopulariopsis (S. candida, S. koningii) and Torulopsis.

  7. FY 2000 report on the results of the regional consortium R and D project - Regional consortium energy field. Final year report. R and D on the bio-fuel production by high functional bio-reactor; 2000 nendo chiiki consortium kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo - chiiki consortium energy bun'ya. Kokino bio reactor ni yoru bio nenryo seisan ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu (saishu nendo) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    A system was developed for producing automobile fuel from the recycled paper and waste cooking oil using high functional intelligent yeast. Element technology is the functional yeast creation technology and the online intelligent control technology of the process into which the fixed bio-reactor was inserted. Studies were made on the following: 1) creation of high activity lipase production/ethanol production yeasts; 2) bio-fuel production by intelligent bio-reactor; 3) process optimization control technology by fuzzy control; 4) stabilization of bio-fuel production yeast; 5) comprehensive investigational study. In FY 2000, the results were obtained as written below: development of the stable lipase coming from rhizopus japonicus, fixed bacterium using rhizopus oryzae fungus body which can be used more than ten times, direct ethanol fermentation from starch by developing the multi-copy glucoamylase manifestation yeast, operation of a 20L capacity bench plant, etc. (NEDO)

  8. Selection of Suitable Microorganism for Biocatalytic Oxidation Reaction of Racemic Propranolol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahime SONGÜR

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Propranolol is one of the β-blockers which are pharmaceutically important, especially used for treatment of cardiovasculer disease. In this study, the production of enantiomerically pure propranolol was aimed via biocatalytic deracemization including tandem oxidation-reduction reactions of racemic propranolol. Within this content, firstly suitable microorganism for the oxidation of racemic propranolol was investigated. Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH enzyme for oxidation of propranolol and NADH oxidase enzyme for cofactor regeneration were necessary for the oxidation reactions. For this reason, ADH and NADH oxidase enzymes activities of different microorganisms were measured to select the microorganism for using as enzyme source. These microorganisms are Lactobacillus kefir NRRL B-1839, Rhodotorula glutunis DSM 70398, Rhizopus oryzae CBS 111718, Rhizopus arhizus. The highest ADH and NADH oxidase activities were obtained for L. kefir.

  9. ISOLATION OF FUNGI FROM THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT OF INDIGENOUS CHICKEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Yudiarti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal tract of chicken is a place in which many kinds of fungi can be found. The aim ofthe research was to isolate fungi from the gastrointestinal tract of the indigenous chicken (AyamKampung. The chicken samples were four days, one week and two months old and were sampled fromchicken farm located in Yogyakarta. Potato dextrose agar (PDA medium was used to grow the fungi.Fifty pure isolates of fungi were found from three different ages, those were four days, one week andtwo months old chicken were 5, 10 and 35 isolates respectively. The largest number of isolate was foundin ileum, then followed by caecum, jejenum and duodenum. The fifty isolate of fungi belonged to sevenspecies, those were Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Chrysonilia crassa, Mucor circinelloides,Mucor sp, Rhizopus oligosporus and Rhizopus oryzae.

  10. ISOLATION OF FUNGI FROM THE GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT OF INDIGENOUS CHICKEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kusdiyantini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal tract of chicken is a place in which many kinds of fungi can be found. The aim of the research was to isolate fungi from the gastrointestinal tract of the indigenous chicken (Ayam Kampung. The chicken samples were four days, one week and two months old and were sampled from chicken farm located in Yogyakarta. Potato dextrose agar (PDA medium was used to grow the fungi. Fifty pure isolates of fungi were found from three different ages, those were four days, one week and two months old chicken were 5, 10 and 35 isolates respectively. The largest number of isolate was found in ileum, then followed by caecum, jejenum and duodenum. The fifty isolate of fungi belonged to seven species, those were Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Chrysonilia crassa, Mucor circinelloides, Mucor sp, Rhizopus oligosporus and Rhizopus oryzae.

  11. Analysis of microbial diversity in Shenqu with different fermentation times by PCR-DGGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tengfei Liu

    Full Text Available Abstract Shenqu is a fermented product that is widely used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM to treat indigestion; however, the microbial strains in the fermentation process are still unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate microbial diversity in Shenqu using different fermentation time periods. DGGE (polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis profiles indicated that a strain of Pediococcus acidilactici (band 9 is the predominant bacteria during fermentation and that the predominant fungi were uncultured Rhizopus, Aspergillus oryzae, and Rhizopus oryzae. In addition, pathogenic bacteria, such as Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Erwinia billingiae, and Pantoea vagan were detected in Shenqu. DGGE analysis showed that bacterial and fungal diversity declined over the course of fermentation. This determination of the predominant bacterial and fungal strains responsible for fermentation may contribute to further Shenqu research, such as optimization of the fermentation process.

  12. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U05205-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ormalization and subtr... 64 4e-09 2 ( FK758356 ) av02131e10r1.1 Symbiotic sea anemone (Anemonia vi... 38 7e...-09 4 ( EE000082 ) ROE00011310 Rhizopus oryzae Company Rhizopus oryz... 54 8e-09 2 ( FK729955 ) av01023i17r1.1 Symbiotic...ncorhynchus mykiss clone omyk-evo-505-080 Charge... 56 1e-08 3 ( FK744942 ) av02063f01r1.1 Symbiotic sea ane...mone (Anemonia vi... 38 1e-08 4 ( FK726627 ) av01045a04r1.1 Symbiotic sea anemone...rus cDNA clone IM... 40 2e-05 3 ( FK744316 ) av01008j21r1.1 Symbiotic sea anemone

  13. Optimization of marine waste based-growth media for microbial lipase production using mixture design methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellami, Mohamed; Kedachi, Samiha; Frikha, Fakher; Miled, Nabil; Ben Rebah, Faouzi

    2013-01-01

    Lipase production by Staphylococcus xylosus and Rhizopus oryzae was investigated using a culture medium based on a mixture of synthetic medium and supernatants generated from tuna by-products and Ulva rigida biomass. The proportion of the three medium components was optimized using the simplex-centroid mixture design method (SCMD). Results indicated that the experimental data were in good agreement with predicted values, indicating that SCMD was a reliable method for determining the optimum mixture proportion of the growth medium. Maximal lipase activities of 12.5 and 23.5 IU/mL were obtained with a 50:50 (v:v) mixture of synthetic medium and tuna by-product supernatant for Staphylococcus xylosus and Rhizopus oryzae, respectively. The predicted responses from these mixture proportions were also validated experimentally.

  14. Characterization of Microbial Communities in Chinese Rice Wine Collected at Yichang City and Suzhou City in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Yucai; Gong, Yanli; Li, Yajie; Pan, Zejiang; Yao, Yi; Li, Ning; Guo, Jinling; Gong, Dachun; Tian, Yihong; Peng, Caiyun

    2017-08-28

    Two typical microbial communities from Chinese rice wine fermentation collected in Yichang city and Suzhou city in China were investigated. Both communities could ferment glutinous rice to rice wine in 2 days. The sugar and ethanol contents were 198.67 and 14.47 mg/g, respectively, for rice wine from Yichang city, and 292.50 and 12.31 mg/g, respectively, for rice wine from Suzhou city. Acetic acid and lactic acid were the most abundant organic acids. Abundant fungi and bacteria were detected in both communities by high-throughput sequencing. Saccharomycopsis fibuligera and Rhizopus oryzae were the dominant fungi in rice wine from Suzhou city, compared with R. oryzae , Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Mucor indicus , and Rhizopus microsporus in rice wine from Yichang city. Bacterial diversity was greater than fungal diversity in both communities. Citrobacter was the most abundant genus. Furthermore, Exiguobacterium, Aeromonas, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Bacillus , and Lactococcus were highly abundant in both communities.

  15. Antimicrobial Activity of Extracts from Leaves, Stems and Flowers of Euphorbia macroclada against plant pathogenic fungi

    OpenAIRE

    K. Al-Mughrabi

    2003-01-01

    Extracts drawn from dried and powdered flowers, stems and leaves of Euphorbia macroclada with some organic solvents were tested for antimicrobial effect against the fungi Verticillium dahliae, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizopus stolonifer, Penicillium italicum, Rhizoctonia solani, Alternaria solani, Stemphylium solani, Cladosporium sp., Mucor sp., and Pythium sp. The strongest inhibitory effect of the extracts was observed against R. solani, V. dahliae, F. oxysporum, Pythium sp. and R. ...

  16. Kadar Karbohidrat, Lemak, dan Protein pada Kecap dari Tempe

    OpenAIRE

    ARTINI PANGASTUTI; TJAHJADI PURWOKO,; YONA SEPTIANI

    2004-01-01

    Soy sauce as one of the soy fermented product could be produced through fermentation by molds and then fermentation by bacteria and yeasts, in salt solution (moromi). The aims of this research were to evaluate and to compare the value of carbohydrate), lipid, and protein in soy sauce which were produced from tempe by mixing Rhizopus oligosporus and R. oryzae with and without moromi fermentation; to compare the taste, aroma and color of soy sauce have been produced and commercial so...

  17. Fungal Distribution and Varieties Resistance to Kernel Discoloration in Korean Two-rowed Barley

    OpenAIRE

    Sang-Hyun Shin; Eun-Jo Seo; Jae-Seong Choi; JungKwan Lee; Jong-Chul Park; Chun-Sik Kang

    2013-01-01

    Barley kernel discoloration (KD) leads to substantial loss in value through downgrading and discounting of malting barley. The objective of this research is to investigate fungal distribution and varieties resistance to KD in Korean two-rowed barley. Several fungal organisms including Alternaria spp., Fusarium spp., Aspergillus spp., Epicoccum spp. and Rhizopus spp. were isolated from Korean two-rowed barley representing KD. The symptoms of KD were brown and black discolorations o...

  18. Utilization of Okara-Tempeh as Novel Food Material (B. LIVING SCIENCE)

    OpenAIRE

    河端, 信; 田口, 邦子; 大槻, 耕三; Makoto, Kawabata; Kuniko, Taguchi; Kozo, Ohtsuki; 京都府立大学生活科学部食物学科食品学講座; 光華女子短期大学家政科; 京都府立大学生活科学部食物学科食品学講座; Laboratory of Food Chemistry, Department of Food Science & Nutrition Kyoto Prefectural University; Kohka Women's Junior College; Laboratory of Food Chemistry, Department of Food Science & Nutrition Kyoto Prefectural University

    1990-01-01

    Okara-tempeh, fermented soybean pulp with Rhizopus oligosporus, was blanched for 3-4 minutes per 100g by electronic range and ground twice with meat chopper and stored in the freezer at -20℃. The functional properties, water holding capacity, oil retention, emulsifying capacity etc. and some organoleptic tests were performed to investigate the possibility of utilization as the novel food material. Present study indicated that Okara-tempeh is not only excellent dietary fiber supplement but als...

  19. MAQUETTE ORL Décembre 2004

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mucorales (1). Les principaux germes responsables de l'infection chez l'homme sont Rhizopus, Mucor et Absidia. (1,2). Ces microorganismes sont ubiquitaires, ils sont omniprésents dans l'environnement sous formes de spores dans l'air, la terre, les végétaux en décomposition et les produits d'origine animale (3).

  20. Isolation of Mycoflora in Poultry Feed Ingredients Found in Kaduna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The highest mycoflora count (19.3 x 103) was obtained from Add-more feeds depot, followed by Al-Mahmud Feeds depot (10.0 x 103), while the least counts of (5.7 x 103) were from Feed xtra depot. Rhizopus sp was more predominant of all the species. The difference in the mould counts from the different depots was found ...

  1. Imobilização de lipases em filme de caseinato de sódio/glicerol: aplicação na síntese de ésteres Lipase immobilization in sodium caseinate/glycerol film: application in ester synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Damianni Sebrão; Vanessa Dutra Silva; Maria da Graça Nascimento; Marcelo Alves Moreira

    2007-01-01

    Lipases from different sources were immobilized in sodium caseinate/glycerol film and used in the esterification reactions of aliphatic acids with alcohols in the presence of organic solvents. Lipases from Pseudomonas sp and Rhizopus oryzae were selected and the influence of several parameters was analyzed, including: lipase loading, organic solvent polarity, reaction temperature, chain length of alcohol and acid and enzyme/support reuse. For comparison, free enzymes were used under similar e...

  2. Imobilização de lipases em filme de caseinato de sódio/glicerol: aplicação na síntese de ésteres Lipase immobilization in sodium caseinate/glycerol film: application in ester synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damianni Sebrão

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Lipases from different sources were immobilized in sodium caseinate/glycerol film and used in the esterification reactions of aliphatic acids with alcohols in the presence of organic solvents. Lipases from Pseudomonas sp and Rhizopus oryzae were selected and the influence of several parameters was analyzed, including: lipase loading, organic solvent polarity, reaction temperature, chain length of alcohol and acid and enzyme/support reuse. For comparison, free enzymes were used under similar experimental conditions.

  3. Growth and α-amylase production by strains of Lactobacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cassava starch medium was used to analyse the dynamics of batch growth and α-amylase production of strains of Lactobacillus plantarum and Rhizopus oryzae isolated from cassava dried chips. The strains displayed a growth of 0.5h-1 and 0.55 h-1, a biomass yield on cassava starch of 0.49g/g and 0.5g/g, a maximum ...

  4. Hydrolysis of Soybean Protein by Aspergillus Sojae, a. Oryzae, and Rhizpus Oligosporus

    OpenAIRE

    Rahayu, Endang Sutriswati

    1991-01-01

    Three species of molds, i.e. Aspergillus sojae. A. oryzae and Rhizopus oligosporus were used to hydrolyze soybean proteins. Whole soybeans were soaked overnight and cooked in boiling water for an hour, drained, sterilized at 121°C for 15 minutes, then cooled and inoculated with A. oryzae. A. sojae, and R. oligosporus. As a control treatment another batch of soybeans was prepared for spontaneous fermentation. Fermentation tasted for five days. Based on the colony forming units (CFU), A. sojae,...

  5. Fungi Associated with Materials’ Biodeterioration in the Humid Tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    MATER IAL SAMPLING METHOD Swab Tampiing material Sampling l2Onun Obturator Band Penicillium sp pj Cephalosporlum SD (SDI) b/ ladosporum spa...additional Iious s a Cehalo-svorium sp af exposure) Aureobaidiuim Dullulans Fusarimnsp A/ Penicillium -s SD Giocladium sp a Fus~arlum-s SD eptomces SD Spcaia...Cephalosphorium sp and Rhizopus sp . The mineral salts cultures again showed the presence of Trichoderma sp and Cephalosporium sp . The fungus Fusarium sp was

  6. Modern methods in cereal grain mycology

    OpenAIRE

    Olsson, Johan

    2000-01-01

    A simple rapid DNA extraction method, equally suitable for spores and mycelia is proposed. Heating samples in NaOH and SDS provides DNA of high purity, suitable for Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) analysis. For Penicillium roqueforti the detection limit was 6 x lo3 conidia and 1 mg (fresh weight) mycelium in the extraction liquid. The method proved efficient with Aspergillus jlavus, Fusarium graminearum, Rhizopus stolonifer, Eurotium herbariorum, and Cladosporium herbarum, as well. An optimis...

  7. Effect of extracellular calcium chloride on sporangiospore-yeast ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To examine this model further, this study evaluated the ability of sporangiospores of Rhizopus stolonifer to undergo morphogenetic transformation in the presence of different levels of extracellular calcium (0.0, 0.20, 0.25, 0.50, 1.0, 1.5 and 1.8 mM). It was found that calcium supported yeast induction and proliferation to ...

  8. A Synchrotron FTIR Microspectroscopy Investigation of Fungal Hyphae Grown under Optimal and Stressed Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szeghalmi, A.; Kaminskyj, S.; Gough, K.

    2007-01-01

    Synchrotron FTIR can provide high spatial resolution ( o C but have growth defects at 42 o C. We have also investigated Neurospora and Rhizopus cultures grown in media with optimal or elevated pH. Significant differences between the spectra of the three fungi are likely related to differences in composition and structure. In addition, high spatial resolution synchrotron FTIR spectroscopy provides an outstanding method for monitoring subtle subcellular changes that accompany environmental stress

  9. Cause of Mortality in Thermally Injured Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    11 patients, Cladosporium species from nine patients, Penicillium species from seven patients, and Phycomycetes ( mucor species and rhizopus species...infecting organisms were filamentous fungi, Aspergillus species in 16 and Mucor species in two, and in four patients C(nlida species were the causative...surface. Twelve, or 75 %, of the 16 patients with Aspergillus wound infections died but, somewhat surprisingly, both of the patients with mucor species

  10. Devastating posttraumatic primary cutaneous mucormycosis in a diabetic patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poongodi Lakshmi Santhana Kumarasamy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucorales are saprophytic fungi causing mucormycosis, which is a life threatening infection manifested as rhinocerebral, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, cutaneous, and disseminated forms. The cutaneous form is further divided into primary and secondary forms. The major risk factors include uncontrolled diabetes mellitus with or without ketoacidosis, other forms of metabolic acidosis, and trauma. We report here a case of primary cutaneous mucormycosis caused by Rhizopus oryzae, in a diabetic after a road traffic accident.

  11. Activity of Posaconazole and Other Antifungal Agents against Mucorales Strains Identified by Sequencing of Internal Transcribed Spacers▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alastruey-Izquierdo, Ana; Castelli, Maria Victoria; Cuesta, Isabel; Monzon, Araceli; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Rodriguez-Tudela, Juan Luis

    2009-01-01

    The antifungal susceptibility profiles of 77 clinical strains of Mucorales species, identified by internal transcribed spacer sequencing, were analyzed. MICs obtained at 24 and 48 h were compared. Amphotericin B was the most active agent against all isolates, except for Cunninghamella and Apophysomyces isolates. Posaconazole also showed good activity for all species but Cunninghamella bertholletiae. Voriconazole had no activity against any of the fungi tested. Terbinafine showed good activity, except for Rhizopus oryzae, Mucor circinelloides, and Rhizomucor variabilis isolates. PMID:19171801

  12. Activity of posaconazole and other antifungal agents against Mucorales strains identified by sequencing of internal transcribed spacers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alastruey-Izquierdo, Ana; Castelli, Maria Victoria; Cuesta, Isabel; Monzon, Araceli; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Rodriguez-Tudela, Juan Luis

    2009-04-01

    The antifungal susceptibility profiles of 77 clinical strains of Mucorales species, identified by internal transcribed spacer sequencing, were analyzed. MICs obtained at 24 and 48 h were compared. Amphotericin B was the most active agent against all isolates, except for Cunninghamella and Apophysomyces isolates. Posaconazole also showed good activity for all species but Cunninghamella bertholletiae. Voriconazole had no activity against any of the fungi tested. Terbinafine showed good activity, except for Rhizopus oryzae, Mucor circinelloides, and Rhizomucor variabilis isolates.

  13. Effects of aqueous extract of Cinnamomum verum on growth of bread spoilage fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Monir Doudi; Mahbubeh Setorki; Zahra Rezayatmand

    2016-01-01

    Food waste has been identified as a considerable problem and bread is the most wasted food. This study aimed to evaluate In-vitro anti-fungal activity of cinnamon extract on bread spoilage fungi and to determine its anti-fungal effect in the bread slices. At first, the MIC and MFC values of the extract were determined against Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium notatum and Rhizopus oryzae. Then, Aspergillus sp was sele...

  14. Improvement of selected strains through gamma irradiation for enhanced lipolytic potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iftikhar, T.; Mubashir, N.; Hussain, Y.; Abbas, S.Q.; Ashraf, I.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to enhance the production of industrially important enzyme lipase by subjecting the wild lipase producing fungal strains i.e. Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus microsporus and Penicillium atrovenetum to various doses of gamma irradiation (20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140 and 160 Gy). The isolation and lipolytic activity of selected mutant derived strains is described in this paper. Among all the mutants tested, MBL-5 obtained at 140Gy of Aspergillus niger strain showed highest extracellular lipase activity (13.75 +- 0.15 U mL/sup -1/) while MBL-1 Rhizopus microsporus at the rate 20Gy showed the lowest activity i.e., 1.06 +- 0.11 U mL/sup -1/. A range of pH 3, 5, 7, 9 and 11 was used to check the lipolytic potential of various mutants along with their wild type. It was observed that MBL-5 (Aspergillus niger) and MBL-2 (Rhizopus microsporus) showed enhanced extracellular lipase activity at pH 11 while MBL-3 (Penicillium atrovenetum) showed the highest extracellular lipase activity 22.53 +- 0.21 U mL/sup -1/ at pH 9. It indicates a possible role for the MBL-2, MBL-3 and MBL-5 mutant strains in the detergent industry for the development of eco-friendly technologies. (author)

  15. Coinfection by Aspergillus and Zygomycetes Species in a Case of Acute Rhinosinusitis

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    Dhara Vaidya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive mycotic infections can be effectively treated if rapid identification of fungus is obtained. We reported a case of coinfection by Aspergillus and Rhizopus sp. involving nose, paranasal sinuses, orbit, and brain in a 68-year-old known hypertensive male. He was presented to ENT OPD with history of fever and intermittent headache since fifteen days along with history of right-sided nasal obstruction and proptosis since seven days. CT scan of brain and paranasal sinuses showed findings of pansinusitis with cellulitic changes in right orbit. MRI confirmed the same along with features of intracranial extension with focal meningitis in right frontotemporal region. Laboratory parameters did not conclude much except for leucocytosis and hyponatremia. Patient was taken for endoscopic debridement from nose and paranasal sinuses, and tissue was sent for microbiological and histopathological examination. Minced tissue was processed, and after 48 hrs of incubation two types of growth were identified, one was yellowish, granular, and powdery consistent with Aspergillus sp., and another was cottony and woolly consistent with Rhizopus sp. LCB mount confirmed presence of Aspergillus flavus and Rhizopus arrhizus. Patient responded to therapy with IV amphotericin B and surgical debridement. On discharge patient's condition was good.

  16. ANALISA KADAR PROTEIN CRUDE ENZIM SELULASE DARI KAPANG Rhizopuz Sp PADA SUBSTRAT AMPAS TEBU HASIL ISOLASI DARI KEBUN CENGKEH, KARE, MADIUN

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    Pujiati pujiati

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Kapang Rhizopus sp merupakan salah satu mikroorganisme yang memiliki kemampuan tinggi untuk menghasilkan enzim selulase.Enzim selulase merupakan enzim yang dapat menghidrolisis selulosa. Hidrolisis meliputi proses pemecahan polisakarida di dalam biomassa lignoselulosa, yaitu: selulosa dan hemiselulosa menjadi monomer gula penyususnnya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui produksi dan aktivitas enzim selulase terhadap aktivitas crude enzim selulase dari kapang Rhizopus sp dengan subsrtat ampas tebu (bagase. Metode penelitian menggunakan kuantitatif eksperimen dengan pola rancangan acak lengkap (RAL dua faktorial. Perlakuan penelitian meliputi perbedan inokulum (K yaitu 5% (K1, 15% (K2, 25% (K3 dan lama fermentasi (T yaitu 3hari (T1, 6hari (T2, 9hari (T3, dan 12hari (T4. Data yang diambil dari perlakuan tersebut adalah kadar protein dengan metode brownstead lowry. Analisis data menggunakan variansi anava dua jalur dengan taraf signifikansi 5% setelah itu dilanjutkan dengan uji Beda Nyata Terkecil (BNT . Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa: Fhit > Ftab sehingga ada pengaruh antara konsentrasi inokulum dan lama fermentasi terhadap aktivitas crude enzim selulase dari kapang Rhizopus sp, Perlakuan perbedaan konsentrasi dan lama fermentasi mendapatkan kadar protein tertinggi 0,715 dengan konsentrasi 25%  dan lama fementasi 25%

  17. Inhibitory effect of gamma radiation and Nigella sativa seeds oil on growth, spore germination and toxin production of fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Bazza, Z.E.; Hala, A.F.; El-Fouly, M.E.Z.; El-Tablawy, S.Y.M.

    2001-01-01

    Twenty samples of Nigella sativa seeds (Black cumin) were purchased from different localities in Egypt. The mold viable count ranged from 1.7x10 1 to 9.8x10 3 c.f.u. Sixty six molds were isolated belonging to six genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Rhizopus, Mucor, Alternaria and Fusarium. Exposure of seeds samples to different radiation doses showed that a dose level of 6.0 kGy could be considered as a sufficient dose for decontamination of the tested samples. Seven radioresistant isolates were identified as Rhizopus oryzae, Rhizopus stolonifer, Penicillium chrysogenum and Penicillium corylophillum. All the herb samples were found to be free from aflatoxins B 1 , B 2 , G 1 , G 2 and ochratoxin A. One mold isolate was identified as Aspergillus flavus could produce aflatoxin B 1 and G 1 . None of the isolated radioresistant strains could produce mycotoxins. The water activities of seeds were slightly decreased by the storage time and the seeds needed to be stored at relative humidity not more than 85%. The addition of extract volatile and fixed oil from tested seeds to the medium stimulated the growth of isolated Aspergillus sp. (author)

  18. Inhibitory effect of gamma radiation and Nigella sativa seeds oil on growth, spore germination and toxin production of fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeinab, E. M. EL-Bazza; Hala, A. Farrag; Mohie, E. D. Z. EL-Fouly; Seham, Y. M. EL-Tablawy

    2001-02-01

    Twenty samples of Nigella sativa seeds (Black cumin) were purchased from different localities in Egypt. The mold viable count ranged from 1.7×10 1 to 9.8×10 3 c.f.u. Sixty six molds were isolated belonging to six genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Rhizopus, Mucor, Alternaria and Fusarium. Exposure of seeds samples to different radiation doses showed that a dose level of 6.0 kGy could be considered as a sufficient dose for decontamination of the tested samples. Seven radioresistant isolates were identified as Rhizopus oryzae, Rhizopus stolonifer, Penicillium chrysogenum and Penicillium corylophillum. All the herb samples were found to be free from aflatoxins B 1, B 2, G 1, G 2 and ochratoxin A. One mold isolate was identified as Aspergillus flavus could produce aflatoxin B 1 and G 1. None of the isolated radioresistant strains could produce mycotoxins. The water activities of seeds were slightly decreased by the storage time and the seeds needed to be stored at relative humidity not more than 85%. The addition of extract volatile and fixed oil from tested seeds to the medium stimulated the growth of isolated Aspergillus sp.

  19. A Sensitive Method for Examining Whole Cell Biochemical Composition in Single Cells of Filamentous Fungi using Synchrotron FTIR Spectromicroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstantin, J.; Gough, K.; Julian, R.; Kaminskyj, S.

    2008-01-01

    Cell function is related to cell composition. The asexual state of filamentous fungi (molds and mildews) has two main life cycle stages: vegetative hyphae for substrate colonization and nutrient acquisition, and asexual spores for survival and dispersal. Hyphal composition changes over a few tens of microns during growth and maturation; spores are different from hyphae. Most biochemical analyses are restricted to studying a few components at high spatial resolution (e.g. histochemistry) or many compounds at low spatial resolution (e.g. GC-MS). Synchrotron FTIR spectromicroscopy can be used to study fungal cell biology by fingerprinting varieties of carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids at about 6 microm spatial resolution. FTIR can distinguish fungal species and changes during hyphal growth, and reveals that even fungi grown under optimal vs mildly stressed conditions exhibit dramatic biochemical changes without obvious morphological effects. Here we compare hypha and spore composition of two fungi, Neurospora and Rhizopus. There are clear biochemical changes when Neurospora hyphae commit to spore development, during spore maturation and following germination, many of which are consistent with results from molecular genetics, but have not been shown before at high spatial resolution. Rhizopus spores develop within a fluid-containing sporangium that becomes dry at maturity. Rhizopus spores had similar protein content and significantly more carbohydrate than the sporangial fluid, both of which are novel findings.

  20. Inhibitory effect of gamma radiation and Nigella sativa seeds oil on growth, spore germination and toxin production of fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Bazza, Z.E.; Hala, A.F. E-mail: hfarragmassoud@hotmail.com; El-Fouly, M.E.Z.; El-Tablawy, S.Y.M

    2001-02-01

    Twenty samples of Nigella sativa seeds (Black cumin) were purchased from different localities in Egypt. The mold viable count ranged from 1.7x10{sup 1} to 9.8x10{sup 3} c.f.u. Sixty six molds were isolated belonging to six genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Rhizopus, Mucor, Alternaria and Fusarium. Exposure of seeds samples to different radiation doses showed that a dose level of 6.0 kGy could be considered as a sufficient dose for decontamination of the tested samples. Seven radioresistant isolates were identified as Rhizopus oryzae, Rhizopus stolonifer, Penicillium chrysogenum and Penicillium corylophillum. All the herb samples were found to be free from aflatoxins B{sub 1}, B{sub 2}, G{sub 1}, G{sub 2} and ochratoxin A. One mold isolate was identified as Aspergillus flavus could produce aflatoxin B{sub 1} and G{sub 1}. None of the isolated radioresistant strains could produce mycotoxins. The water activities of seeds were slightly decreased by the storage time and the seeds needed to be stored at relative humidity not more than 85%. The addition of extract volatile and fixed oil from tested seeds to the medium stimulated the growth of isolated Aspergillus sp. (author)

  1. Identification of Mucorales isolates from soil using morphological and molecular methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaee, A; Zia, M; Bayat, M; Hashemi, J

    2016-03-01

    Soil is the main habitat of saprophytic and pathogenic fungi. Mucoromycotina constitutes a large group of soil fungi, with certain opportunistic members causing systemic infections in immunocompromised hosts. The majority of human and animal infections are caused by the members of the genera Rhizopus , Mucor , Rhizomucor , Lichtheimia ( Absidia) , Cunninghamella, and Mortierella . Accordingly, in the present study, we aimed to isolate and identify the main genera of the order Mucorales, using molecular assays and morphological features . In total, 340 soil samples were collected from seven public parks throughout the city and sidewalk gardens in 14 municipal districts in Isfahan, Iran. All the samples were cultured on the appropriate media, incubated at 27°C for 2- 4 days, and examined daily for visible fungal growth. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method was applied and macroscopic, microscopic, and physiological characteristics were assessed to identify fungal colonies. 400 pure colonies, belonging to the orders Mucorales and Mortierellales, including the genera Lichtheimia , Rhizopus, Rhizomucor, Mucor, Cunninghamella, and Mortierella, were identified . The genus Rhizopus (35.5%) was the most frequent isolate, followed by Mucor (32.25%) and Rhizomucor (27.5%). The results emphasize the importance of opportunistic fungi in public areas and indicate the risk of exposure for immunocompromised individuals.

  2. Stress response in medically important Mucorales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pankaj; Paul, Saikat; Shivaprakash, M Rudramurthy; Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Ghosh, Anup K

    2016-10-01

    Mucorales are saprobes, ubiquitously distributed and able to infect a heterogeneous population of human hosts. The fungi require robust stress responses to survive in human host. We tested the growth of Mucorales in the presence of different abiotic stress. Eight pathogenic species of Mucorales, including Rhizopus arrhizus, Rhizopus microsporus, Rhizomucor pusillus, Apophysomyces elegans, Licthemia corymbifera, Cunninghamella bertholletiae, Syncephalastrum racemosum and Mucor racemosus, were exposed to different stress inducers: osmotic (sodium chloride and d-sorbitol), oxidative (hydrogen peroxide and menadione), pH, cell wall and metal ions (Cu, Zn, Fe and Mg). Wide variation in stress responses was noted: R. arrhizus showed maximum resistance to both osmotic and oxidative stresses, whereas R. pusillus and M. indicus were relatively sensitive. Rhizopus arrhizus and R. microsporus showed maximum resistance to alkaline pH, whereas C. bertholletiae, L. corymbifera, M. racemosus and A. elegans were resistant to acidic pH. Maximum tolerance was noted in R. microsporus to Cu, R. microsporus and R. arrhizus to Fe and C. bertholletiae to Zn. In contrast, L. corymbifera, A. elegans and M. indicus were sensitive to Cu, Zn and Fe respectively. In conclusion, R. arrhizus showed high stress tolerance in comparison to other species of Mucorales, and this could be the possible reason for high pathogenic potential of this fungi. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Identification of Mucorales isolates from soil using morphological and molecular methods

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    Ardeshir Ziaee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Soil is the main habitat of saprophytic and pathogenic fungi. Mucormycetes are one of the most parts of soil fungi and certain members are among opportunistic fungi and can cause systemic fungal infections in immunocompromised patients. The majority of human and animal infections are caused by members of the genera Rhizopus, Mucor, Rhizomucor, Lichtheimia (Absidia, Cunninghamella and Mortierella. The objective of this research was to isolate and identify the main genera of Zygomycetes, using molecular assay and morphological features. Materials and Methods: A total of 340 soil samples were collected from different sites of seven public parks and 14 municipality districts in Isfahan. All samples were cultured on appropriate media and incubated at 27° C for 2 to 4 days, and then examined daily for visible fungal growth. PCR-RFLP method and macroscopic, microscopic and physiological characteristics were applied to identify fungal colonies. Results: Four hundred pure colonies belonging to six genera of Zygomycetes including Lichtheimia, Rhizopus, Rhizomucor, Mucor, Cunninghamella and Mortierella were identified. The genus Rhizopus (35.5% was the most frequent isolate, followed by Mucor (32.25% and Rhizomucor (27.5%. Conclusion: These finding may help us to understand about the importance of opportunistic fungi in public areas and the risk of exposure with immunocompromised persons.

  4. Sperathe effects of solid-state fermentation in the functional properties of defatted rice bran and wheat bran

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    Cristina Moreira da Silveira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Functional properties of fermented bran produced by Aspergillus oryzae and Rhizopus sp. in a solid-state fermentation system were determined, with an aim to evaluate their application in food formulation. The defatted rice bran and wheat bran were inoculated with the spores of the cultures and incubated at 30º C for 72 h. Samples were withdrawn at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h. Protein content, protein solubility, in-vitro digestibility, gelation and water holding capacity were determined in bran with or without fermentation. Rhizopus sp. increased significantly the protein content (69.0 and 56.0%, respectively, for defatted rice bran and wheat bran; protein solubility (28.5 and 36.2 and water holding capacity (11.4% for wheat bran. When A. oryzae was used all these properties were modified significantly after fermentation.O objetivo do presente trabalho foi investigar as propriedades funcionais de farelo de arroz desengordurado e farelo de trigo, submetidos à fermentação em estado sólido pelos fungos Aspergillus oryzae e Rhizopus sp., para avaliar seu potencial de aplicação em formulações alimentícias. O farelo de arroz desengordurado e o farelo de trigo foram inoculados com esporos de Rhizopus sp. e Aspergillus oryzae (4x10(6 esporos/grama de meio e incubados durante 72 horas a 30º C. Amostras foram coletadas em 0, 24, 48 e 72 horas de fermentação. Foram determinados o conteúdo protéico, a solubilidade protéica, a digestibilidade in-vitro, a capacidade de formação de gel e a capacidade de retenção de água nos farelos fermentados. Quando Rhizopus sp. foi utilizado, as seguintes propriedades aumentaram significativamente: o conteúdo protéico 69,0 e 56,0%, respectivamente, para farelo de arroz e farelo de trigo, a solubilidade protéica (28,5 e 36,2% e a capacidade de retenção de água (11,4% para farelo de trigo. Quando Aspergillus oryzae foi empregado, as propriedades não foram modificadas de maneira significativa pelo processo

  5. Estudo da Incidência de Fungos Isolados de Amostras de Lavado Bronco Alveolar, Biópsia Transbrônquica e de Escarro / Study of the incidence of fungi isolated from samples of bronchoalveolar lavage, transbronchial biopsy and sputum

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    Thays Gabrielle Lins de Oliveira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Estudar a incidência de fungos isolados de amostras de lavado bronco alveolar, fragmentos de tecido pulmonar e escarro de pacientes assistidos no Hospital Otávio de Freitas. Materiais e métodos: Estudo observacional retrospectivo descritivo com análise dos registros de 756 pacientes que realizaram exame direto e culturas de lavado bronco alveolar, fragmentos de tecido pulmonar e/ou escarro no Laboratório de Micologia Médica do Hospital Otávio de Freitas em Recife-PE, no período de março de 2012 a maio de 2015. Foram também analisados os resultados das sorologias para Aspergillus realizadas no mesmo período no Laboratório de Imunodiagnóstico de Micoses Sistêmicas do Departamento de Micologia da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco. Resultados: Foram isolados 248 (54,14% Candida albicans, 119 (25,98% Candida sp. e 41 (10,04% espécies Candida não albicans, 33 (7,21% Aspergillus fumigatus, dois (0,44% A. niveus, um (0,22% A. niger, 3 (0,65% A. japonicus, dois (0,44% A. flavus, duas (0,44% Paecilomyces variotii, um (0,22% Rhizomucor sp. e um (0,22% Rhizopus sp. Conclusões: Candida albicans e Aspergillus fumigatus continuam sendo as espécies mais comumente isoladas nas amostras estudadas, entretanto C. kefyr, C. dubliniensis, C. krusei, A. niveus, A. japonicus, Paecilomyces variotii, Rhizomucor sp. e Rhizopus sp. indicam sua importância como patógenos oportunistas, sendo relatadas pela primeira vez em estudo realizado com pacientes acompanhados neste hospital. Houve comprovação de doença em cinco pacientes que realizaram cultura de fragmento de tecido pulmonar das quais foram isolados Candida albicans, Paecilomyces variotii, Rhizopus sp. e Aspergillus fumigatus. Objective: To study the incidence of fungi isolated from samples of bronchoalveolar lavage, lung tissue fragments and sputum of patients from Hospital Otavio de Freitas. Materials and methods: Descriptive retrospective observational study with analysis of records

  6. Mucorales isolados do solo de mineração de cobre e produção de amilase e inulinase Mucorales isolated from copper-mining soils and production of amylase and inulinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Cabral Monteiro Azevedo Santiago

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available A presença de metais pesados no solo proporciona impacto sobre os microrganismos, vegetação e os processos funcionais do ecossistema. Visando comprovar que Mucorales são afetados pela extração de cobre na Mineradora Caraíba, Jaguarari, BA, espécies de Mucorales foram isoladas de amostras de solo coletadas nas épocas seca e chuvosa. Os Mucorales foram identificados e caracterizados quanto à capacidade de degradar amido e inulina. Utilizando os métodos de diluição e placa de solo, foram obtidos 46 isolados de Mucorales pertencentes a sete diferentes espécies. Absidia blakesleeana Lendner, A. cylindrospora Hagem, A. hialospora (Saito Lendn., Cunninghamella elegans Lendner, Rhizopus microsporus V. Thieghen, R. oryzae Went. & Prinsen Geerl. e Syncephalastrum racemosum (Cohn. Schroet. foram isolados na época seca. A. blakesleeana e A. hialospora foram isoladas apenas na época chuvosa. Rhizopus oryzae apresentou maior número de isolados (30,43%, seguido por A. blakesleeana (26,09% e C. elegans (21,74%. O gênero que apresentou maior número de espécies foi Absidia seguido por Rhizopus. Entre as áreas, houve diferenças significativas no número de isolados de Mucorales, comprovando os efeitos negativos do impacto ambiental na abundância de Mucorales nos solos impactados. Todas as espécies degradaram o amido e apenas C. elegans degradou também inulina. Culturas de mesma espécie isoladas de áreas diferentes apresentaram o mesmo comportamento quanto à degradação de amido e inulina.The presence of heavy metals in soil causes impact on microorganisms, vegetation and functional processes in ecosystems. Aiming to prove that Mucorales are affected by copper extraction at the Caraíba mining site, Jaguarari, Bahia, species of Mucorales were isolated from samples collected in the dry and wet seasons. Mucorales were identified and characterized according to their capacity to degrade starch and inulin. Forty six isolates from seven

  7. Pengaruh Fermentasi Fungi, Bakteri Asam Laktat dan Khamir terhadap Kualitas Nutrisi Tepung Sorgum

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    Raden Haryo Bimo Setiarto

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, food security problem in Indonesia is mainly due to the consumption dependence on rice and wheat, while the utilization of local sources of carbohydrates such as tubers and cereals are still limited. Sorghum is one of local cereal that potential to be developed as source of carbohydrates and protein. However, a problem encountered on utilising sorghum as food is the low protein digestibility. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of fermentation of Rhizopus oligosporus, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae on nutritional quality and digestibility of sorghum flour. The procedure in this research were pre-treatment of sorghum grains, preparations of inoculum, solid state fermentation, liquid state fermentation, mixture solid-liquid fermentation of sorghum grains, flouring (draining and mashing, microbial (total plate count and chemical analysis (proximate analysis, amino acid analysis, and protein digestibilty. Sorghum flour was made with 4 variations of treatments that was performed in triplo, i.e: control (without fermentation, liquid fermentation (with Lactobacillus plantarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, solid fermentation (with Rhizopus oligosporus, solid and liquid fermentation (with addition of Rhizopus oligosporus,Lactobacillus plantarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The result showed that the number of microbes in fermented sorghum flour was still within the safety limits in accordance to SNI. The fermentation process did not significantly influence the levels of protein, carbohydrate, and fat of sorghum flour. During the fermentation of sorghum, the levels of the amino acids cysteine and lysine increased while several other amino acids decreased. Fermentation increased significantly the digestibility of sorghum protein up to 3,5-5 fold than control without fermentation. ABSTRAK Masalah ketahanan pangan di Indonesia saat ini diantaranya adalah pola konsumsi masyarakat sangat tergantung pada

  8. Evaluasi nutrisi campuran onggok dan ampas tahu terfermentasi Aspergillus niger, Rizhopus oligosporus dan kombinasi sebagai bahan pakan pengganti tepung jagung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Yohanista

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the nutritional value of cassava and tofu mixture fermented by Aspergillus niger, Rizhopus oligosporus and the combination among them (50% of Aspergillus niger and 50% of Oligosporus Rizhopus as a substitute feed ingredients corn meal. The research method was laboratory experiment using the analysis of completely randomized design (CRD factorial (3 x 4. The first factor was the 3 types of microbes (M that consisted of M0 = fermentation by Aspergillus niger, M1 = fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus and M2 = fermentation with the combination 50% of Aspergillus niger and 50% of Rhizopus oligosporus. The second factor was 4 incubation time (T that consisted of T0 = non-fermented, T1 = 2 days of incubation time, T2 = 4 days of incubation time and T3 = 6 days of incubation time. Each treatment was repeated 3 times. Variables measured were proximate nutrient content, fiber component content (NDF and ADF, silica, lignin, soluble protein content and mineral content (calcium and phosphorus. Data were analyzed by ANOVA, if there were differences among the treatments then it woukd be followed by Duncan's Multiple Range Test. Results showed that microbes provided a significant influence (P <0.01 on ash (%, crude protein (%, crude fiber (%, crude fat (%, gross energy (Kcal / Kg, soluble protein (%, NDF (%, ADF (%, cellulose (%, hemicelluloses (% and silicate (% but they did not provide significant effect on lignin (%. The incubation period had highly significant effect (P <0.01 on ash (%, crude protein (%, crude fiber (%, crude fat (%, gross energy (Kcal / Kg, soluble protein (%, NDF (%, ADF (%, cellulose (%, hemicelluloses (%, lignin (% and silicate (%. It was concluded that fermentation was best treated using a combination between 50% of Aspergillus niger and 50% of Rhizopus oligosporus with 2 days of incubation time. The study suggested for further research (biological test to use a mixture of cassava and

  9. Upgrading the antioxidant potential of cereals by their fungal fermentation under solid-state cultivation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanja Dey, T; Kuhad, R C

    2014-11-01

    Solid-state fermentation (SSF) at 30°C for 72 h with four generally recognized as safe (GRAS) filamentous fungi (Aspergillus oryzae NCIM 1212, Aspergillus awamori MTCC No. 548, Rhizopus oligosporus NCIM 1215 and Rhizopus oryzae RCK2012) showed high efficiency for the improvement of water-soluble total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant properties including ABTS(●+) [2,2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)] and DPPH(●) (2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) scavenging capacities of four whole grain cereals, namely wheat, brown rice, maize and oat. A maximum 14-fold improvement in TPC (11·61 mg gallic acid equivalent g(-1) grain) was observed in A. oryzae fermented wheat, while extract of R. oryzae fermented wheat (ROFW) showed maximum of 6·6-fold and fivefold enhancement of DPPH(●) scavenging property (8·54 μmol Trolox equivalent g(-1) grain) and ABTS(●+) scavenging activity (19·5 μmol Trolox equivalent g(-1) grain), respectively. The study demonstrates that SSF is an efficient method for the improvement of antioxidant potentials of cereals and R. oryzae RCK2012 fermented wheat can be a powerful source of natural antioxidants. Antioxidant-rich food products are getting popularity day by day. In this study, potential of solid-state fermentation (SSF) has been studied for the improvement of antioxidant potential of different cereals by GRAS micro-organisms. The comparative evaluation of the antioxidant potential of various fungal fermented products derived from whole grain cereals, such as wheat, brown rice, oat and maize, has been carried out. Among these, Rhizopus oryzae RCK2012-fermented wheat was observed as a potent source of natural antioxidants. A diet containing fermented cereals would be useful for the prevention of free radical-mediated diseases. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. The environmental source of emerging Apophysomyces variabilis infection in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Hariprasath; Ghosh, Anup Kumar; Rudramurthy, Shivaprakash Mandya; Paul, Raees Ahmad; Gupta, Sunita; Negi, Vishwanand; Chakrabarti, Arunaloke

    2016-08-01

    The rare mucoraceous fungus, Apophysomyces species complex ranks second after Rhizopus arrhizus causing mucormycosis in India. The source of this agent in the environment is not clearly known. We conducted an environmental study to find its presence in Indian soil. The soil samples from different geographical locations were analyzed for isolation of Mucorales. Rhizopus arrhizus (24.6%) was most commonly isolated from soil, followed by Lichtheimia spp. (23.2%), Cunninghamella spp. (21.7%), Rhizopus microsporus (14%) and Apophysomyces spp. (4.5%). The isolation of Apophysomyces species complex was significantly associated with low nitrogen content of the soil. Based on sequencing of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and 28S (D1/D2) regions of ribosomal DNA, the Apophysomyces isolates were identified as Apophysomyces variabilis with 98 to 100% similarity to type strain A. variabilis (CBS658.93). The analysis of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprinting data demonstrated genomic diversity of A. variabilis isolates with multiple clades (similarity 40-90%). The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC), MIC50 and MIC90 for A. variabilis isolates were 1 and 4 μg/ml for amphotericin B, 0.25 and 0.5 μg/ml for itraconazole, 0.125 and 0.25 μg/ml for posaconazole, 0.06 and 0.12 μg/ml for terbinafine, respectively. The present study revealed abundant presence of A. variabilis in Indian soil with low nitrogen content, its genetic heterogeneity and relatively high MICs for amphotericin B. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. PERBAIKAN MUTU BUNGKIL KOPRA MELALUI BIOPROCESSING UNTUK BAHAN PAKAN IKAN BANDENG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neltje Nobertine Palinggi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bungkil kopra adalah hasil ikutan dari ekstraksi minyak dari daging buah kelapa kering yang masih mengandung protein sekitar 16%-18% dan berpotensi digunakan sebagai bahan pakan ikan. Faktor pembatas penggunaan bungkil kopra adalah kualitas nutrisi yang rendah antara lain karena kandungan lemak kasarnya agak tinggi dan mudah tengik sehingga perlu peningkatan ketersediaan biologisnya melalui fermentasi menggunakan mikroorganisme. Mikroba yang digunakan terdiri atas (A Aspergillus niger, (B Saccharomyces cereviceae, (C Rhizopus sp., dan (D Bacillus subtilis. Bungkil kopra yang sudah difermentasi kemudian dikeringkan dan ditepungkan, lalu dilakukan analisis proksimat, uji ketengikan dengan menentukan bilangan peroksidanya, dan komposisi asam aminonya. Juga dilakukan analisis kecernaannya untuk ikan bandeng ukuran sekitar 50 g dengan metode marker menggunakan krom oksida (Cr2O3. Dari hasil penelitian ini diperoleh fermentasi dapat meningkatkan kandungan protein bungkil kopra 21%-42% dan menurunkan kandungan lemak dan serat kasarnya masing-masing 50% dan 27% pada fermentasi menggunakan Rhizophus sp., serta menurunkan bilangan peroksida 10%-47%. Nilai koefisien kecernaan protein dan lemak bungkil kopra yang difermentasi dengan Rhizopus sp., A. niger, dan S. cereviceae lebih tinggi masing-masing 10%-11% dan 9%-13% dibanding bungkil kopra yang difermentasi dengan B. subtilis dan tanpa fermentasi. Bungkil kopra hasil fermentasi dengan Rhizopus  sp. mengalami peningkatan kualitas nutrisi yang terbaik untuk bahan pakan ikan bandeng.

  12. Some characteristics of a raw starch digestion inhibitory factor from Aspergillus niger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Towprayoon, S.; Saha, B.C.; Fujio, Yusaku; Ueda, Seinosuke

    1988-09-01

    The effect of an inhibitory factor (IF) from Aspergillus niger 19 on raw starch digestion by pure glucoamylase I of black Aspergillus, pure glucoamylase of Rhizopus niveus, bacterial ..cap alpha..-amylase, fungal ..cap alpha..-amylase and various combination was investigated. The IF caused higher inhibition of raw starch hydrolysis by the combined action of glucoamylase and fungal ..cap alpha..-amylase than of hydrolysis by the individual enzymes. A protein moiety of IF might play an active part in this inhibition phenomenon. The IF was found to starch granules, preventing hydrolysis by the enzymes, and caused decreased raw starch hydrolysis yields.

  13. Protein modification by fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barkholt, Helle Vibeke; Jørgensen, P.B.; Sørensen, Anne Dorthe

    1998-01-01

    The effect of fermentation on components of potential significance for the allergenicity of pea was analyzed. Pea flour was fermented with three lactic acid bacteria, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lactococcus raffinolactis, and Lactobacillus plantarum, and two fungi, Rhizopus microsporus, var....... oligosporus and Geotrichum candidum. Residual antigenicity against antipea antibodies was reduced to 10% by the three lactic acid bacteria and R. microsporus. Reactions to anti-pea profilin and anti-Bet v I were still detectable after fermentation. The contents of lectin and pea protease inhibitor were...

  14. Analysis of fungal diversity impacts on pinus roxburghii seeds from pine forest and plant nurseries of azad kashmir, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishtiaq, M.; Noreen, M.; Maqbool, M.; Hussain, T.

    2015-01-01

    Pinus tree plays a pivotal role in commercial revenue generation, domestic lives of rural communities and sustaining of climate of Azad Kashmir. Pinus grows in forest as wild species but due to harsh environmental parameters it is also cultivated in nurseries for propagation and plantation. In this research, injurious impacts of mycofloral diversity on seed germination of Pinus roxburghii Sarg. in nature (forest) and nurseries were explored from different localities of Azad Kashmir, Pakistan. In the analysis two protocols viz., blotter method (BM) and agar plate method (APM) were employed and 11 fungal species of nine genera were isolated. APM was found better (66a ± +-0.32) than BM (60a ± 0.09). The prevalence of different isolated taxa was as: Aspergillus niger (42.75%), Aspergillus flavus (24.0%), Botrytis sp (14.25%), Botryosphaeria sp. (17.75%), Cladosporium cladosporioides (32.75%), Drechslera sp. (5.75%), Fusarium sp. (47.50%), Penecillium sp. (7.25%), Rhizopus stolonifer (11.50%), Rhizopus oryzae (13.0%) and Mucor sp.(7.0%). Pathogenicity analysis depicted that Fusarium was the most harmful (15.75e ± 0.54), followed by Aspergillus flavus (20.50d ± 0.32), Aspergillus niger (25.75c ± 0.42) and Rhizopus sp. (35.75b ± 0.12). Different pathogenicity results of analyzed fungal species were found in different areas and it was highest in Muzaffarabad (52.0%), Kotli (45.6%), Samahni (42.4 %) and least in Bhimber (36.0 %). Radical length (mm) of Pinus roxburghii was severely affected by Aspergillus flavus (46.6a ± 0.44) in Muzaffarabad, Rhizopus sp. (44.1a ± 0.72) in Samahni, Fusarium sp.( 42.5a ± 0.28) in Kotali, Aspergillus niger (37.8a ± 0.44) in Samahni, respectively. The tested species showed that plumule length (mm) of samples was most retarded in Muzaffarbad (37.98%) and least affected in Mirpur (24.58%). The results depict that fungi do cause damage to seed germination and growth of seedlings in nature and nurseries and these findings will be useful

  15. Inactivation of mildew in rough rice and wheat by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Jun, E-mail: jwang@zju.edu.c [Department of Biosystems Engineering, Zhejiang University, 268 Kaixuan Road, Hangzhou 310029 (China); Yu Yong [Department of Biosystems Engineering, Zhejiang University, 268 Kaixuan Road, Hangzhou 310029 (China)

    2010-06-15

    Rough rice and wheat were irradiated by gamma ray ({sup 60}Co) with different doses and the mildew inactivation efficacy was investigated after 0, 6 and 12 month storage. Five genera of mildew in rough rice and wheat were detected, including Alternaria, Fusarium, Aspergillus, Penicillium and Rhizopus. For Aspergillus, four genera of mold were detected, including Aspergillus Kawachii, Aspergillus glaucus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus. Detection rates of the five genera of mildew and four genera of Aspergillus were all reduced with increasing dose after 0, 6 and 12 months storage. The detection rates of the other four genera of mildew had no significant change during storage.

  16. Evaluation of the catalytic activity of lipases immobilized on chrysotile for esterification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Jane E.S.; Jesus, Paulo C. [Universidade Regional de Blumenau, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: pcj@furb.rct-sc.br

    2003-06-01

    In the present work, the ester synthesis in organic media catalyzed by lipases immobilized on chrysotile was studied. Lipases of different sources (Mucor javanicus, Pseudomonas cepacia, Rhizopus oryzae, Aspergillus niger and Candida rugosa) were immobilized on chrysotile, an inexpensive magnesium silicate, and used for esterification of hexanoic, octanoic and lauric acid with methanol, ethanol, 1-butanol and 1-octanol at 25 deg C in hexane as solvent. The best results were obtained with Mucor javanicus lipase and lauric acid giving yields of 62-97% of ester. (author)

  17. Bioconversion of D-psicose to D-tagatose and D-talitol by Mucoraceae fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihara, Kazutoshi; Shinohara, Yoshihiro; Hirotsu, Takahiro; Izumori, Ken

    2006-03-01

    Rhizopus oryzae MYA-2483, which cannot utilize D-psicose as a sole source of carbon, converted D-psicose to two other compounds. These compounds were identified by NMR and IR as D-tagatose and D-talitol. In this study, we describe for the first time the bioconversion of D-psicose to D-tagatose. Various strains of Mucoraceae fungi, to which R. oryzae MYA-2483 belongs, exhibited conversion activity similar to that of R. oryzae MYA-2483. There is the possibility that a considerable number of fungi belonging to Mucoraceae possess such D-psicose conversion activity.

  18. Lipase - Catalyzed glycerolysis of sunflower oil to produce partial glycerides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaher, F. A.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Partial glycerides were prepared by glycerolysis of sunflower oil in presence of lipase enzyme as catalyst. Six lipases of different origins were used and compared for their catalytic activity. These include Chromobacterium lipase, pancreatic lipase, Rhizopus arrhizus lipase, lyophilized lipase (plant lipase in addition to two lipase preparations derived from Rhizopus japonicas; Lilipase A-10 and Lilipase B-2. Chromobacterium lipase was found to be the most active as glycerolysis catalyst whereas lyophilized lipase; a plant preparation from wheat germ was the least active. The results have also shown that the lipase type affects also the product polarity and hence its field of application as a food emulsifier. Less polar products can be obtained using Chromobacterium lipase whereas the more polar ones using a fungal lipase preparation «Lipase A-10». The product polarity is also influenced by the process temperature but the mode of its effect is different for different lipases.

    Se prepararon glicéridos parciales mediante glicerolisis de aceite de girasol en presencia de lipasa como catalizador. Seis lipasas de orígenes diferentes se utilizaron y compararon en función de su actividad catalítica. Estas incluyeron lipasa de Chromobacterium, lipasa pancreática, lipasa de Rhizopus arrhizus, lipasa liofilizada (lipasa vegetal además de dos preparaciones de lipasa derivadas de Rhizopus japonicus: lilipase A-10 y lilipase B-2. Se encontró que la lipasa de Chromobacterium fue la más activa como catalizador en la glicerolisis mientras que la lipasa liofilizada, preparación vegetal a partir de germen de trigo, fue la menos activa. Los resultados mostraron que los tipos de lipasa afectan también a la polaridad de los productos y por tanto a los rendimientos en su aplicación como emulsificantes alimentarios. Los productos menos polares pueden obtenerse usando lipasa de

  19. Aurantoside K, a New Antifungal Tetramic Acid Glycoside from a Fijian Marine Sponge of the Genus Melophlus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohitesh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new tetramic acid glycoside, aurantoside K, was isolated from a marine sponge belonging to the genus Melophlus. The structure of the compound was elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis (1H NMR, 1H–1H COSY, HSQC, and HMBC, as well as high-resolution ESILCMS. Aurantoside K did not show any significant activity in antimalarial, antibacterial, or HCT-116 cytotoxicity assays, but exhibited a wide spectrum of antifungal activity against wild type Candida albicans, amphotericin-resistant C. albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium sp., Rhizopus sporangia and Sordaria sp.

  20. Cell immobilization by radiation polymerization-a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlan bin Hj Mohd; Abu Bakar bin Salleh; Che Nyonya binti Abd Razak; Meheran binti Hamenudin; Kamaruzaman bin Ampon; Wan Md Zin bin Wan Yunus; Mahiran binti Basri

    1991-01-01

    An extracellular lipase producing fungus, Rhizopus rhizopodi formis was immobilised using radiation-induced polyHEMA, alginate and k-carrageenan. Immobilizations were done on spores since they showed better resistance against gamma radiation. The simultaneous radiation immobilization technique was found to be unsuitable because of contamination. Post-radiation immobilization using polyHEMA yielded 2-3 times more enzyme than the free cells. The value, however was slightly lower than the ones given by the cells immobilised using alginate or k-carrageenan, but the radiation-induced polymer was stronger and less likely to disintegrate

  1. Cuspidate A, new anti-fungal triterpenoid saponin from Lepidagathis cuspidata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattan, Rajeev; Inder Fozdar, Bharat; Gautam, Veena; Sharma, Ritika; Kumar, Dinesh; Sharma, Upendra

    2017-04-01

    One new triterpenoid saponin named cuspidate A (1) along with a known oleanane-based triterpenoid saponin clemontanoside-C were isolated from the roots of Lepidagathis cuspidata. The structure of new compound (1) was established after detailed analysis of spectroscopic data including 1D and 2D NMR spectra. This is the first report on clemontanoside-C from this genus. These saponins were found to be effective against the selected fungal strains Aspergillus flavus, Rhizopus stolinifer, Penicillum nodatum, Aspergillus fumigates. Compound 1 showed better activity, comparable to the synthetic drug, while compound 2 showed a moderate effect against all studied fungal strains.

  2. Avaliação de óleos essenciais de condimentos sobre o desenvolvimento micelial de fungos associados a produtos de panificação Evaluation of condiments essential oils on micelial growth of fungi associated to bread-making products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sára Maria Chalfoun de Souza

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito "in vitro" de óleos essenciais dos condimentos alho (Allium sativum L., canela (Cinnamomum burnannil Meissn, cravo-da-índia (Caryophillus aromaticus L. e tomilho (Thymus vulgaris L., que foram adicionados aos meios de cultura (BDA E CYA20S. Os óleos foram extraídos pela técnica de arraste a vapor e testados nas concentrações de 500; 1000; 1500 e 2000 mg/mL, exceto o cravo, que foi testado nas concentrações de 200; 400; 600 e 800 mg/mL. Como culturas-teste, foram utilizados os fungos Rhizopus sp.; Penicillium spp.; Eurotium repens e Aspergillus niger, isolados de pães envelhecidos. O óleo essencial da canela inibiu completamente o desenvolvimento dos fungos testados. Os óleos de tomilho e alho tiveram o mesmo efeito nas concentrações mais altas. O cravo inibiu o desenvolvimento dos fungos Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus sp. e Eurotium repens com a concentração de 600 mg/mL e do fungo Penicillium spp. com a de 800 mg/mL.The objective of this work was to evaluate the "in vitro" effect of essential oils of garlic (Allium sativum L., cinnamon (Cinnmomum burnannil Meissn, clove (Caryophillus aromaticus L. and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L. condiments that were added to culture media (PDA and CYA 20S. The essential oils were extracted by utilizing the vapor "dragging" technique and tested in the concentrations of 500; 1000; 1500 and 2000 mg/mL, exept clove, which was tested in concentrations of 200, 400, 600 and 800 mg/mL. The fungi Rhizopus sp., Penicillium spp., Eurotium repens and Aspergillus niger, isolated of breads discarded for consumption. The cinnamon essential oil inhibited completely the tested fungi development. The thyme and garlic oils presented a pronounced effect at the higher concentrations. The essencial oil of clove inhibited the growth of Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus sp. and Eurotium repens at concetrations above 600 mg/mL and of Penicillium above 800 mg/mL.

  3. Post-harvest diseases control of plums and nectarines with radurisation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thord-Gray, R.S; Broderick, H.T.; Strydom, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of heat and radurisation on Rhizopus stolonifer, Monillia fructicola and Botrytis cinerea were examined in inoculated plums and nectarines. Although the pathogens could be controlled by severe hot water treatment, unacceptable fruit damage occured. Similarly, irradiation doses of 2 kGy and above could control fungal development, but this treatment resulted in an unmarketable product. Combination treatment showed great promise. Mild heat treatment of 42 o C for 10 minutes followed by irradiation at doses of 0,75 kGy to 1,5 kGy effectively controlled fungal development with insignificant fruit damage

  4. Presence of moulds and mycotoxins in spices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karan Dragica D.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper there are presented the results of mycologic and mycotoxicologic analysis of seven spices which are being used for production of meat products. Using standard mycologic methods, in all the tested samples, we noticed a presence of moulds. By quality and quantity, most represented are genera: Aspergillus and Penicillium. With smaller occurrence there are presented genera: Rhizopus, Mucor, Paecylomyces and Absydia. Mycotoxins - ochratoxin, aflatoxins and zearalenon, are detected in samples of ground white pepper, ginger, cloves and ground caraway.

  5. Use of biomass energy. Saccharification of raw starch and ethanol fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, S

    1982-01-01

    Raw starch was saccharified under acidic condition of pH 3.5 using black-koji amylase, and the resultant saccharidies were fermented to give ethanol in succession. White polished rice flour was fermented at 30 degrees C during the period of 7 to 10 days to give ethanol. Semi-continuous ethanol fermentation was carried out using corn starch and cassava starch. Batch ethanol fermentation was also carried out using cassava or sweet potato. Sweet potato was fermented using Rhizopus gluco-amylase. 11 references.

  6. Pulmonary zygomycosis in a diabetic patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha K

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of pulmonary zygomycosis in an adult male diabetic patient who presented with fever and altered sensorium initially and later developed streaky haemoptysis. Bronchoscopy showed picture of necrotizing pneumonia. Sputum was negative for fungal elements on admission but later bronchial wash and repeat sputum samples were positive by microscopy and culture showed growth of Rhizopus species. Immediately the patient was put on amphotericin B but had a bout of massive haemoptysis and succumbed. A high index of suspicion is needed for an early diagnosis and aggressive treatment of this infection in view of the high mortality rate.

  7. Sludy of the Dermatophytes in the Students Houses of Minia University, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Maghazy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A survey of dermatophytes and other fungi was carried out in 100 air - dust samples from bedrooms and dinning halls of male and female student resident houses. By hair baiting technique the common dermatophytes were obtained namely Microsporum canis, M. gypseum and Trichophyton mtntagrophytes. Also five species of Chrysasporium were isolated in the following order of dominance C. tropicum, C. keratinophilum, C. indicum, C. pannicola and C. quecnslandicum. By dilution plate method, 37 species representing 20 genera of which Aspergilus niger, A. flavus, Rhizopus nigricans, Penicillium chrysogenum and Cladosporium cladosporioides were most frequently isolated.

  8. Zygomycosis Associated with HIV Infection and Liver Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry Nichols

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Zygomycosis is an increasing threat to patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. Zygomycosis (formerly called mucormycosis is the fungal infection with Mucor, Rhizopus, or other species that share a common morphology of large empty pauciseptate hyphae with rare random-angle branching and a collapsed “twisted ribbon” appearance. Morphology allows a specific diagnosis on frozen section or smear prior to growth and identification of the fungi in culture which makes it improtant because treatment is different than that for more common mycoses such as candidiasis and aspergillosis. We present an informative and illustrative case of zygomycosis in a patient with HIV infection and liver transplantation.

  9. Moderate expression of SEC16 increases protein secretion by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bao, Jichen; Huang, Mingtao; Petranovic, Dina

    2017-01-01

    in yeast, by moderately overexpressing SEC16, which is involved in protein translocation from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus. The moderate overexpression of SEC16 increased α-amylase secretion by generating more endoplasmic reticulum exit sites. The production of reactive oxygen species...... were observed. Finally, the moderate overexpression of SEC16 was shown to improve the secretion of two other recombinant proteins, Trichoderma reesei endoglucanase I and Rhizopus oryzae glucan-1,4-α-glucosidase, indicating that this mechanism is of general relevance....

  10. Characterization of Burkholderia rhizoxinica and B. endofungorum isolated from clinical specimens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay E Gee

    Full Text Available Eight isolates submitted to CDC from 1989 to 2006 from clinical specimens were initially identified as members of the genus Burkholderia based on preliminary cellular fatty acid analysis and/or 16S rRNA gene sequencing. With the recent descriptions of the new species B. rhizoxinica and B. endofungorum, which are considered endosymbiotic bacteria in Rhizopus microsporus fungi, we now identify seven of these clinical isolates as B. rhizoxinica and one as B. endofungorum based on biochemical testing, 16s rRNA, and DNA-DNA hybridization results. We also further characterize these isolates by assessing toxin production and/or by multiple locus sequence typing.

  11. Control del desarrollo de hongos contaminantes de alimentos mediante iones dosificados por materiales microporosos.

    OpenAIRE

    Chiericatti, Carolina Andrea Antonia; Chiericatti, Carolina Andrea Antonia

    2014-01-01

    Se estudió el efecto inhibitorio de Ag y Cu incorporado en matrices microporosas sobre el crecimiento de diferentes hongos, que son problemáticos en las industrias alimenticias de nuestra zona. Se estudiaron las especies fúngicas: Rhizopus oryzae, Mucor circinelloides, Geotrichum candidum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Debaryomyces hansenii y Zygosaccharomyces rouxii. Los Hongos filamentosos fueron aislados de productos lácteos que provocaron alteración a baja tensión de oxígeno y las levaduras f...

  12. Cyanide removal by combined adsorption and biodegradation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Roshan Dash, Ch. Balomajumder, A. Kumar

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of the effectiveness of simultaneous adsorption and biodegradation (SAB process over individual processes by using microbes Rhizopus oryzae and Stemphylium loti with granular activated carbon (GAC as adsorbent was carried out. The maximum removal efficiency of cyanide had been achieved by biodegradation alone was 83% by R. oryzae, while it was 90% by S. loti at initial pH of 5.6 and 7.2 respectively and at initial CN- concentration of 150 mg/L. In the combined process efficiency of R. oryzae closer to S. loti (95.3% and 98.6% respectively

  13. Influence of mycorrhizal developmental stages and plant age on rhizosphere mycoflora of Pinus kesiya (Royle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D. Sharma

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Quantitatively the population was recorded to be high around thc mycorrhizal roots. Some fungi were specific to different stages of mycorrhizal development. Rhizopus nigricans and Cunninghamella elegans were recorded at 5% mycorrhizal association stage. Fusarium sp. was found at 20% mycorrhizal association, while Mucor spp. were obtained at 60% stage. Verticillium sp. had the highest frequency of occurrence in the beginning of mycorrhizal association but later on Penicilium spp. were found to be the most common. Sugar content of mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal roots were determined to assess their effect on the mycorrhizospheric micropopulation. The mannitol and trehalose were present only in mycorrhizal roots.

  14. MYCOPOPULATION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS IN CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Vrandečić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available There has not been a systematic research of medicinal plants mycoflora in Croatia. This paper aims to present the results of preliminary research of mycopopulation of 14 species of medicinal plants. Total of 393 plant parts has been examined and 10 genera of fungi were isolated: Penicillium, Aspergillus, Sordaria, Phoma, Cladosporium, Rhizopus, Stemphillium, Fusarium, Phomopsis and one unidentified genus. Penicillium sp. (from 11 of 14 plant species was isolated from the majority of samples. The plants fungi were isolated from did not show any macroscopically visible symptoms of infection, except plant parts of Lavandula x intermedia and Foeniculum vulgare, from which Phomopsis sp. and Fusarium sp. were isolated

  15. Evaluation of the catalytic activity of lipases immobilized on chrysotile for esterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Jane E. S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the ester synthesis in organic media catalyzed by lipases immobilized on chrysotile was studied. Lipases of different sources (Mucor javanicus, Pseudomonas cepacia, Rhizopus oryzae, Aspergillus niger and Candida rugosa were immobilized on chrysotile, an inexpensive magnesium silicate, and used for esterification of hexanoic, octanoic and lauric acid with methanol, ethanol, 1-butanol and 1-octanol at 25ºC in hexane as solvent. The best results were obtained with Mucor javanicus lipase and lauric acid giving yields of 62-97% of ester.

  16. Evaluation of the catalytic activity of lipases immobilized on chrysotile for esterification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Jane E.S.; Jesus, Paulo C.

    2003-01-01

    In the present work, the ester synthesis in organic media catalyzed by lipases immobilized on chrysotile was studied. Lipases of different sources (Mucor javanicus, Pseudomonas cepacia, Rhizopus oryzae, Aspergillus niger and Candida rugosa) were immobilized on chrysotile, an inexpensive magnesium silicate, and used for esterification of hexanoic, octanoic and lauric acid with methanol, ethanol, 1-butanol and 1-octanol at 25 deg C in hexane as solvent. The best results were obtained with Mucor javanicus lipase and lauric acid giving yields of 62-97% of ester. (author)

  17. Mildew fungi found in termites (Reticulitermes lucifugus and their nests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wójcik

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of observation of mould growth in laboratory colonies of termites. It also attempts to determine the species of mould fungi present in the research laboratory and the main colonies and their entomopathogenic for the termites. The following four species were found in test termite colonies: Trichoderme viride, Mucor himeralis, Rhizopus nigricans, Aspergillus sp., Aspergillus flavus, Alternaria sp., Penicylium verucosum and Fusarium sp. were recognisable in test colonies with domestic and exotic wood. Morphological observations of the fungi were carried out using a microscope with a 40x magnification. The growth of mould fungi in test containers caused death of whole termite colonies.

  18. Sensory evaluation of irradiated powered paprika (Capsicum Annum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penna, E.W. de; Alfaro, R.; Mandiola, C.; Rubio, T.

    1990-01-01

    Spices are usually contaminated with microorganisms from soil. Its industrial use may lead to fermentation and/or putrefaction problems affecting the quality of elaborated product. Different dosis of gamma radiation upon the initial microflora were studied, specially on the genus Rhizopus, main contaminant of powered paprika. A 5 kGy dosis was chosen and its effect on the sensory quality and pungency, through the Scoville index, was studied. Our results showed no changes either on the organoleptic characters of powered paprika, nor on the pungency. An increase in the pungent taste was observed on 65% of the studied products. (author)

  19. Breeding L(+)-lactic acid high productive mutant from xylose by nitrogen ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yingge; Li Wen; Liu Dan; Fan Yonghong; Wang Dongmei; Zheng Zhiming; Yu Zengliang

    2007-01-01

    In order to obtain higher L(+)-lactic acid yield strain fermentating from xylose, the original strain Rhizopus oryzae RLC41-6 was mutated by 10keV N + ion implantation. A mutant strain RQ4012 was obtained. After 72h shake-flask cultivation, the concentration of L(+)-lactic acid reached 74.37g/L, and the productivity was 1.03g/(L.h). Its lactic acid yield was 160% higher than that of the original one, and the mutant strain has high genetic stability. (authors)

  20. Rhinocerebrocutaneous mucormycosis caused by Mucor species: A rare causation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snehal Balvant Lunge

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhinocerebral mucormycosis is the most common form of mucormycosis occurring commonly in patients of diabetic ketoacidosis. Fungi of the order Mucorales belong to six families, among whom Rhizopus is the most common, while Mucor is a rare cause. We report a 45-year-old female with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus diagnosed to have rhinocerebrocutaneous mucormycosis caused by Mucor species. The diagnosis was confirmed on histology and culture. A high-index of suspicion is required for early diagnosis and timely initiation of therapy to optimize the outcome. Our patient succumbed to her infection.

  1. KB425796-A, a novel antifungal antibiotic produced by Paenibacillus sp. 530603.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Hirohito; Yamashita, Midori; Takase, Shigehiro; Hashimoto, Michizane; Muramatsu, Hideyuki; Nakamura, Ikuko; Yoshikawa, Koji; Ezaki, Masami; Nitta, Kumiko; Watanabe, Masato; Inamura, Noriaki; Fujie, Akihiko

    2013-08-01

    The novel antifungal macrocyclic lipopeptidolactone, KB425796-A (1), was isolated from the fermentation broth of bacterial strain 530603, which was identified as a new Paenibacillus species based on morphological and physiological characteristics, and 16S rRNA sequences. KB425796-A (1) was isolated as white powder by solvent extraction, HP-20 and ODS-B column chromatography, and lyophilization, and was determined to have the molecular formula C79H115N19O18. KB425796-A (1) showed antifungal activities against Aspergillus fumigatus and the micafungin-resistant infectious fungi Trichosporon asahii, Rhizopus oryzae, Pseudallescheria boydii and Cryptococcus neoformans.

  2. Improving the Yield of Glucoamylase and α-amylase in Solid-state Co-culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takefuji Haruka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Steamed rice inoculated with Aspergillus oryzae, called Koji, is an essential ingredient for making amazake or brewing sake. However, A. oryzae usually offers low enzyme yield, especially in case of glucoamylase. Co-culture of Aspergillus and Rhizopus strains in Koji increased glucoamylase and α-amylase activities. The ratio of initial spore counts of A. oryzae and R. oryzae influenced the activity of amylolytic enzymes. When this ratio was 1:1, α-amylase showed maximum activity (573 U/g-substrate, 95 h, and when this ratio was 200:1, glucoamylase showed maximum activity (180 U/g-substrate, 95 h.

  3. Improving the Yield of Glucoamylase and α-amylase in Solid-state Co-culture

    OpenAIRE

    Takefuji Haruka; Ninomiya Junko; Morita Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Steamed rice inoculated with Aspergillus oryzae, called Koji, is an essential ingredient for making amazake or brewing sake. However, A. oryzae usually offers low enzyme yield, especially in case of glucoamylase. Co-culture of Aspergillus and Rhizopus strains in Koji increased glucoamylase and α-amylase activities. The ratio of initial spore counts of A. oryzae and R. oryzae influenced the activity of amylolytic enzymes. When this ratio was 1:1, α-amylase showed maximum activity (573 U/g-subs...

  4. Molecular diversity of lactic acid bacteria on ileum broiler chicken fed by bran and bran fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baniyah, Laelatul; Nur Jannah, Siti; Rukmi, Isworo; Sugiharto

    2018-05-01

    Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) is a digestive tract microflora that have a positive role in poultry health. The number and diversity of LAB in the digestive tract affected by several factors, among them was the kind of feed. The purpose of this research was to know diversity of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) ileum broiler’s after feeding with prebiotic bran and Rhizopus oryzae fermented bran which was added to commercial feed. As much as 15 broilers were used to determine the diversity of LAB. All broilers were fed using commercial feed. The control used commercial feed no addition of bran or fermented bran, and commercial feed with fermented bran and nonfermented bran were as a treatment. To determine the diversity of LAB, T-RFLP method was applied. The Hae III and Msp I were used as restriction enzymes. The number of phylotype, relative abundance, Shannon diversity index (H '), evenness (E), and Dominance (D) were examined. The results indicated that the addition of prebiotic bran on commercial feed showed a higher diversity of lactic acid bacteria on broiler’s ileum, compared with control and addition of Rhizopus oryzae fermented bran. LAB group that dominates in the ileum is Lactobacillus sp. and L. delbruecii subs bulgaricus.

  5. Evaluation of aerial microbial pollutants in Al-Haram Al-Nabawi during pilgrimage of 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kholoud M. Alananbeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah is the second holiest site in Islam. The possibility of new emerging microbes is valid due to the increased number of pilgrims. The objectives of the current study were to estimate the numbers of fungi and bacteria inside and outside Al-Haram Al-Nabawi and to find whether new bacterial and fungal species have emerged compared to previous studies. Air samples were collected twice a day from 12 spots and four directions during the pilgrim year of 2013 for four consecutive weeks by using the sedimentation method. Thirty five genera and fifty eight species were identified. The most recovered bacterial genera were Staphylococcus, Micrococcus, Bacillus, and Dermacoccus with 32.47%, 18.18%, 12.85%, and 11.23%, respectively. Fifty nine isolates of fungi were molecularly identified. Aspergillus species had the highest percentage (78%. The other fungal genera identified (Alternaria triticina, Emericella nidulans, Emericella striata, Mucor circinelloides, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium minioluteum, Rhizopus arrhizus, Rhizopus oryzae, and Syncephalastrum racemosum had less than 5% frequency. In places such as Al-Haram Al-Nabawi, a large and crowded public (millions exist especially during pilgrimages and Ramadan, thus, exposure to microorganisms is high. On the other hand, microorganism infectivity depends on many factors including their virulence, landing site, and person’s immunity. For those reasons, many aspects should be considered to avoid aerosol contaminants.

  6. Utilization of cassava waste through fermentation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lotong, N.

    1991-01-01

    Over 400 isolates of molds were screened for raw starch digesting enzymes and aspergillus J8 ad Rhizopus N37 were selected for further investigations. Crude enzymes obtained from wheat bran was higher than from rice bran. Crude enzymes from Aspergillus is active at pH 4.0, whereas that from Rhizopus is active at pH 5.0. Aspergillus J8 gave higher yield of silage fermentation. Selection of yeast strain was accomplished, it was found that Saccharomyces cerevisiae SC90, the local commercial strain (non-flocculent) performed best in fermentation of cassava mash. Another strain AM12, a flocculent fusant strain derived from fusion between flocculent strain and sake brewing strain was comparable to that of commercial strain at normal temperature but performed better at higher temperature up to 40 deg C. It is unlikely that fuel alcohol produced from raw cassava will be able to compete with petroleum fuel at this moment. However, silage fermentation to increase nutritional quality of the silage through selected strains of microorganisms has a good prospect to pursue. (author)

  7. Spoilage of vegetable crops by bacteria and fungi and related health hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournas, V H

    2005-01-01

    After harvest, vegetables are often spoiled by a wide variety of microorganisms including many bacterial and fungal species. The most common bacterial agents are Erwinia carotovora, Pseudomonas spp., Corynebacterium, Xanthomonas campestris, and lactic acid bacteria with E. carotovora being the most common, attacking virtually every vegetable type. Fungi commonly causing spoilage of fresh vegetables are Botrytis cinerea, various species of the genera Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Colletotrichum, Phomopsis, Fusarium, Penicillium, Phoma, Phytophthora, Pythium and Rhizopus spp., Botrytis cinerea, Ceratocystis fimbriata, Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and some mildews. A few of these organisms show a substrate preference whereas others such as Botrytis cinerea, Colletotrichum, Alternaria, Cladosporium, Phytophthora, and Rhizopus spp., affect a wide variety of vegetables causing devastating losses. Many of these agents enter the plant tissue through mechanical or chilling injuries, or after the skin barrier has been broken down by other organisms. Besides causing huge economic losses, some fungal species could produce toxic metabolites in the affected sites, constituting a potential health hazard for humans. Additionally, vegetables have often served as vehicles for pathogenic bacteria, viruses, and parasites and were implicated in many food borne illness outbreaks. In order to slow down vegetable spoilage and minimize the associated adverse health effects, great caution should be taken to follow strict hygiene, good agricultural practices (GAPs) and good manufacturing practices (GMPs) during cultivation, harvest, storage, transport, and marketing.

  8. Preparation and Characterizations of Chitosan/Citral Nanoemulsions and their Antimicrobial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehan I. Kh. Marei

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The antimicrobial activity of essential oils has been long recognized, however, they easily evaporate and/or decompose during preparation, owing to direct exposure to heat, pressure and light. The current study deals with the formulation and characterization of bio-based oil in water nanoemulsions and their antimicrobial activity against plant pathogens.Material and Methods: Citral oil and low molecular weight chitosan were used for preparation of nanoemulsions in the presence of sodium tripolyphosphate. Nanoemulsions were prepared by adding dropwise citral at different ratios into an aqueous solution containing chitosan, sodium tripolyphosphate and surfactant with continuous stirring and then ultrasonication. The success of formulation was confirmed by dynamic light scattering and scanning electron microscopy techniques. Physical stability and viscosity were investigated in details. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated against Erwinia carotovora, Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus stolonifer. Results and Conclusion: The nanoemulsions had a polydispersity index ranged from 0.508 to 0.614 and particle size from 27 to 1283 nm. The highest antimicrobial activity was observed with F1 formulation (EC50 = 23, 278 and 221 mg L-1, against Erwinia carotovora, Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus stolonifer, respectively. Based on the antimicrobial activity, the prepared chitosan/citral nanoemulsions can be a cost-effective way to protect crops from microbial pathogens. Because such formulations contain bioactive products, the development of resistant pathogens can be delayed.Conflict of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest. 

  9. Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation of Lactic Acid from Empty Fruit Bunch at High Solids Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nursia Hassan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The production of value-added chemicals from the bioconversion of lignocellulose biomass has been considered a promising venture. In this study, microwave, alkali-pretreated empty fruit bunch (EFB was used as the substrate, utilizing pelletized filamentous Rhizopus oryzae NRRL 395 and cellulolytic enzymes for lactic acid production in a fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF process. Insoluble solids generally do not affect the SSF process until a certain concentration is exceeded. To achieve a high lactic acid concentration in the broth, a high solids loading was required to allow a higher rate of glucose conversion. However, the results revealed a decrease in the final lactic acid yield when running SSF at a massive insoluble solids level. High osmotic pressure in the medium led to poor cellular performance and caused the Rhizopus oryzae pellets to break down, affecting the lactic acid production. To improve the process performance, a fed-batch operation mode was used. The fed-batch operation was shown to facilitate higher lactic acid yield, compared with the SSF batch mode. Enzyme feeding, as well as substrate feeding, was also investigated as a means of enabling a higher dry matter content, with a high glucose conversion in SSF of cellulose-rich EFB.

  10. Effects of solid-state fermentation with two filamentous fungi on the total phenolic contents, flavonoids, antioxidant activities and lipid fractions of plum fruit (Prunus domestica L.) by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulf, Francisc Vasile; Vodnar, Dan Cristian; Socaciu, Carmen

    2016-10-15

    Evolutions of phenolic contents and antioxidant activities during solid-state fermentation (SSF) of plum pomaces (from the juice industry) and brandy distillery wastes with Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oligosporus were investigated. The effect of fermentation time on the oil content and major lipid classes in the plum kernels was also studied. Results showed that total phenolic (TP) amounts increased by over 30% for SSF with Rhizopus oligosporus and by >21% for SSF with A. niger. The total flavonoid contents presented similar tendencies to those of the TPs. The free radical scavenging activities of methanolic extracts were also significantly enhanced. The HPLC-MS analysis showed that quercetin-3-glucoside was the major phenolic compound in both fermented plum by-products. The results also demonstrated that SSF not only helped to achieve higher lipid recovery from plum kernels, but also resulted in oils with better quality attributes (high sterol ester and n-3 PUFA-rich polar lipid contents). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Usaha Pemasaran Produsen Tempe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nana Kusdiana

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Tempe is a food made from the fermentation of soybeans or some other materials using somekind of fungus Rhizopus, such as Rhizopus oligosporus, Rh. oryzae, Rh. stolonifer or also known as bread mold, or Rh. arrhizus. Fermentation preparations are commonly known as "yeast tempe". Tempe has been known since ancient times, particularly in Java as supplement staple food which is high protein and low cholesterol. Tempe and tofu selling price is still low compared to other protein food sources, such as fish and chicken. According to market research, the majority of tempe and tofu products is still the lower class’ consumption, since the quality and processing methods are traditional distribution, including in sanitation and hygiene. It is necessary to stimulate and generate interest in the bank to develop relationship with the Indonesian Tofu Tempe Producers Cooperative (KOPTI and its members to tempe producers can increase production and performance. Tempe and Tofu Development Centers Manufacturers through Integrated Partnership Program by KOPTI as a company with a core group of tempe and tofu manufacturers, which are members of the KOPTI, is the modernization of tempe and tofu small business activity to be an independent food business industry.

  12. Application of biomass for the sorption of radionuclides from low level Purex aqueous wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramanujam, A; Gopalakrishnan, V; Dhami, P S; Kannan, R [Fuel Reprocessing Div., Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Udupa, S R; Salvi, N A [Bio-Organic Div., Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    1997-05-01

    Microbial biomass have been found to be good biological adsorbents for radioactive nuclides such as uranium and thorium with comparatively easy desorption and recovery. Based on this, sorption studies have been carried out to assess the feasibility of using biomass Rhizopus arrhizus (RA) for the removal of radionuclides present in Purex low level waste streams. Biomass Rhizopus arrhizus (RA) appears effective for the removal of actinides and fission products from low level Purex plant waste/effluent solutions. Maximum sorption for uranium and plutonium is observed at 6-7 pH whereas for Am, Eu, Pm, Ce and Zr the sorption is maximum at pH 2 with high D values and fast kinetics in both cases. Sorption for Ru and Cs are negligible. Sorbed nuclides are recoverable by elution with 1 M HNO{sub 3}, on once through basis. The method can be used for treating the evaporator condensates from the plant and the hold-up delay tank solution. The sodium nitrate salt concentration in the aqueous solution beyond 0.14 M seriously affects the metal uptake. The results from column experiments indicate a limited loading capacity in terms of mg of Am/U/Pu etc. per gm of RA. However, as the Purex low level effluents contain only trace level activities whose absolute ionic concentrations are much lower, the capacities observed with the present form of biomass may still be satisfactory. 15 refs., 12 tabs.

  13. Effect of Seed Quality and Combination Fungicide-Trichoderma spp. Seed Treatments on Pre- and Postemergence Damping-Off in Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Charles R

    2007-01-01

    ABSTRACT Good quality seeds of cotton cultivars often escaped pre-emergence damping-off incited by Pythium spp. and Rhizopus oryzae, and they were resistant to postemergence damping-off incited by Rhizoctonia solani. Poor quality seeds, however, were highly susceptible to both phases of seedling disease and required seed treatment in order to survive. Pre-emergence damping-off incited by Pythium spp. and Rhizopus oryzae could be controlled by seed treatment with biocontrol preparations of a number of Trichoderma spp., but these treatments were much less effective in controlling postemergence disease incited by Rhizoctonia solani. Postemergence seedling disease can be controlled by fungicides, but they were much less effective in controlling the pre-emergence phase of the disease. Combination seed treatments of poor quality cotton seeds with fungicides and Trichoderma spp. preparations, followed by planting in pathogen-infested soil, indicated that this technique will control both phases of seedling disease. Seed treatment with either the fungicides or the biocontrol agents alone did not achieve this goal. The optimum combination treatment for disease control was that of chloroneb plus Trichoderma spp., followed by chloroneb plus metalaxyl (Deltacoat AD) plus T. virens strain G-6.

  14. Application of biomass for the sorption of radionuclides from low level Purex aqueous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramanujam, A.; Gopalakrishnan, V.; Dhami, P.S.; Kannan, R.; Udupa, S.R.; Salvi, N.A.

    1997-05-01

    Microbial biomass have been found to be good biological adsorbents for radioactive nuclides such as uranium and thorium with comparatively easy desorption and recovery. Based on this, sorption studies have been carried out to assess the feasibility of using biomass Rhizopus arrhizus (RA) for the removal of radionuclides present in Purex low level waste streams. Biomass Rhizopus arrhizus (RA) appears effective for the removal of actinides and fission products from low level Purex plant waste/effluent solutions. Maximum sorption for uranium and plutonium is observed at 6-7 pH whereas for Am, Eu, Pm, Ce and Zr the sorption is maximum at pH 2 with high D values and fast kinetics in both cases. Sorption for Ru and Cs are negligible. Sorbed nuclides are recoverable by elution with 1 M HNO 3 , on once through basis. The method can be used for treating the evaporator condensates from the plant and the hold-up delay tank solution. The sodium nitrate salt concentration in the aqueous solution beyond 0.14 M seriously affects the metal uptake. The results from column experiments indicate a limited loading capacity in terms of mg of Am/U/Pu etc. per gm of RA. However, as the Purex low level effluents contain only trace level activities whose absolute ionic concentrations are much lower, the capacities observed with the present form of biomass may still be satisfactory

  15. Shaping of the fungal communities isolated from yellow lupin seeds (Lupinus luteus L. throughout storage time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Cwalina-Ambroziak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The object of the experiment were seeds of two traditional cultivars of yellow lupin (Juno and Amulet cultivated in 1999 in two crop-rotation with 20% and 33% yellow lupine contribution. The quantitative and qualitative composition of the fungal community colonizing the seeds were determined in the laboratory conditions after 0.5-, 1.5- and 2.5-year of storage time. In total 1077 fungal colonies were isolated from the lupin seeds. Fungi representing the species of Penicillium - 29.3%, Alternaria alternata - 26.7% and Rhizopus nigricans - 12.7% were isolated most widely. Among the fungi pathogenic to lupin, the species of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (16.3% isolates was dominant. The crop rotation with 20% lupin reduced the number of fungal colonies colonizing the seeds including the pathogens from the species of C. gloeosporioides. Seed disinfection decreased the total number of fungal colonies isolated from both cultivars. Higher number of C. gloeosporioides isolates was found in the combination with disinfected seeds. More fungal colonies were obtained from seeds of cv. Amulet than from those of cv. Juno. The storage duration had an effect on the population and the composition of species of fungi isolated from seeds of yellow lupine. With longer storage population of Penicillium spp. and Rhizopus spp. increased, whereas the population of C. gloeosporioides decreased.

  16. Molecular identification of fungal isolates and hatching success of green turtle (Chelonia mydas) nests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candan, Esra Deniz

    2018-02-26

    The aim of this study is to investigate the fungal diversity of green turtle nests and to examine phylogenetic relationships among these isolates. During the nesting season, samples of intra-nest sand and failed eggs were collected from 25% of the surviving nests in Sugözü Beaches, which are amongst the most important nesting beaches for endangered green turtles in the Mediterranean. Twenty-three fungi were identified by molecular techniques. Fungal isolates belonged to genera Aspergillus, Emericella, Rhizopus, Actinomucor and Apophysomyces with two undescribed species. Aspergillus variecolor, Aspergillus quadrilinieatus, Aspergillus tubingensis, Rhizopus oryzae, Actinomucor elegans and Apophysomyces variabilis were firstly detected in all sea turtle nests within this study. Our results demonstrate that 36.4% of the nests had fungal contamination. Also hatching success of the nests contaminated by fungi were significantly lower than the uncontaminated nests (P = 0.029). Also, this may represent a threat to marine turtles and a risk for the health of conservation workers. This study is the first molecular phylogenetic study associated with sea turtle nests in the eastern Mediterranean coast and contributes to the wider body of literature on fungal invasion of sea turtle nests with firstly isolated species. These findings are important for improving potential conservation measures for the nest sites.

  17. Effect of gamma irradiation on storability of strawberry (Fragaria sp)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Bachir, M; Farah, S [Atomic Energy Commission, Dept. of Agriculture, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)

    1998-02-01

    Despite the increased production of strawberry in Syria, the storability and marketability of fruits were not well studied. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on storability of Senga sengana strawberry produced in Syria and the effect of gamma irradiation on fungal sp. i.e. Botrytis; Penicillium; Rhizopus. The fruits were treated with 1 , 2 and 3 KGy of gamma rays. Treated and untreated fruits were stored at 2 to 4 centigrade and 80 to 90 % relative humidity (RH). In order to investigate their marketability, the fruits where held at room temperature (25 to 30 centigrade). Weight loss, microbial decay, and total loss, juice production, pH, total soluble solids of the juice and organoleptic qualities were evaluated throughout the different storage and marketing periods. The results indicate that gamma irradiation decreased the microbial decay and increased the storability and marketability of fruits by 50 and 100% after using 2 and 3 kGy, respectively. D10 were 1.8 and 2.4 for Botrytis and Rhizopus respectively. One day after irradiation total soluble solids and its pH values were increased. Fourteen days later, irradiated fruits produced more juice with higher pH, but total soluble solids were less. Gamma irradiation did not have an effect on aroma and colour of fruits, whereas, 3 kGy of gamma irradiation had an adverse negative effect on taste. (author)

  18. Radiation sensitivity of food decay fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, H.G.; Lee, B.H.

    1980-01-01

    Five species of food decay fungi, Aspergillus flavus, Asp. uiger, Penicillium sp., Botrytis cinerea and Rhizopus stolonifer, were examined for their radiosensitivity in several suspension media. Asp. flavus, Asp. niger and Penicillium sp. have almost the same sensitivity toward gamma rays, with D value in the range of 30 to 35 K rad, whereas Botrytis cinerea has a D value of approximately 55 K rad and Rhizopus stolonifer, the most resistant fungus studied, has a D value of approximately 100 K rad. Dry spores of Asp. flavus showed a considerable increase in their radioresistance when compared with spores irradiated in water. Asp. flavus and Penicillium sp. spores irradiated in citrate buffer at pH 3-7 showed almost no change in their radiosensitivity with pH, but Botrytis cinerea spores showed a distinct decrease in their radioresistance at pH 6 and 7. Penicillium sp. spores irradiated in sucrose solutions showed no significant change in their radioresistance. Botrytis cinerea spores displayed a higher radioresistance when they were irradiated in sucrose solution than in water. (author)

  19. Antifungal activity of the pygidial gland secretion of Laemostenus punctatus (Coleoptera: Carabidae) against cave-dwelling micromycetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenadić, Marija; Ljaljević-Grbić, Milica; Stupar, Miloš; Vukojević, Jelena; Ćirić, Ana; Tešević, Vele; Vujisić, Ljubodrag; Todosijević, Marina; Vesović, Nikola; Živković, Nemanja; Ćurčić, Srećko

    2017-06-01

    The antifungal potential of the pygidial gland secretion of the troglophilic ground beetle Laemostenus punctatus from a cave in Southeastern Serbia against cave-dwelling micromycetes, isolated from the same habitat, has been investigated. Eleven collected samples were analyzed and 32 isolates of cave-dwelling fungi were documented. A total of 14 fungal species were identified as members of the genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Alternaria, Cladosporium, Rhizopus, Trichoderma, Arthrinium, Aureobasidium, Epicoccum, Talaromyces, and Fusarium. Five isolates were selected for testing the antifungal activity of the pygidial gland secretion: Talaromyces duclauxi, Aspergillus brunneouniseriatus, Penicillium sp., Rhizopus stolonifer, and Trichoderma viride. The microdilution method has been applied to detect minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFCs). The most sensitive isolate was Penicillium sp., while the other isolates demonstrated a high level of resistance to the tested agent. L. punctatus has developed a special mechanism of producing specific compounds that act synergistically within the secretion mixture, which are responsible for the antifungal action against pathogens from the cave. The results open opportunities for further research in the field of ground beetle defense against pathogens, which could have an important application in human medicine, in addition to the environmental impact, primarily.

  20. Inhibitory action of some essential oils and phytochemicals on the growth of various moulds isolated from foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Leite de Souza

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the sensitivity profile of mould strains isolated from foods to some essential oils and phytochemicals. The assayed mould strains were: Fusarium spp., Rhizopus spp., Aspergillus flavus, A. niger and Penicillium spp. According to results, Lippia alba N.E. Brown, Peumus boldus Molina, Lippia microphylla Phil., Citrus limon Risso and Cymbopogon citratus Stapf. essential oil and the phytochemicals citral, eugenol and mircene showed prominent antimould activity. Among the products that evidenced antimould activity, citral and eugenol showed the lowest minimum inhibitory concentrations, which was 1% and 4%, respectively, for the most of the tested mould strains.O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar o perfil de sensibilidade de cepas de fungos filamentosos isolados de alimento a alguns óleos essenciais e fitoconstituintes. As cepas fúngicas utilizadas nos ensaios antimicrobianos foram: Fusarium spp., Rhizopus spp., Aspergillus flavus, A. niger e Penicillium spp. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, os óleos essenciais de L. Alba N.R. Brown, P. boldus Molina, L. microphylla Phill, C. limon Risso e C. citratus Stapf. e os fitoconstituintes citral, eugenol e mirceno mostraram destacada atividade antifúngica. Dentre os produtos que apresentaram atividade antifúngica, o citral e eugenol mostraram as menores CIM's, as quais foram 1% e 4%, respectivamente, para a maioria das cepas fúngicas testadas.

  1. Phosphate-solubilizing fungi isolated from a semiarid area cultivated with melon (Cucumis melo L. cv. gold mine Fungos solubilizadores de fosfato isolados de área semiárida cultivada com melão (Cucumis melo L. cv. gold mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Paiva Coutinho

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering that little is known about the occurrence of phosphate-solubilizing fungi from areas cultivated with melon, the phosphate solubilization ability of filamentous fungi isolated in these areas was evaluated. Three hundred and eighteen filamentous fungal isolates belonging to 23 genera were evaluated, besides Aphyllophorales and Mycelia sterilia. From those, 52 were able to solubilize P: Aphyllophorales (2, Aspergillus (34, Penicillium (10 and Rhizopus (6. These results will contribute to subsidizing further research regarding the capacity of these fungi to solubilize other sources of phosphate applied to the melon crop, as well as indicate the need for a screening program to select those with higher capacity and potential for solubilization.Considerando que pouco se conhece sobre a ocorrência de fungos solubilizadores de fosfato de áreas cultivadas com melão, foi avaliada a habilidade de solubilização desse nutriente por fungos filamentosos isolados dessas áreas. Foram avaliadas 318 amostras de fungos filamentosos pertencentes a 23 gêneros, além de Aphyllophorales e Mycelia sterilia. Dessas amostras, 52 apresentaram habilidade para solubilizar o fosfato: Aphyllophorales (2, Aspergillus (34, Penicillium (10 e Rhizopus (6. Esses resultados contribuem para subsidiar pesquisas que testem a capacidade desses fungos em solubilizar outras fontes fosfatadas aplicadas na cultura do melão, assim como indicam a necessidade de selecionar isolados com maior capacidade e potencial para solubilização.

  2. Natural incidence of aflatoxins, mycological profile and molecular characterization of aflatoxigenic strains in chickpea flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mushtaq, S.; Akram, A.; Qureshi, R.

    2015-01-01

    The mycological profile of retail chickpea flour (locall called Baisan), sold in the markets in the Rawalpindi district was studied. All the samples were tested for the contamination with aflatoxins. A total of 13 fungal species isolated from the flour and out of which, Aspergillus flavus was recorded the most common species (100%), followed by Rhizopus oryzea (50%), Aspergillus niger (40%), Penicilium digitatum (30%), Cladosporium cladosporoides, Fusarium oxysporium, Mucor recemosus, M. petrinsularis and Rhizopus arrhizus (20% each), Aspergillus oryzea, Botritus cinerea, Mucor circineloides and Penicillium sp. (10% each). Aflatoxin B1 was found in only 20% of the samples ranging from 3.03-4.24ppb. The molecular characterization was carried out by using PCR using simple sequence repeats (SSR) primers. The SSR amplification pattern clearly showed the genetic variability among the 10 strains of A. flavus. A dendrogram was generated through MVSP software program. Genotype AF04 was most diverse among all genotypes. The similarity value was ranged between 0.538 (53.8%)-0.938 (93.8%). (author)

  3. An assessment of adaptive and antagonistic properties of Trichoderma sp. strains in vegetable waste composts

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    Wolna-Maruwka Agnieszka

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment consisted in monitoring the count of moulds and three selected Trichoderma sp. isolates (T1 - Trichoderma atroviride, T2 - Trichoderma harzianum, T3 - Trichoderma harzianum in vegetable (onion and tomato waste composted with additives (straw, pig manure. Additionally, the aim of the study was to determine the type of interaction occurring between autochthonous fungi isolated from composts after the end of the thermophilic phase and Trichoderma sp. strains applied in the experiment. Number of microorganisms was determined by the plate method, next the identification was confirmed. The rating scale developed by Mańka was used to determine the type of interactions occurring between microorganisms. The greatest count of moulds in onion waste composts was noted in the object which had simultaneously been inoculated with two strains T1 - T. atroviride and T3 - T. harzianum. The greatest count of moulds was noted in the tomato waste composts inoculated with T2 - T. harzianum strain. Microscope identification revealed that Penicillum sp., Rhizopus sp., Alternaria sp. and Mucor sp. strains were predominant in onion waste composts. In tomato waste composts Penicillium was the predominant genus, followed by Rhizopus. The test of antagonism revealed the inhibitory effect of Trichoderma isolates on most autochthonous strains of moulds. Tomato waste composts proved to be better substrates for the growth and development of Trichoderma sp. isolates. The results of the study show that vegetable waste can be used in agriculture as carriers of antagonistic microorganisms.

  4. Isolation, Identification and Seasonal Distribution of Soilborne Fungi in Different Areas of Erbil Governorate

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    Farid M. Toma

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A survey study was undertaken for the isolation and identification of soilborne fungi inhabiting different areas in Erbil, Iraq. A total of 15 soil samples collected seasonally during August 2008-July 2009. Fungi were isolated from soil during this study's period, by soil dilution plate method on selective medium: Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA, eighty-one different genera of fungi were isolated during the four seasons; (30, 33, 70, and 53 genera isolated in (summer, autumn, winter and spring respectively, the most frequently isolated fungi during four seasons were Aspergillus sp. (539x103 colony forming units /g.soil, followed by Penicillium sp. (215x103 cfu/g.soil, Rhizopus spp. (115x103 cfu/g.soil, Emericella spp. (109x103 cfu/g.soil, Fusarium spp. (47x103 cfu/g.soil, and Ulocladium botrytis (47x103 cfu/g.soil, while the least frequently isolated fungal genera were Blakeslea tuningtam, Clasterosporium cyperi, Idriella sp., Naranus cryptomeriae and Torula alternata, (1x103 cfu/g.soil, for each one. Fungi isolated from soil by washing method counted for ninety three species belonging to fifty six genera, among them: Aspergillus sp., Circinella sp., Cunninghamella sp., Mucor spp., Mycelia sterilia, Rhizopus sp.

  5. Alternativas de controle pós-colheita da podridão-parda e da podridão-mole em frutos de pessegueiro Alternatives for post-harvest control of brown rot and soft rot in peach fruits

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    Vicente Luiz de Carvalho

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available As exigências do consumidor são cada vez maiores com relação à qualidade de produtos in natura. As podridões, além de causar perdas na produção, reduzem a qualidade final do fruto, interferindo significativamente na comercialização. Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar a eficiência de produtos alternativos, aplicados na pós-colheita, no controle da podridão-parda (Monilinia fructicola e da podridão-mole (Rhizopus spp. em pêssegos. O experimento foi conduzido no município de Nepomuceno-MG, em talhão de pessegueiro da cultivar Diamante, com 10 anos de idade. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com 7 tratamentos e 3 repetições. Para o estudo, foram selecionados frutos sem lesões e sem sintomas das doenças. Os frutos foram mergulhados por 30 segundos em solução contendo os seguintes tratamentos: 1-Óleo de cravo 0,01%; 2-Dióxido de cloro 0,1%; 3-Dióxido de cloro 0,05%; 4-Cloreto de benzalcônio 0,25%; 5-Dicloran 0,12%; 6-Iprodione 0,15% e 7-Testemunha (somente água. Após os tratamentos, os frutos, em número de 10, foram colocados em bandejas esterilizadas, em três repetições. O experimento foi conduzido em condições de ambiente não controlado, sendo feitas avaliações do desenvolvimento das doenças aos 3 e aos 5 dias após os tratamentos em 2005 e aos 3; 6 e aos 9 dias após o tratamento em 2006. O iprodione controlou a incidência e a severidade de M. fructicola e Rhizopus spp. O dicloran foi o tratamento mais eficiente para o controle do Rhizopus spp. e intermediário para M. fructicola. Os tratamentos com óleo de cravo e dióxido de cloro, na maior dose, reduziram a incidência de Rhizopus spp. e para severidade apresentaram resultados intermediários.The consumers demand are increasing with regard to the quality of in nature products. The rot, besides causing loss in production, reduce the quality of the product, interfering significantly in the marketing. The objective

  6. Application of lemon peel essential oil with edible coating agent to prolong shelf life of tofu and strawberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmawati, Della; Chandra, Mega; Santoso, Stefanus; Puteri, Maria Gunawan

    2017-01-01

    The essential oil of sweet orange, lemon, and key lime peel were analyzed for their antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial activity of each citrus essential oil with different concentration was assessed using broth macro-dilution against Bacillus sp, Eschericia coli, Rhizopus stolonifer, and Botrytis sp which represented specific spoilage microorganism in tofu and fresh strawberry. Among all the citrus peel essential oils tested, lemon peel essential oil with 0.6% concentration showed significant activity as an antimicrobial agent against Escherichia coli and Bacillus sp. In other hand 1% of lemon peel essential oil is also considered to be the best concentration of inhibiting the Rhizopus Stolonifer and Botrytis sp. Lemon peel essential oil which has the highest antimicrobial activity was combined with two different kind of edible coating agents (cassava starch and sodium alginate) and was applied in both tofu and strawberry to observe whether it had possibility to decrease the degradation rate of tofu and strawberry. The addition of 0.6% and 1% lemon peel essential oil with each of edible coating agents was significantly able to reduce the degradation of tofu and fresh strawberry.

  7. Identification of mucorales from clinical specimens: a 4-year experience in a single institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mina; Lee, Jang Ho; Kim, Young Kwon; Ki, Chang Seok; Huh, Hee Jae; Lee, Nam Yong

    2016-01-01

    Mucormycosis, a fatal opportunistic infection in immunocompromised hosts, is caused by fungi belonging to the order Mucorales. Early diagnosis based on exact identification and multidisciplinary treatments is critical. However, identification of Mucorales fungi is difficult and often delayed, resulting in poor prognosis. This study aimed to compare the results of phenotypic and molecular identification of 12 Mucorales isolates collected from 4-yr-accumulated data. All isolates were identified on the basis of phenotypic characteristics such as growth rate, colony morphology, and reproductive structures. PCR and direct sequencing were performed to target internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and/or D1/D2 regions. Target DNA sequencing identified five Lichtheimia isolates, two Rhizopus microsporus isolates, two Rhizomucor pusillus isolates, one Cunninghamella bertholletiae isolate, one Mucor fragilis isolate, and one Syncephalastrum racemosum isolate. Five of the 12 (41.7%) isolates were incorrectly identified on the basis of phenotypic identification. DNA sequencing showed that of these five isolates, two were Lichtheimia isolates, one was Mucor isolate, one was Rhizomucor isolate, and one was Rhizopus microspores. All the isolates were identified at the species level by ITS and/or D1/D2 analyses. Phenotypic differentiation and identification of Mucorales is difficult because different Mucorales share similar morphology. Our results indicate that the molecular methods employed in this study are valuable for identifying Mucorales.

  8. Sterol Composition of Clinically Relevant Mucorales and Changes Resulting from Posaconazole Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Christoph; Neugebauer, Thomas; Zill, Patrizia; Lass-Flörl, Cornelia; Bracher, Franz; Binder, Ulrike

    2018-05-19

    Mucorales are fungi with increasing importance in the clinics. Infections take a rapidly progressive course resulting in high mortality rates. The ergosterol biosynthesis pathway and sterol composition are of interest, since they are targeted by currently applied antifungal drugs. Nevertheless, Mucorales often exhibit resistance to these drugs, resulting in therapeutic failure. Here, sterol patterns of six clinically relevant Mucorales ( Lichtheimia corymbifera , Lichtheimia ramosa , Mucor circinelloides , Rhizomucor pusillus , Rhizopus arrhizus , and Rhizopus microsporus ) were analysed in a targeted metabolomics fashion after derivatization by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Additionally, the effect of posaconazole (POS) treatment on the sterol pattern of R. arrhizus was evaluated. Overall, fifteen different sterols were detected with species dependent variations in the total and relative sterol amount. Sterol analysis from R. arrhizus hyphae confronted with sublethal concentrations of posaconazole revealed the accumulation of 14-methylergosta-8,24-diene-3,6-diol, which is a toxic sterol that was previously only detected in yeasts. Sterol content and composition were further compared to the well-characterized pathogenic mold Aspergillus fumigatus . This work contributes to a better understanding of the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway of Mucorales, which is essential to improve antifungal efficacy, the identification of targets for novel drug design, and to investigate the combinatorial effects of drugs targeting this pathway.

  9. Siderophore production by pathogenic mucorales and uptake of deferoxamine B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larcher, Gérald; Dias, Marylène; Razafimandimby, Bienvenue; Bomal, Danielle; Bouchara, Jean-Philippe

    2013-12-01

    Clinical reports have established that mucormycosis, mainly caused by Rhizopus spp., frequently occurs in patients treated with deferoxamine B (DFO, Desferal(®)) which is misappropriated by these fungi. Siderophore production by twenty mucoralean isolates was therefore investigated using a commercial iron-depleted culture medium. Siderophore production was detected for most of the isolates. Our experiments confirmed that feroxamine B (iron chelate of DFO) promoted in vitro growth of Rhizopus arrhizus. Electrophoretic analysis of somatic extracts revealed iron-regulated proteins of 60 and 32 kDa which were lacking in iron-depleted culture conditions. Using a fluorescent derivative of deferoxamine B, we showed by fluorescence microscopy the entry of the siderophore within the fungal cells, thus suggesting a shuttle mechanism encompassing the uptake of the entire siderophore-ion complex into the cell. This useful tool renders possible a better understanding of iron metabolism in Mucorales which could lead to the development of new diagnostic method or new antifungal therapy using siderophores as imaging contrast agents or active drug vectors.

  10. Stereoselectivity of Mucorales lipases toward triradylglycerols--a simple solution to a complex problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheib, H.; Pleiss, J.; Kovac, A.; Paltauf, F.; Schmid, R. D.

    1999-01-01

    The lipases from Rhizopus and Rhizomucor are members of the family of Mucorales lipases. Although they display high sequence homology, their stereoselectivity toward triradylglycerols (sn-2 substituted triacylglycerols) varies. Four different triradylglycerols were investigated, which were classified into two groups: flexible substrates with rotatable O'-C1' ether or ester bonds adjacent to C2 of glycerol and rigid substrates with a rigid N'-C1' amide bond or a phenyl ring in sn-2. Although Rhizopus lipase shows opposite stereopreference for flexible and rigid substrates (hydrolysis in sn-1 and sn-3, respectively), Rhizomucor lipase hydrolyzes both groups of triradylglycerols preferably in sn-1. To explain these experimental observations, computer-aided molecular modeling was applied to study the molecular basis of stereoselectivity. A generalized model for both lipases of the Mucorales family highlights the residues mediating stereoselectivity: (1) L258, the C-terminal neighbor of the catalytic histidine, and (2) G266, which is located in a loop contacting the glycerol backbone of a bound substrate. Interactions with triradylglycerol substrates are dominated by van der Waals contacts. Stereoselectivity can be predicted by analyzing the value of a single substrate torsion angle that discriminates between sn-1 and sn-3 stereopreference for all substrates and lipases investigated here. This simple model can be easily applied in enzyme and substrate engineering to predict Mucorales lipase variants and synthetic substrates with desired stereoselectivity. PMID:10210199

  11. Identification and characterization of haemofungin, a novel antifungal compound that inhibits the final step of haem biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Yaakov, Dafna; Rivkin, Anna; Mircus, Gabriel; Albert, Nathaniel; Dietl, Anna-Maria; Kovalerchick, Dimitry; Carmeli, Shmuel; Haas, Hubertus; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P; Osherov, Nir

    2016-04-01

    During recent decades, the number of invasive fungal infections among immunosuppressed patients has increased significantly, whereas the number of effective systemic antifungal drugs remains low and unsatisfactory. The aim of this study was to characterize a novel antifungal compound, CW-8/haemofungin, which we previously identified in a screen for compounds affecting fungal cell wall integrity. The in vitro characteristics of haemofungin were investigated by MIC evaluation against a panel of pathogenic and non-pathogenic fungi, bacteria and mammalian cells in culture. Haemofungin mode-of-action studies were performed by screening an Aspergillus nidulans overexpression genomic library for resistance-conferring plasmids and biochemical validation of the target. In vivo efficacy was tested in the Galleria mellonella and Drosophila melanogaster insect models of infection. We demonstrate that haemofungin causes swelling and lysis of growing fungal cells. It inhibits the growth of pathogenic Aspergillus, Candida, Fusarium and Rhizopus isolates at micromolar concentrations, while only weakly affecting the growth of mammalian cell lines. Genetic and biochemical analyses in A. nidulans and Aspergillus fumigatus indicate that haemofungin primarily inhibits ferrochelatase (HemH), the last enzyme in the haem biosynthetic pathway. Haemofungin was non-toxic and significantly reduced mortality rates of G. mellonella and D. melanogaster infected with A. fumigatus and Rhizopus oryzae, respectively. Further development and in vivo validation of haemofungin is warranted. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Inkorporasi Kromium pada Khamir dan Kapang dengan Substrat Dasar Singkong yang Diberi Kromium Anorganik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. D. Astuti

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Organic-chromium (Cr has higher availability for animals than inorganic-Cr sources. One of organic-Cr sources known is fungi contained high Cr. This organic-Cr was incorporated to fungi protein. Information about the best fungi or microorganisms used in organic-Cr production is still limited. The objective of this experiment was to study organic-Cr production using different kinds of fungi as Cr carrier. Organic-Cr production was conducted in a 4x3 factorial completely randomized experimental design with 3 replications. Four fungi used as carriers in organic-Cr production as the first factor were Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Aspergillus oryzae, Rhizopus oryzae and “ragi tape”. The second factor was levels of Cr addition (500, 1000, 1500 mg/kg. Addition of 1000 mg Cr/kg substrate gave the highest Cr incorporation to fungi protein (484 mg/kg and Cr incorporation efficiency (21.1%. The best fungi used as carrier in organic-Cr production was Rhizopus oryzae which gave the highest Cr incorporation (488 mg/kg and incorporation efficiency (24.7%.

  13. Screening of filamentous fungi for production of enzymes of biotechnological interest Seleção de fungos filamentosos para a produção de enzimas de interesse biotecnológico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Henrique S. Guimarães

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Many enzymes produced by fungi have relevant biotechnological applications in several industrial areas. The purpose of this study was to collect and isolate filamentous fungi from soil and humus, plants and sugar cane bagasse of different regions of the São Paulo state. Forty isolates were examined for their ability to produce xylanase, glucose-oxidase, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, phytase, pectinase and amylase. Among these, twenty three isolates exhibited enzymatic potential. The xylanases produced by two of these isolates (Aspergillus caespitosus and A. phoenicis showed good potential for pulp bleaching. Among seventeen isolates, at least three produced high levels of glucose-oxidase, being Rhizopus stolonifer and A. versicolor the best producer strains. A. caespitosus, Mucor rouxii, and nine others still not identified were the best producers of phosphatases in submerged fermentation. Pectinase was best produced by IF II and C-8 belong R. stolonifer. Significant levels of amylase were produced by Paecilomyces variotii and A. phoenicis. A remarkable enzyme producer was Rhizopus microsporus var. rhizopodiformis that produced high levels of amylase, alkaline and acid phosphatases, and pectinase. Some morphological structures of this fungus were illustrated using light microscopy (LM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. This study contributes to catalogue soil fungi isolated in the state of São Paulo, and provides additional information to support future research about the industrial potential of these microorganisms that may produce enzymes and, eventually, also secondary metabolites with anti-microbial or anti-parasitic activities.Muitas enzimas produzidas por fungos têm relevantes aplicações em diferentes áreas industriais. O objetivo desse trabalho foi coletar e isolar fungos filamentosos do solo e humus, plantas e bagaço de cana de açúcar de diferentes regiões do Estado de São Paulo. Quarenta isolados foram

  14. Tempeh: a mold-modified indigenous fermented food made from soybeans and/or cereal grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachmeister, K A; Fung, D Y

    1993-01-01

    A variety of indigenous fermented foods exist today; however, tempeh has been one of the most widely accepted and researched mold-modified fermented products. Tempeh is a traditional fermented food made from soaked and cooked soybeans inoculated with a mold, usually of the genus Rhizopus. After fermentation has occurred, the soybeans are bound together into a compact cake by dense cottony mycelium. An important function of the mold in the fermentation process is the synthesis of enzymes, which hydrolyze soybean constituents and contribute to the development of a desirable texture, flavor, and aroma of the product. Enzymatic hydrolysis also may decrease or eliminate antinutritional constituents; consequently, the nutritional quality of the fermented product may be improved. Current technology and new scientific advancements have enabled researchers to examine specific strains of Rhizopus and new substrates such as cereal grains. Because Kansas produces numerous cereal grains, production of a fermented tempeh-like product using wheat, sorghum (milo), oats, rye, barley, corn, and triticale is a definite possibility for generating a Kansas Value-Added Product. In this study, several different tempeh-like products were produced using various cereal grains inoculated with Rhizopus oligosporus NRRL 2549 or R. oligosporus NRRL 2710. Grains used included hard red winter wheat, triticale, yellow sorghum (milo), and red sorghum (milo). The grain source as well as the strain of R. oligosporus used influenced the product's appearance, flavor, and patty integrity. Results showed that R. oligosporus NRRL 2549 produced more mycelium at a more rapid rate than did the R. oligosporus NRRL 2710 strain. The combination of red sorghum and R. oligosporus NRRL 2549 yielded a product with good patty texture, aroma, and appearance. Furthermore, the red sorghum fermented product was well suited for slicing. On the other hand, yellow sorghum inoculated with either R. oligosporus NRRL 2549 or

  15. Comparative Metagenomics Reveal Phylum Level Temporal and Spatial Changes in Mycobiome of Belowground Parts of Crocus sativus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheetal Ambardar

    Full Text Available Plant-fungal associations have been explored by routine cultivation based approaches and cultivation based approaches cannot catalogue more than 5% of fungal diversity associated with any niche. In the present study, an attempt has been made to catalogue fungal diversity associated with belowground parts i.e. rhizosphere and cormosphere, of Crocus sativus (an economically important herb during two growth stages, using cultivation independent ITS gene targeted approach, taking bulk soil as reference. The 454 pyrosequencing sequence data analysis suggests that the fungal diversity was niche and growth stage specific. Fungi diversity, in the present case, was not only different between the two organs (roots and corm but the dominance pattern varies between the cormosphere during two growth stages. Zygomycota was dominant fungal phylum in the rhizosphere whereas Basidiomycota was dominant in cormosphere during flowering stage. However in cormosphere though Basidiomycota was dominant phylum during flowering stage but Zygomycota was dominant during dormant stage. Interestingly, in cormosphere, the phyla which was dominant at dormant stage was rare at flowering stage and vice-versa (Basidiomycota: Flowering = 93.2% Dormant = 0.05% and Zygomycota: Flowering = 0.8% Dormant = 99.7%. At genus level, Rhizopus was dominant in dormant stage but was rare in flowering stage (Rhizopus: Dormant = 99.7% Flowering = 0.55%. This dynamics is not followed by the bulk soil fungi which was dominated by Ascomycota during both stages under study. The genus Fusarium, whose species F. oxysporum causes corm rot in C. sativus, was present during both stages with slightly higher abundance in roots. Interestingly, the abundance of Rhizopus varied a great deal in two stages in cormosphere but the abundance of Fusarium was comparable in two growth stages (Bulk soil Flowering = 0.05%, Rhizosphere Flowering = 1.4%, Cormosphere Flowering = 0.06%, Bulk soil Dormant = 2.47% and

  16. MIKROFLORA PADA TEMPOYAK The Microflora of Tempoyak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasanuddin Hasanuddin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Tempoyak is a traditional Bengkulu fermented food prepared from spontaneous fermentation of durian (Durio zibethi- nus by wild microorganisms. Tempoyak is found not only in Bengkulu but also as long as Sumatera island with differ- ent names, and also in Malaysia. Tempoyak is a Melayu term meaning fermented durian. The research was conducted to identify microflora in tempoyak, and to select the species of microorganisms which were able to ferment durian ef- fectivelly. The data in this study were laboratory analysis. Samples were collected weekly in a month from productions centre of tempoyak and traditional markets, and analyzed microbiologically to determine and identify the bacteria, yeasts and molds in tempoyak. There were four specieses of lactic acid bacteria found in fermented durian namely Pediococcus acidilactici, Lactobacillus plantarum Lactobacillus curvatus and Leuconostoc mesentroides. While two specieses which were not lactic acid bacteria namely Staphylococcus saprophyticus and Micrococcus varians. One species of yeast was Kluyveromyces marxianus. The molds were identified as Rhizopus oryzae, Monilia sitophila, Mucor roxii, Aspergillus repens and Penicillium sp. Among these specieses three specieses were produced lactic acid namelly Rhizopus oryzae, Monilia sitophila,and Mucor roxii. While Aspergillus ripens and Penicillium sp did not pro- duce lactic acid so these specieses might not function in fermentation process. ABSTRAK Tempoyak adalah makanan khas Bengkulu, yang dibuat dari fermentasi spontan daging buah durian (Durio zibet- hinus oleh mikroorganisme liar. Tempoyak juga bisa dijumpai di berbagai daerah Indonesia di sepanjang pulau Sumatera dengan nama yang berbeda, bahkan sampai ke Malaysia. Istilah tempoyak berasal dari terminolgi Melayu yang artinya adalah durian fermentasi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi mikroorganisme yang terdapat pada tempoyak. Data dari penelitian ini adalah data primer dari analisa

  17. Airborne fungi causing respiratory allergy in patients from Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil Fungos anemófilos causando alergia respiratória em pacientes na cidade de Fortaleza, Ceará

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everardo Albuquerque Menezes

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The dispersal of airborne fungi is made through atmospherical air. Knowledge of anemophilous fungi in a given city is important for the ecological diagnosis and specific treatment of allergic manifestations induced by inhaled allergens. Their use in individuals' allergy is widespread, and probably will remain so in the years to come. The purpose of this research was to make a relationship between the airborne fungi and the patients' respiratory allergy (asthma and rhinitis from the city of Fortaleza, state of Ceará, Brazil. First a research was made in Fortaleza about the fungal allergens dispersed in atmospherical air. Fungal allergen extracts were made from the ten most predominant moulds in the air, using sodium bicarbonate. The prick tests were made in fifty patients with asthma and rhinitis and in ten healthy persons (with no respiratory allergy. The positive test was made using histamine and the negative test with sodium bicarbonate preparation. The predominant fungi in the air of Fortaleza were: Aspergillus, Penicillium, Curvularia, Cladosporium, Mycelia sterilia, Fusarium, Rhizopus, Drechslera, Absidia and Alternaria. As determined by the prick test: three fungal extracts (Aspergillus, Alternaria and Drechslera were positive in all patients; two (Penicillium and Curvularia were positive in thirty-five patients; two (Cladosporium and Mycelia sterilia were positive in thirty patients; and three (Rhizopus, Absidia and Fusarium were positive in nine patients. All the control tests were negative. All the ten most predominant anemophilous fungi isolated in the air could provoke skin test reactivity in individuals with respiratory allergy in Fortaleza.Os fungos anemófilos estão dispersos no ar atmosférico. O conhecimento dos fungos anemófilos em uma cidade é importante para o diagnóstico ecológico e o tratamento específico de manifestações alérgicas induzidas pela inalação de alérgenos. Os fungos alergênicos são usados para o

  18. Water reclamation and value-added animal feed from corn-ethanol stillage by fungal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, M L; Khanal, S K; Pometto, A L; van Leeuwen, J Hans

    2014-01-01

    Rhizopus oligosporus was cultivated on thin stillage from a dry-grind corn ethanol plant. The aim of the research was to develop a process to replace the current energy-intensive flash evaporation and make use of this nutrient-rich stream to create a new co-product in the form of protein-rich biomass. Batch experiments in 5- and 50-L stirred bioreactors showed prolific fungal growth under non-sterile conditions. COD, suspended solids, glycerol, and organic acids removals, critical for in-plant water reuse, reached ca. 80%, 98%, 100% and 100%, respectively, within 5 d of fungal inoculation, enabling effluent recycle as process water. R. oligosporus contains 2% lysine, good levels of other essential amino acids, and 43% crude protein - a highly nutritious livestock feed. Avoiding water evaporation from thin stillage would furthermore save substantial energy inputs on corn ethanol plants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Filamentous Fungi Fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørregaard, Anders; Stocks, Stuart; Woodley, John

    2014-01-01

    Filamentous fungi (including microorganisms such as Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae) represent an enormously important platform for industrial fermentation. Two particularly valuable features are the high yield coefficients and the ability to secrete products. However, the filamentous...... morphology, together with non-Newtonian rheological properties (shear thinning), result in poor oxygen transfer unless sufficient energy is provided to the fermentation. While genomic research may improve the organisms, there is no doubt that to enable further application in future it will be necessary...... to match such research with studies of oxygen transfer and energy supply to high viscosity fluids. Hence, the implementation of innovative solutions (some of which in principle are already possible) will be essential to ensure the further development of such fermentations....

  20. Synthesis and Fungicidal activity of some sulphide derivatives of O-Ethyl-N-substituted phenylcarbamates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imeokparia, F.A.

    2006-01-01

    Monosulphides of O-ethyl-N-substituted phenylcarbamates were prepared by the reaction between O-ethyl-N-substituted phenylcarbamates and sulphur dichloride, while the corresponding disulphides were prepared by the reaction between O-ethyl-N-substituted phenylcarbamates and sulphur monochloride. The synthesized compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, thin layer chromatography (TLC), Fourier-transform infrared, and /sup 1/H and /sup 13/C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic techniques. In vitro fungicidal assay of these sulphides against Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Rhizopus stolonifer showed that they had Greater fungicidal activity than their parent carbamates. The synthesized sulphides were more active towards A. Niger and A. flavus. Unlike the parent carbamates, the type of substituents attached to the aromatic nucleus of these sulphides had little or no effect on their fungicidal activity as there was insignificant variation in the fungicidal activity of the monosulphide and the disulphide derivatives of O-ethyl-N-substituted phenylcarbamates. (author)

  1. Antimicrobial Activity of Extracts from Leaves, Stems and Flowers of Euphorbia macroclada against plant pathogenic fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Al-Mughrabi

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Extracts drawn from dried and powdered flowers, stems and leaves of Euphorbia macroclada with some organic solvents were tested for antimicrobial effect against the fungi Verticillium dahliae, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizopus stolonifer, Penicillium italicum, Rhizoctonia solani, Alternaria solani, Stemphylium solani, Cladosporium sp., Mucor sp., and Pythium sp. The strongest inhibitory effect of the extracts was observed against R. solani, V. dahliae, F. oxysporum, Pythium sp. and R. stolonifer. The weakest effect was against A. solani. Extracts from the stems had a stronger inhibitory effect than those from the flowers or leaves. Butanol was the best solvent to extract antimicrobial compounds from leaves, stems and flowers and was superior to chloroform, water and petroleum ether. Results clearly indicate that E. macroclada is a promising source of antimicrobial compounds.

  2. Biofilm forming microorganisms on various substrata from greenhouse of Botanical Garden “Jevremovac”

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    Unković Nikola D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Diversity of subaerial biofilm forming cyanobacteria, algae and fungi was investigated on 10 different substrata from greenhouse of Botanical Garden “Jevremovac”. Out of 37 documented taxa, 16 cyanobacterial and 10 algal taxa were identified. Remaining 11 taxa belong to the Kingdom of Fungi. The highest diversity of biofilm forming microorganisms, a total of 24 taxa, was detected on the corroded metal surface, while significantly lower number of taxa was recorded on other examined substrata. Cyanobacterium Porphyrosiphon sp., diatom Achnanthes sp. and green algae Chlorella sp. and Chlorococcum minutum were the most frequently encountered photosynthetic components of biofilms. In all analyzed samples, Trichoderma sp., followed by Cladosporium sp. and Rhizopus stolonifer, were the most frequently identified fungi. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. OI176020, Grant no. OI176018, and Grant no. OI173032

  3. Cutaneous mucormycosis in advanced HIV disease

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    José Moreira

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Angionvasive mucormycosis is an emerging fungal disease known to affect mainly diabetics or subjects with profound neutropenia. Infection usually occurs through the inhalation route, but cutaneous inoculation may occur after trauma or burns. However, mucormycosis remains unusual in HIV infection. We report a fatal case of cutaneous mucormycosis due to Rhizopus arrhizus involving the scalp following herpes zoster infection. The patient was a 42-year-old man with advanced AIDS failing on salvage antiretroviral therapy. The fungus was diagnosed on the basis of histopathology and culture. Our case emphasizes the need to consider mucormycosis in the differential diagnosis of necrotic cutaneous lesions in patients with late-stage HIV disease.

  4. Purification and properties of extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) antigens produced by different mould species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notermans, S; Wieten, G; Engel, H W; Rombouts, F M; Hoogerhout, P; van Boom, J H

    1987-02-01

    Extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) antigens produced by different mould species were purified and partially characterized. Purification included (NH4)2SO4 treatment, Sepharose CL-4B column chromatography and Con A-sepharose chromatography. The EPS of Penicillium digitatum, Mucor racemosus and Cladosporium cladosporioides showed high antigenic capacities. Immunologically the EPS were partially genus-specific, but cross-reactivity was observed. The EPS antigens produced by species of Penicillium, Aspergillus repens and Geotrichum candidum lost their immunological activity upon heating (100 degrees C) at pH 1.8, while the EPS antigen of M. racemosus, Rhizopus oligosporus and C. cladosporioides were stable under the same conditions. The dominant monosaccharides present in the EPS antigen were mannose, galactose and glucose. The EPS obtained from cultures of M. racemosus and R. oligosporus also contained rhamnose. In the EPS produced by Penicillium spp. and A. repens the galactose residues were determined to be immunodominant.

  5. Toxic micromycetes in grain raw material during its processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugauskas, Albinas; Raila, Algirdas; Railiene, Marija; Raudoniene, Vita

    2006-01-01

    In 2003-2005 micromycetes were isolated and identified from wheat, barley, rye, buckwheat grain brought into mills or from processing enterprises. Contamination of the produced flour with micromycete propagules (cfu g(-1)), changes in micromycete diversity and abundance in the course of flour storage, preparation and baking of bread, production of groats or other food products and fodder were determined. Most attention was given to widely distributed micromycetes, known producers of toxins: Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus candidus, A. clavatus, A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger, A. oryzae, A. (=Eurotium) repens, Fusarium culmorum, F. equiseti, F. graminearum, F. moniliforme, F. oxysporum, F. poae, F. sporotrichioides, Penicillium brevicompactum, P. chrysogenum, P. cyclopium, P. daleae, P. expansum, P. funiculosum, P. roqueforti, P. urticae, P. verruculosum, P. viridicatum, Phoma exiqua, Rhizomucor pusillus, Rhizopus stolonifer, Trichothecium roseum. Abilities of these micromycetes to produce secondary toxic metabolites were determined as well as possible hazard caused to people consuming the contaminated products.

  6. Solid state fermentation (SSF): diversity of applications to valorize waste and biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizardi-Jiménez, M A; Hernández-Martínez, R

    2017-05-01

    Solid state fermentation is currently used in a range of applications including classical applications, such as enzyme or antibiotic production, recently developed products, such as bioactive compounds and organic acids, new trends regarding bioethanol and biodiesel as sources of alternative energy, and biosurfactant molecules with environmental purposes of valorising unexploited biomass. This work summarizes the diversity of applications of solid state fermentation to valorize biomass regarding alternative energy and environmental purposes. The success of applying solid state fermentation to a specific process is affected by the nature of specific microorganisms and substrates. An exhaustive number of microorganisms able to grow in a solid matrix are presented, including fungus such as Aspergillus or Penicillum for antibiotics, Rhizopus for bioactive compounds, Mortierella for biodiesel to bacteria, Bacillus for biosurfactant production, or yeast for bioethanol.

  7. Solid-State Fermentation Reduces Phytic Acid Level, Improves the Profile of Myo-Inositol Phosphates and Enhances the Availability of Selected Minerals in Flaxseed Oil Cake

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Summary Flaxseed oil cake was subjected to fermentation with Rhizopus oligosporus (DSM 1964 and ATCC 64063), and the phytate (InsP6) content, myo-inositol phosphate profile and in vitro bioavailability of essential minerals were studied. Flaxseed oil cake had a phytate mass fraction of 13.9 mg/g. A 96-hour fermentation of flaxseed oil cake by R. oligosporus DSM 1964 and R. oligosporus ATCC 64063 decreased the InsP6 content by 48 and 33%, respectively. The strains had different phytate-degrading activities: fermentation of flaxseed oil cake with R. oligosporus DSM 1964 was more advantageous, yielding InsP3-5 as a predominating myo-inositol compound, while fermentation with R. oligosporus ATCC 64603 produced predominantly InsP5-6. Solid-state fermentation of flaxseed oil cake enhanced in vitro bioavailability of calcium by 14, magnesium by 3.3 and phosphorus by 2–4%. PMID:29089855

  8. A Model of the Effect of the Microbial Biomass on the Isotherm of the Fermenting Solids in Solid-State Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Celuppi Marques

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We compare isotherms for soybeans and soybeans fermented with Rhizopus oryzae, showing that in solid-state fermentation the biomass affects the isotherm of the fermenting solids. Equations are developed to calculate, for a given overall water content of the fermenting solids, the water contents of the biomass and residual substrate, as well as the water activity. A case study, undertaken using a mathematical model of a well-mixed bioreactor, shows that if water additions are made on the basis of the assumption that fermenting solids have the same isotherm as the substrate itself, poor growth can result since the added water does not maintain the water activity at levels favorable for growth. We conclude that the effect of the microbial biomass on the isotherm of the fermenting solids must be taken into account in mathematical models of solid-state fermentation bioreactors.

  9. Fumaric Acid Production: A Biorefinery Perspective

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    Victor Martin-Dominguez

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The increasing scarcity of fossil raw materials, together with the need to develop new processes and technology based on renewable sources, and the need to dispose of an increasing amount of biomass-derived waste, have boosted the concept of biorefineries. Both 1G and 2G biorefineries are focused on the obtention of biofuels, chemicals, materials, food and feed from biomass, a renewable resource. Fumaric acid, and most compounds involved in the Kreb cycle, are considered key platform chemicals, not only for being acidulants and additives in the food industry, but also for their prospective use as monomers. This review is focused on the biotechnological processes based on fungi, mainly of the Rhizopus genus, whose main product is fumaric acid, on the process conditions, the bioreactors and modes of operation and on the purification of the acid once it is produced.

  10. Comparative analysis of solid-state bioprocessing and enzymatic treatment of finger millet for mobilization of bound phenolics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Geetanjali; Singh, Anshu; Bhattacharya, Patrali; Yuvraj, Jude; Banerjee, Rintu

    2013-11-01

    The present work investigates the probable bioprocessing technique to mobilize the bound phenolics naturally found in finger millet cell wall for enriching it with dietary antioxidants. Comparative study was performed between the exogenous enzymatic treatment and solid-state fermentation of grain (SSF) with a food grade organism Rhizopus oryzae. SSF results indicated that at the 6th day of incubation, total phenolic content (18.64 mg gallic acid equivalent/gds) and antioxidant property (DPPH radical scavenging activity of 39.03 %, metal chelating ability of 54 % and better reducing power) of finger millet were drastically enhanced when fermented with GRAS filamentous fungi. During the enzymatic bioprocessing, most of the phenolics released during the hydrolysis, leached out into the liquid portion rather than retaining them within the millet grain, resulting in overall loss of dietary antioxidant. The present study establishes the most effective strategy to enrich the finger millet with phenolic antioxidants.

  11. THE OCCURRENCE OF MICROMYCETES IN THE BREAD SAMPLES AND THEIR POTENTIAL ABILITY PRODUCE MYCOTOXINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Císarová

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determinate microscopic fungi that can cause occurrence of mould in bread. We used breads from experimental baking with different addition of walnuts (0 - 15% as model samples. Bread samples were stored in the fridge, in plastic bags and in the bread box. After three days of storage 25% of samples were moldy. The middle parts of breads (4 pieces, that were not moldy, were stored on DRBC and cultured at 25±1oC for three days. All the colonies of micromycets were inserted on identification agar. Molding of bread samples was caused by species of genera: Aspergillus, Penicillium, Cladosporium and Rhizopus. 28 strains of potentially toxigenic species of genera Aspergillus and Penicillium were tested by TLC method for the ability to produce chosen mycotoxins in conditions in vitro. We discovered the production of cyclopiazonic acid, penitrem A and roquefortin C using mentioned method.

  12. The mycobiota of herbal drug plants in Oman and possible decontamination by gamma radiation

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    A.E. Elshafie

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available The mycobiota of seven herbal plant species were surveyed: Nigella sativa, Zataria multiflora, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Rhazya stricta (seeds and leaves, Haplophyllum tuberculatum, Aristolochia bracteolata and Teucrium muscatense. A total of 24 species of fungi were isolated from the plants (seeds, leaves, flowers and/or stems. No significant differences were found between the mycobiota of the herbal plant species or between the six samples of each plant. Aspergillus niger and Penicillium sp. were the most common species, followed by A. flavus and Rhizopus spp. A. flavus was found in all herbal plants except R. stricta (leaves and Z. multiflora. Aflatoxins were extracted from a number of herbal plants. Some strains of A. flavus isolated from the plants were aflatoxigenic. Gamma radiation at 905.4 Gy showed an average percent inhibition of fungi on some herbal plants between 88.6 and 99.1%. Complete inhibition was obtained at 1836 Gy.

  13. Effect of fermented Banana peel on Broiler Carcass

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    Koni TNI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to examine effect of inclusion of fermented banana peel by Rhyzopus oligosporus in diets on slaughter weight, carcass weight and carcass percentage, weight and percentage abdominal fat of broiler. The experiment was done based on Completely Randomized Design with four treatments and four replications and each replication consisted of six chickens. The treatment were R0 = without banana peel fermented, R1 = 5% banana peel fermented, R2 = 10% banana peel fermented, R3 = 15% banana peel fermented. Data of the experiment were analyzed, using ANOVA and then continued with Duncan's Multiple Range Test. Result showed that level of fermented banana peel affected slaughter weight and carcass weight. However carcass persentage, weight and percentage of abdominal fat was not affected by treatment. Banana peel fermented by Rhizopus oligosporus could can be used maximally 10% in broiler ration.

  14. Root rot diseases of sugar beet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobsen Barry J.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Root rot diseases of sugar beet caused by Rhizoctonia solani (AG 2-2 IIIB and AG 2-2 IV, R. crocorum, Aphanomyces cochlioides, Phoma betae, Macrophomina phaeseolina, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-betae, Pythium aphanidermatum Phytophthora drechsleri, Rhizopus stolonifer, R. arrhizus and Sclerotium rolfsii cause significant losses wherever sugar beets are grown. However, not all these soil-borne pathogens have been reported in all sugar beet production areas. Losses include reduced harvestable tonnage and reduced white sugar recovery. Many of these pathogens also cause post harvest losses in storage piles. Control for diseases caused by these pathogens include disease resistant cultivars, avoidance of stresses, cultural practices such as water management and the use of fungicides.

  15. The Comparative Study Of Saprophytic Fungi In Air Canal, Air, Hospital Instruments And Clinical Samples From Patients With Bone Marrow Transplantation

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    Hashemi S J

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bone Marrow Transplantation is one of the most important therapeutic methods in much malignant and nonmalignant disease. Patients with Bone Marrow Transplantation (BMT following radiotherapy and chemotherapy will suffer from immuno-suppression. Therefore they are susceptible to get saprophytic fungi infection that sometimes are killer. Materials and Methods: The purpose of this cross-sectional survey is isolation of saprophytic fungi from patients with BMT and wards space and instruments. Therefore sampling from ventilator system (HEPA filter and common filter, air canal, air, hospital instruments and clinical samples (nasal discharge, sputum, urine were done and cultured in sabouro dextrose agar with choloramphenicol (SC. In assessing total frequency from 4838 plates of wards space and instruments, 985 fungi colonies includes 21 genus were isolated. Results and Conclusion: Most fungi colonies present were Penicillium , Aspergillus and Cladosporium and low present were Trichoderma ,Stereptomyses, Chrysosporium, Rhizopus.

  16. Production of aflatexin B1 in wheat grains under different environmental storage conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahrous, S.R.; Shahin, A.A.M.; Bothaina, M.Y.

    2000-01-01

    Fungal flora of stored wheat grains and the production of aflatoxin B 1 by Aflavus in wheat grains under different environmental conditions were examined. Aspergillus, Penicillium,. Fusarium, Cladosporium, Curvularia, Epicouccum, Verticilium, Rhizopus, Mucor and Altenaria were the predominant fungi isolated from the collected non-disinfected grains. Aspergillus spp, were only isolated from surface disinfected grains. Of 223 aspergillus spp, isolates only 128 found to aflatoxin producing and all aflatoxin producing-fungi belonged to the Aflavus group. Results demonstrate that Aflavus could produce maximum concentration of aflatoxin B 1 in grains at 20% moisture (163.5 MOU g/kg). The highest concentration of aflatoxin B 1 was produced by Aflavus (10 5 spores/g) in wheat grains with 20% moisture after 20 days at 30 degree and 92.40 % R.H. The aflatoxin production did not increase monotonously as a function of inoculum density

  17. Influence of Gamma-Irradiation and Some Environmental Conditions on the Occurrence of Mycotoxins Producing Moulds in Corn Meal and Wheat Flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahrous, S.M.

    2008-01-01

    In the present investigation, Alternaria, Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, Cladosporium, Rhizopus and Mucor were the most common genera isolated from wheat flour and corn meal. Aspergillus flavus, A.ocllraceus, P. viridieatum,. P.islalldicum, F. monilforme, F. tricinctum,and F. equisetie were aflatoxin B, ochratoxin A and zearalenone producers. Irradiation at a dose 5 kGy reduced the total fungal counts relative to un-irradiated controls. There was no growth at 7.0 kGy. At 18% moisture level, there was no deterioration at 34 degree C for 3 kGy irradiated samples after 2 weeks of storage. A dose of 5 kGy inhibited the toxigenic mould growth in wheat flour and corn meal stored for 12 months at 18% moisture content and at 25 degree C

  18. SANIDADE DE SEMENTES DE GIRASSOL PROVENIENTES DE TRÊS MUNICÍPIOS DO ESTADO DO MARANHÃO

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    Delineide Pereira Gomes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing importance of sunflower leads to studies on seed pathogen, to guarantee crop sanity and to provide identification of pathogens in new areas. Genotypes seeds lots produced in Embrapa Soja assays carried out in tree cities of the State of Maranhão, Brazil (Balsas, São Luís and Timon were analyzed, with the objective of evaluating sanitary quality of sunflower seeds. Sanitary analysis was performed by blotter test method and identification of fungi genera was based on morphological features. The occurrence of Fusarium sp., Alternaria spp., Curvularia sp., Dreschelera sp., Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp., Phoma sp., Trichoderma sp., Botrytis sp., Rhizoctonia sp., Rhizopus sp., Colletotrichum sp., Chaetomium sp., Cladosporium sp. and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum was observed in seeds of sunflower, with variable incidences.

  19. Microbiological analysis of a mummy from the archeological museum in Zagreb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavka, Mislav; Glasnović, Anton; Janković, Ivor; Sikanjić, Petra Rajić; Perić, Berislav; Brkljacić, Boris; Mlinarić-Missoni, Emilija; Skrlin, Jasenka

    2010-09-01

    In this paper we report the results of the microbiological analysis of the samples taken from the mummy from the collection of the Archaeological museum in Zagreb, Croatia. Samples were taken from specific places such as oral, orbital, abdominal cavity and bandages surrounding the mummy, and analyzed in Department of Microbiology and Hospital Infections in University Hospital "Dubrava" in Zagreb and in National Reference Laboratory for systemic mycoses of Croatian National Institute of Public Health in Zagreb. The analysis indicated that all of the found organisms were non-primary pathogenic and are not harmful for healthy humans. Isolated microorganisms mainly belonged to the group of saprophytic fungi as listed: Monilia spp., Penicillium spp., Alternaria spp., Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus nidulans, Rhizopus spp. and Chrysosporium spp. and to the genus of saprophytic bacteria, Bacillus spp.

  20. Balanced trafficking between the ER and the Golgi apparatus increases protein secretion in yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bao, Jichen; Huang, Mingtao; Petranovic, Dina

    2018-01-01

    of ADP-ribosylation factor GTP activating proteins, Gcs1p and Glo3p, which are involved in the process of COPI-coated vesicle formation. Engineering the retrograde trafficking increased the secretion of alpha-amylase but did not induce production of reactive oxygen species. An expanded ER membrane......The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is widely used as a cell factory to produce recombinant proteins. However, S. cerevisiae naturally secretes only a few proteins, such as invertase and the mating alpha factor, and its secretory capacity is limited. It has been reported that engineering protein...... recombinant proteins, endoglucanase I from Trichoderma reesei and glucan-1,4-alpha-glucosidase from Rhizopus oryzae, indicating overexpression of GLO3 in a SEC16 moderate overexpression strain might be a general strategy for improving production of secreted proteins by yeast....

  1. Inactivation of contaminated fungi and antioxidant effects of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch cv Dangeumdo) by 0.5-2 kGy gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyoung-Hee; Kim, Mi-Seon [Department of Food and Nutrition, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hong-Gi [Department of Applied Biology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Yook, Hong-Sun, E-mail: yhsuny@naver.co [Department of Food and Nutrition, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    The effect of gamma irradiation (0.5-2 kGy) on the physicochemical properties of peaches was investigated during a 6-day storage at 20+-3 deg. C. Gamma irradiation is able to inactivate the four pathogens, namely Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium expansum, Rhizopus stolonifer var. stolonifer and Monilinia fructicola in peaches. Hardness significantly decreased with the increment of irradiation dose level whereas soluble solid and total polyphenol contents increased with increment of irradiation dose level. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity of the irradiated peach was higher than that of control, and its activity increased with increment of irradiation dose level. These results suggest that gamma irradiation of peaches improved antioxidant activity, but dramatically affects the hardness throughout the entire storage time.

  2. Microbial efficacy of phosphate solubilization in agro-saline soils of various areas of sindh region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noor, A.A.; Shah, F.A.

    2013-01-01

    Microorganisms are the most prominent entities for solubilization of phosphate in various soils of different areas of Sindh Province including Tando Muhammad Khan, Tando Allah Yar, Nawabshah, Rato Dero-Larkana, Shikarpur and Umer Kot. These soils, having varying concentrations of chemicals, different climatic conditions, pH and varying numbers of microorganisms for PSA (Phosphate Solubilization Activity). This presentation shows the isolation of different fungi and bacteria capable Psa including fungi (Fusarium sp. Aspergillus sp. Penicillium sp. and Rhizopus sp.) and bacteria (Bacillus sp. Pseudomonas sp. and Arthrobacter sp.). From the observations, it was revealed that fungi Aspergillus sp. and Bacillus sp. showed greater phosphate solubilization activity as compared to other fungi and bacteria showing 60 and 53.33% Psa (Phosphate Solubilizing Activity) respectively. (author)

  3. Convenient enzymatic resolution of (R,S)-2-methylbutyric acid catalyzed by immobilized lipases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittersteiner, Mateus; Linshalm, Bruna Luiza; Vieira, Ana Paula Furlan; Brondani, Patrícia Bulegon; Scharf, Dilamara Riva; de Jesus, Paulo Cesar

    2018-01-01

    The application of several immobilized lipases has been explored in the enantioselective esterification of (R,S)-2-methylbutyric acid, an insect pheromone precursor. With the use of Candida antarctica B, using hexane as solvent, (R)-pentyl 2-methylbutyrate was prepared in 2 h with c 40%, ee p 90%, and E = 35, while Thermomyces lanuginosus leads to c 18%, ee p 91%, and E = 26. The (S)-enantiomer was obtained by the use of Candida rugosa or Rhizopus oryzae (2-h reaction, c 34% and 35%, ee p 75 and 49%, and E = 10 and 4, respectively). Under optimal conditions, the effect of the solvent, the molar ratio, and the nucleophile were evaluated. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Unusual Infections Complicating the Use of Steroids with Severe Alcoholic Hepatitis: Report of 2 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Arantes

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Corticosteroid therapy for acute alcoholic hepatitis has been demonstrated to enhance survival in patients who are encephalopathic, and who do not have renal failure or gastrointestinal bleeding. However, the complications of steroid therapy in such patients have been less well documented. The authors report two patients with alcoholic liver disease who developed life-threatening infections after steroid therapy was started. The first patient initially developed diabetes followed by Fournier's gangrene of the perineum, and a lung abscess following septic emboli. The second patient had established alcoholic cirrhosis rather than alcoholic hepatitis. She developed a necrotic ulcer on the arm at the site of an intravenous line, which was infected with a rhizopus species. Despite surgical debridement the lesion progressed and contributed to her death. Treatment of alcoholic hepatitis with steroids is not innocuous, and physicians should be aware of the potential for life-threatening complications.

  5. MICROSCOPIC FUNGI ISOLATED FROM POLISH HONEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soňa Felšöciová

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of some honey samples from Poland was carried out on the basis of their microbiological (fungi and yeasts analysis. Most of the samples contained less than 20 % water. The amount of fungi found in the honey samples was less than 1 x 102 CFU.g-1 but 19 % of the samples had more yeasts than 1 x 102 CFU.g-1 – up to 5.7 x 102 CFU.g-1. The isolated fungi were Alternaria spp., Aspergillus spp., Cladosporium spp., Fusarium spp., Mycelia sterilia, Rhizopus spp. and Penicillium spp. The last genus was isolated very frequently. A total number of eight fungal Penicillium species were identified namely, Penicillium brevicompactum, P. commune, P. corylophilum, P. crustosum, P. expansum, P. griseofulvum, P. chrysogenum and P. polonicum. They were isolated using dilution plate method. The results showed that honeys produced in this region are of good microbiological quality.

  6. Direct Surface Analysis of Fungal Species by Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentine, Nancy B.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Wahl, Jon H.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Kingsley, Mark T.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Wahl, Karen L.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

    2001-12-01

    Intact spores and/or hyphae of Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus oryzae, Trichoderma reesei and Phanerochaete chrysosporium are analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). This study investigates various methods of sample preparation and matrices to determine optimum collection and analysis criteria for fungal analysis by MALDI-MS. Fungi are applied to the MALDI sample target as untreated, sonicated, acid/heat treated, or blotted directly from the fungal culture with double-stick tape. Ferulic acid or sinapinic acid matrix solution is layered over the dried samples and analyzed by MALDI-MS. Statistical analysis of the data show that simply using double stick tape to collect and transfer to a MALDI sample plate typically worked as well as the other preparation methods, but requires the least sample handling.

  7. Invasive Mucormycosis Induced Pneumopericardium: A Rare Cause of Pneumopericardium in an Immunocompromised Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sana Khan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucor and Rhizopus cause life-threatening infections primarily involving the lungs and sinuses, which disseminate very rapidly by necrosis and infarction of the contiguous tissues. We present a case of a 64-year-old African American posttransplant patient who presented with a productive cough and weight loss. He had a past surgical history of renal transplant for renal cell carcinoma and was on dual immunosuppressive therapy, that is, mycophenolate and tacrolimus. During his hospital stay, he developed a pneumopericardium due to the direct extension of a lung lesion. The diagnosis was made by radiological imaging and PCR result which was consistent with Mucor species. He was treated with antifungal therapy. The purpose of this report is to highlight the unusual association of mucormycosis with pneumopericardium.

  8. Antifungal Activity of the Crude Extracts and Extracted Phenols from Gametophytes and Sporophytes of Two Species of Adiantum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyali Guha (Ghosh

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The water extracts and extracted phenols from gametophytes and different parts of sporophytes of the two ferns, Adiantum capillus-veneris L. and Adiantum lunulatum Burm. f., used as folkloric medicines in India, China, Tibet, America, Philippines and Italy, were investigated for their antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus stolonifer. Both crude extracts and extracted phenols of gametophytes and different parts of sporophytes of both fern species were found to be bioactive against the fungal strains. Antifungal activity was found to be higher in gametophytes than different parts of sporophytes. Among the different parts of sporophyte, immature pinnule possesses highest fungistatic property. Adiantum capillus-veneris was found a better antifungal agent than Adiantum lunulatum.

  9. Isolation and identification mould micoflora inhabiting plant leaf litter from Mount Lawu, Surakarta, Central Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHAMMAD ILYAS

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A study on isolation and identification mould inhabiting plant leaf litter had been conducted. The objective of the study was to isolate and identify mould inhabiting plant leaf litter from Mount Lawu, Surakarta, Central Java. The mould isolation was based on washing and filtering with membrane isolation method. The result showed that 39 moulds generas with 55 species varians, one group identified in class level, and three groups of unidentified mould isolates had been isolated. Taxas distributions showed that there were endophyte and phytopatogen mould isolates had been isolated such as Fusarium, Pestalotiopsis, Phoma, and Coelomycetes. However, typical soil taxa and common saprobic fungi such as Aspergillus, Cunninghamella, Mucor, Paecilomyces, Penicillium, Rhizopus, and Trichoderma remain dominated the resulted isolates.

  10. Survey of root rot diseases of sugar bett in Central Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karadimos Dimitros A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available An extensive survey was conducted during the summer and autumn of 2004 in sugar beet fields in the area of Larissa, Thessaly region, with plants showing symptoms of root rot diseases. The aim of the monitoring was to identify the causal agents of root rot diseases. In total, 76 sugar beet fields were surveyed and 5-10 diseased roots were examined from each field. Isolations, carried out on PDA, showed that two main fungal pathogens causing root rot were Rhizoctonia solani and Phytophthora cryptogea. The former was isolated in 46% of the fields and the latter in 38% of the fields. In addition, Rhizopus stolonifer, Fusarium spp., Scerotium rolfsii and Rhizoctonia violacea were isolated in 14%, 7%, 4% and 1% of the fields respectively. In most of the surveyed fields only one pathogen species was isolated and only in a few of them more than one fungal species was identified.

  11. Preparation of (S)-1-Halo-2-octanols Using Ionic Liquids and Biocatalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oromí-Farrús, Mireia; Eras, Jordi; Sala, Núria; Torres, Mercè; Canela, Ramon

    2009-10-23

    Preparation of (S)-1-chloro-2-octanol and (S)-1-bromo-2-octanol was carried out by the enzymatic hydrolysis of halohydrin palmitates using biocatalysts. Halohydrin palmitates were prepared by various methods from palmitic acid and 1,2-octanediol. A tandem hydrolysis was carried out using lipases from Candida antarctica (Novozym 435), Rhizomucor miehei (Lipozyme IM), and "resting cells" from a Rhizopus oryzae strain that was not mycotoxigenic. The influence of the enzyme and the reaction medium on the selective hydrolysis of isomeric mixtures of halohydrin esters is described. Novozym 435 allowed preparation of (S)-1-chloro-2-octanol and (S)-1-bromo-2-octanol after 1-3 h of reaction at 40 degrees C in [BMIM][PF(6)].

  12. Microbial production of gaseous hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Hideo

    1987-10-20

    Microbial production of ethylene, isobutane and a saturated gaseous hydrocarbon mixture was described. Microbial ethylene production was studied with Penicillium digitatum IFO 9372 and a novel pathway of the ethylene biosynthesis through alpha-ketoglutarate was proposed. Rhodotorula minuta IFO 1102 was selected for the microbial production of isobutane and the interesting actions of L-leucine and L-phenylalanine for the isobutane production were found. It was finally presented about the microbial production of a saturated gaseous hydrocarbon mixture with Rhizopus japonicus IFO 4758 was described. A gas mixture was produced through a chemical reaction of SH compounds and some cellular component such as squalene under aerobic conditions. (4 figs, 7 tabs, 41 refs)

  13. Antimicrobial Activity of Some Synthetic Compounds on Fungi Associated with Post Harvest Rot of Red Pepper (Capsicum annum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew O. KOLAWOLE

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Rhizopus sp, Mucor sp, Collectotrichum capsici and Geotrichum candidum were isolated but pathogenic test revealed that Collectotrichum capsici and Geotrichum candidum were the most pathogenic of all the isolates. Ni2+ + Azo has the highest inhibitory effect, closely followed by Ni2+ + PAN while Copper (II complex of Thiourea has the lowest inhibitory effect. However, 10mg/ml concentration proved to be the most effective when radial mycelial growth of the test fungi was measured. The inhibitory effects of each complex on the isolates increases with increase in incubation period. There is the feasibility of using synthetic associated with the symptoms. The three synthetic compounds, Copper (II complex of Thiourea, Ni2+ + compounds as preservatives for harvested red pepper.

  14. Pharmacological and spectral studies of synthetic biomimetic copper complexes derived from 3-hydroxyflavone derivatives as anti-inflammatory agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nagashri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Novel biomimetic ligands were synthesized by the condensation of 3-hydroxyflavone, 2-aminophenol(L1/2-aminobenzoic acid (L2 and-aminothiazole (L3. Their Cu(II complexes have also been synthesized and characterized on the basis of 1H NMR, IR, UV–Vis spectra, elemental analyses, molar conductivity, ESR, electrochemical behaviour and thermal analyses. The antimicrobial activities (MIC values of the ligands, copper complexes and standard drugs have been evaluated using the serial dilution technique against the bacterial species Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and fungal species Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus flavus, Rhizoctonia bataicola and Candida albicans. The anti-inflammatory and SOD activities of the investigated compounds are also promising and allow the selection of a lead compound for further biological studies.

  15. Combining regio- and enantioselectivity of lipases for the preparation of (R)-4-chloro-2-butanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Jonh J; Oromi, Mireia; Cervero, Maria; Balcells, Mercè; Torres, Mercè; Canela, Ramon

    2007-01-01

    Preparation of 98% ee (R)-4-chloro-2-butanol was carried out by the enzymatic hydrolysis of chlorohydrin esters, using fungal resting cells and commercial enzymes. Hydrolyzes were carried out using lipases from Candida antarctica (Novozym 435), C. rugosa, Rhizomucor miehei (Lipozyme IM), Burkolia cepacia, and resting cells of Rhizopus oryzae and Aspergillus flavus. The influence of the enzyme, the solvent, the temperature, and the alkyl chain length on the selectivity of hydrolyzes of isomeric mixtures of chlorohydrin esters is described. Regioselectivity was higher than 95% for some of the tested lipases. Novozym 435 allowed preparation of the (R)-4-chloro-2-butanol after 15 min of reaction at 30-40 degrees C. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. The study of mildew proof effect of 60Co γ irradiation on leather shoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Caixuan; Deng Zhiqun; Yu Qin; Zeng Daonan; Deng Guili

    1992-01-01

    Leather products occupy an important place in the national economy. In order to prevent from mildewing of leather products in storage, transportation and sale, the packed shoes were irradiated with 60 Co γ ray. Test materials are cattle, sheep and pig leather shoes. The results shows that: 1. There are 11 types of molds which make leather shoes mildewed: Oospora sp, Rhizopus oryzae Went and Grrelings, Aspergillus flavus Link, Aspergillus terreus thom, Monilia sp, Botrytis sp, Aspergillus niger V. Tiegh, Penicillum Lividum Westling, Penicillum Corylophilum Dieckx, Penicillum Cyaneum (B. and S.) Biourge and Penicillum Verrulosum Peeyrone. 2. The three types of shoes packed with polyethylene film can be prevented from mildewing after irradiation at level of 12 kGy. 3. The irradiation at 30 kGy does not change the physical properties of the shoes. 4. The irradiated shoes packed with polyethylene film can prevent mildewing, but unpacked ones would be mildewed again

  17. Degradation of natural cellulose by thermophilic and thermotolerant fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakre, A P; Johri, B N

    1981-06-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus Friesen, Sporotrichum sp., Thermoascus aurantiacus Miche and Torula thermophila Cooney and Emerson were able to degrade filter paper to an appreciable extent. Absidia corymbifera (Cohn) Saccardo et Trotter, Rhizopus microsporus van Tieghem and R. rhizopodiformis (Cohn) Zopf could not degrade filter paper though they were able to grow on the media supplied. The fungi able to degrade filter paper were also capable of elaborating extracellular cellulase and produced sufficient hydrolysis of carboxymethyl cellulose. The Cx enzyme was stable at 45 degrees C for 25 days. An incubation period of 15 to 25 days was sufficient not only to degrade CMC but even more complex substrates, such as jute, cotton and filter paper. The cellulases of these fungi were inductive in nature. (Refs. 11).

  18. Xerotolerant mycopopulations and mycotoxins in muesli components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimić Gordana R.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of fungi was investigated in 22 samples of different dried plant origin products used for the preparation of muesli (grain products, dried fruit, nuts, oilseeds, using three media. The determined contamination levels were between 0,6% (grain products and 46,4% (raisins. The xerotolerant Aspergillus, Penicillium and Eurotium species, mostly toxigenic and fungi from Rhizopus genera, were the most frequent in the investigated samples. Aflatoxin B1 (AB1 was not detected in any sample, while aflatoxin G1 (AG1 was found in one almond sample (0,14 μg/kg. Two almond samples were contaminated with ochratoxin A (OA, 8,00 and 16,00 μg/kg, and one sunflowerseed sample had it in traces. Zearalenone was found in two sunflowerseed samples (120,00 and 200,00 _g/kg.

  19. Ecological screening of lipolytic cultures and process optimization for extracellular lipase production from fungal hyperproducer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iftikhar, T.; Niaz, M.; Anwer, M.; Abbas, S.Q.; Saleem, M.; Jabeen, R.

    2011-01-01

    Present investigation describes the biosynthesis of extracellular lipases by various local fungal strains isolated from various lipid rich habitats of Faisalabad. The isolated cultures of Aspergillus niger, Penicillium chrysogenum, Rhizopus microsporus, Mucor mucedo, Alternaria alternata, Trichophyton sp., Fusarium semitectum, E (un-identified), Curvularia sp., Aspergillus flavus, G (un-identified), F (Mucor sp.) and H (Synnematous) were identified and screened for the extracelluler lipases production. Different environmental parameters such as pH, temperature, inoculum size, amount of substrate and incubation time were optimized for the selected hyper producer. It was found that maximum production of lipases by Trichophyton sp., was obtained after 48 h of batch fermentation. Similarly, the diluent pH of 7.0 and incubation temperature of 30 deg. C were found optimum for enzyme production by the microorganism. The maximum production of lipases during the course of present studies was 65.20 +- 1.13a U/g. (author)

  20. Jamur Perusak Pendap Makanan Khas Tradisional Bengkulu

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    Hasanuddin Hasanuddin

    2016-04-01

    ABSTRACT. Pendap is a traditional Bengkulu food prepared from fermentation of fish. The research was conducted to identify molds caused spoilage of pendap, and to select the species of molds which were able to use for other process in microbiology. The data in this study were laboratory analysis. Samples were collected weekly in a month from productions centre of Pendap  and traditional markets, and analyzed microbiologically to determine and identify the  molds which were contaminated. There were four specieses of molds found in pendap after three days storage in room condition, namely Rhizopus stolonifer, Mucor sp, Aspergillus terreus, and Penicillim sp. While two specieses which were not produce toxin and the other two were known as the molds which were produced mycotoxin.

  1. IDENTIFIKASI KAPANG PADA KECAP KEDELAI MANIS PRODUKSI LOKAL KEDIRI DENGAN METODE PENGENCERAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durroh Humairoh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Kecap kedelai merupakan salah satu produk fermentasi yang telah dikenal sejak ribuan tahun yang lalu di berbagai negara termasuk Indonesia. Namun kecap kedelai manis merupakan produk kecap kedelai yang merupakan produk khas Indonesia. Faktor keamanan pangan berkaitan dengan tercemar tidaknya pangan oleh cemaran mikrobiologis, logam berat, dan bahan kimia yang membahayakan kesehatan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui jumlah kapang dan jenis kapang yang ditemukan pada sampel kecap produk lokal Kediri. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode pengenceran hingga 101 dari 10 sampel kecap kedelai manis produksi lokal Kediri dengan merek yang berbeda. Hasil pengamatan menunjukkan bahwa pada sampel kecap kedelai manis ditemukan jumlah kapang sebanyak < 50 koloni/ml pada setiap sampelnya dan jenis kapang yang ditemukan meliputi Penicillium sp., Aspergillus sp., Rhizopus sp., dan Mucor sp. sehingga dapat disimpulkan bahwa kecap produksi Kediri aman dikonsumsi karena sesuai standar yang ditetapkan Pemerintah dalam SNI 3543: 2013.   Kata kunci: Jumlah koloni, Jenis kapang, Kecap kedelai manis, produk lokal Kediri

  2. Mucormycosis in a diabetic patient: A case report with an insight into its pathophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syeda Neelam Afroze

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucormycosis is one of the most rapidly progressing and fulminant forms of fungal infection which usually begins in the nose and paranasal sinuses following inhalation of fungal spores. It is caused by organisms of the subphylum Mucormycotina, including genera as Absidia, Mucor, Rhizomucor, and Rhizopus. The incidence of mucormycosis is approximately 1.7 cases per 1,000,000 inhabitants per year. Mucormycosis affecting the maxilla is rare because of rich blood vessel supply of maxillofacial areas although more virulent fungi such as Mucor can overcome this difficulty. The common form of this infection is seen in the rhinomaxillary region and in patients with immunocompromised state such as diabetes. Hence, early diagnosis of this potentially life-threatening disease and prompt treatment is of prime importance in reducing the mortality rate.

  3. Effects of Occupational Exposure on the Health of Rag Pickers Due to Fungal Contamination at Waste Dumping Sites in Gwalipor (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harandra K. Sharma

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigated fungal contamination near different waste dumping sites and assessed the health risk factors of rag pickers associated with collection of waste in Gwalior during the year 2014-15. Petri plates were exposed at waste dumping sites and were transferred to the laboratory, analysis and identification was mainly carried out by culturing the fungal colonies by following standard procedures. A pretested questionnaire was used to evaluate the health problems among the rag pickers. Results indicated that all the dumping sites are contaminated with different types of fungal pathogens like Alternaria alternate, Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigates, A. niger, Cladosporium, Fusarium, Mucor, Penicillium and Rhizopus. Our study reported higher incidence of musculoskeletal and respiratory diseases among rag pickers. There is also strong need for carrying out similar assessment studies for other cities too. This will entail generation of more precise site specific information regarding fungal species and associated health risk factor.

  4. Isolation, identification and anti-candidal activity of filamentous fungi from Saudi Arabia soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouf M. Al-Enazi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Ten fungal strains; namely, Penicillium melinii, Petriella setifera, Aspergillus pseudo-niger, Alternaria chlamydospora, Pythium nayoroense, Phoma glomerata, Mucor ramosissimus, Mucor racemosus, Fusarium chlamydosporum and Rhizopus azygosporus were isolated from soil. The extra- and intra-cellular extracts of the fungal strains grown on malt extract and yeast-extract sucrose media were screened for their anticandidal activity against different clinically-isolated Candida species. Most of the fungal extracts showed activity against different Candida species. However, the fungal strains grew on malt extract showed greater activities than those grew on yeast extract sucrose media. The activity of the intracellular was higher than the extracellular metabolites. All fungal extracts (extra and intra were similar in chemical constituent; they contained carbohydrates and/or glycosides, unsaturated sterols and/or triterpens, tannins and traces of coumarins. Alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, anthraquinones and cardenolides were no detected. The intra-cellular extracts contained more compounds than the extra-cellular extracts.

  5. Effects of Occupational Exposure on the Health of Rag Pickers Due to Fungal Contamination at Waste Dumping Sites in Gwalior (India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harandra K. Sharma

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigated fungal contamination near different waste dumping sites and assessed the health risk factors of rag pickers associated with collection of waste in Gwalior during the year 2014-15. Petri plates were exposed at waste dumping sites and were transferred to the laboratory, analysis and identification was mainly carried out by culturing the fungal colonies by following standard procedures. A pretested questionnaire was used to evaluate the health problems among the rag pickers. Results indicated that all the dumping sites are contaminated with different types of fungal pathogens like Alternaria alternate, Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigates, A. niger, Cladosporium, Fusarium, Mucor, Penicillium and Rhizopus. Our study reported higher incidence of musculoskeletal and respiratory diseases among rag pickers. There is also strong need for carrying out similar assessment studies for other cities too. This will entail generation of more precise site specific information regarding fungal species and associated health risk factor.

  6. Pepsin Egg White Hydrolysate Ameliorates Obesity-Related Oxidative Stress, Inflammation and Steatosis in Zucker Fatty Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Garcés-Rimón

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of the administration of egg white hydrolysates on obesity-related disorders, with a focus on lipid metabolism, inflammation and oxidative stress, in Zucker fatty rats. Obese Zucker rats received water, pepsin egg white hydrolysate (750 mg/kg/day or Rhizopus aminopeptidase egg white hydrolysate (750 mg/kg/day for 12 weeks. Lean Zucker rats received water. Body weight, solid and liquid intakes were weekly measured. At the end of the study, urine, faeces, different organs and blood samples were collected. The consumption of egg white hydrolysed with pepsin significantly decreased the epididymal adipose tissue, improved hepatic steatosis, and lowered plasmatic concentration of free fatty acids in the obese animals. It also decreased plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and reduced oxidative stress. Pepsin egg white hydrolysate could be used as a tool to improve obesity-related complications.

  7. Production of ethanol from cassava pulp via fermentation with a surface-engineered yeast strain displaying glucoamylase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosugi, Akihiko; Murata, Yoshinori; Arai, Takamitsu; Mori, Yutaka [Post-harvest Science and Technology Division, Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences (JIRCAS), 1-1 Ohwashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8686 (Japan); Kondo, Akihiko [Department of Chemical Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kobe University, Nada-ku, Kobe, 657-8501 (Japan); Ueda, Mitsuyoshi [Department of Applied Biochemistry, Division of Applied Life Sciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Vaithanomsat, Pilanee; Thanapase, Warunee [Nanotechnology and Biotechnology Division, Kasetsart Agricultural and Agro-Industrial Product Improvement Institute (KAPI), Kasetsart University, 50 Chatuchak, Ladyao, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand)

    2009-05-15

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) pulp, produced in large amounts as a by-product of starch manufacturing, is a major biomass resource in Southeast Asian countries. It contains abundant starch (approximately 60%) and cellulose fiber (approximately 20%). To effectively utilize the cassava pulp, an attempt was made to convert its components to ethanol using a sake-brewing yeast displaying glucoamylase on the cell surface. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Kyokai no. 7 (strain K7) displaying Rhizopus oryzae glucoamylase, designated strain K7G, was constructed using the C-terminal-half region of {alpha}-agglutinin. A sample of cassava pulp was pretreated with a hydrothermal reaction (140 C for 1 h), followed by treatment with a Trichoderma reesei cellulase to hydrolyze the cellulose in the sample. The K7G strain fermented starch and glucose in pretreated samples without addition of amylolytic enzymes, and produced ethanol in 91% and 80% of theoretical yield from 5% and 10% cassava pulp, respectively. (author)

  8. PENGARUH FERMENTASI TERHADAP KANDUNGAN PROTEIN DAN KOMPOSISI ASAM AMINO DALAM SINGKONG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almasyhuri Almasyhuri

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Effects of Solid Fermentation on Protein Content and Amino Acid Composition of Cassava.This study was carried out to assess the protein and amino acid quantity of solid fermentation of cassava (Manihot esculenta using pure culture of the Rhizopus oligosporus and traditional inoculum (laru. The protein content of the fermented product was analyzed by Biuret method, and the animo acid composition by HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography method. The results showed that solid fermentation of cassava increased the protein content from 2.1% to 4.0% and 4.7%. The animo acid contents of the fermented product increased 2.5 folds of that of cassava. Higher increase was seen in substrates fermented with traditional inoculum. This is due to the addition of coconut oil and ammonium to the cassava substrate which improved the growth of mold.Key words: cassava (Manihot esculenta, food fermentation, protein content, amino acid composition

  9. Rhinocerebral mucormycosis: A report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkateswarlu Nallapu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucormycosis is an acute opportunistic infection caused by saprophytic fungus of class Phycomycetes order Mucorales and family Mucoracae, found in soil, bread molds, and decaying fruits and vegetables. Even though this fungus is ubiquitous in the nature, the disease is usually prevented by immune system and is therefore rare. Rhizopus, Rhizomucor, Absidia and Cunninghamella are the most common species associated with Mucormycosis. Diabetes, chronic kidney disease, desferroxamine use in dialysis, leukemia, lymphoma, immunocompromised state, burns and open wounds are the risk factors of mucormycosis. Out of six clinical entities of mucormycosis, rhinocerebral mucormycosis is the most common variety which includes three subtypes rhinomaxillary, rhino-orbital and rhino-orbitocerebral mucormycosis. Here are two case reports of Rhinocerebral mucormycosis of different subtypes emphasizing the role of early detection of the disease to limit the spread of infection and reducing the morbidity and mortality.

  10. Outcome of mucormycosis after treatment: report of five cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Bellazreg

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Mucormycoses are serious infections caused by filamentous fungi of the order Mucorales. They occur most often in immunocompromised patients. We report five cases of mucormycosis in patients hospitalized in the Infectious Diseases Department in Sousse – Tunisia between 2000 and 2013. They were 4 males and one female, mean age 60 years. Three patients were diabetic and one patient had acute leukemia. The locations of mucormycosis were rhinocerebral, rhino-orbital, auricular, pulmonary and cutaneous. The Mucorales isolated were Rhizopus arrhizus in 3 cases and Lichteimia in 2 cases. All patients were treated with amphotericin B and 2 patients had, in addition, surgical debridement. Two patients died and 2 kept peripheral facial paralysis.

  11. In Vitro Activity of Isavuconazole and Comparators against Clinical Isolates of the Mucorales Order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Jensen, Rasmus Hare; Meletiadis, Joseph

    2015-12-01

    The in vitro activity of isavuconazole against Mucorales isolates measured by EUCAST E.Def 9.2 and CLSI M38-A2 methodologies was investigated in comparison with those of amphotericin B, posaconazole, and voriconazole. Seventy-two isolates were included: 12 of Lichtheimia corymbifera, 5 of Lichtheimia ramosa, 5 of group I and 9 of group II of Mucor circinelloides, 9 of Rhizomucor pusillus, 26 of Rhizopus microsporus, and 6 of Rhizopus oryzae. Species identification was confirmed by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing. EUCAST MICs were read on day 1 (EUCAST-d1) and day 2 (EUCAST-d2), and CLSI MICs were read on day 2 (CLSI-d2). Isavuconazole MIC50s (range) (mg/liter) by EUCAST-d1, CLSI-d2, and EUCAST-d2 were 1 (0.125 to 16), 1 (0.125 to 2), and 4 (0.5 to >16), respectively, across all isolates. The similar values for comparator drugs were as follows: posaconazole, 0.25 (≤ 0.03 to >16), 0.25 (0.06 to >16), and 1 (0.06 to >16); amphotericin, 0.06 (≤ 0.03 to 0.5), 0.06 (≤ 0.03 to 0.25), and 0.125 (≤ 0.03 to 1); voriconazole, 16 (2 to >16), 8 (1 to >16), and >16 (8 to >16), respectively. Isavuconazole activity varied by species: Lichtheimia corymbifera, 1 (0.5 to 2), 1 (1 to 2), and 2 (1 to 4); Lichtheimia ramosa, 0.25 (0.125 to 0.5), 1 (0.5 to 2), and 2 (0.5 to 4); Rhizomucor pusillus, 0.5 (0.5 to 1), 1 (0.125 to 1), and 2 (1 to 2); Rhizopus microsporus, 1 (0.5 to 4), 0.5 (0.125 to 1), and 4 (1 to 8); and Rhizopus oryzae, 1 (0.5 to 4), 1 (0.125 to 2), and 4 (0.5 to 8), respectively, were more susceptible than Mucor circinelloides: group I, 8 (4 to 8), 4 (2 to 4), and 16 (2 to 16), respectively, and group II, 8 (1 to 16), 8 (1 to 8), and 16 (4 to >16), respectively. This was also observed for posaconazole. The essential agreement was best between EUCAST-d1 and CLSI-d2 (75% to 83%). Isavuconazole displayed in vitro activity against Mucorales isolates with the exception of Mucor circinelloides. The MICs were in general 1 to 3 steps higher than those for

  12. An integrated genomic and transcriptomic survey of mucormycosis-causing fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibucos, Marcus C.; Soliman, Sameh; Gebremariam, Teclegiorgis; Lee, Hongkyu; Daugherty, Sean; Orvis, Joshua; Shetty, Amol C.; Crabtree, Jonathan; Hazen, Tracy H.; Etienne, Kizee A.; Kumari, Priti; O'Connor, Timothy D.; Rasko, David A.; Filler, Scott G.; Fraser, Claire M.; Lockhart, Shawn R.; Skory, Christopher D.; Ibrahim, Ashraf S.; Bruno, Vincent M.

    2016-01-01

    Mucormycosis is a life-threatening infection caused by Mucorales fungi. Here we sequence 30 fungal genomes, and perform transcriptomics with three representative Rhizopus and Mucor strains and with human airway epithelial cells during fungal invasion, to reveal key host and fungal determinants contributing to pathogenesis. Analysis of the host transcriptional response to Mucorales reveals platelet-derived growth factor receptor B (PDGFRB) signaling as part of a core response to divergent pathogenic fungi; inhibition of PDGFRB reduces Mucorales-induced damage to host cells. The unique presence of CotH invasins in all invasive Mucorales, and the correlation between CotH gene copy number and clinical prevalence, are consistent with an important role for these proteins in mucormycosis pathogenesis. Our work provides insight into the evolution of this medically and economically important group of fungi, and identifies several molecular pathways that might be exploited as potential therapeutic targets. PMID:27447865

  13. Rapid screening for human-pathogenic Mucorales using rolling circle amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolatabadi, S; Najafzadeh, M J; de Hoog, G S

    2014-12-01

    Mucormycosis has emerged as a relatively common severe mycosis in patients with haematological and allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Source of transmission is from unidentified sources in the environment. Early diagnosis of infection and its source of contamination are paramount for rapid and appropriate therapy. In this study, rolling circle amplification (RCA) is introduced as a sensitive, specific and reproducible isothermal DNA amplification technique for rapid molecular identification of six of the most virulent species (Rhizopus microsporus, R. arrhizus var. arrhizus, R. arrhizus var. delemar, Mucor irregularis, Mucor circinelloides, Lichtheimia ramosa, Lichtheimia corymbifera). DNAs of target species were successfully amplified, with no cross reactivity between species. RCA can be considered as a rapid detection method with high specificity and sensitivity, suitable for large screening. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Specific characteristics of family 45 endoglucanases from Mucorales in the use of textiles and laundry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimonaka, Atsushi; Koga, Jinichiro; Baba, Yuko; Nishimura, Tomoko; Murashima, Koichiro; Kubota, Hidetoshi; Kono, Toshiaki

    2006-04-01

    We examined the characteristics of family 45 endoglucanases (glycoside hydrolases family 45; GH45) from Mucorales belonging to Zygomycota in the use of textiles and laundry. The defibrillation activities on lyocell fabric of family 45 endoglucanases from Mucorales, such as RCE1 and RCE2 from Rhizopus oryzae, MCE1 and MCE2 from Mucor circinelloides, and PCE1 from Phycomyces nitens, were much higher than those of the other family 45 endoglucanases. By contrast, family 45 endoglucanases from Mucorales were less resistant to anionic surfactant and oxidizing agent, main components in detergents, than the other family 45 endoglucanases. RCE1 consists of two distinct modules, a catalytic module and a carbohydrate-binding module family 1 (CBM1), and these common specific characteristics were considered to due to the catalytic module, but not to the CBM1.

  15. Microbial transformation of tannin-rich substrate to gallic acid through co-culture method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Rintu; Mukherjee, Gargi; Patra, Krushna Chandra

    2005-05-01

    Modified solid-state fermentation (MSSF) of tannin-rich substrate yielding tannase and gallic acid was carried out using a co-culture of the filamentous fungi, Rhizopus oryzae (RO IIT RB-13, NRRL 21498) and Aspergillus foetidus (GMRB013 MTCC 3557). Powdered fruits of Terminalia chebula and powdered pod cover of Caesalpinia digyna was used in the process and the different process parameters for maximum production of tannase and gallic acid by co-culture method were optimized through media engineering. MSSF was carried out at the optimum conditions of 30 degrees C and 80% relative humidity. The optimal pH and incubation period was 5.0 and 48 h respectively. Through the co-culture technique the maximum yield of tannase and gallic acid was found to be 41.3 U/ml and 94.8% respectively.

  16. Cutaneous mucormycosis in advanced HIV disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, José; Ridolfi, Felipe; Almeida-Paes, Rodrigo; Varon, Andrea; Lamas, Cristiane C

    Angionvasive mucormycosis is an emerging fungal disease known to affect mainly diabetics or subjects with profound neutropenia. Infection usually occurs through the inhalation route, but cutaneous inoculation may occur after trauma or burns. However, mucormycosis remains unusual in HIV infection. We report a fatal case of cutaneous mucormycosis due to Rhizopus arrhizus involving the scalp following herpes zoster infection. The patient was a 42-year-old man with advanced AIDS failing on salvage antiretroviral therapy. The fungus was diagnosed on the basis of histopathology and culture. Our case emphasizes the need to consider mucormycosis in the differential diagnosis of necrotic cutaneous lesions in patients with late-stage HIV disease. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Preparation of Biodiesel with Liquid Synergetic Lipases from Rapeseed Oil Deodorizer Distillate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Leping; He, Yaojia; Jiao, Liangcheng; Li, Kai; Yan, Yunjun

    2017-11-01

    To reduce industrial production cost, cheap and easily available rapeseed oil deodorizer distillates were used as feedstock to prepare biodiesel in this study. As a result, liquid forms of Candida rugosa lipase and Rhizopus oryzae lipase (ROL) were functioned as new and effective catalysts with biodiesel yield of 92.63% for 30 h and 94.36% for 9 h, respectively. Furthermore, the synergetic effect between the two lipases was employed to enhance biodiesel yield with a result of 98.16% in 6 h under optimized conditions via response surface methodology. The obtained conversion rate surpassed both yields of the individual two lipases and markedly shortened the reaction time. The resultant optimal conditions were ROL ratio 0.84, water content 46 wt% (w/w), reaction temperature 34 °C, and reaction time 6 h.

  18. Pathogenic microorganisms of medicinal herbal drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stević Tatjana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available All the parts of plants (root, leaf, flower naturally have a high level of microorganisms, bacteria and fungi, especially molds. Microbial contamination could be a result of inappropriate harvesting, cleaning of the raw plant material, unhygienic processing of the plants, unsuitable transport and storage. After examination of over 40 dried medicinal plant species, the lowest microbial quality was determined for Maydis stigma, Mentha leaf and herb, Equisetum herb, Calendula flower, Urtica leaf, Melissa leaf, Serpylli herb, Chamomilla flower etc. Although mixed infections are recorded with different types of fungus, Fusarium was observed as the most dominant genus in most of the tested drugs, followed by Aspergillus and Alternaria. In addition to these fungi species from the following genera were identified: Phoma, Cephalosporium, Nigrospora, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Gliocladium, Myrothecium, Cercospora, Phomopsis, Verticillium, Dreschlera (=Bipolaris, Rhizoctonia, Septoria, Trichoderma, Curvularia, Stachybotrys, Trichothecium, Puccinia, Botrytis, Mucor and Rhizopus sp., depending on plant species.

  19. ANTIFUNGAL AND CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITIES OF FIVE TRADITIONALLY USED INDIAN MEDICINAL PLANTS

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    Adhikarimayum Haripyaree

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Hexane, Methanol and Distilled water extracts of five Indian Medicinal plants viz., Mimosa pudica L, Vitex trifolia Linn, Leucas aspera Spreng, Centella asiatica (L Urban and Plantago major Linn belonging to different families were subjected to preliminary antimicrobial screening against six standard organisms viz., Ceratocystis paradoxa, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium citrinum, Macrophomina phaseoli, Trichoderma viride and Rhizopus nigricans. To evaluate antifungal activity agar well diffusion method was used. In addition LD50 of the same plant extracts were determined by using Range test on Mus musculus for cytotoxic activity. Methanolic extract of M. pudica showed the highest and significant inhibitory effect against some fungal species. Again, methanolic extract of M. pudica displayed the greatest cytotoxic activity.

  20. A note on self heating and spontaneous combustion of stored sunflower seed cake and cotton seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Nazir, S. M. A.; Babikir, I. H.; Shakak, M. A. S.; Sulieman, I. A.; Medani, R. M.

    2012-01-01

    Sunflower seed cake and cotton seed warehouses combusted spontaneously and burnt in August and November 2009, respectively, in Khartoum North industrial area. The objective of this study was to determine some of the reasons for self-heating and spontaneous combustion. Representative sample from the two warehouses were collected. Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, paecilomyces sp., Rhizopus oryzae, Absidia sp. were isolated at 37°C. Bacillus thuringiensis was isolated at 37°C and B. pantothenticus, B. circulans, B. licheniformis, B. sphaericus, B. badius, Escherichia coli and klebsiella sp. were isolated at 60°C. A decrease in soil, fiber and phosphorus and increase in free fatty acids and protein contents were detected.(Author)

  1. Efficient heterologous expression and secretion in Aspergillus oryzae of a llama variable heavy-chain antibody fragment V(HH) against EGFR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Fumiyoshi; Aoki, Jun-ichi; Tabuchi, Soichiro; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Ogino, Chiaki; Kondo, Akihiko

    2012-10-01

    We have constructed a filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae that secretes a llama variable heavy-chain antibody fragment (V(HH)) that binds specifically to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in a culture medium. A major improvement in yield was achieved by fusing the V(HH) with a Taka-amylase A signal sequence (sTAA) and a segment of 28 amino acids from the N-terminal region of Rhizopus oryzae lipase (N28). The yields of secreted, immunologically active anti-EGFR V(HH) reached 73.8 mg/1 in a Sakaguchi flask. The V(HH) fragments were released from the sTAA or N28 proteins by an indigenous A. oryzae protease during cultivation. The purified recombinant V(HH) fragment was specifically recognized and could bind to the EGFR with a high affinity.

  2. Operation variables in transesterification of vegetable oil: an enzymatic catalysis review

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    Andrés Felipe Rojas González

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a literature review regarding how operating conditions influence vegetable oil enzymatic transesterification yield. The following parameters were studied: temperature and time reaction, alcohol: oil molar ratio, alcohol type, biocatalyst type and concentration, solvent, mixed intensity, reagent purity and free fatty acid and moisture concentration. Yields greater than 90% can be achieved in the enzymatic catalyst of vegetable oil using 35-50°C temperatures, long time reactions (7- 90h and a 3:1alcohol: vegetable oil molar ratio; however, such values would intrinsically depend on the type of lipase and oil u- sed. It was also found that free fatty acid and moisture concentration were parameters which did not require rigorous control due to high enzyme specificity. Lipases immobilised from Pseudomona cepacia bacteria and Rhizopus orizae fungi were most used in vegetable oil enzymatic transesterification.

  3. Inactivation of contaminated fungi and antioxidant effects of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch cv Dangeumdo) by 0.5-2 kGy gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyoung-Hee; Kim, Mi-Seon; Kim, Hong-Gi; Yook, Hong-Sun

    2010-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation (0.5-2 kGy) on the physicochemical properties of peaches was investigated during a 6-day storage at 20±3 deg. C. Gamma irradiation is able to inactivate the four pathogens, namely Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium expansum, Rhizopus stolonifer var. stolonifer and Monilinia fructicola in peaches. Hardness significantly decreased with the increment of irradiation dose level whereas soluble solid and total polyphenol contents increased with increment of irradiation dose level. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity of the irradiated peach was higher than that of control, and its activity increased with increment of irradiation dose level. These results suggest that gamma irradiation of peaches improved antioxidant activity, but dramatically affects the hardness throughout the entire storage time.

  4. Aislamiento e identificación de hongos asociados a esclerocios de Sclerotium cepivorum, causante de la pudrición blanca de la cebolla, en la zona alta de Cartago, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Milagro Granados

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se aislaron e identificaron hongos asociados a esclerocios de Sclerotium cepivorum, causante de la pudrición blanca de la cebolla, con el fin de determinar la existencia de hongos con potencial antagónico nativos en la zona alta de Cartago. Se estudiaron 10 fincas durante febrero-mayo de 2002. Cada una se dividió en 3 áreas de acuerdo al nivel de incidencia histórica de la enfermedad (bajo, intermedio, alto. En cada área se realizó un trampeo de hongos mediante la técnica de entierro de esclerocios; además se hizo muestreo de plantas enfermas, se colectó suelo para cuantificar densidad de inóculo y para realizar análisis microbiológicos, químico sencillo, de textura y determinación de materia orgánica. Los géneros encontrados en el trampeo fueron Alternaria spp., Fusarium spp., Gliocladium sp., Mucor sp., Penicillium spp., Rhizoctonia sp., Rhizopus sp. y Trichoderma spp.; en bulbos enfermos se aislaron Fusarium spp., Monilia sp., Mucor sp., Penicillium spp., Pythium sp., Rhizopus sp., y Trichoderma spp. Los géneros Gliocladium sp., Penicillium spp. y Trichoderma spp. también se hallaron en el análisis microbiológico de suelo. Las poblaciones más altas de microorganismos se recuperaron en el área intermedia de todas las fincas. Este trabajo comprueba que es posible aislar hongos con potencial antagónico, como Trichoderma spp., Gliocladium sp. y Paecilomyces sp., en suelos a los que por muchos años se les ha aplicado una gran cantidad de fungicidas.

  5. The process-related dynamics of microbial community during a simulated fermentation of Chinese strong-flavored liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanyan; Zhu, Xiaoyu; Li, Xiangzhen; Tao, Yong; Jia, Jia; He, Xiaohong

    2017-09-15

    Famous Chinese strong-flavored liquor (CSFL) is brewed by microbial consortia in a special fermentation pit (FT). However, the fermentation process was not fully understood owing to the complicate community structure and metabolism. In this study, the process-related dynamics of microbial communities and main flavor compounds during the 70-day fermentation process were investigated in a simulated fermentation system. A three-phase model was proposed to characterize the process of the CSFL fermentation. (i) In the early fermentation period (1-23 days), glucose was produced from macromolecular carbohydrates (e.g., starch). The prokaryotic diversity decreased significantly. The Lactobacillaceae gradually predominated in the prokaryotic community. In contrast, the eukaryotic diversity rose remarkably in this stage. Thermoascus, Aspergillus, Rhizopus and unidentified Saccharomycetales were dominant eukaryotic members. (ii) In the middle fermentation period (23-48 days), glucose concentration decreased while lactate acid and ethanol increased significantly. Prokaryotic community was almost dominated by the Lactobacillus, while eukaryotic community was mainly comprised of Thermoascus, Emericella and Aspergillus. (iii) In the later fermentation period (48-70 days), the concentrations of ethyl esters, especially ethyl caproate, increased remarkably. The CSFL fermentation could undergo three stages: saccharification, glycolysis and esterification. Saccharomycetales, Monascus, and Rhizopus were positively correlated to glucose concentration (P fermentation, were observed firstly. This study observed comprehensive dynamics of microbial communities during the CSFL fermentation, and it further revealed the correlations between some crucial microorganisms and flavoring chemicals (FCs). The results from this study help to design effective strategies to manipulate microbial consortia for fermentation process optimization in the CSFL brew practice.

  6. Indoor Fungal and Bacterial Contaminations on Household Environment in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alwakeel, Suaad S

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the microbial and inhabitant of household environment in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Overall, a total of 180 samples were collected and analyzed for fungal growth, 160 house samples were obtained on BAP medium and PDA medium. The Eastern Riyadh region turned out with the highest fungal isolates with 15/61 (24.6%). Among the most common fungal isolates from bedroom carpets were Aspergillus niger (21.6%), Alternaria sp. (15.7%), Aspergillus flavus (15.7%) Candida sp. (11.8%), Cladosporium sp. (9.8%) and Rhizopus sp. (9.8%). Other fungal isolates from bedroom carpets included Penicillium sp (5.9%)., Cunninghamella sp.(3.9%), Rhodotorula sp.(3.9%) and Aspergillus terreus (1.9%) Overall relative densities from all specimens obtained from household carpets, bedroom walls and carpet stores showed Alternaria spp. as the most common fungal isolate (55.3%) followed by Aspergillus niger (29%), Aspergillus flavus (19.3%), Rhizopus spp. (9.7%) and Penicillium spp. (7.0%). Other fungal isolates such as Candida spp., Cladosporium spp., Cunninghamella spp., Rhodotorula spp. and Aspergillus terreus had less than 6% overall relative density. From 40 carpet specimens collected for microbial analysis, 20 (50%) showed bacterial growth. Bacillus spp. was the most common isolated organism (35%) followed by Staphylococcus epidermidis (10%), Epiococcus spp. (10%), Corynebacterium spp. (10%) and Bacillus polymyxa (10%). Other bacterial isolates included Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacteroides spp., Clostridium spp. and Staphylococcus aureus .The presence of these fungal and microbial pathogens poses risk for individuals. When possible, floor carpeting in homes should be minimized or avoided since this serves as habitats for opportunistic fungi and infectious agents that pose harm to one's health. (author)

  7. Controle alternativo de podridões pós‑colheita de framboesas

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    Lucimara Rogéria Antoniolli

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de tratamentos pré-colheita sobre a ocorrência de podridões pós-colheita e sobre os atributos de qualidade de framboesas (Rubus idaeus L. 'Heritage'. As frutas foram pulverizadas com um dos seguintes tratamentos: água destilada (controle, 6 g L-1 de quitosana, 100 mg L-1 de dióxido de cloro, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Curtobacterium pusillum ou Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Foram realizadas colheitas aos 3, 7 e 14 dias após a aplicação dos tratamentos. Após cada uma das colheitas, realizadas no estádio de maturação comercial (coloração rosa, as frutas foram inoculadas individualmente com suspensão de conídios (2x10(5 conídios mL-1 de Botrytis cinerea ou Rhizopus stolonifer. As frutas foram mantidas a 12±0,5ºC por sete dias e avaliadas quanto à incidência de podridões e quanto aos principais atributos de qualidade. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, C. pusillum e S. cerevisiae proporcionaram menor área abaixo da curva de progresso da incidência das podridões por Botrytis e Rhizopus. Os agentes de controle biológico avaliados não interferem negativamente sobre os atributos de qualidade das frutas, e, portanto, são alternativas potenciais no controle de podridões pós-colheita de framboesas.

  8. Mohos y levaduras en agua envasada y bebidas sin alcohol Moulds and yeasts in bottled water and soft drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. Ancasi

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available La aparición esporádica de alteraciones en algunos envases dentro de lotes de aguas carbonatadas y de bebidas con zumos frutales (carbonatadas y no carbonatadas motivó la presente investigación, en la que se determinaron los microorganismos causantes del deterioro observado. También se estudiaron los contaminantes del azúcar utilizado en la elaboración de una de las bebidas analizadas. Se emplearon los métodos de Déak y Beuchat y de Pitt y Hocking para la identificación de levaduras y de mohos, respectivamente. Las levaduras causantes del deterioro de las bebidas fueron Debaryomyces hansenii, Debaryomyces polymorphus, Galactomyces geotrichum, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Mucor circinelloides, Pichia anomala, Pichia jadinii, Pichia subpelliculosa, Rhodotorula glutinis y Zygosaccharomyces bailii. Los mohos y las levaduras encontrados en el azúcar fueron Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus penicilloides, Aspergillus versicolor, Cladosporium sphaerospermum, Mucor racemosus, Pichia anomala y Rhizopus stolonifer. En el agua carbonatada se encontraron los mohos Paecilomyces fulvus y Penicillium glabrum.Some damaged cartons of soft drinks and carbonated water were analyzed to detect the microorganisms that caused the damage. The contaminants of sugar used in the production of one of the drinks were also studied. The methods of Déak & Beuchat and Pitt & Hocking were used for the identification of yeasts and moulds, respectively. The agents of the spoilage of soft drinks were Debaryomyces hansenii, Debaryomyces polymorphus, Galactomyces geotrichum, Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Mucor circinelloides, Pichia anomala, Pichia jadinii, Pichia subpelliculosa, Rhodotorula glutinis and Zygosaccharomyces bailii. The microorganisms found in sugar were Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus penicilloides, Aspergillus versicolor, Cladosporium sphaerospermum, Mucor racemosus, P. anomala and Rhizopus stolonifer. Paecilomyces fulvus and Penicillium glabrum were observed in

  9. Fungal Competitors Affect Production of Antimicrobial Lipopeptides in Bacillus subtilis Strain B9-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFilippi, Stefanie; Groulx, Emma; Megalla, Merna; Mohamed, Rowida; Avis, Tyler J

    2018-04-01

    Bacillus subtilis has shown success in antagonizing plant pathogens where strains of the bacterium produce antimicrobial cyclic lipopeptides (CLPs) in response to microbial competitors in their ecological niche. To gain insight into the inhibitory role of these CLPs, B. subtilis strain B9-5 was co-cultured with three pathogenic fungi. Inhibition of mycelial growth and spore germination was assessed and CLPs produced by B. subtilis B9-5 were quantified over the entire period of microbial interaction. B. subtilis B9-5 significantly inhibited mycelial growth and spore germination of Fusarium sambucinum and Verticillium dahliae, but not Rhizopus stolonifer. LC-MS analysis revealed that B. subtilis differentially produced fengycin and surfactin homologs depending on the competitor. CLP quantification suggested that the presence of Verticillium dahliae, a fungus highly sensitive to the compounds, caused an increase followed by a decrease in CLP production by the bacterium. In co-cultures with Fusarium sambucinum, a moderately sensitive fungus, CLP production increased more gradually, possibly because of its slower rate of spore germination. With co-cultures of the tolerant fungus Rhizopus stolonifer, B. subtilis produced high amounts of CLPs (per bacterial cell) for the duration of the interaction. Variations in CLP production could be explained, in part, by the pathogens' overall sensitivities to the bacterial lipopeptides and/or the relative growth rates between the plant pathogen and B. subtilis. CLP production varied substantially temporally depending on the targeted fungus, which provides valuable insight concerning the effectiveness of B. subtilis B9-5 protecting its ecological niche against the ingress of these pathogens.

  10. Utilization of biological control agents for the management of postharvest pathogens of tomato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafar, M.U.; Ansari, S.U.

    2016-01-01

    Twenty five isolates of Trichoderma, Bacillus and Pseudomonas spp. were obtained from rhizosphere of tomato growing fields using soil dilution technique on potato dextrose agar (PDA) and nutrient agar (NA) medium. Screening of these isolates were done against Geotrichum candidum, Trichothecium roseum and Rhizopus oryzae, causal agents of sour rot, pink mold rot and Rhizopus soft rot of tomato under the laboratory conditions. One promising isolate of each Trichoderma harzianum, Bacillus spp. and Pseudomonas fluorescens from the twenty five isolates were chosen and further evaluated as potential biological control agents (BCAs) against three important postharvest pathogens of tomato. Dual culture and spore concentration assay revealed that all three isolates inhibited radial growth of G. candidum, T. roseum and R. oryzae. Tomato fruits were inoculated with 25 micro L suspension of 10/sup 8/ cfu mL-1 for T. harzianum and 10/sup 8/cfu mL-1for each Bacillus sp. and P. fluorescens. Twenty four hours later the treated fruits were inoculated with 25 micro L of 105 conidia/mL of each of three postharvest pathogens. The results showed that P. fluorescens provided good control (78.1%) of G. candidum and (82.2%) R. oryzae, while, T. harzianum proved less effective to control all three pathogens. Bacillus spp. was only effective (88.4%) against T. roseum. Hence, our results depicted that Bacillus spp. and P. fluorescens proved to be a potential antagonist of T. roseum and R. oryzae however, all the tested BCAs were not consistent in their action against three postharvest pathogens of tomato. (author)

  11. Mucormycosis in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Chi Chiu; Que, Tak Lun; Tsui, Edmund Yik Kong; Lam, Wing Yin

    2003-10-01

    To describe a case of mucormycosis in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and to review other patients reported in the English literature. A Medline search for articles about mucormycosis in SLE published between 1970 and 2002 was performed by using the key words "lupus," "mucormycosis," "zygomycosis," "Mucorales," "Rhizopus," and "Mucor." Cases were pooled for analysis, and the mycology, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of mucormycosis in SLE was reviewed. Eight cases of mucormycosis in SLE were identified (female:male = 7:1). The mean age at the time of infection was 31.8 +/- 7.6 years and the mean duration of SLE was 6.3 +/- 3.9 years. All except 1 patient had active lupus and all were receiving high-dose corticosteroids. Concomitant cytotoxic agents were used in 4 patients. Additional predisposing factors for opportunistic infection included hypocomplementemia, nephrotic syndrome, uremia, leukopenia, and diabetes mellitus. The disseminated form of mucormycosis was the most common presentation and the diagnosis often was made only at autopsy (63%). For cases with positive culture results, Rhizopus was the causative species. In 4 patients, manifestations of the fungal infection mimicked those of active SLE. The overall mortality of mucormycosis was very high (88%) and, in most cases, was probably a function of delayed diagnosis and treatment. The cutaneous form appeared to have the best prognosis with combined medical and surgical treatment. Mucormycosis is a rare but usually fatal fungal infection in SLE. Judicious use of immunosuppressive agents, a high index of suspicion, early diagnosis, and combination treatment with amphotericin B and surgical debridement may improve the prognosis of this serious infection.

  12. MICROBIOLOGICAL QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF DRIED YAM CHIPS (Dioscorea rotundata DURING STORAGE

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    Patricia F. Omojasola

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Microbiological and physico-chemical analyses of dried yam chips (gbodo retailed in four markets in Ilorin and its environs alongside a laboratory – prepared control were carried out over a six month period. Microbiological assay consisted of total viable and coliform counts as well as microbial isolation. A total of 11 fungi and 5 bacteria were isolated from the different samples which included Acremonium sp., Aspergillus fumigatus., A. niger, A. ochraceus, Fusarium solani, Mucor hiemalis, Mucor racemosus, Penicillum notatum, Rhizopus oryzae, Rhizopus stolonifer, Syncephalastrum racemosum and Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Erwinia carotovora, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus respectively. Total Viable Counts ranged from 3.0-120.0 cfu g-1 and coliform counts ranged from 0.00 - 18.80 cfu g-1 pre-storage to 0.10-219 cfu g-1 and 0.0-31.0 cfu g-1 post storage respectively. The physico-chemical parameters analysed were moisture content which ranged between 14.38-17.10% pre-storage to 13.43-24.96% post-storage; crude protein: 5.81-7.53% and 2.11-6.75%; crude fat: 0.35-0.71% and 0.07-0.61%; ash content: 3.30-5.18% and 1.17-4.77%; crude fibre: 0.77-1.45%; carbohydrate: 70.18-74.00% and 70.93-75.17% pre-storage and post-storage content respectively. Levels of Aflatoxin B1 were also monitored throughout the storage period. Insect infestation of the samples occurred during the storage period. Four species were identified; these were Tribolium casteneum, Dinoderus porcellus, Rhyzopertha dominica and Sitophilus zeamais. The traditional practice of open air sun-drying of yam chips should be discouraged, rather oven drying is recommended to minmize microbial contamination. In addition, sorting to exclude extreneous material and minimize mouldiness and insect infestation is suggested.

  13. Antimicrobial efficacy of secondary metabolites from Glomerella cingulata Eficiência antimicrobiana do extrato bruto de Glomerella cingulata

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    K. Hara Kishore

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Fungi are known to produce a vast array of secondary metabolites that are gaining importance for their biotechnological applications. Early reports suggest that G. cingulata has the capability to transform many compounds by various enzymatic actions. Therefore, the focus of this study was to determine the antibacterial and antifungal activity of crude ethyl acetate extract of G. cingulata using agar cup bioassay method. Crude extract of G. cingulata exhibited remarkable antifungal activity against Rhizopus oryzae, Chrysoporium tropicum and Beauveria bassiana but no antifungal activity was found against Alternaria tenuissima and Aspergillus niger at any concentrations. The crude extract presented no antibacterial activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria at any concentration.Fungos são conhecidos produtores de uma vasta coleção de metabólitos secundários que vem mostrando importância crescente na sua aplicação biotecnológica. Publicações anteriores sugerem que G. cingulata tem a capacidade de transformar vários componentes por diferentes ações enzimáticas. Logo, o foco deste estudo foi determinar a atividade antibacteriana e antifúngica do extrato bruto de G. cingulata obtido por acetato de etila utilizando-se um método envolvendo bloco de agar. O extrato bruto de G. cingulata demonstrou marcante atividade antifungica contra Rhizopus oryzae, Chrysoporium tropicum e Beauveria bassiana entretanto, não foi possível detectar, em nenhuma concentração, atividade antifungica contra Alternaria tenuissima e Aspergillus niger. O mesmo extrato não apresentou atividade antibacteriana, em nenhuma concentração, contra bactérias Gram negativa e positiva.

  14. Mucormicosis rinocerebral en paciente con cefalea y diabetes mellitus Rhinocerebral mucormycosis in diabetic patient with headache

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    Juan Camilo Botero

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Se reporta el caso de un paciente masculino de 52 años, con antecedentes personales de diabetes mellitus tipo 2 en tratamiento con metformín quien consultó por cefalea intensa y congestión nasal. Se diagnosticó una pansinusitis que no respondió al manejo médico. Fue evaluado por medicina interna y otorrinolaringología y se encontraron costras secas, negras, en los cornetes y meatos mediante la fibronasolaringoscopia. Se practicó una resonancia magnética en la que se reportó una lesión en la región temporal izquierda asociada a edema vasogénico. Se programó para drenaje del absceso el cual se realizó sin complicaciones; en el estudio de histopatología se informó la presencia de hifas aseptadas que correspondían a Rhizopus sp. Se inició su manejo con anfotericina B para la mucormicosis rinocerebral con respuesta adecuada y se dio de alta por mejoría de su enfermedad.We report the case of a 52 years old male patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus under metformin therapy that presented with acute headache and nasal congestion. Pansinusitis was diagnosed which did not respond to medical treatment. He was evaluated by the internal medicine and otorrinolaringology departments. In the fibronasolaringoscopy exam black necrotic scars were found in turbinates and meatus. A magnetic resonance was ordered which evidenced a lesion in the left temporal region associated to vasogenic edema. The patient was programmed for abscess drainage without any complications; the histopathological report informed the presence of non septated hyphae compatible with Rhizopus sp. The patient began to receive amphotericyn B for a rhinocerebral mucormycosis with optimal response and was discharged with improvement of his clinical picture.

  15. Phytochemical and biological screening of Berberis aristata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Berberis aristata occupies significant position as a medicinal plant. Given its clinical applications and the grave concern of weed based crop damage in Pakistan, the plant was investigated for its antimicrobial and allelopathic activities. Methods: Fresh Berberis aristata plant was obtained from Rawalakot and Hajeera (District Poonch Azad Kashmir. Methanolic extract preparation and phytochemical analysis was done using standard procedures. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of the root, stem and leaf extracts of the plant were assayed against the bacterial strains E. coli, S. typhi, S. aureus, Shigella, Citrobacter, P. vulgaris, Enterobacter, S. pyrogenes, V. cholera and Klebsiella spp. and fungal strains A. niger, Cladosporium, Rhizoctonia, Alternaria, Trichoderma, Penicillium, Curvularia, Paecilomyces and Rhizopus using disc diffusion method. Also, the phytoxicity of the extracts was evaluated against Lemna minor and the data was recorded after seven days. Results: Phytochemical screening of the three extracts identified the presence of alkaloids, reducing sugars, steroids, flavonoids, terpenoids, glycosides and saponins while tannins were found to be absent. The leaf extract also showed negative tests for alkaloids and steroids. The extracts significantly inhibited the growth of the employed microbial isolates. The leaf extract, however, was not active against A. niger, Curvularia, Paecilomyces and Rhizopus. For most of the tested strains, the effectiveness of the extracts was much higher than that of Amoxicillin and Fluconazole; the positive controls used for bacterial and fungal cultures, respectively. All the extracts demonstrated 100% phytotoxicity against Lemna minor at 1000 μg/mL while low activity (10-20% was observed at 10 μg/mL and 100 μg/mL, respectively. Conclusion: The results strongly support the profound ethnobotanical applications of this plant and also demonstrate its potential for use in weed control

  16. Capítulo 7 - Zigomicose Chapter 7 - Zygomycosis

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    Cecília Bittencourt Severo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A zigomicose (mucormicose é uma infecção rara, mas altamente invasiva, causada por fungos da ordem Mucorales (gêneros Rhizopus, Mucor, Rhizomucor, Absidia, Apophysomyces, Saksenaea, Cunninghamella, Cokeromyces e Syncephalastrum. Esse tipo de infecção é usualmente associado a doenças hematológicas, cetoacidose diabética e transplante de órgãos. A apresentação clínica mais frequente é a mucormicose rinocerebral, com ou sem envolvimento pulmonar. A zigomicose pulmonar ocorre mais frequentemente em pacientes com neutropenia profunda e prolongada e pode se apresentar como infiltrado lobar ou segmentar, nódulos isolados, lesões cavitárias, hemorragia ou infarto. As manifestações clínicas e radiológicas são na maioria dos casos indistinguíveis daquelas associadas com aspergilose invasiva. Este artigo descreve as características gerais da zigomicose pulmonar, com ênfase no diagnóstico laboratorial, e ilustra a morfologia de algumas lesões.Zygomycosis (mucormycosis is a rare but highly invasive infection caused by fungi belonging to the order Mucorales, which includes the genera Rhizopus, Mucor, Rhizomucor, Absidia, Apophysomyces, Saksenaea, Cunninghamella, Cokeromyces and Syncephalastrum. This type of infection is usually associated with hematologic diseases, diabetic ketoacidosis and organ transplantation. The most common form of presentation is rhinocerebral mucormycosis, with or without pulmonary involvement. Pulmonary zygomycosis is more common in patients with profound, prolonged neutropenia and can present as segmental or lobar infiltrates, isolated nodules, cavitary lesions, hemorrhage or infarction. The clinical and radiological manifestations are often indistinguishable from those associated with invasive aspergillosis. This article describes the general characteristics of pulmonary zygomycosis, emphasizing laboratory diagnosis, and illustrates the morphology of some lesions.

  17. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction detection of circulating DNA in serum for early diagnosis of mucormycosis in immunocompromised patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millon, Laurence; Larosa, Fabrice; Lepiller, Quentin; Legrand, Faezeh; Rocchi, Steffi; Daguindau, Etienne; Scherer, Emeline; Bellanger, Anne-Pauline; Leroy, Joel; Grenouillet, Frederic

    2013-05-01

    The aim of our study was to assess the detection of circulating DNA from the most common species of Mucorales for early diagnosis of mucormycosis in at-risk patients. We retrospectively evaluated a combination of 3 quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays using hydrolysis probes targeting Mucor/Rhizopus, Lichtheimia (formerly Absidia), and Rhizomucor for circulating Mucorales detection. Serial serum samples from 10 patients diagnosed with proven mucormycosis (2-9 samples per patient) were analyzed. No cross-reactivity was detected in the 3 qPCR assays using 19 reference strains of opportunistic fungi, and the limit of detection ranged from 3.7 to 15 femtograms/10 µL, depending on the species. DNA from Mucorales was detected in the serum of 9 of 10 patients between 68 and 3 days before mucormycosis diagnosis was confirmed by histopathological examination and/or positive culture. All the qPCR results were concordant with culture and/or PCR-based identification of the causing agents in tissue (Lichtheimia species, Rhizomucor species, and Mucor/Rhizopus species in 4, 3, and 2 patients, respectively). Quantitative PCR was negative in only 1 patient with proven disseminated mucormycosis caused by Lichtheimia species. Our study suggests that using specific qPCR targeting several species of Mucorales according to local ecology to screen at-risk patients could be useful in a clinical setting. The cost and efficacy of this strategy should be evaluated. However, given the human and economic cost of mucormycosis and the need for rapid diagnosis to initiate prompt directed antifungal therapy, this strategy could be highly attractive.

  18. Possible effects of glyphosate on Mucorales abundance in the rumen of dairy cows in Germany.

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    Schrödl, Wieland; Krüger, Susanne; Konstantinova-Müller, Theodora; Shehata, Awad A; Rulff, Ramon; Krüger, Monika

    2014-12-01

    Glyphosate (N-phosphonomethyl glycine) is registered as a herbicide for many food and non-food crops, as well as non-crop areas where total vegetation control is desired. Glyphosate influences the soil mycobiota; however, the possible effect of glyphosate residues in animal feed (soybean, corn, etc.) on animal mycobiota is almost unknown. Accordingly, the present study was initiated to investigate the mycological characteristics of dairy cows in relationship to glyphosate concentrations in urine. A total of 258 dairy cows on 14 dairy farms in Germany were examined. Glyphosate was detected in urine using ELISA. The fungal profile was analyzed in rumen fluid samples using conventional microbiological culture techniques and differentiated by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. LPS-binding protein (LBP) and antibodies (IgG1, IgG2, IgA, and IgM) against fungi were determined in blood using ELISA. Different populations of Lichtheimia corymbifera, Lichtheimia ramosa, Mucor, and Rhizopus were detected. L. corymbifera and L. ramosa were significantly more abundant in animals containing high glyphosate (>40 ng/ml) concentrations in urine. There were no significant changes in IgG1 and IgG2 antibodies toward isolated fungi that were related to glyphosate concentration in urine; however, IgA antibodies against L. corymbifera and L. ramosa were significantly lower in the higher glyphosate groups. Moreover, a negative correlation between IgM antibodies against L. corymbifera, L. ramosa, and Rhizopus relative to glyphosate concentration in urine was observed. LBP also was significantly decreased in animals with higher concentrations of glyphosate in their urine. In conclusion, glyphosate appears to modulate the fungal community. The reduction of IgM antibodies and LBP indicates an influence on the innate immune system of animals.

  19. Simultaneous detection and identification of Aspergillus and mucorales species in tissues collected from patients with fungal rhinosinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zuotao; Li, Lili; Wan, Zhe; Chen, Wei; Liu, Honggang; Li, Ruoyu

    2011-04-01

    Rapid detection and differentiation of Aspergillus and Mucorales species in fungal rhinosinusitis diagnosis are desirable, since the clinical management and prognosis associated with the two taxa are fundamentally different. We describe an assay based on a combination of broad-range PCR amplification and reverse line blot hybridization (PCR/RLB) to detect and differentiate the pathogens causing fungal rhinosinusitis, which include five Aspergillus species (A. fumigatus, A. flavus, A. niger, A. terreus, and A. nidulans) and seven Mucorales species (Mucor heimalis, Mucor racemosus, Mucor cercinelloidea, Rhizopus arrhizus, Rhizopus microsporus, Rhizomucor pusillus, and Absidia corymbifera). The assay was validated with 98 well-characterized clinical isolates and 41 clinical tissue specimens. PCR/RLB showed high sensitivity and specificity, with 100% correct identifications of 98 clinical isolates and no cross-hybridization between the species-specific probes. Results for five control isolates, Candida albicans, Fusarium solani, Scedosporium apiospermum, Penicillium marneffei, and Exophiala verrucosa, were negative as judged by PCR/RLB. The analytical sensitivity of PCR/RLB was found to be 1.8 × 10(-3) ng/μl by 10-fold serial dilution of Aspergillus genomic DNA. The assay identified 35 of 41 (85.4%) clinical specimens, exhibiting a higher sensitivity than fungal culture (22 of 41; 53.7%) and direct sequencing (18 of 41; 43.9%). PCR/RLB similarly showed high specificity, with correct identification 16 of 18 specimens detected by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing and 16 of 22 detected by fungal culture, but it also has the additional advantage of being able to detect mixed infection in a single clinical specimen. The PCR/RLB assay thus provides a rapid and reliable option for laboratory diagnosis of fungal rhinosinusitis.

  20. Simultaneous Detection and Identification of Aspergillus and Mucorales Species in Tissues Collected from Patients with Fungal Rhinosinusitis▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zuotao; Li, Lili; Wan, Zhe; Chen, Wei; Liu, Honggang; Li, Ruoyu

    2011-01-01

    Rapid detection and differentiation of Aspergillus and Mucorales species in fungal rhinosinusitis diagnosis are desirable, since the clinical management and prognosis associated with the two taxa are fundamentally different. We describe an assay based on a combination of broad-range PCR amplification and reverse line blot hybridization (PCR/RLB) to detect and differentiate the pathogens causing fungal rhinosinusitis, which include five Aspergillus species (A. fumigatus, A. flavus, A. niger, A. terreus, and A. nidulans) and seven Mucorales species (Mucor heimalis, Mucor racemosus, Mucor cercinelloidea, Rhizopus arrhizus, Rhizopus microsporus, Rhizomucor pusillus, and Absidia corymbifera). The assay was validated with 98 well-characterized clinical isolates and 41 clinical tissue specimens. PCR/RLB showed high sensitivity and specificity, with 100% correct identifications of 98 clinical isolates and no cross-hybridization between the species-specific probes. Results for five control isolates, Candida albicans, Fusarium solani, Scedosporium apiospermum, Penicillium marneffei, and Exophiala verrucosa, were negative as judged by PCR/RLB. The analytical sensitivity of PCR/RLB was found to be 1.8 × 10−3 ng/μl by 10-fold serial dilution of Aspergillus genomic DNA. The assay identified 35 of 41 (85.4%) clinical specimens, exhibiting a higher sensitivity than fungal culture (22 of 41; 53.7%) and direct sequencing (18 of 41; 43.9%). PCR/RLB similarly showed high specificity, with correct identification 16 of 18 specimens detected by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing and 16 of 22 detected by fungal culture, but it also has the additional advantage of being able to detect mixed infection in a single clinical specimen. The PCR/RLB assay thus provides a rapid and reliable option for laboratory diagnosis of fungal rhinosinusitis. PMID:21325541

  1. Occurrence and species distribution of pathogenic Mucorales in unselected soil samples from France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousavi, B; Costa, J M; Arné, P; Guillot, J; Chermette, R; Botterel, F; Dannaoui, E

    2018-04-01

    Mucormycosis is a life-threatening invasive fungal disease that affects a variety of patient groups. Although Mucorales are mostly opportunistic pathogens originating from soil or decaying vegetation, there are currently few data on prevalence of this group of fungi in the environment. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence and diversity of species of Mucorales from soil samples collected in France. Two grams of soil were homogenized in sterile saline and plated on Sabouraud dextrose agar and RPMI agar supplemented with itraconazole or voriconazole. Both media contained chloramphenicol and gentamicin. The plates were incubated at 35 ± 2 °C and checked daily for fungal growth for a maximum of 7 d. Mucorales were subcultured for purity. Each isolate was identified phenotypically and molecular identification was performed by ITS sequencing. A total of 170 soil samples were analyzed. Forty-one isolates of Mucorales were retrieved from 38 culture-positive samples. Among the recovered isolates, 27 Rhizopus arrhizus, 11 Mucor circinelloides, one Lichtheimia corymbifera, one Rhizopus microsporus and one Cunninghamella bertholletiae were found. Positive soil samples came from cultivated fields but also from other types of soil such as flower beds. Mucorales were retrieved from samples obtained in different geographical regions of France. Voriconazole-containing medium improved the recovery of Mucorales compared with other media. The present study showed that pathogenic Mucorales are frequently recovered from soil samples in France. Species diversity should be further analyzed on a larger number of soil samples from different geographic areas in France and in other countries.

  2. FILAMENTOUS FUNGI ON GRAPES IN CENTRAL SLOVAK WINE REGION

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    Ľubomír Rybárik

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The concern about filamentous fungi in the vineyards has traditionally been linked to spoilage of grapes due to fungal growth. The aims of this study were to monitor the mycobiota in Central Slovak wine region. The Central Slovak wine region is divided into seven different subregions. In this work we had ten grape samples from seven various wine growing subregions and eight different villages. Five of these samples were from white grape berries and five were from red grape berries. The sample nr. 7 was without chemical protection (interspecific variety and three samples (nr. 8, 9, 10 were from bio-production. In the samples were determined exogenous contamination (direct platting method and endogenous contamination (surface-disinfected grapes. The exogenous mycobiota was determined by the method that each sample of 50 grape berries without visible damage was direct plated on to a DRBC agar medium. In exogenous contamination was detected 17 different genera Alternaria, Arthrinium, Aspergillus, Bipolaris, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Cunninghamella, Epicoccum, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Chaetomium, Mucor, Penicillium, Phoma, Rhizopus, Sordaria, Trichoderma and group Mycelia sterilia in which we included all colony of filamentous fungi that after incubation did not create fruiting bodies necessary for identification to genera level. By the endogenous contamination was each sample of 50 grape berries was surface-disinfected with sodium hypochlorite solution (1% for 1 min, rinsed in sterile distilled water three times and plated onto a DRBC (Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol medium, Merck, Germany. The plates were incubated at 25±1 ºC for 7 days in the dark. By the endogenous plating method was identified 15 different genera from all ten samples Alternaria, Arthrinium, Aspergillus, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Gelasinospora, Chaetomium, Mucor, Penicillium, Phoma, Rhizopus, Trichoderma and Mycelia sterilia.

  3. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry for rapid identification of fungal rhinosinusitis pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanfei; Wang, Jinglin; Zhang, Mingxin; Zhu, Min; Wang, Mei; Sun, Yufeng; Gu, Haitong; Cao, Jingjing; Li, Xue; Zhang, Shaoya; Lu, Xinxin

    2017-03-01

    Filamentous fungi are among the most important pathogens, causing fungal rhinosinusitis (FRS). Current laboratory diagnosis of FRS pathogens mainly relies on phenotypic identification by culture and microscopic examination, which is time consuming and expertise dependent. Although matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) MS has been employed to identify various fungi, its efficacy in the identification of FRS fungi is less clear. A total of 153 FRS isolates obtained from patients were analysed at the Clinical Laboratory at the Beijing Tongren Hospital affiliated to the Capital Medical University, between January 2014 and December 2015. They were identified by traditional phenotypic methods and Bruker MALDI-TOF MS (Bruker, Biotyper version 3.1), respectively. Discrepancies between the two methods were further validated by sequencing. Among the 153 isolates, 151 had correct species identification using MALDI-TOF MS (Bruker, Biot 3.1, score ≥2.0 or 2.3). MALDI-TOF MS enabled identification of some very closely related species that were indistinguishable by conventional phenotypic methods, including 1/10 Aspergillus versicolor, 3/20 Aspergillus flavus, 2/30 Aspergillus fumigatus and 1/20 Aspergillus terreus, which were misidentified by conventional phenotypic methods as Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus japonicus and Aspergillus nidulans, respectively. In addition, 2/2 Rhizopus oryzae and 1/1 Rhizopus stolonifer that were identified only to the genus level by the phenotypic method were correctly identified by MALDI-TOF MS. MALDI-TOF MS is a rapid and accurate technique, and could replace the conventional phenotypic method for routine identification of FRS fungi in clinical microbiology laboratories.

  4. The normal mycoflora of commodities from Thailand. 1. Nuts and oilseeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, J I; Hocking, A D; Bhudhasamai, K; Miscamble, B F; Wheeler, K A; Tanboon-Ek, P

    1993-12-01

    A comprehensive study was carried out of the fungi occurring in commodities normally traded in Thailand. Samples of major commodities were obtained from farmers' stocks and middlemen in major producing areas throughout the country. Retail samples were obtained from outlets in and around Bankok. Samples were divided into two portions, one being examined in Bangkok, and the second in Sydney. After surface disinfection, fungi were enumerated by direct plating on dichloran rose bengal chloramphenicol agar, dichloran 18% glycerol agar, Aspergillus flavus and parasiticus agar and dichloran chloramphenicol peptone agar. Figures for percentage infection were calculated, and fungi were isolated and identified to species level. In all 602 samples were examined, and at North Ryde about 18,000 fungal isolates identified. Data obtained from 329 samples are reported here, comprising maize (154), peanuts (109), cashews (45) and copra (21). Major fungi in maize included Fusarium moniliforme (present in 97% of samples), Aspergillus flavus (85%), Penicillium citrinum (67%), Aspergillus niger (64%), Lasiodiplodia theobromae (58%) and Fusarium semitectum (45%). In peanuts, the major fungi were Aspergillus flavus (95% of samples), Aspergillus niger (86%), Rhizopus oryzae (60%), Eurotium rubrum (51%), Macromina phaseolina (49%), Penicillium citrinum (46%) and Eurotium chevalieri (46%). Invasion in cashews was lower, major fungi being Aspergillus flavus (60%), Nigrospora oryzae (58%), Aspergillus niger (53%), Chaetomium globosum (47%) and Eurotium chevalieri (40%). Aspergillus flavus (86% of samples) was again dominant in copra, with Rhizopus oryzae (52%), Aspergillus niger (43%), Eurotium chevalieri (43%) the only other species exceeding 40% infection. Aspergillus parasiticus was rarely seen, and Aspergillus nomius was reported from foods for the first time.

  5. BASAL MEDIA FORMULATION USING CANAVALIA ENSIFORMIS AS CARBON AND NITROGEN SOURCE FOR THE GROWTH OF SOME FUNGI SPECIES

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    B.J. Akinyele2

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of developing alternative media to commercial potato dextrose agar was assessed using, Canavalia ensiformis (Linn (jack beans as carbon and nitrogen source. Six leguminous meal media were used as substitute for either carbon or nitrogen or both, while potato dextrose broth (PDB was used as a positive control and basal medium as a negative control. Six species of fungi Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, Meria coniospora, Mucor sp, Neurospora crassa and Rhizopus oryzae were aseptically inoculated into the formulated media and allowed to grow. Their mycelia dry weights were taken after 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hours. Growth of all fungal species was observed to be slightly lower, about the same or better in the formulated media relative to the control. Aspergillus flavus had its highest biomass of 1.70g in the media formulated with Canavalia ensiformis as the carbon source relative to 1.42g as the standard at the 120 hour. A. niger had a growth of 0.62g relative to 0.61g at 120 hours of the control. Meria coniospora had a growth of 0.27g relative to 0.38g at 120 hours. Mucor sp had a growth of 0.54g relative to 0.44g at 120 hours. Neurospora crassa had a growth of 1.05g relative to 0.24g at 120 hours. Rhizopus oryzae had a growth of 0.14g relative to 0.25g at 120 hours. The study revealed that Canavalia ensiformis contains minerals and nutrients that is able to provide the nutritional requirements of these fungi. Thus, it can be used as an alternative material in the preparation of culture media for in vitro cultivation of these fungi for teaching and research purposes.

  6. Effect of cadmium salts on some growth and metabolic activities of selected fungi from the rhizosphere of Glycine max and Zea mays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naguib, M.I.; Ali, M.I.; Haikal, N.Z.; Sharaf, E.F. (Cairo Univ. (Egypt))

    1986-12-01

    Six fungi, isolated from the rhizosphere of Glycine max and Zea Mays, were selected for their variable resistance to soil application of cadmium nitrate and cadmium sulfate, at the range of 100-1000 ppm concentration. These were (a) Aspergillus terreus and Rhizopus oryzae; (b) Paecilomyces divaricata, Curvularia tetramera; (c) Fusarium oxysporum and (d) Cladosporium herbarum. Fifty ppm cadmium salts exerted no effect on spore germination of R. oryzae, F. oxysporum or C. tetramera, stimulated A. terreus and P. divaricata and suppressed C. herbarum. 100 ppm dose exerted variable effects dependent on the organism and/or accompanying anion. 1000 ppm cadmium arrested spore germination of all the tested fungi except F. oxysporum where marked suppression were observed. Cadmium arrested growth of C. herbarum and P. divaricata at 50 ppm, initiated that of A. terreus, C. tetramera and F. oxysporum but seemed without effect on R. oryzae. Larger doses seemed to be inhibitory to all organisms, R. oryzae being least affected. Results show that nitrogen secretion was not a function of tolerance of the fungi to cadmium applied to the soil but was largely controlled by the effect of cadmium on the permeability of the cells of each individual fungus. Cadmium seemed to stimulate nitrogen metabolism of Aspergillus and Fusarium, had little or no effect on that of Rhizopus but suppressed that of Curvularia. Most accumulated nitrogen was in the form of amino and other soluble nitrogen. Cadmium inhibited the incorporation of absorbed phosphorus into energy-rich compounds. This was concomitant with the failure of amino acid incorporation into proteins.

  7. Etiologia do declínio de mangostanzeiros no sul da Bahia Etiology of the decline of mangosteen in the southern Bahia

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    Eduardo César Araújo Paim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O declínio do mangostanzeiro (Garcinia mangostana L. no litoral sul do Estado da Bahia é hoje o principal problema da cultura, sendo caracterizado por sintomas de murcha, amarelecimento, seca e queda de folhas. Este trabalho teve como objetivo acompanhar a evolução da sintomatologia da doença, isolar e identificar os potenciais patógenos causadores do declínio do mangostanzeiro. A doença começa com a necrose das radículas, a qual atinge as raízes secundárias, primárias e progride até à base do tronco que desenvolve lesões necróticas extensas. Os sintomas secundários são clorose, murcha e queda das folhas. Das amostras de tecidos lesionados de plantas doentes levadas ao laboratório, foram isolados e identificados os seguintes fungos: Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Lasiodiplodia parva, Mycoleptodiscus sp., Rhizopus sp., Stilbella sp., Trichoderma spp. e Aspergillus sp. Apenas L. theobromae e L. parva foram patogênicas a fragmentos de raízes e caules de mangostanzeiros in vitro e a mudas de mangostanzeiros em casa de vegetação, sendo o isolado da primeira espécie o mais virulento. A taxonomia do gênero Lasiodiplodia e algumas condições que influenciam no desenvolvimento da doença no campo foram analisadas.The decline of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L. in the southern coast of the state of Bahia is today the main problem of the culture, being characterized by symptoms of wilting, yellowing, blight and defoliation. This study was aimed to follow the evolution of the symptoms of the disease, isolate and identify the possible pathogen of mangosteen decline. The disease begins in the roots and progresses toward the canopy, leading to plant death. Samples of infected tissue from diseased plants were taken to laboratory where the following fungal species were isolated and identified: Lasiodiplodia theobromae, L. parva, Mycoleptodiscus sp., Rhizopus sp., Stilbella sp., Aspergillus sp. and Trichoderma spp. Only Lasiodiplodia

  8. SEGUIMIENTO Y CONTROL DE BIODETERIORO MICROBIOLÓGICO EN DOCUMENTOS DE INTERÉS HISTÓRICO EN EL ARCHIVO GENERAL DE LA NACIÓN

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    Jenny Mateus

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A partir de los soportes papel (manual, bond, periódico, fotografías con gelatina como aglutinante y planos con soporte en fibra textil del Archivo General de la Nación (AGN, se realizaron diferentes pruebas de aislamiento e identificación de hongos, determinando los géneros de mayor frecuencia de aparición, y el efecto de los desinfectantes Tego51®, Timsen® a 4000 ppm (1.6 g principio activo n-alquil dimetil bencil amonio, etanol 70% y New ger® 0.7% (solución de N-duopropenida mezcla completa de yoduros de amonio cuaternario al 2.5%, sobre papel afectado y su forma de aplicación nebulización y aspersión.Igualmente a 231 fotografías con gelatina como aglutinante, tomadas del fondo del Ministerio de Obras Publicas (MOP que presentaron indicadores de biodeterioro, se realizó, aislamiento e identificación de 48 géneros siendo los más frecuentes Penicillium sp. y Cladosporium sp. y los más agresivos frente al soporte Rhizopus sp., Cladosporium sp., Aspergillus sp1, y Fusarium sp., con efecto de biodeterioro en 25 días.A partir de este estudio, se tomaron los géneros Penicillium sp., Cladosporium sp., Aspergillus sp., Rhizopus sp y se realizaron pruebas con desinfectantes (Timsen®, etanol, New ger® para determinar el efecto fungicida y su acción sobre el soporte fotográfico, evaluando 4 formas de aplicación de los desinfectantes (aspersión, inmersión, aplicación puntual y directa sobre muestras de fotografías inoculadas, determinando que la inmersión en los desinfectantes evaluados, fue el mejor método de aplicación ya que no afecta las características físicas de la imagen.Finalmente también se evaluaron 66 planos con soporte en fibra textil a partir de los cuales se aislaron e identificaron 37 géneros siendo los más frecuentes Penicillium sp. y Cladosporium sp., los cuales también demostraron alta agresividad junto con Bipolaris sp.

  9. Physiological and sanity seed quality of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. from Goias state / Qualidade fisiológica e sanitária de sementes de feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. provenientes do estado de Goiás

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    Myrna Hilal Moraes

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is a fabacea sufficiently spread out in all domestic territory. However, the quality of its seeds represents one of the main causes of low productivity in the beans farmings in Brazil. The objective of this work was to evaluate physiological and sanitary seed qualities of eleven bean cultivars. The physiological seed quality was evaluated trough standard germination and vigor tests. The sanitary seed quality was evaluated through two tests: blotter test was employed to evaluate fungi incidence and “Koch & Menten” method was employed to observe Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib de Bary occurrence. Xamego, BRS Valente, Bambu and Pérola had the best results of physiological tests. Jalo Precoce, Roxo 90, Corrente and Aporé had no good results of vigor and germination, besides presenting the lowest indices of died seeds. Fusarium sp., Aspergillus spp., Penicillium sp., Phoma sp., Rhizopus sp. and Botrytis sp. were the fungi detected in the sanity tests.O feijoeiro comum (Phaseolus vulgaris L. é uma fabacea bastante difundida em todo território nacional. A baixa qualidade de suas sementes representa uma das principais causas de baixa produtividade nas lavouras de feijão no Brasil. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a qualidade fisiológica e sanitária de sementes de nove cultivares de feijão provenientes do Estado de Goiás. A qualidade fisiológica das sementes foi avaliada através dos testes de germinação e vigor, e a análise sanitária, através dos métodos de papel de filtro, para verificar a ocorrência de fungos em geral, e do método de Koch e Menten, para a avaliação de Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib de Bary. As cultivares que tiveram os melhores desempenhos nos testes fisiológicos foram Xamego, BRS Radiante, Bambu e Pérola. As cultivares Jalo Precoce, Roxo 90, Corrente e Aporé apresentaram baixos índices de vigor e germinação de plântulas normais, além de apresentarem os maiores

  10. Avaliação da micoflora e ocorrência de micotoxinas em cascas de amendoim em diferentes estágios de maturação da vagem Evaluation of mycoflora and occurrence of mycotoxins in peanut hulls at different pod maturation stages

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    Edlayne Gonçalez

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available As cascas de amendoim (Arachis hypogaea L. são de grande importância para confecção de cama de frangos, de gado de leite e como fonte de fibras para ruminantes, portanto a elucidação dos mecanismos de contaminação por fungos toxigênicos e por micotoxinas em amendoim é imprescindível, especialmente para que medidas preventivas possam ser tomadas. Realizou-se, este trabalho, em Junqueirópolis, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Os principais fungos isolados nas cascas de amendoim foram Fusarium ssp. (78,75 %, Rhizopus ssp. (14,1 % e A. flavus (11,75 %. No solo foram isolados Penicillium spp., Fusarium spp. e Aspergillus flavus, entre outros. Aflatoxinas foram detectadas em amostras de cascas de amendoim a partir do estágio de granação em concentrações que variaram de 5,42 μg/kg a 218,52 μg/kg. Ácido ciclopiazônico e fumonisinas B1 e B2 não foram detectadas. A presença de A. flavus e aflatoxinas nas amostras, revela a importância de um controle das cascas de amendoim antes de sua utilização. Boas práticas agrícolas são indicadas para região, uma vez que a contaminação das vagens ocorreu antes da colheita.Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. hulls are very important because they are used as litter to poultry and dairy cattle and as fiber source to cattle. The elucidation of the peanuts contamination mechanisms by toxigenic fungi and their mycotoxins is vital, specially for prevention measurements. The peanuts total mycoflora and mycotoxin contamination were analyzed in plants sampled in Junqueirópolis, in São Paulo State (Brazil at different stages of the pod maturity. The prevalent mycoflora in peanut hulls were Fusarium spp., Rhizopus spp. and Aspergillus flavus. In soil under the peanut crop, the genus Penicillium spp., Fusarium spp. and A. flavus were detected. Aflatoxins were detected in peanut hull samples since filling pod stage in concentrations from 5.42 μg/kg to 218.52 μg/kg. Cyclopiazonic acid and fumonisins were not

  11. Qual seria a fonte de fungos miceliais encontrados em leite humano ordenhado? What is the source of mycelial fungi in expressed human milk?

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    Franz Reis Novak

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Caracterizou-se os gêneros de fungos miceliais encontrados em amostras de leite humano ordenhado, recebidas a partir de coleta domiciliar, pelo Banco de Leite Humano do Instituto Fernandes Figueira. Foram analisadas 821 amostras de leite humano ordenhado, obtidas ao acaso, a partir de frascos coletados nos domicílios pelas próprias doadoras, e realizadas pesquisas de bolores e leveduras e microrganismos mesófilos. As análises revelaram a ocorrência de bolores e leveduras em 43 (5,2% das amostras, com contagens atingindo a ordem de 10³UFC/ml, tendo sido isoladas 48 cepas de fungos miceliais, que foram identificadas por técnicas padrão de laboratório, como as seguintes: Aspergillus Grupo Niger (6,3%, Aspergillus sp. (4,2%, Paecilomyces sp. (12,6%, Penicillium sp. (60,4%, Rhizopus sp. (2,0% e Syncephalastrum sp. (14,5%. Discute-se a importância do controle da assepsia das mãos das doadoras, antes da coleta do leite humano.The authors characterized the genera of mycelial fungi found in samples of expressed human milk received through home collection by the Human Milk Bank of the Instituto Fernandes Figueira in Rio de Janeiro. A total of 821 samples of expressed human milk were taken randomly from bottles collected at home by the milk donors themselves and were investigated for molds, yeasts, and mesophilic microorganisms. The analyses showed the occurrence of molds and yeasts in 43 (5.2% of the samples, with counts reaching 103CFU/ml. Some 48 strains of mycelial fungi were identified by standard laboratory techniques, including: Aspergillus Niger group (6.3%, Aspergillus sp. (4.2%, Paecilomyces sp. (12.6%, Penicillium sp. (60.4%, Rhizopus sp. (2.0%, and Syncephalastrum sp. (14.5%. The authors discuss the importance of donor hands' asepsis prior to collecting human milk.

  12. ATIVIDADE ENZIMÁTICA DE MICRORGANISMOS ISOLADOS DO JACATUPÉ (Pachyrhizus erosus L. Urban ENZYMATIC ACTIVITY OF MICROORGANISMS ISOLATED FROM YAM BEAN LEGUME (Pachyrhizus erosus L. Urban

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    Tânia L. Montenegro STAMFORD

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available O isolamento e a identificação de microrganismos produtores de enzimas de interesse comercial, utilizando tubérculos de jacatupé (Pachyrhizus erosus L. Urban, foi o objetivo principal deste trabalho. Isolaram-se microrganismos endofíticos e epifíticos identificados por observação micromorfológica. A avaliação da atividade enzimática das linhagens foi determinada pelo método de difusão em ágar. As sessenta e oito linhagens isoladas dos tubérculos de jacatupé foram cultivadas em meio sólido específico para amilase, lipase, protease e celulase por 96h a 280 C. Os microrganismos epifíticos encontrados foram Pithomyces (7,3%, Aspergillus (19,2%, Fusarium (5,9% e Trichoderma (5,8%, e os endofíticos foram Mucor (7,3%, Rhizopus (10,3%, Bacillus (19,0%, Staphylococcus (10,3% e Nocardiopsis (15%. As linhagens de Nocardiopsis sp. apresentaram atividade lipolítica superior à do padrão, porém a atividade amilolítica não apresentou diferença significativa comparada com o padrão. As linhagens de Mucor sp., Pithomyces sp. e Staphylococcus sp. produziram atividade proteolítica abaixo do padrão. Nenhum isolado apresentou atividade celulolítica.The isolation and identification of microorganisms that produce enzyme of commercial interest utilizing tubers of yam bean legume (Pachyrrizus erosus L. Urban was the main objective of this work. Endophytic and epiphytic microorganisms were isolated by micromorphologyc observation. The agar diffusion method was used to determine the enzymatic activity. Sixty-eight isolates from yam bean tubers were cultured at 280 C in solid medium specific to amylase, lipase, protease and cellulase for 96h. The epiphytic microorganisms Pithomyces (7,3%, Aspergillus (19,2%, Fusarium (5,9% and Trichoderma (5,8% and the endophytic microorganisms Mucor (7,3%, Rhizopus (10,3% Bacillus (19%, Staphylococcus (10,3% and Nocardiopsis (15% were isolated. Compared to the specific standard culture Nocardiopsis sp. showed

  13. Bio-synthesis and hydrolysis of ethyl phenylacetate and ethyl 2-phenylpropionate in organic solvent by lyophilized mycelia Biossíntese e hidrólise de fenilacetato de etila e 2-fenilpropionato de etila em solvente orgânico por meio de micélios liofilizados

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    Paolo Torre

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available To select the best biocatalysts for ethanol acylations with phenylacetic and 2-phenylpropionic acids, lyophilized mycelia of Aspergillus oryzae CBS 10207, A. oryzae MIM, Rhizopus oryzae CBS 11207, R. oryzae CBS 39134, R. oryzae CBS 26028 and R. oryzae CBS 32847 were tested in this study. The carboxylesterase activities of A. oryzae MIM and R. oryzae 11207, which revealed to be the best biocatalysts, were investigated either in 0.1 M phosphate buffer or in n-heptane to catalyze the hydrolysis or the synthesis of ethyl esters of these acids, respectively. A. oryzae proved more effective than R. oryzae, probably due to more favorable microenvironment conditions and thermodynamic scenario. The results in terms of product formation and substrate consumption versus time were used to estimate the maximum conversion yields, the equilibrium constants and the times needed to reach half maximum conversion, thus providing sufficient information about these equilibria.Micélios liofilizados de Aspergillus oryzae CBS 10207, A. oryzae MIM, Rhizopus oryzae CBS 11207, R. oryzae CBS 39134, R. oryzae CBS 26028 e R. oryzae CBS 32847 foram testados neste estudo com vista à seleção do melhor biocatalisador para efetuar a acilação de etanol com ácidos fenilacético e 2-fenilpropiônico. As atividades carboxilesterásicas de A. oryzae MIM e R. oryzae 11207, que resultaram ser os melhores biocatalisadores, foram investigadas tanto em tampão fosfato 0,1 M como em n-heptano para catalisar a hidrólise ou a síntese dos ésteres etílicos destes ácidos. A. oryzae pareceu ser mais eficaz que R. oryzae, provavelmente devido a condições micro-ambientais e a um cenário termodinâmico mais favoráveis. Os resultados obtidos em termos de formação do produto e consumo dos substratos em função do tempo foram usados para a estimativa dos rendimentos de conversão máximos, as constantes de equilíbrio e os tempos necessários para alcançar metade da conversão m

  14. Enzymatic resolution of (R,S-ibuprofen and (R,S-ketoprofen by microbial lipases from native and commercial sources Resolução enzimática do (R,S-ibuprofeno e (R,S-cetoprofeno por lipases microbianas de fontes nativas e comerciais

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    Patrícia de Oliveira Carvalho

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The enantioselectivity (E of native lipases from Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus, Fusarium oxysporum, Mucor javanicus, Penicillium solitum and Rhizopus javanicus in the resolution of (R,S-ibuprofen and (R,S-ketoprofenenantiomers by esterification reaction with 1-propanol in isooctane was compared with known commercial Candida rugosa (Sigma and Candida antarctica (Novozym®435 lipases. In the resolution of (R,S-ibuprofen, C. rugosa lipase showed good selectivity (E = 12 while Novozym®435 (E = 6.7 and A. niger (E = 4.8 lipases had intermediate selectivities. Other enzymes were much less selective (E around 2.3 and 1.5, under tested conditions. After preliminary optimization of reaction conditions (water content, enzyme concentration and presence of additives the enantioselectivity of native A. niger lipase could be enhanced substantially (E = 15. All tested lipases showed low selectivity in the resolution of (R,S-ketoprofen because poor ester yields and low enantiomeric excess of the acid remaining were achieved.A enantioseletividade (E das lipases nativas de Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus, Fusarium oxysporum, Mucor javanicus, Penicillium solitum e Rhizopus javanicus na resolução dos enantiômeros do (R,S-ibuprofeno e (R,S-cetoprofeno na reação de esterificação com 1-propanol em isoctano foi comparada com as lipases comerciais de Candida rugosa (Sigma e Candida antarctica (Novozym®435. A lipase de C. rugosa mostrou boa enantioseletividade (E = 12 comparada com as da Novozym®435 (E = 6.7, de A. niger (E=4.8 e com as outras lipases que foram muito menos seletivas (E por volta de 2.3 e 1.5 na resolução do (R,S-ibuprofeno, dentro das condições testadas. Após uma otimização preliminar das condições da reação (conteúdo de água, concentração da enzima e presença de aditivos a enantioseletividade da lipase de A. niger pôde ser substancialmente aumentada (E = 15. Todas as lipases testadas mostraram baixa

  15. Pilot-scale submersed cultivation of R. microsporus var. oligosporus in thin stillage, a dry-grind corn-to-ethanol co-product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Daniel Thomas

    An innovative process to add value to a corn-to-ethanol co-product, Thin stillage, was studied for pilot-scale viability. A 1500L bioreactor was designed, operated, and optimized to cultivate Rhizopus microsporus var. oligosporus via submersed fermentation in Thin Stillage. The biomass was harvested and processed into a feed suitable for storage and ultimately for animal feeding trials. Characterization of the biomass and feed trials revealed that there is substantial potential as a nutrient dense feed supplement with 41.1% protein, 26.3% fat, and metabolizable energy on s dried basis. The amino acid profile is superior to that of DDGS, with most notably 1.7% Lys on dried basis. This process produces a significantly more nutrient dense product than DDGS, and could increase water-reclaimation in a dry-grind corn to ethanol plant. Industrially it would replace the energy intensive process of converting thin stillage into syrup that adds only $10-25/ton to DDG, while maintaining production of DDG. Using thin stillage as used a growth media for R. microsporus var. oligosporus, should not only lead to saving in energy costs, but also generate a high-value co-product which could lead to economic gains. Also there is still unexplored potential of enzymes, chitin, and co-culturing to further add value.

  16. Ocular fungal flora from healthy horses in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, A R; Nikaein, D; Sharifzadeh, A; Gharagozlou, F

    2014-03-01

    This study was carried out in order to isolate and identify the normal conjunctival fungal flora from Caspian miniature, Thoroughbred, Turkmen and Persian Arab breeds in Tehran, Iran. A total of seventy-two adult healthy horses were studied. Ocular samples were collected from right and left eyes by using sterile cotton swabs; samples were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar and incubated at 30°C for 7-10 days. Molds and yeasts were identified using macro and micro-morphological and physiological characteristics. Number of fungal colonies per eye varied between 0 and 123 colony forming units (CFUs). The most predominant fungal isolates were Aspergillus (19.9%), Rhizopus (15.9%) and Penicillium (15.1%). No significant differences were observed between types of eye fungal floras in different breeds. Caspian miniature horses had significantly the highest number of fungal isolates in compare with other breeds (P<0.001), however no significant difference was observed among other breeds under study. The fungal isolates were almost the same as with studies performed in other countries, although differences in species isolated could be related to geographic and climate difference. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Características químicas e avaliação microbiológica de diferentes fases de maturação do biofertilizante Bokashi

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    Flaviane Eva Magrini

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O uso de biofertilizantes é uma das alternativas que vêm sendo testada e adotada na agricultura, a fim de reduzir o uso de produtos químicos como forma de reaproveitamento de resíduos da propriedade. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar a concentração de N, P, K, Fe, Zn, Mg e Ca e a microbiota fúngica de diferentes fases de maturação do biofertilizante Bokashi. As amostras foram avaliadas aos 15, 30, 60 e 85 dias de maturação. A partir da análise das amostras observou-se que a maioria dos nutrientes avaliados tiveram seu valor mais expressivo aos 60 dias de maturação da compostagem. Os fungos identificados pertencem a diferentes gêneros, destacando-se a presença de Aspergillus sp., Dactylium sp. e Rhizopus sp. na fase final de maturação do composto. Os resultados demonstram que ocorreram variações na concentração dos nutrientes e nas populações de microrganismos do biofertilizante avaliado, demonstrando uma intensa atividade biológica no composto com a liberação de diversos nutrientes para o meio.

  18. Study on toxigenic fungi in ruminant feeds under desert conditions with special references to its biological control

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    Shimaa M.S. Hegazy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of 435 samples from feedstuff (130 samples of commercial ration feed storage from 1–30 days, 77 samples of commercial ration stored higher than 30 days, 57 samples from each of, derris, grind mixture, Tibn and wheat bran were collected from the feed store houses of private farms located at the desert regions of Ras Sudr at South Sinai and Elameria area at Alexandria Governorate, from December 2012 to May 2014. The collected samples were analyzed for fungal growth. The results revealed that, the main moulds observed in the ruminant feeds were Penicillium spp., Aspergillus (A flavus, Cladosporium spp., Mucor spp., Trichoderma spp., A. niger, Alternaria spp., Rhizopus spp., Fusarium spp., A. fumigates and A. terreus. In addition, the winter season was of higher incidence for moulds isolation than summer season. The most toxigenic aflatoxins secreted by Aspergillus flavus include Aflatoxin B1, Aflatoxin B2, Aflatoxin G1 and Aflatoxin G2. The results of biological treatment of Aflatoxins using Saccharomyces (S cerevisiae, showed that, the addition of Saccharomyces cerevisiae at a level of (1 × 106 cfu.ml−1 and (1 × 109 cfu.ml−1 decreased the level of concentration of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2 and the level of (1 × 109 cfu.ml−1 was more efficient in reducing aflatoxins than the lower concentration.

  19. Land Use History Shifts In Situ Fungal and Bacterial Successions following Wheat Straw Input into the Soil.

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    Vincent Tardy

    Full Text Available Soil microbial communities undergo rapid shifts following modifications in environmental conditions. Although microbial diversity changes may alter soil functioning, the in situ temporal dynamics of microbial diversity is poorly documented. Here, we investigated the response of fungal and bacterial diversity to wheat straw input in a 12-months field experiment and explored whether this response depended on the soil management history (grassland vs. cropland. Seasonal climatic fluctuations had no effect on the diversity of soil communities. Contrastingly fungi and bacteria responded strongly to wheat regardless of the soil history. After straw incorporation, diversity decreased due to the temporary dominance of a subset of copiotrophic populations. While fungi responded as quickly as bacteria, the resilience of fungal diversity lasted much longer, indicating that the relative involvement of each community might change as decomposition progressed. Soil history did not affect the response patterns, but determined the identity of some of the populations stimulated. Most strikingly, the bacteria Burkholderia, Lysobacter and fungi Rhizopus, Fusarium were selectively stimulated. Given the ecological importance of these microbial groups as decomposers and/or plant pathogens, such regulation of the composition of microbial successions by soil history may have important consequences in terms of soil carbon turnover and crop health.

  20. Documentation of ethnomedicinal information and antimicrobial validation of Thespesia populnea used by Yanadi tribe of Ganugapenta village, Chittoor district, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savithramma, Nataru; Yugandhar, Pulicherla; Devi, Pallipati Suvarnalatha; Ankanna, Sade; Suhrulatha, Damai; Prasad, Koya Siva; Ranjani, Ramakrishanan; Nagaraju, Nagoji; Chetty, Kummara Madhava

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to document the traditional knowledge of medicinal plants and antimicrobial validation of Thespesia populnea used by Yanadi tribe of Chittoor district, Andhra Pradesh, India. The study was mainly focused on documentation of medicinal plants used by Yanadi tribe to treat different diseases with a standard questionnaire. These plants were cross-checked in Dr. Dukes Database and available literature to know the significance of this tribe on medicinal knowledge. Among the documented plants, T. populnea was selected for antimicrobial activity with disc diffusion assay. Among the documented medicinal plants, herbs were the most utilized plants, followed by leaf part of the plants; paste form of medicinal preparation was the dominant one among the mode of preparations and oral administration was generally followed by this tribe. When checked these plants in Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Database most of the medicinal plants were matched at least one medicinal use and most of them were correlated with existing literature. In antimicrobial activity, the microbial pathogens Klebsiella pneumonia among bacteria and Rhizopus arrhizus among fungi were most susceptible to methanol extract of T. populnea . From this study, we conclude that the preparation and dosage of the medicines by Yanadi tribe of this area is unique and the correlation of medicinal data with Duke's Database and existing literature reveals high medicinal significance of claimed data of this tribe and potential inhibitory activity of T. populnea could be studied further to isolate effective antimicrobial agents.

  1. Overexpression of Aspergillus tubingensis faeA in protease-deficient Aspergillus niger enables ferulic acid production from plant material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwane, Eunice N; Rose, Shaunita H; van Zyl, Willem H; Rumbold, Karl; Viljoen-Bloom, Marinda

    2014-06-01

    The production of ferulic acid esterase involved in the release of ferulic acid side groups from xylan was investigated in strains of Aspergillus tubingensis, Aspergillus carneus, Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae. The highest activity on triticale bran as sole carbon source was observed with the A. tubingensis T8.4 strain, which produced a type A ferulic acid esterase active against methyl p-coumarate, methyl ferulate and methyl sinapate. The activity of the A. tubingensis ferulic acid esterase (AtFAEA) was inhibited twofold by glucose and induced twofold in the presence of maize bran. An initial accumulation of endoglucanase was followed by the production of endoxylanase, suggesting a combined action with ferulic acid esterase on maize bran. A genomic copy of the A. tubingensis faeA gene was cloned and expressed in A. niger D15#26 under the control of the A. niger gpd promoter. The recombinant strain has reduced protease activity and does not acidify the media, therefore promoting high-level expression of recombinant enzymes. It produced 13.5 U/ml FAEA after 5 days on autoclaved maize bran as sole carbon source, which was threefold higher than for the A. tubingensis donor strain. The recombinant AtFAEA was able to extract 50 % of the available ferulic acid from non-pretreated maize bran, making this enzyme suitable for the biological production of ferulic acid from lignocellulosic plant material.

  2. An antifungal role of hydrogen sulfide on the postharvest pathogens Aspergillus niger and Penicillium italicum.

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    Liu-Hui Fu

    Full Text Available In this research, the antifungal role of hydrogen sulfide (H2S on the postharvest pathogens Aspergillus niger and Penicillium italicum growing on fruits and under culture conditions on defined media was investigated. Our results show that H2S, released by sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS effectively reduced the postharvest decay of fruits induced by A. niger and P. italicum. Furthermore, H2S inhibited spore germination, germ tube elongation, mycelial growth, and produced abnormal mycelial contractions when the fungi were grown on defined media in Petri plates. Further studies showed that H2S could cause an increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS in A. niger. In accordance with this observation we show that enzyme activities and the expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT genes in A. niger treated with H2S were lower than those in control. Moreover, H2S also significantly inhibited the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Rhizopus oryzae, the human pathogen Candida albicans, and several food-borne bacteria. We also found that short time exposure of H2S showed a microbicidal role rather than just inhibiting the growth of microbes. Taken together, this study suggests the potential value of H2S in reducing postharvest loss and food spoilage caused by microbe propagation.

  3. Qual seria a fonte de fungos miceliais encontrados em leite humano ordenhado?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Reis Novak

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Caracterizou-se os gêneros de fungos miceliais encontrados em amostras de leite humano ordenhado, recebidas a partir de coleta domiciliar, pelo Banco de Leite Humano do Instituto Fernandes Figueira. Foram analisadas 821 amostras de leite humano ordenhado, obtidas ao acaso, a partir de frascos coletados nos domicílios pelas próprias doadoras, e realizadas pesquisas de bolores e leveduras e microrganismos mesófilos. As análises revelaram a ocorrência de bolores e leveduras em 43 (5,2% das amostras, com contagens atingindo a ordem de 10³UFC/ml, tendo sido isoladas 48 cepas de fungos miceliais, que foram identificadas por técnicas padrão de laboratório, como as seguintes: Aspergillus Grupo Niger (6,3%, Aspergillus sp. (4,2%, Paecilomyces sp. (12,6%, Penicillium sp. (60,4%, Rhizopus sp. (2,0% e Syncephalastrum sp. (14,5%. Discute-se a importância do controle da assepsia das mãos das doadoras, antes da coleta do leite humano.

  4. Biotransformation of sclareolide by filamentous fungi: cytotoxic evaluations of the derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cano, Arturo [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, D.F. (Mexico). Facultad de Estudios Superiores Zaragoza; Ramirez-Apan, Maria Teresa; Delgado, Guillermo, E-mail: delgado@unam.m [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2011-07-01

    Sclareolide (1) was incubated with eight different species of filamentous fungi conventionally used for bio-oxidations. Compound 1 was metabolized with Aspergillus niger in medium A to yield 3-ketosclareolide (2) and 3b-hydroxysclareolide (4), while in medium B (containing major number of nutrients with respect to medium A), compounds 2, 4, 3{alpha},6{beta}-dihydroxysclareolide (16), 1-ketosclareolide (17), 3-keto-15-hydroxysclareolide (18) and 3{beta},15-dihydroxysclareolide (19) were obtained. The biotransformation products 16-19 were found to be new substances. Fermentation of 1 with Cunninghamella blackesleeana using medium A afforded 2 and 4, while using medium B yielded 2, 4, 16 and 17. Compounds 2, 4 and 17 were also obtained with Curvularia lunata. Biotransformation of 1 with Beauveria bassiana yielded 4 in satisfactory yield, with Rhizopus oligosporus and Mucor miehei afforded 2 and 4, while with R. nigricans and Fusarium moliniforme yielded 2, 4 and 16. Cytotoxic evaluation of 1 and the obtained products against selected human cancer cell lines (U251, PC-3, K562, HCT-15, MCF-7 and SKUL-1) indicated that 16 (3{alpha},6{beta}-dihydroxysclareolide) displayed moderate cytotoxic (IC{sub 50} < 100 {mu}M) against U251, PC-3, HCT-15 and MCF-7. (author)

  5. In Vitro Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, Cytotoxicity and GC-MS Analysis of Mazus goodenifolius

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    Muhammad Riaz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic properties of Mazus goodenifolius (Hornem. Pennell essential oil, methanol extract and some solvent-extracted subfractions of the latter were appraised. A qualitative, quantitative analysis of the classes of phytochemicals in the various fractions and GC-MS analysis of the essential oil was carried out. The activity of the plant extract and various subfractions against selected bacterial (Pasturella multocida, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus and fungal strains (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Alternaria alternata and Rhizopus solani was evaluated. The antioxidant activity was assayed using the DPPH radical scavenging and % inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation tests. In the DPPH radical scavenging test the IC50 values ranged from 7.21 to 91.79 µg/mL, and in the latter the range of % peroxidation inhibition was 35.42–93.48%. Protective effects of the absolute methanol extract, which had the highest content of phenolics and flavonoids, against H2O2 induced oxidative damage in plasmid pBR322 DNA was also evaluated, and it was found to offer some protection at the highest tested dose (1,000 µg/mL. Finally the cytotoxicity of the plant extract, fractions and essential oil was analyzed by examining haemolytic activity against human blood erythrocytes (RBCs, whereby the % lysis of RBCs was found to be in the range of 1.65 to 4.01%.

  6. Cadmium biosorption by Aspergillus niger; Biossorcao de cadmio pelo Aspergillus niger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, E.P.; Barros Junior, L.M.; Duarte, M.M.L.; Macedo, G.R. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, RN (Brazil)]. E-mail: edmilson@eq.ufrn.br

    2003-07-01

    Biosorption is a property of certain types of inactive, dead, microbial biomass to bind and concentrate heavy metals from even very dilute aqueous solutions. Biomass exhibits this property, acting just as a chemical substance, as an ion exchanger of biological origin. It is particularly the cell wall structure of certain algae, fungi and bacteria which was found responsible for this phenomenon. Some of the biomass types come as a waste by-product of large-scale industrial fermentations (the mold Rhizopus or the bacterium Bacillus subtilis). Other metal-binding biomass types, certain abundant seaweeds (particularly brown algae e.g. Sargassum, Ecklonia), can be readily collected from the oceans. These biomass types, serving as a basis for metal biosorption processes, can accumulate in excess of 25% of their dry weight in deposited heavy metals: Pb, Cd, U, Cu, Zn, even Cr and others. Sorption experiments using the Aspergillus niger fungus for cadmium removal were carried out to study the factors influencing and optimizing the biosorption of this metal. The effects of pH, time, biomass concentration, and initial concentration of the heavy metal on the rate of metallic biosorption were examined. (author)

  7. Pathogenic Fungal Species Associated with Digestive System of Periplaneta americana (Blattaria: Blattidae Trapped from Residential Dwellings in Ahvaz City, Southwestern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Kassiri

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cockroaches are the most prevalent domestic pests of a worldwide distribution. They were recognized as possible vectors of pathogenic bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites in residential dwellings and hospital environ­ments. The present study isolated and identified yeasts and filamentous fungi from digestive tract of American cock­roaches, collected from three different residential regions of Iran.Methods: Seventy cockroaches were sampled using direct collection (hand catch, vacuum cleaner and sticky traps in Ahvaz, Iran in 2009–2010. Their medically important fungal microorganisms were isolated from digestive tract using standard mycological methods. Filamentous fungi were identified by macroscopic and microscopic examina­tion. Yeasts were identified by API ID32C-32100 kit.Results: A high percentage of cockroaches (88.6% were detected to carry fungi of medical importance. Overall, 23 fungi species/genera were isolated from the American cockroaches' alimentary tract. The fungi isolated from cock­roaches, from the residential regions were species of Aspergillus, Rhizopus, Penicillium, Mucorales, Alternaria, Cladosporium, Mycelia, Chrysosporium, Candida, Rhodotorula, Zygosaccharomyces, and Debaryomyces. Candida spp. (41.4%, Aspergillus spp. (37.1% and Rhodotorula spp (27.1% were the most common fungi recovered on cockroaches. Candida albicans and Candida glabrata were the commonest species of the genus Candida. In addi­tion, Aspergillus niger and A. flavus were the most frequent species of the genus Aspergillus.Conclusion: American cockroaches may carry pathogenic fungi in the urban areas of Ahvaz.

  8. Microbial Diversity in the Gut of Cashew Stem Girdler, Analeptes trifasciata Fabricius (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyedokun, A V; Adeniyi, D O

    2016-01-01

    The cashew stem girdler, Analeptes trifasciata, is a major insect pest of cashew in Nigeria causing economic damage in cashew plantations even at low density. In this study, newly emerged adults of A. trifasciata reared from field-infested cashew stems were collected from the rearing cages, sexed, and dissected to reveal the internal structures of the insects. The gut was excised and separated into the foregut, midgut, and hindgut. The dissected gut compartments were blotted dry by sandwiching in sterile Whatman No. 1 (150 mm) filter paper for a minute. The inoculated gut parts showed the presence of eight fungi flora, namely, Aspergillus repens, Trichoderma spp., Fusarium verticillioides, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, yeast, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium spp., and Rhizopus stolonifer. The frequencies of occurrence of bacteria in the gut compartments of A. trifasciata were Enterobacter spp.: 83.33%; Escherichia coli and Streptococcus spp.: 55.56% each; Staphylococcus spp.: 44.44%; Klebsiella pneumonia: 50% and Salmonella shigella: 11.11%, while each of Serratia marceascea, Pseudomonas spp., and Micrococcus lutea had 5.56% occurrence. The occurrence of mycoflora and microbiota species varied in the gut compartments of A. trifasciata, indicating the role of these microorganisms in metabolic and other bioprocesses of A. trifasciata during digestion and synthesis of complex food substances from the cashew stem substrate. This study would provide basic information for enzymatic studies of A. trifasciata with a view to developing an integrated pest management (IPM) protocol for managing the pest in cashew plantations.

  9. Microbial Diversity in the Gut of Cashew Stem Girdler, Fabricius (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae, in Ibadan, Nigeria

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    A.V. Oyedokun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cashew stem girdler, Analeptes trifasciata , is a major insect pest of cashew in Nigeria causing economic damage in cashew plantations even at low density. In this study, newly emerged adults of A. trifasciata reared from field-infested cashew stems were collected from the rearing cages, sexed, and dissected to reveal the internal structures of the insects. The gut was excised and separated into the foregut, midgut, and hindgut. The dissected gut compartments were blotted dry by sandwiching in sterile Whatman No. 1 (150 mm filter paper for a minute. The inoculated gut parts showed the presence of eight fungi flora, namely, Aspergillus repens, Trichoderma spp., Fusarium verticillioides, Lasiodiplodia theobromae , yeast, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium spp., and Rhizopus stolonifer . The frequencies of occurrence of bacteria in the gut compartments of A. trifasciata were Enterobacter spp.: 83.33%; Escherichia coli and Streptococcus spp.: 55.56% each; Staphylococcus spp.: 44.44%; Klebsiella pneumonia : 50% and Salmonella shigella : 11.11%, while each of Serratia marceascea, Pseudomonas spp., and Micrococcus lutea had 5.56% occurrence. The occurrence of mycoflora and microbiota species varied in the gut compartments of A. trifasciata , indicating the role of these microorganisms in metabolic and other bioprocesses of A. trifasciata during digestion and synthesis of complex food substances from the cashew stem substrate. This study would provide basic information for enzymatic studies of A. trifasciata with a view to developing an integrated pest management (IPM protocol for managing the pest in cashew plantations.

  10. Fungi Isolated from Flue-cured Tobacco at Time of Sale and After Storage1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty, R. E.; Lucas, G. B.

    1969-01-01

    The fungi isolated from 100 samples of flue-cured tobacco from 12 markets in 2 tobacco belts comprised 11 genera, including 10 species of Aspergillus. The mean percentage per sample isolated from 62 samples of tobacco from Middle Belt markets was Alternaria, 40.6%; Aspergillus niger, 47.8%; Aspergillus repens, 38.0%; and Penicillium, 25.8%. The mean percentage per sample isolated from 38 samples of tobacco from Old Belt markets was Alternaria, 74.0%; Penicillium, 52.5%; Aspergillus repens, 38.0%; and Aspergillus ruber, 36.2%. Damaged (74 samples) and nondamaged (26 samples) stored tobacco yielded species of six genera of fungi, including eight species of Aspergillus. Species of Aspergillus and Penicillium were commonly isolated from both damaged and nondamaged tobacco, whereas species of Alternaria, Cladosporium, Fusarium, and Rhizopus were isoalted more frequently from nondamaged tobacco. The fungi that occurred in the highest population in damaged tobacco were Aspergillus repens, A. niger, A. ruber, and Penicillium species. PMID:16349841

  11. Fungi Isolated from Flue-cured Tobacco at Time of Sale and After Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty, R E; Lucas, G B

    1969-03-01

    The fungi isolated from 100 samples of flue-cured tobacco from 12 markets in 2 tobacco belts comprised 11 genera, including 10 species of Aspergillus. The mean percentage per sample isolated from 62 samples of tobacco from Middle Belt markets was Alternaria, 40.6%; Aspergillus niger, 47.8%; Aspergillus repens, 38.0%; and Penicillium, 25.8%. The mean percentage per sample isolated from 38 samples of tobacco from Old Belt markets was Alternaria, 74.0%; Penicillium, 52.5%; Aspergillus repens, 38.0%; and Aspergillus ruber, 36.2%. Damaged (74 samples) and nondamaged (26 samples) stored tobacco yielded species of six genera of fungi, including eight species of Aspergillus. Species of Aspergillus and Penicillium were commonly isolated from both damaged and nondamaged tobacco, whereas species of Alternaria, Cladosporium, Fusarium, and Rhizopus were isoalted more frequently from nondamaged tobacco. The fungi that occurred in the highest population in damaged tobacco were Aspergillus repens, A. niger, A. ruber, and Penicillium species.

  12. In Vitro Control of Post-Harvest Fruit Rot Fungi by Some Plant Essential Oil Components

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    Gian Luigi Rana

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Eight substances that are main components of the essential oils from three Mediterranean aromatic plants (Verbena officinalis, Thymus vulgaris and Origanum vulgare, previously found active against some phytopathogenic Fungi and Stramenopila, have been tested in vitro against five etiological agents of post-harvest fruit decay, Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium italicum, P. expansum, Phytophthora citrophthora and Rhizopus stolonifer. The tested compounds were β-fellandrene, β-pinene, camphene, carvacrol, citral, o-cymene, γ-terpinene and thymol. Citral exhibited a fungicidal action against P. citrophthora; carvacrol and thymol showed a fungistatic activity against P. citrophthora and R. stolonifer. Citral and carvacrol at 250 ppm, and thymol at 150 and 250 ppm stopped the growth of B. cinerea. Moreover, thymol showed fungistatic and fungicidal action against P. italicum. Finally, the mycelium growth of P. expansum was inhibited in the presence of 250 ppm of thymol and carvacrol. These results represent an important step toward the goal to use some essential oils or their components as natural preservatives for fruits and foodstuffs, due to their safety for consumer healthy and positive effect on shelf life extension of agricultural fresh products.

  13. Results of mycological and mycotoxicological investigations of corn-based feed for dairy cow diet

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    Škrinjar Marija

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, fungal contamination was determined as well as total aflatoxin B1(AB1, ochratoxin A (OTA and zearalenon (ZEA levels in corn-based feed samples obtained from four different farms in Serbia (n=35 during one year. Mycotoxins were detected in feed using the VICAM fluorometric method. It was determined that 97.14% of all samples were contaminated with moulds which belonged to following genera: Absidia, Acremonium, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Geotrichum, Eurotium, Fusarium, Mucor, Mortierella, Oidiodendron, Penicillium, Rhizopus, Scopulariopsis, Syncephalastrum, Trichoderma, Ulocladium and Wallrothiella. A total of 58 different species were identified. Total mould count per 1 g ranged from 1.00 log cfu/g (dried corn silage - autumn, fresh corn silage - summer and corn grain silage - spring to 7.32 log cfu/g (dried corn silage - winter. Mycotoxins were isolated from 28.5% of samples: ZEA was found in summer (220-240 μg/kg and in spring (240 μg/kg in concentrate samples; OTA was detected in winter in dried corn silage (16 μg/kg and in spring (12 μg/kg; all samples were AB1 free.

  14. Essential oil from Ocimum basilicum (Omani Basil): a desert crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Maskri, Ahmed Yahya; Hanif, Muhammad Asif; Al-Maskari, Masoud Yahya; Abraham, Alfie Susan; Al-sabahi, Jamal Nasser; Al-Mantheri, Omar

    2011-10-01

    The focus of the present study was on the influence of season on yield, chemical composition, antioxidant and antifungal activities of Omani basil (Ocimum basilicum) oil. The present study involved only one of the eight Omani basil varieties. The hydro-distilled essential oil yields were computed to be 0.1%, 0.3% and 0.1% in the winter, spring and summer seasons, respectively. The major components identified were L- linalool (26.5-56.3%), geraniol (12.1-16.5%), 1,8-cineole (2.5-15.1%), p-allylanisole (0.2-13.8%) and DL-limonene (0.2-10.4%). A noteworthy extra component was beta- farnesene, which was exclusively detected in the oil extracted during winter and spring at 6.3% and 5.8%, respectively. The essential oil composition over the different seasons was quite idiosyncratic, in which the principal components of one season were either trivial or totally absent in another. The essential oil extracted in spring exhibited the highest antioxidant activity (except DPPH scavenging ability) in comparison with the oils from other seasons. The basil oil was tested against pathogenic fungi viz. Aspergillus niger, A. fumigatus, Penicillium italicum and Rhizopus stolonifer using a disc diffusion method, and by determination of minimum inhibitory concentration. Surprisingly high antifungal values were found highlighting the potential of Omani basil as a preservative in the food and medical industries.

  15. Mycobiota of rape seeds in Romania. I. Identification of mycobiota associated with rape seeds from different areas of Romania

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    Tatiana-Eugenia Şesan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of fungal diversity associated with rape seeds belonging to 33 cultivars (Alaska, Astrada, Astrid, Atlantic, Betty, Champlein, Chayenne, Dexter, Digger, Elvis, Eurowest, Finesse, Herkules, Hydromel, Hydromel-MA, Ladoga, anitoba, Masa Rom, Milena, Mohican, Montego, Nectar, Ontario, Orkan, Perla (4 lots, Remy, Robust, Rodeo, Saphir, Tiger, Tiger CBC Lot ROM06-121-110, Triangle, Valesca, Vectra and 2 hybrids (H-90-20-83, H-90-21-83 has been established by samples’ macroscopical and microscopical analizying, during 2006-2008, for the first time in Romania. The Ulster method on malt-agar and PDA culture media has been used, evaluating the percentage of fungal taxons present on/in rape seeds. The most important pathogenic fungi identified were: Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib. de Bary, Botrytis cinerea Pers., Rhizoctonia solani Kühn, Alternaria brassicae (Berk. Sacc., A. brassicicola (Schwein. Wiltshire and Fusarium spp. Also, a large quantities of some saprophytic fungi, as Alternaria, Cladosporium, Aspergillus, Penicillium, Rhizopus have been recorded. These ones have been affected the health condition of rape seeds, suppressing their germination and other vital phenomena. Among potential antagonistic fungi the following genera have been isolated: Chaetomium (0-4%, Trichoderma (0-10%, Aspergillus (0-14%, Penicillium (0-100%. Some correlations and comparisons have been established between fungal diversity, their provenience, cultivars, culture media (Malt-Agar/MA, Potato-Dextrose-Agar/PDA used. It has been evaluated the behaviour of rape cultivars and hybrids towards the main rape seed pathogens.

  16. Fungal infections in marrow transplant recipients under antifungal prophylaxis with fluconazole

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    Oliveira J.S.R.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infection is one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in bone marrow transplant (BMT recipients. The growing incidence of these infections is related to several factors including prolonged granulocytopenia, use of broad-spectrum antibiotics, conditioning regimens, and use of immunosuppression to avoid graft-versus-host disease (GvHD. In the present series, we report five cases of invasive mold infections documented among 64 BMT recipients undergoing fluconazole antifungal prophylaxis: 1 A strain of Scedosporium prolificans was isolated from a skin lesion that developed on day +72 after BMT in a chronic myeloid leukemic patient. 2 Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (Aspergillus fumigatus was diagnosed on day +29 in a patient with a long period of hospitalization before being transplanted for severe aplastic anemia. 3 A tumoral lung lesion due to Rhizopus arrhizus (zygomycosis was observed in a transplanted patient who presented severe chronic GvHD. 4 A tumoral lesion due to Aspergillus spp involving the 7th, 8th and 9th right ribs and local soft tissue was diagnosed in a BMT patient on day +110. 5 A patient with a history of Ph1-positive acute lymphocytic leukemia exhibited a cerebral lesion on day +477 after receiving a BMT during an episode of severe chronic GvHD. At that time, blood and spinal fluid cultures yielded Fusarium sp. Opportunistic infections due to fungi other than Candida spp are becoming a major problem among BMT patients receiving systemic antifungal prophylaxis with fluconazole.

  17. Fermented soya bean (tempe) extracts reduce adhesion of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli to intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubos-van den Hil, P J; Nout, M J R; Beumer, R R; van der Meulen, J; Zwietering, M H

    2009-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of processed soya bean, during the successive stages of tempe fermentation and different fermentation times, on adhesion of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) K88 to intestinal brush border cells as well as Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells; and to clarify the mechanism of action. Tempe was prepared at controlled laboratory scale using Rhizopus microsporus var. microsporus as the inoculum. Extracts of raw, soaked and cooked soya beans reduced ETEC adhesion to brush border cells by 40%. Tempe extracts reduced adhesion by 80% or more. ETEC adhesion to Caco-2 cells reduced by 50% in the presence of tempe extracts. ETEC K88 bacteria were found to interact with soya bean extracts, and this may contribute to the observed decrease of ETEC adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells. Fermented soya beans (tempe) reduce the adhesion of ETEC to intestinal epithelial cells of pig and human origin. This reduced adhesion is caused by an interaction between ETEC K88 bacteria and soya bean compounds. The results strengthen previous observations on the anti-diarrhoeal effect of tempe. This effect indicates that soya-derived compounds may reduce adhesion of ETEC to intestinal cells in pigs as well as in humans and prevent against diarrhoeal diseases.

  18. Impact of Microbial Composition of Cambodian Traditional Dried Starters (Dombea on Flavor Compounds of Rice Wine: Combining Amplicon Sequencing With HP-SPME-GCMS

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    Sokny Ly

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Dombae is a traditional ferment starter which has been used for starchy based wine production in Cambodia. However, the production technology of rice wine in Cambodia is not optimized. The current study aimed to investigate the microbiota associated in five ferment starters and the effect of a traditional fermentation process using a metagenomics sequencing analysis and HS-SPME-GCMS for the characterization of the aromatic profiles at the end of fermentation. Most of bacteria identified in this study were lactic acid bacteria including Weissella cibaria, Pediococcus sp. MMZ60A, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Lactobacillus plantarum. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomycopsis fibuligera were found to be abundant yeasts while the only amylolytic filamentous fungus was Rhizopus oryzae. A total of 25 aromatic compounds were detected and identified as esters, alcohols, acids, ketones and aldehydes. The alcohol group was dominant in each rice wine. Significant changes were observed at the level of microbial communities during fermentation, suggesting microbial succession for the assimilation of starch and subsequently assimilation of fermentation by-products leading to the production of flavor compounds. At this level, the presence of Weissella, Pediococcus, and Lactobacillus genus was strongly correlated with most of the flavor compounds detected.

  19. Impact of Microbial Composition of Cambodian Traditional Dried Starters (Dombea) on Flavor Compounds of Rice Wine: Combining Amplicon Sequencing With HP-SPME-GCMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Sokny; Mith, Hasika; Tarayre, Cédric; Taminiau, Bernard; Daube, Georges; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure; Delvigne, Frank

    2018-01-01

    Dombae is a traditional ferment starter which has been used for starchy based wine production in Cambodia. However, the production technology of rice wine in Cambodia is not optimized. The current study aimed to investigate the microbiota associated in five ferment starters and the effect of a traditional fermentation process using a metagenomics sequencing analysis and HS-SPME-GCMS for the characterization of the aromatic profiles at the end of fermentation. Most of bacteria identified in this study were lactic acid bacteria including Weissella cibaria, Pediococcus sp. MMZ60A, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Lactobacillus plantarum. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomycopsis fibuligera were found to be abundant yeasts while the only amylolytic filamentous fungus was Rhizopus oryzae. A total of 25 aromatic compounds were detected and identified as esters, alcohols, acids, ketones and aldehydes. The alcohol group was dominant in each rice wine. Significant changes were observed at the level of microbial communities during fermentation, suggesting microbial succession for the assimilation of starch and subsequently assimilation of fermentation by-products leading to the production of flavor compounds. At this level, the presence of Weissella, Pediococcus, and Lactobacillus genus was strongly correlated with most of the flavor compounds detected. PMID:29867806

  20. OPTIMASI PRODUKSI ENZIMATIS DIASILGLISEROL MELALUI GLISEROLISIS KONTINU [Optimization of Enzymatic Diacylglycerol Production through Continuous Glycerolysis

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    Tri-Panji*

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Diacylglycerol (DAG produced from crude palm oil (CPO is one of the healthy oils that can be consumed for daily human diet. DAG production in Indonesia is constrained by the high cost of the mostly imported lipase. To overcome this problem, research of DAG production has been carried out using crude extracts of lipase produced by local species of fungi Rhizopus oryzae. This study aims to develop a continuous process of enzymatic glycerolysis of CPO for DAG production; to establish optimum conditions of DAG production which includes flow rate of CPO and glycerolysis time; and to test the performance of lipase from the local mold R. oryzae in catalyzing continuous process of glycerolysis for the production of DAG. Lipase isolation was carried out by acetone precipitation and lipase was used as a catalyst in the continuous glycerolysis process. The glycerolysis was conducted by reacting CPO with glycerol continuously at various time periods. The optimum condition of automatic continuous glycerolysis process was achieved at a CPO flow rate of 3 mL/min with a glycerolysis time at the 18 cycles (9 hours. The conversion of DAG was 29%. The performance of lipase was proven to remain stable up to 3 times changes of CPO substrate for 9 hours of glycerolysis process with the best condition at the 3 cycles and can improved conversion of DAG until 37%.

  1. Microbial diversity and chemical analysis of the starters used in traditional Chinese sweet rice wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Haiying; Zhang, Ting; Zhang, Qi; Luo, Jie; Cai, Chenggang; Mao, Jianwei

    2018-08-01

    Chinese sweet rice wine (CSRW) is a popular alcoholic drink in China. To investigate the effect of the microbial composition in CSRW starters on the final quality of the alcoholic drink, high-throughput sequencing on the fungal internal transcribed spacer II and bacterial 16S rRNA gene of the microflora in 8 starter samples was performed. The sequencing data analysis showed that 10 genera of yeasts and mold, and 11 genera of bacteria were identified. Fungal diversity analyses showed the significant variances in the fungal compositions among the starter samples. Starter microbiota were dominated by the Rhizopus genus in SZ5, LS6, NN8, QD9, DZ10 and DZ11, indicating its important role in starch hydrolysis during CSRW brewing. According to principal coordinate analyses, the bacterial composition had even less similarity among the 8 starter samples. The chemical determination of CSRW fermented with the 8 starters demonstrated that the CSRW quality and flavor were drastically influenced by the taxonomic composition and metabolism of the microbes in the starters. This study suggests it is necessary to standardize rice wine manufacturing and flavor classification by specifying starter and fermentation techniques. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Antimicrobial effects of Turkish propolis, pollen, and laurel on spoilage and pathogenic food-related microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkmen, Osman; Ozcan, Mehmet Musa

    2008-09-01

    The antimicrobial activities of propolis extract, pollen extract, and essential oil of laurel (Laurus nobilis L.) at concentrations from 0.02% to 2.5% (vol/vol) were investigated on bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, Yersinia enterocolitica, Enterococcus faecalis, and Listeria monocytogenes), yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida rugosa), and molds (Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae). Pollen has no antimicrobial effects on the bacteria and fungi tested in the concentrations used. Propolis showed a bactericidal effect at 0.02% on B. cereus and B. subtilis, at 1.0% on S. aureus and E. faecalis, and at 0.2% on L. monocytogenes. The minimum inhibitory concentration of propolis for fungi was 2.5%. Propolis and laurel were ineffective against E. coli and S. typhimurium at the concentrations tested. The results showed that the antimicrobial activity were concentration dependent. Propolis and essential oil of laurel may be used as biopreservative agents in food processing and preservation.

  3. Hongos de importancia agrícola presentes en moscas de la fruta del valle de Ica, Perú

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    Carlos E. Tipismana

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue aislar e identificar hongos de especímenes de moscas de la fruta de los géneros Ceratitis (Macleay y Anastrepha (Schiner, del valle de Ica, Perú. Se aislaron hongos pertenecientes a los géneros Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Mucor, Penicillium, Rhizoctonia, Rhizopus y Trichoderma;así como levaduras y micelios estériles. Los recuentos de hongos presentaron rangos entre 8x103 a 8x104 UFC/g para el género Ceratitis; y 7x103 a 7x104 UFC/g para el género Anastrepha. El IVI% (Índice de Valor de Importancia demostró que Cladosporium es el género con mayor valor ecológico con un 78,05%. El Índice de Similitud de especies de hongos entre ambos géneros de mosca de la fruta analizados fue 0,5. Los resultados obtenidos confirman la presencia de hongos en moscas de la fruta; y se deduce el posible impacto de estos dípteros en el área agrícola como potenciales agentes vectores de enfermedades fúngicas para los cultivos locales de importancia económica.

  4. Selection of potential microorganism for sago starch fermentation

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    RUTH MELLIAWATI

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation process of sago starch for the production of bioproduct requires potential microorganism that have ability to hydrolyze sago starch. The purpose of this research was to get the potential of amylolytic microorganisms for their capability of amyloglucosidase activity and to know the sugar strains of the fermentation result. Eleven amylolytic microorganisms (9 strains of mold and 2 strains of yeast were obtained from the collection Research Centre for Biotechnology – Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI, Cibinong-Bogor were used. The selection step was carried out based on their capability of starch hydrolysis to reducing sugar. The best result indicates that the production of reducing sugar reached the highest 18.485 ppm and amyloglucosidase activities was 3.583 units by KTU-1 strain. The highest total acid obtained was 5.85 mg/mL by Rhizopus IFO.R5442. The cell biomass was obtained between 0.5 to 1.74 g dry weight/100 mL and pH of the final fermentation (72 h were 3.57 to 8.38.

  5. Bioconversion of renewable resources into lactic acid: an industrial view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, A K; Chaudhari, A B; Kothari, R M

    2011-03-01

    Lactic acid, an anaerobic product of glycolysis, can be theoretically produced by synthetic route; however, it is commercially produced by homo-fermentative batch mode of operations. Factors affecting its production and strategies improving it are considered while devising an optimized protocol. Although a hetero-fermentative mode of production exists, it is rarely used for commercial production. Attempts to use Rhizopus sp. for lactic acid production through either hetero-fermentative or thermophilic conditions were not economical. Since almost 70% of the cost of its production is accounted by raw materials, R & D efforts are still focused to find economically attractive agri-products to serve as sources of carbon and complex nitrogen inputs to meet fastidious nutrient needs for microbial growth and lactic acid production. Therefore, need exists for using multi-pronged strategies for higher productivity. Its present production and consumption scenario is examined. Its optically active isomers and chemical structure permit its use for the production of several industrially important chemicals, health products (probiotics), food preservatives, and bio-plastics. In addition, its salts and esters appear to have a variety of applications.

  6. Diversity of Protease-Producing Bacillus spp. From Fresh Indonesian Tempeh Based on 16S rRNA Gene Sequence

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    Tati Barus

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tempeh is a type of traditional fermented food in Indonesia. The fermentation can be performed by Rhizopus microsporus as a main microorganism. However, Bacillus spp. is found in abundance in tempeh production. Nevertheless, information regarding the diversity of Bacillus spp. in tempeh production has not been reported yet. Therefore, the aim of this investigation was to study the genetic diversity of Bacillus spp. in tempeh production based on the 16S ribosomal RNA sequence. In this study, about 22 of 24 fresh tempeh from Jakarta, Bogor, and Tangerang were used. A total of 52 protease-producing Bacillus spp. isolates were obtained. Based on 16S ribosomal RNA results, all 52 isolates were identified to be similar to B. pumilus, B. subtilis, B. megaterium, B. licheniformis, B. cereus, B. thuringiensis, B. amyloliquefaciens, Brevibacillus brevis, and Bacillus sp. All the identified isolates were divided into two large clusters: 1 a cluster of B. cereus, B. thuringiensis, Bacillus sp., and B. brevis and 2 a cluster of B. pumilus, B. subtilis, B. megaterium, B. licheniformis, and B. amyloliquefaciens. Information about the Bacillus spp. role in determining the quality of tempeh has not been reported and this is a preliminary study of Bacillus spp. from tempeh.

  7. Quantitative Metabolomics and Instationary 13C-Metabolic Flux Analysis Reveals Impact of Recombinant Protein Production on Trehalose and Energy Metabolism in Pichia pastoris

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    Joel Jordà

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Pichia pastoris has been recognized as an effective host for recombinant protein production. In this work, we combine metabolomics and instationary 13C metabolic flux analysis (INST 13C-MFA using GC-MS and LC-MS/MS to evaluate the potential impact of the production of a Rhizopus oryzae lipase (Rol on P. pastoris central carbon metabolism. Higher oxygen uptake and CO2 production rates and slightly reduced biomass yield suggest an increased energy demand for the producing strain. This observation is further confirmed by 13C-based metabolic flux analysis. In particular, the flux through the methanol oxidation pathway and the TCA cycle was increased in the Rol-producing strain compared to the reference strain. Next to changes in the flux distribution, significant variations in intracellular metabolite concentrations were observed. Most notably, the pools of trehalose, which is related to cellular stress response, and xylose, which is linked to methanol assimilation, were significantly increased in the recombinant strain.

  8. Etiologia do declínio de mangostanzeiros no sul da Bahia

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    Eduardo César Araújo Paim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O declínio do mangostanzeiro (Garcinia mangostana L. no litoral sul do Estado da Bahia é hoje o principal problema da cultura, sendo caracterizado por sintomas de murcha, amarelecimento, seca e queda de folhas. Este trabalho teve como objetivo acompanhar a evolução da sintomatologia da doença, isolar e identificar os potenciais patógenos causadores do declínio do mangostanzeiro. A doença começa com a necrose das radículas, a qual atinge as raízes secundárias, primárias e progride até à base do tronco que desenvolve lesões necróticas extensas. Os sintomas secundários são clorose, murcha e queda das folhas. Das amostras de tecidos lesionados de plantas doentes levadas ao laboratório, foram isolados e identificados os seguintes fungos: Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Lasiodiplodia parva, Mycoleptodiscus sp., Rhizopus sp., Stilbella sp., Trichoderma spp. e Aspergillus sp. Apenas L. theobromae e L. parva foram patogênicas a fragmentos de raízes e caules de mangostanzeiros in vitro e a mudas de mangostanzeiros em casa de vegetação, sendo o isolado da primeira espécie o mais virulento. A taxonomia do gênero Lasiodiplodia e algumas condições que influenciam no desenvolvimento da doença no campo foram analisadas.

  9. Primary Otomycosis in the Indian Subcontinent: Predisposing Factors, Microbiology, and Classification

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    Sampath Chandra Prasad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To define otomycosis and determine the predisposing factors and microbiology in primary otomycosis. Study Design. Prospective study of two years and review of the literature. Setting. Academic Department of Otolaryngology in a coastal city in India. Patients. 150 immunocompetent individuals of whom 100 consecutive patients with a clinical diagnosis of otomycosis are considered as the study group and 50 consecutive patients with no otomycosis are considered as the control group. Results and Observations. Instillation of coconut oil (42%, use of topical antibiotic eardrops (20%, and compulsive cleaning of external ear with hard objects (32% appeared to be the main predisposing factors in otomycosis. Aspergilli were the most common isolates (80% followed by Penicillium (8%, Candida albicans (4%, Rhizopus (1%, and Chrysosporium (1%, the last being reported for the first time in otomycosis. Among aspergilli, A. niger complex (38% was the most common followed by A. fumigatus complex (27% and A. flavus complex (15%. Bacterial isolates associated with fungi in otomycosis were S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, and Proteus spp. In 42% of healthy external ears fungi were isolated. Conclusion. Aspergillus spp. were the most common fungi isolated, followed by Penicillium. Otomycotic ears are often associated with bacterial isolates when compared to normal ears. Fungi are also present in a significant number of healthy external auditory canals and their profiles match those in cases of otomycosis. The use of terms “primary” and “secondary” otomycosis is important to standardize reporting.

  10. Physiological and health quality of commercial lettuce and cabbage seed

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    Cleyton Teles Contreiras Paiva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Physiological and sanitary seed quality is essential for rapid and uniform crop establishment at field, a factor which contributes to vegetable crop production success. The aim was to evaluate physiological and sanitary quality of lettuce and cabbage seeds coming three lots acquired in trade. Physiological quality was determined by means of germination test and index of speed germination. Health status was assessed through sanity test in Petri dishes containing BDA medium. The experimental design was completely randomized with four replications and the averages of each lot compared among themselves by Tukey test (5%. No statistical analyzes were performed to health test and samples were evaluated for presence of microorganisms on the plates. Aspergillus spp., Rhizopus spp., cocci and bacillus are associated with lettuce seeds, and Aspergillus spp., cocci and bacillus are associated with cabbage seeds, but this association can not interfere with germination performance at laboratory. Information about germination contained in the package do not always coincide with those examined in situ. Lettuce and cabbage seeds are being marketed carrying pathogens.

  11. Tempeh flour as a substitute for soybean flour in coconut cookies

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    Rodrigo Santos Leite

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to prepare roasted and lyophilized tempeh flour with soybean cultivar BRS 267 to apply them in the formulation of coconut biscuits. The cookies produced with whole soy flour and mixed flour of soybean and tempeh were evaluated for proximate composition, fatty acid profile, and isoflavone aglycones in order to verify the effects of inoculation with the fungus Rhizopus oligosporus and those of the drying processes of roasting and lyophilization on the chemical characteristics of the final product. Sensory acceptance and purchase intention of the formulated products were also evaluated. The results indicate the maintenance of linolenic acid, which is important in the prevention of coronary diseases, and an increase in the aglycones levels when the tempeh flour was used. Lipids and proteins showed differences, and the sensory analyses demonstrated similarity between the cookies with satisfactory scores for aroma, flavor, texture, and overall acceptability for both samples. when compared to the control. Purchase intent was also positive for the lyophilized and toasted tempeh flours, thus enabling the use of the roasting process as a simple drying method, for processing tempeh and obtaining a flour rich in proteins and aglycones that can be used as a partial substitute for soy flour in cookies and other bakery products.

  12. Cross-reactivity among antigens of different air-borne fungi detected by ELISA using five monoclonal antibodies against Penicillium notatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, H D; Lin, W L; Chen, R J; Han, S H

    1990-10-01

    Cross-reactivity among antigens of 12 genera of air-borne fungi, 13 species of Penicillium, and 5 species of Aspergillus was studied by ELISA using five monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) against Penicillium notatum. Epitopes recognized by all the five MoAbs were susceptible to treatment of mild periodate oxidation and may therefore be associated with carbohydrates. Furthermore, our results showed that there is cross-reactivity among antigens of Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Eurotium species. By using these MoAbs, cross reactivity was not detected between antigens of Penicillium notatum and antigens of Fusarium solani, Alternaria porri, Cladosporium cladosporoides, Curvularia species, Nigrospora species, Aureobasidium pullulans, Wallemia species, Rhizopus arrhizus, and Candida albicans. Cross-reactivity among antigens of 11 species of Penicillium and 5 species of Aspergillus could be detected by ELISA using one of the five MoAbs (MoAb P15). The fact that there may be cross-reactivity among antigens of closely related fungi species should be considered in the diagnosis and treatment of mold allergic diseases.

  13. Fungal Distribution and Varieties Resistance to Kernel Discoloration in Korean Two-rowed Barley

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    Sang-Hyun Shin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Barley kernel discoloration (KD leads to substantial loss in value through downgrading and discounting of malting barley. The objective of this research is to investigate fungal distribution and varieties resistance to KD in Korean two-rowed barley. Several fungal organisms including Alternaria spp., Fusarium spp., Aspergillus spp., Epicoccum spp. and Rhizopus spp. were isolated from Korean two-rowed barley representing KD. The symptoms of KD were brown and black discolorations of the lemma and palea. The most frequently detected fungal species was Alternaria spp. which exhibited 69.1% and 72.2% in 2011 and 2012, respectively. Epicoccum spp., Fusarium spp., and Aspergillus spp. were also detected. Fusarium spp., primary pathogen of barley head blight, were rarely occurred in the 2011 and their occurrence increased to 4.7% in 2012. Twenty cultivars of Korean two-rowed barely were evaluated to KD. The average percentage of KD was 8.0−36.0% in 2011 and 5.2−36.6% in 2012. Two cultivars (‘Sacheon 6’ and ‘Dajinbori’ showed KD of 6.2% to 8.8% and determined resistant, however ‘Samdobori’ and ‘Daeyeongbori’ demonstrating KD of 22.2−36.6% were highly susceptible. ‘Jinyangbori’, ‘Danwonbori’, ‘Sinhobori’ and ‘Kwangmaegbori’ showing KD of less than 15% were moderately resistant cultivar.

  14. Fiscal 1999 achievement report on regional consortium research and development project. Regional consortium research on energy (Research and development of biofuel production using highly functional bioreactor - 2nd year); 1999 nendo kokino bio reactor ni yoru bio nenryo seisan ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho (dai 2 nendo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Microbes capable of a high biodiesel fuel (BDF) yield from moisture-containing oils assumedly waste oil are investigated. Lipase attributed to Rhizopus oryzae exhibits a high reaction rate of not lower than 90%. The process functions even when microbes are immobilized by BSPs. BDF does not affect driving performance, and black smoke is reduced. A process basic to industrial production is developed by use of a fixed bed reactor. In the production of ethanol from starch thanks to plural kinds of glucoamylase producing yeast, ethanol is produced at a rate of 7-8% under microaerophilic conditions in both proliferation and fermentation periods, which means a success achieved in growing arming yeast equipped with enhanced functions. A 20-liter class bench plant is installed and immobilization by BSPs is tested, when no problem is detected. In a reaction involving these immobilized microbes, a reaction rate near 16% is achieved. In the production of ethanol by yeast immobilized by BSPs, use of a fuzzy control system is studied, and it is found that prolonged stability is available when glucose concentration is sustained at 10-20g/liter. (NEDO)

  15. Environmental Sustainability and Mold Hygiene in Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haoxiang; Ng, Tsz Wai; Wong, Jonathan Wc; Lai, Ka Man

    2018-04-04

    Environmental sustainability is one of the key issues in building management. In Hong Kong, one of the initiatives is to reduce the operation hours of air-conditioning in buildings to cut down energy consumption. In this study, we reported a mold contamination case in a newly refurbished laboratory, in which the air-conditioner was switched from 24- to 18-h mode after refurbishment. In order to prevent mold recurrence, the air-conditioner was switched back to 24-h mode in the laboratory. During the mold investigation, visible mold patches in the laboratory were searched and then cultured, counted and identified. Building and environmental conditions were recorded, and used to deduce different causes of mold contamination. Eight contaminated sites including a wall, a bench, some metal and plastic surfaces and seven types of molds including two Cladosporium spp., two Aspergillus spp., one Rhizopus sp., one Trichoderma sp., and one Tritirachium sp. were identified. Cladosporium spp. were the most abundant and frequently found molds in the laboratory. The contaminated areas could have one to five different species on them. Based on the mold and environmental conditions, several scenarios causing the mold contamination were deduced, and different mold control measures were discussed to compare them with the current solution of using 24-h air-conditioning to control mold growth. This study highlights the importance of mold hygiene in sustainable building management.

  16. Environmental Sustainability and Mold Hygiene in Buildings

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    Haoxiang Wu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Environmental sustainability is one of the key issues in building management. In Hong Kong, one of the initiatives is to reduce the operation hours of air-conditioning in buildings to cut down energy consumption. In this study, we reported a mold contamination case in a newly refurbished laboratory, in which the air-conditioner was switched from 24- to 18-h mode after refurbishment. In order to prevent mold recurrence, the air-conditioner was switched back to 24-h mode in the laboratory. During the mold investigation, visible mold patches in the laboratory were searched and then cultured, counted and identified. Building and environmental conditions were recorded, and used to deduce different causes of mold contamination. Eight contaminated sites including a wall, a bench, some metal and plastic surfaces and seven types of molds including two Cladosporium spp., two Aspergillus spp., one Rhizopus sp., one Trichoderma sp., and one Tritirachium sp. were identified. Cladosporium spp. were the most abundant and frequently found molds in the laboratory. The contaminated areas could have one to five different species on them. Based on the mold and environmental conditions, several scenarios causing the mold contamination were deduced, and different mold control measures were discussed to compare them with the current solution of using 24-h air-conditioning to control mold growth. This study highlights the importance of mold hygiene in sustainable building management.

  17. Mycological profile of fungal sinusitis: An audit of specimens over a 7-year period in a tertiary care hospital in Tamil Nadu

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    Michael Rajiv

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fungi are being increasingly implicated in the etiopathology of rhinosinusitis. Fungal sinusitis is frequently seen in diabetic or immunocompromised patients, although it has also been reported in immunocompetent individuals. Invasive fungal sinusitis, unless diagnosed early and treated aggressively, has a high mortality rate. Aim: Our aim was to look at the mycological and clinical aspects of fungal sinusitis in a tertiary referral center in Tamil Nadu. Design: This is a retrospective audit conducted on fungal culture positive sinus samples submitted to the Microbiology department from January 2000 to August 2007. Relevant clinical and histopathological details were analysed. Results: A total of 211 culture-positive fungal sinusitis samples were analysed. Of these, 63% had allergic fungal sinusitis and 34% had invasive fungal sinusitis. Aspergillus flavus was the most common causative agent of allergic fungal sinusitis and Rhizopus arrhizus was the most common causative agent of acute invasive sinusitis. A significant proportion of these patients did not have any known predisposing factors. Conclusion: In our study, the etiology of fungal sinusitis was different than that of western countries. Allergic fungal sinusitis was the most common type of fungal sinusitis in our community. Aspergillus sp was the most common causative agent in both allergic and chronic invasive forms of the disease.

  18. Phytoalexins as Possible Controlling Agents of Microbial Spoilage of Irradiated Fresh Fruit and Vegetables During Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sayed, S. A. [Radiobiology Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Commission, Cairo (Egypt)

    1978-04-15

    The decline in bio generating capacity to form natural antibiotic compounds (phytoalexins), rishitin and lubimin in potato tubers and rishitin in tomatoes, after gamma irradiation seems to be the essence of the suppression of natural immunity exhibited by an increase in per cent of rotted tubers and fruits during storage. In vitro studies postulated that the rot-causing fungi Phytophthora infestons (Mond) De Bary, Alternaria solani (Ellis and Martin) James and Grout, Botrytis cinerea Persson., Fusarium oxysporum Syder and Hansen and Rhizopus stolonifer Ehrenberg were significantly controlled by the application of phytoalexins that had been initially formed by potato tubers (rishitin), tomato fruits (rishitin) and pepper fruits (capsidiol). In vivo studies revealed that post-irradiation treatment of potato tubers and tomato fruits with phytoalexins that had been produced by the same plant organ or by another of the same family seems to be experimentally feasible to reduce the radiation dose or increase the efficiency of irradiation in controlling microbial spoilage during storage of irradiated potatoes and tomatoes. (author)

  19. Mycopopulations of grain and flour of wheat, corn and buckwheat

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    Plavšić Dragana V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the nutritive characteristics, whole grain flour is a high quality product, due to its high vitamin, mineral, and dietary fiber content. However, the cereal grains are susceptible to the series of contamination during the ripening, harvesting, processing and storage. The aim of this work was to determine mold presence in grains and flour of wheat, corn and buckwheat. The determination of total number and identification of isolated genera and species of molds were the subject of this research. All samples were contaminated with the molds. The total number of molds per 100 cereal grains was between 60 cfu (wheat and 120 cfu (buckwheat. The total number of molds in the samples of flour ranged from 6.0x101 cfu/g in white wheat flour to 5.0 x102 cfu/g in buckwheat whole grain flour (DG18 medium. Eight fungal genera (Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Chrysonilia, Fusarium, Penicillium, Rhizopus and Scopulariopsis and fifteen species were isolated. The largest number of species of molds was isolated from the genus Aspergillus. About 66.7% of isolated fungi belonged to potentially toxigenic species. The results pointed out the necessity of grain surface treatment, preceding the milling of grains in wheat, corn and whole grain buckwheat flour production.

  20. TRATAMENTOS TÉRMICO E QUÍMICO EM SEMENTES DE MULUNGU E EFEITOS SOBRE A QUALIDADE SANITÁRIA E FISIOLÓGICA

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    Mônica Danielly de Mello Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Erythrina velutina Willd. is a Fabaceae, popularly known as mulungu. Of the several species spread around the world about twelve are found in Brazil. Mainly in the Brazilian northeast the bark is used due to its sudorific, sedative and topical anesthetic properties. The presence of fungi in seed germination can reduce, causing the death of seedlings or transmit diseases to adult plants. The work has as objetive to test the thermotherapy and chemical treatment in the control of fungi associated with the mulungu seeds of three districts in the state of Paraiba. The sanity was carried by "Blotter test" and physiological quality of seeds was evaluated by germination, first germination counting and drymass. The heat treatment used was hot water at 60°C for 5, 10 and 20 minutes. The chemical treatment was done with the fungicide Captan® TS. It was used by treatment 100 seeds, which were incubated forseven days, the temperature of 22 ± 2 ° C and photoperiod of 12 hours. The qualitative and quantitative evaluate of the fungi associated with seed was done with the help of stereomicroscope and expressed as a percentage. In the samples examined, it was the incidence of fungi Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus sp., Penicillium spp., Cladosporium sp., Rhizopus sp., Fusarium sp and Botritis sp. The results show that the heat and chemical treatments reduced significantly the germination and first count of the locations studied.