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Sample records for rhetorical strategies employed

  1. PRAGMATIC AND RHETORICAL STRATEGIES IN THE ENGLISH-WRITTEN JOKES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Rochmawati

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding verbal jokes in English is problematic for English as Foreign Language (EFL readers since understanding the jokes requires understanding their linguistic, cultural and social elements. Since a joke constitutes a complex and paradoxical phenomenon, it needs multiple approaches of analyses—such as pragmatic and rhetorical analyses—in order to investigate the multiple layers of meanings it carries. Recently there has been a shift in humor studies, emphasizing linguistic humors and involving the field of rhetoric. These studies, however, have mostly addressed the connection between rhetoric and spoken jokes in persuasion. The present study therefore applied Austin’s Speech Act Theory (1975 and Grice’s Cooperative Principles (1957, and Berger’s rhetorical techniques (1993 to crack the funniness of the written jokes. Specifically, the study aims at describing: how the (1 rhetorical and (2 pragmatic strategies are used in the jokes, and (3 how the pragmatic and rhetorical strategies complement to create humor. The study employed a qualitative research method. Some jokes were purposively selected from the Reader’s Digest and two online sources: http://jokes.cc.com/, and http://www.ajokeaday.com/. Document studies were the means of data collection. The collected data were then analyzed using a qualitative content analysis. The results showed that that there was a relationship between the two pragmatic theories, i.e., Speech Act Theory and Cooperative Principles, and Berger’s rhetorical techniques. The results offered an alternative reading and richer understanding of how written jokes employed pragmatic and rhetorical strategies to advance their rhetorical objectives and humor functions.

  2. Applying Synectics Strategy in teaching Arabic Rhetoric

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    Atta Abu Jabeen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available   This research aimed at knowing the ability of applying Synectics strategy in teaching rhetoric in Arabic language at secondary schools and universities   Synectics is identifying as a process of joining elements that has no obvious relationship using the rhetoric arts, especially “metaphor” in addition to logical arts especially “analogy,” within a methodology aims to reach creative solutions to problems. This definition is completely similar to Arabic rhetoric such as analogy and metaphor.   When metaphor in language contains aesthetic and rhetorical values in expression, it carries explanatory connotations in philosophy and science which is the using of a specific experience to shed the light on another one. It also helps us to comprehend, insight and clarifying and explaining the concepts. And what we mean with analogy in Arabic language is nearer to simile which is one of the rhetoric arts.   This research will review the Synectics strategy, how the western scientists applied it to develop creativity, and to what extent it is suitable to teach Arabic rhetoric subject in the university and secondary stage. In addition, It will provide application forms about applying Synectics strategy which will at the same time increase creativity of the students in all fields.

  3. Organizational Rhetoric in the Prospectuses of Elite Private Schools: Unpacking Strategies of Persuasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Paula; Pini, Barbara; Mayes, Robyn

    2012-01-01

    The way in which private schools use rhetoric in their communications offers important insights into how these organizational sites persuade audiences and leverage marketplace advantage in the context of contemporary educational platforms. Through systemic analysis of rhetorical strategies employed in 65 "elite" school prospectuses in…

  4. Rhetorical, Metacognitive, and Cognitive Strategies in Teacher Candidates’ Essay Writing

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    Claudio Díaz Larenas

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a study about the rhetoric, metacognitive, and cognitive strategies pre-service teachers use before and after a process-based writing intervention when completing an argumentative essay. The data were collected through two think-aloud protocols while 21 Chilean English as a foreign language pre-service teachers completed an essay task. The findings show that strategies such as summarizing, reaffirming, and selecting ideas were only evidenced during the post intervention essay, without the use of communication and socio-affective strategies in either of the two essays. All in all, a process-based writing intervention does not only influence the number of times a strategy is used, but also the number of students who employs strategies when writing an essay—two key considerations for the devising of any writing program.

  5. Secretary Marshall's Employment Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Gloria

    1977-01-01

    A review of proposed employment strategies and priorities of Ray Marshall, Secretary of Labor, with regard to training programs, governmental subsidy programs, apprenticeships, private sector jobs, etc. (WL)

  6. Rhetorical, Metacognitive, and Cognitive Strategies in Teacher Candidates' Essay Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz Larenas, Claudio; Ramos Leiva, Lucía; Ortiz Navarrete, Mabel

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on a study about the rhetoric, metacognitive, and cognitive strategies pre-service teachers use before and after a process-based writing intervention when completing an argumentative essay. The data were collected through two think-aloud protocols while 21 Chilean English as a foreign language pre-service teachers completed an…

  7. How Consumers Persuade Each Other: Rhetorical Strategies of Interpersonal Influence in Online Communities

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    Daiane Scaraboto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Persuasive messages are central to interpersonal influence in online communities, where consumers interact mainly through text. We employed a combination of netnography and computer-mediated discourse analysis to investigate how consumers exchange information related to products and brands in an online community. We identified a set of rhetorical strategies used by community members, including setting expectations, claiming expertise, prescribing, and celebrating acquiescence. Consumers employ these rhetorical strategies to influence each other's consumption decisions, report consumption decisions back to the community, and to gauge their influence on each other's choices. We compare this process to traditional types of interpersonal influence and discuss how our findings contribute to advancing the burgeoning literature on interpersonal influence in online contexts.

  8. Richard M. Nixon's Rhetorical Strategies in His Public Statements on Watergate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, William L.

    1982-01-01

    Identifies nine rhetorical strategies in Nixon's public utterances on Watergate and traces their development through four phases. Examines polls which reveal that these strategies failed to stem the tide of negative opinion. (PD)

  9. Employment strategy of the Russians

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    Vladimir Borisovich Toreev

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available During the crisis it is especially important to choose a correct employment strategy. Every employee uses an employment strategy, as he/she selects the direction of long-term employment consciously or intuitively. The choice of strategy is determined by a number of factors shaping the person’s attitudes: health, character, upbringing, education, social environment, institutional environment. The employment strategies of the young people newly entering the labor market differ from lab our strategies of workers. Young people do not have such experience and can plan their life “from scratch”. The Soviet specialists, people who started their career in the planned economy, have their own features of employment strategies. The article describes employment strategies of the Russians

  10. Rhetorical Strategies of Consumer Activists: Reframing Market Offers to Promote Change

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    Daiane Scaraboto

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Consumer researchers have most frequently looked at the influence the marketplace has on consumers’ identity projects, while the reverse process – how consumers’ identity projects influence the marketplace and general culture – is an important issue that has received less attention. Aiming to contribute to the development of this literature, we conduct a qualitative netnographic investigation of the Fat Acceptance Movement, an online-based movement led by consumer-activists who attempt to change societal attitudes about people who are fat. Our main goal is, therefore, to investigate how consumer activists who congregate online, that is, cyberactivists, reframe market offers while attempting to promote market and cultural change. We identify several rhetorical strategies employed by online consumer activists in their quests to change themselves, other consumers, and the broader culture. Our findings advance consumer research on how consumers may mobilize resources to initiate and promote self-, market-, and cultural transformations.

  11. Rhetoric and Lexicalisation as Aspects of Persuasive Strategy in the Language of Insurance Advertising in the Nigerian Print Media

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    Albert Lekan Oyeleye

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the discourse function of rhetoric and lexicalisation in insurance advertising discourse in the Nigerian print media. It investigates how they are used as part of the advertisers’ strategies of persuasion. Published insurance advertisements were collected from three purposively selected Nigerian national newspapers The Guardian, The Punch and Daily Champion, complemented with billboard advertisements from all the southwestern states of Nigeria. These were analysed using insights from Gumperz (1982’s theory of interactional sociolinguistics and M.A.K. Halliday’s systemic functional grammar. The analysis reveals that the lexical choice of the advertisers contained a dominant use of skill-indicative lexical items which portrayed the insurance companies as experts in their field. There was also a strategic use of morality indicative lexical items, to persuade potential clients about the trustworthiness of the company. Risk-indicative and, action-provoking lexical items, pictorial rhetoric and rhetorical devices like metaphor, hyperbole and personification were employed as persuasive strategies.

  12. A Linguistic Analysis of Rhetorical Strategies in Selected Narratives of Alice Walker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matunda, Robert Stephen Mokaya

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to analyze rhetorical strategies of Alice Walker in four narratives, namely, "The Color Purple, In Search of Our Mother's Gardens, Possessing the Secret of Joy, and Now Is the Time To Open Your Heart". As such, this study helps to expand the body of investigation relating linguistics to literature and medium…

  13. Definitional Hegemony as a Public Relations Strategy: The Rhetoric of the Nuclear Power Industry after Three Mile Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionisopoulos, George N.; Crable, Richard E.

    1988-01-01

    Examines (1) definitional hegemony as one of several rhetorical options available to issue managers; (2) the post-accident rhetorical context of the Three Mile Island nuclear crisis; and (3) the specific strategies utilized to deal with this crisis. Assesses the nuclear industry's public relations efforts. (MS)

  14. Writing for the Robot: How Employer Search Tools Have Influenced Resume Rhetoric and Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amare, Nicole; Manning, Alan

    2009-01-01

    To date, business communication scholars and textbook writers have encouraged resume rhetoric that accommodates technology, for example, recommending keyword-enhancing techniques to attract the attention of searchbots: customized search engines that allow companies to automatically scan resumes for relevant keywords. However, few scholars have…

  15. The Role of Rhetorical Strategies On The Pr ocess Of Institutionalization: A Qualitative Analysis Of Insurance Industry In Turkey

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    Mustafa Gökoğlu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the role and effectiveness of rhetorical strategies in the process of institutionalization. Rhetorical strategies present continuity with regard to institutionalization of certain social phenomena in society and are classified as Pathos, Logos and Ethos (Aristotle 1991. When considered from this point of view, institutional actors representing the important sections of the society produce effective texts through the discourse they use and ensuredissemination of the ideas regarding social phenomena they defend. In the study, insurance industry was taken into the scope of research to present in company with which rhetorical strategies institutionalization takes place. In accordance with the idea t hat different strategies might be dominant in different contexts, the findings put forth as a result of Pathos, Ethos and Logos strategies.

  16. Jeremy Rifkin challenges recombinant DNA research: A rhetoric of heresy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Futrell, W.M.

    1992-01-01

    One significant issue to come before the public in recent years is recombinant DNA research or genetic engineering and its applications. An important spokesman on this issue is Jeremy Rifkin. Rifkin is of rhetorical interest because of his strategies to sustain the dialogue and define the parameters in which it occurs. This dissertation analyzes a broad range of Rifkin's rhetorical artifacts and those of scientists engaged in recombinant DNA research. They are examined against criteria developed to identify and understand heresy. The five areas of analysis are: the nearness/remoteness phenomenon, the social construction of heresy, the social consequences of heresy, the doctrinal consequences of heresy, and the heresy-hunt ritual. The first two criteria focus on the rhetorical strategies of the heretic. The last three concentrate on the rhetorical strategies of the defenders of the institutional orthodoxy. This dissertation examines the rhetorical strategies of a heretical challenge to the scientific establishment and the consequences of that challenge. This dissertation also analyzes the rhetorical strategies employed by the defenders of the scientific orthodoxy. Although an understanding of the rhetorical strategies employed on both sides of this conflict is important, the implications for the role of rhetoric in highly controversial issues such as recombinant DNA are even more critical.

  17. Discrepant Stakeholder Perspectives on Graduate Employability Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinash, Shelley; Crane, Linda; Judd, Madelaine-Marie; Knight, Cecily

    2016-01-01

    A literature review identified 12 strategies that have been empirically linked to improvements in graduate employability. A survey methodology was used to investigate self-reported use and/or perspectives on these strategies among four stakeholder groups. The following questions were asked: to students--What strategies are you using to improve…

  18. Mutual Learning in the European Employment Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter

    in the European employment strategy have been either determined by the sender's interests or have underestimated how mutual learning between countries takes place. In stead the article develops a constructivist approach to learning and uses it to generate some concrete hypothesis about when learning in committees...... is most likely to take place. Afterwards, this constructivist approach is used to analyse the institutional framework surrounding the European employment strategy in order to evaluate whether the potential for learning is optimal. Finally, the article concludes that even though some basic premises......Mutual learning among the Member States is the primary purpose of the employment policy of the European Union. The two most important questions in this regard are how learning occurs and how much learning takes place. In this article I argue that the existing analyses of the effects of learning...

  19. Employer Health and Productivity Roadmap™ strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Michael D

    2013-12-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Total Worker Health™ Program defines essential elements of an integrated health protection and health promotion model to improve the health, safety, and performance of employers and employees. The lack of a clear strategy to address the core drivers of poor health, excessive medical costs, and lost productivity has deterred a comprehensive, integrated, and proactive approach to meet these challenges. The Employer Health and Productivity Roadmap™, comprising six interrelated and integrated core elements, creates a framework of shared accountability for both employers and their health and productivity partners to implement and monitor actionable measures that improve health, maximize productivity, and reduce excessive costs. The strategy is most effective when linked to a financially incentivized health management program or consumer-directed health plan insurance benefit design.

  20. MARKETING TECHNIQUES: RHETORICAL STRATEGIES IN CEOs’ LETTERS INTRODUCING CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY REPORTS OF THE COMPANIES

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    Anca GÂŢĂ

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides limited but new details on the rhetoric of Chief Executive Officers’ letters to stakeholders. We analyze CEOs’ letters to which introduce Corporate Social Responsibility reports for 2012 of several US large companies. The analysis is rooted in discourse analysis, rhetoric, and the theory of argumentation. It yields significant results to be later valued in the field of Business Ethics.

  1. Envisaging the embryo in stem cell research: rhetorical strategies and media reporting of the ethical debates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Clare; Kitzinger, Jenny; Henderson, Lesley

    2003-11-01

    How is the embryo defined, envisaged, imagined? Who speaks on its behalf, and how? Based on a study of UK press and TV news reporting, this paper identifies the rhetorical strategies used to assert competing ethical positions around embryonic stem cell research. We show how both sides in the dispute mobilise metaphors and use personification to recruit support; and how they promote different ideas about the embryo's significance, size, and social embeddedness and present competing narratives about its origins, destiny and 'death'. The role of visual representation is key here. It does not follow the usual pattern whereby, in the abortion debate, those 'on the side' of the fetus display its image while those who are 'pro-choice' shy away from this. In the stem cell debate the pattern is inverted, highlighting the role of technologies of visualisation in defining what counts as human. Our analysis also shows how the media coverage marginalises women's perspectives, disregards more fundamental challenges to science, side-lines concerns about effectiveness or safety and curtails discussion of broader issues. We reflect on the media processes restricting debate in this way and conclude by identifying opportunities for a more inclusive discussion of science ethics.

  2. Apology Strategies Employed by Saudi EFL Teachers

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    Marzouq Nasser Alsulayyi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the apology strategies used by 30 Saudi EFL teachers in Najran, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA, paying special attention to variables such as social distance and power and offence severity. The study also delineates gender differences in the respondents’ speech as opposed to studies that only examined speech act output by native and non-native speakers of English. To this end, the study employs a Discourse Completion Task (DCT that consists of 10 situations designed to test how the respondents would react if they imagine that they belong to different types of social status whether higher, lower or equal. In addition, social distance and power have been taken into consideration in designing the ten situations included in the test used in this study. The results reveal that Illocutionary Force Indicating Device (IFID is the most used apology strategy by the Saudi respondents followed by downgrading responsibility (DR, upgrader, offer of repair, taking on responsibility and then verbal redress. The results also reveal that gender has a great impact on the use of apology strategies in various ways. For instance, the IFID strategy and the upgrader strategy are used by males more than their female counterparts, whereas females use the DR strategy more than their male counterparts. It has been argued that some of the respondents’ answers to the test were influenced by their mother tongue, as reported in previous studies conducted on apology strategies. The study discusses the results elicited via the DCT and compares them with those of previous studies on apology strategies and other speech acts. Finally, the study concludes with recommendations for further research. Keywords: pragmatics, apology strategies, Saudi EFL teachers, interlanguage pragmatics, target culture

  3. A Comparison of Effectiveness of Structured and Non-Structured Strategies of Rhetorical Invention for Written Argumentation Produced by Community College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Smolova, Alona A

    1999-01-01

    A recent shift in the composition studies has resulted in the renewal of interest in rhetorical invention. There is no uniformity among researchers and professionals about the optimal conditions preceding the composing process, especially among college students. This study was intended to explore the effectiveness of structured (Larson's Heuristic) and non-structured (freewriting) strategies of rhetorical invention produced by community college students. The objectives of this study were to d...

  4. Rhetoric and analogies

    OpenAIRE

    Aragonès, Enriqueta; Gilboa, Itzhak; Postlewaite, Andrew; Schmeidler, David; Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. Unitat de Fonaments de l'Anàlisi Econòmica; Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona. Institut d'Anàlisi Econòmica

    2013-01-01

    The art of rhetoric may be defined as changing other people's minds (opinions, beliefs) without providing them new information. One tech- nique heavily used by rhetoric employs analogies. Using analogies, one may draw the listener's attention to similarities between cases and to re-organize existing information in a way that highlights certain reg- ularities. In this paper we offer two models of analogies, discuss their theoretical equivalence, and show that finding good analogies is a com- p...

  5. Building Fictional Ethos: Analysing the Rhetorical Strategies of Persona Design for Online Role Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerr-Stevens, Candance

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a qualitative case study that uses discourse and social semiotic analysis methods in order to examine the rhetorical construction of fictional personas within an online role play used for learning in the college classroom. Of special focus are the differing patterns of semiotic resource use (for example, language and…

  6. Reagan and the Nuclear Freeze: "Stars Wars" as a Rhetorical Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjork, Rebecca S.

    1988-01-01

    Analyzes the interaction between nuclear freeze activists and proponents of a Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI). Argues that SDI strengthens Reagan's rhetorical position concerning nuclear weapons policy because it reduces the argumentative ground of the freeze movement by envisioning a defensive weapons system that would nullify nuclear weapons.…

  7. Strategies employed for LHC software performance studies

    CERN Document Server

    Nowak, A

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work is to collect and assess the software performance related strategies employed by the major players in the LHC software arena: the four main experiments (ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb) and the two main software frameworks (Geant4 and ROOT). As the software used differs between the parties, so do the directions and methods in optimization, and their intensity. The common feeling shared by nearly all interviewed parties is that performance is not one of their top priorities and that maintaining it at a constant level is a satisfactory solution, given the resources at hand. In principle, despite some organized efforts, a less structured approach seems to be the dominant one, and opportunistic optimization prevails. Four out of six surveyed groups are investigating memory management related effects, deemed to be the primary cause of their performance issues. The most commonly used tools include Valgrind and homegrown software. All questioned groups expressed the desire for advanced tools, s...

  8. The rhetorical strategy of William Paley's Natural theology (1802): part 1, William Paley's Natural theology in context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Flaherty, Niall

    2010-03-01

    This article reconstructs the historical and philosophical contexts of William Paley's Natural theology (1802). In the wake of the French Revolution, widely believed to be the embodiment of an atheistic political credo, the refutation of the transmutational biological theories of Buffon and Erasmus Darwin was naturally high on Paley's agenda. But he was also responding to challenges arising from his own moral philosophy, principally the psychological quandary of how men were to be kept in mind of the Creator. It is argued here that Natural theology was the culmination of a complex rhetorical scheme for instilling religious impressions that would increase both the virtue and happiness of mankind. Philosophy formed an integral part of this strategy, but it did not comprise the whole of it. Equally vital were those purely rhetorical aspects of the discourse which, according to Paley, were more concerned with creating 'impression'. This facet of his writing is explored in part one of this two-part article. Turning to the argumentative side of the scheme, part two examines Paley's responses to David Hume and Erasmus Darwin in the light of the wider strategy of inculcation at work throughout all his writings.

  9. Rhetorical Citizenship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Christian Erik J; Villadsen, Lisa Storm

    2017-01-01

    This article argues for the relevance of a rhetorical approach to the study of citizenship. We show how this view aligns with current views of the multidimensionality of citizenship, explain our use of the term rhetoric, and illustrate the usefulness of a rhetorical approach in two examples....... In close textual readings both examples – one vernacular, one elite – are shown to discursively craft and enact different notions of citizenship via-a-vis the European refugee crisis. We conclude that a rhetorical perspective on public civic discourse is useful in virtue of its close attention...

  10. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Speaking Strategies Employed by Second ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NEW

    speaking skills and more strategy training should be given in using wide varieties of speaking .... helpful, and meta cognitive strategies are important for ..... think of. Similarly, in compensating for the missing knowledge, gestures, word coinage.

  11. Singing Dead Tales to Life: Rhetorical Strategies in Shandong Fast Tales

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    Eric Shepherd

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a brief overview of the Shandong fast tale tradition, a Chinese oral performance genre that began in rural northern China approximately four hundred years ago. Included in this overview are brief descriptions of the origins, audience composition, tale length, repertoire, and major characteristics of the stories and performances. Following these descriptions is a discussion of the expressive and rhetorical devices used by the tale-tellers as they perform live, such as formulaic language, repetition, character roles, shifts in speech register, body language, facial expressions, memory, onomatopoeia, physical humor, and hyperbolic language.

  12. Reorienting development: towards and engendered employment strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Selim Jahan

    2005-01-01

    Development strategies, in the name of gender-neutral, are gender-blind. The gender blindness of development strategies are derived from the gender-insensitiveness of dominant development paradigms, which, in the name of work, do not make any distinction between productive and reproductive work and does not differentiate, in the name of household, the asymmetries faced by its different members on the basis of sex. Given the nature of gender blindness of development strategies, it is clear tha...

  13. Speaking Strategies Employed by Second Year Students at Mettu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Communicative language teaching should not just aim to teach learners the ... the speaking strategies employed by second year English major students at Mettu ... activities and strategy training in teaching learning process of speaking skills.

  14. Rhetorical Charms: The Promise and Pitfalls of Humor and Ridicule as Strategies to Counter Extremist Narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.L. Goodall

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article we provide a brief account of the uses of humor, in particular satire and ridicule, to counter extremist narratives and heroes.  We frame the appeals of humor as “rhetorical charms,” or stylistic seductions based on surprising uses of language and/or images designed to provoke laughter, disrupt ordinary arguments, and counter taken-for-granted truths, that contribute to new sources of influence to the globally wired world of terrorism.  We offer two recent examples of how the Internet in particular changed the narrative landscape in ways that offer potent evidence of uses of humor to remake extremist heroes into objects of derision.  We also caution those who would make use of humor as a strategic communication device to take into account the negative side effects and unexpected consequences that can accompany such uses. 

  15. Apology Strategies Employed by Saudi EFL Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsulayyi, Marzouq Nasser

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the apology strategies used by 30 Saudi EFL teachers in Najran, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), paying special attention to variables such as social distance and power and offence severity. The study also delineates gender differences in the respondents' speech as opposed to studies that only examined speech act output by…

  16. Linking Contextual Factors with Rhetorical Pattern Shift: Direct and Indirect Strategies Recommended in English Business Communication Textbooks in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junhua; Zhu, Pinfan

    2011-01-01

    Scholars have consistently claimed that rhetorical patterns are culturally bound, and indirectness is a defining characteristic of Chinese writing. Through examining how the rhetorical mechanism of directness and indirectness is presented in 29 English business communication textbooks published in China, we explore how English business…

  17. The uneven impact of the European Employment Strategy on member states' employment policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Mikkel Mailand

    2008-01-01

    policies to varying degrees, but that the impact, generally speaking, has been limited. In the article, the author examines the impact of the strategy as a result of peer pressure and key actors' strategic use of the strategy and shows how these mechanisms work. Factors that can explain why greater impact......In the mid-1990s, EU member states decided to coordinate their national employment policies through a common European Employment Strategy (EES). Building on a systematic comparative study of four member states, the author argues that the strategy has influenced the member states' employment...

  18. More of the same? The European Employment Strategy and the normalization of British employment policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantafillou, Peter

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the ways in which the European Employment Strategy seeks to govern and further improve the performance of British employment policies. It is argued that by creating an epistemological and normalizing space for the problematization and governing of unemployment in terms...... of activation, the European Employment Strategy contributes to the legitimation of British employment policies. By addressing unemployment as a problem of structural labor market barriers, missing incentives and inadequate employability, the European Employment Strategy serves to reinforce the British...... preference for tackling unemployment through a host of activation and training measures and seeking to get the unemployed into work as fast as possible. Other ways of problematizing and handling unemployment seem excluded by default....

  19. Appraisal of seven critical reading strategies employed by teachers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Appraisal of seven critical reading strategies employed by teachers in Ogun State senior secondary schools to teach reading comprehension. ... as a result of the teachers' ability to engage the students in skilful and well- framed questions.

  20. Perspectives on Rhetorical History: Aristotle's Rhetorical Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Reed

    The most important historical theory of persuasion is Aristotelian Rhetorical Theory. Aristotle's work, "The Rhetoric," is divided into three books, each of which discuss principles relevant to persuasion. Book One establishes the philosophical position of rhetoric to logic; establishes the purposes of rhetoric; discusses three types of…

  1. The Evolution of the PLO: A Rhetoric of Terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Bernard L.; Howell, Sharon

    1989-01-01

    Traces the evolution of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) and assesses the effectiveness of the rhetoric of terrorism as a strategy. Applies concepts derived from protest rhetoric of the 1960s to the Palestine movement, noting that current "terrorist" rhetoric is similar to the New Left's confrontational strategies. (MM)

  2. "It Was Not Me That Was Sick, It Was the Building": Rhetorical Identity Management Strategies in the Context of Observed or Suspected Indoor Air Problems in Workplaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finell, Eerika; Seppälä, Tuija; Suoninen, Eero

    2018-07-01

    Suffering from a contested illness poses a serious threat to one's identity. We analyzed the rhetorical identity management strategies respondents used when depicting their health problems and lives in the context of observed or suspected indoor air (IA) problems in the workplace. The data consisted of essays collected by the Finnish Literature Society. We used discourse-oriented methods to interpret a variety of language uses in the construction of identity strategies. Six strategies were identified: respondents described themselves as normal and good citizens with strong characters, and as IA sufferers who received acknowledge from others, offered positive meanings to their in-group, and demanded recognition. These identity strategies located on two continua: (a) individual- and collective-level strategies and (b) dissolved and emphasized (sub)category boundaries. The practical conclusion is that professionals should be aware of these complex coping strategies when aiming to interact effectively with people suffering from contested illnesses.

  3. 汉语广告中的模糊修辞及其英译策略%Fuzzy Rhetoric and Translation Strategies for Chinese Advertisements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白红

    2014-01-01

    汉语广告中经常使用模糊修辞手段使语言具有模糊性,为广告宣传产品信息、争取顾客、扩大市场起到重要的作用。通过分析的模糊修辞的表现力,在汉语广告英译时,可以采用以下几种方法,如:模糊译模糊,模糊词类的转译、保留模糊修辞格和套译法,再现汉语广告的模糊性,使译文达到与原文相同或相似的功能。%Fuzzy rhetoric is frequently used in Chinese advertisements to express the fuzziness of language, and it also plays an important role in promoting products, attracting consumers and enlarging markets. Based on the analysis of the expressiveness of fuzzy rhetoric, some feasible strategies of translating fuzzy rhetoric into English are explored, such as fuzziness-fuzziness, conversion of parts of speech of fuzzy words, keeping fuzzy rhe⁃torical devices unchanged and naturalization. Thus, the English version can be closer to the original and have the same or at least similar functions of the original.

  4. Marketing strategies nurses can employ to promote health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, D

    1994-01-01

    Marketing strategies are employed to ensure the success of new products, services or programs. Both profit and non-profit organizations have used social marketing strategies to inform, to motivate interest, and to engage the involvement of the consumer. A client-dependent health care system did not find it necessary to market services, but a health care system that encourages clients to choose the most appropriate health promotion service available must market services. Nurses are in the business of promoting the health of clients. Therefore, it is essential that nurses become familiar with, and involved in, the development of marketing plans and strategies. The connection between the four variables of the marketing mix (product, promotion, place, and price) and promoting the health of clients is described. A case example recapitulating the marketing strategies employed to raise public awareness of a self-help group for family caregivers is related, the marketing response is evaluated, and future recommendations are proposed.

  5. From the Bear’s Mouth: Analyzing Vladimir Putin’s Rhetoric and Its Implications for Russian Grand Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    will never be in peril. Sun Tzu Thus far, this essay contended that rhetoric matters, studied Putin’s worldview, and then analyzed his rhetoric...VLADIMIR PUTIN’S 2014 VALDAI SPEECH…………….....87 BIBLIOGRAPHY ……………………………………………………………....100 1 Chapter 1 Introduction The Sky is...book. 8 counts.”13 Simpson’s observations harken back to Sun Tzu’s maxim that “battles are won by choosing the terrain on which [they] are

  6. Canadian Families' Strategies for Employment and Care for Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornstein, Michael; Stalker, Glenn J.

    2013-01-01

    Based on the 2006 Canadian Census "long form" sample of one in every five households, the authors develop a detailed typology of family strategies for employment and the care of preschool children. The analysis is restricted to opposite-sex couples with at least one child under age 6 and no older child or other adult in the household.…

  7. Rhetoric of Appeal and Rhetoric of Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoos, George E.

    1987-01-01

    Examines Henry Johnstone's (a former editor of "Philosophy and Rhetoric") ironic play on the different uses of the terms "rational,""argument," and "explanation," when he discusses two of his favorite philosophical topics, rhetoric and argument. (NKA)

  8. Rhetorical questions or rhetorical uses of questions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Špago Džemal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to explore whether some rhetorical questions contain certain linguistic elements or forms which would differentiate them from answer-eliciting and action-eliciting questions, and thereby hint at their rhetorical nature even outside the context. Namely, despite the fact that the same questions can be rhetorical in one context, and answer-eliciting in another, some of them are more likely to be associated with rhetorical or non-rhetorical use. The analysis is based on extensive data (over 1200 examples of rhetorical questions taken from 30 plays by two British and two American writers, and the results are expected to give an insight into whether we can talk about rhetorical questions or just a rhetorical use of questions.

  9. Rhetoric in Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabrielsen, Jonas

    The bond between law and rhetoric is as old as the subjects themselves. Especially the ancient works on legal rhetoric afford, however, a too narrow depiction of the interaction between law and rhetoric as a purely instrumental discipline of communication in court. In this paper I challenge...... this narrow understanding of legal rhetoric and outline three distinct frames of understanding the relation between law and rhetoric...

  10. Remembering Sappho: New Perspectives on Teaching (and Writing) Women's Rhetorical History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enoch, Jessica; Jack, Jordynn

    2011-01-01

    Remembering Sappho, from a pedagogical perspective, usually means that teachers bring recovered women's rhetorics into the classroom, prompting students to come to know women as rhetorical agents by analyzing the rhetorical strategies they used to make their voices heard. Teaching women's rhetorics in this way works toward the ultimate goal of…

  11. Isocrates and Plato on Rhetoric and Rhetorical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, William L.

    1991-01-01

    Compares the views of Isocrates and Plato on rhetoric and rhetorical education. Elucidates their criticisms of the sophists, their general assumptions about the nature and function of rhetoric, and their views on rhetorical education. (PRA)

  12. What strategies do ulcerative colitis patients employ to facilitate adherence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawakami A

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aki Kawakami,1,2 Makoto Tanaka,3 Makoto Naganuma,4 Shin Maeda,5 Reiko Kunisaki,1 Noriko Yamamoto-Mitani2 1Inflammatory Bowel Disease Center, Yokohama City University Medical Center, Minami-ku, Yokohama, Japan; 2Department of Gerontological Home Care and Long-term Care Nursing, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan; 3Ramathibodi School of Nursing, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Ratchathewi, Bangkok, Thailand; 4Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Keio University, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan; 5Department of Gastroenterology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama, Japan Background: Overall, 30%–45% of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC are non-adherent and have difficulties taking their medications; this non-adherence increases the risk of clinical relapse 1.4- to 5.5-fold. This study aimed to clarify the strategies patients employ to facilitate adherence and determine whether the strategies had an impact on good adherence.Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire and review of medical records. Patients diagnosed as having UC and attending one of the outpatient clinics of four urban hospitals from June 2009 to December 2012 were enrolled. A questionnaire was developed to identify the strategies patients employ to facilitate adherence and then administered to patients with UC. Adherence to 5-aminosalicylic acid was calculated, and univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the strategies that were associated with good adherence.Results: The final analyses included 671 participants (mean age 40.2 years; 54.3% males. The valid response rate was 96.9%; 186 (27.7% participants were classified as non-adherent, the mean adherence rate being 86.1% (standard deviation [SD] 17.9. Seven strategies that patients employ to facilitate adherence were identified, the

  13. A Rhetorical Analysis of Village

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Pynt

    2011-01-01

    The award-winning TV spot Village is a creative example of NGO advertising using condensed visual stprytelling. The spot is analysed using rhetorical concepts and communication theory, and potential effects are discused in relation to contexts, strategy and communication ethics....

  14. The Rhetoric of Doodle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockas, Leo

    1978-01-01

    Encourages composition teachers to adopt a rhetoric of the sentence based on appeals to the intellect, in place of the currently popular rhetoric of the paragraph based on appeals to the emotions. (DD)

  15. Rhetoric of Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, R. Allen

    1991-01-01

    Places rhetoric of science in context with sociology, psychology, history, and philosophy of science. Generates a typology of concerns for rhetoric of science. Characterizes the central issues of the field. (RS)

  16. "Kairos" in Aristotle's "Rhetoric."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinneavy, James L.; Eskin, Catherine R.

    1994-01-01

    Considers how Aristotle uses the Greek term "kairos" (right timing and due measure) in his "Rhetoric." Examines each of the 16 references to "kairos" in the "Rhetoric." Argues for a fuller understanding of Aristotelian "kairos" among contemporary theorists of rhetoric. (HB)

  17. Understanding cybercrime perpetrators and the strategies they employ in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aransiola, Joshua Oyeniyi; Asindemade, Suraj Olalekan

    2011-12-01

    A lot has been written on cybercrime and its prevention, but the problem has proved particularly resilient to remedial action. Desperate and vulnerable individuals in every continent continue to fall into its trap. Despite this, there is dearth of descriptive study that attempts to unravel the strategies employed by the perpetrators in Nigeria, as an important precondition for workable and reliable policy direction to address the problem. This article has filled this gap by using data from 40 cybercrime perpetrators selected with snowballing technique. The findings revealed that most of the cybercrime perpetrators in Nigeria are between the age of 22 and 29 years who were undergraduates and have distinctive lifestyles from other youths. Their strategies include collaboration with security agents and bank officials, local and international networking, and the use of voodoo that is, traditional supernatural power. It was clear that most perpetrators of cybercrime were involved in on-line dating and buying and selling with fake identity among others. The article discussed the need for reorientation of Nigerian youths in higher institutions, and various methods as guiding principles for potential victims. It recommended a complete reorganization of the Nigerian Police Force and Economic and Financial Crime Commission, as some of the officers in the institutions aid and abet cybercrime. It finally suggested a review of the Nigerian law guiding the operations of banking, poster agencies, and various speed post services in the country, as these are necessary preconditions to effectively combat the problem.

  18. The rhetoric of remix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Kuhn

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The affordances of digital technologies increase the available semiotic resources through which one may speak. In this context, video remix becomes a rich avenue for communication and expression in ways that have heretofore been the province of big media. Yet recent attempts to categorize remix are limiting, mainly as a result of their reliance on the visual arts and cinema theory as the gauge by which remix is measured. A more valuable view of remix is as a digital argument that works across the registers of sound, text, and image to make claims and provides evidence to support those claims. After exploring the roots of contemporary notions of orality, literacy, narrative and rhetoric, I turn to examples of marginalized, disparate artifacts that are already in danger of neglect in the burgeoning history of remix. In examining these pieces in terms of remix theory to date, a more expansive view is warranted. An approach based on digital argument is capable of accounting for the rhetorical strategies of the formal elements of remixes while still attending to the specificity of the discourse communities from which they arise. This effort intervenes in current conversations and sparks enhancement of its concepts to shape the mediascape.

  19. a rhetorical analysis of philippians 1:12-26 1. introduction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the text, provides a better understanding of Paul's rhetorical strategy than a typical rhetorical ..... gospel, those preachers who were motivated by goodwill and love had ..... style tells us something of exegetical value regarding the emotion-.

  20. Communication strategies employed by rare disease patient organizations in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Esparcia, Antonio; López-Villafranca, Paloma

    2016-08-01

    The current study focuses on communication strategies employed by rare disease patient organizations. The aims of these organizations are: educate and inform the public about rare diseases, raise awareness of the problems related to rare diseases, and achieve social legitimacy in order give visibility to their demands. We analyzed the portrayal of rare disease and patient organizations by Spain's major media organizations in terms of circulation and viewership - the press (El País, El Mundo, La Vanguardia,ABC and El Periódico), radio (CadenaSer, Onda Cero, Cope and RNE), and television (Telecinco, Antena 3, La 1, La Sexta, Cuatro) -between 2012 and 2014.We then carried out a descriptive analysis of communication activities performed via the World Wide Web and social networks by 143 national organizations. Finally, we conducted a telephone questionnaire of a representative sample of 90 organizations in order to explore the association between media presence and funding and public image. The triangulation of quantitative and qualitative methods allowed us to meet the study's objectives. Increased visibility of the organizations afforded by an increase in the coverage of the topic by the medialed to an increase in membership - but not in donations - and increased awareness of these diseases.

  1. Trade liberalisation in Mexico: rhetoric and reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pennelope Pacheco-Lopez

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Trade liberalisation in Mexico started in a significant way in 1985/86, and was consolidated by the NAFTA agreement 1994. Mexico was expected to benefit in terms of increased export growth, employment, real wages, and above all, a faster rate of economic growth. In practice, there has been a divorce between rhetoric and reality. The growth of GDP post-liberalisation has been only one-half that pre-liberalisation. This paper gives three explanations. Firstly, export growth has hardly changed. Secondly, there has been a sharp increase in the propensity to import (partly related to US direct foreign investment which has reduced the growth of GDP consistent with a sustainable balance of payments equilibrium on current account. Thirdly, liberalisation has been used as a substitute for a development strategy.

  2. THE EUROPEAN UNION’S TRADE NEGOTIATIONS WITH THE ACP:ENTRAPPED BY ITS OWN RHETORICAL STRATEGY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotte Drieghe

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs between the European Union (EU and the group of African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP countries. It addresses the question why the EU firmly insisted on upholding the negotiating deadline for these new trade agreements, despite the very damaging consequences; these hastily initialed trade deals entailed. Regional integration in the South was hampered; the development of the friendly image of the EU got a serious blow; the EU did not manage to include the WTO plus issues, and the prospect of full EPAs at later stage is not guaranteed. We first qualify the Union’s argument to the expiry of a waiver by the World Trade Organization (WTO, which legitimized the former trade regime, and placed an external and insurmountable pressure on the negotiations. There is no rational explanation for Europe’s harsh attitude on the EPA deadline, since neither legal, nor economic interests would have been harmed, if the deadline had been postponed. The main argument advanced in this article addresses whether the EU had to push through these trade deals, because it had entrapped itself through its own ‘rhetorical action’. In its negotiation discourse, the European Commission (EC had so often emphasized the deadline together with the fact that there were no alternatives to EPAs, that it could not change its mind overnight, when at the end of the 2007 negotiations they were still going nowhere. The Union was forced to keep up with the deadline it had imposed upon itself with the risk of losing all its credibility.

  3. Defining Rhetorical Argumentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Christian Erik J

    2013-01-01

    This article argues for a definition of rhetorical argumentation based on the theme of the argumentation, i.e., the issue in dispute - rather than its aim (e.g., to ‘win’) or its means (e.g., emotional appeals). The principal thinkers in the rhetorical tradition, from Aristotle onwards, saw...... rhetoric as practical reasoning, i.e., reasoning on proposals for action or choice, not on propositions that may be either true or false. Citing several contemporary philosophers, the article argues that such a definition acquits rhetorical argumentation of any culpable unconcern with truth and explains...

  4. The rhetorical construction of the predatorial virus: a Burkian analysis of nonfiction accounts of the Ebola virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldon, R A

    2001-01-01

    Over the past 5 years, a new subgenre of horror films, referred to as plague films, has turned our focus to the threat of a hemorrhagic viral pandemic, comparable to the Spanish Flu epidemic of 1916. Based on the Ebola viral outbreaks of 1976, various writers have presented their accounts under the guise of increasing interest and prevention strategies. Disregarding inappropriate health care practices as the cause of these epidemics, accountability is refocused onto the rhetorically constructed, predatory nature of the virus. By employing Burke's theory of dramatism and pentadic analysis, the author examines this rhetorical construction of Ebola as a predatorial virus and its implications for public perceptions of public health endeavors.

  5. Zhuang Zi's Rhetorical Thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haixia

    The memory of the student uprising at Tiananmen Square in 1989 invites one professor to examine more closely what she does: rhetoric and composition, especially rhetorical invention. To examine the kind of power exercised by official Chinese public discourse and whether language could help to avoid reoccurrences such as the loss of innocent…

  6. A Preliminary Rhetoric of Technical Copywriting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, Leigh

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the rhetorical elements of technical copywriting, including its shared communicative aims with technical writing; authorship considerations such as ethics, education, and professionalism; and the concerns of promotional strategy, audience analysis, choice of media and materials, writing strategy, and style. (SR)

  7. Internal Employability as a Strategy for Key Employee Retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángela Sánchez-Manjavacas

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Economies the world over and particularly those in southern Europe, are suffering the crippling effects of the extremely complex economic and financial crisis. This study looks at the impact of certain human resource policies geared towards increasing internal employability as a means of retaining valued employees and promoting job flexibility within the firm, as well as increasing positive attitudes towards organizational citizenship. Satisfaction and commitment are proposed as intermediating variables of the relationship between perceived internal employability and ITQ/OCB. The proposed research model is contrasted using structural equation modeling (LISREL. The results obtained from the empirical study indicate that employability should be considered an essential factor in achieving the desired commitment, loyalty, adaptability and productivity from employees by strengthening the psychological contract between firm and worker through professional recognition.

  8. Predictors of Coping Strategies Employed by Iraqi Refugees in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Smadi, Ahmed Mohammad; Tawalbeh, Loai Issa; Gammoh, Omar Salem; Ashour, Ala; Alzoubi, Fatmeh Ahmad; Slater, Paul

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine coping strategies used by Iraqi refugees in Jordan based on their demographic details. A cross-sectional design was used. A representative sample of 333 refugees living in Jordan participated in the study. The Cope inventory and the demographic details were compiled to produce and collate the relevant data. Being older, female, educated, single, and living with more than three family members was associated with greater use of the problem solving coping strategy. Being female, educated, and unemployed was associated with greater use of the active emotional coping strategy. In addition, being older, male, illiterate, unemployed, and living with less than three family members was associated with greater use of the avoidant emotional coping strategy. This study recommends a multidisciplinary approach intervention as being the best method of addressing and fulfilling the health and socioeconomic needs of older, male, illiterate, unemployed people.

  9. Technical strategy map to employing nuclear power plant aging management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekimura, Naoto; Kanno, Masanori

    2008-01-01

    Stated in this report are back ground of technical strategy map for nuclear power plant aging management, result of the first road map, significance of technical strategy map, introduction scenario, technology map, road map, upgrade in every year, three groups of academia, industry and government, plan of technical strategy map, upgrade system, comprehensive introduction scenario, measures of nuclear power plant aging management in Japan and the world, new inspection system, outline of 'technical strategy map 2008', preparation of technical information bases in industry, academia and government, collaboration of them, safety researches of neutron radiation damage, stress corrosion crack, fatigue, piping thinning, insulation degradation, concrete degradation, thermal aging, evaluation technologies of earthquake resistance, preparation of rules and standards, ideal maintenance, and training talent. (S.Y.)

  10. Voicing Strategies Employed in Narrow Listening Among Iranian Female Freshmen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Shahrokhi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses the findings of a qualitative study on the strategies used by Iranian female freshmen in narrow listening. The data collected through semi-structured interview with 12 female freshmen (four learners as  advanced, four as intermediate and four as low chosen purposefully based on their scores in the Oxford Placement Test administered. Six out of 12 freshmen were identified for the think-aloud protocol to draw out the strategies they used. The data collected were analyzed using open, axial, and selective-coding. The analysis of the participants’ interview and think-aloud protocol data generated 12 major themes. Five themes (attention, readiness, evaluating, autonomous learning, and change the speech rate described meta-cognitive; five themes (imitating and repeating, references, visualization, making notes while listening and word-by-word and sentence-by-sentence attention described cognitive strategies and two themes (asking for help, self-talk described socio-affective strategies. These strategies need to be taught explicitly to increase learners’ understanding of the spoken texts in the second/foreign language. This study recommends that Iranian EFL female freshman university learners’ top-down, bottom-up processing and listening strategy awareness should be cultivated and integrated into the teaching of listening to improve the learners’ listening ability.

  11. Negotiating Uncertain Economic Times: Youth Employment Strategies in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, Bryony; Leonard, Pauline; Wilde, Rachel J.

    2018-01-01

    Higher education is commonly understood as the gateway to better, higher-paying jobs. This paper draws on longitudinal survey and interview data to explore how different groups of young people, those who left school at 18 and those graduating from higher education, negotiated pathways into employment or otherwise during the recent economic…

  12. Success of strategies for combining employment and breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fein, Sara B; Mandal, Bidisha; Roe, Brian E

    2008-10-01

    Return to work is associated with diminished breastfeeding intensity and duration. Although more mothers breastfeed after returning to work now than earlier, research has not documented the strategies that mothers use for combining paid work and breastfeeding or their effect on breastfeeding outcomes. This study examined which strategies are associated with smaller decrements in breastfeeding intensity and longer durations. We analyzed 810 mothers from the Infant Feeding Practices Study II who worked and breastfed. We used regression and censored regression models to analyze 4 strategies that mothers used to combine these 2 activities: (1) feed directly from the breast only; (2) both pump and feed directly; (3) pump only; and (4) neither pump nor breastfeed during the work day. Outcomes were the difference in percentage of milk feeds that were breast milk between the month before and after return to work and duration of breastfeeding after return to work. Forty-three percent of mothers pumped milk at work only; 32% fed the infant directly from the breast only. These 2 strategies, along with pumping and feeding directly, were statistically similar and superior to neither pumping nor breastfeeding during the work day for the outcome of change in breastfeeding intensity. For the outcome of breastfeeding duration, the 2 strategies that included directly feeding from the breast were associated with longer duration than pumping only, whereas the strategy of neither pumping nor breastfeeding during the work day was associated with the shortest duration. Feeding the infant from the breast during the work day is the most effective strategy for combining breastfeeding and work. Ways to enable direct feeding include on-site child care, telecommuting, keeping the infant at work, allowing the mother to leave work to go to the infant, and having the infant brought to the work site. Establishing ways for mothers to feed from the breast after return to work is important to meet US

  13. [Teaching performance assessment in Public Health employing three different strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-González, Adrián; Moreno-Altamirano, Laura; Ponce-Rosas, Efrén Raúl; Martínez-Franco, Adrián Israel; Urrutia-Aguilar, María Esther

    2011-01-01

    The educational system depends upon the quality and performance of their faculty and should therefore be process of continuous improvement. To assess the teaching performance of the Public Health professors, at the Faculty of Medicine, UNAM through three strategies. Justification study. The evaluation was conducted under a mediational model through three strategies: students' opinion assessment, self-assessment and students' academic achievement. We applied descriptive statistics, Student t test, ANOVA and Pearson correlation. Twenty professors were evaluated from the Public Health department, representing 57% of all them who teach the subject. The professor's performance was highly valued self-assessment compared with assessment of student opinion, was confirmed by statistical analysis the difference was significant. The difference amongst the three evaluation strategies became more evident between self-assessment and the scores obtained by students in their academic achievement. The integration of these three strategies offers a more complete view of the teacher's performance quality. Academic achievement appears to be a more objective strategy for teaching performance assessment than students' opinion and self-assessment.

  14. LEARNING STRATEGIES FOR EMPLOYABILITY IN RECENT GRADUATED PROFESSIONALS AT MARKET OF WORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ÁLVARO ENRÍQUEZ MARTÍNEZ

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Transformations of work world imply the diminishment of structural employment and consolidation of otherforms of work with psycho-sociological implications for employability. The research explore learning strategiesthat in version of professionals (successed and control and employers facilitate employability at 5 Colombiancities. Deep interviews were used. Results show that learning strategies are not necessarily consciousness. Successprofessionals use Cognitive strategies of elaboration and transferece; relational strategies for visibility andpromoting knowledge in inter-relation; and meta-cognitive strategies of regulation in this order. Control groupprofessionals use cognitive-elaboration and transference strategies without converting them into behaviors.Employers empathized on cognitive strategies of elaboration, metacognitives of regulation, and relationals ofvisibility and the establishment of relations.

  15. Rhetoric and Realities: On the Development of University-Wide Strategies to Promote Student English Language Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunworth, Katie; Drury, Helen; Kralik, Cynthia; Moore, Tim

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the results from a national project that investigated institutional approaches to the development of student English language capabilities in Australian higher education. The project aimed to identify the various approaches and strategies that higher education providers have established and to gauge whether they have been…

  16. [On rhetorics and medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohry, Avi; Gitay, Yehoshua

    2008-04-01

    The beginning of Rhetorics can be found in ancient Greece (Corax, Gorgias, Aristo). The science of the proper use of language in order to explain or convince, was very popular until the 17th century. Rhetorics had influenced all levels of intellectual European life, including medical teaching. and practice (Cabanis). Currently, rhetorics have become popular again in: the media, politics, academic and social life and medicine. Medical and allied health professions students, should learn how to speak correctly, how to implement ethical and behavioral essentials (Osler, Asher).

  17. An AIDS-denialist online community on a Russian social networking service: patterns of interactions with newcomers and rhetorical strategies of persuasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meylakhs, Peter; Rykov, Yuri; Koltsova, Olessia; Koltsov, Sergey

    2014-11-17

    The rise of social media proved to be a fertile ground for the expansion of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-denialist movement (in the form of online communities). While there is substantial literature devoted to disproving AIDS-denialist views, there is a lack of studies exploring AIDS-denialists online communities that interact with an external environment. We explored three research areas: (1) reasons for newcomers to come to an AIDS-denialist community, (2) the patterns of interactions of the community with the newcomers, and (3) rhetorical strategies that denialists use for persuasion in the veracity of their views. We studied the largest AIDS-denialist community on one of the most popular social networking services in Russia. We used netnography as a method for collecting data for qualitative analysis and observed the community for 9 months (at least 2-3 times a week). While doing netnography, we periodically downloaded community discussions. In total, we downloaded 4821 posts and comments for analysis. Grounded theory approach was used for data analysis. Most users came to the community for the following reasons: their stories did not fit the unitary picture of AIDS disease progression translated by popular medical discourse, health problems, concern about HIV-positive tests, and desire to dissuade community members from false AIDS beliefs. On the basis of strength in AIDS-denialist beliefs, we constructed a typology of the newcomers consisting of three ideal-typical groups: (1) convinced: those who already had become denialists before coming to the group, (2) doubters: those who were undecided about the truth of either human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) science theory or AIDS-denialist theory, and (3) orthodox: those who openly held HIV science views. Reception of a newcomer mainly depended on the newcomer's belief status. Reception was very warm for the convinced, cold or slightly hostile for the doubters, and extremely hostile or derisive

  18. The Danish National Reform Programme 2005 and the gender aspect of the Danish Employment Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emerek, Ruth

    This assessment of the gender aspect of the Danish Employment Strategy in the National Reform Programme 2005 form along with assessments from the other European-member states the basis for the synthesis report The National Reform programme 2005 and the gender aspect of the European Employment...... Strategy prepared for the Equality Unit in the European Commission by Jill Rubery et al. It is part of the work of the EU expert group on Gender, Social Inclusion and Employment (EGGSIE)....

  19. Integrated testing strategies for toxicity employing new and existing technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combes, Robert D; Balls, Michael

    2011-07-01

    We have developed individual, integrated testing strategies (ITS) for predicting the toxicity of general chemicals, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, inhaled chemicals, and nanoparticles. These ITS are based on published schemes developed previously for the risk assessment of chemicals to fulfil the requirements of REACH, which have been updated to take account of the latest developments in advanced in chemico modelling and in vitro technologies. In addition, we propose an ITS for neurotoxicity, based on the same principles, for incorporation in the other ITS. The technologies are deployed in a step-wise manner, as a basis for decision-tree approaches, incorporating weight-of-evidence stages. This means that testing can be stopped at the point where a risk assessment and/or classification can be performed, with labelling in accordance with the requirements of the regulatory authority concerned, rather than following a checklist approach to hazard identification. In addition, the strategies are intelligent, in that they are based on the fundamental premise that there is no hazard in the absence of exposure - which is why pharmacokinetic modelling plays a key role in each ITS. The new technologies include the use of complex, three-dimensional human cell tissue culture systems with in vivo-like structural, physiological and biochemical features, as well as dosing conditions. In this way, problems of inter-species extrapolation and in vitro/in vivo extrapolation are minimised. This is reflected in the ITS placing more emphasis on the use of volunteers at the whole organism testing stage, rather than on existing animal testing, which is the current situation. 2011 FRAME.

  20. If You Meet the Buddha on the Road with a Rosetta Stone: A Dialogue on Strategies of Inquiry and the New Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Christina

    1985-01-01

    Presents a dialogue between two adherents of the process centered paradigm of rhetoric: one a "classicist" who sees art as the knowledge necessary for producing preconceived results by conscious, directed actions, and the other a "romantic," who sees art as "magical" inspiration. (HTH)

  1. Hierarchical Rhetorical Sentence Categorization for Scientific Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachman, G. H.; Khodra, M. L.; Widyantoro, D. H.

    2018-03-01

    Important information in scientific papers can be composed of rhetorical sentences that is structured from certain categories. To get this information, text categorization should be conducted. Actually, some works in this task have been completed by employing word frequency, semantic similarity words, hierarchical classification, and the others. Therefore, this paper aims to present the rhetorical sentence categorization from scientific paper by employing TF-IDF and Word2Vec to capture word frequency and semantic similarity words and employing hierarchical classification. Every experiment is tested in two classifiers, namely Naïve Bayes and SVM Linear. This paper shows that hierarchical classifier is better than flat classifier employing either TF-IDF or Word2Vec, although it increases only almost 2% from 27.82% when using flat classifier until 29.61% when using hierarchical classifier. It shows also different learning model for child-category can be built by hierarchical classifier.

  2. Impact of cancer on employment: A qualitative study exploring employment changes and financial coping strategies following breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yek-Ching Kong

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Few studies have examined the impact of cancer diagnosis on employment among breast cancer patients. We aim to gain an in-depth understanding on the employment issues faced by breast cancer patients as well as their financial coping strategies in a multi-ethnic Asian setting. Methods: Six focus group discussions (FGDs were carried out with breast cancer patients, representing various ethnicities and socioeconomic backgrounds, who were recruited from Hospital Kuala Lumpur, a public hospital, and University Malaya Medical Centre, a public academic hospital. All FGDs were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic content analysis was carried out using the NVivo software. Results: Majority of breast cancer patients quitted their jobs upon diagnosis of breast cancer, with many describing that their bosses were not understanding in terms of their cancer diagnosis. Those who were self-employed meanwhile reported less productivity. Patterns of financial coping strategies due to employment changes were diverse. Some patients chose to do light weight part time jobs, while others described the important role of husbands and relatives in coping with income loss. There were mixed responses regarding return to work, in which money was the major reason to return to work, while stress was cited as a barrier to not return to work. However, many reported barriers in finding a job after cancer due to discrimination against their cancer and their age. Conclusion: It is evident that a breast cancer diagnosis brings about adverse impact on employment. Multidisciplinary interventions are urgently required in Malaysia to improve the employment status of our cancer survivors including legislative reforms to prevent discrimination. This study was funded by AIA Bhd. NMRR ID: NMRR-16-2054-32802 

  3. Teacher-employed Communication Strategies: Investigating Function Type Occurrence in Iranian EFL Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massoud Yaghoubi Notash

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Communication strategies, as goal-oriented lines of action to obviate breakdowns in the flow of communication, have been the subject of extensive studies in SLA. While student-employed strategies have been duly investigated in the literature, those employed by teachers in the classroom context continue to be inadequately addressed. Moreover, characterizing functions of communication strategies (CSs rather than their types as a research interest can offer new insights for research. Accordingly, the present study concentrated on the function of CSs employed by 16 teachers across elementary (8 and advanced levels (8 teaching spoken English in private institutes in Tabriz, Iran. A modified version of Jamshidnejad’s (2011 functions of communication strategies was employed as the framework for defining functions. T-test results indicated a significant difference regarding ‘maintaining the flow of conversation’ between elementary and advanced level teachers. As with other function types, no significant differences could be revealed.

  4. Realistic rhetoric and legal decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Maurício Adeodato

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The text aims to lay the foundations of a realistic rhetoric, from the descriptive perspective of how the legal decision actually takes place, without normative considerations. Aristotle's rhetorical idealism and its later prestige reduced rhetoric to the art of persuasion, eliminating important elements of sophistry, especially with regard to legal decision. It concludes with a rhetorical perspective of judicial activism in complex societies.

  5. The Rhetoric of Campus Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Cynthia Duquette

    2016-01-01

    The group activity described in this article was originally designed for an upper-division undergraduate course on Rhetoric and Architecture, but would also be well suited for courses in Persuasion, Rhetorical Criticism, or Visual Rhetoric. Any undergraduate course related to communication and design (including Advertising) could make excellent…

  6. Strategies of employees in the construction industry to increase their sustainable employability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonnon, Susanne C; van der Veen, Rozan; de Kruif, Anja Th C M; Robroek, Suzan J W; van der Ploeg, Hidde P; Proper, Karin I; van der Beek, Allard J

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aging work force makes sustainable employability (SE) of workers a priority. However, it is unknown to what extent employees use implemented SE measures. OBJECTIVE: To determine the utilization of 1) SE measures offered by employers, 2) employee SE strategies, and 3) to identify

  7. Supporting Second Chances: Education and Employment Strategies For People Returning from Correctional Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobs For the Future, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This brief highlights strategies for strengthening education and employment pathways for youth and adults returning from correctional facilities and notes key questions that new research should answer. It also explores barriers to employment for people with criminal records--whether or not they have been incarcerated--and potential policy…

  8. Strategies of employees in the construction industry to increase their sustainable employability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonnon, Susanne C; van der Veen, Rozan; de Kruif, Anja Th C M; Robroek, Suzan J W; van der Ploeg, Hidde P; Proper, Karin I; van der Beek, Allard J

    2018-01-01

    The aging work force makes sustainable employability (SE) of workers a priority. However, it is unknown to what extent employees use implemented SE measures. To determine the utilization of 1) SE measures offered by employers, 2) employee SE strategies, and 3) to identify barriers and facilitators of SE strategies. Survey data were collected among 731 blue collar and 879 white collar workers to determine the utilization of employer SE measures. Focus groups were held with 16 blue collar and 17 white collar workers to identify employee SE strategies and their barriers and facilitators. Utilization of employer SE measures was highest for personal development measures. Strategies applied by blue collar workers included using equipment, suggesting improvements of their working conditions, and seeking promotion to a less physically demanding job. White collar workers named engaging in leisure time physical activity and seeking an adequate work-life balance. Implementation of these strategies was influenced by employee awareness and self-efficacy, the accessibility and costs and benefits of the strategy, management support and company culture. Usage of employer SE measures was generally low and recommendations are given for both blue and white collar workers to improve SE strategies.

  9. Managing cancer and employment: Decisions and strategies used by breast cancer survivors employed in low-wage jobs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanberg, Jennifer E; Nichols, Helen M; Ko, Jungyai; Tracy, J Kathleen; Vanderpool, Robin C

    2017-01-01

    Advances in breast cancer screening and treatment have led to an overall 5-year survival rate of 90%. Many of these cancer cases are diagnosed in working women. Few studies have explicitly examined the cancer-work interface, as experienced by low-wage earning women with breast cancer. This study uses in-depth, semistructured interviews with 24 low-wage breast cancer survivors to identify employment decisions and factors that influenced or enabled these decisions, and examine the individual strategies and workplace supports used to manage the cancer-work interface among a subset of women (n = 13) who continued to work. Future research areas and clinical implications are discussed.

  10. Rhetorical relations for information retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lioma, Christina; Larsen, Birger; Lu, Wei

    2012-01-01

    -called discourse structure has been applied successfully to several natural language processing tasks. This work studies the use of rhetorical relations for Information Retrieval (IR): Is there a correlation between certain rhetorical relations and retrieval performance? Can knowledge about a document’s rhetorical...... relations be useful to IR? We present a language model modification that considers rhetorical relations when estimating the relevance of a document to a query. Empirical evaluation of different versions of our model on TREC settings shows that certain rhetorical relations can benefit retrieval effectiveness...

  11. Coping strategies and learned helplessness of employed and nonemployed educated married women from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Manyu; Mardhekar, Vaishali; Wadkar, Alka

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we compare three types of coping strategies (cognitive, physical, and social coping) and learned helplessness between married women who are either employed or nonemployed in Pune, India. A total of 100 employed women and 100 nonemployed women were surveyed. Employed women were found to have significantly higher cognitive, physical, and social coping, as well as lower learned helplessness than nonemployed women. Multiple roles of employed women and sense of control theories were used to explain the differences. We have found significant implications for the development of intervention programs for empowering women.

  12. Of Brains and Rhetorics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jeffrey

    1990-01-01

    Revisits the hemisphericity theory of the 1970s and the revised and less familiar accounts that emerged in the 1980s. Argues that neither the older nor the newer psychobiological accounts of mind support the Neoclassical/Romantic claims. Contends that these accounts are more congenial to an Aristotelian theory of mind and rhetoric. (RS)

  13. Rhetorics of Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Julia M.

    A critical rhetoric is needed for those interested in feminist discourse, a means of both persuasion and critique. It has been suggested that monologic, fundamentally one-sided argument is inappropriate for a feminist discourse that should instead teach methods of negotiation and mediation. Kenneth Burke proposed shattering views of ideological…

  14. The Temporality of Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Bryan C.

    1989-01-01

    Argues that the future tense underlies both literary criticism and the discipline of rhetoric as conceived by Aristotle and that Aristotle gives the argumentative arts a middle ground which makes them distinct and yet weds them inextricably with those claiming greater or lesser degrees of generality. (RAE)

  15. Semiotic, Rhetoric and Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Mackey

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper unites Deely’s call for a better understanding of semiotics with Jaeger’s insight into the sophists and the cultural history of the Ancient Greeks. The two bodies of knowledge are brought together to try to better understand the importance of rhetorical processes to political forms such as democracy. Jaeger explains how cultural expression, particularly poetry, changed through the archaic and classical eras to deliver, or at least to be commensurate with contemporary politics and ideologies. He explains how Plato (429-347 BCE struggled against certain poetry and prose manifestations in his ambition to create a ‘perfect man’ – a humanity which would think in a way which would enable the ideal Republic to flourish. Deely’s approach based on Poinsot and Peirce presents a theoretical framework by means of which we can think of the struggle to influence individual and communal conceptualisation as a struggle within semiotics. This is a struggle over the ways reality is signified by signs. Signs are physical and mental indications which, in the semiotic tradition, are taken to produce human subjectivity – human ‘being’. Deely’s extensive body of work is about how these signs are the building blocks of realist constructions of understanding. This paper is concerned with the deliberate use of oral and written signs in rhetorical activity which have been deliberately crafted to change subjectivity. We discuss: (1 what thought and culture is in terms of semiotics and (2 Jaeger’s depiction of Ancient Greece as an illustration of the conjunction between culture and subjectivity. These two fields are brought together in order to make the argument that rhetoric can be theorised as the deliberate harnessing of semiotic effects. The implication is that the same semiotic, subjectivity-changing potency holds for 21st century rhetoric. However fourth century BCE Athens is the best setting for a preliminary discussion of rhetoric as

  16. From Strategic Perspective: Investigating Teacher-Employed Communication Strategies in EFL Classroom Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massoud Yaghoubi-Notash

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Various studies have laid emphasis on the nature and patterns of strategy employment in EFL context. Most studies, however, tend to examine those strategies in learner performance. In this study, the researchers investigated the types of communication strategies used by teachers teaching elementary level learners compared to those who are teaching at advanced levels. To this end, 16 (8 elementary and 8 advanced teachers’ verbal classroom performance were recorded and analyzed for characterizing the strategy types. Four full classroom sessions were recorded and transcribed of each teacher’s teaching. T-test results indicated that propositional reduction strategies were employed more significantly on the part of teachers teaching advanced-levels. There are a number of important pedagogical implications for teachers and learners regarding teaching experience, syllabus design, and curriculum development which are discussed.

  17. Nusic and rhetoric in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avramović Sima D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The author analyzes characteristics, importance and impact of the celebrated book Rhetoric from 1933, written by a famous Serbian lawyer and comedy writer Branislav Nusic. The a. points to shortage of literature about rhetoric among the Serbs in Hungary, and afterwards in Serbia, pointing that the most important book about rhetoric in XIX century was written not before 1844, also by a comedy writer, lawyer and one of the first law professors Jovan Sterija Popovic (but it was saved as a manuscript, which was published after 150 years in 1995. He also points to the position of rhetoric and of the literature about rhetoric in the world in the last centuries. He delineates route from the time when rhetoric entered into a crisis due to its formal and infertile approach up to appearance of the 'new rhetoric' in a wider meaning (differing it from Perelman's 'new rhetoric' in the strict sense, namely until appearance of the modern 'public speaking' approach and impact of Dale Carnegie. The a. finds many examples where Nusic's Rhetoric reflects his commitment to classical rhetoric, but also recognizes important steps toward its modernization. His attempt to update classical rhetoric was performed cautiously and with a proper measure. Therefore the a. is of opinion that it was Nusic's most important advantage, virtue and contribution. The flow of time has shown that it was his specific contribution to the identity of this discipline among the Serbs, as many generations were educated on his book, until our times. It is due to excellent concept and harmonious compound of classical rhetoric and elements of rhetoric from the first half of XX century. The a. compares Nusic with a modern American scholar Edward Corbett who claimed that classical rhetoric is still useful and effective - perhaps more useful and effective than the various courses of study that replaced it. Finally the a. points to dangers of unrefined public speaking trends. He insists that, upon

  18. Campaign rhetoric: A model of reputation

    OpenAIRE

    Aragonés, Enriqueta; Postlewaite, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    We analyze conditions under which a candidate's campaign rhetoric may affect the beliefs of the voters over what policy the candidate will implement in case he wins the election. We develop a model of repeated elections with complete information in which candidates are purely ideological. Voter's strategies involve a credible threat to punish candidates that renege of their campaign promises, and in equilibrium all campaign promises are believed by voters, and honore...

  19. POLITENESS STRATEGIES EMPLOYED BY THE TRAINERS IN ROOM DIVISION DEPARTMENT BAPEPAR NUSA DUA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Ayu Vina Widiadnya Putri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article tries to analyze and discuss the politeness strategies employed by the trainers in room division department when they practice on the job training in the hotel. Politeness strategy was needed when the trainers serve the guest. This research was done by observation and interview with the trainer and the guest about their conversation. The analysis of politeness strategies that employed by the trainer focused on two discussions; (1 the kinds of politeness strategies used by trainer in room division department, and (2 the implications of politeness strategies used by trainer in room division department. This research used the theory from Brown & Levinson (1987 in his book entitled Politeness: Some Universals in Language Usages. The theory is supported by other theories that are considered relevant to the topic of discussion in this research. Based on the analysis, it was found that there were two kinds of politeness stratgies that employed by the trainer in room division department Bapepar Nusa Dua, they were positive face and negative face. Beside that, there are three implications by using politness strategies such as: respect behaviour, togheterness, and cooperative interaction.

  20. Predictive models to determine imagery strategies employed by children to judge hand laterality.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruijt, S.; Jongsma, M.L.; Kamp, J. van der; Steenbergen, B.

    2015-01-01

    A commonly used paradigm to study motor imagery is the hand laterality judgment task. The present study aimed to determine which strategies young children employ to successfully perform this task. Children of 5 to 8 years old (N = 92) judged laterality of back and palm view hand pictures in

  1. Predictive models to determine imagery strategies employed by children to judge hand laterality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruijt, S; Jongsma, M.L.A.; van der Kamp, J.; Steenbergen, B.

    2015-01-01

    A commonly used paradigm to study motor imagery is the hand laterality judgment task. The present study aimed to determine which strategies young children employ to successfully perform this task. Children of 5 to 8 years old (N = 92) judged laterality of back and palm view hand pictures in

  2. Strategies Employed by Iranian EFL Freshman University Students in Extensive Listening: A Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidabadi, Farinaz Shirani; Yamat, Hamidah

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the findings of a qualitative study on the strategies employed by Iranian freshmen in extensive listening. A group of 12 freshman university students were purposefully selected based on their scores in the Oxford Placement Test administered. Four learners were identified as advanced, four as intermediate, and four as lower…

  3. Work Conditions and the Food Choice Coping Strategies of Employed Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Carol M.; Farrell, Tracy J.; Blake, Christine E.; Jastran, Margaret; Wethington, Elaine; Bisogni, Carole A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: How work conditions relate to parents' food choice coping strategies. Design: Pilot telephone survey. Setting: City in the northeastern United States (US). Participants: Black, white, and Hispanic employed mothers (25) and fathers (25) randomly recruited from low-/moderate-income zip codes; 78% of those reached and eligible…

  4. Health Resources and Strategies among Employed Women in Norway during Pregnancy and Early Motherhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alstveit, Marit; Karlsen, Bjørg

    2015-01-01

    The number of women in paid employment is increasing. However, when becoming a mother for the first time, many seem unprepared for the challenge of balancing motherhood and work as well as for the impact on their health. The aim of this study was to investigate the health resources and strategies of employed women in Norway during pregnancy and early motherhood by means of salutogenic theory. A hypothetical-deductive interpretive approach based on Antonovsky's salutogenic theory was applied in a secondary analysis. A total of six themes were identified; three were classified as health resources when experiencing tension and three as health strategies. Salutogenic theory seems to be a useful framework for illuminating the health resources and strategies adopted by employed women who become mothers. The identified health resources when experiencing tension and the health strategies applied may have implications for maternity care professionals and employers in promoting the health of such women and supporting them to combine work and family life. PMID:25945258

  5. Effective Strategies To Improve the Employment of SSI/SSDI Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Jean, Ed.

    This document is for administrators, rehabilitation counselors, and other professionals who support the employment of Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) beneficiaries and Supplemental Security Income (SSI) recipients with disabilities. It contains strategies for vocational rehabilitation (VR) programs to improve an SSI or SSDI…

  6. Proficiency as a Variable in Gulf EFL Students' Employment of Reading Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endley, Martin J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a study of the reading strategies used by twelve Arabic-speaking undergraduates at a major Gulf university when reading texts in English. The procedure employed was a think-aloud protocol followed by a semi-structured interview. Three research questions were addressed: (a) What are the primary comprehension problems encountered…

  7. Science, economics, and rhetoric: environmental advocacy and the wolf reintroduction debate, 1987-1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayle C. Hardy-Short; C. Brant Short

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines the arguments employed in the debate over reintroduction of wolves into Idaho, Montana, and the Yellowstone National Park Ecosystem; and in Arizona and New Mexico. The study reviews common rhetorical themes used by advocates and opponents of wolf reintroduction and identifies a significant rhetorical shift in the debate. Advocates opposed to wolf...

  8. THE ROLE OF SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY STRATEGIES EMPLOYED BY EUROPEAN AUTOMOTIVE CORPORATIONS IN DEVELOPING SUSTAINABLE BUSINESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Gănescu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Corporate social responsibility strategies are a topic of great interest for both researchers and practitioners, and require the development of interdisciplinary approaches: economic, ethical and social. The paper analyses the social responsibility strategies employed by European automotive businesses and highlights their impact on business sustainability. From a theoretical perspective, applying the content analysis method on sustainability or social responsibility reports revealed a variety of social responsibility strategies. The utility of the research is supported by formulating a typology of social responsibility strategies, based on objectives of sustainable development and by establishing arguments concerning the impact of these strategies on automotive businesses’ sustainability in the following areas: social and societal, ecological and environmental, distribution chains and suppliers, corporate image, position in relation to competitors and financial performance.

  9. Employer retention strategies and their effect on nurses' job satisfaction and intent to stay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellenbecker, Carol Hall; Samia, Linda; Cushman, Margaret J; Porell, Frank W

    2007-01-01

    Faced with a nursing shortage and anticipated increase in demand, home care agencies are implementing retention strategies with little knowledge of their effectiveness. The purpose of this study is to describe the strategies implemented and their effect on nurse job satisfaction and intention to leave. Data were collected from a random sample of 123 New England agencies during in-person interviews. Most agencies reported implementing multiple recruitment and retention strategies. Regression results suggest that the effects of employer retention strategy on nurses' intent to stay are the indirect result of its effects on job satisfaction. The only retention intervention that made a statistically significant difference in job satisfaction was shared governance, and no retention strategy directly affected nurses' intention to stay in their jobs.

  10. Predictive models to determine imagery strategies employed by children to judge hand laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruijt, Steffie; Jongsma, Marijtje L A; van der Kamp, John; Steenbergen, Bert

    2015-01-01

    A commonly used paradigm to study motor imagery is the hand laterality judgment task. The present study aimed to determine which strategies young children employ to successfully perform this task. Children of 5 to 8 years old (N = 92) judged laterality of back and palm view hand pictures in different rotation angles. Response accuracy and response duration were registered. Response durations of the trials with a correct judgment were fitted to a-priori defined predictive sinusoid models, representing different strategies to successfully perform the hand laterality judgment task. The first model predicted systematic changes in response duration as a function of rotation angle of the displayed hand. The second model predicted that response durations are affected by biomechanical constraints of hand rotation. If observed data could be best described by the first model, this would argue for a mental imagery strategy that does not involve motor processes to solve the task. The second model reflects a motor imagery strategy to solve the task. In line with previous research, we showed an age-related increase in response accuracy and decrease in response duration in children. Observed data for both back and palm view showed that motor imagery strategies were used to perform hand laterality judgments, but that not all the children use these strategies (appropriately) at all times. A direct comparison of response duration patterns across age sheds new light on age-related differences in the strategies employed to solve the task. Importantly, the employment of the motor imagery strategy for successful task performance did not change with age.

  11. Rhetoric. The Bobbs-Merrill Series in Composition and Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Richard L., Ed.

    Reflecting the opinions of both classical theorists and recent authors, 16 papers on rhetorical theory are collected in this publication. Selections in Part 1, concerned with the definition and objectives of rhetoric, are by Plato, Aristotle, Cicero, Kenneth Burke, Donald C. Bryant, and Martin Steinmann, Jr. In Part 2, selections from the pedagogy…

  12. Purifying Rhetoric: Empedocles and the Myth of Rhetorical Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gencarella, Stephen Olbrys

    2010-01-01

    The polymath Empedocles has not been considered a prominent figure in the history of rhetorical studies nor contemporary appropriations of antiquity, despite the reported attribution of his invention of rhetoric by Aristotle. This neglect is understandable, as the surviving fragments of Empedocles' work provide no significant reference to rhetoric…

  13. Assessment of self-efficacy to employ self-initiated pornography use-reduction strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Shane W; Rosenberg, Harold; Tompsett, Carolyn J

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated several psychometric properties of a newly developed questionnaire designed to assess individuals' self-efficacy (from 0% to 100%) to employ self-initiated cognitive-behavioral strategies intended to reduce the frequency and duration of their pornography use. Using a web-based data collection procedure, we recruited 1298 male users of pornography to complete questionnaires assessing hypersexuality, pornography use history, and general self-efficacy. Based on a principal component analysis and examination of inter-item correlations, we deleted 13 items from the initial pool of 21 strategies. The resulting 8-item questionnaire had excellent internal consistency reliability, and a moderate mean inter-item correlation considered indicative of unidimensionality. In support of criterion validity, self-efficacy to employ use-reduction strategies was significantly associated with the frequency with which participants used pornography, with scores on a measure of hypersexuality, and with the number of times one had attempted to cut back using pornography. In support of discriminant validity, we found that pornography use-reduction self-efficacy scores were not strongly correlated with general self-efficacy. Both researchers and clinicians could use this questionnaire to assess pornography users' confidence to employ self-initiated strategies intended to reduce the duration and frequency with which they use pornography. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Rhetorical Dimensions of Teaching Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmerman, Linda E. L.

    An overlooked framework that allows for clearer understanding of effective teaching is the field of rhetoric. Although the concept has changed over time, Aristotle defines rhetoric as observing the available means of persuasion. These means include ethos, a speaker's credibility; pathos, appeal to emotions; and logos, appeal to reason or…

  15. Rhetoric and Essentially Contested Arguments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garver, Eugene

    1978-01-01

    Draws a connection between Gallie's essentially contested concepts and Aristotle's account of rhetorical argument by presenting a definition of Essentially Contested Argument which is used as the connecting term between rhetoric and essentially contested concepts and by demonstrating the value of making this connection. (JF)

  16. Work conditions and the food choice coping strategies of employed parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Carol M; Farrell, Tracy J; Blake, Christine E; Jastran, Margaret; Wethington, Elaine; Bisogni, Carole A

    2009-01-01

    How work conditions relate to parents' food choice coping strategies. Pilot telephone survey. City in the northeastern United States (US). Black, white, and Hispanic employed mothers (25) and fathers (25) randomly recruited from low-/moderate-income zip codes; 78% of those reached and eligible participated. Sociodemographic characteristics; work conditions (hours, shift, job schedule, security, satisfaction, food access); food choice coping strategies (22 behavioral items for managing food in response to work and family demands (ie, food prepared at/away from home, missing meals, individualizing meals, speeding up, planning). Two-tailed chi-square and Fisher exact tests (P restaurant meals, missed breakfast, and prepared entrees. Job security, satisfaction, and food access were also associated with gender-specific strategies. Structural work conditions among parents such as job hours, schedule, satisfaction, and food access are associated with food choice coping strategies with importance for dietary quality. Findings have implications for worksite interventions but need examination in a larger sample.

  17. Employment Status and Mental Health: Mediating Roles of Social Support and Coping Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perreault, Michel; Touré, El Hadj; Perreault, Nicole; Caron, Jean

    2017-09-01

    Although it has been established that unemployment and underemployment increase distress and depression, the psychological mechanisms involved are not very clear. This study examines the roles of social support and coping strategies as mediators of the association between employment status and mental health, as well as gender and age differences as moderators. Residents from the epidemiological catchment area of south-west Montreal responded to a randomized household survey for adults in 2009. A follow-up was conducted based on participants' employment status 2 and 4 years later. ANOVAs tests were computed with SPSS to evaluate group differences, and structural equation modeling was performed with AMOS to test mediation effects. At baseline, among participants between 18 and 64 years old (n = 2325), 14.3 % were unemployed/not studying, 14.4 % worked part-time, and 56.5 % worked full-time. Employment status was found to significantly affect depression among those under 45 years old (chi-square = 23.4, p employment with depression, which was fully mediated by social support, less coping with drugs/medication, and less distress. A negative association with full-time employment was also noted with distress, which was partially mediated by increased social support, coping with alcohol, and less coping with drugs/medication. The total indirect effect suggests that full-time employees generally have more resources and do not tend to use avoidance strategies like coping with drugs/medication, resulting in less distress (β = -0.05; p employment, namely full-time employment, in communities.

  18. Public Speaking Practices: Analysis of Aristotle's "Rhetoric."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Reed

    Aristotle's "Rhetoric" is divided into three books which describe the stages of preparing a public address. Book One establishes the philosophical position of rhetoric to logic. It also establishes four purposes of rhetoric and discusses three types of proof. Aristotle defines rhetoric as a faculty for providing two modes of…

  19. Employed parents’ satisfaction with food choice coping strategies: influence of gender and structure

    OpenAIRE

    Blake, Christine E.; Devine, Carol M.; Wethington, Elaine; Jastran, Margaret; Farrell, Tracy J.; Bisogni, Carole A.

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to understand parents’ evaluations of the way they integrated work-family demands to manage food and eating. Employed, low/moderate-income, urban, U.S., Black, White, and Latino mothers (35) and fathers (34) participated in qualitative interviews exploring work and family conditions and spillover, food roles, and food-choice coping and family-adaptive strategies. Parents expressed a range of evaluations from overall satisfaction to overall dissatisfaction as well as dissatisf...

  20. Formulating a Long-Term Employment Strategy for Construction Workforce in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Salleh Norazlin Mat; Mat Isa Siti Siti Sarah; Syed Jamalulil Syarifah Nur Nazihah; Ibrahim Irma Hanie; Hussein Edelin

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a preliminary idea about the research outline to be conducted by the researcher. Overall idea starts with the unremitting issues regarding skilled construction workforce in Malaysia. Unfortunately, unemployment in Malaysia is becoming increasingly serious. Lack of employment factors there is also a source of unemployment. The main purpose of this research is to investigate the existing strategy to encourage the involvement of local skilled construction workforce (LSCW) ons...

  1. The Employment Policies and the Combat against Unemployment in the European Union. The EU Strategy for the Employment Growth and the Unemployment Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Ligia Dumitrescu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Financial and economic crisis has brought to the fore the issues of unemployment, which is a constant concern of the EU. The study analyzes the European Employment Strategy, which aims to create a common framework for action based on the agreement of the Member States relating in order to a set of objectives and targets for employment. The research examines the impact of employment policies on labor market developments and measures taken to minimize imbalances in the labor market, reduce unemployment and increase employment.

  2. Teaching Strategies Employed by ACSE English Teachers in Implementing CBLT in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakati MALIVA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available English in Tanzania is taught as one of the major subjects at Advanced Certificate of Secondary School Education (ACSE. This paper explores the strategies employed by teachers in implementing the ACSE curriculum. The curriculum requires that the subject be taught using the competence based approach where learner-centred strategies are emphasized. The study employed mixed methods and descriptive design. Purposive sampling was used to get schools and teachers because it was only schools that had English as a major subject in the municipality that were selected. The findings reveal that the teacher-centerd strategies dominate the curriculum implementation as opposed to learner-centerd ones as required by the curriculum. The paper therefore recommends that teachers in Iringa municipality be oriented on the learner-centred strategies in the implementation of English at ACSE. It is further recommended that since oral language skills form a large part of the curriculum, these skills be assessed at both school and national based assessments if they are to be taught and learnt. This is because no teacher can waste time teaching what is not assessed and no student can take trouble to learn what is not assessed.

  3. The Rhetoric of Explanation: Explanatory Rhetoric from Aristotle to 1850.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conners, Robert J.

    1984-01-01

    Follows the slow growth of a body of knowledge about how information could best be communicated without necessary references to overt persuasion from Aristotle's "Rhetoric" through the beginnings of a theory of written discourse in the American nineteenth century. (FL)

  4. Gloria Anzaldúa's Rhetoric of Ambiguity and Antiracist Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, Sarah; Whithaus, Carl

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses approaches to antiracist pedagogy employed in a rhetoric course at a large public research university. Drawing upon our experience teaching a diverse group of students from a common text shared across disciplines, we show how and why students resisted binary constructions of race and racism and instead formulated an emergent…

  5. Start-Up Rhetoric in Eight Speeches of Barack Obama

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Daniel C.; Kowal, Sabine; Sabin, Edward J.; Lamia, John F.; Dannevik, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Our purpose in the following was to investigate the start-up rhetoric employed by U.S. President Barack Obama in his speeches. The initial 5 min from eight of his speeches from May to September of 2009 were selected for their variety of setting, audience, theme, and purpose. It was generally hypothesized that Barack Obama, widely recognized for…

  6. Formulating a Long-Term Employment Strategy for Construction Workforce in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salleh Norazlin Mat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a preliminary idea about the research outline to be conducted by the researcher. Overall idea starts with the unremitting issues regarding skilled construction workforce in Malaysia. Unfortunately, unemployment in Malaysia is becoming increasingly serious. Lack of employment factors there is also a source of unemployment. The main purpose of this research is to investigate the existing strategy to encourage the involvement of local skilled construction workforce (LSCW onsite. Labour is the main asset in the construction project, even nowadays concerned with the use of advanced technology to reduce costs, labor is still required to drive the technology. Therefore, it is importance to develop a long term strategies to sustain the availability in the industry by implementing questionnaire, interview and ended with validation the framework by professional. The target respondent is Employer (Contractor and ABM trainee throughout Malaysia. The outcomes dedicate to raise the interest among the youth to choose career as construction workforce, policy maker for revised any policy and employer for hiring LSCW.

  7. [Return to Work Strategies of Employees who Experienced Depression: Employers and HR's Perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbière, Marc; Lecomte, Tania; Lachance, Jean-Philippe; Coutu, Marie-France; Negrini, Alessia; Laberon, Sonia

    Major depression is one of the leading causes of work disability across the world. In Canada, the lifetime prevalence of depression varies from 10 to 12%. Depression impacts not only the employee who is often stigmatized and can lose his professional identity, but also has consequences on colleagues and supervisors in organizations. In the literature, four models are described from which employers and managers use in their organizations to make decisions regarding the work disability of employees on sick leave: biomedical, financial management, personnel management, and organizational development. These models can also be supported by economic, legal and ethical interests. Even though these models are essential to better understand the decision of employers and HR regarding work disability, information remains scarce regarding the concrete strategies used by these stakeholders to facilitate the return to work for employees on sick leave due to depression.Objectives the aim of this paper is to document, considering employers' and human resources' perspectives, the best strategies to put in place to facilitate the return to work of employees on sick leave due to depression.Method This study was part of a larger study carried out in Canada to assess factors influencing the return to work after a depression-related sick leave, taking into account the viewpoint of four types of stakeholders: employers/human resources, supervisors, unions and people diagnosed with depression. 219 employers (68.5%) and human resources directors (31.5%) from 82.6% organizations having more than 100 employees accepted to answer a telephone semi-structured interview. The question of interest in this study is: In your opinion, what are the best strategies to help an employee who has had a depression to return to work? Coding was influenced by empirical findings and theories related to psychosocial risk factors that the authors use in their respective disciplines as well as return to work

  8. Rhetoric and the digital humanities

    CERN Document Server

    Ridolfo, Jim

    2015-01-01

    The digital humanities is a rapidly growing field that is transforming humanities research through digital tools and resources. Researchers can now quickly trace every one of Issac Newton's annotations, use social media to engage academic and public audiences in the interpretation of cultural texts, and visualize travel via ox cart in third-century Rome or camel caravan in ancient Egypt. Rhetorical scholars are leading the revolution by fully utilizing the digital toolbox, finding themselves at the nexus of digital innovation. Rhetoric and the Digital Humanities is a timely, multidisciplinary collection that is the first to bridge scholarship in rhetorical studies and the digital humanities. It offers much-needed guidance on how the theories and methodologies of rhetorical studies can enhance all work in digital humanities, and vice versa. Twenty-three essays over three sections delve into connections, research methodology, and future directions in this field. Jim Ridolfo and William Hart-Davidson have assemb...

  9. Rhetorical Constructions: Dialogue and Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoblauch, C. H.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews Paulo Freire's concept of "praxis." Discusses ontological (Aristotle), objectivist (Descartes, Locke), expressionist (Kant), and sociological or "dialogical" (Marx) statements, and explains their potential application to the teaching of rhetoric. (JK)

  10. Stock Issues in Aristotle's Rhetoric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpine, Bill

    1977-01-01

    Defines "stock issue" by the manner in which they function in Aristotle's theory, reviews examples of modern theories of stock issues, examines previous investigations of the "Rhetoric," and analyzes Aristotle's approach to this aspect of argumentation. (MH)

  11. Judgment, Probability, and Aristotle's Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnick, Barbara

    1989-01-01

    Discusses Aristotle's five means of making judgments: intelligence, "episteme" (scientific knowledge), "sophia" (theoretical wisdom), "techne" (art), and "phronesis" (practical wisdom). Sets Aristotle's theory of rhetorical argument within the context of his overall view of human judgment. Notes that…

  12. Self-employed nurses as change agents in healthcare: strategies, consequences, and possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report on ethnographic research that investigated how self-employed nurses perceive the contemporary healthcare field, what attributes they possess that facilitate their roles as change agents, what strategies they use to influence change, and what consequences they face for their actions, thus contributing to what is known about organizational change in institutionalized settings such as healthcare. Focussed ethnography was used to explore self-employed nurses' work experiences and elucidate the cultural elements of their social contexts, including customs, ideologies, beliefs, and knowledge and the ways that these impact upon the possibilities for change in the system. These self-employed nurses reflected on the shortcomings in the healthcare system and took entrepreneurial risks that would allow them to practice nursing according to their professional values. They used a number of strategies to influence change such as capitalizing on opportunities, preparing themselves for innovative work, managing and expanding the scope of nursing practice, and building new ideas on foundational nursing knowledge and experience. They had high job satisfaction and a strong sense of contribution but they faced significant resistance because of their non-traditional approach to nursing practice. Despite dramatic restructuring in the Canadian healthcare system, the system remains physician-centered and hospital-based. Nursing's professional potential has been largely untapped in any change efforts. Self-employed nurses have positioned themselves to deliver care based on nursing values and to promote alternative conceptions of health and healthcare. This study offers a rare exploration of this unique form of nursing practice and its potential to influence health system reform.

  13. Corporate financing strategies employed by Zimbabwean listed firms in the multiple currency era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farai Kwenda

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to review the corporate financing strategies employed by Zimbabwean listed firms since the adoption of the multiple currency system which set the country on a recovery path after the decade-long political, social and economic crises. The adoption of the multiple currency system necessitated recapitalization and retooling because most firms’ balance sheets were wiped away during the hyperinflation era. The study is based on secondary data of 80 firms listed on the Zimbabwe Stock Exchange. The study found that rights issues and high retention ratios were the main strategies used by firms to recapitalize their operations. The recapitalization efforts have been by liquidity challenges that have characterised the multiple currency era.

  14. Sucessful Strategies for Empowering Students to Get High Paying and Rewarding Employment in Industry (and elsewhere)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Brian

    2002-03-01

    Physics students entering graduate school rarely think about (and more importantly take actions) concerning developing employment options and wider marketable skills while studying towards their Ph.D. degree. It is only as they are about to graduate that they begin thinking about the job market and start preparing a resume and take some initial steps in their job search. I call this the “series process” towards obtaining employment; that is, first go to graduate school, finish the Ph.D. program and then initiate a serious job search. A far better approach with a much higher success and satisfaction rate is the “parallel process” in which the graduate student takes proactive career steps throughout graduate studies. In this approach, the students treat their future career seriously and as a research and development project in parallel to (and as important as) thesis research. The proactive student sharpens such career management skills as resume and vita preparation, assesses and develops transferable skills, strengthens communication skills (especially oral), practices interviewing skills and most importantly continually and purposefully expands a network to colleagues and potential employers. Through a grant from National Science Foundation the author has operated a program at The Graduate Center to assists Ph.D. students in developing and enhancing their career management skills. We describe proven techniques that, if developed throughout the students’ graduate studies, greatly enhance their employment opportunities. We will focus on strategies that can (and should be used) to identify, qualify for and obtain employment in the industrial sector.

  15. Facing aliens under globalization: changing meanings of home for Taiwanese employers of foreign domestics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shu-Ju Ada

    2005-01-01

    This paper is concerned with changing meanings of home for Taiwanese employers of foreign domestics under globalization. Shifting sense of home occurs for Taiwanese employers as well as foreign domestics in the process of labor migration. The author argues that Taiwanese employers, facing aliens at home, have adopted various rhetorical strategies to redefine their relationships with foreign domestics and deployed diverse practices of management within their households. As foreign domestics do housework at home, Taiwanese employers also do their own "homework," struggling to understand and cope with the process of becoming and being household employers. Their "homework" is an integral part of the globalization of domestic service.

  16. Imagination and the Pursuit of a Rational Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, David E.

    The works of certain rhetorical thinkers contain strategies directed at achieving assent or cooperation. Such writings demonstrate means by which readers' rational responses can be deliberately challenged and disrupted. While people often cite Aristotle's maxim "Man is a rational animal," critics have asserted that the statement…

  17. Francis Bacon On Understanding, Reason and Rhetoric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Karl R.

    1971-01-01

    Bacon's views of the faculties of understanding and reason are presented and explained in reference to Baconian rhetoric. Understanding, Rhetoric, Insinuative and Imaginative Reason are defined. (Author/MS)

  18. Doxa, Dissent, and Challenges of Rhetorical Citizenship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Lisa Storm

    2017-01-01

    participation and rhetorical invention realized by means of rhetorical troping, the essay also invokes Phillips’ work on spaces of dissension. The article concludes with a discussion of the difficulties in realizing ideals of deliberative democracy as conceived within the conceptual frame of rhetorical...

  19. Adam Smith and the Rhetoric of Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Michael G.

    Historians of rhetoric have generally accepted the view that Adam Smith rejected the principles of classical rhetoric. However, while there can be no doubt that Smith greatly truncated the five classical arts of rhetoric (invention, arrangement, style, memory, and delivery) by reducing his concerns largely to style and arrangement, he did not…

  20. Machiavelli's "Mandragola": Comedic Commentary on Renaissance Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiethoff, William E.

    This paper traces Machiavelli's debt to classical rhetoric while outlining the rhetorical tenor of his comedy, "Mandragola." The paper specifically analyzes Machiavelli's attention to the medieval transmission of Ciceronian rhetoric by Boethius, as interpreted from the setting, characterization, and dialogue of "Mandragola."…

  1. The Outmoded Psychology of Aristotle's Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinton, Alan

    1990-01-01

    Argues that rhetoric belongs to a class of theories that tend not to become outmoded, and presents examples of effective rhetoric from ancient Greece. Suggests that rhetorical theories should be judged on their own terms rather than on the standards of an allied discipline. (KEH)

  2. Dialectical Rapprochement in the New Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, David A.

    1998-01-01

    Contends that the New Rhetoric, a response to 20th-century totalitarianism, is a post-Holocaust dialectic of rapprochement, deserving development by scholars of rhetoric and argument. Demonstrates that the dialectic of New Rhetoric exploits Aristotle's notion of reasoning from common opinions and reconciles Hegelian dialectics with argumentation.…

  3. Teaching Public Speaking Using Aristotle's "Rhetoric."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Candida

    Rather than relegating Aristotle's "Rhetoric" to history of rhetoric courses, where it is regarded with only an antiquarian interest, it can be used as a practical text for introductory public speaking courses. The advantages would be threefold: (1) its emphasis is essentially on rhetoric as a speaking art rather than an art of…

  4. Employed parents' satisfaction with food-choice coping strategies. Influence of gender and structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Christine E; Devine, Carol M; Wethington, Elaine; Jastran, Margaret; Farrell, Tracy J; Bisogni, Carole A

    2009-06-01

    This study aimed to understand parents' evaluations of the way they integrated work-family demands to manage food and eating. Employed, low/moderate-income, urban, U.S., Black, White, and Latino mothers (35) and fathers (34) participated in qualitative interviews exploring work and family conditions and spillover, food roles, and food-choice coping and family-adaptive strategies. Parents expressed a range of evaluations from overall satisfaction to overall dissatisfaction as well as dissatisfaction limited to work, family life, or daily schedule. Evaluation criteria differed by gender. Mothers evaluated satisfaction on their ability to balance work and family demands through flexible home and work conditions, while striving to provide healthy meals for their families. Fathers evaluated satisfaction on their ability to achieve schedule stability and participate in family meals, while meeting expectations to contribute to food preparation. Household, and especially work structural conditions, often served as sizeable barriers to parents fulfilling valued family food roles. These relationships highlight the critical need to consider the intersecting influences of gender and social structure as influences on adults' food choices and dietary intake and to address the challenges of work and family integration among low income employed parents as a way to promote family nutrition in a vulnerable population.

  5. Rhetoric and History in Brian Friel’s Making History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfredi Bernardini

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an analysis of the rhetorical devices of representation and recording of history, investigated and deconstructed by the so-called "history play" Making History, written by Brian Friel and performed by the Field Day Theatre Company in 1988. The play tells of the heroic deeds of Hugh O’ Neill, a Sixteenth century Ulster gaelic Lord, intertwining his personal facts with the crucial events in Irish History. Friel rediscovers a paradigmatic figure in Irish history, using the theatrical performance in order to dissect and thoroughly scrutinize the basis for the nationalist rhetoric which is at the root of contemporary conflicts in Northern Ireland. Starting from the theoretical contributions of seminal authors such as Hayden White, Paul Ricoeur, Walter Benjamin, Michel De Certeau, the northern Irish playwright challenges the supposedly scientific nature of History, that would decidedly mark it as different from other forms of narrative, such as literature. Hence History’s metalinguistic nature, based on specific rhetorical strategies, is uncovered.  Therefore, on the one hand Friel questions the theoretical foundations of History, of its “grand narratives”,  giving ‘stories’ the chance to be part of official History’s discourse. On the other hand, he lifts the veil on the rhetorical (and in some ways ideological mechanisms involved in the process of History writing, through the character of archbishop Peter Lombard - O’ Neill’s biographer, storyteller and master in elocutio - and sheds light on how History is a form of rhetorical narrative, almost a patchwork of events collected (inventio and assembled (dispositio by the historian according to specific criteria of representation. By taking us inside the very nucleus of the rhetorical devices used by storiography, Friel unmasks the delicate processes of making and unmaking history, the ones that help give birth to identity as well as History.

  6. An Analysis on Communication strategies Employed by Indonesian English as Foreign Language Adult Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nizar Mohamed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As an EFL country, English Language Teaching (ELT in Indonesia should be more focused on developing students’ strategy, particularly communication strategy (CS. The reason is because these students are triggered by instrumental motivation in learning English. However, awareness toward CS should also be possessed by teachers so they can develop students’ CS through certain way. Unfortunately, it is rarely found English teacher who is aware about this notion. Thus, this study was conducted to provide data about initial CS of adult students in private university in Bali. According to experts, this age level has already got fully developed cognitive and linguistic capabilities. Thus, they are considered to be able to employ and use CS well. Through this study it is found that they possess 20 initial CSs out of 38 CSs from the referred taxonomy. The findings of this study could be beneficial for the development and novelty of future research concerning with CS and to enhance teachers’ awareness toward CS, particularly the ones who establish private course offering intensive speaking program as well as for the lecturers in the concerned university.

  7. Self-Employment for People with Psychiatric Disabilities: Advantages and Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrow, Laysha; Nemec, Patricia B; Smith, Carina

    2018-05-29

    Self-employment is an alternative to wage employment and an opportunity to increase labor force participation by people with psychiatric disabilities. Self-employment refers to individuals who work for themselves, either as an unincorporated sole proprietor or through ownership of a business. Advantages of self-employment for people with psychiatric disabilities, who may have disrupted educational and employment histories, include opportunities for self-care, additional earning, and career choice. Self-employment fits within a recovery paradigm because of the value placed on individual preferences, and the role of resilience and perseverance in business ownership. Self-employment creates many new US jobs, but remains only a small percentage of employment closures for people with psychiatric disabilities, despite vocational rehabilitation and Social Security disability policies that encourage it. This commentary elucidates the positive aspects of self-employment in the context of employment challenges experienced by individuals with psychiatric disabilities and provides recommendations based on larger trends in entrepreneurship.

  8. The Rhetorical Illusions of News

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Chris; Broersma, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    ; and so on and so forth. In sum: the conditioned reaction on questions about ‘what journalism is good for’ tends to lead back toward familiar rhetorics and rationales. Journalism’s normative claims rely heavily upon these established modernist discourses which serve to affirm its essential role within...

  9. Dimensions of a Substantive Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, William Louis

    The author contends that man as a receiver of information is largely manipulated by the information sources. He proposes a system of substantive rhetoric, whereby we could perceive how past assumptive reasoning processes have allowed us to be manipulated and how these processes have originated outside rather than within ourselves. The author…

  10. Identification of novel B-RafV600E inhibitors employing FBDD strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng-Fei; Qiu, Han-Yue; Wang, Ze-Feng; Zhang, Yong-Jiao; Wang, Zhong-Chang; Li, Dong-Dong; Zhu, Hai-Liang

    2017-05-15

    B-Raf kinase is the key point in a main branch of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways and some of its mutations, such as the V600E mutation, lead to the persistent activation of ERK signaling and the trigger of severe diseases, including melanoma and other somatic cancers. Several potent drugs have been approved to treat B-Raf-related tumors, however, cases of resistance and relapse have been reported universally. Hence, differential scaffolds are in need to alleviate the scarcity of drugs and benefit the therapy of B-Raf-mutant cancers. Herein we report our recent work on the construction of novel B-Raf V600E inhibitors employing fragment-based drug design strategy. In this research, we decomposed known inhibitors to fragments and rebuilt new candidates using these blocks according to the evaluation of their potential. Lead compounds were synthesized after selection by means of virtual screening and molecular dynamics validation. Afterwards, we tested the pharmacological efficiency of these entities both in vitro and in vivo utilizing A375 xenograft model. The results favored our rational design intention and hinted this new kind of inhibitors might be helpful in the further explorations of potent agents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Principals’ Leadership Styles and Strategies Employed to Motivate Teachers in Ronaki Hawler Educational Institutions, Erbil, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selcuk Koran

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Effective management is one of the determining factors that play a critical role in teacher motivation. It is also the main factor behind a successful educational institution. Moreover, effective management is necessary to motivate people into action and propel an institution to reach its established objectives. In an educational institution, where managerial structure fails to function well, teachers obviously lose their motivation to teach as well as their commitment to the organization. Therefore, administrators’ leadership styles can affect teacher motivation which will eventually affect learners’ performance. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the administrators’ leadership styles, their awareness of teacher motivation peculiarities and strategies they use to motivate the teaching staff at Ronaki Educational Institutions in Erbil, Iraq. It further aims to investigate what makes an effective administrator. To achieve the research goal, the study firstly uses the theoretical analysis of the scientific and methodological literature on the research problem and makes use of a semi-structured interview with Ronaki Hawler Educational Institutions’ administrators. In the interview with 24 administrators, the information on organizational practices and their frequencies, employed by administrators, was obtained. It included elements such as; whether/how often advancement opportunities, promotion, autonomy, bonuses were granted to the teaching staff, what sort of responsibility they possessed, how their recognition as teachers was expressed, and how secure they felt their jobs were. The findings were analyzed and discussed in the discussion part of this research study.

  12. Ramus Revisited: The Uses and Limits of Classical Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walpole, Jane R.

    Everything taught as rhetoric today can be traced to Aristotle, but his rhetoric needs to be updated. The five elements of his rhetoric--invention, arrangement, style, memory, and delivery--were designed for public orators, but rhetoric has since come to mean the written rather than the spoken word. Peter Ramus redefined rhetoric in the sixteenth…

  13. Strategies employed by inner-city activists to reduce alcohol-related problems and advance social justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabble, Laurie; Herd, Denise

    2014-01-01

    This study explored strategies employed by activists engaged in efforts to change policies and laws related to selling and promoting alcoholic beverages based on in-depth interviews with 184 social activists in seven U.S. major cities. Nine strategies aimed at improving local conditions and influencing policy were described by activists across regional contexts. Grassroots mobilization was central to all other strategies, which included the creation or enforcement of laws, meeting with elected officials, media advocacy, working with police/law enforcement, education and training, direct action, changing community norms, and negotiating with store owners.

  14. Rhetorical Studies: A Reassessment of Adam Smith's Lectures on Rhetoric and Belles Lettres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, William M.

    1986-01-01

    Offers a dissenting interpretation of Adam Smith's Lectures on Rhetoric and Belles Lettres and a more conservative perspective on Smith's significance to the history of rhetorical theory. Views the lectures as an historical commentary on literature and rhetoric from the perspective of an eighteenth-century lecturer. (JD)

  15. Aristotle's Definition of Rhetoric in the "Rhetoric": The Metaphors and Their Message.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Sara J.

    2001-01-01

    Investigates Aristotle's metaphorical definitions of rhetoric in book 1 of his "Rhetoric," using his own theory of metaphor as a measure of his practice in these definitions. Indicates that Aristotle's practice in the situation does not match his theory, a circumstance that has consequences for one's reading of the "Rhetoric."…

  16. A Rhetorical Analysis of Pharmaceutical Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Chuang, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Rhetoric, commonly regarded as the art of persuasion, is a subject of study and fascination that can be traced back to the ancient Greeks. As many scholars have suggested, rhetoric is a quintessential part of communication itself. Studying rhetoric affords us an understanding of how texts and the messages within them come to encapsulate a society’s values and ideals. This is particularly true of advertisements and, specifically to my purpose, pharmaceutical ads. In this paper I draw on the th...

  17. Work Values, Cognitive Strategies, and Applicant Reactions in a Structured Pre-Employment Interview for Ethical Integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Donna R.; Hollwitz, John

    2000-01-01

    Notes that companies emphasize ethical behavior, and schools and professional groups devote many resources to applied ethics training. Describes initial construct validation of a structured ethical integrity pre-employment interview. Reviews evidence relating to cognitive and impression management strategies used when college students encounter an…

  18. Compensating losses in bridge employment? Examining relations between compensation strategies, health problems, and intention to remain at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andreas Müller; Annet de Lange; Caroline Oxfart; Beatrice van der Heijden; Matthias Weigl

    2013-01-01

    In order to better understand the precursors of bridge employment, this study aimed to investigate whether individual action strategies in terms of selection, optimization, and compensation (SOC; Baltes & Baltes, 1990) are able to buffer the well-known negative impact of poor health on the intention

  19. The Rhetoric of Industrial Espionage: The Case of "Starwood v. Hilton"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameson, Daphne A.

    2011-01-01

    When Starwood Hotels charged Hilton Hotels with industrial espionage, the case hinged on an employment agreement that two executives had violated. The rhetoric of the employment agreement contrasted greatly with that of the corporation's own code of business conduct. Whereas the private agreement stressed narrow self-interest, the public code…

  20. Is it Culture or is it Rhetoric?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance

    2006-01-01

    than culture. The paper also explores the rhetorical distance demonstrated by attitudes connecting Native Americans and mainstream Americans.  It argues that the Kumeyaay web presence engages the rhetorical dimension of attitude and actively works toward reducing the rhetorical distance.  The findings...... question the idea that behavior is governed by cultural values and offering the rhetorical dimension of attitude as an alternative frame for understanding minority web presences.  [1] Here, I will define a web presence as the core sites to which the majority of websites refer...

  1. Strategy and policy in mobilizing resources for employability enhancement (West Bengal, India)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saha, Nibedita; van der Heijden, Beatrice; Gregar, Ales

    2013-01-01

    Employability enhancement is a burning topic in present world. To sustain in this competitive world every human needs the capacity to adopt themselves through their own skills, efficiency and knowledge. This paper tries to investigate the prominence of employability and its current practices in that

  2. Dilemmas of downsizing during the great recession: crisis strategies of European employers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dalen, H.P.; Henkens, K.

    2013-01-01

    The present paper analyzes the choices faced by European employers when threatened with the prospect of the mass lay-off of their employees as a result of the Great Recession. By means of a representative survey among employers in Italy, Germany, Denmark, Poland, theNetherlands and Sweden in 2009,

  3. Dilemmas Of Downsizing During the Great Recession : Crisis Strategies of European Employers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dalen, H.P.; Henkens, K.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The present paper analyzes the choices faced by European employers when threatened with the prospect of the mass lay-off of their employees as a result of the Great Recession. By means of a representative survey among employers in Italy, Germany, Denmark, Poland, the Netherlands and Sweden

  4. Dilemmas of downsizing during the Great Recession : Crisis strategies of European employers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dalen, H.P.; Henkens, C.J.I.M.

    2013-01-01

    The present paper analyzes the choices faced by European employers when threatened with the prospect of the mass lay-off of their employees as a result of the Great Recession. By means of a representative survey among employers in Italy, Germany, Denmark, Poland, the Netherlands and Sweden in 2009,

  5. Dilemmas of downsizing during the great recession: crisis strategies of European employers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dalen, H.P.; Henkens, K.

    2013-01-01

    The present paper analyzes the choices faced by European employers when threatened with the prospect of the mass lay-off of their employees as a result of the Great Recession. By means of a representative survey among employers in Italy, Germany, Denmark, Poland, the Netherlands and Sweden in 2009,

  6. Collaboration between Supported Employment and Human Resource Services: Strategies for Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Michal; Campbell, Camille; Heinz, Tom; Kotsonas, Lori; Montgomery, Joyce; Storey, Keith

    2010-01-01

    The article presents the benefits of successful collaboration between supported employment agencies and human resource managers when working together to secure employment for individuals with disabilities. Two case studies are presented: one involving a successful collaboration with county human resource managers in negotiating a change in the…

  7. Chinese International Students' Perspective and Strategies in Preparing for Their Future Employability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rong; Turner, Rebecca; Chen, Qian

    2014-01-01

    Graduate employability and the contribution graduates make to the UK economy have been widely debated by policy-makers; however, little attention has been paid to the employability of international students. Given the growing significance of international students to the UK economy this is an interesting oversight; this article addresses this…

  8. A Cross-Cultural Comparative Study of Apology Strategies Employed by Iranian EFL Learners and English Native Speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Abedi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of speech-act theory has provided the hearers with a better understanding of what speakers intend to perform in the act of communication. One type of speech act is apologizing. When an action or utterance has resulted in an offense, the offender needs to apologize. In the present study, an attempt was made to compare the apology strategies employed by Iranian EFL learners and those of English native speakers in order to find out the possible differences and similarities. To this end, a discourse completion test (DCT was given to 100 male and female Iranian EFL learners and English native speakers. The respondents were supposed to complete the DCTs based on nine situations, which varied in terms of power between the interlocutors and level of imposition. This study employed Cohen and Olshtain's (1981 model to classify various types of apology strategies. The obtained results revealed some similarities along with some (statistically insignificant differences between EFL learners and American English speakers in terms of their use of apology strategies. Furthermore, it was found that the illocutionary force indicating devices (IFIDs, such as request for forgiveness and an offer of apology were the strategies mostly employed by the Iranian EFL learners while taking on responsibility such as explicit self-blame, and expression of self-deficiency were found to be the strategies mostly used by English native speakers. In terms of gender, the male and female respondents more or less used the same apology strategies in response to the situations. The findings of the present research can be used by language teachers as well as sociolinguists. Keywords: Speech act theory, Speech act of apology, Apology strategies, Iranian EFL learners, English Native speakers, Gender

  9. Indonesia Poverty Reduction Strategies: Shifting policies to promote employment in the poorest four deciles

    OpenAIRE

    Ardi Adji; Sri Hartini Rachmad

    2018-01-01

    This paper observes the working status and conditions of people who fall into the poorest four deciles in Indonesia. The research aims to provoke policy shifts in the drive to accelerate poverty reduction in Indonesia, taking a longer view of people being more employable and less dependent; also identifying the dominant factors preventing people from moving out of poverty and improving their life quality. By comparing elements of gender, age, education and health against employment status and...

  10. Methodology and emission scenarios employed in the development of the National Energy Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the steps taken to model the National Energy Strategy (NES). It provides an overview of the NES process including the models used for the project. The National Energy Strategy Environmental Analysis Model (NESEAM), which was used in analyzing environmental impacts, is discussed. The structure of NESEAM, as well as results and analyses are presented

  11. Reading Strategies Employed by University Business English Majors with Different Levels of Reading Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Intaraprasert, Channarong

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of reading strategies by the university Business English majors in relation to their levels of reading proficiency. The participants were 926 university Business English majors from 6 universities in southwest China. The Strategy Questionnaire for Business English Reading (SQBER) and the…

  12. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD LANGUAGE LEARNERS AND THE ESPECIAL EMPLOYED LEARNING STRATEGIES DURING EDUCATIONAL CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme BEHABADI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Most of the early studies in the field of language learning strategies focused on identifying the characteristics of good language learners. Identifying and discussing the strategies used by good language learners were considered as a good way to make the learners aware of the notion of language learning strategies. The present study was an attempt to collect and classify the characteristics of representative good language learners, developing English as a foreign /second language in Iran; specifically those who had achieved high scores in the IELTS General Module. And also this study aimed at identifying the characteristics associated with a good language learner in one area: learning strategies. Thirty-four Iranian IELTS candidates receiving 6+ band score were selected to participate in this study. They were interviewed and asked to write down their own reports of the experiences they had in developing their second language. They were asked to report their preferred strategies while studying English as well. They were also requested to fill out the learning strategy and learning style questionnaires. The results of interviews and open ended questions were specifically organized and classified via employing both descriptive and explanatory methods. The learners’ responses to the standardized questionnaires also were analyzed by SPSS system Version 20. The findings of the present study although revealed that there is a high correlation between IELTS scores, strategy taking inventory scores. This revealed that the learners recording high scores in IELTS use appropriate learning strategies.

  13. Attributing Rhetorical Agency in a Crisis of Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoff-Clausen, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    Digital media offer innovative ways of resolving crises of trust. This essay discusses a campaign that aimed to rebuild public trust in banks during the financial crisis. The campaign reflected a strategy (well-known in conflict resolution) that is best described as an online exercise in active...... listening. The essay discusses the potential of such a campaign and argues that in a crisis where rhetorical agency is impaired due to declining trust, corporations that engage in public listening may communicate acknowledgment and openness to change. However, in order to realize this potential, the public...... must be entrusted with a meaningful role as contributor to the campaign in the discursive and technical design of the medium of interaction. In the case studied, the campaign texts explicitly invited participation, but implicitly restrained the rhetorical agency of the public. This undermined...

  14. Using Contrastive Rhetoric in the ESL Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Janet M.

    2012-01-01

    Contrastive rhetoric studies the writing of second language learners to understand how it is affected by their first language and culture. The field of contrastive rhetoric is as multidimensional as second language writing is complex. It draws on the work of contrastive analysis, anthropology, linguistics, pedagogy, culture studies, translation…

  15. Jimmy Carter and the Rhetoric of Charisma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J. Louis, III

    1979-01-01

    Analyzes Jimmy Carter's success in the 1976 presidential primaries in terms of his rhetorical style based on Max Weber's concept of charisma and Ernest Bormann's theory of fantasy and rhetorical vision. The combination of Carter's charismatic message and the country's social fantasies produced his election. (JMF)

  16. Rhetorical Devices in Literature for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toothaker, Roy Eugene

    The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence, extent, order, and character of 18 rhetorical devices occurring in 100 trade books for children in the primary grades. The most frequent rhetorical devices and the total number of uses recorded for each device were alliteration, 1,079; onomatopoeia, 500; antithesis, 335; simile, 261;…

  17. An Unfashionable Rhetoric in the Fifteenth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Marjorie Curry

    1989-01-01

    Reveals the continued importance of medieval rhetorical pedagogy throughout the high Middle Ages and early Renaissance by exploring the fifteenth-century popularity, uses of, and references to Geoffrey of Vinsauf's "Poetria nova" (a thirteenth-century verse treatise on the composition of poetry according to rhetorical principles). (SR)

  18. Exploring Business Request Genres: Students' Rhetorical Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hai; Miller, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This article presents selective findings from an ongoing study that investigates rhetorical differences in business letter writing between Vietnamese students taking an English for Specific Purposes course in Vietnam and business professionals. Rhetorical analyses are based on two corpora, namely, scenario (N = 20) and authentic business letters…

  19. Rhetoric and "Phronesis": The Aristotelian Ideal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self, Lois S.

    A recurring puzzle in Aristotle's "Rhetoric" is the book's ethical stance; Aristotle gives practical advice on the use of persuasive discourse and intends it to be used in association with virtue, although the two seem to be separable. However, persuasion and virtue in Aristotle's theory of rhetoric have connections deriving from the…

  20. The Evolution of Airpower Theory and Future Air Strategies for Employment in the Gap

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, Francis M

    2005-01-01

    .... In regards to future military involvement and specifically the application of airpower, what are the best air strategies to pursue, not only to achieve the strategic objectives, but to facilitate...

  1. Impact of multiple sclerosis on employment and use of job-retention strategies: The situation in France in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantoni-Quinton, Sophie; Kwiatkowski, Arnaud; Vermersch, Patrick; Roux, Bastien; Hautecoeur, Patrick; Leroyer, Ariane

    2016-06-13

    The main objective of this survey of persons with multiple sclerosis was to describe their employment situation. Secondary objectives were to ascertain when and how multiple sclerosis symptoms first impact employment per se and what strategies persons with multiple sclerosis use to cope with their employment problems. A retrospective survey was conducted to collect data from persons with multiple sclerosis aged 18 years and over, using a computer-assisted web tool. A total of 941 respondents were working at the time of multiple sclerosis diagnosis or had worked subsequently. Median time since diagnosis was 10 years. Multiple sclerosis had an impact on employment for 74.3% of respondents. The overall employment rate at the time of the survey was 68.1%; 27.2% had discontinued their occupational activity for a multiple sclerosis-related reason. Median time from diagnosis to multiple sclerosis-related cessation of occupational activity was 24.0 years (95% confidence interval (CI) 21.7-26.3 years). Respondents were poorly aware of available tools designed to assist them in retaining employment. This study highlights the importance of early intervention by the occupational medicine physician in order to favour job retention and use of available tools by all workers with MS and not only those with a recognized status as a disabled worker.

  2. Indonesia Poverty Reduction Strategies: Shifting policies to promote employment in the poorest four deciles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardi Adji

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper observes the working status and conditions of people who fall into the poorest four deciles in Indonesia. The research aims to provoke policy shifts in the drive to accelerate poverty reduction in Indonesia, taking a longer view of people being more employable and less dependent; also identifying the dominant factors preventing people from moving out of poverty and improving their life quality. By comparing elements of gender, age, education and health against employment status and opportunities. Simultaneously social assistance and protection programs are evaluated in relation to their stated target groups to determine their suitability and their impact.

  3. Behavioral Contexts, Food-Choice Coping Strategies, and Dietary Quality of a Multiethnic Sample of Employed Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Christine E.; Wethington, Elaine; Farrell, Tracy J.; Bisogni, Carole A.; Devine, Carol M.

    2012-01-01

    Employed parents’ work and family conditions provide behavioral contexts for their food choices. Relationships between employed parents’ food-choice coping strategies, behavioral contexts, and dietary quality were evaluated. Data on work and family conditions, sociodemographic characteristics, eating behavior, and dietary intake from two 24-hour dietary recalls were collected in a random sample cross-sectional pilot telephone survey in the fall of 2006. Black, white, and Latino employed mothers (n=25) and fathers (n=25) were recruited from a low/moderate income urban area in upstate New York. Hierarchical cluster analysis (Ward’s method) identified three clusters of parents differing in use of food-choice coping strategies (ie, Individualized Eating, Missing Meals, and Home Cooking). Cluster sociodemographic, work, and family characteristics were compared using χ2 and Fisher’s exact tests. Cluster differences in dietary quality (Healthy Eating Index 2005) were analyzed using analysis of variance. Clusters differed significantly (P≤0.05) on food-choice coping strategies, dietary quality, and behavioral contexts (ie, work schedule, marital status, partner’s employment, and number of children). Individualized Eating and Missing Meals clusters were characterized by nonstandard work hours, having a working partner, single parenthood and with family meals away from home, grabbing quick food instead of a meal, using convenience entrées at home, and missing meals or individualized eating. The Home Cooking cluster included considerably more married fathers with nonemployed spouses and more home-cooked family meals. Food-choice coping strategies affecting dietary quality reflect parents’ work and family conditions. Nutritional guidance and family policy needs to consider these important behavioral contexts for family nutrition and health. PMID:21338739

  4. Classifying University Employability Strategies: Three Case Studies and Implications for Practice and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farenga, Stéphane A.; Quinlan, Kathleen M.

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study documents three main strategic models used by Russell Group Careers Services to support students' preparation for graduate careers. It is framed against the backdrop of a challenging graduate labour market, discussions of employability in the literature and the policy assumption that universities are responsible for…

  5. The Employment Challenge of the Agreement on Textiles and Clothing: Scenario and Strategies for Pakistan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.A. Siegmann (Karin Astrid)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractAbstract In January 2005, the quota system for imports of textiles and clothing was phased out and gave way to more liberalized global trade in textiles and clothing. The T&C industry is Pakistan’s main export engine. It is also a major industrial employer, and one of the few sectors

  6. Increasing the Value of Age: Guidance in Employers' Age Management Strategies. Research Paper No 44

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The European active population is ageing. In the face of growing skills shortages, both national States and employers need to prolong the working lives of their most experienced workers. While enterprises strive to respond to this challenge, most still have not fully explored the potential of guidance activities in addressing age-related issues in…

  7. Rhetoric by Avistotel: a Legal View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Kh. Rekosh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of any phenomenon, which is far from the researcher for thousands years, in the light of this or that department of knowledge, highlights one and obscures another, prefers one over another. It happened to the rhetoric which was snatched by philology and neglected by lawyers. Although nowadays it is natural that the same phenomena are studied by different Sciences, the ancient rhetoric is looked at by most researchers as the art of philology. But the approach by Aristotle, in his Rhetoric, was legal rather than linguistic. Among the Aristotle's 4 requirements concerning good style (correctness, clarity, relevance and eloquence eloquence is only % and the % are closer to the law. Rhetoric has incorporated all the features of linguistic mechanisms and gave them to the law. The law perceived moral and ethical ideas: the good justice, virtue, ritual, law and techniques of philology and persuasion, among which the main one is syllogism already used in the dialectic, the main logic principle of legal reasoning. Towards the past, rhetoric is parallel to dialectic, but dialectic is focused on one person or on the speaker, and rhetoric aims at the audience, the first one tries to convince himself and the second tries to convince the audience and in this role rhetoric is linked with the law. As far as the evolution of law is concerned, instead of legal technique there was rhetoric (especially in its methodological form, defined by Aristotle, which can be considered as a step towards creating the law as a design in ancient Greece. It is proved by a comparison of the ancient institution of judicial process and judicial speeches with modern legal technicalities, which shows that the legal machinery embraced the principles of "rhetorical" technique. The methodological nature of the rhetoric by Aristotle is usually overlooked by linguists and lawyers.

  8. Individual resilience as a strategy to counter employment barriers for people with epilepsy in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugumbate, Jacob; Gray, Mel

    2017-09-01

    Understanding individual resilience helps to improve employment opportunities of people with epilepsy. This is significant because, in Zimbabwe, as in many other countries in the Global South, people with epilepsy encounter several barriers in a context of less-than-ideal public services. Despite this disadvantage, some people with epilepsy have better employment outcomes for reasons including level of seizure control, social background, employment support services, and individual resilience. This article reports on data from participants (n=8), who were part of a larger study (n=30) on employment experiences of people with epilepsy in Harare. The study used in-depth interviews with the participants, who were all service users and members of the Epilepsy Support Foundation (ESF) in Harare. The eight resilient participants comprised four males and four females aged between 26-48years, who were selected because, unlike the remaining 22 participants, they had overcome chronic unemployment. Seven of the eight participants were employed, while one had recently become unemployed. Views of service providers (n=7) were sought on the experiences of people with epilepsy through a focus group discussion. The service providers included two health workers, three social service workers, and two disability advocacy workers. Data were analysed using NVivo, a computer-assisted qualitative data analysis package. The study found that participants experienced barriers, such as a lack of medical treatment, yet this was important for education and training, lack of finances for training, and negative attitudes at workplaces. Despite these barriers, participants had overcome chronic unemployment due to their individual resilience characterised by: (i) a 'fighting spirit', (ii) being their own advocates, and (iii) having a mastery over, and acceptance of, their epilepsy. The research concluded that, where people with epilepsy faced barriers, as in Zimbabwe, individual resilience acted as

  9. Rhetorical Autobiography: A Narrative Analysis of Aleshia Brevard's The Woman I Was Not Born To Be: A Transsexual Journey

    OpenAIRE

    Tubbs , Meghan

    2008-01-01

    This thesis aims to explore autobiography as a rhetorical genre and to explore the personal narrative of Aleshia Brevard, an MTF (male to female) transsexual. The critical analysis employs a form of narrative criticism created from the work of several rhetorical critics. Narrative coherence is examined through looking at Brevardâ s arrangement of events, and narrative fidelity is examined through looking at Brevardâ s use of ultimate terms. This thesis suggests that the personal narratives ...

  10. Caveat Emptor! The Rhetoric of Choice in Food Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Calabrese

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This project is about a form of corporate predation that entails both policy influence and cultural legitimation. Neoliberal explanations of the inability of citizens to thrive in the current socio- economic condition typically rest on a combination of victim-blaming and appeals to the individualistic rhetoric that assumes we all enjoy equality of opportunity and freedom of choice. It is common for corporate lobbyists, and politicians under their influence, to argue against consumer protection on the grounds that such efforts are paternalistic, and that they therefore undermine consumer sovereignty. By this logic, illnesses that are highly correlated to diet are problems that consumers can avoid, and it is not the duty of food companies or government to prevent consumers from making “bad choices.” Implicit in this moralistic narrative is that consumers have sufficient knowledge about the alternatives to enable them to make “good choices.” Major food lobbies use their political influence to oppose government regulations of food, based on the reasoning that consumers deserve the right to choose. Food industry groups also will sometimes invest heavily to prevent legal requirements to disclose information that might enable consumers to make informed choices, creating a predatory double-bind. In this essay, I discuss how the rhetoric of choice is employed by the food industry, how it is formulated within the political context of the United States, and how that rhetoric poses threats to food systems globally.

  11. Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....

  12. Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....

  13. Beyond labelling: what strategies do nut allergic individuals employ to make food choices? A qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Barnett

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Food labelling is an important tool that assists people with peanut and tree nut allergies to avoid allergens. Nonetheless, other strategies are also developed and used in food choice decision making. In this paper, we examined the strategies that nut allergic individuals deploy to make safe food choices in addition to a reliance on food labelling. METHODS: THREE QUALITATIVE METHODS: an accompanied shop, in-depth semi-structured interviews, and the product choice reasoning task - were used with 32 patients that had a clinical history of reactions to peanuts and/or tree nuts consistent with IgE-mediated food allergy. Thematic analysis was applied to the transcribed data. RESULTS: Three main strategies were identified that informed the risk assessments and food choice practices of nut allergic individuals. These pertained to: (1 qualities of product such as the product category or the country of origin, (2 past experience of consuming a food product, and (3 sensory appreciation of risk. Risk reasoning and risk management behaviours were often contingent on the context and other physiological and socio-psychological needs which often competed with risk considerations. CONCLUSIONS: Understanding and taking into account the complexity of strategies and the influences of contextual factors will allow healthcare practitioners, allergy nutritionists, and caregivers to advise and educate patients more effectively in choosing foods safely. Governmental bodies and policy makers could also benefit from an understanding of these food choice strategies when risk management policies are designed and developed.

  14. [Association between anxiety and coping strategies employed by primary caregivers of bedridden patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedillo-Torres, Arianna Gabriela; Grijalva, María Guadalupe; Santaella-Hidalgo, Guadalupe B; Cuevas-Abad, Martha; González Pedraza-Avilés, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The primary caregiver faces a set of problems derived from the responsibility to provide care to his patient; this leads to the creation of complex psychological responses that act as a mechanism known as cognitive and behavioral coping. The objective was to determine if there was a correlation between the level of anxiety and the coping strategies used by primary caregivers of bedridden patients. Transversal, descriptive and correlational study. Beck Anxiety Inventory and the Coping Strategies Inventory were used. We used Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, a significance level of 0.05 and the statistical program SPSS, version 15. We included 60 primary caregivers. The most common score for anxiety was moderate (28 %). The most frequently used strategy was problem solving (average = 14.7). By relating the level of anxiety and coping strategies a significant correlation was obtained with problem solving: r = 0.260; self-criticism, r = 0.425; wishful thinking, r = 0.412; and social withdrawal, r = 0.453. The anxiety has an impact on the way caregivers cope; most of the population who have moderate to severe anxiety use desadaptive strategies focused on emotion.

  15. Articulation: A Working Paper on Rhetoric and "Taxis"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormer, Nathan

    2004-01-01

    This essay suggests a way to historicize different rhetorical practices--in effect, alternative ways to write genealogies of diverse rhetorics. A certain distinction between culture and nature is a fundamental organizing concept in humanistic rhetoric that has circumscribed scholars' ability to appreciate rhetoric that does not emanate from the…

  16. The strategies that peanut and nut-allergic consumers employ to remain safe when travelling abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Julie; Botting, Neil; Gowland, M Hazel; Lucas, Jane S

    2012-07-09

    An understanding of the management strategies used by food allergic individuals is needed as a prerequisite to improving avoidance and enhancing quality of life. Travel abroad is a high risk time for severe and fatal food allergic reactions, but there is paucity of research concerning foreign travel. This study is the first to investigate the experiences of, and strategies used by peanut and tree nut allergic individuals when travelling abroad. Thirty-two adults with a clinical history of reaction to peanuts or tree nuts consistent with IgE-mediated allergy participated in a qualitative interview study. Travel abroad was considered difficult with inherent risks for allergic individuals. Many participants recounted difficulties with airlines or restaurants. Inconsistency in managing allergen avoidance by airlines was a particular risk and a cause of frustration to participants. Individuals used a variety of strategies to remain safe including visiting familiar environments, limiting their activities, carrying allergy information cards in the host language, preparing their own food and staying close to medical facilities. Participants used a variety of allergen avoidance strategies, which were mostly extensions or modifications of the strategies that they use when eating at home or eating-out in the UK. The extended strategies reflected their recognition of enhanced risk during travel abroad. Their risk assessments and actions were generally well informed and appropriate. A need for airline policy regarding allergy to be declared and adhered to is needed, as is more research to quantify the true risks of airborne allergens in the cabin. Recommendations arising from our study are presented.

  17. The strategies that peanut and nut-allergic consumers employ to remain safe when travelling abroad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnett Julie

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An understanding of the management strategies used by food allergic individuals is needed as a prerequisite to improving avoidance and enhancing quality of life. Travel abroad is a high risk time for severe and fatal food allergic reactions, but there is paucity of research concerning foreign travel. This study is the first to investigate the experiences of, and strategies used by peanut and tree nut allergic individuals when travelling abroad. Methods Thirty-two adults with a clinical history of reaction to peanuts or tree nuts consistent with IgE-mediated allergy participated in a qualitative interview study. Results Travel abroad was considered difficult with inherent risks for allergic individuals. Many participants recounted difficulties with airlines or restaurants. Inconsistency in managing allergen avoidance by airlines was a particular risk and a cause of frustration to participants. Individuals used a variety of strategies to remain safe including visiting familiar environments, limiting their activities, carrying allergy information cards in the host language, preparing their own food and staying close to medical facilities. Conclusions Participants used a variety of allergen avoidance strategies, which were mostly extensions or modifications of the strategies that they use when eating at home or eating-out in the UK. The extended strategies reflected their recognition of enhanced risk during travel abroad. Their risk assessments and actions were generally well informed and appropriate. A need for airline policy regarding allergy to be declared and adhered to is needed, as is more research to quantify the true risks of airborne allergens in the cabin. Recommendations arising from our study are presented.

  18. Systematic review of employer-sponsored wellness strategies and their economic and health-related outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspin, Lisa C; Gorman, Kathleen M; Miller, Ross M

    2013-02-01

    This review determines the characteristics and health-related and economic outcomes of employer-sponsored wellness programs and identifies possible reasons for their success. PubMed, ABI/Inform, and Business Source Premier databases, and Corporate Wellness Magazine were searched. English-language articles published from 2005 to 2011 that reported characteristics of employer-sponsored wellness programs and their impact on health-related and economic outcomes among US employees were accepted. Data were abstracted, synthesized, and interpreted. Twenty references were accepted. Wellness interventions were classified into health assessments, lifestyle management, and behavioral health. Improved economic outcomes were reported (health care costs, return on investment, absenteeism, productivity, workers' compensation, utilization) as well as decreased health risks. Programs associated with favorable outcomes had several characteristics in common. First, the corporate culture encouraged wellness to improve employees' lives, not only to reduce costs. Second, employees and leadership were strongly motivated to support the wellness programs and to improve their health in general. Third, employees were motivated by a participation-friendly corporate policy and physical environment. Fourth, successful programs adapted to the changing needs of the employees. Fifth, community health organizations provided support, education, and treatment. Sixth, successful wellness programs utilized technology to facilitate health risk assessments and wellness education. Improved health-related and economic outcomes were associated with employer-sponsored wellness programs. Companies with successful programs tended to include wellness as part of their corporate culture and supported employee participation in several key ways.

  19. Promoting Protean Career through Employability Culture and Mentoring: Career Strategies as Moderator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Siew Chin; Mohd Rasdi, Roziah; Abu Samah, Bahaman; Abdul Wahat, Nor Wahiza

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of organizational-related variables and the moderating role of career strategies on protean career among employees. Design/methodology/approach: Research data are gathered from a sample of 306 employees in 18 electrical and electronics multinational corporations (MNCs) in Malaysia.…

  20. Taking "O" Level GCE Examinations: The Strategies Employed by Candidates and Their Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    Examines the relationship of study techniques and test-taking strategies to success on the "O" level of the British General Certificate of Education (GCE) examination. Findings showed that teachers and students felt that course reviews, including study of past examinations, was the best preparation. (AM)

  1. Strategies Employed by Citizen Science Programs to Increase the Credibility of Their Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Freitag

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The success of citizen science in producing important and unique data is attracting interest from scientists and resource managers. Nonetheless, questions remain about the credibility of citizen science data. Citizen science programs desire to meet the same standards of credibility as academic science, but they usually work within a different context, for example, training and managing significant numbers of volunteers with limited resources. We surveyed the credibility-building strategies of 30 citizen science programs that monitor environmental aspects of the California coast. We identified a total of twelve strategies: Three that are applied during training and planning; four that are applied during data collection; and five that are applied during data analysis and program evaluation. Variation in the application of these strategies by program is related to factors such as the number of participants, the focus on group or individual work, and the time commitment required of volunteers. The structure of each program and available resources require program designers to navigate tradeoffs in the choices of their credibility strategies. Our results illustrate those tradeoffs and provide a framework for the necessary discussions between citizen science programs and potential users of their data—including scientists and decision makers—about shared expectations for credibility and practical approaches for meeting those expectations. This article has been corrected here: http://dx.doi.org/10.5334/cstp.91

  2. How Successful Learners Employ Learning Strategies in an EFL Setting in the Indonesian Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiyadi, Ag. Bambang; Sukirlan, Muhammad; Mahpul

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have been conducted to correlate the use of language learning strategies and language performance and the studies have contributed to different perspectives of teaching and learning a foreign language. Some studies have also revealed that the students learning a foreign language in Asian contexts have been proved to use different…

  3. RHETORICAL STRUCTURE OF ARGUMENTATIVE ANSWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Desiderato ANTONIO

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to describe the rhetorical structure of the argumentative answer genre in a corpus formed by 15 compositions of the winter vestibular of Universidade Estadual de Maringá. The instrument of analysis used in the investigation was RST (Rhetorical Structure Theory. The initial statement was considered the central unit of the argumentative answer. Most of the writers held evidence relation between the central unit (nucleus and the expansion (satellite. Evidence relation is interpersonal and the aim of the writers is to convince their addressees (in this case the compositions evaluation committee that their point is correct. Within the initial statement, the relation with higher frequency was contrast. Our hypothesis is that the selection of texts of the test influenced the applicants to present positive and negative aspects of the internet. In the higher level of the expansion text span, list is the most frequent relation because the applicants present various arguments with the same status. Contrast was the second relation with highest frequency in this same level. Our hypothesis is that the selection of texts of the test influenced the applicants to present positive and negative aspects of the internet as it happened in the initial statement. Within the 15 compositions, 12 had a conclusion. This part was considered a satellite of the span formed by the initial statement and its expansion. The relation held was homonymous.

  4. Rhetoric of Seduction and Seduction of Rhetoric in Paul de Man's ‘Allegories of Reading’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mirabile

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The essay analyzes the work of Paul de Man (1919-1983, in particular Allegories of Reading. Even though his posthumously revealed ties with Nazism reduced his academic influence, de Man is still considered the leader of  Deconstruction in America, and his favorite metaphor of 'seduction' summarizes his Nietzschean theory of rhetoric as illusionism, i.e. a strategy that provoke an affective reaction, independent from logic or facts. Yet, this metaphor seems to be in contrast with other tendencies of Deconstruction, namely the self-referential, non-voluntary, autonomous status of writing, the absence of critical meta-language, the reduction of psychology in criticism.

  5. Persuasive negotiation for autonomous agents: A rhetorical approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ramchurn, S.D.; Jennings, N. R.; Sierra, C.

    2003-01-01

    Persuasive negotiation occurs when autonomous agents exchange proposals that are backed up by rhetorical arguments (such as threats, rewards, or appeals). The role of such rhetorical arguments is to persuade the negotiation opponent to accept proposals more readily. To this end, this paper presents a rhetorical model of persuasion that defines the main types of rhetorical particles that are used and that provides a decision making model to enable an agent to determine what type of rhetorical ...

  6. Novel Strategy for Discrimination of Transcription Factor Binding Motifs Employing Mathematical Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Asuka; Sumi, Takuya; Kang, Jiyoung; Tateno, Masaru

    2017-07-01

    Recognition in biological macromolecular systems, such as DNA-protein recognition, is one of the most crucial problems to solve toward understanding the fundamental mechanisms of various biological processes. Since specific base sequences of genome DNA are discriminated by proteins, such as transcription factors (TFs), finding TF binding motifs (TFBMs) in whole genome DNA sequences is currently a central issue in interdisciplinary biophysical and information sciences. In the present study, a novel strategy to create a discriminant function for discrimination of TFBMs by constituting mathematical neural networks (NNs) is proposed, together with a method to determine the boundary of signals (TFBMs) and noise in the NN-score (output) space. This analysis also leads to the mathematical limitation of discrimination in the recognition of features representing TFBMs, in an information geometrical manifold. Thus, the present strategy enables the identification of the whole space of TFBMs, right up to the noise boundary.

  7. CLASSROOM INTERACTION STRATEGIES EMPLOYED BY ENGLISH TEACHERS AT LOWER SECONDARY SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunung Suryati

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article reports a study on teachers’ use of interaction strategies in English Language Teaching (ELT in lower secondary level of education. The study involved eighteen teachers from Lower Secondary Schools in Malang, East Java. Classroom observation was selected as a method in this study by utilizing Self Evaluation Teacher Talk (SETT as the instrument. SETT, developed by Walsh (2006, was adopted as the observation protocol as it characterises teacher-student interaction. Thirty lessons taught by 18 teachers were observed. The findings revealed that much of the teacher student interaction in Lower Secondary Schools centred on the material mode, skill and system mode. The most frequent strategies were initiation response feedback (IRF patterns, display questions, teacher echo, and extended teacher turns, while students’ extended turns were rare. It is argued that in order to improve the Indonesian ELT, there is a need to provide an alternative to ELT classroom interaction. The article concludes by highlighting the importance of adopting some classroom interaction strategies that are more facilitative to students’ oral communicative competence.

  8. Operationalisation the Romanian Employment Strategy – Target for European Union Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Stefania Cretu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the Romania’s integration into the EU, as resources become more limited and constrains more acute, expectations for government services have become more demanding. Regarding labour market these changes had a significant impact on the Public Employment Services(PES. At the beginning of the new millennium the challenges facing the PES are considerable mostly because of some external problems such as: structural unemployment; social exclusion; the vulnerability of many workers because of shortage of decent work; less stability in employment and careers; an increasing demand for lifelong education and learning; public concern about the escalating costs of social security; a multiplicity of public and private labour markets actors. As it is argued in many recent studies: "there is a general agreement on the need to shift the focus of the labour market policies from the passive provision of income support to more active measures which assist reemployment." Being considered, as well, an objective for the developing countries, as Romania, a country that wants the labour market to be flexible, and also wants a fast economic growth and that is joining to an economy based on knowledge is stimulating the development of the service sector, a key factor of national competitiveness.

  9. Operationalisation the Romanian Employment Strategy – Target for European Union Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Stefania Cretu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the Romania's integration into the EU, as resources become more limited and constrains more acute, expectations for government services have become more demanding. Regarding labour market these changes had a significant impact on the Public Employment Services(PES. At the beginning of the new millennium the challenges facing the PES are considerable mostly because of some external problems such as: structural unemployment; social exclusion; the vulnerability of many workers because of shortage of decent work; less stability in employment and careers; an increasing demand for lifelong education and learning; public concern about the escalating costs of social security; a multiplicity of public and private labour markets actors. As it is argued in many recent studies: "there is a general agreement on the need to shift the focus of the labour market policies from the passive provision of income support to more active measures which assist reemployment." Being considered, as well, an objective for the developing countries, as Romania, a country that wants the labour market to be flexible, and also wants a fast economic growth and that is joining to an economy based on knowledge is stimulating the development of the service sector, a key factor of national competitiveness.

  10. Employment and other macroeconomic benefits of an innovation-led climate strategy for the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laitner, S.; Bernow, S.; DeCicco, J.

    1998-01-01

    Climate protection policy and its analysis are pursued in the context of other social goals, among them the maintenance of economic growth and high employment. Too often, however, analysis of energy and climate policy does not realistically reflect technological conditions and the dynamics of technological change. This tendency unnecessarily associates the decline in energy consumption or carbon emissions with the decline in national economic output or income. But there is ample prima facie evidence to the contrary. Just as in the 19th century when the perceived need to reduce labor inputs as part of the production process spurred labor-saving technological progress, now the need to reduce energy (and pollution) costs could spur innovation and diffusion of efficient and clean energy technologies. This, in turn, can increase overall growth in economic productivity. Energy technology analysts have identified many such existing and near-term commercial technologies, as well as innovations that can be foreseen beyond the immediate technological horizon, which would become widely used if policies were developed to overcome market and institutional barriers. This paper presents a macroeconomic analysis for a set of policies that would induce the adoption of more efficient and low-carbon technologies, and finds that overall employment and economic output could be increased by small amounts while significantly reducing carbon emissions. (Author)

  11. Employment and other macroeconomic benefits of an innovation-led climate strategy for the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laitner, S. [US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States); Bernow, S. [Tellus Institute, Boston, MA (United States); DeCicco, J. [American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1998-04-01

    Climate protection policy and its analysis are pursued in the context of other social goals, among them the maintenance of economic growth and high employment. Too often, however, analysis of energy and climate policy does not realistically reflect technological conditions and the dynamics of technological change. This tendency unnecessarily associates the decline in energy consumption or carbon emissions with the decline in national economic output or income. But there is ample prima facie evidence to the contrary. Just as in the 19th century when the perceived need to reduce labor inputs as part of the production process spurred labor-saving technological progress, now the need to reduce energy (and pollution) costs could spur innovation and diffusion of efficient and clean energy technologies. This, in turn, can increase overall growth in economic productivity. Energy technology analysts have identified many such existing and near-term commercial technologies, as well as innovations that can be foreseen beyond the immediate technological horizon, which would become widely used if policies were developed to overcome market and institutional barriers. This paper presents a macroeconomic analysis for a set of policies that would induce the adoption of more efficient and low-carbon technologies, and finds that overall employment and economic output could be increased by small amounts while significantly reducing carbon emissions. (Author)

  12. Authority and Legitimacy: A Rhetorical Case Study of the Iranian Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisey, D. Ray; Trebing, J. David

    1986-01-01

    Argues that the legitimacy crisis in Iran in 1978-79 arose from the contrasting views of authority espoused by the Shah and the Ayatollah over 25 years and describes how their rhetoric expresses the two impulses of the progressive and the traditionalist orientation of authority. Employs a critical perspective to analyze various rhetorical…

  13. A Contrastive Study of the Rhetorical Organisation of English and Spanish PhD Thesis Introductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler-Monreal, Carmen; Carbonell-Olivares, Maria; Gil-Salom, Luz

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the introductory sections of a corpus of 20 doctoral theses on computing written in Spanish and in English. Our aim was to ascertain whether the theses, produced within the same scientific-technological area but by authors from different cultural and linguistic backgrounds, employed the same rhetorical strategies…

  14. Doing Televised Rhetorical Analysis as a Means of Promoting College Awareness in a Target Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, Jim

    This paper describes aspects of doing televised rhetorical analysis as they relate to the promotion of college awareness in a particular target market. Considerations in the paper include variables that most professors encounter in their efforts to address the "service" expectations of their employment and how these variables can be…

  15. 360-Degree Rhetorical Analysis of Job Hunting: A Four-Part, Multimodal Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Huiling; Ding, Xin

    2013-01-01

    This article proposes the use of a four-component multimodal employment project that offers students a 360-degree understanding of the rhetorical situations surrounding job searches. More specifically, we argue for the use of the four deliverables of written resumes and cover letters, mock oral onsite interview, video resume analysis, and peer…

  16. The Theory of Rhetorical Criticism: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, William L.; Moeder, Michael D.

    An updated version of a bibliography which appeared in a 1982 edition of "Rhetoric Society Quarterly," this 132-item bibliography is divided into books and articles and book chapters. The selections date from 1933 through 1989. (NKA)

  17. CREATING NEW BRAND IDENTITIES: A STYLO- RHETORICAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I.E Olaosun

    RHETORICAL STUDY OF CAR APPELLATIONS IN NIGERIA ... This paper analyses twenty-six appellations of some popular cars in Nigeria. ... technology. ..... Automatic effects of brand exposure on motivated behavior: how Apple makes you.

  18. The Greekless Reader and Aristotle's "Rhetoric."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Thomas M.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the inadequacy of translations of Aristotle's "Rhetoric," particularly three passages from the commonly used translation by Lane Cooper. The misleading nature of these passages is cited as a major cause for the lack of understanding of Aristotle. (JMF)

  19. Regeneration strategies of polymers employed in ex-situ remediation of contaminated soil: Bioregeneration versus solvent extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosca Angelucci, Domenica; Tomei, M Concetta

    2015-08-15

    In this study we evaluated the feasibility of two regeneration strategies of contaminated polymers employed for ex-situ soil remediation in a two-step process. Soil decontamination is achieved by sorption of the pollutants on the polymer beads, which are regenerated in a subsequent step. Tested soil was contaminated with a mixture of 4-chlorophenol and pentachlorophenol, and a commercial polymer, Hytrel, has been employed for extraction. Removal efficiencies of the polymer-soil extraction are in the range of 51-97% for a contact time ≤ 24 h. Two polymer regeneration strategies, solvent extraction and biological regeneration (realized in a two-phase partitioning bioreactor), were tested and compared. Performance was assessed in terms of removal rates and efficiencies and an economic analysis based on the operating costs has been performed. Results demonstrated the feasibility of both regeneration strategies, but the bioregeneration was advantageous in that provided the biodegradation of the contaminants desorbed from the polymer. Practically complete removal for 4-chlorophenol and up to 85% biodegradation efficiency for pentachlorophenol were achieved. Instead, in the solvent extraction, a relevant production (184-831 L kg(pol)(-1)) of a highly polluted stream to be treated or disposed of is observed. The cost analysis of the two strategies showed that the bioregeneration is much more convenient with operating costs of ∼12 €/kg(pol) i.e. more than one order of magnitude lower in comparison to ∼233 €/kg(pol) of the solvent extraction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Speech and scientific paper. A rhetorical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Carmona Sandoval

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay attempts to show that the ancient rhetorical theory has explanatory capabilities to understand and learn to write modern texts and to analyze them in order to understand their communication skills, as in the scientific article, one of the most prestigious forms on scientific communication. It starts with the notion of discourse in the field of scientific communication and then address the rhetorical dimension of the paper.

  1. Curbing the tobacco epidemic: Employing behavioral strategies or rearranging the deckchairs on the Titanic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braillon, Alain

    2015-04-01

    Henningfield brilliantly dissected the deadly comprehensive tactics of the tobacco industry but Food and Drug Administration and WHO strategies against the tobacco epidemic must be questioned. The Food and Drug Administration has the authority to regulate tobacco production (2009 Tobacco Control Act) but fails to ban menthol and reduce cigarettes nicotine content. As little has changed, the Healthy People 2010 objective of reducing the prevalence of cigarette smoking among adults to 12% by 2010 in the US will be attained by 2030. The monitoring of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) is passive, even when governments repeatedly violate the Article 5.3 of the Convention, which specifically requires protecting public policy from tobacco industry interference. Since 2004, the year after the adoption of the Convention, the prevalence of daily smoking has leveled off and the 2012 annualized rate of change in prevalence of daily smoking was almost null. This contrasts with a 2% annual decrease in the prevalence of daily smoking from 1980 to 2004. The tobacco endgame needs acts, not bureaucracies. Two counties have been moving forward, Brazil has banned menthol and Australia has implemented plain packaging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Strategies employed by sexual minority adolescents to cope with minority stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldbach, J T; Gibbs, J J

    2015-09-01

    Sexual minority adolescents (SMA) experience disparities in health and behavioral health outcomes, including high rates of depression, anxiety, self-harm, substance use, HIV risk behavior, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempts. These outcomes are commonly attributed to minority stress. Stress experiences are different for SMA than their adult counterparts. For example, disclosing their sexual orientation may be more likely to result in homelessness because these youth more often live with parents or other family members. Although stress in this population has been explored in previous research, very little is known about how SMA cope. Relying upon an adolescent coping model, this study examined the coping strategies, responses, and resources of SMA related to stress. Forty-eight racially and ethnically diverse SMA (age 14-19) were recruited for 90-minute tape-recorded interviews. The semi-structured interviews were guided by a life history calendar. Recordings were transcribed verbatim and entered into QSR NVivo. All transcripts were coded by two members of the research team and went through a consensus process. Forty-three unique coping statements emerged that fit with the Compas model of adolescent coping. SMA cope with minority stress in similar ways to heterosexual youth coping with general stress, but findings suggest that SMA may also use different kinds of coping resources. Although further research is needed, the present study identified a variety of ways SMA cope with stress and can inform future research on the development interventions.

  3. Visualization rhetoric: framing effects in narrative visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hullman, Jessica; Diakopoulos, Nicholas

    2011-12-01

    Narrative visualizations combine conventions of communicative and exploratory information visualization to convey an intended story. We demonstrate visualization rhetoric as an analytical framework for understanding how design techniques that prioritize particular interpretations in visualizations that "tell a story" can significantly affect end-user interpretation. We draw a parallel between narrative visualization interpretation and evidence from framing studies in political messaging, decision-making, and literary studies. Devices for understanding the rhetorical nature of narrative information visualizations are presented, informed by the rigorous application of concepts from critical theory, semiotics, journalism, and political theory. We draw attention to how design tactics represent additions or omissions of information at various levels-the data, visual representation, textual annotations, and interactivity-and how visualizations denote and connote phenomena with reference to unstated viewing conventions and codes. Classes of rhetorical techniques identified via a systematic analysis of recent narrative visualizations are presented, and characterized according to their rhetorical contribution to the visualization. We describe how designers and researchers can benefit from the potentially positive aspects of visualization rhetoric in designing engaging, layered narrative visualizations and how our framework can shed light on how a visualization design prioritizes specific interpretations. We identify areas where future inquiry into visualization rhetoric can improve understanding of visualization interpretation. © 2011 IEEE

  4. Life in unexpected places: Employing visual thinking strategies in global health training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Jill; Mulay, Shree; Kidd, Monica

    2017-01-01

    The desire to make meaning out of images, metaphor, and other representations indicates higher-order cognitive skills that can be difficult to teach, especially in the complex and unfamiliar environments like those encountered in many global health experiences. Because reflecting on art can help develop medical students' imaginative and interpretive skills, we used visual thinking strategies (VTS) during an immersive 4-week global health elective for medical students to help them construct new understanding of the social determinants of health in a low-resource setting. We were aware of no previous formal efforts to use art in global health training. We assembled a group of eight medical students in front of a street mural in Kathmandu and used VTS methods to interpret the scene with respect to the social determinants of health. We recorded and transcribed the conversation and conducted a thematic analysis of student responses. Students shared observations about the mural in a supportive, nonjudgmental fashion. Two main themes emerged from their observations: those of human-environment interactions (specifically community dynamics, subsistence land use, resources, and health) and entrapment/control, particularly relating to expectations of, and demands on, women in traditional farming communities. They used the images as well as their experience in Nepali communities to consolidate complex community health concepts. VTS helped students articulate their deepening understanding of the social determinants of health in Nepal, suggesting that reflection on visual art can help learners apply, analyze, and evaluate complex concepts in global health. We demonstrate the relevance of drawing upon many aspects of cultural learning, regarding art as a kind of text that holds valuable information. These findings may help provide innovative opportunities for teaching and evaluating global health training in the future.

  5. Lydia J. Roberts's Nutrition Research and the Rhetoric of "Democratic" Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Jordynn

    2009-01-01

    This article examines nutritionist Lydia J. Roberts's use of the "democratic approach" as a rhetorical strategy both to build solidarity among scientists and to enact participatory research in a rural Puerto Rican community. This example suggests that participatory scientific methodologies are not necessarily democratic but may function…

  6. A ironia na literatura canadense: uma estratégia retórica e estrutural exibindo dissonâncias e diferenças = The irony in Canadian literature: a rhetorical and structural strategy displaying differences and dissonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klondy Lúcia de Oliveira Agra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, observo, com base na literatura canadense, os sentidos dados à ironia utilizada como estratégia retórica e estrutural. A partir da pesquisa bibliográfica, procuro por esclarecimentos sobre a característica da ironia canadense, sua forma e seu foco específico com apoio das teorias crítica, pós-moderna e pós-colonial.In this article, the result of study about Canadian literature, I observe the use of the irony as a rhetorical and structural strategic. From the bibliographical research, I look for clarification on the characteristic of Canadian irony, its form and its specific focus with support from critical theory, postmodern and post-colonial.

  7. Rhetorical criticism and the hermeneutics of the New Testament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.M. Cornelius

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available It is argued that rhetorical criticism is increasingly recognized as a method of interpretation of biblical literature. From the discussion in this article it becomes clear that there are different perspectives of rhetorical criticism just as there are different theories of rhetoric. It is argued that contemporary critics need to develop an interdisciplinary method of rhetorical criticism in order to answer questions about the potential effectiveness of a rhetorical act. It is concluded that the rhetorical critic needs a combination of "old" methods in order to answer new questions.

  8. Discourse, Dialectic and Intrapersonal Rhetoric: A Reinterpretation of Plato's Rhetorical Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikins, James W.

    The idea that rhetoric might operate in epistemologically significant ways was first presented by Plato. This paper argues that the heart of Plato's conception of epistemic discourse is a recognition of the centrality of intrapersonal rhetoric. Through a careful study of Platonic writing, particularly the "Phaedrus," three principal…

  9. The Rhetoric of Rationalism versus the Rhetoric of Emotionalism on the American Frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Carl Wayne

    As the United States entered the nineteenth century, it did so under the influence of the Second Great Awakening. This was the second wave of revivalism to sweep the nation, and it originated in the frontier as the Great Western Revival. One pertinent characteristic of the revival was its rhetoric, a rhetoric that was a prime expression of a…

  10. Rhetoric and Truth: A Note on Aristotle, Rhetoric 1355a 21-24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, William M. A.

    1978-01-01

    A passage from Aristotle is discussed and interpreted. Rhetoric represents truth and justice in any situation for the auditor through the use of language. The usefulness of rhetoric lies in its ability to assure an adequate and competent articulation of truth and justice. (JF)

  11. The relation of cognitive learning strategies to psychosocial employability attributes amongst black adult learners in the economic and management sciences field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinde Coetzee

    2014-07-01

    Research purpose: The objective of the research was to investigate the relation between adultlearners’ cognitive learning strategies (measured by the examination preparation inventoryand their psychosocial employability attributes (measured by the employability attributesscale. Motivation for the study: Recent research has made important progress in understanding thenotions of cognitive learning styles in learning and psychosocial employability attributes insustaining individuals’ employability in the contemporary world of work. However, researchon how adult learners’ cognitive learning strategies influence the psychosocial attributes theyneed to manage and sustain their employability has been lacking. Research approach, design and method: A quantitative cross-sectional survey design wasused, involving a stratified proportional random sample of 1102 predominantly early careerblack female undergraduate level adult learners. The participants were enrolled for distancelearning studies in the economic and management sciences field at a South African highereducation institution. Main findings: Canonical correlation and multiple regression analysis indicated the abstracttheoretical and factual practical cognitive learning strategies as useful predictors of theparticipants’ overall level of psychosocial employability attributes and especially their levelsof career self-management and proactivity. Practical/managerial implications: Learning practitioners should strive to integrate cognitivelearning strategies in the design of learning and assessment activities in order to fosterthe psychosocial employability attributes adult learners need to manage their continuedemployability in the contemporary workplace. Contribution: The study contributes new insights to the employability and learning andeducation literature. The results may potentially inform formal learning and assessmentdesign in order to improve adult learners’ learning performance and employability.

  12. Reconsidering 'Set the People Free': Neoliberalism and Freedom Rhetoric in Churchill's Conservative Party.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, James

    2017-09-18

    It is often assumed that 'Hayekian' or 'neoliberal' influences lay behind Conservative attacks on socialism in 1945 and subsequent calls to 'set the people free' in 1950 and 1951. This assumption has had consequences for our understanding of late-1940s Conservatism and for wider interpretations of post-war politics. Heeding recent calls to reconnect the inter-war and post-war parties and to pay closer attention to how opponents and contexts generate arguments, this article revisits senior Conservatives' rhetoric between 1945 and 1951 to break the link between neoliberal influence and freedom rhetoric. First, it argues that the rhetoric of 1945 was derived from a distinctly Conservative lineage of interwar argument and reflected strategies developed before the publication of F. A. Hayek's 'The Road to Serfdom'. Second, it demonstrates that senior Conservatives' emancipatory rhetoric in opposition after 1945 was neither a simple continuation of these themes nor primarily a response to the public's growing antipathy towards rationing and controls. Rather, such rhetoric was a complex response to Britain's immediate economic difficulties and the political challenges presented by austerity. Finally, the article sheds new light on the strategy that governed the party's campaigns in 1950 and 1951. Churchill and others' calls to 'set the people free' stemmed from a belief that the rhetorical opportunity lay in reconciling liberty with security. In that sense, the leadership had moved beyond begrudging compromises with the 'Attleean settlement' and was instead attempting to define a new identity within the parameters of the welfare state. © The Author [2017]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. FORMATION OF ANTIQUE RHETORIC: CHRONOLOGY OF RHETORICAL METHODS AND STYLES (PLATO, ARISTOTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A. Pantelyeyeva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the article: to analyze the basic points of philosophical concepts of rhetoric of Plato and Aristotle, to prove that from Plato the rhetoric in the true sense starts being approved, and Aristotle is an ancestor of real theory of speech of the new genre, the new form, the new purposes and tasks of the description of verbal art. Problem statement: development of the ancient principles of rhetorical style’s creating is reached by efforts of outstanding speakers, each of them were differed not only by the ideological sympathies or antipathies, but also by nature of works, the concepts put in their basis. Two Ancient Greek philosophers: Plato and Aristotle are considered as founders of ancient rhetorical science. Methodology. Author has used system method, methods of content and comparative analysis. Scientific novelty is displayed in the received results from the comparative analysis of two concepts of public speech of Plato and Aristotle from a position of philosophical justification of rhetoric’s rules with orientation on ancient "popular" declamation practices. Practical value of article consists in development of insufficiently studied object "Antique declamation discourse" where Plato and Aristotle's two central rhetorical concepts appear as the intermediate stage in development of a declamation discourse of Ancient Greece and, subsequently, and Ancient Rome. Conclusions. The conclusions can be given by the following facts: from Plato the rhetoric in the true sense is approved: true rhetorical art isn’t based only on argument technique, the true rhethor appears as the philosopher. Plato raises the problem of an ambiguity of two opposite rhetorics presented in "Gorgias" and "Phaedrus ". Rhetoric as scientific discipline, as the present theory of speech is first considered by Aristotle. The rhetoric is presented as the science "about speech and about thoughts", about the relation of thinking to the word.

  14. A diagnostic of the strategy employed for communicating nuclear related information to Brazilian communities around uranium mining areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari Dias, Fabiana; Tirollo Taddei, Maria H.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a diagnostic of the strategy used by the Brazilian uranium mining industry to communicate nuclear related information to communities around a mining area. The uranium mining industry in Brazil, which is run by the government, has been concerned with communication issues for quite some time. The need to communicate became more apparent after new mining operations started in the Northern region of Brazil. The fact that the government does not have a clear communication guideline made the operators of the uranium mining industry aware of the increasing demand for establishment of a good relationship with several types of Stake holders as well as employment of personnel with experience in dealing with them. A diagnostic of the current communication situation in Brazil and an analysis of the approaches over the past years was done through interviews with employees of the mining industry and review of institutional communication materials. The results were discussed during a Consultant's Meeting organized by the IAEA 's Seibersdorf Laboratory in October 2007. The output of the meeting included an overview of modern communication strategies used by different countries and a suggestion for new uranium mining operations in developing or under developed countries. The strategy for communicating nuclear related information to Brazilian communities varied according to the influence of different Stake holder groups. One initiative worth mentioning was the creation of a Mobile Nuclear Information Thematic Room, which was installed in several locations. This project was seen as one of the main tools to relate to community. Many Stake holders were identified during the diagnostic phase in preparation for the IAEA 's meeting on communication strategy: children, NGOs (Non Government Organizations), local churches, media and internal Stake holders, among others. An initial evaluation showed that the perception of a neighbouring community regarding an uranium

  15. Job strain and psychological distress among employed pregnant Thai women: role of social support and coping strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanguanklin, Natthananporn; McFarlin, Barbara L; Finnegan, Lorna; Park, Chang Gi; Giurgescu, Carmen; White-Traut, Rosemary; Engstrom, Janet L

    2014-08-01

    Most Thai women continue to work throughout their pregnancy; however, little is known about job strain and its relation to psychological distress. This study aimed to examine: (1) the direct effects of job strain, perceived workplace support, perceived family support, and coping strategies on psychological distress and (2) the moderating effect of perceived workplace support, perceived family support, and coping strategies on the relationship between job strain and psychological distress. Lazarus and Folkman's transactional model of stress and coping guided this cross-sectional study. Full-time employed pregnant women (N = 300) were recruited from three antenatal clinics in Thailand. Thai versions of the following instruments were used: the State-Anxiety Inventory and Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (psychological distress), the Job Content Questionnaire (job strain and perceived workplace support), the Medical Outcome Study Social Support Survey (perceived family support), and the Ways of Coping Checklist-Revised (coping strategies). Job strain with other predictors explained 54% of the variance in psychological distress. In the separate hierarchical multiple linear regression models, two types of coping strategies, seeking social support and wishful thinking, moderated the effects of job strain on psychological distress. Perceived family support had a direct effect in reducing psychological distress. Job strain is a significant contributor to psychological distress. The average levels of seeking social support and wishful thinking were most beneficial in moderating the negative impact of job strain on psychological distress. Since perceived workplace and family support did not have moderating effects, stress management programs for decreasing the levels of job strain should be developed.

  16. Material rhetoric: spreading stones and showing bones in the study of prehistory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Reybrouck, David; de Bont, Raf; Rock, Jan

    2009-06-01

    Since the linguistic turn, the role of rhetoric in the circulation and the popular representation of knowledge has been widely accepted in science studies. This article aims to analyze not a textual form of scientific rhetoric, but the crucial role of materiality in scientific debates. It introduces the concept of material rhetoric to understand the promotional regimes in which material objects play an essential argumentative role. It analyzes the phenomenon by looking at two students of prehistory from nineteenth-century Belgium. In the study of human prehistory and evolution, material data are either fairly abundant stone tools or very scarce fossil bones. These two types of material data stand for two different strategies in material rhetoric. In this article, the first strategy is exemplified by Aimé Rutot, who gathered great masses of eoliths (crudely chipped stones which he believed to be prehistoric tools). The second strategy is typified by the example of Julien Fraipont, who based his scientific career on only two Neanderthal skeletons. Rutot sent his "artifacts" to a very wide audience, while Fraipont showed his skeletons to only a few selected scholars. Unlike Rutot, however, Fraipont was able to monitor his audience's interpretation of the finds by means of personal contacts. What an archaeologist gains in reach, he or she apparently loses in control. In this article we argue that only those scholars who find the right balance between the extremes of reach and control will prove to be successful.

  17. The Question of Rhetoric in Nietzsche and Arendt

    OpenAIRE

    Tsushima, Michiko

    2003-01-01

    When we think of the question of rhetoric, we cannot ignore a historical shift that took place in the conception of rhetoric. This shift is most evident in Nietzsche's thought. In the classical tradition, ...

  18. PAUL AND SOPHISTIC RHETORIC: A PERSPECTIVE ON HIS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use of modern rhetorical theories but analyses the letter in terms of the clas- ..... If a critical reader would have had the traditional anti-sophistic arsenal ..... pressions and that 'rhetoric' is mainly a matter of communicating these thoughts.

  19. Music and the Three Appeals of Classical Rhetoric

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeCoat, Gerard G.

    1976-01-01

    Contends that rhetorical theory of the sixteenth through the eighteenth centuries influenced the theory of the composition of music and offers examples of vocal music which was adapted to the rhetorical appeals of logos, ethos, and pathos. (MH)

  20. Rhetorical Analysis of the Persuasiveness of Advertising | Esuh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rhetorical Analysis of the Persuasiveness of Advertising. ... Abstract. The critical analysis of marketing communications argues that the rhetorical elements of advertising – the verbal and visual signs and ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  1. Well-being improvement in a midsize employer: changes in well-being, productivity, health risk, and perceived employer support after implementation of a well-being improvement strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamar, Brent; Coberley, Carter; Pope, James E; Rula, Elizabeth Y

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate employee well-being change and associated change in productivity, health risk including biometrics, and workplace support over 2 years after implementation of a well-being improvement strategy. This was an employer case study evaluation of well-being, productivity (presenteeism, absenteeism, and job performance), health risk, and employer support across three employee assessment spanning 2 years. Employee well-being was compared with an independent sample of workers in the community. Well-being and job performance increased and presenteeism and health risk decreased significantly over the 2 years. Employee well-being started lower and increased to exceed community worker averages, approaching significance. Well-being improvement was associated with higher productivity across all measures. Increases in employer support for well-being were associated with improved well-being and productivity. This employer's well-being strategy, including a culture supporting well-being, was associated with improved health and productivity.

  2. The Open Method of Co-ordination and the Analysis of Mutual Learning Processes of the European Employment Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to address two normative and interlinked methodological and theoretical questions concerning the Open Method of Coordination (OMC): First, what is the most appropriate approach to learning in the analyses of the processes of the European Employment Strategy (EES......)? Second, how should mutual learning processes be diffused among the Member States in order to be efficient? In answering these two questions the paper draws on a social constructivist approach to learning thereby contributing to the debate about learning in the political science literature. At the same...... time, based on the literature and participatory observations, it is concluded that the learning effects of the EES are probably somewhat larger than what is normally suggested, but that successful diffusion still depends on a variety of contextual factors. At the end of the paper a path for empirical...

  3. Support for Food and Beverage Worksite Wellness Strategies and Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake Among Employed U.S. Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Kwan, Seung Hee; Pan, Liping; Kimmons, Joel; Foltz, Jennifer; Park, Sohyun

    2017-03-01

    Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption is high among U.S. adults and is associated with obesity. Given that more than 100 million Americans consume food or beverages at work daily, the worksite may be a venue for interventions to reduce SSB consumption. However, the level of support for these interventions is unknown. We examined associations between workday SSB intake and employees' support for worksite wellness strategies (WWSs). We conducted a cross-sectional study using data from Web-based annual surveys that gather information on health-related attitudes and behaviors. Study setting was the United States. A total of 1924 employed adults (≥18 years) selected using probability-based sampling. The self-reported independent variable was workday SSB intake (0, food/drink, (3) available healthy options, and (4) less available SSB. Multivariable logistic regression was used to control for sociodemographic variables, employee size, and availability of cafeteria/vending machine. About half of employees supported accessible free water (54%), affordable healthy food/drink (49%), and available healthy options (46%), but only 28% supported less available SSB. Compared with non-SSB consumers, daily SSB consumers were significantly less supportive of accessible free water (adjusted odds ratio, .67; p < .05) or less available SSB (odds ratio, .49; p < .05). Almost half of employees supported increasing healthy options within worksites, although daily workday SSB consumers were less supportive of certain strategies. Lack of support could be a potential barrier to the successful implementation of certain worksite interventions.

  4. Mexican Rhetoric: Exigency and Background--A Sketch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blythin, Evan

    Presuming that rhetorical discourse comes into existence as a response to a situation in the same sense that an answer comes into existence in response to a question, or a solution in response to a problem, then Mexico is fertile ground for rhetoric and the study of rhetoric. Mexico is a country under fire. Economic and political problems threaten…

  5. "Pathos" Reconsidered from the Perspective of Classical Chinese Rhetorical Theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Mary M.

    1993-01-01

    Proposes that cross-cultural rhetorical studies may provide insights into the sources of difficulties with "pathos." Presents an extensive case study that appeals to the emotions in classical Chinese rhetorics. Notes that the presuppositions of these rhetorics highlight the contingent nature of certain fundamental assumptions of many…

  6. Writing Pedagogies of Empathy: As Rhetoric and Disposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Empathy is attracting increased attention within and beyond the academy. In this essay I review relevant theories of empathy and their place within rhetoric and composition. I propose two approaches to teaching empathy: as rhetoric and as disposition. A rhetorical approach incorporates a necessary critical awareness of empathy's enticements and…

  7. Teaching Ethos from the Dumpster: "Dive" and Food Waste Rhetoric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubisar, Abby M.; Hunt, Kathleen P.

    2018-01-01

    Courses: Rhetorical Criticism, Composition, Environmental Communication. Objectives: This unit activity, for which students view a documentary to identify and evaluate persuasive ethos and then create their own rhetorical messages for reducing food waste, serves as a platform for teaching both the critique and practice of rhetoric, as well as…

  8. Notions of "Rhetoric as Epistemic" in Ancient Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, William L.

    The notion that rhetoric (and to a lesser extent, argument) is epistemic is an increasingly popular one today, although it can be traced to ancient Greece. The notion holds that rhetoric, or the art of persuasion, creates and shapes knowledge. Two ancient authors--Aristophanes and Plato--provide evidence that others had notions of rhetoric as…

  9. Places in Time: The Inns and Outhouses of Rhetoric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mailloux, Steven

    2006-01-01

    Rhetoric is often about "good guys" and "bad guys." Even more basically, it concerns who is in and who is out, what is included and what is excluded, who is placed inside and who outside a cultural community, a political movement, a professional organization. These ins and outs concern both the commonplaces of rhetoric and the rhetoric of …

  10. Plastic Language for Plastic Science: The Rhetoric of Comrade Lysenko.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowski, Paul M.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the rhetoric of Lysenkoism in Soviet Russia from the 1920s to about 1960 as an overt attempt to redefine science. Discusses the rhetorical dimensions of Lysenkoist discourse from the perspective of the rhetorical theories of Aristotle, Burke, Weaver, Bakhtin, Habermas, and Foucault. Reviews two historical commentaries on Lysenkoism. (SG)

  11. The Boundaries of Language and Rhetoric: Some Historical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Robert O.

    1968-01-01

    Important ideas and events in the history of rhetoric are examined in order to illumine the present situation, especially the problem of defining the concept of rhetoric. From Plato's hostility to rhetoric and Aristotle's epistomological rehabilitation of it to the later ethical emphasis of Cicero and the Medieval Christian rhetoriticians, the…

  12. The Failure of Memory: Reflections on Rhetoric and Public Remembrance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Kendall R.

    2010-01-01

    The rapid growth of public memory studies in the field of rhetoric suggests the need to reflect upon the ways in which the practices of rhetoric and the notion of memory intersect. In this essay, I trace the intersection between memory and rhetoric back to the works of Plato and Aristotle. These early works suggest that one reason for attending to…

  13. Rhetoric Then and Now: A Proposal for Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makus, Anne

    1990-01-01

    Explores whether continuity or discontinuity is more appropriate to describe the particular relation between Aristotle's theory or rhetoric and Stuart Hall's ideology theory. Argues for inclusion of ideology theory within the rhetorical canon. Suggests that, if Aristotle's rhetorical theory belongs in the canon, Hall's theory also belongs because…

  14. Studying Rhetorical Audiences – a Call for Qualitative Reception Studies in Argumentation and Rhetoric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Elmelund Kjeldsen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In rhetoric and argumentation research studies of empirical audiences are rare. Most studies are speaker- or text focussed. However, new media and new forms of communication make it harder to distinguish between speaker and audience. The active involvement of users and audiences is more important than ever before. Therefore, this paper argues that rhetorical research should reconsider the understanding, conceptualization and examination of the rhetorical audience. From mostly understanding audiences as theoretical constructions that are examined textually and speculatively, we should give more attention to empirical explorations of actual audiences and users.

  15. The Cultural and Rhetorical Parameters of CSR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance

    and the situated choices of corporate website designers with respect to communicating CSR initiatives in those systems offers a nuanced approach to understanding the cultural and rhetorical parameters of communicating CSR knowledge online.   Brockreide, Wayne. "Dimensions of the Concept of Rhetoric." in Bernard L......How are the parameters of CSR constructed?-corporate communication policy or the interaction between civil society, governments, and corporations? Recognition of the presentation of CSR on the Web as socially constructed argumentation (Coupland 2005) opens the door for a rhetorical approach to both...... the relationship between power and language to demonstrate dialogue through "competing perspectives" in responses to the EU Green paper and anti-corporate campaign groups protesting business by using the Web for "direct action campaigning." They call for an analysis that is reflective of the dynamic co...

  16. Secular Islam and the Rhetoric of Humanity

    OpenAIRE

    Kharputly, Nadeen Sh B

    2017-01-01

    “Secular Islam and the Rhetoric of Humanity” examines competing notions of humanity in representations of Islam in the United States from the Civil Rights period to the present. In post-9/11 representations, Islam is rhetorically “humanized” by the dominant culture in attempts to determine Islam’s role in the United States. This humanizing framework not only presumes an inherent lack of humanity in Islam; it establishes the ideal of the human as white, rational, and secular. To critique this ...

  17. Rhetorical Aspects of Discourses in Present-day Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    being important for communication in modern society. Like speakers in public life, e.g. politicians, who had always acknowledged the role of rhetoric, all sorts of communicators, mediators and scholars became interested in rhetoric as a practical tool for building up texts meant for the public sphere......Since antiquity, the notion of rhetoric has been associated with Aristotle, Cicero and Quintilian. Their theories are central to the understanding that, on the one hand, rhetoric can be used for persuading and convincing an audience, and on the other, for becoming an eloquent speaker. Based...... as well as an analytical tool for the critique of public argumentation. This led to the development of new theories from New Rhetoric over Rhetorical Criticism to theories of genre and discourse, reflecting the view that rhetoric must be understood and used against the social and cultural framework...

  18. Ways to Increase the Efficiency of Recruitment, Selection and Employment Strategies in Large Organizations from Dambovita County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel CROITORU

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Those organizations developing team activities need to use new methods of analysis, recruitment and socializing activities. Thus, more concern for human resources (HR management implications upon labour force diversity is generated. The impact of organization structure upon HR management is more obvious within international and multinational organizations. Developing knowledge, abilities and skills becomes a long term task of the organization's employees and managers. Continuous development helps both employees and organizations to reach the targets. HR development is a key factor in motivating and keeping the good employees. It will give the employees the chance to hold high level responsabilities, to have more authority, to set targets and measurement indicators and to work in teams. HR development delegates the employees and increases their loyalty. Globalization and fast exchange of working environment determine organizations to invest more money in HR development. Knowing that HR are the fundamental element in the organization success, it has been considered that by analyzing the strategies of recruitment, selection, employment and integration of the new comers into organization, we will find the solution to acquire and keep the most suitable persons for organization in order to get organizational and individual performances.

  19. Rhetorical Legitimacy, and the Presidential Debates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucaites, John Louis

    1989-01-01

    Explores the negative popular reaction to the 1988 Presidential Debates. Examines how these events function as ritualistic enactments of the , thus providing a rhetorical legitimacy for the electoral process in a system dedicated to . Suggests how the 1988 debates failed to satisfy that function. (MM)

  20. "The City": The Rhetoric of Rhythm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medhurst, Martin J.; Benson, Thomas W.

    1981-01-01

    Case study of Ralph Steiner and Willard Van Dyke's classic documentary, "The City," a work of cinematic art and a record of the problems confronting urban planners. Discusses how the film builds a rhythmic pattern through dramatic structure, image content and composition, editing, music, and narration to enhance its rhetorical appeal. (JMF)

  1. Assigning Blame: The Rhetoric of Education Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlavacik, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Despite a plethora of opinions on how to improve US education, a remarkable consensus has emerged that someone or something is to blame for the failures of the public school system, argues rhetoric scholar Mark Hlavacik in this new and insightful book examining the role of language and persuasion in the rise of the accountability movement.…

  2. "Hiroshima, Mon Amour": From Iconography to Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medhurst, Martin J.

    1982-01-01

    This iconographic study of Resnais' classic film reconstructs the narrative structure of the film; identifies the various icons, images, sounds, and acts that constitute "marks" in time; and examines these marks to show how they function rhetorically to help interpret the central message or intrinsic meaning of the film. (PD)

  3. Bibliography of Several Approaches to Rhetorical Criticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, William L.; Moeder, Michael D.

    An illustrative rather than an exhaustive bibliography on approaches to rhetorical criticism, this update of an earlier publication lists more than 150 selections. The bibliography is divided into sections on: (1) discussions of the Burkean approach; (2) applications of the Burkean approach; (3) discussions of the fantasy theme approach; (4)…

  4. Intellectual Capital Statements -When Rhetoric meets Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Lotte

    of logos, ethos and pathos and the technical rational approach implying that only one problem, one way and one mean exist. The rhetorical approach sees the world as co-construction and the media is here in the form of narratives. Traditional accounting follows the technical rational approach and the media...

  5. Cooperative rhetoric question in contemporary Persian literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Dashti ahangar

    2016-09-01

    Finally some samples of cooperative rhetoric question in current literature will be presented. It should be noted that the goal of these samples is to be more familiar with the subject matter and not the analysis of current literal texts; because it needs more time and study.

  6. "The Deer Hunter": Rhetoric of the Warrior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushing, Janice Hocker; Frentz, Thomas S.

    A psychological/ritual model of criticism is used to examine the movie "The Deer Hunter" as a rhetorical event in which males undergo psychological change through their war and postwar experiences. The critical model depends on understanding a Jungian interpretation of the human psyche, the form and function of initiation rituals, and…

  7. Gorgias' Rhetoric: Epistemology, Doxa, and Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Gregory T.

    Gorgias' rhetoric can be explained in three parts: his sensory-based but non-empirical epistemology; his definitions of language as inherently deceptive and of "doxa" as the only "knowledge" communicable; and his antithetical style, which reproduces the necessary negotiation of understanding in the world. Gorgias' epistemology…

  8. ‘Ascended far above all the heavens’: Rhetorical functioning of Psalm 68:18 in Ephesians 4:8–10?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elna Mouton

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The letter to the Ephesians employs various communicative strategies in responding to the rhetorical situation of its implied recipients. Focusing on the recipients’ new identity and ethos ἐν Χριστῷ [in Christ], the text emphasises supernatural elements such as resurrection, ascension, heavenly places, revealed mystery, Spirit and power. At the same time, it adopts a rich mosaic of traditional materials, inter alia echoing the Hebrew Scriptures, Hellenistic traditions and early-Christian liturgical traditions. This article explores the dynamic yet complex intertextual fusion and reappropriation of (mainly Jewish traditions in Ephesians as the author’s experience and understanding of the ascended Christ. Special attention is given to the probable functioning of Psalm 68:18 (LXX 67:19 in Ephesians 4:1–16. In conclusion, the essay investigates the intended rhetorical effect of material from the Hebrew Scriptures in the letter – as construction of Christian identity in continuation with the story of Israel and from within the context of Empire.

  9. Science and rhetoric in a globalizing public sphere: mediating systems of climate change knowledge and action

    OpenAIRE

    Üzelgün, Mehmet Ali

    2014-01-01

    Mestrado em Psicologia / Classification (PsychINFO): 3000 Social Psychology 3040 Social Perception & Cognition 4070 Environmental questions e attitudes People’s knowledge and beliefs about intangible problems such as climate change rely heavily on mediated discourses of science and policy. This thesis employs a dialogical and rhetorical approach to social representations to examine how two mediating systems -the mainstream press and environmental non-governmental organizatio...

  10. An evidence-based analysis of learning practices: the need for pharmacy students to employ more effective study strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Daniel

    Learning is a process of constructing neural connections between what is being learned and what has already been learned. Superficial thought processes associated with memorization produce shallow, short-term learning. Higher-order thought processing (critical thinking) produces deep, long-term learning. Pharmacy students should study in ways that enable them to retain and apply what they learn. Investigators who surveyed the learning practices of pharmacy students have reported that most students resort to cramming in preparation for an upcoming exam. The practice of routinely keeping up with course material through regular study is much less common. Most students highlight or re-read material when studying rather than quizzing themselves, and many multitask or study with distractions such as texting, checking e-mails or using social media. Studies in cognitive psychology and education provide evidence to confirm the efficacy of the following learning practices: plan and manage study time, space out and repeat study, interleave (mix up) topics or methods, incorporate retrieval practice (self-quizzing, deliberative reading, or written paraphrasing), minimize distractions, leverage mistakes, and sleep at least seven hours a night. Pharmacy students need to become proficient, lifelong learners. A superficial, memorization-oriented approach to learning is detrimental to professional growth. Faculty members should guide students to employ more effective evidence-based study strategies, while also exploring how curricular design, course content, academic policy or pedagogy might be predisposing students to pursue suboptimal learning practices. The issue calls for the academy to focus greater attention on how students learn. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Tobacco industry use of personal responsibility rhetoric in public relations and litigation: disguising freedom to blame as freedom of choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Lissy C; Cheyne, Andrew; Givelber, Daniel; Gottlieb, Mark A; Daynard, Richard A

    2015-02-01

    We examined the tobacco industry's rhetoric to frame personal responsibility arguments. The industry rarely uses the phrase "personal responsibility" explicitly, but rather "freedom of choice." When freedom of choice is used in the context of litigation, the industry means that those who choose to smoke are solely to blame for their injuries. When used in the industry's public relations messages, it grounds its meaning in the concept of liberty and the right to smoke. The courtroom "blame rhetoric" has influenced the industry's larger public relations message to shift responsibility away from the tobacco companies and onto their customers. Understanding the rhetoric and framing that the industry employs is essential to combating this tactic, and we apply this comprehension to other industries that act as disease vectors.

  12. Washington Crossing the Media: American Presidential Rhetoric and Cultural Iconography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jutta Ernst

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The Revolutionary War has been of prime importance to American self-perceptions and to the formation of its national identity. As a foundational moment with a strong mythical dimension it has become a cherished point of reference for the nation’s leaders, who, in their speeches and written communications, rely on the most widely accepted cultural iconography to recall this event. A time-honored, traditional discourse might, however, go together with the use of contemporary media technology as a means of distribution, as in the case of Barack Obama. Framing Obama’s rhetorical strategies within 19th- and 20th-century artistic representations of one specific historical moment from the Revolutionary War, Washington’s crossing of the Delaware river, this paper seeks to contribute to an enlarged understanding of the intricate relations between politics, the arts, and media development and of the ways they appropriate the past

  13. Textual Self-branding: the Rhetorical Ethos in Mallarmé’s Divagations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arild Michel Bakken

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This article examines, from a rhetorical perspective, the textual presence of the auctorial figure in Mallarmé’s collection of prose writings, Divagations. It challenges the traditional and structuralist idea of Mallarmé as a poet eager to exclude his own persona from his work, and even as the initiator of the “death of the author.” Recent Mallarméan studies have been shifting the field’s attention away from the myth of the ivory tower to focus on the poet’s social project as it appears in the Divagations. Such a project presupposes a rhetorical commitment, and thus an auctorial presence in the text. The question that is raised here is then what role the figure of the poet plays in Mallarmé’s rhetorical strategy. A close rhetorical analysis of the Divagations reveals that the poet constantly, although discreetly, writes his own persona into the text. Throughout the Divagations, Mallarmé deploys much effort to give his persona qualities likely to win the support of his audience. It is argued that this manifest ethos preoccupation has a double function. The rhetorically efficient image of the poet is obviously intended to add authority to his social project. However, the poet’s constant cultivation of his textual figure shows that the ethos has gained a certain autonomy. An important preoccupation for the poet is in fact to brand himself as an author: contrary to the traditional idea of the absent poet, the auctorial figure seems to be one of the primary subjects of the Divagations. The argument thus invites us, in order to avoid overlooking this central aspect of Mallarmé’s project, to take the ethos perspective into account in any approach to Mallarmé’s prose work.

  14. Crisis Communication and the Rhetorical Arena - A Multi-Vocal Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Winni; Frandsen, Finn

    2005-01-01

    Presentation of a new model of crisis communication called the rhetorical arena. This new model is compared to W. Benoit's theory of image restoration strategies and T. Coomb's theory of crisis communication as relationship management. The new model is based on a multi-vocal approach taking...... into account the many corporate and non corporate 'voices' which meet, compete, collaborate or negotiate during a crisis situation. The model conceives crisis communication as mediated through four parameters: context, media, genre, and text....

  15. “Show me thy glory” Sacred language and political rhetoric in Exodus 33:18-23

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Luiz Ribeiro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The text of the Hebrew Bible as instrument of rhetorical projection of political and theological conflicts in the horizon of its production. The objective is to analyze rhetorically Ex 33:18-23, applying at the pericope hermeneutical procedures of social-historical approach and rhetoric analysis, and intending to identify possible relationships between the narrative and the historical and social horizon of its production. As methodological steps, it was translated the Hebrew text from Ex 33:18-23, it was compared with the versions in Portuguese, it was analyzed rhetorically each section of the pericope and sought to identify the elements of contact between the narrative and the historical and social world-that produced it and serves as its semantic context. It was concluded that this is a critical and sarcastic text to priestly prerogatives that marked the political and social transformation of Judah after the Babylonian captivity. The narrative rhetorical strategy is, in the form of a request to the deity, to isolate the priestly postulated in v. 18, confronting it in v. 19-23 through three categorical denials by Yahweh.

  16. Narrative Transparency: Adopting a Rhetorical Stance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnould, Eric; Press, Melea

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we look at how alternative marketing organisations communicate transparency in a climate of generalised risk and scepticism. We contrast the traditional numeric approach to transparency, which involves auditing and third-party certifications; with an alternative approach that we call...... narrative transparency. Central to narrative transparency is an emphasis on stake-holder dialogue and an invitation to stake-holders to play the role of auditor. This article illustrates how alternative marketing organisations engage in rhetorical tactics central to a narrative approach, to communicate...... transparency to their stakeholders. These rhetorical tactics include persona, allegory, consumer sovereignty and enlightenment. Community supported agriculture programmes from across the United States are the context for this study. Findings enrich discussions about best practices for transparency...

  17. Producing Knowledge to Reduce Rhetorical Distance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance

    writers a larger public forum into which they can extend their identity. When the identity being extended represents a minority group, the web offers an opportunity for members of that group to engage mainstream ideology and work at reducing the rhetorical distance between their identity and mainstream......Producing Knowledge to Reduce Rhetorical Distance: Extending Identity and Engaging Mainstream Ideology via the Web Constance Kampf, Department of Research Knowledge Communication, Aarhus School of Business, Denmark McLuhan describes technologies as extensions -the wheel being an extension...... perceptions. This paper theorizes about ways in which the Internet can change the act of producing knowledge through the characteristics of speed and reach, allowing minorities to access a widespread audience much more easily than before the Internet. Access to a widespread audience, in turn, offers...

  18. Populism, Prejudice and the Rhetoric of Privilege

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Giordano

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to show, by means of a close look at the most recent samples of political discourse in Europe and America, how much and how frequently populists set up their narratives around a relatively small number of patterns, such as the worship of the people, a (more or less overt appeal to prejudice and the rhetoric of privilege. In so doing, it offers some useful insights into the nature of contemporary populism.

  19. Cervantes and Rhetoric: Genera Oratoria and Compositio in La Gitanilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Pineda

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the conclusions drawn by several scholars about Cervantes’s knowledge of Ancient and Renaissance poetical and rhetorical theories, this article aims to propose an attentive rhetorical reading of three speeches uttered by the protagonist of La Gitanilla. The speeches can be ascribed to the three rhetorical genres described by Aristotle in his Rhetoric, namely the deliberative, the epideictic, and the forensic genres. From that general framework, the last part of the article focuses on a single stylistic detail in order to show the theoretical connections of the compositio techniques that Cervantes uses in what might arguably be considered the highest point in Preciosa’s eloquence.

  20. Critical contrastive rhetoric: The influence of L2 letter writing instruction on L1letter writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoosh Fakharzadeh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study employed critical contrastive rhetoric to investigate the L2 to L1 transfer of organizational pattern and directness level of speech acts in business complaint letters. By examining the L1 complaint letters of 30 tourism university students in two phases of study, pre and post instruction of English complaint letter, the study revealed that the rhetorical organization of Persian letters are in a state of hybridity. The post instruction comparison of letters, however, showed a tendency towards applying English conventions both in organization and directness level of complaint speech act in the L1 complaint letters. The results also revealed that after instruction the expert in the field of tourism viewed some letters as inappropriate in terms of politeness which is reflected through some lexical items.

  1. Fishful Thinking: Rhetoric, Reality, and the Sea Before Us

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony J. Pitcher

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Fisheries science and management have been shrouded in controversy and rhetoric for over 125 yrs. Human reliance on fish through history (and even prehistory has impacted the sea and its resources. Global impacts are manifest today in threatened food security and vulnerable marine ecosystems. Growing consumer demand and subsidized industrial fisheries exacerbate ecosystem degradation, climate change, global inequities, and local poverty. Ten commonly advocated fisheries management solutions, if implemented alone, cannot remedy a history of intense fishing and serial stock depletions. Fisheries policy strategies evaluated along five performance modalities (ecological, economic, social, ethical, and institutional suggest that composite management strategies, such as ecosystem-based management and historically based restoration, can do better. A scientifically motivated solution to the fisheries problem can be found in the restorable elements of past ecosystems, if some of our present ideology, practices, and tastes can be relinquished for this historical imperative. Food and social security can be enhanced using a composite strategy that targets traditional food sources and implements customary management practices. Without binding laws, however, instituting such an ethically motivated goal for fisheries policy can easily be compromised by global market pressures. In a restored and productive ecosystem, fishing is clearly the privilege of a few. The realities of imminent global food insecurity, however, may dictate a strategy to deliberately fish down the food web, if the basic human right to food is to be preserved for all.

  2. Multimodal Strategies of Theorization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cartel, Melodie; Colombero, Sylvain; Boxenbaum, Eva

    This paper examines the role of multimodal strategies in processes of theorization. Empirically, we investigate the theorization process of a highly disruptive innovation in the history of architecture: reinforced concrete. Relying on archival data from a dominant French architectural journal from...... with well-known rhetorical strategies and develop a process model of theorization....

  3. Coping with pediatric cancer: strategies employed by children and their parents to manage cancer-related stressors during treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildenbrand, Aimee K; Clawson, Kathleen J; Alderfer, Melissa A; Marsac, Meghan L

    2011-01-01

    Pediatric cancer patients and their families face significant physical, emotional, and psychosocial challenges. Few studies have investigated how children manage these challenges and how parents may help in the process. This qualitative study aimed to explore common cancer-related stressors for children and to examine child coping and parental assistance in coping with these stressors during treatment. Fifteen children undergoing cancer treatment and their parents participated in semistructured interviews. Four themes emerged capturing cancer-related stressors: cancer treatment/side effects, distressing emotions, disruption in daily routines, and social challenges. Six themes emerged regarding child coping strategies that were classified within an approach/avoidance coping framework. Approach coping strategies included the following: cognitive restructuring, relaxation, practical strategies, seeking social support, and emotional expression. Distraction was the only avoidant coping strategy. Parents tended to encourage approach coping strategies (eg, cognitive restructuring, social support). Within families, few coping strategies were reported (child: M = 1.47, SD = 0.99; parent: M = 3.33, SD = 1.18), suggesting that early family-based interventions teaching coping techniques for cancer-related stressors may be beneficial.

  4. The Open Method of Co-ordination and the Analysis of Mutual Learning Processes of the European Employment Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter

    The purpose of this paper is solely to address two interlinked methodological and theoretical questions concerning the Open Method of Coordination (OMC), using the European Employment Strategy as a case: First, what is the most appropriate approach to learning in the analyses of the processes...... of the European Employment Strategy (EES)? Second, how is mutual learning processes diffused among the Member States? In answering these two questions the paper draws on a social constructivist approach to learning thereby contributing to the debate about learning in the political science literature. At the same...... time, based on this concept of learning, it is concluded that the learning effects of the EES are probably somewhat larger than what is normally suggested, but that successful diffusion still depends on a variety of contextual factors....

  5. The 'Recalcitrant Other': The Rhetorical Identity and Struggle of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article explores the complexity of Mandela's rhetorical identity as the Recalcitrant Other and his rhetorical struggle as informed by contesting influences such as his ancestral birthright, cultural upbringing, British mission education, and exposure to a racially constructed hegemonic order. By subversively drawing on his ...

  6. Burke, Nietzsche, Lacan: Three Perspectives on the Rhetoric of Order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Douglas

    1993-01-01

    Examines the complex relationship between rhetoric and order in the works of Kenneth Burke, Friedrich Nietzsche, and Jacques Lacan. Argues for three differing, yet complementary, views of rhetoric and order, each having a corresponding epistemology and axiology. Concludes with an analysis of the construction of order in Thomas Hobbe's…

  7. Mythic Evolution of "The New Frontier" in Mass Mediated Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushing, Janice Hocker

    1986-01-01

    Combines "rhetorical narration" with K. Burke's dramatistic pentad to argue that definitional cultural myths are rhetorically meaningful in relation to social consciousness if both evolved teleologically. Delineates two phases in America's frontier myth associated with recent space fiction films' representation of a pentadic term's…

  8. A Rhetoric of Turns: Signs and Symbols in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutten, Kris; Soetaert, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    In our research and teaching we explore the value and the place of rhetoric in education. From a theoretical perspective we situate our work in different disciplines, inspired by major "turns": linguistic, cultural, anthropological/ethnographic, interpretive, semiotic, narrative, literary, rhetorical etc. In this article we engage in the…

  9. The Argument in Film: Applying Rhetorical Theory to Film Criticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Laurence

    1979-01-01

    Approaches film criticism using classical and modern rhetorical concepts. Discusses the nature and effectiveness of the filmmaker's modes of appeal--to logos, pathos, and ethos, and the appropriateness of his/her rhetorical stance--the balance of attitudes toward subject, audience, and his/her creative self. (JMF)

  10. Sensing the Sentence: An Embodied Simulation Approach to Rhetorical Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, Hannah J.

    2017-01-01

    This article applies the neuroscientific concept of embodied simulation--the process of understanding language through visual, motor, and spatial modalities of the body--to rhetorical grammar and sentence-style pedagogies. Embodied simulation invigorates rhetorical grammar instruction by attuning writers to the felt effects of written language,…

  11. The Imperial Style: Rhetorical Depiction and Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, James R.

    2000-01-01

    Contributes to scholarship advancing the understanding of human communication by examining a powerful set of imperialist symbols that have a lingering impact on the British national psyche. Investigates the Queen's Diamond Jubilee speech and the performative rhetoric of the Jubilee celebration itself, to illustrate how rhetorical depiction may…

  12. The Speaker Respoken: Material Rhetoric as Feminist Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Vicki Tolar

    1999-01-01

    Presents a methodology based on the concept of "material rhetoric" that can help scholars avoid problems as they reclaim women's historical texts. Defines material rhetoric and positions it theoretically in relation to other methodologies, including bibliographical studies, reception theory, and established feminist methodologies. Illustrates…

  13. US and Russian Traditions in Rhetoric, Education and Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappen, James P.

    2012-01-01

    Traditional rhetoric attempts to find the available means of persuasion in public assemblies, law courts and ceremonials and is grounded in cultural values and beliefs. Traditional rhetoric supports the development of social communities and posits education as a primary means of maintaining these communities. In contrast, contemporary alternatives…

  14. Rhetorical Invention and Advanced Literacy: An Historical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagaman, John

    Recent criticism of rhetorical invention faults the discipline for not promoting "advanced literacy," defined as the use of critical reading and writing abilities to serve social ends. Aristotle's vision of rhetoric has contributed significantly to a cognitive view of invention, but Aristotle also acknowledged the importance of social…

  15. Exploring the Common Ground of Rhetoric and Logic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Catherine E.

    In teaching the principles of rational discourse in advanced expository writing, it is necessary to clarify the similarities and differences between the logic and rhetoric of Aristotle and to identify a common ground between the two. The study of logic within rhetoric focuses on the inductive standards used to support two kinds of argument: the…

  16. Psyche/Logos: Mapping the Terrains of Mind and Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumlin, James S.; Baumlin, Tita French

    1989-01-01

    Discusses rhetoric as mirroring psychology. Examines Aristotle's three "pisteis"--the pathetic, logical, and ethical proofs, paralleling them to Freud's id, ego, and super-ego. Explores an adequate feminine psychology and a corresponding rhetoric. Outlines two models of persuasive discourse, the rational world paradigm and the narrative…

  17. The Myth of the "Turn" in Contrastive Rhetoric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, David

    2003-01-01

    Contrastive rhetoric scholarship researches rhetorical structures across languages to predict the difficulties experienced by students learning to write essays in a second language. The paradigmatic contrast is between Western languages (e.g., English) that are said to exemplify "linearity" and "directness" and Eastern languages (e.g., Chinese,…

  18. Recursivity: A Working Paper on Rhetoric and "Mnesis"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stormer, Nathan

    2013-01-01

    This essay proposes the genealogical study of remembering and forgetting as recursive rhetorical capacities that enable discourse to place itself in an ever-changing present. "Mnesis" is a meta-concept for the arrangements of remembering and forgetting that enable rhetoric to function. Most of the essay defines the materiality of "mnesis", first…

  19. Understanding the strategies employed to cope with increased numbers of AIDS-orphaned children in families in rural settings: a case of Mbeya Rural District, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauk, Nelsensius Klau; Mwakinyali, Silivano Edson; Putra, Sukma; Mwanri, Lillian

    2017-02-07

    The purpose of this study was to understand the strategies employed by families that adopt Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)-orphaned children (Adoptive families) for coping with and mitigating the impact of AIDS in Mbeya Rural District, Tanzania. High numbers of AIDS-orphaned children aged below 18 years in Mbeya Region have led to increasing the burden of families caring for them. Understanding the coping strategies and impact mitigation activities employed by adoptive families is important in order to develop programmes to help them. This study employed a qualitative method for data collection (one-on-one in-depth interviews). The respondents included 12 male and 8 female heads of families that provide essential care for AIDS-orphaned children in Mbeya Rural District in Tanzania. The framework approach was used to analyse the data that were collected from 15 July to 15 August 2010. The study findings revealed that adoptive families faced several challenges including financial constraints due to increased needs for basic essentials such as health care expenses, school fees and food. Further impacts on adoptive families included shortage of work opportunities and limited time to address these challenges. To mitigate these challenges, adoptive families employed a range of coping strategies including selling family assets and renting out parts of cultivable land for extra cash. Task reallocation which involved the AIDS-orphaned children entering the labour force was also employed as a strategy to mitigate challenges and involved de-enrolling of children from schools so they could take part in income-generating activities in order to earn supplementary family income. The creation of additional income-generating activities such as poultry farming were other coping mechanisms employed, and these received support from both non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and governmental organisations, including the Isangati Agricultural Development Organization (local

  20. Indian Ability ("Auilidad de Indio") and Rhetoric's Civilizing Narrative: Guaman Poma's Contact with the Rhetorical Tradition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romney, Abraham

    2011-01-01

    The concept of the contact zone has been around for some time and deserves reconsideration. As a gesture toward this reevaluation and as an exploration of indigenous rhetoric, the author takes up Felipe Guaman Poma's "El primer nueva coronica y buen gobierno" (The First New Chronicle and Good Government), the text that Mary Louise Pratt…

  1. Toward a Rhetoric of Self-Representation: Identity Politics in Indian Country and Rhetoric and Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushman, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    Scholars in rhetoric and composition have explored political issues of identity and language for some time; however, we have only begun to develop an understanding of why the identity politics of Native scholars are so different from other scholars of color and whites. Native scholars take considerable risks in composing identities--they can face…

  2. The Devolution of 20th Century Presidential Campaign Rhetoric: A Call for "Rhetorical Service."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemann, Robert L.

    Over the course of the 20th century, American Presidential campaign rhetoric has undergone various metamorphoses. Most of these changes can be traced to developments in technology and media. Furthermore, many of these changes have had the unfortunate effect of undermining a rational choice of the electorate, and thus threaten our democracy. Like…

  3. Employing Concept Mapping as a Pre-Writing Strategy to Help EFL Learners Better Generate Argumentative Compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shaer, Ibrahim M. R.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the impact of employing concept mapping at a pre-writing stage on English as a foreign language (EFL) students' ability to generate better argumentative essays. Thirty-eight participants were randomly assigned to two groups participating in Writing II course at Al-Quds Open University (QOU). Both groups…

  4. A probabilistic production costing analysis of SO2 emissions reduction strategies for Ohio: emissions, costs and employment tradeoffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heslin, J.S.; Hobbs, B.F.

    1991-01-01

    A new approach for state- and utility-level analysis of the cost and regional economic impacts of strategies for reducing utility SO 2 emissions is summarized and applied to Ohio. The methodology is based upon probabilistic production costing and economic input-output analysis. It is an improvement over previous approaches because it: (1) accurately models random outages of generating units, 'must-run' constraints on unit output, and the distribution of power demands; and (2) runs quickly on a microcomputer and yet considers the entire range of potential control strategies from a systems perspective. The input-output analysis considers not only the economic effects of utility fuel use and capital investment, but also those of increased electric rates. Two distinct strategies are found to be most attractive for Ohio. The first, more flexible one, consists of emissions dispatching (ED) alone to meet short run emissions reduction targets. A 75 percent reduction can then be achieved by the turn of the century by combining ED and fuel switching (FS) with flue gas desulfurization, limestone injection multistage burners, and physical coal cleaning at selected plants. The second is a scrubber-based strategy which includes ED. By the year 2000, energy conservation becomes a cost effective component of these strategies. In order to minimize compliance costs, acid rain legislation which facilitates emission trading and places regional tonnage limits on emissions is desirable

  5. Hegemony and Discourse in Contemporary Argentina. The Political Effects of the Use of "People" in Nestor Kirchner's Rhetoric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Antonia Muñoz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhetorical games are not the only tools of construction of political power. However, they constitute an indicator of hegemonic struggle strategies, which has been developed by the political actors. The present paper focuses on the linguistic elements of president's Néstor Kirchner's hegemonic strategy. The reconstruction of his discursive production allows us to better comprehend the process of hegemonic reconfiguration produced in recent times in Argentina.

  6. Genetic rhetoric: Science, authority, and genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Elizabeth Parthenia

    This dissertation is an analysis of how the cultural authority of genetics works through language. An analysis of the rhetorical construction of knowledge and authority in cultural contexts, the study is intended to contribute to a larger discussion aimed at keeping the intersections of science and culture within the realm of rhetoric, that is within the realm of communication and dialogue. Of special concern is the influence of genetic rhetoric on the cultural momentum of biological determinism to explain away social organization, class inequalities, racial differences, gender differences, and stigmatized behaviors by rooting them in the construct of the biological individual. This study separates questions of legitimacy from questions of authority and focuses on the way that authority of genetics works through language. With authority defined as the function of resisting challenges to legitimacy and/or power, the study consists of three parts. First, a historical analysis of the terms science, genetics, and gene, shows how these words came to refer not only to areas and objects of study but also to sources of epistemological legitimacy outside culture and language. The relationships between these words and their referents are examined in socio-historical context to illustrate how the function of signaling authority was inscribed in the literal definition of these terms. Second, introductory chapters of contemporary Genetics textbooks are examined. In these texts the foundations of legitimacy associated with genetics and science are maintained as the authors articulate idealized views of science and genetics in relation to society. Finally, articles in the popular press reporting on and discussing recent research correlating genetics and homosexuality are examined. The popular press reports of "gay gene" research serve as textual examples of figurative representations of genetics concepts shaping discourse about social issues. I argue that the cultural authority

  7. Using overseas registered nurses to fill employment gaps in rural health services: quick fix or sustainable strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Karen; Chapman, Ysanne; Doolan, Glenn; Sellick, Ken; Barnett, Tony

    2008-06-01

    This study sought to identify and evaluate approaches used to attract internationally trained nurses from traditional and non-traditional countries and incentives employed to retain them in small rural hospitals in Gippsland, Victoria. An exploratory descriptive design. Small rural hospitals in Gippsland, Victoria. Hospital staff responsible for recruitment of nurses and overseas trained nurses from traditional and non-traditional sources (e.g. England, Scotland, India, Zimbabwe, Holland, Singapore, Malaysia). Recruitment of married overseas trained nurses is more sustainable than that of single registered nurses, however, the process of recruitment for the hospital and potential employees is costly. Rural hospitality diffuses some of these expenses by the employing hospitals providing emergency accommodation and necessary furnishings. Cultural differences and dissonance regarding practice create barriers for some of the overseas trained nurses to move towards a more sanguine position. On the positive side, single overseas registered nurses use the opportunity to work in rural Australian hospitals as an effective working holiday that promotes employment in larger, more specialized hospitals. Overall both the registered nurses and the employees believe the experience to be beneficial rather than detrimental.

  8. Employer Brand Strategies of the Antena 1 and Antena 3 TV Broadcasters in the Context of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorica Paus

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The “employer brand” concept has recently entered the field of human resources. This study aims to analyze how the two national TV broadcasters Antena 1 and Antena 3 apply this concept and how the employer brand customizes and enhances the distinctive values of the organization through its employees. Ambler and Barrow defined for the first time the term of “employer brand”, in the Journal of Brand Management in 1996. We conducted an exploratory research in order to identify the presence of branding activities. We used the survey, the interview and the analysis of documents promoting the image of the organization. Correlated results demonstrate that high employee satisfaction leads to enhancing performance, which increases the audience ratings and improves the “brand equity”, thus making the human resource part of the organization brand and contributing to its success and international visibility. Given the early exploration of the concept, our research seeks to provide models of good practice for implementing this concept in the human resources policies of Romanian media institutions in the context of globalization.

  9. Progress in the Inductive Strategy-Use of Children from Different Ethnic Backgrounds: A Study Employing Dynamic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resing, Wilma C. M.; Touw, Kirsten W. J.; Veerbeek, Jochanan; Elliott, Julian G.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated potential differences in inductive behavioural and verbal strategy-use between children (aged 6-8 years) from indigenous and non-indigenous backgrounds. This was effected by the use of an electronic device that could present a series of tasks, offer scaffolded assistance and record children's responses. Children from…

  10. The Rhetoric of Madness in Kathy Acker’s Don Quixote

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Cao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines the rhetorical experimentation of Don Quixote by Kathy Acker, starting from a theoretical concept central in the author’s thought: her search for a “language of the body”. A brief introduction to Kathy Acker’s plagiaristic poetics frames her narrative strategies between postmodern rewriting and pastiche. It shows the way in which her Don Quixote transposes the representative scheme of the chivalric quest into the contemporary value system with the aim of questioning Cervantes’ text as one of the canonical works of the Western literary tradition. The following section deepens three focal concepts of Acker’s theoretical works – body, madness, and norm – illuminating the connections between her rhetorical experimentation and the works by Luce Irigaray and Judith Butler. Finally, the paper will demonstrate how these concepts in Acker's rewriting of Don Quixote are strictly related to paradox, which she uses in order to actualize a “language of the body”: in the passage from the former novel to the postmodern work, madness has become the device which, from the semantic level to the rhetorical one, expresses Acker’s idea of language of the body, as an alternative and in contrast to the canonical language of the logos.

  11. The rhetoric of disenchantment through symbolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Théophile Munyangeyo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The symbolism of flowers has always been a significant part of cultures around the world due to their functional meaning in daily life. From their decorative to their aromatic role, flowers and their symbolic meaning trigger emotions, convey wishes and represent thoughts that can not be explicitly expressed. In this regard, an elaborate language based on flower symbolism was developed in many societies, to convey clear messages to the recipient. However, in some cultural contexts, although the flower symbolism has social connotations, it is mainly associated with economic references. As flowers are an essential precursor to fruits, they are inevitably a source of expectations and hence foster a set of hopes and dreams, which can ultimately lead to excitement or disappointment.Through a discourse analysis based on factional narratives, this article explores the parameters through which the symbolism of bifaceted meaning of flowers fictionalises a space that refers to the social reality. This association between the fictional world and social reference has highlighted that writing can profoundly be a means of representing social events through the rhetoric of symbolism. Through a sociological reading approach, this paper aims to analyse how the symbolism of flowers informs the rhetoric of disenchantment that can foster a content-based pedagogy in language learning where silencing practices engender imagery to exercise the freedom of expression.

  12. Divinacija prieš Cecilijų Cicerono retorikos kontekste. Divinatio in Caecilium in the context of Cicero’s rhetoric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audronė Kučinskienė

    2010-01-01

    eloquence to Caecilius, he tries not only to belittle his opponent, but also to reveal his own knowledge and skills in rhetori­cal technique, so proving himself a worthy opponent to Hortensius. Thus the instruction of Caecilius is not merely the teaching of rhetoric, but also its practical application. Moreover, Cicero inveigles his audience into a certain game, by allowing them to recognise in his precepts to Caecilius the phrasing of the rules of the rhetorical school, as well as to appreciate their masterful application in Cicero’s own speech. In this way Cicero consciously appeals to the education of the audience, by subsuming a circle of educated men, like Cicero himself and his listeners, and consciously excluding Caecilius from that circle.Cicero also prefigures his future speeches against Verres, foreseeing, in part, the strategy and tactic of accusation that will become especially important in the second speech against Verres (In Verrem II.

  13. Genomic Medicine Without Borders: Which Strategies Should Developing Countries Employ to Invest in Precision Medicine? A New "Fast-Second Winner" Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitropoulos, Konstantinos; Cooper, David N; Mitropoulou, Christina; Agathos, Spiros; Reichardt, Jürgen K V; Al-Maskari, Fatima; Chantratita, Wasun; Wonkam, Ambroise; Dandara, Collet; Katsila, Theodora; Lopez-Correa, Catalina; Ali, Bassam R; Patrinos, George P

    2017-11-01

    Genomic medicine has greatly matured in terms of its technical capabilities, but the diffusion of genomic innovations worldwide faces significant barriers beyond mere access to technology. New global development strategies are sorely needed for biotechnologies such as genomics and their applications toward precision medicine without borders. Moreover, diffusion of genomic medicine globally cannot adhere to a "one-size-fits-all-countries" development strategy, in the same way that drug treatments should be customized. This begs a timely, difficult but crucial question: How should developing countries, and the resource-limited regions of developed countries, invest in genomic medicine? Although a full-scale investment in infrastructure from discovery to the translational implementation of genomic science is ideal, this may not always be feasible in all countries at all times. A simple "transplantation of genomics" from developed to developing countries is unlikely to be feasible. Nor should developing countries be seen as simple recipients and beneficiaries of genomic medicine developed elsewhere because important advances in genomic medicine have materialized in developing countries as well. There are several noteworthy examples of genomic medicine success stories involving resource-limited settings that are contextualized and described in this global genomic medicine innovation analysis. In addition, we outline here a new long-term development strategy for global genomic medicine in a way that recognizes the individual country's pressing public health priorities and disease burdens. We term this approach the "Fast-Second Winner" model of innovation that supports innovation commencing not only "upstream" of discovery science but also "mid-stream," building on emerging highly promising biomarker and diagnostic candidates from the global science discovery pipeline, based on the unique needs of each country. A mid-stream entry into innovation can enhance collective

  14. Searching for New Forms of Legitimacy Through Corporate Responsibility Rhetoric

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castello, Itziar; Lozano, Josep

    2011-01-01

    This article looks into the process of searching for new forms of legitimacy among firms through corporate discourse. Through the analysis of annual sustainability reports, we have determined the existence of three types of rhetoric: (1) strategic (embedded in the scientific-economic paradigm); (2...... of the firm analyzed in this article. We claim that dialectic rhetoric seems to signal a new understanding of the firm’s role in society and a search for moral legitimation. However, this new form of rhetoric is still fairly uncommon although its use is growing. Combining theory and business examples...

  15. Melos: a Rhetoric Proof in Songs in Semiotic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Dantas de Oliveira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We will have, in this work, the exposure of an approach to cancional text as a specific rhetorical situation. We assimilated the melos as all musical aspects of the song as a rhetorical proof that articulates the traditional trilogy: ethos, logos and pathos. We will use an interdisciplinary theoretical framework, articulating the classical rhetoric to semiotics applied to the song, exploring, from this model, discursive aspects of cancional text. As corpus, we have the analysis of a buarquiana song sample sociopolitical theme composed and recorded during the period of dictatorship.

  16. Muddling through the Moment with “Rowdy” Rhetoric

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Lisa Storm

    and cooperation as natural, would hold the potential to render public deliberation more meaningful. Ivie’s point strikes a chord in US rhetoric scholarship that goes back to the 1960s and 70s and scholars’ attempts then at coming to terms with public discourse that in various ways broke with traditional norms......, more tenable and democratic mode – a “civic discourse.2”? With this panel we explore and push the concept of rowdy rhetoric as we look at ways in which rhetoric can function as a vehicle for healthy debate in participatory democracy. With examples from fora such as electronic media, public meetings...

  17. The power of rhetoric and the rhetoric of power: Exploring a tension within the Obama presidency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Kroes

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available When Barack Obama acceded to the Presidency of the United States he held out the promise of a new beginning. As a master of political rhetoric he had spoken of a new start following the dismal years of the Bush administration. He would take America back to its inspirational creed of freedom and democracy. He augured a break with policies infringing on civil liberties and government under the law. Once in office, though, the power of rhetoric that had carried him into the White House ran into the hard reality of political rule under conditions of ongoing wars in far-away countries and the threat of terrorism, lurking at home and abroad. This chapter will explore how well President Obama managed to preserve democratic freedoms at home while fighting terrorism.

  18. Puebla Territory-Specific Basket of Goods Strategies and Their Local Repercussions for Employment and Profit: the Case of Xicotepec de Juárez, Puebla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario del Roble Pensado Leglise

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Developing a basket of land goods means a systemic strateg y for small farmers because it allows reaching multiple objectives in order to promote territorial competitiveness to access market niches with varied rural goods, strengthen social capital and generate better local levels in employment and income, together with increasing and preserving the environment. This analysis implied the application of a system dynamics model which produced possible future scenarios (through Ve n s i m®DSS 5.8 about employment and income obtained by smallholder coffee farmers from Xicotepec de Juárez municipality in Puebla, regarding the setting of the above mentioned strateg y for rural development. Results showed that this strateg y was implemented successfully and also revealed opportunities for: a improving the development capacity of small farmers; b making the institutional context favorable; c The reinforcement of social capital essential to implement this land strategy.

  19. Critical Thinking Activities and the Enhancement of Ethical Awareness: An Application of a "Rhetoric of Disruption" to the Undergraduate General Education Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Jeffrey W.

    2015-01-01

    This article explores how critical thinking activities and assignments can function to enhance students' ethical awareness and sense of civic responsibility. Employing Levinas's Other-centered theory of ethics, Burke's notion of "the paradox of substance", and Murray's concept of "a rhetoric of disruption", this article…

  20. Global Perspectives on E-learning: Rhetoric and Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat ATAIZI

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Global Perspectives on E-learning: Rhetoric and Reality Carr-Chellman, A. A. (Ed (2005. Global Perspectives on E-learning. Rhetoric and Reality. 1-4129-0489-7, 280p.Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Pub. Inc. Reviewed by Murat ATAIZIAnadolu University,Eskisehir, TURKEY This book is edited by Alison A. Carr-Chellman who is associate professor of education at Pennsylvania State University , and one of the leading figures in the field of e-learning. Total of sixteen authors contributed to the sections. Authors are varying from doctoral students to professors emeritus, but all of them are experienced in the field of e-learning and distance education. The book presents a collection of papers from international case studies and its divided into five main parts based on geographic location, and each of them brings case studies of online education on e-learning and discusses the rhetoric that surrounds this form of teaching and learning from Asia, Europe, North America, Oceania, and Africa. The first part of the book examines online education in Asia : Analysis of China , Taiwan , and India . The China chapter explains that the Dianda system there is one of the world's largest education systems, combining radio-television university system. The author examines the political rhetoric and discusses the impacts on the way China adopts the new online learning technologies. The Taiwan chapter examines the digital gap, internet usage, and the government and IT industries roles to development of e-learning in Taiwan . The India chapter begins with distance education through correspondence courses that has been with us since the 1960s. The author examines the state of traditional and distance education in India , and identifies the viability and importance of online education given the current social, economic, and infrastructural status que. The second part of the book is on online education in Europe : Analysis of Ireland , the United Kingdom , International Study

  1. Rhetorical Features of the Company Website

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Ellerup

    2002-01-01

    will discuss the functional and the compositional aspects of corporate communication on the World Wide Web by comparing company websites with traditional market communication media. I will focus on linguistic and visual features of the company website and briefly account for some of the media constraints......Recent years have seen a growing body of literature ceoncerned with the World Wide Web as a new form of communication, and numerous discussions on composition, structure and design of successful company websites are being held in all kinds of forums within and outside the Internet. However, most...... these discussions seem to focus on the technological properties of the Internet or tend to serve purely practical purposes and only few researchers discuss the rhetorical features of web communication, the exception being a litited number of researchers dealing with metaphors on the Web. In this paper I...

  2. The Rhetoric of PowerPoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens E. Kjeldsen

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The presentation program PowerPoint is probably the most used tool in the schools, high schools and universities of today. The use of this program, however, comes at a cost, because it is not just a different and neutral way of teaching. Like the use of any technology, PowerPoint affects not only the way we present and teach, but also the way we think, learn and understand. The program carries an inherent tendency to crate fragmentation of thought and cognitive overload. In order to avoid this we should stop thinking in terms of technology and begin to think rhetorically. What we need is media rhetoracy: the ability to communicate persuasively and appropriately.

  3. Nuclear policy just rhetoric, says Gilinsky

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    Mr. Gilinsky, a member of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, labels administration nuclear policy as empty rhetoric that will not address the nuclear industry's real problems of the decline of nuclear power. He projects that another 20 plants under construction will join the 11 that were already cancelled or abandoned unless the economic situation changes. He argues that streamlining licensing not only won't help but will introduce a conflict of interest problem as the plan was presented. The real problem goes back to utilities entering the nuclear business without understanding the dangers and technical problems or having the managerial competence. Commercial reprocessing will not occur if federal money is withdrawn, making the Clinch River Breeder Project unnecessary

  4. 'Nurse entrepreneurs' a case of government rhetoric?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traynor, Michael; Drennan, Vari; Goodman, Claire; Mark, Annabelle; Davis, Kathy; Peacock, Richard; Banning, Maggi

    2008-01-01

    Nursing has come to play a prominent role in government health policy since 1997. Extending the scope of nursing practice into activities previously carried out by doctors can assist a managerialist and 'modernizing' project of increasing National Health Service (NHS) efficiency by removing demarcations between professional groups. Drawing on elements of poststructuralist linguistics, this paper presents an analysis of a key government speech in the context of a discussion of overall policy intentions. The speech can be seen as an example of how government has attempted to use rhetoric to make its goals attractive to nurses. Policy-makers have to make their policies acceptable to those whom they expect to implement them. In this case, organizational efficiency, chiefly in terms of broader access to NHS services, as well as role substitution, is aligned with government policy promoting social enterprise and 'sold' to the nursing profession as enhancing its status compared with medicine.

  5. The Semiotics and Rhetoric of Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Christian Erik J

    2017-01-01

    Does music have meanings? If so, what are they like? These questions concern the semiotics of music. I will address these questions, using evidence from what I call aesthetic protocol analysis. I will further ask about the rhetorical significance of music having the kind of semiotics it apparently...... has. Given that music has the meanings it does, in the way it does, then what is the aesthetic function of that? In my view, asking what role meanings in music play for its aesthetic effect is to ask a rhetorician’s question. Rhetoricians will want to know what sorts of things artifacts do, and how...... they do them. That also goes for artifacts whose function is to provide aesthetic experience—and that, I believe, is what many of us listen to music for most of the time. So I wish to say something about what role the experience of musical meanings plays in this....

  6. Hugh Blairs Lectures on Rhetoric and Belles Lettres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schatz-Jakobsen, Claus

    1989-01-01

    Artiklen nærlæser dekonstruktivt dele af den skotske retorikprofessor Hugh Blairs Lecures on Rhetoric and Belles Lettres (1783) og påviser splittelsen mellem to vidt forskellige retorik- og liltteraturhistoriske interesser, neoklassicistiske vs. romantiske....

  7. Three dimensions in rhetorical conflict analysis: A topological model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trygve Svensson

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Conflict is omnipresent in human relations. So is rhetoric in conflict situations. Hence, there is a danger of taking conflict and its different forms of resolution for granted when we do rhetorical analysis. “Rhetoric” is often used as a general and non-scientific term in the social sciences; the same is the case for “conflict” in rhetorical scholarship. Hence, there is a need for concrete analytical tools. This article suggests a topological model to analyze three dimensions of rhetoric in conflict resolution, management or handling. Using “I’ve Been to the Mountaintop,” the famous last speech of Martin Luther King Jr., as an example, I use the model to give an analytic overview.

  8. The Rhetoric of Defeat: Nazi Propaganda in 1945.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bytwerk, Randall L.

    1978-01-01

    The rhetoric of the final four months of Hitler's Reich is examined, including arguments that Germany could still win the war based on moral and logical grounds, and later appeals based on source credibility, historical analogy, and terror. (JF)

  9. Conspiracy Rhetoric: From Pragmatism to Fantasy in Public Discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodnight, G. Thomas; Poulakos, John

    1981-01-01

    Notes that conspiracy charges have come to characterize mainstream political drama. Analyzes dimensions of the Watergate scandal so that the manner in which conspiracy rhetoric unfolds in political drama may be better understood. (PD)

  10. Toward a Rhetoric for English Department Curricular Debates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialostosky, Don

    1993-01-01

    Identifies the ideas of the good that organize the professional lives of English college faculty. Discusses how these ideas should help faculty to constitute their departments, colleagues, and students. Applies insights from Aristotle's "Rhetoric" to departmental discussions. (HB)

  11. Multivariate optimization of the determination of zinc in diesel oil employing a novel extraction strategy based on emulsion breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassella, Ricardo J.; Brum, Daniel M.; Lima, Claudio F.; Caldas, Luiz Fernando S.; Paula, Carlos Eduardo R. de

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the extraction/pre-concentration of Zn from diesel oil and its determination by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS), proposed as a novel approach for these kinds of analyses and the multivariate optimization of the proposed procedure. The extraction of Zn is based on the emulsification of an aqueous solution containing Triton X-114 and HNO 3 with diesel oil samples followed by breaking of the emulsion by heating. The aqueous phase obtained after the emulsion breaking was collected and used for Zn quantification by FAAS. The methodology was optimized using a Doehlert design and the system variables were the concentrations of surfactant and HNO 3 in the solution employed in the emulsification and the temperature used in the emulsion breaking. The ratio between absorbance and the time required to break the emulsions was taken as response. Two sets of experiments, using different emulsifier agents, were run: the first one using Triton X-100 and the second one using Triton X-114. At optimized conditions, the emulsions were prepared by mixing 10 mL of diesel oil with 2 mL of a solution containing 5% w/v of Triton X-114 and 15% v/v of HNO 3 and broken by heating at 80 o C. The proposed analytical procedure was applied in the analysis of six real samples of diesel oil and a recovery test was carried out by spiking the samples with known amounts of Zn (25 and 50 μg L -1 ), added as organometallic oiled standard. Recovery percentages achieved in this test were between 92 and 109%.

  12. Multivariate optimization of the determination of zinc in diesel oil employing a novel extraction strategy based on emulsion breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassella, Ricardo J., E-mail: cassella@vm.uff.br [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Outeiro de Sao Joao Batista s/n, Centro, Niteroi, RJ 24020-141 (Brazil); Brum, Daniel M.; Lima, Claudio F. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Vicosa, Av. Peter Henry Rolfs s/n, Vicosa, MG 36570-000 (Brazil); Caldas, Luiz Fernando S.; Paula, Carlos Eduardo R. de [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Outeiro de Sao Joao Batista s/n, Centro, Niteroi, RJ 24020-141 (Brazil)

    2011-03-25

    This paper describes the extraction/pre-concentration of Zn from diesel oil and its determination by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (FAAS), proposed as a novel approach for these kinds of analyses and the multivariate optimization of the proposed procedure. The extraction of Zn is based on the emulsification of an aqueous solution containing Triton X-114 and HNO{sub 3} with diesel oil samples followed by breaking of the emulsion by heating. The aqueous phase obtained after the emulsion breaking was collected and used for Zn quantification by FAAS. The methodology was optimized using a Doehlert design and the system variables were the concentrations of surfactant and HNO{sub 3} in the solution employed in the emulsification and the temperature used in the emulsion breaking. The ratio between absorbance and the time required to break the emulsions was taken as response. Two sets of experiments, using different emulsifier agents, were run: the first one using Triton X-100 and the second one using Triton X-114. At optimized conditions, the emulsions were prepared by mixing 10 mL of diesel oil with 2 mL of a solution containing 5% w/v of Triton X-114 and 15% v/v of HNO{sub 3} and broken by heating at 80 {sup o}C. The proposed analytical procedure was applied in the analysis of six real samples of diesel oil and a recovery test was carried out by spiking the samples with known amounts of Zn (25 and 50 {mu}g L{sup -1}), added as organometallic oiled standard. Recovery percentages achieved in this test were between 92 and 109%.

  13. A novel synergetic targeting strategy for glioma therapy employing borneol combination with angiopep-2-modified, DOX-loaded PAMAM dendrimer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shunping; Zheng, Hongyue; Lu, Yanping; Sun, Yue; Huang, Anhao; Fei, Weidong; Shi, Xiaowei; Xu, Xiuling; Li, Jingjing; Li, Fanzhu

    2018-01-01

    Glioma is the most common primary malignant brain tumour and the effect of chemotherapy is hampered by low permeability across the blood-brain-barrier (BBB). Borneol is a time-honoured 'Guide' drug in traditional Chinese medicine and has been proved to be capable of promoting free drugs into the brain efficiently, but there are still risks that free drugs, especially anti-glioma drugs, may be disassembled and metabolised before penetrating the BBB and caused the whole brain distribution. The purpose of this paper was to investigate whether borneol intervention could facilitate the BBB penetration and assist glioma treatment by combining with doxorubicin (DOX) loaded PAMAM dendrimers drug delivery system modified with Angiopep-2 (a ligand of the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein, which overexpress both in the BBB and gliomas). The results demonstrated that Angiopep-2 modification could actually enhance the affinity between the dendrimers and the targeting cells and finally increase the cell uptake and boost the anti-tumour ability. Borneol physical combination could further enhance the anti-tumour efficiency of this targeting drug delivery system (TDDS) after penetrating BBB. Compared with free DOX solution, this TDDS illustrated obviously sustained and pH-dependent drug release. This suggested that this synergetic strategy provided a promising way for glioma therapy.

  14. The work-related stressors and coping strategies of group-employed rural health care practitioners: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasbrouck, Melinda A; Waddimba, Anthony C

    2017-10-01

    Escalating demands on practitioners, stagnating/dwindling resources, and diminishing autonomy have heightened patient-care work-related stress. Using qualitative content/thematic analysis of responses to open-ended survey questions, plus spontaneous comments, we sought to identify rural clinicians' subjective perceptions of their workplace stressors and typical adaptive/coping strategies. Within a hybrid inductive-deductive approach, we framed empirical themes (derived by consensus, corroborated with text segments, and extant literature) into theory-based coding templates by which we analyzed the data. Of 308 (65.1% of) recipients completing questionnaires, 290 (94%) answered open-ended questions and/or provided comments. Categorizing stressors by socio-ecology, they cited four themes: Organizational, practitioner/staff-related, patient-related, and third party-induced stressors. Organizational stressors were referenced most conspicuously. How respondents described their coping fitted the Stress, Appraisal and Coping. [Lazarus and Folkman (1984): New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company, Inc] model. Emotion-focused were referenced more than problem-focused approaches. Themes scarcely differed by demographics, except for marital status. Findings highlight needs for resilience coaching, rekindling work meaningfulness, mentorship in work-home balance/limit-setting, supportive peer networks, and deeper teamwork. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Framing public governance in Malaysia : rhetorical appeals through accrual accounting.

    OpenAIRE

    Ferry, L.; Zakaria, Z.; Zakaria, Z.; Slack, R.

    2017-01-01

    In government, the challenges of governance and anti-corruption are exacerbated by accounting not being fit for purpose. In developing countries, many governments adopt accrual accounting as a panacea. Drawing on Goffman's frame analysis, and rhetorical appeals to logic, credibility and emotion, this paper examines the adoption of accrual accounting in Malaysia. It was found accrual accounting has potential for keying governance and anti-corruption. However, rhetorical appeals that attempt to...

  16. Coverage, adherence and costs of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in children employing different delivery strategies in Jasikan, Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Patouillard

    Full Text Available Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in children (IPTc involves the administration of a course of anti-malarial drugs at specified time intervals to children at risk of malaria regardless of whether or not they are known to be infected. IPTc provides a high level of protection against uncomplicated and severe malaria, with monthly sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine plus amodiaquine (SP&AQ and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine plus piperaquine being the most efficacious regimens. A key challenge is the identification of a cost-effective delivery strategy.A community randomized trial was undertaken in Jasikan district, Ghana to assess IPTc effectiveness and costs using SP&AQ delivered in three different ways. Twelve villages were randomly selected to receive IPTc from village health workers (VHWs or facility-based nurses working at health centres' outpatient departments (OPD or EPI outreach clinics. Children aged 3 to 59 months-old received one IPT course (three doses in May, June, September and October. Effectiveness was measured in terms of children covered and adherent to a course and delivery costs were calculated in financial and economic terms using an ingredient approach from the provider perspective.The economic cost per child receiving at least the first dose of all 4 courses was US$4.58 when IPTc was delivered by VHWs, US$4.93 by OPD nurses and US$ 5.65 by EPI nurses. The unit economic cost of receiving all 3 doses of all 4 courses was US$7.56 and US$8.51 when IPTc was delivered by VHWs or facility-based nurses respectively. The main cost driver for the VHW delivery was supervision, reflecting resources used for travelling to more remote communities rather than more intense supervision, and for OPD and EPI delivery, it was the opportunity cost of the time spent by nurses in dispensing IPTc.VHWs achieve higher IPTc coverage and adherence at lower costs than facility-based nurses in Jasikan district, Ghana.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00119132.

  17. Religious Rhetoric in National Security Strategy Since 9/11

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    what is embodied within and among human persons or political entities; it is for them quite literally a struggle among cosmic and supernatural ...of legitimate Muslim communities world-wide.97 Yet Ganor, in his Jerusalem Post article , If Global Jihad Isn’t the Enemy, What Is? argued that it...language. In her article , No Such Thing As Islamic Terrorism? Weiss argued that this softening is counterproductive to the promotion of NSS because it is

  18. A CONTRASTIVE RHETORICAL ANALYSIS OF PHILIPPINE AND SRI LANKAN ENGLISH NEWS COMMENTARIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romualdo Atibagos Mabuan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Newspaper commentaries constitute a part of media discourse, which is a significant area of inquiry in intercultural rhetoric analysis. Through conducting a contrastive textual analysis of newspaper commentaries culled from the English newspapers in the Philippines and Sri Lanka, this paper explored the notions of genre and micro-genre on the 2015 papal visit in the two countries. To set a tertium comparationisin examining the genre-newspaper commentaries on the papal visit, the timeframe was set during the two-week duration of the visit. To investigate the micro-genres employed by the writers, two sets of 15 newspaper commentaries on the visit respectively in the Philippines and Sri Lanka were selected and analyzed. Findings revealed that both Filipino and Sinhalese writers in English newspaper commentaries tended to employ the micro-genre of “media explanatory exposition” more often than other micro-genres, and in terms of rhetorical structures, both of these writers tended to show variation, dynamism, and individuality. Implications for ESL (English as a second language and EFL (English as a foreign language teaching are provided in the light of these findings.

  19. Rhetorical impression management in the letter to shareholders and institutional setting : A metadiscourse perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aerts, Walter; Yan, Beibei

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Using composite style measures of the letter to shareholders, we elaborate dominant rhetorical profiles and qualify them from an impression management perspective. In addition, we examine how institutional differences affect rhetorical profiles by comparing intensity and contingencies of

  20. The Rhetoric of "Unconditional Surrender" and the Decision to Drop the Atomic Bomb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikins, James W.

    1983-01-01

    Analyzes the decision to drop the atomic bomb from a rhetorical point of view, arguing that the bombs were launched because of an American commitment to a particular rhetoric that focused on the propaganda slogan "unconditional surrender." (PD)

  1. Rhetorical structure theory and text analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, William C.; Matthiessen, Christian M. I. M.; Thompson, Sandra A.

    1989-11-01

    Recent research on text generation has shown that there is a need for stronger linguistic theories that tell in detail how texts communicate. The prevailing theories are very difficult to compare, and it is also very difficult to see how they might be combined into stronger theories. To make comparison and combination a bit more approachable, we have created a book which is designed to encourage comparison. A dozen different authors or teams, all experienced in discourse research, are given exactly the same text to analyze. The text is an appeal for money by a lobbying organization in Washington, DC. It informs, stimulates and manipulates the reader in a fascinating way. The joint analysis is far more insightful than any one team's analysis alone. This paper is our contribution to the book. Rhetorical Structure Theory (RST), the focus of this paper, is a way to account for the functional potential of text, its capacity to achieve the purposes of speakers and produce effects in hearers. It also shows a way to distinguish coherent texts from incoherent ones, and identifies consequences of text structure.

  2. RHETORIC OF GUANXI IN CHINESE ADVERTISEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabalina Olga Ivanovna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to modes of designing advertisements in China. The author proposes two hypotheses. According to the first one, instrumental values influence modes of advertisement design in a particular country. According to the second one, developing relationships (guanxi is a key instrumental value that determines rhetoric of advertising in China and spreads its impact on all its constituents: choice of referent, goals, modes of depicting target audience, patterns of reasoning, and typical set of expressive means. To test hypotheses we used content-analysis of outdoor advertisements in China, Russia, and Kazakhstan. The results of the content-analysis proved that developing relationships with consumers is a key goal of advertising in China. This goal determines the choice of the company as a referent. Social roles of advertising characters are a major descriptor of the target audience. The company’s status, its experience, and financial position are key motives that influence patterns of reasoning. Chinese advertising is also characterized by use of positive-colored vocabulary, traditional symbols and attributes of happiness, “holiday” syntax, appeals to harmony with nature and fellow men. The results of research are complex, have scientific novelty and can be used by foreign companies while developing advertisements, targeted at the Chinese consumer.

  3. RHETORIC OF GUANXI IN CHINESE ADVERTISEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ольга Ивановна Шабалина

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to modes of designing advertisements in China. The author proposes two hypotheses. According to the first one, instrumental values influence modes of advertisement design in a particular country.  According to the second one, developing relationships (guanxi is a key instrumental value that determines rhetoric of advertising in China and spreads its impact on all its constituents: choice of referent, goals, modes of depicting target audience, patterns of reasoning, and typical set of expressive means.To test hypotheses we used content-analysis of outdoor advertisements in China, Russia, and Kazakhstan.The results of the content-analysis proved that developing relationships with consumers is a key goal of advertising in China. This goal determines the choice of the company as a referent. Social roles of advertising characters are a major descriptor of the target audience. The company’s status, its experience, and financial position are key motives that influence patterns of reasoning. Chinese advertising is also characterized by use of positive-colored vocabulary, traditional symbols and attributes of happiness, “holiday” syntax, appeals to harmony with nature and fellow men.The results of research are complex, have scientific novelty and can be used by foreign companies while developing advertisements, targeted at the Chinese consumer.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-4-33

  4. The Rhetoric of Sustainability: Perversity, Futility, Jeopardy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meg Holden

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In 1991, development economist and American public intellectual Albert O. Hirschman wrote the Rhetoric of Reaction [1]. In this book, which was prescient of more contemporary popular books such as Naomi Klein’s The Shock Doctrine [2] and James C. Scott’s Seeing Like a State [3], Hirschman proposed a way to understand the kinds of arguments made by conservatives about proposals for change. His compelling trilogy of modes of arguments included arguments of perversity, futility, and jeopardy. I argue here that this schema can additionally be used as a way to understand the limits that are seen to exist to approaching sustainable development. I will demonstrate the pervasiveness of arguments that our best attempts to move toward sustainability in our cities today may present threats that are just as grave as those of not acting. This exercise serves two purposes. One is to urge those who would call themselves sustainability scholars to think critically and carefully about the lines of thought and action that may separate different sustainability motivations from the far reaches of interdisciplinary work in this field. The other is to suggest that, because of the persistence of certain kinds of arguments about the impossibility of sustainability, suggestive of deep and enduring instincts of doubt through human history, we should be skeptical of the legitimacy of these claims about the limitations of achieving sustainable development.

  5. Bhaktivedanta Swami’s rhetoric of violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Måns Broo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article puts a part of Bhaktivedanta Swami’s rhetoric of violence into a larger context that has previously been neglected: that of early- to mid-twentieth century Bengali politics. The author also pinpoints some other factors behind them, such as his literal reading of the Gaudiya Vaishnava scriptures and his flair for drama. In this, the author has not tried to exonerate Bhaktivedanta Swami for his more radically politically incorrect opinions. There is no reason why in the 1970s even an Indian could believe, for example, that Hitler killed Jews because they financed his enemies. Rather, the author tries to begin broadening the picture of Bhaktivedanta Swami by looking at him as a product both of his spiritual predecessors and of his more worldly background. Seeing Bhaktivedanta Swami not only as the great ‘transcendental’ founder-acharya of ISKCON, but also as an elderly gentle­ man, at times erring on relative, human issues, is a viewpoint shared by many ISKCON intellectuals today. For some apologists within the movement, however, taking this path is seen as exceedingly risky, and they fight it vehemently, claiming that the entire future of the movement hinges on being faithful to all the words of its founder.

  6. The Effect of Intellectual Capital on A Company's Performance Moderated by ITS Governance and IT Strategy Integration Employed By Bank Listed in Indonesian Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dodi Wirawan Irawanto

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates whether IT integration and company governance can affect the relationship between intellectual capital and company performance in the Indonesian banking sector. That could happen, as there are ever tighter and more numerous competitiveness levels in the banking sector, especially in the field of information technology (IT and the support given by the top management. This study employs data from 33 banking companies listed on the ISE (Indonesian Stock Exchange in 2013–2014. The testing was done on the elements of VAICTM (VACA, VAHU, STVA, moderated by IT strategy integration (ITSI and corporate governance (DK using the measurement of financial performance (ROA. The findings obtained show that VAHU has a positive effect on financial performance. If the VAICTM element were moderated by ITSI, then a well-integrated IT strategy would weaken the relationship between VACA and banking performance. The limitations of this study lie in the period of the data used, which is limited to 2013–2014, and in that the component used for testing was done in isolation. 

  7. The Rhetorical Making of the Asian/Asian American Face: Reading and Writing Asian Eyelids

    OpenAIRE

    Sano-Franchini, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    In The Rhetorical Making of the Asian/Asian American Face: Reading and Writing Asian Eyelids, I examine representations of East Asian blepharoplasty in online video in order to gain a sense of how cultural values change over time. Drawing on scholarship in and around rhetorical theory, cultural rhetorics, Asian American rhetoric, cultural studies, Asian American studies, and postcolonial theory alongside qualitative data analysis of approximately fifty videos and the numerous viewer comments ...

  8. «Reader! Bruder!»: The Rhetoric of Narration and the Rhetoric of Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Bertoni

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the relation of power established by narrative texts, exploring the many-sided field of articulation among the related subjects: the narrator as a subject of power, the text as a rhetorical device, and the reader as an ultimate guarantor of meaning. After a brief introduction on the “rebirth of rhetoric” in the second half of the Twentieth century, drawing attention to its links with Reader-response criticism, the paper  focuses on the “power of words” and analyzes three case-studies: Lolita by Vladimir Nabokov (1955, Money by Martin Amis (1984 and The Kindly Ones by Jonathan Littell (2006. These novels depend for their rhetorical effect on the invention of a special narrating voice and on the relationship that it establishes with the reader – an odd mixture of antagonism and complicity, seduction and persuasion. The reader is thus invoked as a brother, but an ambiguous and untrustworthy one, as archetypally described in last verse of the opening poem from Baudelaire’s Les Fleurs du mal: «hypocrite lecteur – mon semblable, mon frère».

  9. Maternal employment and childhood obesity : a European perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Posa, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia A.; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Henauw, Stefaan de; Eiben, Gabriele; Fernandez-Alvira, Juan M.; Hadjigeorgiou, Charalampos; Kovacs, Eva; Lauria, Fabio; Veidebaum, Toomas; Williams, Garrath; Bammann, Karin

    2013-01-01

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich objective reports of various anthropometric and other measures of fatness from the IDEFICS study of children aged 2-9 in 16 regions of eight European countries. Based on such data as accelerometer measure...

  10. Mythologizing Change: Examining Rhetorical Myth as a Strategic Change Management Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlins, Jacob D.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores how rhetorical myth can be used as a tool for persuading employees to accept change and to maintain consensus during the process. It defines rhetorical myth using three concepts: "chronographia" (a rhetorical interpretation of history), epideictic prediction (defining a present action by assigning praise and blame…

  11. Aristotelian Causal Analysis and Creativity in Copywriting: Toward a Rapprochement between Rhetoric and Advertising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Charles

    2007-01-01

    Advertising may be the most pervasive form of modern rhetoric, yet the discipline is virtually absent in rhetorical studies. This article advocates a mutually beneficial rapprochement between the disciplines--both in academe and the workplace. Rhetoric, for example, could help address an enduring lacuna in advertising theory. Persuasive…

  12. An Ethical Analysis of Reagan's Rhetoric Justifying the Invasion of Grenada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, Ralph E.

    A study examined the Ronald Reagan Administration's rhetoric about the invasion of Grenada to determine its ethical quality and whether the American public could make a fair judgment about the incident based on this rhetoric. Examination of President Reagan's rhetorical efforts revealed numerous violations of democratic ethical standards.…

  13. Disciplinary Politics and the Institutionalization of the Generic Triad in Classical Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yameng

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the concepts of rhetoric in general and specifically the generic triad in classical rhetoric. Outlines contemporary versions of the function and realm of rhetoric. Discusses the clash between Aristotle and Quintilian regarding the triad and its relationship to contemporary debates. (HB)

  14. Aristotle and Social-Epistemic Rhetoric: The Systematizing of the Sophistic Legacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, James E.

    While Aristotle's philosophical views are more foundational than those of many of the Older Sophists, Aristotle's rhetorical theories inherit and incorporate many of the central tenets ascribed to Sophistic rhetoric, albeit in a more systematic fashion, as represented in the "Rhetoric." However, Aristotle was more than just a rhetorical…

  15. Rhetorical Analysis of Fast-Growth Businesses' Job Advertisements: Implications for Job Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engstrom, Craig L.; Petre, James T.; Petre, Elizabeth A.

    2017-01-01

    This article presents findings from a rhetorical analysis of job advertisements posted by the fastest growing companies in the United States (Inc. 5000 rankings). The analysis suggests that companies rely on standard rhetorical figures and share similar rhetorical visions of novelty that likely effect their organizational culture, paradoxically…

  16. Strategii de PR în retorica electorala din Parlamentarele -2014, Republica Moldova vs „revoluția crizantemelor”, octombrie 2015 (PR strategies in the electoral rhetoric during the parliamentary elections in 2014, Republic of Moldova vs „the chrysanthemums revolution”, october 2015)

    OpenAIRE

    Aurelia PERU-BALAN

    2015-01-01

    In this article the author approaches the trends of the electoral rhetoric during the parliamentary elections that were held on 30th of November. The article determines which are the most used campaign issues with a mobilizing effect on the voters; among these – the external path of the Republic of Moldova. During the last five years, the right and center-right wing parties have chosen the EU integration, the left-wing parties – the Eurasian Union. The contribution also analyzes the most rele...

  17. The Methodology of Investigation of Intercultural Rhetoric applied to SFL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Heredero Zorzo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Intercultural rhetoric is a discipline which studies written discourse among individuals from different cultures. It is a very strong field in the Anglo-Saxon scientific world, especially referring to English as a second language, but in Spanish as a foreign language it is not as prominent. Intercultural rhetoric has provided applied linguistics with important methods of investigation, thus applying this to SFL could introduce interesting new perspectives on the subject. In this paper, we present the methodology of investigation of intercultural rhetoric, which is based on the use of different types of corpora for analysing genders, and follows the precepts of tertium comparationis. In addition, it uses techniques of ethnographic investigation. The purpose of this paper is to show the applications of this methodology to SFL and to outline future investigations in the same field.

  18. The Rhetorical Goddess: A Feminist Perspective on Women in Magic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruns, Laura C.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Although female magicians have existed since the rise of entertainment magic, women have faced difficulty in entering the “fraternity” of the magic community. As an art form largely based around persuasion, it is useful to study the performance of magic as a text. It is additionally useful to study female magicians within this context of rhetoric. Not only will examining the rhetoric of female magicians provide insights on the rhetoric of women in this unique arena, but also of women in a historically gendered and underrepresented field. Research into this area may disclose other details regarding the communicative differences between women and men and how communication is adapted within a gendered communication paradigm.

  19. Rhetoric of science in the regulation of medicines in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllebæk, Mathias

    the rhetoric of regulatory science in the Danish healthcare system. In Denmark, as in the rest of the EU, policy makers and regulators are met with increasing demands for science-based decisions. As medicines are becoming more complex, regulatory bodies and pharmaceutical companies are increasingly required...... of academic science and the practical policy aims in “real-world” regulation of drugs. The field aims to develop frameworks and values that support decision-makers in managing drug-related uncertainties and risks under strict legal, time and budgetary constraints (Todt et.al, 2010). This requires a thorough...... rhetorical understanding of the establishment of scientific ethos and argumentation practices (Prelli, 1989) in the regulatory circuit of industry, academia and authorities. The paper includes a rhetorical analysis of an example from the Danish healthcare sector. The paper is part of a PhD project about...

  20. Defenders and Conquerors: The Rhetoric of Royal Power in Korean Inscriptions from the Fifth to Seventh Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-gyu Kim

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This article compares the rhetoric of three inscriptions from the Three Kingdoms period of Korea: the Gwanggaeto inscription, which was carved in 414 on the tomb stele of King Gwanggaeto of Goguryeo; the inscriptions on the monument stones raised between 550 and 568 to record the tours of King Jinheung of Silla; and the King Munmu inscription on the funerary stele of King Munmu of Silla, which was completed in 682. Notably, although all three monarchs were successful warriors, only the Gwanggaeto inscription is characterized by the martial rhetoric of conquest, while the two Silla examples employ the cautious rhetoric of peacemaking. The author analyzes this difference by understanding the inscriptions as situated speech acts, and he suggests that these inscriptions should be understood within the particular political circumstances in which they were situated. Whereas the Gwanggaeto inscription was produced by a powerful Goguryeo acting within a Northeast Asia in which no one state could claim dominance, the Silla inscriptions were produced by a Silla Kingdom that had to struggle first against established Korean rivals and then against an enormously powerful Tang empire.

  1. Liberal or Conservative? Genetic Rhetoric, Disability, and Human Species Modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher F. Goodey

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A certain political rhetoric is implicit and sometimes explicit in the advocacy of human genetic modification (indicating here both the enhancement and the prevention of disability. The main claim is that it belongs to a liberal tradition. From a perspective supplied by the history and philosophy of science rather than by ethics, the content of that claim is examined to see if such a self-description is justified. The techniques are analyzed by which apparently liberal arguments get to be presented as “reasonable” in a juridical sense that draws on theories of law and rhetoric.

  2. At the Head of Theoretical Disciplines, Rhetoric Besieges Advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costin Popescu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Advertising is a field of human activity whose components are studied by numerous disciplines. There is a risk, then, to see the theoretical interest for this field crumble; in order to acquire a general view of it, we need – above researches conducted with the support of conceptual apparatuses of disciplines as sociology, mythology, psychology, ethology, visual communication, etc. – unifying points of view, offered by formal disciplines as rhetoric, semiotics, etc. The study of specific advertising messages will help us catch a glimpse of both proportions and stakes of the matter; leading the interdisciplinar approach, rhetoric can hope to “tame” the complexity of the advertising discourse.

  3. Lingual rhetoric paradigm as integrative research prism in philological science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Аlexandra A. Vorozhbitova

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The article characterizes the lingual rhetoric paradigm as an integrative approach in philology based on three crossing categorical ranges: 1 the ideological aspects of a speech act (ethos, logos, pathos; 2 the phases of the universal ideospeech cycle «from a thought to a word» (invention, disposition (arrangement, elocution (style as the technology of discourse process; 3 the structural levels of a lingual identity (associative verbal network, thesaurus, pragmaticon as the producer of discourse, the carrier of ideology. Hence there are three groups of lingual rhetoric parameters: ethos motivational dispositive, logos thesaurus inventive, pathos verbal elocutive.

  4. Available means: manifestations of Aristotle's three modes of rhetorical appeal in antinuclear fiction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannix, P.J.

    1986-01-01

    The abundance of sympathetic scientists, military men and clergymen in antinuclear fiction reflects a public perception that authorities speak most knowledgeably about an issue. Other antinuclear works employ characters with less traditional ethical appeals: nurturing women, vital youths, and even infallible computers. Antinuclear fiction uses enthymeme and example to reflect the history of the nuclear weapons debate. Some works attach the immorality of the weapons by examining the moral dilemmas of nuclear scientists. Others admit the permanence of the nuclear threat. By arousing emotions, fiction is capable of mobilizing its audience's active support for the ideas it presents. The principal emotions that various antinuclear works arouse highlight the close relationship between literature and rhetoric. The most dominant emotions, pity and fear, are the two Aristotle links to tragedy. Scorn, the principal emotion that Dr. Strangelove arouses - is the crucial emotion on which all satire depends. However, the other principal emotion in anti-nuclear fiction - hope - has principally a rhetorical function ensuring that the feelings the works provoke will be channeled constructively.

  5. A comparison between EGR and lean-burn strategies employed in a natural gas SI engine using a two-zone combustion model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, Amr; Bari, Saiful [Sustainable Energy Centre, School of Advanced Manufacturing and Mechanical Engineering, Univ. of South Australia, Mawson Lakes SA 5095 (Australia)

    2009-12-15

    Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) strategy has been recently employed in natural gas SI engines as an alternative to lean burn technique in order to satisfy the increasingly stringent emission standards. However, the effect of EGR on some of engine performance parameters compared to lean burn is not yet quite certain. In the current study, the effect of both EGR and lean burn on natural gas SI engine performance was compared at similar operating conditions. This was achieved numerically by developing a computer simulation of the four-stroke spark-ignition natural gas engine. A two-zone combustion model was developed to simulate the in-cylinder conditions during combustion. A kinetic model based on the extended Zeldovich mechanism was also developed in order to predict NO emission. The combustion model was validated using experimental data and a good agreement between the results was found. It was demonstrated that adding EGR to the stoichiometric inlet charge at constant inlet pressure of 130 kPa decreased power more rapidly than excess air; however, the power loss was recovered by increasing the inlet pressure from 130 kPa at zero dilution to 150 kPa at 20% EGR dilution. The engine fuel consumption increased by 10% when 20% EGR dilution was added at inlet pressure of 150 kPa compared to using 20% air dilution at 130 kPa. However, it was found that EGR dilution strategy is capable of producing extremely lower NO emission than lean burn technique. NO emission was reduced by about 70% when the inlet charge was diluted at a rate of 20% using EGR instead of excess air. (author)

  6. A comparison between EGR and lean-burn strategies employed in a natural gas SI engine using a two-zone combustion model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Amr; Bari, Saiful

    2009-01-01

    Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) strategy has been recently employed in natural gas SI engines as an alternative to lean burn technique in order to satisfy the increasingly stringent emission standards. However, the effect of EGR on some of engine performance parameters compared to lean burn is not yet quite certain. In the current study, the effect of both EGR and lean burn on natural gas SI engine performance was compared at similar operating conditions. This was achieved numerically by developing a computer simulation of the four-stroke spark-ignition natural gas engine. A two-zone combustion model was developed to simulate the in-cylinder conditions during combustion. A kinetic model based on the extended Zeldovich mechanism was also developed in order to predict NO emission. The combustion model was validated using experimental data and a good agreement between the results was found. It was demonstrated that adding EGR to the stoichiometric inlet charge at constant inlet pressure of 130 kPa decreased power more rapidly than excess air; however, the power loss was recovered by increasing the inlet pressure from 130 kPa at zero dilution to 150 kPa at 20% EGR dilution. The engine fuel consumption increased by 10% when 20% EGR dilution was added at inlet pressure of 150 kPa compared to using 20% air dilution at 130 kPa. However, it was found that EGR dilution strategy is capable of producing extremely lower NO emission than lean burn technique. NO emission was reduced by about 70% when the inlet charge was diluted at a rate of 20% using EGR instead of excess air.

  7. The Stars Belong to Everyone: The rhetorical practices of astronomer and science writer Dr. Helen Sawyer Hogg (1905--1993)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Maria J.

    Astronomer and science writer Dr. Helen Sawyer Hogg (University of Toronto) reached a variety of audiences through different rhetorical forms. She communicated to her colleagues through her scholarly writings; she reached out to students and the public through her Toronto Star newspaper column entitled "With the Stars," which she authored for thirty years; she wrote The Stars Belong to Everyone , a book that speaks to a lay audience; she hosted a successful television series entitled Ideas ; and she delivered numerous speeches at scientific conferences, professional women's associations, school programs, libraries, and other venues. Adapting technical information for different audiences is at the heart of technical communication, and Sawyer Hogg's work exemplifies adaptation as she moves from writing for the scientific community (as in her articles on globular cluster research) to science writing for lay audiences (as in her newspaper column, book, and script for her television series). Initially she developed her sense of audience through a male perspective informed largely by her scholarly work with two men (Harlow Shapley and her husband, Frank Hogg) as well as the pervasive masculine culture of academic science. This dissertation situates Sawyer Hogg in what is slowly becoming a canon of technical communication scholarship on female scientists. Toward this end, I discuss how she rhetorically engaged two different audiences, one scholarly and one popular, how Sawyer Hogg translated male dominated scientific rhetoric to writing for the public, and how science writing helped her achieve her professional goals. Complementing the archival research in addressing the questions of this study, I employ social construction analysis (also known as the social perspective) for my research methodology. She was ahead of her time and embodied the social perspective years before its definition as a rhetorical concept. In short, my study illuminates one scientific woman's voice

  8. A rhetorical analysis of apologies for scientific misconduct: do they really mean it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souder, Lawrence

    2010-03-01

    Since published acknowledgements of scientific misconduct are a species of image restoration, common strategies for responding publicly to accusations can be expected: from sincere apologies to ritualistic apologies. This study is a rhetorical examination of these strategies as they are reflected in choices in language: it compares the published retractions and letters of apology with the letters that charge misconduct. The letters are examined for any shifts in language between the charge of misconduct and the response to the charge in order to assess whether the apology was sincere or ritualistic. The results indicate that although most authors' published acknowledgments of scientific misconduct seem to minimize culpability by means of the strategic use of language, their resulting ritualistic apologies often still satisfy in some way the accusers' (and thus their community's) concerns.

  9. “CURING” PYRRHONIAN DOUBT: ANTI-SKEPTICAL RHETORIC IN THE EARLY 18TH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton MATYTSIN

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available By examining the analogies of sickness and disease used by severalopponents of philosophical skepticism (Pyrrhonism in the early 18th century, this articlewill shed light on the rhetorical strategies used in attempts to undermine the revival ofthis ancient school of philosophy. It will look at the ways in which anti-skeptics discussedthe repercussions of the spread of Pyrrhonism for society and describe how theyproposed to “cure” this so-called disease. A consideration of the strategies will bothreveal some of the assumptions commonly shared by authors of apologetic literature inthe first half of the 18th century and explain why they saw skepticism as such a dangerousphilosophical position.

  10. Listeria innocua and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus employ different strategies to cope with acid stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shabala, Lana; McMeekin, Tom; Budde, Birgitte Bjørn

    2006-01-01

    '-dichlorofluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CDCFDA-SE) was employed that enabled reliable measurements of intracellular pH (pHi) to a minimum pHi of 4.0. Changes in pHi and H+ fluxes from immobilised bacteria were measured using fluorescence ratio imaging microscopy (FRIM) and a non-invasive ion flux measuring...... technique (MIFE), respectively. L. innocua maintained a relatively constant pHi of 5.5-6.1 at pHex 4 and 5 via H+ extrusion. In contrast, L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus progressively lowered pHi towards pHex over the entire pHex range examined. The type of acidulant used influenced pH regulation with both...... pHi and H+ -fluxes being more severely affected by LA compared to HCl. Overall, our data demonstrated different adaptive strategies in these two bacteria. While L. innocua expels protons to maintain a constant pHi, L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus allows proton entry after acidic treatment so that pHi...

  11. Facultative slave-making ants Formica sanguinea label their slaves with own recognition cues instead of employing the strategy of chemical mimicry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Włodarczyk, Tomasz; Szczepaniak, Lech

    2017-01-01

    Slave-making ant species use the host workforce to ensure normal colony functioning. Slaves are robbed as pupae from their natal nest and after eclosion, assume the parasite colony as their own. A possible factor promoting the successful integration of slaves into a foreign colony is congruence with the slave-makers in terms of cuticular hydrocarbons, which are known to play the role of recognition cues in social insects. Such an adaptation is observed in the obligate slave-making ant species, which are chemically adjusted to their slaves. To date, however, no reports have been available on facultative slave-making species, which represent an earlier stage of the evolution of slavery. Such an example is Formica sanguinea, which exploit F. fusca colonies as their main source of a slave workforce. Our results show that F. sanguinea ants have a distinct cuticular hydrocarbon profile, which contains compounds not present in free-living F. fusca ants from potential target nests. Moreover, enslaved F. fusca ants acquire hydrocarbons from their slave-making nestmates to such an extent that they become chemically differentiated from free-living, conspecific ants. Our study shows that F. sanguinea ants promote their own recognition cues in their slaves, rather than employing the strategy of chemical mimicry. Possible reasons why F. sanguinea is not chemically well adjusted to its main host species are discussed in this paper. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Combinatorial drug delivery strategy employing nano-curcumin and nano-MiADMSA for the treatment of arsenic intoxication in mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushwaha, Pramod; Yadav, Abhishek; Samim, M; Flora, S J S

    2018-04-25

    Chelation therapy is the mainstream treatment for heavy metal poisoning. Apart from this, therapy using antioxidant/herbal extracts are the other strategies now commonly being tried for the treatment. We have previously reported individual beneficial efficacy of nanoparticle mediated administration of an antioxidant like 'curcumin' and an arsenic chelator 'monoisoamyl 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (MiADMSA)' for the treatment of arsenic toxicity compared to bulk drugs. The present paper investigates our hypothesis that a combination drug delivery therapy employing two nanosystems, a chelator and a strong antioxidant, may produce more pronounced therapeutic effects compared to individual effects in the treatment of arsenic toxicity. An in-vivo study was conducted wherein arsenic as sodium arsenite (100 ppm) was administered in drinking water for 5 months to Swiss albino mice. This was followed by a treatment protocol comprising of curcumin encapsulated chitosan nanoparticles (nano-curcumin, 15 mg/kg, orally for 1 month) either alone or in combination with MiADMSA encapsulated polymeric nanoparticles (nano-MiADMSA, 50 mg/kg for last 5 days) to evaluate the therapeutic potential of the combination treatment. Our results demonstrated that co-treatment with nano-curcumin and nano-MiADMSA provided beneficial effects in a synergistic way on the adverse changes in oxidative stress parameters and metal status induced by arsenic. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Rhetorical Engineering of Emotions in the Courtroom: the Case of Lawyers in Modern France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Marco Vidor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As a way of »performing the law«, courtroom speeches have been a fundamental component of the legal ritual and a basic component of lawyers’ identities in many countries with civil law traditions: lawyers have presented themselves and have been culturally perceived as legal experts who make use of emotional strategies in order to achieve their aims in court. Within the courtroom, emotions have been both rhetorical tools and goals, especially in criminal trials where forensic eloquence aimed to create an emotional environment that was favourable to the client. In France, a rich literature on the art of forensic rhetoric was both the result and the basis of a (re-construction of a tradition that was extremely self-conscious, self-reflective and fundamentally emotional. The present work analyses the role of emotions in lawyers’ courtroom performances in the French legal culture from the beginning of the nineteenth century to the present. Its purpose is to identify the main themes related to the use of emotions in the pleading that legal professionals themselves have considered important – albeit with differing opinions – in the past three centuries. More broadly, this study explores reason / dispassion and emotion in legal practice beyond their longstanding dichotomy. Investigating the courtroom speech as a prototypical forensic performance through the perspective of the legal professionals themselves shows how reason and emotion have been continually intertwined and how legal professionals have consciously strategized approaches to the complex interplay between them in the judicial processes.

  14. Onwards facing backwards: the rhetoric of science in nineteenth-century Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tampakis, Kostas

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to show how the Greek men of science negotiated a role for their enterprise within the Greek public sphere, from the institution of the modern Greek state in the early 1830s to the first decades of the twentieth century. By focusing on instances where they appeared in public in their official capacity as scientific experts, I describe the rhetorical schemata and the narrative strategies with which Greek science experts engaged the discourses prevalent in nineteenth- and early twentieth-century Greece. In the end, my goal is to show how they were neither zealots of modernization nor neutral actors struggling in isolated wastelands. Rather, they appear as energetic agents who used scientific expertise, national ideals and their privileged cultural positions to construct a rhetoric that would further all three. They engaged eagerly and consistently with emerging political views, scientific subjects and cultural and political events, without presenting themselves, or being seen, as doing anything qualitatively different from their peers abroad. Greek scientists cross-contextualized the scientific enterprise, situating it in the space in which they were active.

  15. The Potentials of Visual Rhetoric in Communication | Rishante ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six fundamental goals of the visual rhetorician which include attention gaining, sustenance of interest, recognition, effective storage, recall and persuasion and their potential application in communication are considered. The ways in which visual rhetoric can be expressed within the framework of the universal laws of ...

  16. Plato the Pederast: Rhetoric and Cultural Procreation in the Dialogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ervin, Elizabeth

    1993-01-01

    Examines Plato's Dialogues by reading them through two cultural lenses: the role of eros in classical Greece and its analogous relationship to language and rhetoric; and the educational function of eros within the ancient institution of pederasty. Shows how the cultural values of ancient Greece manifested themselves in Plato's erotic educational…

  17. Francis Bacon and the Historiography of Scientific Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappen, James P.

    1989-01-01

    Reviews three twentieth-century interpretations of Francis Bacon's science and rhetoric: positivistic science and the plain style; institutionalized science and its more highly figured style; and democratic science. Presents the author's own interpretation, and concludes that each interpretation reflects different perceptions of the good of the…

  18. Lessons from Katrina: Crisis Communication and Rhetorical Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Donald C.

    2007-01-01

    Widely misunderstood and often maligned, rhetoric in the simplest sense is the effective use of language in speech or writing. Much as law and medicine have well considered standards of conduct, so too does the field of communication. Experts in this area look at--patterns--of discourse in relation to specific kinds of events--tornadoes,…

  19. Rhetorical Dimensions of the Post-September Eleventh Grief Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartzman, Roy; Tibbles, David

    2005-01-01

    This essay examines Presidential rhetoric and popular culture practices in light of the stages of grief enumerated by Elisabeth Kubler-Ross. The authors find a consistent retrenchment of grief into the anger phase, where the pain of losing national invulnerability is transferred to externalized aggression. Reconciliation is suggested by means of…

  20. "No Truer Truth" : Sincerity Rhetoric in Soviet Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, E.; Dhooge, B.; De Dobbeleer, M.

    2016-01-01

    In contemporary discourse about human emotions, concerns about the sincerity of individuals, groups, and institutions thrive. This article thickens recent scholarship on sincerity rhetoric with an analysis of emotional regimes in Soviet Russia – a time and place where the notion of sincerity

  1. A Rhetorical Perspective of the Progressive Education Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karr-Kidwell, PJ; Makay, John J.

    This paper looks at how rhetoric was used as an instrument in the Progressive Education Movement. According to the author, this movement stretched from the early 1920s to the early 1950s. As part of it, educators placed increased emphasis on child development, the student's freedom to develop naturally, student motivation, and the school/community…

  2. Ethical Implications of Thomas Reid's Philosophy of Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skopec, Eric Wm.

    Eighteenth century Scottish philosopher Thomas Reid's emphasis on first principles of knowledge is fundamental to his ethics of rhetoric. Reid found the reduction of mental activities to material phenomena by Hobbes and others to be particularly odious and destructive of common sense. Turning to the analysis of human nature, he developed a radical…

  3. Doctors in ancient Greek and Roman rhetorical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Craig A

    2013-10-01

    This article collects and examines all references to doctors in rhetorical exercises used in ancient Greek and Roman schools in the Roman Empire. While doctors are sometimes portrayed positively as philanthropic, expert practitioners of their divinely sanctioned art, they are more often depicted as facing charges for poisoning their patients.

  4. Seeing Cells: Teaching the Visual/Verbal Rhetoric of Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinolfo, John; Heifferon, Barbara; Temesvari, Lesly A.

    2007-01-01

    This pilot study obtained baseline information on verbal and visual rhetorics to teach microscopy techniques to college biology majors. We presented cell images to students in cell biology and biology writing classes and then asked them to identify textual, verbal, and visual cues that support microscopy learning. Survey responses suggest that…

  5. Didactics: From Classical Rhetoric to Kitchen-Latin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordkvelle, Yngve Troye

    2003-01-01

    The article discusses the relationship between the ancient traditions of dialectics and rhetoric and the transformations they underwent through the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, particularly because of the emergence of Humanism. The French philosopher Pierre de la Ramee (1515-1572) played an essential role in this transformation. The logic…

  6. Representing Bodies in Virtual Space: The Rhetoric of Avatar Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolko, Beth E.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the rhetorical aspects of avatars, or virtual selves, within multiuser graphical virtual realities (GVRs). Examines the development of GVRs and questions how representations of selves relate to online communication, focusing particularly on how bodies in GVRs are gendered. (Author/LRW)

  7. Good, Clean, Fair: The Rhetoric of the Slow Food Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    This article outlines the origins of the Slow Food movement before examining the ways in which Slow Food rhetoric seeks to redefine gastronomy and combat the more deleterious effects of globalization. In articulating a new gastronomy, Slow Food founder Carlo Petrini attempts to reconstruct the gastronomy of Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin, at once…

  8. Funding Reforms and Revenue Diversification--Patterns, Challenges and Rhetoric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Pedro; Koryakina, Tatyana

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, much has been written about the challenging financial context faced by many European higher education institutions, and the pressures towards funding diversification. However, the evidence available indicates that funding diversification has seldom lived up to the rhetorical expectations of marketization and privatization that…

  9. Metaphor and the Rhetorical Invention of Cold War "Idealists."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivie, Robert L.

    1987-01-01

    Presents a procedure for identifying metaphorical concepts guiding the rhetorical invention of three Cold War "idealists": Henry Wallace, J. William Fulbright, and Helen Caldicott, whose collective failure to dispel threatening images of the Soviets is located in a recurrent system of metaphors that promotes a reversal of the enemy-image…

  10. The Rhetoric of Globalization and Communication Education in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper attempts an assessment of the various conceptual projections for the evaluation of the supposed derivations of globalization. The many scholastic discourses and some obviously identifiable fallacies are measured from rhetorical standpoint. The dictates of globalization suggest that every nation needs to ...

  11. Rhetorical skills as a component of midwifery care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domajnko, Barbara; Drglin, Zalka; Pahor, Majda

    2011-04-01

    this article argues that rhetorical skills are an important quality factor of midwifery care. In particular, it aims to identify and discuss the relevance of three classical means of persuasion: ethos, pathos and logos. secondary analysis, rhetorical analysis of semi-structured interviews. Slovenia. Interviews were carried out predominantly in 2006. Data refer to childbirths in 2005 and 2006. four women with recent experience of childbirth. analysis identified the presence of all three means of persuasion in the interaction between midwives and women. Focusing on midwives, the quality of their awareness and command of rhetorical skills remains questionable. In particular, women experienced lack of a rational account of the situation and decisions made by health-care professionals involved in maternity care. acknowledging professional ethics, awareness and good command of all three means of persuasion [but above all, argumentative persuasion (logos)] is an integral component of midwifery care. It can contribute to collaborative relations between midwives and women, and thus promote women-centred midwifery care. knowledge of the three classical rhetorical means of persuasion should be integrated into professional midwifery curricula. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Exploring Corporate Rhetoric: Metadiscourse in the CEO's Letter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, Ken

    1998-01-01

    Examines how metadiscourse is used to create a positive corporate image in 137 CEOs' letters, showing how CEOs use nonpropositional material to realize rational, credible, and affective appeals. Reveals the essentially rhetorical nature of CEOs' letters by comparing the frequency and distribution of metadiscourse in their letters and directors'…

  13. The Machiavellian Princess: Rhetorical Dramas for Women Managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koester, Jolene

    1982-01-01

    Examined popular self-help books to determine how they portray organizational life and the female manager. Concluded that their rhetorical vision of the female manager is superficial and that for the woman who participates in this view of organizational life, the books present incomplete, contradictory, and debilitating advice. (PD)

  14. Sojourner Truth as an Essential Part of Rhetorical Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romans, Bevin A.

    To affirm Sojourner Truth as a powerful rhetor who advanced the equality and empowerment of women, a study examined several of her speeches on women's suffrage. Although the value of using such role models as Sojourner Truth has been demonstrated in various grade levels, and in the study of history and English, the approach is too seldom employed…

  15. Competing Foreign Policy Visions: Rhetorical Hybrids after the Cold War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckey, Mary E.

    1995-01-01

    Examines ways in which two very different political actors, George Bush and Bill Clinton, attempted to construct a new foreign policy consensus by blending the rhetorical forms of the Cold War with other foreign policy metaphors. Argues that these hybrids have not proven persuasive as justifications for American actions in foreign policy. (SR)

  16. China Encounters Darwinism: A Case of Intercultural Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiaosui

    1995-01-01

    Explores how influential works of one culture are adapted to the needs, circumstances and thought patterns of another. Analyzes as a case study Yan Fu's "Heavenly Evolution," a rhetorical translation of Thomas Huxley's "Evolution and Ethics," whose publication resulted in a rapid spread of a version of Darwinism in Confucian…

  17. Roasting on Earth: A Rhetorical Analysis of Eco-Comedy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Alison Aurelia

    2009-01-01

    Environmentalists are accustomed to using the rhetorical appeals of guilt and sacrifice to advocate their agendas. I argue that the motivations of guilt and sacrifice do not mirror the goals of sustainability, and are easy for anthropocentric-resourcist ideology (ARI) agendas to counter. When it comes to actual environmental policy change,…

  18. Confronting Rhetorical Disability: A Critical Analysis of Women's Birth Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Kim Hensley

    2009-01-01

    Through its analysis of birth plans, documents some women create to guide their birth attendants' actions during hospital births, this article reveals the rhetorical complexity of childbirth and analyzes women's attempts to harness birth plans as tools of resistance and self-education. Asserting that technologies can both silence and give voice,…

  19. Translating agency reform: rhetoric and culture in comparative perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smullen, A.

    2010-01-01

    Through comparative analysis this book examines and explains the official rhetoric of agency reform across consensus and adversarial political cultures. It traces the trajectory of talk about agency reform in The Netherlands, Sweden and Australia and identifies the national styles of speaking that

  20. Gorgias on Madison Avenue: Sophistry and the Rhetoric of Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matcuk, Matt

    Using sophistic theory and focusing on intersections in the practice and reception of sophistry and advertising, a study analyzed a contemporary advertising campaign. A number of extrinsic similarities between sophistic and advertising rhetoric exist: their commercial basis, their popular reception as dishonest speech, and the reception of both as…

  1. Go Tell Alcibiades: Tragedy, Comedy, and Rhetoric in Plato's "Symposium"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crick, Nathan; Poulakos, John

    2008-01-01

    Plato's "Symposium" is a significant but neglected part of his elaborate and complex attitude toward rhetoric. Unlike the intellectual discussion of the "Gorgias" or the unscripted conversation of the "Phaedrus," the "Symposium" stages a feast celebrating and driven by the forces of "Eros." A luxuriously stylish performance rather than a rational…

  2. Rhetorical Structure of Education Research Article Methods Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baoya; Wannaruk, Anchalee

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the rhetorical move structure of the education research article genre within the framework of Swales' (1981, 1990, 2004) move analysis. A corpus of 120 systematically sampled empirical education research articles served as data input for the analysis. The results indicate that the education research article methods section…

  3. The Rhetorical Force of History in Public Argument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartzman, Roy

    The rhetorical functions of history depend on the domain in which history is used, with no connotations of interpretive priority attaching to the social or the academic realm. The appropriation of history in support of social causes as radically opposed as socialism and fascism fuels the temptation to subsume history under ideology, with the…

  4. The Martial "Virtue" of Rhetoric in Machiavelli's "Art of War."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiethoff, William E.

    1978-01-01

    Argues that Machiavelli's inherent interest in pragmatic, "virtuous" applications of humanistic arts mandated both rhetorical form and matter in his composition of the "Art of War." Proposes that the work reveals Machiavelli's debt to the classically humane ideal of the warrior-orator. (JMF)

  5. Film in Honors Rhetoric: Students' Dramaturgical Analyses of "The Mission."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo, John S.; Smith, Amanda

    Since narrative forms help provide the rules and contexts for guiding human behavior, film and television offer excellent sources for the study of rhetoric in the college classroom. Kenneth Burke, Ernest Bormann, and Erving Goffman are all theorists, working from a "dramaturgical" perspective, who disuccuss the powerful role of the media…

  6. The Rhetoric of the Paneled Page: Comics and Composition Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sealey-Morris, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    While comics have received widespread acceptance as a literary genre, instructors and scholars in Rhetoric and Composition have been slower to adopt comics, largely because of a lingering difficulty understanding how the characteristics of the form relate to our work in the classroom. Using as guides the "WPA Outcomes Statement for First-Year…

  7. The Underdog Disciplines: Comics Studies and Composition and Rhetoric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirtley, Susan

    2015-01-01

    This report discusses the answer to the question: What might comic studies learn from the slightly older field of composition and rhetoric? The author asks the question as a member of both fields. It is clear that both disciplines struggle for legitimacy within the academy. While comics studies strives for respectability given the popular nature…

  8. Teaching in Germany and the Rhetoric of Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alred, Gerald J.

    1997-01-01

    Uses the cross-cultural concepts of context and time to examine the rhetoric of German university students in an English business writing course. Provides a fresh perspective for American teachers in increasingly multinational, multicultural classrooms. Suggests how Aristotle's concepts of ethos, logos, and pathos together with the case method and…

  9. Campus Racial Politics and a "Rhetoric of Injury"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Haivan V.

    2009-01-01

    If college writing faculty wish to prepare students to engage in civic forums, then how might we prepare students to write and speak amid racial politics on our campuses? This article explores the college student discourse that shaped an interracial conflict at a public California university in 2002 and questions the "rhetoric of injury"…

  10. DOORS English--The Cognitive Basis of Rhetorical Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Karl K.

    1979-01-01

    The Development of Operational Reasoning Skills (DOORS) program at Illinois Central College is an interdisciplinary experiment that guides students from concrete to formal operational levels of thought to ensure that they understand the concepts and cognitive skills undergirding the rhetorical modes. (RL)

  11. “Mine”. The Rhetoric of Abraham Kuyper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molendijk, Arie L.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Even the critics of Dutch Reformed theologian, politician, and publicist Abraham Kuyper (1837–1920) acknowledge his great power of oratory. This essay examines the nature of Kuyper’s rhetoric in a mythopoetic perspective that sees its inspiration in a romantic understanding of artistic

  12. Militant Religiopolitical Rhetoric: How Abraham Kuyper Mobilized His Constituency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molendijk, Arie; Van den Hemel, Ernst; Szafraniec, Asja

    2016-01-01

    Even the critics of Dutch Reformed theologian, politician, and publicist Abraham Kuyper (1837-1920) acknowledge his great power of oratory. This essay examines the nature of Kuyper's rhetoric in a mythopoetic perspective that sees its inspiration in a romantic understanding of artistic inspiration

  13. Rhetorics of Regulation in Education after the Global Economic Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, David

    2010-01-01

    Economic crises such as those of 1929, 1973 and 2008 appear to associate with shifts in the rhetorics of management. These dates mark the end of expansionary phases within an economic cycle, and they portend what James O'Connor has called a "fiscal crisis of the state". It is argued, speculatively, that immediately before and after an…

  14. A Defense of Ethical Relativism as Rhetorically Grounded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummett, Barry

    1981-01-01

    Reviews the philosophical stance of ethical relativism. Notes that relativism is sometimes accused of being caught between moral impotence and self-contradiction. Argues that grounding relative ethical values in rhetorical communication allows relativists to judge other cultures without inconsistency. (PD)

  15. Strategii de PR în retorica electorala din Parlamentarele -2014, Republica Moldova vs „revoluția crizantemelor”, octombrie 2015 (PR strategies in the electoral rhetoric during the parliamentary elections in 2014, Republic of Moldova vs „the chrysanthemums revolution”, october 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia PERU-BALAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author approaches the trends of the electoral rhetoric during the parliamentary elections that were held on 30th of November. The article determines which are the most used campaign issues with a mobilizing effect on the voters; among these – the external path of the Republic of Moldova. During the last five years, the right and center-right wing parties have chosen the EU integration, the left-wing parties – the Eurasian Union. The contribution also analyzes the most relevant special events organized by the political parties’ staffs in order to create an image well covered by the media and favorable for the political actors.

  16. Philosophical rhetoric and sophistical dialectic: some implications of Plato’s critique of rhetoric in the Phaedrus and the Sophist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagemans, J.H.M.; Blair, J.A.; Farr, D.; Hansen, H.V.; Johnson, R.H.; Tindale, C.W.

    2003-01-01

    My PhD research concentrates on the philosophical backgrounds of the relationship between dialectic and rhetoric. In order to pinpoint the discord between both disciplines, I studied their genesis and early history. In this paper, some characteristics of both disciplines will be outlined by

  17. Festivals, cultural intertextuality, and the Gospel of John’s rhetoric of distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren Carter

    2011-04-01

    This article engages these questions by focusing on the narrative presentation of festivals in John’s Gospel (some 42 times as, amongst other things, occasions of conflict and condemnation. Employing Sjef van Tilborg’s notion of ‘interference’, which prioritises the Ephesian civic interface of the Gospel’s audience, the article argues that the cultural intertextuality between the Gospel and an Ephesian context destabilises and problematises Ephesian civic festivals and shows there to be fundamental incompatibilities between Jesus’ work and Ephesian society, thereby seeking Jesus-believers to absent themselves from festivals. The Gospel’s presentation of festivals belongs to the gospel’s rhetoric of distance vis-à-vis societal structures.

  18. Employer Branding

    OpenAIRE

    Stroblová, Zuzana

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the Master Thesis is to describe how to build Employer Brand a company. It is based on the description of Employer Branding project of a particular company and the evaluation its process. The thesis is a case study and consists of theoretical and practical part. The theoretical part focuses on trends and changes in leadership approach, definition of Employer Branding and HR Marketing. The practical part deals with the brand building process itself, describes the outputs of the proj...

  19. Employer branding

    OpenAIRE

    Mičková, Kateřina

    2008-01-01

    The demand for qualified employees is higher then the offering, both in Czech republic and internationally. Demand for specific skills, in addition to a greater demand for workforce generally, is making employee recruitment and retention much more difficult and expensive. Employer Branding claims to be an answer to this new challenge. This international concept focuses on developing an "employer brand" - mental image of a company as an employer. To achieve this, it is necessary to demonstrate...

  20. Historical Process and Semantic Study of Rhetorical Apostrophe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollah Radmard

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Apostrophe means paying attention to someone or something. It is a literary technique which has not been studied deeply despite its widespread role in fo regrounding the literary language , norm-breaking and creating a sense of defamiliarization in the audience. Its meaning is limited to the " transferring the speaker from the absence to the audience and vice versa ". In rhetorical texts apostrophe is attributed to the three areas of semantics , eloquence and rhetoric. Such triple attribution is due to two factors : the mixing of rhetoric areas in previous periods and the extension of apostrophe 's meaning in rhetorical books. But it seems that a variety of notions which are raised in traditional rhetorical books should be examined in the field of semantics. The only type of apostrophe which can be analyzed in rhetoric is the one proposed in some contemporary books as the result of semantic extension and is used in the vertical axis of poem. Therefore , regarding semantic extension, we consider apostrophe as any change in semantic structure , narrative , texture , etc which occurs without any background and surprises the reader. The presence of different types of apostrophe in various branches of rhetoric and literature lead to the creation of many names for this literary technique. This technique was not called apostrophe in the first period of the Arab rhetoric which coincided with the rise of Islam in Ibn Motaz period. It was always called “metonymy”. Then Asmaee used apostrophe in its technical sense in the second century (A.H and Ibn Motaz presented it in Albadi. Gradually and in later periods rhetoricians such as Qodame Ibn Jafar, Ibn Rashigh Ghiravani, Abu Halal Asgari etc. gave other names to this technique such as inflection and dissuasion, completion, objection, Estetrad, Talvin, Shojaol Arabiyat and so on. Apostrophe has the same meaning in Persian rhetorical books. The first rhetorical book is Tarjomanol Balaghat written

  1. Reducing Employment Insecurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Lebert

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The perception of job insecurity is known to be a stressful condition for employees. Less is known about employment insecurity and the ways employees and their families deal with it. This study investigates whether participation in further training is a strategy that employees adopt to reduce perceived employment insecurity. As participation in further training is often costly and time-consuming, we assume that the family context is of importance for the decision to take part in further training. To take account of possible self-selection, we apply a propensity score matching procedure on longitudinal data from the Swiss Household Panel (2004-2013. Three main findings can be emphasized: first, participation in further training is not a strategy adopted particularly by employees who perceive high employment insecurity as they are less likely to train than their secure counterparts. Second, even though further training is not a strategy that is actively adopted, employees who train subsequently report lower levels of perceived employment insecurity. Third, the family context indeed influences the likelihood to train: partnered employees are more likely to train and preschool-aged children act as a constraint on women’s but enhance men’s participation in further training. Yet, in the context of high perceived employment insecurity, children generally reduce their parents’ likelihood to train as the parents may turn to other strategies that reduce perceived employment insecurity.

  2. Space and Air Force: Rhetoric or Reality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cashin, James

    1999-01-01

    ... to meet requirements set forth in the National Security Strategy (NSS). Joint Vision 2010, the Air Force's Global Engagement, and several long-range plans all establish requirements that can only be fulfilled through the application of spacepower...

  3. Employer Toolkit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuli, Kelli J.; Hong, Esther

    This document consists of two guides intended for either employers or service providers involved in school to work partnerships for students with disabilities. "Tools for Service Providers" is intended to be used for training local-level providers who are developing school to work linkages with employers. Following an introduction, this…

  4. Spellbinding and crooning: sound amplification, radio, and political rhetoric in international comparative perspective, 1900-1945.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijfjes, Huub

    2014-01-01

    This article researches in an interdisciplinary way the relationship of sound technology and political culture at the beginning of the twentieth century. It sketches the different strategies that politicians--Franklin D. Roosevelt, Adolf Hitler, Winston Churchill, and Dutch prime minister Hendrikus Colijn--found for the challenges that sound amplification and radio created for their rhetoric and presentation. Taking their different political styles into account, the article demonstrates that the interconnected technologies of sound amplification and radio forced a transition from a spellbinding style based on atmosphere and pathos in a virtual environment to "political crooning" that created artificial intimacy in despatialized simultaneity. Roosevelt and Colijn created the best examples of this political crooning, while Churchill and Hitler encountered problems in this respect. Churchill's radio successes profited from the special circumstances during the first period of World War II. Hitler's speeches were integrated into a radio regime trying to shape, with dictatorial powers, a national socialistic community of listeners.

  5. Computer simulation, rhetoric, and the scientific imagination how virtual evidence shapes science in the making and in the news

    CERN Document Server

    Roundtree, Aimee Kendall

    2013-01-01

    Computer simulations help advance climatology, astrophysics, and other scientific disciplines. They are also at the crux of several high-profile cases of science in the news. How do simulation scientists, with little or no direct observations, make decisions about what to represent? What is the nature of simulated evidence, and how do we evaluate its strength? Aimee Kendall Roundtree suggests answers in Computer Simulation, Rhetoric, and the Scientific Imagination. She interprets simulations in the sciences by uncovering the argumentative strategies that underpin the production and disseminati

  6. Improving Education and Employment for Disadvantaged Young Men: Proven and Promising Strategies. National Poverty Center Working Paper Series #10-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Carolyn J.; Holzer, Harry J.

    2010-01-01

    Low high school graduation rates and sharply declining employment rates among disadvantaged youth have led to increasing numbers of youth who are disconnected from both school and work. What programs and policies might prevent these disconnections and improve educational and employment outcomes, particularly among young men? We review the evidence…

  7. An Exploratory Study of the Rhetoric in CSR Reports: A Comparison of Shari’ah Compliant Company and Non –Shari’ah Compliant Company in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Razak Rafizan

    2017-01-01

    This paper advances previous research in corporate social reporting (CSR) by using a taxonomy of five distinct rhetorical strategies to examine any differences in term of type of ethical categories and to identify moral attitudes towards different societal activities between Shari’ah compliant company Bank Islam Malaysia Berhad (BIMB) and Non-Shari’ah compliant company Malayan Banking Berhad (Maybank). The data is analyzed using content analysis. The findings revealed that there are different...

  8. TECHNOLOGY AND TEACHING IN POST-MODERN ENVIRONMENTS- OR RHETORIC NEGOTIATIONS OF EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geir HAUGSBAKK

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the situation as we engage with emerging post-modern environments marked by a continued strong belief in technology as the key governing force in society, and by teaching being sacrificed on the altar of “progress”. “Teaching” has been turned into “learning”. Furthermore, new learning strategies are quite often, in some way or other, interweaved with the use of new technology. However, the instrumental perspectives of the industrial society have been to a large extent prolonged. Accordingly, the underlying assumption of this article is that developments concerning technology and education during recent decades can most adequately be understood as a rhetorically based negotiation between two basic, antagonistic positions. The first position is grounded in perspectives of “the industrial society”, the other one in notions of “the learning society”. When new technological devices, based on traditional perspectives, are combined with learning strategies of the future, we might regard this as an adoption of ideas of the learning society or as a construction of rhetoric structural couplings. Viewing recent changes in this manner provides new perspectives on important questions concerning the relationship between technology and education. It also constitutes a framework for the quite necessary process of reconsidering and clarifying the concepts of technology, teaching and learning. The tendencies described in the article are presented as overall trends within education, but the use of new technology to a large extent seems to be connected to new and more flexible educational methods and elements of distance education.

  9. The Rhetoric of Popular Science Texts. "Scientific American" Magazine as Typical Example

    OpenAIRE

    Lichański, Jakub Z.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study is to describe the relationship between rhetoric and popular science texts. Scientific American magazine is taken as an example. In conclusion, the author suggests that the rhetoric of popular science texts rests on the presentation of the problem, avoiding controversy in the presentation of research issues, avoiding modal forms, the use of multiple elements of visual rhetoric. This article contains brief historical information about the development of...

  10. Ideologija i retorika dizajna / Ideology and Rhetoric of Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovana Ćika

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available There isn’t one or the best definition of design, because design can be defined from various perspectives. Design has long been considered as a closed and individualistic discipline, which is astonishing compared to its interdisciplinary and domains that it covers. The paper does not answer the question about the design, rather it try to position design in the current theoretical practices. By asking a series of questions about areas that integrate the design itself (visual culture, visual grammar, visual communication, visual rhetoric and the rhetoric of images, design and cultural representation, design ideology, the ideology of designers, historical setting and the effects of artistic movements, creative industries, the social dimension, innovations and practices, communication I will try to prove that design is creative principle of visual culture.

  11. Tensions between rhetoric and practice in entrepreneneurship education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robinson, Sarah; Blenker, Per

    2014-01-01

    Promoting entrepreneurialism, enterprise and entrepreneurial behaviour is a goal shared by many governments. European policy rhetoric strongly supports the promotion of entrepreneurial, creative and innovation skills in all disciplines and the cultivation of entrepreneurial mindsets. The transfor......Promoting entrepreneurialism, enterprise and entrepreneurial behaviour is a goal shared by many governments. European policy rhetoric strongly supports the promotion of entrepreneurial, creative and innovation skills in all disciplines and the cultivation of entrepreneurial mindsets...... of the entrepreneurial university coupled with the practice of entrepreneurship education as an opportunity to introduce radically new modes of knowing and learning that connotes to classical ideas of critique, self-organization, activism and emancipation. This discussion has relevance for what we as educators do...

  12. Rhetoric in the Estoria de Espanna of Alfonso el Sabio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles F. Fraker

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The redactors of the two Alfonsine histories are perhaps more grammatical than rhetorical; the free Castilian versions of their Latin originals are more notable for their clarity than for their eloquence. The editors do, however, apply two figures of rhetoric routinely throughout their text, transition and aetiologia. A few passages on the Estoria de Espanna go much further. Two narratives there feature dramatic application of two Quintilianesque figures of amplification, comparatio and ratiocinatio. Other sections display a sort of quasi-classical prose, notable for its artful isocola and antitheses, and marked by a fine concern for prose rhythm. This last feature might suggest that the compilers had some knowledge of the ars dictaminis.

  13. Rhetoric in the Estoria de Espanna of Alfonso el Sabio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraker, Charles F.

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The redactors of the two Alfonsine histories are perhaps moregrammatical than rhetorical; the free Castilian versions of their Latin originals aremore notable for their clarity than for their eloquence. The editors do, however,apply two figures of rhetoric routinely throughout their text, transitio and aetiologia.A few passages on the Estoria de Espanna go much further. Two narratives therefeature dramatic application of two Quintilianesque figures of amplification,comparatio and ratiocinatio. Other sections display a sort of quasi-classical prose,notable for its artful isocola and antitheses, and marked by a fine concern for proserhythm. This last feature might suggest that the compilers had some knowledgeof the ars dictaminis.

  14. VIA Employability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik Mariendal

    2017-01-01

    ’s realized at the entrance to the labor market and in the future career. The purpose is to find opportunities to improve employability-developing activities and to adapt it to specific needs from the students. Based on a number of qualitative interviews and personality tests of the graduates, an increased......The fact that students develop employability during their education is a key point for educational institutions and the focus on this issue has never been greater. This project looks into personal experience from VIA-graduates of "developing their employability" during the education and how it...

  15. Rhetorical facets of imagination in contemporary poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Delbari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present article deals with the trend of literary imaginative descriptions in the purview of poetical imaginations which have been regarded greatly in the discourse of rhetoric’s. The different facets of imagination of these imageries are also introduced in this article. Throughout this study poetical demonstrations are dealt with on the basis of their indications, functions and profundity. Meanwhile overcoming superficial and intermediate layers of imagination towards inner and profound thoughts would represent the domination of the poets in depiction of imagery. For this purpose, an introduction of numerous imagery layers with their deep and superficial, positive and subsidiary nature is presented through some examples. The result suggests that the extent of imagery complexity among many poets has a direct relation to their subjectivity in such a way that different levels of imageries are internalized as a unique stylistic feature of any individual poet. He endeavors to ornament his poem through imagery devices. Yousefi says: “any poem in which there is not imagery cannot be regarded as a poem. “The attractiveness of such imagination and the success or failure of the poet in conveying this imagery is a matter of poet’s tendency in using imagery devices. Through this article the contemporary poems are analyzed from the view point of objectivity and subjectivity. Furthermore, the poems are studied on their functions. The analysis has been carried out from two perspectives idiosyncratic features of the poet and the characteristics of the era in which he has lived. The examples presented in this article are selected from among the poets with different linguistic backgrounds and unique ideologies. The reason behind this specific consideration is an indication of a generalizability rather than a representativeness of few poets with their idiosyncratic styles. Therefore, the results indicate the style characteristics

  16. Castile-Leon, A Mooted Territory: Rhetoric of Space and Time in the Construction of Identities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz Viana, Luis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In constructing identities of the present, time (the past that was as well as space (the territory that should be is conjured up. Although this manner of operation is not a distinctive feature of identity construction in Spain, it is clearly a strategy employed here in earnest once the political transition to democracy was over. This strategy comprehends two different, opposite rhetoric modes regarding claims of the past: one historical, the other mythical. The first prompts the audience to become again what it once was and to recover what it at the time held. The second calls for a reencounter with that which, supposedly, always defined it as a people, even though this people never fully realized its territorial aspirations in the past or no written evidence exists that it ever held the territory that it now claims as its own. Which is the case in the “Autonomous Community of Castile-Leon”? Stereotypes about Castile (the key component in this Autonomous Community of contemporary Spain uttered by politicians, analysts and writers make reference to a mooted territory and to a people apparently heedless and ignorant of itself. The author approaches and, in a way, deconstructs these stereotypes, half of them learned, the other half popular. In addition, he attempts to expose other reasons that lie behind such seeming “lack of identity” or “of regional consciousness” that presumably plague Castilians and everything Castilian.

    En la construcción de identidades en el presente se suele traer a colación el tiempo —lo que se fue en el pasado— a la vez que se reclama un espacio —lo que se debería ser hoy en términos de territorialidad—. Sin ser ésta una característica exclusiva de las identidades que se reivindican dentro de España, parece claro que sí se trata de una estrategia empleada con particular intensidad aquí, una vez se produjo la transición política tras el franquismo. Pero, dentro de este panorama

  17. RHETORIC AND IDEOLOGY IN ECONOMICS TEXTBOOKS: AN OVERVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    ABA, Anıl

    2018-01-01

    This paper reviews the somewhat disconnected studies on the introductory level economics textbooks. First, specifying the best-sellers, it is argued that there is visible standardization and concentration in the textbook market. Second, studies focusing on the rhetorical and ideological aspects of economics textbooks are reviewed. While the heterodoxy, with determination, asserts that economics is inherently political and ideological, the mainstream, understandably, tends to deny the ideologi...

  18. Deliberative Democracy, Active Citizenship and Critical Culture: From Aristotle’s Rhetoric to Contemporary Political Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Arenas Dolz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to defend an adequate reading of Aristotle’s deliberative rhetoric that allows us to understand practical rationalization as a process of interpretation of human actions. After the consideration of rhetoric as a general human ability that is indispensable for political coexistence, the impact of the Aristotelian rhetorical proposal is pressed, not just as a defense of the importance of rhetoric in a democratic society, but also as a novel attempt to understand what it means to speak of practical rationality.

  19. Employment protection

    OpenAIRE

    Stefano Scarpetta

    2014-01-01

    Laws on hiring and firing are intended to protect workers from unfair behavior by employers, to counter imperfections in financial markets that limit workers’ ability to insure themselves against job loss, and to preserve firm-specific human capital. But by imposing costs on firms’ adaptation to changes in demand and technology, employment protection legislation may reduce not only job destruction but also job creation, hindering the efficient allocation of labor and productivity growth....

  20. Rhetoric and Educational Policies on the Use of History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie Y. Y. Wong

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to review the rhetoric and the educational policies on the use of history for citizenship education from 1880-1990 in England. In many instances, the rhetoric served as powerful tools to gain the support of educational authorities, namely, the Board of Education, Ministry of Education and Examination Boards. Their support was reflected in the change of educational policies and school syllabi that followed. This study shows that there was strong and consistent widespread rhetoric on history's contribution to citizenship education throughout the century, neither stopped by the two great wars nor impeded by the challenge of social studies as a citizenship subject after the Second World War. Instead it was challenged by the discipline itself in the early 1980s when some historians began to doubt the "new" history on the ground that the "real" history was being devalued. Consequently, there was evidence that the "new" history did not take off widely. In many schools, history was taught for its own sake. Its value for the education of modern citizenship was not being emphasised. This article ends with the argument that under the environment of the National Curriculum, first implemented in the country in 1989, history still claims its relevance for citizenship education.

  1. Mess management in microbial ecology: Rhetorical processes of disciplinary integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCracken, Christopher W.

    As interdisciplinary work becomes more common in the sciences, research into the rhetorical processes mediating disciplinary integration becomes more vital. This dissertation, which takes as its subject the integration of microbiology and ecology, combines a postplural approach to rhetoric of science research with Victor Turner's "social drama" analysis and a third-generation activity theory methodological framework to identify conceptual and practical conflicts in interdisciplinary work and describe how, through visual and verbal communication, scientists negotiate these conflicts. First, to understand the conflicting disciplinary principles that might impede integration, the author conducts a Turnerian analysis of a disciplinary conflict that took place in the 1960s and 70s, during which American ecologists and biologists debated whether they should participate in the International Biological Program (IBP). Participation in the IBP ultimately contributed to the emergence of ecology as a discipline distinct from biology, and Turnerian social drama analysis of the debate surrounding participation lays bare the conflicting principles separating biology and ecology. Second, to answer the question of how these conflicting principles are negotiated in practice, the author reports on a yearlong qualitative study of scientists working in a microbial ecology laboratory. Focusing specifically on two case studies from this fieldwork that illustrate the key concept of textually mediated disciplinary integration, the author's analysis demonstrates how scientific objects emerge in differently situated practices, and how these objects manage to cohere despite their multiplicity through textually mediated rhetorical processes of calibration and alignment.

  2. Business/Employers Influenza Toolkit

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast promotes the "Make It Your Business To Fight The Flu" toolkit for Businesses and Employers. The toolkit provides information and recommended strategies to help businesses and employers promote the seasonal flu vaccine. Additionally, employers will find flyers, posters, and other materials to post and distribute in the workplace.

  3. Employer Branding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimann, Søren; Mønsted, Bolette Rye

    2012-01-01

    Employer branding er både for den private og den offentlige sektor blevet en måde, de kan imødekomme ændrede arbejdsmarkedsvilkår og organisatoriske udfordringer i en postmoderne og globaliseret verden. Den aktuelle finanskrise har skabt nye udfordringer for organisationer i deres bestræbelser på...... at tiltrække- og fastholde attraktive medarbejdere. Men hvilken betydning har det, når Grundfos siger ”Mennesket er i fokus”, og hvad siger ”mangfoldighed” om Københavns Kommune som arbejdsplads i relation til employer branding? Er der egentlig sammenhæng mellem tankerne bag employer branding og de eksternt...... kommunikerede employer brandprodukter. Eller bliver det unikke ved arbejdspladserne ersattet af buzzwords uden substans og inddragelse af ansatte og interessenter? Artiklen har til formål at vurdere disse spørgsmål på baggrund af analyser af to cases med employer branding....

  4. Student employment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacob, Marita; Gerth, Maria; Weiss, Felix

    2018-01-01

    , according to social origins, in student employment from first-year students through graduating students. We show that inequality in job quality exists and is partly attributable to the need for students from lower social origins to work to finance their studies. We hypothesise that initial inequalities......In this article, we examine social origin differences in employment patterns across different stages of higher education and compare these differences between vocational and academic fields of study. Using data from a large-scale German student survey, we study the development of inequality...

  5. Rhetorical meta-language to promote the development of students' writing skills and subject matter understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelger, Susanne; Sigrell, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Background: Feedback is one of the most significant factors for students' development of writing skills. For feedback to be successful, however, students and teachers need a common language - a meta-language - for discussing texts. Not least because in science education such a meta-language might contribute to improve writing training and feedback-giving. Purpose: The aim of this study was to explore students' perception of teachers' feedback given on their texts in two genres, and to suggest how writing training and feedback-giving could become more efficient. Sample: In this study were included 44 degree project students in biology and molecular biology, and 21 supervising teachers at a Swedish university. Design and methods: The study concerned students' writing about their degree projects in two genres: scientific writing and popular science writing. The data consisted of documented teacher feedback on the students' popular science texts. It also included students' and teachers' answers to questionnaires about writing and feedback. All data were collected during the spring of 2012. Teachers' feedback, actual and recalled - by students and teachers, respectively - was analysed and compared using the so-called Canons of rhetoric. Results: While the teachers recalled the given feedback as mainly positive, most students recalled only negative feedback. According to the teachers, suggested improvements concerned firstly the content, and secondly the structure of the text. In contrast, the students mentioned language style first, followed by content. Conclusions: The disagreement between students and teachers regarding how and what feedback was given on the students texts confirm the need of improved strategies for writing training and feedback-giving in science education. We suggest that the rhetorical meta-language might play a crucial role in overcoming the difficulties observed in this study. We also discuss how training of writing skills may contribute to

  6. Industrialisation, Exports and Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabolo, Yves

    1980-01-01

    After reviewing trends in industrial production, exports, and employment in the Third World since 1960, the author discusses industrialization strategies based on the local processing of raw materials for export. Such processing has proved to be a major factor in job creation. (Author/SK)

  7. TiSH - a robust and sensitive global phosphoproteomics strategy employing a combination of TiO(2), SIMAC, and HILIC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engholm-Keller, Kasper; Birck, Pernille; Størling, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    losses. We demonstrate the capability of this strategy by quantitative investigation of early interferon-γ signaling in low quantities of insulinoma cells. We identified ~6600 unique phosphopeptides from 300μg of peptides/condition (22 unique phosphopeptides/μg) in a duplex dimethyl labeling experiment....... This strategy thus shows great potential for interrogating signaling networks from low amounts of sample with high sensitivity and specificity....

  8. An Exploratory Study of the Rhetoric in CSR Reports: A Comparison of Shari’ah Compliant Company and Non –Shari’ah Compliant Company in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Razak Rafizan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper advances previous research in corporate social reporting (CSR by using a taxonomy of five distinct rhetorical strategies to examine any differences in term of type of ethical categories and to identify moral attitudes towards different societal activities between Shari’ah compliant company Bank Islam Malaysia Berhad (BIMB and Non-Shari’ah compliant company Malayan Banking Berhad (Maybank. The data is analyzed using content analysis. The findings revealed that there are different rhetoric applied in both types of companies such as Agency (profit, Benefit (collective welfare, Compliance (law and contracts, Duty and Ethos (virtue. In term of moral attitudes, both types of companies disclosed relatively similar behaviour and commitment towards CSR. This research is the first of its kind to be conducted in Malaysia by using this new approach and will contribute new insights to existing CSR literatures in Malaysia.

  9. Joseph V. Denney, the Land-Grant Mission, and Rhetorical Education at Ohio State: An Institutional History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendenhall, Annie S.

    2011-01-01

    This essay provides an account of The Ohio State University's (OSU) rhetoric department during the tenure of Joseph Villiers Denney, arguing that he appropriated and repurposed national trends in education and rhetoric in ways that complicate the narrative of rhetoric and composition's decline in the late nineteenth century. In this essay, the…

  10. A Rhetorical Criticism-Women's Studies Course: Exploring Texts and Contexts in the American Woman's Suffrage Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmes-Crahall, Jane

    An undergraduate course in rhetorical criticism at Wilkes University incorporated a major component on the rhetoric of the American Woman's Suffrage Movement. Considerable time was devoted to critiquing "traditional" approaches to rhetorical criticism from a feminist perspective and to questioning the appropriateness of various…

  11. Enacting Red Power: The Consummatory Function in Native American Protest Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Randall A.

    1983-01-01

    Analyzes the American Indian Movement (AIM) with respect to (1) the role of tradition in AIM demands; (2) militant Indian rhetoric as a form of ritual self-address; (3) how Indian religious/cultural beliefs restrict the ability of language to persuade Whites; and (4) how militant Indian rhetoric fulfills its function. (PD)

  12. Ajax isn't Ajax anymore: on power, rhetoric and identity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stokvis, R.

    2008-01-01

    The rhetoric of identity refers to the arguments used when supporters perceive a discrepancy between what they consider the true nature (= identity) of their club and the policy measures of its board. Based on newspaper reports, this essay analyses three cases that sparked this rhetoric. These are:

  13. Truth in politics : rhetorical approaches to democratic deliberation in Africa and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salazar, P.J.; Osha, S.; Binsbergen, van W.M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Democracy is about competing "truths". This is why "rhetoric"- the study of public deliberation and the training in public debate and argumentation - is part of democracy in development. This volume acclimatizes "rhetoric" to the philosophical scene in South Africa, and more in general in Africa as

  14. Narratives and Values: The Rhetoric of the Physician Assisted Suicide Debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dysart, Deborah

    2000-01-01

    Argues that the function of medicine as an art and as a social institution is impeded when the rhetorical nature of its practice is ignored. Offers a case study of two texts widely cited as landmarks in the physician-assisted suicide debate of the 1990s, examining their rhetorical organization and its impact on their reception. (SR)

  15. Muhammad Ali's Fighting Words: The Paradox of Violence in Nonviolent Rhetoric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorsevski, Ellen W.; Butterworth, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    While Muhammad Ali has been the subject of countless articles and books written by sports historians and journalists, rhetorical scholars have largely ignored him. This oversight is surprising given both the tradition of social movement scholarship within rhetorical studies and Ali's influential eloquence as a world renowned celebrity espousing…

  16. Rhetorical Moves in Problem Statement Section of Iranian EFL Postgraduate Students' Theses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimehchisalem, Vahid; Tarvirdizadeh, Zahra; Paidary, Sara Sayed; Binti Mat Hussin, Nur Izyan Syamimi

    2016-01-01

    The Problem Statement (PS) section of a thesis, usually a subsection of the first chapter, is supposed to justify the objectives of the study. Postgraduate students are often ignorant of the rhetorical moves that they are expected to make in their PS. This descriptive study aimed to explore the rhetorical moves of the PS in Iranian master's (MA)…

  17. Deliberative Rhetoric as a Step in Organizational Crisis Management: Exxon as a Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Darrin; Sellnow, Timothy

    1995-01-01

    Explains that when organizations face crises, their rhetorical response often follows two steps: assessment of causes leading to the crisis, and a search for potential solutions and preventive measures for the future. States that epideictic rhetoric designed to sustain or regain the organization's reputation is effective in both steps. Examines…

  18. Are we not experimenting then? : The rhetorical demarcation of psychology and common sense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derksen, M.

    Scientific disciplines need both autonomy and alliances with other cultural groups. In order to achieve these twin goals, scientists have to engage in boundary rhetoric and popularize the demarcation of their discipline. In the case of psychology in particular such rhetoric involves a paradoxical

  19. "A Hedge against the Future": The Post-Cold War Rhetoric of Nuclear Weapons Modernization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Bryan C.

    2010-01-01

    Rhetoric has traditionally played an important role in constituting the nuclear future, yet that role has changed significantly since the declared end of the Cold War. Viewed from the perspectives of nuclear criticism and postmodern theories of risk and security, current rhetoric of US nuclear modernization demonstrates how contingencies of voice…

  20. The Rhetoric of Bonds, Alliances, and Identities: Interrogating Social Networks in Early Modern English Drama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, Christina J.

    2010-01-01

    The household and family have received considerable interest in studies of early modern English drama, but less attention has been paid to how writers represent intimate affective bonds on the stage. Emotion is intangible; yet many writers convincingly convey the intensity of emotional bonds through rhetoric. Rhetoric is a mainstay in…

  1. Critical Race Theory, Policy Rhetoric and Outcomes: The Case of Muslim Schools in Britain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Damian

    2018-01-01

    The expansion of state-funded Muslim schools in Britain since 1998 has developed against a backdrop of sustained public political rhetoric around the wider position of British Muslims in both political and educational contexts. This article explores the public policy rhetoric around Muslim schools under New Labour and the subsequent Coalition and…

  2. "Aggiornamento" and the American Catholic Bishops: A Rhetoric of Institutional Continuity and Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, Carol J.

    1989-01-01

    Analyzes 140 pastoral letters issued by the American Catholic bishops before, during, and after Vatican II (1947 through 1981). Suggests that doctrinal rhetoric has a tremendous capacity to endure accelerated social and institutional change, and that the rhetorical impact of Vatican II was quickly institutionalized in the public communications of…

  3. “Abba” revisited: merging the horizons of history and rhetoric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study uses the “Abba” metaphor to demonstrate the New Rhetoric model of metaphor as a tool to understand Paul's rhetorical purpose in using metaphors. By looking closely at the theme (i.e., the idea the author tries to convey) and phoros (i.e., the picture the author uses to convey the idea). From a historical ...

  4. The Knowledge Gap: Examining the Rhetoric and Implementation of Peer Education for HIV Prevention in Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Gillian

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I report on an examination of the rhetoric and implementation of peer education in Myanmar. I demonstrate that while there was widespread consistency on interviewees' views of what peer education should involve, there was a significant gap between this rhetoric and the ways in which peer education was implemented, particularly in…

  5. Mary Wollstonecraft, Margaret Fuller, and Angelina Grimke: Symbolic Convergence and a Nascent Rhetorical Vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxman, Susan Schultz

    1996-01-01

    Invites rhetorical critics to reappraise the way they study discreet social movements and pay isolated tribute to woman's rights figures. Examines how Mary Wollstonecraft, Margaret Fuller, and Angelina Grimke each co-opted the ideational and stylistic rhetorical characteristics of pre-existing social movements (the enlightenment,…

  6. Materiality, Symbolicity, and the Rhetoric of Order: "Dialectical Biologism" as Motive in Burke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engnell, Richard A.

    1998-01-01

    Considers how the work of Kenneth Burke has recently been critiqued for its lack of attention to the role of non-symbolic motivation in rhetoric. Describes Burke's contributions as a "dialectical biologism" that sets forth a system of five symbolic/material dialectics that undergird all rhetorical appeal. Suggests that the most effective…

  7. Complicating the Rhetoric: How Racial Construction Confounds Market-Based Reformers' Civil Rights Invocations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Laura E.

    2016-01-01

    Reformers today maintain the use of civil rights rhetoric when advocating for policies that address educational inequity. While continuing the legacy of earlier civil rights activists, the leaders invoking this rhetoric and the educational platforms they promote differ greatly from previous decades. Not only does this new crop of reformers differ…

  8. Material Rhetoric: Spreading Stones and Showing Bones in the Study of Prehistory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Reybrouck, D.; de Bont, R.; Rock, J.

    2009-01-01

    Since the linguistic turn, the role of rhetoric in the circulation and the popular representation of knowledge has been widely accepted in science studies. This article aims to analyze not a textual form of scientific rhetoric, but the crucial role of materiality in scientific debates. It introduces

  9. The Death of a Rhetorical Vision: Disciples of Christ and Social Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensley, Carl Wayne

    The Disciples of Christ, an indigenous American religious movement born on the frontier, grew rapidly until early in the twentieth century. Its growth was based on a rhetorical vision that offered a plausible interpretation of the data of the senses and accounted for developments in human activity and conditions. That rhetorical vision was linked…

  10. A scientist's voice in American culture. Simon Newcomb and the rhetoric of scientific method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, A. E.

    Through close readings of Newcomb's (1835 - 1909) published and unpublished works, the author illuminates the ways this eminent astronomer used the "rhetoric of scientific method" to great effect. The book devides into three sections: an introduction to the rhetoric of scientific method, a core of ten central chapters on Newcomb's life and thought, and the concluding commentary on pragmatism and scientific method.

  11. Aristotelian Rhetorical Theory as a Framework for Teaching Scientific and Technical Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Sara

    1999-01-01

    Describes an upper level rhetorical theory course for Scientific and Technical Communication majors (developed and taught by the author) that is grounded in Aristotle's "On Rhetoric" and in his understanding that effective communication is a systematic "tekhne"/art. Describes how the course uses Aristotle's work as a…

  12. Rhetorical Inventions and Cultural Diversity--A Historical Approach: Aristotle and Confucius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haixia

    While Aristotle treats the nature of rhetoric as philosophical, political/practical, and artistic/technical, Confucius views language use as philosophical and political/practical but not as artistic/technical, with the result that Confucius does not seem to offer as much as Aristotle does. In their essay "Refiguring Rhetoric as an Art:…

  13. The Art of Wondering: A Revisionist Return to the History of Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covino, William A.

    Reacting to the tradition which has reduced rhetorics to summaries of rules and principles, this book presupposes that Plato's "Phaedrus," Aristotle's "Rhetoric," and Cicero's "De Oratore" cannot be reduced to summary information or pedagogical advice. The book considers that these works, on the contrary, along with…

  14. Identification and Consubstantiation in the 1988 California Primary Campaign Rhetoric of Jesse Jackson: A Burkeian Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Laurinda W.

    In 1988, Jesse Jackson was the second most successful candidate for the Democratic presidential nomination, finishing behind Michael Dukakis. While Jackson displayed extraordinary rhetorical talent and articulated a view of America unlike that of other candidates, little scholarly attention has been paid to his rhetoric. Examination of four of…

  15. Revealing the Mind of the Sage: The Narrative Rhetoric of the "Chuang Tzu."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood, William G.

    1992-01-01

    Argues that one of the formative texts of Taoism, the "Chuang Tzu," is worthy of study by rhetoric scholars because it reveals a unique approach to rhetoric in its attempt to disclose the mind of the sage not through logic but through intuition, and it shows how storytelling can acquaint people with previously unsuspected possibilities of thought…

  16. A Rhetorical Approach to Non-Discursive Messages in Information Campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Kathleen

    Public information campaigns serve a primary role in contemporary American society to promote more active citizen involvement. When the U.S. government seeks to influence its citizens, it can use mass media to help produce systematic social change, particularly visual communication derived from rhetoric. Rhetorical criticism includes…

  17. Rhetorical Numbers: A Case for Quantitative Writing in the Composition Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary argument increasingly relies on quantitative information and reasoning, yet our profession neglects to view these means of persuasion as central to rhetorical arts. Such omission ironically serves to privilege quantitative arguments as above "mere rhetoric." Changes are needed to our textbooks, writing assignments, and instructor…

  18. Virtuosity as Rhetoric: Agency and Transformation in Paganini's Mastery of the Violin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, David L.

    1998-01-01

    Contributes to scholarship on the rhetorical nature of human agency. Examines in detail a concert by Nicolo Paganini, the 19th-century violinist whose striking expressive force functioned rhetorically to expand ideas concerning music and human agency and to evoke a unique sense of "communitas" by embodying the ideals of the Romantic era.…

  19. Internet Health and the 21st-Century Patient: A Rhetorical View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Judy Z.

    2009-01-01

    Internet health--here, the public use of information Web sites to facilitate decision making on matters of health and illness--is a rhetorical practice, involving text and trajectories of influence. A fulsome account of it requires attention to all parts of the rhetorical triangle--the speaker, the subject matter, and the audience--yet most…

  20. Northern employment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavitz, J.

    1997-01-01

    Hiring practices and policies and employment opportunities that were available in the Beaufort Sea and MacKenzie Delta project for local residents and for people from southern Canada were dealt with in this chapter. Depending on the source, Northern hiring was a mere token, or a genuine and successful effort on the part of the companies to involve the native population and to share with them the benefits of the project. The fact remains that opening up job opportunities for Northerners was not easily attained, and would never have been realized without the involvement of government and community organizations. Government also played a major role in developing policies and training regimes. By the end of exploration operations, the hiring of Northern residents in the oil and gas industry had become a requirement of drilling applications. Training programs were also created to ensure that Northern residents received the means necessary to take advantage of Northern employment opportunities

  1. Cultural and Rhetorical Bases for communicating knowledge in web based communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampf, Constance; Kommers, Piet

    2008-01-01

    Cultural and Rhetorical Bases for communicating knowledge in web based communities How can we extend learner-centred theories for educational technology to include, for instance, the cultural and rhetorical backgrounds which influence participants in online communities as they engage in knowledge...... via web-based communities the intersection of culture and rhetoric in web-based communication rhetoric and discourse in the process of communicating knowledge via technology heuristics for knowledge communication from teaching in online forums connections between identity and knowledge communication...... This call for papers invites papers focused on theoretical frameworks or empirical research which highlights the cultural and/or rhetorical aspects of communicating knowledge in web based communities. We are looking for work that brings together methods and perspectives across disciplines...

  2. Political rhetoric from Canada can inform healthy public policy argumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Patrick B; McIntyre, Lynn; Anderson, Laura C; Mah, Catherine L

    2017-10-01

    Household food insecurity (HFI), insufficient income to obtain adequate food, is a growing problem in Canada and other Organisation of economic cooperation and development (OECD) countries. Government political orientations impact health policies and outcomes. We critically examined Canadian political rhetoric around HFI from 1995 to 2012 as a means to support effective healthy public policy argumentation. We analysed a data set comprised of Hansard extracts on HFI from the legislative debates of the Canadian federal and three provincial governments, using thematic coding guided by interpretivist theories of policy. Extracts were examined for content, jurisdiction, the political affiliation of the legislator speaking and governing status. Members of non-governing, or 'opposition' parties, dominated the rhetoric. A central hunger-as-poverty theme was used by legislators across the political spectrum, both in government and in opposition. Legislators differed in terms of policy approach around how income should flow to citizens facing HFI: income intervention on the left, pragmatism in the centre, reliance on markets on the right. This analysis is a case-example from Canada and caution must be exercised in terms of the generalizability of findings across jurisdictions. Despite this limitation, our findings can help healthy public policy advocates in designing and communicating HFI policy interventions in OECD countries with a similar left-right spectrum. First, even with a divisive health policy issue such as actions to address HFI, core themes around poverty are widely understood. Secondly, the non-polarizing centrist, pragmatist, approach may be strategically valuable. Thirdly, it is important to treat the rhetoric of opposition members differently from that of government members. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Rhetoric, logic, and experiment in the quantum nonlocality debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graft Donald A.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that quantum nonlocality (QNL has not been rigorously proven, despite the existence of recent Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm (EPRB experiments that are claimed to be ‘loophole-free’. First, readers are alerted to rhetorical arguments, which are unfortunately often appealed to in the QNL debate, to empower readers to identify and reject such arguments. Second, logical problems in QNL proofs are described and exemplified by a discussion of the projection postulate problem. Third, experimental issues are described and exemplified by a discussion of the postselection problem. The paper concludes that QNL has not been proven and that locality cannot be excluded.

  4. Apocalypse now, Vietnam and the rhetoric of influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Childs

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Readings of Francis Ford Coppola's Apocalypse Now (1979 often confront the difficulty of having to privilege either its aesthetic context (considering, for instance, its relation to Conrad's Heart of Darkness [1899] or to the history of cinema or its value as a representation of the Vietnam War. In this paper, I will argue that viewing the film as a meditation on the nature and rhetoric of influence allows us to bridge this gap and provides us with valuable insights into both the film's aesthetic precursors and the circumstances of its historical setting.

  5. Choice in maternity: rhetoric, reality and resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mander, Rosemary; Melender, Hanna-Leena

    2009-12-01

    to inform the organisation of the maternity services in Scotland, a phenomenological study was planned to examine maternity decision making in two similarly small countries. The aim was to examine the experience of contributing to decisions at clinical, organisational and policy-making levels. When examples were needed the informants were asked to use their experience of place of birth decisions. a hermeneutic phenomenological approach was employed. In-depth, semi-structured conversations were used. The fieldwork extended over a 4-month period in 2005. The data were analysed using Colaizzi's method. Finland and New Zealand were chosen because the parallels in their health care and maternity care systems would limit disparities. In one of the Finnish centres, the findings were particularly homogeneous and exemplified many of the issues arising in other settings. The findings of the fieldwork in this Finnish centre are the focus of this paper. the informants were mothers, midwife managers/policy makers, midwives and other maternity care providers. The findings of 12 conversations, including mothers and all groups of staff, are reported here. the background theme which emerged was 'trusting the system'. The informants were aware of the extent to which change is happening. One of the sub-themes contrasted the informants' perceptions of their lack of strength and courage with Finnish stereotypes. Being safe proved to be another crucial issue. The final sub-theme was 'playing the system'. trust in a well-respected health-care system was necessary for the informants to be able to subvert or resist that system. While such resistance has been documented in other disciplines, such as nursing, reference has not been found in relation to maternity. The resistance to the system was, at the time of the fieldwork, neither co-ordinated nor collaborative. the findings of this study carry important implications for women's and midwives' input into maternity care.

  6. Catalan, immigrants and charnegos: “race”, “cultura” and “mixture” in Catalan Nationalist Rhetoric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Clua i Fainé

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the manner in which ‘race’ and ‘culture’ are used in nationalist rhetorics, paying special attention to the presence or absence of ideas of biological or cultural ‘mixture’ employed in order to define socio-political identity of offspring of parents who possess different national identities. I will analyze this phenomenon in the ethnographic instance of Catalan nationalism, a kind of ‘civic’ nationalism that defines Catalan identity basically in cultural terms. The paper proposes to contrast this type of nationalist rhetoric with a form of xenophobic attitude that developed in Catalonia in the past century —1960s- 1970s— and which served to stigmatize the offspring of ‘mixed’ marriages between Catalans and Spanish immigrants. This instance serves to show that nationalist ideologies tend to adapt their argumentative structure to the prevailing socio-political and conceptual context, shifting from and/or combining culturalist and biologist/essentialist principles of classification. Finally, I want to point out the importance of paying special attention to the contemporary economic crisis in particular, with regard to attitudes and disqualifications of non- European immigrants in Catalonia and their descendants.

  7. The Role of Rhetorical Theory in Military Intelligence Analysis: A Soldier’s Guide to Rhetorical Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-01

    the course of day-to-day activities; and in 1994, according to Ferdinand Saussure , “the very ones who use it daily are [often] ignorant of it...the Discourse on Lan­ guage, 45. 25. Ibid., 5. 26. Foss, Foss, and Trapp, 12. 27. Ferdinand de Saussure , “Nature of the Linguistic Sign,” in... Saussure , Ferdinand de. “Nature of the Linguistic Sign.” In Pro­ fessing the New Rhetorics: A Sourcebook. Edited by Theresa Enos and Stuart Brown. Boston

  8. Exercising Empathy: Ancient Rhetorical Tools for Intercultural Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Ferry

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Can multiculturalism work? Can people from different religious and ethnic backgrounds live side by side peacefully and, even better, enrich each other? There are two ways social scientists can deal with this question. The first one, which I would label as “macro”, focuses on statistics and opinion surveys. A macro approach would, for instance, analyze the effects of an increase in religious and ethnic diversity on social indicators such as trust in neighbors, civic engagement or political participation. The second one, which I would label as “micro”, focuses on the skills citizens need for a better management of cultural diversity. This paper falls into the second category and will provide support for two claims: (1 training for intercultural communication should focus first and foremost on empathy; (2 ancient rhetorical exercises offer an effective way to develop empathy. To support the first claim, it will be argued that for a multicultural society to be peaceful, citizens need to be willing and able to use empathy when interacting with their fellow citizens of different religious, ethnic or ideological background (section I. A method to develop empathy using rhetorical exercises will then be described (section II. Finally, I present the results of an experiment to test its effectiveness with secondary school teachers (section III.

  9. Business/Employers Influenza Toolkit

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-09-06

    This podcast promotes the "Make It Your Business To Fight The Flu" toolkit for Businesses and Employers. The toolkit provides information and recommended strategies to help businesses and employers promote the seasonal flu vaccine. Additionally, employers will find flyers, posters, and other materials to post and distribute in the workplace.  Created: 9/6/2011 by Office of Infectious Diseases, Office of the Director (OD).   Date Released: 9/7/2011.

  10. High-throughput strategy for molecular identification of Vel- blood donors employing nucleic acids extracted from plasma pools used for viral nucleic acid test screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezan, Marcia R; Dinardo, Carla L; Bosi, Silvia R A; Vega, Sileni; Salles, Nanci A; Mendrone-Júnior, Alfredo; Levi, José E

    2016-06-01

    Serologic methods to determine the Vel- phenotype require the use of rare human antisera and do not allow for many samples to be tested simultaneously, which limits their application as a tool to search for rare donors. This study developed a low-cost molecular screening strategy using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA, extracted from plasma pools for viral nucleic acid test (NAT) screening, to identify Vel- and Vel+(W) donors. A total of 4680 blood donors from the Brazilian southeast region were genotyped through real-time PCR targeting the 17-nucleotide (c.64_80del) deletion in the SMIM1 gene, which determines the Vel- phenotype, by using remaining nucleic acid from plasma pools of six donors, routinely discarded after the release of viral NAT results. Twenty pools tested reactive and individual testing of samples from reactive pools identified 19 heterozygous donors with the SMIM1*64_80del deletion (0.40%) and one homozygous donor (0.02%). Fourteen of the 19 donors were confirmed as Vel- or Vel+(W) using anti-Vel human antiserum. The DNA pool genotyping strategy using real-time PCR designed to detect the deletion in the SMIM1 gene proved effective and accurate in identifying donors with the Vel- and Vel+(W) phenotypes. The fact that remaining nucleic acid from routine viral NAT screening was used makes this technique economically attractive and definitely superior to the serologic techniques available to search for this rare phenotype. © 2016 AABB.

  11. Building Employer Capacity to Support Meaningful Employment for Persons with Developmental Disabilities: A Grounded Theory Study of Employment Support Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Marghalara; Hodgetts, Sandra; Nicholas, David

    2017-11-01

    To explore strategies to build employer capacity to support people with DD in meaningful employment from perspective of employment support workers. A grounded theory study was conducted with 34 employment support individuals. A theoretical sampling approach was used to identify and recruit participants from multiple sites in Ontario and Alberta. Three main themes, with seven sub-themes, emerged: (1) experiences of supporting employment finding for people with DD, (2) institutional influences on employee experiences, and (3) attitudes, assumptions and stigma. Several recommendations related to building employer capacity were offered. Our findings provide insight on specific elements and strategies that can support building employer capacity for persons with DD.

  12. Ethics, rhetoric, and expectations: responsibilities and obligations of health care systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    Health care organization foundations and other fund-raising departments often function at an arm's length from the system at large. As such, operations related to their mandate to raise funds and market the organization do not receive the same level of ethical scrutiny brought to bear on other arms within the organization. An area that could benefit from a more focused ethics lens is the use of language and rhetoric employed in order to raise funds and market the organization. Such departments and divisions often utilize overblown promises of miracles and extraordinary advances to convince donors to contribute and to persuade the general public. The result can be a heightened sense of expectation on the part of patients, their families, and the general public as to what can realistically be achieved by the health care system, leading to disappointment and conflict when these expectations are not or cannot be met. This article suggests that such advertising and marketing be subject to the same advertising standards as other businesses.

  13. Rhetoric versus reality: The role of research in deconstructing concepts of caring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freshwater, Dawn; Cahill, Jane; Esterhuizen, Philip; Muncey, Tessa; Smith, Helen

    2017-10-01

    Our aim was to employ a critical analytic lens to explicate the role of nursing research in supporting the notion of caring realities. To do this, we used case exemplars to illustrate the infusion of such discourses. The first exemplar examines the fundamental concept of caring: using Florence Nightingale's Notes on Nursing, the case study surfaces caring as originally grounded in ritualized practice and subsequently describes its transmutation, via competing discourses, to a more holistic concept. It is argued that in the many and varied attempts to define the dynamic concept of care, caring has now become paradoxically, a more fragmented concept despite attempts to render it more holistic and inclusive. In the second exemplar, one of the authors draws on her personal experience of the gap between theory and practice, so pronounced that it pushed the author to revisit the concept of evidence-based practice and nursing education. In our third and final exemplar, we refer to the absence of knowledge and practice generated through natural enquiry and curiosity, an absence which has led to production of corporate led rhetoric. Drawing together the central arguments of the three exemplars, we reflect on the influential role of nursing research in enabling the deconstruction of taken for granted assumptions such as caring, evidence-based practice and empowerment; assumptions which have been generated by discourses riddled with confusion and alienation from the reality of practice and the natural spirit of professional enquiry. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. SU-D-206-01: Employing a Novel Consensus Optimization Strategy to Achieve Iterative Cone Beam CT Reconstruction On a Multi-GPU Platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, B; Tian, Z; Jiang, S; Jia, X; Zhou, L

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: While compressed sensing-based cone-beam CT (CBCT) iterative reconstruction techniques have demonstrated tremendous capability of reconstructing high-quality images from undersampled noisy data, its long computation time still hinders wide application in routine clinic. The purpose of this study is to develop a reconstruction framework that employs modern consensus optimization techniques to achieve CBCT reconstruction on a multi-GPU platform for improved computational efficiency. Methods: Total projection data were evenly distributed to multiple GPUs. Each GPU performed reconstruction using its own projection data with a conventional total variation regularization approach to ensure image quality. In addition, the solutions from GPUs were subject to a consistency constraint that they should be identical. We solved the optimization problem with all the constraints considered rigorously using an alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) algorithm. The reconstruction framework was implemented using OpenCL on a platform with two Nvidia GTX590 GPU cards, each with two GPUs. We studied the performance of our method and demonstrated its advantages through a simulation case with a NCAT phantom and an experimental case with a Catphan phantom. Result: Compared with the CBCT images reconstructed using conventional FDK method with full projection datasets, our proposed method achieved comparable image quality with about one third projection numbers. The computation time on the multi-GPU platform was ∼55 s and ∼ 35 s in the two cases respectively, achieving a speedup factor of ∼ 3.0 compared with single GPU reconstruction. Conclusion: We have developed a consensus ADMM-based CBCT reconstruction method which enabled performing reconstruction on a multi-GPU platform. The achieved efficiency made this method clinically attractive.

  15. SU-D-206-01: Employing a Novel Consensus Optimization Strategy to Achieve Iterative Cone Beam CT Reconstruction On a Multi-GPU Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, B [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Tian, Z; Jiang, S; Jia, X [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Zhou, L [Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: While compressed sensing-based cone-beam CT (CBCT) iterative reconstruction techniques have demonstrated tremendous capability of reconstructing high-quality images from undersampled noisy data, its long computation time still hinders wide application in routine clinic. The purpose of this study is to develop a reconstruction framework that employs modern consensus optimization techniques to achieve CBCT reconstruction on a multi-GPU platform for improved computational efficiency. Methods: Total projection data were evenly distributed to multiple GPUs. Each GPU performed reconstruction using its own projection data with a conventional total variation regularization approach to ensure image quality. In addition, the solutions from GPUs were subject to a consistency constraint that they should be identical. We solved the optimization problem with all the constraints considered rigorously using an alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) algorithm. The reconstruction framework was implemented using OpenCL on a platform with two Nvidia GTX590 GPU cards, each with two GPUs. We studied the performance of our method and demonstrated its advantages through a simulation case with a NCAT phantom and an experimental case with a Catphan phantom. Result: Compared with the CBCT images reconstructed using conventional FDK method with full projection datasets, our proposed method achieved comparable image quality with about one third projection numbers. The computation time on the multi-GPU platform was ∼55 s and ∼ 35 s in the two cases respectively, achieving a speedup factor of ∼ 3.0 compared with single GPU reconstruction. Conclusion: We have developed a consensus ADMM-based CBCT reconstruction method which enabled performing reconstruction on a multi-GPU platform. The achieved efficiency made this method clinically attractive.

  16. Human Genome Project discoveries: Dialectics and rhetoric in the science of genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robidoux, Charlotte A.

    The Human Genome Project (HGP), a $437 million effort that began in 1990 to chart the chemical sequence of our three billion base pairs of DNA, was completed in 2003, marking the 50th anniversary that proved the definitive structure of the molecule. This study considered how dialectical and rhetorical arguments functioned in the science, political, and public forums over a 20-year period, from 1980 to 2000, to advance human genome research and to establish the official project. I argue that Aristotle's continuum of knowledge--which ranges from the probable on one end to certified or demonstrated knowledge on the other--provides useful distinctions for analyzing scientific reasoning. While contemporary scientific research seeks to discover certified knowledge, investigators generally employ the hypothetico-deductive or scientific method, which often yields probable rather than certain findings, making these dialectical in nature. Analysis of the discourse describing human genome research revealed the use of numerous rhetorical figures and topics. Persuasive and probable reasoning were necessary for scientists to characterize unknown genetic phenomena, to secure interest in and funding for large-scale human genome research, to solve scientific problems, to issue probable findings, to convince colleagues and government officials that the findings were sound and to disseminate information to the public. Both government and private venture scientists drew on these tools of reasoning to promote their methods of mapping and sequencing the genome. The debate over how to carry out sequencing was rooted in conflicting values. Scientists representing the academic tradition valued a more conservative method that would establish high quality results, and those supporting private industry valued an unconventional approach that would yield products and profits more quickly. Values in turn influenced political and public forum arguments. Agency representatives and investors sided

  17. Topic theory and Brazilian musicality: Considerations on rhetoricity in music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acácio T. C. Piedade

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an application of the topic theory to the analyses of Brazilian music. It starts with a reflection on the concepts of musicality, friction of musicalities in Brazilian jazz, and the fusion of musicalities that emerges from the invention of tradition. The discussion follows with the question of the adaptability of topic theory to national musics. Then, some musical examples are used in order to present some of the universes of topics of Brazilian music. In this article I argue that the concept of rhetoricity brings good results to the study of musical signification, and that the theory of topics is useful for other contexts than classical music, being an interesting route to the investigation of sociocultural connections in musicalities.

  18. Consumer Engagement in Health IT: Distinguishing Rhetoric from Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Marsha; Hossain, Mynti; Mangum, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Policymakers want health information technology (health IT) to support consumer engagement to help achieve national health goals. In this paper, we review the evidence to compare the rhetoric with the reality of current practice. Our environmental scan shows that consumer demand exists for electronic access to personal health information, but that technical and system or political barriers still limit the value of the available information and its potential benefits. There is a gap between current reality and the goals for consumer engagement. Actions that may help bridge this gap include: (1) resolving technical barriers to health information exchange (HIE); (2) developing more consumer-centric design and functionality; (3) reinforcing incentives that attract provider support by showing that consumer engagement is in their interest; and (4) building a stronger empirical case to convince decision makers that consumer engagement will lead to better care, improved health outcomes, and lower costs.

  19. Persian Linguistic and Rhetorical Pathology in The Telegram Communication Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hedayat Mofidi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, the mobile phone, with its wide range of features, is an inexpensive, easy to use, and most modern communication tool. One of the special applications of smart phones is providing spaces and facilities such as SMS services, virtual networks, and interactive groups that link people and groups from different linguistic and cultural background. In this paper, we tried to study the messages of the Farsi-speaking users of the Telegram communication network from the linguistics perspective. In this regard, the linguistics and rhetorical correspondence of short messages in Persian language was studied by the content-analysis method. The statistical population consisted of 150 messages which contained 327 sentences. These messages were randomly selected from 5 different groups. Persian language used in cyberspace differs from standard Persian language. The first step in correcting communication language errors in cyberspace is to inform the users about the type of errors.

  20. The Case of 'Mafiaboy' and the Rhetorical Limits of Hacktivism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Genosko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the "Mafiaboy" case of 2000, in which a teenage hacker from Montréal brought down several blue chip American Web sites. What makes the subsequent court case compelling is that the categories and distinctions developed in the academic literature on hacker culture were shown to fit the Mafiaboy case too perfectly. They circulated with ease across defense and prosecution lines, yet upon closer inspection reveal themselves to be empty containers and rhetorically hollow. Via content analysis of an extensive media dossier, it is demonstrated that the mundane reality behind the media hype surrounding the case challenges the popular and political perception of the "hacker". Mafiaboy himself may have also discovered the incommensurability of his imagined future as a hacker legend and corporate security expert employee, and his everyday reality as a computer loving teen whose curiosity passed over into mischief with data, and beyond.