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Sample records for rhenium-188 lipiodol therapy

  1. Rhenium-188 Lipiodol Therapy of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Results of a multicentre-multinational study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padhy, A.K.; Bernal, P.; Buscombe, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: A multi-centre study was sponsored by the IAEA to assess the safety and efficacy of trans-arterial Rhenium-188 HDD Lipiodol in the treatment of inoperable Hepatocellular Carcinoma. The radioconjugate was prepared by using an HDD kit and Lipiodol. Over three years, 185 patients received at least one treatment. The dose administered was based on radiation absorbed dose to critical normal organs, calculated following a ''scout'' dose (approximately 4 mCi) of radioconjugate. The organs at greatest risk for radiation toxicity are the liver, the lung and the bone marrow. An Excel spreadsheet was used to determine maximum tolerated activity, defined as the amount of radioactivity calculated to deliver no more than 12 Gy to lungs, 30 Gy to liver, or 1.5 Gy to bone marrow. A single treatment was given to 134 patients, 42 patients received two doses, 8 received three and one patient received four treatments. The total injected activity including the scout dose during the first treatment ranged from 21 to 364 mCi (average 108 mCi). Patients were followed for at least l2 weeks after therapy. The clinical parameters evaluated included toxicity, response as determined objectively by contrast enhanced computed tomography, palliation of symptoms, overall survival, performance status (Karnofsky), and hepatic function (Child's classification). Liver function tests, serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels and complete blood counts were done at each follow-up visit. Side effects were minimal and usually presented as loss of appetite, right hypochondrial discomfort and low-grade fever. Liver function tests at 24 and 72 hours showed no significant changes and complete blood counts at 1 week, 4 weeks and 12 weeks showed no changes (no bone marrow suppression). Data on largest tumour diameter after therapy and/or tumour response as evaluated from CT scans are available for 88 patients. Complete disappearance of tumour was recorded in 3 (3%), partial response in 19 (22%), stable

  2. Treatment of liver cancer with Rhenium-188 Lipiodol: Colombian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernal, P.; Osorio, M.; Mendoza, M.; Esguerra, R.; Ucros, G.; Gutierrez, C.; Velez, O.; Cerquera, A.M.; Padhy, A.K.

    2002-01-01

    Aim:Trans-arterial Radio-conjugate therapy plays an important role in the palliative treatment of inoperable liver cancer. It also helps in reduction of the tumor to an operable state from an inoperable one. As a part of an IAEA sponsored coordinated research project, a new radiopharmaceutical, Rhenium-188 Lipiodol has been developed. The aim of this study was to establish the safety of the radiopharmaceutical and to find out the efficacy of treatment. Materials and Methods: Eight patients suffering from various forms of liver cancer (Hepatocellular carcinoma-4, Metastases from carcinoma of colon-3 and Carcinoid- 1) were treated with Rhenium -188 Lipiodol. Seven out of the eight patients were classified as ECOG- 1 and one as ECOG- 3. Labelling of Rhenium-188 with Lipiodol was carried out according to a protocol developed under the CRP and standardized in our service. Rhenium-188 Lipiodol was administered through the trans-arterial route by either selective (75%) or ultra selective (25%) hepatic arteriography. Administered therapeutic doses ranged between 170 MBq and 4181 MBq. Dosimetric evaluations were made using the IAEA developed dosimetry spreadsheet. All patients were followed up (1-5 months, average = 2 months) after treatment by clinical examination, liver function tests, haematological examinations and CT scans of liver to determine the size of hepatic tumor. Results: Rhenium-188 Lipiodol treatment was well tolerated by all patients. No immediate systemic complications were noted in any of the patients within 72 hrs. following therapy. Only two patients had mild rise in temperature in the immediate post-therapy period, which subsided subsequently. One patient who was classified as Child B and ECOG 3, developed encephalopathy on the seventh day after treatment. He died of hepatic failure. Another one present depressive syndrome, didn't accept food and died Follow-up CT scans in all the surviving (6/8) patients revealed significant reduction of the tumours

  3. Rhenium-188-Lipiodol therapy of liver cancer: Optimization of conjugate-view imaging of 188Re for patient-specific dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudakshetrin, P.; Osorio, M.; Padhy, A.K.; Divgi, C.; Zanzonico, P.

    2004-01-01

    collimation and an extrinsic 188Re flood correction, however, high-quality gamma camera imaging of 188Re is achievable. Reasonably accurate (+25%) conjugate-view activity quantitation (using only the photopeak energy window) can be performed and used for maximum-permissible-activity patient-specific dosimetry for 188Re-Lipiodol therapy. (author)

  4. Preliminary results of transarterial Rhenium-188 HDD Lipiodol in treatment of inoperable primary hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundram, Felix

    2004-01-01

    Full text: In this paper we present our early experience with a new radio-conjugate, namely rhenium-188 HDD Lipiodol (Re-188 lipiodol). Imported radiopharmaceuticals are generally expensive, particularly for developing countries. A Tungsten (W-188-Re 188) generator obtained from ORNL (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, USA) allows us on-site production of a beta emitting therapeutic isotope (Re-188) for up to 6 months from a single generator. The objectives of this study were to establish the safety of trans-arterial Re-188 lipiodol in patients with inoperable HCC, and determine the adverse effects and efficacy for this radio-conjugate treatment in a multi-center study of patients with advanced HCC. A multi-center study was sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency (Vienna) to assess the safety and efficacy of trans-arterial Re-188 HDD conjugated lipiodol (radio-conjugate) in the treatment of patients with inoperable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), The radio-conjugate was prepared by using a HDD (4-hexadecyl 1-2, 9, 9-tetramethyl-4, 7-diaza-1, 10-decanethiol) kit developed in Korea, and lipiodol. Over a period of eighteen months seventy patients received at least one treatment of radio-conjugate. Some patients were re-treated if there was no evidence of disease progression. The level of radio-conjugate administered was based on radiation-absorbed dose to critical normal organs, calculated following a 'scout' dose of radio-conjugate. The organs at greatest risk for radiation toxicity are the normal liver, the lung and the bone marrow. A specially designed spreadsheet was used to determine maximum tolerated activity (MTA), defined as the amount of radioactivity calculated to deliver no more than 12 Gray (Gy) to lungs, or 30 Gy to liver, or 1.5 Gy to bone marrow. These doses have been found to be safe in multiple trials using external beam therapy and systemically administered radiopharmaceuticals. Patients were followed for at least twelve weeks

  5. Preliminary results of transarterial rhenium-188 HDD lipiodol in the treatment of inoperable primary hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundram, Felix [Nuclear Medicine Department (The PET Centre), Singapore General Hospital, Block 2 Basement 1, Outram Road, 169608 (Singapore); Chau, Tran Chi Minh [Nuclear Medicine Department, Cho Ray Hospital, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Onkhuudai, Peljee [Nuclear Medicine Department, First Central University Hospital, Ulaanbatax (Mongolia); Bernal, Patricia [Nuclear Medicine Department, Fundacion Santa Fe, Bogota (Colombia); Padhy, Ajit Kumar [Division of Human Health, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    2004-02-01

    The radioconjugate was prepared by using an HDD (4-hexadecyl 1-2,9,9-tetramethyl-4,7-diaza-1,10-decanethiol) kit, and lipiodol. Over a period of 18 months, 70 patients received at least one treatment of radioconjugate. Some patients were re-treated if there was no evidence of disease progression. The level of radioconjugate administered was based on radiation-absorbed dose to critical normal organs, calculated following a ''scout'' dose of radioconjugate. The organs at greatest risk for radiation toxicity are the normal liver, the lung and the bone marrow. An Excel spreadsheet was used to determine maximum tolerated activity (MTA), defined as the amount of radioactivity calculated to deliver no more than 12 Gy to lungs, or 30 Gy to liver, or 1.5 Gy to bone marrow. Patients were followed for at least 12 weeks after therapy, until recovery from all toxicity. The clinical parameters evaluated included toxicity, response as determined by contrast-enhanced CT, palliation of symptoms, overall survival, performance status (Karnofsky) and hepatic function (Child's classification). Liver function tests, serum {alpha}-fetoprotein (AFP) levels and complete blood counts were done at each follow-up visit. In the majority of patients, the scout dose studies indicated the radiation absorbed dose to normalliver to be the limiting factor to the treatment dose, while in a few patients dose to lung was the limiting factor. Radiation dose to bone marrow was negligible and was thus not a factor for the MTA calculations. Side-effects were minimal and usually presented as loss of appetite, right hypochondrial discomfort and low-grade fever, even at high levels of administered radioactivity. The symptoms resolved with simple supportive therapy within 3 days of onset. Liver function tests at 24 and 72 h showed no significant changes and complete blood counts at 1 week, 4 weeks and 12 weeks showed no changes (no bone marrow suppression). Sixteen patients were

  6. Preliminary results of transarterial rhenium-188 HDD lipiodol in the treatment of inoperable primary hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundram, Felix; Chau, Tran Chi Minh; Onkhuudai, Peljee; Bernal, Patricia; Padhy, Ajit Kumar

    2004-01-01

    The radioconjugate was prepared by using an HDD (4-hexadecyl 1-2,9,9-tetramethyl-4,7-diaza-1,10-decanethiol) kit, and lipiodol. Over a period of 18 months, 70 patients received at least one treatment of radioconjugate. Some patients were re-treated if there was no evidence of disease progression. The level of radioconjugate administered was based on radiation-absorbed dose to critical normal organs, calculated following a ''scout'' dose of radioconjugate. The organs at greatest risk for radiation toxicity are the normal liver, the lung and the bone marrow. An Excel spreadsheet was used to determine maximum tolerated activity (MTA), defined as the amount of radioactivity calculated to deliver no more than 12 Gy to lungs, or 30 Gy to liver, or 1.5 Gy to bone marrow. Patients were followed for at least 12 weeks after therapy, until recovery from all toxicity. The clinical parameters evaluated included toxicity, response as determined by contrast-enhanced CT, palliation of symptoms, overall survival, performance status (Karnofsky) and hepatic function (Child's classification). Liver function tests, serum α-fetoprotein (AFP) levels and complete blood counts were done at each follow-up visit. In the majority of patients, the scout dose studies indicated the radiation absorbed dose to normalliver to be the limiting factor to the treatment dose, while in a few patients dose to lung was the limiting factor. Radiation dose to bone marrow was negligible and was thus not a factor for the MTA calculations. Side-effects were minimal and usually presented as loss of appetite, right hypochondrial discomfort and low-grade fever, even at high levels of administered radioactivity. The symptoms resolved with simple supportive therapy within 3 days of onset. Liver function tests at 24 and 72 h showed no significant changes and complete blood counts at 1 week, 4 weeks and 12 weeks showed no changes (no bone marrow suppression). Sixteen patients were treated in the dose escalation phase

  7. Issues associated with the use of the Tungsten-188/Rhenium188 generator and concentrator system and preparation of Re-188 HDD: A report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, F.F.Jr.; Turner, J.H.; Jeong, J.-M.; Padhy, A.K.

    2004-01-01

    The ready availability of no-carrier-added Rhenium-188 from the Tungsten-188/Rhenium-188 generator represents an important source of a therapeutic radioisotope for a broad range of therapeutic applications in nuclear medicine, oncology, rheumatology and interventional cardiology. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is coordinating a clinical trial involving the use of Rhenium188-Lipiodol for therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma. This report summarizes the experience of investigators at ten participating centres associated with the use and performance of the Tungsten-188/Rhenium-188 generators and the preparation and handling of the Re-188 HDD agent. This evaluation has demonstrated the cost effective provision of on-site therapeutic activities of Rhenium-188 and recommendations are made for further development of the next generator prototype in light of this international experience. The high bolus volumes (20-40 ml) of the ORNL generator requires post elution concentration of the Re-188 bolus by passage through the tandem silver cation/anion column system. The high back pressure often encountered during generator elution through the silver cation/anion concentrator system has been identified as a potential problem. The details of a method involving in house preparation of the silver cation columns were provided and implementation of this method for Re-188 bolus concentration is recommended. It is also recommended that ORNL investigators reassess the possibility of increasing Tungsten generator loading capacity and the use of higher specific activity Tungsten-188, with a view to reducing the generator bolus volume. The Re-188 HDD/Lipiodol conjugate?;ate is used in this IAEA trial for radioembolytic therapy of primary liver cancer, and methods for preparation of Re-188 HDD and its extraction into Lipiodol are discussed. Since Re-188 HDD binds to glass surfaces, the recovery yields are variable and can be as low as 40-45%. In an effort to maximize the

  8. Therapeutic applications of Rhenium-188 in nuclear medicine and oncology - Current status and expected future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, F. F. Jr.

    2005-01-01

    effective method for myeloablation/conditioning prior to stem cell transplantation in leukemia patients. Rhenium-188-labeled peptides are also being developed and evaluated for targeted therapy. The Re-188- P2045 SST2/SST5-binding peptide is being developed for the treatment of small cell/non small cell lung tumors and the initial results of a Phase I trial have been reported. The submitted manuscript has been authored by a contractor of the U.S. Government under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725. Accordingly, the U.S. Government retains a nonexclusive, royalty-free license to publish or reproduce the published form of this contribution, or allow others to do so, for U.S. Government purposes. Therapy of refractory liver cancer is being explored by site-specific trans-arterial delivery of the Re-188-labeled HDD-and DEDC-Lipiodol conjugates in several countries, including an IAEA-sponsored multi-center trial. Use of Re-188-B20 albumin particles has also been reported as an effective alternative approach for the treatment of metastatic liver cancer therapy. Although the use of radioactive stents for inhibition of restenosis following coronary angioplasty has been eclipsed at most centers with the use of growth inhibitor-coated stents, the use of Re-188 liquid-filled balloons for this application has played an important role in developing and demonstrating the cost-effective usefulness of preventing coronary restenosis with beta-emitting radioisotopes and still represents a cost-effective alternative for restenosis therapy when cost is an issue. The tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generator represents a convenient and cost-effective system to provide high specific activity rhenium-188 for a wide variety of therapeutic applications. In developing countries the tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generator is of particular importance because of its indefinite useful shelf-life and rhenium-188 represents one of the few therapeutic radioisotopes that can be cost effectively routinely available. Use of the

  9. Rhenium-188: Availability from the W-188/Re-188 Generator and Status of Current Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillai, M.R.A.; Dash, A.; Knapp, Russ F. Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Rhenium-188 is one of the most readily available generator derived and useful radionuclides for therapy emitting β-particles (2.12 MeV, 71.1% and 1.965 MeV, 25.6%) and imageable gammas (155 KeV, 15.1%). The 188W/188Re generator is an ideal source for the long term (4-6 months) continuous availability of no carrier added (nca) 188Re suitable for the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals for radionuclide therapy. The challenges associated with the double neutron capture route of production of the parent 188W radionuclide have been a major impediment in the progress of application of 188Re. Tungsten-188 of adequate specific activity can be prepared only in 2-3 of the high flux reactors operating in the World. Several useful technologies have been developed for the preparation of clinical grade 188W/188Re generator. Since the specific activity of 188W used in the generator is relatively low (<5 Ci/g), the eluted 188ReO4- can have low radioactive concentration often insufficient for radiopharmaceutical preparation. However, several efficient post elution concentration techniques have been developed that yield clinically useful 188ReO4-. Rhenium-188 has been used for the preparation of therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals for the management of diseases such as bone metastasis, rheumatoid arthritis and primary cancers. Several early phase clinical studies using radiopharmaceuticals based on 188Re-labeled phosphonates, antibodies, peptides, lipiodol and particulates have been reported. This article reviews the availability, and use of188Re including a discussion of why broader use of 188Re has not progressed as ecpected as a popular radionuclide for therapy.

  10. Rhenium 188 labelling of peptide conjugates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melendez-Alafort, Laura

    2001-01-01

    Many human tumours express high levels, of somatostatin receptors. In order to make possible a radiotherapeutic treatment of this kind for tumour a series of somatostatin analogues that can tightly chelate beta emitting isotopes have been developed in recent years. The work carried out for this thesis has been aimed towards development of a new therapeutic radiopharmaceutical for treatment of somatostatin receptor positive tumours. The first chapters describe work with technetium-99m to establish the labelling and analytical conditions for a somatostatin analogue, [Tyr 3 ]-octreotide (TOC), as a precursor to undertaking labelling studies with the beta emitter rhenium-188. 6-Hydrazinopyridine-3-carboxylic acid (HYNIC) was conjugated to TOC and labelled with 99m using different coligands. Then the stability, receptor binding and biodistribution of each complex were assessed. 99m Tc-HYNIC-TOC using EDDA as coligand showed the best characteristics, and was superior for tumour imaging in humans than the commercially available 111 In-DTPA-octreotide. The conditions for labelling the HYNIC-TOC conjugate with 188 Re were then optimised using tricine as a co-ligand. A labelling yield of ∼80% was achieved. After purification however, the stability of the complex was low. The use of other coligand systems which had proved useful for 99m Tc labelling was explored, but yields were very poor. Other chelators such as diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG 3 ) were studied as potential co-ligand agents to label the HYNIC-TOC conjugate with 188 Re but, again low yields of the labelled peptide complexes were achieved. A novel 188 Re-HYNIC complex was prepared in high yields using N-N-disubstituted dithiocarbamates as coligands. However to date, the specific activities achieved with this system are relatively low. The use of the [ 99m Tc(CO) 3 (H 2 O) 3 ] complex to label the HYNIC-TOC conjugate was investigated

  11. The therapeutic threesome, Iodine 131, Lutetium-111 and Rhenium-188 Radionuclide Trifecta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, J.H.

    2007-01-01

    intervals of 7 - 11 weeks, in 10 patients at Fremantle Hospital and 7 patients at Erasmus Medical Centre. A multicentre international physician-sponsored randomised controlled trial of 177 Lu octreotate with or without capecitabine will commence in 2008, given that toxicity of combined chemotherapy and radiopeptide therapy is no greater than 177 Lu octreotate alone. 3. Rhenium-188 Lipiodol Hepatocellular carcinoma is the cancer which kills more people in Asia than any other malignancy and if unresectable is incurable. Effective palliation, which may increase survival, has been demonstrated with intrahepatic arterial administration of 131 I-lipiodol (6) and there are even greater potential benefits with 188 Re-lipiodol (7). We are currently testing a commercial prototype of semiautomated shielded synthesis box (Comecer, Castel- bolognese, Italy) for preparation of sterile 188 Re-lipiodol, for eventual installation in radiopharmacies throughout Asia, to provide cost-effective, safe treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. Given the advent of the 188 W/ 188 Re generator, other therapeutic radio-pharmaceuticals such as 188 Re- HEDP for bone pain palliation of skeletal metastases, 188 Re colloid for radiation synovectomy and 188 Re antibodies for internalizing radioimmunotherapy would be available in-house in radiopharmacies throughout the world, to facilitate cost-effective incorporation of therapeutic nuclear oncology into mainstream clinical management of cancer. (author)

  12. Monoclonal Antibodies Radiolabeling with Rhenium-188 for Radioimmunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Petra; Pasquali, Micol

    2017-01-01

    Rhenium-188, obtained from an alumina-based tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generator, is actually considered a useful candidate for labeling biomolecules such as antibodies, antibody fragments, peptides, and DNAs for radiotherapy. There is a widespread interest in the availability of labeling procedures that allow obtaining 188Re-labeled radiopharmaceuticals for various therapeutic applications, in particular for the rhenium attachment to tumor-specific monoclonal antibodies (Mo)Abs for immunotherapy. Different approaches have been developed in order to obtain 188Re-radioimmunoconjugates in high radiochemical purity starting from the generator eluted [188Re]ReO4−. The aim of this paper is to provide a short overview on 188Re-labeled (Mo)Abs, focusing in particular on the radiolabeling methods, quality control of radioimmunoconjugates, and their in vitro stability for radioimmunotherapy (RIT), with particular reference to the most important contributions published in literature in this topic. PMID:28951872

  13. Rhenium-188 - advantages and clinical potential for use of a readily available, cost effective therapeutic radioisotope for applications in nuclear medicine, oncology and interventional cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, F.F. jr.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Carrier-free rhenium-188 (Re-188) is readily available from the alumina-based tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generator system and has many attractive properties for a wide variety of therapeutic applications. The 16.9 h half-life, emission of the 2.2 MeV beta particle and versatile chemistry make Re-188 an important candidate for applications where high radiation penetration is required. In addition, emission of a gamma photon (155 KeV, 15 %) permits evaluation of biodistribution, pharmacokinetics and dosimetry estimates. The long physical half-life of the tungsten-188 (W-188) parent (t 1/2 69 days) and consistent generator performance - with high Re-188 yields and low W-188 parent breakthrough - result in an indefinite shelf-life of several months, dependent on the levels of Re-188 required. Post generator elution in-growth of 62 % of Re-188 after 24 hours in combination with high elution yields (75-85 %) result in 50 % daily yields of the maximal Re-188 available. In addition to research being conducted for the development of a wide variety of new therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals and devices, Re-188 is also being evaluated in physician-sponsored clinical trials in over 15 countries, with applications in nuclear medicine, oncology and interventional cardiology. One major current clinical application involves post-angiographic treatment of arterial segments following PTCA using Re-188 perrhenate or MAG3 liquid-filled balloons as an effective and cost-effective approach for inhibition of the hyperplastic response to vessel damage, which delivers uniform dose to the vessel wall. Re-188-HEDP is being used for palliation of metastatic bone pain palliation. This agent is readily prepared from a simple 'kit' and provides pain palliation as effective as other commercially available agents. The use of the Re-188-labeled Anti-NCA-95 antibody (BW 50/183; CD66 a,b,c,e) in conjunction which external beam irradiation and chemotherapy is an effective method for

  14. Lipiodol as a Fiducial Marker for Image-Guided Radiation Therapy for Bladder Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freilich, Jessica M.; Spiess, Philippe E.; Biagioli, Matthew C.; Fernandez, Daniel C.; Shi, Ellen J.; Hunt, Dylan C.; Gupta, Shilpa; Wilder, Richard B., E-mail: richard.wilder@moffitt.org [Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate Lipiodol as a liquid, radio-opaque fiducial marker for image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) for bladder cancer; Materials and Methods: Between 2011 and 2012, 5 clinical T2a-T3b N0 M0 stage II-III bladder cancer patients were treated with maximal transurethral resection of a bladder tumor (TURBT) and image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) to 64.8 Gy in 36 fractions ± concurrent weekly cisplatin-based or gemcitabine chemotherapy. Ten to 15mL Lipiodol, using 0.5mL per injection, was injected into bladder submucosa circumferentially around the entire periphery of the tumor bed immediately following maximal TURBT. The authors looked at inter-observer variability regarding the size and location of the tumor bed (CTVboost) on computed tomography scans with versus without Lipiodol. Results: Median follow-up was 18 months. Lipiodol was visible on every orthogonal two-dimensional kV portal image throughout the entire, 7-week course of IGRT. There was a trend towards improved inter-observer agreement on the CTVboost with Lipiodol (p = 0.06). In 2 of 5 patients, the tumor bed based upon Lipiodol extended outside a planning target volume that would have been treated with a radiation boost based upon a cystoscopy report and an enhanced computed tomography (CT) scan for staging. There was no toxicity attributable to Lipiodol: Conclusions: Lipiodol constitutes a safe and effective fiducial marker that an urologist can use to demarcate a tumor bed immediately following maximal TURBT. Lipiodol decreases inter-observer variability in the definition of the extent and location of a tumor bed on a treatment planning CT scan for a radiation boost. (author)

  15. Lipiodol as a Fiducial Marker for Image-Guided Radiation Therapy for Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica M. Freilich

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose To evaluate Lipiodol as a liquid, radio-opaque fiducial marker for image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT for bladder cancer.Materials and Methods Between 2011 and 2012, 5 clinical T2a-T3b N0 M0 stage II-III bladder cancer patients were treated with maximal transurethral resection of a bladder tumor (TURBT and image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT to 64.8 Gy in 36 fractions ± concurrent weekly cisplatin-based or gemcitabine chemotherapy. Ten to 15mL Lipiodol, using 0.5mL per injection, was injected into bladder submucosa circumferentially around the entire periphery of the tumor bed immediately following maximal TURBT. The authors looked at inter-observer variability regarding the size and location of the tumor bed (CTVboost on computed tomography scans with versus without Lipiodol.Results Median follow-up was 18 months. Lipiodol was visible on every orthogonal two-dimensional kV portal image throughout the entire, 7-week course of IGRT. There was a trend towards improved inter-observer agreement on the CTVboost with Lipiodol (p = 0.06. In 2 of 5 patients, the tumor bed based upon Lipiodol extended outside a planning target volume that would have been treated with a radiation boost based upon a cystoscopy report and an enhanced computed tomography (CT scan for staging. There was no toxicity attributable to Lipiodol.Conclusions Lipiodol constitutes a safe and effective fiducial marker that an urologist can use to demarcate a tumor bed immediately following maximal TURBT. Lipiodol decreases inter-observer variability in the definition of the extent and location of a tumor bed on a treatment planning CT scan for a radiation boost.

  16. Automation of labelling of Lipiodol with high-activity generator-produced 188Re

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepareur, Nicolas; Ardisson, Valerie; Noiret, Nicolas; Boucher, Eveline; Raoul, Jean-Luc; Clement, Bruno; Garin, Etienne

    2011-01-01

    This work describes optimisation of the kit formulation for labelling of Lipiodol with high-activity generator-produced rhenium-188. Radiochemical purity (RCP) was 92.52±2.3% and extraction yield was 98.56±1.2%. The synthesis has been automated with a TADDEO module (Comecer) giving a mean final yield of 52.68±9.6%, and reducing radiation burden to the radiochemist by 80%. Radiolabelled Lipiodol ( 188 Re-SSS/Lipiodol) is stable for at least 7 days (RCP=91.07±0.9%).

  17. Pharmacokinetic properties of new antitumor radiopharmaceutical on the basis of diamond nanoporous composites labeled with rhenium-188

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petriev, V M; Tishchenko, V K; Kuril’chik, A A; Skvortsov, V G

    2017-01-01

    Today the development of address therapeutic radionuclide delivery systems directly to tumor tissue is of current interest. It can be achieved by the design of drug containers of specific sizes and shapes from carbon-based composite materials. It will be allowed to enhance the efficacy of anticancer therapy and avoid serious side effects. In this work we studied the pharmacokinetic properties of nanodiamond nanoporous composite labeled with rhenium-188 in rats with hepatocholangioma PC-1 after intratumoral injection. It was established that substantial part of injected radioactivity remained in tumor tissue. Within three hours after 188 Re-nanoporous composites injection activity in tumor constituted 79.1–91.3% of injected dose (ID). Then activity level declined to 45.9% ID at 120 hours. No more than 1.34% ID entered the bloodstream. In soft organs and tissues, except thyroid gland, the content of compound didn’t exceed 0.3% ID/g. The highest activity in thyroid gland was 6.95% ID/g. In conclusion, received results suggest 188 Re-nanoporous composites can be promising radionuclide delivery systems for cancer treatment. (paper)

  18. Radiation exposure and radiation protection of the physician in iodine-131 Lipiodol therapy of liver tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risse, J.H.; Ponath, C.; Palmedo, H.; Biersack, H.J.; Menzel, C.; Gruenwald, F.

    2001-01-01

    Intra-arterial iodine-131 labelled Lipiodol therapy for liver cancer has been investigated for safety and efficacy over a number of years, but data on radiation exposure of personnel have remained unavailable to date. The aim of this study was to assess the radiation exposure of the physician during intra-arterial 131 I-Lipiodol therapy for liver malignancies and to develop appropriate radiation protection measures and equipment. During 20 intra-arterial administrations of 131 I-Lipiodol (1110-1924 MBq), radiation dose equivalents (RDE) to the whole body, fingers and eyes of the physician were determined for (a) conventional manual administration through a shielded syringe, (b) administration with an automatic injector and (c) administration with a lead container developed in-house. Administration by syringe resulted in a finger RDE of 19.5 mSv, an eye RDE of 130-140 μSv, and a whole-body RDE of 108-119 μSv. The injector reduced the finger RDE to 5 mSv. With both technique (a) and technique (b), contamination of angiography materials was observed. The container allowed safe transport and administration of the radiopharmaceutical from 4 m distance and reduced the finger RDE to 131 I-Lipiodol was administered by syringe or injector, but was significantly reduced with the lead container. (orig.)

  19. Active and passive vectorization of technetium{sup 99m} and {sup 188}rhenium radiopharmaceuticals for medical imaging and radiotherapy; Vectorisations active et passive de radiopharmaceutiques du technetium-99m et du rhenium-188 pour l'imagerie medicale et la therapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepareur, N

    2003-11-15

    Research for new molecules for nuclear medicine is a field in constant development. Over the past few years, development of new radiopharmaceuticals for radiotherapy has renewed interest for rhenium chemistry. Indeed, its two isotopes {sup 186}Re and {sup 188}Re, owing to their ideal properties and their similitude with {sup 99m}Tc, which is widely used as a radiotracer for diagnostic imaging, seem very promising for the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals. In the first part of this manuscript, the synthesis of rhenium and technetium-99 complexes, [M(RPhCS3)2(RPhCS2)] (M = Re, Tc), is described. The preparation of technetium{sup 99m} based radiopharmaceuticals, analogues to the pondered complexes, is also described. The stability/reactivity of these complexes has been studied by exchange reactions with potential ligands, specially dithiocarbamates, and also by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy and thermogravimetry. The reactivity of the complexes towards dithiocarbamates leads to the possibility to bind biomolecules to the metallic core, via the dithiocarbamate moiety. This method represents a potential alternative to current ones using the so-called bifunctional approach. In the second part of this manuscript, a new kit formulation for the {sup 188}Re labeling of lipiodol is described, using a complex analogous to those described in the previous part. The labeled oil is a potential cure for hepatocellular carcinoma. The in vitro and in vivo stability of this {sup 188}Re-SSS lipiodol and of its analogue {sup 99m}Tc-SSS lipiodol has been studied, and also their in vivo behavior in healthy pigs. This study has shown the quasi-exclusive hepatic fixation of the radiopharmaceutical, and has proven its good stability. Its selectivity for tumors remains to be shown before trying it on humans. (author)

  20. Active and passive vectorization of technetium{sup 99m} and {sup 188}rhenium radiopharmaceuticals for medical imaging and radiotherapy; Vectorisations active et passive de radiopharmaceutiques du technetium-99m et du rhenium-188 pour l'imagerie medicale et la therapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepareur, N

    2003-11-15

    Research for new molecules for nuclear medicine is a field in constant development. Over the past few years, development of new radiopharmaceuticals for radiotherapy has renewed interest for rhenium chemistry. Indeed, its two isotopes {sup 186}Re and {sup 188}Re, owing to their ideal properties and their similitude with {sup 99m}Tc, which is widely used as a radiotracer for diagnostic imaging, seem very promising for the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals. In the first part of this manuscript, the synthesis of rhenium and technetium-99 complexes, [M(RPhCS3)2(RPhCS2)] (M = Re, Tc), is described. The preparation of technetium{sup 99m} based radiopharmaceuticals, analogues to the pondered complexes, is also described. The stability/reactivity of these complexes has been studied by exchange reactions with potential ligands, specially dithiocarbamates, and also by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy and thermogravimetry. The reactivity of the complexes towards dithiocarbamates leads to the possibility to bind biomolecules to the metallic core, via the dithiocarbamate moiety. This method represents a potential alternative to current ones using the so-called bifunctional approach. In the second part of this manuscript, a new kit formulation for the {sup 188}Re labeling of lipiodol is described, using a complex analogous to those described in the previous part. The labeled oil is a potential cure for hepatocellular carcinoma. The in vitro and in vivo stability of this {sup 188}Re-SSS lipiodol and of its analogue {sup 99m}Tc-SSS lipiodol has been studied, and also their in vivo behavior in healthy pigs. This study has shown the quasi-exclusive hepatic fixation of the radiopharmaceutical, and has proven its good stability. Its selectivity for tumors remains to be shown before trying it on humans. (author)

  1. (188)Re-SSS/Lipiodol: Development of a Potential Treatment for HCC from Bench to Bedside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepareur, Nicolas; Ardisson, Valérie; Noiret, Nicolas; Garin, Etienne

    2012-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the 5th most common tumour worldwide and has a dark prognosis. For nonoperable cases, metabolic radiotherapy with Lipiodol labelled with β-emitters is a promising therapeutic option. The Comprehensive Cancer Centre Eugène Marquis and the National Graduate School of Chemistry of Rennes (ENSCR) have jointly developed a stable and efficient labelling of Lipiodol with rhenium-188 (E(βmax) = 2.1 MeV) for the treatment of HCC. The major "milestones" of this development, from the first syntheses to the recent first injection in man, are described.

  2. A randomised, phase II study of repeated rhenium-188-HEDP combined with docetaxel and prednisone versus docetaxel and prednisone alone in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) metastatic to bone; the Taxium II trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodewaard-de Jong, Joyce M. van [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Medical Oncology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Meander Medical Centre, Department of Medical Oncology, Amersfoort (Netherlands); Klerk, John M.H. de [Meander Medical Centre, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Amersfoort (Netherlands); Bloemendal, Haiko J. [Meander Medical Centre, Department of Medical Oncology, Amersfoort (Netherlands); University Medical Centre Utrecht, Department of Medical Oncology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Oprea-Lager, Daniela E.; Hoekstra, Otto S. [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Berg, H.P. van den [Tergooi Medical Hospital, Department of Medical Oncology, Hilversum (Netherlands); Los, Maartje [St Antonius Hospital Utrecht, Department of Medical Oncology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Beeker, Aart [Spaarne Gasthuis, Department of Medical Oncology, Hoofddorp (Netherlands); Jonker, Marianne A. [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); O' Sullivan, Joe M. [Queen' s University Belfast, Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Verheul, Henk M.W.; Eertwegh, Alfons J.M. van den [VU University Medical Centre, Department of Medical Oncology, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2017-08-15

    Rhenium-188-HEDP is a beta-emitting radiopharmaceutical used for palliation of metastatic bone pain. We investigated whether the addition of rhenium-188-HEDP to docetaxel/prednisone improved efficacy of chemotherapy in patients with CRPC. Patients with progressive CRPC and osteoblastic bone metastases were randomised for first-line docetaxel 75 mg/m{sup 2} 3-weekly plus prednisone with or without 2 injections of rhenium-188-HEDP after the third (40 MBq/kg) and after the sixth (20 MBq/kg) cycle of docetaxel. Primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS), defined as either PSA, radiographic or clinical progression. Patients were stratified by extent of bone metastases and hospital. Forty-two patients were randomised for standard treatment and 46 patients for combination therapy. Median number of cycles of docetaxel was 9 in the control group and 8 in the experimental group. Median follow-up was 18.4 months. Two patients from the experimental group did not start treatment after randomisation. In the intention to treat analysis no differences in PFS, survival and PSA became apparent between the two groups. In an exploratory per-protocol analysis median overall survival was significantly longer in the experimental group (33.8 months (95%CI 31.75-35.85)) than in the control group (21.0 months (95%CI 13.61-28.39); p 0.012). Also median PFS in patients with a baseline phosphatase >220U/L was significantly better with combination treatment (9.0 months (95%CI 3.92-14.08) versus 6.2 months (95%CI 3.08-9.32); log rank p 0.005). As expected, thrombocytopenia (grade I/II) was reported more frequently in the experimental group (25% versus 0%). Combined treatment with rhenium-188-HEDP and docetaxel did not prolong PFS in patients with CRPC. The observed survival benefit in the per-protocol analysis warrants further studies in the combined treatment of chemotherapy and radiopharmaceuticals. (orig.)

  3. Quality of life assessment in radionuclide therapy: a feasibility study of the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire in palliative 131I-lipiodol therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brans, B.; Lambert, B.; De Beule, E.; De Winter, F.; Dierckx, R.A.; Van Belle, S.; Van Vlierberghe, H.; De Hemptinne, B.

    2002-01-01

    The good tolerance of radionuclide therapy has frequently been proposed as a major advantage. This study explored the feasibility of using the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire in palliative iodine-131 lipiodol therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma. Questionnaires were completed during interviews in which all symptoms, co-morbidity and medication were assessed at baseline within 1 week before 131 I-lipiodol therapy, and subsequently after 1 and 3 months, in 20 patients treated with locoregional, intra-arterial 131 I-lipiodol therapy with or without cisplatin. Principal observations were that (1) a number of important scales, i.e. overall quality of life, physical functioning and pain, worsened between 0 and 3 months after 131 I-lipiodol therapy, irrespective of tumour response, and (2) the occurrence of clinical side-effects was associated with a negative impact on quality of life and physical functioning 1 and 3 months after 131 I-lipiodol. The QLQ-C30 can be regarded as a feasible method for quality of life assessment in 131 I-lipiodol therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma and possibly in other radionuclide therapies. These observations should be related to the impact of other treatment modalities on quality of life. (orig.)

  4. Use of a new tandem cation/anion exchange system with clinical-scale generators provides high specific volume solutions of technetium-99m and rhenium-188

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, F.R. Jr.; Beets, A.L.; Mirzadeh, S.; Guhlke, S.; Univ. of Bonn

    1998-03-01

    In this paper the authors describe the first application of a simple and inexpensive post elution tandem cation-anion exchange column system which is based on generator elution with salts of weak acids such as ammonium acetate instead of saline solution to provide very high specific volume solutions of technetium-99m and rhenium-188 from clinical scale molybdenum-99/technetium-99m generator prepared from low specific activity (n,y) molybdenum-99, and tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generators, respectively. Initial passage of the bolus through a strong cation exchange cartridge converts the ammonium acetate to acetic acid which is essentially not ionized at the acidic pH, allowing specific subsequent amine type (QMA SepPak trademark) anion exchange cartridge column trapping of the microscopic levels of the pertechnetate or perrhenate. Subsequent elution of the anion cartridge with a small volume ( 500 mCi/mL) from the alumina-based tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generator

  5. Do the benefits of iodine-131 lipiodol therapy for HCC outweigh the radiation safety issues?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitchener, M.I.; Barnden, L.R.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: lodine-131 Lipiodol is a well recognised palliative treatment option for Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) unsuitable for surgical resection/transplantation. However, the biological and physical half-life of lodine-131 Lipiodol in this situation has significant implications for radiation protection. Methods: A retrospective study was performed to evaluate the practical radiation issues and treatment efficacy. 22 patients were referred for assessment and 12 received Lipiodol therapy, 5 having multiple doses. Administered doses ranged from 1.0-2.2 GBq. Results: Patients were hospitalised between 4 and 8 days, with discharge rates ranging between 16 and 61uSv/hr at 1 metre. The shorter hospital stays and highest discharge rates related to 2 patients (multiple doses) who had difficulty tolerating the in-hospital isolation. Only 4 patients had discharge rates < 25uSv/hr at 1 metre. 2 with reduced doses. Special exemption was required from the State Radiation Protection Branch (RPB) to allow early discharge. Patients were given a radiation precaution sheet on discharge (as per the FMC program) and asked to observe the restrictions including not returning to work for 14-24 days and avoiding close contact with young children for 25-44 days post-discharge. The measured radiation dose for a patient's spouse/carer was < lOOuSv on 2 occasions. The mean exposure for nurses per patient admission was 9.1 uSv. The TLD readings for the Interventional Radiologist and treating Nuclear Physician remained well within acceptable levels. 4 of the 12 patients have died at a mean of 16.25 months (range 13-20 months) after their first dose of lodine-131 Lipiodol. Of the other 7, 3 now have progressive disease but are alive 18, 36 and 41 months following their first dose. 4 are less than 12 months post-therapy. With the co-operation of the State RPB. the issues relating to radiation protection are manageable and these patients do receive a therapeutic benefit

  6. Use of new tandem cation/anion exchange system with clinical-scale generators provides high specific volume solutions of technetium-99m and rhenium-188

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Beets, A.L.; Mirzadeh, S.; Guhlke, S.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we describe the first application of our simple and inexpensive post-elution tandem cation/anion exchange column system which is based on generator elution with salts of weak acids such as ammonium acetate instead of saline solution to provide very high specific volume solutions of technetium-99m and rhenium-188 from clinical-scale molybdenum-99/technetium-99m generator prepared from low specific activity (n,y) molybdenum-99, and tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generators, respectively. Initial passage of the bolus through a strong cation exchange cartridge converts the ammonium acetate to acetic acid which is essentially not ionized at the acidic pH, allowing specific subsequent amine-type (QMA SepPak TM ) anion exchange cartridge column trapping of the microscopic levels of the pertechnetate or perrhenate. Subsequent elution of the anion cartridge with a small volume ( 500 mCi/mL) from the alumina-based tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generator. (author)

  7. Embolization therapy of uterine fibroids by using pingyangmycin lipiodol emulsion or polyvinyl alcohol particles: a clinical comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Dazhong; Yin Jianlin; Liu Hairi; Zhang Fuqiang; Huang Hai; Gu Youmei

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of embolization of uterine fibroids by using pingyangmycin lipiodol emulsion or polyvinyl alcohol particles as embolismic materials. Methods: Seventy-three patients with uterine fibroids were divided into two groups. Patients in group A (29 cases) were treated with pingyangmycin lipiodol emulsion as embolismic materials, while patients in group B (44 cases) with polyvinyl alcohol particles (with a diameter of 300-700 μm) as embolismic materials. Embolization therapy of uterine fibroids was performed in all patients. The uterus volume, the size of uterine fibroid and sex hormone level both before and after the treatment were estimated and the results were compared between two groups. The occurrence of complications was observed. Results: The technical success of catheterization and embolization was 100% in both groups. After the therapy,both the uterus volume and the uterine fibroid size decreased significantly, but no significant difference in the size reduction existed between the two groups (P>0.05). The clinical symptoms showed a marked improvement in all patients, while the sex hormone level showed no obvious changes. No serious complications occurred. Conclusion: In treating uterine fibroids with embolization technique, both pingyangmycin lipiodol emulsion and polyvinyl alcohol particles are safe and effective embolismic materials. However, use of polyvinyl alcohol particles may be safer than pingyangmycin, as pingyangmycin is a kind of chemotherapeutic drugs, which might potentially cause some short-term or long-term complications. (authors)

  8. Transarterial Re-188 labeled Lipiodol therapy in cases of inoperable hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Ajay; Pant, G.S.; Bandopadhyaya, G.P.; Bal, C.S.; Srivastava, D.N.; Acharya, S.K.; Pandey, G.K.; DattaGupta, S.; Sundaram, K.R.; Zanzonicog, Pat; Sundaram, Felix X.; Padhy, A.K.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Most of the patients of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) present late with inoperable disease, cirrhosis of the liver and sometimes with portal vein thrombosis. In these circumstances, chemoembolisation is not possible. Similarly, if tumor is not accessible percutaneously, percutaneous ablative procedures are also ruled out. Such patients can be offered internal radionuclide therapy. In the internal radionuclide therapy, it is desirable to deliver the maximum possible radiation to the tumor, while protecting the critical organs such as normal liver parenchyma, lungs and the bone marrow (for which critical levels of radiation doses are predetermined as 30, 12 and 1.5 Gy, respectively). This is possible with individual dosimetry, by which radiation-absorbed dose/MBq to the various organs including the tumor is calculated and the 'maximum tolerated activity (MTA)', which can be safely administered to the patient, is estimated. However, this MTA should be able to deliver enough radiation to the tumor to ablate it completely (considered to be 80-100 Gy). We conducted trans-arterial Re-188 lipiodol therapy in patients with inoperable HCC after calculating MTA with individual dosimetry, in a multi-centric trial conducted by IAEA, and tried to evaluate whether calculated MTA could deliver tumoricidal radiation dose. With a transarterially injected scout dose (185 MBq) of Re-188, radiation absorbed dose to above mentioned organs including tumor were calculated in ten patients after acquiring planar gamma camera images, using conjugate view method (images taken up to 3 hrs post-injection along with a standard source) and performing first-order corrections for scatter (by taking images both in photopeak and scatter window) and attenuation (by taking a flood source and a transmission scan of the patents prior to the administration of Re-188). Images were acquired on gamma camera(Siemens-ORBITOR or GE- Millennium VG) with high/medium-energy collimator and radiation

  9. Therapeutic efficacy and dosimetric aspects of Rhenium-188-HEDP in bone pain palliation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liepe, Knut

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Bone metastases are a frequent complication of cancer, occurring in up 70% of patients suffering from advanced breast or prostate cancer and often present with severe bone pain. In this purpose the radionuclide therapy is a useful option for cancer patients. Different radionuclides are described, such as 89 Sr, 32 P, 153 Sm-EDTMP, 186 Re-HEDP, 131 I-BDP3, 90 Y, 117mSn-DTPA, 188 Re-HEDP and 188 Re-DMSA. The most experiences are available for 89 Sr. An indication for the treatment are patients with osteoblastic metastases, bone pain, sufficient bone marrow function and at least of three bone metastases visualized in bone scan. A bisphosphonate therapy, a chemotherapy with lower bone marrow toxicity or a local field external beam radiotherapy represent no contraindications, especially because the reported synergistic effects to the systemic radionuclide therapy. In 33 treated patients (breast and prostate cancer) we investigated the effect of 188 Re-HEDP on pain relief, analgesic intake and impairment of bone marrow function. There were an improvement on the Karnofsky performance scale from 74 7% to 85 9% 12 weeks after therapy (p= 0.001). The pain score showed a maximum decrease from 44 ± 18% to 27 ± 20% in the 3rd to the 8th week after therapy (p = .009) and 76% had a pain relief (20% were pain free). The maximal differences between the values of platelets and leukocytes before and after therapy were not statistically significant (p = 0.021 and p = 0.094). In 105 investigated patients treated with different radionuclides ( 89 Sr, 153 Sm-EDTMP, 186 Re-HEDP, 188 Re-HEDP and 89 Sr in combination with chemotherapy) no different therapeutic efficacy of the treatments were observed. In dose calculation of 188 Re-HEDP a radiation dose of 3.83 ± 2.01 mGy/MBq (12.6 Gy for 3300 MBq) for bone metastases and 0.61 ± 0.21 mGy/MBq (2 Gy for 3300 MBq) were found. With the introducing of radionuclide treatments with chemotherapy and repeated treatments, the

  10. {sup 188}Re-HDD/lipiodol therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma: an activity escalation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, Bieke; Vos, Filip de; Wiele, Christophe van de [Ghent University Hospital, Nuclear Medicine Division, Gent (Belgium); Bacher, Klaus; Thierens, Hubert [Ghent University, Department of Medical Physics, Gent (Belgium); Defreyne, Luc [Ghent University Hospital, Division of Interventional Radiology, Gent (Belgium); Vlierberghe, Hans van [Ghent University Hospital, Division of Gastroenterology, Gent (Belgium); Jeong, Jae Min [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cancer Research Institute, Seoul (Korea); Wang, Rong Fu [Beijing University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Beijing (China); Meerbeeck, Jan van [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Respiratory Diseases, Gent (Belgium); Smeets, Peter [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Gent (Belgium); Troisi, Roberto [Ghent University Hospital, Division of Abdominal Surgery and Liver Transplantation, Gent (Belgium)

    2006-03-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of administering increasing activities of {sup 188}Re-4-hexadecyl-1-2,9,9-tetramethyl-4,7-diaza-1,10-decanethiol/lipiodol ({sup 188}Re-HDD/lipiodol) for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with well-compensated cirrhosis. The activity levels were increased by 1.1 GBq/step after a 6-week interval without unacceptable adverse events in at least five consecutive patients. Absorbed doses to the various organs were calculated according to the MIRD formalism, based on three gamma-scintigraphic studies. Response was assessed by means of MRI and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) monitoring. Thirty-five treatments were carried out in 28 patients. Activities from 4.8 to 7.0 GBq {sup 188}Re-HDD/lipiodol were administered via a transfemoral catheter. The mean absorbed dose to the liver (including tumour) was 7.6{+-}2.2, 9.8{+-}4.9 and 15.2{+-}4.9 Gy for the 4.8-, 5.9- and 7.0-GBq groups, respectively. Treatment was well tolerated at all activity levels. Further escalation of the administered activity was not feasible owing to limitations related to the radiolabelling procedure. Response assessment on MRI showed partial response, stable disease and disease progression in 1, 28 and 2 assessable treatments, respectively. In 8 of 17 treatment sessions with an initially elevated AFP, a reduction ranging from 19% to 97% was observed 6 weeks later. (orig.)

  11. Preparation of a radioactive boron compound (B-I-131-lipiodol) for neutron capture therapy of hepatoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, F.I.; Chung, H.P.; Chung, R.J.; Wen, H.W.; Wei, Y.Y.; Kai, J.J.; Lui, W.Y.; Chi, C.W.

    2000-01-01

    In our research, a radioactive boron compound, B-I-131-lipiodol, that can be selectively retained in hepatoma cells was prepared. Combining the effect of α particles produced by boron neutron capture reaction with the β particles released by radionuclides in the radioactive boron compounds will produce a synergistic killing effect on cancer cells. Human hepatoma HepG2 cell cultures were used to examine the stability and the intracellular distribution of the radioactive boron drug. Microscopes were used to examine the interaction and retention of B-I-131-lipiodol globules in the individual hepatoma cell. Moreover, ICP-AES and NaI scintillation counter were performed to determine boron concentrations and I-131 radioactivity, respectively. Results showed that B-I-131-lipiodol with a boron concentration and a specific radioactivity ranged from 500-2000 ppm and 0.05-10 mCi/mL respectively was stably retained in serum. The radiochemical purity of B-I-131-lipiodol was 98%. After supplement with a medium containing B-I-131-lipiodol, the HepG2 cells had intracellular B-I-131-lipiodol globules in the cytoplasm as seen by inverted light microscope, the I-131 and boron can be stably retained in HepG2 cells. (author)

  12. Rhenium-188 as an alternative to Iodine-131 for treatment of breast tumors expressing the sodium/iodide symporter (NIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dadachova, E.; Bouzahzah, B.; Zuckier, L.S.; Pestell, R.G.

    2002-01-01

    The sodium-iodide symporter (NIS), which transports iodine into the cell, is expressed in thyroid tissue and was recently found to be expressed in approximately 80% of human breast cancers but not in healthy breast tissue. These findings raised the possibility that therapeutics targeting uptake by NIS may be used for breast cancer treatment. To increase the efficacy of such therapy it would be ideal to identify a radioactive therapy with enhanced local emission. The feasibility of using the powerful beta-emitting radiometal 188 Re in the form of 188 Re-perrhenate was therefore compared with 131 I for treatment of NIS-expressing mammary tumors. In the current studies, using a xenografted breast cancer model induced by the ErbB2 oncogene in nude mice, 188 Re-perrhenate exhibited NIS-dependent uptake into the mammary tumor. Dosimetry calculations in the mammary tumor demonstrate that 188 Re-perrhenate is able to deliver a dose 4.5 times higher than 131 I suggesting it may provide enhanced therapeutic efficacy

  13. Six-year clinical follow-up after treatment of diffuse in-stent restenosis with cutting balloon angioplasty followed by intracoronary brachytherapy with liquid rhenium-188-filled balloon via transradial approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hang Chiling; Wu Chiungjen; Hsieh Bortsung

    2010-01-01

    Long-term follow-up studies revealed a significant decline in the benefits of intracoronary radiation for in-stent restenosis. A total of 25 study and 25 contemporaneous control patients with diffuse in-stent restenosis who underwent cutting balloon angioplasty (CBA) transradially, followed by subsequent intracoronary irradiation with a liquid β-emitter Rhenium-188 ( 188 Re)-filled balloon were enrolled in the study. The mean clinical follow-up durations were 64.9±13.0 and 66.3±13.8 months for the irradiated and control patients, respectively. Six-month angiographic restenosis was observed in 16% (4 of 25) of the patients in the irradiated group and 48% (12 of 25) of the patients in the control groups (P=0.03). The 6-month major adverse cardiac events (MACE) rate was 12% and 44%, respectively (P=0.025). The 3-year follow-up angiography was performed in 16 of 21 (76%) irradiated patients and in 4 of 13 (31%) control patients who had no significant restenosis at the 6-month angiographic follow-up. Restenosis occurred in 1 of 16 (7%) irradiated patients and 2 of 4 (50%) control patients. Late target lesion revascularization was performed in 1 irradiated and 2 control patients. The MACE rate within 6 years was significantly reduced in the irradiated group (20% vs. 56%, P=0.019). Brachytherapy using 188 Re-filled balloon following CBA for diffuse in-stent restenotic native coronary arteries is effective in reducing target lesion restenosis and improving long-term outcomes. (author)

  14. Treatment with rhenium-188-perrhenate and iodine-131 of NIS-expressing mammary cancer in a mouse model remarkably inhibited tumor growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dadachova, Ekaterina [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461 (United States)]. E-mail: edadacho@aecom.yu.edu; Nguyen, Andrew [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461 (United States); Lin, Elaine Y. [Department of Developmental and Molecular Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461 (United States); Gnatovskiy, Leo [Department of Developmental and Molecular Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461 (United States); Lu, Ping [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461 (United States); Pollard, Jeffrey W. [Department of Developmental and Molecular Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY 10461 (United States)

    2005-10-01

    Introduction: Novel therapeutic modalities are needed for breast cancer patients in whom standard treatments are not effective. Mammary gland sodium/iodide symporter has been identified as a molecular target in breast cancers in humans and in some transgenic mouse models. We report the results of a therapy study with {sup 131}I{sup -} and {sup 188}ReO{sub 4} {sup -} of breast cancer in polyoma middle T oncoprotein (PyMT) transgenic mice endogenously expressing the Na{sup +}/I{sup -} symporter (NIS). Methods: PyMT mice (12-13 weeks old) with one palpable tumor of 0.5-0.8 cm in diameter were used. For the therapy studies, PyMT mice were (1) treated with two intraperitoneal injections of 1.5 mCi of {sup 188}ReO{sub 4} {sup -} 1 week apart, (2) pretreated for 1 week with 5 {mu}g of triiodothyronine (T3) followed by two intraperitoneal injections of 1.5 mCi of {sup 131}I{sup -} 1 week apart or (3) left untreated. The tumor and normal organ uptakes were assessed by scintigraphic imaging. The thyroid function of treated and control animals was evaluated at the completion of the study by measuring the T3/thyroxine (T4) ratio in their blood. Results: There was significant uptake of {sup 131}I{sup -} and {sup 188}ReO{sub 4} {sup -} in the primary palpable tumors as well as in nonpalpable tumors, stomachs and thyroids. The tumor uptake after the second injection was 10 times lower in comparison with the first injection. Tumor growth was significantly inhibited in both the {sup 131}I{sup -} and {sup 188}ReO{sub 4} {sup -} groups in comparison with the control group, and tumors in the {sup 188}ReO{sub 4} {sup -} group increased in size significantly less than in the {sup 131}I{sup -} group. The T3/T4 ratios were calculated to be 27 and 25 for the control group and the {sup 188}ReO{sub 4} {sup -} group, respectively; for {sup 131}I{sup -}, both the T3 and T4 levels were below detection limit, demonstrating much less effect on the thyroids of treatment with {sup 188}ReO{sub 4

  15. Treatment with rhenium-188-perrhenate and iodine-131 of NIS-expressing mammary cancer in a mouse model remarkably inhibited tumor growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dadachova, Ekaterina; Nguyen, Andrew; Lin, Elaine Y.; Gnatovskiy, Leo; Lu, Ping; Pollard, Jeffrey W.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: Novel therapeutic modalities are needed for breast cancer patients in whom standard treatments are not effective. Mammary gland sodium/iodide symporter has been identified as a molecular target in breast cancers in humans and in some transgenic mouse models. We report the results of a therapy study with 131 I - and 188 ReO 4 - of breast cancer in polyoma middle T oncoprotein (PyMT) transgenic mice endogenously expressing the Na + /I - symporter (NIS). Methods: PyMT mice (12-13 weeks old) with one palpable tumor of 0.5-0.8 cm in diameter were used. For the therapy studies, PyMT mice were (1) treated with two intraperitoneal injections of 1.5 mCi of 188 ReO 4 - 1 week apart, (2) pretreated for 1 week with 5 μg of triiodothyronine (T3) followed by two intraperitoneal injections of 1.5 mCi of 131 I - 1 week apart or (3) left untreated. The tumor and normal organ uptakes were assessed by scintigraphic imaging. The thyroid function of treated and control animals was evaluated at the completion of the study by measuring the T3/thyroxine (T4) ratio in their blood. Results: There was significant uptake of 131 I - and 188 ReO 4 - in the primary palpable tumors as well as in nonpalpable tumors, stomachs and thyroids. The tumor uptake after the second injection was 10 times lower in comparison with the first injection. Tumor growth was significantly inhibited in both the 131 I - and 188 ReO 4 - groups in comparison with the control group, and tumors in the 188 ReO 4 - group increased in size significantly less than in the 131 I - group. The T3/T4 ratios were calculated to be 27 and 25 for the control group and the 188 ReO 4 - group, respectively; for 131 I - , both the T3 and T4 levels were below detection limit, demonstrating much less effect on the thyroids of treatment with 188 ReO 4 - than with 131 I - . Conclusions: These results prove that NIS expression in breast tumors in animal models allows specific, efficient and safe treatment with a variety of

  16. Stability of rhenium-188 labeled antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, B. K.; Jung, J. M.; Jung, J. K.; Lee, D. S.; Lee, M. C.

    1999-01-01

    For clinical application of beta-emitter labeled antibody, high specific activity is important. Carrier-free Re-188 from W-188/Re-188 generator is an ideal radionuclide for this purpose. However, low stability of Re-188 labeled antibody, especially in high specific activity, due to radiolytic decomposition by high energy (2.1 MeV) beta ray was problem. We studied the stability of Re-188 labeled antibody, and stabilizing effect of several nontoxic radical-quenching agents. Pre-reduced monoclonal antibody (CEA79.4) was labeled with Re-188 by incubating with generator-eluted Re-188-perrhenate in the presence of stannous tartrate for 2 hr at room temperature. Radiochemical purity of each preparation was determined by chromatography (ITLC-SG/acetone, ITLC-SG/Umezawa, Whatman No.1/saline). Human serum albumin was added to the labeled antibodies(2%). Stability of Re-188-CEA79.4 was investigated in the presence of vitamin C, ethanol, or Tween 80 as radical-quenching agents. Specific activities of 4.29∼5.11 MBq/μg were obtained. Labeling efficiencies were 88±4%(n=12). Very low stability after removal of stannous tartrate from the preparation was observed. If stored after purging with N 2 , all the preparations were stable for 10 hr. However, if contacted with air, stability decreased. Perrhenate and Re-188-tartrate was major impurity in declined preparation (12∼47 and 9∼38% each, after 10 hr). Colloid-formation was not a significant problem in all cases. Addition of vitamin C stabilized the labeled antibodies either under N 2 or under air by reducing the formation of perrhenate. High specific activity Re-188 labeled antibody is unstable, especially, in the presence of oxygen. Addition of vitamin C increased the stability

  17. Radianttrademark Liquid Radioisotope Intravascular Radiation Therapy System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eigler, N.; Whiting, J.; Chernomorsky, A.; Jackson, J.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Litvack, F.

    1998-01-01

    RADIANTtrademark is manufactured by United States Surgical Corporation, Vascular Therapies Division, (formerly Progressive Angioplasty Systems). The system comprises a liquid β-radiation source, a shielded isolation/transfer device (ISAT), modified over-the-wire or rapid exchange delivery balloons, and accessory kits. The liquid β-source is Rhenium-188 in the form of sodium perrhenate (NaReO 4 ), Rhenium-188 is primarily a β-emitter with a physical half-life of 17.0 hours. The maximum energy of the β-particles is 2.1 MeV. The source is produced daily in the nuclear pharmacy hot lab by eluting a Tungsten-188/Rhenium-188 generator manufactured by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Using anion exchange columns and Millipore filters the effluent is concentrated to approximately 100 mCi/ml, calibrated, and loaded into the (ISAT) which is subsequently transported to the cardiac catheterization laboratory. The delivery catheters are modified Championtrademark over-the-wire, and TNTtrademark rapid exchange stent delivery balloons. These balloons have thickened polyethylene walls to augment puncture resistance; dual radio-opaque markers and specially configured connectors

  18. Radiant{trademark} Liquid Radioisotope Intravascular Radiation Therapy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eigler, N.; Whiting, J.; Chernomorsky, A.; Jackson, J.; Knapp, F.F., Jr.; Litvack, F.

    1998-01-16

    RADIANT{trademark} is manufactured by United States Surgical Corporation, Vascular Therapies Division, (formerly Progressive Angioplasty Systems). The system comprises a liquid {beta}-radiation source, a shielded isolation/transfer device (ISAT), modified over-the-wire or rapid exchange delivery balloons, and accessory kits. The liquid {beta}-source is Rhenium-188 in the form of sodium perrhenate (NaReO{sub 4}), Rhenium-188 is primarily a {beta}-emitter with a physical half-life of 17.0 hours. The maximum energy of the {beta}-particles is 2.1 MeV. The source is produced daily in the nuclear pharmacy hot lab by eluting a Tungsten-188/Rhenium-188 generator manufactured by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Using anion exchange columns and Millipore filters the effluent is concentrated to approximately 100 mCi/ml, calibrated, and loaded into the (ISAT) which is subsequently transported to the cardiac catheterization laboratory. The delivery catheters are modified Champion{trademark} over-the-wire, and TNT{trademark} rapid exchange stent delivery balloons. These balloons have thickened polyethylene walls to augment puncture resistance; dual radio-opaque markers and specially configured connectors.

  19. 188Re-SSS lipiodol: radiolabelling and biodistribution following injection into the hepatic artery of rats bearing hepatoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garin, Etienne; Denizot, Benoit; Noiret, Nicolas; Lepareur, Nicolas; Roux, Jerome; Moreau, Myriam; Herry, Jean-Yves; Bourguet, Patrick; Benoit, Jean-Pierre; Lejeune, Jean-Jacques

    2004-10-01

    Although intra-arterial radiation therapy with 131I-lipiodol is a useful therapeutic approach to the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma, various disadvantages limit its use. To describe the development of a method for the labelling of lipiodol with 188Re-SSS (188Re (S2CPh)(S3CPh)2 complex) and to investigate its biodistribution after injection into the hepatic artery of rats with hepatoma. 188Re-SSS lipiodol was obtained after dissolving a chelating agent, previously labelled with 188Re, in cold lipiodol. The radiochemical purity (RCP) of labelling was checked immediately. The 188Re-SSS lipiodol was injected into the hepatic artery of nine rats with a Novikoff hepatoma. They were sacrificed 1, 24 and 48 h after injection, and used for ex vivo counting. Labelling of 188Re-SSS lipiodol was achieved with a yield of 97.3+/-2.1%. The immediate RCP was 94.1+/-1.7%. Ex vivo counting confirmed a predominantly hepatic uptake, with a good tumoral retention of 188Re-SSS lipiodol, a weak pulmonary uptake and a very faint digestive uptake. The 'tumour/non-tumoral liver' ratio was high at 1, 24 and 48 h after injection (2.9+/-1.5, 4.1+/-/4.1 and 4.1+/-0.7, respectively). Using the method described here, 188Re-SSS lipiodol can be obtained with a very high yield and a satisfactory RCP. The biodistribution in rats with hepatoma indicates a good tumoral retention of 188Re-SSS lipiodol associated with a predominant hepatic uptake, a weak pulmonary uptake and a very faint digestive uptake. This product should be considered for intra-arterial radiation therapy in human hepatoma.

  20. Synthesis of PBAD-lipiodol nanoparticles for combination treatment with boric acid in boron neutron capture therapy for hepatoma in-vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, F.I.; Chung, H.P.; Liu, H.M.; Wen, H.W.; Chi, C.W.; Lin, Shanyang; Lui, W.Y.; Kai, J.J.

    2006-01-01

    This study attempted to increase BNCT efficiency for hepatoma by a combined treatment of phenylboric acid derivative entrapped lipiodol nanoparticles (PBAD-L nanoparticles) with boric acid. The size of PBAD-L nanoparticles were 400-750 nm at the boron concentrations of 0.3-2.7 mg/ml. After 24 hours the boron concentration in PBAD-L nanoparticles treated human hepatoma HepG2 cells was 112 ppm, while that in rat liver Clone 9 cells was 52 ppm. With the use of 25 μg B/ml boric acid, after 6 hours the boron concentration in HepG2 and Clone 9 cells were 75 ppm and 40 ppm, respectively. In a combined treatment, boron concentration in HepG2 cells which were treated with PBAD-L nanoparticles for 18 hours and then combined with boric acid for 6 hours was 158 ppm. After neutron irradiation, the surviving fraction of HepG2 cells treated with PBAD-L nanoparticles was 12.6%, while that in the ones with a combined treatment was 1.3%. In conclusion, the combined treatment provided a higher boron concentration in HepG2 cells than treatments with either PBAD-L nanoparticles or boric acid, resulting in a higher therapeutic efficacy of BNCT in hepatoma cells. (author)

  1. Intravascular Lipiodol Presenting as an Atrial Mass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kootte, Ruud S.; Haeck, Joost D. E.; van Lienden, Krijn P.; van Boven, Wim J. P.; van der Wal, Allard C.; de Boer, Hans H.

    2017-01-01

    A 68-year-old woman, previously treated with embolization of the thoracic duct with Lipiodol (an ethiodized oil injection) and cyanoacrylate glue (a topical tissue adhesive), was admitted with an asymptomatic mass in the inferior vena cava (IVC) and right atrium. The mass was surgically removed, and

  2. World Radiopharmaceutical Therapy Council: A report on the 5th International Radiopharmaceutical Therapy Colloquium and the Final Planning Meeting of the World Radiopharmaceutical Therapy Council held at Santiago, Chile, 29 September, 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, J.V.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The 5th International Radiopharmaceutical Therapy Colloquium was held on 29th October 2002 as a pre-congress meeting of the World Federation of Nuclear Medicine and Biology Congress in Santiago, Chile. Work-in-Progress research papers were presented by leaders in the field of therapeutic nuclear oncology. Speakers gave untitled presentations without abstracts and reported data from studies performed only days or weeks before the meeting. Such cutting edge research presentations stimulated lively discussion which also addressed the problems encountered and ways in which they may be circumvented. Radioimmunotherapy of haematological malignancy was discussed by Greg Wiseman of the Mayo Clinic, and Thomas Behr of the University of Marburg. Radiopeptide therapy of neuroendocrine tumours was presented by Larry Kvols from the University of Florida, and locoregional therapy of glioma was presented by John Buscombe of the Royal Free Hospital, London. All speakers reported encouraging clinical results with objective tumour responses, increased survival and improved quality of life, which encourages wider clinical application of these novel radiopharmaceutical therapies. The Round Table Discussion on clinical applications of Rhenium-188 radiopharmaceuticals was chaired by Russ Knapp from Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Hans Biersack of the University of Bonn. Following an outline of current developments by Russ Knapp preliminary results of clinical trials were presented for discussion. Hans Biersack, Javier Gaudiano from Montevideo and Achim Kropp from Dresden reported effective palliation of painful skeletal metastases with 188Re-HEDP. Ajit Padhy gave an update of the IAEA multicentre trial of intrahepatic arterial 188Re-Lipiodol therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma and Harvey Turner reported preliminary results in hepatoma patients using an alternative kit formulation of 188Re-Lipiodol in Fremantle. Early experience with Rhenium 188 in the prevention of re

  3. Effect of a 188 Re-SSS lipiodol/131I-lipiodol mixture, 188 Re-SSS lipiodol alone or 131I-lipiodol alone on the survival of rats with hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garin, Elienne; Rakotonirina, Hervé; Lejeune, Florence; Denizot, Benoit; Roux, Jerome; Noiret, Nicolas; Mesbah, Habiba; Herry, Jean-Yues; Bourguet, Patrick; Lejeune, Jean-Jacques

    2006-04-01

    It has been shown that the use of a cocktail of isotopes of different ranges of action leads to an increase in the effectiveness of metabolic radiotherapy. The purpose of the present study was to compare with a control group the effectiveness of three different treatments in rats bearing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), using (1) a mixture of lipiodol labelled with both I and Re, (2) lipiodol labelled with I alone and (3) lipiodol labelled with Re alone. Four groups were made up, each containing 14 rats with the N1-S1 tumour cell line. Group 1 received a mixture composed of 22 MBq of Re-SSS lipiodol and 7 MBq I-lipiodol. Group 2 received 14 MBq I-lipiodol. Group 3 received 44 MBq of Re-SSS lipiodol and group 4 acted as the control. The survival of the various groups was compared by a non-parametric test of log-rank, after a follow-up of 60, 180 and 273 days. Compared with the controls, the rats treated with a mixture of Re-SSS lipiodol and I-lipiodol show an increase in survival, but only from day 60 onwards (P=0.05 at day 60 and 0.13 at days 180 and 273). For the rats treated with I-lipiodol, there was a highly significant increase in survival compared with the controls at day 60, day 180 and day 273 (P=0.03, 0.04 and 0.04, respectively). There is no significant increase in survival for the rats treated with Re-SSS lipiodol, irrespective of the follow-up duration (P=0.53 at day 60, 0.48 at day 180, and 0.59 at day 273). In this study, I-lipiodol is the most effective treatment in HCC-bearing rats, because this is the only method that leads to a prolonged improvement of survival. These results cannot necessarily be extrapolated to humans because of the relatively small size and unifocal nature of the lesions in this study. It appears necessary to carry out a study in humans with larger tumours in order to compare these three treatments, particularly with a view to replacing I-labelled lipiodol by Re-labelled lipiodol. However, this study clearly demonstrated that

  4. Intra-arterial injection of iodine-131-labeled lipiodol for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucher, Eveline; Garin, Etienne; Guylligomarc'h, Anne; Olivie, Damien; Boudjema, Karim; Raoul, Jean-Luc

    2007-01-01

    Background/Aim: The therapeutic effect of intra-arterial injection of 131-iodine-labeled lipiodol for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma in palliative or adjuvant settings has been promising. We report, the results of an open study of this therapy in cirrhotic patients with small hepatocellular carcinoma. Patients and method: Forty patients with hepatocellular carcinoma were given intra-arterial injections of 131-iodine-labeled lipiodol. These injections were repeated if necessary every 3 months. Tumor response (WHO criteria) was determined on CT scans performed after each treatment and every 3 months during the follow-up. Side effects and the cause of death were recorded. Therapeutic response and survival were analyzed. Results: The median number of treatment was 2 (1-4). There was one complete response, 18 partial responses (47.5% response rate); 19 had stable disease and 2 progressions. Overall survival rates (±CI 95%) at 1, 2 and 3 years were: 90 ± 4.7%, 60.3 ± 8%, and 39 ± 8.3%, respectively. Median survival was 27 months; 25 patients have died (4-56 months), 8 of tumor progression with a multifocal spread in the liver. Tolerance was good except for 2 patients who develop a fatal drug-related pulmonary insufficiency. Conclusion: These data suggest that intra-arterial therapeutic injection of 131-iodine-labeled lipiodol for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma can provide high rate response and long survival for individuals not eligible for surgery or local treatment

  5. Study on stability of labeled yttrium-90 with lipiodol by chemical extraction for liver cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu, P.Y.; Jiang, X.L.; Chen, J.; Zhu, Y.J.

    2005-01-01

    Liver cancer, particularly hepatocellular carcinoma, is one of the most common malignant diseases in many developed and developing countries. It is also one of the most common diseases endangering the people's lives and health heavily. Surgery is very effective in early-stage patients. Unfortunately, there is less than 10% of the patients with hepatocellular carcinoma fitting for surgical therapy. Instead of surgical therapy, other methods are considered for patients in whom surgery may not work well. Systemic administration of chemotherapeutic agents is not often considered in liver cancer patients, due to discouraging result and adverse side effects. Also, hepatocellular carcinoma is not keen on usual radioactive therapy. However, method of inner interventional radioactive nuclide is a potential way to cure liver tumors. Hepatocellular carcinoma would be cured with inner interventional radioactive nuclide, which is a hot topic in experimental research on hepatocellular carcinoma at home and abroad. The purpose of the study is to label Yttrium-90 with lipiodol by means of the chemical extraction method and research the stability of labeled Yttrium-90 ( 90 Y-P204-Lipiodol) in serum of a newly-born cattle and human's blood. We chose to label steady yttrium with lipiodol, because radioactive yttrium has great nuclear character for liver cancer, yttrium-90 can eradiate pure β radial, and it's half time is 64 hours. Average energy of it is 0.93 Mev, the highest energy is 2.27 Mev. Yttrium-90 can be labeled with lipiodol by means of the chemical extraction method, which is mature in chemical techniques, combined with method of radioactive nuclide labeled in. nuclear medicine. At first, yttrium-90 is extracted in certain condition(pH, temperature, whisk time, whisk frequency, etc ) after adding yttrium-90 solution. We use some distilled water to balance the labeled organic phase twice, and test the stability of labeled yttrium-90 in serum of a newly-born cattle and

  6. Bone uptake by di and tetraphosphonates labeled with Rhenium-188

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faintuch, B.L.; Osso, J.A. Jr.; Muramoto, E.; Faintuch, S.

    2002-01-01

    MDP (methylenediphosphonate) and HEDP (hydroxyethylidenediphosphonate), both diphosphonates, and EDTMP (ethylenediamine tetramethylene phosphonic acid) a tetraphosphonate ligand, have been labeled with 188 Re for use in metastatic bone-pain palliation. The aim of this study was a comparison between the three complexes 188 Re-MDP, 188 Re-HEDP and 188 Re-EDTMP concerning the complexation conditions, in order to achieve maximum yield, stability and bone uptake. Methods: MDP was dissolved in water and HEDP and EDTMP were dissolved in NaOH 1N followed by decreasing pH with HCl 1N. To all mixtures stannous chloride and 188 ReO 4 were added in a nitrogen atmosphere. The preparations were heated in a boiling water bath for 15 min. The yields as well as the radiochemical stability were estimated by ITLC. Different concentrations of phosphonates and stannous chloride were evaluated. Biodistribution studies in swiss mice were done for the three 188 Re-phosphonates that presented the best radiochemical yield. Results: For 188 Re-MDP and 188 Re-HEDP the optimal ligand concentration for maximum complexation was 30 mg whereas for 188 Re-EDTMP, it was 40 mg. The best amount of SnCl 2 .2H 2 O was 2 mg/mL for MDP, 3 mg/mL for HEDP and 1 mg/mL for EDTMP. In these conditions the three complexes showed a complexation yield above 95%. All of them presented 4-hour radiochemical stability without the need for ascorbic acid solution, but for 24 hours this stability existed only in the presence of that substance otherwise re-oxidation of 188 Re occurred. All products showed a great uptake by the kidneys. 188 Re-EDTMP had the greatest uptake by the bone (3.13 ± 0.18% ID/g) followed by 188 Re-MDP (1.18 ± 0.05%ID/g) and 188 Re-HEDP (1.03 ± 0.12 %ID/g), 4 hour postinjection. 188 Re-EDTMP displayed a bone/muscle ratio of 28.5, 188 Re-MDP 4.9 and 188 Re-HEDP 4.9. Conclusion: 188 Re-EDTMP demonstrated the best potential as a radiopharmaceutical for bone cancer pain relief, encouraging further dosimetric studies and clinical trials

  7. Targeting cancer chemotherapeutic agents by use of lipiodol contrast medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konno, T.

    1990-01-01

    Arterially administered Lipiodol Ultrafluid contrast medium selectively remained in various malignant solid tumors because of the difference in time required for the removal of Lipiodol contrast medium from normal capillaries and tumor neovasculature. Although blood flow was maintained in the tumor, even immediately after injection Lipiodol contrast medium remained in the neovasculature of the tumor. To target anti-cancer agents to tumors by using Lipiodol contrast medium as a carrier, the characteristics of the agents were examined. Anti-cancer agents had to be soluble in Lipiodol, be stable in it, and separate gradually from it so that the anti-cancer agents would selectively remain in the tumor. These conditions were found to be necessary on the basis of the measurement of radioactivity in VX2 tumors implanted in the liver of 16 rabbits that received arterial injections of 14C-labeled doxorubicin. Antitumor activities and side effects of arterial injections of two types of anti-cancer agents were compared in 76 rabbits with VX2 tumors. Oily anti-cancer agents that had characteristics essential for targeting were compared with simple mixtures of anti-cancer agents with Lipiodol contrast medium that did not have these essential characteristics. Groups of rabbits that received oily anti-cancer agents responded significantly better than groups that received simple mixtures, and side effects were observed more frequently in the groups that received the simple mixtures. These results suggest that targeting of the anti-cancer agent to the tumor is important for treatment of solid malignant tumors

  8. Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome: the angiographic manifestations and endovascular treatment with pingyangmycin-lipiodol emulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong Weidong; Li Yanhao; He Xiaofeng; Chen Yong; Zeng Qingle; Zhao Jianbo

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To observe the angiographic manifestations of Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome (KTS) and to treat it by intra-arterial injection of pingyangmycin-lipiodol emulsion (PLE). Methods: Seven young patients (age range 12-19 years, mean 15.2 years) with KTS in the single low limb were examined by arteriography. Then, PLE (mixed with pingyangmycin 6-12 mg, lipiodol 4-8 ml) was injected by transcatheter into the femoral artery. The effects, side-effects, and complications of the therapy were observed. Results: The arteriography revealed a few distended small arteries with staining of venous sinus of different size in the soft tissue (5/7), as well as drainage vein enlargement (4/7) and superficial varicose vein (5/7). PLE deposited visibly in the abnormal sinus except one case. During 13-30 months' follow-up, 6 cases had good effects on limb hypertrophy after the treatment, and the limbs with lesions were obviously shrank and the thigh circumference became near to the normal limb. Another case had no obvious change. One had mild recurring around the knee one year later. The major side-effects included medium to extreme swelling of the limbs (7/7), serum transaminase elevation (2/7), and numbness of the distal end of the limb (1/7). The complications included a small piece of skin necrosis (1/7) and the first toe-drop (1/7). Conclusion: The arteriography in KTS can demonstrate a part of vascular malformations. Transcatheter intra-arterial PLE injection was effective in treating the hypertrophy of the limb caused by KTS. Because the therapy could result in some serious side-effects and complications, it should be used carefully

  9. Treatment of Liver Tumors with Lipiodol TACE: Technical Recommendations from Experts Opinion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baere, Thierry de, E-mail: thierry.debaere@gustaveroussy.fr [Gustave Roussy, Department of Interventional Radiology (France); Arai, Yasuaki, E-mail: arai-y3111@mvh.biglobe.ne.jp [National Cancer Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Japan); Lencioni, Riccardo, E-mail: riccardo.lencioni@med.unipi.it [Pisa University School of Medicine, Division of Diagnostic Imaging and Intervention (R.L.) (Italy); Geschwind, Jean-Francois, E-mail: jfg@jhmi.edu [The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Vascular and Interventional Radiology (United States); Rilling, William, E-mail: wrilling@mcw.edu [Medical College of Wisconsin, Division of Vascular and Interventional Radiology Rm2803 (United States); Salem, Riad, E-mail: r-salem@northwestern.edu [Northwestern University, Department of Radiology (United States); Matsui, Osamu, E-mail: matsuio@med.kanazawa-u.ac.jp [Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Department of Advanced Medical Imaging (Japan); Soulen, Michael C., E-mail: michael.soulen@uphs.upenn.edu [University of Pennsylvania, Division of Interventional Radiology (MCS) (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Transarterial chemoembolization with Lipiodol (Lipiodol TACE), also called conventional TACE, was developed in the early 1980s and widely adopted worldwide after randomized control trials and meta-analysis demonstrated superiority of Lipiodol TACE to best supportive care. Presently, there is no level one evidence that other TACE techniques are superior to Lipiodol TACE for intermediate stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which includes patients with preserved liver function and nonsurgical large or multinodular HCC without distant metastases. In addition, TACE is part of the treatment for progressive or symptomatic liver metastases from gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. When injected into the hepatic artery, Lipiodol has the unique property of selective uptake and retention in hyperarterialyzed liver tumors. Lipiodol/drug emulsion followed by particle embolization has been demonstrated to improve the pharmacokinetic of the drug and tumor response. Radio opacity of Lipiodol helps to monitor treatment delivery, with retention of Lipiodol serving as an imaging biomarker for tumor response. For 30 years, Lipiodol TACE has been inconsistently referenced in many publications with various levels of details for the method of preparation and administration, with reported progressive outcomes following improvements in the technique and the devices used to deliver the treatment and better patient selection. Consequently, there is no consensus on the standard method of TACE regarding the use of anticancer agents, embolic material, technical details, and the treatment schedule. In order to develop an internationally validated technical recommendation to standardize the Lipiodol TACE procedure, a worldwide panel of experts participated in a consensus meeting held on May 10, 2014.

  10. Predicting Treatment Response of Colorectal Cancer Liver Metastases to Conventional Lipiodol-Based Transarterial Chemoembolization Using Diffusion-Weighted MR Imaging: Value of Pretreatment Apparent Diffusion Coefficients (ADC) and ADC Changes Under Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahrsow, Maximilian; Albrecht, Moritz H.; Bickford, Matthew W.; Vogl, Thomas J.

    2017-01-01

    PurposeTo use absolute pretreatment apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) derived from diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) to predict response to repetitive cTACE for unresectable liver metastases of colorectal carcinoma (CRLM) at 1 and 3 months after start of treatment.Materials and MethodsFifty-five metastases in 34 patients were examined with DWI prior to treatment and 1 month after initial cTACE. Treatment was performed in 4-week intervals. Response was evaluated at 1 and 3 months after start of therapy. Metastases showing a decrease of ≥30% in axial diameter were classified as responding lesions.ResultsOne month after initial cTACE, seven lesions showed early response. There was no significant difference in absolute pretreatment ADC values between responding and non-responding lesions (p = 0.94). Three months after initial cTACE, 17 metastases showed response. There was a significant difference (p = 0.021) between absolute pretreatment ADC values of lesions showing response (median 1.08 × 10 −3  mm 2 /s) and no response (median 1.30 × 10 −3  mm 2 /s). Pretreatment ADC showed fair diagnostic value to predict response (AUC 0.7). Lesions showing response at 3 months also revealed a significant increase in ADC between measurements before treatment and at one month after initial cTACE (p < 0.001). Applying an increase in ADC of 12.17%, response at 3 months after initial cTACE could be predicted with a sensitivity and specificity of 77 and 74%, respectively (AUC 0.817). Furthermore, there was a strong and significant correlation (r = 0.651, p < 0.001) between percentage change in size after third cTACE and percentage change in ADC.ConclusionIn patients with CRLM, ADC measurements are potential biomarkers for assessing response to cTACE.

  11. Predicting Treatment Response of Colorectal Cancer Liver Metastases to Conventional Lipiodol-Based Transarterial Chemoembolization Using Diffusion-Weighted MR Imaging: Value of Pretreatment Apparent Diffusion Coefficients (ADC) and ADC Changes Under Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahrsow, Maximilian, E-mail: mlahrsow@gmail.com; Albrecht, Moritz H. [University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Bickford, Matthew W. [Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science (United States); Vogl, Thomas J. [University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany)

    2017-06-15

    PurposeTo use absolute pretreatment apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) derived from diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) to predict response to repetitive cTACE for unresectable liver metastases of colorectal carcinoma (CRLM) at 1 and 3 months after start of treatment.Materials and MethodsFifty-five metastases in 34 patients were examined with DWI prior to treatment and 1 month after initial cTACE. Treatment was performed in 4-week intervals. Response was evaluated at 1 and 3 months after start of therapy. Metastases showing a decrease of ≥30% in axial diameter were classified as responding lesions.ResultsOne month after initial cTACE, seven lesions showed early response. There was no significant difference in absolute pretreatment ADC values between responding and non-responding lesions (p = 0.94). Three months after initial cTACE, 17 metastases showed response. There was a significant difference (p = 0.021) between absolute pretreatment ADC values of lesions showing response (median 1.08 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s) and no response (median 1.30 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s). Pretreatment ADC showed fair diagnostic value to predict response (AUC 0.7). Lesions showing response at 3 months also revealed a significant increase in ADC between measurements before treatment and at one month after initial cTACE (p < 0.001). Applying an increase in ADC of 12.17%, response at 3 months after initial cTACE could be predicted with a sensitivity and specificity of 77 and 74%, respectively (AUC 0.817). Furthermore, there was a strong and significant correlation (r = 0.651, p < 0.001) between percentage change in size after third cTACE and percentage change in ADC.ConclusionIn patients with CRLM, ADC measurements are potential biomarkers for assessing response to cTACE.

  12. Predicting Treatment Response of Colorectal Cancer Liver Metastases to Conventional Lipiodol-Based Transarterial Chemoembolization Using Diffusion-Weighted MR Imaging: Value of Pretreatment Apparent Diffusion Coefficients (ADC) and ADC Changes Under Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahrsow, Maximilian; Albrecht, Moritz H; Bickford, Matthew W; Vogl, Thomas J

    2017-06-01

    To use absolute pretreatment apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) derived from diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) to predict response to repetitive cTACE for unresectable liver metastases of colorectal carcinoma (CRLM) at 1 and 3 months after start of treatment. Fifty-five metastases in 34 patients were examined with DWI prior to treatment and 1 month after initial cTACE. Treatment was performed in 4-week intervals. Response was evaluated at 1 and 3 months after start of therapy. Metastases showing a decrease of ≥30% in axial diameter were classified as responding lesions. One month after initial cTACE, seven lesions showed early response. There was no significant difference in absolute pretreatment ADC values between responding and non-responding lesions (p = 0.94). Three months after initial cTACE, 17 metastases showed response. There was a significant difference (p = 0.021) between absolute pretreatment ADC values of lesions showing response (median 1.08 × 10 -3  mm 2 /s) and no response (median 1.30 × 10 -3  mm 2 /s). Pretreatment ADC showed fair diagnostic value to predict response (AUC 0.7). Lesions showing response at 3 months also revealed a significant increase in ADC between measurements before treatment and at one month after initial cTACE (p < 0.001). Applying an increase in ADC of 12.17%, response at 3 months after initial cTACE could be predicted with a sensitivity and specificity of 77 and 74%, respectively (AUC 0.817). Furthermore, there was a strong and significant correlation (r = 0.651, p < 0.001) between percentage change in size after third cTACE and percentage change in ADC. In patients with CRLM, ADC measurements are potential biomarkers for assessing response to cTACE.

  13. Partial splenic artery embolization with gelatin sponge or with lipiodol for hypersplenism: a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yamin; Sun Gangqing; Qin Hao; Wang Chongbao

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the effects and the complications of partial splenic artery embolization with gelatin sponge or with lipiodol for hypersplenism, to provide scientific information helpful for the selection of embolization materials in clinical practice. Methods: Partial splenic artery embolization with gelatin sponge was performed in forty patients with hypersplenism due to cirrhosis (gelatin sponge group) and partial splenic artery embolization with lipiodol was carried out in another thirty-nine patients (lipiodol group). The clinical data were retrospectively analyzed. The laboratory studies, complications and recurrence were observed and compared between two groups. Results: No significant difference in the reduction of splenic size, in the hemoglobin levels and in the thrombocyte and leucocyte counts existed between two groups (P > 0.05). However, the platelet count in lipiodol group was obviously decreased three months after the treatment. The occurrence of complications in gelatin sponge group was much higher than that in lipiodol group (P < 0.05). The toxic reaction of the liver and gastrointestinal tract in lipiodol group was significantly slighter than that in gelatin sponge group. Conclusion: Partial splenic artery embolization with lipiodol should be employed for the treatment of hypersplenism when the patient is elder and the disease is accompanied by poor liver function, massive ascites, severe dysfunction of blood coagulation and serious portal hypertension. (authors)

  14. Preparation of [[sup 131]I]lipiodol as a hepatoma therapeutic agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiunnguang Lo; Aiyih Wang; Yuanyaw Wei (National Tsinghua Univ., Hsinchu (Taiwan). Inst. of Nuclear Science); Wingyiu Lui; Chinwen Chi (Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei (Taiwan)); Wingkai Chan (Academia Sinica, Taipei (Taiwan). Inst. of Biomedical Sciences)

    1992-12-01

    An isotopic exchange method was used to label lipiodol with [sup 131]I. The labelling efficiency was > 92.5%, and the radiochemical purity of [[sup 131]I]lipiodol was above 98% as determined by ITLC. The influencing factors e.g. the heating temperature, reaction, pH and storage conditions were studied and the optimum conditions were determined. In a pilot study injecting [[sup 131]I]lipiodol for the treatment of hepatoma, about 70% of hepatoma patients had a response to the treatment with a reduction of [alpha]-fetoprotein and decrease of hepatoma sizes. The overall median survival was 9 months (range 2-17 months). (author).

  15. Baseline Tumor Lipiodol Uptake after Transarterial Chemoembolization for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Identification of a Threshold Value Predicting Tumor Recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Yusuke; Horikawa, Masahiro; Jahangiri Noudeh, Younes; Kaufman, John A; Kolbeck, Kenneth J; Farsad, Khashayar

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between baseline Lipiodol uptake in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) with early tumor recurrence, and to identify a threshold baseline uptake value predicting tumor response. A single-institution retrospective database of HCC treated with Lipiodol-TACE was reviewed. Forty-six tumors in 30 patients treated with a Lipiodol-chemotherapy emulsion and no additional particle embolization were included. Baseline Lipiodol uptake was measured as the mean Hounsfield units (HU) on a CT within one week after TACE. Washout rate was calculated dividing the difference in HU between the baseline CT and follow-up CT by time (HU/month). Cox proportional hazard models were used to correlate baseline Lipiodol uptake and other variables with tumor response. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to identify the optimal threshold for baseline Lipiodol uptake predicting tumor response. During the follow-up period (mean 5.6 months), 19 (41.3%) tumors recurred (mean time to recurrence = 3.6 months). In a multivariate model, low baseline Lipiodol uptake and higher washout rate were significant predictors of early tumor recurrence ( P = 0.001 and Baseline Lipiodol uptake and washout rate on follow-up were independent predictors of early tumor recurrence. A threshold value of baseline Lipiodol uptake > 270.2 HU was highly sensitive and specific for tumor response. These findings may prove useful for determining subsequent treatment strategies after Lipiodol TACE.

  16. SU-D-BRB-07: Lipiodol Impact On Dose Distribution in Liver SBRT After TACE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawahara, D; Ozawa, S; Hioki, K; Suzuki, T; Lin, Y; Okumura, T; Ochi, Y; Nakashima, T; Ohno, Y; Kimura, T; Murakami, Y; Nagata, Y

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) combining transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) with Lipiodol is expected to improve local control. This study aims to evaluate the impact of Lipiodol on dose distribution by comparing the dosimetric performance of the Acuros XB (AXB) algorithm, anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA), and Monte Carlo (MC) method using a virtual heterogeneous phantom and a treatment plan for liver SBRT after TACE. Methods: The dose distributions calculated using AAA and AXB algorithm, both in Eclipse (ver. 11; Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA), and EGSnrc-MC were compared. First, the inhomogeneity correction accuracy of the AXB algorithm and AAA was evaluated by comparing the percent depth dose (PDD) obtained from the algorithms with that from the MC calculations using a virtual inhomogeneity phantom, which included water and Lipiodol. Second, the dose distribution of a liver SBRT patient treatment plan was compared between the calculation algorithms. Results In the virtual phantom, compared with the MC calculations, AAA underestimated the doses just before and in the Lipiodol region by 5.1% and 9.5%, respectively, and overestimated the doses behind the region by 6.0%. Furthermore, compared with the MC calculations, the AXB algorithm underestimated the doses just before and in the Lipiodol region by 4.5% and 10.5%, respectively, and overestimated the doses behind the region by 4.2%. In the SBRT plan, the AAA and AXB algorithm underestimated the maximum doses in the Lipiodol region by 9.0% in comparison with the MC calculations. In clinical cases, the dose enhancement in the Lipiodol region can approximately 10% increases in tumor dose without increase of dose to normal tissue. Conclusion: The MC method demonstrated a larger increase in the dose in the Lipiodol region than the AAA and AXB algorithm. Notably, dose enhancement were observed in the tumor area; this may lead to a clinical benefit

  17. SU-D-BRB-07: Lipiodol Impact On Dose Distribution in Liver SBRT After TACE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawahara, D; Ozawa, S; Hioki, K; Suzuki, T; Lin, Y; Okumura, T; Ochi, Y; Nakashima, T; Ohno, Y; Kimura, T; Murakami, Y; Nagata, Y [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) combining transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) with Lipiodol is expected to improve local control. This study aims to evaluate the impact of Lipiodol on dose distribution by comparing the dosimetric performance of the Acuros XB (AXB) algorithm, anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA), and Monte Carlo (MC) method using a virtual heterogeneous phantom and a treatment plan for liver SBRT after TACE. Methods: The dose distributions calculated using AAA and AXB algorithm, both in Eclipse (ver. 11; Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA), and EGSnrc-MC were compared. First, the inhomogeneity correction accuracy of the AXB algorithm and AAA was evaluated by comparing the percent depth dose (PDD) obtained from the algorithms with that from the MC calculations using a virtual inhomogeneity phantom, which included water and Lipiodol. Second, the dose distribution of a liver SBRT patient treatment plan was compared between the calculation algorithms. Results In the virtual phantom, compared with the MC calculations, AAA underestimated the doses just before and in the Lipiodol region by 5.1% and 9.5%, respectively, and overestimated the doses behind the region by 6.0%. Furthermore, compared with the MC calculations, the AXB algorithm underestimated the doses just before and in the Lipiodol region by 4.5% and 10.5%, respectively, and overestimated the doses behind the region by 4.2%. In the SBRT plan, the AAA and AXB algorithm underestimated the maximum doses in the Lipiodol region by 9.0% in comparison with the MC calculations. In clinical cases, the dose enhancement in the Lipiodol region can approximately 10% increases in tumor dose without increase of dose to normal tissue. Conclusion: The MC method demonstrated a larger increase in the dose in the Lipiodol region than the AAA and AXB algorithm. Notably, dose enhancement were observed in the tumor area; this may lead to a clinical benefit.

  18. Therapeutic value of hysterosalpingography with Lipiodol ultra fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, F.; Justesen, P.; Toenner Nielsen, D.

    1987-01-01

    Hysterosalpingography (HSG) with Lipiodol ultra fluid was performed in 294 infertile women with a normal ovulatory temperature curve and at least two years of infertility and a partner with normal sperm. In 21%, pregnancy occurred within 6 months after the examination, and about one third of the women with a normal finding or with intraperitoneal adhesions at HSG conceived. The pregnancy rate was especially high in the first two cycles after HSG. The spontaneous pregnancy rate was 8%, and the difference between this and the total number of pregnancies must be attributed to a therapeutic effect of the procedure. Previous pelvic inflammatory disease was present in 40% of those who did not become pregnant, while only 11% of those who conceived had previous inflammation. Of the women without previous gynecologic disease 30% conceived. (orig.)

  19. Study on blood supply of lung metastasis with trans-pulmonary arterial lipiodol infusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Jianqin; Dong Weihua; Dong Weihua; Ouyang Chang; Chang Heng; Xiao Xiangsheng

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the blood supply of pulmonary metastases using small volume of lipiodol through pulmonary arterial infusion. Methods: 10 cases of lung metastasis were enroled including the primary tumors of liver cancer (n=5), renal carcinoma (n=3), chordoma (n=1) and malignant neurofibroma (n=1). Plain CT scan was performed to exclude calcification or ossification within metastasis and then pulmonary arterial DSA was undertaken to evaluate tumor vessels or staining. After pulmonary arteriovenous fistula or other anomalous circulation was excluded by lobar arterial DSA, small volume of lipiodol was infused under fluoroscopy (0.5-1.5 ml for each lobar artery, total volume less than 3.0 ml). CT scan was immediately performed. Blood supply of the pulmonary metastases was assessed according to the accumulation of lipiodol on CT scans. Results: No cases but one experienced cough, expectoration, suffocating or dyspnea. No complication of cerebral or visceral embolism occurred. Totally 27 nodules were studied including 6 nodules with cloudy lipiodol accumulation and 6 nodules with tiny granules of lipiodol accumulation. No enlarged tumor vessel or tumor stain was observed within all 27 nodules on pulmonary arterial DSA. Conclusions: Pulmonary artery supplys only parts of pulmonary metastases, especially those sited at the peripheral region of the lung. Infusion of small volume of lipiodol through pulmonary artery is safe, and the increased density of lung field could return normal after several days. (authors)

  20. Experiment of embolizing hepatocarcinoma with heated lipiodol via hepatic artery in VX2 rabbit model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Wei; Wang Zhimin; Zhang Hongxin; Wan Yi

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the anti-tumour effect of 60 degree C Lipiodol in the embolization of VX 2 hepatocarcinoma in rabbits. Methods: VX 2 carcinoma cells were surgically implanted into the left liver lobe in 30 male New Zealand white rabbits, which were randomly divided into 3 groups by figure and table method with 10 rabbits in each group. Physiological saline, Lipiodol (37 degree C), and Lipiodol (60 degree C) were injected in each group via hepatic artery and liver cancer was embolized. The volume of tumour and serum level of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were observed after one week, and the survival period of VX 2 rabbits was also observed. Results: In the group of Lipiodol (60 degree C), the growth rate of tumour (0.92± 0.21) was significantly lower than that of control group (3.48±) and Lipiodol (37 degree C) groups (1.69±0.26), respectively (F=34.95, P 0.05), but was significantly higher than the control group (68.6±6.6) U/L (t=19.24, P<0.05). Conclusion: Lipiodol (60 degree C) greatly decreases the tumour's growth rate and prolongs the survival period. It is a safe method and has stronger inhibitory effect than other groups. (authors)

  1. A Comparison of Three Transarterial Lipiodol-Based Formulations for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: In Vivo Biodistribution Study in Humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Simon Chun Ho; Leung, Thomas Wai Tong; Lau, Wan Yee; Lee, Nelson; Hui, Edwin Pun; Yeo, Winnie; Lai, Paul Bo San; Mok, Tony Shu Kam

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate and compare the biodistribution properties of three transarterial Lipiodol-based therapeutic regimens in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this prospective study with 13 patients randomly allocated to one of three study groups, each of the patients received transcatheter intra-arterial administration into a solitary HCC with one of three different Lipiodol-based formulations: Lipiodol-ethanol mixture (LEM; Group A), Lipiodol alone (Group B), and Lipiodol and gelatin pledgets (Group C). With the use of radioactive iodine-131-labeled Lipiodol, each group was assessed for (1) pattern of Lipiodol accumulation in the lungs within the first 2 weeks as evaluated by single-photon emission computed tomography and (2) decomposition of Lipiodol formulation within the first 2 weeks as evaluated by radioactivity detected in peripheral blood and urine. The degree of Lipiodol retention in the tumor within the first 4 weeks was evaluated with CT. No statistically significant difference in Lipiodol accumulation in the lungs was detected among the three groups. However, the peak accumulation in the lungs was delayed 3 days for Group A compared to Groups B and C. The degree of Lipiodol retention within the tumor in Group A was significantly greater than that in Groups B and C on day 14 (p = 0.014) and day 28 (p = 0.013). This study showed that LEM is associated with a greater embolic effect in intrahepatic HCC at 4 weeks, and a comparable degree of lung shunting and decomposition rates, compared with ethanol-free Lipiodol formulations

  2. Transcatheter lipiodol chemo-embolization of the inferior phrenic artery in hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Fanghong; Luo Zuyan; Yuan Jianhua; Yu Wenqiang; Cai Xuexiang; Hu Tingyang; Liu Zijiang

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of transcatheter lipiodol chemo-embolization therapy (TOCE) for HCC via inferior phrenic artery (IPA) and to analyse the location of the tumor feeding inferior phrenic artery. Methods: Twenty-five cases of HCC underwent the procedure of TOCE via the IPA, as well as the hepatic artery using Seldinger's method. The patterns of tumor growth included huge type in 12 cases, solitary nodular type in 8 cases and multiple nodular type in 5 cases. Hepatic artery and inferior phrenic artery chemo-embolization were performed in all cases. Results: Inferior phrenic artery originated from celiac trunk in 16 cases (64%); abdomen aorta around celiac trunk in 8(32%). The site-sort tumors supplied by IPA in right lobe (VII, VIII segment) were 23 cases and left lobe (IV segment) 2 cases. The cumulative survival rates of IPA chemo-embolization for hepatocellular carcinoma were 84%(1 year) and 68%(2 years). No severe complications occurred. Conclusions: TOCE of the IPA is a safe and effective method in the management of HCC supplied by IPA. When the tumor site is adjacent to diaphragm, hepatic ligaments or bare area, may arouse the blood supply by IPA, especially in no tumor staining or staining defect in hepatic artery angiography but tumor enhancement on CT, and increase of the level of serum α-fetoprotein

  3. A novel method of modifying immune responses by vaccination with lipiodol-siRNA mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijian Li

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The dendritic cell (DC possesses the ability to stimulate both T helper 1 (Th1 and Th2 responses depending on activation stimuli. Although it is known that chemically or genetically modified DC can be used therapeutically to steer immune responses towards either Th1 or Th2, cellular therapy with ex vivo manipulated DC is clinically difficult. Here we demonstrate a novel method of switching immune responses from Th1 to Th2 through in vivo immune modulation by administration of siRNA. We demonstrate that siRNA targeting of the IL-12p35 gene leads to a Th2 bias in vitro through an IL-10 dependent mechanism. In vivo administration of siRNA admixed with the oil-based contrast agent lipiodol in the presence of antigen and adjuvant induced a deviation in recall response to reduced production of IFN-γ and augmented IL-4 response using either KLH or ovalbumin. This simple method of in vivo modification of immune response possesses therapeutic potential in Th1-mediated diseases such as multiple sclerosis and autoimmune diabetes.

  4. Uterine artery embolization with Pingyangmycin lipiodol emulsion for treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yanhao; Liu Biao; Zeng Qingle; Jiang Zhongpu; Chen Yong; Huang Weilang; Shen Qi; Zhao Zhongqing

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness and side effects of uterine arterial embolization with Pingyangmycin(a homogenous bleomycin) lipiodol emulsion(PLE) for symptomatic uterine fibroids. Methods: Uterine arterial embolization with PLE was performed in 25 patients. The improvement of symptoms and uterine size changes were followed up in 3-18 months(mean 6 months) after the procedure. Results: All but 2 cases were successfully treated bilaterally. Super-selective angiography showed enlargement of uterine artery, accompanied by tortuous branches. The uterine size was increased. The uterus itself was significantly stained and emptied slowly. Coagulation necrosis was found in resected fibroids after embolization in 3 patients. One month after the procedure, a mean 40% reduction of uterine volume was obtained in 18 followed-up cases. The clinical symptoms were relieved significantly. The main side effects were hypogastric pain(13/25),which was intense in 6 cases. Conclusion: Uterine arterial embolization with PLE is a good non-surgical therapy in symptomatic uterine fibroids with mild side effects

  5. The experimental study of VEGF antisense oligodeoxynucleotides with lipiodol in arterial embolization of liver cancer in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Hanping; Feng Gansheng; Li Xin; Liang Huimin; Zheng Chuansheng

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the inhibitory effects of VEGF antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (asODN) on cultured Walker-256 cells' VEGF expression, and to observe the anti-tumor effects of intraarterial infusion of asODN mixed with lipiodol on rat liver cancer. Methods: VEGF asODN and sense ODN were added to the media of non-serum cultured Walker-256 cells, and the VEGF concentrations of the supernatants were detected by using ELISA 48 hours later. Cells of endothelial cell line ECV-304 were cultured in the supernatants. The growth of ECV-304 cells was observed by MTT method. 30 rats with Walker-256 carcinoma cells implanted into left liver lobe were randomly divided into 3 groups. 0.2 ml ultra-fluid lipiodol (UFLP group, n=10), 3OD asODN mixed with 0.2 ml ultra-fluid lipiodol (UFLP + asODN group, n=10), and 0.2 ml normal saline (control group, n=10) were infused into the hepatic artery. The volumes of tumors were measured by using MRI before and 7 days after the treatment. VEGF mRNA in cancerous and peri-cancerous tissues was detected by RT-PCR. The microvessel density (MVD) and VEGF expression were observed by immunohistochemistry. Results: asODN could inhibit Walker-256 cells' VEGF expression. The tumor growth rate was lower in UFLP + asODN group than that in UFLP and control groups [(140.1±33.8)%, (177.9±64.9)%, and (403.9± 69.4)%, respectively, F=60.02, P 0.05). The MVD in UFLP + asODN group (53.1±18.4) was significantly less than that of control group (73.2±20.4) and UFLP group (80.3±18.5) (F=5.44, P<0.05). Conclusion: VEGF asODN could inhibit VEGF expression of Walker-256 cells. It may be an antiangiogenesis therapy drug in malignant tumor. VEGF asODN mixed with UFLP in embolizing liver cancer could decrease liver cancer growth, VEGF expression, and microvessel density better than UFLP alone

  6. CT detection of daughter nodules in hepatocellular carcinoma after lipiodol infusion via the hepatic artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohishi, Hajime; Ohgami, Syoichi; Katsuragi, Masami

    1985-02-01

    The detectability of daughter nodules in 80 hepatocellular carcinomas was compared between CT assisted by Lipiodol Ultra Fluid (Lipiodol) infused via the hepatic artery and IHA (Infusion hepatic angiography). Lipiodol infused via the hepatic artery was selectively accumulated in the tumor vessels and the tumors and small daughter nodules appeared as markedly high density areas by CT. 18 cases in which the daughter nodules were detected were identified only by CT. Furthermore, in 38 cases CT demonstrated superior detectability of the daughthr nodules than IHA. In 15 cases the daughter nodules were newly detected in areas other than the invaded area where the primary tumor existed. This method is very effective in the diagnosis of daughter nodules of hepatocellular carcinoma. (author).

  7. Hepatocellular carcinoma: the correlation between the enhancement in arterial-phase and lipiodol accumulation after the trans-arterial chemoembotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Lilian; Li Yangbing; Li Shuxin; Jiang Jindai; Li Zhimin; Liang Tongjie; Zhou Shaoping; Han Minjun

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between enhancement in arterial-phase, indicating arterial blood supply of the lesions of hepatocellular carcinoma and lipiodol accumulation after the trans-arterial chemoembotherapy. Methods: CT images of primary hepatocellular carcinoma in 32 cases during the hepatic arterial-phase were retrospectively compared with the CT images of lipiodol distribution within the tumor after the trans-arterial chemoembotherapy. Results: The lipiodol distribution was classified into five types: homogeneous and compact(n=11), inhomogeneous though compact (n=7), scanty(n=5), poorly filled(n=3) and miscellaneous (n=3). The lipiodol has a homogeneous or inhomogeneous but compact distribution when remarkable enhancement of the tumor or dominant neoplastic vascularity was demonstrated during hepatic arterial-phase. The lipiodol distribution was scanty, poorly filled, or miscellaneous distributed in the nidus of the hepatocellular carcinoma with no or poor enhancement, or with hypo-vascularity during hepatic arterial-phase. Where there was abundant vascularity of the tumor, there would be a satisfying accumulation of the lipiodol. Conclusion: The CT assessmant of the arterial-phase vascularity of the hepatocellular provides valuable information of lipiodol accumulation after the trans-arterial chemoembotherapy. (authors)

  8. Adverse events and therapeutic efficacy associated with TACE for hepatocellular carcinoma with a miriplatin-lipiodol suspension in comparison with a cisplatin-lipiodol suspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Takuji; Okada, Taiki; Kimura, Kazufumi; Sawada, Eiichi; Sano, Katushiro; Araki, Tsutomu

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the short-term adverse events and therapeutic efficacy of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with a miriplatin-lipiodol suspension in comparison with a cisplatin-lipiodol suspension. Of patients who underwent TACE for unresectable HCCs in 2009 and 2010, twenty-nine and twenty-seven patients underwent TACE using cisplatin-lipiodol suspension (C-LS) and miriplatin-lipiodol suspension (M-LS), respectively. Adverse events of fever, pain, nausea, anorexia, elevation of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin, creatinine and a decrease in platelet count were evaluated by the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria Ver.4. to compare the C-LS and M-LS groups. The short-term therapeutic efficacy of both groups was evaluated by the treatment effect (TE) on the CT images three months after TACE according to the General Rules for the Clinical and Pathological Study of Primary Liver Cancer (the 5th edition, Revised Version). With regard to the adverse events, the M-LS group had significantly less fever and anorexia than the C-LS group. No critical adverse events were observed in either group. The therapeutic efficacy was not significantly different between the groups. TACE with M-LS had fewer adverse events than TACE with C-LS, but neither TACE led to any critical adverse events. The short-term therapeutic efficacy of TACE with M-LS was equivalent to that of TACE with C-LS. (author)

  9. Experiment of embolizing hepatocarcinoma with heated lipiodol via hepatic artery in VX{sub 2} rabbit model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Cao; Zhimin, Wang; Hongxin, Zhang [Department of Interventional Radiology, Tangdu Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical Univ., Xi' an (China); Yi, Wan

    2006-09-15

    Objective: To evaluate the anti-tumour effect of 60 degree C Lipiodol in the embolization of VX{sub 2} hepatocarcinoma in rabbits. Methods: VX{sub 2} carcinoma cells were surgically implanted into the left liver lobe in 30 male New Zealand white rabbits, which were randomly divided into 3 groups by figure and table method with 10 rabbits in each group. Physiological saline, Lipiodol (37 degree C), and Lipiodol (60 degree C) were injected in each group via hepatic artery and liver cancer was embolized. The volume of tumour and serum level of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were observed after one week, and the survival period of VX{sub 2} rabbits was also observed. Results: In the group of Lipiodol (60 degree C), the growth rate of tumour (0.92{+-} 0.21) was significantly lower than that of control group (3.48{+-}) and Lipiodol (37 degree C) groups (1.69{+-}0.26), respectively (F=34.95, P<0.05). The survival period of Lipiodol (60 degree C) group (41.0{+-}3.0) d was significantly longer than the control group (31.5{+-}3.0) d (t=29.18, P<0.05). Four days after the embolization, the serum level of AST of Lipiodol (60 degree C) (148.2{+-}11.3) U/L was not higher than that of Lipiodol (37 degree C) (139.7{+-}12.3) U/L (t=1.61, P>0.05), but was significantly higher than the control group (68.6{+-}6.6) U/L (t=19.24, P<0.05). Conclusion: Lipiodol (60 degree C) greatly decreases the tumour's growth rate and prolongs the survival period. It is a safe method and has stronger inhibitory effect than other groups. (authors)

  10. Superselective transcather arterial embolization for hepatocellular carcinoma with a mixture of ethanol and lipiodol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jae Hyung; Han, Joon Koon; Choi, Byung Ihn; Han, Man Chung

    1992-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of superselective transcatheter arterial embolization (STAE) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with a mixture of ethanol and Lipiodol, STAE was done in 12 male patients with HCC. There were diagnosed clinically with angiographic findings and elevated alphafetprotein levels and three were recurrent tumors after surgery. Sono-guided aspiration biopsy proved the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma in another six patients. The tumor was a small single nodule (2-5cm in diameter) in 11 patients. In one patient, two nodules were found. Superselective catheterization was done using 3F Tracker catheter (Target Therapeutics USA) coaxially through 6F catheter into the feeding hepatic artery, usually the third order branch. One to four cc of 75% ethanol mixed with Lipiodol was infused under fluoroscopy immediately after injection of 2% lidocaine. Immediate angiography and CT after 2 weeks were undertaken. Complete segmental or subsegmental devascularization including feeding arteries and tumor vascularities occurred in all patients. Follow-up angiography after 6 to 15 months revealed the tumor opacified by Lipiodol. The tumor decreased in 5 cases and recurrence was found in three patients. CT taken 2 weeks after STAE showed low density halo around the tumor in 5 cases. Subsequent segmentectomy in four patients revealed total or near total necrosis of the tumor and no evidence of damage in surrounding parenchyma. STAE for HCC with a mixture of ethanol and Lipiodol is an effective and safe measure for small HCC

  11. BEHAVIOR OF LIPIODOL MARKERS DURING IMAGE GUIDED RADIOTHERAPY OF BLADDER CANCER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chai, Xiangfei; van Herk, Marcel; van de Kamer, Jeroen B.; Remeijer, Peter; Bex, Axel; Betgen, Anja; de Reijke, Theo M.; Hulshof, Maarten C. C. M.; Pos, Floris J.; Bel, Arjan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the stability of a novel type of markers used in partial bladder tumor irradiation and tumor deformation as indicated by the markers. Materials and Methods: In 15 patients with solitary bladder cancer, lipiodol was injected in the bladder wall during flexible cystoscopy to

  12. Pulmonary Lipiodol Accumulation after Transarterial Chemoembolization: CT Findings and Its Radiologic Outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youn, In Young; Chong, Se Min; Kwak, Byung Kook; Shin, Hyung Jin; Seo, Gi Young; Seo, Jae Seung; Kim, Jae Kyun [Dept. of Radiology, Chung Ang University Medical Center, Chung Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    To evaluate CT findings and radiologic outcomes of pulmonary lipiodol accumulation (PLA) after transarterial chemoembolization (TACE). This retrospective study involved 488 TACEs for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) (n = 160) and hepatic metastasis for non-hepatic malignancies (n = 7) in 167 patients. We reviewed the patient clinicoradiologic findings before and after TACE and calculated the incidence of PLA and PLA resolution time after initial CT and after TACE. Lipiodol accumulation in the lungs was seen under CT after TACE in seven patients (M : F = 6 : 1, mean age 61 years). The incidence of PLA at CT was 4.1% (7/167 patients). In five patients, associated intrathoracic abnormalities including pleural effusion with (n 3) or without consolidation (n = 2) were revealed at CT scans. The CT resolution time and PLA recovery time were 56 {+-} 54 days and 66 {+-} 52 days, respectively. The recovery time for lipiodol accumulation was 66 days. It is believed that the clinical and radiologic outcome of PLA without respiratory failure is promising, and conservative treatment will suffice when lipiodol accumulation in the lungs is seen in CT images after TACE.

  13. Sodium alginate microsphere combined with pingyangmycin lipiodol emulsion for clinical treatment of cavernous hemangioma of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Miao; Zhang Jinshan; Deng Liping

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To further reduce the adverse reactions of vascular embolization therapy for cavernous hemangioma of the liver (CHL) in order to find better embolizing agents. Methods: Sixty CHL patients were randomly and evenly divided into three groups: embolization therapy with sodium alginate microsphere(SAM) + pingyangmycin lipiodol emulsion (PLE) (group SAM + PLE), PLE (group PLE) and SAM (group SAM). The routine postoperative symptomatic treatments were conducted, including odynolysis, liver-protection and antiinflammatory therapy. The liver function and the intraoperative or postoperative discomfort symptoms before and 7 days after operation, and the changes in tumors were examined with CT scan. Clinical symptoms 3 months after operation were respectively compared. Results: The greatest impact on liver function was seen in group PLE among the three groups. The maximum intraoperative or postoperative discomfort symptoms were seen in group SAM, but the therapeutic effectiveness of the three groups had no significant difference. Conclusion: SAM + PLE is a safe and effective embolizing agent, being user-friendly, minor in the effect on liver function and light in the intraoperative and postoperative reaction. It is recommended that SAM + PLE be widely used for cavernous hemangioma of the liver. (authors)

  14. Tungsten-188/carrier-free rhenium-188 perrhenic acid generator system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Lisic, E.C.; Mirzadeh, S.; Callahan, A.P.

    1993-01-01

    A generator system for providing a carrier-free radioisotope in the form of an acid comprises a chromatography column in tandem fluid connection with an ion exchange column, the chromatography column containing a charge of a radioactive parent isotope. The chromatography column, charged with a parent isotope, is eluted with an alkali metal salt solution to generate the radioisotope in the form of an intermediate solution, which is passed through the ion-exchange column to convert the radioisotope to a carrier-free acid form

  15. Transarterial lidocaine-lipiodol emulsion administration for relief of pain during transarterial chemoembolization of malignant tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Anle; Yan Zhiping; Zhou Kangrong; Wang Jianhua; Cheng Jiemin; Qian Sheng; Luo Jianjun; Chen Yi

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To assess the feasibility and efficacy of transarterial lidocaine-lipiodol emulsion administration for controlling abdominal pain and preventing the arterial spasm resulting from TACE, and to evaluate the optimal amount of lidocaine administration. Methods: In a prospective trial of 120 consecutive patients with malignant tumor who underwent TACE were divided into three groups, those who received lidocaine-lipiodol emulsion administration (group A, n=40), those who received lidocaine bolus intraarterial infusion immediately before TACE (group B, n=40) and those who received no lidocaine injection before TACE, (group C, n=40). The degree of post-procedure pain was evaluated by a subjective method (using visual analogue scales from 0 to 10), and an objective method (amount of post-procedure analgesics). Incidence and degree of arterial spasm were assessed by DSA. Results: The correlative pain incidences between the three groups showed significant difference (P 0.05). Mean dose of intramuscular analgesics for controlling intolerable pain in group A and B was significantly lower than that of group C (P<0.05). There was no difference in the incidence of arterial spasm between group A and B but it was much lower in group C. Lipiodol deposit in malignant mass was densest in group A, especially in the metastatic nodules of the liver. Conclusions: Transarterial administration of lidocaine-lipiodol emulsion can not only reduce the incidence of pain during TACE, but also prevent the arterial spasm. It is much more effective than pre-TACE administration of pethidine and intraarterial infusion of lidocaine. The authors recommond routinely for the administration of lidocaine-lipiodol emulsion. (authors)

  16. Prediction of recurrence after HCC resection. Faint oily deposits in preoperative Lipiodol-CT of remnant liver tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, M.; Iimuro, Y.; Mogaki, M.; Kachi, K.; Fujii, H.; Matsumoto, Y.

    1994-01-01

    In trying to clarify the high recurrence rate after removal of small hepatocellular carconoma (HCC), we assessed the postoperative evolution of minute hepatic Lipiodol deposits which had been diagnosed as artifacts on the preoperative Lipiodol-CT. Of 27 patients with solitary HCC less than 5 cm in diameter, 14 had such Lipiodol deposits in the preoperative CT and 9 of them (64%) developed recurrent tumors. On the other hand, 6 of the 13 patients without deposits (46%) suffered recurrence, but in 5 of these 6 patients the HCC was metachronous multicentric. The cumulative survival rate of the non-deposit group was better than that of the deposit group (p<0.1). The present study suggested that, even in patients with small HCC, minute concomitant tumors invisible by conventional imaging techniques may exist at the time of surgery. Some of these lesions without sufficient tumor vasculature showing a hypervascular blush on angiography appear to retain small, vague Lipiodol deposits. (orig.)

  17. The biodistribution and effect on hepatic parenchyma with intraarterial injected I-131 lipiodol into hepatic artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Ik; Suh, Jung Ho; Yoo, Hyung Sik; Lee, Jong Tae; Kim, Ki Whang; Park, Chan Il; Kim, Byung Ro

    1989-01-01

    Iodized oil has been used as a contrast agent in lymphangiography. One of the commercially available compounds is Lipidol Ultra-fluid(LUF) which contains 38% iodine by weight. Nakakuma et al(1979) reported that LUF was selectively retained in the hypervascular hepatocellular carcinoma when injected directly into the ligated hepatic artery. Since that time, it has been widely utilized in the detection as well as the therapeutic attempts of hepatocellular carcinoma, where it has been mixed with chemotherapeutic agents or labeled with radioactive I-131. Like all significant advances, the mechanism of lipid retention within the hepatocellular carcinoma is not clearly understood, and also there is a lack of information about the biodistribution and kinetics of I-131 Lipiodol. The apparent safety of this technique require confirmation. The present study was aimed to assess the biodistribution and kinetics of intraarterially injected I-131 Lipiodol and the histologic changes in canine livers. It was also to verify the safety of this technique in clinical applications. Radioactive iodized oil was obtained by simple exchange method . 518 ± 19 MBq(14 mCi, about 1 mCi/kg body weight) of I-131 Lipiodol was injected intraarterially in 12 dogs as a experimental group. Serial count rates over the livers under gamma camera were measured, and then it was compared with quantitative analysis of radioactivities distributed in liver, lung, spleen, kidney, thyroid, bile and circulating blood using dose calibrator after sacrifice at various time intervals. Cumulative radiation doses were calculated by Quimby method. The effect of I-131 lipiodol on hepatic function were analysed by serial liver function tests after intrahepatic injection of I-131 Lipiodol and compared with preinjection values. Liver tissue obtained after sacrifice were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, Oil red-O, and also election microscopic examinations were performed. The results were summarized as follows; 1

  18. Clinical Analysis of Pulmonary Lipiodol Embolism in Patients with Hepatic Carcinoma after Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-jin JIANG

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To explore the clinical manifestations, therapeutic methods and preventive measures of pulmonary lipiodol embolism (PLE induced by transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE so as to improve the cognition and management of PLE. Methods:A total of 2 613 patients with hepatic cancer without history of pulmonary disease who were treated with TACE in our hospital from Sept., 2004 to Mar., 2013 were selected. The clinical manifestations, therapeutic methods and preventing measures of the 9 patients who were accompanied with PLE were observed to analyze the pre-operative hepatic computed tomography (CT and chest X-ray, intra-operative contrast examination, dosage of lipiodol and chemotherapeutic drugs, clinical manifestation and therapeutic progression as well as the postoperative follow-up.Results: Nine patients accompanied by PLE had different-severity cough, hemoptysis and progressive dyspnea, and chest X-ray and/or CT showed flaky high-density radiography. After treated with oxygen inhalation, bronchus expansion and inflammation alleviation, 8 patients were improved but 1 died. Of the 8 patients, 2 were given ventilator to assist breath, and the clinical symptoms of 8 patients disappeared within 3-15 d. The re-examined chest X-ray showed normal after 20-60 d follow-up observation. Additionally, 6 patients were with nidus diameter ≥10 cm, 6 with hepatic artery-vein fistula and 7 with lipiodol dosage ≥20 mL.Conclusion: PLE often occurs in patients with giant hepatic carcinoma accompanied by hepatic artery-vein fistula, whose lipiodol dosage is ≥20 mL. Accurate and correct management during operation can effectively reduce the development of PLE.

  19. A new technique for labeling of Lipiodol with 188Re in the treatment of hepatic tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shyh-Jen Wang; Wan-Yu Lin; Bor-Tsung Hsieh; Kai-Yuan Cheng; Lie-Hang Shen; Ming-Ja Su

    2004-01-01

    A new method for the synthesis of 188 Re-Lipiodol without using a chelating agent and to evaluate the stability and biodistribution of the new agent in rats with hepatic tumors was attempted. Eighteen male Sprague -Dawley rats with liver tumors were sacrificed at 1, 24, and 48 hours (six rats at each time) after injection of approximately 7.4 MBq (0.2 mCi) of 188 Re Lipiodol via the hepatic artery. Samples of tumor, liver and other organs were collected and tissue concentration (%ID/g) of the markers were calculated. A high level of radioactivity in the hepatic tumors was found at every time of the study. The ratios of tumor to normal liver tissue concentration (T/N ratio) were 7.62 at 1 hour, 8.03 at 24 hours, and 7.70 at 48 hours. Except for the liver, kidneys and lungs, concentrations in other organs were low. The new method for labeling Lipiodol with 188 Re is simple and has potential for the treatment of hepatic tumors. (author)

  20. A study of image-guided radiotherapy of bladder cancer based on lipiodol injection in the bladder wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soendergaard, Jimmi; Muren, Ludvig Paul; Elstroem, Ulrik Vindelev; Grau, Cai; Hoeyer, Morten; Oerding Olsen, Kasper

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. We have tested a procedure of focal injection of the contrast medium Lipiodol as a fiducial marker for image-guided boost of the tumor in bladder cancer radiotherapy (RT). In this study, we have evaluated the feasibility and the safety of the method as well as the inter- and intra-fraction shift of the bladder tumor. Materials and methods. Five patients with muscle invasive urinary bladder cancer were included in the study. Lipiodol was injected during flexible cystoscopy into the submucosa of the bladder wall at the periphery of the tumor or the post resection tumor-bed. Cone-beam CT (CBCT) scans were acquired daily throughout the course of RT. Results. Lipiodol demarcation of the bladder tumor was feasible and safe with only a minimum of side effects related to the procedure. The Lipiodol spots were visible on CT and CBCT scans for the duration of the RT course. More than half of all the treatment fractions required a geometric shift of 5 mm or more to match on the Lipiodol spots. The mean intra-fraction shift (3D) of the tumor was 3 mm, largest in the anterior-posterior and cranial-caudal directions. Conclusion. This study demonstrates that Lipiodol can be injected into the bladder mucosa and subsequently visualized on CT and CBCT as a fiducial marker. The relatively large inter-fraction shifts in the positions of Lipiodol spots compared to the intra-fraction movement indicates that image-guided RT based on radio-opaque markers is important for RT of the bladder cancer tumor.

  1. 188Re(V) Nitrido Radiopharmaceuticals for Radionuclide Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschi, Alessandra; Martini, Petra; Uccelli, Licia

    2017-01-19

    The favorable nuclear properties of rhenium-188 for therapeutic application are described, together with new methods for the preparation of high yield and stable 188 Re radiopharmaceuticals characterized by the presence of the nitride rhenium core in their final chemical structure. 188 Re is readily available from an 188 W/ 188 Re generator system and a parallelism between the general synthetic procedures applied for the preparation of nitride technetium-99m and rhenium-188 theranostics radiopharmaceuticals is reported. Although some differences between the chemical characteristics of the two metallic nitrido fragments are highlighted, it is apparent that the same general procedures developed for the labelling of biologically active molecules with technetium-99m can be applied to rhenium-188 with minor modification. The availability of these chemical strategies, that allow the obtainment, in very high yield and in physiological condition, of 188 Re radiopharmaceuticals, gives a new attractive prospective to employ this radionuclide for therapeutic applications.

  2. 188Re(V) Nitrido Radiopharmaceuticals for Radionuclide Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschi, Alessandra; Martini, Petra; Uccelli, Licia

    2017-01-01

    The favorable nuclear properties of rhenium-188 for therapeutic application are described, together with new methods for the preparation of high yield and stable 188Re radiopharmaceuticals characterized by the presence of the nitride rhenium core in their final chemical structure. 188Re is readily available from an 188W/188Re generator system and a parallelism between the general synthetic procedures applied for the preparation of nitride technetium-99m and rhenium-188 theranostics radiopharmaceuticals is reported. Although some differences between the chemical characteristics of the two metallic nitrido fragments are highlighted, it is apparent that the same general procedures developed for the labelling of biologically active molecules with technetium-99m can be applied to rhenium-188 with minor modification. The availability of these chemical strategies, that allow the obtainment, in very high yield and in physiological condition, of 188Re radiopharmaceuticals, gives a new attractive prospective to employ this radionuclide for therapeutic applications. PMID:28106830

  3. Heated lipiodol as an embolization agent for transhepatic arterial embolization in VX2 rabbit liver cancer model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao Wei [Department of Interventional Radiology, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, No.1 Xinshi Road, Shaanxi Province, Xi' an 710038 (China)], E-mail: zjfurong2008@126.com; Wan Yi [Department of Health Statistics, Fourth Military Medical University, No. 17 West Changle Road, Xi' an 710032 (China); Liang Zhihui [Department of Radiology, Bethune International Peace Hospital, Shijiazhuang, Hebei Province 050082 (China); Duan Yunyou; Liu Xi [Department of Ultrasonography, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, No. 1 Xinshi Road, Xi' an 710038 (China); Wang Zhimin; Liu Yiyong; Zhu Jia; Liu Xiongtao [Department of Interventional Radiology, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, No.1 Xinshi Road, Shaanxi Province, Xi' an 710038 (China); Zhang Hongxin [Department of Interventional Radiology, Tangdu Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, No.1 Xinshi Road, Shaanxi Province, Xi' an 710038 (China)], E-mail: cawe-001@163.com

    2010-02-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the therapeutic effect of heated (60 deg. C) lipiodol via hepatic artery administration in a rabbit model of VX2 liver cancer. Materials and methods: Thirty male New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into three groups with 10 rabbits assigned to each group. VX2 carcinoma cells were surgically implanted into the left hepatic lobe. The tumors were allowed to grow for 2 weeks, and studies were performed until the diameter of the tumors detected by ultrasonograph reached 2-3 cm. Under anesthesia, trans-catheter hepatic arterial embolization was performed and doxorubicin-lipiodol (37 deg. C) (1 mL), lipiodol (60 deg. C) (1 mL) or control (physiological saline (37 deg. C) (1 mL)) solution was injected into the hepatic arteries of animals in the three groups. One week later, the volume of the tumor was measured by ultrasonograph again. The serum of all rabbits was collected before injection and at 4 and 7 days after injection, and the level of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was checked. The survival period of the three groups of rabbits after treatment was also recorded. During the last course of their disease, the rabbits were given analgesics to relieve suffering. Results: The tumor growth rate in the lipiodol (60 deg. C) group (0.92 {+-} 0.21, tumor volume from 1811 {+-} 435 to 1670 {+-} 564 mm{sup 3}) was significantly lower than that in the control group (3.48 {+-} 1.17, tumor volume from 1808 {+-} 756 to 5747 {+-} 1341 mm{sup 3}) (P < 0.05) and in the doxorubicin-lipiodol (37 deg. C) group (1.69 {+-} 0.26, tumor volume from 1881 {+-} 641 to 2428 {+-} 752 mm{sup 3}) (P < 0.05). Consequently, the survival period of the animals in the lipiodol (60 deg. C) group (41.0 {+-} 3.0 days) was significantly greater than that in the doxorubicin-lipiodol (37 deg. C) group (38.0 {+-} 2.5 days) (P < 0.05). On the other hand, there was no statistically significant difference in serum AST levels between the lipiodol (60 deg. C) group (148.2 {+-} 11

  4. Heated lipiodol as an embolization agent for transhepatic arterial embolization in VX2 rabbit liver cancer model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Wei; Wan Yi; Liang Zhihui; Duan Yunyou; Liu Xi; Wang Zhimin; Liu Yiyong; Zhu Jia; Liu Xiongtao; Zhang Hongxin

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the therapeutic effect of heated (60 deg. C) lipiodol via hepatic artery administration in a rabbit model of VX2 liver cancer. Materials and methods: Thirty male New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into three groups with 10 rabbits assigned to each group. VX2 carcinoma cells were surgically implanted into the left hepatic lobe. The tumors were allowed to grow for 2 weeks, and studies were performed until the diameter of the tumors detected by ultrasonograph reached 2-3 cm. Under anesthesia, trans-catheter hepatic arterial embolization was performed and doxorubicin-lipiodol (37 deg. C) (1 mL), lipiodol (60 deg. C) (1 mL) or control (physiological saline (37 deg. C) (1 mL)) solution was injected into the hepatic arteries of animals in the three groups. One week later, the volume of the tumor was measured by ultrasonograph again. The serum of all rabbits was collected before injection and at 4 and 7 days after injection, and the level of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) was checked. The survival period of the three groups of rabbits after treatment was also recorded. During the last course of their disease, the rabbits were given analgesics to relieve suffering. Results: The tumor growth rate in the lipiodol (60 deg. C) group (0.92 ± 0.21, tumor volume from 1811 ± 435 to 1670 ± 564 mm 3 ) was significantly lower than that in the control group (3.48 ± 1.17, tumor volume from 1808 ± 756 to 5747 ± 1341 mm 3 ) (P 3 ) (P -1 ) and the doxorubicin-lipiodol (37 deg. C) group (139.7 ± 12.3 U L -1 ) (P > 0.05). However, the serum AST level in the lipiodol (60 deg. C) group was significantly higher at 4 days after injection (P -1 ). Conclusions: Treatment with lipiodol (60 deg. C) resulted in an effect on serum AST levels similar to that caused by treatment with doxorubicin-lipiodol (37 deg. C). Thus, lipiodol (60 deg. C) treatment could greatly prolong the survival period of rabbits with VX2 cancer by inhibiting tumor growth.

  5. Experimental dosimetry and kinetics of radioactive tracers for human applications: example of therapeutic injection of Lipiodol labelled with Iodine 131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed Mahidi, N.

    1992-10-01

    We have evaluated the radiation dose received by the liver and lungs for 10 patients with a hepatic carcinoma after surgical operation followed by a therapeutic dose of Lipiodol labelled with iodine 131. The cumulated activities have been obtained by using a calibrated gamma camera. Fixation and kinetics of the I 131 Lipiodol in normal and cancers livers have been measured with the determination of the effective and biological half-lives. The calculated doses are based on the MIRD method. Results confirm that Lipiodol fixation is important in the liver at J1 (about 74% of the injected activity). Its elimination is essentially urinary, pulmonary fixation remained low, the dose received by the healthy part of liver is acceptable. These values have been compared with those obtained by another method using a thermoluminescent dosimeter (LiF) installed on the skin over the liver. Comparison between results obtained by the 2 methods shows a good correlation

  6. Behavior of Lipiodol Markers During Image Guided Radiotherapy of Bladder Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai Xiangfei; Herk, Marcel van; Kamer, Jeroen B. van de; Remeijer, Peter; Bex, Axel; Betgen, Anja; De Reijke, Theo M.; Hulshof, Maarten C.C.M.; Pos, Floris J.; Bel, Arjan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the stability of a novel type of markers used in partial bladder tumor irradiation and tumor deformation as indicated by the markers. Materials and Methods: In 15 patients with solitary bladder cancer, lipiodol was injected in the bladder wall during flexible cystoscopy to identify the tumor. A planning CT scan was made, followed by daily cone-beam CT (CBCT) scans during treatment. To study the accuracy of using these markers for image guidance, uncertainties U1 and U2 were calculated, which were defined as the difference between submask registration (covering single marker) and the average of all submask registrations and the difference between the submask registration and the general mask registration (including all markers), respectively. Finally, to study tumor deformation, the relative movement of each marker pair was correlated with the relative bladder volume (RBV). Results: The analyzed patients had 2.3 marker injections on average. The lipiodol spot size was 0.72 ± 1.1 cm 3 . The intensity of spots in both CT and CBCT was significantly higher than the surrounding bladder tissue. The uncertainties U1 and U2 were comparable, and the uncertainties in left-right direction (0.14-0.19 cm) were smaller than those in cranial-caudal and anterior-posterior directions (0.19-0.32 cm). The relative marker movement of within-zone marker pairs was much smaller (and has less dependence on the RBV) than across-zones marker pairs. Conclusions: Lipiodol markers are a feasible method to track bladder tumor by using online CBCT. Tumor deformation is observed, especially for tumors that cross the defined bladder zones.

  7. Behavior of Lipiodol Markers During Image Guided Radiotherapy of Bladder Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chai Xiangfei, E-mail: x.chai@amc.uva.n [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Herk, Marcel van [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kamer, Jeroen B. van de [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Remeijer, Peter [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bex, Axel [Department of Urology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Betgen, Anja [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); De Reijke, Theo M [Department of Urology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hulshof, Maarten C.C.M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pos, Floris J [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bel, Arjan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-05-01

    Purpose: To investigate the stability of a novel type of markers used in partial bladder tumor irradiation and tumor deformation as indicated by the markers. Materials and Methods: In 15 patients with solitary bladder cancer, lipiodol was injected in the bladder wall during flexible cystoscopy to identify the tumor. A planning CT scan was made, followed by daily cone-beam CT (CBCT) scans during treatment. To study the accuracy of using these markers for image guidance, uncertainties U1 and U2 were calculated, which were defined as the difference between submask registration (covering single marker) and the average of all submask registrations and the difference between the submask registration and the general mask registration (including all markers), respectively. Finally, to study tumor deformation, the relative movement of each marker pair was correlated with the relative bladder volume (RBV). Results: The analyzed patients had 2.3 marker injections on average. The lipiodol spot size was 0.72 +- 1.1 cm{sup 3}. The intensity of spots in both CT and CBCT was significantly higher than the surrounding bladder tissue. The uncertainties U1 and U2 were comparable, and the uncertainties in left-right direction (0.14-0.19 cm) were smaller than those in cranial-caudal and anterior-posterior directions (0.19-0.32 cm). The relative marker movement of within-zone marker pairs was much smaller (and has less dependence on the RBV) than across-zones marker pairs. Conclusions: Lipiodol markers are a feasible method to track bladder tumor by using online CBCT. Tumor deformation is observed, especially for tumors that cross the defined bladder zones.

  8. Clinical application of transcatheter arterial thermo-chemotherapy and thermo-lipiodol embolization in treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xuan; Chen Xiaofei; Dong Weihua

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical efficacy of thermo-chemotherapy and thermo-lipiodol embolization in treatment of primary hepatocellular carcinoma(PHC). Methods: One hundred and sixteen cases of PHC were divided into three groups. Group A (38 cases)was treated with normal temperature chemotherapy and normal temperature lipiodol, Group B(40 cases)with thermo-chemotherapy and normal temperature lipiodol and group C (38 cases)with thermo-chemotherapy and thermo-lipiodol. Group B and group C were called the thermotherapy group. Results: In the thermotherapy groups, the rates of tumor size reduction were significantly greater than those in the normal group. There were no significant different in the hepatic function tests among the three groups. The 6-, 12-, 18-, and 24- month survival rates of the normal group and thermotherapy groups were 97%, 58%, 39% and 18%, versus 99%, 79%, 57% and 36%, respectively. No significant differences were found in the rates of reduction of tumor size and survival rates between group B and group C. Conclusion: Thermo-chemotherapy and thermo-embolization possess significant effect on PHC but without conspicuous damage to liver function. (authors)

  9. Transcatheter hepatic arterial thermo-chemotherapy and thermo-lipiodol embolization for the treatment of hepatic metastases from colorectal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xuan; Chen Xiaofei

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical efficacy of transcatheter hepatic arterial thermo-chemotherapy and thermo-lipiodol embolization in the treatment of hepatic metastases from colorectal carcinoma. Methods: Sixty-eight cases with hepatic metastases from colorectal carcinoma were equally and randomly divided into two groups. The patients in study group were treated with transcatheter hepatic arterial thermo-chemotherapy and thermo-lipiodol embolization, while the patients in control group were treated with conventional (normal temperature) transcatheter hepatic arterial chemotherapy lipiodol embolization. Results: The effective rate of study group and control group was 65%(22/34) and 32%(11/34) respectively, the difference between two groups was statistically significant (P<0.05). No significant difference in the postoperative changes of hepatic function tests was found between the two groups. The survival rate at 6,12,18 and 24 months after the treatment was 100%, 82%, 44% and 18% respectively in study group, while it was 91%, 47%, 15% and 6% respectively in control group. Conclusion: Transcatheter hepatic arterial thermo-chemotherapy and thermo-lipiodol embolization is an effective and safe treatment for the hepatic metastases from colorectal carcinoma and has no obvious damage to the hepatic function. (authors)

  10. Role of 188Re(V)DMSA in the diagnosis and therapy of medullary thyroid carcinoma: a pilot study in an animal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Learoyd, D.L.; Roach, P.J.; Snowdon, G.M.; Dadachova, K.; Moreau, A.M.; Robinson, B.G.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: 99 Tc m (V)DMSA has been reported to be highly sensitive in the diagnosis of medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). Rhenium-188, a beta emitter, has potential for therapy of MTC. However, initial studies with 188 Re indicate high renal uptake which may interfere with potential therapeutic applications of this radiopharmaceutical. A modified radiolabelling method has been shown to reduced the renal uptake of 188 Re(V)DMSA in control animals. The aims of this study were to determine whether there is uptake of modified 188 Re(V)DMSA in nude mice injected with an MTC cell line and whether there is potential for MTC therapy. Two groups of mice were injected in the left flank (SC) with TT cell line, and in mice showing tumour growth a low-dose (400 kBq) of 188 Re(V)DMSA was injected via a tail vein 8 weeks later. Biodistribution was performed on several mice and several others were given 'therapy' injections (8 MBq) to determine whether tumour shrinkage could be objectively observed. Tracer uptake was highest in bone and kidneys but tumour uptake was relatively low. However, no new tumour growth was seen in any of the mice subsequent to therapy injections and 1 mouse showed complete remission within 5 weeks of injection. Further animal and human studies will need to be performed to determine the potential role of this modified 118 Re(V)DMSA in patients with MTC

  11. SU-F-T-630: Energy Spectral Study On Lipiodol After Trans-Arterial Chemoembolization Using the Flattened and Unflattened Photon Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawahara, D [Radiation Therapy Section, Department of Clinical Support, Hiroshima University Hospital, Hiroshima (Japan); Medical and Dental Sciences Course, Graduate School of Biomedical & Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Ozawa, S; Nagata, Y [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institute of Biomedical & Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Hiroshima High-Precision Radiotherapy Cancer Center, Hiroshima (Japan); Saito, A; Nishio, T; Suzuki, T [Department of Radiation Oncology, Institute of Biomedical & Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan); Hioki, K; Masuda, H; Okumura, T; Ochi, Y; Nakashima, T; Ohno, Y [Radiation Therapy Section, Department of Clinical Support, Hiroshima University Hospital, Hiroshima (Japan); Tanaka, S [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: SBRT combining transarterial chemoembolization with Lipiodol is expected to improve local control. Our showed that the dose enhancement effect in the Lipiodol with 10X flattening filter free (FFF) was inserted. This study was to investigate the energy fluence variations of electron in the Lipiodol using flattened (FF) and FFF beams. Methods: FF and FFF for 6X and 10X beams by TrueBeam were used in this study. The Lipiodol (3 X 3 X 3 cm{sup 3}) was located at the depth of 5 cm in water, the dose enhancement factor (DEF) and energy fluence were calculated by Monte Carlo (MC) calculations (PHITS). Results: DEFs with FF and FFF of 6X were 17.1% and 24.3% at rebuild-up region in the Lipiodol (5.3cm depth), 7.0% and 17.0% at the center of Lipiodol (6.5cm depth), and −13.2% and −8.2% at behind Lipiodol (8.3cm depth). DEFs with FF and FFF of 10X were 21.7% and 15.3% at rebuild-up region, 8.2% and 10.5% at the center of Lipiodol, and −14.0% and −8.6% at behind Lipiodol. Spectral results showed that the FFF beam contained more low-energy (0–0.3MeV) component of electrons than FF beam, and FF beam contained more high-energy (over 0.3MeV) electrons than FFF beam in Lipiodol. Behind the Lipiodol, build-down effect with FF beam was larger than FFF beam because FF beam contained more high energy electrons. The difference of DEFs between FFF and FF beams for 6X were larger than for 10X. This is because 10X beam contained more high-energy electrons. Conclusion: It was found that the 6XFFF beam gives the largest change of energy fluence and the largest DEF in this study. These phenomena are mainly caused by component of low-energy electrons, and this energy is almost correspond to the boundary of photo electronic dominant and Compton scattering dominant region for photon beams.

  12. Intra-arterial embolization with pingyangmycin-lipiodol emulsion for the treatment of hepatic cavernous hemangioma: an analysis of factors affecting therapeutic results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Qingle; Chen Yong; Zhao Jianbo; Zhang Kewei; Li Yanhao

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the factors that might affect the therapeutic results of pingyangmycin-lipiodol emulsion intra-arterial sclerosing embolization (PLE-IASE) in treating symptomatic cavernous hemangioma of liver (SCHL). Methods: PLE-IASE was performed in 89 patients with SCHL (32 males and 57 females). Before treatment the mean diameter of the hemangioma was (8.3±3.8) cm. Of 89 patients, 53 experienced anxiety, 35 suffered from right upper abdominal pain and the remaining one developed Kasabach-Merrit syndrome. Before PLE-IASE, the arteriographic classification was conducted based on hepatic arteriographic findings. Then pingyangmycin-lipiodol emulsion (PLE) was injected through the feeding artery. The dosage of pingyangmycin (PYM) was (9.8 ± 4.4) mg and the dosage of lipiodol (LP) was (5.9 ± 2.9) ml. The lipiodol deposition status was judged by the follow-up spot film taken immediately after PLE-IASE. The observations of the occurrence of complications, the relief of symptoms and the minification of SCHL were followed for 6-72 months after PLE-IASE. The linear regression analysis statistics was conducted by taking the minification as dependent variable and taking the arteriographic classification, lipiodol deposition status, the dosage of PYM, the dosage of lipiodol and the preoperative SCHL diameter as independent variable. Results: Of all 89 cases of SCHL, hypervascular type was seen in 51, hypovascular type in 26 and arteriovenous shunt (AVS) type in 12. Good lipiodol deposition status was found in 64 patients and poor deposition in 25 patients after PLE-IASE. After PLE-IASE, the symptom of anxiety in 53 patients was relieved and the right upper abdominal pain was reduced in 33 cases although intermittent pain still remained in 2 patients. The blood platelet count of the patient with Kasabach-Merrit syndrome returned to normal after the treatment. The symptomatic relieve rate was 98.7%. No serious complications occurred in the follow-up period. The linear

  13. Oleum of brucea javanica-lipiodol used in hepatic arterial embolization to treat hepatocellular carcinoma: a effect analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wanjun; Deng Li; Ai Lixin; Li Jiaping

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of the Oleum of Brucea javanica lipiodol compound (BJLC), a anticancerous agent of traditional Chinese medicine, in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) through transhepatic arterial embolization (TAE). Methods: BJLC was made by the mixed oleum of Brucea javanica and lipiodol was injected through hepatic artery by catheter to treat 56 patients with HCC. Results: After treatment, the tumors were shrunk 33.8% averagely. 1,2,3 year survival rates were 87.5%, 48.2% and 30.4% respectively. No marrow depression caused by the treatment were found. Conclusion: BJLC has a definite effect in treatment of HCC by TAE. As a oily anticancerous agent of traditional Chinese medicine, its conspicuous characteristic include low toxicity, embolizability and remainability in tumor tissue. so, it has a great superiority to become a satisfactory embolic agent for the treatment of HCC. (authors)

  14. Renal damage induced by dosorubicin-lipiodol emulsion infused into rabbit renal artery : comparison with CT and histologic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Gyoo; Moon, Tae Young; Lee, Suck Hong; Kim, Byung Soo; Choi, Sang Yul; Park, Choong Hoon

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the utility of renal CT scanning and to histologically correlate renal damage induced by renal arterial infusion of 0.2 ml/kg of doxorubicin-lipiodol emulsion. Renal CT scans of 20 rabbit kidneys were obtained 15 days after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization and were classified into four grades, as follows: grade 0 - no fleck, grade 1 - one to three nodular flecks; grade 2 - four or more nodular flecks, or one semilunar fleck; and grade 3 - two or more semilunar flecks. The percentage of histological section occupied by lesion was determined using squared paper, and compared with the grades determined on the basis of CT. The histologic findings were interstitial inflammatory cell infiltration, intratubular lipiodol droplets, dystrophic calcification, and and cellular necrosis. The mean sizes of grade 0, 1, 2 and 3 histological lesions were 2.2 % (n=5), 4.5 % (n=4), 21.9 % (n=7), and 24% (n=4), respectively. Grades 0 and 1 accounted for nine cases (3.2%), while grades 2 and 3 accounted for 11 (22.6%); this difference was statistically significant (p<0.01). CT findings showing nodular or semilunar flecks 15 days after infusion into the renal artery of doxorubicin-lipiodol emulsion correlate with the size of the damaged kidney, as seen on histological specimens. (author). 19 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs

  15. Liposomes as carriers of the beta-emitters rhenium-186 and rhenium-188 for use in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haefeli, U.

    1989-01-01

    The two radioisotopes Re-186 and Re-188 are highly favoured as therapeutic nuclides in nuclear medicine due to their unique radiation characteristics. For application in future (e.g. radiosynoviorthesis of the knee) we have chosen liposomes as biodegradable and non-irriting carriers. They were filled with radioactive Re in therapeutic doses of >370 MBq (10 mCi). 1. Small unilamellar liposomes (SUV's) of an average size of 28 nm were prepared by ultrasonic irradiation. They encapsulated only 0.64% of the perrhenate. 2. Liposomes carrying DTPA-SA in their bilayer (SA=octadecylamine) were produced in order to form a complex with Tc and Re. Technetium was complexed in high yield and the Tc-DTPA-liposome bindings were found to be stable when tested by dialysis. Similar attempts to complex Re were not successful because the amount of Sn(+II) required for the reduction was so high that the liposomes were destroyed. 3. Methylthiosemicarbazide (mts) was coupled covalently to aminomethylpolystyrene. These spheres were used as a very convenient and simple model for testing the labelling-yield and the stability of the Re-mts-complex. 4. Two isomers of the complex ReO(OEt)Cl 2 (PPh 3 ) 2 (Rephos) were characterized. These highly lipid-soluble inactive complexes were irradiated by neutrons and then used to prepare a mixed micelle with egg yolk lecithin and the detergent sodium deoxycholate. Liposomes were produced in a size of 60-80 nm in a very simple way by gelfiltration. Up to 53.5% of the radioactive Rephos was incorporated. Monitoring the stability by dialysis an initial loss of 10-15% and subsequent linear decrease were observed. The daily loss could be reduced to 1.0% by the addition of ascorbic acid. After 8 days, 82% of the initial activity still remained in the vesicles. 5. [ReO 2 (en) 2 ]Cl.2H 2 O and [ReO 2 (1,4,8,11-tetraazaundecane)]Cl were synthesized and characterized. 6. A direct enzymatic method to determine the remaining cholate in liposomes was developed, requiring only a simple dilution step. (author) 17 figs., 19 tabs., 111 refs

  16. Lymphangiogram of the pelvic limb in normal dogs with Lipiodol Ultra-Fluide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachibana, F.; Nishikawa, T.; Kudo, T.; Otomo, K.; Koike, T.

    1982-01-01

    Lipiodol Ultra-Fluide (0.2 ml/kg) was injected directly into the lymphatic vessels of the pelvic limbs in 28 healthy adult mongrel dogs. The contrast medium appeared on the roentgenogram in the popliteal, lateral iliac, medial iliac, sacral and lumbar aortic lymph nodes (LN). It was also visible in the iliofemoral, superficial inguinal and cranial mediastinal LN in several dogs. It diffused from the popliteal into the sacral, medial iliac and lateral iliac LN to fill the cisterna chyli and thoracic duct system. The features of the popliteal, lateral iliac and lumbar aortic LN were shown in the lymphangiograms of all the animals. The incidence of the other LN was different. Depending on the incidence of these LN in the lymphangiogram, the pictures of the canine lymphatic system were classified into three types:(1) medial iliac and sacral LN were visible on both sides (16%);(2) one of these LN was not observed (36%);(3) medial iliac and/or sacral lymph node was not observed on both sides (48%). (author)

  17. Superselective renal artery embolization with lipiodol and absolute alcohol emulsion for renal tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Miao; Li Jiakai; Sun Minglu; Wang Huixian

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of the renal arterial embolization with lipidol and absolute alcohol emulsion in the treatment of renal tumors. Methods: The superselective renal arterial embolization by using coaxial-cathaterization with infusion of lipiodol and absolute alcohol (in proportion of 2 :1) emulsion was performed in twenty patients with malignant and benign kidney tumors. 4 weeks later, the renal arteriography was taken routinely and repeated embolization was performed in case of necessary; and follow up was carried out periodically. Results: The imaging findings showed thorough tumor necrosis and feeding vessel abruption in 18 cases after one session of treatment. The volume of tumors decreased more than a half in 13 patients (82.25%, 13/18) associated with a well-distributed lipidol inside the tumors. The second session of treatment was performed in other 2 patients and the clinical symptoms relieved obviously. Conclusions: The superselective renal artery embolization with lipidol and absolute alcohol emulsion can permanently embolize all tumor feeding arteries in capillary vessel level with maximum reservation of renal function, providing definitively efficacy and worthwhile to be recommended widely. (authors)

  18. Lipiodol injections for optimization of target volume delineation in a patient with a second tumor of the oropharynx. A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haderlein, Marlen; Merten, Ricarda; Stojanovic, Andrea; Speer, Stefan; Fietkau, Rainer; Ott, Oliver J. [University Hospitals of Erlangen, Department of Radiation Oncology, Erlangen (Germany); Scherl, Claudia [University Hospitals of Erlangen, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Erlangen (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    Lipiodol injections were administered in the head and neck area to improve gross tumor volume (GTV) definition for small-volume re-irradiation of a 63-year-old previously irradiated patient with a second tumor of the oropharynx in the posterior wall with longitudinal ligament infiltration (cT4cN0cM0). The patient had dialysis-depending renal failure. On diagnostic computed tomography (CT), which was performed with intravenous contrast agent, the tumor in the oropharynx was not detectable. Because of dialysis-depending renal failure comorbidity, no contrast agent was applied in the planning CT and in the diagnostic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study. In each cross-sectional imaging study performed, the GTV, especially in craniocaudal extensions, was not safely delineable. Therefore, craniocaudal tumor margins were pharyngoscopically marked with Lipiodol injections, an iodine-containing contrast agent. In a second planning CT, the GTV could be defined with the help of the Lipiodol marks and small-volume re-irradiation was performed. No Lipiodol-associated side effects occurred in the patient. In the present case, the use of Lipiodol injections at the tumor margins facilitated the definition of the GTV. (orig.) [German] Anwendung von Lipiodolinjektionen im Kopf-Hals-Bereich zur Verbesserung der GTV-Definition bei einer kleinvolumigen Re-Bestrahlung eines 63-jaehrigen, vorbestrahlten Patienten mit einem Zweitmalignom im Oropharynx mit Infiltration des hinteren Laengsbandes (cT4cN0cM0). Nebenbefundlich bestand bei dem Patienten eine dialysepflichtige Niereninsuffizienz. Im initialen diagnostischen Kontrastmittel-CT der Hals und Thoraxregion war der Tumor nicht abgrenzbar, so dass das Bestrahlungsplanungs-CT in Anbetracht des diagnostischen CTs und der bekannten Niereninsuffizienz ohne intravenoeses Kontrastmittel durchgefuehrt wurde. Das diagnostische MRT (vgl. Abb. 1) wurde ebenfalls ohne intravenoeses Kontrastmittel durchgefuehrt wurden. In allen durchgefuehrten

  19. Cone-Beam Computed Tomography Correlates with Conventional Helical Computed Tomography in Evaluation of Lipiodol Accumulation in HCC after Chemoembolization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toru Ishikawa

    Full Text Available The amount of drug-loaded lipiodol in an HCC tumor post-transarterial chemoembolization (TACE correlates with the risk of local tumor recurrence. Lipiodol enhancement of a tumor on conventional CT, measured in Hounsfield units (HU, can predict tumor response. Here we investigate whether cone-beam CT (CBCT can also be used to predict tumor response, providing the benefit of being able to optimize the patient's treatment plan intra-procedurally.A total of 82 HCC nodules (82 patients, ≤5 cm in diameter, were treated with balloon-occluded TACE using miriplatin between December 2013 and November 2014. For each patient, both CBCT and conventional CT images were obtained post-TACE. The degree of correlation between CBCT and conventional CT was determined by comparing identical regions of interest for each imaging modality using pixel values.The pixel values from conventional CT and CBCT were highly correlated, with a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.912 (p<0.001. The location of the nodules within the liver did not affect the results; the correlation coefficient was 0.891 (p<0.001 for the left lobe and 0.926 (p<0.001 for the right lobe. The mean pixel value for conventional CT was 439 ± 279 HU, and the mean pixel value for CBCT was 416 ± 311 HU.CBCT may be used as a substitute for conventional CT to quantitatively evaluate the amount of drug-loaded lipiodol within an HCC nodule and, hence, the efficacy of TACE treatment. The major benefit of using CBCT is the ability to predict the likelihood of local recurrence intra-procedurally, enabling subsequent treatment optimization.

  20. Computed tomography after administration of SMANCS-Lipiodol to liver cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maki, Shojiro; Konno, Toshimitsu; Iwai, Ken; Uchida, Mitsukuni; Tashiro, Seiki; Miyauchi, Yoshimasa; Maeda, Hiroshi [Kumamoto Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1984-08-01

    Sixty-eight cases of liver cancer, 48 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma and 20 cases of metastatic liver cancer, were treated by injection of SMANCS-Lipiodol (S-L) via tumor feeding arteries. Abdominal CT was carried out on the 3 rd day, 1 week, 2 and 4 weeks after the administration. These CT images were compared with those before the administration. Both primary and metastatic liver cancers were visualized as high density area due to the selective stay of S-L. Thus, the method became useful as a diagnostic tool; several tumors were newly visualized after the administration. S-L stayed in primary tumors and metastatic tumors. There were three types of the remaining of S-L in metastatic tumors for a long period: Type A, in which S-L remained in entire tumors; Types B, in which it remained primarily in circumference of tumor and Mixed type of A and B. The anticancer effect of S-L paralleled with the extent of the remaining of S-L in tumors, which was classified from Grade 0 to Grade IV. Grade IV means that S-L was recognized in the entire areas of tumors in the every slice of CT, and in the Grade IV tumors size reduced effectively after several months period. The dosage which was necessary to attain Grade IV was 0.08 ml per square centimeters calculated by the largest slice of every tumor. From Grade 0 to III, they need additional administration of S-L until to attain Grade IV in the tumor for the effective tumor regression.

  1. Transarterial Infusion Chemotherapy Using Cisplatin-Lipiodol Suspension With or Without Embolization for Unresectable Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaoka, Tomokazu; Aikata, Hiroshi; Takaki, Shintaro; Katamura, Yoshio; Hiramatsu, Akira; Waki, Koji; Takahashi, Shoichi; Hieda, Masashi; Toyota, Naoyuki; Ito, Katsuhide; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2009-01-01

    We evaluate the long-term prognosis and prognostic factors in patients treated with transarterial infusion chemotherapy using cisplatin-lipiodol (CDDP/LPD) suspension with or without embolization for unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Study subjects were 107 patients with HCC treated with repeated transarterial infusion chemotherapy alone using CDDP/LPD (adjusted as CDDP 10mg/LPD 1ml). The median number of transarterial infusion procedures was two (range, one to nine), the mean dose of CDDP per transarterial infusion chemotherapy session was 30 mg (range, 5.0-67.5 mg), and the median total dose of transarterial infusion chemotherapy per patient was 60 mg (range, 10-390 mg). Survival rates were 86% at 1 year, 40% at 3 years, 20% at 5 years, and 16% at 7 years. For patients with >90% LPD accumulation after the first transarterial infusion chemotherapy, rates were 98% at 1 year, 60% at 3 years, and 22% at 5 years. Multivariate analysis identified >90% LPD accumulation after the first transarterial infusion chemotherapy (p = 0.001), absence of portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT; p < 0.001), and Child-Pugh class A (p = 0.012) as independent determinants of survival. Anaphylactic shock was observed in two patients, at the fifth transarterial infusion chemotherapy session in one and the ninth in the other. In conclusion, transarterial infusion chemotherapy with CDDP/LPD appears to be a useful treatment option for patients with unresectable HCC without PVTT and in Child-Pugh class A. LPD accumulation after the first transarterial infusion chemotherapy is an important prognostic factor. Careful consideration should be given to the possibility of anaphylactic shock upon repeat infusion with CDDP/LPD.

  2. Computed tomography after administration of SMANCS-Lipiodol to liver cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maki, Shojiro; Konno, Toshimitsu; Iwai, Ken; Uchida, Mitsukuni; Tashiro, Seiki; Miyauchi, Yoshimasa; Maeda, Hiroshi

    1984-01-01

    Sixty-eight cases of liver cancer, 48 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma and 20 cases of metastatic liver cancer, were treated by injection of SMANCS-Lipiodol (S-L) via tumor feeding arteries. Abdominal CT was carried out on the 3 rd day, 1 week, 2 and 4 weeks after the administration. These CT images were compared with those before the administration. Both primary and metastatic liver cancers were visualized as high density area due to the selective stay of S-L. Thus, the method became useful as a diagnostic tool; several tumors were newly visalized after the administration. S-L stayed in primary tumors and metastatic tumors. There were three types of the remaining of S-L in metastatic tumors for a long period: Type A, in which S-L remained in entire tumors; Types B, in which it remained primarily in circumference of tumor and Mixed type of A and B. The anticancer effect of S-L paralleled with the extent of the remaining of S-L in tumors, which was classified from Grade 0 to Grade IV. Grade IV means that S-L was recognized in the entire areas of tumors in the every slice of CT, and in the Grade IV tumors size reduced effectively after several months period. The dosage which was necessary to attain Grade IV was 0.08 ml per square centimeters calculated by the largest slice of every tumor. From Grade 0 to III, they need additional administration of S-L until to attain Grade IV in the tumor for the effective tumor regression. (author)

  3. Investigation of SP94 Peptide as a Specific Probe for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Imaging and Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanli; Hu, Yan; Xiao, Jie; Liu, Guobing; Li, Xiao; Zhao, Yanzhao; Tan, Hui; Shi, Hongcheng; Cheng, Dengfeng

    2016-01-01

    SP94 (SFSIIHTPILPL), a novel peptide, has shown specific binding to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. We aimed to investigate the capability of SP94 as a targeting probe for HCC imaging and therapy following labeling with technetium-99m (99mTc) and rhenium-188 (188Re). HYNIC-SP94 was prepared by solid phase synthesis and then labeled with 99mTc. Cell competitive binding, internalization assay, in vitro and in vivo stability, biodistribution and micro-single photon emission computed tomography /computed tomography (SPECT/CT) imaging studies were performed to investigate the capability of 99mTc tricine-EDDA/HYNIC-SP94 as a specific HCC imaging probe. Initial promising targeting results inspired evaluation of its therapeutic effect when labeled by 188Re. HYNIC-SP94 was then labeled again with 188Re to perform cell apoptosis, microSPECT/CT imaging evaluation and immunohistochemistry. Huh-7 cells exhibited typical apoptotic changes after 188Re irradiation. According to 99mTc tricine-EDDA/HYNIC-SP94 microSPECT/CT imaging, tumor uptake was significantly decreased compared with that of pre-treatment with 188Re-HYNIC-SP94. The immunohistochemistry also displayed obvious necrosis and apoptosis as well as inhibition of proliferation in the 188Re-HYNIC-SP94 treatment group. The results supported that 99mTc tricine-EDDA/HYNIC-SP94 is able to target HCC cells and 188Re-HYNIC- SP94 holds potential as a therapeutic agent for HCC, making 99mTc/188Re-HYNIC-SP94 a promising targeting probe for HCC imaging and therapy. PMID:27649935

  4. An experimental study on the effect of mixture of absolute ethanol and lipiodol injected into normal liver of rabbit : CT features and histopathologic changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Mee Ran; Kim, Yun Hwan; Cha, In Ho; Chung, Kyoo Byung; Suh, Won Hyuk; Um, Soon Ho; Choi, Young Hee

    1999-01-01

    To investigate the safety and usefulness of Lipiodol-percutaneous transhepatic ethanol injection(LPEI) and to determine the appropriate concentration of Lipiodol during L-PEI. This was achieved by evalvating CT findings and histopathologic changes according to the concentration of Lipiodol, amount of ethanol, and the time interval after injection into normal rabbit liver. This experimental study involved 18 New Zealand rabbits under US guidance. They were divided into five groups according to injected materials; two rabbits with 0.4cc of normal saline(group I), six with 0.4cc of ethanol in the left hepatic lobe(group II), and 0.4cc of Lipiodol in the right hepatic lobe(group III), five rabbits with 5% Lipiodol-ethanol(5% vol. of Lipiodol+95% vol. of ethanol), 0.2cc in the right hepatic lobe, and 0.4cc in the left(group IV); and five rabbits with 10% Lipiodol-ethanol as per group IV(group V). CT was performed immediately, one week, two weeks, and three-four weeks after injection, and pathologic specimens were obtained on the third day(acute phase) and during the third or fourth week(chronic phase) after injection. On CT, intrahepatic localization of the L-PEI injection site was well demonstrated as a focal high attenuated area which gradually decreased in attenuation on follow up CT. The opacification of the inferior vena cava by Lipiodol, the linear distribution of Lipiodol along portal veins or fissures, and peritoneal leakage were clearly demonstrated in groups III-V, though the effects gradually disappeared during follow-up CT. There was no remarkable difference in gross CT attenuation between group IV and group V. The main pathologic findings during the acute phase of group II were coagulation necrosis surrounded by macrophage, inflammatory reaction, and early periportal and subcapsular fibrosis. The findings in group IV and V were similar to those in group II and additional fat vacuole accumulations in the necrotic area were also seen. During the chronic phase

  5. Rhenium radioisotopes for therapeutic radiopharmaceutical development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Beets, A.L.; Pinkert, J.; Kropp, J.; Lin, W.Y.; Wang, S.Y.

    2001-01-01

    Rhenium-186 and rhenium-188 represent two important radioisotopes which are of interest for a variety of therapeutic applications in oncology, nuclear medicine and interventional cardiology. Rhenium-186 is directly produced in a nuclear reactor and the 90 hour half-life allows distribution to distant sites. The relatively low specific activity of rhenium-186 produced in most reactors, however, permits use of phosphonates, but limits use for labelled peptides and antibodies. Rhenium-188 has a much shorter 16.9 hour half-life which makes distribution from direct reactor production difficult. However, rhenium-188 can be obtained carrier-free from a tungsten-188/rhenium-188 generator, which has a long useful shelf-life of several months which is cost-effective, especially for developing regions. In this paper we discuss the issues associated with the production of rhenium-186- and rhenium-188 and the development and use of various radiopharmaceuticals and devices labelled with these radioisotopes for bone pain palliation, endoradiotherapy of tumours by selective catheterization and tumour therapy using radiolabelled peptides and antibodies, radionuclide synovectomy and the new field of vascular radiation therapy. (author)

  6. Evaluation of transcatheter therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Toshihiko

    1990-01-01

    The author proposed improvement of the criteria for the effects of transcatheter therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma. 104 patients were treated by transcatheter therapy. Their responses were determined by the usual criteria. Next, they were classified and evaluated in 3 groups, with the area of lipiodol deposition on CT for over 4 weeks regarded as nacrosis. The result was determined, and its relationship to prognosis was studied in light of the repeated therapy. By the usual criteria, only 10% of patients were judged as PR, and there were no differences between therapies. Many of the NC cases had low AFP levels with therapy. At the initial therapy, the ratio of cases with low AFP levels was higher and the survival time was longer in the A group. So the A group was judged as most effective. Clinically, 10 patients were considered most benefitted by therapy. They were considered the A group, but all were judged as NC. Considering the effects of repeated therapy, 10 patients with NC were judged as the A-max group. Prognosis was poor in patients of the B-max and C-max groups. These results indicate that judgement by the usual criteria was inconsistent with clinical condition. It was improved by regarding the area of lipiodol deposition on CT for over 4 weeks as necrosis. Estimations of effects and prognosis were made more accurate by considering repeated therapy. Thus, the proposed improvement of the criteria by CT is more useful to estimate transcatheter therapy of the hepatocellular carcinoma. (author)

  7. Target localization of 3D versus 4D cone beam computed tomography in lipiodol-guided stereotactic radiotherapy of hepatocellular carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Mark; Chiang, Chi Leung; Lee, Venus; Cheung, Steven; Leung, Ronnie; Wong, Matthew; Lee, Frankle; Blanck, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Aim of this study was to comparatively evaluate the accuracy of respiration-correlated (4D) and uncorrelated (3D) cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in localizing lipiodolized hepatocellular carcinomas during stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). 4D-CBCT scans of eighteen HCCs were acquired during free-breathing SBRT following trans-arterial chemo-embolization (TACE) with lipiodol. Approximately 1320 x-ray projections per 4D-CBCT were collected and phase-sorted into ten bins. A 4D registration workflow was followed to register the reconstructed time-weighted average CBCT with the planning mid-ventilation (MidV) CT by an initial bone registration of the vertebrae and then tissue registration of the lipiodol. For comparison, projections of each 4D-CBCT were combined to synthesize 3D-CBCT without phase-sorting. Using the lipiodolized tumor, uncertainties of the treatment setup estimated from the absolute and relative lipiodol position to bone were analyzed separately for 4D- and 3D-CBCT. Qualitatively, 3D-CBCT showed better lipiodol contrast than 4D-CBCT primarily because of a tenfold increase of projections used for reconstruction. Motion artifact was observed to subside in 4D-CBCT compared to 3D-CBCT. Group mean, systematic and random errors estimated from 4D- and 3D-CBCT agreed to within 1 mm in the cranio-caudal (CC) and 0.5 mm in the anterior-posterior (AP) and left-right (LR) directions. Systematic and random errors are largest in the CC direction, amounting to 4.7 mm and 3.7 mm from 3D-CBCT and 5.6 mm and 3.8 mm from 4D-CBCT, respectively. Safety margin calculated from 3D-CBCT and 4D-CBCT differed by 2.1, 0.1 and 0.0 mm in the CC, AP, and LR directions. 3D-CBCT is an adequate alternative to 4D-CBCT when lipoid is used for localizing HCC during free-breathing SBRT. Similar margins are anticipated with 3D- and 4D-CBCT.

  8. Re-188 labelling of DD-3B6/22 Fab' monoclonal antibody fragment for radio immuno therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, P.F.; Smith, S.V.; Bundesen, P.

    1996-01-01

    The chemical similarity of technetium and rhenium has created much interest in the nuclear medicine field to make a 'matched pair' of radiopharmaceuticals for radioimmuno- diagnosis and therapy. Clinical trials with the 99 mTc-DD-3B6/22 Fab' has shown promise in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer. The design of the analogous therapeutic agent with rhenium-188 (155 keV γ 15 % abundant, β E max 2.1 MeV, T 1/2 17 h) is under investigation. The present study describes the approach taken for direct radiolabelling of the DD-3B6/22 Fab' with carrier-free 188 Re and its biological evaluation in balb/c and nude mice. The effect of temperature, pH and antibody concentration on the amount and rate of transchelation was also evaluated. The final product had a specific activity of 35 mCi/mg with an immunoreactive fraction of 77%. Stability of the product was assessed under various conditions: temperature, presence and absence of an inert atmosphere and presence of ascorbic acid (stabilised). Pharmacokinetics of the final product was evaluated in balb/c and nude mice transplanted with both D-dimer (+Ve) and Glycine (-Ve) beads. Results show that 188 Re DD-3B6/22 Fab' clears rapidly from the blood (α = 2.4 hr, β = 3.5 hr) and is excreted through the renal system. Localisation to subcutaneous antigen beads shows specific uptake to the D-dimer (antigen) beads was achieved within 6 h (0.23% ID) and was maintained for 24 hour post injection. Specificity to antigen implants was 5:1 (P 99m Tc DD-3B6/22 Fab' in mice. The radiolabelling procedures are congenial for therapeutic levels and hence the authors believe that the 188 Re DD-3B6/22 Fab' has some potential for use in treatment of ovarian cancer

  9. The use of indocyanine green lymphography for the treatment of postoperative chylothorax with lipiodol lymphangiography in a 2-year-old child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoi Kato

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative chylothorax in infants prolongs hospital stay and possibly causes developmental delay because of its conservative treatment including inanition. Several medical and surgical treatments may be applied, but none constitute the absolute solution. Treatment with lipiodol during lymphangiography for postoperative chylothorax has been reported to be highly effective and less invasive in adults. On the other hand, few cases have been reported in infants. We demonstrate successful blockage of chyle leakage with lipiodol injection through the inguinal lymph node in a 2-year-old infant. The patient had undergone on-pump coarctectomy and chylothorax developed soon after surgery. Several medical treatments were partially effective, but the chest tube could not be removed because sequential aspiration was required to maintain a normal respiratory status. With the patient under general anesthesia, lipiodol injection combined with indocyanine green (ICG lymphography was performed. Lymphography combined with ICG significantly contributed not only to intraoperative detection of the inguinal lymph nodes but also to postoperative early detection of lymphedema caused by this procedure. This procedure required a simple maneuver and is probably applicable to other cases of traumatic chylothorax, such as after surgeries on the esophagus, trachea, or other components of the posterior mediastinum.

  10. High precision bladder cancer irradiation by integrating a library planning procedure of 6 prospectively generated SIB IMRT plans with image guidance using lipiodol markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meijer, Gert Johan; Toorn, Peter-Paul van der; Bal, Matthieu; Schuring, Danny; Weterings, Jan; Wildt, Michel de

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To increase local control and decrease side effects for urinary bladder cancer patients by integrating a library planning procedure with image guidance using lipiodol markers. Methods and materials: Twenty patients with T2-T4N0M0 grade 2–3 invasive bladder carcinoma were treated according to an online adaptive protocol. Initially, the gross tumour volume (GTV) was demarcated during cystoscopy by injecting several drops of lipiodol in the submucosa around the tumour. Subsequently two CT scans were acquired with a full bladder and a voided bladder. On both scans, the boost volume (GTV) and the low-risk bladder volume were delineated. Using an interpolation tool, six concomitant boost IMRT plans with increasing bladder volumes were generated. For each fraction the procedure at the treatment unit was as follows: Firstly, a ConeBeam-CT was acquired and based on the amount of bladder filling the best fitting bladder contours and corresponding GTV and IMRT plans were selected. Secondly, the lipiodol markers were registered using the corresponding GTV contours and it was verified that the corresponding 95%-isodose surface covered the entire bladder. Finally, an online setup correction was applied based on this registration and the corresponding treatment plan was irradiated. Results: The lipiodol markers were very useful in outlining the GTV at the planning CT and for daily setup correction. While the patients strived for a full bladder filling at time of the treatment, this was seldom accomplished. Due to our protocol an appropriate plan with adequate coverage of the PTV and without excessive dose to healthy tissue was delivered every day. The treatment was very well tolerated by all patients. At the end of the treatment no grade 3 urinary or gastro-intestinal toxicity was observed. After a median follow-up of 28 months two local relapses occurred. Conclusion: Using the library planning approach combined with online image guidance using lipiodol markers, we

  11. High precision bladder cancer irradiation by integrating a library planning procedure of 6 prospectively generated SIB IMRT plans with image guidance using lipiodol markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Gert Johan; van der Toorn, Peter-Paul; Bal, Matthieu; Schuring, Danny; Weterings, Jan; de Wildt, Michel

    2012-11-01

    To increase local control and decrease side effects for urinary bladder cancer patients by integrating a library planning procedure with image guidance using lipiodol markers. Twenty patients with T2-T4N0M0 grade 2-3 invasive bladder carcinoma were treated according to an online adaptive protocol. Initially, the gross tumour volume (GTV) was demarcated during cystoscopy by injecting several drops of lipiodol in the submucosa around the tumour. Subsequently two CT scans were acquired with a full bladder and a voided bladder. On both scans, the boost volume (GTV) and the low-risk bladder volume were delineated. Using an interpolation tool, six concomitant boost IMRT plans with increasing bladder volumes were generated. For each fraction the procedure at the treatment unit was as follows: Firstly, a ConeBeam-CT was acquired and based on the amount of bladder filling the best fitting bladder contours and corresponding GTV and IMRT plans were selected. Secondly, the lipiodol markers were registered using the corresponding GTV contours and it was verified that the corresponding 95%-isodose surface covered the entire bladder. Finally, an online setup correction was applied based on this registration and the corresponding treatment plan was irradiated. The lipiodol markers were very useful in outlining the GTV at the planning CT and for daily setup correction. While the patients strived for a full bladder filling at time of the treatment, this was seldom accomplished. Due to our protocol an appropriate plan with adequate coverage of the PTV and without excessive dose to healthy tissue was delivered every day. The treatment was very well tolerated by all patients. At the end of the treatment no grade 3 urinary or gastro-intestinal toxicity was observed. After a median follow-up of 28 months two local relapses occurred. Using the library planning approach combined with online image guidance using lipiodol markers, we were able to deliver a highly conformal dose distribution

  12. Significance of Lipiodol-CT in the evaluation of therapeutic effects of Lp-TAE for hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jinno, Kenji; Tokuyama, Katuyuki; Yumoto, Yasuhiro

    1988-01-01

    In 20 lesions of 17 patients treated with arterial infusion of SMANCS dissolved in lipiodol (Lp) and transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), Lp deposition within the tumor were depicted on CT (Lp-CT). The findings of Lp-CT were compared with those of macroscopic, soft X-ray, and histologic examinations for resected specimens. Lp-CT appearance of HCC fell into four types: (I) complete type - round and homogeneous high density area (HDA) - in which Lp was deposited over the whole area; (II) defective type - inhomogeneous HDA - in which Lp was deposited in part of the tumor; (III) aggregated type - aggregation of small HDA; (IV) deficient type - no HDA - in which little or no Lp was deposited. Type I was found in 20 % of the lesions, type II in 25 %, type III in 20 %, and type IV in 35 %. In type I, HCC was of macroscopically nodular form with expansive growth and pseudocapsule and of histologically trabecular form with broad blood spaces and inviable cancer cells. In the other types, similar findings were seen in the necrotic area in which Lp was deposited, whereas scirrhous or compact type of HCC was histologically seen in the area containing viable cancer cells in which no Lp was deposited. The presence or not of Lp deposition, as depicted on CT, was closely correlated with histologic findings, which has significant implications for the evaluation of therapeutic efficacy of TAE with Lp. (Namekawa, K.)

  13. Transarterial chemoembolization using gelatin sponges or microspheres plus lipiodol-doxorubicin versus doxorubicin-loaded beads for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yi Sheng; Ou, Ming Ching; Tsai, Yi Shan; Lin, Xi Zhang; Wang, Chien Kuo; Tsai, Hong Ming; Chuang, Ming Tsung

    2015-01-01

    To retrospectively compare treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) using gelatin sponges or microspheres plus lipiodol-doxorubicin vs. doxorubicin-loaded drug-eluting beads (DEB). A total of 158 patients with HCC received TACE from November 2010 to November 2011 were enrolled in this study, including 64 (40.5%) received TACE with lipiodol-doxorubicin and gelatin sponges (group A), 41 (25.9%) received TACE with lipiodol-doxorubicin and microspheres (group B), and 53 (33.5%) received TACE with doxorubicin-loaded DEB (group C). Tumor response and adverse events (AEs) were evaluated. No significant difference was found at baseline among the three groups. The doxorubicin dosage in group C was significantly (p < 0.001) higher compared to the dose used in groups A or B (median, 50 mg vs. 31 mg or 25 mg). Significantly (p < 0.001) more patients in group C achieved complete response compared to those in groups A or B (32.1% vs. 6.3% or 2.4%). Significantly (p < 0.001) less patients in group C had progressive disease compared to those in groups A or B (34.0% vs. 57.8% or 68.3%). Minor AEs were more common in groups A and B compared to group C, with rates of 54.7%, 34.1%, and 5.7%, respectively. In patients with HCC, TACE with DEB offers better safety and efficacy profiles compared to either TACE with gelatin sponges or TACE with microspheres.

  14. Stabilization Improves Theranostic Properties of Lipiodol{sup ®}-Based Emulsion During Liver Trans-arterial Chemo-embolization in a VX2 Rabbit Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deschamps, F., E-mail: frederic.deschamps@gustaveroussy.fr; Farouil, G. [Université Paris-Saclay, Département de radiologie Interventionnelle, Gustave Roussy (France); Gonzalez, W.; Robic, C. [Guerbet France, Guerbet (France); Paci, A.; Mir, L. M. [Université Paris-Saclay, UMR 8203 (France); Tselikas, L.; Baère, T. de [Université Paris-Saclay, Département de radiologie Interventionnelle, Gustave Roussy (France)

    2017-06-15

    PurposeTo demonstrate that stability is a crucial parameter for theranostic properties of Lipiodol{sup ®}-based emulsions during liver trans-arterial chemo-embolization.Materials and MethodsWe compared the theranostic properties of two emulsions made of Lipiodol{sup ®} and doxorubicin in two successive animal experiments (One VX2 tumour implanted in the left liver lobe of 30 rabbits). Emulsion-1 reproduced one of the most common way of preparation (ratio of oil/water: 1/1), and emulsion-2 was designed to obtain a water-in-oil emulsion with enhanced stability (ratio of oil/water: 3/1, plus an emulsifier). The first animal experiment compared the tumour selectivity of the two emulsions: seven rabbits received left hepatic arterial infusion (HAI) of emulsion-1 and eight received HAI of emulsion-2. 3D-CBCT acquisitions were acquired after HAI of every 0.1 mL to measure the densities’ ratios between the tumours and the left liver lobes. The second animal experiment compared the plasmatic and tumour doxorubicin concentrations after HAI of 1.5 mg of doxorubicin administered either alone (n = 3) or in emulsion-1 (n = 6) or in emulsion-2 (n = 6).ResultsEmulsion-2 resulted in densities’ ratios between the tumours and the left liver lobes that were significantly higher compared to emulsion-1 (up to 0.4 mL infused). Plasmatic doxorubicin concentrations (at 5 min) were significantly lower after HAI of emulsion-2 (19.0 μg/L) than emulsion-1 (275.3 μg/L, p < 0.01) and doxorubicin alone (412.0 μg/L, p < 0.001), and tumour doxorubicin concentration (day-1) was significantly higher after HAI of emulsion-2 (20,957 ng/g) than in emulsion-1 (8093 ng/g, p < 0.05) and doxorubicin alone (2221 ng/g, p < 0.01).ConclusionStabilization of doxorubicin in a water-in-oil Lipiodol{sup ®}-based emulsion results in better theranostic properties.

  15. Long-term efficiency and safety of trans-catheter uterine artery embolization by lipiodol-pingyingmycin emulsion for uterine fibroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Juan; Zuo Yuewei; Hong Nanhua; Chen Xiaoming; Li Yong

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the long-term efficiency and safety of trans-catheter uterine artery embolization using lipiodol-pingyingmycin emulsion (LPE-TUAE) for uterine fibroids. Methods: Two hundred and forty-three patients with uterine fibroids were treated by LPE-TUAE. Fourteen of them underwent hysterectomy or myomectomy 3 days to 6 months after LPE-TUAE. The specimens were studied pathologically. Another 229 patients were followed up for 1 to 4 years to observe the long-term outcomes. Results: Menorrhagia became normal or improved markedly in 96.0% (193/201). Lumbago and lower abdominal pain disappeared or relieved markedly in 949% (94/99). Bulk-related symptoms disappeared or lessened markedly in 96.0% (48/50). Ultrasound revealed that the average decreased rate in the largest fibroid volume were 60.7% at 1 year, 63.3% at 2 year, 65.6% at 3 year and 67.4% at 4 year after embolization, and the average decreased rate in the largest uterine volume were 49.6% at 1 year, 54.3% at 2 year, 55.2% at 3 year and 57.1% at 4 year after embolization. Reoccurrence rate of myoma was 10.8% 3-4 year after embolization. No significant difference was found in hormone level between pre- and post-embolization. Pathological studies of specimens showed that lipiodol was only accumulated in fibroids and was not seen in myometrium. Spotty necrosis 2 weeks after embolization and extensive patchy necrosis 3 weeks after embolization were occurred in fibroids. Necrosis was not showed in myometrium. No serious complications occurred. Conclusion: LPE-TUAE possesses a good long-term effectiveness for uterine fibroids, which doesn't cause the damage on ovarian function and normal myometrium or serious complications. (authors)

  16. An intravenously injectable emulsified iodinated oil contrast agent for liver CT. Experimental study of lipiodol emulsion emulsified by lecithin (LEL38) in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamei, Tsuyoshi

    1994-01-01

    LEL38 (lipiodol emulsion emulsified by lecithin 38 mgI/ml, mean diameter 200 nm) is a new intravenously injectable oil contrast agent for liver CT. The aim of this report was to evaluate its ability to enhance contrast in the liver of 46 rabbits with regard to the correlation of density with time at an injected dose of 76 mgI/kg (before to 120 minutes after), the correlation of density with dose (0-760 mgI/kg) and the detectability of liver mass. The time-density correlation of LEL38 in the liver, that is, peak density, was achieved after 30 minutes, and it was elevated to 20.9 H. U. Thereafter, it decreased slowly. In the blood vessels, it reached a sharp peak after immediately being elevated to 14. 7 H. U. Thereafter detectability decreased quickly. The maximum difference in density between liver and blood vessels was 34 H. U. after 60 minutes. The dose-density correlation in the liver and blood vessels was linear. Tumors were detected as clear areas of low density. The minimal detectability was about 3 mm. LEL38 may be an effective contrast agent for screening CT studies of liver disease. (author)

  17. Selective and persistent deposition and gradual drainage of iodized oil, Lipiodol in the hepatocellular carcinoma after injection into the feeding hepatic artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okayasu, I.; Hatakeyama, S.; Yoshida, T.; Yoshimatsu, S.; Tsuruta, K.; Miyamoto, H.; Kimula, Y.

    1988-01-01

    The selective and long-term deposition of iodized oil in the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and its gradual drainage were clinicopathologically analyzed in 13 cases. All patients were Japanese and had an intrahepatic arterial injection of Lipiodol (LIP) mixed with Mitomycin C. The comparison among the follow-up computerized tomography (CT) findings, the observation of the soft x-ray radiogram, and histopathologic studies of the surgical or autopsy materials revealed that the selective deposition of LIP in HCC lasted for a long term, particularly in cases treated by LIP combined with transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE). Also revealed was an extremely gradual decrease of LIP from the HCC. It was thus postulated that, mainly, the accumulated macrophages surrounding LIP around the necrotic cancer tissue and, partially, the intrahepatic lymphatic system itself contributed to this drainage. Further, in histologic sections with lipid staining, x-ray microanalysis proved that the lipid droplets in the cancer tissue included highly concentrated iodine, as a deposition of LIP

  18. Gigantic Cavernous Hemangioma of the Liver Treated by Intra-Arterial Embolization with Pingyangmycin-Lipiodol Emulsion: A Multi-Center Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Qingle; Li Yanhao; Chen Yong; Ouyang Yong; He Xiang; Zhang Heping

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the therapeutic effect and safety of pingyangmycin-lipiodol emulsion (PLE) intra-arterial embolization for treating gigantic cavernous hemangioma of the liver (CHL).Methods: Three hospitals (Nanfang Hospital, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region's Hospital and Huai He Hospital) participated in the study during 1997-2001. A total of 98 patients with CHL were embolized with PLE via the hepatic artery. The therapeutic effects including changes in tumor diameter, symptomatic improvement and occurrence of complications were evaluated for a period of 12 months after the procedure.Results: The tumor diameters decreased significantly from 9.7 ± 2.3 cm to 5.6 ± 1.6 cm 6 months after the treatment (P < 0.01), and then to 3.0 ± 1.2 cm at 12 months (P < 0.01). Transient impairment of liver function was found in 77 cases after embolization, 69 cases of which returned to normal in 2 weeks, and the other eight cases of which recovered 1 month later. The clinical symptoms were significantly relieved in all 53 symptomatic patients. Persistent pain in the hepatic region was found in two cases, and these two patients resorted to surgery eventually.Conclusion: Intra-arterial PLE embolization proves to be effective and safe in treating patients with CHL

  19. Comparative evaluation of the efficacy of radiosynovectomy with conventional intra-articular therapy in rheumatoid arthritis and haemophilic arthropathy (CERAHA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrenechea, E.A.; Navarra, S.; Chua, M.

    2005-01-01

    185 Mbq depending on the age of the patients and one patient was given Rhenium 188 colloid. Fifteen patients were included in the control group where intraarticular Triamcinolone was given at 10 mgs dose. The results of this study is very encouraging with regards the experimental group. Clinical improvement was very evident in most of the cases. These are based on the pain scoring system based on the visual analog scale, lesser requirement for drugs, diminution of swelling, ability to ambulate, better quality of life, deformity and lesser episodes of bleeding and hence lesser or no need for Factor VIII transfusion. In most of the hemophiliacs there were no more episodes of bleeding, and marked improvement on bone scans. Pain at baseline was more common for the RA patients. Improvement was most evident in the hemophilic group consisting of no further bleeding episodes especially after a month of the therapy and if there were any episodes of bleeding, most hemophiliacs did not require Factor VIII replacement. Their quality of life also improved having fewer absences in school and work. Of course objective findings as x-ray and bone scan also showed marked improvement in the HA group while in the RA group some patients (2) remain unchanged on repeat scintigraphy. For the RA group, there was also marked improvement but it was also dependent of the stage when they got into the study. Those on Larsen Stage 1 and 2 responded quite well while those with beginning on Larsen 3 scores responded partially. In the control group under steroids, most of the patients had immediate improvement but the pain relief and swelling only lasted for one to two months wherein by this time the DMARDS and oral steroids and NSAIDS take over. Side effects noted after the procedure were initial flare in 4 cases, fever in 2 patients, and a minor skin discoloration in one patient. In conclusion, radiosynovectomy is a minor intervention, cost-effective and can be done on an outpatient basis. It is

  20. The value of paradoxical uptake of hepatocellular carcinoma on the hepatobiliary phase of gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver magnetic resonance imaging for the prediction of lipiodol uptake after transcatheter arterial chemoembolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Woo, E-mail: pridebio@naver.com [Department of Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chang Hee, E-mail: chlee86@korea.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yang Shin, E-mail: pys797979@naver.com [Department of Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Tae Seok, E-mail: g1q1papa@korea.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Myung Gyu, E-mail: acube808@naver.com [Department of Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Hoon, E-mail: kjhhepar@naver.com [Department of Internal Medicine, Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyeong Ah, E-mail: kahkim@korea.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Cheol Min, E-mail: radpic@hanmail.net [Department of Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • HCC{sub para} shows more frequent initial compact lipiodol uptake after TACE than HCC{sub def}. • HCC{sub para} demonstrates less frequent early local recurrence after TACE. • HCC{sub para} has larger mean size, lower AER, and more frequent capsule appearance. - Abstract: Purpose: To compare the response to transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) between hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with paradoxical uptake on the hepatobiliary phase (HBP) (HCC{sub para}) and HCC with defect on the HBP (HCC{sub def}), and to identify some imaging features that can differentiate between two groups. Materials and methods: Ninety-three HCCs from 54 patients who underwent gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) prior to TACE were included. HCCs were classified into two groups according to the signal intensity (SI) on the HBP: HCC{sub para} and HCC{sub def}. Using post-TACE computed tomography (CT) as a reference standard, initial compact lipiodol uptake was assessed and compared between groups. The arterial enhancement ratio (AER), SI ratios of the arterial phase and HBP, and presence of the capsule appearance were compared between groups. After initial response, local tumor recurrence within 6 and 18 months was evaluated based on follow-up CT or MRI. Results: Fifteen HCC{sub para} and 78 HCC{sub def} were included. Compared to HCC{sub def}, HCC{sub para} showed more frequent initial compact lipiodol uptake (p = 0.009), larger mean size (p = 0.019), lower AER (p = 0.005), higher SI ratio of the HBP (p < 0.0001), and more frequent capsule appearance (p < 0.0001). Local tumor recurrence rate within 6 months was also significantly lower in HCC{sub para} than in HCC{sub def} (p = 0.008). Conclusion: Despite larger size and lower AER, HCC{sub para} showed more frequent initial compact lipiodol uptake and lower early local recurrence rate after TACE than did HCC{sub def}.

  1. Initial application of a ACI-rat model of hepatocellular carcinoma in the experiments of interventional therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Jun; Feng Gansheng

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic efficiency of various methods of interventional therapy in the ACI-rat model of hepatocellular carcinoma, and to assess the value of this model in the experiments of interventional therapy. Methods: The subcapsular implantation of a solid Morris Hepatoma 3924A (1 mm 3 ) in the livers was carried out in 58 male ACI-rats. 13 days after the implantation, the tumor volume (V 1 ) was measured by using magnetic resonance tomography (MRT). After laparotomy and retrograde placement of catheter into the gastroduodenal artery (14 d), the following protocols of interventional therapy were performed: (A) Mitomycin C (n = 4); (B) Degradable starch microspheres (DSM) (n = 4); (C) Lipiodol (n = 5); (D) Ligation (n = 4); (E) Mitomycin C + DSM (n = 4); (F) Mitomycin C + ligation (n = 5); (G) Mitomycin C + Lipiodol (n = 5); (H) DSM + ligation (n = 4); (I) Lipiodol + ligation (n = 4); (J) Mitomycin C + Poly-lactide-coglycollide-microspheres (Plcg) (n = 4); (K) Mitomycin C + Lipiodol + ligation (n = 4); (L) Mitomycin C + DSM + ligation (n = 4); (M) 0.9% NaCl (control group, n = 7). 13 days after these therapies the change of the tumor volume (V 2 ) was determined by MRT again. Results: The rate of implantation was 100%. V 2 /V 1 was 4.50 in group A, 12.73 in group B, 15.84 in group C, 10.17 in group D, 90.20 in group E, 7.16 in group F, 4.08 in group G, 3.45 in group H, 9.99 in group I, 2.86 in group J, 3.76 in group K, 7.71 in group L, and 27.12 in group M, respectively. Compared to the control group, groups A, G, H, J and K showed significant reduced tumor growth (χ 2 = 5.238, 8.571, 5.238, 5.238, 5.238, P = 0.045, 0.008, 0.045, 0.045, 0.045) in the period of observation, whereas the other groups showed no statistical significant differences by the tumor growth [χ 2 = 1.016(B), 3.086(C), 1.016(D), 2.213(E), 3.086(F), 1.061(I), 1.061(L), P = 0.348 (B), 0.121 (C), 0.348 (D), 0.199 (E), 0.121 (F), 0.348 (I), 0.348(L)]. Conclusion: This model of

  2. Evaluation of long-term effect of hepatic arterial embolization with pingyangmycin-lipiodol emulsion in patients with hepatic cavernous hemangiomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xuejun; Ouyang Yong; Ma Heping; Chao Lumeng; Zhen Yanli; Gu Subin; Zhou Qunhui; Liu Pengzhi; Wang Hong

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the long-term effect of hepatic arterial embolization with pingyanmycin-lipiodol emulsion (PLE) in patients with cavernous hemangiomas of the liver (CHL) and its influence factors. Methods: One hundred and fifty-six hemangiomas that were diagnosed by imaging examinations or confirmed pathologically by surgery in 105 patients with integral follow-up data were analyzed retrospectively in this paper. All hemangiomas were divided into 4 groups according to their size (the largest size of hemangioma) by the authors as follows: A group (≤3 cm, n=25); B group (>3 cm and 2 test respectively. And the influence factors, included of the variant size of hemangiomas, abundant or sparse of abnormal sinusoids and the number of treatment procedures, were also analyzed respectively. Results: The total effective rate of the 156 hemangiomas in 105 patients was 92.95% (145/156). After single procedure of hepatic arterial embolization with PLE, the total effective rate of A and B groups were 100% (57/57), that of C and D groups were 85.86% (85/99), and the difference reach significant (X 2 =8.8553, P 2 =5.2642, P<0.05) than those of group with single procedure (72.73%, 8/11). Conclusions: A best long-term curative effect (complete cure) is usually obtained in the small hemangiomas with abundant abnormal sinusoids, and a satisfactory long-term curative effect can also be achieved in the larger or multiple hemangiomas, particularly in those hemangiomas with abundant abnormal sinusoids by using the repeat procedures of hepatic arterial embolization with PLE. (authors)

  3. Liver and biliary damages following transarterial chemoembolization of hepatocellular carcinoma: comparison between drug-eluting beads and lipiodol emulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monier, Arnaud; Duran, Rafael; Bize, Pierre; Dunet, Vincent; Denys, Alban [Lausanne University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Guiu, Boris [Lausanne University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Montpellier University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Montpellier (France); Aho, Serge [University Hospital, Department of Epidemiology, Dijon (France); Deltenre, Pierre [Lausanne University Hospital, Department of Gastroenterology, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2017-04-15

    To compare transarterial chemoembolization (TACE)-related hepatic toxicities of conventional TACE (cTACE) and drug-eluting beads TACE (DEB-TACE) in patients with intermediate-stage hepatocellular carcinoma. In this retrospective study, 151 consecutive patients undergoing cTACE or DEB-TACE and MRI 3-6 weeks before and after therapy were included. Toxicity was assessed on imaging (global hepatic damages (GHD), overall biliary injuries, biliary cast, bile duct dilatation, intrahepatic biloma, portal thrombosis), and clinico-biological follow-ups. Tumour response, time to progression (TTP), and overall survival were assessed. Factors influencing complication rate were identified by generalized equation logistic regression model. Biliary injuries and intrahepatic biloma incidence were significantly higher following DEB-TACE (p < 0.001). DEB-TACE showed a significant increased risk of GHD (OR: 3.13 [1.74-5.63], p < 0.001) and biliary injuries (OR: 4.53 [2.37-8.67], p < 0.001). A significant relationship was found between baseline prothrombin value and GHD, biliary injuries and intrahepatic biloma (all p < 0.01), and between the dose of chemotherapy and intrahepatic biloma (p = 0.001). Only TTP was significantly shorter following DEB-TACE compared to cTACE (p = 0.025). DEB-TACE was associated with increased hepatic toxicities compared to cTACE. GHD, biliary injuries, and intrahepatic biloma were more frequently observed with high baseline prothrombin value, suggesting that cTACE might be more appropriate than DEB-TACE in patients with less advanced cirrhosis. (orig.)

  4. Application of PET-CT in monitoring residual and extrahepatic metastatic lesions for hepatocellular carcinoma with positive alpha fetoproteins after interventional therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Guangyu; Teng Gaojun; Guo Jinhe; Deng Gang; He Shicheng; Fang Wen; Li Guozhao; Chen Xiaohui; Wei Xiaoying

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the value of positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) in monitoring the residual lesions in lipiodol sedimentary region and extrahepatic metastastic lesions of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with alpha fetoproteins (AFP) positive after interventional therapy. Methods: The data of 20 cases with primary HCC confirmed by histopathology were retrospectively analyzed. Their AFP levels decreased to normal range after interventional treatments, but rose to abnormal high level during following-up. After the abdominal routine imaging examinations, the definite diagnosis of the residual lesions in lipiodol sedimentary region or extrahepatic lesions can't be made confidently. All cases were scanned by PET-CT, and according to their PET-CT results, the further treatments were given and the therapeutic results were monitored with radiology and AFP tests. Results: In all 20 cases, 10 of them were detected to have the extrahepatic metastastic lesions by PET-CT, including 4 with abdominal wall metastasis upon the liver, 3 with solitary pulmonary metastasis with diameter less than 1 cm, 2 with mesenteric metastasis, 1 with metastasis of operative incisions, but these lesions were neglected by abdominal routine imaging examinations. Eight cases showed the uneven lipiodol sedimentary region in the primary lesion by CT or MRI examination, but can't be diagnosed whether it was residual lesion with other examinations including DSA. A definite diagnosis was obtained by PET-CT. In 2 cases, lymph nodes less than 1.5 cm were found in the hepatic portal area (PHA) and retroperitoneum on CT images, which was determined to be metastatic by PET-CT. All the detected lesions were given further treatments of surgery or interventional therapy. Most patients showed decreased AFP levels except the 2 patients with lymph node metastasis. The imaging examinations also indicated that the treatments had a good effect on lesions. Conclusion: In the patients with

  5. Transcatheter embolization therapy in liver cancer: an update of clinical evidences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wáng, Yì-Xiáng J; De Baere, Thierry; Idée, Jean-Marc; Ballet, Sébastien

    2015-04-01

    Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is a form of intra-arterial catheter-based chemotherapy that selectively delivers high doses of cytotoxic drug to the tumor bed combining with the effect of ischemic necrosis induced by arterial embolization. Chemoembolization and radioembolization are at the core of the treatment of liver hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients who cannot receive potentially curative therapies such as transplantation, resection or percutaneous ablation. TACE for liver cancer has been proven to be useful in local tumor control, to prevent tumor progression, prolong patients' life and control patient symptoms. Recent evidence showed in patients with single-nodule HCC of 3 cm or smaller without vascular invasion, the 5-year overall survival (OS) with TACE was similar to that with hepatic resection and radiofrequency ablation. Although being used for decades, Lipiodol(®) (Lipiodol(®) Ultra Fluid(®), Guerbet, France) remains important as a tumor-seeking and radio-opaque drug delivery vector in interventional oncology. There have been efforts to improve the delivery of chemotherapeutic agents to tumors. Drug-eluting bead (DEB) is a relatively novel drug delivery embolization system which allows for fixed dosing and the ability to release the anticancer agents in a sustained manner. Three DEBs are available, i.e., Tandem(®) (CeloNova Biosciences Inc., USA), DC-Beads(®) (BTG, UK) and HepaSphere(®) (BioSphere Medical, Inc., USA). Transarterial radioembolization (TARE) technique has been developed, and proven to be efficient and safe in advanced liver cancers and those with vascular complications. Two types of radioembolization microspheres are available i.e., SIR-Spheres(®) (Sirtex Medical Limited, Australia) and TheraSphere(®) (BTG, UK). This review describes the basic procedure of TACE, properties and efficacy of some chemoembolization systems and radioembolization agents which are commercially available and/or currently under clinical

  6. TACE: therapy of the HCC before liver transplantation - experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herber, S.; Schneider, J.; Brecher, B.; Thelen, M.; Pitton, M.B.; Hoehler, T.; Otto, G.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Analysis of the course of disease in patients with histologically proven HCC before and after orthotopic liver transplantation (LTx) who received transarterial chemoembolization (TACE). Material and Methods: Thirty-five of a total collective of 363 patients with histologically proven HCC underwent LTx. Before LTx, all patients were treated with sequential TACE. According to treatment pattern, TACE should be performed every 6 weeks, using a suspension consisting of max. 10 mg Mitomycin C as well as 10-30 ml iodized oil (Lipiodol). Patients were classified according to the Milano criteria. Criteria were called exceeded if the tumor size was >5 cm and/or >3 tumors larger than 3 cm were found. Therapy success and liver function were examined by means of spiral CT and laboratory controls. Investigation parameters included the number of tumor knots as well as the maximum tumor size. Additionally, the Lipiodol accumulation, the patency of the portal vein and the occurrence of complications were checked. Results: Altogether, 184 TACE procedures were accomplished (5.3+/-3.3, range 1-14). The waiting period up to the transplantation amounted to 366+/-255 days (range 44-1137). The average number of tumor knots for each patient was 3.1+/-2.2 before and 2.9+/-2.2 after TACE (p=0.887). The average tumor size was 4.2+/-2.5 before and 2.8+/-1.4 after TACE. The Milano criteria to LTx crossed 17/35 patients. Patients with exceeded Milan criteria showed a highly significant size reduction of the tumor after TACE (p=0.001); in 9/17 cases the transplantation criteria were secondarily fulfilled through downstaging. A successful LTx was accomplished in 35/35 cases. Follow up after LTx was 769+/-509 days. The tumor recurrence in patients with exceeded vs. fulfilled transplantation criteria was 11.1% vs. 11.8% (p=0.99). The recurrence free survival was 93.3%, 82.5% and 82.5% at 1, 3 and 5 years, respectively. There were no relevant differences between patients with exceeded vs

  7. Microlithiasis pulmonum after iodine-lipiodol lymphography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiedjen, K.U.; Kosberg, R.; Krueger, G.

    1986-01-01

    A pulmonary fibrosis with marked calcifications in a 83 year old female patient is reported. With previous unconspicuous thoracic x-ray findings (1975 and 1978) a bipedal oily lymphography was carried out for diagnosis of a systemic malignant lymphoma. The calcifiing pulmonary fibrosis was investigated with the help of tomographhy, xeroradiography, scintigraphy of the lung and the sceletal system as well as magnetic resonance imaging. A biopsy was denied by the patient. The etiological possibilities of an idiopathic disease as well as an induction by the oily contrast medium and a concomitant affection of a malignant lymphoma are discussed. (orig./WL) [de

  8. Sex Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sex therapy Overview Sex therapy is a type of psychotherapy — a general term for treating mental health problems by talking with a mental health professional. Through sex therapy, you can address concerns about sexual function, ...

  9. Family Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Family therapy Overview Family therapy is a type of psychological counseling (psychotherapy) that can help family members improve communication and resolve conflicts. Family therapy is usually provided by a psychologist, ...

  10. New labels for radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota, Susumu; Mukai, Minoru; Kato, Hirotoshi (National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan))

    1992-12-01

    In simulating radiotherapy, the bone and trachea identified by plain X-P and the other organs, such as the esophagus and bladder, outlined by contrast medium have so far been used as labels. However, irradiation with a high therapeutic ratio is required for an intracorporeal insertion of artificial labels that are identified by X-ray fluoroscopy. For this purpose, metal clips and seed dummies are available, although they cause artifacts in CT scans. Therefore, the authors are using an acupuncture needle and lipiodol for tracing as new artificial labels, since both are identified by X-ray fluoroscopy and CT scan and create few artifacts. (J.P.N.).

  11. New labels for radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Susumu; Mukai, Minoru; Kato, Hirotoshi

    1992-01-01

    In simulating radiotherapy, the bone and trachea identified by plain X-P and the other organs, such as the esophagus and bladder, outlined by contrast medium have so far been used as labels. However, irradiation with a high therapeutic ratio is required for an intracorporeal insertion of artificial labels that are identified by X-ray fluoroscopy. For this purpose, metal clips and seed dummies are available, although they cause artifacts in CT scans. Therefore, the authors are using an acupuncture needle and lipiodol for tracing as new artificial labels, since both are identified by X-ray fluoroscopy and CT scan and create few artifacts. (J.P.N.)

  12. Feminist Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidlaw, Toni; Malmo, Cheryl

    1991-01-01

    Traces roots of feminist therapy and its independence from traditional and prevalent theories and therapy practices. Asserts that Freudian theory and humanistic assumptions are sexist and contribute to powerlessness of women. In contrast, feminist therapy is seen as dealing directly with client-counselor relationships, trust, advocacy, and…

  13. Gene Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gene therapy Overview Gene therapy involves altering the genes inside your body's cells in an effort to treat or stop disease. Genes contain your ... that don't work properly can cause disease. Gene therapy replaces a faulty gene or adds a new ...

  14. Evaluation of Photoelectron Therapy Effect on Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    bahram Mofid

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Mofid B1, Navabpoor M2, Alizadeh Azimi M3 1. Assistant professor, Department of Radiotherapy, Faculty of Para-Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of medical sciences 2. Instructor, Department of Technology of radiology, Faculty of Para-Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of medical sciences Abstract Background: Photoelectron therapy method has been usad successfully, on the body phantom, cancer cells culture and animals. In this method, drugs containing x-Ray opaque factors–with high atomic numbers–are injected into the patient’s vein. After appropriate drug accumulation, about at least ten percent of the total injected amounts, 200kev. up to 300kev. of localized x-Ray beams is radiated to the site of the tumor. The Ethic Committee of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Education and Health Services authorized the implementation of this new cancer treatment method, initially only on the group of patients who suffered from hepato-cellular carcinoma. Hepato cellular carcinoma is one of the most current malignancies of liver. In some cases, in addition to surgery, several approaches exist to come near the aim of predominating hepato-cellular carcinoma such as chemotherapy, current Radiation Therapy, Radio-Frequency application (RF, Trans-Artepical Chemo Embolization, (TACE, and Percutaneous Ethanol Injection (PEI. The effectiveness of the above-mentioned methods is about 10%-47%, applied alone or along side each other. Materials and methods: This study was a clinical-trial one. In this study, first, lipiodol (an x-ray opaque material with a high atomic number was transferred into the main vessel terminating to the tumor by angio-catheterization. Then,200kev. up to 250kev. of localized x-ray was radiated to the site of the tumor in one session. The drug volume was proportionally selected to the volume of the tumor, and the irradiation intensity was between 400 to 600cent.Gy. the beam energy absorption capacity of this drug is as times as

  15. What Is Music Therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Music Therapy Association Home Contact News Help/FAQ Members Only Login About Music Therapy & AMTA What is Music Therapy? Definition and ... is Music Therapy? Print Email Share What is Music Therapy What is Music Therapy? Music Therapy is ...

  16. Dynamic MR imaging of hepatoma treated by transcatheter arterial embolization therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Y.; Yoshimatsu, S.; Sumi, M.; Harada, M.; Takahashi, M.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of transcatheter arterial chemo-embolization theory (TACE) for hepatoma was evaluated with dynamic MR imaging with Gd-DTPA in 37 patients (44 tumors). TACE was performed using Lipiodol/cis-platinum and gelatin sponge (or microspheres) as an embolic material. All patients were examined with dynamic CT and MR imaging before and after treatment. On conventional spin echo images, changes of signal intensity after treatment varied regardless of presence of Lipiodol. Dynamic MR imaging revealed changes of tumor vascularity before and after treatment. On histologic correlation, areas of persistent tumor enhancement on dynamic MR imaging corresponded to areas of viable tumor cells while areas of nonenhancement corresponded to areas of necrosis. Dynamic MR imaging was superior in contrast resolution and was not influenced by the presence of Lipiodol compared with dynamic CT, and therefore residual viable tumors were better defined by dynamic MR imaging. (orig.)

  17. Proton therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Alfred R

    2006-01-01

    Proton therapy has become a subject of considerable interest in the radiation oncology community and it is expected that there will be a substantial growth in proton treatment facilities during the next decade. I was asked to write a historical review of proton therapy based on my personal experiences, which have all occurred in the United States, so therefore I have a somewhat parochial point of view. Space requirements did not permit me to mention all of the existing proton therapy facilities or the names of all of those who have contributed to proton therapy. (review)

  18. Production of medical radioisotopes in the ORNL High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) for cancer treatment and arterial restenosis therapy after PTCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Beets, A.L.; Mirzadeh, S.; Alexander, C.W.; Hobbs, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) represents an important resource for the production of a wide variety of medical radioisotopes. In addition to serving as a key production site for californium-252 and other transuranic elements, important examples of therapeutic radioisotopes which are currently routinely produced in the HFIR for distribution include dysprosium-166 (parent of holmium-166), rhenium-186, tin-117m and tungsten-188 (parent of rhenium-188). The nine hydraulic tube (HT) positions in the central high flux region permit the insertion and removal of targets at any time during the operating cycle and have traditionally represented a major site for production of medical radioisotopes. To increase the irradiation capabilities of the HFIR, special target holders have recently been designed and fabricated which will be installed in the six Peripheral Target Positions (PTP), which are also located in the high flux region. These positions are only accessible during reactor refueling and will be used for long-term irradiations, such as required for the production of tin-117m and tungsten-188. Each of the PTP tubes will be capable of housing a maximum of eight HT targets, thus increasing the total maximum number of HT targets from the current nine, to a total of 57. In this paper the therapeutic use of reactor-produced radioisotopes for bone pain palliation and vascular brachytherapy and the therapeutic medical radioisotope production capabilities of the ORNL HFIR are briefly discussed

  19. Transpulmonary CT-guided percutaneous ethanol injection therapy (CT-PEIT) for hepatocellular carcinoma located in the subphrenic region of liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Kazushige; Ohkawara, Tohru; Minami, Masahito; Sawa, Yoshihiko; Morinaga, Osamu; Kohli, Yoshihiro; Ohkawara, Yasuo

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of transpulmonary CT-guided percutaneous ethanol injection therapy (CT-PEIT) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, 15 lesions) located in the subphrenic region and untreatable by ultrasonography-guided PEIT. The HCC was localized on Lipiodol CT image with a graduated grid system. We advanced a PEIT needle in a stepwise fashion, perpendicularly to the major axis of body through the lung with intermittent localization scans to position the tip of the needle in the lesion. Ethanol was injected with monitoring scans obtained after incremental volumes of injection, until perfusion was judged to be complete. A total of 20 CT-PEIT sessions were performed. The average number of needles passed from skin to liver in each CT-PEIT session was 2.7, the average volume of ethanol injected was 11.7 ml, and the average time required was 53.6 minutes. Complete perfusion of the lesion by ethanol was achieved in all lesions with only a single or double CT-PEIT procedure without severe complications. Local recurrence was detected in 3 to 15 followed up lesions for 14 months on average. In conclusion, transpulmonary CT-PEIT should prove to be a feasible, acceptable treatment for challenging cases of HCC located in the subphrenic region. (author)

  20. Play Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawver, Timothy; Blankenship, Kelly

    2008-01-01

    Play therapy is a treatment modality in which the therapist engages in play with the child. Its use has been documented in a variety of settings and with a variety of diagnoses. Treating within the context of play brings the therapist and the therapy to the level of the child. By way of an introduction to this approach, a case is presented of a six-year-old boy with oppositional defiant disorder. The presentation focuses on the events and interactions of a typical session with an established patient. The primary issues of the session are aggression, self worth, and self efficacy. These themes manifest themselves through the content of the child’s play and narration of his actions. The therapist then reflects these back to the child while gently encouraging the child toward more positive play. Though the example is one of nondirective play therapy, a wide range of variation exists under the heading of play therapy. PMID:19724720

  1. Hormone Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it also can be a sign of endometrial cancer. All bleeding after menopause should be evaluated. Other side effects reported by women who take hormone therapy include fluid retention and breast soreness. This soreness usually lasts for a short ...

  2. Manual Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Hakgüder, Aral; Kokino, Siranuş

    2002-01-01

    Manual therapy has been used in the treatment of pain and dysfunction of spinal and peripheral joints for more than a hundred years. Manual medicine includes manipulation, mobilization, and postisometric relaxation techniques. The aim of manual therapy is to enhance restricted movement caused by blockage of joints keeping postural balance, restore function and maintain optimal body mechanics. Anatomic, biomechanical, and neurophysiological evaluations of the leucomotor system is essential for...

  3. Application of drug delivery system for boron neutron capture therapy. Basic research toward clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagie, Hironobu; Takahashi, Hiroyuki

    2010-01-01

    Tumour cell destruction in boron neutron-capture therapy (BNCT) is due to the nuclear reaction between 10 B and thermal neutrons ( 10 B+ 1 n → 7 Li+ 4 He (α) +2.31 MeV (93.7%)/2.79 MeV (6.3%)). The resulting lithium ions and αparticles are high linear energy transfer (LET) particles which give high biological effect. Their short range in tissue (5-9 μm) restricts radiation damage to those cells in which boron atoms are located at the time of neutron irradiation. BNCT has been applied clinically for the treatment of malignant brain tumors, malignant melanoma, head and neck cancer and hepatoma etc, recently. Sodium borocaptate (Na 2 10 B 12 H 11 SH; BSH) and borono-phenylalanine ( 10 BPA) are currently being used in clinical treatments. To achieve the selective delivery of boron atoms to cancer cells, drug delivery system (DDS) becomes an attractive intelligent technology as targeting and controlled release of drugs. We have firstly reported that 10 B atoms delivered by immunoliposomes are cytotoxic to human pancreatic carcinoma cells (AsPC-1) after thermal neutron irradiation in vitro. The intra-tumoural injection of boronated immunoliposomes can increase the retention of 10 B atoms in tumour cells, causing suppression of tumour growth in vivo following thermal neutron irradiation. We prepared polyethylene-glycol binding liposomes (PEG-liposomes) as an effective 10 B carrier to obviate phagocytosis by reticuloendotherial systems. We had prepared 10 BSH entrapped Water-in-Oil-in-Water (WOW) emulsion. The 10 B concentration in VX-2 tumour after intra-arterial injection of 10 BSH entrapped WOW emulsion was superior to the groups of 10 BSH entrapped conventional Lipiodol mix emulsion. 10 Boron entrapped WOW emulsion is one of the most useful for intra-arterial boron delivery carrier on BNCT to hepatocellular carcinoma. (author)

  4. Adaptive therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatenby, Robert A; Silva, Ariosto S; Gillies, Robert J; Frieden, B Roy

    2009-06-01

    A number of successful systemic therapies are available for treatment of disseminated cancers. However, tumor response is often transient, and therapy frequently fails due to emergence of resistant populations. The latter reflects the temporal and spatial heterogeneity of the tumor microenvironment as well as the evolutionary capacity of cancer phenotypes to adapt to therapeutic perturbations. Although cancers are highly dynamic systems, cancer therapy is typically administered according to a fixed, linear protocol. Here we examine an adaptive therapeutic approach that evolves in response to the temporal and spatial variability of tumor microenvironment and cellular phenotype as well as therapy-induced perturbations. Initial mathematical models find that when resistant phenotypes arise in the untreated tumor, they are typically present in small numbers because they are less fit than the sensitive population. This reflects the "cost" of phenotypic resistance such as additional substrate and energy used to up-regulate xenobiotic metabolism, and therefore not available for proliferation, or the growth inhibitory nature of environments (i.e., ischemia or hypoxia) that confer resistance on phenotypically sensitive cells. Thus, in the Darwinian environment of a cancer, the fitter chemosensitive cells will ordinarily proliferate at the expense of the less fit chemoresistant cells. The models show that, if resistant populations are present before administration of therapy, treatments designed to kill maximum numbers of cancer cells remove this inhibitory effect and actually promote more rapid growth of the resistant populations. We present an alternative approach in which treatment is continuously modulated to achieve a fixed tumor population. The goal of adaptive therapy is to enforce a stable tumor burden by permitting a significant population of chemosensitive cells to survive so that they, in turn, suppress proliferation of the less fit but chemoresistant

  5. Drug Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ri-Hui; Tao, Ran

    2017-01-01

    This chapter first summarizes the therapy of addiction disorder, and elaborates on the progress of medication. First, the difference between dependency and addiction are introduced. The basic principles of the therapy of substance and non-substance addiction are then put forward. It is also pointed out in this chapter that with the progress of the study, the goal of addiction disorder therapy is expected to transfer from reducing the relapse and harm of the addiction to completely eliminating and recovering from it. This chapter also introduces the progress of psychological addiction elimination technology, especially the "Unconditioned Stimulus Retrieval Extinction Paradigm and Conditioned Stimulus Retrieval Extinction Paradigm" and PITDH technology. Finally it is pointed out that in addiction disorder therapy, comprehensive intervention has become a trend. With regard to the medication for addiction disorders, this chapter also includes the progress and deficiencies of substance and non-substance addiction. In terms of addiction disorder rehabilitation, the foundation of substance addiction is medication which is, however, limited for non-substance addiction. The key to the rehabilitation of addiction disorder is psycho-behavioral therapy, which is especially effective in eliminating craving.

  6. Neutron therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riesler, Rudi

    1995-01-01

    Standard radiotherapy uses Xrays or electrons which have low LET (linear energy transfer); in contrast, particles such as neutrons with high LET have different radiobiological responses. In the late 1960s, clinical trials by Mary Catterall at the Hammersmith Hospital in London indicated that fast neutron radiation had clinical advantages for certain malignant tumours. Following these early clinical trials, several cyclotron facilities were built in the 1980s for fast neutron therapy, for example at the University of Washington, Seattle, and at UCLA. Most of these newer machines use extracted cyclotron proton beams in the range 42 to 66 MeV with beam intensities of 15 to 60 microamps. The proton beams are transported to dedicated therapy rooms, where neutrons are produced from beryllium targets. Second-generation clinical trials showed that accurate neutron beam delivery to the tumour site is more critical than for photon therapy. In order to achieve precise beam geometries, the extracted proton beams have to be transported through a gantry which can rotate around the patient and deliver beams from any angle; also the neutron beam outline (''field shape'') must be adjusted to extremely irregular shapes using a flexible collimation system. A therapy procedure has to be appropriately organized, with physicians, radiotherapists, nurses, medical physicists and other staff in attendance; other specialized equipment, such as CT or MRI scanners and radiation simulators must be made available. Neutron therapy is usually performed only in radiation oncology departments of major medical centres

  7. Art Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Vibeke; Pedersen, Inge Nygaard

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Based on a Jungian approach, this article will introduce an integrative model to therapeutic change using art therapy methods as practical tools, with the aim of improving quality of life and in the prevention of depression. In a research study involving six participants, painting, clay...... work and drumming were used together with imagination and personal dialogues linked to the artwork. These art therapy processes attempted to combine the participant’s experience of inner and outer reality. The effect of gaining more knowledge about their inner reality using dreams and symbols......, was that participants gained a new understanding about their personal life. In addition, some participants were able to continue to use art therapy experiences as selfdevelopmental tools after the research study terminated. Jung’s description of the interactive relationship between the two living parts of the psyche...

  8. Oxygen Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie Solmes

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available LTOT is prescribed for people with chronic lung disease in whom there is a decrease in the ability of the lungs to supply enough oxygen to the body. The heart is obliged to pump faster to meet the body's oxygen requirements. This may place undue stress on the heart, resulting in palpitations, dizziness and fatigue. A low oxygen level in arterial blood is also harmful to the heart, the brain and the pulmonary blood vessels. Oxygen therapy is used to break this cycle. A person with low blood oxygen will often be able to accomplish more with less fatigue with the help of supplemental oxygen therapy. Shortness of breath is a mechanical problem resulting from the effects of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Oxygen therapy may or may not reduce shortness of breath, but it will help the lungs and heart to function with less stress.

  9. Music therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    alternate with clear and lucid mental states. These states are important as it is here that it is possible to meet the person’s psychosocial needs. Ketil Normann’s conceps of periods of lucidity are presented and connected to clinical music therapy practice and how it is possible to use music in order...... as a consequence of person-centred care. Umeå University Medical Dissertations. New Series. Ridder, H.M. (2005). Music therapy as a way to enhance lucidity in persons with dementia in advanced stages. In: Esch, A.; Frohne-Hagemann, I.; Laqua, M.; Schirmer, H.; Seitz, E. (Eds.) Jahrbuch Musicktherapie. Forschung...... und Entwicklung Music Therapy Annual. Research and Development. 2005 (1), pp. 25-40. Reichert Verlag Wiesbaden....

  10. Radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peschel, R.E; Fisher, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    The new insights and controversies concerning the radiobiological properties of malignant melanoma and how these relate to new clinical approaches are reviewed. The recent clinical experience with large individual fraction sizes is analyzed. The treatment of malignant melanoma in certain specialized sites is also described. An attempt is made to place in perspective the usefulness of radiation therapy in the treatment of this complex disease. Finally, certain new applications for radiation therapy both alone and in combustion with other treatment modalities are proposed that may ultimately prove appropriate for clinical trials

  11. Radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Keiichi; Miyoshi, Makoto; Jinguu, Ken-ichi

    1982-01-01

    Of the cases of lung cancer in which radiation therapy was given between 1961 and November 1981, 399 cases for which histological type was confirmed, and irradiated as follows were reviewed. The cases of squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma irradiated with more than 5,000 rad or more, those of undifferentiated carcinoma irradiated with 3,000 rad or more, and those irradiated pre- and post-operatively with 3,000 rad or more. The actual 5 year survival rate for stages I, II, III and IV were 29.6, 9.3, 7.5 and 1.9% respectively, and the survival rate tended to be better for adenocarcinoma than squamous cell carcinoma at stages I, II and III, but not different at stage IV. There was no difference between large cell, small cell and squamous cell carcinomas. Irradiation with 200 rad every other day or 150 rad daily was better than that with 200 rad, and daily irradiation with 150 rad was used since 1976. The therapy of stage III small cell carcinoma at the age of up to 80 years was improved with the combination of anticancer agents, maintenance therapy and immunotherapy, but these combined therapies were not significantly effective for the cancers with other histological types or at other stages. Although there was no significant difference in statistics for resectable cases, clinically, the results were experienced to be better after resection, and surgery was done in combination as much as possible. (Kaihara, S.)

  12. Dance Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, Marcia B.

    1980-01-01

    Dance therapy deals with personal growth via body-mind interaction. A change in movement expression is believed to result in a personality or behavior change. The therapist is trained to become sensitive to movement expression as it relates to the psychological, motor, and cognitive development of the child. (JN)

  13. Shock therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Erin

    2016-02-03

    Therapies administered by mental health nurses, aimed at "curing" gay people of their sexual preference were still in common use in the UK in the 1960s and early 1970s. Some nurses tried to avoid participating in these practices, but many believed that they were helping their patients, as a new book reveals.

  14. Proton therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jongen, Y.

    1995-01-01

    Ideal radiotherapy deposits a large amount of energy in the tumour volume, and none in the surrounding healthy tissues. Proton therapy comes closer to this goal because of a greater concentration of dose, well defined proton ranges and points of energy release which are precisely known - the Bragg peak1. In the past, the development of clinical proton therapy has been hampered by complexity, size, and cost. To be clinically effective, energies of several hundred MeV are required; these were previously unavailable for hospital installations, and pioneering institutions had to work with complex, inadequate equipment originally intended for nuclear physics research. Recently a number of specialist organizations and commercial companies have been working on dedicated systems for proton therapy. One, IBA of Belgium, has equipment for inhouse hospital operation which encompasses a complete therapy centre, delivered as a turnkey package and incorporating a compact, automated, higher energy cyclotron with isocentric gantries. Their system will be installed at Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston. The proton therapy system comprises: - a 235 MeV isochronous cyclotron to deliver beams of up to 1.5 microamps, but with a hardware limitation to restrict the maximum possible dose; - variable energy beam (235 to 70 MeV ) with energy spread and emittance verification; - a beam transport and switching system to connect the exit of the energy selection system to the entrances of a number of gantries and fixed beamlines. Along the beam transport system, the beam characteristics are monitored with non-interceptive multiwire ionization chambers for automatic tuning; - gantries fitted with nozzles and beamline elements for beam control; both beam scattering and beam wobbling techniques are available for shaping the beam;

  15. Art Therapy: What Is Art Therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... individual, couples, family, and group therapy formats. Art therapy is an effective treatment for people experiencing developmental, medical, educational, and social or psychological impairment. Individuals who benefit from art therapy include ...

  16. Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy in Progeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy in Progeria Information for Families and Caretakers from The Progeria Research Foundation ... Inc. All rights reserved. Page 2 of 5 Physical and Occupational Therapy in Progeria Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria ...

  17. Music Therapy: A Career in Music Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    About Music Therapy & Music Therapy Training M usic therapy is a healthcare profession that uses music to help individuals of all ages improve physical, cognitive, emotional, and social functioning. Music therapists work with children and adults with developmental ...

  18. Particle therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raju, M.R.

    1993-09-01

    Particle therapy has a long history. The experimentation with particles for their therapeutic application got started soon after they were produced in the laboratory. Physicists played a major role in proposing the potential applications in radiotherapy as well as in the development of particle therapy. A brief review of the current status of particle radiotherapy with some historical perspective is presented and specific contributions made by physicists will be pointed out wherever appropriate. The rationale of using particles in cancer treatment is to reduce the treatment volume to the target volume by using precise dose distributions in three dimensions by using particles such as protons and to improve the differential effects on tumors compared to normal tissues by using high-LET radiations such as neutrons. Pions and heavy ions combine the above two characteristics.

  19. Radioiodine therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, J.F. Jr.; Deliso, H.B.

    1992-01-01

    For over 40 years now, radioiodine ( 131 I) has remained one of the most useful radionuclide for diagnosis and therapy in Nuclear Medicine. The wide application of radioiodine in the study of the thyroid gland and in the management of its disorders has been most rewarding. The medical literature is replete with reports of its efficacy, failures, and complications, but most of these studies have been conducted among Caucasian persons and in relatively affluent societies. Very few reports are available from the less developed and economically depressed areas of the world where thyroid disorders abound or and are even endemic. This chapter is an attempt to highlight the use of radioactive iodine therapy in the developing countries, particularly those in the Asian region

  20. Particle therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    Particle therapy has a long history. The experimentation with particles for their therapeutic application got started soon after they were produced in the laboratory. Physicists played a major role in proposing the potential applications in radiotherapy as well as in the development of particle therapy. A brief review of the current status of particle radiotherapy with some historical perspective is presented and specific contributions made by physicists will be pointed out wherever appropriate. The rationale of using particles in cancer treatment is to reduce the treatment volume to the target volume by using precise dose distributions in three dimensions by using particles such as protons and to improve the differential effects on tumors compared to normal tissues by using high-LET radiations such as neutrons. Pions and heavy ions combine the above two characteristics

  1. Music Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondalen, Gro; Bonde, Lars Ole

    2012-01-01

    music therapy orientations/models (Guided Imagery and Music, Nordoff-Robbins, Psychoanalytic, Cognitive-behavioral etc), their theoretical foundations and their practical approaches to health and wellbeing or ‘health musicking’. The relational context – the interplay of (expressive as well as receptive......Music therapy (MT) is most commonly defined as an intervention where “the therapist helps the client to promote health, using music experiences and the relationships developing through them” (Bruscia 1998). Also other definitions of MT agree that a therapeutic relationship is important for a music...... intervention to be considered MT. Other interventions that “use music for health-related goals, but in ways that do not qualify as music therapy” (Gold 2009), may be described as music medicine, or simply as music listening. In this text we elaborate on an overview chapter covering some of the different major...

  2. Music Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanfi, Ilan

    2012-01-01

    may cause detrimental long-term effects. Three studies have examined the effect of music therapy procedural support (MTPS) under needle procedures. Consequently, this study aims at examining the effects of MTPS in an RCT. Moreover, the study addresses clinical aspects of the applied MT intervention...... and provides research-based clinical tools. Methods 41 children (1 to 10 years) were enrolled and underwent a single PIVA procedure. The children were randomly assigned to either an MT or a comparable control group receiving PIVA. In addition, the music therapy (MT) group received individualised MTPS (i.......e. music alternate engagement) before, during, and after PIVA. The intervention was performed by a trained music therapist and comprised preferred songs, improvised songs/music, and instrument playing. The study was carried out in accordance with the rules in force regarding research ethics and clinical MT...

  3. Radioiodine therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Jr, J F; Deliso, H B

    1993-12-31

    For over 40 years now, radioiodine ({sup 131}I) has remained one of the most useful radionuclide for diagnosis and therapy in Nuclear Medicine. The wide application of radioiodine in the study of the thyroid gland and in the management of its disorders has been most rewarding. The medical literature is replete with reports of its efficacy, failures, and complications, but most of these studies have been conducted among Caucasian persons and in relatively affluent societies. Very few reports are available from the less developed and economically depressed areas of the world where thyroid disorders abound or and are even endemic. This chapter is an attempt to highlight the use of radioactive iodine therapy in the developing countries, particularly those in the Asian region

  4. Physical Therapy (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Physical Therapy KidsHealth / For Parents / Physical Therapy Print en español Terapia física Physical Therapy Basics Doctors often recommend physical therapy (PT) ...

  5. Non-real-time computed tomography-guided percutaneous ethanol injection therapy for heapocellular carcinoma undetectable by ultrasonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Kazushige; Ohkawara, Tohru; Minami, Masahito; Sawa, Yoshihiko; Morinaga, Osamu; Kohli, Yoshihiro; Ohkawara, Yasuo

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of non-real-time CT-guided percutaneous ethanol injection therapy (PEIT) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, 37 lesions) untreatable by ultrasonography-guided (US)-PEIT. The HCC lesion was localized on the lipiodol CT image with a graduated grid system. We advanced a 21 G or 22 G needle in a stepwise fashion with intermittent localization scans using a tandem method to position the tip of the needle in the lesion. Ethanol containing contrast medium was injected with monitoring scans obtained after incremental volumes of injection, until perfusion of the lesion was judged to be complete. A total of 44 CT-PEIT procedures were performed. The average number of needle passes from the skin to the liver in each CT-PEIT procedure was 2.3, the average amount of ethanol injected was 14.4 ml, and the average time required was 49.3 minutes. Complete perfusion of the lesion by ethanol on monitoring CT images was achieved in all lesions with only a single or double CT-PEIT procedure without severe complication. Local recurrence was detected only in 5 lesions. At present, it is more time-consuming to perform CT-PEIT than US-PEIT because conventional CT guidance is not real-time imaging. However, it is expected that this limitation of CT-PEIT will be overcome in the near future with the introduction of CT fluoroscopy. In conclusion, CT-PEIT should prove to be a feasible, acceptable treatment for challenging cases of HCC undetectable by US. (author)

  6. [Gestalt therapy.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbeil, J; Poupard, D

    1978-01-01

    The authors describe Gestalt Therapy. They retrace its fundamental theoretical axes. These are psychoanalysis, character analysis, the german Gestalt theory of perception, existentialism, and the Orient. Some principal concepts are then elaborated more fully such as the cycle of awareness, desensitization, excitation anxiety and the five defense mechanisms: retroflection, introjection, projection, deflection, and confluence. The nature and goals of the therapeutic process are also described before the presentation of some techniques specific to this approach such as enactment and role playing. Finally, certain basic Gestalt rules, which aim at facilitating and intensifying the communication process among group members, are enunciated.

  7. Radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bader, J.L.; Glatstein, E.

    1987-01-01

    The radiation oncologist encounters the critically ill immunosuppressed patient in four settings. First, the newly diagnosed cancer patient presents for initial evaluation and treatment, with immunosuppression from the cancer itself, malnutrition, concomitant infectious disease, prior drug or alcohol abuse or other medical problems. Second, the previously treated cancer patient presents with metastatic or recurrent primary cancer causing local symptoms. Immune dysfunction in this setting may be due to prior chemotherapy and/or radiation as well as any of the original factors. Third, the patient previously treated with radiation presents with a life-threatening problem possibly due to complications of prior therapy. In this setting, the radiation oncologist is asked to evaluate the clinical problem and to suggest whether radiation might be causing part or all of the problem and what can be done to treat these sequelae of radiation. Fourth, the patient with a benign diagnosis (not cancer) is seen with a problem potentially emeliorated by radiation (e.g., kidney transplant rejection, preparation for transplant, or intractable rheumatoid arthritis). This chapter reviews these four issues and presents clinical and radiobiologic principles on which recommendations for therapy are based

  8. Dystonia: Physical Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Online Support Frequently Asked Questions Faces of Dystonia Physical Therapy Physical therapy may be an important component of treating ... everyday tasks, Since dystonia is a neurological disorder, physical therapy does not treat the dystonia directly but ...

  9. Brain Stimulation Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Magnetic Seizure Therapy Deep Brain Stimulation Additional Resources Brain Stimulation Therapies Overview Brain stimulation therapies can play ... for a shorter recovery time than ECT Deep Brain Stimulation Deep brain stimulation (DBS) was first developed ...

  10. Laser therapy for cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000905.htm Laser therapy for cancer To use the sharing features ... Lasers are also used on the skin. How Laser Therapy is Used Laser therapy can be used ...

  11. American Music Therapy Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Music Therapy Association Home Contact News Help/FAQ Members Only Login Quick Links Facts About Music Therapy Qualifications ... with AMTA Sponsor AMTA Events Social Networking Support Music Therapy When you shop at AmazonSmile, Amazon will ...

  12. [Physical therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chohnabayashi, Naohiko

    2008-01-01

    Recently, pulmonary rehabilitation program is widely considered one of the most effective and evidence-based treatment for not only chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but many clinical situations including neuro-muscular disease, post-operative status and weaning period from the ventilator, etc. The essential components of a pulmonary rehabilitation program are team assessment, patient training, psycho-social intervention, exercise, and follow-up. In 2003, Japanese medical societies (J. Thoracic Society, J. Pul. Rehabilitation Society and J. Physiotherapist Society) made a new guideline for pulmonary rehabilitation, especially how to aproach the execise training. As for the duration after surgical operation, airway cleaning is the important technique to prevent post-operative complications including pneumonia. Postural dranage technique is well known for such condition, at the same time, several instruments (flutter vulve, positive expiratory mask, high frequecy oscillation, etc) were also used for the patient to expectrate airway mucus easier. Lung transplantation is a new method of treatment for the critically-ill patients with chronic respiratoy failure. Several techniques of physical therapy are must be needed before and after lung transplantation to prevent both pulmonary infection and osteoporosis.

  13. Visibility of solid and liquid fiducial markers used for image-guided radiation therapy on optical coherence tomography: an esophageal phantom study (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelvehgaran, Pouya; Alderliesten, Tanja; Weda, Jelmer J. A.; de Bruin, Daniel M.; Faber, Dirk J.; Hulshof, Maarten C. C. M.; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; van Herk, Marcel B.; de Boer, Johannes F.

    2017-03-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) is used in operable and inoperable esophageal cancer patients. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fiducial marker placement allows improved translation of the disease extent on endoscopy to computed tomography (CT) images used for RT planning and enables image-guided RT. However, microscopic tumor extent at the time of RT planning is unknown. Endoscopic optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a high-resolution (10-30µm) imaging modality with the potential for accurately determining the longitudinal disease extent. Visibility of fiducial markers on OCT is crucial for integrating OCT findings with the RT planning CT. We investigated the visibility on OCT (NinePoint Medical, Inc.) of 13 commercially available solid (Visicoil, Gold Anchor, Flexicoil, Polymark, and QLRAD) and liquid (BioXmark, Lipiodol, and Hydrogel) fiducial markers of different diameter. We designed and manufactured a set of dedicated Silicone-based esophageal phantoms to perform imaging in a controlled environment. The esophageal phantoms consist of several layers with different TiO2 concentrations to simulate the scattering properties of a typical healthy human esophagus. Markers were placed at various depths (0.5, 1.1, 2.0, and 3.0mm). OCT imaging allowed detection of all fiducial markers and phantom layers. The signal to background ratio was 6-fold higher for the solid fiducial markers than the liquid fiducial markers, yet OCT was capable of visualizing all 13 fiducial markers at all investigated depths. We conclude that RT fiducial markers can be visualized with OCT. This allows integration of OCT findings with CT for image-guided RT.

  14. Complementary and Integrative Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... include: • Acupressure and acupuncture • Aromatherapy • Art therapy and music therapy • Chiropractic medicine and massage • Guided imagery • Meditation and ... should I avoid? • Is this complementary therapy (name therapy) safe? Is there research showing it is safe? • Are there side effects ...

  15. Radiotechnologies and gene therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Jinsong

    2001-01-01

    Gene therapy is an exciting frontier in medicine today. Radiologist will make an uniquely contribution to these exciting new technologies at every level by choosing sites for targeting therapy, perfecting and establishing routes of delivery, developing imaging strategies to monitor therapy and assess gene expression, developing radiotherapeutic used of gene therapy

  16. [Physical therapy for scars].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masanovic, Marguerite Guillot

    2013-01-01

    Physical therapy consists notably of hand or mechanical massages, pressure therapy using various fabrics or splints, cryotherapy, laser therapy, etc. It forms part of the range of therapies used to treat pathological scars, including medical and surgical treatment. While the results are often satisfactory for hypertrophic scars, they remain uncertain for major keloids.

  17. Music therapy in kindergarten

    OpenAIRE

    Šírová, Michaela

    2017-01-01

    This work deals with the subject of music therapy in a special kindergarten for the children with combined disabilities. In the theoretical part it clarifies the concept and principle of music therapy and characterizes the types of disabilities that occur at researched clients. As a research method were used observation and interviews with three music therapists from the institution. KEYWORDS Music therapy, preschool education, special pedagogy, group music therapy,individual music therapy, p...

  18. Music Therapy and Music Therapy Research. Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Inge Nygaard

    2002-01-01

    This response to Keynote by Prof. Even Ruud (N)"Music Education and Music Therapy seeks to define these two areas with specific focus on tools and methods for analysis of music as these methods are developed in music therapy. This includes that the music therapist, the music and the client create...

  19. Adlerian Marriage Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Jon; Dinkmeyer, Don, Sr.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the assumptions, processes, and techniques used in Alderian marriage therapy. Describes purpose of therapy as assessing current beliefs and behaviors while educating the couple in new procedures that can help the couple establish new goals. (Author/ABL)

  20. Genes and Gene Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... correctly, a child can have a genetic disorder. Gene therapy is an experimental technique that uses genes to ... or prevent disease. The most common form of gene therapy involves inserting a normal gene to replace an ...

  1. Complementary Pancreatitis Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medication, and improve quality of life.1,2 Massage Therapy Massage therapy involves touch and different techniques of stroking ... of the body or be a full-body massage. Massage can be performed through one’s clothing or ...

  2. [Play therapy in hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Katharina; Grothues, Dirk; Leitzmann, Michael; Gruber, Hans; Melter, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The following article presents an overview of current research studies on play therapy in the hospital. It highlights individual diagnoses for which play therapy has shown reasonable success. The aim of this review is to describe the current status of the scientific debate on play therapy for sick children in order to allow conclusions regarding the indications for which play therapy is or might be useful.

  3. Tumor therapy and pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joss, R.; Brunner, K.W.

    1982-01-01

    Many successfully treated tumour patients are children and juveniles. This raises questions as to the effects of tumour therapy on reproductiveness and offspring. The possible extent of damage to the male and female gonads caused by surgical, chemical, and radiological tumour therapy is investigated. Also, the problem of tumour therapy or women developing neoplasms during pregnancy. Pregnancies after successful tumour therapy are quite frequent today. Experience so far suggests that the rate of congenital deformities is not significantly increased. (orig.) [de

  4. Combined tumor therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrba, H.

    1990-01-01

    This comprehensive survey of current methods and achievements first takes a look at the two basic therapies, devoting a chapter each to the surgery and radiotherapy of tumors. The principal subjects of the book, however, are the systemic, adjuvant therapy, biological therapies, hyperthermia and various other therapies (as e.g. treatment with ozone, oxygen, or homeopathic means), and psychotherapy. (MG) With 54 figs., 86 tabs [de

  5. Play Therapy: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Maggie L.; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Jessee, Peggy

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the current issues in play therapy and its implications for play therapists. A brief history of play therapy is provided along with the current play therapy approaches and techniques. This article also touches on current issues or problems that play therapists may face, such as interpreting children's play, implementing…

  6. Evaluation of Inter Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Inge Nygaard

    2002-01-01

    This article (revised conference lecture from the 10th World Congress of Music Therapy, Oxford July 2002)) emphasizes the evaluation of the training of Inter Therapy for music therapy students at the MA training at Aalborg University. The students take turns in being client and therapist within...

  7. Music Therapy for Seniors

    OpenAIRE

    SLUNEČKOVÁ, Petra

    2014-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with the use of music therapy in the lives of seniors. The target of this thesis is to map the possibilities of using music therapy ways with seniors and to recommend a suitable music therapy resources on the basis of the research and evaluation of obtained dates. The theoretical part describes the term "the music therapy", e.g. concept, definition, types and forms, the development of music therapy, the history, methods and techniques. This age group is defined in t...

  8. Inhalation Therapy in Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Mandy L; Costa, Lais R R

    2017-04-01

    This article discusses the benefits and limitations of inhalation therapy in horses. Inhalation drug therapy delivers the drug directly to the airways, thereby achieving maximal drug concentrations at the target site. Inhalation therapy has the additional advantage of decreasing systemic side effects. Inhalation therapy in horses is delivered by the use of nebulizers or pressured metered dose inhalers. It also requires the use of a muzzle or nasal mask in horses. Drugs most commonly delivered through inhalation drug therapy in horses include bronchodilators, antiinflammatories, and antimicrobials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Music therapy and depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Assche, E; De Backer, J; Vermote, R

    2015-01-01

    Music therapy is a predominantly non-verbal psychotherapy based on music improvisation, embedded in a therapeutic relationship. This is the reason why music therapy is also used to treat depression. To examine the efficacy of music therapy and to report on the results of recent research into the value of music therapy as a treatment for depression. We reviewed the literature on recent research into music therapy and depression, reporting on the methods used and the results achieved, and we assessed the current position of music therapy for depression in the context of evidence-based scientific research. A wide variety of research methods was used to investigate the effects of using music therapy as a psychotherapy. Most studies focused usually on the added value that music therapy brings to the standard form of psychiatric treatment, when administered with or without psychopharmacological support. Music therapy produced particularly significant and favourable results when used to treat patients with depression. Current research into music therapy and depression points to a significant and persistent reduction in patients' symptoms and to improvements in their quality of life. However, further research is needed with regard to the best methods of illustrating the effects of music therapy.

  10. Hendee's radiation therapy physics

    CERN Document Server

    Pawlicki, Todd; Starkschall, George

    2016-01-01

    The publication of this fourth edition, more than ten years on from the publication of Radiation Therapy Physics third edition, provides a comprehensive and valuable update to the educational offerings in this field. Led by a new team of highly esteemed authors, building on Dr Hendee’s tradition, Hendee’s Radiation Therapy Physics offers a succinctly written, fully modernised update. Radiation physics has undergone many changes in the past ten years: intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has become a routine method of radiation treatment delivery, digital imaging has replaced film-screen imaging for localization and verification, image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) is frequently used, in many centers proton therapy has become a viable mode of radiation therapy, new approaches have been introduced to radiation therapy quality assurance and safety that focus more on process analysis rather than specific performance testing, and the explosion in patient-and machine-related data has necessitated an ...

  11. Radon therapy; Radon in der Therapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spruck, Kaija [Technische Hochschule Mittelhessen, Giessen (Germany). Inst. fuer Medizinische Physik und Strahlenschutz

    2017-04-01

    Radon therapies are used since more than 100 years in human medicine. Today this method is controversially discussed due to the possible increase of ionizing radiation induced tumor risk. Although the exact mode of biological radiation effect on the cell level is still not known new studies show the efficiency of the radon therapy without side effect for instance for rheumatic/inflammatory or respiratory disorders.

  12. Transarterial Therapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Which Technique Is More Effective? A Systematic Review of Cohort and Randomized Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marelli, Laura; Stigliano, Rosa; Triantos, Christos; Senzolo, Marco; Cholongitas, Evangelos; Davies, Neil; Tibballs, Jonathan; Meyer, Tim; Patch, David W.; Burroughs, Andrew K.

    2007-01-01

    Background. Chemoembolization (TACE) improves survival in cirrhotic patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The optimal schedule, or whether embolization (TAE) alone gives the same survival advantage, is not known. Purpose. To evaluate whether specific patient characteristics and/or radiological transarterial techniques result in better outcomes. Method. A PubMed search was carried out for cohort and randomized trials (n = 175) testing transarterial therapies; meta-analysis was performed where appropriate. Results. Anticancer drugs were used as sole agent in 75% of cases (double 15% and triple 6%): doxorubicin (36%), cisplatin (31%), epirubicin (12%), mitoxantrone (8%), mitomycin (8%), and SMANCS (5%). Embolizing agents used were: gelatin sponge particles (71%), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) particles (8%), degradable starch microspheres (DSM) (4%), and embospheres (4%). Sessions per patient were 2.5 ± 1.5 (interval: 2 months). Objective response was 40 ± 20%; survival rates at 1, 2, 3, and 5 years were: 62 ± 20%, 42 ± 17%, 30 ± 15%, and 19 ± 16%, respectively, and survival time was 18 ± 9.5 months. The post-TACE complications were: acute liver failure, 7.5% (range 0-49%); acute renal failure, 1.8% (0-13%); encephalopathy, 1.8% (0-16%); ascites, 8.3% (0-52%); upper gastrointestinal bleeding; 3% (0-22%); and hepatic or splenic abscess, 1.3% (0-2.5%). Treatment-related mortality was 2.4% (0-9.5%), mainly due to acute liver failure. Our meta-analysis of nine randomized controlled trials (RCTs) confirmed that TACE improves survival; but a meta-analysis of TACE versus TAE alone (3 RCTs, 412 patients) demonstrated no survival difference. Conclusions. No chemotherapeutic agent appears better than any other. There is no evidence for benefit with lipiodol. Gelatin sponge is the most used embolic agent, but PVA particles may be better. TAE appears as effective as TACE. New strategies to reduce the risk of post-TACE complications are required

  13. 75 FR 50880 - TRICARE: Non-Physician Referrals for Physical Therapy, Occupational Therapy, and Speech Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... 0720-AB36 TRICARE: Non-Physician Referrals for Physical Therapy, Occupational Therapy, and Speech... referrals of beneficiaries to the Military Health System for physical therapy, occupational therapy, and... practitioners will be allowed to issue referrals to patients for physical therapy, occupational therapy, and...

  14. [Therapy of intermediate uveitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doycheva, D; Deuter, C; Zierhut, M

    2014-12-01

    Intermediate uveitis is a form of intraocular inflammation in which the vitreous body is the major site of inflammation. Intermediate uveitis is primarily treated medicinally and systemic corticosteroids are the mainstay of therapy. When recurrence of uveitis or side effects occur during corticosteroid therapy an immunosuppressive treatment is required. Cyclosporine A is the only immunosuppressive agent that is approved for therapy of uveitis in Germany; however, other immunosuppressive drugs have also been shown to be effective and well-tolerated in patients with intermediate uveitis. In severe therapy-refractory cases when conventional immunosuppressive therapy has failed, biologics can be used. In patients with unilateral uveitis or when the systemic therapy is contraindicated because of side effects, an intravitreal steroid treatment can be carried out. In certain cases a vitrectomy may be used.

  15. Fertility and cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maguire, L.C.

    1979-01-01

    With increased survival of increasing numbers of cancer patients as a result of therapy, the consequences, early and late, of the therapies must be realized. It is the treating physician's duty to preserve as much reproductive potential as possible for patients, consistent with adequate care. With radiotherapy this means shielding the gonads as much as possible, optimal but not excessive doses and fields, oophoropexy, or sperm collection and storage prior to irradiation. With chemotherapy it means the shortest exposure to drugs consistent with best treatment and prior to therapy the collection and storage of sperm where facilities are available. At present this is still an experimental procedure. Artificial insemination for a couple when the male has received cancer therapy is another alternative. Finally, it is the responsibility of physicians caring for patients with neoplasms to be knowledgeable about these and all other effects of therapy so that patients may be counseled appropriately and understand the implications of therapy for their life

  16. Genetically Guided Statin Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    number of new statin prescriptions, and (4) patient reported quality of life, physical activity, perceptions regarding statin therapy , and pain as...outcomes known to be prevented by statin therapy , we examined hospitalizations for three diagnoses: acute myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and...cholesterol. However, the ultimate goal of statin therapy is to decrease incidence of CAD, acute myocardial infarction and perhaps stroke. However, there is a

  17. Nuclear medicine therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Eary, Janet F

    2013-01-01

    One in three of the 30 million Americans who are hospitalized are diagnosed or treated with nuclear medicine techniques. This text provides a succinct overview and detailed set of procedures and considerations for patient therapy with unsealed radioactivity sources.  Serving as a complete literature reference for therapy with radiopharmaceuticals currently utilized in practice, this source covers the role of the physician in radionuclide therapy, and essential procedures and protocols required by health care personnel.

  18. American Physical Therapy Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Do APTA represents more than 100,000 members: physical therapists, physical therapist assistants, and students of physical therapy. Other Popular Resources: - Member Directory - Annual Reports ...

  19. Is Bicarbonate Therapy Useful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Kate

    2017-03-01

    Despite concerns about the negative effects of metabolic acidosis, there is minimal evidence that sodium bicarbonate administration is an effective treatment. In addition, sodium bicarbonate therapy is associated with many adverse effects, including paradoxic intracellular acidosis, hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, hypernatremia, and hyperosmolality. Definitive recommendations regarding bicarbonate therapy are challenging as there is little high-quality evidence available. In most clinical scenarios of metabolic acidosis, treatment efforts should focus on resolution of the underlying cause, and sodium bicarbonate therapy should be used with caution, if at all. An exception to this is kidney disease, wherein sodium bicarbonate therapy may have a valuable role. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Nanomedicine and cancer therapies

    CERN Document Server

    Sebastian, Mathew; Ninan, Neethu

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology has the power to radically change the way cancer is diagnosed, imaged, and treated. The holistic approach to cancer involves noninvasive procedures that emphasize restoring the health of human energy fields. Presenting a wealth of information and research about the most potent cancer healing therapies, this forward-thinking book explores how nanomedicine, holistic medicine, and other cancer therapies play important roles in treatment of this disease. Topics include nanobiotechnology for antibacterial therapy and diagnosis, mitochondrial dysfunction and cancer, antioxidants and combinatorial therapies, and optical and mechanical investigations of nanostructures for biomolecular detection.

  1. Medical Art Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgul Aydin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Art therapy is a form of expressive therapy that uses art materials. Art therapy combines traditional psychotherapeutic theories and techniques with an understanding of the psychological aspects of the creative process, especially the affective properties of the different art materials. Medical art therapy has been defined as the clinical application of art expression and imagery with individuals who are physically ill, experiencing physical trauma or undergoing invasive or aggressive medical procedures such as surgery or chemotherapy and is considered as a form of complementary or integrative medicine. Several studies have shown that patients with physical illness benefit from medical art therapy in different aspects. Unlike other therapies, art therapy can take the patients away from their illness for a while by means of creative activities during sessions, can make them forget the illness or lost abilities. Art therapy leads to re-experiencing normality and personal power even with short creative activity sessions. In this article definition, influence and necessity of medical art therapy are briefly reviewed.

  2. Biological therapies for spondyloarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Vincenzo; Atteno, Mariangela; Spanò, Angelo; Scarpa, Raffaele; Peluso, Rosario

    2014-06-01

    Biological therapies and new imaging techniques have changed the therapeutic and diagnostic approach to spondyloarthritis. In patients with axial spondyloarthritis, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) inhibitor treatment is currently the only effective therapy in patients for whom conventional therapy with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) has failed. TNFα inhibitor treatment is more effective in preventing articular damage in peripheral joints than in axial ones. It is important to treat patients at an early stage of disease to reduce disease progression; moreover it is necessary to identify causes of therapy inefficacy in preventing joint damage in the axial subset.

  3. Neutron Therapy Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Neutron Therapy Facility provides a moderate intensity, broad energy spectrum neutron beam that can be used for short term irradiations for radiobiology (cells)...

  4. Therapy with radionuclides. Radionuklid-Therapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biersack, H.J.; Hotze, A.L. (Bonn Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin)

    1992-12-01

    Radioiodine therapy of benign and malignant thyroid diseases is a well-established procedure in Nuclear Medicine. However, the therapeutic use of radioisotopes in other diseases is relatively unknown among our refering physicians. The therapeutic effects of intraarticular (rheumatoid arthritis) and intracavitary (pleural and peritoneal carcinosis) applications yields good results. The radiophosphorus therapy in polycythemia vera rubra has always to be considered as an alternative to chemotherapy. The use of analgetics may be reduced by pain therapy of bone metastasis by injection of bone-seeking beta emitters like Rh-186 HEDP. Other procedures like therapeutic application of meta-iodo-benzylguanidine in neuroblastoma and malignant pheochromocytoma resulted in at least remissions of the disease. Radioimmunotherapy needs further evaluation before it can be recommended as a routine procedure. (orig.).

  5. Gene therapy and radionuclides targeting therapy in mammary carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Jinhua

    2003-01-01

    Breast carcinoma's gene therapy is a hotspot in study of the tumor's therapy in the recent years. Currently the major therapy methods that in the experimentative and primary clinical application phases include immunological gene therapy, multidrug resistance gene therapy, antisense oligonucleotide therapy and suicide gene therapy. The gene targeting brachytherapy, which is combined with gene therapy and radiotherapy has enhanced the killer effects of the suicide gene and nuclide in tumor cells. That has break a new path in tumor's gene therapy. The further study in this field will step up it's space to the clinical application

  6. Absolute counting of 188Re radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravindra, Anuradha; Kulkarni, D.B.; Joseph, Leena; Kulkarni, M.S.

    2018-01-01

    Rhenium-188 is radiopharmaceutical that belongs to the group of strong beta-weak gamma emitters. It emits high energy beta particles, (E β m ax = 2.12MeV) and weak gamma rays (E γ = 155 keV) hence makes it suitable for wide variety of therapeutic as well as diagnostic applications. Therapeutic applications include therapy of tumors, radionuclide synovectomy, bone pain palliation, intra vascular radiation therapy etc. 188 Re-labeled medicines have been employed increasingly in the therapy of tumors and vascular restenosis. To ensure that patient receives the appropriate radiation dose during the treatment, both the activity standardization and the determination of sensitivity coefficient of the secondary standard for 188 Re have become important tasks. This paper presents the methods and results obtained for the following measurements a) Standardisation of the 188 Re by using the 4π proportional counter (4πPC)-gamma extrapolation method b) Determination of sensitivity coefficient (pA/MBq) of the secondary standard ionization chamber type Centronic IG12, 20A for 188 Re

  7. History of gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Thomas; Parker, Nigel; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo

    2013-08-10

    Two decades after the initial gene therapy trials and more than 1700 approved clinical trials worldwide we not only have gained much new information and knowledge regarding gene therapy in general, but also learned to understand the concern that has persisted in society. Despite the setbacks gene therapy has faced, success stories have increasingly emerged. Examples for these are the positive recommendation for a gene therapy product (Glybera) by the EMA for approval in the European Union and the positive trials for the treatment of ADA deficiency, SCID-X1 and adrenoleukodystrophy. Nevertheless, our knowledge continues to grow and during the course of time more safety data has become available that helps us to develop better gene therapy approaches. Also, with the increased understanding of molecular medicine, we have been able to develop more specific and efficient gene transfer vectors which are now producing clinical results. In this review, we will take a historical view and highlight some of the milestones that had an important impact on the development of gene therapy. We will also discuss briefly the safety and ethical aspects of gene therapy and address some concerns that have been connected with gene therapy as an important therapeutic modality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Antiproton Cancer Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassler, Niels

    An essential part in cancer radiotherapy, is to direct a sufficiently high dose towards the tumour, without damaging the surrounding tissue. Different techniques such as intensity modulated radiation therapy and proton therapy have been developed, in order to reduce the dose to the normal tissue...

  9. Play Therapy. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landreth, Garry; Bratton, Sue

    Play therapy is based on developmental principles and, thus, provides, through play, developmentally appropriate means of expression and communication for children. Therefore, skill in using play therapy is an essential tool for mental health professionals who work with children. Therapeutic play allows children the opportunity to express…

  10. Therapy of Lies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Sean

    2012-01-01

    Conversion therapy comes in many forms, ranging from informal chats with counselors to aggressive physical coercion, but all are based on the belief that a gay male or a lesbian can be changed "back" to heterosexual behavior. It is not just alarmed parents who turn to this therapy. Many LGBT individuals seek out such treatment in an effort to…

  11. Therapy in Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costonis, Maureen Needham, Ed.

    This book contains a collection of articles on the subject of movement therapy. It can be used as a set of supplementary readings for an academic course in dance therapy or a psychiatric residency program. It includes an exhaustive bibliography on this field for students and practioners in this field. Four principal themes have been selected as a…

  12. [Dance/Movement Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue focuses on dance, play, and movement therapy for infants and toddlers with disabilities. Individual articles are: "Join My Dance: The Unique Movement Style of Each Infant and Toddler Can Invite Communication, Expression and Intervention" (Suzi Tortora); "Dynamic Play Therapy: An Integrated Expressive Arts Approach to…

  13. Electroconvulsive Therapy and Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanney, Bryan L.

    1986-01-01

    When the effectiveness and mortality-morbidity of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) are compared with those of drug therapies, it appears that ECT is an effective and preferred treatment strategy. It remains underutilized as a modality of suicide prevention. Addresses controversies that presently limit the use of this treatment. (Author/ABB)

  14. Massage Therapy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Hernandez-Reif, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Massage therapy has been notably effective in preventing prematurity, enhancing growth of infants, increasing attentiveness, decreasing depression and aggression, alleviating motor problems, reducing pain, and enhancing immune function. This review covers massage therapy research from the last decade, as an update to the American Psychologist 1998…

  15. Radiation Therapy - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... W XYZ List of All Topics All Radiation Therapy - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on this page, ... Information Translations Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) Expand Section Radiation Therapy - Tiếng Việt (Vietnamese) ... Health Information Translations Characters not displaying correctly on this page? See language display issues . Return to the MedlinePlus Health Information ...

  16. Boganmeldelse - Music Therapy Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2006-01-01

    . Alligevel følger her en anbefaling af bogen: for musikterapeuter er det en bog, man ikke kommer uden om. Music Therapy Research, på dansk Musikterapiforskning, er en gennemrevideret, ja faktisk nyudgivelse, af bogen Music Therapy Research: Quantitative and Qualitative Perspectives, som udkom i 1995. Også...

  17. Pediatric Music Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathom-Radocy, Wanda B.

    This book on music therapy includes relevant medical, psychological, and developmental information to help service providers, particularly music therapists, and parents to understand children with disabilities. The first two chapters describe the process of assessment and delineation of goals in music therapy that leads to the design of the music…

  18. Photodynamic Therapy for Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... et al. Photodynamic therapy. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 1998; 90(12):889–905. [PubMed Abstract] Gudgin Dickson EF, Goyan RL, Pottier RH. New directions in photodynamic therapy. Cellular and Molecular Biology 2002; 48(8):939–954. [PubMed Abstract] Capella ...

  19. Radiation Therapy Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation therapy has side effects because it not only kills or slows the growth of cancer cells, it can also affect nearby healthy cells. Many people who get radiation therapy experience fatigue. Other side effects depend on the part of the body that is being treated. Learn more about possible side effects.

  20. Art Therapy: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantt, Linda, Comp.; Schmal, Marilyn Strauss, Comp.

    The bibliography on art therapy presents 1175 citations (1940-1973) drawn from searches of the medical indexes, computer systems of the National Library of Medicine and the National Institute of Mental Health, other bibliographies, Centre International de Documentation Concernant les Expressions Plastiques, and the American Journal of Art Therapy.…

  1. Experiential Learning and Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatala, Elaine

    This paper describes the experiential therapy program at the Bowling Green Adolescent Center (New Jersey). This model supports the view that the therapeutic process of addiction treatment is accelerated and enhanced by providing the patients with experiential interventions. Experiential therapy includes goal setting, hands-on participation,…

  2. Activity Therapy: An Alternative Therapy for Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottman, Terry T.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the benefits of activity therapy for preteens and adolescents, where the client is engaged in nonverbal modes of relationship--games, free play, movement, drama, music, art or other activities, as the chief therapeutic media in which conflicts are resolved and intellectual and emotional energies freed. Reviews the literature, describes…

  3. Animal-Assisted Therapy and Occupational Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreasen, Gena; Stella, Tiffany; Wilkison, Megan; Szczech Moser, Christy; Hoelzel, Allison; Hendricks, Laura

    2017-01-01

    The use of animals for therapeutic purposes has been documented in the literature for centuries. This review will highlight evidence of the benefits of animal-assisted therapy as well as provide a plethora of resources for therapists interested in learning more about how animals can provide restorative benefits for their clients.

  4. Tumor targeted gene therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Joo Hyun

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge of molecular mechanisms governing malignant transformation brings new opportunities for therapeutic intervention against cancer using novel approaches. One of them is gene therapy based on the transfer of genetic material to an organism with the aim of correcting a disease. The application of gene therapy to the cancer treatment had led to the development of new experimental approaches such as suicidal gene therapy, inhibition of oncogenes and restoration of tumor-suppressor genes. Suicidal gene therapy is based on the expression in tumor cells of a gene encoding an enzyme that converts a prodrug into a toxic product. Representative suicidal genes are Herpes simplex virus type 1 thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) and cytosine deaminase (CD). Especially, physicians and scientists of nuclear medicine field take an interest in suicidal gene therapy because they can monitor the location and magnitude, and duration of expression of HSV1-tk and CD by PET scanner

  5. Medical therapy in acromegaly.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sherlock, Mark

    2011-05-01

    Acromegaly is a rare disease characterized by excess secretion of growth hormone (GH) and increased circulating insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) concentrations. The disease is associated with increased morbidity and premature mortality, but these effects can be reduced if GH levels are decreased to <2.5 μg\\/l and IGF-1 levels are normalized. Therapy for acromegaly is targeted at decreasing GH and IGF-1 levels, ameliorating patients\\' symptoms and decreasing any local compressive effects of the pituitary adenoma. The therapeutic options for acromegaly include surgery, radiotherapy and medical therapies, such as dopamine agonists, somatostatin receptor ligands and the GH receptor antagonist pegvisomant. Medical therapy is currently most widely used as secondary treatment for persistent or recurrent acromegaly following noncurative surgery, although it is increasingly used as primary therapy. This Review provides an overview of current and future pharmacological therapies for patients with acromegaly.

  6. Pharmacological therapy for amblyopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupam Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Amblyopia is the most common cause of preventable blindness in children and young adults. Most of the amblyopic visual loss is reversible if detected and treated at appropriate time. It affects 1.0 to 5.0% of the general population. Various treatment modalities have been tried like refractive correction, patching (both full time and part time, penalization and pharmacological therapy. Refractive correction alone improves visual acuity in one third of patients with anisometropic amblyopia. Various drugs have also been tried of which carbidopa & levodopa have been popular. Most of these agents are still in experimental stage, though levodopa-carbidopa combination therapy has been widely studied in human amblyopes with good outcomes. Levodopa therapy may be considered in cases with residual amblyopia, although occlusion therapy remains the initial treatment choice. Regression of effect after stoppage of therapy remains a concern. Further studies are therefore needed to evaluate the full efficacy and side effect profile of these agents.

  7. Music therapy improvisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Kuzma

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the technique of music therapy – music therapy improvisation is introduced. In this form of music therapy the improvising partners share meaning through the improvisation: the improvisation is not an end in itself: it portrays meaning that is personal, complex and can be shared with the partner. The therapeutic work, then, is meeting and matching the client's music in order to give the client an experience of "being known", being responded through sounds and being able to express things and communicate meaningfully. Rather than the client playing music, the therapy is about developing the engagement through sustained, joint improvisations. In music therapy, music and emotion share fundamental features: one may represent the other, i.e., we hear the music not as music but as dynamic emotional states. The concept of dynamic structure explains why music makes therapeutic sense.

  8. Accelerators for cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lennox, Arlene J.

    2000-01-01

    The vast majority of radiation treatments for cancerous tumors are given using electron linacs that provide both electrons and photons at several energies. Design and construction of these linacs are based on mature technology that is rapidly becoming more and more standardized and sophisticated. The use of hadrons such as neutrons, protons, alphas, or carbon, oxygen and neon ions is relatively new. Accelerators for hadron therapy are far from standardized, but the use of hadron therapy as an alternative to conventional radiation has led to significant improvements and refinements in conventional treatment techniques. This paper presents the rationale for radiation therapy, describes the accelerators used in conventional and hadron therapy, and outlines the issues that must still be resolved in the emerging field of hadron therapy

  9. Music therapy in dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McDermott, Orii; Crellin, Nadia; Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner

    2013-01-01

    Objective Recent reviews on music therapy for people with dementia have been limited to attempting to evaluate whether it is effective, but there is a need for a critical assessment of the literature to provide insight into the possible mechanisms of actions of music therapy. This systematic review......, five studies investigated hormonal and physiological changes, and five studies focused on social and relational aspects of music therapy. The musical interventions in the studies were diverse, but singing featured as an important medium for change. Conclusions Evidence for short-term improvement...... in mood and reduction in behavioural disturbance was consistent, but there were no high-quality longitudinal studies that demonstrated long-term benefits of music therapy. Future music therapy studies need to define a theoretical model, include better-focused outcome measures, and discuss how the findings...

  10. Proton therapy physics

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Proton Therapy Physics goes beyond current books on proton therapy to provide an in-depth overview of the physics aspects of this radiation therapy modality, eliminating the need to dig through information scattered in the medical physics literature. After tracing the history of proton therapy, the book summarizes the atomic and nuclear physics background necessary for understanding proton interactions with tissue. It describes the physics of proton accelerators, the parameters of clinical proton beams, and the mechanisms to generate a conformal dose distribution in a patient. The text then covers detector systems and measuring techniques for reference dosimetry, outlines basic quality assurance and commissioning guidelines, and gives examples of Monte Carlo simulations in proton therapy. The book moves on to discussions of treatment planning for single- and multiple-field uniform doses, dose calculation concepts and algorithms, and precision and uncertainties for nonmoving and moving targets. It also exami...

  11. Pharmacological therapy for amblyopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anupam; Nagpal, Ritu; Mittal, Sanjeev Kumar; Bahuguna, Chirag; Kumar, Prashant

    2017-01-01

    Amblyopia is the most common cause of preventable blindness in children and young adults. Most of the amblyopic visual loss is reversible if detected and treated at appropriate time. It affects 1.0 to 5.0% of the general population. Various treatment modalities have been tried like refractive correction, patching (both full time and part time), penalization and pharmacological therapy. Refractive correction alone improves visual acuity in one third of patients with anisometropic amblyopia. Various drugs have also been tried of which carbidopa & levodopa have been popular. Most of these agents are still in experimental stage, though levodopa-carbidopa combination therapy has been widely studied in human amblyopes with good outcomes. Levodopa therapy may be considered in cases with residual amblyopia, although occlusion therapy remains the initial treatment choice. Regression of effect after stoppage of therapy remains a concern. Further studies are therefore needed to evaluate the full efficacy and side effect profile of these agents. PMID:29018759

  12. [Therapy-resistant and therapy-refractory arterial hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallbach, M; Koziolek, M J

    2018-05-02

    Therapy-resistant and therapy-refractory arterial hypertension differ in prevalence, pathogenesis, prognosis and therapy. In both cases, a structured approach is required, with the exclusion of pseudoresistance and, subsequently, secondary hypertension. Resistant hypertension has been reported to be more responsive to intensified diuretic therapy, whereas refractory hypertension is presumed to require sympathoinhibitory therapy. Once the general measures and the drug-based step-up therapy have been exhausted, interventional procedures are available.

  13. Radiopharmacy requirements in the context of advances in radionuclide therapy (RNT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramamoorthy, N.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The advances in the use of radiopharmaceutical products for radionuclide therapy (RNT) are accompanied by additional demands on the facilities and practices in hospital based and centralized radiopharmacies. In general, therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals meant for systemic administration should be preferably availed as ready-to-use products from a licensed source. Amongst the radionuclides for therapy being evaluated extensively, a few such as the generator produced 188 Re (T 1/2 17 h), would warrant additional formulation processing steps at the hospital end and it is required to institute appropriate validated protocols. 188 Re is eluted from a 188 W- 188 Re generator and is often used after post-elution concentration involving use of ion exchanger columns in tandem. The radiochemical purity of the final formulation e.g. 188 Re-HEDP, 188 Re-lipiodol, etc. and the breakthrough of the long-lived parent nuclide 188 W in 188 Re have to be reliably ascertained and certified for compliance with the stipulated standards. The equipment and other facilities required would depend on the nature and range of products handled. In the event of use of another important therapeutic radionuclide, 90 Y (T 1/2 64 h) (sourced from 90 Sr- 90 Y generator), a pure beta emitter, the assay of activity and the breakthrough of 90Sr in 90Y would involve using special techniques. Also, in view of the long half-life of the parent nuclides, 188 W (T 1/2 70 d) and 90 Sr (T 1/2 28.3 y), in turn, the shelf-life of the generators, greater care in aseptic practices in the operation and maintenance of the generators is essential to assure pharmaceutical safety. Reliable validated practices need to be evolved leading to establishing SOP for formulation, QC testing and certification, as well as institution of necessary calibration protocols. There can be differences in mandatory regulations depending on the national authorities/systems. Wherever, the licensing of the radiopharmacist and

  14. Development of a technology for the preparation of 188W-188Re generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Alexandre de

    2004-01-01

    A big interest has recently arisen concerning the use of Rhenium-188 (188Re) for various medical applications. Tumor therapy with antibodies labeled with 188Re is the main application, but it is being studied its application in carcinomas of medullar thyroid, bone pain palliation and radionuclide synovectomy, among others. Rhenium-188 decays 79% to the ground state of stable 188Os (Eβ1max - 2,11 MeV) and 20% to the first excited state (Eβ2max = 1,97 MeV). The deexcitation of this state gives a 155 keV gamma ray (15r%) which can be detected by imaging. Another great advantage is the viability of carrier-free 188Re from the decay of 188W (t 1/2 = 69.4 days) in a generator system. The objective of this work is the development of the technology for the preparation of 188W- 188Re generators. To accomplish this, the steps of the work are: preparation of the targets of W; irradiation of W targets in order to measure the activation and radionuclidic impurities; development of 188W-188Re generators; development of a method for the quality control of 188Re: chemical, radiochemical and radionuclidic purities. The study of alumina-based generators was performed with the irradiation of targets of natural metallic W and W03 and showed that this kind of generator will only be viable with the importation of 188W, due to the low neutron flux of the Reactor IEA-R1 Reactor for the commercial routine production of this radioisotope, but the technology of production and quality control were successful. The gel type chromatographic generators of WZr were produced with natural WO3 targets and showed that, if enriched targets are to be used and with the power upgrade of the IEA-R1 Reactor, they can be produced by the Radiopharmacy Center at IPEN-SP. The quality control methodology were determined and the results were inside the limits given by the Pharmacopoeia. (author)

  15. Targeted enzyme prodrug therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellmann, N; Deckert, P M; Bachran, D; Fuchs, H; Bachran, C

    2010-09-01

    The cure of cancer is still a formidable challenge in medical science. Long-known modalities including surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are successful in a number of cases; however, invasive, metastasized and inaccessible tumors still pose an unresolved and ongoing problem. Targeted therapies designed to locate, detect and specifically kill tumor cells have been developed in the past three decades as an alternative to treat troublesome cancers. Most of these therapies are either based on antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, targeted delivery of cytotoxic drugs or tumor site-specific activation of prodrugs. The latter is a two-step procedure. In the first step, a selected enzyme is accumulated in the tumor by guiding the enzyme or its gene to the neoplastic cells. In the second step, a harmless prodrug is applied and specifically converted by this enzyme into a cytotoxic drug only at the tumor site. A number of targeting systems, enzymes and prodrugs were investigated and improved since the concept was first envisioned in 1974. This review presents a concise overview on the history and latest developments in targeted therapies for cancer treatment. We cover the relevant technologies such as antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (ADEPT), gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT) as well as related therapies such as clostridial- (CDEPT) and polymer-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (PDEPT) with emphasis on prodrug-converting enzymes, prodrugs and drugs.

  16. Massage therapy research review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany

    2016-08-01

    In this review, massage therapy has been shown to have beneficial effects on varying conditions including prenatal depression, preterm infants, full-term infants, autism, skin conditions, pain syndromes including arthritis and fibromyalgia, hypertension, autoimmune conditions including asthma and multiple sclerosis, immune conditions including HIV and breast cancer and aging problems including Parkinson's and dementia. Although many of the studies have involved comparisons between massage therapy and standard treatment control groups, several have compared different forms of massage (e.g. Swedish versus Thai massage), and different active therapies such as massage versus exercise. Typically, the massage therapy groups have experienced more positive effects than the control or comparison groups. This may relate to the massage therapy providing more stimulation of pressure receptors, in turn enhancing vagal activity and reducing cortisol levels. Some of the researchers have assessed physical, physiological and biochemical effects, although most have relied exclusively on self-report measures. Despite these methodological problems and the dearth of research from the U.S., the massage therapy profession has grown significantly and massage therapy is increasingly practiced in traditional medical settings, highlighting the need for more rigorous research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Medical Therapy of Acromegaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Plöckinger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the present status of medical therapy of acromegaly. Indications for permanent postoperative treatment, postirradiation treamtent to bridge the interval until remission as well as primary medical therapy are elaborated. Therapeutic efficacy of the different available drugs—somatostatin receptor ligands (SRLs, dopamine agonists, and the GH antagonist Pegvisomant—is discussed, as are the indications for and efficacy of their respective combinations. Information on their mechanism of action, and some pharmakokinetic data are included. Special emphasis is given to the difficulties to define remission criteria of acromegaly due to technical assay problems. An algorithm for medical therapy in acromegaly is provided.

  18. Collaboration in experiential therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdondini, Lucia; Elliott, Robert; Shearer, Joan

    2012-02-01

    We offer a view of the nature and role of client-therapist collaboration in experiential psychotherapy, focusing on Gestalt and emotion-focused therapy (EFT). We distinguish between the necessary condition of mutual trust (the emotional bond between client and therapist) and effective collaboration (regarding the goals and tasks of therapy). Using a case study of experiential therapy for social anxiety, we illustrate how the development of collaboration can be both complex and pivotal for therapeutic success, and how it can involve client and therapist encountering one another through taking risks by openly and nonjudgementally disclosing difficult experiences in order to enrich and advance the work. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Feminist music therapy pedagogy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahna, Nicole; Swantes, Melody

    2011-01-01

    This study surveyed 188 music therapy educators regarding their views and use of feminist pedagogy and feminist music therapy. The purpose of this study was two-fold: (a) to determine how many music therapy educators used feminist pedagogy and (b) to determine if there was a relationship between......) participatory learning, (b) validation of personal experience/development of confidence, (c) political/social activism, and (d) critical thinking/ open-mindedness. The results revealed that 46% (n = 32) of participants identified as feminist music therapists and 67% (n = 46) of participants identified as using...

  20. Complications of cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moskowitz, P.S.; Parker, B.R.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to review systematically the toxicity of contemporary chemotherapy and irradiation on normal tissues of growing children. Whenever possible, the separate toxicity of chemotherapy, irradiation, and combination therapy is addressed. However, it is not always possible to quantitate specifically such reactions in the face of multiple drug therapy, which may enhance radiation injury or reactivate prior radiation injury. Prior detailed reviews have provided important sources of information concerning radiation injury for this more general discussion. The information provided will assist both the clinician and the radiologist in the recognition of early and late complications of therapy in pediatric oncology

  1. Prostate Cancer (Radiation Therapy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be considered carefully, balancing the advantages against the disadvantages as they relate to the individual man's age, ... therapy with photon or x-rays: Uses advanced technology to tailor the x-ray or photon radiation ...

  2. Music therapy for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalbers, Sonja; Fusar-Poli, Laura; Freeman, Ruth E; Spreen, Marinus; Ket, Johannes Cf; Vink, Annemiek C; Maratos, Anna; Crawford, Mike; Chen, Xi-Jing; Gold, Christian

    2017-11-16

    Depression is a highly prevalent mood disorder that is characterised by persistent low mood, diminished interest, and loss of pleasure. Music therapy may be helpful in modulating moods and emotions. An update of the 2008 Cochrane review was needed to improve knowledge on effects of music therapy for depression. 1. To assess effects of music therapy for depression in people of any age compared with treatment as usual (TAU) and psychological, pharmacological, and/or other therapies.2. To compare effects of different forms of music therapy for people of any age with a diagnosis of depression. We searched the following databases: the Cochrane Common Mental Disorders Controlled Trials Register (CCMD-CTR; from inception to 6 May 2016); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; to 17 June 2016); Thomson Reuters/Web of Science (to 21 June 2016); Ebsco/PsycInfo, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Embase, and PubMed (to 5 July 2016); the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP), ClinicalTrials.gov, the National Guideline Clearing House, and OpenGrey (to 6 September 2016); and the Digital Access to Research Theses (DART)-Europe E-theses Portal, Open Access Theses and Dissertations, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Database (to 7 September 2016). We checked reference lists of retrieved articles and relevant systematic reviews and contacted trialists and subject experts for additional information when needed. We updated this search in August 2017 and placed potentially relevant studies in the "Awaiting classification" section; we will incorporate these into the next version of this review as appropriate. All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) comparing music therapy versus treatment as usual (TAU), psychological therapies, pharmacological therapies, other therapies, or different forms of music therapy for reducing depression. Two review

  3. Therapy Provider Phase Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Therapy Provider Phase Information dataset is a tool for providers to search by their National Provider Identifier (NPI) number to determine their phase for...

  4. Oxygen therapy - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breathe increased amounts of oxygen to get normal levels of oxygen in their blood. Oxygen therapy provides babies with the extra oxygen. Information Oxygen is a gas that the cells in your body need to work properly. The ...

  5. Interactional Gestalt Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warehime, Robert G.

    1981-01-01

    Group gestalt therapy in which the leader facilitates the development of helping capacity in group members is described. The general characteristics of this approach are discussed and ground rules concerning leader and member behaviors are suggested. (RC)

  6. Drug therapy smartens up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Christian

    2015-11-01

    The submission of the first 'smart pill' for market approval, combined with progress in the European nanomedicine landscape, illustrates the positive outlook for drug therapy and health monitoring, explains Christian Martin.

  7. Nicotine replacement therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoking cessation - nicotine replacement; Tobacco - nicotine replacement therapy ... Before you start using a nicotine replacement product, here are some things to know: The more cigarettes you smoke, the higher the dose you may need to ...

  8. Therapies for Cystic Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Active Cycle of Breathing Technique Airway Clearance Techniques Autogenic Drainage Basics of Lung Care Chest Physical Therapy ... care. Clinician Awards Clinician Career Development Awards Clinician Training Awards Mutation Analysis Program Network News Network News: ...

  9. Therapy and Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... system of rewards and reinforcement of positive behavior. Psychoanalysis. This type of treatment encourages you to think ... work, marriage and family therapy, rehabilitation counseling, and psychoanalysis. Your family doctor can help you choose the ...

  10. Photodynamic Therapy (PDT)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) is a newly emerging modal- ... Porphyrins are a ubiquitous class of naturally occurring heterocyclic ..... mechanism leading to tumor necrosis. ... The vascular endothelium may be the main target of tumor.

  11. External Beam Therapy (EBT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type your comment or suggestion into the following text box: Comment: E-mail: Area code: Phone no: ... Colorectal Cancer Treatment Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) Brain ...

  12. Radiation Therapy for Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation therapy is a type of cancer treatment that uses high doses of radiation to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. Learn about the types of radiation, why side effects happen, which ones you might have, and more.

  13. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    QuickSilver

    2003-05-20

    May 20, 2003 ... behaviour therapy approach, and a brief example of its use in depression. Cognitive .... dream, or recollection, leading to unpleasant emotion. DATE. SITUATION. EMOTION ... Write rational response to automatic thought(s). 2.

  14. Consumer Health: Alternative Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such as massage. These systems center on a philosophy, such as the power of nature or the ... medicine values therapies that have been demonstrated through research and testing to be safe and effective. While ...

  15. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Hong; He, Ri-Hui; Zheng, Yun-Rong; Tao, Ran

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is the main method of psychotherapy generally accepted in the field of substance addiction and non-substance addiction. This chapter mainly introduces the methods and technology of cognitive-behavior therapy of substance addiction, especially in order to prevent relapse. In the cognitive-behavior treatment of non-substance addiction, this chapter mainly introduces gambling addiction and food addiction.

  16. Concept Analysis: Music Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrock, Carolyn J; Bekhet, Abir K

    2016-01-01

    Down through the ages, music has been universally valued for its therapeutic properties based on the psychological and physiological responses in humans. However, the underlying mechanisms of the psychological and physiological responses to music have been poorly identified and defined. Without clarification, a concept can be misused, thereby diminishing its importance for application to nursing research and practice. The purpose of this article was for the clarification of the concept of music therapy based on Walker and Avant's concept analysis strategy. A review of recent nursing and health-related literature covering the years 2007-2014 was performed on the concepts of music, music therapy, preferred music, and individualized music. As a result of the search, the attributes, antecedents, and consequences of music therapy were identified, defined, and used to develop a conceptual model of music therapy. The conceptual model of music therapy provides direction for developing music interventions for nursing research and practice to be tested in various settings to improve various patient outcomes. Based on Walker and Avant's concept analysis strategy, model and contrary cases are included. Implications for future nursing research and practice to use the psychological and physiological responses to music therapy are discussed.

  17. Journal of Proton Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Office

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Journal of Proton Therapy (JPT is an international open access, peer-reviewed journal, which publishes original research, technical reports, reviews, case reports, editorials, and other materials on proton therapy with focus on radiation oncology, medical physics, medical dosimetry, and radiation therapy.No article processing/submission feeNo publication feePeer-review completion within 3-6 weeksImmediate publication after the completion of final author proofreadDOI assignment for each published articleFree access to published articles for all readers without any access barriers or subscriptionThe views and opinions expressed in articles are those of the author/s and do not necessarily reflect the policies of the Journal of Proton Therapy.Authors are encouraged to submit articles for publication in the inaugural issue of the Journal of Proton Therapy by online or email to editor@protonjournal.comOfficial Website of Journal of Proton Therapy: http://www.protonjournal.org/

  18. Humanistic therapies versus other psychological therapies for depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, Rachel; Davies, Philippa; Caldwell, Deborah; Moore, Theresa HM; Jones, Hannah; Lewis, Glyn; Hunot, Vivien

    2014-01-01

    This is the protocol for a review and there is no abstract. The objectives are as follows: To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of all humanistic therapies compared with all other psychological therapy approaches for acute depression.To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of different humanistic therapy models (person-centred, gestalt, process-experiential, transactional analysis, existential and non-directive therapies) compared with all other psychological therapy approaches for acute depression.To examine the effectiveness and acceptability of all humanistic therapies compared with different psychological therapy approaches (psychodynamic, behavioural, humanistic, integrative, cognitive-behavioural) for acute depression. PMID:25278809

  19. Food therapy and medical diet therapy of Traditional Chinese Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Qunli Wu; Xiaochun Liang

    2018-01-01

    Food therapy of traditional Chinese medicine aims to maintain balanced nutrition through diet. Medical diet therapy, however, is to achieve the balance of Yin and Yang through the combination of nutrition and medicine. Either “food therapy” or “medical diet therapy” aims to keep health, prevent disease, remove illness and slow aging. In recent years, both food therapy and medical diet therapy have been increasingly applied in clinical nutrition therapy. In terms of traditional Chinese food th...

  20. Complementary therapies in social psychiatry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde, Anita; Dürr, Dorte Wiwe

    three residential homes (n= 51 / 91 respondents - response rate 56 %) shows that the most common used complementary therapy is music therapy 43%, and only 10% of residents do not use these therapies at all. Overall, 43% of residents strongly agree, that these therapies strengthens their recovery process...

  1. Hadron Therapy for Cancer Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lennox, Arlene

    2003-01-01

    The biological and physical rationale for hadron therapy is well understood by the research community, but hadron therapy is not well established in mainstream medicine. This talk will describe the biological advantage of neutron therapy and the dose distribution advantage of proton therapy, followed by a discussion of the challenges to be met before hadron therapy can play a significant role in treating cancer. A proposal for a new research-oriented hadron clinic will be presented.

  2. and in anticancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Toma

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, cancer and anticancer therapy are increasingly mentioned topics. Groups of researchers keep looking for a tool that will specifically and efficiently eliminate abnormal cells without any harm for the normal ones. Such method entails the reduction of therapy’s side effects, thus also improving patient’s recovery. Discovery of synthetic lethality has become a new hope to create effective, personalized therapy of cancer. Researchers noted that pairs of simultaneously mutated genes can lead to cell death, whereas each gene from that pair mutated individually does not result in cell lethality. Cancer cells accumulate numerous changes in their genetic material. By defining the pairs of genes interacting in cell pathways we are able to identify a potential anticancer therapy. It is believed that such a process has evolved to create cell resistance for a single gene mutation. Proper functioning of a pathway is not dependent on a single gene. Such a solution, however, also led to the evolution of multifactorial diseases such as cancer. Research techniques using iRNA, shRNA or small molecule libraries allow us to find genes that are connected in synthetic lethality interactions. Synthetic lethality may be applied not only as an anticancer therapy but also as a tool for identifying the functions of recently recognized genes. In addition, studying synthetic lethality broadens our understanding of the molecular mechanisms governing cancer cells, which should be helpful in designing highly effective personalized cancer therapies.

  3. Therapy of Ewing's sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunst, J.; Sauer, R.

    1993-01-01

    Therapy of Ewing's sarcoma requires a qualified clinical, radiological, and pathohistological diagnosis and, in particular, an optimal therapy by an experienced team of oncological specialists. Important prognostic factors are the presence of hematogenous metastases at diagnosis, the initial tumor volume, the response to chemotherapy, and adequate local therapy. Presently, cure rates of more than 60% can be achieved for localized Ewing's sarcoma by combination of local therapy and chemotherapy. The four-drug combination VACA (vincristin, actinomycin D, cyclophosphamide, adriamycin) can be considered as cytostatic gold standard. More aggressive regimens (VAIA, EVAIA, autologous bone marrow transplant) may be beneficial in subgroups and are under investigation. Concerning local therapy adequate radiotherapy plays a major role and achieves the same survival rates as radical surgery, comparable patient selection provided. Several factors have impact on radiotherapeutic results, especially total dose (45 Gy large volume, 55 Gy to the primary tumor), target volume (safety margin at least 2 cm according to the pretreatment volume, at least 5 cm in proximal and distal extension of long bones), timing of radiotherapy (as early as possible) and quality of treatment. Radiotherapy as sole local treatment is indicated in inoperable lesions (spine, sacrum, skull) and in small, good-responding tumors. High-risk patients should receive combined radiotherapeutic-surgical treatment, preferably as pre-operative irradiation. The value of hyperfractionation is not yet proven despite theoretical advantages. (orig.) [de

  4. Therapy of hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wildmeister, W.

    1982-01-01

    The etiology of hyperthyroidism is still largely unknown and therefore no causal therapy of this condition is possible. Antithyroid drug treatment is usually carried out with thiocarbamides. When an euthyroid state is achieved synthetic thyroid hormones are added. Pregnancy and iodine contamination (after exposure to contrast medium) require individual treatment. In this paper the advantages, indications and contraindications are discussed as well as supportive drug therapy necessary in specific cases. Radioiodine therapy is reserved for patients over 35 years of age; the individual dose is calculated according to the size of the thyroid gland and the iodine uptake. Disadvantageous is the late onset of therapeutic efficiency, the small effect on the size of goitre and the exposure to radiation. A patient should be operated upon in an euthyroid state, i.e. after preoperative drug therapy. Operations are normally performed on individuals with a coexistent goitre or where antithyroid drugs or radioiodine therapy are contraindicated. Paresis of the recurrent laryngeal nerve and hypoparathyroidism are rare complications. 3 to 4 g of thyroid tissues should remain. Of great importance in all cases are precise diagnostics both before and after commencing treatment and adequate follow up. (orig./MG) [de

  5. Cell Therapy in Dermatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrof, Gabriela; Abdul-Wahab, Alya; McGrath, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Harnessing the regenerative capacity of keratinocytes and fibroblasts from human skin has created new opportunities to develop cell-based therapies for patients. Cultured cells and bioengineered skin products are being used to treat patients with inherited and acquired skin disorders associated with defective skin, and further clinical trials of new products are in progress. The capacity of extracutaneous sources of cells such as bone marrow is also being investigated for its plasticity in regenerating skin, and new strategies, such as the derivation of inducible pluripotent stem cells, also hold great promise for future cell therapies in dermatology. This article reviews some of the preclinical and clinical studies and future directions relating to cell therapy in dermatology, particularly for inherited skin diseases associated with fragile skin and poor wound healing. PMID:24890834

  6. Ozone Therapy in Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domb, William C

    2014-01-01

    Summary The 21st century dental practice is quite dynamic. New treatment protocols and new materials are being developed at a rapid pace. Ozone dental therapy falls into the category of new treatment protocols in dentistry, yet ozone is not new at all. Ozone therapy is already a major treatment modality in Europe, South America and a number of other countries. What is provided here will not be an exhaustive scientific treatise so much as a brief general introduction into what dentists are now doing with ozone therapies and the numerous oral/systemic links that make this subject so important for physicians so that, ultimately, they may serve their patients more effectively and productively. PMID:25363268

  7. Therapy with radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biersack, H.J.; Hotze, A.L.

    1992-01-01

    Radioiodine therapy of benign and malignant thyroid diseases is a well-established procedure in Nuclear Medicine. However, the therapeutic use of radioisotopes in other diseases is relatively unknown among our refering physicians. The therapeutic effects of intraarticular (rheumatoid arthritis) and intracavitary (pleural and peritoneal carcinosis) applications yields good results. The radiophosphorus therapy in polycythemia vera rubra has always to be considered as an alternative to chemotherapy. The use of analgetics may be reduced by pain therapy of bone metastasis by injection of bone-seeking beta emitters like Rh-186 HEDP. Other procedures like therapeutic application of meta-iodo-benzylguanidine in neuroblastoma and malignant pheochromocytoma resulted in at least remissions of the disease. Radioimmunotherapy needs further evaluation before it can be recommended as a routine procedure. (orig.) [de

  8. Laser therapy for periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efanov, O. I.

    2001-04-01

    An investigation was made of applying pulsed (lambda) equals 0.89 micrometers laser radiation in the treatment for early diagnosed periodontitis. The investigation was made on 65 patients (47 patients constituted the experimental group and 18 patients constituted a control group) affected by periodontitis. Clinical and functional tests revealed that laser therapy produced a string effect on the course of the illness. It reduced bleeding, inflammation, and pruritus. However, it did not produce an affect on electroexcitation. Biomicroscopic examinations and periodontium rheography revealed that the gingival blood flow became normal after the course of laser therapy. The capillary permeability and venous congestion decreased, which was confirmed by the increased time of vacuum tests, raised gingival temperature, reduced tissue clearance, and increased oxygen tension. Apart from that, laser therapy subsided fibrinolysis, proteolytic tissue activity, and decreased the exudative inflammation of periodontium.

  9. Antiphospholipid Syndrome Novel Therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Bittar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS is an autoimmune disease characterised by arterial and/or venous thrombosis, recurrent pregnancy loss, and persistently positive antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs. It could be life-threatening as in the case of catastrophic APS where multi-organ failure is observed. APS morbidities are thought to be the result of a combination of thrombotic and inflammatory processes. Over the past decades, the mainstay of therapy of APS has been anticoagulation. As new mechanisms of pathogenesis are being unravelled with time, novel targeted immunomodulatory therapies are being proposed as promising agents in the treatment of APS. In this article, we present an overview of new pathogenetic mechanisms in APS as well as novel antithrombotic and immunomodulatory therapies.

  10. PUVA combination therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morison, W L

    1985-08-01

    Various adjunctive treatments are now frequently used in combination with PUVA therapy with the aims of limiting adverse effects, improving efficacy and decreasing the cost of treatment. In the management of psoriasis, PUVA plus retinoids, PUVA plus methotrexate and PUVA plus UVB phototherapy are the most frequently used combinations. PUVA plus topical corticosteroids and PUVA plus anthralin are also efficacious but adverse effects and poor acceptance by patients are limiting factors. Combinations of PUVA plus nitrogen mustard and ionizing radiation are used in mycosis fungoides to treat tumors and residual disease in secluded sites. In the management of photodermatoses with PUVA therapy, prednisone is often required to prevent exacerbation of disease. A combination of prednisone and PUVA therapy can also be useful in lichen planus and atopic eczema. The selection of a suitable combination treatment, will depend upon the preferences of the clinician, the disease being treated, and the characteristics of the patient.

  11. Music Therapy in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    Professional development and recognition is an 'old' issue in music therapy but still a relevant, complex and crucial one. Burning questions regarding professionalisation are at the forefront of most music therapy associations’ agendas across Europe and beyond, and feed back directly to the work...... of the EMTC. Considering the wider political, socio-economic, cultural and disciplinary aspects of professionalisation, different development pathways impact directly on music therapy practice, training, ethics, professional collaboration and employment conditions. Although a number of endeavours have been...... implemented regarding music therapy’s professional development and recognition in different countries, documentation and sharing of such endeavours on international level has been limited and scattered. Drawing from the EMTC’s work since the early ‘90s, as well as from colleagues’ experiences (and struggles...

  12. Involved Node Radiation Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maraldo, Maja V; Aznar, Marianne C; Vogelius, Ivan R

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: The involved node radiation therapy (INRT) strategy was introduced for patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) to reduce the risk of late effects. With INRT, only the originally involved lymph nodes are irradiated. We present treatment outcome in a retrospective analysis using this strategy...... to 36 Gy). Patients attended regular follow-up visits until 5 years after therapy. RESULTS: The 4-year freedom from disease progression was 96.4% (95% confidence interval: 92.4%-100.4%), median follow-up of 50 months (range: 4-71 months). Three relapses occurred: 2 within the previous radiation field......, and 1 in a previously uninvolved region. The 4-year overall survival was 94% (95% confidence interval: 88.8%-99.1%), median follow-up of 58 months (range: 4-91 months). Early radiation therapy toxicity was limited to grade 1 (23.4%) and grade 2 (13.8%). During follow-up, 8 patients died, none from HL, 7...

  13. Anticholinerge Therapie der OAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hampel C

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Kenntnisse über Differentialdiagnostik und Pathophysiologie des Blasenüberaktivitäts-Syndroms sind essentiell für eine erfolgreiche Therapie. Obwohl Verhaltenstraining und Elektrostimulation ihre Wirksamkeit bei OAB bewiesen haben, ist die Therapie der ersten Wahl nach wie vor die anticholinerge Behandlung. Dessen ungeachtet ist die Einnahmetreue der Patienten unbefriedigend, was in der letzten Zeit zu verschiedenen Medikamentenneuentwicklungen mit verbesserter Verträglichkeit bei gleichbleibend hoher Effektivität geführt hat. Retard-Formulierungen, extraenterale Applikationswege und Rezeptor-Subselektivität sind hierbei die Prinzipien, welche die Behandlungsakzeptanz und Patientenzufriedenheit steigern sollen.

  14. Drug therapy in headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherall, Mark W

    2015-06-01

    All physicians will encounter patients with headaches. Primary headache disorders are common, and often disabling. This paper reviews the principles of drug therapy in headache in adults, focusing on the three commonest disorders presenting in both primary and secondary care: tension-type headache, migraine and cluster headache. The clinical evidence on the basis of which choices can be made between the currently available drug therapies for acute and preventive treatment of these disorders is presented, and information given on the options available for the emergency parenteral treatment of refractory migraine attacks and cluster headache. © Royal College of Physicians 2015. All rights reserved.

  15. Isotope therapy for hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Junji; Kasagi, Kanji; Iida, Yasuhiro; Torizuka, Kanji; Mori, Toru.

    1979-01-01

    131 I was first used to treat Basedow's disease approximately thirty years ago. Today, 131 I therapy widely used because it is effective and easy to apply. No notable side effects have been observed until now. The only demerit is a high incidence of hypothyroidism which occurs many years after therapy. The onset of hypothyroidism can be delayed by reducing the dose but can not be prevented. Therefore, patients should understand fully the possibility of the onset of hypothyroidism in the future. To obtain favorable results, patients with Basedow's disease should be given an ordinary dose of 131 I and should be followed up. (Nisio, M.)

  16. Antiretroviral therapy: current drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pau, Alice K; George, Jomy M

    2014-09-01

    The rapid advances in drug discovery and the development of antiretroviral therapy is unprecedented in the history of modern medicine. The administration of chronic combination antiretroviral therapy targeting different stages of the human immunodeficiency virus' replicative life cycle allows for durable and maximal suppression of plasma viremia. This suppression has resulted in dramatic improvement of patient survival. This article reviews the history of antiretroviral drug development and discusses the clinical pharmacology, efficacy, and toxicities of the antiretroviral agents most commonly used in clinical practice to date. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Cerebrospinal tomo-therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fumagalli, I.; Coche-Dequeant, B.; Lacornerie, T.; Reynaert, N.; Lartigau, E.

    2010-01-01

    The authors report the study of the feasibility of a cerebrospinal tomo-therapy, of the protection of organs at risk, and of tolerance. Nine patients have been treated, one with a bi-fractionated irradiation and the others with a conventional fractionation. Seven had chemotherapy before radiotherapy, and two had intensification with self-grafting of stem cells. The dose constraints and the planning target volume (PTV) differed with respect to the treated organ (kidney, lung, thyroid, parotid, hypophysis). The tolerance was good. It appears that cerebrospinal tomo-therapy results in a better comfort for the patient and an easier treatment plan with a good dose homogeneity. Short communication

  18. Spa therapy in dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najeeba Riyaz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Spa therapy constitutes the use of mineral springs and thermal mud to soothe and heal various ailments. Like the mineral springs, seas and oceans are also important centers for spa therapy of which the most important is Dead Sea (DS. DS has been famous for thousands of years for its miraculous curative and cosmetic properties. Intensive research is going on using DS minerals in a wide range of dermatological conditions especially psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, vitiligo and other eczemas and several papers have been published in various international and pharmacological journals.

  19. Neutron irradiation therapy machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Conventional neutron irradiation therapy machines, based on the use of cyclotrons for producing neutron beams, use a superconducting magnet for the cyclotron's magnetic field. This necessitates complex liquid He equipment and presents problems in general hospital use. If conventional magnets are used, the weight of the magnet poles considerably complicates the design of the rotating gantry. Such a therapy machine, gantry and target facilities are described in detail. The use of protons and deuterons to produce the neutron beams is compared and contrasted. (U.K.)

  20. Dosimetric evaluation of anti-CD20 labelled with 188Re

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrio, Graciela; Osso Junior, Joao A.

    2011-01-01

    Radioimmunotherapy has the potential to deliver lethal radiation energy directly to malignant cells via targeting of radioisotope-conjugated monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to specific antigens. B-cell lymphoma is a particularly good candidate for radioimmunotherapy because the disease is inherently radiosensitive, malignant cells in the blood, bone marrow, spleen and lymphonodes are accessible, and MAbs have been developed to B-cell surface antigens that do not shed or modulate. Rituximab (RTX), the human IgG1-type chimeric form of the parent murine antibody ibritumomab, is specifically targeted against CD20, a surface antigen expressed by pre-B and mature human B lymphocytes. The use of rhenium-188 from a 188 W/ 188 Re generator system represents an attractive alternative radionuclide for therapy. 188 Re is produced from beta decay of the 188 W parent. In addition to the emission of high-energy electrons (Eβ= 2118 keV), 188 Re also decays with emission of a gamma photon with an energy of 155 keV in 15% abundance. Besides the therapeutic usefulness of 188 Re, the emission of gamma photon is an added advantage since the biodistribution of 188 Re-labeled antibodies can be evaluated in vivo with a gamma camera. Also, rhenium has chemical properties similar to technetium. Thus, both can be conjugated to antibodies using similar chemistry methods. The objective of this work is to prove the usefulness of this radiopharmaceutical based on dosimetric studies, that are also required by the Brazilian Regulatory Agency (ANVISA). (author)

  1. Population Health and Occupational Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braveman, Brent

    2016-01-01

    Occupational therapy practitioners play an important role in improving the health of populations through the development of occupational therapy interventions at the population level and through advocacy to address occupational participation and the multiple determinants of health. This article defines and explores population health as a concept and describes the appropriateness of occupational therapy practice in population health. Support of population health practice as evidenced in the official documents of the American Occupational Therapy Association and the relevance of population health for occupational therapy as a profession are reviewed. Recommendations and directions for the future are included related to celebration of the achievements of occupational therapy practitioners in the area of population health, changes to the Occupational Therapy Practice Framework and educational accreditation standards, and the importance of supporting, recognizing, rewarding, and valuing occupational therapy practitioners who assume roles in which direct care is not their primary function. Copyright © 2016 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  2. The ethics of gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Sarah; Harris, John

    2006-10-01

    Recent developments have progressed in areas of science that pertain to gene therapy and its ethical implications. This review discusses the current state of therapeutic gene technologies, including stem cell therapies and genetic modification, and identifies ethical issues of concern in relation to the science of gene therapy and its application, including the ethics of embryonic stem cell research and therapeutic cloning, the risks associated with gene therapy, and the ethics of clinical research in developing new therapeutic technologies. Additionally, ethical issues relating to genetic modification itself are considered: the significance of the human genome, the distinction between therapy and enhancement, and concerns regarding gene therapy as a eugenic practice.

  3. Room for iodo therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, A.L.A.; Derivi, A.; Bacelar, A.; Ramos, F.R.; Dias, T.M.; Baptista, I.S.

    1996-01-01

    A description of rules to assemble, to install and to maintain a room for iodo therapy is presented. The necessities of the patients and procedures to meet the norms of radiologic protection established by the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil) are highlighted

  4. Gene therapy: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudip Indu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene therapy "the use of genes as medicine" involves the transfer of a therapeutic or working copy of a gene into specific cells of an individual in order to repair a faulty gene copy. The technique may be used to replace a faulty gene, or to introduce a new gene whose function is to cure or to favorably modify the clinical course of a condition. The objective of gene therapy is to introduce new genetic material into target cells while causing no damage to the surrounding healthy cells and tissues, hence the treatment related morbidity is decreased. The delivery system includes a vector that delivers a therapeutic gene into the patient′s target cell. Functional proteins are created from the therapeutic gene causing the cell to return to a normal stage. The vectors used in gene therapy can be viral and non-viral. Gene therapy, an emerging field of biomedicine, is still at infancy and much research remains to be done before this approach to the treatment of condition will realize its full potential.

  5. Salk therapy begins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    A clinical trial to test an immune therapy developed by polio pioneer Jonas Salk has begun enrollment of 3,000 participants, who will receive Remune shots every 12 weeks for 3 years to see if disease progression is slowed. The manufacturer is Immune Response, and the study is being conducted by the University of California at San Francisco.

  6. [Domiciliary oxygen therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Kafi, S

    2010-09-01

    In Belgium, oxygen therapy is becoming more and more accessible. When oxygen is needed for short periods or for special indications as palliative care, an agreement between mutual insurance companies and pharmacists allows the practitioner the home installation of gazeous oxygen cylinder or of oxygen concentrator. When long term oxygen therapy (LTOT) is indicated for patients with respiratory insufficiency, the pneumologist must first ask the INAMI the authorization to install one of the following modalities: oxygen concentrator with or without demand oxygen delivery cylinder and liquid oxygen. The goal of LTOT is to increase survival and quality of life. The principal and well accepted indication for LTOT is severe hypoxemia. The beneficial effects of oxygen therapy limited at night or on exertion are controversial. In order to increase patient's autonomy, oxygen can be prescribed for ambulation, respecting prescription's rules. At each step of oxygen therapy implementing (indication, choice of the device and follow-up) the patient under oxygen may benefit from a joint approach between the general practitioner and the chest specialist.

  7. Drama Therapies in Hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Judith; Prosperi, Mario

    1976-01-01

    Explores the use of drama as a therapeutic tool at various hospitals and records specific therapy groups dialogues. Available from: The Drama Review, 51 West 4th Street, Room 300, New York, N.Y. 10012. Subscription Rates: $12.50 per year. (MH)

  8. Dimensions of Feminist Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marecek, Jeanne

    This paper reviews the current status of psychotherapy for women from a feminist perspective. It examines the sexist prejudices and biases of traditional psychotherapies and psychological approaches; notes the manners in which therapy has often tended to reinforce the traditional sex role stereotyping and the women's consequent negative self…

  9. Obstructive sleep apnea therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekema, A.; Stegenga, B.; Wijkstra, P. J.; van der Hoeven, J. H.; Meinesz, A. F.; de Bont, L. G. M.

    In clinical practice, oral appliances are used primarily for obstructive sleep apnea patients who do not respond to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. We hypothesized that an oral appliance is not inferior to CPAP in treating obstructive sleep apnea effectively. We randomly assigned

  10. Music therapy for depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalbers, Sonja; Fusar-Poli, Laura; Freeman, Ruth E.; Spreen, Marinus; Ket, Johannes C.F.; Vink, Annemiek C.; Maratos, Anna; Crawford, Mike; Chen, Xi Jing; Gold, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Background: Depression is a highly prevalent mood disorder that is characterised by persistent low mood, diminished interest, and loss of pleasure. Music therapy may be helpful in modulating moods and emotions. An update of the 2008 Cochrane review was needed to improve knowledge on effects of music

  11. Radiopharmaceuticals for therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarus, C.R.; Maisey, M.N.

    1985-01-01

    Several factors influencing the choice of radiopharmaceutical used in the treatment of benign and malignant disease are discussed. A brief review is given of the routine clinical uses of radiopharmaceuticals including treatments for hyperthyroidism, thyroid cancer, polycythaemia rubra vera and intracavitary therapy. Finally clinical situations using radionuclides under evaluation including the treatment of bone disease, adrenal tumours and monoclonal antibodies are discussed. (UK)

  12. Modeling Internal Radiation Therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, Egon; Schouten, Theo E.; Pellegrini, M.; Fred, A.; Filipe, J.; Gamboa, H.

    2011-01-01

    A new technique is described to model (internal) radiation therapy. It is founded on morphological processing, in particular distance transforms. Its formal basis is presented as well as its implementation via the Fast Exact Euclidean Distance (FEED) transform. Its use for all variations of internal

  13. Radiation Therapy for Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can cause pain. Radiation given to shrink a tumor near the esophagus , which can interfere with a patient’s ability to eat and drink. How is radiation therapy planned for an individual ... show the location of a patient’s tumor and the normal areas around it. These scans ...

  14. [The Bioptron light therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dediulescu, Lucretia

    2004-01-01

    The Bioptron light therapy system acts naturally, upholding the capacity of regeneration of the body. Since the discovery of the therapeutical effects of the Bioptron light, over 20 years ago, its use as treatment has been developed for a large variety of diseases, among which also the eye-diseases (simplex and zoster herpes, conjunctivitis).

  15. Tumor therapy evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blattmann, H.; Kaser-Hotz, B.; Parvis, A.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this program is to acquire data in order to evaluate the advantages of the proton spot scan technique compared to other forefront radiotherapy procedures, and to integrate the diagnostic and therapeutic possibilities of the life science department for human cancer therapy by testing it in veterinary radio-oncology. (author) 1 fig., 2 tab., 2 refs

  16. Physical Therapy and Manual Physical Therapy: Differences in Patient Characteristics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ravensberg, C. D. Dorine; Oostendorp, Rob A B; van Berkel, Lonneke M.; Scholten-Peeters, Gwendolijne G M; Pool, Jan J.M.; Swinkels, Raymond A. H. M.; Huijbregts, Peter A.

    2005-01-01

    This study compared socio-demographic characteristics, health problem characteristics, and primary process data between database samples of patients referred to physical therapy (PT) versus a sample of patients referred to manual physical therapy (MPT) in the Netherlands. Statistical analysis

  17. Physical therapy and manual physical therapy: Differences in patient characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ravensberg, C. D. Dorine; Oostendorp, R.A.B.; van Berkel, Lonneke M.; Scholten-Peeters, G.G.M.; Pool, J.J.M.; Swinkels, Raymond A. H. M.; Huijbregts, Peter A.

    2005-01-01

    This study compared socio-demographic characteristics, health problem characteristics, and primary process data between database samples of patients referred to physical therapy (PT) versus a sample of patients referred to manual physical therapy (MPT) in the Netherlands. Statistical analysis

  18. Physical Therapy and Manual Physical Therapy: Differences in Patient Characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ravensberg, C. D. Dorine; Oostendorp, Rob A B; van Berkel, Lonneke M.; Scholten-Peeters, Gwendolijne G. M.; Pool, Jan J.M.; Swinkels, Raymond A. H. M.; Huijbregts, Peter A.

    2005-01-01

    This study compared socio-demographic characteristics, health problem characteristics, and primary process data between database samples of patients referred to physical therapy (PT) versus a sample of patients referred to manual physical therapy (MPT) in the Netherlands. Statistical analysis

  19. Therapy in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eftekhari, M.; Sadeghi, R.; Takavar, A.; Fard, A.; Saghari, M.

    2002-01-01

    Although there have been very significant development in the field of radionuclide therapy within the past 10 years, radionuclide therapy in the form of 131 I, 33 P,.... have been in use for over 46 years. Palliation of bone pain is a good example for radionuclide therapy. It has an especial role in advanced metastatic cancer. 32 P, 89 Sr-Cl, 186 Re-HEDP, 133 Sm-EDTMP, and 117 mSn-DTPA are used in these patients. They are usually effective and help to maintain a painless life for patients with advanced cancer. Although this kind of therapy is not as rapid as radiotherapy, its effect lasts longer. In addition re-treatment with these agents is safe and effective. Radioimmunotherapy is a new exciting technique in the radionuclide therapy. In this technique monoclonal antibodies or their fragments are labeled with a suitable radionuclide, these antibodies can irradiate tumor cells over a distance of some fraction of a millimeter. Bulky tumors are obviously unsuitable targets for Rit. Several antibodies specific for Cd 20 (B1 and 1 F 5) and CD 37 (Mb-1) labeled with 131 I have been used for hematologic malignancies with good response. Several antigens associated with carcinomas of various histologic types have been targeted for therapeutic purposes by antibodies labeled with different radionuclides. Other routes of administration like intraperitoneal, intrathecal, and intravesical have been used with different rates of success. Pre targeting techniques can be used to reduce unwanted radioactive concentration in normal tissues. The avidin-biotin system is an example, which exploits the high-affinity binding between avidin and biotin, and was first used with anti-Cea antibody. Radiation synovectomy is another aspect of radionuclide therapy 198 Au colloid, 90 Y resin colloid, and 165 Dy-FHMA are some of the radionuclides used in the field of hematology. There has been significant advances in the field of therapy in nuclear medicine in recent years, which are briefly

  20. Horticultural therapy for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Bo, Li; Sampson, Stephanie; Roberts, Samantha; Zhang, Guoyou; Wu, Weiping

    2014-05-19

    Horticultural therapy is defined as the process of utilising fruits, vegetables, flowers and plants facilitated by a trained therapist or healthcare provider, to achieve specific treatment goals or to simply improve a person's well-being. It can be used for therapy or rehabilitation programs for cognitive, physical, social, emotional, and recreational benefits, thus improving the person's body, mind and spirit. Between 5% to 15% of people with schizophrenia continue to experience symptoms in spite of medication, and may also develop undesirable adverse effects, horticultural therapy may be of value for these people. To evaluate the effects of horticultural therapy for people with schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like illnesses compared with standard care or other additional psychosocial interventions. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (Janurary 2013) and supplemented this by contacting relevant study authors, and manually searching reference lists. We included one randomised controlled trial (RCT) comparing horticultural therapy plus standard care with standard care alone for people with schizophrenia. We reliably selected, quality assessed and extracted data. For continuous outcomes, we calculated a mean difference (MD) and for binary outcomes we calculated risk ratio (RR), both with 95% confidence intervals (CI). We assessed risk of bias and created a 'Summary of findings' table using the GRADE (Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) approach. We included one single blind study (total n = 24). The overall risk of bias in the study was considered to be unclear although the randomisation was adequate. It compared a package of horticultural therapy which consisted of one hour per day of horticultural activity plus standard care with standard care alone over two weeks (10 consecutive days) with no long-term follow-up. Only two people were lost to follow-up in the study, both in the horticultural therapy group (1 RCT

  1. Current perspectives of radiation therapy. History of radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itami, Jun

    2011-01-01

    More than 100 years have passed since the discovery of X-Strahlen by Roentgen. The history of radiation therapy has evolved under mutual stimulating relationships of the external beam radiation therapy by X-ray tubes and accelerators, and the internal radiation therapy employing radium and other radionuclides. The currently employed technologies in radiation therapy have its origin already till nineteen sixties and the development of physics and engineering have realized the original concept. (author)

  2. Emotion Regulation in Schema Therapy and Dialectical Behavior Therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fassbinder, E.; Schweiger, U.; Martius, D.; Brand-de Wilde, O.; Arntz, A.

    2016-01-01

    Schema therapy (ST) and dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) have both shown to be effective treatment methods especially for borderline personality disorder. Both, ST and DBT, have their roots in cognitive behavioral therapy and aim at helping patient to deal with emotional dysregulation. However,

  3. What Is Nutrition Support Therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sponsored CE Programs Calendar of Events What Is Nutrition Support Therapy All people need food to live. ... patient populations from pediatrics to geriatrics. Key Terms: Nutrition Support Therapy The provision of enteral or parenteral ...

  4. Endocrine Therapy of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clarke, Robert

    2008-01-01

    ...) or TAM should be given as first line endocrine therapy. Unfortunately, response rates are lower, and response durations are shorter, on crossover than when these agents are given as first line therapies, e.g., ̃40...

  5. Endocrine Therapy of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clarke, Robert

    2007-01-01

    ...) or TAM should be given as first line endocrine therapy. Unfortunately, response rates are lower, and response durations are shorter, on crossover than when these agents are given as first line therapies, e.g., ̃40...

  6. Endocrine Therapy of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clarke, Robert S

    2005-01-01

    ...) or TAM should be given as first line endocrine therapy. Unfortunately, response rates are lower, and response durations are shorter, on crossover than when these agents are given as first line therapies, e.g., -40...

  7. Cybernetics of Brief Family Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeney, Bradford P.; Ross, Jeffrey M.

    1983-01-01

    Presents a cybernetic view of brief family therapy. Includes a historical discussion of the key ideas underlying brief family therapy, a cybernetic model of therapeutic change, and a clinical case for exemplification. (Author/JAC)

  8. Parental Involvement In Play Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlson, E. Lamonte

    1976-01-01

    Play therapy acts as a medium of expression for children. The purpose of this article is to outline a methodological approach as well as to emphasize the necessity of including the parent in the play therapy situation. (Author)

  9. Radiation therapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Katsumasa

    2001-01-01

    In Japan, where the mortality rate of prostate cancer is lower than in Western countries, radical prostatectomy or hormonal therapy has been applied more frequently than radiation therapy. However, the number of patients with prostate cancer has been increasing recently and the importance of radiation therapy has rapidly been recognized. Although there have been no randomized trials, results from several institutions in Western countries suggest that similar results of cancer control are achieved with either radiation therapy or radical prostatectomy. For higher-risk cases, conformal high-dose therapy or adjuvant hormonal therapy is more appropriate. In this article, the results of radiation therapy for prostate cancer were reviewed, with a view to the appropriate choice of therapy in Japan. (author)

  10. Cryogen therapy of skin cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zikiryakhodjaev, D.Z.; Sanginov, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    In this chapter authors studied the cure of skin cancer in particular cryogen therapy of skin cancer. They noted that cryogen therapy of skin cancer carried new possibilities and improved results of neoplasms treatment

  11. Moral Education through Play Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalle, Salwa; Zakaria, Gamal Abdul Nasir; Nawi, Aliff

    2014-01-01

    This paper will discuss on how sand therapy (as one type of play therapies) can be applied as an additional technique or approach in counseling. The research questions for this study are to see what are the development, challenges faced by the therapist during the sessions given and how sand therapy can aid to the progress of the client. It is a…

  12. Massage Therapy for Health Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... C. Changes in clinical parameters in patients with tension-type headache following massage therapy: a pilot study . Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy . 2008; 16(2):106–112. Moraska A, Pollini RA, ... adjustments to stress measures following massage therapy: a review of the ...

  13. Comments on chelation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrenn, M.E.

    1981-01-01

    The primary purpose of actinide chelation is to decrease the risk from radiation-induced cancer. While occupational exposures in the past have mainly involved low specific activity 239 Pu, future exposures will increasingly involve high specific activity plutonium, americium, and curium - all of which clear more rapidly from the lung. This will tend to shift the cancer risk from lung to bone and liver. Although therapy with Ca- or Zn-DTPA rapidly removes 241 Am from the canine, the sub-human primate, and the human liver, improved methods for removal from bone and lung are needed. DTPA can remove 241 Am more easily from the growing skeleton of a child than from the mature skeleton of an adult. Investigators at Karlsruhe are developing chelation agents for oral administration and are investigating the reduction in local dose to bone resulting from chelation therapy

  14. Gadolinium neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akine, Yasuyuki; Tokita, Nobuhiko; Tokuuye, Koichi; Satoh, Michinao; Churei, Hisahiko

    1993-01-01

    Gadolinium neutron capture therapy makes use of photons and electrons produced by nuclear reactions between gadolinium and lower-energy neutrons which occur within the tumor. The results of our studies have shown that its radiation effect is mostly of low LET and that the electrons are the significant component in the over-all dose. The dose from gadolinium neutron capture reactions does not seem to increase in proportion to the gadolinium concentration, and the Gd-157 concentration of about 100 μg/ml appears most optimal for therapy. Close contact between gadolinium and the cell is not necessarily required for cell inactivation, however, the effect of electrons released from intracellular gadolinium may be significant. Experimental studies on tumor-bearing mice and rabbits have shown that this is a very promising modality though further improvements in gadolinium delivery to tumors are needed. (author)

  15. Medical leech therapy (Hirudotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Wollina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Leeches have been used in medicine long time before BC. In recent years medical leech therapy has gained increasing interest in reconstructive surgery and pain management and other medical fields. The possible indications and success rates of this treatment are discussed. There is a special interest in salvage of flaps and grafts by the use of medical leeches. Retrospective analysis indicates a success rate of >80%. Randomized controlled trials have been performed in osteoarthritis. Case reports and smaller series are available for the treatment of chronic wounds, post-phlebitic syndrome and inflammatory skin diseases. The most common adverse effects are prolonged bleeding and infection by saprophytic intestinal bacteria of leeches. Medical leech therapy is a useful adjunct to other measures wound management.

  16. Drug therapy of leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kubanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Leprosy (Hansen’s disease is a chronic granulomatous bacterial infection mainly affecting the skin and peripheral nervous system yet also involving other organs and systems as a result of a pathological process. The causative agent of leprosy - Mycobacterium leprae - is an obligate intracellular microorganism. Despite the removal of a threat of a leprosy epidemic, European countries still record outbreaks of the disease mainly among migrants coming from endemic areas. A golden standard of the treatment of leprosy is a WHO-recommended combined drug therapy comprising drugs such as dapsone, clofazimine and rifampicin. The article provides current data on the mechanisms of action, efficacy and safety of these drugs and their combined scheme of treatment obtained as a result of clinical trials. Moreover, it also reviews new regimens of the drug therapy of leprosy including those with the use of drugs from the group of fluoroquinols as well as immunotherapy of the disease.

  17. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy & Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spaten, Ole Michael; Hansen, Tia G. B.; Gulbrandsen, Knut Arild

    Coaching is an expanding area of professional work, and recent years have brought forward the notion of cognitive coaching (Costa, 2006; Oestrich, 2005) which adapts theory and techniques from cognitive therapy to serve self-enhancement in non-clinical populations. We suggest that a cognitive...... to monitor and evaluate the learning process. The course is embedded in a graduate programme of applied cognitive, developmental and neuropsychology, and includes 92 hours (17 days spanning one academic year) of lectures and workshops on cognitive behavioural therapy and coaching. Seven behaviour competence...... coaching module in the graduate curriculum for students of psychology is a rewarding introduction to cognitive behavioural approaches, since it allows combination of traditional lectures with “action-reflection-learning” workshops, during which students train cognitive behavioural techniques in their own...

  18. Iron replacement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Coskun, Mehmet; Weiss, Günter

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Approximately, one-third of the world's population suffers from anemia, and at least half of these cases are because of iron deficiency. With the introduction of new intravenous iron preparations over the last decade, uncertainty has arisen when these compounds should...... be administered and under which circumstances oral therapy is still an appropriate and effective treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Numerous guidelines are available, but none go into detail about therapeutic start and end points or how iron-deficiency anemia should be best treated depending on the underlying cause...... of iron deficiency or in regard to concomitant underlying or additional diseases. SUMMARY: The study points to major issues to be considered in revisions of future guidelines for the true optimal iron replacement therapy, including how to assess the need for treatment, when to start and when to stop...

  19. Selective retina therapy (SRT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinkmann, R.; Birngruber, R.

    2007-01-01

    Selective Retina Therapy (SRT) is a new and very gentle laser method developed at the Medical Laser Center Luebeck. It is currently investigated clinically in order to treat retinal disorders associated with a decreased function of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). SRT is designed to selectively effect the RPE while sparing the neural retina and the photoreceptors as well as the choroid. Aim of the therapy is the rejuvenation of the RPE in the treated areas, which should ideally lead to a long term metabolic increase at the chorio-retinal junction. In contrast to conventional laser photocoagulation, which is associated with a complete thermal necrosis of the treated site, SRT completely retains full vision. This paper reviews the methods and mechanisms behind selective RPE effects and reports the first clinical results. An online dosimetry technique to visualize the ophthalmoscopically invisible effects is introduced. (orig.)

  20. Antiplatelet therapy in PCI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanaroff, Alexander; Rao, Sunil

    2018-01-01

    Platelets play a key role in mediating stent thrombosis, the major cause of ischemic events in the immediate period following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). For this reason, antiplatelet therapy, started at the time of PCI and continued for at least 30 days afterwards, is the cornerstone of antithrombotic therapy after PCI. However, the use of antiplatelet agents increase bleeding risk, with more potent antiplatelet agents further increasing bleeding risk. For this reason, balancing prevention of ischemic events with risk of bleeding is fundamental to the effective use of antiplatelet agents. In the past 5 years, potent and fast-acting P2Y12 inhibitors have been introduced, and have augmented the antiplatelet armamentarium available to interventional cardiologists. In this review, we review the preclinical and clinical data surrounding these new agents, and discuss the significant questions and controversies that still exist regarding the optimal antiplatelet strategy. PMID:28582206

  1. Tinnitus retraining therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastreboff, P J

    2007-01-01

    Tinnitus retraining therapy (TRT) is a specific clinical method based on the neurophysiological model of tinnitus described by Jastreboff (Jastreboff, P.J. (1990). Neurosci. Res., 8: 221-254). The method is aimed at habituation of reactions evoked by tinnitus, and subsequently habituation of the tinnitus perception. Several other methods have been suggested for habituation of tinnitus, but in TRT two components that strictly follow the principles of the neurophysiological model of tinnitus are implemented and necessary: (1) counseling, aimed at reclassification of tinnitus to a category of a neutral signals and (2) sound therapy, aimed at weakening tinnitus-related neuronal activity as suggested by Jastreboff and Hazell (Jastreboff, P.J. and Hazell, J.W.P. (2004). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge). This chapter outlines the theoretical basis of TRT as well as comments on the clinical outcome of the use of TRT for different kinds of tinnitus.

  2. Gestalt Therapy and Cognitive Therapy - Contrasts or Complementarities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesvang, Jan; Sommer, Ulla; Hammink, James

    2010-01-01

    The article investigates the relationship between crucial concepts and understandings in gestalt therapy and cognitive therapy aiming at discussing if and how they can be mutually enriching when considered as complementary parts in a more encompassing integrative therapeutic approach. It is argued...... that gestalt therapy, defined as a fieldtheoretical approach to the study of gestalt formation process, can complement the schema-based understanding and practice in cognitive therapy. The clinical benefits from a complementary view of the two approaches will be a wider scope of awareness toward individual...... between fundamental awareness work in gestalt therapy and the tendency within cognitive therapy toward incorporating mindfulness as a therapeutic tool. In the conclusion of the article, additional complementary points between the two approaches are outlined. Keywords: integrative therapy, gestalt...

  3. Individualization of antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlos R

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Rebecca Pavlos, Elizabeth J PhillipsInstitute for Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Murdoch University, Murdoch, Western Australia, AustraliaAbstract: Antiretroviral therapy (ART has evolved considerably over the last three decades. From the early days of monotherapy with high toxicities and pill burdens, through to larger pill burdens and more potent combination therapies, and finally, from 2005 and beyond where we now have the choice of low pill burdens and once-daily therapies. More convenient and less toxic regimens are also becoming available, even in resource-poor settings. An understanding of the individual variation in response to ART, both efficacy and toxicity, has evolved over this time. The strong association of the major histocompatibility class I allele HLA-B*5701 and abacavir hypersensitivity, and its translation and use in routine HIV clinical practice as a predictive marker with 100% negative predictive value, has been a success story and a notable example of the challenges and triumphs in bringing pharmacogenetics to the clinic. In real clinical practice, however, it is going to be the exception rather than the rule that individual biomarkers will definitively guide patient therapy. The need for individualized approaches to ART has been further increased by the importance of non-AIDS comorbidities in HIV clinical practice. In the future, the ideal utilization of the individualized approach to ART will likely consist of a combined approach using a combination of knowledge of drug, virus, and host (pharmacogenetic and pharmacoecologic [factors in the individual's environment that may be dynamic over time] information to guide the truly personalized prescription. This review will focus on our knowledge of the pharmacogenetics of the efficacy and toxicity of currently available antiretroviral agents and the current and potential utility of such information and approaches in present and future HIV clinical care.Keywords: HIV

  4. Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Moghaddam, Nima G.; Dawson, David L.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) is a generic term, encompassing both: (1) approaches underpinned by an assumption that presenting emotional and behavioural difficulties are cognitively mediated or moderated; and (2) atheoretical bricolages of cognitive and behavioural techniques. This latter category may include effective therapeutic packages (perhaps acting through mechanisms articulated in the first category) but, when theory is tacit, it becomes harder to make analytical generalisation...

  5. Cognitive behavior therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Labanya Bhattacharya; Bhushan Chaudari; Daniel Saldanha; Preethi Menon

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is one of the most extensively researched psychotherapeutic modalities which is being used either in conjunction with psychotropic drugs or alone in various psychiatric disorders. CBT is a short-term psychotherapeutic approach that is designed to influence dysfunctional emotions, behaviors, and cognitions through a goal-oriented, systematic procedure. Recent advances in CBT suggest that there is a fresh look on a "third wave" CBT that has a greater impact and ...

  6. Assessment in Cognitive Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Gary P.; Clark, David A.

    2015-01-01

    This volume brings together leading experts to explore the state of the art of cognitive clinical assessment and identify cutting-edge approaches of interest to clinicians and researchers. The book highlights fundamental problems concerning the validity of assessments that are widely used in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). Key directions for further research and development are identified. Updated cognitive assessment methods are described in detail, with particular attention to transdiag...

  7. Virtual reality exposure therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Rothbaum, BO; Hodges, L; Kooper, R

    1997-01-01

    It has been proposed that virtual reality (VR) exposure may be an alternative to standard in vivo exposure. Virtual reality integrates real-time computer graphics, body tracking devices, visual displays, and other sensory input devices to immerse a participant in a computer- generated virtual environment. Virtual reality exposure is potentially an efficient and cost-effective treatment of anxiety disorders. VR exposure therapy reduced the fear of heights in the first control...

  8. Intracavitary therapy of craniopharyngiomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, B.; Fig, L. M.; Gross, M.D.; Ann Arbor Nuclear Medicine Service, Ann Arbor, MI

    1999-01-01

    Craniopharyngiomas are benign cystic para-hypophyseal tumors often associated with hypopituitarism and visual-field abnormalities. Their therapy by surgery and external beam radiotherapy is imperfect. The intracavitary instillation of beta-emitting colloid radiopharmaceuticals into the cysts permits the delivery of far higher radiation doses to the cyst lining than is possible by external beam radiotherapy. This technique permits destruction of the lining epithelium with resultant elimination of cyst fluid formation and cyst shrinkage in up to 80% of cases

  9. Proton beam therapy facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    It is proposed to build a regional outpatient medical clinic at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), Batavia, Illinois, to exploit the unique therapeutic characteristics of high energy proton beams. The Fermilab location for a proton therapy facility (PTF) is being chosen for reasons ranging from lower total construction and operating costs and the availability of sophisticated technical support to a location with good access to patients from the Chicago area and from the entire nation. 9 refs., 4 figs., 26 tabs

  10. Neutron beams for therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuplenikov, Eh.L.; Dovbnya, A.N.; Telegin, Yu.N.; Tsymbal, V.A.; Kandybej, S.S.

    2011-01-01

    It was given the analysis and generalization of the study results carried out during some decades in many world countries on application of thermal, epithermal and fast neutrons for neutron, gamma-neutron and neutron-capture therapy. The main attention is focused on the practical application possibility of the accumulated experience for the base creation for medical research and the cancer patients effective treatment.

  11. Psychological therapies for thalassaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anie, Kofi A; Massaglia, Pia

    2014-03-06

    Thalassaemia is a group of genetic blood disorders characterised by the absence or reduction in the production of haemoglobin. Severity is variable from less severe anaemia, through thalassaemia intermedia, to profound severe anaemia (thalassaemia major). In thalassaemia major other complications include growth retardation, bone deformation, and enlarged spleen. Blood transfusion is required to treat severe forms of thalassaemia, but this results in excessive accumulation of iron in the body (iron overload), removed mostly by a drug called desferrioxamine through 'chelation therapy'. Non-routine treatments are bone marrow transplantation (which is age restricted), and possibly hydroxyurea, designed to raise foetal haemoglobin level, thus reducing anaemia. In addition, psychological therapies seem appropriate to improving outcome and adherence to medical treatment. To examine the evidence that in people with thalassaemia, psychological treatments improve the ability to cope with the condition, and improve both medical and psychosocial outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register which comprises of references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. Searches on the Internet were also performed.Date of the most recent search of the Group's Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register: 11 November 2013. All randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing the use of psychological intervention to no (psychological) intervention in people with thalassaemia. No trials of psychological therapies have been found in the literature for inclusion in this review. There are currently no results to be reported. As a chronic disease with a considerable role for self-management, psychological support seems appropriate for managing thalassaemia. However, from the information currently available, no conclusions

  12. Proton beam therapy facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-10-09

    It is proposed to build a regional outpatient medical clinic at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), Batavia, Illinois, to exploit the unique therapeutic characteristics of high energy proton beams. The Fermilab location for a proton therapy facility (PTF) is being chosen for reasons ranging from lower total construction and operating costs and the availability of sophisticated technical support to a location with good access to patients from the Chicago area and from the entire nation. 9 refs., 4 figs., 26 tabs.

  13. Radiation therapy physics

    CERN Document Server

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this book is to provide a uniquely comprehensive source of information on the entire field of radiation therapy physics. The very significant advances in imaging, computational, and accelerator technologies receive full consideration, as do such topics as the dosimetry of radiolabeled antibodies and dose calculation models. The scope of the book and the expertise of the authors make it essential reading for interested physicians and physicists and for radiation dosimetrists.

  14. A Technique: Exposure Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan AKKOYUNLU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Exposure with response prevention is an effective treatment for all anxiety disorders. According to the behavioral learning theories, fears which are conditioned via classical conditioning are reinforced by respondent conditioning. Avoidance and safety seeking behaviors prevent disconfirmation of anxious beliefs. In exposure client faces stimulates or cues that elicit fear or distress, by this avoidance is inhibited. Clients are also encouraged to resists performing safety seeking behaviors or rituals that they utilize to reduce fear or distress. Accomplishing these habituation or extinction is achieved. In addition to this clients learn that feared consequences does not realize or not harmful as they believed by experiencing. Emotional processing is believed to be the mechanism of change in exposure.Objective: The aim of this review is to provide a definition of exposure and its effectiveness briefly, and describe how to implement exposure, its steps and remarkable aspects using. Exposure therapies and treatments that involve exposure are proved to be effective in all anxiety disorders. Exposure therapy can be divided in three parts: Assessment and providing a treatment rationale, creating an exposure hierarchy and response prevention plan, implementing exposure sessions. Clients must also continue to perform exposure between sessions. Therapy transcripts are also provided to exemplify these parts. Conclusion: Exposure with response prevention is a basic and effective technique. Every cognitive behavior therapist must be able to implement this technique and be cognizant of pearls of this procedure.

  15. Smart Radiation Therapy Biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngwa, Wilfred; Boateng, Francis; Kumar, Rajiv; Irvine, Darrell J; Formenti, Silvia; Ngoma, Twalib; Herskind, Carsten; Veldwijk, Marlon R; Hildenbrand, Georg Lars; Hausmann, Michael; Wenz, Frederik; Hesser, Juergen

    2017-03-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) is a crucial component of cancer care, used in the treatment of over 50% of cancer patients. Patients undergoing image guided RT or brachytherapy routinely have inert RT biomaterials implanted into their tumors. The single function of these RT biomaterials is to ensure geometric accuracy during treatment. Recent studies have proposed that the inert biomaterials could be upgraded to "smart" RT biomaterials, designed to do more than 1 function. Such smart biomaterials include next-generation fiducial markers, brachytherapy spacers, and balloon applicators, designed to respond to stimuli and perform additional desirable functions like controlled delivery of therapy-enhancing payloads directly into the tumor subvolume while minimizing normal tissue toxicities. More broadly, smart RT biomaterials may include functionalized nanoparticles that can be activated to boost RT efficacy. This work reviews the rationale for smart RT biomaterials, the state of the art in this emerging cross-disciplinary research area, challenges and opportunities for further research and development, and a purview of potential clinical applications. Applications covered include using smart RT biomaterials for boosting cancer therapy with minimal side effects, combining RT with immunotherapy or chemotherapy, reducing treatment time or health care costs, and other incipient applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Radiotherapy : proton therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The first phase of proton therapy at the National Accelerator Centre will be the development of a 200 MeV small-field horizontal beam radioneurosurgical facility in the south treatment vault. A progressive expansion of this facility is planned. The patient support and positioning system has been designed and developed by the Departments of Mechanical Engineering and Surveying of the University of Cape Town to ensure the accurate positioning in the proton beam of the lesion to be treated. The basic components of the system are an adjustable chair, a series of video cameras and two computers. The specifications for the proton therapy interlock system require that the inputs to and the outputs from the system be similar to those of the neutron therapy system. Additional facilities such as a full diagnostic system which would assist the operators in the event of an error will also be provided. Dosimeters are required for beam monitoring, for monitor calibration and for determining dose distributions. Several designs of transmission ionization chambers for beam monitoring have been designed and tested, while several types of ionization chambers and diodes have been used for the dose distribution measurements. To facilitate the comparison of measured ranges and energy losses of proton beams in the various materials with tabled values, simple empirical approximations, which are sufficiently accurate for most applications, have been used. 10 refs., 10 fig., 4 tabs

  17. Radiation therapy for chordomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Hajime; Takahashi, Takeo; Nakamura, Yuji; Niibe, Hideo

    1995-01-01

    Chordomas are slow-growing primary malignant bone tumors which originate from remnants of the fetal notochordal system. They are difficult to control by surgery alone. Four patients with chordomas treated with radiation therapy were studied, and the effectiveness of radiotherapy was evaluated. These 4 (3.8%) patients were among 106 patients with primary malignant bone tumors referred to us from 1959 to 1987. Primary sites were the sacrococcygeal region in three patients and the clivus in one. The patients' ages ranged from 51 to 75 years. The male : female ratio was 1 : 1. Patients received 48 to 60 Gy of radiation to the primary sites. Because the radiosensitivity of the tumors was low, the responses were poor. The duration of survival was 6, 33, 68, and 125 months. The cause of death in each case was local recurrence of tumor. As a result, a dose greater than 60 Gy is thought to be necessary for curative radiotherapy. Proton beam therapy seems to be best choice for chordomas in the clivus, and mixed-beam (proton and megavolt age X-ray) therapy or multiportal irradiation, which gives an ideal spatial dose distribution, seems to be most suitable for sacrococcygeal chordomas. (author)

  18. [Family therapy of encopresis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitczok von Brisinski, Ingo; Lüttger, Fred

    2007-01-01

    Encopresis is a taboo symptom, which is connected with great suffering from mental pressure not only for the children concerned, but also their relatives. Family related approaches are indispensable to understand encopresis, because as a result of high symptom persistence and psychological comorbidity in many cases a purely behavior-therapeutic, symptom focused approach is not sufficient, and further psychotherapeutic interventions are necessary. There is a strong temporal correlation between family interaction and frequency of soiling and changes of interaction influence changes in soiling more than the other way round. In a literature review different family relationship patterns and approaches of family therapy are represented regarding encopresis. Meaningful differences for family therapy are represented regarding primary/secondary encopresis, encopresis with/without comorbid psychiatric disorder as well as encopresis with/without dysfunctional family interaction. Distinctions are made between symptom focused, not-symptom focused and combined family therapeutic approaches, which are illustrated with case examples of outpatient and inpatient treatment. Symptom focused family therapy like e.g. externalizing of the soiling is helpful also if no dysfunctional family interaction patterns are present, because all family members can contribute to treatment success according to their own resources.

  19. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy: dynamic MLC (DMLC) therapy, multisegment therapy and tomotherapy. An example of QA in DMLC therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, S.

    1998-01-01

    Intensity-modulated radiation therapy will make a quantum leap in tumor control. It is the new radiation therapy for the new millennium. The major methods to achieve IMRT are: 1. Dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC) therapy, 2. multisegment therapy, and 3. tomotherapy. The principles of these 3 techniques are briefly reviewed. Each technique presents unique QA issues which are outlined. As an example this paper will present the results of a recent new study of an important QA concern in DMLC therapy. (orig.) [de

  20. American Society of Gene & Cell Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gene & Cell Therapy Defined Gene therapy and cell therapy are overlapping fields of biomedical research that aim to repair the direct cause of genetic diseases. Read More Gene & Cell Therapy FAQ's Read the most common questions raised by ...

  1. Proton therapy in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, M.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Proton therapy has been in use since 1954 and over 25,000 patients have been treated worldwide. Until recently most patients were treated at physics research facilities but with the development of more compact and reliable accelerators it is now possible to realistically plan for proton therapy in an Australian hospital. The Australian National Proton Project has been formed to look at the feasibility of a facility which would be primarily for patient treatment but would also be suitable for research and commercial applications. A detailed report will be produced by the end of the year. The initial clinical experience was mainly with small tumours and other lesions close to critical organs. Large numbers of eye tumours have also been treated. Protons have a well-defined role in these situations and are now being used in the treatment of more common cancers. With the development of hospital-based facilities, over 2,500 patients with prostate cancer have been treated using a simple technique which gives results at least as good as radical surgery, external beam radiotherapy or brachytherapy. Importantly, the incidence of severe complications is very low. There are encouraging results in many disease sites including lung, liver, soft tissue sarcomas and oesophagus. As proton therapy becomes more widely available, randomised trials comparing it with conventional radiotherapy or Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) will be possible. In most situations the use of protons will enable a higher dose to be given safely but in situations where local control rates are already satisfactory, protons are expected to produce less complications than conventional treatment. The initial costs of a proton facility are high but the recurrent costs are similar to other forms of high technology radiotherapy. . Simple treatment techniques with only a few fields are usually possible and proton therapy avoids the high integral doses associated with IMRT. This reduction in

  2. Scientific perspectives on music therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillecke, Thomas; Nickel, Anne; Bolay, Hans Volker

    2005-12-01

    What needs to be done on the long road to evidence-based music therapy? First of all, an adequate research strategy is required. For this purpose the general methodology for therapy research should be adopted. Additionally, music therapy needs a variety of methods of allied fields to contribute scientific findings, including mathematics, natural sciences, behavioral and social sciences, as well as the arts. Pluralism seems necessary as well as inevitable. At least two major research problems can be identified, however, that make the path stony: the problem of specificity and the problem of eclecticism. Neuroscientific research in music is giving rise to new ideas, perspectives, and methods; they seem to be promising prospects for a possible contribution to a theoretical and empirical scientific foundation for music therapy. Despite the huge heterogeneity of theoretical approaches in music therapy, an integrative model of working ingredients in music therapy is useful as a starting point for empirical studies in order to question what specifically works in music therapy. For this purpose, a heuristic model, consisting of five music therapy working factors (attention modulation, emotion modulation, cognition modulation, behavior modulation, and communication modulation) has been developed by the Center for Music Therapy Research (Viktor Dulger Institute) in Heidelberg. Evidence shows the effectiveness of music therapy for treating certain diseases, but the question of what it is in music therapy that works remains largely unanswered. The authors conclude with some questions to neuroscientists, which we hope may help elucidate relevant aspects of a possible link between the two disciplines.

  3. Radiation therapy for digestive tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piedbois, P.; Levy, E.; Thirion, P.; Martin, L.; Calitchi, E.; Otmezguine, Y.; Le Bourgeois, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    This brief review of radiation therapy of digestive tumors in 1994 seeks to provide practical answers to the most commonly asked questions: What is the place of radiation therapy versus chemotherapy for the treatment of these patients ? What are the approved indications of radiation therapy and which avenues of research are being explored ? Radiation therapy is used in over two-thirds of patients referred to an oncology department for a gastrointestinal tract tumor. The main indications are reviewed: cancer of the rectum and anal canal and, to a lesser extent, cancer of the esophagus and pancreas. The main focuses of current research include radiation therapy-chemotherapy combinations, intraoperative radiation therapy, and radiation therapy of hepatobiliary tumors. (authors). 23 refs., 1 fig

  4. Advances in inmune therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvalheim, G.

    2004-01-01

    The use of monoclonal antibodies either alone or combined with isotopes as radio immuno conjugates has proven to be very efficient treatment for cancers such as non-Hodgkin lymphomas or breast cancer. Cellular based immunotherapy treatment modalities are also currently in use. Allogeneic T lymphocytes infused during haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HTSC) mediate graft-versus-tumour effects, but also initiate graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), which remains the primary complications of allogeneic HTSC. The current clinical need for GVHD prophylaxis, which at a minimum involves single agents immune suppression generally limits the success of allogeneic HTSC immunotherapy to patients with indolent or chemotherapy sensitive malignancy. Therefore the use of allogeneic HTSC as a cancer therapy still needs to augment the anti-tumour effects and improve GVHD control. During the presentation several ongoing studies addressing these questions will be discussed. Since 1996 more than 500 patients have been recruited into >30 clinical trials with dendritic cell vaccines. Most clinical trials used different protocols with variations in D C generation, Dc maturation stage, D C-Ag loading, route of administration, vaccination intervals and vaccination frequency. The overall response rate is 20%(0- >50%) with occasional complete or partial regressions, prolonged stable disease, but no cure. Little or no toxicity has been observed which might suggest that the vaccines do not work as efficient as expected. As will be discussed the reason for these modest clinical effects observed can be many. Therefore, careful study design and use of standardized clinical and immunological criteria are needed. Recently, we have started a process for production of TILs, antigen specific T cells. During our DC vaccine programs tumour specific T-cell clones have been developed and such T-cells might also be useful as therapy in the vaccinated patients. The principal of such therapy and the

  5. Acute Alcoholic Hepatitis: Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Paulina K; Lucey, Michael R

    2016-08-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) causes great morbidity and mortality in the United States and throughout the world. Advances in therapy have proven difficult. In part, this reflects challenges in diagnosis, including the distinction between AH and acute-on-chronic liver failure. Liver biopsy is the best method to clarify the cause in circumstances whereby conflicting clinical data confound the diagnosis. All treatment of AH begins with abstinence from alcohol. All patients with AH should be given sufficient nutrition. Prednisolone has become the principal agent for treating patients with severe AH. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Electroconvulsive therapy and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, R G; Wiens, A N

    1975-10-01

    Recent research on the effects of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) on memory is critically reviewed. Despite some inconsistent findings, unilateral nondominant ECT appears to affect verbal memory less than bilateral ECT. Adequate research on multiple monitored ECT is lacking. With few exceptions, the research methodologies for assessing memory have been inadequate. Many studies have confounded learning with retention, and only very recently has long term memory been adequately studied. Standardized assessment procedures for short term and long term memory are needed, in addition to more sophisticated assessment of memory processes, the duration of memory loss, and qualitative aspects of memories.

  7. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cheng

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Targeted radiotherapy is an evolving and promising modality of cancer treatment. The killing of cancer cells is achieved with the use of biological vectors and appropriate radionuclides. Among the many advantages of this approach are its selectiveness in delivering the radiation to the target, relatively less severe and infrequent side effects, and the possibility of assessing the uptake by the tumor prior to the therapy. Several different radiopharmaceuticals are currently being used by various administration routes and targeting mechanisms. This article aims to briefly review the current status of targeted radiotherapy as well as to outline the advantages and disadvantages of radionuclides used for this purpose.

  8. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ersahin, Devrim, E-mail: devrimersahin@yahoo.com; Doddamane, Indukala; Cheng, David [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, School of Medicine, Yale University, 333 Cedar St., New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)

    2011-10-11

    Targeted radiotherapy is an evolving and promising modality of cancer treatment. The killing of cancer cells is achieved with the use of biological vectors and appropriate radionuclides. Among the many advantages of this approach are its selectiveness in delivering the radiation to the target, relatively less severe and infrequent side effects, and the possibility of assessing the uptake by the tumor prior to the therapy. Several different radiopharmaceuticals are currently being used by various administration routes and targeting mechanisms. This article aims to briefly review the current status of targeted radiotherapy as well as to outline the advantages and disadvantages of radionuclides used for this purpose.

  9. Proton therapy device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tronc, D.

    1994-01-01

    The invention concerns a proton therapy device using a proton linear accelerator which produces a proton beam with high energies and intensities. The invention lies in actual fact that the proton beam which is produced by the linear accelerator is deflected from 270 deg in its plan by a deflecting magnetic device towards a patient support including a bed the longitudinal axis of which is parallel to the proton beam leaving the linear accelerator. The patient support and the deflecting device turn together around the proton beam axis while the bed stays in an horizontal position. The invention applies to radiotherapy. 6 refs., 5 figs

  10. Metformin poisoning: which therapy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Casagranda

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acidosis is a rare but serious adverse effect in metformintreated- patients. The authors report a case of metformin-associated lactic acidosis and discuss the appropriated therapy. The patient was treated with bicarbonate iv and with two short dialysis session, also because of acute renal failure. Many authors do not agree with using bicarbonate, and about hemodialysis some authors suggest that the session should go on at least 12 hours. In this case the use of bicarbonate and short hemodialysis determinated a favourable outcame.

  11. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ersahin, Devrim; Doddamane, Indukala; Cheng, David

    2011-01-01

    Targeted radiotherapy is an evolving and promising modality of cancer treatment. The killing of cancer cells is achieved with the use of biological vectors and appropriate radionuclides. Among the many advantages of this approach are its selectiveness in delivering the radiation to the target, relatively less severe and infrequent side effects, and the possibility of assessing the uptake by the tumor prior to the therapy. Several different radiopharmaceuticals are currently being used by various administration routes and targeting mechanisms. This article aims to briefly review the current status of targeted radiotherapy as well as to outline the advantages and disadvantages of radionuclides used for this purpose

  12. Group therapy for adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Hribar

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available The group included adolescents from secondary school and some students. The group had weekly sessions or twice on mounth. The adolescents had varied simptoms: depressive, anxiety, psychosomatic disorders, learning difficulties, cunduct problems. All of adolescents were common on many problems in social interactions. The goal of therapeutic work were: to increase assertiveness skills and to reduce the anxious in social situations. The adolescents in group raised a self-esteem and developed some assertiveness skills: eye contact" and effective communication skills, persistence, refusing and requesting, giving and receiving critism, etc. The methods of work and techniques were based on principles of cognitive-behaviour therapy.

  13. Carbon Ion Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassler, Niels; Hansen, David Christoffer; Herrmann, Rochus

    On the importance of choice of target size for selective boosting of hypoxic tumor subvolumina in carbon ion therapy Purpose: Functional imaging methods in radiotherapy are maturing and can to some extent uncover radio resistant structures found within a tumour entity. Selective boost of identified...... effect. All cell lines investigated here did not reach an OER of 1, even for the smaller structures, which may indicate that the achievable dose average LET of carbon ions is too low, and heavier ions than carbon may be considered for functional LET-painting....

  14. The Chemistry of Re-188 Radiopharmaceuticals: Could Re-188 Play the Same Role in Therapy as Tc-99m in Diagnostics?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duatti, A.

    2009-01-01

    -donor Lewis'bases) favoring the conversion of the tetrahedral arrangement of [ 188 ReO 4 ]- to a higher coordination geometry. Using this novel approach, we were able to obtain the high-yield preparation of a large number of Re-188 complexes having exactly the same molecular structure of the corresponding Tc-99m analogues, and clearly demonstrate that these matched-pairs of Tc-99m and Re-188 complexes fully exhibit the same biodistribution properties. These findings opened the door to the application of a number of Re-188 radiopharmaceuticals to the treatment of different neoplastic diseases. In particular, we developed Re-188 radiopharmaceuticals for the therapy of the following tumours: (a) Re-188 labeled lipiodol for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma, (b) Re-188 labeled peptides for the therapy of different types of peptide-receptor expressing tumors, and (c) Re-188 labeled biotin and bivalent haptens for the adjuvant treatment of breast cancer. Recently, we devised a remotely controlled, multi-reaction, synthesis module for the preparation of different classes of Re-188 radiopharmaceuticals under conditions that dramatically decrease the radiation exposure of personnel involved in Re-188 production. (author)

  15. Gene therapy in periodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Anirban; Singh, Nidhi; Saluja, Mini

    2013-03-01

    GENES are made of DNA - the code of life. They are made up of two types of base pair from different number of hydrogen bonds AT, GC which can be turned into instruction. Everyone inherits genes from their parents and passes them on in turn to their children. Every person's genes are different, and the changes in sequence determine the inherited differences between each of us. Some changes, usually in a single gene, may cause serious diseases. Gene therapy is 'the use of genes as medicine'. It involves the transfer of a therapeutic or working gene copy into specific cells of an individual in order to repair a faulty gene copy. Thus it may be used to replace a faulty gene, or to introduce a new gene whose function is to cure or to favorably modify the clinical course of a condition. It has a promising era in the field of periodontics. Gene therapy has been used as a mode of tissue engineering in periodontics. The tissue engineering approach reconstructs the natural target tissue by combining four elements namely: Scaffold, signaling molecules, cells and blood supply and thus can help in the reconstruction of damaged periodontium including cementum, gingival, periodontal ligament and bone.

  16. Targeted Therapy for Melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, Thomas; Moore, Herbert

    2016-01-01

    The research project, entitled ''Targeted Therapy for Melanoma,'' was focused on investigating the use of kidney protection measures to lower the non-specific kidney uptake of the radiolabeled Pb-DOTA-ReCCMSH peptide. Previous published work demonstrated that the kidney exhibited the highest non-target tissue uptake of the "2"1"2"P"b"/"2"0"3Pb radiolabeled melanoma targeting peptide DOTA-ReCCMSH. The radiolabeled alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) peptide analog DOTA-Re(Arg"1"1)CCMSH, which binds the melanocortin-1 receptor over-expressed on melanoma tumor cells, has shown promise as a PRRT agent in pre-clinical studies. High tumor uptake of "2"1"2Pb labeled DOTA-Re(Arg"1"1)CCMSH resulted in tumor reduction or eradication in melanoma therapy studies. Of particular note was the 20-50% cure rate observed when melanoma mice were treated with alpha particle emitter "2"1"2Pb. However, as with most PRRT agents, high radiation doses to the kidneys where observed. To optimize tumor treatment efficacy and reduce nephrotoxicity, the tumor to kidney uptake ratio must be improved. Strategies to reduce kidney retention of the radiolabeled peptide, while not effecting tumor uptake and retention, can be broken into several categories including modification of the targeting peptide sequence and reducing proximal tubule reabsorption.

  17. Aperture modulated arc therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crooks, S M; Wu, Xiaodong; Takita, C; Watzich, M; Xing Lei

    2003-01-01

    We show that it is possible to translate an intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment plan and deliver it as a single arc. This technique is referred to in this paper as aperture modulation arc therapy (AMAT). During this arc, the MLC leaves do not conform to the projection of the target PTV and the machine output of the accelerator has a constant value. Dose was calculated using the CORVUS 4.0 IMRT system, which uses a pencil beam dose algorithm, and treatments were delivered using a Varian 2100C/D Clinac. Results are presented for a head and neck and a prostate case, showing the equivalence of the IMRT and the translated AMAT delivery. For a prostate AMAT delivery, coronal plane film dose for the IMRT and AMAT deliveries agreed within 7.19 ± 6.62%. For a meningioma the coronal plane dose distributions were similar to a value of 4.6 ± 6.62%. Dose to the isocentre was measured as being within 2% of the planned value in both cases

  18. Therapies in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankovic, Joseph; Poewe, Werner

    2012-08-01

    This review examines currently available therapeutic strategies for Parkinson's disease, emphasizing evidence-based data as well as a patient-centered approach to the treatment of motor and nonmotor symptoms. Although clinical trials of disease-modifying approaches have been thus far disappointing, steady advances are being made in the symptomatic treatment of Parkinson's disease. In this review, we focus on recent studies with monoamine oxidase type B inhibitors (selegiline and rasagiline), coenzyme Q10, creatine, and exercise in early Parkinson's disease. We also discuss the relative merits and disadvantages of delaying the initiation of levodopa therapy, the role of dopamine agonists, particularly ropinirole and pramipexole, and management of motor and behavioral complications, such as fluctuations, dyskinesias and impulse-control disorders. Novel formulations and delivery approaches for conventional and new drugs are also discussed. Finally, we review recent studies of surgical treatments of Parkinson's disease, such as deep brain stimulation. Numerous clinical trials have provided evidence that health-related quality of life can be substantially improved with early diagnosis and institution of exercise and other physical measures, appropriate timing of dopaminergic therapy, and strategies to delay and treat levodopa-related motor complications and nonmotor Parkinson's disease-related symptoms.

  19. Experimental tumor therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-06-01

    This is a report on the work of the joint research group of the Institute of Radiation Biology (Strahlenbiologisches Institut) of the university of Munich and the Department of Radiation Biology of the Society for Radiation and Environmental Research (Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- u. Umweltforschung - GSF -) at Neuherberg. The presented results are not in all cases definitely confirmed or have, in part, merely provisional character. It is the target of the joint research to investigate problems of cancer therapy of practical impact in model form and to develop recommendations in discussions with therapists. Thus, the aim is not so much to examine mechanisms of action of certain radiations in detail but to look for the general rules they are governed by and to analyze the quantitative aspects of cancer therapy. To achieve this, a great variety of test models must be at hand. Numerous cell cultivies and tumors of mice resp. rats are therefore used. The acute reactions to irradiation are examined on the skin, the small intestine crypts, the bone marrow and spleen colonies of mice and the chronic reactions are tested on the colon and heart of rats and on the vascular connective tissue and kidneys of mice. (orig./MG) [de

  20. Targeted Therapy for Melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, Thomas [Alphamed, Jackson, TN (United States); Moore, Herbert [Alphamed, Jackson, TN (United States)

    2016-12-05

    The research project, entitled ”Targeted Therapy for Melanoma,” was focused on investigating the use of kidney protection measures to lower the non-specific kidney uptake of the radiolabeled Pb-DOTA-ReCCMSH peptide. Previous published work demonstrated that the kidney exhibited the highest non-target tissue uptake of the 212Pb/203Pb radiolabeled melanoma targeting peptide DOTA-ReCCMSH. The radiolabeled alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) peptide analog DOTA-Re(Arg11)CCMSH, which binds the melanocortin-1 receptor over-expressed on melanoma tumor cells, has shown promise as a PRRT agent in pre-clinical studies. High tumor uptake of 212Pb labeled DOTA-Re(Arg11)CCMSH resulted in tumor reduction or eradication in melanoma therapy studies. Of particular note was the 20-50% cure rate observed when melanoma mice were treated with alpha particle emitter 212Pb. However, as with most PRRT agents, high radiation doses to the kidneys where observed. To optimize tumor treatment efficacy and reduce nephrotoxicity, the tumor to kidney uptake ratio must be improved. Strategies to reduce kidney retention of the radiolabeled peptide, while not effecting tumor uptake and retention, can be broken into several categories including modification of the targeting peptide sequence and reducing proximal tubule reabsorption.

  1. Photon-activation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairchild, R.G.; Bond, V.P.

    1982-01-01

    Photon Activation Therapy (PAT) is a technique in which radiation dose to tumor is enhanced via introduction of stable 127 I in the form of iodinated deoxyuridine (IdUrd). Stimulation of cytotoxic effects from IdUrd is accomplished by activation with external (or implanted) radiation sources. Thus, accumulations of this nucleoside in actively competing cellpools do not preclude therapy in so far as such tissues can be excluded from the radiation field. Calculations show that 5% replacement of thymidine (Tyd) in tumor DNA should enhance the biological effectiveness of a given photon radiotherapy dose by a factor of approx. 3. Proportionally higher gains would result from higher replacements of Tyd and IdUrd. In addition, biological response is enhanced by chemical sensitization with IdUrd. The data indicate that damage from photon activation as well as chemical sensitization does not repair. Thus, at low dose rates, a further increase in therapeutic gain should accrue as normal tissues are allowed to repair and regenerate. A samarium-145 source has been developed for PAT, with activating x-ray energies of from 38 to 45 keV. Favorable clinical results can be expected through the use of IdUrd and protracted irradiations with low energy x-rays. In particular, PAT may provide unique advantages at selected sites such as brain, or head and neck tumors

  2. 42 CFR 410.35 - X-ray therapy and other radiation therapy services: Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false X-ray therapy and other radiation therapy services... Other Health Services § 410.35 X-ray therapy and other radiation therapy services: Scope. Medicare Part B pays for X-ray therapy and other radiation therapy services, including radium therapy and...

  3. Proton and carbon ion therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Lomax, Tony

    2013-01-01

    Proton and Carbon Ion Therapy is an up-to-date guide to using proton and carbon ion therapy in modern cancer treatment. The book covers the physics and radiobiology basics of proton and ion beams, dosimetry methods and radiation measurements, and treatment delivery systems. It gives practical guidance on patient setup, target localization, and treatment planning for clinical proton and carbon ion therapy. The text also offers detailed reports on the treatment of pediatric cancers, lymphomas, and various other cancers. After an overview, the book focuses on the fundamental aspects of proton and carbon ion therapy equipment, including accelerators, gantries, and delivery systems. It then discusses dosimetry, biology, imaging, and treatment planning basics and provides clinical guidelines on the use of proton and carbon ion therapy for the treatment of specific cancers. Suitable for anyone involved with medical physics and radiation therapy, this book offers a balanced and critical assessment of state-of-the-art...

  4. Prolonged Intermittent Renal Replacement Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edrees, Fahad; Li, Tingting; Vijayan, Anitha

    2016-05-01

    Prolonged intermittent renal replacement therapy (PIRRT) is becoming an increasingly popular alternative to continuous renal replacement therapy in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury. There are significant practice variations in the provision of PIRRT across institutions, with respect to prescription, technology, and delivery of therapy. Clinical trials have generally demonstrated that PIRRT is non-inferior to continuous renal replacement therapy regarding patient outcomes. PIRRT offers cost-effective renal replacement therapy along with other advantages such as early patient mobilization and decreased nursing time. However, due to lack of standardization of the procedure, PIRRT still poses significant challenges, especially pertaining to appropriate drug dosing. Future guidelines and clinical trials should work toward developing consensus definitions for PIRRT and ensure optimal delivery of therapy. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Electroconvulsive therapy in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Fajardo, Humberto; Cervantes-Arriaga, Amin; Llorens-Arenas, Rodrigo; Ramírez-Bermudez, Jesús; Ruiz-Chow, Ángel; Rodríguez-Violante, Mayela

    2015-10-01

    Purpose To analyze the effectiveness of electroconvulsive therapy for the management of depression and/or psychosis refractory to drug therapy in patients with Parkinson disease.Methods A retrospective study was carried out including patients treated with electroconvulsive therapy during the period between 2002 and 2013. A review of the literature was performed.Results A total of 27 patients were included. In regards to the neuropsychiatric diagnosis, 14 patients had major depression, 12 patients had both psychosis and depression, and only one patient had isolated psychosis. The mean number of electroconvulsive therapy sessions was 12 ± 2.8. After electroconvulsive therapy, all patients showed a statistically significant improvement in the Brief Psychiatric Rating scale (reduction of 52% points) and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (reduction of 50% points) independent of the presence of psychosis, depression or both.Conclusion Electroconvulsive therapy is effective for the treatment of refractory neuropsychiatric symptoms in Parkinson's disease.

  6. Art therapy in cancer fight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica Rodrigues D'Alencar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Art therapy is the therapeutic use of artistic activity in the context of the professional relationship with people affected by disease, injury or by seeking personal development. This study aims to report the experience of art therapy activities with a group of patients and their caregivers in a university hospital. This is an experience report, in Fortaleza - CE, during September 2010 to February 2011. In the meetings, participated 49 people, who performed activities, using the methods of art therapy, like painting, cutting, drawing, collage, creative visualization and color therapy. In the assessments, after the groups, the participants demonstrated the effects of art therapy, which described that the intervention allowed speak from the process of facing life to cancer fight. It is concluded that the techniques of art therapy provided self-knowledge, self-esteem and redemption sense of well-being with relaxation, and promote happiness and reduce stress.

  7. Gene therapy of thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Wei; Tan Jian

    2007-01-01

    Normally, differentiated thyroid carcinoma(DTC) is a disease of good prognosis, but about 30% of the tumors are dedifferentiate, which are inaccessible to standard therapeutic procedures such as 'operation, 131 I therapy and thyroid hormone'. Both internal and abroad experts are researching a new therapy of dedifferentiated thyroid carcinoma--gene therapy. Many of them utilize methods of it, but follow different strategies: (1) transduction of the thyroid sodium/iodide transporter gene to make tissues that do not accumulate iodide treatable by 131 I therapy; (2) strengthening of the anti-tumor immune response; (3) suicide gene therapy; (4) depression the generation of tumor cells; (5) gene therapy of anti- vascularization. (authors)

  8. Behaviour therapy for obesity treatment considering approved drug therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasem, Jürgen

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Obesity is a worldwide health problem whose prevalence is on the increase. Many obesity-associated diseases require intensive medical treatment and are the cause of a large proportion of health-related expenditures in Germany. Treatment of obesity includes nutritional, exercise and behaviour therapy, usually in combination. The goal of behaviour therapy for obesity is to bring about a long-term alteration in the eating and exercise habits of overweight and obese individuals. Under certain circumstances, drug treatment may be indicated. Objectives: What is the effectiveness of behaviour therapy for obesity considering approved drugs reduce weight under medical, economic, ethical-social and legal aspects? Methods: A systematic review was conducted using relevant electronic literature databases. Publications chosen according to predefined criteria are evaluated by approved methodical standards of the evidence-based medicine systematically and qualitatively. Results: In total 18 studies, included one HTA and one meta-analysis could be identified according to the predefined inclusion criteria. Three studies compare behaviour therapy to other therapy forms (advice or instruction on nutritional changes, physical activity or a combination of the two, six studies evaluate different forms of behaviour therapy, four studies and four studies compare behaviour therapies mediated by Internet or telephone. Three studies could be identified examining the effect of the combination of behaviour and drug therapy. Furthermore one HTA and one meta-analysis could be included in the evaluation. The behaviour therapy in comparison with other therapy forms reveals a higher effectiveness. In comparison of the different therapeutic approaches of the behaviour therapy intensive behaviour therapy forms and group therapy show a higher effectiveness. Studies related to behaviour therapy based on media support demonstrate a weight reduction both through the

  9. Novel Probiotic Therapies for Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    1 AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0515 TITLE: Novel Probiotic Therapies for Autism PRINCIPAL...August 2012 – 21 August 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Novel Probiotic Therapies for Autism 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-0515...suggest a gut-microbiome-brain connection in autism, and identify a potential probiotic therapy for ASD. We have now developed assays for some of

  10. Holmium-lipiodol-alginate microspheres for fluoroscopy-guided embolotherapy and multimodality imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, Chris; Seevinck, Peter R.; Smits, Maarten L.; Hennink, Wim E.; Bakker, Chris J G; Van Den Bosch, Maurice A A J; Nijsen, J. Frank W

    2015-01-01

    Embolotherapy is a minimally invasive transcatheter technique aiming at reduction or complete obstruction of the blood flow by infusion of micro-sized particles in order to induce tumor regression. A major drawback of the current commercially available and clinically used microspheres is that they

  11. Different Approaches in Radiation Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf-Dieter eKortmann

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Radiation therapy is a cornerstone in the therapeutic management of craniopharyngioma. The close proximity to neighbouring eloquent structures pose a particular challenge to radiation therapy. Modern treatment technologies including fractionated 3-d conformal radiotherapy, intensity modulated radiation therapy and recently proton therapy are able to precisely cover the target while preserving surrounding tissue,Tumour controls between 80 and in access of 90 % can be achieved. Alternative treatments consisting of radiosurgery, intracavitary application of isotopes and brachytherapy also offer an acceptable tumour control and might be given in selected cases. More research is needed to establish the role of each treatment modality.

  12. Topiramate Therapy and Cognitive Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of topiramate (TPA adjunctive therapy on cognition in 22 consecutive patients with intractable epilepsy were studied at the Montreal Neurological Hospital, Quebec, Canada.

  13. Cell Therapy in Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoda Madani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available   Recently, cell therapy has sparked a revolution in ischemic heart disease that will in the future help clinicians to cure patients. Earlier investigations in animal models and clinical trials have suggested that positive paracrine effects such as neoangiogenesis and anti-apoptotic can improve myocardial function. In this regard the Royan cell therapy center designed a few trials in collaboration with multi hospitals such as Baqiyatallah, Shahid Lavasani, Tehran Heart Center, Shahid rajaee, Masih daneshvari, Imam Reza, Razavi and Sasan from 2006. Their results were interesting. However, cardiac stem cell therapy still faces great challenges in optimizing the treatment of patients. Keyword: Cardiovascular disease, Cell therapy.  

  14. Iodine neutron capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Kazi Fariduddin

    A new technique, Iodine Neutron Capture Therapy (INCT) is proposed to treat hyperthyroidism in people. Present thyroid therapies, surgical removal and 131I treatment, result in hypothyroidism and, for 131I, involve protracted treatment times and excessive whole-body radiation doses. The new technique involves using a low energy neutron beam to convert a fraction of the natural iodine stored in the thyroid to radioactive 128I, which has a 24-minute half-life and decays by emitting 2.12-MeV beta particles. The beta particles are absorbed in and damage some thyroid tissue cells and consequently reduce the production and release of thyroid hormones to the blood stream. Treatment times and whole-body radiation doses are thus reduced substantially. This dissertation addresses the first of the several steps needed to obtain medical profession acceptance and regulatory approval to implement this therapy. As with other such programs, initial feasibility is established by performing experiments on suitable small mammals. Laboratory rats were used and their thyroids were exposed to the beta particles coming from small encapsulated amounts of 128I. Masses of 89.0 mg reagent-grade elemental iodine crystals have been activated in the ISU AGN-201 reactor to provide 0.033 mBq of 128I. This activity delivers 0.2 Gy to the thyroid gland of 300-g male rats having fresh thyroid tissue masses of ˜20 mg. Larger iodine masses are used to provide greater doses. The activated iodine is encapsulated to form a thin (0.16 cm 2/mg) patch that is then applied directly to the surgically exposed thyroid of an anesthetized rat. Direct neutron irradiation of a rat's thyroid was not possible due to its small size. Direct in-vivo exposure of the thyroid of the rat to the emitted radiation from 128I is allowed to continue for 2.5 hours (6 half-lives). Pre- and post-exposure blood samples are taken to quantify thyroid hormone levels. The serum T4 concentration is measured by radioimmunoassay at

  15. Antiviral therapy: a perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahidi Bonjar, Amir Hashem

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses extracorporeal removal of viral particles and their antigens from the blood as an auxiliary therapy. This hypothesis has not been reported before. In some chronic blood-borne viral infections, the virus remains systemic and persistent for extended periods of time, with adverse effects that weaken the immune system. Blood titers of virus and its toxins are proportional to the severity of the disease, and their reduction can alleviate symptoms, leading to improved health. Several blood-borne viral infections can be overcome by the young, but are life-threatening in the elderly. It is known that some older people have extreme difficulty tolerating viral infections such as influenza and the common cold. Further, several types of viral infection persist throughout the life of the individual and cannot be eliminated by conventional treatments. Well-known infections of this type include HIV and hepatitis B. In the case of Ebola virus, patients remain infectious as long as their blood contains the virus. According to the present hypothesis, an extracorporeal viral antibody column (EVAC) is proposed for elimination or reduction of the blood viral titer when treating blood-borne viral infection. EVAC would selectively trap viral antigens and toxins in the blood into an extracorporeal circuit, while returning detoxified blood back to the patient's body. It is anticipated that EVAC would reduce mortality caused by blood-borne viral infections in the elderly since reduction of blood virus titers would improve health, leading to improved overall patient performance. Such enhancement would also make conventional therapies even more effective. EVAC could have a lifesaving role in treatment of viral illness, especially those involving lethal viruses such as Ebola, where the patient's recovery to a large extent depends on their general health status. EVAC would be for single use and appropriately disposed of after each detoxification procedure. When sufficient

  16. Antiviral therapy: a perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahidi Bonjar AH

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Amir Hashem Shahidi Bonjar Clinician Scientist, Institute of Applied Research in Dentistry, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran Abstract: This paper discusses extracorporeal removal of viral particles and their antigens from the blood as an auxiliary therapy. This hypothesis has not been reported before. In some chronic blood-borne viral infections, the virus remains systemic and persistent for extended periods of time, with adverse effects that weaken the immune system. Blood titers of virus and its toxins are proportional to the severity of the disease, and their reduction can alleviate symptoms, leading to improved health. Several blood-borne viral infections can be overcome by the young, but are life-threatening in the elderly. It is known that some older people have extreme difficulty tolerating viral infections such as influenza and the common cold. Further, several types of viral infection persist throughout the life of the individual and cannot be eliminated by conventional treatments. Well-known infections of this type include HIV and hepatitis B. In the case of Ebola virus, patients remain infectious as long as their blood contains the virus. According to the present hypothesis, an extracorporeal viral antibody column (EVAC is proposed for elimination or reduction of the blood viral titer when treating blood-borne viral infection. EVAC would selectively trap viral antigens and toxins in the blood into an extracorporeal circuit, while returning detoxified blood back to the patient’s body. It is anticipated that EVAC would reduce mortality caused by blood-borne viral infections in the elderly since reduction of blood virus titers would improve health, leading to improved overall patient performance. Such enhancement would also make conventional therapies even more effective. EVAC could have a lifesaving role in treatment of viral illness, especially those involving lethal viruses such as Ebola, where the patient

  17. Physical therapy and occupational therapy in Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radder, D.L.M.; Sturkenboom, I.H.W.M.; Nimwegen, M. van; Keus, S.H.; Bloem, B.R.; Vries, N.M. de

    2017-01-01

    Current medical management is only partially effective in controlling the symptoms of Parkinson's disease. As part of comprehensive multidisciplinary care, physical therapy and occupational therapy aim to support people with Parkinson's disease in dealing with the consequences of their disease in

  18. Radioiodine therapy for hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andres-Barrenechea, E.C.

    2001-01-01

    A ten year study (1988-98) was done at the Veterans Memorial Medical Center on radioiodine (RAI) therapy for hyperthyroidism. A total of 162 patients received 131-I after careful selection hence was included in this study. A predominantly female population was seen (81%) compared to only (19%) males. The most frequent age group were in the third and fourth decades of life. Those included had clinical manifestations of thyrotoxicosis aside from the abnormal thyroid function tests and elevated RAI uptake. Almost all were given antithyroid drugs and beta-blockers prior to RAI ablation. Doses ranged from 7 to 12 mCi depending on gland size and degree of toxicity. Success rate of treatment was 92% which meant that the symptoms were abated and there was shrinkage of the thyroid gland after a single dose of iodine. The most common short term complications were sialitis and local neck tenderness while hypothyroidism was the commonest long term complication. (author)

  19. Onychomycosis: features external therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Zaslavsky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Onychomycosis - one of the most frequent diseases with defeat of a nail bed, matrics and nail plate of a fungal origin. Frequency of an onychomycosis in Russia reaches 5% (to 15 million people, and practically every tenth visit of the dermatologist is connected with this pathology. Treatment of an onychomycosis still remains very difficult task. Application of varnishes, ointments with antimycotics and local agents on an oil basis has an essential shortcoming - insufficient receipt of a preparation to the center of pathological changes. It is supposed that for optimum therapy it is necessary to influence: first, from frontal and distal part of a nail, secondly, to apply aqueous-alcoholic solutions of a preparation which can freely get into subnail spaces with the phenomena of an onycholysis. For example, it has been shown highly efficient application of naftifina a hydrochloride under control of solution of the diamond green, showing diffusion distribution active ingredient to subnail space and on channels.

  20. Cell-Based Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaaki Kitada

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell transplantation is a strategy with great potential for the treatment of Parkinson's disease, and many types of stem cells, including neural stem cells and embryonic stem cells, are considered candidates for transplantation therapy. Mesenchymal stem cells are a great therapeutic cell source because they are easy accessible and can be expanded from patients or donor mesenchymal tissues without posing serious ethical and technical problems. They have trophic effects for protecting damaged tissues as well as differentiation ability to generate a broad spectrum of cells, including dopamine neurons, which contribute to the replenishment of lost cells in Parkinson's disease. This paper focuses mainly on the potential of mesenchymal stem cells as a therapeutic cell source and discusses their potential clinical application in Parkinson's disease.

  1. Premature ejaculation. 3. Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piediferro, Guido; Colpi, Elisabetta M; Castiglioni, Fabrizio; Scroppo, Fabrizio I

    2004-12-01

    Serotonergic drugs (SSRIs) are the most commonly used, but they are characterized by relapse some time after medication interruption as well as by sexual side effects. The efficacy of phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors seems excellent, but the risk of tachyphylaxis has been reported. The former (fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline, clomipramine) should be used in young patients with hyper-orgasmic forms, while the latter (sildenafil, tadalafil, vardenafil) should be used in hypo-orgasmic forms, in old age or when PE is associated with erectile dysfunction. Topical anesthetics provide satisfactory results in premature ejaculation due to hypersensitivity of the glans, and physiotherapy of the pelvic floor muscles proves successful in cases associated with pelvic floor dysfunction. Therapeutic associations and psycho-sexual therapy techniques may improve results, particularly in the long term.

  2. Neuroprotective therapies for glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song W

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Wei Song, Ping Huang, Chun Zhang Department of Ophthalmology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Glaucoma is the second leading cause for blindness worldwide. It is mainly caused by glaucomatous optic neuropathy (GON characterized by retinal ganglion cell loss, which leads to visual field defect and blindness. Up to now, the main purpose of antiglaucomatous therapies has been to lower intraocular pressure (IOP through surgeries and medications. However, it has been found that progressive GON is still present in some patients with effective IOP decrease. Therefore, risk factors other than IOP elevation, like neurotrophin deprivation and excitotoxicity, contribute to progressive GON. Novel approaches of neuroprotection may be more effective for preserving the function of the optic nerve. Keywords: glaucoma, glaucomatous optic neuropathy, retinal ganglion cells, neuro­protection

  3. Accelerators for therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohlit, W.

    1994-01-01

    In the past decades circular and linear electron accelerators have been developed for clinical use in radiation therapy of tumors with the aim of achieving a high radiation dose in the tumor and as low as possible dose in the adjacent normal tissues. Today about one thousand accelerators are in medical use throughout the world and many hundred thousand patients are treated every day with accelerator-produced radiation. There exists, however, a large number of patients who cannot be treated satisfactorily in this way. New types of radiations such as neutrons, negative pions, protons and heavy ions were therefore tested recently. The clinical experience with these radiations and with new types of treatment procedures indicate that in future the use of a scanning beam of high energy protons might be optimal for the treatment of tumors. (orig.)

  4. [Limiting life sustaining therapies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azoulay, E

    2006-09-01

    Intensivists are increasingly implementing end-of-life decisions in patients who remain dependent on life sustaining therapies without hope for recovery. Descriptive studies have provided epidemiological data on ICU end-of-life care, identifying areas for improvement. Qualitative studies have highlighted the complexity of the decision making process. In addition to considering the legal and ethical issues involved, this review describes cultural, religious and individual variations observed in ICU end-of-life care. It is important for intensivists to respect patients' preferences and values, but also, in some family members, to avoid increasing the burden and the guilt of sharing the decision. Intensivists should improve their ability to meet the needs of dying patients and their family members. Each situation, patient, family and caregiver is unique, and therefore needs a specific approach. Introducing palliative care and multidisciplinary teams into the ICU might provide an additional opportunity for patients and families to be informed and listened to.

  5. [Therapy of hemorrhoidal disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, A

    2006-08-01

    Hemorrhoidal disease is one of the most frequent disorders in western countries. The aim of individual therapy is freedom from symptoms achieved by normalisation of anatomy and physiology. Treatment is orientated to the stage of disease: haemorrhoids 1 are treated conservatively. In addition to high-fibre diet, sclerotherapy is used. Haemorrhoids 2 prolapse during defecation and return spontaneously. First-line treatment is rubber band ligation. Haemorrhoids 3 that prolapse during defecation have to be digitally reduced, and the majority need surgery. For segmental disorders, haemorrhoidectomy according to Milligan-Morgan or Ferguson is recommended. In circular disease, Stapler hemorrhoidopexy is now the procedure of choice. Using a therapeutic regime according to the hemorrhoidal disease classification offers high healing rates and low rates of complications and recurrence.

  6. Gene therapy for hemophilia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Geoffrey L.; Herzog, Roland W.

    2015-01-01

    Hemophilia is an X-linked inherited bleeding disorder consisting of two classifications, hemophilia A and hemophilia B, depending on the underlying mutation. Although the disease is currently treatable with intravenous delivery of replacement recombinant clotting factor, this approach represents a significant cost both monetarily and in terms of quality of life. Gene therapy is an attractive alternative approach to the treatment of hemophilia that would ideally provide life-long correction of clotting activity with a single injection. In this review, we will discuss the multitude of approaches that have been explored for the treatment of both hemophilia A and B, including both in vivo and ex vivo approaches with viral and nonviral delivery vectors. PMID:25553466

  7. Neuroimaging and electroconvulsive therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolwig, Tom G

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Since the 1970s, a number of neuroimaging studies of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) have been conducted to elucidate the working action of this highly efficacious treatment modality. The technologies used are single photon emission tomography, positron emission tomography, magnetic...... in localized cortical and subcortical areas of the brain and have revealed differences in neurophysiology and metabolism between the hyperactive ictal state and the restorative interictal/postictal periods. Recent magnetic resonance imaging studies seem to pave way for new insights into ECT's effects...... on increased connectivity in the brain during depression. CONCLUSION: The existing data reveal considerable variations among studies and therefore do not yet allow the formulation of a unified hypothesis for the mechanism of ECT. The rapid developments in imaging technology, however, hold promises for further...

  8. Experimental tumor therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This study was concentrated on the investigation of practically oriented problems of tumour therapy, under the application of possibly differing experimental test subjects, ranging from cell cultures to the living animal. The development of the test systems was advanced and some systems were replaced by new ones. An enrichment of great significance is also the fibrosarcoma SSK-2 of the C3H mouse, whose cells form colonies with an exploitation of about 50% when the explant is transferred directly to the cell culture. The subject matter of the experiments ranged from the effect of irradiation on cells in vitro to the proliferation kinetics of human tumours under treatment. As in the last year the main significance and attention was attributed to the analysis of time dependency in radiotherapy. The second main point were investigations on the interaction of chemotherapy and radiotherapy, supplemented by experiments to the time dependency in chemotherapy. (orig./MG) [de

  9. Immunosupportive therapies in aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fülöp, Tamas; Larbi, Anis; Hirokawa, Katsuiku; Mocchegiani, Eugenio; Lesourd, Bruno; Castle, Stephen; Wikby, Anders; Franceschi, Claudio; Pawelec, Graham

    2007-01-01

    The primary role of the immune system is to protect the organism against pathogens, but age-associated alterations to immunity increase the susceptibility of the elderly to infectious disease. The exact nature of these changes is still controversial, but the use of screening procedures, such as the SENIEUR protocol to exclude underlying illness, helped to better characterize the changes actually related to physiological aging rather than pathology. It is generally agreed that the most marked changes occur in the cellular immune response reflecting profound alterations in T cells. Much of this is due to thymic involution as well as changes in the proportions of T cell subpopulations resulting from antigen exposure, and altered T cell activation pathways. However, a body of data indicates that innate immune responses, including the critical bridge between innate and adaptive immunity, and antigen presenting capacity are not completely resistant to senescence processes. The consequences of all these alterations are an increased incidence of infections, as well as possibly cancers, autoimmune disorders, and chronic inflammatory diseases. The leading question is what, if anything, can we do to prevent these deleterious changes without dangerously dysregulating the precarious balance of productive immunity versus immunopathology? There are many potential new therapeutic means now available to modulate immunosenescence and many others are expected to be available shortly. One main problem in applying these experimental therapies is ethical: there is a common feeling that as ageing is not a disease; the elderly are not sick and therefore do not require adventurous therapies with unpredictable side-effects in mostly frail individuals. Animal models are not helpful in this context. In this chapter we will first briefly review what we think we know about human immunosenescence and its consequences for the health status of elderly individuals. We will then discuss possible

  10. Play Therapy in Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landreth, Garry L.; Ray, Dee C.; Bratton, Sue C.

    2009-01-01

    Because the child's world is a world of action and activity, play therapy provides the psychologist in elementary-school settings with an opportunity to enter the child's world. In the play therapy relationship, toys are like the child's words and play is the child's language. Therefore, children play out their problems, experiences, concerns, and…

  11. Play Therapy: Basics and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottman, Terry

    This book provides an atheoretical orientation to basic concepts involved in play therapy and an introduction to different skills used in play therapy. The demand for mental professionals and school counselors who have training and expertise in using play as a therapeutic tool when working with children has increased tremendously. In response to…

  12. Play Therapy in School Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trice-Black, Shannon; Bailey, Carrie Lynn; Kiper Riechel, Morgan E.

    2013-01-01

    Play therapy is an empirically supported intervention used to address a number of developmental issues faced in childhood. Through the natural language of play, children and adolescents communicate feelings, thoughts, and experiences. Schools provide an ideal setting for play therapy in many ways; however, several challenges exist in implementing…

  13. Cardiovascular toxicities of biological therapies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    The development of biological therapy is based on growing knowledge regarding the molecular changes required in cells for the development and progression of cancer to occur. Molecular targeted therapy is designed to inhibit the major molecular pathways identified as essential for a specific...

  14. When to start antiretroviral therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgren, Jens D; Babiker, Abdel G; Gordin, Fred M

    2013-01-01

    Strategies for use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) have traditionally focused on providing treatment to persons who stand to benefit immediately from initiating the therapy. There is global consensus that any HIV+ person with CD4 counts less than 350 cells/μl should initiate ART. However, it rema...

  15. A Feminist Family Therapy Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Leora; Piercy, Fred P.

    1991-01-01

    Reports on development and psychometric properties of Feminist Family Therapy Scale (FFTS), a 17-item instrument intended to reflect degree to which family therapists conceptualize process of family therapy from feminist-informed perspective. Found that the instrument discriminated between self-identified feminists and nonfeminists, women and men,…

  16. Learning theory and gestalt therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, R; Bauer, R; Kannarkat, J

    1976-01-01

    This article discusses the theory and operations of Gestalt Therapy from the viewpoint of learning theory. General comparative issues are elaborated as well as the concepts of introjection, retroflextion, confluence, and projection. Principles and techniques of Gestalt Therapy are discussed in terms of learning theory paradigm. Practical implications of the various Gestalt techniques are presented.

  17. Clinical databases in physical therapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinkels, I.C.S.; Ende, C.H.M. van den; Bakker, D. de; Wees, Ph.J van der; Hart, D.L.; Deutscher, D.; Bosch, W.J.H. van den; Dekker, J.

    2007-01-01

    Clinical databases in physical therapy provide increasing opportunities for research into physical therapy theory and practice. At present, information on the characteristics of existing databases is lacking. The purpose of this study was to identify clinical databases in which physical therapists

  18. Music Therapy with Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standley, Jayne

    2003-01-01

    Over 20 years of research and clinical practice in music therapy with premature infants has been compiled into this text designed for Board Certified Music Therapists specializing in Neonatal Intensive Care clinical services, for NICU medical staff incorporating research-based music therapy into developmental care plans, and for parents of…

  19. [Why proton therapy? And how?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thariat, Juliette; Habrand, Jean Louis; Lesueur, Paul; Chaikh, Abdulhamid; Kammerer, Emmanuel; Lecomte, Delphine; Batalla, Alain; Balosso, Jacques; Tessonnier, Thomas

    2018-03-01

    Proton therapy is a radiotherapy, based on the use of protons, charged subatomic particles that stop at a given depth depending on their initial energy (pristine Bragg peak), avoiding any output beam, unlike the photons used in most of the other modalities of radiotherapy. Proton therapy has been used for 60 years, but has only become ubiquitous in the last decade because of recent major advances in particle accelerator technology. This article reviews the history of clinical implementation of protons, the nature of the technological advances that now allows its expansion at a lower cost. It also addresses the technical and physical specificities of proton therapy and the clinical situations for which proton therapy may be relevant but requires evidence. Different proton therapy techniques are possible. These are explained in terms of their clinical potential by explaining the current terminology (such as cyclotrons, synchrotrons or synchrocyclotrons, using superconducting magnets, fixed line or arm rotary with passive diffusion delivery or active by scanning) in basic words. The requirements associated with proton therapy are increased due to the precision of the depth dose deposit. The learning curve of proton therapy requires that clinical indications be prioritized according to their associated uncertainties (such as range uncertainties and movement in lung tumors). Many clinical indications potentially fall under proton therapy ultimately. Clinical strategies are explained in a paralleled manuscript. Copyright © 2018 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Statin therapy for the octogenarian?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-04-23

    Apr 23, 2011 ... placebo groups.41 A recent Cochrane meta-analysis identified three randomised trials of statin therapy in patients with established Alzheimer-type dementia. Statin therapy was not associated with improved cognition or functioning, although the results of one large randomised trial were still outstanding.42.

  1. Internal Radiation Therapy for Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    When getting internal radiation therapy, a source of radiation is put inside your body, in either liquid or solid form. It can be used treat different kinds of cancer, including thyroid, head and neck, breast, cervix, prostate, and eye. Learn more about how what to expect when getting internal radiation therapy.

  2. The physics of radiation therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Faiz M

    2009-01-01

    Dr. Khan's classic textbook on radiation oncology physics is now in its thoroughly revised and updated Fourth Edition. It provides the entire radiation therapy team—radiation oncologists, medical physicists, dosimetrists, and radiation therapists—with a thorough understanding of the physics and practical clinical applications of advanced radiation therapy technologies, including 3D-CRT, stereotactic radiotherapy, HDR, IMRT, IGRT, and proton beam therapy. These technologies are discussed along with the physical concepts underlying treatment planning, treatment delivery, and dosimetry. This Fourth Edition includes brand-new chapters on image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) and proton beam therapy. Other chapters have been revised to incorporate the most recent developments in the field. This edition also features more than 100 full-color illustrations throughout.

  3. Chemosensory alterations and cancer therapies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartoshuk, L.M.

    1990-01-01

    Taste and olfaction provide sensory information and sensory pleasure. Cancer therapies affect both. Chemotherapy has not been shown to produce dramatic losses of taste or smell, but systematic studies on various chemotherapeutic agents and types of cancer are lacking. Radiation therapy does produce clear losses of both taste and smell. Both chemotherapy and radiation therapy alter the pleasure produced by taste and smell through the formation of conditioned aversions. That is, foods consumed in proximity with the nausea of therapy come to be unpleasant. The impact of conditioned aversions can be diminished by providing a scapegoat food just before therapy. Alterations in foods may be beneficial to the cancer patient. Increasing the concentrations of flavor ingredients can compensate for sensory losses, and providing pureed foods that retain the cognitive integrity of a meal can benefit the patient who has chewing or swallowing problems

  4. Particle therapy for noncancer diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bert, Christoph; Engenhart-Cabillic, Rita; Durante, Marco [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Biophysics Department, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Philipps-University Marburg, Center for Radiology, Department of Radiation Therapy, Baldinger Strasse, 35043 Marburg (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Biophysics Department, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Hochschulstrasse 3, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany) and Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Ruth-Moufang-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2012-04-15

    Radiation therapy using high-energy charged particles is generally acknowledged as a powerful new technique in cancer treatment. However, particle therapy in oncology is still controversial, specifically because it is unclear whether the putative clinical advantages justify the high additional costs. However, particle therapy can find important applications in the management of noncancer diseases, especially in radiosurgery. Extension to other diseases and targets (both cranial and extracranial) may widen the applications of the technique and decrease the cost/benefit ratio of the accelerator facilities. Future challenges in this field include the use of different particles and energies, motion management in particle body radiotherapy and extension to new targets currently treated by catheter ablation (atrial fibrillation and renal denervation) or stereotactic radiation therapy (trigeminal neuralgia, epilepsy, and macular degeneration). Particle body radiosurgery could be a future key application of accelerator-based particle therapy facilities in 10 years from today.

  5. Art, dance, and music therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Rosalie Rebollo

    2004-11-01

    Art, dance, and music therapy are a significant part of complementary medicine in the twenty-first century. These creative arts therapies contribute to all areas of health care and are present in treatments for most psychologic and physiologic illnesses. Although the current body of solid research is small compared with that of more traditional medical specialties, the arts therapies are now validating their research through more controlled experimental and descriptive studies. The arts therapies also contribute significantly to the humanization and comfort of modern health care institutions by relieving stress, anxiety, and pain of patients and caregivers. Arts therapies will greatly expand their role in the health care practices of this country in the twenty-first century.

  6. Immunosupportive therapies in aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamas Fülöp

    2007-04-01

    subpopulations resulting from antigen exposure, and altered T cell activation pathways. However, a body of data indicates that innate immune responses, including the critical bridge between innate and adaptive immunity, and antigen presenting capacity are not completely resistant to senescence processes. The consequences of all these alterations are an increased incidence of infections, as well as possibly cancers, autoimmune disorders, and chronic inflammatory diseases. The leading question is what, if anything, can we do to prevent these deleterious changes without dangerously dysregulating the precarious balance of productive immunity versus immunopathology? There are many potential new therapeutic means now available to modulate immunosenescence and many others are expected to be available shortly. One main problem in applying these experimental therapies is ethical: there is a common feeling that as ageing is not a disease; the elderly are not sick and therefore do not require adventurous therapies with unpredictable side-effects in mostly frail individuals. Animal models are not helpful in this context. In this chapter we will first briefly review what we think we know about human immunosenescence and its consequences for the health status of elderly individuals. We will then discuss possible interventions that might one day become applicable in an appropriate ethical environment.Keywords: immunosenescence, T cells, phagocytic cells, nutrition, vaccination, exercise, CMV, inflammaging, IRP, immunorestorative therapies

  7. Compliance to antihypertensive therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almas, A.; Hameed, A.; Ahmed, B.; Islam, M.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine compliance, factors affecting compliance to antihypertensive therapy and to compare compliant and non-compliant groups, in a tertiary care setting. Study Design: Analytical (cross-sectional) study. Place and Duration of Study: The outpatient clinics at the Aga Khan University from May 2004 to February 2005. Patients and Methods: Two hundred patients presenting to the outpatients clinic were included. All patients 18 years and above, who had stage 1 and 2 hypertension, had one clinic visit to a medicine clinic, 6 months prior to presentation and started on antihypertensive medicines, were included. Results: Sixty-six percent were males and 33.5 % were females. Mean age was 58.1 ( +- 12) years and mean duration of hypertension was 7.2 (+- 6.7) years. Fifty-seven percent were compliant and 43% were noncompliant. In the noncompliant group, 53.4 % had mild noncompliance, 24.4 % had severe non-compliance, while 22% had moderate noncompliance. Factors of noncompliance were 56.8% missed doses due to forgetfulness, 12.7% deliberately missed their doses, 11.6% could not take the medicine due to side effects, 10.4% did not take the dose due to increased number of tablets, 4.6% were not properly counseled by the physician and 3.48% did not take medicines due to cost issues. The mean systolic blood pressure was 126 +- 19.2 mmHg in the compliant group while it was 133 +- 16.5 mmHg in the noncompliant group (p-value 0.004). The mean diastolic blood pressure in the compliant group was 76 +- 11.9 mmHg, while in the noncompliant group it was 81.9 +- 10.9 mmHg (p-value 0.001). Conclusion: Compliance to antihypertensive therapy in a tertiary care center is significantly good. Forgetfulness was the major reason for noncompliance. The mean blood pressure control was better in the compliant group. (author)

  8. Mammary carcinoma diagnostics and therapy; Diagnostik und Therapie des Mammakarzinoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Uwe; Baum, Friedemann (eds.) [Diagnostisches Brustzentrum Goettingen BZG, Goettingen(Germany)

    2014-11-01

    The book on mammary carcinoma diagnostics and therapy covers the following issues: development, anatomy and physiology of the mammary glands, pathology of benign and malign mammary gland changes, non-imaging diagnostics; mammography; ultrasonic mammography; magnetic resonance tomography of the mammary glands; imaging diagnostics findings; mammary interventions; examination concepts; operative therapy of the mammary carcinoma; chemotherapy of the mammary carcinoma; radio-oncological therapy of the mammary carcinoma; logistics in a medical center for mammary gland diseases; logistics in an interdisciplinary center for mammary diseases; dialogue conduction and psycho-social attendance.

  9. Hormone Replacement Therapy and Your Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormone replacement therapy and your heart Are you taking — or considering — hormone therapy to treat bothersome menopausal symptoms? Understand ... you. By Mayo Clinic Staff Long-term hormone replacement therapy used to be routinely prescribed for postmenopausal ...

  10. Frequently Asked Questions about Music Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at an approved music therapy degree program, the music therapy student must complete an internship at an approved internship ... needs to play in every session, but rather, music therapy students choose one instrument to be their major instrument ...

  11. Inversion Therapy: Can It Relieve Back Pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inversion therapy: Can it relieve back pain? Does inversion therapy relieve back pain? Is it safe? Answers from Edward R. Laskowski, M.D. Inversion therapy doesn't provide lasting relief from back ...

  12. Gene Therapy and Children (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Gene Therapy and Children KidsHealth / For Parents / Gene Therapy ... that don't respond to conventional therapies. About Genes Our genes help make us unique. Inherited from ...

  13. Radionuclide Therapy. Chapter 19

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flux, G.; Du, Yong [Royal Marsden Hospital and Institute of Cancer Research, Surrey (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-15

    Cancer has been treated with radiopharmaceuticals since the 1940s. The radionuclides originally used, including 131I and 32P, are still in use. The role of the physicist in radionuclide therapy encompasses radiation protection, imaging and dosimetry. Radiation protection is of particular importance given the high activities of the unsealed sources that are often administered, and must take into account medical staff, comforters and carers, and, as patients are discharged while still retaining activity, members of the public. Regulations concerning acceptable levels of exposure vary from country to country. If the administered radiopharmaceutical is a γ emitter, then imaging can be performed which may be either qualitative or quantitative. While a regular system of quality control must be in place to prevent misinterpretation of image data, qualitative imaging does not usually rely on the image corrections necessary to determine the absolute levels of activity that are localized in the patient. Accurate quantitative imaging is dependent on these corrections and can permit the distribution of absorbed doses delivered to the patient to be determined with sufficient accuracy to be clinically beneficial.

  14. Stereotactic body radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lo, Simon S. [Univ. Hospitals Seidman Cancer Center, Cleveland, OH (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States). Case Comprehensive Cancer Center; Teh, Bin S. [The Methodist Hospital Cancer Center and Research Institute, Houston, TX (United States). Weill Cornell Medical College; Lu, Jiade J. [National Univ. of Singapore (Singapore). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Schefter, Tracey E. (eds.) [Colorado Univ., Aurora, CO (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    2012-11-01

    Comprehensive an up-to-date account of the physical/technological, biological, and clinical aspects of SBRT. Examines in detail retrospective studies and prospective clinical trials for various organ sites from around the world. Written by world-renowned experts in SBRT from North America, Asia and Europe. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) has emerged as an innovative treatment for various primary and metastatic cancers, and the past five years have witnessed a quantum leap in its use. This book provides a comprehensive and up-to-date account of the physical/technological, biological, and clinical aspects of SBRT. It will serve as a detailed resource for this rapidly developing treatment modality. The organ sites covered include lung, liver, spine, pancreas, prostate, adrenal, head and neck, and female reproductive tract. Retrospective studies and prospective clinical trials on SBRT for various organ sites from around the world are examined, and toxicities and normal tissue constraints are discussed. This book features unique insights from world-renowned experts in SBRT from North America, Asia, and Europe. It will be necessary reading for radiation oncologists, radiation oncology residents and fellows, medical physicists, medical physics residents, medical oncologists, surgical oncologists, and cancer scientists.

  15. Antimetabolites: Established cancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjul Tiwari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell death has been divided into two main types: programmed cell death, in which the cell plays an active role, and passive (necrotic cell death. Senescence arrest, accelerated senescence and differentiation are also responses that can be induced in response to DNA-damaging agents. Apoptosis may occur as a primary event following chemotherapy, in which genes that regulate apoptosis will influence the outcome of therapy or, alternatively, as an event secondary to the induction of lethal damage that involves the subsequent processing of cellular damage. The particular type of response induced is highly dependent on the agent and dose employed, the type of DNA damage induced as well as the genetic and cellular phenotypes. It has been proposed that apoptosis may play a lesser role in tumor response to radiation in comparison with the induction of cell death through mitotic catastrophe or a senescence-like irreversible growth arrest. However, in comparison with the induction of apoptosis, there is a lack of as much definitive information on other cell death processes that occur in cancer cells in response to chemotherapeutic agents, including antimetabolites. This article reviews what is known about these processes at the present time in response to experimental or clinically used agents that are analogs of 5-fluorouracil, cytidine or purines, hydroxyurea, or that belong to the family of folate antagonists.

  16. Neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, B. J.

    1998-11-01

    The overall state of the art related with neutron capture therapy(NCT) is surveyed. Since the field related with NCT is very wide, it is not intended to survey all related subjects in depth. The primary objective of this report is to help those working for the installation of a NCT facility and a PGNAA(prompt gamma ray neutron activation analysis) system for the boron analysis understand overall NCT at Hanaro. Therefore, while the parts of reactor neutron source and PGNAA are dealt in detail, other parts are limited to the level necessary to understand related fields. For example, the subject of chemical compound which requires intensive knowledge on chemistry, is not dealt as a separated item. However, the requirement of a compound for NCT, currently available compounds, their characteristics, etc. could be understood through this report. Although the subject of cancer treated by NCT is out of the capability of the author, it is dealt focussing its characteristics related with the success of NCT. Each detailed subject is expected to be dealt more detail by specialists in future. This report would be helpful for the researchers working for the NCT to understand related fields. (author). 128 refs., 3 tabs., 12 figs

  17. Neurobrucellosis: Challenges for Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Alothman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Brucellosis is a common zoonotic infection throughout the world, and is endemic in Saudi Arabia. Neurobrucellosis is a rare, severe form of systemic brucella infection. Treatment of neurobrucellosis continues to be variable, depending on the location of diagnosis. Methods A retrospective patient chart review was undertaken from 1995 to 2010 at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, to identify cases of neurobrucellosis following a proposed case definition. Follow-up visits were evaluated to determine response to treatment. Results A total of 22 cases of neurobrucellosis were identified from a total of 517 cases of brucellosis. The mean patient age was 42.5 years with a male to female ratio of 1:1. Most antibiotic combinations included doxycycline, rifampin, and cotrimoxazole (36%. Three patients received ciprofloxacin in combination with other antibiotics and showed a satisfactory response. Conclusion Combination of antibrucella antibiotics is recommended, but there are no clear guidelines regarding antibiotic selection and duration of therapy. The use of ciprofloxacin in cases of neurobrucellosis should be evaluated.

  18. Therapy of pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Yutaka; Kitagawa, Toru; Nakamori, Shoji

    2009-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer remains one of the most difficult diseases to cure. Japan pancreas society guidelines for management of pancreatic cancer indicate therapeutic algorithm according to the clinical stage. For locally limited pancreatic cancer (cStage I, II, III in Japanese classification system), surgical resection is recommended, however prognosis is still poor. Major randomized controlled trials of resected pancreatic cancer indicates that adjuvant chemotherapy is superior to observation and gemcitabine is superior to 5-fluorouracil (FU). For locally advanced resectable pancreatic cancer (cStage IVa in Japanese classification system (JCS)), we perform neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Phase I study established a recommended dose of 800 mg gemcitabine and radiation dose of 36 Gy. For locally advanced nonresectable pancreatic cancer (cStage IVa in JCS), chemoradiotherapy followed by chemotherapy is recommended. Although pancreatic cancer is chemotherapy resistant tumor, systemic chemotherapy is recommended for metastatic pancreatic cancer (cStage IVb in JCS). Single-agent gemcitabine is the standard first line agent for the treatment of advanced pancreatic cancer. Meta-analysis of chemotherapy showed possibility of survival benefit of gemcitabine combination chemotherapy over gemcitabine alone. We hope gemcitabine combination chemotherapy or molecular targeted therapy will improve prognosis of pancreatic cancer in the future. (author)

  19. Meson radiobiology and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilgerman, M.M.

    1975-08-01

    High-linear energy transfer radiation (neutrons, heavy ions, and pions) have a greater relative biological effectiveness than low-linear energy transfer radiation by depositing a high density of ionization in irradiated cells. This overcomes the protective effect of oxygen; decreases the variation in sensitivity among the several stages of the cell cycles; and, inhibits the repair of sublethal damage as compared to x-rays, gamma rays, electrons and protons. Negative pi mesons (pions), appear particularly suited for radiation therapy as their penetration and depth-dose profiles lend themselves to shaping the high dose area to the tumor size and location. Preliminary biological experiments with pions produced at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility studied cell survival at various radiation depths and cell cycle sensitivity. Histologic study of data from the first human experiments indicated severe tumor cell destruction by pions as compared to x-rays in treating malignant melanoma skin nodules, without increased effects on dermal elements. (U.S.)

  20. Pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layer, P; Keller, J; Lankisch, P G

    2001-04-01

    Malabsorption due to severe pancreatic exocrine insufficiency is one of the most important late features of chronic pancreatitis. Generally, steatorrhea is more severe and occurs several years prior to malabsorption of other nutrients because synthesis and secretion of lipase are impaired more rapidly, its intraluminal survival is shorter, and the lack of pancreatic lipase activity is not compensated for by nonpancreatic mechanisms. Patients suffer not only from nutritional deficiencies but also from increased nutrient delivery to distal intestinal sites, causing symptoms by profound alteration of upper gastrointestinal secretory and motor functions. Adequate nutrient absorption requires delivery of sufficient enzymatic activity into the duodenal lumen simultaneously with meal nutrients. The following recommendations are based on modern therapeutic concepts: 25,000 to 40,000 units of lipase per meal using pH-sensitive pancreatin microspheres, with dosage increases, compliance checks, and differential diagnosis in case of treatment failure. Still, in most patients, lipid digestion cannot be completely normalized by current standard therapy, and future developments are needed to optimize treatment.

  1. Pharmacological therapy of spondyloarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzi, Carlo; D'Angelo, Salvatore; Gilio, Michele; Leccese, Pietro; Padula, Angela; Olivieri, Ignazio

    2015-01-01

    The current pharmacological therapy of spondyloarthritis (SpA) includes several drugs: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroids, traditional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs and biologic drugs. A systematic literature search was completed using the largest electronic databases (Medline, Embase and Cochrane), starting from 1995, with the aim to review data on traditional and biologic agents commercialised for SpA treatment. Randomised controlled trials and large observational studies were considered. In addition, studies performed in SpA patients treated with other, still unapproved, drugs (rituximab, anti-IL6 agents, apremilast, IL17 inhibitors and anakinra) were also taken into account. Biologic agents, especially anti-TNF drugs, have resulted in significant progress in improving clinical symptoms and signs, reducing inflammatory features in laboratory tests and imaging findings, and recovering all functional indexes. Anti-TNF drugs have radically changed the evolution of radiographic progression in peripheral joints; the first disappointing data concerning their efficacy on new bone formation of axial SpA has been recently challenged by studies enrolling patients who have been earlier diagnosed and treated. The opportunity to extend the interval of administration or to reduce the doses of anti-TNF agents can favourably influence the costs. Ustekinumab, the first non-anti-TNF biologic drug commercialised for psoriatic arthritis, offers new chances to patients that are unresponsive to anti-TNF.

  2. Principles of radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, M.P.; Share, F.S.; Goodman, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Radiation oncology now represents the integration of knowledge obtained over an 80-year period from the physics and biology laboratories and the medical clinic. Such integration is recent; until the supervoltage era following World War II, the chief developments in these three areas for the most part were realized independently. The physics and engineering laboratories have now developed a dependable family of sources of ionizing radiations that can be precisely directed at tumor volumes at various depths within the body. The biology laboratory has provided the basic scientific support underlying the intensive clinical experience and currently is suggesting ways of using ionizing radiations more effectively, such as modified fractionation schedules relating to cell cycle kinetics and the use of drugs and chemicals as modifiers of radiation response and normal tissue reaction. The radiation therapy clinic has provided the patient stratum on which the acute and chronic effects of irradiation have been assessed, and the patterns of treatment success and failure identified. The radiation therapist has shared with the surgeon and medical oncologist the responsibility for clarifying the natural history of a large number of human neoplasms, and through such clarifications, has developed more effective treatment strategies. Several examples of this include the improved results in the treatment of Hodgkin's disease, squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix, seminoma, and epithelial neoplasms of the upper aerodigestive tract

  3. Laser therapy in sinusitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez Diaz, Adel; Orellana Molina, Alina; Larrea Cox, Pedro; Combarro Romero, Andres; Corcho Corcho, Carlos; Morales Valdes, Omar; Gonzalez Mendez, Bianka M.

    2009-01-01

    The sinusitis is an inflammation of one or more breasts peri-nasals. It is common in the months of winter and it can last months or years if it is not treat. At the moment we have several means that try to offer our patients a better treatment. One of these instruments is the low power laser that for their properties to the interaction with the biological tissues offers therapeutic effects on the alive tissues, achieving at the level cellular important changes for a quick answer of the damaged tissue. We intended to demonstrate the effectiveness of the treatment with low power laser in patient with sinusitis. It was carried out an explanatory and retrospective study, where it was applied as treatment the low power laser, for that which a team of model Cuban production Fisser 21. The feminine sex, the affected age group prevailed it was among 36 to 50 years for both groups, the maxillary sinusitis prevailed regarding the frontal. The migraine, the nasal obstruction and the sensation of congestion of the head were present in most of the cases. 75% of the patients' treaties noticed improvement of the symptoms between the 1st and 3rd sessions. At the end 80% cured without necessity of a second treatment cycle. The accompanying symptoms almost disappeared in their entirety. We recommend using the treatment of low power laser, as therapy of first line for the treatment of sinusitis of infectious cause. (Author)

  4. Viewpoint: Personalizing Statin Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shlomo Keidar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD, associated with vascular atherosclerosis, is the major cause of death in Western societies. Current risk estimation tools, such as Framingham Risk Score (FRS, based on evaluation of multiple standard risk factors, are limited in assessment of individual risk. The majority (about 70% of the general population is classified as low FRS where the individual risk for CVD is often underestimated but, on the other hand, cholesterol lowering with statin is often excessively administered. Adverse effects of statin therapy, such as muscle pain, affect a large proportion of the treated patients and have a significant influence on their quality of life. Coronary artery calcification (CAC, as assessed by computed tomography, carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT, and especially presence of plaques as assessed by B-mode ultrasound are directly correlated with increased risk for cardiovascular events and provide accurate and relevant information for individual risk assessment. Absence of vascular pathology as assessed by these imaging methods has a very high negative predictive value and therefore could be used as a method to reduce significantly the number of subjects who, in our opinion, would not benefit from statins and only suffer from their side-effects. In summary, we suggest that in very-low-risk subjects, with the exception of subjects with low FRS with a family history of coronary artery disease (CAD at young age, if vascular imaging shows no CAC or normal CIMT without plaques, statin treatment need not be administered.

  5. Dietary Therapies for Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric H Kossoff

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Since their introduction in 1921, high-fat, low-carbohydrate "ketogenic" diets have been used worldwide for refractory childhood epilepsy. Approximately half of the children have at least half their seizures reduced, including 15% who are seizure free. The mechanisms of action of dietary therapies are under active investigation and appear to involve mitochondria. Once perceived as a last resort, modifications to initiation and maintenance, as well as the widespread use of pre-made ketogenic formulas have allowed dietary treatment to be used earlier in the course of epilepsy. For infantile spasms (West syndrome specifically, the ketogenic diet is successful about 50% of the time as a first-line treatment. New "alternative" diets such as the modified Atkins diet were created in 2003 and can be started more easily and are less restrictive. They may have particular value for countries in Asia. Side effects include constipation, dyslipidemia, growth slowing, acidosis, and kidney stones. Additionally, neurologists are studying ketogenic diets for conditions other than epilepsy, including Alzheimer's disease, autism, and brain tumors.

  6. AIDS and Occupational Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz Garrós, MC

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available "When my first hospitalization took place, I must recognize I was plunged into the mistake of identifying AIDS with death, together with the depression, uneasiness, unsecurity and the feeling of inability to plan my life in the short and long term to the point of refusing in my mind to organize things as simple as future holidays or improvements at home".Thanks to retroviral treatments, the initially mortal HIV/AIDS infection has become a chronic disease as it can be today thediabetes, allowing objectives in the short, medium and long term. Here is where the occupational therapy operates as an instrument to improve, keep or rehabilitate the occupational areas of this group which has a series of special features to be borne in mind when working with them.I seek to reflect my 8 months experience working as an occupational therapist in a Refuge Centre for AIDS ill people, and how throughout this experience I changed several of my initial approaches and working methods too.

  7. Gene therapy and reproductive medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stribley, John M; Rehman, Khurram S; Niu, Hairong; Christman, Gregory M

    2002-04-01

    To review the literature on the principles of gene therapy and its potential application in reproductive medicine. Literature review. Gene therapy involves transfer of genetic material to target cells using a delivery system, or vector. Attention has primarily focused on viral vectors. Significant problems remain to be overcome including low efficacy of gene transfer, the transient expression of some vectors, safety issues with modified adenoviruses and retroviruses, and ethical concerns. If these issues can be resolved, gene therapy will be applicable to an increasing spectrum of single and multiple gene disorders, as the Human Genome Project data are analyzed, and the genetic component of human disease becomes better understood. Gynecologic gene therapy has advanced to human clinical trials for ovarian carcinoma, and shows potential for the treatment of uterine leiomyomata. Obstetric applications of gene therapy, including fetal gene therapy, remain more distant goals. Concerns about the safety of human gene therapy research are being actively addressed, and remarkable progress in improving DNA transfer has been made. The first treatment success for a genetic disease (severe combined immunodeficiency disease) has been achieved, and ongoing research efforts will eventually yield clinical applications in many spheres of reproductive medicine.

  8. Gene therapy for ocular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Melissa M; Tuo, Jingsheng; Chan, Chi-Chao

    2011-05-01

    The eye is an easily accessible, highly compartmentalised and immune-privileged organ that offers unique advantages as a gene therapy target. Significant advancements have been made in understanding the genetic pathogenesis of ocular diseases, and gene replacement and gene silencing have been implicated as potentially efficacious therapies. Recent improvements have been made in the safety and specificity of vector-based ocular gene transfer methods. Proof-of-concept for vector-based gene therapies has also been established in several experimental models of human ocular diseases. After nearly two decades of ocular gene therapy research, preliminary successes are now being reported in phase 1 clinical trials for the treatment of Leber congenital amaurosis. This review describes current developments and future prospects for ocular gene therapy. Novel methods are being developed to enhance the performance and regulation of recombinant adeno-associated virus- and lentivirus-mediated ocular gene transfer. Gene therapy prospects have advanced for a variety of retinal disorders, including retinitis pigmentosa, retinoschisis, Stargardt disease and age-related macular degeneration. Advances have also been made using experimental models for non-retinal diseases, such as uveitis and glaucoma. These methodological advancements are critical for the implementation of additional gene-based therapies for human ocular diseases in the near future.

  9. Nuclear medicine therapy of neuroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoefnagel, C.A.

    1999-01-01

    Specific targeting of radionuclides to neuroblastoma, a neural crest tumor occurring predominantly in young children and associated with a relatively poor prognosis, may be achieved via the metabolic route (Mibg), receptor binding (peptides) or immunological approach (antibodies). The clinical role of 1 31 I -Mibg therapy and radioimmunotherapy in neuroblastoma is discussed. In recurrent or progressive metastatic disease after conventional treatment modalities have failed, 1 31 I -Mibg therapy, with an overall objective response rate of 35%, is probably the best palliative treatment, as the invasiveness and toxicity of this therapy compare favourably with that of chemotherapy, immunotherapy and external beam radiotherapy. In patients presenting with inoperable stage III and IV neuroblastoma, 1 31 I -Mibg therapy at diagnosis is at least as effective as combination chemotherapy but is associated with much less toxicity. In patients with recurrent disease 1 31 I -Mibg therapy in combination with hyperbaric oxygen therapy proved feasible and encouraging effects on survival have ben observed. Attempts to intensify the treatment in relapsed patients by combination of 1 31 I -Mibg therapy with high dose chemotherapy and/or total body irradiation have met with considerable toxicity. Developments in Mibg therapy aiming at improving the therapeutic index are mentioned. Early results of radioimmunotherapy using 1 31 I -UJ13A or 1 31 I -3F8 monoclonal antibodies have shown moderate objective response and considerable side effects in patients with stage IV neuroblastoma, who had relapsed or failed conventional therapy. New developments in radioimmunotherapy of neuroblastoma include the use of chimeric antibodies, the enhancement of tumor uptake by modulation of antigen expression or by increasing the tumor perfusion/vascularity/permeability, the use of other labels and multistep targeting techniques, e.g. using bispecific monoclonal antibodies

  10. Therapy: a new nonsurgical therapy option for benign thyroid nodules?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegedüs, Laszlo

    2009-01-01

    Despite the increasing implementation of iodization programs, benign nodular thyroid disease will remain a prevalent therapeutic concern for decades. recent research suggests that nonsurgical therapy, including radioactive iodine, radiofrequency thermal ablation and percutaneous laser ablation, m...

  11. Play therapy in perspective theory of eco systemic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofwan Adiputra

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Play therapy is a counseling approach for children applying toys, games, and other play media to communicate to the children "language." One of the Play therapy models that combine ecosystems as being formed by an inseparable reciprocal relationship between living things, and their environment is Eco systemic Play Therapy (EPT. Ecosystem Play Therapy as a hybrid model that integrates the concepts of science biology, several models of child psychotherapy, and developmental theories. This model is not eclectic. Rather, it is the integration of several models to create an independent model that is different from the sum of its parts. The focus of EPT is on the process of optimizing the implementation of the child's function as the context of the child's ecosystem or world. EPT is developed from a phenomenological philosophical perspective, in contrast to traditional perspectives.

  12. Proton-therapy and hadron-therapy ionization chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boissonnat, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    In the framework of the ARCHADE project (Advanced Resource Center for Hadron-therapy in Europe), a research project in Carbone ion beam therapy and clinical Proton-therapy, this work investigates the beam monitoring and dosimetry aspects of ion beam therapy. The main goal, here, is to understand the operating mode of air ionization chambers, the detectors used for such applications. This study starts at a very fundamental level as the involved physical and chemical parameters of air were measured in various electric field conditions with dedicated setups and used to produce a simulation tools aiming at reproducing the operating response in high intensity PBS (Pencil Beam Scanning) coming from IBA's (Ion Beam Applications) next generation of proton beam accelerators. In addition, an ionization chamber-based dosimetry equipment was developed, DOSION III, for radiobiology studies conducted at GANIL under the supervision of the CIMAP laboratory. (author)

  13. Regenerative Therapy for Retinal Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narsis Daftarian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Major advances in various disciplines of basic sciences including embryology, molecular and cell biology, genetics, and nanotechnology, as well as stem cell biology have opened new horizons for regenerative therapy. The unique characteristics of stem cells prompt a sound understanding for their use in modern regenerative therapies. This review article discusses stem cells, developmental stages of the eye field, eye field transcriptional factors, and endogenous and exogenous sources of stem cells. Recent studies and challenges in the application of stem cells for retinal pigment epithelial degeneration models will be summarized followed by obstacles facing regenerative therapy.

  14. Wanted: entrepreneurs in occupational therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Kristin M; Nelson, David L

    2011-01-01

    The American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA) has challenged occupational therapy practitioners to advance the profession so that we may become more "powerful" and "widely recognized" by the year 2017 (AOTA, 2007a). To fully achieve this vision, this article argues that the profession should encourage occupational therapy entrepreneurship. As Herz, Bondoc, Richmond, Richman, and Kroll (2005, p.2) stated, "Entrepreneurship may provide us with the means to achieve the outcomes we need to succeed in the current health care environment." This article also argues the urgency of seizing the many opportunities that entrepreneurship offers and recommends specific actions to be taken by AOTA and by therapists.

  15. Hadron accelerators in cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaldi, U.; Silari, M.

    1997-01-01

    The application of hadron accelerators (protons and light ions) in cancer therapy is discussed. After a brief introduction on the rationale for the use of heavy charged particles in radiation therapy, a discussion is given on accelerator technology and beam delivery systems. Next, existing and planned facilities are briefly reviewed. The Italian Hadrontherapy Project (the largest project of this type in Europe) is then described, with reference to both the National Centre for Oncological Hadrontherapy and the design of two types of compact proton accelerators aimed at introducing proton therapy in a large number of hospitals. Finally, the radiation protection requirements are discussed. (author)

  16. Family therapy and clinical psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Alan

    1995-01-01

    The results of a survey of 111 clinical psychologists in the Republic of Ireland along with some comparable data from US and UK surveys were used to address a series of questions about the link between family therapy and clinical psychology. Family therapy was not a clearly identifiable sub-specialty within clinical psychology in Ireland. Family therapy theoretical models were used by more than a quarter of the Irish sample to conceptualize their work but by less than a tenth of US and UK res...

  17. Bone changes from prostaglandin therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poznanski, A.K.; Fernbach, S.K.; Berry, T.E.; Northwestern Univ., Chicago, IL

    1985-01-01

    Prostaglandin E therapy in infants causes periosteal elevation. Although the changes usually take 30-40 days to become visible, we have seen them as early as nine days. In 15 infants who had prostaglandin E therapy for over six days, three developed periosteal elevation. Three other cases are described in greater detail, with long-term follow-up in two in which the bone remodeled to normal. Gallium scan in one showed increased uptake in areas involved. The periosteal cloaking may mimic Caffey disease but the pattern of involvement is different, since the mandible, which is commonly affected in Caffey disease, is rarely involved in prostaglandin E therapy. (orig.)

  18. [Music therapy on Parkinson disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côrte, Beltrina; Lodovici Neto, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    This study is a result of a qualitative research, in the Gerontology and Music therapy scenario. It was analyzed the importance of alternative practices like playing an instrument (piano, violin, etc.), singing, or practicing a guided musical exercise as a therapy activity for elder people with Parkinson Disease. The analysis, systematization and interpretation of the data pointed: music therapy is an excellent way to improve the life of the patient that becomes more sociable, decreasing physical and psychological symptoms ('symptomatology') and the subject change for a singular and own position in the relation with your disease and the people around.

  19. Mammary carcinoma diagnostics and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Uwe; Baum, Friedemann

    2014-01-01

    The book on mammary carcinoma diagnostics and therapy covers the following issues: development, anatomy and physiology of the mammary glands, pathology of benign and malign mammary gland changes, non-imaging diagnostics; mammography; ultrasonic mammography; magnetic resonance tomography of the mammary glands; imaging diagnostics findings; mammary interventions; examination concepts; operative therapy of the mammary carcinoma; chemotherapy of the mammary carcinoma; radio-oncological therapy of the mammary carcinoma; logistics in a medical center for mammary gland diseases; logistics in an interdisciplinary center for mammary diseases; dialogue conduction and psycho-social attendance.

  20. Physical therapy and occupational therapy in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radder, Danique L M; Sturkenboom, Ingrid H; van Nimwegen, Marlies; Keus, Samyra H; Bloem, Bastiaan R; de Vries, Nienke M

    2017-10-01

    Current medical management is only partially effective in controlling the symptoms of Parkinson's disease. As part of comprehensive multidisciplinary care, physical therapy and occupational therapy aim to support people with Parkinson's disease in dealing with the consequences of their disease in daily activities. In this narrative review, we address the limitations that people with Parkinson's disease may encounter despite optimal medical management, and we clarify both the unique and shared approaches that physical therapists and occupational therapists can apply in treating these limitations.

  1. Radiation therapy for carcinoma of the endometrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potish, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    Carcinoma of the endometrium is the most common malignant tumor in the female genital tract. Radiation therapy continues to play a major role in the management of endometrial carcinoma, both as primary therapy and as adjuvant treatment. The utility of pelvic external beam therapy and intracavitary therapy is long established. However, the modern era of surgical staging has lead to an appreciation of the role of radiation therapy beyond the pelvis. Radiation therapy has been shown to be of particular benefit in peritoneal and nodal spread. The classic management of endometrial cancer is reviewed and relatively new and somewhat controversial topics, such as preoperative intracavitary therapy followed by external beam therapy are discussed

  2. Gene therapy and radiotherapy in malignant tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yaowen; Cao Yongzhen; Li Jin; Wang Qin

    2008-01-01

    Tumor treatment is one of the most important fields in medical research. Nowadays, a novel method which is combined gene therapy with radiotherapy plays an important role in the field of cancer research, and mainly includes immune gene therapy combined with radiotherapy, suicide gene therapy or tumor suppressor gene therapy combined with radiotherapy, antiangiogenesis gene therapy combined with radiotherapy and protective gene therapy combined with radiotherapy based on the technical features. This review summarized the current status of combined therapies of gene therapy and radiotherapy and possible mechanism. (authors)

  3. Therapy of the burnout syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korczak, Dieter; Wastian, Monika; Schneider, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence, diagnostics and therapy of the burnout syndrome are increasingly discussed in the public. The unclear definition and diagnostics of the burnout syndrome are scientifically criticized. There are several therapies with unclear evidence for the treatment of burnout in existence. The health technology assessment (HTA) report deals with the question of usage and efficacy of different burnout therapies. For the years 2006 to 2011, a systematic literature research was done in 31 electronic databases (e.g. EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO). Important inclusion criteria are burnout, therapeutic intervention and treatment outcome. 17 studies meet the inclusion criteria and are regarded for the HTA report. The studies are very heterogeneous (sample size, type of intervention, measuring method, level of evidence). Due to their study design (e.g. four reviews, eight randomized controlled trials) the studies have a comparable high evidence: three times 1A, five times 1B, one time 2A, two times 2B and six times 4. 13 of the 17 studies are dealing with the efficacy of psychotherapy and psychosocial interventions for the reduction of burnout (partly in combination with other techniques). Cognitive behaviour therapy leads to the improvement of emotional exhaustion in the majority of the studies. The evidence is inconsistent for the efficacy of stress management and music therapy. Two studies regarding the efficacy of Qigong therapy do not deliver a distinct result. One study proves the efficacy of roots of Rhodiola rosea (evidence level 1B). Physical therapy is only in one study separately examined and does not show a better result than standard therapy. Despite the number of studies with high evidence the results for the efficacy of burnout therapies are preliminary and do have only limited reach. The authors of the studies complain about the low number of skilled studies for the therapy of burnout. Furthermore, they point to the insufficient evaluation of the therapy

  4. Effectiveness of hypnosis therapy and Gestalt therapy as depression treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth González-Ramírez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the effectiveness of two psychological therapies to treat depression in the Culiacan population, Mexico. According to criteria of MINI (international Neuropsychiatric interview, 30 individuals from a total of 300 were selected and diagnosed with some kind of depression. Patients were divided in three groups: 1 treatment with hypnosis therapy, 2 treatment with Gestalt-hypnosis therapy, and 3 control group. Before and after the treatments the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI was applied to know the depression level of the analyzed groups. The results show that the three groups were presenting a moderated level of depression. The groups under hypnosis therapy and Gestalt-hypnosis therapy show statistical differences between pre-test and post-test. The hypnosis therapy shows significant statistic differences to treat depression with respect to the other two groups. In conclusion, the therapeutic hypnosis is an effective treatment and has relevance to treat depression, while other therapeutic treatments tend to be slow and with minor result. This study is the first of this kind carried out in Culiacan in Sinaloa, Mexico.

  5. Gestalt therapy and cognitive therapy--contrasts or complementarities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tønnesvang, Jan; Sommer, Ulla; Hammink, James; Sonne, Mikael

    2010-12-01

    The article investigates the relationship between crucial concepts and understandings in gestalt therapy and cognitive therapy aiming at discussing if and how they can be mutually enriching when considered as complementary parts in a more encompassing integrative therapeutic approach. It is argued that gestalt therapy, defined as a field-theoretical approach to the study of gestalt formation process, can complement the schema-based understanding and practice in cognitive therapy. The clinical benefits from a complementary view of the two approaches will be a wider scope of awareness toward individual and contextual aspects of therapeutic change processes, toward different levels of memory involved in these processes, and toward the relationship between basic needs, sensation and cognition in therapeutic work. Further, a dialogue between the two approaches will pave the way for addressing the connection between fundamental awareness work in gestalt therapy and the tendency within cognitive therapy toward incorporating mindfulness as a therapeutic tool. In the conclusion of the article, additional complementary points between the two approaches are outlined. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Chemotherapy and molecular target therapy combined with radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimoto, Tetsuo

    2012-01-01

    Combined chemotherapy and radiation therapy has been established as standard treatment approach for locally advanced head and neck cancer, esophageal cancer and so on through randomized clinical trials. However, radiation-related morbidity such as acute toxicity also increased as treatment intensity has increased. In underlining mechanism for enhancement of normal tissue reaction in chemo-radiation therapy, chemotherapy enhanced radiosensitivity of normal tissues in addition to cancer cells. Molecular target-based drugs combined with radiation therapy have been expected as promising approach that makes it possible to achieve cancer-specific enhancement of radiosensitivity, and clinical trials using combined modalities have been performed to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of this approach. In order to obtain maximum radiotherapeutic gain, a detailed understanding of the mechanism underlying the interaction between radiation and Molecular target-based drugs is indispensable. Among molecular target-based drugs, inhibitors targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its signal transduction pathways have been vigorously investigated, and mechanisms regarding the radiosensitizing effect have been getting clear. In addition, the results of randomized clinical trials demonstrated that radiation therapy combined with cetuximab resulted in improvement of overall and disease-specific survival rate compared with radiation therapy in locally advanced head and neck cancer. In this review, clinical usefulness of chemo-radiation therapy and potential molecular targets for potentiation of radiation-induced cell killing are summarized. (author)

  7. Optimization of radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtsubo, Masaaki

    1990-01-01

    In radiotherapy, dose optimization is to give adequate dose uniformly over target volume and minimize the dose to normal and adjacent critical organs. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze dose distribution in detail. This paper presents a method for quantitatively assessing treatment planning by analysis of dose distribution. For this purpose, several parameters were introduced, such as D T, min (minimum target absorbed dose), NUF (nonuniformity factor), volume rate of damaged lung and spinal cord, R T/T (ratio of target volume to treatment volume), LE (local efficiency), integral dose, etc. And some criteria were made using these parameters, and were applied to evaluate various plans in external beam radiation therapy for lung and esophagus cancer. In these parameters, NUF was especially useful to obtain three-dimensional dose information of target volume, and value of NUF was in agreement with the information provided by dose volume histogram. AP-PA parallel opposed fields technique was inferior in D T,min and NUF. In lung cancer, there was no spinal cord injury in oblique parallel opposed fields technique, and this technique is particularly useful when target volume is in posterior. In these two techniques, R T/T was small and hot spots were frequently observed. R T/T was largest in oblique wedged two-fields technique, but this technique was inferior in D T, min and NUF. About D T, min and NUF, four fields technique was the best, but in this technique spinal cord complication often occurred in case that target volume was in the middle. In moving beam technique (360deg rotation or arc), integral dose is large, and the more target volume is in posterior, the more often spinal cord complication occurs. In esophageal cancer, three fields technique was the best to avoid spinal cord injury. It seems that this method is very useful for optimization in radiation treatment planning. (author)

  8. [Diuretic-based therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presne, Claire; Monge, Matthieu; Mansour, Janette; Oprisiu, Roxana; Choukroun, Gabriel; Achard, Jean Michel; Fournier, Albert

    2007-10-01

    Diuretics are pharmacological agents that increase natriuresis through inhibition of tubular re-absorption of sodium. The mechanisms and site of this inhibition differ with each drug class, accounting for their additive effects on natriuresis increase and their hydroelectrolytic side effects. The response to a given diuretic dose depends on the diuretic concentration on the urine at its action site. This concentration may be decreased by pharmacokinetic factors such as encountered in renal insufficiency or in nephrotic syndrome. These resistance mechanisms of diuretics may be corrected by dose increase, previous diuretic fixation on albumin or warfarin administration. Once these mechanisms are opposed, the diuretic concentration for maximal efficacy is reached at is action site and the natriuresis obtained as the normal maximal plateau. This is not the case when an oedematous systemic disease with effective hypovolemia is present, like in heart failure or cirrhosis, or when chronic use of loop diuretics has induced a hypertrophy of the more distant part of the tubule. In theses cases, a pharmacodynamic resistance exists, resulting in a lower maximal natriuresis plateau in spite of adequate concentration of the diuretic at its action site, even in the absence of pharmacokinetic resistance factors. The main indications of diuretics are systemic oedematous disease and hypertension. In the oedematous diseases, diuretics indication is both straightforward and sufficient only if effective hypervolemia is present. The therapeutic approach is discussed according to the various clinical conditions and pathophysiological background. In uncomplicated hypertension, diuretics are the cornerstone of the therapy. The most suitable diuretic treatment for hypertension is an association of low doses thiazide (12.5-50 mg/day) with potassium sparing diuretics. Rare indications of diuretics are also reviewed.

  9. Family therapy, conflicts and change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musaeus, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Given the relative lack of sociocultural approaches to therapy, this presentation aims to contribute to a sociocultural understanding of motivation and socio-emotional problems in children and families undergoing family therapy. The study was designed as a case study using semi structured...... will be sketched pertaining to the area of family therapy. The study argues for the importance of a holistic, non-mechanical (Valsiner) approach to motivation for change in understanding how "at risk" or "problematic" children and youth (who are for instance experiencing school absenteeism, domestic violence...... interviews with 15 families undergoing family therapy delivered by a communal agency in Denmark.   Using notions of crisis interlinked with institutions and everyday lives (Hedegaard) framed by historical, contentious struggles (Holland and Lave), a model of conflict, violence, learning and motivation...

  10. International Occupational Therapy Research Priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Lynette; Coppola, Susan; Alvarez, Liliana; Cibule, Lolita; Maltsev, Sergey; Loh, Siew Yim; Mlambo, Tecla; Ikiugu, Moses N; Pihlar, Zdenka; Sriphetcharawut, Sarinya; Baptiste, Sue; Ledgerd, Richard

    2017-04-01

    Occupational therapy is a global profession represented by the World Federation of Occupational Therapists (WFOT). International research priorities are needed for strategic guidance on global occupational therapy practice. The objective of this study was to develop international research priorities to reflect global occupational therapy practice. A Delphi study using three rounds of electronic surveys, distributed to WFOT member organizations and WFOT accredited universities, was conducted. Data were analyzed after each round, and priorities were presented for rating and ranking in order of importance. Forty-six (53%) out of 87 WFOT member countries participated in the Delphi process. Eight research priorities were confirmed by the final electronic survey round. Differences were observed in rankings given by member organizations and university respondents. Despite attrition at Round 3, the final research priorities will help to focus research efforts in occupational therapy globally. Follow-up research is needed to determine how the research priorities are being adopted internationally.

  11. Radiation Therapy for Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is almost always due to smoking. TREATING LUNG CANCER Lung cancer treatment depends on several factors, including the ... org TARGETING CANCER CARE Radiation Therapy for Lung Cancer Lung cancer is the second most common cancer in ...

  12. Occupational Therapy's Role with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet Occupational Therapy’s Role with Autism Autism is a lifelong condition associated with a varied course from early childhood through adulthood. Occupational therapy practitioners are distinctly qualified to ...

  13. Gene therapy for lipid disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rader Daniel J

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Lipid disorders are associated with atherosclerotic vascular disease, and therapy is associated with a substantial reduction in cardiovascular events. Current approaches to the treatment of lipid disorders are ineffective in a substantial number of patients. New therapies for refractory hypercholesterolemia, severe hypertriglyceridemia, and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol are needed: somatic gene therapy is one viable approach. The molecular etiology and pathophysiology of most of the candidate diseases are well understood. Animal models exist for the diseases and in many cases preclinical proof-of-principle studies have already been performed. There has been progress in the development of vectors that provide long-term gene expression. New clinical gene therapy trials for lipid disorders are likely to be initiated within the next few years.

  14. Radiation therapy for gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobelbower, R.R.; Bagne, F.; Ajlouni, M.I.; Milligan, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma of the stomach is a moderately radioresponsive neoplasm. Attempts to treat patients with unresectable disease with external beam radiation therapy alone have generally failed because of problems with tumor localization and adequate dose delivery as well as the inherent radioresponsiveness of the gastric mucosa and the organs intimately related to the stomach. Combining external beam therapy and chemotherapy (acting as a systemic agent and as a radiosensitizer) seems to be of some (albeit limited) benefit in the management of unresectable adenocarcinoma of the stomach. Optimum combinations of radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and radiation sensitizers in this situation remain to be determined. The authors discuss strides which have been made in the treatment of gastric cancer. They also address the unanswered clinical questions which remain regarding the use of radiation therapy in the treatment of this highly lethal disease

  15. Gene Therapy for Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Denyer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Current pharmacological and surgical treatments for Parkinson's disease offer symptomatic improvements to those suffering from this incurable degenerative neurological disorder, but none of these has convincingly shown effects on disease progression. Novel approaches based on gene therapy have several potential advantages over conventional treatment modalities. These could be used to provide more consistent dopamine supplementation, potentially providing superior symptomatic relief with fewer side effects. More radically, gene therapy could be used to correct the imbalances in basal ganglia circuitry associated with the symptoms of Parkinson's disease, or to preserve or restore dopaminergic neurons lost during the disease process itself. The latter neuroprotective approach is the most exciting, as it could theoretically be disease modifying rather than simply symptom alleviating. Gene therapy agents using these approaches are currently making the transition from the laboratory to the bedside. This paper summarises the theoretical approaches to gene therapy for Parkinson's disease and the findings of clinical trials in this rapidly changing field.

  16. Nonsurgical periodontal therapy: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyotsana Tanwar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonsurgical therapy aims to eliminate both living bacteria in the microbial biofilm and calcified biofilm microorganisms from the tooth surface and adjacent soft tissues. Complete elimination of such pathogenic microorganisms is perhaps over-ambitious. However, a reduction in inflammation of the periodontium due to a lesser bacterial load leads to beneficial clinical changes. In addition, nonsurgical therapy aims to create an environment in which the host can more effectively prevent pathogenic microbial recolonization using personal oral hygiene methods. The concept of critical probing depth was consistently found to be greater for the surgical approach than for the nonsurgical treatment. The various methods used in nonsurgical therapy, such as hand instrumentation, ultrasonic and sonic scalers, and ablative laser therapy.

  17. Cell based therapy in Parkinsonism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Munter, J.P.J.M.; Lee, C.; Wolters, E.C.

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a synucleinopathy-induced chronic progressive neurodegenerative disorder, worldwide affecting about 5 million humans. As of yet, actual therapies are symptomatic, and neuroprotective strategies are an unmet need. Due to their capability to transdifferentiate, to immune

  18. Umbanda, Music and Music Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Gregorio José Pereira de Queiroz

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the use of music in religious rites of Umbanda and the possible correlations among the role played by music in this rite and its role in music therapy process, especially in some of its approaches.

  19. THERAPY DEVELOPMENTS IN SOUTHERN AFRICA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the potential benefits of structured treatment interruptions. Second, extensive .... suppression can facilitate restoration of CD4+ T-cell prolif- erative responses to recall ..... women after initiation of protease inhibitor therapy. In: 12th World.

  20. Translational research on advanced therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Belardelli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fostering translational research of advanced therapies has become a major priority of both scientific community and national governments. Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP are a new medicinal product category comprising gene therapy and cell-based medicinal products as well as tissue engineered medicinal products. ATMP development opens novel avenues for therapeutic approaches in numerous diseases, including cancer and neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. However, there are important bottlenecks for their development due to the complexity of the regulatory framework, the high costs and the needs for good manufacturing practice (GMP facilities and new end-points for clinical experimentation. Thus, a strategic cooperation between different stakeholders (academia, industry and experts in regulatory issues is strongly needed. Recently, a great importance has been given to research infrastructures dedicated to foster translational medicine of advanced therapies. Some ongoing European initiatives in this field are presented and their potential impact is discussed.

  1. Does Psychodynamic Environmental Therapy Work?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Poul; Hansen, Kim Gabriel

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the first Danish prospective outcome study of psychodynamic environmental therapy of children in residential treatment with early, serious traumatisation and extential relational disturbances. The study delves beneath the surface and explores the extent to which the children...

  2. Interaction Themes in Music Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Ulla

    2006-01-01

    Based on a doctoral study, the author presents a type of music therapy interaction called ‘Interaction Themes.’ These are developed from session to session and often appear in music therapy interventions with children with severe functional limitations, especially children with autism. Although...... whose expressions are often difficult to understand. The presented article describes the characteristics and functions of Interaction Themes, compares the phenomenon with music therapy case literature and delimits it in regard to other types of music therapy interaction with this client group....... the Interaction Themes are characterised by a relatively simple and self-generated content, they have an essential function because they contain the child’s and music therapist’s joint interaction history. They make up the context within which it is possible to create meaningful interaction with a client group...

  3. Translational research on advanced therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belardelli, Filippo; Rizza, Paola; Moretti, Franca; Carella, Cintia; Galli, Maria Cristina; Migliaccio, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Fostering translational research of advanced therapies has become a major priority of both scientific community and national governments. Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP) are a new medicinal product category comprising gene therapy and cell-based medicinal products as well as tissue engineered medicinal products. ATMP development opens novel avenues for therapeutic approaches in numerous diseases, including cancer and neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. However, there are important bottlenecks for their development due to the complexity of the regulatory framework, the high costs and the needs for good manufacturing practice (GMP) facilities and new end-points for clinical experimentation. Thus, a strategic cooperation between different stakeholders (academia, industry and experts in regulatory issues) is strongly needed. Recently, a great importance has been given to research infrastructures dedicated to foster translational medicine of advanced therapies. Some ongoing European initiatives in this field are presented and their potential impact is discussed.

  4. Occupational therapy for multiple sclerosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steultjens, E.M.J.; Dekker, J.; Bouter, L.M.; Cardol, M.; Nes, J.C.M. van de; Ende, C.H.M. van den

    2003-01-01

    Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients are referred to occupational therapy with complaints about fatigue, limb weakness, alteration of upper extremity fine motor coordination, loss of sensation and spasticity that causes limitations in performance of activities of daily living and social

  5. Patient communication in hormone therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnare, S M

    2001-01-01

    Common regimens of HRT therapy are reviewed, including common routes of hormone administration. Inconsistent patterns of HRT use are discussed, including the reasons women most often give for discontinuing hormone therapies. Specific issues related to misperceptions and fears regarding HRT are clarified, and specific, focused patient education formats are discussed to address women's common concerns about HRT. Obstacles to HRT use are elucidated, with suggestions for clinicians about how to communicate more effectively with women: clinicians must focus on emotional and physical aspects of HRT choices and tailor therapies to the individual patient. Discussing frankly the very serious concerns of women regarding the association between lobular breast cancer and endometrial cancer is important; discussing and preparing women for possible side effects helps patients cope better if and when side effects occur. Finally, offering a wide variety of HRT therapies provides women with a broader choice if an initial regimen is unsuccessful.

  6. Oculomotor biofeedback therapy for exotropia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldrich, S G

    1982-04-01

    Twelve exotropes of various types received oculomotor biofeedback therapy at State College of New York (SUNY) University Optometric Center. Feedback of a variable pitch tone which reflected changes in ocular vergence reinforced motor control of eye posture. Patients were trained to achieve and sustain alignment in a variety of viewing situations. The six intermittent exotropes in the study who did not have amblyopia or prior history of unsuccessful surgical or orthoptic therapy achieved the highest recovery rating after training. The amblyope and those who had orthoptic training learned to voluntarily correct their eye position, although they did not achieve as acute a sensitivity to loss of alignment as did the others. Therapy restored eye control at near in a young constant exotrope whose condition resulted from severe neurological dysfunction. A constant postsurgical exotrope who had no ability for sensory fusion made little progress. Advantages of oculomotor biofeedback therapy are shorter treatment time, elimination of lengthy home training exercises, and enhanced patient motivation.

  7. Ethical Relativism and Behavior Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchener, Richard F.

    1980-01-01

    Argues that behavior therapists are really ethical relativists and sometimes ethical skeptics. Ethical naturalism found in operant behavior therapy does entail ethical relativism. Other authors respond to these views. (Author)

  8. Radiolabeling of anti-CD20 with Re-188 for treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: radiochemical control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Carla R.; Osso Junior, Joao A.

    2009-01-01

    The development of tumor-selective radiopharmaceuticals is clinically desirable as a means of detecting or confirming the presence and location of primary and metastatic lesions and monitoring tumor response to (chemo)therapy. In addition, the application of targeted radiotherapeutics provides a unique and effective modality for direct tumor treatment. In this manner the radioimmunotherapy (RIT) uses the targeting features of monoclonal antibody to deliver radiation from an attached radionuclide. Antibody therapy directed against the CD20 antigen on the surface of B-cells is considered one of the first successful target-specific therapies in oncology. The radionuclide rhenium-188 ( 188 Re) is currently produced from the father nuclide tungsten-188 ( 188 W) through a transportable generator system. Because of its easy availability and suitable nuclear properties (EβMAX = 2.1 MeV, t 1/2 = 16.9 h, Eγ = 155 keV), this radionuclide is considered an attractive candidate for application as therapeutic agent and could be conveniently utilized for imaging and dosimetric purposes. The purpose of this work is to show the radiochemical control of the optimized formulation (solution) and lyophilized formulation (kit) of labeled rituximab (anti-CD20) with 188 Re. Rituximab was reduced by incubation with 2-mercaptoethanol at room temperature. The number of resulting free sulfhydryl groups was assayed with Ellman's reagent. Radiochemical purity of 188 Re-rituximab was evaluated using instant thin layer chromatography-silica gel (ITLC-SG). Quality control methods for evaluation of radiochemical purity showed good labeling yield of the antibody. (author)

  9. Technical advances in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sause, W.T.

    1986-01-01

    Substantial advances have been made in radiation therapy. Many of these advances can be applied in most radiation therapy departments without expensive improvements in equipment. Changes in radiation fractionation, chemotherapeutic sensitization, intraoperative radiation, and interstitial implants can be performed with experience and improved physician training in most medium-sized departments. Advances that require investments in expensive equipment such as particle radiation and hyperthermia will need to be evaluated at designated treatment centers. 106 references

  10. Nanotechnology Cancer Therapy and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanotechnology offers the means to target therapies directly and selectively to cancerous cells and neoplasms. With these tools, clinicians can safely and effectively deliver chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and the next generation of immuno- and gene therapies to the tumor. Futhermore, surgical resection of tumors can be guided and enhanced by way of nanotechnology tools. Find out how nanotechnology will offer the next generation of our therapeutic arsenal to the patient.

  11. Atrioventricular Dissociation after Electroconvulsive Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegfried William Yu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT is increasingly used as a treatment for psychiatric disorders. Cardiac effects are the principal cause of medical complications in these patients. We report a case of atrioventricular (AV dissociation that occurred after ECT that was treated with pacemaker implantation. The mechanisms contributing to the onset of AV dissociation in this patient, and the management and rationale for device therapy, in light of the most recent guidelines, are reviewed.

  12. Hypertension and experimental stroke therapies

    OpenAIRE

    O'Collins, Victoria E; Donnan, Geoffrey A; Macleod, Malcolm R; Howells, David W

    2013-01-01

    Hypertension is an established target for long-term stroke prevention but procedures for management of hypertension in acute stroke are less certain. Here, we analyze basic science data to examine the impact of hypertension on candidate stroke therapies and of anti-hypertensive treatments on stroke outcome. Methods: Data were pooled from 3,288 acute ischemic stroke experiments (47,899 animals) testing the effect of therapies on infarct size (published 1978–2010). Data were combined using meta...

  13. Biological therapy in geriatric patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mego, M.

    2012-01-01

    Targeted biological therapy, alone or in combination with conventional chemotherapy, make significant progress in the treatment of patients with malignancy. Its use as opposed to high-dose chemotherapy is not limited by age, nevertheless, we have relatively little knowledge of the toxicity and effectiveness in geriatric patients. Aim of this article is to give an overview of the biological effectiveness and toxicity of anticancer therapy in geriatric patients, based on published data. (author)

  14. Proton Therapy for Thoracoabdominal Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Hideyuki; Okumura, Toshiyuki; Sugahara, Shinji; Nakayama, Hidetsugu; Tokuuye, Koichi

    In advanced-stage disease of certain thoracoabdominal tumors, proton therapy (PT) with concurrent chemotherapy may be an option to reduce side effects. Several technological developments, including a respiratory gating system and implantation of fiducial markers for image guided radiation therapy (IGRT), are necessary for the treatment in thoracoabdominal tumors. In this chapter, the role of PT for tumors of the lung, the esophagus, and liver are discussed.

  15. Music Therapy in Palliative Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warth, Marco; Keßler, Jens; Hillecke, Thomas K; Bardenheuer, Hubert J

    2015-11-13

    Music therapy has been used successfully for over 30 years as part of palliative care programs for severely ill patients. There is nonetheless a lack of high-quality studies that would enable an evidence-based evaluation of its psychological and physiological effects. In a randomized controlled trial, 84 hospitalized patients in palliative care were assigned to one of two treatment arms--music therapy and control. The music therapy intervention consisted of two sessions of live music-based relaxation exercises; the patients in the control group listened to a verbal relaxation exercise. The primary endpoints were self-ratings of relaxation, well-being, and acute pain, assessed using visual analog scales. Heart rate variability and health-related quality of life were considered as secondary outcomes. The primary data analysis was performed according to the intention-to-treat principle. Analyses of covariance revealed that music therapy was more effective than the control treatment at promoting relaxation (F = 13.7; p Music therapy did not differ from control treatment with respect to pain reduction (F = 0.4; p = 0.53), but it led to a significantly greater reduction in the fatigue score on the quality-of-life scale (F = 4.74; p = 0.03). Music therapy is an effective treatment with a low dropout rate for the promotion of relaxation and well-being in terminally ill persons undergoing palliative care.

  16. Photodynamic therapy in clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Filonenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The review is on opportunities and possibilities of application of photodynamic therapy in clinical practice. The advantages of this method are the targeting of effect on tumor foci and high efficiency along with low systemic toxicity. The results of the set of recent Russian and foreign clinical trials are represented in the review. The method is successfully used in clinical practice with both radical (for early vulvar, cervical cancer and pre-cancer, central early lung cancer, esophageal and gastric cancer, bladder cancer and other types of malignant tumors, and palliative care (including tumor pleuritis, gastrointestinal tumors and others. Photodynamic therapy delivers results which are not available for other methods of cancer therapy. Thus, photodynamic therapy allows to avoid gross scars (that is very important, for example, in gynecology for treatment of patients of reproductive age with cervical and vulvar cancer, delivers good cosmetic effect for skin tumors, allows minimal trauma for intact tissue surrounding tumor. Photodynamic therapy is also used in other fields of medicine, such as otorhinolaryngology, dermatology, ophthalmology, orthopaedics, for treatment of papilloma virus infection and purulent wounds as antibacterial therapy.

  17. New anabolic therapies in osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Mishaela R; Bilezikian, John P

    2003-03-01

    Anabolic agents represent an important new advance in the therapy of osteoporosis. Their potential might be substantially greater than the anti-resorptives. Because the anti-resorptives and anabolic agents work by completely distinct mechanisms of action, it is possible that the combination of agents could be significantly more potent than either agent alone. Recent evidence suggests that a plateau in BMD might occur after prolonged exposure to PTH. Anti-resorptive therapy during or after anabolic therapy might prevent this skeletal adaptation. Protocols to consider anabolic agents as intermittent recycling therapy would be of interest. Of all the anabolics, PTH is the most promising. However, there are unanswered questions about PTH. More studies are needed to document an anabolic effect on cortical bone. More large-scale studies are needed to further determine the reduction in nonvertebral fractures with PTH, especially at the hip. In the future, PTH is likely to be modified for easier and more targeted delivery. Oral or transdermal delivery systems may become available. Recently, Gowen et al have described an oral calcilytic molecule that antagonizes the parathyroid cell calcium receptor, thus stimulating the endogenous release of PTH. This approach could represent a novel endogenous delivery system for intermittent PTH administration. Rising expectations that anabolic therapies for osteoporosis will soon play a major role in treating this disease are likely to fuel further studies and the development of even more novel approaches to therapy.

  18. Radioiodine therapy for hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrenechea, E.C.A.

    1996-01-01

    The introduction of I-131 in 1946 for the treatment of hyperthyroidism marked a historic event. It ushered in the era of radionuclides in medicine and led to the birth of nuclear medicine. Today I-131 has become one of the most commonly used agents for the treatment of hyperthyroidism. Ninety percent (90%) of its effect is due to beta radiation and 10% is due to gamma radiation. The mechanism of action is production of radiation thyroiditis (3-10 days) and chronic gland atrophy (over a period of 3 years). To achieve the necessary dosage levels, four considerations are needed: maximum amount of I-131 taken by the thyroid gland, size of tissue to be irradiated, effective half life of the isotope in the thyroid and relative sensitivity of the thyroid to I-131. There are two kinds of dosing - the preferred dose where 160 μCi/gram of tissue of given (15-20μCi) or the usual dose 80 μCi/gram - (2 to 15 mCi). In giving these dosages, four basic approaches are utilized and two major principles are applied. However, precision in the calculation of I-131 dose makes very little difference in the outcome in any individual patients. The inherent sensitivity of the thyroid to radiation seems to vary widely for unknown reasons. The success in treatment is high with incidence of cure as follows: 70-86% in single dose; 10-20% using 2 doses and less than 5% required 3 doses or more. Adjunctive therapy in the forms of antithyroid drugs, beta blocker and steroids may be needed. There are short and long term complications where hypothyroidism is the most important complication. Long term follow-up is advocated by FT4 and TSH determinations. There is an unknown risk of malignancy and genetic damage. Finally, I-131 has been a choice of treatment for hyperthyroidism with some considerations in the U.S.A., Europe, and Asia. It is rapidly effective, predictable and inexpensive. Several studies on the experience will be discussed. (author)

  19. Meaning of dancing therapy in therapy of clients with psychological diseases

    OpenAIRE

    NĚMCOVÁ, Barbora

    2010-01-01

    Bachelor thesis deals with meaning and effects of Dance therapy in frame of medical therapy of clients with psychical disease. Theoretical part defines words like dance, movement and Dance therapy. This part also describes history of dance, meaning and aims of Dance therapy, its school, aims and divisions. Mensioned are person of dance therapist, personalities connected with dance and Dance therapy, target groups of clients suitable for Dance therapy, importance of Dance therapy for clients w...

  20. Electroconvulsive therapy for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharyan, P; Adams, C E

    2005-04-18

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) involves the induction of a seizure for therapeutic purposes by the administration of a variable frequency electrical stimulus shock via electrodes applied to the scalp. The effects of its use in people with schizophrenia are unclear. To determine whether electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) results in clinically meaningful benefit with regard to global improvement, hospitalisation, changes in mental state, behaviour and functioning for people with schizophrenia, and to determine whether variations in the practical administration of ECT influences outcome. We undertook electronic searches of Biological Abstracts (1982-1996), EMBASE (1980-1996), MEDLINE (1966-2004), PsycLIT (1974-1996),SCISEARCH (1996) and the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Register (July 2004). We also inspected the references of all identified studies and contacted relevant authors. We included all randomised controlled clinical trials that compared ECT with placebo, 'sham ECT', non-pharmacological interventions and antipsychotics and different schedules and methods of administration of ECT for people with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder or chronic mental disorder. Working independently, we selected and critically appraised studies, extracted data and analysed on an intention-to-treat basis. Where possible and appropriate we calculated risk ratios (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) with the number needed to treat (NNT). For continuous data Weighted Mean Differences (WMD) were calculated. We presented scale data for only those tools that had attained pre-specified levels of quality. We also undertook tests for heterogeneity and publication bias. This review includes 26 trials with 50 reports. When ECT is compared with placebo or sham ECT, more people improved in the real ECT group (n=392, 10 RCTs, RR 0.76 random CI 0.59 to 0.98, NNT 6 CI 4 to 12) and though data were heterogeneous (chi-square 17.49 df=9 P=0.04), its impact on variability of data was not

  1. Proton Therapy at the Paul Scherrer Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    The brochure deals with the following topics: radiation therapy and its significance, proton therapy - worldwide and at PSI, advantages of the protons, the new proton therapy facility at PSI, therapy at PSI using the spot-scan technique. figs., tabs., refs

  2. Thematic review of family therapy journals 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Alan

    2012-01-01

    In this article the contents of the principal English-language family therapy journals published in 2011 are reviewed under these headings: child-focused problems, adult-focused problems, couples therapy, medical family therapy, military family therapy, theory, research, training, the new Journal of Couple and Family Psychology and Human Systems twenty-first anniversary.

  3. The Use of Color in Art Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withrow, Rebecca L.

    2004-01-01

    This article reviews the published literature on the separate fields of art therapy and color therapy, synthesizing them in a proposed use of color within art therapy. Specific techniques focusing on use of color in a nonrepresentational expressive form are suggested as a way to extend the therapeutic benefits of art therapy. The intention of this…

  4. Hormone therapy and ovarian borderline tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the influence of postmenopausal hormone therapy on the risk of ovarian borderline tumors. We aimed at assessing the influence of different hormone therapies on this risk.......Little is known about the influence of postmenopausal hormone therapy on the risk of ovarian borderline tumors. We aimed at assessing the influence of different hormone therapies on this risk....

  5. Radiobiology of boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, V.P.

    1986-01-01

    The author addresses the question of single session versus protracted therapy in the application of boron neutron therapy to tumors. As background he discusses the reasoning behind the current use of fractionated therapy with conventional low-LET radiations and difference which may obtain for neutron therapy. Several aspects of dose rates and dose levels are then addressed

  6. Arts Therapies and Progressive Illness: Nameless Dread

    OpenAIRE

    Waller, Diane E.

    2002-01-01

    Arts Therapies and Progressive Illness is a guide to the use of arts therapies in the treatment of patients with diseases such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's. In the last few years arts therapies have been used in an increasingly wide range of applications with new groups of patients, such as patients in palliative care, or with learning disabilities - Diane Waller has been a driving force behind this expansion.\\ud This book covers treatment such as art therapy, dance movement therapy and mus...

  7. Thematic review of family therapy journals 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Carr, Alan

    2013-01-01

    In this article the contents of the principal English-language family therapy journals, and key family therapy articles published in other journals in 2012 are reviewed under these headings: therapy processes in the treatment of child-focused problems, autism, adolescent substance use, human immunodeficiency virus, depression and grief, fragile families, mental health recovery, medical family therapy, family business and systemic practice, couple therapy, intimate partner violence, key issues...

  8. Dance movement therapy for dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkou, Vicky; Meekums, Bonnie

    2017-02-03

    Dementia is a collective name for different degenerative brain syndromes which, according to Alzheimer's Disease International, affects approximately 35.6 million people worldwide. The latest NICE guideline for dementia highlights the value of diverse treatment options for the different stages and symptoms of dementia including non-pharmacological treatments. Relevant literature also argues for the value of interventions that acknowledge the complexity of the condition and address the person as a whole, including their physical, emotional, social and cognitive processes. At the same time, there is growing literature that highlights the capacity of the arts and embodied practices to address this complexity. Dance movement therapy is an embodied psychological intervention that can address complexity and thus, may be useful for people with dementia, but its effectiveness remains unclear. To assess the effects of dance movement therapy on behavioural, social, cognitive and emotional symptoms of people with dementia in comparison to no treatment, standard care or any other treatment. Also, to compare different forms of dance movement therapy (e.g. Laban-based dance movement therapy, Chacian dance movement therapy or Authentic Movement). Searches took place up to March 2016 through ALOIS, Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement's Specialized Register, which covers CENTRAL, a number of major healthcare databases and trial registers, and grey literature sources. We checked bibliographies of relevant studies and reviews, and contacted professional associations, educational programmes and experts from around the world. We considered randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in any language, including cross-over design and cluster-RCTs for inclusion. Studies considered had to include people with dementia, in any age group and in any setting, with interventions delivered by a dance movement therapy practitioner who (i) had received formal training (ii) was a dance movement

  9. Optimal therapy in Gaucher disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Goker-Alpan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Ozlem Goker-AlpanLysosomal Diseases Research and Treatment Unit, Center for Clinical Trials, O&O Alpan LLC, Springfield, VA, USAAbstract: Gaucher disease (GD, the inherited deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme glucocerebrosidase, presents with a wide range of symptoms of varying severity, and primarily affects the skeletal, hematologic and nervous systems. To date, the standard of care has included enzyme replacement therapy with imiglucerase. Although imiglucerase is highly effective in reversing the visceral and hematologic manifestations, skeletal disease is slow to respond, pulmonary involvement is relatively resistant, and the CNS involvement is not impacted. Because of the recent manufacturing and processing problems, the research and development of alternative therapeutics has become more pressing. The divergent phenotypes and the heterogeneity involving different organ systems implicates the involvement of several pathological processes that include enzyme deficiency, substrate accumulation, protein misfolding, and macrophage activation, that differ in each patient with GD. Thus, the therapy should be tailored individually in order to target multiple pathways that interplay in GD.Keywords: glucocerebrosidase, enzyme replacement therapy, substrate reduction therapy, protein misfolding and chaperone therapy, macrophage

  10. Pharmacologic therapy for acute pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambhampati, Swetha; Park, Walter; Habtezion, Aida

    2014-01-01

    While conservative management such as fluid, bowel rest, and antibiotics is the mainstay of current acute pancreatitis management, there is a lot of promise in pharmacologic therapies that target various aspects of the pathogenesis of pancreatitis. Extensive review of preclinical studies, which include assessment of therapies such as anti-secretory agents, protease inhibitors, anti-inflammatory agents, and anti-oxidants are discussed. Many of these studies have shown therapeutic benefit and improved survival in experimental models. Based on available preclinical studies, we discuss potential novel targeted pharmacologic approaches that may offer promise in the treatment of acute pancreatitis. To date a variety of clinical studies have assessed the translational potential of animal model effective experimental therapies and have shown either failure or mixed results in human studies. Despite these discouraging clinical studies, there is a great clinical need and there exist several preclinical effective therapies that await investigation in patients. Better understanding of acute pancreatitis pathophysiology and lessons learned from past clinical studies are likely to offer a great foundation upon which to expand future therapies in acute pancreatitis. PMID:25493000

  11. Laser therapy in cardiovascular disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindge, David

    2009-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the number one cause of death worldwide. It is broadly defined to include anything which adversely affects the heart or blood vessels. One-third of Americans have one or more forms of it. By one estimate, average human life expectancy would increase by seven years if it were eliminated. The mainstream medical model seeks mostly to "manage" cardiovascular disease with pharmaceuticals or to surgically bypass or reopen blocked vessels via angioplasty. These methods have proven highly useful and saved countless lives. Yet drug therapy may be costly and ongoing, and it carries the risk of side effects while often doing little or nothing to improve underlying health concerns. Similarly, angioplasty or surgery are invasive methods which entail risk. Laser therapy1 regenerates tissue, stimulates biological function, reduces inflammation and alleviates pain. Its efficacy and safety have been increasingly well documented in cardiovascular disease of many kinds. In this article we will explore the effects of laser therapy in angina, atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, myocardial infarction, stroke and other conditions. The clinical application of various methods of laser therapy, including laserpuncture and transcutaneous, supravascular and intravenous irradiation of blood will be discussed. Implementing laser therapy in the treatment of cardiovascular disease offers the possibility of increasing the health and wellbeing of patients while reducing the costs and enhancing safety of medical care.

  12. Systemic couple therapy for dysthymia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesano, Adrián; Feixas, Guillem; Muñoz, Dámaris; Compañ, Victoria

    2014-03-01

    We examined the effect of Systemic Couple Therapy on a patient diagnosed with dysthymic disorder and her partner. Marge and Peter, a middle-aged married couple, showed significant and meaningful changes in their pattern of interaction over the course of the therapy and, by the end of it, Marge no longer met the diagnostic criteria for dysthymic disorder. Her scores on the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I) and Beck Depression Inventory, Second Edition (BDI-II) were in the clinical range before treatment and in the nonclinical one at the end of therapy. Although scores on Dyadic Adjustment Scale showed different patterns, both members reported significant improvement. The analysis of change in the alliance-related behaviors throughout the process concurred with change in couple's pattern of interaction. Treatment effects were maintained at 12-month follow-up. Highlights in the therapy process showed the importance of relational mechanisms of change, such as broadening the therapeutic focus into the couple's pattern of interaction, reducing expressed emotion and resentment, as well as increasing positive exchanges. The results of this evidence-based case study should prompt further investigation of couple therapy for dysthymia disorder. Randomized clinical trial design is needed to reach an evidence-based treatment status. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. PHOTODYNAMIC THERAPY OF CONDYLOMATA ACUMINATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Galkin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliably established a causal role of human papillomavirus in the formation of condylomata acuminate. In 10% of people with the human papilloma virus develops condylomata acuminate, which can be transformed into malignant tumors. The most common treatment of condylomata acuminate is a conservative treatment, namely, the local chemical or physical destruction of the lesions and immunotherapy. With the ineffectiveness of conservative treatment resort to surgical excision. At the same time the traditional methods of treatment condylomata acuminate associated with high rates of recurrence. Moreover, these treatments are often associated with significant risk of bleeding, ulceration and scarring. The emergence of new methods of diagnosis and treatment of condylomata acuminate – fluorescence diagnosis and photodynamic therapy has opened up new opportunities to improve the treatment of this pathology. Topical administration of photosensitizers during photodynamic therapy is more convenient and less phototoxic and broaden the range of clinical applications of this technology in the medical dermatology. An increasing amount of evidence that photodynamic therapy with topical application of the photosensitizer is highly effective in the treatment of a variety of benign skin diseases, including condylomata acuminataca, for which traditional methods are ineffective treatment. However, many parameters of photodynamic therapy of this disease has not yet been optimized. It is necessary to conduct large-scale clinical studies on the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy of condylomata acuminatain order to standardize the treatment parameters.

  14. Biokinetic and dosimetric studies of 188Re-hyaluronic acid: a new radiopharmaceutical for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melendez-Alafort, Laura; Nadali, Anna; Zangoni, Elena; Banzato, Alessandra; Rondina, Maria; Rosato, Antonio; Mazzi, Ulderico

    2009-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver cancer and has very limited therapeutic options. Recently, it has been found that hyaluronic acid (HA) shows selective binding to CD44 receptors expressed in most cancer histotypes. Since the trend in cancer treatment is the use of targeted radionuclide therapy, the aim of this research was to label HA with rhenium-188 and to evaluate its potential use as a hepatocarcinoma therapeutic radiopharmaceutical. Methods: 188 Re-HA was prepared by a direct labelling method to produce a ReO(O-COO) 2 -type coordination complex. 188 Re-HA protein binding and its stability in saline, phosphate buffer, human serum and cysteine solutions were determined. Biokinetic and dosimetric data were estimated in healthy mice (n=60) using the Medical Internal Radiation Dose methodology and mouse model beta-absorbed fractions. To evaluate liver toxicity, alanine aminotranferase (AST) and aspartate aminotranferase (ALT) levels in mice were assessed and the liver maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of 188 Re-HA was determined. Results: A stable complex of 188 Re-HA was obtained with high radiochemical purity (>90%) and low serum protein binding (2%). Biokinetic studies showed a rapid blood clearance (T 1/2 α=21 min). Four hours after administration, 188 Re-HA was almost totally removed from the blood by the liver due to the selective uptake via HA-specific receptors (73.47±5.11% of the injected dose). The liver MTD in mice was ∼40 Gy after 7.4 MBq of 188 Re-HA injection. Conclusions: 188 Re-HA complex showed good stability, pharmacokinetic and dosimetric characteristics that confirm its potential as a new agent for HCC radiation therapy.

  15. Radiolabeling of anti-CD20 with Re-188 for treatment of Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: radiochemical control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, C.R.; Osso Junior, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) uses target-specific monoclonal antibodies or fragments labeled with a radioactive isotope to combine humoral and radiolytic functions and has the advantage of targeting not only the cell to which the antibody is bound but also the surrounding tumor cells and microenvironment. The most successful clinical studies of RIT in patients with Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL) have targeted CD20+ Bcell tumors. Antibody therapy directed against the CD20 antigen on the surface of B-cells is considered one of the first successful target-specific therapies in oncology. The radionuclide rhenium-188 ( 188 Re) is currently produced from the father nuclide 188 W through a transportable generator system. Because of its easy availability and suitable nuclear properties (E βMAX = 2.1 MeV, t1/2 = 16.9 h, E γ = 155 keV), this radionuclide is considered an attractive candidate for application as therapeutic agent and could be conveniently utilized for imaging and dosimetric purposes. The objective of this work is the optimization of direct radiolabeling method of anti-CD20 with 188 Re using a liquid formulation. Anti-CD20 was reduced by incubation with 2-mercaptoethanol at room temperature. The number of resulting free sulphydryl groups was assayed with Ellman's reagent. Optimization of radiolabeling was achieved by varying parameters: antibody mass, reducing agent mass, tartrate mass, stability and reaction time, 188 Re volume and activity. Radiochemical purity of 188 Re-anti-CD20 was evaluated using instant thin layer chromatography-silica gel (ITLC-SG). Quality control methods for evaluation of radiochemical purity showed good labeling yield of the antibody but further studies will be carried out in order to improve the labeling yields and consequently the specific activity of the product. (author)

  16. Biokinetic and dosimetric studies of {sup 188}Re-hyaluronic acid: a new radiopharmaceutical for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melendez-Alafort, Laura [Dipartimento di Scienze Farmaceutiche, Universita degli Studi di Padova, 35131 Padua (Italy); Nadali, Anna; Zangoni, Elena [Dipartimento di Scienze Farmaceutiche, Universita degli Studi di Padova, 35131 Padua (Italy); Banzato, Alessandra; Rondina, Maria [Dipartimento di Scienze Oncologiche e Chirurgiche, Universita degli Studi di Padova, Padua (Italy); Rosato, Antonio [Dipartimento di Scienze Oncologiche e Chirurgiche, Universita degli Studi di Padova, Padua (Italy); Istituto Oncologico Veneto, IOV, Padova, Padua (Italy); Mazzi, Ulderico [Dipartimento di Scienze Farmaceutiche, Universita degli Studi di Padova, 35131 Padua (Italy)

    2009-08-15

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver cancer and has very limited therapeutic options. Recently, it has been found that hyaluronic acid (HA) shows selective binding to CD44 receptors expressed in most cancer histotypes. Since the trend in cancer treatment is the use of targeted radionuclide therapy, the aim of this research was to label HA with rhenium-188 and to evaluate its potential use as a hepatocarcinoma therapeutic radiopharmaceutical. Methods: {sup 188}Re-HA was prepared by a direct labelling method to produce a ReO(O-COO){sub 2}-type coordination complex. {sup 188}Re-HA protein binding and its stability in saline, phosphate buffer, human serum and cysteine solutions were determined. Biokinetic and dosimetric data were estimated in healthy mice (n=60) using the Medical Internal Radiation Dose methodology and mouse model beta-absorbed fractions. To evaluate liver toxicity, alanine aminotranferase (AST) and aspartate aminotranferase (ALT) levels in mice were assessed and the liver maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of {sup 188}Re-HA was determined. Results: A stable complex of {sup 188}Re-HA was obtained with high radiochemical purity (>90%) and low serum protein binding (2%). Biokinetic studies showed a rapid blood clearance (T{sub 1/2}{alpha}=21 min). Four hours after administration, {sup 188}Re-HA was almost totally removed from the blood by the liver due to the selective uptake via HA-specific receptors (73.47{+-}5.11% of the injected dose). The liver MTD in mice was {approx}40 Gy after 7.4 MBq of {sup 188}Re-HA injection. Conclusions: {sup 188}Re-HA complex showed good stability, pharmacokinetic and dosimetric characteristics that confirm its potential as a new agent for HCC radiation therapy.

  17. Electroconvulsive Therapy: A Current Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokben Hizli Sayar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Most of the electroconvulsive therapy guidelines state that severe major depression with psychotic features, manic delirium, or catatonia are conditions where there is a clear consensus favoring early electroconvulsive therapy. The decision to administer electroconvulsive therapy is based on an evaluation of the risks and benefits for the individual patient and involves a combination of factors, including psychiatric diagnosis, type and severity of symptoms, prior treatment history and response, identification of possible alternative treatment options, and consumer preference. In this review history, mechanisms of action, side effects that have been referenced in the literature and clinical experience are discussed. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(2.000: 107-125

  18. Cognitive-behavioral play therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knell, S M

    1998-03-01

    Discusses cognitive-behavioral play therapy (CBPT), a developmentally sensitive treatment for young children that relies on flexibility, decreased expectation for verbalizations by the child, and increased reliance on experiential approaches. The development of CBPT for preschool-age children provides a relatively unique adaptation of cognitive therapy as it was originally developed for adults. CBPT typically contains a modeling component through which adaptive coping skills are demonstrated. Through the use of play, cognitive change is communicated indirectly, and more adaptive behaviors can be introduced to the child. Modeling is tailored for use with many specific cognitive and behavioral interventions. Generalization and response prevention are important features of CBPT. With minor modifications, many of the principles of cognitive therapy, as delineated for use with adults, are applicable to young children. Case examples are presented to highlight the application of CBPT. Although CBPT has a sound therapeutic base and utilizes proven techniques, more rigorous empirical scrutiny is needed.

  19. Embracing Creativity in Occupational Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Royeen, MOT, OTR/L

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Jen Gash, an occupational therapist and creativity coach living in the UK, provided the cover art for the winter 2015 issue of The Open Journal of Occupational Therapy. The picture is titled “Over the Exe.” Jen uses her inspiration of the Kawa River model in this painting. The painting is of her husband and daughter standing where the river meets the sea. This is a metaphoric representation of rejoining the greater collective. In addition, Jen has a passion for occupational therapists to encompass creativity. A core aspect of occupational therapy is the multi-dimensional concept of occupations; it allows for occupational therapists to incorporate creativity into daily practice. Jen’s goal is for occupational therapy to embrace its creative theoretical roots.

  20. General principles of antimicrobial therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leekha, Surbhi; Terrell, Christine L; Edson, Randall S

    2011-02-01

    Antimicrobial agents are some of the most widely, and often injudiciously, used therapeutic drugs worldwide. Important considerations when prescribing antimicrobial therapy include obtaining an accurate diagnosis of infection; understanding the difference between empiric and definitive therapy; identifying opportunities to switch to narrow-spectrum, cost-effective oral agents for the shortest duration necessary; understanding drug characteristics that are peculiar to antimicrobial agents (such as pharmacodynamics and efficacy at the site of infection); accounting for host characteristics that influence antimicrobial activity; and in turn, recognizing the adverse effects of antimicrobial agents on the host. It is also important to understand the importance of antimicrobial stewardship, to know when to consult infectious disease specialists for guidance, and to be able to identify situations when antimicrobial therapy is not needed. By following these general principles, all practicing physicians should be able to use antimicrobial agents in a responsible manner that benefits both the individual patient and the community.