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Sample records for rh mother-daughter pair

  1. A re-evaluation of k sub 0 and related nuclear data for the 555.8 keV gamma-line emitted by the sup 1 sup 0 sup 4 sup m Rh- sup 1 sup 0 sup 4 Rh mother-daughter pair for use in NAA

    CERN Document Server

    Corte, F D; Simonits, A; Bossus, D; Sluijs, R V; Pommé, S

    1999-01-01

    A re-evaluation is made of the k sub 0 -factor and related nuclear data for the 555.8 keV gamma-ray of the sup 1 sup 0 sup 4 sup m Rh- sup 1 sup 0 sup 4 Rh mother-daughter pair that are important in neutron activation analysis (NAA). This study considers that the relevant level is also fed by the 4.34 min sup 1 sup 0 sup 4 sup m Rh mother (with an absolute gamma-ray emission probability gamma sub 2 =0.13%) and not only, as assumed in former work, by the 42.3 s sup 1 sup 0 sup 4 Rh daughter isotope (with gamma sub 3 =2.0%). In view of this, generalised equations were developed for both the experimental determination and the analytical use of the k sub 0 -factor and of the associated parameters k sub 0 (m)/k sub 0 (g), Q sub 0 (m) and Q sub 0 (g) [(m): sup 1 sup 0 sup 4 sup m Rh; (g): sup 1 sup 0 sup 4 Rh], requiring the introduction of the gamma sub 2 and gamma sub 3 data and also of the sup 1 sup 0 sup 4 sup m Rh-> sup 1 sup 0 sup 4 Rh fractional decay factor F sub 2 (=0.9987). The experimental determinations...

  2. Gender-assortative waist circumference in mother-daughter and father-son pairs, and its implications. An 11-year longitudinal study in children (EarlyBird 59).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostazir, M; Jeffery, A; Voss, L; Wilkin, T

    2014-06-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is reportedly gender assortative (mother-daughter, father-son) in contemporary children. We investigated the corresponding transmission of waist circumference (WC) and its implications. We measured parental WC at baseline and WC, height, weight and para-umbilical skin-fold (USF) annually in their offspring from 5 to 15 years (n = 223 trios). Parents were deemed normal metabolic risk (NR) or high risk (HR) according to World Health Organization (WHO) cut-points for WC (mothers 80 cm, fathers 94 cm). The residual from WC adjusted for BMI (WC|BMI ) was used as a surrogate for excess intra-abdominal fat, and its association with insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR) was sought. WC and USF were both gender assortative, while WC|BMI was not. WC was greater by 1.62 cm (P sons) of HR compared with those of NR mothers, and by 1.32 cm (P son (but not father-daughter) pairings. No such differences could be demonstrated for WC|BMI . A standard deviation score 1(SDS) change in WC|BMI , independent of BMI, was associated with a 7.14% change in IR in girls (P relationship between IR and USF. The relationship of offspring WC to metabolic health and to parental size is complex. Subcutaneous abdominal fat is gender assortative but harmless, while intra-abdominal fat (its surrogate in this analysis) is unrelated to parental waist circumference, but metabolically harmful. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  3. The effects of body mass index on the hereditary influences that determine peak bone mass in mother-daughter pairs (KNHANES V).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K M; Kim, Y J; Choi, S H; Lim, S; Moon, J H; Kim, J H; Kim, S W; Jang, H C; Shin, C S

    2016-06-01

    A daughter's bone mineral density (BMD) is significantly correlated with her mother's BMD, but the daughter's body mass index (BMI) could modulate this association. Maternal inheritance dominantly affects daughters with a lower BMI, but BMI could compensate for hereditary influences in daughters with a higher BMI in terms of daughter's BMD. Achieving optimal peak bone mass at a young age is the best way to protect against future osteoporosis and subsequent fractures. Although environmental components influence bone mass accrual, but peak bone mass is largely programmed by inheritance. The aims of this study were to investigate the influence of maternal inheritance on the daughter's bone mass and to assess whether these influences differ according to the daughter's body mass index (BMI). We used data obtained from the 2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V and included 187 mother-daughter pairs. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at the lumbar spine (LS), femur neck (FN), and total hip (TH) by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The daughter group was stratified into two groups according to the mean BMI (21.4 kg/m(2)). The daughters' BMD correlated significantly with both their BMI and their mothers' Z-score for each skeletal site. In the daughters with a lower BMI (≤21.4 kg/m(2)), the BMDs at the FN and TH were affected more by the mothers' Z-score than by the daughters' BMI. Meanwhile, the influence of the daughters' BMI on their BMD was higher than that of their mothers' Z-score in daughters with a higher BMI (>21.4 kg/m(2)). Moreover, the mothers' Z-scores were a significant predictor of their daughters having Z-scores BMI. This study suggests that maternal inheritance is an important determinant of the daughters' bone mass, but that this hereditary factor may vary according to the daughters' BMI.

  4. Sample chambers with mother-daughter mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilk, P.A.; Gregorich, K.E.; Hoffman, D.C.

    2001-07-12

    A set of eight stand-alone sample chambers with a common interface were constructed at LBNL for improved detection of alpha and fission decay chains over currently used designs. The stainless steel chambers (see Figure 1 for a schematic and Figure 2 for a photograph of a completed chamber) were constructed to allow for low background detection of a daughter event by removal of the sample following the detection of a parent event. This mother-daughter mode of operation has been utilized successfully with our Merry-go-Round (MG) detection system [Gregorich 1994].

  5. Mother-daughter correlation of central obesity and other noncommunicable disease risk factors: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Zahra; Hosseinpanah, Farhad; Barzin, Maryam; Safarkhani, Maryam; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the mother-daughter correlation for central obesity and other noncommunicable disease risk factors. The authors used metabolic and anthropometric data from the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study, enrolling 1041 mother-daughter pairs for the current study. Three age strata were defined: 3 to 9 years for childhood (146 mother-daughter pairs), 10 to 17 years for adolescence (395 mother-daughter pairs), and 18 to 25 years for early adulthood (500 mother-daughter pairs). Familial associations for central obesity and other noncommunicable disease risk factors were assessed. The prevalence of central obesity was 44.7% in mothers and 11.2% in daughters (6.2% in the 3-9, 19.2% in the 10-17, and 6.4% in the 18-25 years groups). Mothers with central obesity were more likely than nonobese mothers to have daughters with central obesity (10.5% and 1.7%, respectively; P = .0001). Central obesity indices among daughters were positively correlated with those of their mothers in all 3 age strata. Correlations for other noncommunicable disease risk factors were analyzed before and after adjusting the risk factor levels for mothers' and daughters' waist circumferences (WCs) within each group to determine whether risk factor correlations were, in part, a result of the central obesity correlations. After the non-communicable disease risk factor levels of participants were adjusted for their WCs, the mother-daughter correlations remained significant. The consistent association of central obesity between mothers and daughters may indicate the key role that could be played by the mother in the primary prevention of central obesity, particularly in high-risk families. © 2012 APJPH.

  6. Gender and Patterns of Concerned Responsiveness in Representations of the Mother-Daughter and Mother-Son Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Ruth; Shalit-Naggar, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    Given that girls show more interpersonal concern than boys, it was predicted that more mother-daughter than mother-son dyads would develop a relationship of mutual concerned responsiveness (CR). Two hundred and twenty-six Israeli children (7-8 years old) and 91 mother-child pairs provided narratives of mother-child interactions. At high levels of…

  7. The Relationship between Mother-Daughter Relationship and Identity in Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    藤田, ミナ; 岡本, 祐子

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, we elucidated the association between mother-daughter relationships and the identities of daughters during adolescence. We also determined the differences in the identities of daughters who lived with their mothers and those who lived separately. Using a mother-daughter relationship scale and an identity scale, we surveyed 112 female college students. We performed a factor analysis of the mother-daughter relationship scale and extracted two factors, i.e., codependency an...

  8. Feminist attitudes and mother-daughter relationships in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notar, M; McDaniel, S A

    1986-01-01

    In spite of the growing amount of research on women's issues, there are few empirical studies of mother-daughter relationships, and almost none on the effects of the major women's movement of our times on relationships between mothers and daughters. In this study of late adolescent daughters' perceptions of their relationships with their mothers, two alternative hypotheses are examined: (1) feminism, with its emphasis on bonding among women, strengthens relations between adolescent daughters and their mothers, or (2) feminism as a force of social change, both attitudinal and behavioral, weakens the adolescent daughter-mother relationship. Based on 102 questionnaires completed by university-age women in the winter of 1983, it was found that the majority of daughters who have a good relationship with their mothers see both themselves and their mothers as feminist. However, these daughters do not attribute their positive mother-daughter relationship explicitly to feminism. For the minority of daughters who claim to have a poor relationship with their mothers, they attribute the problems to feminism.

  9. Common Themes in the Experiences of Mother-Daughter Incest Survivors: Implications for Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie, Beverly; Daniluk, Judith

    1995-01-01

    Studied mother-daughter incest. Common themes were extracted from in-depth interviews with survivors of mother-perpetrated sexual abuse, some of which parallel the experience of survivors of other forms of child sexual abuse, and some of which are more specific to mother-daughter incest. Discusses themes and counseling implications. (JBJ)

  10. Relationship Quality in Non-Cognitively Impaired Mother-Daughter Care Dyads: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Diane N; Hansen, Lissi; Baggs, Judith G; Lyons, Karen S

    2015-11-01

    More than 60 million Americans provide care to a family member; roughly two thirds are women providing care to aging mothers. Despite the protective nature of relationship quality, little attention has been given to its role in mother-daughter care dyads, particularly in mothers without cognitive impairment. A systematic appraisal of peer-reviewed, English language research was conducted. Nineteen articles met criteria. When relationship quality is positive, mother-daughter dyads enjoy rewards and mutuality, even when conflict occurs. Daughters grow more emotionally committed to mothers' over the care trajectory, despite increasing demands. Daughters' commitment deepens as mothers physically decline, and mothers remain engaged, emotional partners. When relationship quality is ambivalent or negative, burden, conflict, and blame conspire, creating a destructive cycle. Avenues for continuing study, including utilizing the dyad as the unit of analysis, troubled dyads, longitudinal assessment, and end of life context, are needed before interventions to improve mother-daughter relationship quality may be successfully implemented.

  11. Sexual Risk among African American Girls: Psychopathology and Mother-Daughter Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donenberg, Geri R.; Emerson, Erin; Mackesy-Amiti, Mary Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the associations among mental health problems, maternal monitoring and permissiveness, mother-daughter communication and attachment, and sexual behaviors among African American girls receiving outpatient psychiatric care. Youths with mental health problems report higher rates of HIV-risk behavior than do their peers, and…

  12. Adaptive, growth-oriented, and positive perceptions of mother-daughter elder caregiving relationships: a path-analytic investigation of predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis-Sawyer, L A

    2001-01-01

    One hundred twenty-two pairs (n = 244) of filial caregivers (daughters) and care recipients (mothers) were interviewed separately, to investigate the factors underlying positive, growth-oriented caregiving relationships. The outcome variable examined was the type of caregiving pair (positive, negative, mixed, and neutral), as determined by "blind" raters. Based on existing research, factors examined as being significant predictors of this outcome variable were perceived roles (role changes, role relations) and individual-difference characteristics (personality dimensions, fluid intellectual ability). The results of the path model tested support the importance of individual-difference factors in understanding positive mother-daughter elder caregiving relationships.

  13. Empathy, diversity, and telepathy in mother-daughter dyads: an empirical investigation utilizing Rogers' conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, R

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine empathy, diversity, and telepathy in natural mother-daughter dyads. The investigation was conceptualized and conducted according to the concepts and principles of the Rogerian Science of Unitary Human Beings. The sample for this descriptive study consisted of 180 volunteer mother-daughter dyads; the mother served as the receiver and the child as sender of telepathic messages. Empathy and diversity were expected to be related to telepathy levels. Results indicated that one form of empathy (personal distress) and diversity were significantly (p less than .05) related to telepathy. When the components of the diversity score were further examined, only those subjects who were moderately differentiated and mobile demonstrated significant telepathy scores. Multiple regression analysis showed that 6% of the variance in telepathy was accounted for by diversity and empathy. Findings added to what is known about living systems that manifest negentrophy and evolve toward increasing diversity.

  14. The mother-daughter relationship in eating disorders: the psychotherapy group of mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Weisz Cobelo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Psychotherapeutic interventions that bring about differentiation, separation, individuation and autonomy in the mother-daughter relationship are recommended as treatment for eating disorders. With this goal in mind, a psychotherapy group for mothers was organized in an outpatient program for adolescents with eating disorders at a public institution, as one of the psychotherapeutic approaches in the multidisciplinary treatment of adolescent patients. Evidence suggests that this approach can be relevant and effective in the treatment of eating disorders.

  15. Can Better Mother-Daughter Relations Reduce the Chance of a Suicide Attempt among Latinas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis H. Zayas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available National surveys and other research on adolescent Latinas show that adolescent females have higher rates of suicidal ideation, planning, and attempts than other ethnic and racial minority youth. Internalizing behaviors and family conflicts are commonly associated with suicidality in research on adolescents. In the case of Latinas, we explore the connection between adolescent Hispanic cultural involvement, mother-adolescent mutuality, internalizing behaviors, and suicidality. This paper presents data from a study of 232 Latinas, some with a recent history of suicide attempts (n=122. The results show that higher adolescent Hispanic cultural involvement was associated with greater mother-daughter mutuality and thus led to reduction in the likelihood of suicide attempts. The relationship between mother-daughter mutuality and suicide attempts among Latinas is mediated by specific internalizing behaviors (withdrawn depressive. Our findings highlight the positive effect that Latino cultural values have in the relationship between Latina adolescent and their mothers and confirm the importance that internalizing behaviors and the mother-daughter relationship have for suicide attempters.

  16. Adult Daughters' Descriptions of Their Mother-Daughter Relationship in the Context of Chronic Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Carolyn E Z; Mentes, Janet C; Moon, Ailee; Pieters, Huibrie C; Phillips, Linda R

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe, from the perspective of the adult daughter, the mother-daughter relationship in the context of chronic conflict. Grounded theory methodology was used. An online recruitment strategy was used to identify a sample of adult daughters (N = 13) who self-identified as having an abusive relationship with their aging mother. Data collection was completed through semi-structured telephone interviews. Daughters framed their relationship around their perceptions of past childhood injustices. These injustices invoked strong negative emotions. Daughters had equally strong motivations for sustaining the relationship, driven by desire to reconcile their negative experience through seeking validation and futile-hoping as well as a sense of obligation to do due diligence. Together these factors created an environment of inevitable confrontation and a relationship defined by chronic conflict. Findings from the study provide theoretical insights to the conceptualization of aggression, power relationships, and the development of elder abuse and neglect.

  17. Mother-daughter communication about breast cancer risk: interpersonal and biological stress processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Kate L; Andreotti, Charissa; Yull, Fiona; Grau, Ana M; Compas, Bruce E

    2013-06-01

    Women with a personal or maternal history of breast cancer experience psychological stress in relation to breast cancer risk, and adolescent and young adult daughters are particularly at risk for experiencing stress related to their mothers' history of breast cancer. The current study examined interpersonal and biological stress responses during a laboratory-based communication task about breast cancer risk in 32 mother-daughter dyads and explores whether certain communication styles between mothers and daughters are associated with increased stress reactivity during the task. Five saliva samples were collected from each participant to determine cortisol baseline levels, reactivity to, and recovery from the task. Negative maternal communication was associated with higher cortisol levels in daughters. In addition, maternal sadness was correlated with lower levels of daughters' cortisol at all time points with the exception of baseline measures. Implications for understanding the psychobiology of stress in women at risk for breast cancer are highlighted.

  18. Mother-Daughter Communication about Sexual Maturation, Abstinence and Unintended Pregnancy: Experiences from an Informal Settlement in Nairobi, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Joanna; Ibisomi, Latifat; Gyimah, Stephen Obeng

    2012-01-01

    Parental communication and support is associated with improved developmental, health and behavioral outcomes in adolescence. This study explores the quality of mother-daughter communication about sexual maturation, abstinence and unintended pregnancy in Korogocho, an informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. We use data from 14 focus group…

  19. Mother-Daughter Communication about Sexual Maturation, Abstinence and Unintended Pregnancy: Experiences from an Informal Settlement in Nairobi, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Joanna; Ibisomi, Latifat; Gyimah, Stephen Obeng

    2012-01-01

    Parental communication and support is associated with improved developmental, health and behavioral outcomes in adolescence. This study explores the quality of mother-daughter communication about sexual maturation, abstinence and unintended pregnancy in Korogocho, an informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. We use data from 14 focus group…

  20. [Influence of maternal feeding restrictions on the mother-daughter dyad].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiattino, I; Sanfuentes, M T; Lagarribel, M; Jara, S; Lolas, F; Liberman, C

    1998-01-01

    Alimentary restraint, cognitive variable related to eating behavior and obesity, is reportedly a valuable predictor for the development of therapeutic strategies. This paper addresses the relationship between maternal restraint and several psychological variables in their daughters (alexithymia, neuroticism, extraversion). From the study of 35 mother-daughter dyads it can be concluded that daughters of highly restrained mothers tend to present high scores in the Restraint scale of the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire of Stunkard and Messick, translated into Spanish and validated as Cuestionario de Conducta Alimentaria. Daughters of highle restrained mothers present also higher scores in the Neuroticism scale of the revised version of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. Daughters of mothers with low Restraint scores are in average higher than those of their mothers, although lower than those belonging to daughters of highle restrained mothers. Previous observations on the positive correlation between Disinhibition and Hunger of the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire are confirmed. These results add an additional risk factor for obesity (mothers with high Restraint) and contribute to delineate a set of psychometric indicators which might be useful in the diagnosis and prognosis of eating and body weight disorders.

  1. Breast cancer prevention knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among college women and mother-daughter communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzke, Cynthia; Vilchis, Hugo; Amatya, Anup

    2013-06-01

    Although breast cancer prevention targets mostly women ages 40 and older, little is known about breast cancer prevention for young women and mother's advice. The purpose of this study was to examine breast cancer prevention knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among college women and mother-daughter communication. Hispanic and non-Hispanic students at a southwestern university completed a breast cancer prevention survey with items for mother's advice, breast self-awareness and risk reduction knowledge, self-efficacy, susceptibility, family history, provider breast self-exam (BSE) recommendation, peer norms, BSE practice, and demographics. An openended item was also used to elicit types of mother's advice. Logistic regression was used to assess predictors for receiving mother's advice for breast cancer prevention and BSE practice. Self-reported data using a survey were obtained from 546 college women with a mean age of 23.3 (SD = 7.75). Nearly 36 % received mothers' advice and 55 % conducted BSE. Predictors for receiving mother's advice were age, self-efficacy, and family history of breast cancer. Predictors for BSE practice were mother's advice, age, self-efficacy, and provider BSE recommendation. Family history of breast cancer and knowledge were not significant predictors for BSE practice. Findings support the need for clinicians, community health educators, and mothers to provide breast cancer prevention education targeting college women.

  2. BOUNCE: a community-based mother-daughter healthy lifestyle intervention for low-income Latino families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olvera, Norma; Bush, Jill A; Sharma, Shreela V; Knox, B Brook; Scherer, Rhonda L; Butte, Nancy F

    2010-02-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of a family-based exploratory community study titled BOUNCE (Behavior Opportunities Uniting Nutrition, Counseling, and Exercise) to increase physical fitness and activity in low-income Latino mothers and daughters. The BOUNCE study consisted of a 12-week exercise (e.g., Latin dance), nutrition education, and counseling intervention. The design included a two-arm parallel group assignment to an experimental group (EG; included 26 mother-daughter dyads) and comparison group (CG; included 20 mother-daughter dyads). Pre- and postintervention 20-Meter Endurance Shuttle Run Test and accelerometry were used to measure children's aerobic capacity and physical activity, respectively. For the mothers, the Rockport Walk test and Non-Exercise Physical Activity Rating test were employed to assess aerobic fitness and physical activity. Anthropometric, demographic, and dietary assessments were also collected pre- and postintervention. Differences in outcome measures between groups were tested using repeated measures analysis of covariance. The BOUNCE intervention had a significant effect on EG Latino daughters' aerobic capacity (P = 0.044). Although not statistically significant, EG daughters reported a higher reduction of high fat food and sweetened beverages and an increase in fruit and vegetable consumption compared to CG daughters. Similarly, EG mothers reported more strategies to increase fruit/vegetable consumption and reduce fat intake compared to CG mothers. No changes in physical activity or BMI were observed between EG and CG mother-daughter dyads.

  3. Coparenting profiles in the context of Mexican-origin teen pregnancy: links to mother-daughter relationship quality and adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Brena, Norma J; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Jahromi, Laudan; Guimond, Amy

    2015-06-01

    The current study explored the multifaceted nature of the mother-adolescent coparental relationship with data from 167 Mexican-origin adolescent mothers and their own mothers at 10 months post childbirth. Profiles of mother-adolescent coparenting were created with latent profile analysis using adolescents' reports of three dimensions of coparenting (communication, involvement, and conflict). Four profiles were identified: (a) Harmonious Coparents (equal involvement, high communication, low conflict); (b) Harmonious-Adolescent Primary (adolescent is more involved than mother, high communication, low conflict); (c) Conflictual Coparents (equal involvement, high communication, high conflict); and (d) Conflictual-Adolescent Primary (adolescent is more involved than mother, moderate communication, high conflict). Families characterized by high mother-daughter conflict and psychological control prior to childbirth were more likely to belong in the Conflictual Coparents profile. In addition, adolescents' and mothers' depressive symptoms and parenting efficacy after childbirth were linked to profile membership, such that the Harmonious-Adolescent Primary profile reported the most positive adjustment patterns, whereas profiles with high coparental conflict (i.e., Conflictual Coparenting and Conflictual-Adolescent Primary profiles) showed the least positive adjustment patterns. Discussion considers the applied implications of identifying precursors to healthy and problematic mother-daughter coparenting for families of adolescent mothers in the early years of parenting.

  4. [Adult mother-daughter relationships and psychological well-being: attachment to mothers, depressive symptoms, and self-esteem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Kotomi

    2008-06-01

    This study examined how daughter's reported quality of their mother-daughter relationships during childhood and adulthood is related to their psychological well-being (depressive symptoms and self-esteem). A cross-sectional sample of 363 women, age 26 to 35 years, completed questionnaires. The association between the quality of daughters' relationships with their mothers and their psychological well-being depended on the daughters' marital and parental status. Regression estimates suggested that among single daughters and married daughters with children, childhood attachment dimensions (avoidance and anxiety) significantly contributed to psychological well-being, even after controlling for the effects of current closeness and excessive dependence. Current closeness, and excessive care seeking and care giving to their mother contributed to the psychological well-being of single daughters and married daughters without children, even after controlling for the effects of childhood attachment.

  5. The Impact of Mother-Daughter and Father-Daughter Relationships on Drug Refusal Self-Efficacy among African American Adolescent Girls in Urban Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Kimberly; Ashcraft, Amie; Belgrave, Faye Z.

    2006-01-01

    This study yielded interesting findings on the effect of mother-daughter and father-daughter relationships on drug refusal self-efficacy for urban African American girls between the ages of 11 and 14. The questionnaire consisted of assessments on the quality of the girls mother and father relationships and their perceived ability to refuse drugs.…

  6. Economic hardship, family relationships, and adolescent distress: an evaluation of a stress-distress mediation model in mother-daughter and mother-son dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempers, J D; Clark-Lempers, D S

    1997-01-01

    This study evaluated a stress-distress mediation model of the relationships among economic hardship, maternal financial strain, maternal marital happiness, the parent-child relationships, and adolescent distress in a group of 188 sixth and 210 eighth graders and their mothers. The model predicted that economic hardship would increase maternal financial strain which was predicted to lead to more distress in the adolescent children by decreasing the mothers' marital happiness and the quality of the mother-child relationship. Separate latent variable path analyses with partial least squares (LVPLS) were conducted for the mother-daughter and the mother-son dyads. The results supported the hypothesized paths between economic hardship, mothers' financial strain, the mother-child relationship, and adolescent distress in both the mother-daughter and mother-son dyads.

  7. Intra-familial and ethnic effects on attitudinal and perceptual body image: a cohort of South African mother-daughter dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHiza, Zandile J; Goedecke, Julia H; Lambert, Estelle V

    2011-06-06

    International studies suggest ethnic differences in obesity prevalence may be due, in part, to differences in body image and body size dissatisfaction between groups. Further, there is evidence to suggest that there is a familial resemblance in body image between mothers and their younger (preadolescent) daughters. This research was therefore conducted to specifically identify the extent to which family status (presented as mother-daughter resemblance) and ethnicity impact on body image attitudes and perceptions of South African mothers and their pre-adolescent daughters. Mother-daughter dyads (n = 201, 31% black, 37% mixed ancestry and 32% white) answered questions regarding their body image perception (the way they saw their body size status), their body image ideals, and body image attitudes (body size dissatisfaction in particular, presented as the Feel-Ideal Difference [FID] index score). Mothers' and daughters' body image results were compared within dyads and across ethnic groups using repeated measures of ANOVA. Overall, body image resemblances exist between South African mothers and their pre-adolescent daughters. Mothers and daughters chose similarly weighted silhouettes to represent their body size ideals (p = 0.308), regardless of their ethnicity or body mass index (BMI). The FID index scores were similar between mothers and their daughters only after the confounding effects of maternal BMI were removed (p = 0.685). The silhouettes chosen to represent thinness were also similar between mothers and their daughters (p = 0.960) regardless of ethnicity and maternal BMI. On the other hand, the silhouettes chosen to represent fatness were similar (p = 0.342) between mothers and their daughters, only after the confounding effects of maternal BMI were removed. Lastly, mothers and their daughters chose similarly weighted silhouettes as engendering feelings of beauty, respect and happiness (p = 0.813; p = 0.615 and p = 0.693, respectively). In this instance

  8. Intra-familial and ethnic effects on attitudinal and perceptual body image: a cohort of South African mother-daughter dyads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goedecke Julia H

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background International studies suggest ethnic differences in obesity prevalence may be due, in part, to differences in body image and body size dissatisfaction between groups. Further, there is evidence to suggest that there is a familial resemblance in body image between mothers and their younger (preadolescent daughters. This research was therefore conducted to specifically identify the extent to which family status (presented as mother-daughter resemblance and ethnicity impact on body image attitudes and perceptions of South African mothers and their pre-adolescent daughters. Methods Mother-daughter dyads (n = 201, 31% black, 37% mixed ancestry and 32% white answered questions regarding their body image perception (the way they saw their body size status, their body image ideals, and body image attitudes (body size dissatisfaction in particular, presented as the Feel-Ideal Difference [FID] index score. Mothers' and daughters' body image results were compared within dyads and across ethnic groups using repeated measures of ANOVA. Results Overall, body image resemblances exist between South African mothers and their pre-adolescent daughters. Mothers and daughters chose similarly weighted silhouettes to represent their body size ideals (p = 0.308, regardless of their ethnicity or body mass index (BMI. The FID index scores were similar between mothers and their daughters only after the confounding effects of maternal BMI were removed (p = 0.685. The silhouettes chosen to represent thinness were also similar between mothers and their daughters (p = 0.960 regardless of ethnicity and maternal BMI. On the other hand, the silhouettes chosen to represent fatness were similar (p = 0.342 between mothers and their daughters, only after the confounding effects of maternal BMI were removed. Lastly, mothers and their daughters chose similarly weighted silhouettes as engendering feelings of beauty, respect and happiness (p = 0.813; p = 0.615 and p

  9. [To begin to believe. Working notes on a mother-daughter incest case and its implications on the formation of the pre-transitional object].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haineault, D L

    1990-11-01

    Most psychoanalytic literature dealing with incest holds the premise that the act took place between a parent and a child of opposite sex. Incidentally, most of these cases involve a father-daughter incest (e.g. research by Julien Bigras). However, this is only one of four mathematically possible combinations. For instance, we tend to underestimate the occurrences and, consequently, the repercussions of mother-daughter incest relationships. The biological and psychological importance of the mother in the child's development radically influences the mother-daughter incest. In the reactualizing of transference, analysts, especially if they are female, often find themselves confronted with some of the most fundamental choices in the life of an infant, such as to live or to die, to grow or to cease to grow. It then becomes crucial to understand the most primitive components of the infant's early life. In such a case, an analyst must consult some of the most complex theoretical work covering the subject. The author, for her part, has greatly referred to the experiences of Renatta Gaddini, who insists on the importance of developing a pretransitional space during the analysis. This pretransitional space, however, is useless if the analyst is unable to follow it up by becoming a transformational object in the eyes of the patient, in the way described by Christopher Bollas: an object suggesting that the patient relive the steps leading from pre-thought to thought, from real to symbolic. Indeed, Bollas' research has allowed the author to develop a more accurate vision of what is at stake. At the same time, she was able to assess the amount of work still needed in that area of study, an area which, up to this day, offers only very little research to support the author's exploration.

  10. Risky sexual behavior of foreign and native-born women in emerging adulthood: The long reach of mother-daughter relationships in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samari, Goleen; Seltzer, Judith A

    2016-11-01

    Parents' influence on young adult sexual behavior receives little attention compared to influence on adolescent behavior. Yet effective parenting should have lasting effects. Even fewer studies examine parents' influence on sexual behavior of both foreign and native-born young adults. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) Waves I (1994-95) and III (2001-02), we examine longitudinal associations among mother-daughter relationship quality and nativity during adolescence and young adults' risky sexual behaviors of condom use at last intercourse, number of sexual partners, and STI diagnoses (N = 4460). Women, 18-26 years old, who had good mother-adolescent daughter relationships have fewer partners and STIs in the past year. Second generation women have worse mother-adolescent daughter relationships, compared to third generation. Relationship quality does not explain associations between nativity and risky behavior. Lasting associations between relationship quality and risk behaviors suggest that reproductive health interventions should enhance mother-adolescent relationships.

  11. 性别视域下的母女关系主题--《母女二人》与《无处告别》中母女关系书写对比%On the Theme of the Mother-Daughter Relationship under the Gender Perspective:A Contrast of the Mother-Daughter Relationship Writing in Mother and Daughter and Farewell to Nowhere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王朝红; 关丽君

    2013-01-01

    From the gender perspective this paper presents a contrast of the writing about the mother-daughter relationship in the two novelettes, namely Mother and Daughter by the famous British writer D. H. Lawrence and Farewell to Nowhere by the contemporary Chinese female writer Chen Ran. The analyses aim to expose how the two authors describe and decode the complicated mother-daughter relationships in the modern society in their re-spective works from the different gender perspectives. Summarizing their distinct viewpoints on the female subject consciousness in their works, the paper further discusses the possibility for the modern women to walk out of the dilemma of mother-daughter relationships.%从性别视域的角度入手,对英国著名作家D. H.劳伦斯的《母女二人》和我国当代女作家陈染的《无处告别》两个中篇小说中的母女关系书写进行对比,旨在分析两位作家如何以不同的性别视角在各自的小说文本中描述和解码现代社会中错综复杂的母女关系,总结他们在各自作品中对女性主体意识所持的不同观点,从而进一步探讨当代女性走出母女关系困境的可能。

  12. Rh Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss > Birth defects & other health conditions > Rh disease Rh disease E-mail to a friend Please fill ... Rh-negative with a blood test. What is Rh factor? Rh factor is a protein that’s found ...

  13. Rh incompatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that develops when a pregnant woman has Rh-negative blood and the baby in her womb has Rh- ... against Rh-positive blood. However, women with Rh-negative blood type must get injections: During every pregnancy After ...

  14. On the Oriental and Occidental Culture Exchange Reflected in the Mother-Daughter Relationship in The Joy Luck Club%从《喜福会》中母女关系看东西方文化交流

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马丽娜

    2012-01-01

    In The Joy Luck Club,Amy Tan describes the conflicts-to-reconciliation relationship between four mothers and their daughters.By studying this relationship,the thesis put forward that the mother-daughter conflicts are caused by not only generation gap,but also cultural conflicts.In the novel,the four Chinese mothers and their American-born daughters have experienced cultural conflict,cultural understanding and blending.%美籍华裔作家谭恩美在小说《喜福会》中主要描写了四位母亲和她们的女儿之间由冲突走向融合,展现的是一幅中美文化交流的画卷。在小说中,母女冲突不仅仅是由代沟引起的,其背后隐藏的更深层次的原因是文化冲突的问题,四位生活在美国的中国母亲与她们出生在美国并在美国长大的女儿们经历了文化冲突、文化谅解和文化融合的过程。

  15. Living with Rh Incompatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Living With Rh Incompatibility If you have Rh-negative blood, injections of Rh immune globulin can reduce your ... baby or come in contact with Rh-positive blood. If you're Rh-negative, your risk of problems from Rh incompatibility is ...

  16. Rh Incompatibility (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Rh Incompatibility KidsHealth > For Parents > Rh Incompatibility Print A ... this information early in your pregnancy. About the Rh Factor People with different blood types have proteins ...

  17. Rh Factor Blood Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tests and Procedures Rh factor blood test By Mayo Clinic Staff Rhesus (Rh) factor is an inherited protein found on the surface of ... If your blood has the protein, you're Rh positive. If your blood lacks the protein, you' ...

  18. Mother-Daughter Cultural Conflicts in The Joy Luck Club

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史惠

    2014-01-01

    Amy Tan, as the second generation of immigrants, deeply senses the differences between Sino-American cultures. Her great success The Joy Luck Club explores the conflicts between mothers and daughters, showing the troubles in such families.

  19. Mother-daughter in vitro fertilization triplet surrogate pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelow, M C; Bernstein, J; Jacobson, M J; McLoughlin, J L; Rubenstein, D; Hacking, A I; Preddy, S; Van der Wat, I J

    1988-02-01

    A successful triplet pregnancy has been established in a surrogate gestational mother following the transfer of five embryos fertilized in vitro. The oocytes were donated by her biological daughter, and the sperm obtained from the daughter's husband. The daughter's infertility followed a total abdominal hysterectomy performed for a postpartum hemorrhage as a result of a placenta accreta. Synchronization of both their menstrual cycles was obtained using oral contraceptive suppression for 2 months, followed by stimulation of both the surrogate gestational mother and her daughter such that embryo transfer would occur at least 48 hr after the surrogate gestational mother's own ovulation. This case raises a number of medical, social, psychological, and ethical issues.

  20. RH Mixing observable?

    CERN Document Server

    Achiman, Yoav

    1999-01-01

    Asymmetric mass matrices can induce large RH mixings. Those are non -measurable in the SM but are there and play an important role in its extensions. The RH rotations are in particular relevant for the proton decay, neutrino properties and baryon asymmetry. E.g. large RH mixings lead to kaon dominated proton decay even without SUSY and could be the reason for a large neutrino mixing. By studying those phenomena one can learn about the RH rotation matrices and this can reduce considerably the arbitrariness in the present fermionic mass study.

  1. RH Packaging Operations Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2003-09-17

    This procedure provides operating instructions for the RH-TRU 72-B Road Cask, Waste Shipping Package. In this document, ''Packaging'' refers to the assembly of components necessary to ensure compliance with the packaging requirements (not loaded with a payload). ''Package'' refers to a Type B packaging that, with its radioactive contents, is designed to retain the integrity of its containment and shielding when subject to the normal conditions of transport and hypothetical accident test conditions set forth in 10 CFR Part 71. Loading of the RH 72-B cask can be done two ways, on the RH cask trailer in the vertical position or by removing the cask from the trailer and loading it in a facility designed for remote-handling (RH). Before loading the 72-B cask, loading procedures and changes to the loading procedures for the 72-B cask must be sent to CBFO at sitedocuments@wipp.ws for approval.

  2. How Is Rh Compatibility Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... status, your doctor may do a test called amniocentesis. For this test, your doctor inserts a hollow ... whether the baby is Rh-positive. (Rarely, an amniocentesis can expose you to Rh-positive blood). Your ...

  3. Multiple chiral doublet candidate nucleus $^{105}$Rh in a relativistic mean-field approach

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jian; Meng, J; 10.1103/PhysRevC.83.037301

    2011-01-01

    Following the reports of two pairs of chiral doublet bands observed in $^{105}$Rh, the adiabatic and configuration-fixed constrained triaxial relativistic mean-field (RMF) calculations are performed to investigate their triaxial deformations with the corresponding configuration and the possible multiple chiral doublet (M$\\chi$D) phenomenon. The existence of M$\\chi$D phenomenon in $^{105}$Rh is highly expected.

  4. RH Packaging Program Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2008-01-12

    The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide the technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package (also known as the "RH-TRU 72-B cask") and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of C states: "...each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." It further states: "...each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M&O) Contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8, "Deliberate Misconduct." Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. The CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required.In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, "Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material," certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21, "Reporting of Defects and Noncompliance," regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a

  5. First-principles study of phase equilibria in Cu-Pt-Rh disordered alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuge, Koretaka

    2009-10-14

    Phase stability of Cu-Pt-Rh ternary disordered alloys is examined by a combination of cluster expansion techniques and Monte Carlo statistical simulation based on first-principles calculation. The sign of pseudo-binary ECIs indicates that neighboring Cu and Pt strongly prefer unlike-atom pairs, Pt and Rh weakly prefer unlike-atom pairs, and Cu and Rh atoms prefer like-atom pairs, indicating that the ternary alloy retains the ordering tendency of the constituent binary alloys. The formation energy of a random alloy at T = 1200 K exhibits a negative sign for a wide range of Pt-rich compositions, while at Pt-poor compositions of x≤0.25, the formation energy has a positive value. Calculated affinities for the random alloy show the variety of energetically favored bonds for the alloy: Cu-Pt bonds in both first-and second-nearest neighbor (1-NN and 2-NN) are energetically preferred for all the composition range, the Pt-Rh bond in 1-NN is preferred at Pt-rich compositions, the Pt-Rh in 2-NN and Rh-Cu in 1-NN bonds are unfavored for all compositions, and the Rh-Cu bond in 2-NN is unfavored for Pt-poor compositions. We elucidate that the ordering tendency of 1-NN and 2-NN Cu-Pt, 2-NN Pt-Rh and 1-NN Cu-Rh atoms in constituent binary alloys is retained for the whole composition range of Cu-Pt-Rh ternary alloys, while that of 1-NN Pt-Rh and 2-NN Cu-Rh atoms significantly depends on composition.

  6. (3-Methyl-benzo-nitrile-κN)tetra-kis(μ-N-phenyl-acetamidato)-κ(4) N:O;κ(4) O:N-di-rhodium(II)(Rh-Rh).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagle, Cassandra T; Atem-Tambe, Nkongho; Kpogo, Kenneth K; Tan, Jennie; Quarshie, Fredricka

    2013-11-06

    In the title compound, [Rh2(C8H8NO)4(C8H7N)], the four acetamidate ligands bridging the dirhodium core are arranged in a 2,2-trans manner. One Rh(II) atom is five-coordinate, in a distorted pyramidal geometry, while the other is six-coord-in-ate, with a disorted octa-hedral geometry. For the six-coord-inate Rh(II) atom, the axial nitrile ligand shows a non-linear Rh-nitrile coordination with an Rh-N-C bond angle of 166.4 (4)° and a nitrile N-C bond length of 1.138 (6) Å. Each unique Rh(II) atom is coordinated by a trans pair of N atoms and a trans pair of O atoms from the four acetamide ligands. The Neq-Rh-Rh-Oeq torsion angles on the acetamide bridge varies between 12.55 (11) and 14.04 (8)°. In the crystal, the 3-methyl-benzo-nitrile ring shows a π-π inter-action with an inversion-related equivalent [inter-planar spacing = 3.360 (6) Å]. A phenyl ring on one of the acetamide ligands also has a face-to-face π-π inter-action with an inversion-related equivalent [inter-planar spacing = 3.416 (5) Å].

  7. RH Packaging Program Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2006-11-07

    The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide the technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the C of C shall govern. The C of C states: "...each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, Operating Procedures, of the application." It further states: "...each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application." Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M&O) Contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC-approved, users need to be familiar with 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) §71.8, "Deliberate Misconduct." Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. In accordance with 10 CFR Part 71, "Packaging and Transportation of Radioactive Material," certificate holders, packaging users, and contractors or subcontractors who use, design, fabricate, test, maintain, or modify the packaging shall post copies of (1) 10 CFR Part 21, "Reporting of Defects and Noncompliance," regulations, (2) Section 206 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, and (3) NRC Form 3, Notice to Employees. These documents must be posted in a conspicuous location where the activities subject to

  8. RH Packaging Program Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington TRU Solutions, LLC

    2003-08-25

    The purpose of this program guidance document is to provide technical requirements for use, operation, inspection, and maintenance of the RH-TRU 72-B Waste Shipping Package and directly related components. This document complies with the requirements as specified in the RH-TRU 72-B Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP), and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Certificate of Compliance (C of C) 9212. If there is a conflict between this document and the SARP and/or C of C, the SARP and/or C of C shall govern. The C of C states: ''...each package must be prepared for shipment and operated in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 7.0, ''Operating Procedures,'' of the application.'' It further states: ''...each package must be tested and maintained in accordance with the procedures described in Chapter 8.0, ''Acceptance Tests and Maintenance Program of the Application.'' Chapter 9.0 of the SARP tasks the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Management and Operating (M&O) contractor with assuring the packaging is used in accordance with the requirements of the C of C. Because the packaging is NRC approved, users need to be familiar with 10 CFR {section} 71.11, ''Deliberate Misconduct.'' Any time a user suspects or has indications that the conditions of approval in the C of C were not met, the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) shall be notified immediately. CBFO will evaluate the issue and notify the NRC if required. This document details the instructions to be followed to operate, maintain, and test the RH-TRU 72-B packaging. This Program Guidance standardizes instructions for all users. Users shall follow these instructions. Following these instructions assures that operations are safe and meet the requirements of the SARP. This document is available on the Internet at: ttp://www.ws/library/t2omi/t2omi.htm. Users are responsible for ensuring they are using the current

  9. A tauberian approach to RH

    CERN Document Server

    Cloitre, Benoit

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is twofold. Firstly we present our main discovery arising from experiments which is the tauberian concept of functions of good variation (FGV). Secondly we propose to use these FGV for proving RH is true via some conjectures. More precisely we give an implicit definition of FGV and we provide several smooth and nontrivial exemples from experiments. Then using a conjectured family of FGV involving functions approaching the floor function we derive RH is true. We make also a tauberian conjecture allowing us to prove RH is true for L-functions (the generalized RH) and automorphic L-functions (the grand RH) and we discuss the linear independance conjecture. The method is inspired by the Ingham summation process and the experimental support is provided using pari-gp.

  10. Enhancement of Solar Fuel Production Schemes by Using a Ru,Rh,Ru Supramolecular Photocatalyst Containing Hydroxide Labile Ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Hannah Mallalieu; Arachchige, Shamindri M; Brewer, Karen J

    2015-11-16

    Polyazine-bridged Ru(II)Rh(III)Ru(II) complexes with two halide ligands, Cl(-) or Br(-), bound to the catalytically active Rh center are efficient single-component photocatalysts for H2O reduction to H2 fuel, with the coordination environment on Rh impacting photocatalysis. Herein reported is a new, halide-free Ru(II)Rh(III)Ru(II) photocatalyst with OH(-) ligands bound to Rh, further enhancing the photocatalytic reactivity of the structural motif. H2 production experiments using the photocatalyst bearing OH(-) ligands at Rh relative to the analogues bearing halides at Rh in solvents of varying polarity (DMF, CH3CN, and H2O) suggest that ion pairing with halides deactivates photocatalyst function, representing an exciting phenomenon to exploit in the development of catalysts for solar H2 production schemes. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Cloning and expression analysis in mature individuals of two chicken type-II GnRH (cGnRH-II) genes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuangfei; Hu, Wei; Wang, Yaping; Zhu, Zuoyan

    2004-08-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a conservative neurodecapeptide family, which plays a crucial role in regulating the gonad development and in controlling the final sexual maturation in vertebrate. Two differing cGnRH-II cDNAs of common carp, namely cGnRH-II cDNA1 and cDNA2, were firstly cloned from the brain by rapid amplification of cDNA end (RACE) and reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The length of cGnRH-II cDNA1 and cDNA2 was 622 and 578 base pairs (bp), respectively. The cGnRH-II precursors encoded by two cDNAs consisted of 86 amino acids, including a signal peptide, cGnRH-II decapeptide and a GnRH-associated peptide (GAP) linked by a Gly-Lys-Arg proteolytic site. The results of intron trapping and Southern blot showed that two differing cGnRH-II genes in common carp genome were further identified, and that two genes might exist as a single copy. The multi-gene coding of common carp cGnRH-II gene offered novel evidence for gene duplication hypothesis. Using semi-quantitative RT-PCR, expression and relative expression levels of cGnRH-II genes were detected in five dissected brain regions, pituitary and gonad of common carp. With the exception of no mRNA2 in ovary, two cGnRH-II genes could be expressed in all the detected tissues. However, expression levels showed an apparent difference in different brain regions, pituitary and gonad. According to the expression characterization of cGnRH-II genes in brain areas, it was presumed that cGnRH-II might mainly work as the neurotransmitter and neuromodulator and also operate in the regulation for the GnRH releasing. Then, the expression of cGnRH-II genes in pituitary and gonad suggested that cGnRH-II might act as the autocrine or paracrine regulator.

  12. Cloning and expression analysis in mature individuals of two chicken type-Ⅱ GnRH (cGnRH-Ⅱ) genes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Shuangfei; HU; Wei; WANG; Yaping; ZHU; Zuoyan

    2004-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone(GnRH)is a conservative neurodecapeptide family,which plays a crucial role in regulating the gonad development and in controlling the final sexual maturation in vertebrate.Two differing cGnRH-Ⅱ cDNAs of common carp,namely cGnRH-Ⅱ cDNA1 and cDNA2,were firstly cloned from the brain by rapid amplification of cDNA end(RACE)and reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR).The length of cGnRH-Ⅱ cDNA1 and cDNA2 was 622 and 578 base pairs(bp),respectively.The cGnRH-Ⅱ precursors encoded by two cDNAs consisted of 86 amino acids,including a signal peptide,cGnRH-Ⅱ decapeptide and a GnRH-associated peptide(GAP)linked by a Gly-Lys-Arg proteolytic site.The results of intron trapping and Southern blot showed that two differing cGnRH-Ⅱ genes in common carp genome were further identified,and that two genes might exist as a single copy.The multi-gene coding of common carp cGnRH-Ⅱ gene offered novel evidence for gene duplication hypothesis.Using semi-quantitative RT-PCR,expression and relative expression levels of cGnRH-Ⅱ genes were detected in five dissected brain regions,pituitary and gonad of common carp.With the exception of no mRNA2 in ovary,two cGnRH-Ⅱ genes could be expressed in all the detected tissues.However,expression levels showed an apparent difference in different brain regions,pituitary and gonad.According to the expression characterization of cGnRH-Ⅱ genes in brain areas,it was presumed that cGnRH-Ⅱ might mainly work as the neurotransmitter and neuromodulator and also operate in the regulation for the GnRH releasing.Then,the expression of cGnRH-Ⅱ genes in pituitary and gonad suggested that cGnRH-Ⅱ might act as the autocrine or paracrine regulator.

  13. Local structural evidence for strong electronic correlations in spinel LiRh2O4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, K. R.; Abeykoon, A. M. M.; Zheng, H.; Yin, W.-G.; Tsvelik, A. M.; Mitchell, J. F.; Billinge, S. J. L.; Bozin, E. S.

    2013-11-01

    The local structure of the spinel LiRh2O4 has been studied using atomic-pair distribution function analysis of powder x-ray diffraction data. This measurement is sensitive to the presence of short Rh-Rh bonds that form due to dimerization of Rh4+ ions on the pyrochlore sublattice, independent of the existence of long-range order. We show that structural dimers exist in the low-temperature phase, as previously supposed, with a bond shortening of Δr˜0.15 Å. The dimers persist up to 350 K, well above the insulator-metal transition, with Δr decreasing in magnitude on warming. Such behavior is inconsistent with the Fermi-surface nesting-driven Peierls transition model. Instead, we argue that LiRh2O4 should properly be described as a strongly correlated system.

  14. Hydrogen Adsorption on Pt, Rh and Pt-Rh Electrodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾梦秋; A.M.Meretskyi

    2005-01-01

    The hydrogen adsorption on Pt-Rh alloys in sulfuric acid aqueous solutions was studied by the method of cathode pulses. Hydrogen adsorption on the electrode with all ratio of alloy components (ωRh = 0-100%) is well described by the Temkin logarithmic isotherm. The surface coverage by adsorbed hydrogen at the same potential is decreased with increasing content of rhodium in the system. A linear dependence of adsorption peak potential on the alloy compositions in the case of weakly bonded adsorbed hydrogen is established. Hydrogen adsorption heat as a function of surface coverage for Pt-Rh-electrodes was obtained. The shape of the current-potential curve and position of the weakly bonded hydrogen adsorption on the potential scale are all related to alloy compositions, thus can serve as the basis for the determination surface composition of allovs.

  15. GnRH tandem peptides for inducing an immunogenic response to GnRH-I without cross-reactivity to other GnRH isoforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turkstra, J.A.; Schaaper, W.M.M.; Oonk, H.B.; Meloen, R.H.

    2005-01-01

    Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) occurs in various isoforms in mammals, i.e. GnRH-I (mammalian GnRH), GnRH-II (chicken GnRH-II), GnRH-III (salmon GnRH) and two forms of lamprey GnRH. The function of the latter four molecules have only been partially investigated. Also not much is known about th

  16. Lifestyle and cardiovascular risk factors in 2001 child-parent pairs: the PEP Family Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwandt, Peter; Haas, Gerda-Maria; Liepold, Evelyn

    2010-12-01

    Genes and environment are the main determinants of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor clustering in families. Since individual risk factor profiles are easily predicted within families, we examined whether CVD risk factors are affected by lifestyle factors in these families. Nutrition, physical activity, and smoking habits were assessed in 2001 biological child-parent pairs from 852 families participating in the Prevention Education Program (PEP). Height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, and fasting lipid levels were measured. Within-family associations were calculated using generalized estimating equations (GEE). Fathers possessed the most adverse risk profile. Daily energy consumption above the recommended levels was higher in children (daughters +35.4%, sons +26.7%) than in parents (fathers +15.7%, mothers +10.6%). Higher energy consumption was significantly associated with hypertension in mothers (OR 2.5) and in fathers (OR 1.7). Hyper-caloric nutrition of the parents predicted the energy intake of the children in: mother-daughter (OR 7.5), mother-son (OR 3.0), and father-son (OR 2.8) pairs. Low mono-unsaturated fatty acid intake was significantly associated with a high LDL/HDL-C ratio (OR 3.4) and hypertriglyceridemia (OR 2.2) in fathers. Approximately 25% of parents and children reported at least two physical activities twice a week. The 23% of children who were passive smokers presented a far more adverse risk profile than children without exposure to second-hand smoke. Intergenerational lifestyle habits affect cardiovascular risk factors within biological families. As lifestyle habits are predictable, they may be used for implementation of family-based CVD prevention strategies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Rh isoimmunization during pregnancy: antenatal prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, J M; Chown, B; Lewis, M; Pollock, J M

    1978-03-18

    Of 3533 Rh-negative women who began a pregnancy without detectable Rh antibodies, 62 (1.8%) demonstrated evidence of Rh isoimmunization during pregnancy or within 3 days after delivery. All denied transfusions as well as abortions or previous pregnancies not followed by the administration of Rh immune globulin. Rh isoimmunization during pregnancy or within 3 days after delivery, which will not be prevented by the administration of Rh immune globulin after delivery, is the most important cause of residual Rh isoimmunization. A clinical trial of antenatal administration of Rh immune globulin, initially at 34 weeks's and subsequently at 28 and 34 weeks' gestation, in 1357 Rh-negative pregnant women who were delivered of Rh-positive babies, was effective in preventing the development of Rh isoimmunization during pregnancy or within 3 days after delivery. Antenatal prophylaxis with Rh immune globulin will be necessary if the incidence of Rh isoimmunization is to be reduced to its lowest possible level. Antenatal prophylaxis at 28 weeks' gestation is now an insured service in Manitoba.

  18. Rh(0)/Rh(iii) core-shell nanoparticles as heterogeneous catalysts for cyclic carbonate synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Younjae; Shin, Taeil; Kim, Kiseong; Byun, Hyeeun; Cho, Sung June; Kim, Hyunwoo; Song, Hyunjoon

    2016-12-22

    Rh(0)/Rh(iii) core-shell nanoparticles were prepared by surface oxidation of Rh nanoparticles with N-bromosuccinimide. They were employed as heterogeneous catalysts for cyclic carbonate synthesis from propylene oxide and CO2, and exhibited high activity and excellent recyclability due to Lewis acidic Rh(iii) species on the shells.

  19. Magnetic properties of the Ce-Rh binary phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kappler, J.P.; Lehmann, P.; Schmerber, G. (Strasbourg-1 Univ., 67 (FR). Groupe d' Etude des Materiaux Metalliques); Nieva, G.; Sereni, J.G. (Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, San Carlos de Bariloche (AR). Centro Atomico Bariloche)

    1988-12-01

    Crystallographic, magnetic and resistivity studies on the Ce-Rh binary phases clearly define two Ce ground state regions: (i) CeRh{sub 3}, CeRh{sub 2} and CeRh as intermediate valence compounds and (ii) Ce{sub 5}Rh{sub 4}, Ce{sub 3}Rh{sub 2} Ce{sub 5}Rh{sub 3} and Ce{sub 7}Rh{sub 3} with magnetic transitions at low temperature.

  20. Structure and catalytic reactivity of Rh oxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafson, J.; Westerström, R.; Resta, A.;

    2009-01-01

    Using a combination of experimental and theoretical techniques, we show that a thin RhO2 surface oxide film forms prior to the bulk Rh2O3 corundum oxide on all close-packed single crystal Rh surfaces. Based on previous reports, we argue that the RhO2 surface oxide also forms on vicinal Rh surfaces...... as well as on Rh nanoparticles. The detailed structure of this film was previously determined using UHV based techniques and density functional theory. In the present paper, we also examine the structure of the bulk Rh2O3 corundum oxide using surface X-ray diffraction. Being armed with this structural...... surface oxide film. In the case of Pt25Rh75(1 0 0), our measurements demonstrate that the formation of bulk Rh2O3 corundum oxide poisons the reaction, and argue that this is also valid for all other Rh surfaces. Our study implies that the CO oxidation reaction over Rh surfaces at realistic conditions...

  1. Fluorocarbene, fluoroolefin, and fluorocarbyne complexes of Rh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pell, Christopher J; Zhu, Yanjun; Huacuja, Rafael; Herbert, David E; Hughes, Russell P; Ozerov, Oleg V

    2017-04-01

    The manuscript reports the synthesis, characterization, and analysis of electronic structure in a series of complexes of small perfluorocarbon ligands with the (PNP)Rh fragment (where PNP is a diarylamido/bis(phosphine) pincer ligand). Reactions of (PNP)Rh(TBE) as the source of (PNP)Rh with CHF3 and C2HF5 produced perfluoroalkylidene complexes (PNP)Rh 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111111111111111 1111111111111111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 1111111111111111111111111111111111 1111111111111111111111111111111111 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000 CF2 and (PNP)RhC(F)(CF3). (PNP)RhCF2 could also be obtained via the reaction of (PNP)Rh(TBE) with Me3SiCF3/CsF, with an admixture of (PNP)Rh(C2F4), where TBE = tert-butylethylene. Abstraction of fluoride from these neutral (PNP)RhC x F y complexes was successful, although only abstraction from (PNP)RhCF2 allowed unambiguous identification of the Rh product, [(PNP)Rh 0000000000000000000000000000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000

  2. Patterns of Mother-Daughter Communication for Reproductive Health Knowledge Transfer in Southern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koblowe Obono

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Many reproductive health studies have examined trends and outcomes of adolescent sexual behaviour but have overlooked the patterns of reproductive communication between mothers and daughters that have implications on girls’ reproductive wellbeing. Although there is a need to safeguard adolescent health, not enough work exists at the interface between female reproductive change and communication. The patterns of communication determine the effectiveness of reproductive knowledge transfer to safeguard girls’ reproductive health at a time of social change. Despite widespread opinion about the taboo nature of sexual and reproductive communication in traditional African settings, its prevalence among mothers and daughters in Ugep, Nigeria, was found to be quite high. The context, form, direction and level of communication reveal that the females engage in reproductive communication in a private environment and through peaceful and friendly strategies. Communication is achieved through sharing of meaning and mutual understanding, which has implications for adolescent female reproductive health.

  3. A Cultural Interpretation of Mother-Daughter Conflicts in The Joy Luck Club

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗瑞

    2013-01-01

    Amy Tan’s novel The Joy Luck Club describes the complex relation between four Chinese immigrant mothers and their daughters who are raised in America. It reveals different cultural connotation between China and America. Misunderstand⁃ing, conflicts, communication and then understanding reflects the process of clash, communication and blending between East and West. In this novel, mother is the medium of national history and memory, the carrier of Chinese culture and the bridge of past and present. On the contrary, daughters are raised in America. They are influenced by American culture. Cultural difference is the main cause of their conflicts.

  4. Mother-daughter communication about sex: the influence of authoritative parenting style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askelson, Natoshia M; Campo, Shelly; Smith, Sandi

    2012-01-01

    Parent-child communication about sex has been shown to delay sexual activity and increase contraceptive and condom use. The influence of authoritative parenting style and mothers' perception of daughters' risk on communication about sex was examined in this study. Mothers in a random sample (n=283) with daughters aged 9-15 years were mailed surveys asking about communication with their daughters regarding 11 sex-related topics. Multivariate linear regression was used to assess the influence of authoritative parenting style and mothers' perceptions of risk on the number of topics communicated about and age of the daughter at time of communication for a variety of sexual health communication topics. Authoritative parenting style was related to the number of topics communicated about and was a predictor of age of daughter at the time of communication about sexual intercourse, menstruation, dating/relationships, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), HIV/AIDS, alcohol, contraceptives, and abstinence, while perceptions of risk were not significant influencers of age at the time of communication for any topics. This research points to the importance of parenting style in determining the timing of parent-child communication about sexual and other risk behaviors.

  5. Life Span Transitions for a Student with LD: Mother-Daughter Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Therese M.; Smedley, Emily N.

    2017-01-01

    Transition planning and processes can greatly influence the quality of schooling transitions for students with learning disabilities. Student-focused planning and family involvement are two integral components of transition planning that do not always receive the emphasis that they deserve. The educational transitions of one student are examined…

  6. The relation between OSH and ergonomics: a 'mother-daughter' or 'sister-sister' relation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Veerle; Van Peteghem, Jan

    2006-07-01

    Despite the growing importance of ergonomics and ergonomists worldwide, the position of ergonomics in companies is often not clear. Today, in many countries ergonomics is mainly (or even only) associated with the reduction of risks of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). Therefore, many companies consider ergonomics a part of occupational safety and health (OSH) that focuses mainly on the reduction of risks. This paper aims to analyse the links between occupational ergonomics and OSH. The position of occupational ergonomics in legislation, the presence of ergonomics in OSH networks, and the position of ergonomics in OSH company services are discussed. In addition, the added value of ergonomics to companies is examined. From these discussions, it becomes clear that ergonomics should be part of the OSH policy of companies, and should be integrated into today's company strategies to improve labour conditions. If ergonomics is considered as a discipline in its own right, a clear legislative context should be developed that goes beyond voluntary guidelines and the goodwill of employers, and necessitates the presence of ergonomics professionals in companies.

  7. Maternal HIV serostatus, mother-daughter sexual risk communication and adolescent HIV risk beliefs and intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederbaum, Julie A; Hutchinson, M Katherine; Duan, Lei; Jemmott, Loretta S

    2013-09-01

    Daughters of HIV-positive women are often exposed to the same factors that placed their mothers at risk. This cross-sectional study (N = 176 dyads) examined HIV status, parent-teen sexual risk communication (PTSRC), and daughters' abstinence and condom use beliefs and intentions. Maternal HIV status was not associated with PTSRC. Path analyses show that maternal depression was associated with PTSRC behavioral and normative beliefs; relationship satisfaction was associated with PTSRC normative and control beliefs. Control beliefs were solely predictive of maternal PTSRC intention. PTSRC was associated with adolescent behavioral and normative beliefs. Abstinence beliefs were associated with abstinence intentions; condom beliefs were associated with condom use intentions. Relationship satisfaction was associated with adolescent control beliefs about both abstinence and condom use. There is a need for interventions that help HIV-positive mothers recognize their daughter's HIV risk and provide them with relationship building and parent process skills to help reduce these risks.

  8. [Hair dysplasia in oculo-dento-digital syndrome. Apropos of a mother-daughter case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamski, H; Chevrant-Breton, J; Odent, S; Patoux-Pibouin, M; Le Marec, B; Laudren, A; Urvoy, M

    1994-01-01

    Oculo-dento-digital syndrome (SODD) as defined by Meyer-Schwickerath in 1957 is a rare entity (84 cases) which belongs to ectodermal dysplasias. It consists of: the characteristic features (long face, pinched nose); syndactyly; ocular, dental and bone abnormalities. This entity is usually transmitted on the autosomal dominant mode. We report two cases (a mother and daughter) with polymalformations which we classed as SODD. Furthermore, agenesis of lacrimal duct and genitourinary abnormalities were noted. The mother had a very particular complex hair shaft dysplasia (incomplete pili torti, "tiger tail" aspect, fractures) with alopecia since she was fifteen years old. The daughter's hair was normal at birth. In SODD, fine and sparse hair is often observed (44 p. 100). Only one patient had hair shaft investigation under polarized light: pili annulati and monilethrix were described but not found in our cases. These two reports incite to the systematic hair shaft study in SODD as other ectodermal dysplasia syndromes.

  9. Turbulence and Tenderness: Mothers, Daughters, and "Othermothers" in Paule Marshall's "Brown Girl, Brownstones."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troester, Rosalie Riegle

    1984-01-01

    Analyzes Paule Marshall's "Brown Girl, Brownstones" as a novel about a Black girl's necessary struggle to release herself from an emotionally intense relationship with her mother. Argues that the daughter's conflict is resolved only after she accepts her identification with her mother as a Black woman. (KH)

  10. Mother-daughter asymmetry of pH underlies aging and rejuvenation in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Kiersten A; Hughes, Adam L; Gottschling, Daniel E

    2014-09-04

    Replicative aging in yeast is asymmetric-mother cells age but their daughter cells are rejuvenated. Here we identify an asymmetry in pH between mother and daughter cells that underlies aging and rejuvenation. Cytosolic pH increases in aging mother cells, but is more acidic in daughter cells. This is due to the asymmetric distribution of the major regulator of cytosolic pH, the plasma membrane proton ATPase (Pma1). Pma1 accumulates in aging mother cells, but is largely absent from nascent daughter cells. We previously found that acidity of the vacuole declines in aging mother cells and limits lifespan, but that daughter cell vacuoles re-acidify. We find that Pma1 activity antagonizes mother cell vacuole acidity by reducing cytosolic protons. However, the inherent asymmetry of Pma1 increases cytosolic proton availability in daughter cells and facilitates vacuole re-acidification and rejuvenation.

  11. Magnetic moment distribution of ferromagnetic Ni--Rh alloys. [3 to 35 at. % Rh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cable, J.W.; Wollan, E.O.

    1976-08-01

    The diffuse scattering of polarized and unpolarized neutrons was used to determine the spatial distribution of the magnetic moment for ferromagnetic Ni-Rh alloys. The average Ni moment remains near 0.6 ..mu../sub B/ to 12 at. percent Rh and then decreases toward zero at the critical concentration of 37 at. percent Rh. There is an initial rapid decrease in the Rh moment that follows a P/sub 12/ dependence and corresponds to a moment of 2..mu../sub B/ for isolated Rh atoms. The data indicate moment fluctuations at both the Ni and the Rh sites that are associated with local environment.

  12. PERCENTAGE OF SANGUIN GROUP (ABO, RH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Mirdamadi

    1978-09-01

    Full Text Available The ABO and Rh Blood groups of 9753 pregnant women were determined in the Amin Maternity Hospital, Isfahan, Iran, from March 23, 1976 to July 11, 1977. Their ABO blood group frequencies were calculated as follows: 0=38.20%, A=30.67%, B=23.84% and AB=7.26%. Also, 90.02% of the women were Rh positive and the rest, namely, 9.98% were Rh negative.

  13. A Guide to Terminology for Rh Immunoprophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, S Gerald; Queenan, John T

    2017-09-01

    Rh immunoprophylaxis for Rh-negative women requires an understanding of terminology used for Rh blood typing laboratory reports. The pathophysiology of Rh hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn was elucidated by studies in rhesus monkeys. Subsequent studies revealed that the human blood group antigen responsible for Rh hemolytic disease of the newborn (D antigen) is related to, but different from, the rhesus monkey antigen. Weak expression of the D antigen on red cells, originally termed D, is currently reported by laboratories as a "serologic weak D phenotype," which can be further defined by RHD genotyping to be either a weak D type or a partial D phenotype. Weak D types 1, 2, or 3 are molecularly defined RHD weak D types, which have an adequate number of intact D antigens to be managed safely as Rh-positive. Partial D phenotypes result from mutations causing loss of one or more D epitopes. Most persons with a partial D phenotype have sufficient D antigen to type as Rh-positive. Some women with a partial D phenotype are detected as serologic weak D phenotypes by routine Rh typing. Whether they type as Rh-positive or serologic weak D phenotype, after being exposed to Rh-positive red cells by transfusion or pregnancy, women with partial D phenotype can form anti-D antibodies and, if they do, are at risk for hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn. A pregnant woman with a laboratory report of a serologic weak D phenotype should be further tested for her RHD genotype to resolve whether her case should be managed as Rh-positive or Rh-negative. For more than five decades, the practice of Rh immunoprophylaxis has remained unchanged in terms of the dose of Rh immune globulin and timing of injections. In contrast, advances in the science of Rh blood typing have resulted in a continuously evolving terminology, obliging obstetricians to update their vocabulary to guide their practice. The following review and glossary provide guidance for current Rh terminology and

  14. The MNS glycophorin variant GP.Mur affects differential erythroid expression of Rh/RhAG transcripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, K; Kuo, M-S; Yao, C-C; Cheng, H-C; Lin, H-J; Chan, Y-S; Lin, M

    2017-08-24

    The band 3 macrocomplex (also known as the ankyrin-associated complex) on the red cell membrane comprises two interacting subcomplexes: a band 3/glycophorin A subcomplex, and a Rh/RhAG subcomplex. Glycophorin B (GPB) is a component of the Rh/RhAG subcomplex that is also structurally associated with glycophorin A (GPA). Expression of glycophorin B-A-B hybrid GP.Mur enhances band 3 expression and is associated with lower levels of Rh-associated glycoprotein (RhAG) and Rh polypeptides. The goal of this study was to determine whether GP.Mur influenced erythroid Rh/RhAG expression at the transcript level. GP.Mur was serologically determined in healthy participants from Taitung County, Taiwan. RNA was extracted from the reticulocyte-enriched fraction of peripheral blood, followed by reverse transcription and quantitative PCR for RhAG, RhD and RhCcEe. Quantification by real-time PCR revealed significantly fewer RhAG and RhCcEe transcripts in the reticulocytes from subjects with homozygous GYP*Mur. Independent from GYP.Mur, both RhAG and RhD transcript levels were threefold or higher than that of RhCcEe. Also, in GYP.Mur and the control samples alike, direct quantitative associations were observed between the transcript levels of RhAG and RhD, but not between that of RhAG and RhCcEe. Erythroid RhD and RhCcEe were differentially expressed at the transcript levels, which could be related to their different degrees of interaction or sensitivity to RhAG. Further, the reduction or absence of glycophorin B in GYP.Mur erythroid cells affected transcript expressions of RhAG and RhCcEe. Thus, GPB and GP.Mur differentially influenced Rh/RhAG expressions prior to protein translation. © 2017 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  15. Pairing Learners in Pair Work Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, Neomy; Aldosari, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Although pair work is advocated by major theories of second language (L2) learning and research findings suggest that pair work facilitates L2 learning, what is unclear is how to best pair students in L2 classes of mixed L2 proficiency. This study investigated the nature of pair work in an English as a Foreign Language (EFL) class in a college in…

  16. Structure-activity correlations on Rh/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Rh/TiO{sub 2} thin film model catalysts after oxidation and reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rupprechter, G.; Seeber, G.; Goller, H.; Hayek, K. [Leopold-Franzens-Univ. Innsbruck (Austria). Inst. of Physical Chemistry

    1999-08-15

    A study of the effect of different supports on the stability and catalytic activity of Rh nanoparticles is only meaningful if the metal particles are perfectly identical in the catalysts to be compared. The authors have applied epitaxial thin film deposition to produce homogeneous distributions of well-faceted Rh nanocrystals, divided the sample in two, and subsequently supported the metal particles by Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and TiO{sub 2}. Three corresponding pairs of Rh/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Rh/TiO{sub 2} model catalysts with mean particle sizes of 7.8, 13.3, and 16.7 nm were prepared and activated by different oxidation-reduction treatments at temperatures up to 723 K. The size, morphology, and structure of the metal particles and of the support and the changes upon activation were determined by transmission electron microscopy. Wetting of the support and coalescence of Rh particles were observed to occur upon high-temperature reduction of large (>10 nm) and closely-spaced Rh particles, around 623 K on titania and around 723 K on alumina. Catalysts with smaller Rh particles did not show such pronounced changes. The rate of ring opening of methylcyclobutane at 373 K was measured on the three pairs of Rh/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Rh/TiO{sub 2} model catalysts as a function of the reduction temperature after preoxidation at 723 K. Rh/alumina catalysts exhibited maximum activity after reduction at 523 K due to the formation of low-coordinated sites as shown by electron microscopy. The activity of Rh/titania peaked after reduction at 373 K and decreased almost exponentially with T{sub red} up to 673 K. In the case of Rh/titania, the changes in particle size and microstructure as observed in the electron microscope can only account for part of the kinetic results. The rapid activity decrease in titania-supported Rh particles with increasing T{sub red} is paralleled to an increase in the number of oxygen vacancies and in low-valent Ti cations, on the titania surface. The latter

  17. GnRH-agonist versus GnRH-antagonist IVF cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papanikolaou, E G; Pados, G; Grimbizis, G

    2012-01-01

    In view of the current debate concerning possible differences in efficacy between the two GnRH analogues used in IVF stimulated cycles, the current study aimed to explore whether progesterone control in the late follicular phase differs when GnRH antagonist is used as compared with GnRH agonist...

  18. Rh Variability in Multi-Ethnic Perspective: Consequences for RH Genotyping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.H.M. Tax

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe RhD bloodgroup was first described by Levine en Stetson in 1939 after the manifestation of a hemolytic transfusion reaction in a woman who recently gave birth, after transfusion with her husbands red cells. The RhD-negative woman produced antibodies against the RhD present on the r

  19. An isolated nitridyl radical-bridged {Rh(N.)Rh} complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gloaguen, Yann; Rebreyend, Christophe; Lutz, Martin|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304828971; Kumar, Pravin; Huber, Martina; Vandervlugt, Jarl Ivar; Schneider, Sven; Debruin, Bas

    2014-01-01

    Photochemical activation of [(PNNH)Rh(N3)] (PNNH=6-di-(tert- butyl)phosphinomethyl-2,2′-bipyridine) complex2 produced the paramagnetic (S=1/2), [(PNN)Rh-N.-Rh(PNN)] complex3 (PNN-=methylene- deprotonated PNNH), which could be crystallographically characterized. Spectroscopic investigation of 3

  20. Rh Variability in Multi-Ethnic Perspective: Consequences for RH Genotyping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.H.M. Tax

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe RhD bloodgroup was first described by Levine en Stetson in 1939 after the manifestation of a hemolytic transfusion reaction in a woman who recently gave birth, after transfusion with her husbands red cells. The RhD-negative woman produced antibodies against the RhD present on the

  1. Variant RH alleles and Rh immunisation in patients with sickle cell disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sippert, Emilia; Fujita, Claudia R.; Machado, Debora; Guelsin, Glaucia; Gaspardi, Ane C.; Pellegrino, Jordão; Gilli, Simone; Saad, Sara S.T.O.; Castilho, Lilian

    2015-01-01

    Background Alloimmunisation is a major complication in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) receiving red blood cell (RBC) transfusions and despite provision of Rh phenotyped RBC units, Rh antibodies still occur. These antibodies in patients positive for the corresponding Rh antigen are considered autoantibodies in many cases but variant RH alleles found in SCD patients can also contribute to Rh alloimmunisation. In this study, we characterised variant RH alleles in 31 SCD patients who made antibodies to Rh antigens despite antigen-positive status and evaluated the clinical significance of the antibodies produced. Materials and methods RHD and RHCE BeadChip™ from BioArray Solutions and/or amplification and sequencing of exons were used to identify the RH variants. The serological features of all Rh antibodies in antigen-positive patients were analysed and the clinical significance of the antibodies was evaluated by retrospective analysis of the haemoglobin (Hb) levels before and after transfusion; the change from baseline pre-transfusion Hb and the percentage of HbS were also determined. Results We identified variant RH alleles in 31/48 (65%) of SCD patients with Rh antibodies. Molecular analyses revealed the presence of partial RHD alleles and variant RHCE alleles associated with altered C and e antigens. Five patients were compound heterozygotes for RHD and RHCE variants. Retrospective analysis showed that 42% of antibodies produced by the patients with RH variants were involved in delayed haemolytic transfusion reactions or decreased survival of transfused RBC. Discussion In this study, we found that Rh antibodies in SCD patients with RH variants can be clinically significant and, therefore, matching patients based on RH variants should be considered. PMID:24960646

  2. Variant RH alleles and Rh immunisation in patients with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sippert, Emilia; Fujita, Claudia R; Machado, Debora; Guelsin, Glaucia; Gaspardi, Ane C; Pellegrino, Jordão; Gilli, Simone; Saad, Sara S T O; Castilho, Lilian

    2015-01-01

    Alloimmunisation is a major complication in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) receiving red blood cell (RBC) transfusions and despite provision of Rh phenotyped RBC units, Rh antibodies still occur. These antibodies in patients positive for the corresponding Rh antigen are considered autoantibodies in many cases but variant RH alleles found in SCD patients can also contribute to Rh alloimmunisation. In this study, we characterised variant RH alleles in 31 SCD patients who made antibodies to Rh antigens despite antigen-positive status and evaluated the clinical significance of the antibodies produced. RHD and RHCE BeadChip™ from BioArray Solutions and/or amplification and sequencing of exons were used to identify the RH variants. The serological features of all Rh antibodies in antigen-positive patients were analysed and the clinical significance of the antibodies was evaluated by retrospective analysis of the haemoglobin (Hb) levels before and after transfusion; the change from baseline pre-transfusion Hb and the percentage of HbS were also determined. We identified variant RH alleles in 31/48 (65%) of SCD patients with Rh antibodies. Molecular analyses revealed the presence of partial RHD alleles and variant RHCE alleles associated with altered C and e antigens. Five patients were compound heterozygotes for RHD and RHCE variants. Retrospective analysis showed that 42% of antibodies produced by the patients with RH variants were involved in delayed haemolytic transfusion reactions or decreased survival of transfused RBC. In this study, we found that Rh antibodies in SCD patients with RH variants can be clinically significant and, therefore, matching patients based on RH variants should be considered.

  3. Rh-catalyzed linear hydroformylation of styrene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boymans, E.; Janssen, Michèle; Müller, Christian; Lutz, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304828971; Vogt, D.

    2012-01-01

    Usually the Rh-catalyzed hydroformylation of styrene predominantly yields the branched, chiral aldehyde. An inversion of regioselectivity can be achieved using strong π-acceptor ligands. Binaphthol-based diphosphite and bis(dipyrrolyl-phosphorodiamidite) ligands were applied in the Rh-catalyzed hydr

  4. Evaluation of the Rh(II)-Rh(II) bond dissociation enthalpy for [(TMTAA)Rh]2 by 1H NMR T2 measurements: application in determining the Rh-C(O)- BDE in [(TMTAA)Rh]2C═O.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imler, Gregory H; Zdilla, Michael J; Wayland, Bradford B

    2013-10-07

    Toluene solutions of the rhodium(II) dimer of dibenzotetramethylaza[14]annulene ([(TMTAA)Rh]2; (1)) manifest an increase in the line widths for the singlet methine and methyl (1)H NMR resonances with increasing temperature that result from the rate of dissociation of the diamagnetic Rh(II)-Rh(II) bonded dimer (1) dissociating into paramagnetic Rh(II) monomers (TMTAA) Rh (2). Temperature dependence of the rates of Rh(II)-Rh(II) dissociation give the activation parameters for bond homolysis ΔH(‡)(app) = 24(1) kcal mol(-1) and ΔS(‡)(app) = 10 (1) cal K(-1) mol(-1) and an estimate for the Rh(II)-Rh(II) bond dissociation enthalpy (BDE) of 22 kcal mol(-1). Thermodynamic values for reaction of 1 with CO to form (TMTAA)Rh-C(O)-Rh(TMTAA) (3) ΔH1° = -14 (1) kcal mol(-1), ΔS1°= -30(3) cal K(-1) mol(-1)) were used in deriving a (TMTAA)Rh-C(O)- BDE of 53 kcal mol(-1).

  5. Local duplication of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH receptor before two rounds of whole genome duplication and origin of the mammalian GnRH receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ameri Sefideh

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH and the GnRH receptor (GnRHR play an important role in vertebrate reproduction. Although many GnRHR genes have been identified in a large variety of vertebrate species, the evolutionary history of GnRHR in vertebrates is unclear. To trace the evolutionary origin of GnRHR we examined the conserved synteny of chromosomes harboring GnRHR genes and matched the genes to linkage groups of reconstructed vertebrate ancestor chromosomes. Consistent with the phylogenetic tree, three pairs of GnRHR subtypes were identified in three paralogous linkage groups, indicating that an ancestral pair emerged through local duplication before two rounds of whole genome duplication (2R. The 2R then led to the generation of six subtypes of GnRHR. Some subtypes were lost during vertebrate evolution after the divergence of teleosts and tetrapods. One subtype includes mammalian GnRHR and a coelacanth GnRHR that showed the greatest response to GnRH1 among the three types of GnRH. This study provides new insight into the evolutionary relationship of vertebrate GnRHRs.

  6. GnRH agonist triggering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kol, Shahar; Humaidan, Peter; Al Humaidan, Peter Samir Heskjær

    2013-01-01

    The concept that a bolus of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) can replace human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) as a trigger of final oocyte maturation was introduced several years ago. Recent developments in the area strengthen this premise. GnRHa trigger offers important advantages...... triggering concept should be challenged and that the GnRHa trigger is the way to move forward with thoughtful consideration of the needs, safety and comfort of our patients. Routinely, human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) is used to induce ovulation in fertility treatments. This approach deviates...... significantly from physiology and often results in insufficient hormonal support in early pregnancy and in ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). An alternative approach is to use a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist which allows a more physiological trigger of ovulation and, most importantly...

  7. RH ISOIMMUNIZATION BY MULTIPLE ANTIGENS

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    RESUMO A doença hemolítica perinatal isoimune (DHP) resulta da destruição dos eritrócitos fetais e do recém-nascido por anticorpos maternos dirigidos especificamente contra os antigénios de membrana dessas células. Os autores apresentam um caso de isoimunização Rh a antigénios múltiplos, anti-C, D e E, num 2º filho de um casal com antecedentes de abortamento espontâneo e um 1º filho com DHP anti- CDE e necessidade de transfusão permuta. Apesar da gravidade, com necessidade de várias tra...

  8. Kisspeptin Excitation of GnRH Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rønnekleiv, Oline K.; Kelly, Martin J.

    2014-01-01

    Kisspeptin binding to its cognate G protein-coupled receptor (GPR54, aka Kiss1R) in gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons stimulates peptide release and activation of the reproductive axis in mammals. Kisspeptin has pronounced pre- and postsynaptic effects, with the latter dominating the excitability of GnRH neurons. Presynaptically, kisspeptin increases the excitatory drive (both GABA-A and glutamate) to GnRH neurons and postsynaptically, kisspeptin inhibits an A-type and inwardly rectifying K + (Kir 6.2 and GIRK) currents and activates nonselective cation (TRPC) currents to cause long-lasting depolarization and increased action potential firing. The signaling cascades and the multiple intracellular targets of kisspeptin actions in native GnRH neurons are continuing to be elucidated. This review summarizes our current state of knowledge about kisspeptin signaling in GnRH neurons. PMID:23550004

  9. Reliable test for prenatal prediction of fetal RhD type using maternal plasma from RhD negative women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Frederik Banch; Krog, Grethe Risum; Rieneck, Klaus;

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish a reliable test for prenatal prediction of fetal RhD type using maternal plasma from RhD negative women. This test is needed for future prenatal Rh prophylaxis.......The objective of this study was to establish a reliable test for prenatal prediction of fetal RhD type using maternal plasma from RhD negative women. This test is needed for future prenatal Rh prophylaxis....

  10. A RhIII-N-heterocyclic carbene complex from metal-metal singly bonded [RhII−RhII] precursor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arup Sinha; Abir Sarbajna; Shrabani dinda; Jitendra K Bera

    2011-11-01

    Metal-metal singly bonded [Rh2(CO)4(acac)2][OTf]2 (1) has been synthesized and characterized by spectroscopic and analytical techniques. A density functional theory (DFT) optimized structure has been computed for the unbridged centro-symmetric structure. Reaction of 1 with PIN.HBr results in the [Rh(PIN)2(H2O)Br][OTf]2 (2) in high yield. The reaction involves metal-oxidation from RhII to RhIII accompanied by the metal-metal bond cleavage. The X-ray structure of 2 has been determined which reveals the incorporation of two N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligands to each rhodium. This work demonstrates the general utility of the metal-metal bonded compounds for the easy synthesis of metal-NHC compounds.

  11. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) variants in a lizard brain: is mammalian GnRH being expressed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaner, A D; Gonzalez, O; Paz, D A; Affanni, J M; Somoza, G M

    2000-08-01

    In reptiles as in other vertebrates, multiple forms of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) within a single brain have been identified. In this group the following GnRH molecular variants have been characterized either by direct or indirect methods: chicken GnRH I (cGnRH-I), chicken GnRH II (cGnRH-II), salmon GnRH (sGnRH) and several unidentified GnRH-like forms. In the present study GnRH variants were investigated in brain extracts of the lizard Tupinambis teguixin (= T. merinae) by combining high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) followed by radioimmunoassays (RIA). Two peaks showing GnRH immunoreactivity with the elution position of synthetic mammalian GnRH (mGnRH) and cGnRH-II were detected. Both peaks were further analyzed with different radioimmunoassay systems specific for mGnRH, cGnRH-I, and cGnRH-II. Pooled fractions corresponding to the first eluting peak showed no crossreactivity when analyzed with a cGnRH-I specific assay and logit-log displacement curves were not significantly different from those of synthetic mGnRH with homologous RIA systems. The second peak showed immunological characteristics of cGnRH-II when analyzed with a specific antiserum. The first ir-GnRH peak was selected for further RP-HPLC purification showing similar chromatographic behavior as mGnRH synthetic standard. We demonstrated the absence of cGnRH-I in this lizard using well-characterized antisera.

  12. Rh-flash acquisition card

    CERN Document Server

    Bourrion, O

    2003-01-01

    The rh-flash card main purpose is to convert and store the image of the analog data present at input into an output buffer, namely in a given timing window besides a stop signal (like a digital oscilloscope). It is conceived in VME format 1U wide with an additional connector. Novelty of this card is its ability to sample at a high frequency, due to flash coders, and this at a high repetition rate. To do that the card allows the storage of the data considered 'useful' and that is done by storing only the data exceeding a certain threshold. This can be useful for instance for viewing peaks in a spectrum, and obtaining their relative location. The goal is to stock and process the data sampled before and after the arrival of a stop signal (what entails a storage depth). A threshold is defined and any peak exceeding its level will really be stored in the output buffer which is readable through the VME bus. The peak values will be stored as well as m preceding and n subsequent values (both programmable). Obviously,...

  13. Complete 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectral analysis of the pairs of 20(S and 20(R ginsenosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heejung Yang

    2014-07-01

    Methods: We isolated 21 compounds, including 10 pairs of 20(S and 20(R less polar ginsenosides (1–20, and an oleanane-type triterpene (21 from a processed ginseng preparation and obtained complete 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectroscopic data for the following compounds, referred to as compounds 1–21 for rapid identification: 20(S-ginsenosides Rh2 (1, 20(R-Rh2 (2, 20(S-Rg3 (3, 20(R-Rg3 (4, 6′-O-acetyl-20(S-Rh2 [20(S-AcetylRh2] (5, 20(R-AcetylRh2 (6, 25-hydroxy-20(S-Rh2 (7, 25-hydroxy-20(S-Rh2 (8, 20(S-Rh1 (9, 20(R-Rh1 (10, 20(S-Rg2 (11, 20(R-Rg2 (12, 25-hydroxy-20(S-Rh1 (13, 25-hydroxy-20(R-Rh1 (14, 20(S-AcetylRg2 (15, 20(R-AcetylRg2 (16, Rh4 (17, Rg5 (18, Rk1 (19, 25-hydroxy-Rh4 (20, and oleanolic acid 28-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (21.

  14. The Rh oxide ultrathin film on Rh(100): an x-ray photoelectron diffraction study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Rong Rong; Vesselli, Erik; Baraldi, Alessandro; Lizzit, Silvano; Comelli, Giovanni

    2010-12-07

    The surface and interface structure of the RhO(2) ultrathin film grown on Rh(100) is investigated by means of x-ray photoelectron diffraction. Experimental and simulated one- and two-dimensional angular distribution intensities of the O1s and Rh3d(5/2) chemically shifted core levels are quantitatively analyzed. The previously proposed O-Rh-O trilayer model is independently confirmed. A rippled buckling of the metal surface is observed at the oxide-metal interface, with a mean interfacial Rh-O distance which is 0.2 Å larger with respect to previous findings. The link between the local atomic rearrangement and the overall geometric and electronic properties of the oxide is discussed on the basis of a thorough comparison with the corresponding RhO(2) rutile structure.

  15. Detection of Doping with rhGH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Mou-tian

    2009-01-01

    This presentation reviewed most articles recently pub lished in peer reviewed international scientific journals related to detection doping with rhGH. Four parts were in it: First part was the brief introduction about the background of do ping,special doping with rhGH. Second part summarized the development of "indirect method", markers approach. Third was focused on the development of "direct method", isoform approach. Finally, some potential alternatives have been discussed.

  16. Spectroscopic evidence against Rh 4d itinerant ferromagnetism in CeRh3B2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampathkumaran, E. V.; Kaindl, G.; Laubschat, C.; Krone, W.; Wortmann, G.

    1985-03-01

    Valence-band photoemission and IIII-edge x-ray absorption studies were performed on RRh3B2 (R = La, Ce, and Pr) compounds in order to explore the origin of the anomalously high magnetic ordering temperature of CeRh3B2. From the low density of Rh 4d states at EF and the approximate trivalency of Ce, itinerant magnetism in the Rh 4d band can be excluded. Instead, the magnetism is proposed to originate from Ce moments, enhanced by 4f hybridization with Rh d orbitals.

  17. Stable solid-phase Rh antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yared, M A; Moise, K J; Rodkey, L S

    1997-12-01

    Numerous investigators have attempted to isolate the Rh antigens in a stable, immunologically reactive form since the discovery of the Rh system over 56 years ago. We report here a successful and reproducible approach to solubilizing and adsorbing the human Rh antigen(s) to a solid-phase matrix in an antigenically active form. Similar results were obtained with rabbit A/D/F red blood cell antigens. The antigen preparation was made by dissolution of the red blood cell membrane lipid followed by fragmentation of the residual cytoskeleton in an EDTA solution at low ionic strength. The antigenic activity of the soluble preparations was labile in standard buffers but was stable in zwitterionic buffers for extended periods of time. Further studies showed that the antigenic activity of these preparations was enhanced, as was their affinity for plastic surfaces, in the presence of acidic zwitterionic buffers. Adherence to plastic surfaces at low pH maintained antigenic reactivity and specificity for antibody was retained. The data show that this approach yields a stable form of antigenically active human Rh D antigen that could be used in a red blood cell-free assay for quantitative analysis of Rh D antibody and for Rh D antibody immunoadsorption and purification.

  18. Prevention and management of RhD isoimmunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, Ursula F; Spinnato, Joseph A

    2004-12-01

    An Rh-negative woman is at risk for developing Rh isoimmunization upon exposure to RhD antigens from her Rh-positive baby through fetal-maternal hemorrhage. The incidence of Rh isoimmunization and fetal hemolytic disease has decreased substantially since Rh immune globulin was introduced in 1968. When RhD sensitization does occur, careful follow-up of these mothers and judicious intervention can result in good outcomes for most pregnancies. Both Doppler assessment of middle cerebral artery peak systolic velocity and spectral analysis of amniotic fluid at 450 nm (DeltaOD 450) are useful in the diagnosis and management of fetal anemia.

  19. Powered Tate Pairing Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Bo Gyeong; Park, Je Hong

    In this letter, we provide a simple proof of bilinearity for the eta pairing. Based on it, we show an efficient method to compute the powered Tate pairing as well. Although efficiency of our method is equivalent to that of the Tate pairing on the eta pairing approach, but ours is more general in principle.

  20. Pairings on hyperelliptic curves

    CERN Document Server

    Balakrishnan, Jennifer; Chisholm, Sarah; Eisentraeger, Kirsten; Stange, Katherine; Teske, Edlyn

    2009-01-01

    We assemble and reorganize the recent work in the area of hyperelliptic pairings: We survey the research on constructing hyperelliptic curves suitable for pairing-based cryptography. We also showcase the hyperelliptic pairings proposed to date, and develop a unifying framework. We discuss the techniques used to optimize the pairing computation on hyperelliptic curves, and present many directions for further research.

  1. Searching for the optimal GnRH antagonist regimen to compare with GnRH agonists in IVF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huirne, J.A.F.

    2007-01-01

    De zoektocht naar het optimale GnRH-antagonistschema voor de vergelijking met GnRH-agonisten tijdens IVF behandelingen. Ondanks het gegeven dat in meer dan 200 klinische studies gebruik gemaakt wordt van gonadotrophine releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonisten, is het optimale GnRH- antagonistschema n

  2. Optimal $RH_2$-- and $RH_\\infty$--Approximation of Unstable Descriptor Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Köhler, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    We consider the following problem. Given an unstable continuous--time descriptor system with transfer function $G$, find a stable descriptor system whose transfer function is the best approximation of $G$ in the spaces $RH_2$ and $RH_\\infty$, respectively. Explicit optimal solutions are presented under consideration of numerical issues.

  3. Melatonin Inhibits GnRH-1, GnRH-3 and GnRH Receptor Expression in the Brain of the European Sea Bass, Dicentrarchus labrax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Muñoz-Cueto

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Several evidences supported the existence of melatonin effects on reproductive system in fish. In order to investigate whether melatonin is involved in the modulation of GnRH systems in the European sea bass, we have injected melatonin (0.5 µg/g body mass in male specimens. The brain mRNA transcript levels of the three GnRH forms and the five GnRH receptors present in this species were determined by real time quantitative PCR. Our findings revealed day–night variations in the brain expression of GnRH-1, GnRH-3 and several GnRH receptors (dlGnRHR-II-1c, -2a, which exhibited higher transcript levels at mid-light compared to mid-dark phase of the photocycle. Moreover, an inhibitory effect of melatonin on the nocturnal expression of GnRH-1, GnRH-3, and GnRH receptors subtypes 1c, 2a and 2b was also demonstrated. Interestingly, the inhibitory effect of melatonin affected the expression of hypophysiotrophic GnRH forms and GnRH receptors that exhibit day–night fluctuations, suggesting that exogenous melatonin reinforce physiological mechanisms already established. These interactions between melatoninergic and GnRH systems could be mediating photoperiod effects on reproductive and other rhythmic physiological events in the European sea bass.

  4. Melatonin Inhibits GnRH-1, GnRH-3 and GnRH Receptor Expression in the Brain of the European Sea Bass, Dicentrarchus labrax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servili, Arianna; Herrera-Pérez, Patricia; del Carmen Rendón, María; Muñoz-Cueto, José Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Several evidences supported the existence of melatonin effects on reproductive system in fish. In order to investigate whether melatonin is involved in the modulation of GnRH systems in the European sea bass, we have injected melatonin (0.5 μg/g body mass) in male specimens. The brain mRNA transcript levels of the three GnRH forms and the five GnRH receptors present in this species were determined by real time quantitative PCR. Our findings revealed day–night variations in the brain expression of GnRH-1, GnRH-3 and several GnRH receptors (dlGnRHR-II-1c, -2a), which exhibited higher transcript levels at mid-light compared to mid-dark phase of the photocycle. Moreover, an inhibitory effect of melatonin on the nocturnal expression of GnRH-1, GnRH-3, and GnRH receptors subtypes 1c, 2a and 2b was also demonstrated. Interestingly, the inhibitory effect of melatonin affected the expression of hypophysiotrophic GnRH forms and GnRH receptors that exhibit day–night fluctuations, suggesting that exogenous melatonin reinforce physiological mechanisms already established. These interactions between melatoninergic and GnRH systems could be mediating photoperiod effects on reproductive and other rhythmic physiological events in the European sea bass. PMID:23567273

  5. Rh Immunoprophylaxis for Women With a Serologic Weak D Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virk, Mrigender; Sandler, S Gerald

    2015-01-01

    It is standard practice for pregnant RhD-negative women who have not already formed anti-D to receive antepartum Rh immunoprophylaxis and, if they deliver an RhD-positive neonate, to receive postpartum Rh immunoprophylaxis. An estimated 0.6% to 1.0% of white women have red blood cells that express a serologic weak D phenotype. Of these women, approximately 80% will have a weak D type 1, 2, or 3 that could be managed safely as RhD-positive. Surveys of laboratory practice reveal a lack of standards for interpreting the RhD type for women with a serologic weak D and for determining their need for Rh immunoprophylaxis. RhD genotyping is recommended to determine the molecular basis of serologic weak D phenotypes in pregnant women as a basis for determining their candidacy for Rh immunoprophylaxis.

  6. Occurrence of ABO And RhD Incompatibility with Rh Negative Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izetbegovic, Sebija

    2013-12-01

    Hemolytic disease of the newborn was first described in the medical literature 1609, when it was diagnosed in one French housewife. In 1932 Diamond and colleagues described the mutual relationship of fetal hydrops, jaundice, anemia and erythoblastosis, which was later called fetal erytroblastosis. Hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) in the strict sense is considered disease whose basis is accelerated immune destruction of fetal/child erythrocytes that are bound to IgG antibodies of maternal origin. These antibodies are directed against antigens of father's origin, which are present in the fetal/children's erythrocytes and that the mother's immune system recognizes them as foreign antigens. The goal is that in the period from January 1(st) 2011 to October 23(st) 2013 determine the frequency of ABO and Rh D incompatibilities in our sample of pregnant women/mothers, and to underscore the importance of regular check of ABO Rh D negative pregnant women and application specific Rh D protection. In the General Hospital "Prim. Dr. Abdulah Nakas" in Sarajevo by retrospective study are followed several relevant variables. Immune alloantibodies were detected in vivo by indirect Coombs test (ICT) with serum mother and O test erythrocytes, by direct Coombs test (DCT) with erythrocytes of a newborn. The total number of births ABO Rh D negative was 596 (14%) and ABO Rh D positive mothers 4261 (86%). Of the total number of Rh D negative mothers there was A Rh D: negative mothers 42%; O Rh D negative 33%; B Rh D: negative 17% and AB Rh D: negative 8%. Most of immune antibodies appear in mothers with O Rh D: negative blood type. The emergence of immune antibodies in the Rh D negative mothers was 1%, the appearance of ABO incompatibilities amounted to 2.3% of our sample. IN ORDER TO REDUCE THE OCCURRENCE OF ALLOIMMUNIZATION OF THE MOTHER TO ERYTHROCYTE ANTIGENS OF THE NEWBORN THAT CAN LEAD TO MAJOR COMPLICATIONS IN SUBSEQUENT PREGNANCIES OF RH D: negative mothers and HDN constant

  7. Epigenetic control of GnRH neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Raymond Kurian

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic modifications to the genome, including DNA methylation and histone modifications, occur in response to external stimuli. Reproductive function is highly sensitive to environmental conditions including season, diet, hormonal changes, and exposure to chemical contaminants. GnRH neurons, which play a key role in reproduction, are particularly sensitive to various environmental stimuli. We recently reported that the rhesus monkey GnRH gene exhibits distinct epigenetic differentiation during embryonic development. More recently, we further found that a similar epigenetic phenomenon occurs across puberty. In this article, we highlight recent findings, suggest implications of these findings (or potential mechanisms and then discuss current challenges as well as future work. Consequently, this review will provide background to understand the epigenetic control of GnRH neurons as a link between the environment and reproductive function.

  8. Casimir light: photon pairs.

    OpenAIRE

    1993-01-01

    Expressions are developed for weak single pair emission probability and strong emission average number of pairs. The water transparency cutoff is closely realized, showing that the fundamental time scale is even shorter.

  9. NO Decomposition on Rh Supported CNTs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The decomposition of NO has been studied in a steady flow reactor on fresh carbon nanotubes (CNTs), purified CNTs, Rh/p-CNTs and Rh/g-Al2O3 between 573 K and 973 K. NO decomposition at 573 K was initially complete over a reduced surface. The amount of NO absorption increased at temperature below 773 K. 100% NO conversion and more than 100% N2 activity was achieved at 973 K for 150 min on p-CNTs and f-CNTs.

  10. Magnetic moment distribution of ferromagnetic Ni--Rh alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cable, J.W.; Wollan, E.O.

    1977-01-01

    The diffuse scattering of polarized and unpolarized neutrons was used to determine the spatial distribution of the magnetic moment for ferromagnetic Ni-Rh alloys. The average Ni moment remains near 0.6 ..mu../sub B/ to 12 at. % Rh and then decreases toward zero at the critical concentration of 37 at. % Rh. There is an initial rapid decrease in the Rh moment that follows a P/sub 12/ dependence and corresponds to a moment of 2 ..mu../sub B/ for isolated Rh atoms. The data indicate moment fluctuations at both the Ni and the Rh sites that are associated with local environment.

  11. Compliance with postpartum Rh isoimmunization prophylaxis in Alberta

    OpenAIRE

    1985-01-01

    A retrospective review of obstetric records for 1979 in two major Calgary hospitals was undertaken to determine the rate of compliance with postpartum Rh isoimmunization prophylaxis in Alberta. The charts of 4528 women ranging in age from 13 to 46 years were reviewed. The prevalence rate of Rh negativity was found to be 16%. Of the 710 Rh-negative women 490 (69%) were eligible to receive Rh immune globulin (RhIG); that is, they had no anti-D antibodies, and the baby/fetus was Rh-positive or R...

  12. Catalytic reactions on neutral Rh oxide clusters more efficient than on neutral Rh clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Akira; Miyajima, Ken; Mafuné, Fumitaka

    2012-03-28

    Gas phase catalytic reactions involving the reduction of N(2)O and oxidation of CO were observed at the molecular level on isolated neutral rhodium clusters, Rh(n) (n = 10-28), using mass spectrometry. Sequential oxygen transfer reactions, Rh(n)O(m-1) + N(2)O → Rh(n)O(m) + N(2) (m = 1, 2, 3,…), were monitored and the rate constant for each reaction step was determined as a function of the cluster size. Oxygen extraction reactions by a CO molecule, Rh(n)O(m) + CO → Rh(n)O(m-1) + CO(2) (m = 1, 2, 3,…), were also observed when a small amount of CO was mixed with the reactant N(2)O gas. The rate constants of the oxygen extraction reactions by CO for m ≥ 4 were found to be two or three orders of magnitude higher than the rate constants for m ≤ 3, which indicates that the catalytic reaction proceeds more efficiently when the reaction cycles turn over around Rh(n)O(m) (m ≥ 4) than around bare Rh(n). Rhodium clusters operate as more efficient catalysts when they are oxidized than non- or less-oxidized rhodium clusters, which is consistent with theoretical and experimental studies on the catalytic CO oxidation reaction on a rhodium surface.

  13. Lack of association between Rh status, Rh immune globulin in pregnancy and autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Judith H; Takahashi, T Nicole

    2007-07-01

    Though causes of autism are considered largely genetic, considerable concern remains that exposure to Rh immune globulin (RhIg), which until 2001 in the United States contained the preservative thimerosal, can cause autism. To determine whether mothers of children with autism are more likely to be Rh negative (Rh(-)) or to have received RhIg preserved with thimerosal, which is 49.6% ethyl mercury, we surveyed families of children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) ascertained through a University-based autism clinic considered free of ascertainment biases related to type of autism or severity. Between 2004 and 2006, 305 mothers of 321 children with an ASD agreed to participate in a telephone interview. Analysis of complete records including the blood group status and RhIg exposure of 214 families showed that Rh(-) status is no higher in mothers of children with autism than in the general population, exposure to antepartum RhIg, preserved with thimerosal is no higher for children with autism and pregnancies are no more likely to be Rh incompatible. This was also true for autism subgroups defined by behavioral phenotype, gender, IQ, regressive onset, head circumference, dysmorphology, birth status, essential, or complex phenotype. These findings support the consensus that exposure to ethylmercury in thimerosal is not the cause of the increased prevalence of autism. These data are important not only for parents in this country but also for the international health community where thimerosal continues to be used to preserve multi-dose vials which in turn makes vaccines affordable.

  14. Improvement of castable refractories for RH snorkel; RH shinshitsukanyo futeikeizai no kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishi, K.; Obana, T.; Fijii, T.; Shimizu, I. [Harima Ceramics Corp., Hyogo (Japan)

    1999-11-01

    Relating to corrosion of RH submerged nozzle, resistance against iron oxide of monolithic refractories was examined. Corrosion and seepage of refractories were measured by rotating corrosion, refractories include alumina-spinel castable, which is applied to RH under tank, and alumina-magnesia castable, which is generally used for RH, submerged nozzle. Alumina-spinel castable is superior in resistance against iron oxide than alumina-magnesia castable, and the resistance decreased with increase of stainless fiber addition to castable. Alumina-spinel castable without stainless fiber was suitable for bottom end of the dipping pipe. (NEDO)

  15. Solvent-dependent interconversions between Rh(I), Rh(II), and Rh(III) complexes of an aryl-monophosphine ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, Michael; Leitus, Gregory; Shimon, Linda J W; Ben-David, Yehoshoa; Milstein, David

    2007-01-01

    Reaction of the aryl-monophosphine ligand alpha(2)-(diisopropylphosphino)isodurene (1) with the Rh(I) precursor [Rh(coe)(2)(acetone)(2)]BF(4) (coe=cyclooctene) in different solvents yielded complexes of all three common oxidation states of rhodium, depending on the solvent used. When the reaction was carried out in methanol a cyclometalated, solvent-stabilized Rh(III) alkyl-hydride complex (2) was obtained. However, when the reaction was carried out in acetone or dichloromethane a dinuclear eta(6)-arene Rh(II) complex (5) was obtained in the absence of added redox reagents. Moreover, when acetonitrile was added to a solution of either the Rh(II) or Rh(III) complexes, a new solvent-stabilized, noncyclometalated Rh(I) complex (6) was obtained. In this report we describe the different complexes, which were fully characterized, and probe the processes behind the remarkable solvent effect observed.

  16. A stabilized pairing functional

    CERN Document Server

    Erler, J; Reinhard, P --G

    2008-01-01

    We propose a modified pairing functional for nuclear structure calculations which avoids the abrupt phase transition between pairing and non-pairing states. The intended application is the description of nuclear collective motion where the smoothing of the transition is compulsory to remove singularities. The stabilized pairing functional allows a thoroughly variational formulation, unlike the Lipkin-Nogami (LN) scheme which is often used for the purpose of smoothing. First applications to nuclear ground states and collective excitations prove the reliability and efficiency of the proposed stabilized pairing.

  17. Atomic and molecular adsorption on Rh(111)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mavrikakis, Manos; Rempel, J.; Greeley, Jeffrey Philip

    2002-01-01

    A systematic study of the chemisorption of both atomic (H, O, N, S, C), molecular (N-2, CO, NO), and radical (CH3, OH) species on Rh(111) has been performed. Self-consistent, periodic, density functional theory (DFT-GGA) calculations, using both PW91 and RPBE functionals, have been employed to de...

  18. Noninvasive fetal RhD genotyping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Frederik Banch; Damkjær, Merete Berthu; Dziegiel, Morten Hanefeld

    2014-01-01

    Immunization against RhD is the major cause of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN), which causes fetal or neonatal death. The introduction of postnatal immune prophylaxis in the 1960s drastically reduced immunization incidents in pregnant, D-negative women. In several countries...

  19. Recombinant human antithrombin III: rhATIII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    GTC Biotherapeutics (formerly Genzyme Transgenics Corporation) is developing a transgenic form of antithrombin III known as recombinant human antithrombin III [rhATIII]. It is produced by inserting human DNA into the cells of goats so that the targeted protein is excreted in the milk of the female offspring. The transgenic goats have been cloned in collaboration with the Louisiana State University Agriculture Center. GTC Biotherapeutics is conducting clinical trials of rhATIII in coagulation disorders. rhATIII is believed to be both safer and more cost-effective than the currently available plasma-derived product. rhATIII is also being investigated in cancer and acute lung injury. Genzyme Transgenics Corporation, originally a subsidiary of Genzyme Corporation, changed its name to GTC Biotherapeutics in June 2002; it is no longer a subsidiary of Genzyme Corporation. GTC Biotherapeutics is seeking partners for the commercialisation of rhATIII. Restructuring of GTC Biotherapeutics to support its commercialisation programmes was announced in February 2004. Genzyme Transgenics Corporation was developing rhATIII in association with Genzyme General (Genzyme Corporation) in the ATIII LLC joint venture, but in November 2000 a letter of intent was signed for the reacquisition of the rights by Genzyme Transgenics Corporation. It was announced in February 2001 that this reacquisition was not going to be completed and that the development of rhATIII was to continue with ATIII LLC. However, in July 2001, Genzyme Transgenics Corporation reacquired all the rights in the transgenic antithrombin III programme. SMI Genzyme Ltd, a joint venture between Sumitomo Metal Industries, Japan, and Genzyme Transgenics Corporation, USA, was set up to fund development of transgenic antithrombin III in Asia. However, in October 2000, Genzyme Transgenics Corporation reacquired, from Sumitomo Metal Industries, the rights to its technology for production of medicines from milk in 18 Asian countries

  20. Computational Exploration of Rh(III)/Rh(V) and Rh(III)/Rh(I) Catalysis in Rhodium(III)-Catalyzed C-H Activation Reactions of N-Phenoxyacetamides with Alkynes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yun-Fang; Houk, K N; Wu, Yun-Dong

    2016-06-01

    The selective rhodium-catalyzed functionalization of arenes is greatly facilitated by oxidizing directing groups that act both as directing groups and internal oxidants. We report density functional theory (B3LYP and M06) investigations on the mechanism of rhodium(III)-catalyzed redox coupling reaction of N-phenoxyacetamides with alkynes. The results elucidated the role of the internal oxidizing directing group, and the role of Rh(III)/Rh(I) and Rh(III)/Rh(V) catalysis of C-H functionalizations. A novel Rh(III)-Rh(V)-Rh(III) cycle successfully rationalizes recent experimental observations by Liu and Lu et al. ( Liu , G. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2013 , 52 , 6033 ) on the reactions of N-phenoxyacetamides with alkynes in different solvents. Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis confirms the identity of Rh(V) intermediate in the catalytic cycle.

  1. Rh Factor: How It Can Affect Your Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG The Rh Factor: How It Can Affect Your Pregnancy Home ... Your Pregnancy FAQ027, September 2013 PDF Format The Rh Factor: How It Can Affect Your Pregnancy Pregnancy ...

  2. {sup 103}Rh NMR investigation of the superconductor Rh{sub 17}S{sub 15}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyama, T., E-mail: t-koyama@sci.u-hyogo.ac.j [Graduate School of Material Science, University of Hyogo, Kamigori, Hyogo 678-1297 (Japan); Kanda, K.; Motoyama, G.; Ueda, K.; Mito, T.; Kohara, T. [Graduate School of Material Science, University of Hyogo, Kamigori, Hyogo 678-1297 (Japan); Nakamura, H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2010-12-15

    We present {sup 103}Rh NMR studies for the superconductor Rh{sub 17}S{sub 15} (T{sub c} 5.4 K). We have identified the observed NMR lines corresponding to four different Rh sites in the cubic unit cell and deduced the temperature (T) dependence of the Knight shift components in Rh 24m site whose point symmetry is not axial. The isotropic part of the Knight shift K decreases with T in the normal state, indicating the negative hyperfine coupling and the enhancement of the spin susceptibility at lower T. The sudden change of K below T{sub c} is an indication of the spin-singlet Cooper paring.

  3. Chemoselective hydrogenation of arenes by PVP supported Rh nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Mahmoud; Poreddy, Raju; Philippot, Karine

    2016-01-01

    Polyvinylpyrrolidone-stabilized Rh nanoparticles (RhNPs/PVP) of ca. 2.2 nm in size were prepared by the hydrogenation of the organometallic complex [Rh(η3-C3H5)3] in the presence of PVP and evaluated as a catalyst in the hydrogenation of a series of arene substrates as well as levulinic acid...

  4. Efficient Nd Promoted Rh Catalysts for Vapor Phase Methanol Carbonylation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu Feng ZHANG; Qing Li QIAN; Ping Lai PAN; Yi CHEN; Guo Qing YUAN

    2005-01-01

    A Nd promoted-Rh catalysts supported on polymer-derived carbon beads for vapor-phase methanol carbonylation was developed. Rh-Nd bimetallic catalysts obviously have higher activity than that of supported Rh catalyst under similar reaction condition. The difference between the activity of above two catalyst systems is clearly caused by the intrinsic properties generated by the introduction of Nd.

  5. Matched-pair classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theiler, James P [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Following an analogous distinction in statistical hypothesis testing, we investigate variants of machine learning where the training set comes in matched pairs. We demonstrate that even conventional classifiers can exhibit improved performance when the input data has a matched-pair structure. Online algorithms, in particular, converge quicker when the data is presented in pairs. In some scenarios (such as the weak signal detection problem), matched pairs can be generated from independent samples, with the effect not only doubling the nominal size of the training set, but of providing the structure that leads to better learning. A family of 'dipole' algorithms is introduced that explicitly takes advantage of matched-pair structure in the input data and leads to further performance gains. Finally, we illustrate the application of matched-pair learning to chemical plume detection in hyperspectral imagery.

  6. Impact of GnRH analogues on oocyte/embryo quality and embryo development in in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rigó János

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the clinical outcomes of ovarian stimulation with either GnRH-agonist or GnRH-antagonist analogues for in vitro fertilization (IVF being well analysed, the effect of analogues on oocyte/embryo quality and embryo development is still not known in detail. The aim of this case-control study was to compare the efficacy of a multiple-dose GnRH antagonist protocol with that of the GnRH agonist long protocol with a view to oocyte and embryo quality, embryo development and IVF treatment outcome. Methods Between October 2001 and December 2008, 100 patients were stimulated with human menopausal gonadotrophin (HMG and GnRH antagonist in their first treatment cycle for IVF or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI. One hundred combined GnRH agonist + HMG (long protocol cycles were matched to the GnRH antagonist + HMG cycles by age, BMI, baseline FSH levels and by cause of infertility. We determined the number and quality of retrieved oocytes, the rate of early-cleavage embryos, the morphology and development of embryos, as well as clinical pregnancy rates. Statistical analysis was performed using Wilcoxon's matched pairs rank sum test and McNemar's chi-square test. P Results The rate of cytoplasmic abnormalities in retrieved oocytes was significantly higher with the use of GnRH antagonist than in GnRH agonist cycles (62.1% vs. 49.9%; P Conclusion Antagonist seemed to influence favourably some parameters of early embryo development dynamics, while other morphological parameters seemed not to be altered according to GnRH analogue used for ovarian stimulation in IVF cycles.

  7. GnRH receptors in human granulosa cells: Anatomical localization and characterization by autoradiographic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latouche, J.; Crumeyrolle-Arias, M.; Jordan, D.; Kopp, N.; Augendre-Ferrante, B.; Cedard, L.; Haour, F. (Institut Pasteur, Paris (France))

    1989-09-01

    The presence of receptors for GnRH in human ovary has been investigated by quantitative autoradiography. Simultaneous visualization and characterization of specific receptors on frozen sections were obtained on six pairs of human ovaries. Among them only one exhibited a large preovulatory follicle. This dominant follicle exhibited a specific and high affinity binding capacity for {sup 125}I-GnRHa exclusively localized on the granulosa cell layer. Analysis of saturation curve indicates a Kd value of 0.22 nM and Bmax of 9.6 fmol/mg protein. In contrast LH-hCG binding sites were present in all antral follicles. These data demonstrate for the first time the presence of high affinity GnRH receptors in human granulosa cells at a late stage of follicular maturation.

  8. Porous Alumina Based Capacitive MEMS RH Sensor

    CERN Document Server

    Juhasz, L; Timar-Horvath, Veronika; Desmulliez, Marc; Dhariwal, Resh

    2008-01-01

    The aim of a joint research and development project at the BME and HWU is to produce a cheap, reliable, low-power and CMOS-MEMS process compatible capacitive type relative humidity (RH) sensor that can be incorporated into a state-of-the-art, wireless sensor network. In this paper we discuss the preparation of our new capacitive structure based on post-CMOS MEMS processes and the methods which were used to characterize the thin film porous alumina sensing layer. The average sensitivity is approx. 15 pF/RH% which is more than a magnitude higher than the values found in the literature. The sensor is equipped with integrated resistive heating, which can be used for maintenance to reduce drift, or for keeping the sensing layer at elevated temperature, as an alternative method for temperature-dependence cancellation.

  9. Cooper pairs and bipolarons

    OpenAIRE

    Lakhno, Victor D.

    2016-01-01

    It is shown that Cooper pairs are a solution of the bipolaron problem for model Fr\\"{o}hlich Hamiltonian. The total energy of a pair for the initial Fr\\"{o}hlich Hamiltonian is found. Differences between the solutions for the model and initial two-particle problems are discussed.

  10. Cooper pairs and bipolarons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhno, Victor

    2016-11-01

    It is shown that Cooper pairs are a solution of the bipolaron problem for model Fröhlich Hamiltonian. The total energy of a pair for the initial Fröhlich Hamiltonian is found. Differences between the solutions for the model and initial two-particle problems are discussed.

  11. Thermodynamic measurements of Fe-Rh alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, David W; Hellman, F; Baldasseroni, C; Bordel, C; Moyerman, S; Fullerton, E E

    2012-12-21

    FeRh undergoes an unusual antiferromagnetic-to-ferromagnetic (AFM-FM) transition just above room temperature (T(AFM>FM)) that can be tuned or even completely suppressed with small changes in composition. The underlying temperature-dependent entropy difference between the competing AFM and FM states that drives this transition is measured by specific heat as a function of temperature from 2 to 380 K on two nearly equiatomic epitaxial Fe-Rh films, one with a ferromagnetic ground state (Fe-rich) and the other with an antiferromagnetic ground state (Rh-rich). The FM state shows an excess heat capacity near 100 K associated with magnetic excitations that are not present in the AFM state. The integrated entropy and enthalpy differences between the two alloys up to T(AFM>FM) agree with the previously measured entropy of the transition (ΔS = 17 ± 3 J/kg/K) and yield a T=0 energy difference of 3.4 J/g, consistent with literature calculations and experimental data; this agreement supports the use of the Fe-rich FM sample as a proxy for the (unstable) FM state of the AFM Rh-rich sample. From the low-temperature specific heat, along with sound velocity and photoemission measurements, the lattice contribution to the difference (ΔS(latt) = -33 ± 9 J/kg/K) and electronic contribution (ΔS(el) = 8 ± 1 J/kg/K) to the difference in entropy are calculated, from which the excess heat capacity in the FM phase and the resulting entropy difference are shown to be dominated by magnetic fluctuations (ΔS(mag) = 43 ± 9 J/kg/K). The excess magnetic heat capacity is dominated by the magnetic heat capacity of the FM phase, which can be fit to a Schottky-like anomaly with an energy splitting of 16 ± 1 meV and a multiplicity of 1 per unit cell.

  12. Comparison of GnRH Agonist, GnRH Antagonist, and GnRH Antagonist Mild Protocol of Controlled Ovarian Hyperstimulation in Good Prognosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Stimpfel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The reports on how to stimulate the ovaries for oocyte retrieval in good prognosis patients are contradictory and often favor one type of controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH. For this reason, we retrospectively analyzed data from IVF/ICSI cycles carried out at our IVF Unit in good prognosis patients (aged <38 years, first and second attempts of IVF/ICSI, more than 3 oocytes retrieved to elucidate which type of COH is optimal at our condition. The included patients were undergoing COH using GnRH agonist, GnRH antagonist or GnRH antagonist mild protocol in combination with gonadotrophins. We found significant differences in the average number of retrieved oocytes, immature oocytes, fertilized oocytes, embryos, transferred embryos, embryos frozen per cycle, and cycles with embryo freezing between studied COH protocols. Although there were no differences in live birth rate (LBR, miscarriages, and ectopic pregnancies between compared protocols, pregnancy rate was significantly higher in GnRH antagonist mild protocol in comparison with both GnRH antagonist and GnRH agonist protocols and cumulative LBR per cycle was significantly higher in GnRH antagonist mild protocol in comparison to GnRH agonist protocol. Our data show that GnRH antagonist mild protocol of COH could be the best method of choice in good prognosis patients.

  13. The GnRH receptor and the response of gonadotrope cells to GnRH pulse frequency code. A story of an atypical adaptation of cell function relying on a lack of receptor homologous desensitization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Bleux

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain control of the reproductive system is mediated through hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH which activates specific receptors (GnRHR present at the surface of the pituitary gonadotropes to trigger secretion of the two gonadotropins LH and FSH. A unique feature of this system is the high dependence on the secretion mode of GnRH, which is basically pulsatile but undergoes considerable fluctuations in pulse frequency pattern in response to endogenous or external factors. How the physiological fluctuations of GnRH secretion that orchestrate normal reproduction are decoded by the gonadotrope cell machinery to ultimately control gonadotropin release and/or subunit gene transcription has been the subject of intensive studies during the past decades. Surprisingly, the mammalian GnRHR is unique among G protein-coupled receptor family as it lacks the carboxy-terminal tail usually involved in classical endocytotic process. Accordingly, it does not desensitize properly and internalizes very poorly. Both this atypical intrinsic property and post-receptor events may thus contribute to decode the GnRH signal. This includes the participation of a network of signaling pathways that differently respond to GnRH together with a growing amount of genes differentially sensitive to pulse frequency. Among these are two pairs of genes, the transcription factors EGR-1 and NAB, and the regulatory factors activin and follistatin, that function as intracellular autoregulatory feedback loops controlling respectively LHbeta and FSHbeta gene expression and hence, LH and FSH synthesis. Pituitary gonadotropes thus represent a unique model of cells functionally adapted to respond to a considerably fluctuating neuroendocrine stimulation, from short individual pulses to sustained GnRH as observed at the proestrus of ovarian cycle. Altogether, the data emphasize the adaptative reciprocal complementarity of hypothalamic GnRH neurones and pituitary gonadotropes to

  14. Critical Schwinger Pair Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gies, Holger; Torgrimsson, Greger

    2016-03-04

    We investigate Schwinger pair production in spatially inhomogeneous electric backgrounds. A critical point for the onset of pair production can be approached by fields that marginally provide sufficient electrostatic energy for an off-shell long-range electron-positron fluctuation to become a real pair. Close to this critical point, we observe features of universality which are analogous to continuous phase transitions in critical phenomena with the pair-production rate serving as an order parameter: electric backgrounds can be subdivided into universality classes and the onset of pair production exhibits characteristic scaling laws. An appropriate design of the electric background field can interpolate between power-law scaling, essential Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless-type scaling, and a power-law scaling with log corrections. The corresponding critical exponents only depend on the large-scale features of the electric background, whereas the microscopic details of the background play the role of irrelevant perturbations not affecting criticality.

  15. Stereo pairs in Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Vogt, Frédéric

    2011-01-01

    Stereoscopic visualization is seldom used in Astrophysical publications and presentations compared to other scientific fields, e.g., Biochemistry, where it has been recognized as a valuable tool for decades. We put forth the view that stereo pairs can be a useful tool for the Astrophysics community in communicating a truer representation of astrophysical data. Here, we review the main theoretical aspects of stereoscopy, and present a tutorial to easily create stereo pairs using Python. We then describe how stereo pairs provide a way to incorporate 3D data in 2D publications of standard journals. We illustrate the use of stereo pairs with one conceptual and two Astrophysical science examples: an integral field spectroscopy study of a supernova remnant, and numerical simulations of a relativistic AGN jet. We also use these examples to make the case that stereo pairs are not merely an ostentatious way to present data, but an enhancement in the communication of scientific results in publications because they prov...

  16. Critical Schwinger pair production

    CERN Document Server

    Gies, Holger

    2015-01-01

    We investigate Schwinger pair production in spatially inhomogeneous electric backgrounds. A critical point for the onset of pair production can be approached by fields that marginally provide sufficient electrostatic energy for an off-shell long-range electron-positron fluctuation to become a real pair. Close to this critical point, we observe features of universality which are analogous to continuous phase transitions in critical phenomena with the pair-production rate serving as an order parameter: electric backgrounds can be subdivided into universality classes and the onset of pair production exhibits characteristic scaling laws. An appropriate design of the electric background field can interpolate between power-law scaling, essential BKT-type scaling and a power-law scaling with log corrections. The corresponding critical exponents only depend on the large-scale features of the electric background, whereas the microscopic details of the background play the role of irrelevant perturbations not affecting ...

  17. Rh-Ni and Rh-Co Catalysts for Autothermal Reforming of Gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Yeongyu; Lee, Daehyung; Kim, Yongmin; Lee, Jinhee; Nam, Sukwoo; Choi, Daeki; Yoon, Chang Won [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-15

    Rh doped Ni and Co catalysts, Rh-M/CeO{sub 2}(20 wt %)-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (0.2 wt % of Rh; M = Ni or Co, 20 wt %) were synthesized to produce hydrogen via autothermal reforming (ATR) of commercial gasoline at 700 .deg. C under the conditions of a S/C ratio of 2.0, an O/C ratio of 0.84, and a gas hourly space velocity (GHSV) of 20,000 h{sup -1}. The Rh-Ni/CeO{sub 2}(20 wt %)-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst (1) exhibited excellent activities, with H{sub 2} and (H{sub 2}+CO) yields of 2.04 and 2.58 mol/mol C, respectively. In addition, this catalyst proved to be highly stable over 100 h without catalyst deactivation, as evidenced by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) and elemental analyses. Compared to 1, Rh-Co/CeO{sub 2}(20 wt %)-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst (2) exhibited relatively low stability, and its activity decreased after 57 h. In line with this observation, elemental analyses confirmed that nearly no carbon species were formed at 1 while carbon deposits (10 wt %) were found at 2 following the reaction, which suggests that carbon coking is the main process for catalyst deactivation.

  18. Elastic and thermodynamic properties of Rh and Rh{sub 3}Zr under pressure from first-principles calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Suhong [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); College of Science, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Zhang, Xinyu, E-mail: xyzhang@ysu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Zhu, Yan [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); College of Physics and Chemistry, Hebei Normal University of Science and Technology, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Ma, Mingzhen [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Qin, Jiaqian [Metallurgy and Materials Science Research Institute, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Liu, Riping [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)

    2015-01-15

    To give guidance for developing Rh-based superalloys, systematic investigations on structural, elastic and thermodynamic properties of Rh and Rh{sub 3}Zr are conducted by first-principles calculations. The pressure dependence of the basic mechanical parameters is presented covering elastic constants, bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, aggregate sound velocities and elastic anisotropy. Additionally, the mechanical stability and ductility/brittleness are also assessed. Compared with Rh, it is found that Rh{sub 3}Zr has higher ductility but lower elastic moduli, lower aggregate sound velocities and higher elastic anisotropy. The variations of the thermal properties including the normalized volume, bulk modulus, thermal expansion coefficient and heat capacity of Rh and Rh{sub 3}Zr in wide pressure (0–40 GPa) and temperature (0–2200 K) ranges are also predicted and analyzed, and a remarkable consistency with experimental results is obtained. - Highlights: • Structural, elastic and thermodynamic properties of Rh and Rh{sub 3}Zr are investigated. • Pressure effects on the structural and elastic properties are presented. • Rh{sub 3}Zr has higher ductility/elastic anisotropy but lower elastic moduli than Rh. • The thermal properties in wide pressure and temperature ranges are predicted.

  19. Cosmic chronometers in the Rh = ct Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melia, Fulvio; Maier, Robert S.

    2013-07-01

    The use of luminous red galaxies as cosmic chronometers provides us with an indispensable method of measuring the universal expansion rate H(z) in a model-independent way. Unlike many probes of the cosmological history, this approach does not rely on integrated quantities, such as the luminosity distance, and therefore does not require the pre-assumption of any particular model, which may bias subsequent interpretations of the data. We employ three statistical tools - the Akaike, Kullback and Bayes Information Criteria (AIC, KIC and BIC) - to compare the Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) model and the Rh = ct Universe with the currently available measurements of H(z), and show that the Rh = ct Universe is favoured by these model selection criteria. The parameters in each model are individually optimized by maximum likelihood estimation. The Rh = ct Universe fits the data with a reduced χ2dof=0.745 for a Hubble constant H0 = 63.2 ± 1.6 km s-1 Mpc-1, and H0 is the sole parameter in this model. By comparison, the optimal ΛCDM model, which has three free parameters (including H0 = 68.9 ± 3.3 km s-1 Mpc-1, Ωm = 0.32, and a dark-energy equation of state pde = -ρde), fits the H(z) data with a reduced χ2dof = 0.777. With these χ2dof values, the AIC yields a likelihood of ≈82 per cent that the distance-redshift relation of the Rh = ct Universe is closer to the correct cosmology, than is the case for ΛCDM. If the alternative BIC criterion is used, the respective Bayesian posterior probabilities are 91.2 per cent (Rh = ct) versus 8.8 per cent (ΛCDM). Using the concordance ΛCDM parameter values, rather than those obtained by fitting ΛCDM to the cosmic chronometer data, would further disfavour ΛCDM.

  20. Rh Protein Family and Rh Complex%Rh蛋白家族及Rh复合体

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勤; 王玲玲; 钱旻; 朱自严

    2005-01-01

    Rh血型系统的抗原具有强烈免疫原性,主要由RhD、RhCE蛋白携带.RhAG糖蛋白是一类重要的Rh相关蛋白,影响Rh蛋白在红细胞表面的表达.近年来发现红细胞膜表面的其它一些蛋白,诸如LW糖蛋白、血型糖蛋白B,可参与Rh复合体的形成.Rh复合体是近年研究热点.目前已发现Rh复合体除携带Rh抗原外,还影响红细胞的形态稳定,可能还具有离子通道功能.

  1. Knowing You, Knowing Me (KYKM: An interactive game to address positive mother-daughter communication and relationships.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary eKatsikitis

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This technical report describes an interactive game environment designed to bring mothers and their adolescent daughters together to discuss three issues that have previously been shown in the literature to be of concern to families, as young girls transition from middle childhood to the adolescent years. The game is called Knowing you, Knowing me or KYKM, and is used to help mothers and daughters discuss the following three topics: positive communication skills, relationship building, and managing risky behaviours in the social environment. As the game remains untested, its limitations and future implications of its utility are discussed.

  2. Telemetry coding study for the international magnetosphere explorers, mother/daughter and heliocentric missions. Volume 2: Final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartier, D. E.

    1973-01-01

    A convolutional coding theory is given for the IME and the Heliocentric spacecraft. The amount of coding gain needed by the mission is determined. Recommendations are given for an encoder/decoder system to provide the gain along with an evaluation of the impact of the system on the space network in terms of costs and complexity.

  3. Mothers, daughters and midlife (self)-discoveries: gender and aging in the Amanda Cross' Kate Fansler series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Rué, Emma

    2012-12-01

    In the same way that many aspects of gender cannot be understood aside from their relationship to race, class, culture, nationality and/or sexuality, the interactions between gender and aging constitute an interesting field for academic research, without which we cannot gain full insight into the complex and multi-faceted nature of gender studies. Although the American writer and Columbia professor Carolyn Gold Heilbrun (1926-2003) is more widely known for her best-selling mystery novels, published under the pseudonym of Amanda Cross, she also authored remarkable pieces of non-fiction in which she asserted her long-standing commitment to feminism, while she also challenged established notions on women and aging and advocated for a reassessment of those negative views. To my mind, the Kate Fansler novels became an instrument to reach a massive audience of female readers who might not have read her non-fiction, but who were perhaps finding it difficult to reach fulfillment as women under patriarchy, especially upon reaching middle age. Taking her essays in feminism and literary criticism as a basis and her later fiction as substantiation to my argument, this paper will try to reveal the ways in which Heilbrun's seemingly more superficial and much more commercial mystery novels as Amanda Cross were used a catalyst that informed her feminist principles while vindicating the need to rethink about issues concerning literary representations of mature women and cultural stereotypes about motherhood.

  4. Teenager-, Mother-, Daughter-, Who Am I? Navajo Adolescent Mothers' Perceptions of the Maternal Role & Implications for Child Developmental Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla, Rochelle L.

    This study explored the meaning of motherhood among Navajo teenagers, their mothers, and community informants living in a small, rural town on a Navajo Reservation. Participating were 8 Navajo teenage mothers ranging from 16 to 19 years, 7 grandmothers (mothers of the teens) who ranged from 41 to 57 years, and 6 community informants: two teachers,…

  5. Adaptive Pairing Reversible Watermarking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragoi, Ioan-Catalin; Coltuc, Dinu

    2016-05-01

    This letter revisits the pairwise reversible watermarking scheme of Ou et al., 2013. An adaptive pixel pairing that considers only pixels with similar prediction errors is introduced. This adaptive approach provides an increased number of pixel pairs where both pixels are embedded and decreases the number of shifted pixels. The adaptive pairwise reversible watermarking outperforms the state-of-the-art low embedding bit-rate schemes proposed so far.

  6. Stereo pairs in Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Frédéric; Wagner, Alexander Y.

    2012-01-01

    Stereoscopic visualization is seldom used in Astrophysical publications and presentations compared to other scientific fields, e.g., Biochemistry, where it has been recognized as a valuable tool for decades. We put forth the view that stereo pairs can be a useful tool for the Astrophysics community in communicating a truer representation of astrophysical data. Here, we review the main theoretical aspects of stereoscopy, and present a tutorial to easily create stereo pairs using Python. We then describe how stereo pairs provide a way to incorporate 3D data in 2D publications of standard journals. We illustrate the use of stereo pairs with one conceptual and two Astrophysical science examples: an integral field spectroscopy study of a supernova remnant, and numerical simulations of a relativistic AGN jet. We also use these examples to make the case that stereo pairs are not merely an ostentatious way to present data, but an enhancement in the communication of scientific results in publications because they provide the reader with a realistic view of multi-dimensional data, be it of observational or theoretical nature. In recognition of the ongoing 3D expansion in the commercial sector, we advocate an increased use of stereo pairs in Astrophysics publications and presentations as a first step towards new interactive and multi-dimensional publication methods.

  7. Bilirubin encephalopathy due to Rh incompatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taísa Roberta Ramos Nantes de Castilho

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors present the case of a newborn of an Rh-factorsensitizedmother, who received early hospital discharge while icteric only to be readmitted at an Emergency Service at five days of age with signs of kernicterus. Despite treatment given, the neonate progressed with a clinical picture of bilirubin encephalopathy. The lack of interaction between the obstetric and neonatal teams, premature hospital discharge, and lack of concern of neonatologists with jaundice in a full-term infant are highlighted as causes of a condition that should have disappeared if there had been adequateprevention.

  8. Crotonaldehyde hydrogenation on Rh supported catalysts

    OpenAIRE

    Reyes, P; Aguirre, Mª del Carmen; Pecchi, Gina; García Fierro, José Luis

    2000-01-01

    The vapor-phase hydrogenation of crotonaldehyde on Rh supported catalysts has been studied. The effect of some variables of preparation in catalysts prepared by the sol-gel and impregnation methods on the surface and catalytic properties were analyzed. It was found, that the porosity of the support has a small effect on the selectivity to the unsaturated alcohol and the presence of partially reducible supports such as ZrO2 and TiO2, may increase the selectivity to crotyl alcohol via an enhanc...

  9. {sup 103}Rh-NMR studies in the superconductor Rh{sub 17}S{sub 15}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyama, T; Kanda, K; Ueda, K; Mito, T; Kohara, T [Graduate School of Material Science, University of Hyogo, Kamigori, Hyogo 678-1297 (Japan); Nakamura, H, E-mail: t-koyama@sci.u-hyogo.ac.j [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2010-01-15

    {sup 103}Rh nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements have been performed in the superconductor Rh{sub 17}S{sub 15} with the transition temperature T{sub C}=5.4 K. The observed {sup 103}Rh-NMR spectrum shows an asymmetric shape with several peaks, reflecting the local symmetry around each Rh site. We have identified the observed NMR lines corresponding to four different Rh sites and obtained the temperature (T) dependence of the Knight shift of 24m site. The isotropic part of the Knight shift K{sub iso} decreases with decreasing T, indicating the existence of the electron correlation in Rh{sub 17}S{sub 15}. In the superconducting state, the resonance lines shift to higher frequencies owing to a decrease of the spin part of the Knight shift with negative hyperfine coupling.

  10. Detection of Messenger RNA for Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH) but not for GnRH Receptors in Rat Pancreas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雷; 谢莉萍; 黄威权; 张荣庆

    2001-01-01

    Although gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), GnRH-like molecule, and GnRH receptor (GnRH-R) have been reported to exist in several tissues other than brain or anterior pituitary, there are no reports concerning GnRH or GnRH-R gene expression in a normal pancreatic gland. In order to define the production of GnRH as well as GnRH-R in the pancreatic gland, we examined their gene expression in various developmental stages of rat pancreas using the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).GnRH mRNA transcripts were found in pancreas of male and female rats at different ages, expressing at about the same level, whereas GnRH-R mRNA transcripts could not be detected in any rat pancreatic gland samples. These results suggest a possible biological role of GnRH in rodent pancreas.

  11. Junctionless Cooper pair transistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arutyunov, K. Yu., E-mail: konstantin.yu.arutyunov@jyu.fi [National Research University Higher School of Economics , Moscow Institute of Electronics and Mathematics, 101000 Moscow (Russian Federation); P.L. Kapitza Institute for Physical Problems RAS , Moscow 119334 (Russian Federation); Lehtinen, J.S. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd., Centre for Metrology MIKES, P.O. Box 1000, FI-02044 VTT (Finland)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Junctionless Cooper pair box. • Quantum phase slips. • Coulomb blockade and gate modulation of the Coulomb gap. - Abstract: Quantum phase slip (QPS) is the topological singularity of the complex order parameter of a quasi-one-dimensional superconductor: momentary zeroing of the modulus and simultaneous 'slip' of the phase by ±2π. The QPS event(s) are the dynamic equivalent of tunneling through a conventional Josephson junction containing static in space and time weak link(s). Here we demonstrate the operation of a superconducting single electron transistor (Cooper pair transistor) without any tunnel junctions. Instead a pair of thin superconducting titanium wires in QPS regime was used. The current–voltage characteristics demonstrate the clear Coulomb blockade with magnitude of the Coulomb gap modulated by the gate potential. The Coulomb blockade disappears above the critical temperature, and at low temperatures can be suppressed by strong magnetic field.

  12. Superconductivity in spinel-type compounds CuRh2S4 and CuRh2Se4

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    An extensive study of electrical resistivity, ac magnetic susceptibility, magnetization, specific heat, and NMR has been made on high purity samples of the spinel compounds CuRh2S4 and CuRh2Se4. The superconducting transitions occur at 4.70 K in CuRh2S4 and 3.48 K in CuRh2Se4. The magnetic susceptibilities show perfect diamagnetism in both compounds. Upper critical fields at T=0 are estimated to be 20.0 and 4.40 kOe, the lower critical fields at T=0 are 70 and 95 Oe, respectively. The thermod...

  13. 8例Rh Del型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志梅; 兰炯采

    2001-01-01

    目的了解常规血清学试验为RhD阴性者中RhDel(D极弱型)的情况,并探讨其临床价值。方法采用PCR-SSP技术,检测33例常规血清学试验为RhD阴性,18例为RhD阳性样本的D基因外显子。并对33例RhD阴性样本进行吸收放散试验。结果 33例RhD阴性样本D基因外显子有8例无缺失、5例部分缺失、20例完全缺失,其中8例无缺失样本可以吸收并放散出D抗体,为RhDel型。18例RhD阳性样本D基因无缺失。结论 RhDel型常规血清学试验易被误认为RhD阴性,其D抗原虽然表达极弱,但外显子无缺失。提示凡常规血清学方法检测为RhD阴性的供血者,必须进一步作吸收放散试验作Del排除,以确保输血安全。

  14. 2-(2'-Pyridyl)-4,6-diphenylphosphinine versus 2-(2'-pyridyl)-4,6-diphenylpyridine: synthesis, characterization, and reactivity of cationic Rh(III) and Ir(III) complexes based on aromatic phosphorus heterocycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Krom, Iris; Broeckx, Leen E E; Lutz, Martin; Müller, Christian

    2013-03-11

    The bidentate P,N hybrid ligand 1 allows access for the first time to novel cationic phosphinine-based Rh(III) and Ir(III) complexes, broadening significantly the scope of low-coordinate aromatic phosphorus heterocycles for potential applications. The coordination chemistry of 1 towards Rh(III) and Ir(III) was investigated and compared with the analogous 2,2'-bipyridine derivative, 2-(2'-pyridyl)-4,6-diphenylpyridine (2), which showed significant differences. The molecular structures of [RhCl(Cp*)(1)]Cl and [IrCl(Cp*)(1)]Cl (Cp*=pentamethylcyclopentadienyl) were determined by means of X-ray diffraction and confirm the mononuclear nature of the λ(3) -phosphinine-Rh(III) and Ir(III) complexes. In contrast, a different reactivity and coordination behavior was found for the nitrogen analogue 2, especially towards Rh(III) as a bimetallic ion pair [RhCl(Cp*)(2)](+) [RhCl3 (Cp*)](-) is formed rather than a mononuclear coordination compound. [RhCl(Cp*)(1)]Cl and [IrCl(Cp*)(1)]Cl react with water regio- and diastereoselectively at the external PC double bond, leading exclusively to the anti-addition products [MCl(Cp*)(1H⋅OH)]Cl as confirmed by X-ray crystal-structure determination.

  15. Paired fuzzy sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez, J. Tinguaro; Franco de los Ríos, Camilo; Gómez, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we want to stress the relevance of paired fuzzy sets, as already proposed in previous works of the authors, as a family of fuzzy sets that offers a unifying view for different models based upon the opposition of two fuzzy sets, simply allowing the existence of different types...

  16. Minimal Pairs: Minimal Importance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Adam

    1995-01-01

    This article argues that minimal pairs do not merit as much attention as they receive in pronunciation instruction. There are other aspects of pronunciation that are of greater importance, and there are other ways of teaching vowel and consonant pronunciation. (13 references) (VWL)

  17. Au pair trajectories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, Karina Märcher

    2015-01-01

    Since 2000, thousands of young Filipino migrants have come to Denmark as au pairs. Officially, they are there to “broaden their cultural horizons” by living temporarily with a Danish host family, but they also conduct domestic labor in exchange for food and money, which allows them to send import...... the Danish au pair scheme therefore speaks to current research on domestic work migration, the transnational family relations of young Filipina migrants and the forms of self-transformation that Filipino migration might engender.......Since 2000, thousands of young Filipino migrants have come to Denmark as au pairs. Officially, they are there to “broaden their cultural horizons” by living temporarily with a Danish host family, but they also conduct domestic labor in exchange for food and money, which allows them to send...... ethnographic component of the dissertation consists of four articles, all emphasizing the au pairs’ agency by viewing their migration as a dynamic personal and social experience. Arguing that Filipina au pairs tend to be understood primarily from the perspective of their precarious situation as domestic...

  18. Anchored paired comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, E. N.; Handley, J. C.; Wu, W.; Wang, J.

    2008-01-01

    The method of paired comparisons is often used in image quality evaluations. Psychometric scale values for quality judgments are modeled using Thurstone's Law of Comparative Judgment in which distance in a psychometric scale space is a function of the probability of preference. The transformation from psychometric space to probability is a cumulative probability distribution. The major drawback of a complete paired comparison experiment is that every treatment is compared to every other, thus the number of comparisons grows quadratically. We ameliorate this difficulty by performing paired comparisons in two stages, by precisely estimating anchors in the psychometric scale space which are spaced apart to cover the range of scale values and comparing treatments against those anchors. In this model, we employ a generalized linear model where the regression equation has a constant offset vector determined by the anchors. The result of this formulation is a straightforward statistical model easily analyzed using any modern statistics package. This enables model fitting and diagnostics. This method was applied to overall preference evaluations of color pictorial hardcopy images. The results were found to be compatible with complete paired comparison experiments, but with significantly less effort.

  19. Aspectual Pairing in Polish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Młynarczyk, A.K.

    2004-01-01

    The received view on Slavic aspect is that it is intrinsically complex, and that there is little hope of discerning any substantial regularity. We argue that this view is mistaken. We argue that the vast majority of Polish verbs really do come in aspectual pairs and that far from being a mysterious

  20. Excited cooper pairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Arrietea, M. G.; Solis, M. A.; De Llano, M. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F (Mexico)

    2001-02-01

    Excited cooper pairs formed in a many-fermion system are those with nonzero total center-of mass momentum (CMM). They are normally neglected in the standard Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) theory of superconductivity for being too few compared with zero CMM pairs. However, a Bose-Einstein condensation picture requires both zero and nonzero CMM pairs. Assuming a BCS model interaction between fermions we determine the populations for all CMM values of Cooper pairs by actually calculating the number of nonzero-CMM pairs relative to that of zero-CMM ones in both 2D and 3D. Although this ratio decreases rapidly with CMM, the number of Cooper pairs for any specific CMM less than the maximum (or breakup of the pair) momentum turns out to be typically larger than about 95% of those with zero-CMM at zero temperature T. Even at T {approx}100 K this fraction en 2D is still as large as about 70% for typical quasi-2D cuprate superconductor parameters. [Spanish] Los pares de cooper excitados formados en un sistema de muchos electrones, son aquellos con momentos de centro de masa (CMM) diferente de cero. Normalmente estos no son tomados en cuenta en la teoria estandar de la superconductividad de Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) al suponer que su numero es muy pequeno comparados con los pares de centro de masa igual a cero. Sin embargo, un esquema de condensacion Bose-Einstein requiere de ambos pares, con CMM cero y diferente de cero. Asumiendo una interaccion modelo BCS entre los fermiones, determinamos la poblacion de pares cooper con cada uno de todos los posibles valores del CMM calculando el numero de pares con momentos de centro de masa diferente de cero relativo a los pares de CMM igual a cero, en 2D y 3D. Aunque esta razon decrece rapidamente con el CMM, el numero de pares de cooper para cualquier CMM especifico menor que el momento maximo (o rompimiento de par) es tipicamente mas grande que el 95% de aquellos con CMM cero. Aun a T {approx}100 K esta fraccion en 2D es

  1. Optimisation of GnRH antagonist use in ART

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamdine, O.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the optimisation of controlled ovarian stimulation for IVF using exogenous FSH and GnRH antagonist co-treatment, by studying the timing of the initiation of GnRH antagonist co-medication and the role of ovarian reserve markers in optimising ovarian response and reproductive ou

  2. Proportion of Rh phenotypes in voluntary blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, R S; Philip, Joseph; Mallhi, R S; Yadav, Pramod

    2013-10-01

    The Rh system is the major blood group system besides ABO system. Even after proper blood grouping and cross matching there is a possibility of alloimmunization and antibody production in the recipients against the Rh or minor blood group antigens like Kell, MNSs, Duffy etc. Keeping in view the heavy financial burden of complete phenotyping of blood; the determination of only Rh phenotypes can play a major role in preventing alloimmunization and adverse events in multitransfusion cases. To determine the proportion of Rh phenotypes in voluntary blood donors with a view to generate blood bank data for constitution of panel of blood donors for multipurpose utilities. Identification of Rhesus factors (Rh) was done by the antigen antibody agglutination test by the test tube method on 10,133 healthy voluntary donors. The phenotypic frequencies of Rh blood groups in the studied population were D-92.25%, C-87.55%, E-26.55%, c-51.06% and e-98.42%. Thus 'e' was the most common and E was the least common of all the Rh types. Phenotypically DCCee group was the most common phenotype and dccee was least common type. Determination of Rh phenotypes can play a major role in preventing alloimmunization and avoiding adverse events in multitransfusion cases.

  3. Multi-pair states in electron-positron pair creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöllert, Anton; Bauke, Heiko; Keitel, Christoph H.

    2016-09-01

    Ultra strong electromagnetic fields can lead to spontaneous creation of single or multiple electron-positron pairs. A quantum field theoretical treatment of the pair creation process combined with numerical methods provides a description of the fermionic quantum field state, from which all observables of the multiple electron-positron pairs can be inferred. This allows to study the complex multi-particle dynamics of electron-positron pair creation in-depth, including multi-pair statistics as well as momentum distributions and spin. To illustrate the potential benefit of this approach, it is applied to the intermediate regime of pair creation between nonperturbative Schwinger pair creation and perturbative multiphoton pair creation where the creation of multi-pair states becomes nonnegligible but cascades do not yet set in. Furthermore, it is demonstrated how spin and helicity of the created electrons and positrons are affected by the polarization of the counterpropagating laser fields, which induce the creation of electron-positron pairs.

  4. The aging correlation (RH + t): Relative humidity (%) + temperature (deg C)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuddihy, E. F.

    1986-01-01

    An aging correlation between corrosion lifetime, and relative humidity RH (%) and temperature t (C) has been reported in the literature. This aging correlation is a semi-log plot of corrosion lifetime on the log scale versus the interesting summation term RH(%) + t(C) on the linear scale. This empirical correlation was derived from observation of experimental data trends and has been referred to as an experimental law. Using electrical resistivity data of polyvinyl butyral (PVB) measured as a function of relative humidity and temperature, it was found that the electrical resistivity could be expressed as a function of the term RH(%) t(C). Thus, if corrosion is related to leakage current through an organic insulator, which, in turn, is a function of RH and t, then some partial theoretical validity for the correlation is indicated. This article describes the derivation of the term RH(%) t(C) from PVB electrical resistivity data.

  5. Expression of Two Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH) Precursor Genes in Various Tissues of the Japanese Eel and Evolution of GnRH(Endocrinology)

    OpenAIRE

    Kataaki, Okubo; Hiroaki, Suetake; KATSUMI, AIDA; Department of Aquatic Bioscience, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo

    1999-01-01

    We isolated and characterized two distinct cDNAs for mammalian gonadotropin-releasing hormone (mGnRH) and chicken GnRH-ll (cGnRH-ll) precursors from the Japanese eel by rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Each GnRH precursors were composed of a signal peptide, a GnRH decapeptide, a processing site and a GnRH-associated peptide. Northern blot and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that the mGnRH precursor gene is expressed in all tissues tested including the brain,...

  6. Concept design on RH maintenance of CFETR Tokamak reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Yuntao, E-mail: songyt@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China); Wu, Songtao; Wan, Yuanxi; Li, Jiangang [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China); Ye, Minyou [University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China); Zheng, Jinxing; Cheng, Yong; Zhao, Wenlong; Wei, Jianghua [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: •We discussed the concept design of the RH maintenance system based on the main design work of the key components for CFETR. •The main design work for RH maintenance in this paper was carried out including the divertor RH system, the blanket RH system and the transfer cask system. •The technical problems encountered in the design process were discussed. •The present concept design of remote maintenance system in this paper can meet the physical and engineering requirement of CFETR. -- Abstract: CFETR which stands for Chinese Fusion Engineering Testing Reactor is a superconducting Tokamak device. The concept design on RH maintenance of CFETR has been done in the past year. It is known that, the RH maintenance is one of the most important parts for Tokamak reactor. The fusion power was designed as 50–200 MW and its duty cycle time (or burning time) was estimated as 30–50%. The center magnetic field strength on the TF magnet is 5.0 T, the maximum capacity of the volt seconds provided by center solenoid winding will be about 160 VS. The plasma current will be 10 MA and its major radius and minor radius is 5.7 m and 1.6 m respectively. All the components of CFETR which provide their basic functions must be maintained and inspected during the reactor lifetime. Thus, the remote handling (RH) maintenance system should be a key component, which must be detailedly designed during the concept design processing of CFETR, for the operation of reactor. The main design work for RH maintenance in this paper was carried out including the divertor RH system, the blanket RH system and the transfer cask system. What is more, the technical problems encountered in the design process will also be discussed.

  7. GnRH agonist versus GnRH antagonist in in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF/ET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Depalo Raffaella

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Several protocols are actually available for in Vitro Fertilization and Embryo Transfer. The review summarizes the main differences and the clinic characteristics of the protocols in use with GnRH agonists and GnRH antagonists by emphasizing the major outcomes and hormonal changes associated with each protocol. The majority of randomized clinical trials clearly shows that in “in Vitro” Fertilization and Embryo Transfer, the combination of exogenous Gonadotropin plus a Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH agonist, which is able to suppress pituitary FSH and LH secretion, is associated with increased pregnancy rate as compared with the use of gonadotropins without a GnRH agonist. Protocols with GnRH antagonists are effective in preventing a premature rise of LH and induce a shorter and more cost-effective ovarian stimulation compared to the long agonist protocol. However, a different synchronization of follicular recruitment and growth occurs with GnRH agonists than with GnRH antagonists. Future developments have to be focused on timing of the administration of GnRH antagonists, by giving a great attention to new strategies of stimulation in patients in which radio-chemotherapy cycles are needed.

  8. Hydrodeoxygenation of Phenol to Benzene and Cyclohexane on Rh(111) and Rh(211) Surfaces: Insights from Density Functional Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Pintos, Delfina; Voss, Johannes; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2016-01-01

    Herein we describe the C-O cleavage of phenol and cyclohexanol over Rh (111) and Rh (211) surfaces using density functional theory calculations. Our analysis is complemented by a microkinetic model of the reactions, which indicates that the C-O bond cleavage of cyclohexanol is easier than that of...

  9. GnRH agonist versus GnRH antagonist in in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF/ET).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depalo, Raffaella; Jayakrishan, K; Garruti, Gabriella; Totaro, Ilaria; Panzarino, Mariantonietta; Giorgino, Francesco; Selvaggi, Luigi E

    2012-04-13

    Several protocols are actually available for in Vitro Fertilization and Embryo Transfer. The review summarizes the main differences and the clinic characteristics of the protocols in use with GnRH agonists and GnRH antagonists by emphasizing the major outcomes and hormonal changes associated with each protocol. The majority of randomized clinical trials clearly shows that in "in Vitro" Fertilization and Embryo Transfer, the combination of exogenous Gonadotropin plus a Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH) agonist, which is able to suppress pituitary FSH and LH secretion, is associated with increased pregnancy rate as compared with the use of gonadotropins without a GnRH agonist. Protocols with GnRH antagonists are effective in preventing a premature rise of LH and induce a shorter and more cost-effective ovarian stimulation compared to the long agonist protocol. However, a different synchronization of follicular recruitment and growth occurs with GnRH agonists than with GnRH antagonists. Future developments have to be focused on timing of the administration of GnRH antagonists, by giving a great attention to new strategies of stimulation in patients in which radio-chemotherapy cycles are needed.

  10. Junctionless Cooper pair transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arutyunov, K. Yu.; Lehtinen, J. S.

    2017-02-01

    Quantum phase slip (QPS) is the topological singularity of the complex order parameter of a quasi-one-dimensional superconductor: momentary zeroing of the modulus and simultaneous 'slip' of the phase by ±2π. The QPS event(s) are the dynamic equivalent of tunneling through a conventional Josephson junction containing static in space and time weak link(s). Here we demonstrate the operation of a superconducting single electron transistor (Cooper pair transistor) without any tunnel junctions. Instead a pair of thin superconducting titanium wires in QPS regime was used. The current-voltage characteristics demonstrate the clear Coulomb blockade with magnitude of the Coulomb gap modulated by the gate potential. The Coulomb blockade disappears above the critical temperature, and at low temperatures can be suppressed by strong magnetic field.

  11. Protected Flux Pairing Qubit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Matthew; Zhang, Wenyuan; Ioffe, Lev; Gershenson, Michael

    2014-03-01

    We have studied the coherent flux tunneling in a qubit containing two submicron Josephson junctions shunted by a superinductor (a dissipationless inductor with an impedance much greater than the resistance quantum). The two low energy quantum states of this device, " open="|"> 0 and " open="|"> 1, are represented by even and odd number of fluxes in the loop, respectively. This device is dual to the charge pairing Josephson rhombi qubit. The spectrum of the device, studied by microwave spectroscopy, reflects the interference between coherent quantum phase slips in the two junctions (the Aharonov-Casher effect). The time domain measurements demonstrate the suppression of the qubit's energy relaxation in the protected regime, which illustrates the potential of this flux pairing device as a protected quantum circuit. Templeton Foundation, NSF, and ARO.

  12. Risk of severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome in GnRH antagonist versus GnRH agonist protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftager, M.; Bogstad, J; Bryndorf, T

    2016-01-01

    and thus predict risk of OHSS, were not performed. Finally, the physicians were not blinded to GnRH treatment group after randomization. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: The short GnRH antagonist protocol should be the protocol of choice for patients undergoing their first ART cycle in females years...... between the two arms. None of the women had undergone previous ART treatment. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: All infertile women referred for their first IVF/ICSI at two public fertility clinics, less than 40 years of age and with no uterine malformations were asked to participate. A total......STUDY QUESTION: Is the risk of severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) similar in a short GnRH antagonist and long GnRH agonist protocol in first cycle IVF/ICSI patients less than 40 years of age?. SUMMARY ANSWER: There is an increased risk of severe OHSS in the long GnRH agonist group...

  13. RHD gene polymorphism among RhD-negative Han Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐群; 张建业; 王勤友; 张世训; 司桂玲

    2003-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the status of eight RHD specific exons in 131 Han Chinese blood donors who were classified as RhD-negative by serological methods and explore the genomic structure of RHD gene among the Han Chinese. The Rh blood group system has the highest prevalence of polymorphisms among human blood group systems and is clinically significant in transfusion medicine. The Rh antigens are expressed on polypeptides encoded by two highly homologous genes, RHD and RHCE. Recent molecular studies have shown that the RhD-negative trait could be generated by multiple genetic mechanisms and is ethnic group-dependent.Methods The polymerase chain reaction using-sequence specific primers (PCR-SSP) was used to amplify exons 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9 and 10 of RHD gene and exons 1, 2 and 5 of RHCE gene, as well as intron 4 in each of them.Results The 131 cases of RhD-negative phenotypes consisted of 60 ccee, 58 Ccee, 5 ccEe, 5 CcEe and 3 CCee. Among them, 83 with the Rh ccee or ccEe phenotypes (63.4%) lacked the eight RHD exons indicated above, while 26 cases with the Rh Ccee, CCee, CcEe phenotypes (19.9%) had all the RHD exons examined. Twenty-two individuals with the Ccee, CCee, CcEe phenotypes (16.8%) carried at least one RHD exon. The phenotypes of the RhD negative individuals carrying the RHD gene were Rh CC or Cc, but not cc. Conclusions Three classes of RhD-negative polymorphisms among a population of Han Chinese were observed. Antigen association analysis suggested the existence of a novel class of RhD-negative associated haplotype in Han Chinese. This haplotype consisted of a normal RHCE allele and a nonfunctional RHD gene. It may be beneficial to redefine the RhD-negative blood group among Chinese populations upon clarification of the mechanisms of RHD gene expression and RhD antigen immunization.

  14. Investigation of humidity-dependent nanotribology behaviors of Si(1 0 0)/SiO2 pair moving from stick to slip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiaxin; Chen, Lei; Qian, Linmao; Song, Danlu; Cai, Yong

    2013-01-01

    With an atomic force microscopy, the humidity-dependent nanotribology behaviors of Si(1 0 0) against SiO2 microsphere were investigated while the relative movement translated from stick to slip. The relative humidity RH of air exhibits a strong effect on the motion behavior of Si(1 0 0)/SiO2 pair. With the increase in RH, relative movement of Si(1 0 0)/SiO2 pair is easier to keep into stick state, namely, the relative slip becomes more difficult to occur in a higher humidity range. The adhesion Fa will increase with the increase in RH in the given humidity range. In the low RH range (20%), Fa increases very sharply once 'liquid-like' adsorbed water layer forms, because it increases the capillary force. The initial friction forces Ft of Si(1 0 0)/SiO2 pair also increase with the increase in RH in the given humidity range. However, different from Fa, it increases sharply in the low RH range (30%). During the cyclic friction process, under the higher RH, relative stable tangential force is easier to be observed at higher displacement amplitude, here, the relative movement usually keeps into stick state. With the increase in RH, the surface damage of Si(1 0 0) transforms from mechanical deformation (forming hillock) to tribochemical wear (material removal). The tribochemical wear is sensitive to the absorbed water film with 'solid-like' structure, here, the wear volume increases drastically in this RH range (<20%); further increase of wear is small in higher relative humidity regime where the 'liquid-like' water layer is formed. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) analysis verifies the water molecules participate into tribochemical reaction to rupture the Sisbnd Si and Sisbnd O network bonds on Si(1 0 0) substrate.

  15. Hydroformylation of 1-Hexene over Rh/Nano-Oxide Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Suvanto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of nanostructured supports on the activity of Rh catalysts was studied by comparing the catalytic performance of nano- and bulk-oxide supported Rh/ZnO, Rh/SiO2 and Rh/TiO2 systems in 1-hexene hydroformylation. The highest activity with 100% total conversion and 96% yield of aldehydes was obtained with the Rh/nano-ZnO catalyst. The Rh/nano-ZnO catalyst was found to be more stable and active than the corresponding rhodium catalyst supported on bulk ZnO. The favorable morphology of Rh/nano-ZnO particles led to an increased metal content and an increased number of weak acid sites compared to the bulk ZnO supported catalysts. Both these factors favored the improved catalytic performance. Improvements of catalytic properties were obtained also with the nano-SiO2 and nano-TiO2 supports in comparison with the bulk supports. All of the catalysts were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS, BET, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD and NH3- temperature-programmed desorption (TPD.

  16. Practice Bulletin No. 181: Prevention of Rh D Alloimmunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Advances in the prevention and treatment of Rh D alloimmunization have been one of the great success stories of modern obstetrics. There is wide variation in prevalence rates of Rh D-negative individuals between regions, for example from 5% in India to 15% in North America (1). However, high birth rates in low prevalence areas means Rh hemolytic disease of the newborn is still an important cause of morbidity and mortality in countries without prophylaxis programs (1). In such countries, 14% of affected fetuses are stillborn and one half of live born infants suffer neonatal death or brain injury (1). The routine use of Rh D immune globulin is responsible for the reduced rate of red cell alloimmunization in more economically developed countries. First introduced in the 1970s, the postpartum administration of Rh D immune globulin reduced the rate of alloimmunization in at-risk pregnancies from approximately 13-16% to approximately 0.5-1.8% (2, 3). The risk was further reduced to 0.14-0.2% with the addition of routine antepartum administration (2, 3). Despite considerable proof of efficacy, there are still a large number of cases of Rh D alloimmunization because of failure to follow established protocols. In addition, there are new data to help guide management, especially with regard to weak D phenotype women. The purpose of this document is to provide evidence-based guidance for the management of patients at risk of Rh D alloimmunization.

  17. Practice Bulletin No. 181 Summary: Prevention of Rh D Alloimmunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Advances in the prevention and treatment of Rh D alloimmunization have been one of the great success stories of modern obstetrics. There is wide variation in prevalence rates of Rh D-negative individuals between regions, for example from 5% in India to 15% in North America (1). However, high birth rates in low prevalence areas means Rh hemolytic disease of the newborn is still an important cause of morbidity and mortality in countries without prophylaxis programs (1). In such countries, 14% of affected fetuses are stillborn and one half of live born infants suffer neonatal death or brain injury (1). The routine use of Rh D immune globulin is responsible for the reduced rate of red cell alloimmunization in more economically developed countries. First introduced in the 1970s, the postpartum administration of Rh D immune globulin reduced the rate of alloimmunization in at-risk pregnancies from approximately 13-16% to approximately 0.5-1.8% (2, 3). The risk was further reduced to 0.14-0.2% with the addition of routine antepartum administration (2, 3). Despite considerable proof of efficacy, there are still a large number of cases of Rh D alloimmunization because of failure to follow established protocols. In addition, there are new data to help guide management, especially with regard to weak D phenotype women. The purpose of this document is to provide evidence-based guidance for the management of patients at risk of Rh D alloimmunization.

  18. NO在碳纳米管(CNTs),Rh/CNTs,Rh/Al2O3上的分解%NO DECOMPOSITION OVER CARBON NANOTUBES (CNTs),Rh/CNTs AND Rh/Al2O3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐水花; 高利珍; 刘宝春; 梁奇; 李贺; 张良辅; 于作龙

    2001-01-01

    甲烷在预还原的LaC0O3催化剂上分解生成碳纳米管(CNTs).研究了稳态下NO在CNTs,Rh/CNTs,Rh/Al2O3上的分解,温度区间为573 K~973 K,原料气为6 000 ppm的NO,He为平衡气.程序升温还原结果表明:(1)Rh的负载显著降低了CNTs的氢吸收量;(2)负载于CNTs上的Rh比负载于Al2O3上的Rh更易还原.在573 K时NO即能与预还原后的CNTs,Rh/CNTs,Rh/Al2O3中存储的氢反应;随着氢的消耗,反应活性逐渐降低,当储存的氢消耗完后,NO的直接催化反应发生.在873 K及以上,Rh/CNTs中的CNTs能被NO分解产生的氧氧化为CO.在973 K时,NO在CNTs上几乎能100%分解,连续反应150 min后其反应活性不降低,且未观察到CO或CO2的生成.在973 K时CNTs本身可作为NO分解的催化剂,这是一个非常有意义的结果.%Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were synthesized by means of CH4 decomposition over a pre-reduced LaCoO3 catalyst. The decomposition of NO has been studied over CNTs, Rh/CNTs and Rh/γ-Al2O3. TPR results indicated that (i) the Rh loading lowered the H2 uptake of CNTs significantly,and (ii) the Rh in Rh/CNTs could be reduced more easily than that in Rh/Al2O3. NO was completely reduced at 573 K by the hydrogen stored in the three H2-reduced catalysts. After the complete consumption of stored hydrogen, direct catalytic decomposition of NO occurred. During NO decomposition at or above 873 K, there was the oxidation of the CNTs in Rh/CNTs to CO.

  19. Circulating placental proteins in pregnancies complicated by RH isoimmunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J N; Huang, S C; Ouyang, P C; Chard, T

    1984-07-01

    Nine pregnant women with Rh isoimmunization who delivered newborns with hydrops fetalis were studied. The placental proteins, pregnancy specific beta 1-glycoprotein (SP1), human placental lactogen, and placental protein 5 (PP5) were measured in maternal serum by radioimmunoassays. The results indicate that both the serum human placental lactogen and PP5 levels were significantly higher than those observed in normal pregnancy. The strikingly higher circulating PP5 levels found in all nine patients with Rh isoimmunization studied suggests that serum PP5 may be specifically elevated in pregnant patients with Rh isoimmunization and hydrops fetalis.

  20. Au pairs on Facebook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, Karina Märcher

    2016-01-01

    Ethnographers are increasingly making use of Facebook to acquire access and general acquaintance with their field of study. However, little has been written on how Facebook is used methodologically in research that does not have social media sites as the main focus of interest. This article argues...... that engagement with Facebook as a methodological tool can be useful in research among migrants in highly politicised fields. Pointing to a discursive construction of Filipina au pairs as victims of labour exploitation, the article shows how fieldwork on Facebook enables the exploration of the ways in which...... and on Facebook....

  1. Multispecies pair annihilation reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deloubrière, Olivier; Hilhorst, Henk J; Täuber, Uwe C

    2002-12-16

    We consider diffusion-limited reactions A(i)+A(j)--> (12 and d> or =2, we argue that the asymptotic density decay for such mutual annihilation processes with equal rates and initial densities is the same as for single-species pair annihilation A+A-->. In d=1, however, particle segregation occurs for all q< infinity. The total density decays according to a q dependent power law, rho(t) approximately t(-alpha(q)). Within a simplified version of the model alpha(q)=(q-1)/2q can be determined exactly. Our findings are supported through Monte Carlo simulations.

  2. Au pairs on Facebook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, Karina Märcher

    2016-01-01

    Ethnographers are increasingly making use of Facebook to acquire access and general acquaintance with their field of study. However, little has been written on how Facebook is used methodologically in research that does not have social media sites as the main focus of interest. This article argues...... that engagement with Facebook as a methodological tool can be useful in research among migrants in highly politicised fields. Pointing to a discursive construction of Filipina au pairs as victims of labour exploitation, the article shows how fieldwork on Facebook enables the exploration of the ways in which...... and on Facebook....

  3. Rhodium pair-sites on magnesium oxide: Synthesis, characterization, and catalysis of ethylene hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Dong; Xu, Pinghong; Guan, Erjia; Browning, Nigel D.; Gates, Bruce C.

    2016-06-01

    Supported rhodium acetate dimers were prepared by the reaction of Rh2(OAc)4 (OAc is acetate) with highly dehydroxylated MgO powder and characterized by extended X-ray absorption fine structure and infrared (IR) spectra, which show that the supported species were well represented as Rh2(OAc)3, with each Rh atom on average bonded to one oxygen atom of the MgO surface. Aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy gave images of Rh atoms in pairs on the MgO. The supported rhodium dimers were probed with a pulse of CO, and the IR spectra indicate a Rh(II) species with weakly bonded carbonyl ligands; the sharpness of the νCO band indicates highly uniform surface species. Further treatment in CO led to breakup of the rhodium dimers into mononuclear species; such fragmentation took place in other treatment gases as well, with the degree of fragmentation decreasing in the order CO > C2H4 > helium. The fragmentation is inferred on the basis of IR spectra to have proceeded through intermediate Rh2 species without acetate ligands. In contrast, rhodium dimers were reduced and not fragmented in the presence of H2 at 353 K, but at higher temperatures the rhodium aggregated to give larger clusters. The supported species catalyzed ethylene hydrogenation at 298 K and 1 bar at a H2 to ethylene molar ratio of 4; after 27 h of catalysis in a once-through flow reactor, acetate ligands were removed from the dimers, and some of them fragmented, as shown by IR spectroscopy. The intermediate dirhodium species without acetate ligands are two or three orders of magnitude more active as catalysts than the supported mononuclear rhodium species or those present predominantly as Rh2(OAc)3, respectively.

  4. Compound heterozygosity of two novel RHAG alleles leads to a considerable disruption of the Rh complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polin, Helene; Pelc-Klopotowska, Monika; Danzer, Martin; Suessner, Susanne; Gabriel, Christian; Wilflingseder, Julia; Żmudzin, Alicja; Orzińska, Agnieszka; Guz, Katarzyna; Michalewska, Bogumila; Brojer, Ewa

    2016-04-01

    The Rhesus (Rh) complex consists of a core comprising the Rh proteins (RhD/RhCE) and the Rh-associated glycoprotein (RhAG) with accessory chains (GPB, LW, CD47). Molecular defects of the RHAG gene may cause a regulator Rhnull phenotype without Rh antigen expression or a Rhmod phenotype with decreased Rh antigen expression. Blood samples of a donor with strongly diminished Rh antigens and five family members were analyzed by serological phenotyping, flow cytometry, molecular testing, and gene expression analysis of Rh complex candidate genes. RHAG sequencing identified a missense mutation, c.241G>C (p.Gly81Arg) and a splice site mutation, c.640 + 3del14, among the cohort. Compound heterozygosity of these novel alleles identified in the propositus and two siblings gave rise to a strongly diminished expression of RhAG, Rh, and CD47 antigens on the RBC surface. The Rhmod phenotype was caused by a novel RHAG splice site mutation in association with a non-functional allele. The primary depression of RhAG is most likely due to posttranslational events that affect the interaction and processing of the RhAG glycoprotein and gave rise to a secondary depression of RhD, RhCE, and CD47, the major members of the Rh complex. © 2016 AABB.

  5. Searching for Pair Halos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Lisa; Abramowski, A.; Acero, F.; Aharonian, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Anton, G.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Bazer-Bachi, A. R.; Becherini, Y.; Behera, B.; Bernlühr, K.; Bochow, A.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Borrel, V.; Brucker, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bühler, R.; Bulik, T.; Büsching, I.; Boutelier, T.; Chadwick, P. M.; Charbonnier, A.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Cheesebrough, A.; Conrad, J.; Chounet, L.-M.; Clapson, A. C.; Coignet, G.; Dalton, M.; Daniel, M. K.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; Dickinson, H. J.; Domainko, A. Djannati-Ataü W.; Drury, L. O'c.; Dubois, F.; Dubus, G.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Fallon, L.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fiasson, A.; Fürster, A.; Fontaine, G.; Füssling, M.; Gabici, S.; Gallant, Y. A.; Gérard, L.; Gerbig, D.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Glück, B.; Goret, P.; Güring, D.; Hampf, D.; Hauser, M.; Heinz, S.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hinton, J. A.; Hoffmann, A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holleran, M.; Hoppe, S.; Horns, D.; Jacholkowska, A.; de Jager, O. C.; Jahn, C.; Jung, I.; Katarzynski, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Kerschhaggl, M.; Khangulyan, D.; Khálifi, B.; Keogh, D.; Klochkov, D.; Kluzniak, W.; Kneiske, T.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Kossakowski, R.; Lamanna, G.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lohse, T.; Lu, C.-C.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Masbou, J.; Mau-Rin, D.; McComb, T. J. L.; Medina, M. C.; Méhault, J.; Moderski, R.; Moulin, E.; Naumann-Godo, M.; de Naurois, M.; Nedbal, D.; Nekrassov, D.; Nguyen, N.; Nicholas, B.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Ohm, S.; Olive, J.-F.; de Ona Wilhelmi, E.; Opitz, B.; Orford, K. J.; Ostrowski, M.; Panter, M.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pedaletti, G.; Pelletier, G.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Pita, S.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raubenheimer, B. C.; Raue, M.; Rayner, S. M.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de Los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Ripken, J.; Rob, L.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Ruppel, J.; Ryde, F.; Sahakian, V.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schück, F. M.; Schünwald, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Shalchi, A.; Sushch, I.; Sikora, M.; Skilton, J. L.; Sol, H.; Stawarz, L.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Szostek, A.; Tam, P. H.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Terrier, R.; Tibolla, O.; Tluczykont, M.; Valerius, K.; van Eldik, C.; Vasileiadis, G.; Venter, C.; Venter, L.; Vialle, J. P.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Vivier, M.; Vülk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Vorobiov, S.; Wagner, S. J.; Ward, M.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zechlin, H.-S.

    We have conducted a search for the giant Pair Halo structures which are inevitably formed around TeV sources due to interactions of very high energy gamma-rays with the Extragalactic Background Light (EBL). The resulting electron/positron pairs are Compton upscattered on photons of the 2.7 K Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation to produce a second generation of gamma-rays which again interact with the EBL; thus an electromagnetic cascade develops. If the magnetic fields on Mpc scales surrounding the central source are sufficiently strong (10-11 G or more), electrons are effectively isotropised before interacting with radiation fields. In this case an extended halo is produced around the source. Using H.E.S.S. observations of Active Galactic Nuclei, including data from PKS 2155-304, 1ES 1101-232 and 1ES 0229+200, we have completed a detailed analysis of these sources. I will present and discuss the astrophysical implications of these results.

  6. New ferromagnetic semiconductor double perovskites: La{sub 2}FeMO{sub 6} (M = Co, Rh, and Ir)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuh, Huei-Ru [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Applied Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Weng, Ke-Chuan [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Liu, Yun-Ping [Department of Physics, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 116, Taiwan (China); Wang, Yin-Kuo [Center for General Education and Department of Physics, National Taiwan Normal University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • The La{sub 2}FeCoO{sub 6} is a potential candidate for ferromagnetic semiconductor. • The FM semiconductor originates from the exchange effect between Fe and Co. • We calculate the 406 combinations of possible La{sub 2}MM′O{sub 6} compounds here. - Abstract: Density functional theory with generalized gradient approximation (GGA) plus onsite Coulomb interaction (GGA + U) was used to calculate physical proprieties of new ferromagnetic semiconductor materials of the La{sub 2}FeMO{sub 6} (M = Co, Rh, and Ir). We calculate the 406 (C{sub 2}{sup 29}) La{sub 2}MM′O{sub 6} compounds which MM′ can be any pair taken from the 29 transition metal elements except La. La{sub 2}FeCoO{sub 6} is a potential candidate for ferromagnetic semiconductor. For the GGA + U scheme, La{sub 2}FeCo{sub 6} remains a stable FM semiconductor, whereas La{sub 2}FeRhO{sub 6} and La{sub 2}FeIrO{sub 6} are shown the FM and AFM states of which are degenerate with each other. The FM semiconductor gap remains in existence under tensile or compressive strain in La{sub 2}FeRhO{sub 6} and La{sub 2}FeIrO{sub 6}. The superexchange interaction in ferromagnetic La{sub 2}FeMO{sub 6} (M = Co, Rh, and Ir) is high spin (HS) Fe completely empty e{sub g} orbital hopping to the half-filled (LS) Co (Rh and Ir) empty e{sub g} orbital.

  7. [Guideline for prevention of RhD alloimmunizationin RhD negative women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubušký, M; Procházka, M; Simetka, O; Holusková, I

    2013-04-01

    Events following which immunoglobulin (Ig) G anti-D should be given to all RhD negative women with no anti-D alloantibodies: First trimester indications (IgG anti-D sufficient dose of 50 μg*) - termination of pregnancy, spontaneous abortion followed by instrumentation, ectopic pregnancy, chorionic villus sampling, partial molar pregnancy; Second and third trimester indications (IgG anti-D sufficient dose of 100 μg*) - amniocentesis, cordocentesis, other invasive prenatal diagnostic or therapeutic procedures, spontaneous or induced abortion, intrauterine fetal death, attempt at external cephalic version of a breech presentation, abdominal trauma, obstetric hemorrhage; Antenatal prophylaxis at 28th weeks of gestation (IgG anti-D sufficient dose of 250 μg*); Delivery of an RhD positive infant** (IgG anti-D sufficient dose of 100 μg*); Minimal dose*: before 20 weeks gestation - 50 μg (250 IU), after 20 weeks gestation*** - 100 μg (500 IU); Timing: as soon as possible, but no later than 72 hours after the event. In cases where prevention of RhD alloimmunization is not performed within 72 hours of a potentially sensitising event, it is still reasonable to administer IgG anti-D within 13 days, and in special cases, administration is still recommended up to a maximum interval of 28 days postpartum; Legend: *administration of a higher dose of IgG anti-D is not a mistake, ** also if the D type is not known, *** simultaneous assessment of the volume of fetomaternal hemorrhage (FMH) to specify the dose is suitable; The FMH volume assessment - If the volume of fetal erythrocytes (red bood cells, RBCs) which entered maternal circulation is assessed, intramuscular administration of IgG anti-D in a dose of 10 μg per 0.5 mL of fetal RBCs or 1 mL of whole fetal blood is indicated. IgG anti-D in a dose of 10 μg administered intramuscularly should cover 0.5 mL of fetal RhD positive RBCs or 1mL of whole fetal blood. FMH is the fetal RBC volume; fetal blood volume is double

  8. Effects of RH-MFB%RH-MFB的冶金效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李扬洲; 薛念福; 汪明东

    2000-01-01

    介绍了攀钢RH-MFB轻处理LCAK钢可使钢水T[O] 达到平均24×10-6、深脱碳处理ULC钢的[C]含量达到10×10-6~26×10-6 、本处理重轨[H]≤1.5×10-6、T[O]≤20×10-6的效果,还简要介绍了Al -O加热钢水以及MFB枪加热的效果.

  9. RH-TB精炼工艺优化%Process Optimization for RH-TB Refining System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于华财; 宋满堂; 林东

    2005-01-01

    通过对本钢炼钢厂的RH-TB真空精炼工艺的优化,使真空泵系统最低真空度达到了67 Pa,实现了IF钢等超低碳钢的稳定生产.真空罐耐材的使用寿命显著提高,尤其RH吸嘴的使用寿命由原平均35次提高到平均104.5次.

  10. 高温热电偶材料PtRh40/PtRh20合金性能研究%Prorerties of PtRh40/PtRh20 High-temperature Thermocouple Wires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴保安; 刘庆宾; 陈德茂; 汪建胜; 唐会毅; 陈小军

    2013-01-01

    The long-term using temperature of PtRh40/PtRh20 high-temperature thermocouple wire is 1750℃. PtRh40/PtRh20 is belong to non-standard thermocouple, and mainly applies to measure the aircraft efflux plasma temperature. The influences of annealing temperature on the tensile strength and resistivity of PtRh40 and PtRh20 alloy wires, and the influences of the cold working on tensile strength and vickers hardness of the wires were studied. The results indicated that the tensile strengths increased with the increase of annealing temperature at first, then decreased sharply, finally it is stable forming a platform. The resistivities were increased with the annealing temperature, and the tensile strength and hardness were increased with the cold working. The errors of matching thermoelectric potential of PtRh40- PtRh20 relative to ASTM E1751-2000 standard thermoelectric power is 1℃ at 1200℃, 2℃ at 1500℃, and 1℃ at 1700℃.%  PtRh40/PtRh20高温热电偶长期使用温度为1750℃,主要用于飞机尾焰高温测量,属于非标热电偶,目前国内主要依靠进口。研究了 PtRh40、PtRh20退火温度与合金电阻率、抗拉强度及加工率与抗拉强度、硬度的关系,并测试了PtRh40/PtRh20热电偶热电性能。结果表明:抗拉强度随退火温度的升高先升高再急剧下降,最后稳定在一个平台,两者大约在900℃时抗拉强度降至最低;电阻率均随退火温度升高而升高;抗拉强度与硬度均随加工率的增加而提高;PtRh40/PtRh20配对热电势相对ASTM E1751-2000标准热电势测试结果为在1200℃时误差为1℃,在1500℃时误差2℃,在1700℃时误差1℃。

  11. Rh isoimmunization complicating a triplet gestation. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gast, M J; Rigg, L A; Martin, C M

    1991-04-01

    A case occurred of Rh isoimmunization complicating a triplet gestation. Management of that extremely rare situation required careful attention to the problems inherent in both multiple pregnancy and isoimmunization. Amniocentesis and frequent antepartum fetal monitoring were the cornerstones of therapy.

  12. Cell differentiation under the influence of rh-BMP-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, A; Traub, F; Kienapfel, H; Griss, P

    2001-06-29

    Bioactive bone growth factors will likely play an important role in the regeneration of bone. BMP-2 is known to promote osteoblastic cell differentiation and osteogenesis. Whether the BMPs act on human osteoblastic cells by increasing immature cell growth and/or differentiation is unknown. The goal of this study was to analyse possible effects of rhBMP-2 on cell differentiation using a human bone marrow cell culture. rhBMP-2 was added to the culture medium once. Fourteen days after addition of rhBMP-2 the cells were incubated with monoclonal antibodies. The cells were counted and analysed in a fluorescence-activating cell sorter (FACS). Compared to the controls there was an increasing effect on granulocytes, B cells and stem cells. The T-cells and monocytes show no increase or decrease after rhBMP-2 treatment.

  13. Stereoselective Construction of Spiro-Fused Tricyclic Frameworks by Sequential Reaction of Enynes, Imines, and Diazoalkenes with Rh(I) and Rh(II) Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hato, Yoshio; Oonishi, Yoshihiro; Yamamoto, Yasunori; Nakajima, Kiyohiko; Sato, Yoshihiro

    2016-09-02

    Stereoselective construction of spiro-fused tricyclic compounds from enynes having a tethered imine with diazoalkenes was achieved by Rh(I)- and Rh(II)-catalyzed sequential reactions. This method consists of three reactions, i.e., Rh(I)-catalyzed cyclization of enynes with a tethered imine, Rh(II)-catalyzed cyclopropanation with diazoalkenes, and Cope rearrangement. Notably, the sequential reactions can be operated in one pot, in which Rh(I) and Rh(II) catalysts work in relay without any serious catalyst deactivation to afford the spirocycles in a stereoselective manner.

  14. Fission: statistical nucleon pair breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoya, M. (Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear, Lima (Peru))

    1984-06-01

    In order to explain the odd-even effect observed in low energy fission fragment distributions it has been recently required a double mechanism of nucleon pair breaking: before scission (early pair breaking) and at scission (late pair breaking), respectively. In the present work we show that, using the same formulae but considering only the early pair breaking mechanism, one can reproduce fairly well all the available experimental data on the odd-even effects.

  15. The Rh allele frequencies in Gaza city in Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skaik Younis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Rh blood group system is the second most clinically significant blood group system. It includes 49 antigens, but only five (D, C, E, c and e are the most routinely identified due to their unique relation to hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN and transfusion reactions. Frequency of the Rh alleles showed variation, with regard to race and ethnic. Objectives: The purpose of the study was to document the Rh alleles′ frequencies amongst males (M and females (F in Gaza city in Palestine. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and thirty-two blood samples (110 M and 122 F were tested against monoclonal IgM anti-C,anti-c, anti-E, anti-e and a blend of monoclonal/polyclonal IgM/IgG anti-D. The expected Rh phenotypes were calculated using gene counting method. Results: The most frequent Rh antigen in the total sample was e, while the least frequent was E.The order of the combined Rh allele frequencies in both M and F was CDe > cDe > cde > CdE > cDE > Cde > CDE. A significant difference was reported between M and F regarding the phenotypic frequencies (P < 0.05. However, no significance (P > 0.05 was reported with reference to the observed and expected Rh phenotypic frequencies in either M or F students. Conclusion: It was concluded that the Rh antigens, alleles and phenotypes in Gaza city have unique frequencies, which may be of importance to the Blood Transfusion Center in Gaza city and anthropology.

  16. Regulation versus modulation in GnRH receptor function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zolman, J.C.; Theodoropoulos, T.J.

    1985-03-01

    Serum luteinizing hormone (LH) concentration after exposure to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) indicates that an instantaneous increase occurs in the rate of release of LH directly from the anterior pituitary, as measured dynamically during superfusion in vitro. On the other hand, estradiol-17 beta (E2) alone shows no such instantaneous effect on LH release rate (at least for the first four hours), in either physiologic or pharmacologic concentrations. At the same time, brief (ten to 30 minute) exposure of isolated anterior pituitary plasma membranes to physiologic concentrations of E2 significantly alters the binding of a fully biologically active /sup 125/I-GnRH to its plasma membrane receptor protein. In order to characterize the effect of E2 on GnRH binding further, dispersed bovine anterior pituitary cells were preincubated for six hours in the presence or absence of physiologic concentrations of E2 (10(-10)M). Following preincubation in the presence of E2, the cell suspension was incubated for 30 minutes with physiologic concentrations (5 x 10(-11) - 5 x 10(-10)M) of a fully biologically active /sup 125/I-GnRH. The treatment, at least, doubled the number of biologically important high affinity GnRH binding sites (Kd's . 7.5 x -10(-11) - 4.5 x 10(-10)M), and changed the binding capacity of some of the binding sites up to three fold, which altered the cooperativity of GnRH-receptor interaction. Thus, the interaction of E2 with GnRH at the level of GnRH receptor is mandatory for the short-term pituitary effect of E2 on LH release in vitro and in vivo.

  17. Diffractive charged meson pair production

    CERN Document Server

    Lehmann-Dronke, B; Schäfer, S; Stein, E; Schäfer, A

    1999-01-01

    We investigate the possibility to measure the nonforward gluon distribution function by means of diffractively produced charged pion and kaon pairs in polarized lepton nucleon scattering. The resulting cross sections are sizable and are dominated by the gluonic contribution. We find large spin asymmetries, both for pion pairs and for kaon pairs.

  18. Application of Acupoints in Pairs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季扬

    2004-01-01

    @@ Application of acupoints in pairs is a kind of point association in which only a pair of compatible points is used. Based on the principle of compatibility, the author of this article often uses the "pair-point needling" to treat some common diseases, and have obtained very good therapeutic results. Some examples are introduced below.

  19. Antenatal prophylaxis of Rh isoimmunization: 28-weeks'-gestation service program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, J M; Pollock, J M

    1978-03-18

    Two (0.18%) of 1086 Rh-negative primigravidas or multigravidas treated similarly in all previous pregnancies, who were given a single injection of Rh immune globulin (300 mug) at 28 weeks' gestation and subsequently were delivered of Rh-positive babies, had demonstrable Rh isoimmunization at the time of that injection and must be considered "logistic" failures of antenatal prophylaxis. The remaining 1084 (who were treated again after delivery) had no evidence of Rh isoimmunization at delivery and none of the 512 screened at 6 months after delivery appeared to be immunized. If the 28th-week injection had not been protective, one would have expected 14 of the 1084 to have been demonstrably Rh isoimmunized and evidence of Rh isoimmunization to have persisted in 6 of the 512 observed 6 months after delivery.Six of 719 Rh-negative multigravidas who had not received Rh immune globulin after previous pregnancies or had been treated only after delivery showed evidence of Rh isoimmunization despite a single injection of Rh immune globulin at 28 weeks in a subsequent pregnancy. In three of the six the cause was most likely "sensibilization" due to previous exposure to Rh-positive blood or an untreated Rh-positive pregnancy. in 3 of the remaining 716 (0.42%) there may have been true failure of antenatal Rh prophylaxis administered at the 28th week. One would have expected this figure to be 12 of 716 if antenatal Rh prophylaxis at 28 weeks' gestation were totally unsuccessful.It is concluded that a single intramuscular injection of Rh immune globulin, 300 mug, is 88% effective in preventing Rh isoimmunization during pregnancy in Rh-negative primigravidas and in multigravidas treated antenatally in all previous pregnancies, and is 75% effective in preventing Rh isoimmunization in Rh-negative multigravidas untreated during previous pregnancies. The majority of failures are due to Rh isoimmunization during pregnancy prior to antenatal prophylaxis at 28 weeks.

  20. Cotorsion Pair Extensions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De Xu ZHOU

    2009-01-01

    Assume that S is an almost excellent extension of R. Using functors Hom R(S,-) and -(×)R S, we establish some connections between classes of modules (L)R and (L)S, cotorsion pairs ((A)R, (A)R)and ((A)S, (B)S). If (L)S is a T-extension or (and) H-extension of (L)R, we show that (L)S is a (resp., monomorphic, epimorphic, special) preenveloping class if and only if so is (L)R. If (S, S) is a TH-extension of ((A)R,(B)R), we obtain that ((A)S,(B)S) is complete (resp., of finite type, of cofinite type, hereditary, perfect, n-tilting) if and only if so is ((A)R,(B)R).

  1. (3-Methylbenzonitrile-κNtetrakis(μ-N-phenylacetamidato-κ4N:O;κ4O:N-dirhodium(II(Rh—Rh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennie Tan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, [Rh2(C8H8NO4(C8H7N], the four acetamidate ligands bridging the dirhodium core are arranged in a 2,2-trans manner. One RhII atom is five-coordinate, in a distorted pyramidal geometry, while the other is six-coordinate, with a disorted octahedral geometry. For the six-coordinate RhII atom, the axial nitrile ligand shows a non-linear Rh–nitrile coordination with an Rh—N—C bond angle of 166.4 (4° and a nitrile N—C bond length of 1.138 (6 Å. Each unique RhII atom is coordinated by a trans pair of N atoms and a trans pair of O atoms from the four acetamide ligands. The Neq—Rh—Rh—Oeq torsion angles on the acetamide bridge varies between 12.55 (11 and 14.04 (8°. In the crystal, the 3-methylbenzonitrile ring shows a π–π interaction with an inversion-related equivalent [interplanar spacing = 3.360 (6 Å]. A phenyl ring on one of the acetamide ligands also has a face-to-face π–π interaction with an inversion-related equivalent [interplanar spacing = 3.416 (5 Å].

  2. Origins of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in vertebrates: identification of a novel GnRH in a basal vertebrate, the sea lamprey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanaugh, Scott I; Nozaki, Masumi; Sower, Stacia A

    2008-08-01

    We cloned a cDNA encoding a novel (GnRH), named lamprey GnRH-II, from the sea lamprey, a basal vertebrate. The deduced amino acid sequence of the newly identified lamprey GnRH-II is QHWSHGWFPG. The architecture of the precursor is similar to that reported for other GnRH precursors consisting of a signal peptide, decapeptide, a downstream processing site, and a GnRH-associated peptide; however, the gene for lamprey GnRH-II does not have introns in comparison with the gene organization for all other vertebrate GnRHs. Lamprey GnRH-II precursor transcript was widely expressed in a variety of tissues. In situ hybridization of the brain showed expression and localization of the transcript in the hypothalamus, medulla, and olfactory regions, whereas immunohistochemistry using a specific antiserum showed only GnRH-II cell bodies and processes in the preoptic nucleus/hypothalamus areas. Lamprey GnRH-II was shown to stimulate the hypothalamic-pituitary axis using in vivo and in vitro studies. Lamprey GnRH-II was also shown to activate the inositol phosphate signaling system in COS-7 cells transiently transfected with the lamprey GnRH receptor. These studies provide evidence for a novel lamprey GnRH that has a role as a third hypothalamic GnRH. In summary, the newly discovered lamprey GnRH-II offers a new paradigm of the origin of the vertebrate GnRH family. We hypothesize that due to a genome/gene duplication event, an ancestral gene gave rise to two lineages of GnRHs: the gnathostome GnRH and lamprey GnRH-II.

  3. A first-principles study of the possible magnetism of Rh in the Cu/Rh/Cu(001) system

    CERN Document Server

    Jang, Y R; Chang, C S; Cho, L H; Lee, J I

    1999-01-01

    Possible 4d magnetism of a Rh monolayer in a Cu/Rh/Cu(001) system is investigated using the full-potential linearized augmented-plane-wave (FLAPW) energy band method based on the local-spin-density approximation (LSDA). We have calculated the total energy of the Cu/Rh/Cu(001) system and have found that the Rh monolayer is ferromagnetic (FM) with a tiny magnetic moment. However, the total energy difference between the ferromagnetic and the paramagnetic states is found to be very small, and thus which state can be realized at room temperature is uncertain. The calculated charge densities and layer-projected density of states (LDOS) are presented and discussed in relation to the magnetic properties.

  4. Technical Note: Monte Carlo study of (106) Ru/(106) Rh ophthalmic plaques including the (106) Rh gamma spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermida-López, Marcelino; Brualla, Lorenzo

    2017-06-01

    To assess the influence of the (106) Rh gamma spectrum on the Monte Carlo simulation of (106) Ru/(106) Rh ophthalmic plaques, which has been neglected without a quantitative estimation in all previous publications. Simulations were run with the penelope 2014 Monte Carlo code for radiation transport. Depth-dose distributions in water were simulated for the plaque models CCA, CCC, CCX and CIA. In addition to the (106) Rh beta spectrum, all gamma components from the (106) Rh gamma spectrum were included in the simulations. Depth-dose curves were compared with those obtained without considering the (106) Rh gamma spectrum. Moreover, half-value (HVL) and tenth-value layers (TVL) were estimated for the (106) Rh gamma spectrum in water, PMMA, stainless steel and lead. Some practical radiation protection applications were discussed. Parallel computing was implemented to reduce computing time. The contribution of the (106) Rh gamma spectrum on the depth-dose curves is negligible at depths of clinical interest. The HVL and TVL of the (106) Rh gamma spectrum were found to be similar to those of (137) Cs. The air-kerma rate at 1 m for a CCA plaque in typical clinical conditions was about 0.4μGym2h-1, resulting in equivalent doses at that point elow 0.05 mSv during a treatment. The air-kerma rate would be underestimated by a factor of 5 if the (106) Rh gamma spectrum were not considered. Also, a freely available software tool was developed to ease parallelization of penelope 2014 simulations that use penmain as steering main program. The influence of the (106) Rh gamma spectrum is not relevant for clinical purposes, thus validating the common assumption from the literature. However, for simulations at large distances from the plaques, such as for radiation shielding assessment and estimation of dose to personnel, the gamma spectrum from (106) Rh must be taken into account to obtain accurate results. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  5. Oximato bridged Rh$^{\\text{III}}_2$MII and RhIIIMI species (MII = Mn, Co, Ni; MI = Cu, Ag)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Indranil Bhattacharyya; Sanjib Ganguly; Bikash Kumar Panda; Animesh Chakravorty

    2008-01-01

    The reaction of [RhCl2(HPhL)(PhL)] with MII(ClO4)2.6H2O in presence of alkali has furnished trinuclear [RhCl2(PhL)2]2M(H2O)2.H2O (HPhL is phenylazobenzaldoxime; M = Mn, Co, Ni). A similar reaction with MI(PPh3)2NO3 yielded binuclear [RhCl2(PhL)2]M(PPh3)2 (M = Cu, Ag). In these molecules the oximato group acts as a bridge between RhIII (bonded at N) and MII or MI (bonded at O). In structurally characterized [RhIIICl2(PhL)2]2Mn(H2O)2.H2O the centrosymmetric distorted octahedral MnO6 coordination sphere is spanned by four oximato oxygen atoms and two water molecules lying in trans position. In the lattice the neighbouring molecules are held together by H2O$\\cdots$H2O$\\cdots$H2O hydrogen bonds generating infinite zigzag chains. The manganese atoms lie parallel to the C-axis, the shortest Mn…Mn distance being 7.992 Å. Magnetic exchange interactions if any are small as seen in room temperature magnetic moments. The manganese system displays a strong EPR signal near = 2.00. In the complex [RhCl2(PhL)2]Cu(PPh3)2 the copper atom is coordinated to two oximato oxygen atoms and the two phosphorus atoms in a distorted tetrahedral geometry. The softness of the phosphine ligand is believed to sustain the stable coordination of hard oximato oxygen to soft CuI. The coordination sphere of the RhIII atom in both the complexes is uniformly trans-RhN4Cl2.

  6. Enthalpies of Formation of Noble Metal Binary Alloys Bearing Rh or Ir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The modified embedded atom method proposed by authors has been applied to calculating the enthalpies of formationof random alloys and the ordered intermetallic compounds for noble metal binary systems bearing Rh or lr. The presentresults are in good agreement with those of Miedema theory, available experiments and the first-principles quantummechanics calculations. The present results indicate that Cu-Rh, Cu-lr, Ag-Rh, Ag-lr, Au-Rh, Au-lr, Pd-Rh and Pd-lrsystems are repulsive, however, Ni-Rh, Ni-lr, Pt-lr, Pt-Rh and Rh-lr systems form solid solutions and Ni-Rh, Ni-lrand Pt-Rh show ordering tendency.

  7. Multi-pair states in electron–positron pair creation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Wöllert

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ultra strong electromagnetic fields can lead to spontaneous creation of single or multiple electron–positron pairs. A quantum field theoretical treatment of the pair creation process combined with numerical methods provides a description of the fermionic quantum field state, from which all observables of the multiple electron–positron pairs can be inferred. This allows to study the complex multi-particle dynamics of electron–positron pair creation in-depth, including multi-pair statistics as well as momentum distributions and spin. To illustrate the potential benefit of this approach, it is applied to the intermediate regime of pair creation between nonperturbative Schwinger pair creation and perturbative multiphoton pair creation where the creation of multi-pair states becomes nonnegligible but cascades do not yet set in. Furthermore, it is demonstrated how spin and helicity of the created electrons and positrons are affected by the polarization of the counterpropagating laser fields, which induce the creation of electron–positron pairs.

  8. Experimental many-pairs nonlocality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poh, Hou Shun; Cerè, Alessandro; Bancal, Jean-Daniel; Cai, Yu; Sangouard, Nicolas; Scarani, Valerio; Kurtsiefer, Christian

    2017-08-01

    Collective measurements on large quantum systems together with a majority voting strategy can lead to a violation of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt Bell inequality. In the presence of many entangled pairs, this violation decreases quickly with the number of pairs and vanishes for some critical pair number that is a function of the noise present in the system. Here we show that a different binning strategy can lead to a more substantial Bell violation when the noise is sufficiently small. Given the relation between the critical pair number and the source noise, we then present an experiment where the critical pair number is used to quantify the quality of a high visibility photon pair source. Our results demonstrate nonlocal correlations using collective measurements operating on clusters of more than 40 photon pairs.

  9. Pairing the Volcano

    CERN Document Server

    Ionica, Sorina

    2011-01-01

    Isogeny volcanoes are graphs whose vertices are elliptic curves and whose edges are $\\ell$-isogenies. Algorithms allowing to travel on these graphs were developed by Kohel in his thesis (1996) and later on, by Fouquet and Morain (2001). However, up to now, no method was known, to predict, before taking a step on the volcano, the direction of this step. Hence, in Kohel's and Fouquet-Morain algorithms, many steps are taken before choosing the right direction. In particular, ascending or horizontal isogenies are usually found using a trial-and-error approach. In this paper, we propose an alternative method that efficiently finds all points $P$ of order $\\ell$ such that the subgroup generated by $P$ is the kernel of an horizontal or an ascending isogeny. In many cases, our method is faster than previous methods. This is an extended version of a paper published in the proceedings of ANTS 2010. In addition, we treat the case of 2-isogeny volcanoes and we derive from the group structure of the curve and the pairing ...

  10. Expression of salmon gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and chicken GnRH-II precursor messenger ribonucleic acids in the brain and ovary of goldfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, X W; Peter, R E

    1996-03-01

    The complementary DNAs (cDNA) encoding the [Trp7Leu8]gonadotropin-releasing hormone (salmon GnRH; sGnRH) precursor and the [His5Trp7Tyr8]GnRH (chicken GnRH-II; cGnRH-II) precursor of the goldfish brain were isolated and sequenced using reverse transcription and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The sGnRH precursor cDNA consists of 540 bp, including an open reading frame of 282 bp, and the cGnRH-II precursor cDNA consists of 682 bp, including an open reading frame of 258 bp. The 94 amino acid-long goldfish sGnRH precursor and 86 amino acid-long goldfish cGnRH-II precursor have the same molecular architecture as GnRH precursors identified to date in other vertebrate species. Using two sets of primers designed to be sense and antisense to the goldfish brain sGnRH precursor cDNA sequence, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification of total RNA from brain and ovary at gonadal recrudescent, mature ( = prespawning), and postovulatory stages resulted in two predicted sizes of PCR products. The intensities of staining signals of ethidium bromide were similar between brain and ovary samples. The same RT-PCRs were carried out with two sets of primers for cGnRH-II precursor cDNA, resulting in two PCR products of predicted size; however, the ethidium bromide staining signals are much weaker for products amplified from ovarian cDNA than that from brain cDNA. Restriction enzyme analysis verified the expected RT-PCR products. Sequence analysis of ovarian sGnRH precursor cDNA generated by RACE of total RNA from recrudescent ovarian tissue revealed the identical sequence to that of the brain sGnRH cDNA. Northern blot analysis detected a single mRNA transcript of approximately 650 bases for the sGnRH precursor in both the brain and ovary, and 750 bases for the cGnRH-II precursor in the brain. These results demonstrate that two forms of GnRH precursor (sGnRH and cGnRH-II) mRNA are expressed in goldfish brain tissue and that the sGnRH transcript and a

  11. Multiple origins of asteroid pairs

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobson, Seth A

    2015-01-01

    Rotationally fissioned asteroids produce unbound daughter asteroids that have very similar heliocentric orbits. Backward integration of their current heliocentric orbits provides an age of closest proximity that can be used to date the rotational fission event. Most asteroid pairs follow a predicted theoretical relationship between the primary spin period and the mass ratio of the two pair members that is a direct consequence of the YORP-induced rotational fission hypothesis. If the progenitor asteroid has strength, asteroid pairs may have high mass ratios with possibly fast rotating primaries. However, secondary fission leaves the originally predicted trend unaltered. We also describe the characteristics of pair members produced by four alternative routes from a rotational fission event to an asteroid pair. Unlike direct formation from the event itself, the age of closest proximity of these pairs cannot generally be used to date the rotational fission event since considerable time may have passed.

  12. Rh System and Intrauterine Growth. Interaction with Season of Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gloria-Bottini

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the hypothesis that maternal-fetal genetic differences in membrane transport and signal transduction may influence intrauterine development, the recent acquisition on transport function of Rh protein prompted us to study the relationship between joint maternal-fetal Rh phenotype and birth weight. Considering that metabolic effect of maternal-fetal competition could be amplified by environmental conditions, we have investigated possible seasonal effects on such relationship. We have studied 5291 infants born in Sardinia in the period January 1993–December 1996 and 984 infants born in Rome during 1996. In Rh(– mothers there is a significant association between season of birth and birth weight that shows the highest mean value in infants born in autumn (i.e. conceived in winter. The association is much more evident in male than in female infants. In male infants from Rh(– mothers, the association between birth weight and season is significant in Rh(+ male newborns only. Recent observations by our group in NIDDM suggest that glucose transport in RBC may be related to D protein, thus we propose an interpretation of the present observation in terms of transport function. When the density of D protein in the infant is greater than in the mother, the balance is in favour of the infant who may attain a significant developmental advantage when conceived in the cold season.

  13. RNase H-dependent PCR (rhPCR: improved specificity and single nucleotide polymorphism detection using blocked cleavable primers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Powers Kristy M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The polymerase chain reaction (PCR is commonly used to detect the presence of nucleic acid sequences both in research and diagnostic settings. While high specificity is often achieved, biological requirements sometimes necessitate that primers are placed in suboptimal locations which lead to problems with the formation of primer dimers and/or misamplification of homologous sequences. Results Pyrococcus abyssi (P.a. RNase H2 was used to enable PCR to be performed using blocked primers containing a single ribonucleotide residue which are activated via cleavage by the enzyme (rhPCR. Cleavage occurs 5'-to the RNA base following primer hybridization to the target DNA. The requirement of the primer to first hybridize with the target sequence to gain activity eliminates the formation of primer-dimers and greatly reduces misamplification of closely related sequences. Mismatches near the scissile linkage decrease the efficiency of cleavage by RNase H2, further increasing the specificity of the assay. When applied to the detection of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, rhPCR was found to be far more sensitive than standard allele-specific PCR. In general, the best discrimination occurs when the mismatch is placed at the RNA:DNA base pair. Conclusion rhPCR eliminates the formation of primer dimers and markedly improves the specificity of PCR with respect to off-target amplification. These advantages of the assay should find utility in challenging qPCR applications such as genotyping, high level multiplex assays and rare allele detection.

  14. Molecular definition of red cell Rh haplotypes by tightly linked SphI RFLPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C H; Reid, M E; Chen, Y; Coghlan, G; Okubo, Y

    1996-01-01

    The Rh blood group system of human red cells contains five major antigens D, C/c, and E/e (the latter four designated "non-D") that are specified by eight gene complexes known as Rh haplotypes. In this paper, we report on the mapping of RH locus and identification of a set of SphI RFLPs that are tightly linked with the Rh structural genes. Using exon-specific probes, we have localized the SphI cleavage sites resulting in these DNA markers and derived a comprehensive map for the RH locus. It was found that the SphI fragments encompassing exons 4-7 of the Rh genes occur in four banding patterns or frameworks that correspond to the distribution and segregation of the common Rh haplotypes. This linkage disequilibrium allowed a genotype-phenotype correlation and direct determination of Rh zygosity related to the Rh-positive or Rh-negative status (D/D, D/d, and d/d). Studies on the occurrence of SphI RFLPs in a number of rare Rh variants indicated that Rh phenotypic diversity has taken place on different haplotype backgrounds and has arisen by diverse genetic mechanisms. The molecular definition of Rh haplotypes by SphI RFLP frameworks should provide a useful procedure for genetic counseling and prenatal assessment of Rh alloimmunization.

  15. Chemoselective hydrogenation of arenes by PVP supported Rh nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mahmoud; Poreddy, Raju; Philippot, Karine; Riisager, Anders; Garcia-Suarez, Eduardo J

    2016-12-06

    Polyvinylpyrrolidone-stabilized Rh nanoparticles (RhNPs/PVP) of ca. 2.2 nm in size were prepared by the hydrogenation of the organometallic complex [Rh(η(3)-C3H5)3] in the presence of PVP and evaluated as a catalyst in the hydrogenation of a series of arene substrates as well as levulinic acid and methyl levulinate. The catalyst showed excellent activity and selectivity towards aromatic ring hydrogenation compared to other reported transition metal-based catalysts under mild reaction conditions (room temperature and 1 bar H2). Furthermore, it was shown to be a highly promising catalyst for the hydrogenation of levulinic acid and methyl levulinate in water leading to quantitative formation of the fuel additive γ-valerolactone under moderate reaction conditions compared to previously reported catalytic systems.

  16. Rh(II)-catalyzed Reactions of Diazoesters with Organozinc Reagents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panish, Robert; Selvaraj, Ramajeyam; Fox, Joseph M.

    2015-01-01

    Rh(II)-catalyzed reactions of diazoesters with organozinc reagents are described. Diorganozinc reagents participate in reactions with diazo compounds by two distinct, catalyst-dependent mechanisms. With bulky diisopropylethylacetate ligands, the reaction mechanism is proposed to involve initial formation of a Rh-carbene and subsequent carbozincation to give a zinc enolate. With Rh2(OAc)4, it is proposed that initial formation of an azine precedes 1,2-addition by an organozinc reagent. This straightforward route to the hydrazone products provides a useful method for preparing chiral quaternary α-aminoesters or pyrazoles via the Paul-Knorr condensation with 1,3-diketones. Crossover and deuterium labeling experiments provide evidence for the mechanisms proposed. PMID:26241081

  17. Crystallographic shear mechanisms in Rh one-dimensional oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernando, María; Boulahya, Khalid; Parras, Marina; González-Calbet, José M.

    2005-02-01

    Electron diffraction and high resolution electron microscopy have been used to characterize two new one-dimensional superstructures in the A sbnd Rh sbnd O system (A = Ca, Sr) related to the 2H-ABO 3-type. They are formed by the intergrowth of n A 3A'BO 6 blocks, showing the Sr 4RhO 6-type, with A 12A' 2B 8O 30 blocks, constituted by two A 3O 9 and two A 3A'O 6 layers alternating in the stacking sequence 1:1, leading to the A 27A' 7B 13O 60 ( n=5) and A 30A' 8B 14O 66 ( n=6) compositions. A crystallographic shear mechanism is proposed to describe the structural relationship between Sr 4RhO 6 (A 3A'BO 6-type) and the new superstructures.

  18. Evolution of triaxial shapes at large isospin: Rh isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navin, A.; Rejmund, M.; Bhattacharyya, S.; Palit, R.; Bhat, G. H.; Sheikh, J. A.; Lemasson, A.; Bhattacharya, S.; Caamaño, M.; Clément, E.; Delaune, O.; Farget, F.; de France, G.; Jacquot, B.

    2017-04-01

    The rotational response as a function of neutron-proton asymmetry for the very neutron-rich isotopes of Rh (116-119Rh) has been obtained from the measurement of prompt γ rays from isotopically identified fragments, produced in fission reactions at energies around the Coulomb barrier. The measured energy ;signature; splitting of the yrast bands, when compared with the Triaxial Projected Shell Model (TPSM) calculations, shows the need for large, nearly constant, triaxial deformations. The present results are compared with global predictions for the existence of non axial shapes in the periodic table in the case of very neutron-rich nuclei Rh isotopes. The predicted trend of a second local maximum for a triaxial shape around N ∼ 74 is not found.

  19. Finite-temperature magnetism of FeRh compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polesya, S.; Mankovsky, S.; Ködderitzsch, D.; Minár, J.; Ebert, H.

    2016-01-01

    The temperature dependent stability of the magnetic phases of FeRh were investigated by means of total energy calculations with magnetic disorder treated within the uncompensated disordered local moment approach. In addition, Monte Carlo simulations based on the extended Heisenberg model have been performed, using exchange coupling parameters obtained from first principles. The crucial role and interplay of two factors in the metamagnetic transition in FeRh has been revealed, namely the dependence of the Fe-Fe exchange coupling parameters on the temperature-governed degree of magnetic disorder in the system and the stabilizing nature of the induced magnetic moment on Rh-sites. An important observation is the temperature dependence of these two competing factors.

  20. Physical Modelling Of The Steel Flow In RH Apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieprzyca J.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of vacuum steel degassing using RH methods depends on many factors. One of the most important are hydrodynamic processes occurring in the ladle and vacuum chamber. It is always hard and expensive to determine the flow character and the way of steel mixing in industrial unit; thus in this case, methods of physical modelling are applied. The article presents the results of research carried out on the water physical model of RH apparatus concerning the influence of the flux value of inert gas introduced through the suck legs on hydrodynamic conditions of the process. Results of the research have visualization character and are presented graphically as a RTD curves. The main aim of such research is to optimize the industrial vacuum steel degassing process by means of RH method.

  1. Magnetism in segregated bimetallic CoRh nanoclusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berlanga-Ramirez, E.O. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, 78000 San Luis Potosi, SLP (Mexico)]. E-mail: berlanga@dec1.ifisica.uaslp.mx; Aguilera-Granja, F. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, 78000 San Luis Potosi, SLP (Mexico); Montejano-Carrizales, J.M. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, 78000 San Luis Potosi, SLP (Mexico); Diaz-Ortiz, A. [Centro Nacional de Supercomputo, IPICyT, Apartado Postal 3-74 Tangamanga, 78231 San Luis Potosi, SLP (Mexico); Michaelian, K. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. 20-364, 01000 DF (Mexico); Vega, A. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Atomica y Optica, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2004-12-31

    The magnetic properties of free-standing ConRhm clusters (N=n+m{approx}110 and n{approx}m) of three different symmetries: cubo-octahedral, icosahedral and HCP, were investigated in the segregated case. The initial geometrical structures constructed at Rh bulk distances were relaxed with a many-body Gupta potential to obtain the cluster geometries and energies. We find that the lowest energy is associated with the HCP structure. The relaxed interatomic distance for all the structures is slightly lower than the Rh bulk distance. The spin-polarized electronic structure and related magnetic properties of these optimized geometries were calculated by solving self-consistently a spd tight-binding Hamiltonian. The magnetic moment of the Rh atoms shows strong dependence on the position and environment, whereas the Co atoms show a smoother dependence. Results are compared with the experimental data and with other theoretical calculations available in the literature.

  2. Evolution of triaxial shapes at large isospin: Rh isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Navin

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The rotational response as a function of neutron–proton asymmetry for the very neutron-rich isotopes of Rh (116–119Rh has been obtained from the measurement of prompt γ rays from isotopically identified fragments, produced in fission reactions at energies around the Coulomb barrier. The measured energy “signature” splitting of the yrast bands, when compared with the Triaxial Projected Shell Model (TPSM calculations, shows the need for large, nearly constant, triaxial deformations. The present results are compared with global predictions for the existence of non axial shapes in the periodic table in the case of very neutron-rich nuclei Rh isotopes. The predicted trend of a second local maximum for a triaxial shape around N∼74 is not found.

  3. The CO methanation on Rh/CeO 2 and CeO 2/Rh model catalysts: a comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenewein, B.; Fuchs, M.; Hayek, K.

    2003-06-01

    Like other reducible oxides, ceria promotes the CO methanation reaction on noble metals, but after high-temperature reduction the promotion is usually reduced and limited to transient conditions. We studied the effect of low- and high-temperature reduction on two types of Rh/ceria model catalysts: "thin film catalysts" consisting of well-defined regular Rh nanoparticles partly embedded in the crystalline ceria support, and "inverse catalysts", i.e. UHV grown ceria submonolayers on polycrystalline Rh surfaces. The turnover rates on either catalyst were related to the free Rh surface area and to the dimensions of the metal-oxide boundary. On thin film catalysts the rates decrease strongly with reduction temperature up to 723 K while no significant structural changes are detectable by ex situ electron microscopy. On ceria-modified surfaces the reaction is initially favoured after reduction below 573 K, but promotion converts to inhibition with increasing reduction temperature. The changing number of Ce III/Ce IV ions on the surface, the oxygen transport to and from the interface, and changes in the free Rh surface area resulting from spreading and reordering of the ceria overlayer are discussed as possible reasons for the observed effects.

  4. Angular distribution of Rh atoms desorbed from ion-bombarded Rh l brace 100 r brace : Effect of local environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maboudian, R.; Postawa, Z.; El-Maazawi, M.; Garrison, B.J.; Winograd, N. (Department of Chemistry, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (USA))

    1990-10-15

    Energy-resolved angular distributions of Rh atoms desorbed by 5 keV Ar-ion bombardment of the Rh{l brace}100{r brace} surface are measured with use of a multiphoton resonance ionization technique. The results are shown to be in good agreement with molecular-dynamics simulations of the ion-impact event using the same interaction potential optimized previously to describe desorption from Rh{l brace}111{r brace}. In addition, by analyzing contour plots of the surface potential energy, the trend in the experimental results for Rh{l brace}100{r brace} and those previously published for Rh{l brace}111{r brace} are well explained. Based on this analysis, it is concluded that the peak in the polar-angle distribution of neutral particles desorbed from ion-bombarded single crystals is mainly determined by the relative positions of surface atoms which influence the trajectory of an exiting particle via channeling and blocking. Moreover, the anisotropy of the momentum imparted to the surface atoms in the last collision leads to an enhancement of ejection along certain crystallographic directions.

  5. Ethanol Oxidation Reaction on Tandem Pt/Rh/SnOx Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuong Tu Mai

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available To elucidate the atomic arrangement of a Pt-Rh-Sn ternary catalyst with a high catalytic activity for ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR and high CO2 selectivity, we prepared a tandem Pt/Rh/SnOx, in which a Rh adlayer was deposited on a Pt substrate (Rh coverage: 0.28, followed by depositing several layers of SnOx only on the Rh surface (Sn coverage: 0.07. For reference, Sn was randomly deposited on the Rh-modified Pt (Pt/Rh electrode whose Rh and Sn coverages were 0.22 and 0.36 (random Pt/Rh/SnOx. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy demonstrated that Pt and Rh were metallic, and Sn was largely oxidized. Both Pt/Rh/SnOx electrodes were less positive in onset potential of EOR current density and higher in EOR current density than Pt and Rh/Pt electrodes. In situ infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy demonstrated that the tandem Pt/Rh/SnOx electrode did not produce acetic acid, but produced CO2 in contrast to the random Pt/Rh/SnOx, suggesting that a tandem arrangement of Pt, Rh and SnOx, in which the Pt and SnOx sites were separated by the Rh sites, was effective for selective CO2 production. In the electrostatic electrolysis at 0.5 V vs. RHE, the tandem Pt/Rh/SnOx electrode exhibited higher EOR current density than the Pt and Pt/Rh electrodes after 1.5 h.

  6. Application of aluminum-supported Pd, Rh, and Rh-Pd nanoparticles in supercritical carbon dioxide system for hydrodebromination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ben-Zen; Sun, Yu-Jie; Chen, Yan-Hua; Yak, Hwa Kwang; Yu, Jya-Jyun; Liao, Weisheng; Chiu, KongHwa; Peng, Shie-Ming

    2016-08-01

    Al-powder-supported Pd, Rh, and Rh-Pd catalysts were synthesized through a spontaneous redox reaction in aqueous solutions. These catalysts hydrodebrominated 4- and 4,4'-bromodiphenyl ethers in supercritical carbon dioxide at 200 atm CO2 containing 10 atm H2 and 80 °C in 1 h. Diphenyl ether was the major product of Pd/Al. Rh/Al and Rh-Pd/Al further hydrogenated two benzene rings of diphenyl ether to form dicyclohexyl ether. The hydrogenolysis of CO bonds on diphenyl ether over Rh/Al and Rh-Pd/Al was observed to generate cyclohexanol and cyclohexane (Rh-Pd/Al among three catalysts is suggested to be used for ex situ degradation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in supercritical carbon dioxide. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Deposition of CdS nanoparticles on MIL-53(Fe) metal-organic framework with enhanced photocatalytic degradation of RhB under visible light irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Longxing; Deng, Guihua; Lu, Wencong; Pang, Siwei; Hu, Xing

    2017-07-01

    A novel composite, CdS/MIL-53(Fe), was successfully fabricated via a facile solvothermal method and characterized with XRD, SEM, TEM, XPS, FT-IR and UV-vis DRS. The results showed that the fabrication was able to result in a good dispersion of CdS nanoparticles onto MIL-53(Fe). The photocatalytic activities of the as-synthesized composite were investigated through the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) in water under visible light irradiation. It was found that the composite prepared at the mass ratio of CdS to MIL-53(Fe) of 1.5:1 displayed the highest photocatalytic activity. An approximately 92.5% of photocatalytic degradation of RhB was achieved at 0.5 g/L of 1.5-CdS/MIL dosage, 10 mg/L of initial RhB concentration and 23 °C of reaction temperature under visible light irradiation. The RhB photocatalytic degradation followed well the first-order kinetics equation and the increased catalyst dosage and optimal initial RhB concentration were responsible for the enhanced photocatalytic degradation. Quenching tests revealed that the predominant free radicals in the CdS/MIL-(53)-RhBaq-visible light system was O2-rad ; nevertheless, h+ and rad OH also contributed to a certain degree. The enhanced photocatalytic performance was ascribed to the formation of heterojunction structure between CdS and MIL-53(Fe) which significantly suppressed the recombination of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. Moreover, the reusability of 1.5-CdS/MIL composite was also studied.

  8. Negative magnetocaloric effect in Fe 1-x Rh x compounds

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    International audience; On increasing temperature, the Fe1-xRhx alloys present a transition from an antiferromagnetic to a ferromagnetic state, which induces a negative magnetocaloric effect (MCE). The magnetocaloric effect, in particular of the Fe0.49Rh0.51 alloy, was studied by direct measurements and accordingto specific heat measurements. Here, we report the recent results obtained on the annealed Fe0.48Rh0.52 compound we prepared by arc melting. The isothermal entropy change ΔS allowing ...

  9. Structure sensitivity of CO dissociation on Rh surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mavrikakis, Manos; Baumer, M.; Freund, H.J.;

    2002-01-01

    Using periodic self-consistent density functional calculations it is shown that the barrier for CO dissociation is similar to120 kJ/mol lower on the stepped Rh(211) surface than on the close-packed Rh(111) surface. The stepped surface binds molecular CO and the dissociation products more strongly...... than the flat surface, but the effect is considerably weaker than the effect of surface structure on the dissociation barrier. Our findings are compared with available experimental data, and the consequences for CO activation in methanation and Fischer-Tropsch reactions are discussed....

  10. Tailoring magnetic frustration in strained epitaxial FeRh films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, Ralf; Kruk, Robert; Gruner, Markus E.; Brand, Richard A.; Wang, Di; Schlabach, Sabine; Beck, Andre; Provenzano, Virgil; Pentcheva, Rossitza; Wende, Heiko; Hahn, Horst

    2016-03-01

    We report on a strain-induced martensitic transformation, accompanied by a suppression of magnetic order in epitaxial films of chemically disordered FeRh. X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and electronic structure calculations reveal that the lowering of symmetry (from cubic to tetragonal) imposed by the epitaxial relation leads to a further, unexpected, tetragonal-to-orthorhombic transition, triggered by a band-Jahn-Teller-type lattice instability. The collapse of magnetic order is a direct consequence of this structural change, which upsets the subtle balance between ferromagnetic nearest-neighbor interactions arising from Fe-Rh hybridization and frustrated antiferromagnetic coupling among localized Fe moments at larger distances.

  11. [Prophylaxis of RhD isoimmunization: a proposal of management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Lisa Ferreira; Pinto, Graça; Serrano, Fátima; Soares, Clara; Alegria, Ana Maria

    2003-01-01

    Isoimmunisation RhD has an important perinatal morbidity and mortality. Since prophylaxis was introduced in the sixties, the incidence of haemolytic disease of the newborn has decreased. When administred in due time and in the right dosage anti-D immunoglobulin can prevent sensibilization. Nevertheless new cases continue to occur, underlying the need for an urgent improvement of our conduct. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the pathology of RhD isoimmunization and of aspects involved in its prophylaxis.

  12. Prophylaxis of RhD Isoimmunization: a Proposal of Management

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    A isoimunização RhD tem uma importante morbilidade e mortalidade perinatal. A introdução no fim dos anos 60 da imunoprofilaxia veio diminuir drasticamente a incidência desta patologia. A profilaxia com imunoglobulina anti-D, quando administrada na dose correcta e atempadamente, impede a isoimunização RhD. Porém, os novos casos que continuam a surgir anualmente, alertam-nos para a necessidade de melhorar urgentemente a nossa conduta nestas situações. Neste artigo os autores apresentam...

  13. Thermodynamics of Rh nuclear spins calculated by exact diagonalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lefmann, K.; Ipsen, J.; Rasmussen, F.B.

    2000-01-01

    We have employed the method of exact diagonalization to obtain the full-energy spectrum of a cluster of 16 Rh nuclear spins, having dipolar and RK interactions between first and second nearest neighbours only. We have used this to calculate the nuclear spin entropy, and our results at both positive...... and negative temperatures follow the second-order high-temperature series expansions for \\T\\ > 3 nK. Our findings do not agree with the measurements of the former Rh experiment in Helsinki, where a deviation is seen at much higher temperatures. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  14. Teriparatide (rhPTH) treatment in children with syndromic hypoparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matarazzo, Patrizia; Tuli, Gerdi; Fiore, Ludovica; Mussa, Alessandro; Feyles, Francesca; Peiretti, Valentina; Lala, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Subcutaneous recombinant human parathormone [rhPTH (1-34)] has been introduced for hypoparathyroidism treatment, allowing avoidance of vitamin D and calcium side effects. Our objective was to evaluate rhPTH (1-34) safety and efficacy in pediatric patients with genetically proved syndromic hypoparathyroidism. The study was a 2.5-year self-controlled trial on six pediatric patients (four males, two females, age 9.8±5.1 years) with syndromic hypoparathyroidism including three with autoimmune polyendocrinopathy candidiasis ectodermal dysplasia (APECED) syndrome, two with DiGeorge syndrome, and one with hypoparathyroidism-deafness-renal dysplasia syndrome. We compared patients' clinical and biochemical outcome of conventional treatment based on oral administration of calcium (1-1.5 g/day in three doses) plus oral calcitriol (6.5-33 ng/kg per day in two to three doses) with the outcome obtained with rhPTH (1-34) (teriparatide, 12.5 μg bid). Therapy shift was conducted introducing rhPTH (1-34) while progressively withdrawing calcium and vitamin D. Blood calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, and urinary calcium-to-creatinine ratio (mg/mg) before and during rhPTH therapy were compared. rhPTH treatment allowed complete calcium and vitamin D withdrawal in two patients, calcium withdrawal in three and reduction of vitamin D dose in two. During rhPTH (1-34), mean blood calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase were not significantly modified, whereas significant reduction of the calciuria-to-creatininuria ratio (0.55±0.31 vs. 0.1±0.1, p=0.02) was obtained. The number of tetanic episodes was reduced in four patients during teriparatide treatment compared to conventional treatment. In children with syndromic hypoparathyroidism, substitutive treatment with rhPTH (1-34) maintains adequate blood calcium levels and allows prompt normalization of urinary calcium excretion, through direct action on the kidney and through calcium and vitamin D therapy layoff.

  15. Relationship between surface microstructure and properties of supported catalyst Rh/Ys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳忠阳; 潘平来; 朱长城; 王晓筠; 袁国卿

    1997-01-01

    The inner structure of Rh/Ys,a novel high efficiency supported catalyst,and the spreading of Rh on the Ys surface were analyzed through electron transmission microscopy and scanning tunnel microscopy.The relationship between the distribution of Rh over the support and the preparation temperature of th catalyst was determined.The formation of Rh-C bond was confirmed by XPS and far-IR spectra.The loss of Rh from the surface of the support and the catalytic activity under different preparation conditions have been compared.The internal factors for the high activity and high stability of the novel Rh/Ys catalyst have been discussed.

  16. GnRH Analogues in the Prevention of Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alama, Pilar; Bellver, Jose; Vidal, Carmen; Giles, Juan

    2013-01-01

    The GnRH analogue (agonist and antagonist GnRH) changed ovarian stimulation. On the one hand, it improved chances of pregnancy to obtain more oocytes and better embryos. This leads to an ovarian hyper-response, which can be complicated by the ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). On the other hand, the GnRH analogue can prevent the incidence of OHSS: GnRH antagonist protocols, GnRH agonist for triggering final oocyte maturation, either together or separately, coasting, and the GnRH analogue may prove useful for avoiding OHSS in high-risk patients. We review these topics in this article. PMID:23825982

  17. PERIODIC COMPLEMENTARY BINARY SEQUENCE PAIRS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XuChengqian; ZhaoXiaoqun

    2002-01-01

    A new set of binary sequences-Periodic Complementary Binary Sequence Pair (PCSP)is proposed .A new class of block design-Difference Family Pair (DFP)is also proposed .The relationship between PCSP and DFP,the properties and exising conditions of PCSP and the recursive constructions for PCSP are given.

  18. PERIODIC COMPLEMENTARY BINARY SEQUENCE PAIRS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Chengqian; Zhao Xiaoqun

    2002-01-01

    A new set of binary sequences-Periodic Complementary Binary Sequence Pair (PCSP) is proposed. A new class of block design-Difference Family Pair (DFP) is also proposed.The relationship between PCSP and DFP, the properties and existing conditions of PCSP and the recursive constructions for PCSP are given.

  19. Assessment Strategies for Pair Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Jan Hendrik; Mentz, Elsa; Meyer, Lukas

    2009-01-01

    Although pair programming has proved its usefulness in teaching and learning programming skills, it is difficult to assess the individual roles and abilities of students whilst programming in pairs. (Note that within this manuscript, the term assessment refers to evaluating individual student performance.) Assessing only the outcomes of a pair…

  20. Instability of vortex pair leapfrogging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tophøj, Laust; Aref, Hassan

    2013-01-01

    pairs fly off to infinity, and a "walkabout" mode, where the vortices depart from leapfrogging but still remain within a finite distance of one another. We show numerically that this transition is more gradual, a result that we relate to earlier investigations of chaotic scattering of vortex pairs [L...

  1. Kramers Pairs in configuration interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avery, John Scales; Avery, James Emil

    2003-01-01

    The theory of symmetry-preserving Kramers pair creation operators is reviewed and formulas for applying these operators to configuration interaction calculations are derived. A new and more general type of symmetry-preserving pair creation operator is proposed and shown to commute with the total...

  2. Stereo Pair: Patagonia, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This view of northern Patagonia, near El Cain, Argentina shows complexly eroded volcanic terrain, with basalt mesas, sinkholes, landslide debris, playas, and relatively few integrated drainage channels. Surrounding this site (but also extending far to the east) is a broad plateau capped by basalt, the Meseta de Somuncura. Here, near the western edge of the plateau, erosion has broken through the basalt cap in a variety of ways. On the mesas, water-filled sinkholes (lower left) are most likely the result of the collapse of old lava tubes. Along the edges of the mesas (several locations) the basalt seems to be sliding away from the plateau in a series of slices. Water erosion by overland flow is also evident, particularly in canyons where vegetation blankets the drainage channels (green patterns, bottom of image). However, overland water flow does not extend very far at any location. This entire site drains to local playas, some of which are seen here (blue). While the water can reach the playas and then evaporate, what becomes of the eroded rock debris? Wind might excavate some of the finer eroded debris, but the fate of much of the missing bedrock remains mysterious.This cross-eyed stereoscopic image pair was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, combined with an enhanced Landsat 7 satellite color image. The topography data are used to create two differing perspectives of a single image, one perspective for each eye. In doing so, each point in the image is shifted slightly, depending on its elevation. When stereoscopically merged, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions.Landsat satellites have provided visible light and infrared images of the Earth continuously since 1972. SRTM topographic data match the 30-meter (99-foot) spatial resolution of most Landsat images and provide a valuable complement for studying the historic and growing Landsat data archive. The Landsat 7

  3. RhBG and RhCG, the putative ammonia transporters, are expressed in the same cells in the distal nephron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quentin, Fabienne; Eladari, Dominique; Cheval, Lydie; Lopez, Claude; Goossens, Dominique; Colin, Yves; Cartron, Jean-Pierre; Paillard, Michel; Chambrey, Régine

    2003-03-01

    Two nonerythroid homologs of the blood group Rh proteins, RhCG and RhBG, which share homologies with specific ammonia transporters in primitive organisms and plants, could represent members of a new family of proteins involved in ammonia transport in the mammalian kidney. Consistent with this hypothesis, the expression of RhCG was recently reported at the apical pole of all connecting tubule (CNT) cells as well as in intercalated cells of collecting duct (CD). To assess the localization along the nephron of RhBG, polyclonal antibodies against the Rh type B glycoprotein were generated. In immunoblot experiments, a specific polypeptide of Mr approximately 50 kD was detected in rat kidney cortex and in outer and inner medulla membrane fractions. Immunocytochemical studies revealed RhBG expression in distal nephron segments within the cortical labyrinth, medullary rays, and outer and inner medulla. RhBG expression was restricted to the basolateral membrane of epithelial cells. The same localization was observed in rat and mouse kidney. RT-PCR analysis on microdissected rat nephron segments confirmed that RhBG mRNAs were chiefly expressed in CNT and cortical and outer medullary CD. Double immunostaining with RhCG demonstrated that RhBG and RhCG were coexpressed in the same cells, but with a basolateral and apical localization, respectively. In conclusion, RhBG and RhCG are present in a major site of ammonia secretion in the kidney, i.e., the CNT and CD, in agreement with their putative role in ammonium transport.

  4. Structure and properties of samarium overlayer and Sm/Rh surface alloy on Rh(1O0)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The structure and properties of Sm overlayer and Sm/Rh surface alloy have been investigated with Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), low energy electron diffraction (LEED), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and temperature programmed desorption spectroscopy (TDS). The growth of Sm on Rh(100) at room temperature (RT) appears following the Stranski-Krastanov growth mode and only the trivalent state Sm is observed from XPS results. Thermal treatment of the Sm film at 900 K leads to the formation of ordered surface alloy which shows the c(5 2 × 2 )R45°and c(2 × 2) LEED patterns. Annealing the Sm film at temperature above 400 K makes the binding energy (B.E.) of Sm 3d5/2 shift to higher energy by 0.7 eV, which indicates charge transfer from Sm to Rh(100) substrate, causing the increase of CO desorption temperature.

  5. Possible antiferromagnetic interactions in NdRh 3B 2 and CeRh 3B 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, K.; Kohara, T.; Kitaoka, Y.; Asayama, K.

    1987-06-01

    The magnetic phase transition and spin arrangement in the ordered phase of NdRh3B2 and CeRh3B2 have been studied by measurements of magnetic susceptibility and heat capacity of the isostructural compounds RRh3B2 ( R: La, Ce, Nd, Gd). The existence of small antiferromagnetic interactions between R ions ( R = Nd, Ce) on the neighbouring ferromagnetic chains along the c-axis has been suggested. This model gives another aspect to explain the origin of the anomalous magnetism of CeRh3B2 such as the small value of magnetic moment in the ordered state and the curious behaviour of susceptibility. The magnitude of the effective moment of Ce has been estimated for the consumption of magnetic entropy of the Ce compound.

  6. Pairing correlations in exotic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Sagawa, H

    2012-01-01

    The BCS and HFB theories which can accommodate the pairing correlations in the ground states of atomic nuclei are presented. As an application of the pairing theories, we investigate the spatial extension of weakly bound Ne and C isotopes by taking into account the pairing correlation with the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) method and a 3-body model, respectively. We show that the odd-even staggering in the reaction cross sections of $^{30,31,32}$Ne and $^{14,15,16}$C are successfully reproduced, and thus the staggering can be attributed to the unique role of pairing correlations in nuclei far from the stability line. A correlation between a one-neutron separation energy and the anti-halo effect is demonstrated for $s$- and p-waves using the HFB wave functions. We also propose effective density-dependent pairing interactions which reproduce both the neutron-neutron ($nn$) scattering length at zero density and the neutron pairing gap in uniform matter. Then, we apply these interactions to study pairing gaps in ...

  7. Itinerant magnetism in CeRh3B2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Olle; Johansson, Börje; Brooks, M. S. S.

    1989-01-01

    Spin-polarized energy-band calculations, including spin-orbit coupling in the band Hamiltonian, have been performed on CeRh3B2. Good agreement is obtained between theory and experiment concerning the magnetic moment. It is also found that the magnetic moment varies strongly with volume and from...

  8. Matter Matters: Unphysical Properties of the Rh = ct Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Geraint F

    2013-01-01

    It is generally agreed that there is matter in the universe and, in this paper, we show that the existence of matter is extremely problematic for the proposed Rh = ct universe. Considering a dark energy component with an equation of state of w=-1/3, it is shown that the presence of matter destroys the strict expansion properties that define the evolution of Rh = ct cosmologies, distorting the observational properties that are touted as its success. We further examine whether an evolving dark energy component can save this form of cosmological expansion in the presence of matter by resulting in an expansion consistent with a mean value of = -1/3, finding that the presence of mass requires unphysical forms of the dark energy component in the early universe. We conclude that matter in the universe significantly limits the fundamental properties of the Rh = ct cosmology, and that novel, and unphysical, evolution of the matter component would be required to save it. Given this, Rh = ct cosmology is not simpler or...

  9. Altering properties of cerium oxide thin films by Rh doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ševčíková, Klára, E-mail: klarak.sevcikova@seznam.cz [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Department of Surface and Plasma Science, Charles University in Prague, V Holešovičkách 2, 180 00 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); NIMS Beamline Station at SPring-8, National Institute for Materials Science, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Nehasil, Václav, E-mail: nehasil@mbox.troja.mff.cuni.cz [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Department of Surface and Plasma Science, Charles University in Prague, V Holešovičkách 2, 180 00 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Vorokhta, Mykhailo, E-mail: vorohtam@gmail.com [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Department of Surface and Plasma Science, Charles University in Prague, V Holešovičkách 2, 180 00 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Haviar, Stanislav, E-mail: stanislav.haviar@gmail.com [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Department of Surface and Plasma Science, Charles University in Prague, V Holešovičkách 2, 180 00 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Matolín, Vladimír, E-mail: matolin@mbox.troja.mff.cuni.cz [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Department of Surface and Plasma Science, Charles University in Prague, V Holešovičkách 2, 180 00 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); and others

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Thin films of ceria doped by rhodium deposited by RF magnetron sputtering. • Concentration of rhodium has great impact on properties of Rh–CeO{sub x} thin films. • Intensive oxygen migration in films with low concentration of rhodium. • Oxygen migration suppressed in films with high amount of Rh dopants. - Abstract: Ceria containing highly dispersed ions of rhodium is a promising material for catalytic applications. The Rh–CeO{sub x} thin films with different concentrations of rhodium were deposited by RF magnetron sputtering and were studied by soft and hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies, Temperature programmed reaction and X-ray powder diffraction techniques. The sputtered films consist of rhodium–cerium mixed oxide where cerium exhibits a mixed valency of Ce{sup 4+} and Ce{sup 3+} and rhodium occurs in two oxidation states, Rh{sup 3+} and Rh{sup n+}. We show that the concentration of rhodium has a great influence on the chemical composition, structure and reducibility of the Rh–CeO{sub x} thin films. The films with low concentrations of rhodium are polycrystalline, while the films with higher amount of Rh dopants are amorphous. The morphology of the films strongly influences the mobility of oxygen in the material. Therefore, varying the concentration of rhodium in Rh–CeO{sub x} thin films leads to preparing materials with different properties.

  10. Thermoelectric Properties and Application Research of IrRh40-IrRh10 Thermocouples%IrRh40-IrRh10高温热电偶热电性能及应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丹英; 张贺; 吕国义

    2015-01-01

    A high temperature measurement method of bi-alloy of iridium and rhodium was put forward to solve the fracture problem of nega-tive pole of conventional iridium-rhodium thermocouples. The experimental results on a high temperature calibration device show that the IrRh40-IrRh10 thermocouples have good linearity, and the sensitivity is about 3 uV/C. An air temperature probe made by this type of thermocouples is suitable for measurement of high-temperature air flow in the engine development.%针对常规铱铑-铱热电偶负极铱在测试过程容易断裂的问题,提出了采用双铱铑合金热电偶改善其机械性能的方法,并用高温热电偶校准装置对IrRh40-IrRh10热电偶的热电特性进行了研究和验证,表明其热电特性线有良好的线性,灵敏度约为3μV/℃。利用该类型热电偶制作的气流温度传感器,适用于发动机及导弹等武器装备研制试验中高温气流温度的测量。

  11. Direct neutron decay of analogue resonances in 105Rh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Bi-Tao; P.P.Zarubin; U.U.Juravlev

    2006-01-01

    A new method, while takes into account the contribution of direct neutron decay of analogue resonances to the isomeric ratio resulting from (p,n) reaction, is used to analyse the published experimental data for the reaction 104Ru(p,n)104Rh and also estimate a minimum probability of direct decay.

  12. Thermodynamics of Rh nuclear spins calculated by exact diagonalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lefmann, K.; Ipsen, J.; Rasmussen, F.B.;

    2000-01-01

    We have employed the method of exact diagonalization to obtain the full-energy spectrum of a cluster of 16 Rh nuclear spins, having dipolar and RK interactions between first and second nearest neighbours only. We have used this to calculate the nuclear spin entropy, and our results at both positive...

  13. Rh-Catalyzed arylation of fluorinated ketones with arylboronic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Luca S; Pattison, Graham

    2016-09-25

    The Rh-catalyzed arylation of fluorinated ketones with boronic acids is reported. This efficient process allows access to fluorinated alcohols in high yields under mild conditions. Competition experiments suggest that difluoromethyl ketones are more reactive than trifluoromethyl ketones in this process, despite their decreased electronic activation, an effect we postulate to be steric in origin.

  14. Prevention of Rh isoimmunization after spontaneous, massive fetomaternal hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, E M; Freedman, L J; Forouzan, I; Morgan, M A

    1996-09-01

    Massive fetomaternal hemorrhage has been associated with numerous risk factors and can occur spontaneously. The risk is probably greater when a woman who is Rh negative has an ABO-compatible fetus. We report the case of a gravid, A-negative unsensitized patient who came to the hospital at term complaining of decreased fetal movement over the previous 24 hours. During evaluation, the fetal heart rate was found to have decreased beat-to-beat variability and repetitive late decelerations, and the mother was delivered of a 3,005 gA-positive neonate (by cesarean section) with a hemoglobin level of 2.9 g/dL. An acid elution test showed 400 mL of fetal blood in the maternal circulation, and the patient received 23 ampules (6,900 micrograms) of Rh immune globulin postpartum. The patient's condition was observed for 156 days after delivery; she did not become sensitized to the Rh factor. A massive fetomaternal hemorrhage can occur without any antecedent risk factors, with a risk of subsequent morbidity to the neonate. Sensitization can be prevented by prompt administration of adequate amounts of Rh immune globulin.

  15. Pairing Correlations at High Spins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hai-Liang; Dong, Bao-Guo; Zhang, Yan; Fan, Ping; Yuan, Da-Qing; Zhu, Shen-Yun; Zhang, Huan-Qiao; Petrache, C. M.; Ragnarsson, I.; Carlsson, B. G.

    The pairing correcting energies at high spins in 161Lu and 138Nd are studied by comparing the results of the cranked-Nilsson-Strutinsky (CNS) and cranked-Nilsson-Strutinsky-Bogoliubov (CNSB) models. It is concluded that the Coriolis effect rather than the rotational alignment effect plays a major role in the reduction of the pairing correlations in the high spin region. Then we proposed an average pairing correction method which not only better reproduces the experimental data comparing with the CNS model but also enables a clean-cut tracing of the configurations thus the full-spin-range discussion on the various rotating bands.

  16. Insulin receptor signaling in the GnRH neuron plays a role in the abnormal GnRH pulsatility of obese female mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara A DiVall

    Full Text Available Infertility associated with obesity is characterized by abnormal hormone release from reproductive tissues in the hypothalamus, pituitary, and ovary. These tissues maintain insulin sensitivity upon peripheral insulin resistance. Insulin receptor signaling may play a role in the dysregulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH secretion in obesity, but the interdependence of hormone secretion in the reproductive axis and the multi-hormone and tissue dysfunction in obesity hinders investigations of putative contributing factors to the disrupted GnRH secretion. To determine the role of GnRH insulin receptor signaling in the dysregulation of GnRH secretion in obesity, we created murine models of diet-induced obesity (DIO with and without intact insulin signaling in the GnRH neuron. Obese control female mice were infertile with higher luteinizing hormone levels and higher GnRH pulse amplitude and total pulsatile secretion compared to lean control mice. In contrast, DIO mice with a GnRH specific knockout of insulin receptor had improved fertility, luteinizing hormone levels approaching lean mice, and GnRH pulse amplitude and total secretion similar to lean mice. Pituitary responsiveness was similar between genotypes. These results suggest that in the obese state, insulin receptor signaling in GnRH neurons increases GnRH pulsatile secretion and consequent LH secretion, contributing to reproductive dysfunction.

  17. Probing the interaction of Rh, Co and bimetallic Rh-Co nanoparticles with the CeO2 support: catalytic materials for alternative energy generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, E; Pusztai, P; Óvári, L; Oszkó, A; Erdőhelyi, A; Papp, C; Steinrück, H-P; Kónya, Z; Kiss, J

    2015-10-28

    The interaction of CeO2-supported Rh, Co and bimetallic Rh-Co nanoparticles, which are active catalysts in hydrogen production via steam reforming of ethanol, a process related to renewable energy generation, was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and low energy ion scattering (LEIS). Furthermore, diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS) of adsorbed CO as a probe molecule was used to characterize the morphology of metal particles. At small loadings (0.1%), Rh is in a much dispersed state on ceria, while at higher contents (1-5%), Rh forms 2-8 nm particles. Between 473-673 K pronounced oxygen transfer from ceria to Rh is observed and at 773 K significant agglomeration of Rh occurs. On reduced ceria, XPS indicates a possible electron transfer from Rh to ceria. The formation of smaller ceria crystallites upon loading with Co was concluded from XRD and HRTEM; for 10% Co, the CeO2 particle size decreased from 27.6 to 10.7 nm. A strong dissolution of Co into ceria and a certain extent of encapsulation by ceria were deduced by XRD, XPS and LEIS. In the bimetallic system, the presence of Rh enhances the reduction of cobalt and ceria. During thermal treatments, reoxidation of Co occurs, and Rh agglomeration as well as oxygen migration from ceria to Rh are hindered in the presence of cobalt.

  18. Rapid direct action of estradiol in GnRH neurons: findings and implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ei eTerasawa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Estradiol plays a pivotal role in the control of GnRH neuronal function and female reproduction. While positive and negative feedback actions of estradiol that enhance and suppress release of GnRH and LH are primarily mediated through estrogen receptor alpha (ERα located in interneurons, a series of recent studies in our laboratory indicate that rapid excitatory actions of estradiol also directly modify GnRH neuronal activity. We observed this phenomenon in cultured primate GnRH neurons, but similar rapid direct actions of estradiol are also described in cultured GnRH neurons and GFP-labeled GnRH neurons of mice. Importantly, rapid direct action of estradiol in GnRH neurons is mediated through membrane or membrane associated receptors, such as GPR30, STX-sensitive receptors, and ERβ. In this review, possible implications of this rapid estradiol action in GnRH neurons are discussed.

  19. Endogenous kisspeptin tone is a critical excitatory component of spontaneous GnRH activity and the GnRH response to NPY and CART

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Saurabh; Kirigiti, Melissa; Millar, Robert P.; Grove, Kevin L.; Smith, M. Susan

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Kisspeptin is the major excitatory regulator of GnRH neurons and is responsible for basal GnRH/LH release and the GnRH/LH surge. Although it is widely assumed, based on mutations in kisspeptin and Kiss1R, that kisspeptin acts to sustain basal GnRH neuronal activity, there have been no studies to investigate whether endogenous basal kisspeptin tone plays a direct role in basal spontaneous GnRH neuronal excitability. It is also of interest to examine possible interactions between endogenous kisspeptin tone and other neuropeptides that have direct effects on GnRH neurons, such as NPY or CART, since the activity of all these neuropeptides changes during states of negative energy balance. Methods Loose cell-attached and whole cell current-clamp patch recordings were made from GnRH-GFP neurons in hypothalamic slices from female and male rats. Results Kisspeptin activated GnRH neurons in a concentration dependent manner with an EC50 of 3.32 ± 0.02 nM. Surprisingly, a kisspeptin antagonist, Peptide 347, suppressed spontaneous activity in GnRH neurons, demonstrating the essential nature of the endogenous kisspeptin tone. Furthermore, inhibition of endogenous kisspeptin tone blocked the direct activation of GnRH cells that occurs in response to antagonism of NPY Y5R or by CART. Conclusions Our electrophysiology studies suggest that basal endogenous kisspeptin tone is not only essential for spontaneous GnRH neuronal firing, but it is also required for the net excitatory effects of other neuropeptides, such as CART or NPY antagonism, on GnRH neurons. Therefore, endogenous kisspeptin tone could serve as the linchpin in GnRH activation or inhibition. PMID:25011649

  20. Switching substrate specificity of AMT/MEP/ Rh proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhäuser, Benjamin; Dynowski, Marek; Ludewig, Uwe

    2014-01-01

    In organisms from all kingdoms of life, ammonia and its conjugated ion ammonium are transported across membranes by proteins of the AMT/Rh family. Efficient and successful growth often depends on sufficient ammonium nutrition. The proteins mediating this transport, the so called Ammonium Transporter (AMT) or Rhesus like (Rh) proteins, share a very similar trimeric overall structure and a high sequence similarity even throughout the kingdoms. Even though structural components of the transport mechanism, like an external substrate recruitment site, an essential twin histidine pore motif, a phenylalanine gate and the hydrophobic pore are strongly conserved and have been analyzed in detail by molecular dynamic simulations and mutational studies, the substrate(s), which pass the central pores of the AMT/Rh subunits, NH4+, NH3 + H+, NH4+ + H+ or NH3, are still a matter of debate for most proteins, including the best characterized AmtB protein from Escherichia coli. The lack of a robust expression system for functional analysis has hampered proof of structural and mutational studies, although the NH3 transport function for Rh-like proteins is rarely disputed. In plant transporters belonging to the subfamily AMT1, transport is associated with electrical currents, while some plant transporters, notably of the AMT2 type, were suggested to transport NH3 across the membrane, without associated ionic currents. Here we summarize data in favor of each substrate for the distinct AMT/Rh classes, discuss mutants and how they differ in structure and functionality. A common mechanism with deprotonation and subsequent NH3 transport through the central subunit pore is suggested. PMID:25483282

  1. Estrogenic Regulation of the GnRH Neuron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally eRadovick

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive function is regulated by the secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH from the pituitary and the steroid hormones from the gonads. The dynamic changes in the levels of the reproductive hormones regulate secondary sex characteristics, gametogenesis, cellular function and behavior. Hypothalamic GnRH neurons, with cell bodies located in the basal hypothalamus, represent the final common pathway for neuronally derived signals to the pituitary. As such, they serve as integrators of a dizzying array of signals including sensory inputs mediating information about circadian, seasonal, behavioral, pheromonal and emotional cues. Additionally, information about peripheral physiological function may also be included in the integrative signal to the GnRH neuron. These signals may communicate information about metabolic status, disease or infection. Gonadal steroid hormones arguably exert the most important effects on GnRH neuronal function. In both males and females, the gonadal steroid hormones exert negative feedback regulation on axis activity at both the level of the pituitary and the hypothalamus. These negative feedback loops regulate homeostasis of steroid hormone levels. In females, a cyclic reversal of estrogen feedback produces a positive feedback loop at both the hypothalamic and pituitary levels. Central positive feedback results in a dramatic increase in GnRH secretion (Sisk and others 2001; Clarke 1993; Moenter, Brand and Karsch 1992; Xia and others 1992. This is coupled with an increase in pituitary sensitivity to GnRH (Turzillo, DiGregorio and Nett 1995; Savoy-Moore and others 1980, which produces the massive surge in secretion of LH that triggers ovulation.

  2. Stability and in vivo behavior of Rh[16aneS4-diol]211 at complex: a potential precursor for astatine radiopharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruszyński, Marek; Łyczko, Monika; Bilewicz, Aleksander; Zalutsky, Michael R

    2015-05-01

    The heavy halogen (211)At is of great interest for targeted radiotherapy because it decays by the emission of short-range, high-energy α-particles. However, many astatine compounds that have been synthesized are unstable in vivo, providing motivation for seeking other (211)At labeling strategies. One relatively unexplored approach is to utilize prosthetic groups based on astatinated rhodium (III) complex stabilized with a tetrathioether macrocyclic ligand - Rh[16aneS(4)-diol](211)At. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo stability of this complex in comparison to its iodine analog - Rh[16aneS(4)-diol](131)I. Rh[16aneS(4)-diol](211)At and Rh[16aneS(4)-diol](131)I complexes were synthesized and purified by HPLC. The stability of both complexes was evaluated in vitro by incubation in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and human serum at different temperatures. The in vivo behavior of the two radiohalogenated complexes was assessed by a paired-label biodistribution study in normal Balb/c mice. Both complexes were synthesized in high yield and purity. Almost no degradation was observed for Rh[16aneS(4)-diol](131)I in PBS over a 72 h incubation. The astatinated analog exhibited good stability in PBS over 14 h. A slow decline in the percentage of intact complex was observed for both tracers in human serum. In the biodistribution study, retention of (211)At in most tissues was higher than that of (131)I at all time points, especially in spleen and lungs. Renal clearance of Rh[16aneS(4)-diol](211)At and Rh[16aneS(4)-diol](131)I predominated, with 84.1 ± 2.3% and 94.6 ± 0.9% of injected dose excreted via the urine at 4 h. The Rh[16aneS(4)-diol](211)At complex might be useful for constructing prosthetic groups for the astatination of biomolecules and further studies are planned to evaluate this possibility. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Exact solution for generalized pairing

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Feng; J.P. Draayer

    1997-01-01

    An infinite dimensional algebra, which is useful for deriving exact solutions of the generalized pairing problem, is introduced. A formalism for diagonalizing the corresponding Hamiltonian is also proposed. The theory is illustrated with some numerical examples.

  4. Pairing versus quarteting coherence length

    CERN Document Server

    Delion, Doru S

    2015-01-01

    We systematically analyse the coherence length in even-even nuclei. The pairing coherence length in the spin-singlet channel for the effective density dependent delta (DDD) and Gaussian interaction is estimated. We consider in our calculations bound states as well as narrow resonances. It turns out that the pairing gaps given by the DDD interaction are similar to those of the Gaussian potential if one renormalizes the radial width to the nuclear radius. The correlations induced by the pairing interaction have in all considered cases a long range character inside the nucleus and decrease towards the surface. The mean coherence length is larger than the geometrical radius for light nuclei and approaches this value for heavy nuclei. The effect of the temperature and states in continuum is investigated. Strong shell effects are evidenced, especially for protons. We generalize this concept to quartets by considering similar relations, but between proton and neutron pairs. The quartet coherence length has a similar...

  5. Pairing mechanisms for binary stars

    CERN Document Server

    Kouwenhoven, M B N; Goodwin, S P; Zwart, S F Portegies; Kaper, L; 10.1002/asna.200811061

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of the binary population in stellar groupings provides important information about the outcome of the star forming process in different environments. Binarity is also a key ingredient in stellar population studies and is a prerequisite to calibrate the binary evolution channels. In these proceedings we present an overview of several commonly used methods to pair individual stars into binary systems, which we refer to as the pairing function. Many pairing functions are frequently used by observers and computational astronomers, either for the mathematical convenience, or because they roughly describe the expected outcome of the star forming process. We discuss the consequences of each pairing function for the interpretation of observations and numerical simulations. The binary fraction and mass ratio distribution generally depend strongly on the selection of the range in primary spectral type in a sample. These quantities, when derived from a binary survey with a mass-limited sample of target stars, ...

  6. Comparison between a GnRH Agonist and a GnRH Antagonist Protocol for the Same Patient Undergoing IVF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yufeng LI; Yuan LI; Qiaohong LAI; Hanwang ZHANG; Guijin ZHU; Lei JIN; Jing YUE

    2008-01-01

    Summary: In order to compare GnRH agonist with antagonist protocol for the same patient during controlled ovarian stimulation cycles, the in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) outcome was retrospectively studied in 81 patients undergoing 105 agonist protocols and 88 antagonist protocols. The results showed that there was no statistically significant difference in duration of ovarian stimulation, number of ampoules, oocytes retrieved, serum estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P) levels,thickness of endometrium, the zygote-and blastocyst-developmcnt rate between GnRH agonist and antagonist protocols (P>0.05). High quality embryo rate was higher in antagonist protocols, but there was no significant difference between two protocols. Implantation rate and clinical pregnant rate were significantly higher in antagonist protocol (15.82% and 30.26%, respectively) than in agonist protocol (5.26% and 10.64% respectively (P<0.05). It was concluded GnRH antagonist protocol probably improved the outcome of pregnancy of older patients with a history of multiple failure of IVF-ET in a GnRH protocol.

  7. BIOEQUIVALENCE BETWEEN rhGH FOR RECONSTITUTION AND READY-TO-USE rhGH IN TWO LIQUID FORMULATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the bioequivalence between recombinant human growth hormone ( rhGH) for reconstitution, and two dosages of liquid formulation of rhGH [ (15IU)5mg or ( 30IU) l0mg per 3ml].Methods The study drugs were tested in a randomized, single-blind and three-period crossover studies in 24 healthy male subjects. The three drugs were administered by subcutaneous injection at a dose of 0. 2IU/kg body weight. A continuous somatostatin infusion was given in order to suppress the secretion of endogenous GH. The venous blood samples were drawn at different time points to test the serum concentration of GH. The pharmacokinetic parameters were analyzed by statistical methods. Results 90% confidence intervals (CI) of AUC0-24h among three products were all within 80% -125% interval (103.4% -116. 5%, 105. 7% -119. 6% and 91.9% -103. 7%,respectively), and the CIs of Cmax among three products were all within 70%-143% interval ( 91.9%-114. 0%,103. 7%-127. 2% and 81.6%-97. 4%, respectively). There was no statisitical difference of tmax among all the three products. Conclusion These data demonstrate that there is bioequivalence between rhGH for reconstitution and two liquid formulations of rhGH.

  8. Atomic pair-state interferometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nipper, J.; Balewski, Jonathan B.; Krupp, Alexander T.

    2012-01-01

    to measure the phase shift. Although the coupling between pair states is coherent on the time scale of the experiment, a loss of visibility occurs as a pair-state interferometer involves three simultaneously interfering paths and only one of them is phase shifted by the mutual interaction. Despite additional...... dephasing mechanisms, a pulsed Förster coupling sequence allows for observation of coherent dynamics around the Förster resonance....

  9. Dual pairs in fluid dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Gay-Balmaz, François

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a rigorous study of the dual pair structure of the ideal fluid and the dual pair structure for the $n$-dimensional Camassa-Holm (EPDiff) equation, including the proofs of the necessary transitivity results. In the case of the ideal fluid, we show that a careful definition of the momentum maps leads naturally to central extensions of diffeomorphism groups such as the group of quantomorphisms and the Ismagilov central extension.

  10. Pair programming: more than just working together in pairs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Mentz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Pair programming originated in the industry where focus is placed on the development of a programme at the most costand time-effective manner, and within the parameters of quality. In this context, a specific programming code is not developed individually; rather, two people work together in order to ensure a higher quality programming code and to motivate each other to work at a faster pace. The problem with this approach was that novice programmers lacked the social skills to work in pairs as they had not been exposed to this sufficiently at tertiary level. The demand of the industry, especially in terms of programmers needing to be able to programme together, led to the incorporation of pair programming at tertiary level in the late nineties. The pedagogical principles on which any teaching-learning strategy should be built were, however, largely overlooked during this process. This article firstly looks into the semantic and ontological differences between co-operative and collaborative learning and secondly argues that pair programming, within the context of a social constructivist approach to teaching and learning, can be seen as a co-operative teaching-learning strategy. Pair programming is more than just allowing two students to work together on a programming task. The more structured way, in which pair programming needs to be implemented, concur with the principles of co-operative learning. The article concludes that the correct pedagogical application of pair programming as a co-operative teaching-learning strategy in tertiary education will result in improved learning capital.

  11. Deletion of Vax1 from Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH) Neurons Abolishes GnRH Expression and Leads to Hypogonadism and Infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Hanne M; Trang, Crystal; Gong, Ping; Kimura, Ikuo; Pandolfi, Erica C; Mellon, Pamela L

    2016-03-23

    Hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons are at the apex of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis that regulates mammalian fertility. Herein we demonstrate a critical role for the homeodomain transcription factor ventral anterior homeobox 1 (VAX1) in GnRH neuron maturation and show that Vax1 deletion from GnRH neurons leads to complete infertility in males and females. Specifically, global Vax1 knock-out embryos had normal numbers of GnRH neurons at 13 d of gestation, but no GnRH staining was detected by embryonic day 17. To identify the role of VAX1 specifically in GnRH neuron development,Vax1(flox)mice were generated and lineage tracing performed in Vax1(flox/flox):GnRH(cre):RosaLacZ mice. This identified VAX1 as essential for maintaining expression of Gnrh1 The absence of GnRH staining in adult Vax1(flox/flox):GnRH(cre)mice led to delayed puberty, hypogonadism, and infertility. To address the mechanism by which VAX1 maintains Gnrh1 transcription, the capacity of VAX1 to regulate Gnrh1 transcription was evaluated in the GnRH cell lines GN11 and GT1-7. As determined by luciferase and electrophoretic mobility shift assays, we found VAX1 to be a direct activator of the GnRH promoter through binding to four ATTA sites in the GnRH enhancer (E1) and proximal promoter (P), and able to compete with the homeoprotein SIX6 for occupation of the identified ATTA sites in the GnRH promoter. We conclude that VAX1 is expressed in GnRH neurons where it is required for GnRH neuron expression of GnRH and maintenance of fertility in mice. Infertility classified as idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) is characterized by delayed or absent sexual maturation and low sex steroid levels due to alterations in neuroendocrine control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. The incidence of IHH is 1-10 cases per 100,000 births. Although extensive efforts have been invested in identifying genes giving rise to IHH, >50% of cases have unknown genetic origins

  12. Minilaparoscopic radical hysterectomy (mLPS-RH) vs laparoendoscopic single-site radical hysterectomy (LESS-RH) in early stage cervical cancer: a multicenter retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagotti, Anna; Ghezzi, Fabio; Boruta, David M; Scambia, Giovanni; Escobar, Pedro; Fader, Amanda N; Malzoni, Mario; Fanfani, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    To compare the perioperative outcomes of laparoendoscopic single-site radical hysterectomy (LESS-RH) and minilaparoscopic radical hysterectomy (mLPS-RH). Retrospective study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). Seven institutions in Italy. Forty-six patents with early cervical cancer (FIGO stage IA2-IB1/IIA1) were included in the study. Nineteen patients (41.3%) underwent LESS-RH, and 27 (58.7%) underwent mLPS-RH. Pelvic lymph node dissection was performed in all patients. In the LESS-RH group, all surgical procedures were performed through a single umbilical multichannel port. In the mLPS-RH group, the procedure was completed using a 5-mm umbilical optical trocar and 3 additional 3-mm ancillary trocars, placed suprapubically and in the left and right lower abdominal regions. There was no difference in clinicopathologic characteristics at the time of diagnosis between the LESS-RH and mLPS-RH groups. Median operative time was 270 minutes (range, 149-380 minutes) for LESS-RH, and was 180 minutes (range, 90-240 minutes) for mLPS-RH (p = .001). No further differences were detected between the 2 groups insofar as type of radical hysterectomy, number of lymph nodes removed, or perioperative outcomes. In the LESS-RH group, conversion to laparotomy was necessary in 1 patient (5.3%) because of external iliac vein injury, and in another patient, conversion to standard laparoscopy was required because of truncal obesity. In the mLPS-RH group, no conversions were observed; however, a repeat operation was performed to repair a ureteral injury. The percentage of patients discharged 1 day after surgery was significantly higher in the LESS-RH group (57.9%) compared with the mLPS-RH group (25.0%) (p = .03). After a median follow-up of 27 months (range, 9-73 months), only 1 patient, who had undergone mLPS-RH, experienced pelvic recurrence and died of the disease. Both LESS-RH and mLPS-RH are feasible ultra-minimally invasive approaches for performance of radical hysterectomy

  13. Effects of GnRH immunization in sexually mature pony stallions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turkstra, J.A.; Meer, F.J.U.M.; Knaap, J.; Rottier, P.J.M.; Teerds, K.J.; Colenbrander, B.; Meloen, R.H.

    2005-01-01

    Immunization against gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) was studied as an alternative for the commonly used surgical castration in stallions. Two GnRH vaccines comprising non-mineral oil adjuvants were evaluated for their potential to induce high antibody titers directed against GnRH and subsequ

  14. 7 CFR 1955.111 - Sale of real estate for RH purposes (housing).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Sale of real estate for RH purposes (housing). 1955.111 Section 1955.111 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL... Inventory Property Rural Housing (rh) Real Property § 1955.111 Sale of real estate for RH purposes (housing...

  15. File list: ALL.Myo.20.AllAg.Rh-4 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Myo.20.AllAg.Rh-4 hg19 All antigens Muscle Rh-4 SRX018653,SRX018654,SRX018657,S...RX018656 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Myo.20.AllAg.Rh-4.bed ...

  16. File list: ALL.Myo.05.AllAg.Rh-4 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Myo.05.AllAg.Rh-4 hg19 All antigens Muscle Rh-4 SRX018654,SRX018657,SRX018653,S...RX018656 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Myo.05.AllAg.Rh-4.bed ...

  17. File list: ALL.Myo.10.AllAg.Rh-4 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Myo.10.AllAg.Rh-4 hg19 All antigens Muscle Rh-4 SRX018654,SRX018653,SRX018657,S...RX018656 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Myo.10.AllAg.Rh-4.bed ...

  18. A study on weak D and the function of the Rh complex in red blood cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.B. Hemker (Mirte)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractRhesus (Rh) is the most complex of the blood group systems. In this general introduction several aspects of Rh are described. The immunogenicity is responsible for its discovery and establishes its clinical importance. Subsequently the following characteristics of the Rh complex are

  19. File list: ALL.Myo.50.AllAg.Rh-4 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Myo.50.AllAg.Rh-4 hg19 All antigens Muscle Rh-4 SRX018653,SRX018657,SRX018654,S...RX018656 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Myo.50.AllAg.Rh-4.bed ...

  20. Counting pairs of faint galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Woods, D; Richer, H B; Woods, David; Fahlman, Gregory G; Richer, Harvey B

    1995-01-01

    The number of close pairs of galaxies observed to faint magnitude limits, when compared to nearby samples, determines the interaction or merger rate as a function of redshift. The prevalence of mergers at intermediate redshifts is fundamental to understanding how galaxies evolve and the relative population of galaxy types. Mergers have been used to explain the excess of galaxies in faint blue counts above the numbers expected from no-evolution models. Using deep CFHT (I\\leq24) imaging of a ``blank'' field we find a pair fraction which is consistent with the galaxies in our sample being randomly distributed with no significant excess of ``physical'' close pairs. This is contrary to the pair fraction of 34\\%\\pm9\\% found by Burkey {\\it et al.} for similar magnitude limits and using an identical approach to the pair analysis. Various reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. Colors and morphologies of our close pairs are consistent with the bulk of them being random superpositions although, as indicators of int...

  1. Three carbon pairs in Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Docaj, A. [Physics Department, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409-1051 (United States); Estreicher, S.K., E-mail: Stefan.Estreicher@ttu.edu [Physics Department, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409-1051 (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Carbon impurities in Si are common in floating-zone and cast-Si materials. The simplest and most discussed carbon complex is the interstitial-substitutional C{sub i}C{sub s} pair, which readily forms when self-interstitials are present in the material. This pair has three possible configurations, each of which is electrically active. The less common C{sub s}C{sub s} pair has been studied in irradiated material but has also recently been seen in as-grown C-rich cast-Si, which is commonly used to fabricate solar cells. The third pair consists of two interstitial C atoms: C{sub i}C{sub i}. Although its formation probability is low for several reasons, the C{sub i}C{sub i} pair is very stable and electrically inactive. In this contribution, we report preliminary results of first-principles calculations of these three C pairs in Si. The structures, binding energies, vibrational spectra, and electrical activity are predicted.

  2. Ba3MxTi3 -xO9 (M =Ir , Rh): A family of 5 d /4 d -based diluted quantum spin liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R.; Sheptyakov, D.; Khuntia, P.; Rolfs, K.; Freeman, P. G.; Rønnow, H. M.; Dey, Tusharkanti; Baenitz, M.; Mahajan, A. V.

    2016-11-01

    We report the structural and magnetic properties of the 4 d (M = Rh) based and 5 d (M = Ir) based systems Ba3MxTi3 -xO9 (nominally x =0.5 , 1). The studied compositions were found to crystallize in a hexagonal structure with the centrosymmetric space group P 63/m m c . The structures comprise of A2O9 polyhedra [with the A site (possibly) statistically occupied by M and Ti] in which pairs of transition metal ions are stacked along the crystallographic c axis. These pairs form triangular bilayers in the a b plane. The magnetic Rh and Ir ions occupy these bilayers, diluted by Ti ions even for x =1 . These bilayers are separated by a triangular layer which is dominantly occupied by Ti ions. From magnetization measurements we infer strong antiferromagnetic couplings for all of the materials but the absence of any spin-freezing or spin-ordering down to 2 K. Further, specific heat measurements down to 0.35 K show no sign of a phase transition for any of the compounds. Based on these thermodynamic measurements we propose the emergence of a quantum spin liquid ground state for Ba3Rh0.5Ti2.5O9 , and Ba3Ir0.5Ti2.5O9 , in addition to the already reported Ba3IrTi2O9 .

  3. Bone marrow fibrosis and production of anti—rhEPO antibody induced by long—term abministration of rhEPO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LuQJ; WenLQ

    2002-01-01

    Recombinant human erythropoietin(rhEPO) is used extensively in anemic patients on dialysis and other patients,and is considered as very safety and effective in the correction of anemia in these patients.In a safety evaluation recently done in Beagles dogs,mild or moderate bone marrow fibrosis and neutralizing anti-rhEPO IgG production were found in the high dosage group of 1800 U·kg-1 after 13-week subcutaneous administration of rhEPO.The results suggest that long-term administration of rhEPO may result in the occurrence of bone marrow fibrosis and the development of neutralizing antibodies to rhEPO.In clinical practice,it is important to choose an appropriate dose regimen to reduce the risk of antibody production and adverse effects associated with long-term administration of high dose of rhEPO while achieving target hematocrit hevel.

  4. Facile fabrication of ordered mesoporous graphitic carbon nitride for RhB photocatalytic degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lei; Zhang, Anfeng; Janik, Michael J.; Li, Keyan; Song, Chunshan; Guo, Xinwen

    2017-02-01

    Ordered mesoporous graphitic carbon nitrides were prepared by directly condensing the uniform mixtures of melamine and KIT-6. After removal of the KIT-6 sacrificial template, the carbon nitrides were characterized with TEM, N2 physical adsorption, XRD, FT-IR, XPS, UV-vis and PL spectrometries, and tested for their RhB photocatalytic degradation activity. Together, these characterizations confirmed the as-prepared tunable mesoporous materials with enhanced charge separation efficiency and superior photocatalytic performance. Compared with a conventional bulk g-C3N4, ordered mesoporous g-C3N4 exhibits a larger specific surface area of 279.3 m2/g and a pore size distribution about 4.0 nm and 13.0 nm. Meanwhile, the reduced bandgap energy of 2.77 eV and lower photogenerated electron-hole pair recombination frequency were evidenced by UV-Vis and PL spectra. The RhB photocatalytic degradation activity maximizes with a mass ratio of KIT-6/melamine of 80% (KCN80), and the kinetic constant reaches 0.0760 min-1 which is 16 times higher than that of the bulk sample. Reusability of KCN80 was demonstrated by a lack of evident deactivation after three consecutive reaction periods. The direct condensation of the KIT-6 and melamine mixture does not require pre-casting of the precursor into the pore system of the templates. Owing to its high product yield, improved SBET, reduced bandgap energy and limited charge recombination, the facile-prepared ordered mesoporous g-C3N4 is a practical candidate for further modification.

  5. GnRH agonist for final oocyte maturation in GnRH antagonist co-treated IVF/ICSI treatment cycles: Systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Youssef, M.A.F.; Abdelmoty, Hatem I; Ahmed, Mohamed A.S.; Maged Elmohamady

    2015-01-01

    Final oocyte maturation in GnRH antagonist co-treated IVF/ICSI cycles can be triggered with HCG or a GnRH agonist. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the final oocyte maturation trigger in GnRH antagonist co-treated cycles. Outcome measures were ongoing pregnancy rate (OPR) and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) incidence. Searches: were conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Direct, Cochrane Library, ...

  6. Evaluation of 101Rh as a brachytherapy source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Mahdi; Meigooni, Ali Soleimani

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Recently a number of hypothetical sources have been proposed and evaluated for use in brachytherapy. In the present study, a hypothetical 101Rh source with mean photon energy of 121.5 keV and half-life of 3.3 years, has been evaluated as an alternative to the existing high-dose-rate (HDR) sources. Dosimetric characteristics of this source model have been determined following the recommendation of the Task Group 43 (TG-43) of the American Association of the Physicist in Medicine (AAPM), and the results are compared with the published data for 57Co source and Flexisource 192Ir sources with similar geometries. Material and methods MCNPX Monte Carlo code was used for simulation of the 101Rh hypothetical HDR source design. Geometric design of this hypothetical source was considered to be similar to that of Flexisource 192Ir source. Task group No. 43 dosimetric parameters, including air kerma strength per mCi, dose rate constant, radial dose function, and two dimensional (2D) anisotropy functions were calculated for the 101Rh source through simulations. Results Air kerma strength per activity and dose rate constant for the hypothetical 101Rh source were 1.09 ± 0.01 U/mCi and 1.18 ± 0.08 cGy/(h.U), respectively. At distances beyond 1.0 cm in phantom, radial dose function for the hypothetical 101Rh source is higher than that of 192Ir. It has also similar 2D anisotropy functions to the Flexisource 192Ir source. Conclusions 101Rh is proposed as an alternative to the existing HDR sources for use in brachytherapy. This source provides medium energy photons, relatively long half-life, higher dose rate constant and radial dose function, and similar 2D anisotropy function to the Flexisource 192Ir HDR source design. The longer half-life of the source reduces the frequency of the source exchange for the clinical environment. PMID:26034499

  7. Superconductivity: The persistence of pairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edelman, Alex; Littlewood, Peter

    2015-05-20

    Superconductivity stems from a weak attraction between electrons that causes them to form bound pairs and behave much like bosons. These so-called Cooper pairs are phase coherent, which leads to the astonishing properties of zero electrical resistance and magnetic flux expulsion typical of superconducting materials. This coherent state may be qualitatively understood within the Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) model, which predicts that a gas of interacting bosons will become unstable below a critical temperature and condense into a phase of matter with a macroscopic, coherent population in the lowest energy state, as happens in 4He or cold atomic gases. The successful theory proposed by Bardeen, Cooper and Schrieffer (BCS) predicts that at the superconducting transition temperature Tc, electrons simultaneously form pairs and condense, with no sign of pairing above Tc. Theorists have long surmised that the BCS and BEC models are opposite limits of a single theory and that strong interactions or low density can, in principle, drive the system to a paired state at a temperature Tpair higher than Tc, making the transition to the superconducting state BEC-like (Fig. 1). Yet most superconductors to date are reasonably well described by BCS theory or its extensions, and there has been scant evidence in electronic materials for the existence of pairing independent of the full superconducting state (though an active debate rages over the cuprate superconductors). Writing in Nature, Jeremy Levy and colleagues have now used ingenious nanostructured devices to provide evidence for electron pairing1. Perhaps surprisingly, the material they have studied is a venerable, yet enigmatic, low-temperature superconductor, SrTiO3.

  8. A Stable Coordination Complex of Rh(IV) in an N,O-Donor Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Shashi B; Shopov, Dimitar Y; Sharninghausen, Liam S; Vinyard, David J; Mercado, Brandon Q; Brudvig, Gary W; Crabtree, Robert H

    2015-12-23

    We describe facial and meridional isomers of [Rh(III)(pyalk)3], as well as meridional [Rh(IV)(pyalk)3](+) {pyalk =2-(2-pyridyl)-2-propanoate}, the first coordination complex in an N,O-donor environment to show a clean, reversible Rh(III/IV) redox couple and to have a stable Rh(IV) form, which we characterize by EPR and UV-visible spectroscopy as well as X-ray crystallography. The unprecedented stability of the Rh(IV) species is ascribed to the exceptional donor strength of the ligands, their oxidation resistance, and the meridional coordination geometry.

  9. Molecular definition of red cell Rh haplotypes by tightly linked SphI RFLPs.

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, C. H.; Reid, M.E.; Chen, Y.; Coghlan, G.; Okubo, Y

    1996-01-01

    The Rh blood group system of human red cells contains five major antigens D, C/c, and E/e (the latter four designated "non-D") that are specified by eight gene complexes known as Rh haplotypes. In this paper, we report on the mapping of RH locus and identification of a set of SphI RFLPs that are tightly linked with the Rh structural genes. Using exon-specific probes, we have localized the SphI cleavage sites resulting in these DNA markers and derived a comprehensive map for the RH locus. It w...

  10. Severe hemolytic disease of the premature newborn due to RH1 incompatibility: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Uwingabiye, Jean; ZAHID, HAFID; LABRINI, FAYÇAL; EL KHAZRAJI, ABDELHAK; YAHYAOUI, ANASS; HADEF, RACHID; Messaoudi, Nezha

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of dramatic outcome of severe hemolytic disease in a newborn due to RH1 incompatibility. A newborn with A RH1 blood group was admitted in the Mohammed V Military Teaching Hospital for the problem of hydrops fetalis associated with RH1 incompatibility. The blood group of his mother, aged 31, was AB RH1-negative and that of his 37 year old father was A RH1. The mother had a history of 4 term deliveries, 3 abortions, and 1 living child. There was no prevention by anti-D immunogl...

  11. ABO and Rh Blood Groups Distribution in Yozgat City, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çiğdem Kader

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this retrospective study, we included 5257 healthy participants who admitted to Yozgat Government Hospital Blood Bank and Bozok University Blood Bank for several reasons to determine A, B, 0, AB blood groups and Rhesus (Rh positivity ratios between January 2007 and April 2013. Methods: We recorded their blood group types, age and gender from the hospital data. 2430 females, 2827 males totally 5257 participants were included to our study. Results: 2330 (44.3% persons were A blood group, 837 (15.9% were B group, 1665 (31.7% were 0 and 425 (%8.1 were AB group. Rh positivity ratio of our study group was 88%. Blood group frequency of Yozgat city is similar to other cities and the general population of our country, Turkey. Conclusion: Knowing the blood group is important for the blood recruitment in our region. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (2: 169-172

  12. The linear growth of structure in the Rh = ct universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melia, Fulvio

    2017-01-01

    We use recently published redshift space distortion measurements of the cosmological growth rate, fσ8(z), to examine whether the linear evolution of perturbations in the Rh = ct cosmology is consistent with the observed development of large-scale structure. We find that these observations favour Rh = ct over the version of Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) optimized with the joint analysis of Planck and linear growth rate data, particularly in the redshift range 0 data. When ΛCDM is optimized using solely the growth rate measurements; however, the two models fit the observations equally well though, in this case, the low-redshift measurements find a lower value for the fluctuation amplitude than is expected in Planck ΛCDM. Our results strongly affirm the need for more precise measurements of fσ8(z) at all redshifts, but especially at z < 1.

  13. Lattice dynamics of KxRhO2 single crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin-Bin Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A series of crystals KxRhO2 (x = 0.72, 0.63, 0.55, 0.39, and 0.24 have been synthesized and their vibrational properties have been studied by first principles calculations, Raman spectroscopy, and inelastic neutron scattering. The measured vibrational spectra of KxRhO2 for x = 0.72 and 0.63 are consistent with the theoretical prediction for the stoichiometric KRhO2. For samples with x = 0.55, 0.39 and 0.24, extra vibrational modes have been observed and they are believed to be due to the symmetry reduction and the loss of translational symmetry induced by K disorder. The good agreement was found for the phonon density of states among the Raman spectroscopic observations, inelastic neutron scattering and the first principles calculations, as an evidence for the generation of structure disorder by K deficiency.

  14. RhD isoimmunization analysis of 304 RhD-negative pregnant and lying-in women%304例Rh阴性孕产妇的RhD同种免疫分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭伟; 徐群; 邵超鹏

    2010-01-01

    目的 分析304例RhD阴性孕产妇RhD同种免疫发生情况,探讨RhD阴性孕产妇抗D抗体产生的影响因素,建立正确的围产期孕妇RhD新生儿溶血病监测方案.方法 采用标准血清学方法对孕产妇及其丈夫进行ABO及RhD抗原鉴定.对RhD抗原鉴定为阴性的样本.进一步采用间接抗人球蛋白法检测RhD抗原,以排除或确认弱D型或部分D表型.对所有RhD阴性孕产妇及其丈夫进行RhCcEe表型的血清学分型.采用抗人球蛋白法对所有RhD阴性孕产妇标本进行不规则抗体初筛,对初筛阳性者进一步用鉴定细胞做抗体鉴定及抗体效价测定并采用PCR.SSP方法确定是否为Del型.结果 3975例孕产妇标本中,304例为RhD阴性,其中29例产生抗D抗体,夫妇ABO血型相合24例(82.76%),不合5例(17.24%).本组调查中Rh阴性孕产妇抗D抗体产生的比例为9.54%(29/304).经分子生物学方法鉴定,29例产生抗D的Rh阴性孕产妇均排除Del表型.结论 RhD阴性孕产妇RhD同种免疫的发生受多种因素影响,Del型孕产妇产生抗D概率较低.应及时、定期监测RhD阴性国产期孕妇的抗D水平.对已产生抗D抗体的孕妇,密切监测其抗D水平,为临床治疗方案提供依据.

  15. Rh Nanoparticle Anchoring on Metal Phosphates: Fundamental Aspects and Practical Impacts on Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machida, Masato

    2016-10-01

    Metal phosphates stabilize Rh nanoparticles on their surface via Rh-O-P bonds, in contrast to the Rh-O-M bonds formed on metal oxides (MOx ). The local structure, electronic structure, and redox properties of Rh nanoparticles anchored on metal phosphates, and their practical impacts on catalysis, are reviewed based on recent publications from the author's research group. Because of the covalency of the Rh-O-P bond, Rh oxide is readily reduced to metallic Rh having a higher catalytic activity, whereas Rh oxide on metal oxide supports is more difficult to reduce with an increase of the anchoring strength. Furthermore, Rh metal shows a higher tolerance to reoxidation when supported on metal phosphates because the Rh-O-P bond is preserved under reducing atmospheres. The electron deficiency of Rh metal is another feature that affects its catalytic properties, and the extent of the electron deficiency can be tuned by replacing the metal in the metal phosphate with one of higher basicity. Further impacts on practical performance (thermal stability, poisoning stability, and lean NOx purification) in automobile catalyst applications are also described.

  16. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone: regulation of the GnRH gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Vien H Y; Lee, Leo T O; Chow, Billy K C

    2008-11-01

    As the key regulator of reproduction, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is released by neurons in the hypothalamus, and transported via the hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation to the anterior pituitary to trigger gonadotropin release for gonadal steroidogenesis and gametogenesis. To achieve appropriate reproductive function, mammals have precise regulatory mechanisms; one of these is the control of GnRH synthesis and release. In the past, the scarcity of GnRH neurons and their widespread distribution in the brain hindered the study of GnRH gene expression. Until recently, the development of GnRH-expressing cell lines with properties similar to those of in vivo GnRH neurons and also transgenic mice facilitated GnRH gene regulation research. This minireview provides a summary of the molecular mechanisms for the control of GnRH-I and GnRH-II gene expression. These include basal transcription regulation, which involves essential cis-acting elements in the GnRH-I and GnRH-II promoters and interacting transcription factors, and also feedback control by gonadotropins and gonadal sex steroids. Other physiological stimuli, e.g. insulin and melatonin, will also be discussed.

  17. The Octyl Ester of Ginsenoside Rh2 Induces Lysosomal Membrane Permeabilization via Bax Translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fang; Zhang, Bing; Sun, Yong; Xiong, Zeng-Xing; Peng, Han; Deng, Ze-Yuan; Hu, Jiang-Ning

    2016-04-25

    Ginsenoside Rh2 is a potential pharmacologically active metabolite of ginseng. Previously, we have reported that an octyl ester derivative of ginsenoside Rh2 (Rh2-O), has been confirmed to possess higher bioavailability and anticancer effect than Rh2 in vitro. In order to better assess the possibility that Rh2-O could be used as an anticancer compound, the underlying mechanism was investigated in this study. The present results revealed that lysosomal destabilization was involved in the early stage of cell apoptosis in HepG2 cells induced by Rh2-O. Rh2-O could induce an early lysosomal membrane permeabilization with the release of lysosomal protease cathepsins to the cytosol in HepG2 cells. The Cat B inhibitor (leu) and Cat D inhibitor (pepA) inhibited Rh2-O-induced HepG2 apoptosis as well as tBid production and Δφm depolarization, indicating that lysosomal permeabilization occurred upstream of mitochondrial dysfunction. In addition, Rh2-O induced a significant increase in the protein levels of DRAM1 and Bax (p lysosomes of HepG2 cells. Knockdown of Bax partially inhibited Rh2-O-induced Cat D release from lysosomes. Thus it was concluded that Rh2-O induced apoptosis of HepG2 cells through activation of the lysosomal-mitochondrial apoptotic pathway involving the translocation of Bax to the lysosome.

  18. Paired structures in knowledge representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montero, J.; Bustince, H.; Franco de los Ríos, Camilo;

    2016-01-01

    In this position paper we propose a consistent and unifying view to all those basic knowledge representation models that are based on the existence of two somehow opposite fuzzy concepts. A number of these basic models can be found in fuzzy logic and multi-valued logic literature. Here it is clai......In this position paper we propose a consistent and unifying view to all those basic knowledge representation models that are based on the existence of two somehow opposite fuzzy concepts. A number of these basic models can be found in fuzzy logic and multi-valued logic literature. Here...... of paired structures, generated from two paired concepts together with their associated neutrality, all of them to be modeled as fuzzy sets. In this way, paired structures can be viewed as a standard basic model from which different models arise. This unifying view should therefore allow a deeper analysis...

  19. Organometallic frustrated Lewis pair chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erker, Gerhard

    2011-08-07

    Frustrated Lewis pairs are playing an increasingly important role in organometallic chemistry. Examples are presented and discussed where organometallic systems themselves serve as the Lewis base or Lewis acid components in frustrated Lewis pair chemistry, mostly through their attached functional groups. Activation of dihydrogen takes place easily in many of these systems. This may lead to the generation of novel catalyst systems but also in many cases to the occurrence of specific reactions at the periphery of the organometallic frameworks. Increasingly, FLP reactions are used to carry out functional group conversions in organometallic systems under mild reaction conditions. The limits of typical FLP reactivity are explored with selected organometallic examples, a discussion that points toward new developments, such as the discovery of facile new 1,1-carboboration reactions. Learning more and more about the broad spectrum of frustrated Lewis pair chemistry helps us to find novel reactions and applications.

  20. The role of GABA in the regulation of GnRH neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miho eWatanabe

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH neurons form the final common pathway for the central regulation of reproduction. Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA has long been implicated as one of the major players in the regulation of GnRH neurons. Although GABA is typically an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mature adult central nervous system, most mature GnRH neurons show the unusual characteristic of being excited by GABA. While many reports have provided much insight into the contribution of GABA to the activity of GnRH neurons, the precise physiological role of the excitatory action of GABA on GnRH neurons remains elusive. This brief review presents the current knowledge of the role of GABA signaling in GnRH neuronal activity. We also discuss the modulation of GABA signaling by neurotransmitters and neuromodulators and the functional consequence of GABAergic inputs to GnRH neurons in both the physiology and pathology of reproduction.

  1. Decarburization mechanism of RH-MFB refining process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The overall decarburization mechanism can be divided into the decarburization in bulk molten steel and floating of CO against static pressure, the decarburization on the surface of argon bubbles and splashing particles. On the basis of each conception the RH-MFB decarburization mathematical model has been built according to the thermodynamic and mass conservation principle, and contributions of every decarburization mechanism were discussed and analyzed.

  2. The Structure of Rh$_8^+$ in the Gas Phase

    OpenAIRE

    Harding, D.J.; Walsh, T. R.; Hamilton, S. M.; Hopkins, W. S.; Mackenzie, S. R.; Gruene, P.; Haertelt, M.; Meijer, G.; Fielicke, A.

    2009-01-01

    The geometric structure of the Rh$_8^+$ cation is investigated using a combination of far-infrared multiple photon dissociation spectroscopy and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The energetic ordering of the different structural motifs is found to depend sensitively on the choice of pure or hybrid exchange functionals. Comparison of experimental and calculated spectra suggests the cluster to have a close-packed, bicapped octahedral structure, in contrast to recent predictions of ...

  3. Itinerant magnetism in CeRh3B2

    OpenAIRE

    1989-01-01

    Spin-polarized energy-band calculations, including spin-orbit coupling in the band Hamiltonian, have been performed on CeRh3B2. Good agreement is obtained between theory and experiment concerning the magnetic moment. It is also found that the magnetic moment varies strongly with volume and from this a qualitative explanation for the anomalously high Curie temperature of the compound is proposed. Furthermore, the spin density is found to be highly nonspherical.

  4. Itinerant magnetism in CeRh3B2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Olle; Johansson, Börje; Brooks, M. S. S.; Skriver, H. L.; Sjöström, Jörgen

    1989-09-01

    Spin-polarized energy-band calculations, including spin-orbit coupling in the band Hamiltonian, have been performed on CeRh3B2. Good agreement is obtained between theory and experiment concerning the magnetic moment. It is also found that the magnetic moment varies strongly with volume and from this a qualitative explanation for the anomalously high Curie temperature of the compound is proposed. Furthermore, the spin density is found to be highly nonspherical.

  5. Rh2(esp)2-catalyzed allylic and benzylic oxidations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Kuang, Yi; Wang, Yuanhua

    2015-04-07

    The dirhodium(II) catalyst Rh2(esp)2 allows direct solvent-free allylic and benzylic oxidations by T-HYDRO with a remarkably low catalyst loading. This method is operationally simple and scalable at ambient temperature without the use of any additives. The high catalyst stability in these reactions may be attributed to a dirhodium(II,II) catalyst resting state, which is less prone to decomposition.

  6. Ferromagnetism at the interfaces of antiferromagnetic FeRh epilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, R.; Kinane, C. J.; Charlton, T. R.; Dorner, R.; Ali, M.; de Vries, M. A.; Brydson, R. M. D.; Marrows, C. H.; Hickey, B. J.; Arena, D. A.; Tanner, B. K.; Nisbet, G.; Langridge, S.

    2010-11-01

    The nanoscale magnetic structure of FeRh epilayers has been studied by polarized neutron reflectometry. Epitaxial films with a nominal thickness of 500Å were grown on MgO (001) substrates via molecular-beam epitaxy and capped with 20Å of MgO. The FeRh films show a clear transition from the antiferromagnetic (AF) state to the ferromagnetic (FM) state with increasing temperature. Surprisingly the films possess a FM moment even at a temperature 80 K below the AF-FM transition temperature of the film. We have quantified the magnitude and spatial extent of this FM moment, which is confined to within ˜60-80Å of the FeRh near the top and bottom interfaces. These interfacial FM layers account for the unusual effects previously observed in films with thickness <100Å . Given the delicate energy balance between the AF and FM ground states we suggest a metastable FM state resides near to the interface within an AF matrix. The length scale over which the FM region resides is consistent with the strained regions of the film.

  7. Magnetocaloric effect in the metamagnet ErRhSi compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, J. C.; Nair, Harikrishnan S.; Strydom, André M.; Ramesh Kumar, K.; Wang, Jianli

    2016-12-01

    The magnetocaloric effect is observed in the 1:1:1 compound ErRhSi, which is a metamagnet is reported in this paper. ErRhSi crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Pnma, adopting the TiNiSi structure type, with lattice parameters a(Å) = 6.7903(5), b(Å) = 4.1881(3), and c(Å) = 7.3847(4). Our magnetic measurements confirm an antiferromagnetic phase transition at TN ≈ 8.5 K, also supported by the specific heat measurement. Crystal field effects of Er3+ are suggested by the inverse magnetic susceptibility data which do not conform to an ideal Curie-Weiss behaviour and also by the total entropy that attains Rln (2) at TN. Although the magnetic hysteresis indicates ErRhSi to be a soft magnet, several clear metamagnetic features are observed at 2 K. Magnetic entropy change ΔSM = - 8.7 J/kg-K is observed at about 9 K with the application of 5 T magnetic field. The corresponding adiabatic temperature change ΔTad is about 4 K. Large magnetocaloric effects suggest that this material is suitable for the low temperature magnetic refrigeration.

  8. Exlusive charmed meson pair production

    CERN Document Server

    Berezhnoy, A V

    2004-01-01

    The experimental data of BELLE Collaboration on the exclusive charmed meson pair production in the process of monophotonic $e^+e^-$-annihilation ($e^+e^-\\to \\gamma^* \\to D\\bar D$) has been studied. It has been shown that these data is described satisfactorily in the frame work of constituent quark model. Our studies have demonstrated that the central production process $e^+e^-\\to e^+e^-\\gamma\\gamma \\to e^+e^-D\\bar D +X$ and the process of monophotonic $e^+e^-$-annihilation yield comparable numbers of the charmed meson pairs.

  9. Instantons in lepton pair production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandenburg, A.; Ringwald, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Utermann, A. [Vrije Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    2006-05-15

    We consider QCD instanton-induced contributions to lepton pair production in hadron-hadron collisions. We relate these contributions to those known from deep inelastic scattering and demonstrate that they can be calculated reliably for sufficiently large momentum transfer. We observe that the instanton contribution to the angular distribution of the lepton pairs at finite momentum transfer strongly violates the Lam-Tung relation - a relation between coefficient functions of the angular distribution which is valid within the framework of ordinary perturbation theory. The drastic violation of this relation, as seen in experimental data, might be related to such instanton-induced effects. (Orig.)

  10. Characterization of the cDNAs encoding three GnRH forms in the pejerrey fish Odontesthes bonariensis (Atheriniformes) and the evolution of GnRH precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilgur, Leonardo G; Ortí, Guillermo; Strobl-Mazzulla, Pablo H; Fernandino, Juan I; Miranda, Leandro A; Somoza, Gustavo M

    2007-06-01

    Most vertebrates express two gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) variants in brain tissue but there is an increasing number of fish species for which a third GnRH form has been detected. We characterized the precursors (cDNAs) of all three forms expressed in the brain of the pejerrey (silverside) fish, Odontesthes bonariensis (Atheriniformes): type I (GnRH-I; 440 bp), type II (GnRH-II; 529 bp), and type III (GnRH-III; 515 bp). The expression of these GnRHs precursors was also observed in peripheral tissues related to reproduction (gonads), visual and chemical senses (eye and olfactory epithelium), and osmoregulation (gill), suggesting that in teleost fish and possibly other vertebrates GnRH mediates directly or indirectly many other functions besides reproduction. We also present a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis including representatives of all chordate GnRH precursors characterized to date that supports the idea of two main paralogous GnRH lineages with different function. A "forebrain lineage" separates evolutionarily from the "midbrain lineage" as a result of an ancient duplication (ca. 600 million years ago). A third, fish-only clade of GnRH genes seems to have originated before the divergence of fish and tetrapods but retained only in fish. Phylogenetic analyses of GnRH precursors (DNA and protein sequences) under different optimality criteria converge on this result. Although alternative scenarios could not be statistically rejected in this study due to the relatively short size of the analyzed molecules, this hypothesis also receives support from chromosomal studies of synteny around the GnRH genes in vertebrates.

  11. Liposome-based delivery systems for ginsenoside Rh2: in vitro and in vivo comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Linqiang [China Pharmaceutical University, Department of Pharmaceutics, State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines (China); Yu, Hua [University of Macao, Institute of Chinese Medical Sciences (China); Yin, Shaoping; Zhang, Ruixia; Zhou, Yudan; Li, Juan, E-mail: lijuancpu@163.com [China Pharmaceutical University, Department of Pharmaceutics, State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines (China)

    2015-10-15

    The Ginsenoside Rh2 (Rh2) has been shown to possess anti-cancer properties both in vitro and in vivo. However, the poor bioavailability and fast plasma elimination limit the further clinical applications of Rh2 for cancer treatments. In the present study, three types of Rh2-loaded liposomes including Rh2-loaded normal liposome (Rh2-LP), Rh2-loaded cationic liposome (Rh2-CLP), and Rh2-loaded Methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactide) (mPEG-PLA) liposome (Rh2-PLP) have been optimized and prepared with mean particle size of 80–125 nm. Compared to Rh2-LP, surface modifications with mPEG or octadecylamine significantly improve the physicochemical and biological properties both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, PLP presented better tumor accumulation of the fluorescent cyanine dye, 1,1′-dioctadecyl-3,3,3′,3′-tetramethylindotricarbocyanine iodide (DiR) in HepG2-xenografted nude mice than CLP (1.3-fold) or LP (1.6-fold) and prolong the resident time of DiR in tumor and organs (more than 24 h). The in vivo anti-cancer efficacy assessments indicate that Rh2-PLP presents the most activity on suppressing tumor growth in HepG2-xenografted mice than Rh2-LP and Rh2-CLP and without any significant toxicity. Our results indicate that mPEG-PLA modified liposome should be a potential and promising strategy to enhance the therapeutic index for anti-cancer agents.

  12. Isolation, Cloning, Expression and Purification of Recombinant RhD Antigen from Cord Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Habibi Roudkenar

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Rh (Rhesus is a highly complex blood group system in man deeply rooted in transfusion medicine. Isolation of RhD from cord blod, cloning and expression of recombinant RhD antigen in bacterial expression system was the aim of this study."nMethods: Total RNAs were extracted from cord blood (O+.  The quality of RNA was determined by electrophoresis. In or­der to obtain coding sequence of RhD antigen cDNA was synthesized and Rh D gene was amplified by RT-PCR. The iso­lated RhD gene was   cloned to pUC18 vector and transformed to DH5α. The confirmed construct was sub cloned into expres­sion vector, pBADgIII/A, and expressed in Top10 E.coli. The expressed protein was characterized by SDS-PAGE and western blot analysis. Antigenicity of the expressed protein was assessed by ELISA using commercially available hu­man anti-RhD polyclonal   antibody with   peroxidase conjugated goat anti-human IgG, IgM, IgA as secondary antibody. "nRe­sults: RhD gene was successfully cloned and expressed. The expected size of recombinant RhD protein was detected in SDS-PAGE, and confirmed by dot and western blot analysis. RhD antibody reacted with recombinant RhD antigen as well as with RhD polypeptide extracted from RBCs membrane."nConclusion: The recombinant RhD may be helpful to further investigate the molecular basis of RhD protein and could be applica­ble for production anti- D antibody in an animal model.

  13. Liposome-based delivery systems for ginsenoside Rh2: in vitro and in vivo comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Linqiang; Yu, Hua; Yin, Shaoping; Zhang, Ruixia; Zhou, Yudan; Li, Juan

    2015-10-01

    The Ginsenoside Rh2 (Rh2) has been shown to possess anti-cancer properties both in vitro and in vivo. However, the poor bioavailability and fast plasma elimination limit the further clinical applications of Rh2 for cancer treatments. In the present study, three types of Rh2-loaded liposomes including Rh2-loaded normal liposome (Rh2-LP), Rh2-loaded cationic liposome (Rh2-CLP), and Rh2-loaded Methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactide) (mPEG-PLA) liposome (Rh2-PLP) have been optimized and prepared with mean particle size of 80-125 nm. Compared to Rh2-LP, surface modifications with mPEG or octadecylamine significantly improve the physicochemical and biological properties both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, PLP presented better tumor accumulation of the fluorescent cyanine dye, 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindotricarbocyanine iodide (DiR) in HepG2-xenografted nude mice than CLP (1.3-fold) or LP (1.6-fold) and prolong the resident time of DiR in tumor and organs (more than 24 h). The in vivo anti-cancer efficacy assessments indicate that Rh2-PLP presents the most activity on suppressing tumor growth in HepG2-xenografted mice than Rh2-LP and Rh2-CLP and without any significant toxicity. Our results indicate that mPEG-PLA modified liposome should be a potential and promising strategy to enhance the therapeutic index for anti-cancer agents.

  14. Rh(O)D immune globulin products for prevention of alloimmunization during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, Samuel L; Tichy, Eric M

    2015-02-15

    The pharmacologic properties of Rhesus (Rh) immune globulin (RhIG) and clinical data on its effectiveness in preventing Rh-antigen alloimmunization in pregnant women are reviewed. RhIG is a human plasma derivative that targets red blood cells (RBCs) positive for Rh(O) antigen (also called D antigen). In the United States and other countries, the widespread use of RhIG has markedly reduced the occurrence of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN), a devastating condition caused by D-antigen sensitization of a pregnant woman via exposure to fetal RBCs (usually during detachment of the placenta in labor) that results in a maternal immune response leading to severe hemolysis in the fetus. Routine administration of RhIG at 26-30 weeks' gestation and again within 72 hours of delivery has been shown to be highly effective in preventing maternal Rh alloimmunization, with very low rates of D-antigen sensitization (in the range of 0-2.2%) reported in multiple studies of at-risk women. The four RhIG products currently available in the United States have common clinical indications but differ in certain attributes. Pharmacists can play an important role in guiding other clinicians on the rationale for the use of RhIG, important differences between products, and appropriate timing of RhIG therapy. Routine administration of RhIG to women at risk for Rh alloimmunization is clinically effective and has made HDFN a rare clinical event. The available RhIG products are not the same and should be carefully reviewed to ensure that they are administered safely. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. 溶剂萃取法分离Pt、Pd、Rh%Separating Pt, Pd and Rh by Solvent Extracition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荆小旦

    2001-01-01

    @@ 铂族金属的再生资源经常是含有两种或两种以上铂族金属的物料,如硝酸工业报废的铂钯铑合金催化网,失效的三元汽车尾气净化催化剂(其活性组分为Pt、Pd、Rh),测温热电偶丝(Pt,Rh-Pt热电偶),玻纤工业产生的废漏板托砖等.这些物料的浸出液通常要进行一系列复杂的分离精炼作业,才能获得符合一定质量标准的单个铂族金属产品.

  16. RH-KTB Optimizing Process in Production of IF-Steel%IF钢的RH-KTB工艺优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖玖伦; 姚同路; 邱丹; 王刚

    2010-01-01

    介绍了RH-KTB深脱碳热力学及动力学原理,并结合梅山150t RH生产IF钢实践,重点从改善动力学条件出发,优化超低碳钢RH-KTB处理工艺,通过采取一系列措施如将真空度达到15kPa作为最佳KTB时机,优化KTB吹氧制度,提高RH真空度,提高循环流量,增加浸渍管插入深度等,使RH冶炼IF钢终点碳的质量分数由18×10-6稳定控制在15×10-6以下,对超低碳钢终点碳含量控制已达到国内先进水平.

  17. The expanding functions of cellular helicases: the tombusvirus RNA replication enhancer co-opts the plant eIF4AIII-like AtRH2 and the DDX5-like AtRH5 DEAD-box RNA helicases to promote viral asymmetric RNA replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Kovalev

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Replication of plus-strand RNA viruses depends on recruited host factors that aid several critical steps during replication. Several of the co-opted host factors bind to the viral RNA, which plays multiple roles, including mRNA function, as an assembly platform for the viral replicase (VRC, template for RNA synthesis, and encapsidation during infection. It is likely that remodeling of the viral RNAs and RNA-protein complexes during the switch from one step to another requires RNA helicases. In this paper, we have discovered a second group of cellular RNA helicases, including the eIF4AIII-like yeast Fal1p and the DDX5-like Dbp3p and the orthologous plant AtRH2 and AtRH5 DEAD box helicases, which are co-opted by tombusviruses. Unlike the previously characterized DDX3-like AtRH20/Ded1p helicases that bind to the 3' terminal promoter region in the viral minus-strand (-RNA, the other class of eIF4AIII-like RNA helicases bind to a different cis-acting element, namely the 5' proximal RIII(- replication enhancer (REN element in the TBSV (-RNA. We show that the binding of AtRH2 and AtRH5 helicases to the TBSV (-RNA could unwind the dsRNA structure within the RIII(- REN. This unique characteristic allows the eIF4AIII-like helicases to perform novel pro-viral functions involving the RIII(- REN in stimulation of plus-strand (+RNA synthesis. We also show that AtRH2 and AtRH5 helicases are components of the tombusvirus VRCs based on co-purification experiments. We propose that eIF4AIII-like helicases destabilize dsRNA replication intermediate within the RIII(- REN that promotes bringing the 5' and 3' terminal (-RNA sequences in close vicinity via long-range RNA-RNA base pairing. This newly formed RNA structure promoted by eIF4AIII helicase together with AtRH20 helicase might facilitate the recycling of the viral replicases for multiple rounds of (+-strand synthesis, thus resulting in asymmetrical viral replication.

  18. Vertical bone regeneration using rhBMP-2 and VEGF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorn, Lara; Sproll, Christoph; Ommerborn, Michelle; Naujoks, Christian; Kübler, Norbert R; Depprich, Rita

    2017-06-07

    Sufficient vertical and lateral bone supply and a competent osteogenic healing process are prerequisities for the successful osseointegration of dental implants in the alveolar bone. Several techniques including autologous bone grafts and guided bone regeneration are applied to improve quality and quantity of bone at the implantation site. Depending on the amount of lacking bone one- or two-stage procedures are required. Vertical bone augmentation has proven to be a challenge particularly in terms of bone volume stability. This study focuses on the three dimensional vertical bone generation in a one stage procedure in vivo. Therefore, a collagenous disc-shaped scaffold (ICBM = Insoluble Collagenous Bone Matrix) containing rhBMP-2 (Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2) and/or VEGF (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor) was applied around the coronal part of a dental implant during insertion. RhBMP-2 and VEGF released directly at the implantation site were assumed to induce the generation of new vertical bone around the implant. One hundred eight titanium implants were inserted into the mandible and the tibia of 12 mini pigs. Four experimental groups were formed: Control group, ICBM, ICBM + BMP-2, and ICBM + BMP-2 + VEGF. After 1, 4 and 12 weeks the animals were sacrificed and bone generation was investigated histologically and histomorphometrically. After 12 weeks the combination of ICBM + rhBMP2 + VEGF showed significantly more bone volume density (BVD%), a higher vertical bone gain (VBG) and more vertical bone gain around the implant (PVBG) in comparison to the control group. By using collagenous disc-shaped matrices in combination with rhBMP-2 and VEGF vertical bone can be generated in a one stage procedure without donor site morbidity. The results of the presenting study suggest that the combination of rhBMP-2 and VEGF applied locally by using a collagenous carrier improves vertical bone generation in vivo. Further research is needed to establish whether this

  19. DFT computations support the σ-complex assisted metathesis (σ-CAM) mechanism for the 1,4-Rh shift of Cp*Rh(III)-(η(1)-β-styryl) complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yougui; He, Gang; Kantchev, Eric Assen B

    2014-11-28

    DFT calculations support the σ-complex assisted metathesis (σ-CAM) mechanism recently proposed for the first 1,4-Rh shift of a Rh(III) complex rather than the oxidative addition/reductive elimination pathway characteristic of Rh(i). A single, concerted TS (ΔG(‡) = 27-34 kcal mol(-1)) was found and its electronic structure characterized by Bader's AIM analysis. The 4-centered TS is characterized by a enhanced charge separation (Rh and H atoms - positive, both C atoms - negative) relative to the σ-vinyl Rh starting material and the σ-aryl-Rh product. The AIM topological analysis of the electron density reveals a network of interactions: Rh with H as well as both Rh and H with both C(vinyl) and C(aryl) in the TS and confirms the C(vinyl)-Rh agnostic interaction observed experimentally in the σ-aryl-Rh product.

  20. RH-MFB真空处理工艺技术%RH - MFB VACUUM TREATMENT OF MOLTEN STEEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李扬洲; 张大德; 薛念福; 汪明东; 张晓伶; 礼重超; 杜利华

    2001-01-01

    介绍了攀钢RH-MFB轻处理LCAK钢和车轴钢,自然脱碳和MFB吹氧强制脱碳处理IF钢,本处理重轨钢以及MFB加热钢水和真空室的工艺,分析讨论了真空降压方式、MFB吹氧对脱碳速度,真空度对终点碳含量的影响.

  1. Pharmacological and toxicological assessment of a potential GnRH vaccine in young-adult male pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turkstra, J.A.; Staay, van der F.J.; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, N.; Woelders, H.; Meloen, R.H.; Schuurman, T.

    2011-01-01

    Active immunization against gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is successfully applied to prevent boar taint in pork. In men, GnRH immunization could be an alternative to hormone therapy in patients with prostate cancer. In this study, a new GnRH vaccine formulation (a modified GnRH peptide conj

  2. Esterification of Ginsenoside Rh2 Enhanced Its Cellular Uptake and Antitumor Activity in Human HepG2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fang; Deng, Ze-Yuan; Zhang, Bing; Xiong, Zeng-Xing; Zheng, Shi-Lian; Tan, Chao-Li; Hu, Jiang-Ning

    2016-01-13

    Our previous research had indicated that the octyl ester derivative of ginsenoside Rh2 (Rh2-O) might have a higher bioavailability than Rh2 in the Caco-2 cell line. The aim of this study was to investigate the cellular uptake and antitumor effects of Rh2-O in human HepG2 cells as well as its underlying mechanism compared with Rh2. Results showed that Rh2-O exhibited a higher cellular uptake (63.24%) than Rh2 (36.76%) when incubated with HepG2 cells for 24 h. Rh2-O possessed a dose- and time-dependent inhibitory effect against the proliferation of HepG2 cells. The IC50 value of Rh2-O for inhibition of HepG2 cell proliferation was 20.15 μM, which was roughly half the value of Rh2. Rh2-O induced apoptosis of HepG2 cells through a mitochondrial-mediated intrinsic pathway. In addition, the accumulation of ROS was detected in Rh2-O-treated HepG2 cells, which participated in the apoptosis of HepG2 cells. Conclusively, the findings above all suggested that Rh2-O as well as Rh2 inducing HepG2 cells apoptosis might involve similar mechanisms; however, Rh2-O had better antitumor activities than Rh2, probably due to its higher cellular uptake.

  3. Electron pair creation by photons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holtwijk, Theodoor

    1960-01-01

    In our experiment on the creation of electron pairs a 5 MeV betatron was used as radiation source and a cloud chamber (with magnetic field) was used as detection instrument. The experimental arrangement is described in section 2.1. The cloud chamber was of the overcompression type so that the recove

  4. Pairs of dual periodic frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Goh, Say Song

    2012-01-01

    is needed. The purpose of the present paper is to provide constructions of dual pairs of frames in the setting of the Hilbert space of periodic functions L2(0,2π). The frames constructed are given explicitly as trigonometric polynomials, which allows for an efficient calculation of the coefficients...

  5. Electron pair creation by photons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holtwijk, Theodoor

    1960-01-01

    In our experiment on the creation of electron pairs a 5 MeV betatron was used as radiation source and a cloud chamber (with magnetic field) was used as detection instrument. The experimental arrangement is described in section 2.1. The cloud chamber was of the overcompression type so that the recove

  6. Possible Two-band Superconductivity In PuRhGa5 And CeRhIn5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, E D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Park, T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mcdonald, R D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Graf, M J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Boulaevskii, L N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mitchell, J N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Thompson, J D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sarrao, J L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Measurements of the upper critical field H{sub c2} of the Pu-based heavy-fermion superconductor PuRhGa{sub 5} have been made using a torque magnetometer at temperatures down to 0.6 K and magnetic fields up to 17 T along the principal axes of the tetragonal structure. A linear temperature dependence of H{sub c2} down to T{sub c}/10 for H {parallel} c and to T{sub c}/2 for H {parallel} ab is observed. While the data appear to be inconsistent with both purely Pauli limiting or orbital effects governing the upper critical field, the linear T-dependence of H{sub c2} is well described by a two-band model of superconductivity involving coupled bands of heavy and light electrons. A close similarity between PuRhGa{sub 5} and the pressure-induced antiferromagnetic isostructural superconductor CeRhIn{sub 5} is also found.

  7. Possible two-band superconductivity in PuRhGa{sub 5} and CeRhIn{sub 5}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, E.D., E-mail: edbauer@lanl.go [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Park, Tuson [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Department of Physics, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); McDonald, R.D.; Graf, M.J.; Boulaevskii, L.N.; Mitchell, J.N.; Thompson, J.D.; Sarrao, J.L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2009-12-04

    Measurements of the upper critical field H{sub c2} of the Pu-based heavy-fermion superconductor PuRhGa{sub 5} have been made using a torque magnetometer at temperatures down to 0.6 K and magnetic fields up to 17 T along the principal axes of the tetragonal structure. A linear temperature dependence of H{sub c2} down to T{sub c}/10 for H||c and to T{sub c}/2 for H||ab is observed. While the data appear to be inconsistent with both purely Pauli limiting or orbital effects governing the upper critical field, the linear T-dependence of H{sub c2} is well described by a two-band model of superconductivity involving coupled bands of heavy and light electrons. A close similarity between PuRhGa{sub 5} and the pressure-induced antiferromagnetic isostructural superconductor CeRhIn{sub 5} is also found.

  8. Gender Differences in Emotional Closeness between Preschool Children and Their Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benenson, Joyce F.; Morash, Deanna; Petrakos, Harriet

    1998-01-01

    Examined emotional closeness between mothers and their children to determine whether mother-daughter pairs exhibit closer emotional relationships than mother-son pairs. Results with 41 mother-child dyads show girls to be physically closer to their mothers, engaging in more eye contact and higher in global enjoyment. (SLD)

  9. Enhancers of GnRH Transcription Embedded in an Upstream Gene Use Homeodomain Proteins to Specify Hypothalamic Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Iyer, Anita K.; MILLER, NICHOL L. G.; Yip, Kathleen; Tran, Brian H.; Mellon, Pamela L.

    2010-01-01

    GnRH, the central regulator of reproductive function, is produced by only approximately 800 highly specialized hypothalamic neurons. Previous studies identified a minimal promoter [GnRH minimal promoter (GnRH-P)] (−173/+1) and a neuron-specific enhancer [GnRH-enhancer (E)1] (−1863/−1571) as regulatory regions in the rat gene that confer this stringent specificity of GnRH expression to differentiated GnRH neurons. In transgenic mice, these two elements target only GnRH neurons but fail to driv...

  10. Presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms underlie paired pulse depression at single GABAergic boutons in rat collicular cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirischuk, Sergei; Clements, John D; Grantyn, Rosemarie

    2002-08-15

    Paired pulse depression (PPD) is a common form of short-term synaptic plasticity. The aim of this study was to characterise PPD at the level of a single inhibitory bouton. Low-density collicular cultures were loaded with the Ca2+ indicator Oregon Green-1, active boutons were stained with RH414, and action potentials were blocked with TTX. Evoked IPSCs (eIPSCs) and presynaptic Ca2+ transients were recorded in response to direct presynaptic depolarisation of an individual bouton. The single bouton eIPSCs had a low failure rate (independent presynaptic mechanisms and one release-dependent postsynaptic mechanism.

  11. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (Gn-RH) in striped mullet (Mugil cephalus), milkfish (Chanos chanos), and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri): comparison with salmon Gn-RH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherwood, N.M.; Harvey, B.; Brownstein, M.J.; Eiden, L.E.

    1984-08-01

    Immunoreactive gonadotropin-releasing hormone (Gn-RH) was extracted from brains of striped mullet, milkfish, rainbow trout, and chum salmon with acetone/HCl and petroleum ether. High pressure liquid chromatography and cross-reactivity studies show mullet, milkfish, and trout brains to contain a peptide chromatographically and immunologically identical to synthetic salmon Gn-RH, while the mammalian form of Gn-RH is detectable in none of these fishes. Gn-RH is present in immature 7-month-old and 4-year-old milkfish. A second immunoreactive peptide is separable by HPLC in all the fish studied. This early-eluting form of Gn-RH is unlikely to be a precursor; its cross-reactivity with antisera R-42 and number185 suggests that any modification is in the C-terminal region. Several possible roles for this peptide are advanced.

  12. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Unique Fermi surfaces with quasi-one-dimensional character in CeRh3B2 and LaRh3B2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, T.; Yamada, M.; Thamizhavel, A.; Kirita, S.; Inada, Y.; Settai, R.; Harima, H.; Takegahara, K.; Galatanu, A.; Yamamoto, E.; Onuki, Y.

    2003-11-01

    We have carried out de Haas-van Alphen (dHvA) experiments on a ferromagnet CeRh3B2 with an extremely high Curie temperature T_{\\mathrm {C}} \\simeq 120 K and a non-4f reference compound LaRh3B2. The dHvA data of LaRh3B2 are well explained by the results of energy band calculations. The topology of the Fermi surfaces in CeRh3B2 is found to be very similar to that of LaRh3B2, possessing wavy but flat Fermi surfaces in the basal plane. Observation of a quasi-one-dimensional electronic state is the first such case in a rare earth compound.

  13. Regulation of GnRH receptors by progesterone and inhibin in ovine pituitary cell culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laws, S.C.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of progesterone (P{sub 4}) and the gonadal protein, inhibin, on gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor number and binding affinity were investigated in vitro, using ovine pituitary cells in culture. Changes in GnRH binding were correlated with GnRH-stimulated luteinizing hormone (LH) release following pretreatment with P{sub 4} and inhibin. Ovine pituitary cells in culture were preincubated with P{sub 4} or porcine inhibin (I{sub P}) for 24 or 48 hours (h). Cells were collected and analyzed for GnRH binding using a radioligand-receptor assay. des-Gly{sup 10}-(D-Ala{sup 6})-LHRH-ethyl-amide was used as the radiolabeled GnRh superagonist analog (mono-{sup 125}I-GnRH-A) and as competing ligand. Treatment with P{sub 4} progressively decreased GnRH-A binding capacity by 44.3% and 71.8% of the control following pretreatment for 24 or 48 h, respectively. When P{sub 4} was removed from the cultures, GnRH-A binding capacity partially returned to control levels within 24 h. Decreased GnRH-A binding was closely correlated with the reduction in GnRH-stimulated LH release which was observed following 24 or 48 h pretreatment with P{sub 4}.

  14. Ginsenoside Rh2 induces ligand-independent Fas activation via lipid raft disruption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Jae-Sung; Choo, Hyo-Jung [College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, 1, 5-ka, Anam-dong, Sungbuk-gu, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Bong-Rae [Department of Chemistry, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hwan-Myung [Department of Chemistry, Ajou University, Suwon, Kyunggi-Do 443-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong-Nyun [Division of Specific Organs Center, National Cancer Center, Kyunggi-Do 411-769 (Korea, Republic of); Ham, Young-Mi, E-mail: ymham2@hanmail.net [College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, 1, 5-ka, Anam-dong, Sungbuk-gu, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Young-Gyu, E-mail: ygko@korea.ac.kr [College of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Korea University, 1, 5-ka, Anam-dong, Sungbuk-gu, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-24

    Lipid rafts are plasma membrane platforms mediating signal transduction pathways for cellular proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Here, we show that membrane fluidity was increased in HeLa cells following treatment with ginsenoside Rh2 (Rh2), as determined by cell staining with carboxy-laurdan (C-laurdan), a two-photon dye designed for measuring membrane hydrophobicity. In the presence of Rh2, caveolin-1 appeared in non-raft fractions after sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation. In addition, caveolin-1 and GM1, lipid raft landmarkers, were internalized within cells after exposure to Rh2, indicating that Rh2 might disrupt lipid rafts. Since cholesterol overloading, which fortifies lipid rafts, prevented an increase in Rh2-induced membrane fluidity, caveolin-1 internalization and apoptosis, lipid rafts appear to be essential for Rh2-induced apoptosis. Moreover, Rh2-induced Fas oligomerization was abolished following cholesterol overloading, and Rh2-induced apoptosis was inhibited following treatment with siRNA for Fas. This result suggests that Rh2 is a novel lipid raft disruptor leading to Fas oligomerization and apoptosis.

  15. A conserved non-reproductive GnRH system in chordates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehiro G Kusakabe

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH is a neuroendocrine peptide that plays a central role in the vertebrate hypothalamo-pituitary axis. The roles of GnRH in the control of vertebrate reproductive functions have been established, while its non-reproductive function has been suggested but less well understood. Here we show that the tunicate Ciona intestinalis has in its non-reproductive larval stage a prominent GnRH system spanning the entire length of the nervous system. Tunicate GnRH receptors are phylogenetically closest to vertebrate GnRH receptors, yet functional analysis of the receptors revealed that these simple chordates have evolved a unique GnRH system with multiple ligands and receptor heterodimerization enabling complex regulation. One of the gnrh genes is conspicuously expressed in the motor ganglion and nerve cord, which are homologous structures to the hindbrain and spinal cord of vertebrates. Correspondingly, GnRH receptor genes were found to be expressed in the tail muscle and notochord of embryos, both of which are phylotypic axial structures along the nerve cord. Our findings suggest a novel non-reproductive role of GnRH in tunicates. Furthermore, we present evidence that GnRH-producing cells are present in the hindbrain and spinal cord of the medaka, Oryzias latipes, thereby suggesting the deep evolutionary origin of a non-reproductive GnRH system in chordates.

  16. Gene Frequency and Heritability of Rh Blood Group Gene in 44 Human Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyo CHAKRABORTY

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of RhD and Rhd alleles of Rh blood group gene was estimated in 44 human populations distributed all over the world from the RhD phenotypic data. The average frequency of RhD and Rhd allele over these populations was 0.70 and 0.30, respectively. Higher frequency of RhD allele than the expected estimate (0.50 in all the populations, under Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium condition assuming equal frequency of both alleles in the initial population, indicated inbreeding at RhD/d locus as well as natural selection for RhD allele. Very high heritability estimate (84.04% of Rh allele frequency revealed that this trait was under weak selection pressure and resulted in greater genetic variation in existing populations. It is consistent with Fishers fundamental theorem of natural selection. The results from the present study suggest that inbreeding at RhD/d locus and some other factors (possibly mutation, migration and genetic drift other than natural selection alone played major roles in changing the Rh allele frequency in these populations.

  17. Experimental investigation of air relative humidity (RH) cycling tests on MEA/cell aging in PEMFC. Pt. II. Study of low RH cycling test with air RH at 62%/0%

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, B.T.; Chatillon, Y.; Bonnet, C.; Lapicque, F. [Laboratoire Reactions et Genie des Procedes, CNRS-Nancy University, Nancy (France); Leclerc, S. [Laboratoire d' Energetique et de Mecanique Theorique et Appliquee, CNRS-Nancy University, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Hinaje, M.; Rael, S. [Groupe de Recherche en Electrotechnique et Electronique de Nancy, Nancy University, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    2012-06-15

    The effect of low relative humidity (RH) cycling (RH{sub C} 62%/0%) on the degradation mechanisms of a single proton exchange membrane fuel cell (5 x 5 cm{sup 2}) was investigated and compared to a cell operated at constant humidification (RH{sub C} = 62%). The overall cell performance loss was near 33 {mu}V h{sup -1}, which is greater than the voltage decay under constant RH condition near 3 {mu}V h{sup -1}. The electroactive surface was reduced but to an acceptable level. Impedance spectroscopy revealed that the ohmic and charge transfer resistances were reduced by the likely improved hydration of the ionomeric layer at the catalyst due to hydrogen crossover. This was so important that H{sub 2} starvation was finally responsible for the collapse of the cell after 650 h. Transmission electron microscopy showed occurrence of various phenomena, e.g., bubbles and pinholes formation in the membrane due to local overheat from hydrogen combustion at the cathode, and thickness reduction of catalytic layers. The water up take obtained by {sup 1}H NMR within the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) after low RH cycling reduced by 24% compared to a fresh MEA. Observations are also compared to those obtained at high RH cycling (RH{sub C} 62%/100%) presented in Part I of this study [1]. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. 母女同因口服氟哌酸、痢特灵致全身药疹%Mother Daughter for Oral Norfloxacin, Furazolidone Induced Systemicdrug Eruption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴香香; 丁军; 陈杰

    2015-01-01

    In our department in 2010 from dif erent time two of her ownmother daughter because of diar hea oral Norfloxacin Capsules,furazolidone induced systemic drug dermatitis with anti al ergy treatmenthealed after a week. Conclusion: drug eruption general y al ergic and non al ergic two categories. The mother and daughter both al ergic reaction type also exist the factors and non al ergic reaction ofnutritional factors, genetic factors. There are reports of HLA-AW33and HLA-B17/BW58 haploid positive were prone to similar al ergy.%我科在2010年不同时间收治2名亲生母女同因腹泻口服氟哌酸胶囊、痢特灵致全身药物性皮炎经抗过敏治疗1w后痊愈。药疹一般分变态反应和非变态反应两大类。此母女俩既有变态反应类型也存在非变态反应中的机体因素、营养因素、遗传因素。有报道指出HLA-AW33及HLA-B17/BW58单倍体阳性者容易发生同类过敏。

  19. The Peru Cervical Cancer Screening Study (PERCAPS): the design and implementation of a mother/daughter screen, treat, and vaccinate program in the Peruvian jungle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelo, Carolina E; Levinson, Kimberly L; Salmeron, Jorge; Sologuren, Carlos Vallejos; Fernandez, Maria Jose Vallejos; Belinson, Jerome L

    2014-06-01

    Peru struggles to prevent cervical cancer (CC). In the jungle, prevention programs suffer from significant barriers although technology exists to detect CC precursors. This study used community based participatory research (CBPR) methods to overcome barriers. The objective was to evaluate the utility of CBPR techniques in a mother-child screen/treat and vaccinate program for CC prevention in the Peruvian jungle. The CC prevention program used self-sampling for human papillomavirus (HPV) for screening, cryotherapy for treatment and the HPV vaccine Gardasil for vaccination. Community health leaders (HL) from around Iquitos participated in a two half day educational course. The HLs then decided how to implement interventions in their villages or urban sectors. The success of the program was measured by: (1) ability of the HLs to determine an implementation plan, (2) proper use of research forms, (3) participation and retention rates, and (4) participants' satisfaction. HLs successfully registered 320 women at soup kitchens, schools, and health posts. Screening, treatment, and vaccination were successfully carried out using forms for registration, consent, and results with minimum error. In the screen/treat intervention 100% of participants gave an HPV sample and 99.7% reported high satisfaction; 81% of HPV + women were treated, and 57% returned for 6-month followup. Vaccine intervention: 98% of girls received the 1st vaccine, 88% of those received the 2nd, and 65% the 3rd. CBPR techniques successfully helped implement a screen/treat and vaccinate CC prevention program around Iquitos, Peru. These techniques may be appropriate for large-scale preventive health-care interventions.

  20. Synthesis of nanostructured lean-NO x catalysts by direct laser deposition of monometallic Pt-, Rh- and bimetallic PtRh-nanoparticles on SiO2 support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savastenko, N.; Volpp, H.-R.; Gerlach, O.; Strehlau, W.

    2008-02-01

    Monometallic Pt and Rh and bimetallic PtRh catalysts with a highly dispersed noble metal weight loading of ca. 1 wt% were produced via the direct deposition of nanoparticles on different SiO2 supports by means of pulsed ultra-violet (248 nm) excimer laser ablation of Pt, Rh bulk metal and PtRh alloy targets. Backscattered electron microscopy (BSE), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were employed to characterize the deposited nanoparticles, which were found to exhibit narrow size distribution centred around 2.5 nm. The catalytic activities for lean NO x reduction of the monometallic and bimetallic catalyst samples were investigated in a flow reactor setup in the temperature range 100-400°C using a test gas mixture representative of oxygen rich diesel engine exhaust gas. For comparison a Rh/SiO2 reference catalyst prepared by a conventional impregnation method was also tested. Further experiments were performed in which PtRh nanoparticles were deposited on a Rh/SiO2 reference catalyst sample to study the possibility for controlled modification of its activity. The catalytic activity measurements revealed that among the samples solely prepared by laser deposition the PtRh-SiO2 nanoparticle catalyst showed the highest activity for NO x reduction at low temperatures 100-300°C. In addition, it could be demonstrated that the initially low NO x reduction activity and the N2 selectivity of the Rh/SiO2 reference catalyst sample for temperatures below 250°C can be enhanced by post laser deposition of PtRh nanoparticles.

  1. Experimental investigation of air relative humidity (RH) cycling tests on MEA/cell aging in PEMFC. Pt. I. Study of high RH cycling test with air RH at 62%/100%

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, B.T.; Chatillon, Y.; Bonnet, C.; Lapicque, F. [Laboratoire Reactions et Genie des Procedes, CNRS-Nancy University, Nancy (France); Leclerc, S. [Laboratoire d' Energetique et de Mecanique Theorique et Appliquee, CNRS-Nancy University, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Hinaje, M.; Rael, S. [Groupe de Recherche en Electrotechnique et Electronique de Nancy, CNRS-Nancy University, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    2012-06-15

    The effect of high air relative humidity (RH) cycling (RH{sub C} 62%/100%) on the degradation mechanisms of a single (5 x 5 cm{sup 2}) proton exchange membrane fuel cells was investigated. The cell performance was compared to a cell operated at constant humidification (RH{sub C} = 62%). Runs were conducted over approximately 1,500 h at 0.3 A cm{sup -2}. The overall loss in cell performance for the high RH cycling test was 12 {mu}V h{sup -1} whereas it was at 3 {mu}V h{sup -1} under constant humidification. Impedance spectroscopy reveals that the ohmic and charge transfer resistances were little modified in both runs. H{sub 2} crossover measurement indicated that both high RH cycling and constant RH test did not promote serious effect on gas permeability. The electroactive surface loss for anode and cathode during high air RH cycling was more significant than at constant RH operation. The water uptake determined by {sup 1}H nuclear magnetic resonance within the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) after high RH cycling was reduced by 12% in comparison with a fresh MEA. Transmission electron microscopy showed bubbles and pinholes formation in the membrane, catalyst particles agglomeration (also observed by X-ray diffraction), catalyst particles migration in the membrane and thickness reduction of the catalytic layers. Scanning electron microscopy was conducted to observe the changes in morphology of gas diffusion layers after the runs. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Rabconnectin-3α is required for the morphological maturation of GnRH neurons and kisspeptin responsiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Tata, Brooke K.; Carole Harbulot; Zsolt Csaba; Stéphane Peineau; Sandrine Jacquier; Nicolas Roux

    2017-01-01

    A few hundred hypothalamic neurons form a complex network that controls reproduction in mammals by secreting gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Timely postnatal changes in GnRH secretion are essential for pubertal onset. During the juvenile period, GnRH neurons undergo morphological remodeling, concomitantly achieving an increased responsiveness to kisspeptin, the main secretagogue of GnRH. However, the link between GnRH neuron activity and their morphology remains unknown. Here, we show ...

  3. Skew Pairs of Idempotents in Transformation Semigroups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T. S. BLYTH; M. H. ALMEIDA SANTOS

    2006-01-01

    An ordered pair (e, f) of idempotents of a regular semigroup is called a skew pair if ef is not idempotent whereas fe is idempotent. We have shown previously that there are four distinct types of skew pairs of idempotents. Here we investigate the ubiquity of such skew pairs in full transformation semigroups.

  4. Investigation on 43 cases of patients in Rh (D) -negative blood group%43例住院病人Rh(D)阴性血型调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄秀琼; 陈文珠

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the distribution and frequency of Rho ( D ) -negative blood group phenotype of patients in Foshan Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Establish the blood group archives of Rh ( D )-negative patients and blood donors.Methods screening Rh( D ) Antigen by Johnson AutoVue Innova matching and automatic blood Analyzer, confirming Rh ( D ) -negative Antigen by indirect antihuman globulin test.And then filtering and classifing With the Rh factor c,C,E and e using test tube method.Results 43 cases of Rh ( D ) negative patients were tested In 16402,including type A of 11,type B of 11,type O of 19,type AB of 3; Rh phenotype were Ccdee 11,ccdee 30,CCdee 2.Conclusions the Rh( D ) negative rate was 0.26%,Conforms to China's Han population of Rh ( D ) -negative rates.It has a very important role in Mastering the Rh ( D ) -negative blood types distribution and frequency on Foshan crowd,establishing blood types archives of Rh( D )-negative,using emergency blood of rare blood type and reducing transfusion reaction of patients with immune.%目的 调查佛山市中医院住院病人Rh (D)阴性血型,了解Rh (D)阴性血型的表现型分布和频率,建立起Rh(D)阴性患者和献血者的血型档案,保证临床安全输血.方法 采用强生AutoVue Innova 全自动血型与配血分析仪对Rh(D)抗原进行初筛检测;初筛阴性者再采用间接抗人球蛋白试验进行确认;确认阴性者用试管法对Rh因子C、c、E、e进行筛选和分型.结果 在16 402人中检出Rh(D)阴性血员43人,其中A型11人,B型11人,O型18人,AB型3人;43人的Rh表现型为:Ccdee 11人,ccdee 30人,CCdee2人.结论 佛山市中医院住院病人Rh(D)阴性率为0.26%,符合我国汉族人口Rh(D)阴性率.掌握佛山市人群Rh(D)阴性血型的分布和频率,建立Rh (D)阴性血型档案,对稀有血型患者的紧急用血及降低免疫性输血反应有非常重要的作用.

  5. Pairing theory of striped superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loder, Florian; Kampf, Arno P.; Kopp, Thilo; Graser, Siegfried [Center for Electronic Correlations and Magnetism, Institute of Physics, Augsburg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Striped high-T{sub c} superconductors such as La{sub 7/8}Ba{sub 1/8}CuO{sub 4} show a fascinating competition between spin and charge order on the one hand and superconductivity on the other. A theory for these systems therefore has to capture both the spin correlations in an antiferromagnet and the pair-correlation of a superconductor. For this purpose we have developed an effective Hartree-Fock theory by merging electron pairing with finite center-of-mass momentum and antiferromagnetism. We show that this theory reproduces the key experimental features such as the formation of the antiferromagnetic stripe patterns at 7/8 band filling or the quasi one-dimensional electronic structure observed by photoemission spectroscopy.

  6. Collisions of Vortex Filament Pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banica, Valeria; Faou, Erwan; Miot, Evelyne

    2014-12-01

    We consider the problem of collisions of vortex filaments for a model introduced by Klein et al. (J Fluid Mech 288:201-248, 1995) and Zakharov (Sov Phys Usp 31(7):672-674, 1988, Lect. Notes Phys 536:369-385, 1999) to describe the interaction of almost parallel vortex filaments in three-dimensional fluids. Since the results of Crow (AIAA J 8:2172-2179, 1970) examples of collisions are searched as perturbations of antiparallel translating pairs of filaments, with initial perturbations related to the unstable mode of the linearized problem; most results are numerical calculations. In this article, we first consider a related model for the evolution of pairs of filaments, and we display another type of initial perturbation leading to collision in finite time. Moreover, we give numerical evidence that it also leads to collision through the initial model. We finally study the self-similar solutions of the model.

  7. Septin pairs, a complex choreography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewers, Helge

    2011-06-13

    Septins form a filamentous collar at the mother-bud neck in budding yeast. In cytokinesis, this collar splits into two rings and the septin complexes undergo a dramatic reorientation. Using fluorescence polarization microscopy, DeMay et al. (2011. J. Cell Biol. doi:10.1083/jcb.201012143) now demonstrate that septin complexes assemble as paired filaments in vivo and reveal new insights into septin organization during cytokinesis.

  8. Triplet Pairing in Neutron Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Khodel, V V; Clark, J W

    2001-01-01

    The separation method developed earlier by us [Nucl. Phys. {\\bf A598} 390 (1996)] to calculate and analyze solutions of the BCS gap equation for $^1$S$_0$ pairing is extended and applied to $^3$P$_2$--$^3$F$_2$ pairing in pure neutron matter. The pairing matrix elements are written as a separable part plus a remainder that vanishes when either momentum variable is on the Fermi surface. This decomposition effects a separation of the problem of determining the dependence of the gap components in a spin-angle representation on the magnitude of the momentum (described by a set of functions independent of magnetic quantum number) from the problem of determining the dependence of the gap on angle or magnetic projection. The former problem is solved through a set of nonsingular, quasilinear integral equations, providing inputs for solution of the latter problem through a coupled system of algebraic equations for a set of numerical coefficients. An incisive criterion is given for finding the upper critical density fo...

  9. Morse theory and stable pairs

    CERN Document Server

    Wentworth, Richard A

    2010-01-01

    We study the Morse theory of the Yang-Mills-Higgs functional on the space of pairs $(A,\\Phi)$, where $A$ is a unitary connection on a rank 2 hermitian vector bundle over a compact Riemann surface, and $\\Phi$ is a holomorphic section of $(E, d_A")$. We prove that a certain explicitly defined substratification of the Morse stratification is perfect in the sense of $\\G$-equivariant cohomology, where $\\G$ denotes the unitary gauge group. As a consequence, Kirwan surjectivity holds for pairs. It also follows that the twist embedding into higher degree induces a surjection on equivariant cohomology. This may be interpreted as a rank 2 version of the analogous statement for symmetric products of Riemann surfaces. Finally, we compute the $\\G$-equivariant Poincar\\'e polynomial of the space of $\\tau$-semistable pairs. In particular, we recover an earlier result of Thaddeus. The analysis provides an interpretation of the Thaddeus flips in terms of a variation of Morse functions.

  10. Mediators of homologous DNA pairing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelensky, Alex; Kanaar, Roland; Wyman, Claire

    2014-10-09

    Homologous DNA pairing and strand exchange are at the core of homologous recombination. These reactions are promoted by a DNA-strand-exchange protein assembled into a nucleoprotein filament comprising the DNA-pairing protein, ATP, and single-stranded DNA. The catalytic activity of this molecular machine depends on control of its dynamic instability by accessory factors. Here we discuss proteins known as recombination mediators that facilitate formation and functional activation of the DNA-strand-exchange protein filament. Although the basics of homologous pairing and DNA-strand exchange are highly conserved in evolution, differences in mediator function are required to cope with differences in how single-stranded DNA is packaged by the single-stranded DNA-binding protein in different species, and the biochemical details of how the different DNA-strand-exchange proteins nucleate and extend into a nucleoprotein filament. The set of (potential) mediator proteins has apparently expanded greatly in evolution, raising interesting questions about the need for additional control and coordination of homologous recombination in more complex organisms. Copyright © 2014 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  11. Review of RH desulphurization%RH脱硫概述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖建军; 赖朝彬; 秦哲; 仇圣桃

    2013-01-01

    In order to meet the requirements of low sulphur content for ultra-low carbon steel, a new method is developed to inject flux via RH equipment or to add flux for desulphurization. Main methods of desulphuriza-tion and the requirements of the desulfurizer in RH vacuum degassing process are presented in this paper. The thermodynamics and kinetic are analyzed. Desulphurization mechanism of this method, selection and compo-nents of desulphurizing agent as well as electrical steel modification desulphurization of converter slag and some existing problems are also discussed. The prospect on the preparation and application trends of RH desulfurization process and desulfurizer is introduced.%为满足超低碳钢生产对低硫含量的要求,近年来开发了RH真空处理装置通过喷吹粉剂或在真空室添加脱硫剂脱硫的新方法。阐述了RH真空脱硫的主要方法以及RH真空脱硫工艺对脱硫剂的要求,分析了RH真空脱硫中的热力学和动力学问题,讨论了脱硫机理、脱硫渣系的选择及组成、电工钢转炉渣改性脱硫等问题,展望了RH脱硫工艺和脱硫剂研究发展趋势。

  12. PyRhO: A Multiscale Optogenetics Simulation Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Benjamin D; Jarvis, Sarah; Schultz, Simon R; Nikolic, Konstantin

    2016-01-01

    Optogenetics has become a key tool for understanding the function of neural circuits and controlling their behavior. An array of directly light driven opsins have been genetically isolated from several families of organisms, with a wide range of temporal and spectral properties. In order to characterize, understand and apply these opsins, we present an integrated suite of open-source, multi-scale computational tools called PyRhO. The purpose of developing PyRhO is three-fold: (i) to characterize new (and existing) opsins by automatically fitting a minimal set of experimental data to three-, four-, or six-state kinetic models, (ii) to simulate these models at the channel, neuron and network levels, and (iii) provide functional insights through model selection and virtual experiments in silico. The module is written in Python with an additional IPython/Jupyter notebook based GUI, allowing models to be fit, simulations to be run and results to be shared through simply interacting with a webpage. The seamless integration of model fitting algorithms with simulation environments (including NEURON and Brian2) for these virtual opsins will enable neuroscientists to gain a comprehensive understanding of their behavior and rapidly identify the most suitable variant for application in a particular biological system. This process may thereby guide not only experimental design and opsin choice but also alterations of the opsin genetic code in a neuro-engineering feed-back loop. In this way, we expect PyRhO will help to significantly advance optogenetics as a tool for transforming biological sciences.

  13. PyRhO: A Multiscale Optogenetics Simulation Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin D. Evans

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Optogenetics has become a key tool for understanding the function of neural circuits and controlling their behaviour. An array of directly light driven opsins have been genetically isolated from several families of organisms, with a wide range of temporal and spectral properties. In order to characterise, understand and apply these opsins, we present an integrated suite of open-source, multi-scale computational tools called PyRhO. The purpose of developing PyRhO is threefold: (i to characterise new (and existing opsins by automatically fitting a minimal set of experimental data to three, four or six-state kinetic models, (ii to simulate these models at the channel, neuron & network levels and (iii provide functional insights through model selection and virtual experiments in silico. The module is written in Python with an additional IPython/Jupyter notebook based GUI, allowing models to be fit, simulations to be run and results to be shared through simply interacting with a webpage. The seamless integration of model fitting algorithms with simulation environments (including NEURON and Brian2 for these virtual opsins will enable neuroscientists to gain a comprehensive understanding of their behaviour and rapidly identify the most suitable variant for application in a particular biological system. This process may thereby guide not only experimental design and opsin choice but also alterations of the opsin genetic code in a neuro-engineering feed-back loop. In this way, we expect PyRhO will help to significantly advance optogenetics as a tool for transforming biological sciences.

  14. Preparation and properties of the SmOx/Rh(100) model surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The preparation of SmOx/Rh(100) and CO adsorption on this model surface have been investigated with Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and temperature programmed desorption spectroscopy (TDS). The oxygen adsorption on the SmRh alloy surface leads to the aggregation of Sm on the surface. The thermal treatment of this oxidized surface induces the further agglomeration of SmOx on the Rh(100) surface. Compared with CO TDS on the clean Rh(100) surface, three additional CO desorption peaks can be observed at 176, 331 and 600 K on the SmOx/Rh(100) surface. The CO desorption peak at 176 K may originate from CO adsorbed on SmOx islands, while the appearance of the CO adsorption peaks at 331 and 600 K, depending on the oxidation state of Sm, is attributed to CO species located at the interface of SmOx/Rh(100).

  15. Synthesis, crystal structure and electronic structure of the binary phase Rh2Cd5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koley, Biplab; Chatterjee, S.; Jana, Partha P.

    2017-02-01

    A new phase in the Rh-Cd binary system - Rh2Cd5 has been identified and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction and Energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The stoichiometric compound Rh2Cd5 crystallizes with a unit cell containing 14 atoms, in the orthorhombic space group Pbam (55). The crystal structure of Rh2Cd5 can be described as a defect form of the In3Pd5 structure with ordered vacancies, formed of two 2D atomic layers with the stacking sequence: ABAB. The A type layers consist of (3.6.3.6)-Kagomé nets of Cd atoms while the B type layers consist of (35) (37)- nets of both Cd and Rh atoms. The stability of this line phase is investigated by first principle electronic structure calculations on the model of ordered Rh2Cd5.

  16. Facile Rh(III)-Catalyzed Synthesis of Fluorinated Pyridines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuming; Bergman, Robert G.; Ellman, Jonathan A.

    2015-01-01

    A Rh(III)-catalyzed C–H functionalization approach was developed for the preparation of multi-substituted 3-fluoropyridines from α-fluoro-α,β-unsaturated oximes and alkynes. Oximes substituted with aryl, heteroaryl and alkyl β-substituents were effective coupling partners, as were symmetrical and unsymmetrical alkynes with aryl and alkyl substituents. The first examples of coupling α,β-unsaturated oximes with terminal alkynes was also demonstrated and proceeded with uniformly high regioselectivity to provide single 3-fluoropyridine regioisomers. Reactions were also conveniently set up in air on the bench top. PMID:25992591

  17. Dynamic GnRH- and hCG-testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, A Kirstine; Nordkap, Loa; Almstrup, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    was illustrated by results from 45 patients suspected of disordered hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. 3. METHODS: Baseline, stimulated, relative and absolute changes in serum FSH and LH were determined by ultrasensitive TRIFMA, and testosterone was determined by LC-MS/MS. 4. RESULTS: For the reference group LH...... insufficiency, compared to the relative increase. 5. CONCLUSIONS: We provide novel reference ranges for GnRH and hCG test in healthy men, which allows future diagnostic evaluation of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal disorders in men....

  18. Unusual optical properties of graphene on an Rh surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rut'kov, E. V.; Gall, N. R.

    2015-01-01

    Single- and multilayer graphene films formed on the surface of a number of metals (Rh, Pt, Ir, and Re) at the thermal decomposition of benzene molecules have been studied. A surprising phenomenon has been revealed: these films with thicknesses up to 15 layers do not absorb light emitted by the surface and affect neither brightness nor true temperatures of the surface, which contradicts the fundamental results obtained by A. Geim and K. Novoselov. At larger thicknesses, absorption occurs in agreement with the commonly accepted concepts.

  19. First-Principles Calculation, Synthesis, and Catalytic Properties of Rh-Cu Alloy Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Tokutaro; Kobayashi, Hirokazu; Kusada, Kohei; Kubota, Yoshiki; Takata, Masaki; Yamamoto, Tomokazu; Matsumura, Syo; Sato, Katsutoshi; Nagaoka, Katsutoshi; Kitagawa, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    The first synthesis of pure Rh1-x Cux solid-solution nanoparticles is reported. In contrast to the bulk state, the solid-solution phase was stable up to 750 °C. Based on facile density-functional calculations, we made a prediction that the catalytic activity of Rh1-x Cux can be maintained even with 50 at % replacement of Rh with Cu. The prediction was confirmed for the catalytic activities on CO and NOx conversions.

  20. Homologous radioimmunoassay for salmon gonadotropin releasing hormone s-Gn-RH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breton, B.; Motin, A. (I.N.R.A., Campus de Beaulieu, 35 - Rennes (France)); Kah, O.; Lemenn, F.; Geoffre, S.; Precigoux, G.; Chambolle, P. (Universite de Bordeaux-I, 33 - Talence (France))

    1984-09-30

    A radioimmunoassay for Salmon Gn-RH (p-gly-His-Trp-Ser-Tyr-Gly-Trp-Leu-Pro-Gly) (NH/sub 2/) has been developed with a sensitivity of 7 pg/assay tube. The system allows the specific detection of an immunological GnRH related substance in the brain and pituitary of three teleost species but not in an elasmobranch the Dogfish. These results are discussed and some Gn-RH contents of the organs are proposed.

  1. Identification of the GnRH-(1-5) Receptor and Signaling Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    expression in immortalized GnRH neurons and to facilitate lordosis behavior in female rats. Interestingly, EP24.15 colocalizes with vii...expression in immortalized GnRH neurons (73) and facilitates lordosis behavior in female rats (72). Interestingly, EP24.15 is expressed along the...biologically active by facilitating lordosis behavior in ovariectomized estrogen-primed rats (72); and can increase the mRNA expression of GnRH in immortalized

  2. pH dependence of the electroreduction of nitrate on Rh and Pt polycrystalline electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian; Sebastian, Paula; Duca, Matteo; Hoogenboom, Thijs; Koper, Marc T M

    2014-02-28

    From a study of the electrocatalytic reduction of nitrate on Pt and Rh electrodes over a wide pH range, HNO3 is suggested as the only reducible species in nitrate reduction on Pt, whereas both HNO3 and the nitrate anion are reducible on Rh. Rh is the more active catalyst of the two because it can activate nitrate even if no protons are available in solution. This is an important insight into the development of more effective nitrate reduction catalysts.

  3. Dehybridization of the 4f shell in Si-substituted CeRh3B2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, S. K.; Shenoy, G. K.; Dhar, S. K.; Paulose, P. L.; Vijayaraghavan, R.

    1986-12-01

    The compound CeRh3B2 is known to order magnetically with an unusually high Curie temperature (TC) of 115 K and a low saturation moment of about 0.4μB. We have studied the magnetic behavior of the system CeRh3(B1-xSix)2 (0CeRh3B2 arises because of the Ce 4f hybridization with the neighboring ligands.

  4. Anomalous magnetism of CeRh3B2 under pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, S. A.; Schilling, J. S.; Klavins, P.; Vining, C. B.; Shelton, R. N.

    Whereas CeRh3B2 possesses the highest magnetic ordering temperature (T sub c approx. = 115K) of any Ce-compound with nonmagnetic constituents, LaRh3B2 becomes superconducting below 2.5K. Recent magnetization measurements under pressure as well as lattice parameter and specific heat studies shed light on the nature of the anomalous magnetic state in CeRh3B2.

  5. [Homologous radioimmunoassay of a hypothalamic factor stimulating salmon pituitary gonodatropic function (sGnRH)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breton, B; Motin, A; Kah, O; Lemenn, F; Geoffre, S; Precigoux, G; Chambolle, P

    1984-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay for Salmon Gn-RH p-gly-His-Trp-Ser-Tyr-Gly-Trp- Leu-Pro-Gly) (NH2) has been developed with a sensitivity of 7 pg/assay tube. The system allows the specific detection of an immunological GnRH related substance in the brain and pituitary of three teleost species but not in an elasmobranch the Dogfish. these results are discussed and some Gn-RH contents of the organs are proposed.

  6. GnRH agonist for final oocyte maturation in GnRH antagonist co-treated IVF/ICSI treatment cycles: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, M A F; Abdelmoty, Hatem I; Ahmed, Mohamed A S; Elmohamady, Maged

    2015-05-01

    Final oocyte maturation in GnRH antagonist co-treated IVF/ICSI cycles can be triggered with HCG or a GnRH agonist. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the final oocyte maturation trigger in GnRH antagonist co-treated cycles. Outcome measures were ongoing pregnancy rate (OPR) and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) incidence. Searches: were conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Direct, Cochrane Library, and databases of abstracts. There was a statistically significant difference against the GnRH agonist for OPR in fresh autologous cycles (n = 1024) with an odd ratio (OR) of 0.69 (95% CI: 0.52-0.93). In oocyte-donor cycles (n = 342) there was no evidence of a difference (OR: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.59-1.40). There was a statistically significant difference in favour of GnRH agonist regarding the incidence of OHSS in fresh autologous cycles (OR: 0.06; 95% CI: 0.01-0.33) and donor cycles respectively (OR: 0.06; 95% CI: 0.01-0.27). In conclusion GnRH agonist trigger for final oocyte maturation trigger in GnRH antagonist cycles is safer but less efficient than HCG.

  7. GnRH agonist for final oocyte maturation in GnRH antagonist co-treated IVF/ICSI treatment cycles: Systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.F. Youssef

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Final oocyte maturation in GnRH antagonist co-treated IVF/ICSI cycles can be triggered with HCG or a GnRH agonist. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the final oocyte maturation trigger in GnRH antagonist co-treated cycles. Outcome measures were ongoing pregnancy rate (OPR and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS incidence. Searches: were conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Direct, Cochrane Library, and databases of abstracts. There was a statistically significant difference against the GnRH agonist for OPR in fresh autologous cycles (n = 1024 with an odd ratio (OR of 0.69 (95% CI: 0.52–0.93. In oocyte-donor cycles (n = 342 there was no evidence of a difference (OR: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.59–1.40. There was a statistically significant difference in favour of GnRH agonist regarding the incidence of OHSS in fresh autologous cycles (OR: 0.06; 95% CI: 0.01–0.33 and donor cycles respectively (OR: 0.06; 95% CI: 0.01–0.27. In conclusion GnRH agonist trigger for final oocyte maturation trigger in GnRH antagonist cycles is safer but less efficient than HCG.

  8. Zebrafish adult-derived hypothalamic neurospheres generate gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Campos, Christian; Letelier, Joaquín; Ceriani, Ricardo; Whitlock, Kathleen E.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a hypothalamic decapeptide essential for fertility in vertebrates. Human male patients lacking GnRH and treated with hormone therapy can remain fertile after cessation of treatment suggesting that new GnRH neurons can be generated during adult life. We used zebrafish to investigate the neurogenic potential of the adult hypothalamus. Previously we have characterized the development of GnRH cells in the zebrafish linking genetic pathways to the differentiation of neuromodulatory and endocrine GnRH cells in specific regions of the brain. Here, we developed a new method to obtain neural progenitors from the adult hypothalamus in vitro. Using this system, we show that neurospheres derived from the adult hypothalamus can be maintained in culture and subsequently differentiate glia and neurons. Importantly, the adult derived progenitors differentiate into neurons containing GnRH and the number of cells is increased through exposure to either testosterone or GnRH, hormones used in therapeutic treatment in humans. Finally, we show in vivo that a neurogenic niche in the hypothalamus contains GnRH positive neurons. Thus, we demonstrated for the first time that neurospheres can be derived from the hypothalamus of the adult zebrafish and that these neural progenitors are capable of producing GnRH containing neurons. PMID:26209533

  9. Redetermination of the perovskite-type compound YRh3B revealing a Rh deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humihiko Takei

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available In contrast with previous structural studies of ytterbium trirhodium boride, YbRh3B, that suggest a boron deficiency, the current redetermination of the crystal structure of YbRh3B revealed instead a rhodium deficiency with a refined composition of YbRh2.67 (2B. In the ABX3 perovskite-type structure, Yb, B and Rh are located on the A, B and X positions, respectively, with site symmetries of moverline{3}m for the A and B sites, and 4/mm.m for the X site.

  10. Buccal mucosal ulcer healing effect of rhEGF/Eudispert hv hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong Sook; Yoon, Joon Il; Li, Hong; Moon, Dong Cheul; Han, Kun

    2003-08-01

    We have studied the effect of rhEGF on the buccal mucosal ulcer healing. rhEGF was rapidly degraded upon incubation with the hamster buccal mucosal homogenates; The degradation of rhEGF was significantly inhibited by sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS). Eudispert hv hydrogel and Polycarbophil 974P hydrogel were prepared for rhEGF delivery and their mucoadhesiveness was measured by the Instron method. The mucoadhesive force of Eudispert hv was significantly greater than that of Polycarbophil 974P. Moreover, rhEGF in Eudispert hv hydrogel remained stable for about 2 months. To evaluate the ulcer healing effect of rhEGF, the buccal mucosal ulcer was induced in golden hamsters using acetic acid. At 24 h after administration of rhEGF/Eudispert hv hydrogel, the ulcerous area was decreased compared with rhEGF solution and, as a result, the curative ratio was 36.8 +/- 5.68%. By the addition of SLS (0.5%) to Eudispert hv hydrogel, the curative ratio increased 1.5 times. The mechanism of the action was probably due to a combination of protection of the drug against proteases present in mucosa and prolongation of the release of rhEGF from the formulation at the site of action.

  11. Zebrafish adult-derived hypothalamic neurospheres generate gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Cortés-Campos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH is a hypothalamic decapeptide essential for fertility in vertebrates. Human male patients lacking GnRH and treated with hormone therapy can remain fertile after cessation of treatment suggesting that new GnRH neurons can be generated during adult life. We used zebrafish to investigate the neurogenic potential of the adult hypothalamus. Previously we have characterized the development of GnRH cells in the zebrafish linking genetic pathways to the differentiation of neuromodulatory and endocrine GnRH cells in specific regions of the brain. Here, we developed a new method to obtain neural progenitors from the adult hypothalamus in vitro. Using this system, we show that neurospheres derived from the adult hypothalamus can be maintained in culture and subsequently differentiate glia and neurons. Importantly, the adult derived progenitors differentiate into neurons containing GnRH and the number of cells is increased through exposure to either testosterone or GnRH, hormones used in therapeutic treatment in humans. Finally, we show in vivo that a neurogenic niche in the hypothalamus contains GnRH positive neurons. Thus, we demonstrated for the first time that neurospheres can be derived from the hypothalamus of the adult zebrafish and that these neural progenitors are capable of producing GnRH containing neurons.

  12. Distribution of ABO and Rh blood groups in patients with HELLP syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezik, M; Toyran, H; Yapar, E G

    2002-11-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the relationship between HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelets) syndrome and the maternal blood groups. Five hundred and forty-seven women with severe preeclampsia were included and divided into eight groups according to their blood groups: A Rh-positive (n=203), A Rh-negative (n=38), B Rh-positive (n=83), B Rh-negative (n=10), 0 Rh-positive (n=148), 0 Rh-negative (n=21), AB Rh-positive (n=39), and AB Rh-negative (n=5). The groups were controlled by analysis of variance and found to be homogeneous with respect to parity, gestational age, blood pressure, hemoglobin, hematocrit, platelet values, prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, bilirubin, uric acid, and proteinuria. Incidence of HELLP syndrome was 24% in the overall study population whereas 48% of the patients with the blood group O Rh-negative had HELLP syndrome associated with an increase in risk by a factor of 3.1. To our knowledge this is the first report of such an association.

  13. Cell saver filtering of extravasated rhBMP-2 after degenerative scoliosis reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Liu, MBBCh, MSc, FRCS, FAMS (Orth

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available RhBMP-2 is a bone fusion enhancer commonly used in scoliosis reconstruction surgery. It is delivered via an absorbable collagen sponge but has been known to migrate away from its delivery site. RhBMP-2 extravasation in surgical drainage has been noted during first two days post-surgery. Cell savers are widely used in scoliosis reconstruction to limit transfusion requirements and are commonly deployed in cases where rhBMP-2 is used for fusion augmentation. It is not known whether rhBMP-2 is present in salvaged blood or filtered away during cell saver recycling. Through this case series of four patients who underwent scoliosis reconstruction, we assess cell saver efficacy in filtering rhBMP-2 molecules by quantifying the amount of rhBMP-2 present in salvaged blood obtained after postoperative drainage recycling by OrthoPAT® cell saver and comparing it to rhBMP-2 leakage in postoperative drainage without cell saver recycling. We report an almost 10-fold reduction of rhBMP-2 concentration in salvaged blood obtained after cell saver recycling of postoperative drainage, suggesting cell saver effectiveness in filtering rhBMP-2 molecules.

  14. Pairing phase transition: A Finite-Temperature Relativistic Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov study

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jia Jie; Long, Wen Hui; Van Giai, Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    Background: The relativistic Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (RHFB) theory has recently been developed and it provides a unified and highly predictive description of both nuclear mean field and pairing correlations. Ground state properties of finite nuclei can accurately be reproduced without neglecting exchange (Fock) contributions. Purpose: Finite-temperature RHFB (FT-RHFB) theory has not yet been developed, leaving yet unknown its predictions for phase transitions and thermal excitations in both stable and weakly bound nuclei. Method: FT-RHFB equations are solved in a Dirac Woods-Saxon (DWS) basis considering two kinds of pairing interactions: finite or zero range. Such a model is appropriate for describing stable as well as loosely bound nuclei since the basis states have correct asymptotic behaviour for large spatial distributions. Results: Systematic FT-RH(F)B calculations are performed for several semi-magic isotopic/isotonic chains comparing the predictions of a large number of Lagrangians, among which are PK...

  15. Charge Aspects of Composite Pair Superconductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Rebecca

    2014-03-01

    Conventional Cooper pairs form from well-defined electronic quasiparticles, making the internal structure of the pair irrelevant. However, in the 115 family of superconductors, the heavy electrons are forming as they pair and the internal pair structure becomes as important as the pairing mechanism. Conventional spin fluctuation mediated pairing cannot capture the direct transition from incoherent local moments to heavy fermion superconductivity, but the formation of composite pairs favored by the two channel Kondo effect can. These composite pairs are local d-wave pairs formed by two conduction electrons in orthogonal Kondo channels screening the same local moment. Composite pairing shares the same symmetries as magnetically mediated pairing, however, only composite pairing necessarily involves a redistribution of charge within the unit cell originating from the internal pair structure, both as a monopole (valence change) and a quadrupole effect. This redistribution will onset sharply at the superconducting transition temperature. A smoking gun test for composite pairing is therefore a sharp signature at Tc - for example, a cusp in the Mossbauer isomer shift in NpPd5Al2 or in the NQR shift in (Ce,Pu)CoIn5.

  16. Hygroscopicity of internally mixed particles composed of (NH4)2SO4 and citric acid under pulsed RH change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiao-Min; Wu, Feng-Min; Jing, Bo; Wang, Na; Xu, Lin-Lin; Pang, Shu-Feng; Zhang, Yun-Hong

    2017-09-09

    In this research, we applied a pulsed RH controlling system and a rapid scan vacuum FTIR spectrometer (PRHCS-RSVFTIR) to investigate hygroscopicity of internally mixed (NH4)2SO4(AS)/citric acid (CA) particles. The water content and efflorescence ratio of AS in the particles and ambient relative humidity (RH) as a function of time were obtained with a subsecond time resolution. The hygroscopic behavior of AS aerosols in two different RH control processes (equilibrium and RH pulsed processes) showed that AS droplets crystallize with RH ranging from 42% to 26.5%. It was found that the half-life time ratio between the water content in the CA particles and the gas phase under RH pulsed change was greater than one under low RH conditions (RH), indicating the significant water transfer limitation due to the high viscosity of CA aerosols at low RH, especially at RHRH in atmosphere. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [GnRH analogues for the treatment of fibroids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, Ester Ortiz; Cano, Antonio

    2013-07-01

    Uterine fibroids are benign tumors that are very common in women and may present significant symptoms in 20%-50% of cases. When they require action, their traditional management has been surgery (hysterectomy or fibroidectomy); however medical alternatives have been proposed, given that surgery is associated with a certain morbidity and mortality and involves healthcare costs. Within the pharmacological management of uterine fibroids, GnRH analogues are the best known and most commonly used drugs, although their indications are limited by the side effects associated with long-term treatment. Their primary indication is based on preoperative treatment (to hysterectomy or fibroidectomy) and in selected cases of patients close to menopause or who want more conservative management. These analogues are able to significantly reduce the uterine volume, the size of the fibroid and their accompanying symptoms. Their main disadvantage, however, lies in the reversibility of their effect when treatment is discontinued, along with the side effects associated with hypoestrogenism, such as climacteric symptoms and loss of bone mass. "Add-back" therapies, which associate low-dose estrogens to aGnRH, allow for extended use thanks to decreased side effects without affecting the benefits. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  18. Skin anti-photoaging properties of ginsenoside Rh2 epimers in UV-B-irradiated human keratinocyte cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sun-Joo Oh; Sihyeong Lee; Woo-Yong Choi; Chang-Jin Lim

    2014-09-01

    Ginseng, one of the most widely used herbal medicines, has a wide range of therapeutic and pharmacological applications. Ginsenosides are the major bioactive ingredients of ginseng, which are responsible for various pharmacological activities of ginseng. Ginsenoside Rh2, known as an antitumour ginsenoside, exists as two different stereoisomeric forms, 20()-ginsenoside Rh2 [20()-Rh2] and 20()-ginsenoside Rh2 [20()-Rh2]. This work aimed to assess and compare skin anti-photoaging activities of 20()-Rh2 and 20()-Rh2 in UV-B-irradiated HaCat cells. 20()-Rh2, but not 20()-Rh2, was able to suppress UV-B-induced ROS production in HaCat cells. Both stereoisomeric forms could not modulate cellular survival and NO level in UV-B-irradiated HaCat cells. Both 20()-Rh2 and 20()-Rh2 exhibited suppressive effects on UV-B-induced MMP-2 activity and expression in HaCat cells. In brief, the two stereoisomers of ginsenoside Rh2, 20()-Rh2 and 20()-Rh2, possess skin anti-photoaging effects but possibly in different fashions.

  19. Pair Tunneling through Single Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikh, Mikhail

    2007-03-01

    Coupling to molecular vibrations induces a polaronic shift, and can lead to a negative charging energy, U. For negative U, the occupation of the ground state of the molecule is even. In this situation, virtual pair transitions between the molecule and the leads can dominate electron transport. At low temperature, T, these transitions give rise to the charge-Kondo effect [1]. We developed the electron transport theory through the negative-U molecule [2] at relatively high T, when the Kondo correlations are suppressed. Two physical ingredients distinguish our theory from the transport through a superconducting grain coupled to the normal leads [3]: (i) in parallel with sequential pair-tunneling processes, single-particle cotunneling processes take place; (ii) the electron pair on the molecule can be created (or annihilated) by two electrons tunneling in from (or out to) opposite leads. We found that, even within the rate-equation description, the behavior of differential conductance through the negative-U molecule as function of the gate voltage is quite peculiar: the height of the peak near the degeneracy point is independent of temperature, while its width is proportional to T. This is in contrast to the ordinary Coulomb-blockade conductance peak, whose integral strength is T-independent. At finite source-drain bias, V>>T, the width of the conductance peak is ˜V, whereas the conventional Coulomb-blockade peak at finite V splits into two sharp peaks at detunings V/2, and -V/2. Possible applications to the gate-controlled current rectification and switching will be discussed. [1] A. Taraphder and P. Coleman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2814 (1991). [2] J. Koch, M. E. Raikh, and F. von Oppen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 056803 (2006). [3] F. W. J. Hekking, L. I. Glazman, K. A. Matveev, and R. I. Shekhter, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 4138 (1993).

  20. Mère et fille - des relations en question, ou la liberté à tout prix : Isabel Allende, La casa de los espíritus ; Nicole Brossard, Le désert mauve ; Sarah Kofman, Rue Ordener, rue Labat ; Margaret Laurence, The diviners

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The mother-daughter relationship is dual, ambivalent, a hall of mirrors; it is at once the site of the womb and maternity, a veritable matrix of meaning. The mother-daughter pairing moves through the body, constantly calling attention to its origins and valorising a transmission au féminin even from within a patriarchal society. However, it can also prove catastrophic. Though the mother is the first person with whom the daughter identifies—her first link to life—the daughter not only reacts t...

  1. RhZr相结构稳定性和电子结构性质的第一性原理研究%First-principles study of phase stability and electronic properties of RhZr

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡洁琼; 潘勇; 谢明

    2011-01-01

    First-principles calculations were carried out to investigate the structural stabilities and electronic properties of RhZr.The plane wave based pseudopotential method was used,in which both the local density approximation (LDA) and the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) implanted in the CASTEP code were employed.The internal positions of atoms in the unit cell were optimized and the ground state properties such as lattice parameter,density of state,cohesive energies and enthalpies of formation of ortho-RhZr and cubic-RhZr were calculated.The calculation results indicate that ortho-RhZr can form more easily than cubic-RhZr and the ortho-RhZr is more stable than cubic-RhZr.The density of states (DOS) reveals that the strong bonding in the Rh-Zr and Rh-Rh or Zr-Zr interaction chains accounts for the structural stability of ortho-RhZr and the hybridization between Rh-4d states and Zr-4d states is strong.%用第一性原理计算研究RhZr两种晶体结构的结构稳定性和电子结构性质.采用基于第一性原理的平面波赝势法,分别用局域密度近似和广义梯度近似法,对晶体原子的结构进行优化,并分别对正交晶系RhZr和立方晶系RhZr的基态性质,如晶格参数、能态密度、形成能以及形成焓等进行计算.计算结果表明:正交晶系RhZr比立方晶系RhZr更容易生成,而且生成的正交晶系RhZr比立方晶系RhZr更稳定.能态密度计算结果表明:立方晶系RhZr比正交晶系RhZr稳定,是因为在立方晶系RhZr中不仪存在Rh-Zr还存在Rh-Rh或者Zr-Zr之间的相互作用键.由态密度分析还可看出,在费米面附近Rh的4d轨道与Zr的4d轨道存在较强的轨道杂化.

  2. Endocrine factors of pair bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stárka, L

    2007-01-01

    Throughout literature--fiction and poetry, fine arts and music--falling in love and enjoying romantic love plays a central role. While several psychosocial conceptions of pair attachment consider the participation of hormones, human endocrinology has dealt with this theme only marginally. According to some authors in addictology, falling in love shows some signs of hormonal response to stressors with changes in dopamine and serotonin signalling and neurotrophin (transforming growth factor b) concentration. Endorphins, oxytocin and vasopressin may play a role during the later phases of love. However, proof of hormonal events associated with love in humans has, until recently, been lacking.

  3. Top pair production at ATLAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loginov Andrey

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available An overview of latest ATLAS measurements of top pair (tt̅ production in proton-proton collisions at the LHC at centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV is presented. Measurements of the tt̅ production cross section (σtt̅ in various decay channels, including analyses of differential σtt̅ distributions and a study of jet multiplicity in tt̅ production, as well as searches for tt̅ resonances using boosted top techniques and standard methods, are discussed.

  4. Filipino au pairs on the move

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, Karina Märcher

    2016-01-01

    Most Filipina au pairs in Denmark send remittances back home, and for many, au pairing forms part of longer-term migration trajectories. This article explores how Filipina au pairs try to carve out a future for themselves abroad. It shows that they navigate within tight webs of financial interdep......Most Filipina au pairs in Denmark send remittances back home, and for many, au pairing forms part of longer-term migration trajectories. This article explores how Filipina au pairs try to carve out a future for themselves abroad. It shows that they navigate within tight webs of financial...

  5. Dimethylphosphinate bridged binuclear Rh(i) catalysts for the alkoxycarbonylation of aromatic C-H bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iturmendi, Amaia; Sanz Miguel, Pablo J; Popoola, Saheed A; Al-Saadi, Abdulaziz A; Iglesias, Manuel; Oro, Luis A

    2016-11-14

    A variety of binuclear rhodium(i) complexes featuring two bridging dimethylphosphinate ligands ((CH3)2PO2(-)) have been prepared and tested in the alkoxycarbonylation of aromatic C-H bonds. The complex [Rh(μ-κO,O'-(CH3)2PO2)(cod)]2 has been prepared by a reaction of [Rh(μ-MeO)(cod)]2 with 2 equivalents of dimethylphosphinic acid. Binuclear complexes [Rh(μ-κO,O'-(CH3)2PO2)(CO)L]2 (L = PPh3, P(OMe)Ph2 and P(OPh)3) were obtained by carbonylation of the related mononuclear complexes [Rh(κO-(CH3)2PO2)(cod)(L)], which were prepared in situ by the reaction of [Rh(μ-κO,O'-(CH3)2PO2)(cod)]2 with 2 equivalents of L. Conversely, if L = IPr, the reaction of [Rh(μ-κO,O'-(CH3)2PO2)(CO)L]2 with carbon monoxide affords the mononuclear complex [Rh(κO-(CH3)2PO2)(CO)2IPr]. The subsequent reaction with trimethylamine N-oxide gives the corresponding binuclear complex [Rh(μ-κO,O'-(CH3)2PO2)(CO)(IPr)]2 by abstraction of one of the carbonyl ligands. Complexes [Rh(μ-κO,O'-(CH3)2PO2)(cod)]2 and [Rh(κO-(CH3)2PO2)(cod)(L)] (L = IPr, PPh3, P(OMe)Ph2, P(OPh)3) are active precatalysts in the alkoxycarbonylation of C-H bonds, with the ligand system playing a key role in the catalytic activity. The complexes that feature more labile Rh-L bonds give rise to better catalysts, probably due to the more straightforward substitution of L by a second carbonyl ligand, since a more electrophilic carbonyl carbon atom is more susceptible toward aryl migration. In fact, complexes [Rh(μ-κO,O'-(CH3)2PO2)(CO)2]2 and [Rh(μ-Cl)(CO)2]2, generated in situ from [Rh(μ-κO,O'-(CH3)2PO2)(cod)]2 and [Rh(μ-Cl)(cod)2]2, respectively, are the most active catalysts tested in this work.

  6. Effect of reduced renal mass on renal ammonia transporter family, Rh C glycoprotein and Rh B glycoprotein, expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Young; Baylis, Chris; Verlander, Jill W; Han, Ki-Hwan; Reungjui, Sirirat; Handlogten, Mary E; Weiner, I David

    2007-10-01

    Kidneys can maintain acid-base homeostasis, despite reduced renal mass, through adaptive changes in net acid excretion, of which ammonia excretion is the predominant component. The present study examines whether these adaptations are associated with changes in the ammonia transporter family members, Rh B glycoprotein (Rhbg) and Rh C glycoprotein (Rhcg). We used normal Sprague-Dawley rats and a 5/6 ablation-infarction model of reduced renal mass; control rats underwent sham operation. After 1 wk, glomerular filtration rate, assessed as creatinine clearance, was decreased, serum bicarbonate was slightly increased, and Na(+) and K(+) were unchanged. Total urinary ammonia excretion was unchanged, but urinary ammonia adjusted for creatinine clearance, an index of per nephron ammonia metabolism, increased significantly. Although reduced renal mass did not alter total Rhcg protein expression, both light microscopy and immunohistochemistry with quantitative morphometric analysis demonstrated hypertrophy of both intercalated cells and principal cells in the cortical and outer medullary collecting duct that was associated with increased apical and basolateral Rhcg polarization. Rhbg expression, analyzed using immunoblot analysis, immunohistochemistry, and measurement of cell-specific expression, was unchanged. We conclude that altered subcellular localization of Rhcg contributes to adaptive changes in single-nephron ammonia metabolism and maintenance of acid-base homeostasis in response to reduced renal mass.

  7. Part I: A Comparative Thermal Aging Study on the Regenerability of Rh/Al2O3 and Rh/CexOy-ZrO2 as Model Catalysts for Automotive Three Way Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghe Zheng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The rhodium (Rh component in automotive three way catalysts (TWC experiences severe thermal deactivation during fuel shutoff, an engine mode (e.g., at downhill coasting used for enhancing fuel economy. In a subsequent switch to a slightly fuel rich condition, in situ catalyst regeneration is accomplished by reduction with H2 generated through steam reforming catalyzed by Rh0 sites. The present work reports the effects of the two processes on the activity and properties of 0.5% Rh/Al2O3 and 0.5% Rh/CexOy-ZrO2 (CZO as model catalysts for Rh-TWC. A very brief introduction of three way catalysts and system considerations is also given. During simulated fuel shutoff, catalyst deactivation is accelerated with increasing aging temperature from 800 °C to 1050 °C. Rh on a CZO support experiences less deactivation and faster regeneration than Rh on Al2O3. Catalyst characterization techniques including BET surface area, CO chemisorption, TPR, and XPS measurements were applied to examine the roles of metal-support interactions in each catalyst system. For Rh/Al2O3, strong metal-support interactions with the formation of stable rhodium aluminate (Rh(AlO2y complex dominates in fuel shutoff, leading to more difficult catalyst regeneration. For Rh/CZO, Rh sites were partially oxidized to Rh2O3 and were relatively easy to be reduced to active Rh0 during regeneration.

  8. Two highly similar DEAD box proteins, OsRH2 and OsRH34, homologous to eukaryotic initiation factor 4AIII, play roles of the exon junction complex in regulating growth and development in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Kai; Sie, Yi-Syuan; Chen, Yu-Fu; Huang, Tian-Sheng; Lu, Chung-An

    2016-04-12

    The exon junction complex (EJC), which contains four core components, eukaryotic initiation factor 4AIII (eIF4AIII), MAGO/NASHI (MAGO), Y14/Tsunagi/RNA-binding protein 8A, and Barentsz/Metastatic lymph node 51, is formed in both nucleus and cytoplasm, and plays important roles in gene expression. Genes encoding core EJC components have been found in plants, including rice. Currently, the functional characterizations of MAGO and Y14 homologs have been demonstrated in rice. However, it is still unknown whether eIF4AIII is essential for the functional EJC in rice. This study investigated two DEAD box RNA helicases, OsRH2 and OsRH34, which are homologous to eIF4AIII, in rice. Amino acid sequence analysis indicated that OsRH2 and OsRH34 had 99 % identity and 100 % similarity, and their gene expression patterns were similar in various rice tissues, but the level of OsRH2 mRNA was about 58-fold higher than that of OsRH34 mRNA in seedlings. From bimolecular fluorescence complementation results, OsRH2 and OsRH34 interacted physically with OsMAGO1 and OsY14b, respectively, which indicated that both of OsRH2 and OsRH34 were core components of the EJC in rice. To study the biological roles of OsRH2 and OsRH34 in rice, transgenic rice plants were generated by RNA interference. The phenotypes of three independent OsRH2 and OsRH34 double-knockdown transgenic lines included dwarfism, a short internode distance, reproductive delay, defective embryonic development, and a low seed setting rate. These phenotypes resembled those of mutants with gibberellin-related developmental defects. In addition, the OsRH2 and OsRH34 double-knockdown transgenic lines exhibited the accumulation of unspliced rice UNDEVELOPED TAPETUM 1 mRNA. Rice contains two eIF4AIII paralogous genes, OsRH2 and OsRH34. The abundance of OsRH2 mRNA was about 58-fold higher than that of OsRH34 mRNA in seedlings, suggesting that the OsRH2 is major eIF4AIII in rice. Both OsRH2 and OsRH34 are core components of the EJC

  9. Isolation and X-ray structures of four Rh(PCP) complexes including a Rh(I) dioxygen complex with a short O-O bond

    KAUST Repository

    Hayashi, Yukiko

    2013-07-01

    The reaction of RhCl3·H2O with tBu2P(CH2)5PtBu 2 afforded several complexes including [RhIII(H)Cl{ tBu2- P(CH2)2CH(CH2) 2PtBu2}] (1), [RhIIIHCl 2{tBu2P(CH2)5P tBu2}]2 (2), [RhICl{ tBu2P(CH2)2CH=CHCH2P tBu2}] (3) and [RhICl{tBu 2PCH2C(O)CH=CHCH2PtBu2}] (4). X-ray crystal structures of 3 and 4 showed that the C=C bond on the C 5 unit of tBu2P(CH2) 5PtBu2 is bound to Rh(I) in a η2 configuration. In 4, the Rh atom has a trigonal pyramidal coordination geometry. The X-ray crystal structure of 2 consists of two rhodium( III) centers bridged by two tBu2P(CH2)5P tBu2 ligands with two phosphorus atoms, one from each ligand, trans to one another. The crystal structure of the rhodium oxygen adduct with 1,3-bis(di-t-butylphosphinomethyl) benzene [RhO2{ tBu2PCH2(C6H3)CH 2PtBu2}] (5) was also investigated. In this species the O2 is η2 coordinated to the Rh(I) center with asymmetric Rh-O bond lengths (2.087(7) and 1.998(8) Å). The O-O bond distance is short (1.337(11) Å) with νO-O of 990.5 cm -1. DFT calculations on complex 5 yielded two η2- O2 structures that differed in energy by only 0.76 kcal/mol. The lower energy one (5a) had near C2 symmetry, and had nearly equal Rh-O bond lengths, while the higher energy structure (5b) had near Cs symmetry and generally good agreement with the experimental structure. The calculated UV-Vis and IR spectra of complex 5 are in excellent agreement with experiment. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Investigation of humidity-dependent nanotribology behaviors of Si(1 0 0)/SiO{sub 2} pair moving from stick to slip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Jiaxin, E-mail: yujiaxin119@yahoo.com.cn [Key Laboratory of Testing Technology for Manufacturing Process, Ministry of Education, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); Chen Lei; Qian Linmao [Tribology Research Institute, National Traction Power Laboratory, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Song Danlu; Cai Yong [Key Laboratory of Testing Technology for Manufacturing Process, Ministry of Education, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of humidity on the motion behavior of Si(1 0 0)/SiO{sub 2} pair was clarified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer With increase in humidity, adhesion force increases slowly firstly, then sharply. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer With increase in humidity, friction force increases sharply firstly, then slowly. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The wear degree of Si is relative to the physical state of absorbed water film. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The tribochemical reaction of Si(1 0 0) in humid air was verified by ToF-SIMS. - Abstract: With an atomic force microscopy, the humidity-dependent nanotribology behaviors of Si(1 0 0) against SiO{sub 2} microsphere were investigated while the relative movement translated from stick to slip. The relative humidity RH of air exhibits a strong effect on the motion behavior of Si(1 0 0)/SiO{sub 2} pair. With the increase in RH, relative movement of Si(1 0 0)/SiO{sub 2} pair is easier to keep into stick state, namely, the relative slip becomes more difficult to occur in a higher humidity range. The adhesion F{sub a} will increase with the increase in RH in the given humidity range. In the low RH range (<20%) where the adsorbed water layer forms the 'solid-like' structure, due to the absence of water meniscus, F{sub a} increases very slowly. However, in relative higher RH range (>20%), F{sub a} increases very sharply once 'liquid-like' adsorbed water layer forms, because it increases the capillary force. The initial friction forces F{sub t} of Si(1 0 0)/SiO{sub 2} pair also increase with the increase in RH in the given humidity range. However, different from F{sub a}, it increases sharply in the low RH range (<30%) and slightly in the higher RH range (>30%). During the cyclic friction process, under the higher RH, relative stable tangential force is easier to be observed at higher displacement amplitude, here, the relative movement usually keeps into stick state. With

  11. Bound Polaron Pair Formation in Poly (phenylenevinylenes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothberg, Lewis

    The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION * PHOTOGENERATED YIELD OF SINGLET EXCITONS * AGGREGRATION EFFECTS ON EXCITED STATE PHOTO-GENERATION * ASSIGNMENT TO BOUND POLARON PAIRS AND DISCUSSION * PROBLEMS WITH THE BOUND POLARON PAIR PICTURE AND CONCLUSION * REFERENCES

  12. Theoretical investigation of water formation on Rh and Pt Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Steffen; Natoli, Vincent; Cohen, Morrel H.

    2000-06-01

    Catalytic water formation from adsorbed H and O adatoms is a fundamental reaction step in a variety of technologically important reactions involving organic molecules. In particular, the water-formation rate determines the selectivity of the catalytic partial oxidation of methane to syngas. In this report we present a theoretical investigation of the potential-energy diagram for water formation from adsorbed O and H species on Rh(111) and Pt(111) surfaces. The study is based on accurate first-principles calculations applying density-functional theory. Our results are compared to the potential-energy diagram for this reaction inferred from experimental data by Hickman and Schmidt [AIChE. J. 39, 1164 (1993)]. The calculations essentially reproduce the scheme of Hickman and Schmidt for water formation on Rh(111) with the important difference that the OH molecule is significantly more stable than assumed by Hickman and Schmidt. On Pt(111) surfaces, however, the calculations predict a barrier to OH formation very similar to that found on Rh(111). In particular, the calculated barrier to OH formation of about 20 kcal/mol seems to contradict the small 2.5 kcal/mol barrier assumed in the Hickman-Schmidt scheme and the observed large rate of water formation on Pt. A possible explanation for the apparent discrepancy between the large calculated barrier for OH formation on Pt and the experimentally observed rapid formation of water even at low temperatures is that the active sites for water formation on Pt are at "defect" sites and not on the ideally flat terraces. A similar conclusion has been reached by Verheij and co-workers [Surf. Sci. 371, 100 (1997); Chem. Phys. Lett. 174, 449 (1990); Surf. Sci. 272, 276 (1991)], who did detailed experimental work on water formation on Pt surfaces. Analyzing our results, we develop an explicit picture of the interaction processes governing the formation of OH groups. This picture rationalizes the calculated weak dependence of OH

  13. Note: Large area deposition of Rh single and Rh/W/Cu multilayer thin films on stainless steel substrate by pulsed laser deposition technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mostako, A. T. T.; Khare, Alika, E-mail: alika@iitg.ernet.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati 781039 (India)

    2014-04-15

    Mirror like thin films of single layer Rh and multilayer Rh/W/Cu are deposited on highly polished 50 mm diameter stainless steel substrate by Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) technique for first mirror application in fusion reactors. For this, the conventional PLD technique has been modified by incorporating substrate rastering stage for large area deposition via PLD. Process optimization to achieve uniformity of deposition as estimated from fringe visibility and thickness is also discussed.

  14. Rh isoimmunization in Sub-Saharan Africa indicates need for universal access to anti-RhD immunoglobulin and effective management of D-negative pregnancies

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Erhabor Osaro1, Adias Teddy Charles21Department of Blood Sciences, Royal Bolton Hospital NHS Trust UK; 2Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Port Harcourt, NigeriaAbstract: Transplacental or fetomaternal hemorrhage (FMH) may occur during pregnancy or at delivery and lead to immunization to the D antigen if the mother is Rh-negative and the baby is Rh-positive. This can result in hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) in subse...

  15. Fision: Nucleon pair breaking before scission

    OpenAIRE

    Montoya, Modesto

    1984-01-01

    In order to explain the odd-even effect observed in low energy fission fragment distributions it has been recently required a double mechanism of nucleon pair breaking: before scission (early pair breaking) and at scission (late pair breaking), respectively. In the present work we show that, using the same formulae but considering only the early pair breaking mechanism, one can reproduce fairly well all the available experimental data on the odd-even effects.

  16. RhD 母儿血型不合妊娠期管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷艳; 朱启英

    2015-01-01

    RhD母儿血型不合是指来自RhD阴性母体的抗体破坏了RhD阳性胎儿的红细胞,造成胎儿或新生儿溶血,严重者可导致死胎。在广泛应用抗D免疫球蛋白以前,胎儿或新生儿严重溶血发生率很高。规范使用抗D免疫球蛋白预防母儿血型不合和孕期严密监测胎儿状态是降低围产儿发病率和死亡率的关键。%Fetal-maternal hemorrhage of RhD isoimmunization is maternal antibodies of Rh-negative pregnant woman affecting the RhD red cell antigen of Rh-positive fetus, which may result in hemolytic disease of the fetus/newborn, even stillbirth.Prior to the use of anti-D immune globulin, the incidence rate of the fetus/newborn hemolytic disease is high.Implement RhD immune globulin prophylaxis normatively and monitor fetal during pregnancy carefully can led to a significant reduction in the frequency of perinatal mortality and morbidity.

  17. Final Design Report for the RH LLW Disposal Facility (RDF) Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austad, S. L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-05-01

    The RH LLW Disposal Facility (RDF) Project was designed by AREVA Federal Services (AFS) and the design process was managed by Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA) for the Department of Energy (DOE). The final design report for the RH LLW Disposal Facility Project is a compilation of the documents and deliverables included in the facility final design.

  18. Rh(III-catalyzed directed C–H bond amidation of ferrocenes with isocyanates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Takebayashi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available [RhCp*(OAc2(H2O] [Cp* = pentamethylcyclopentadienyl] catalyzed the C–H bond amidation of ferrocenes possessing directing groups with isocyanates in the presence of 2 equiv/Rh of HBF4·OEt2. A variety of disubstituted ferrocenes were prepared in high yields, or excellent diastereoselectivities.

  19. Final Design Report for the RH LLW Disposal Facility (RDF) Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austad, Stephanie Lee [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The RH LLW Disposal Facility (RDF) Project was designed by AREVA Federal Services (AFS) and the design process was managed by Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA) for the Department of Energy (DOE). The final design report for the RH LLW Disposal Facility Project is a compilation of the documents and deliverables included in the facility final design.

  20. Intranasal LH-RH treatment of cryptorchidism. A clinical trial and 5 years follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Jørgen Mogens; Mauritzen, K; Skakkebaek, N E

    1987-01-01

    The effect of intranasal LH-RH on cryptorchidism was investigated in 45 prepubertal boys with 68 undescended testes. A daily dose of 1.2 mg LH-RH was given for 4 weeks. A total of 16 testes (24%) descended. Follow-up examination 5 years later showed that relapse had occurred in two cases. Fifty-t...

  1. Regulation of Endogenous Conductances in GnRH neurons by Estrogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rønnekleiv, Oline K.; Bosch, Martha A.; Zhang, Chunguang

    2010-01-01

    17β-estradiol (E2) regulates the activity of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons through both presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms, and this ovarian steroid hormone is essential for cyclical GnRH neuronal activity and secretion. E2 has significant actions to modulate the mRNA expression of numerous ion channels in GnRH neurons and/or to enhance (suppress) endogenous conductances (currents) including potassium (KATP, A-type) and calcium low voltage T-type and high voltage L-type currents. Also, it is well documented that E2 can alter the excitability of GnRH neurons via direct action, but the intracellular signaling cascades mediating these actions are not well understood. As an example, KATP channels are critical ion channels needed for maintaining GnRH neurons in a hyperpolarized state for recruiting T-type calcium channels that are important for burst firing in GnRH neurons. E2 modulates the activity of KATP channels via a membrane-initiated signaling pathway in GnRH neurons. Obviously there are other channels, including the small conductance activated K+ (SK) channels, that maybe modulated by this signaling pathway, but the ensemble of mER-, ERα-, and ERβ-mediated effects both pre- and post-synaptic will ultimately dictate the excitability of GnRH neurons. PMID:20816765

  2. ABO/Rh Blood-Typing Model: A Problem-Solving Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wake, Carol

    2005-01-01

    An ARO/Rh Blood-Typing kit useful for students to visualize blood-typing activities and practice problem-solving skills with transfusion reactions is presented. The model also enables students to identify relationships between A, B, and Rh antigens and antibodies in blood and to understand molecular mechanisms involved in transfusion agglutination…

  3. Prediction of the anti-RhD donor population size for managerial decision-making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoeven, L. R.; Berkowska, M. A.; Verhagen, O. J H M; Koffijberg, H.; van der Schoot, C. E.; Janssen, M. P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Rhesus D (RhD)-negative women pregnant with a RhD-positive child receive prophylactic injections to prevent haemolytic disease of the newborn. Because of the success of the prophylaxis, the number of naturally immunized women has decreased, thereby also decreasing the number of potential

  4. Final Design Report for the RH LLW Disposal Facility (RDF) Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austad, Stephanie Lee [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The RH LLW Disposal Facility (RDF) Project was designed by AREVA Federal Services (AFS) and the design process was managed by Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA) for the Department of Energy (DOE). The final design report for the RH LLW Disposal Facility Project is a compilation of the documents and deliverables included in the facility final design.

  5. In situ Quick XAFS studies on the structure of Rh supported on zeolites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, K [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Okumura, K; Sanada, T; Murakami, T; Ito, S; Niwa, M, E-mail: kkato@spring8.or.j [Department of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Tottori University, Koyama-cho, Tottori 680-8552 (Japan)

    2009-11-15

    Dynamical change of structure of Rh supported on H-USY and Na-USY zeolite was measured by Quick XAFS technique operated under in situ conditions. In the atmosphere of H2, formation of the Rh clusters consist of 13 atoms was observed in H-USY and Na-USY. On the other hand, in the atmosphere of O{sub 2}, formation of the highly dispersed Rh oxide was observed in H-USY, whereas Rh oxide species did not disperse in Na-USY. In the reduction processes after heating samples in the atmosphere of O{sub 2}, the highly dispersed metal Rh particles in the H-USY agglomerated with increasing temperature above 553K. Whereas, the generation of stable Rh clusters were observed on the Na-USY. From these finding, it was conclude that the structure and acid sites of USY affected on the dispersion of Rh oxide particles and the generation of metal Rh clusters.

  6. Mechanistic Investigation of the Reduction of NOx over Pt- and Rh-Based LNT Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukasz Kubiak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the noble metals (Pt vs. Rh on the NOx storage reduction performances of lean NOx trap catalysts is here investigated by transient micro-reactor flow experiments. The study indicates a different behavior during the storage in that the Rh-based catalyst showed higher storage capacity at high temperature as compared to the Pt-containing sample, while the opposite is seen at low temperatures. It is suggested that the higher storage capacity of the Rh-containing sample at high temperature is related to the higher dispersion of Rh as compared to Pt, while the lower storage capacity of Rh-Ba/Al2O3 at low temperature is related to its poor oxidizing properties. The noble metals also affect the catalyst behavior upon reduction of the stored NOx, by decreasing the threshold temperature for the reduction of the stored NOx. The Pt-based catalyst promotes the reduction of the adsorbed NOx at lower temperatures if compared to the Rh-containing sample, due to its superior reducibility. However, Rh-based material shows higher reactivity in the NH3 decomposition significantly enhancing N2 selectivity. Moreover, formation of small amounts of N2O is observed on both Pt- and Rh-based catalyst samples only during the reduction of highly reactive NOx stored at 150 °C, where NOx is likely in the form of nitrites.

  7. Rhétorique arabe : Aristote, le Coran et la balagha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Ismaili

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available L’article étudie les points de convergence entre la rhétorique classique aristotélicienne et la « balagha », la rhétorique arabe, en particulier sur la question de l’élocution et des figures de style.

  8. Rhône-Alpes renforce sa coopération avec le CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Gruzelle, F

    2001-01-01

    La région Rhône-Alpes finance, à hauteur de 26 millions sur 7 ans, le "programme Rhône-Alpes-CERN", tandis que les départements de l'Ain et de la Haute-Savoie ont respectivement subventionné une partie des bâtiments et certaines innovations (1 page).

  9. Valence states and possible charge ordering in LaCo1-x Rh x O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streltsov, Sergey V.; Gapontsev, Vladimir V.; Khomskii, Daniel I.

    2016-03-01

    An unusual effect was discovered in Li et al (2010 J. Solid State Chem. 183 1388): the substitution of nonmagnetic low-spin Co3+ in LaCoO3 by the formally isoelectronic and also nonmagnetic Rh3+ led, surprisingly, to a rapid appearance of magnetism in LaCo1-x Rh x O3, even for small amounts of doping. Different explanations for this effect were proposed in the literature. To clarify the situation we carried out unbiased ab initio calculations of this system. We concluded that, in agreement with the original assumption of Li et al, but in contrast with later statements (Knizek et al 2012 Phys. Rev. B 85 134401), this effect is caused by the valence change (’redox reaction’) Co3+   +  Rh3+ \\to Co2+   +  Rh4+ , which creates magnetic Co2+ and Rh4+ ions. For the half-filled case LaCo1/2Rh1/2O3 we obtained the state with charge ordering of Co2+ and Rh4+ ions, which according to our calculations are antiferromagnetically coupled. The obtained results reasonably explain the observed behavior of the magnetic susceptibility of LaCo1-x Rh x O3, and the novel state predicted at half-doping could be verified experimentally by detailed structural and magnetic studies and by x-ray absorption spectroscopy.

  10. Improvement of the ultra-trace voltammetric determination of Rh in environmental samples using signal transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almécija, C; Cobelo-García, A; Santos-Echeandía, J

    2016-01-01

    Rhodium (Rh) is present at the Earth's surface at ultra-trace concentrations (0.06 ng g(-1)); however, its use in catalytic converters has increased its deposition nearby traffic pressure and therefore the interest in analytical techniques for Rh determination has raised in the recent years. In this study we propose an improvement of Rh measurement by adsorptive voltammetry applying second-derivative signal transformation. The optimization of experimental parameters affecting the voltammetric analysis were carried out using sediment samples; these include the amount of sample digest used, the hydrochloric acid and formaldehyde concentrations, deposition potential and equilibration time. The use of the second derivative transformation provided well-defined peaks due to the minimization of background interferences, leading to a significant decrease in the detection limits. Accordingly, a detection limit of 200 fM Rh in the cell was obtained, which corresponds to 14 pg g(-1) of Rh for 200mg of sediments. The optimized methodology was applied to the analysis of Rh in a sediment core collected close to a motorway bridge from Tagus Estuary (Lisbon, Portugal). Here, Rh concentrations ranged from 0.06 to 0.47 ng g(-1), showing a surface Rh-enrichment linked to traffic, which was consistent with a Pt superficial peak. Reference materials were also analyzed, including road dust (BCR-723) and river sediment (JSD-2), and values obtained were in agreement with certified concentrations and previously values reported in the literature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Equipment for measuring autogenous RH-change and autogenous deformation in cement paste and concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    1997-01-01

    Equipment for measuring autogenous RH-change and autogenous deformation in cement paste and concrete are presented. The equipment consists of a Rotronic Hygroskop DT including a measuring chamber for measuring autogenous RH-change in cement paste and concrete, a paste dilatometer for measuring...

  12. Stability and Temperature-Induced Agglomeration of Rh Nanoparticles Supported by CeO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Erika; Pusztai, Péter; Oszkó, Albert; Baán, Kornélia; Erdőhelyi, András; Kónya, Zoltán; Kiss, János

    2016-03-22

    The effects of reduction by H2 and by heat treatment in vacuum and in O2 flow on Rh particle size changes of Rh/CeO2 samples were studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), high-resolution electron microscopy (HRTEM), and CO adsorption followed by diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS). Low-temperature (373-423 K) reduction of Rh without agglomeration is demonstrated. An average particle size of 2.3 ± 1.1 nm was measured by HRTEM regardless of the metal loading (1-5%). On Rh/CeO2, a significant particle size increase of the Rh particles was detected on heating (773 K). In this work, we suggest that the temperature-induced surface decrease resulting from the sintering of Rh is favored only for well-dispersed particles. XP spectra revealed that the mobile oxygens of CeO2 fundamentally determine the oxidation state of the supported metals. At elevated temperature, the oxidation of the reduced support surface as well as the metal component takes place because of the segregation of ceria oxygens. When the aggregated particles were reoxidized, the redispersion of Rh was observed probably because of the formation of Rh-O-Ce bonds.

  13. Valence states and possible charge ordering in LaCo(1-x)Rh(x)O₃.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streltsov, Sergey V; Gapontsev, Vladimir V; Khomskii, Daniel I

    2016-03-02

    An unusual effect was discovered in Li et al (2010 J. Solid State Chem. 183 1388): the substitution of nonmagnetic low-spin Co(3+) in LaCoO3 by the formally isoelectronic and also nonmagnetic Rh(3+) led, surprisingly, to a rapid appearance of magnetism in LaCo(1-x)Rh(x)O3, even for small amounts of doping. Different explanations for this effect were proposed in the literature. To clarify the situation we carried out unbiased ab initio calculations of this system. We concluded that, in agreement with the original assumption of Li et al, but in contrast with later statements (Knizek et al 2012 Phys. Rev. B 85 134401), this effect is caused by the valence change ('redox reaction') Co(3+) +  Rh(3+) → Co(2+) +  Rh(4+), which creates magnetic Co(2+) and Rh(4+) ions. For the half-filled case LaCo1/2Rh1/2O3 we obtained the state with charge ordering of Co(2+) and Rh(4+) ions, which according to our calculations are antiferromagnetically coupled. The obtained results reasonably explain the observed behavior of the magnetic susceptibility of LaCo(1-x)Rh(x)O3, and the novel state predicted at half-doping could be verified experimentally by detailed structural and magnetic studies and by x-ray absorption spectroscopy.

  14. Validation of the Croatian and Lebanese Revised Illness Perception Questionnaires for Healthy People (IPQ-RH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrak, A; Sherman, K A; Fitness, J

    2015-05-01

    The absence of Croatian- and Arabic-language measures to assess illness representations has contributed to lack of research among Croatian and Lebanese populations. Utilising the robust confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) approach, this study aimed to validate Croatian and Arabic versions of the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire for Healthy People (IPQ-RH) in the breast and cervical cancer contexts, and compared these illness perceptions among Croatian and Lebanese women living in Australia. Forward and back-translated versions of the IPQ-RH were administered in Croatian to Croatian-born (n = 238), and Arabic to Lebanese-born (n = 240) women. The IPQ-RH illness perceptions were assessed for each cancer type, and the Negative Affect (NA) subscale of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) assessed discriminant validity. The CFA method demonstrated acceptable models across the Croatian and Lebanese IPQ-RH measures. The internal reliabilities for the IPQ-RH subscales were adequate and the subscales had low correlations with the NA subscale of the PANAS, indicating that the IPQ-RH measures are largely distinguishable from negative affective dispositions. These findings demonstrate that the Croatian and Lebanese IPQ-RH breast and cervical cancer measures have a factor structure similar to the originally developed IPQ-RH scale and provide further support for the theoretically developed illness representations. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. ABO/Rh Blood-Typing Model: A Problem-Solving Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wake, Carol

    2005-01-01

    An ARO/Rh Blood-Typing kit useful for students to visualize blood-typing activities and practice problem-solving skills with transfusion reactions is presented. The model also enables students to identify relationships between A, B, and Rh antigens and antibodies in blood and to understand molecular mechanisms involved in transfusion agglutination…

  16. Molecular basis of Rh blood group system in the Malaysian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, Rozi Hanisa; Muhamad, Nor Asiah; Hassan, Afifah; Ayob, Yasmin; Yusoff, Narazah Mohd

    2015-01-01

    Rh molecular studies have been previously mainly conducted in Caucasians and African population. There is a limited data on the molecular basis for Rh genotypes among Asians. This study aims to characterize the Rh genes and frequency of the various RH genotypes among blood donors in National Blood Centre (NBC), Kuala Lumpur. A total of 1014 blood samples were obtained from blood donors from four different ethnic groups (360 Malays, 434 Chinese, 164 Indians and 56 others). Serological and molecular analysis of all 1014 blood samples were performed. An automated deoxyribonucleic acid sequencing analysis was performed. Rh phenotypes and RH genotypes showed heterogeneity and significant association with ethnicities. Discrepancies in allele D, C/c and E/e between phenotypes and genotypes results were observed. Discrepancy results in allele D showed significant association with the ethnic groups of the blood donors in NBC. There were multiple novel mutations (23) and published mutations (5) found in this study. Significant associations between discrepancy results and mutations were found in allele D and C/c. Performing RH molecular analysis in Malaysian population provided the basic database for the distribution of Rh genotypes of donors from major ethnic groups in Malaysia.

  17. Suppression of superconductivity and resistivity anomaly in Rh17S15 by cobalt substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daou, Ramzy; Berthebaud, David; Maignan, Antoine

    2017-02-01

    The chalcogenide superconductor Rh17S15 is known for having an upper critical field of nearly twice the Pauli limit and an unusual temperature dependence of the resistivity. When doped with small amounts of cobalt, superconductivity in Rh17-x Co x S15 (0  superconductivity.

  18. Cumulus cells gene expression profiling in terms of oocyte maturity in controlled ovarian hyperstimulation using GnRH agonist or GnRH antagonist.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rok Devjak

    Full Text Available In in vitro fertilization (IVF cycles controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH is established by gonadotropins in combination with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH agonists or antagonists, to prevent premature luteinizing hormone (LH surge. The aim of our study was to improve the understanding of gene expression profile of cumulus cells (CC in terms of ovarian stimulation protocol and oocyte maturity. We applied Affymetrix gene expression profiling in CC of oocytes at different maturation stages using either GnRH agonists or GnRH antagonists. Two analyses were performed: the first involved CC of immature metaphase I (MI and mature metaphase II (MII oocytes where 359 genes were differentially expressed, and the second involved the two GnRH analogues where no differentially expressed genes were observed at the entire transcriptome level. A further analysis of 359 differentially genes was performed, focusing on anti-Müllerian hormone receptor 2 (AMHR2, follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR, vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGFC and serine protease inhibitor E2 (SERPINE2. Among other differentially expressed genes we observed a marked number of new genes connected to cell adhesion and neurotransmitters such as dopamine, glycine and γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA. No differential expression in CC between the two GnRH analogues supports the findings of clinical studies where no significant difference in live birth rates between both GnRH analogues has been proven.

  19. Flexible, Multi-dose GnRH Antagonist versus Long GnRH Agonist Protocol in Poor Responders: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ensieh Shahrokh Tehraninejad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To compare a flexible, multi-dose GnRH antagonist protocol with a long GnRH agonist protocol in poor responders.Materials and Methods: A randomized clinical trial of 70 poor responder patients (35 patients in GnRH antagonist protocol and 35 patients in long GnRH agonist protocol was performed at Royan Institute, Tehran, Iran. Both groups were given a fixed dose of human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG for stimulation and oral contraceptive pre-treatment. Data analyzed by student’s group t-test or Chi square test.Results: Stimulation duration, total gonadotrophins consumption, mean numbers of oocytes retrieved, formed embryos, cycle cancellation rate, and clinical pregnancy rate were similar between both groups. Although the miscarriage rate was higher in the agonist protocol group, the rate of miscarriage was not statistically significant between both groups.Conclusion: A flexible, multi-dose GnRH antagonist protocol appears as effective as the long GnRH agonist protocol in poor responders. More (larger randomized controlled trials for better statistical analysis are recommended.

  20. Color vision of the coelacanth (Latimeria chalumnae) and adaptive evolution of rhodopsin (RH1) and rhodopsin-like (RH2) pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, S

    2000-01-01

    The coelacanth, a "living fossil," lives at a depth of about 200 m near the coast of the Comoros archipelago in the Indian Ocean and receives only a narrow range of light at about 480 nm. To see the entire range of "color" the Comoran coelacanth appears to use only rod-specific RH1 and cone-specific RH2 visual pigments, with the optimum light sensitivities (lambda max) at 478 nm and 485 nm, respectively. These blue-shifted lambda max values of RH1 and RH2 pigments are fully explained by independent double amino acid replacements E122Q/A292S and E122Q/M207L, respectively. More generally, currently available mutagenesis experiments identify only 10 amino acid changes that shift the lambda max values of visual pigments more than 5 nm. Among these, D83N, E1220, M207L, and A292S are associated strongly with the adaptive blue shifts in the lambda max values of RH1 and RH2 pigments in vertebrates.

  1. Aloinmunización a un antígeno del sistema Rh de alta frecuencia Alloimmunization to a high frequency Rh antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Cotorruelo

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Describimos el caso de una embarazada sensibilizada con un aloanticuerpo anti-Rh17 de muy amplia reactividad. Los glóbulos rojos de la paciente presentaban una deleción parcial de los antígenos del sistema Rh, responsable de la aloinmunización encontrada. Debido a la dificultad de obtener sangre compatible se elaboró un plan de transfusión autóloga para cubrir las posibles demandas. El análisis molecular del locus RH demostró la presencia de un alelo híbrido RHCE-D(5-7-CE que generaba el fenotipo delecionado.We report the case of a pregnant woman sensitized with a panreactive anti-Rh17 alloantibody. Patient’s red blood cells showed a partial deletion of Rh antigens, which was responsible for the alloimmunization. An autotransfusion program was instrumented so as to cover possible demands. Molecular analysis of the RH locus showed the presence of a hybrid RHCE-D(5-7-CE allele that gave origin to the deleted phenotype.

  2. Magnetic and Transport Studies in LaxGd1-xRh3B2 and CexGd1-xRh3B2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Ulhas; Dhar, S. K.; Thamizhavel, A.; Ramakrishnan, S.; Grover, A. K.

    2010-03-01

    The nonmagnetic rare earth ternary boride LaRh3B2, a hexagonal system of space group P6/mmm with CeCo3B2 type structure, is known to superconduct below Tc(0)˜ 2.7 K. When doped with Gd the Tc(0) reduces and no superconductivity is observed above 1.2 K with more than 15% (atomic) doping. The alloys, La0.8Gd0.2Rh3B2 and La0.6Gd0.4Rh3B2 show a jump at ˜ 70 K and rapid rise in magnetization below 10 K. However, no peaks are observed in at these temperatures in AC susceptibility which would have indicated magnetic ordering of the system. It is worth noting that GdRh3B2 orders ferromagnetically at ˜ 93 K. We shall present results of our investigations, above 2 K, in magnetic and transport properties of polycrystalline specimens LaxGd1-xRh3B2 (0 CeRh3B2 is a ferromagnet with Tc ˜ 115 K. The results of Gd doping in this reveal the survival of antiferromagnetic coupling between Ce and Gd spins.

  3. Drift wave in pair-ion plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Samiran Ghosh; Nikhil Chakrabarti; Manoranjan Khan; M R Gupta

    2013-02-01

    The conditions for the existence of low-frequency electrostatic drift wave in pair-ion plasma are discussed. It is shown that the temperature and/or mass difference of both species could produce drift wave in a pair-ion plasma. The results are discussed in the context of the fullerene pair-ion plasma experiment.

  4. On one-sided torsion pair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Motivated by the concept of a torsion pair in a pre-triangulated category induced by Beligiannis and Reiten, the notion of a left (right) torsion pair in the left (right) triangulated category is introduced and investigated. We provide new connections between different aspects of torsion pairs in one-sided triangulated categories, pre-triangulated categories, stable categories and derived categories.

  5. Homolog pairing and segregation in Drosophila meiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, B D

    2009-01-01

    Pairing of homologous chromosomes is fundamental to their reliable segregation during meiosis I and thus underlies sexual reproduction. In most eukaryotes homolog pairing is confined to prophase of meiosis I and is accompanied by frequent exchanges, known as crossovers, between homologous chromatids. Crossovers give rise to chiasmata, stable interhomolog connectors that are required for bipolar orientation (orientation to opposite poles) of homologs during meiosis I. Drosophila is unique among model eukaryotes in exhibiting regular homolog pairing in mitotic as well as meiotic cells. I review the results of recent molecular studies of pairing in both mitosis and meiosis in Drosophila. These studies show that homolog pairing is continuous between pre-meiotic mitosis and meiosis but that pairing frequencies and patterns are altered during the mitotic-meiotic transition. They also show that, with the exception of X-Y pairing in male meiosis, which is mediated specifically by the 240-bp rDNA spacer repeats, chromosome pairing is not restricted to specific sites in either mitosis or meiosis. Instead, virtually all chromosome regions, both heterochromatic and euchromatic, exhibit autonomous pairing capacity. Mutations that reduce the frequencies of both mitotic and meiotic pairing have been recently described, but no mutations that abolish pairing completely have been discovered, and the genetic control of pairing in Drosophila remains to be elucidated.

  6. Preparation of PtSn/C, PtRu/C, PtRh/C, PtRuRh/C and PtSnRh/C electrocatalysts using an alcohol-reduction process for methanol and ethanol oxidation; Preparacao e caracterizacao de eletrocatalisadores PtRu, PtSn, PtRh, PtRuRh e PtSnRh para oxidacao direta de alcoois em celulas a combustivel tipo PEM utilizando a metodologia da reducao por alcool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Ricardo Rodrigues

    2009-07-01

    In this work, Pt/C, PtRh (90:10), PtRh/C (50:50), PtSn/C (50:50), PtRu (50:50)/C, PtRuRh/C (50:40:10) and PtSnRh/C (50:40:10) were prepared by an alcohol-reduction process with metal loading of 20 wt.% using H{sub 2}PtCl{sub 6}.6H{sub 2}O (Aldrich), SnCl{sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O (Aldrich),and RhCl{sub 2}.XH{sub 2}O (Aldrich) as metals sources and Vulcan XC72 as support. The electrocatalysts were characterized by EDX, XRD and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The electro-oxidation of ethanol was studied by CV, chronoamperomety at room temperature in acid medium and tests at 100 deg C on a single cell of a direct methanol or ethanol fuel cell. The EDX analysis showed that the metal atomic ratios of the obtained electrocatalysts were similar to the nominal atomic ratios used in the preparation. The diffractograms of electrocatalysts prepared showed four peaks at approximately 2{theta} =40 deg, 47 deg, 67 deg and 82 deg, which are associated with the (111), (200), (220) and (311) planes, respectively, of a face cubic-centered (fcc) structure characteristic of platinum and platinum alloys. The average crystallite sizes using the Scherrer equation and the calculated values were in the range of 2-3 nm. For Pt Sn/C and PtSnRh/C two additional peaks were observed at 2 = 34 deg and 52 deg that were identified as a SnO{sub 2} phase. Pt Sn/C (50:50) and PtSnRh/C (50:40:10) electro catalyst showed the best performance for ethanol oxidation at room temperature. For methanol oxidation at room temperature Pt Ru/C, Pt Sn/C and PtRuRh/C electrocatalysts showed the best performance. Tests at 100 deg C on a single cell of a direct ethanol fuel cell PtSnRh/C showed the best performance, for methanol oxidation PtRuRh/C showed the best performance. (author)

  7. QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY WITH PHOTON PAIRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Sharma,

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Quantum cryptographic systems use quantum mechanical concepts that are based on qubit superposition of states, and on the no cloning or no copying theorem to establish unbreakable cipher keys. The basic idea of quantum cryptography is to send the key in the form of photons over a public channel, encoding the zeros and one on quantum states in such a way that any eavesdropping attempt can be detected. Using optical communications the most commonly quantum mechanical property used is the polarization state of photon. However, in most quantum cryptographic algorithms a random polarization state is required. The photons are ideal for low loss transport, either in free space or in optical fibers, i.e. we have the full arsenal of fiber optic technology at our disposal. In this paper we are describing the process of quantum cryptography with photon pairs.

  8. Perturbations of vortex ring pairs

    CERN Document Server

    Gubser, Steven S; Parikh, Sarthak

    2015-01-01

    We study pairs of co-axial vortex rings starting from the action for a classical bosonic string in a three-form background. We complete earlier work on the phase diagram of classical orbits by explicitly considering the case where the circulations of the two vortex rings are equal and opposite. We then go on to study perturbations, focusing on cases where the relevant four-dimensional transfer matrix splits into two-dimensional blocks. When the circulations of the rings have the same sign, instabilities are mostly limited to wavelengths smaller than a dynamically generated length scale at which single-ring instabilities occur. When the circulations have the opposite sign, larger wavelength instabilities can occur.

  9. Paired states on a torus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristofano, Gerardo E-mail: gerardo.cristofano@na.infn.it; Maiella, Giuseppe E-mail: giuseppe.maiella@na.infn.it; Marotta, Vincenzo E-mail: vincenzo.marotta@na.infn.it; Niccoli, Giuliano E-mail: giuliano.niccoli@na.infn.it

    2002-10-14

    We analyze the modular properties of the effective CFT description for paired states, proposed in G. Cristofano, G. Maiella, V. Marrota, Mod. Phys. Lett. A 15 (2000) 1679, corresponding to the non-standard filling {nu}=((1)/(p+1)). We construct its characters for the twisted and the untwisted sector and the diagonal partition function. We show that the degrees of freedom entering our partition function naturally go to complete a Z{sub 2}-orbifold construction of the CFT for the Halperin state. Different behaviours for the p even and p odd cases are also studied. Finally it is shown that the tunneling phenomenon selects out a twist invariant CFT which is identified with the Moore-Read model.

  10. RH+: A Hybrid Localization Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basaran, Can; Baydere, Sebnem; Kucuk, Gurhan

    Today, localization of nodes in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) is a challenging problem. Especially, it is almost impossible to guarantee that one algorithm giving optimal results for one topology will give optimal results for any other random topology. In this study, we propose a centralized, range- and anchor-based, hybrid algorithm called RH+ that aims to combine the powerful features of two orthogonal techniques: Classical Multi-Dimensional Scaling (CMDS) and Particle Spring Optimization (PSO). As a result, we find that our hybrid approach gives a fast-converging solution which is resilient to range-errors and very robust to topology changes. Across all topologies we studied, the average estimation error is less than 0.5m. when the average node density is 10 and only 2.5% of the nodes are beacons.

  11. Rh isoimmunized pregnancy managed noninvasively: A report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Deepti

    2017-01-01

    Pregnancy with Rh isoimmunization is a grave situation. Two women with indirect Coombs test (ICT) positive were managed conservatively with a favorable outcome. Peak systolic velocity (PSV) of middle cerebral artery (MCA) was measured every 2 weeks, and pregnancy continued till the value remained <1.5 mean of median. In one woman, the pregnancy could be prolonged to 37 weeks when delivery was induced and the neonate did not develop hyperbilirubinemia. In the second woman with bad obstetric history, when a highly positive ICT was reported, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) was given in a single dose of 5 g every 2 weeks starting at 27 weeks, for a total of three doses, along with measurement of PSV of MCA. Labor could be prolonged to 34 weeks when preterm spontaneous delivery occurred. The neonate could be salvaged with exchange transfusion and IVIG. The neonate is healthy with normal tone and no evidence of kernicterus.

  12. Communications: The structure of Rh(8) (+) in the gas phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, D J; Walsh, T R; Hamilton, S M; Hopkins, W S; Mackenzie, S R; Gruene, P; Haertelt, M; Meijer, G; Fielicke, A

    2010-01-07

    The geometric structure of the Rh(8) (+) cation is investigated using a combination of far-infrared multiple photon dissociation spectroscopy and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The energetic ordering of the different structural motifs is found to depend sensitively on the choice of pure or hybrid exchange functionals. Comparison of experimental and calculated spectra suggests the cluster to have a close-packed, bicapped octahedral structure, in contrast to recent predictions of a cubic structure for the neutral cluster. Our findings demonstrate the importance of including some exact exchange contributions in the DFT calculations, via hybrid functionals, when applied to rhodium clusters, and cast doubt on the application of pure functionals for late transition metal clusters in general.

  13. Rh isoimmunized pregnancy managed noninvasively: A report of two cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Deepti

    2017-01-01

    Pregnancy with Rh isoimmunization is a grave situation. Two women with indirect Coombs test (ICT) positive were managed conservatively with a favorable outcome. Peak systolic velocity (PSV) of middle cerebral artery (MCA) was measured every 2 weeks, and pregnancy continued till the value remained <1.5 mean of median. In one woman, the pregnancy could be prolonged to 37 weeks when delivery was induced and the neonate did not develop hyperbilirubinemia. In the second woman with bad obstetric history, when a highly positive ICT was reported, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) was given in a single dose of 5 g every 2 weeks starting at 27 weeks, for a total of three doses, along with measurement of PSV of MCA. Labor could be prolonged to 34 weeks when preterm spontaneous delivery occurred. The neonate could be salvaged with exchange transfusion and IVIG. The neonate is healthy with normal tone and no evidence of kernicterus.

  14. Comparison of rhTPO and rhIL-11 on improving platelet recovery in elderly patients with AML after chemotherapy%rhTPO和rhIL-11促进老年AML患者化疗后血小板恢复的疗效比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨凯; 何学鹏; 郭智; 刘晓东; 楼金星; 张媛; 陈鹏; 陈惠仁

    2015-01-01

    目的 观察应用rhTPO及rhIL-11治疗老年急性髓系白血病(AML)患者化疗所致血小板减少症的疗效及不良反应.方法 将69例老年AML患者分为2组,其中36例化疗后接受rhTPO治疗,33例化疗后接受rhIL-11治疗,定期监测所有患者血常规、肝肾功能、乳酸脱氢酶、凝血功能、心肌酶谱及心电图检查.结果 rhIL-11组患者血小板由最低值恢复至≥20×109/L及≥100×109/L的时间均快于rhTPO组患者,而恢复至≥50×109/L的时间要慢于rhTPO组,2组差异无统计学意义(P值分别为0.489,0.570和0.232).2组提升血小板疗效,rhTPO组患者显效率及有效率分别为33.3%和63.9%,较之rhIL-11组的39.4%和60.6%,差异亦无统计学意义(P=0.397).rhIL-11组不良反应发生率36.4%较rhTPO组的13.9%增高,但差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 rhTPO及rhIL-11均能够促进老年AML患者化疗后血小板计数的恢复,有效减少血小板的输注量,降低化疗后出血相关风险.尽管rhIL-11不良反应发生率稍高,但需要进一步的临床实践研究.

  15. Exchange coupling in metallic multilayers with a top FeRh layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, S.; Tanikawa, K.; Hirayama, J.; Kanashima, T.; Taniyama, T.; Hamaya, K.

    2016-05-01

    We study magnetic properties of metallic multilayers with FeRh/ferromagnet interfaces grown by low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy. Room-temperature coercivity of the ferromagnetic layers is significantly enhanced after the growth of FeRh, proving the existence of the exchange coupling between the antiferromagnetic FeRh layer and the ferromagnetic layer. However, exchange bias is not clearly observed probably due to the presence of disordered structures, which result from the lattice strain at the FeRh/ferromagnet interfaces due to the lattice mismatch. We infer that the lattice matched interface between FeRh and ferromagnetic layers is a key parameter for controlling magnetic switching fields in such multilayer systems.

  16. Production parameters of the therapeutic 105Rh radionuclide using medium energy cyclotron

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mayeen Uddin Khandaker; Kwangsoo Kim; Guinyun Kim

    2012-08-01

    Production cross-sections of the therapeutic 105Rh radionuclide from proton-induced reactions on natural palladium target were measured using stacked-foil activation technique combined with high resolution -ray spectrometry at the MC50 cyclotron of the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences. Note that cyclotron production of the 105Rh radionuclide from natural palladium target was measured here for the first time. Results are compared with the theoretical values obtained using the model codes TALYS and ALICE-IPPE. Thick target integral yields for the investigated 105Rh radionuclide were deduced from the threshold energy to 40 MeV. Measured data of the 105Rh radionuclide are important because of its potential applications in nuclear medicine and/or therapeutic purposes. Optimal production circumstances for the therapeutic 105Rh radionuclide using a cyclotron are discussed elaborately.

  17. Breaking of Chiral Symmetry in 104Rh and Its Neighbouring Nuclei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭婧; 孟杰; 张双全

    2003-01-01

    The possible chiral doublet structures in 104Rh with the asymmetric configuration πrg-19/2⊕vh11/2 have been studied in the triaxial particle-rotor model. The spectra, the Ⅰ - ω relations and the transition probabilities support the existence of the chiral bands in this nucleus. The γ-deformation interval -35°≤γ≤-25°for appearance of chiral doublets in 104Rh is given. With appropriate moment of inertia and the configuration πrg-19/2⊕vh11/2, the experimental spectra in 104 Rh, 106Rh, 108Rh, 110Ag have been well reproduced by the yrast bands of the triaxial particle-rotor-model calculation.

  18. GnRH antagonist in in vitro fertilization: where we are now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, D B; Mitchell-Leef, D

    2003-10-01

    This review focuses on the recent literature concerning the use of GnRH antagonists in ovulation induction for in vitro fertilization (IVF). The GnRH antagonists, ganirelix acetate (Orgalutran/Antagon) and cetrorelix (Cetrotide), have come into increasingly common use since their release in the last 3 years. This class of GnRH analogue has several potential advantages over GnRH agonists. Among these advantages are: 1) shorter duration of injectable drug treatment, 2) decreased gonadotropin requirement per cycle, 3) improved patient convenience and 4) lower overall treatment cost. As clinicians gain experience with these drugs, optimal treatment paradigms will likely emerge. This review will discuss current strategies and potential applications for the GnRH antagonists.

  19. Photoemission study of the ferromagnetic Kondo system CeRh3B2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimori, A.; Takahashi, T.; Okabe, A.; Kasaya, M.; Kasuya, T.

    1990-04-01

    We have studied the electronic structure of CeRh3B2, which has an anomalously high ferromagnetic ordering temperature, by photoemission and Auger-electron spectroscopy. The Ce 4f occupancy nf~=0.85 evaluated from the Ce 3d core-level photoemission spectrum indicates a moderately strong valence fluctuation in the Kondo regime. Rh d-derived valence-band photoemission spectra are found to be in good agreement with the results of band-structure calculations when a strong energy dependence of the hole lifetime is taken into account. This observation and the deviation of the Rh M4,5VV Auger spectrum from the self-convolution of the Rh d partial density of states provide evidence for electron correlation within the Rh d band of order of U=1-2 eV. We discuss a possible effect of the latter electron correlation on the ferromagnetic instability of this compound.

  20. Study on Flow and Mixing Characteristics of Molten Steel in RH and RH-KTB Refining Processes%RH和RH-KTB精炼过程中钢液流动和混合特性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏季和; 郁能文; 樊养颐; 杨森龙; 马金昌; 朱德平

    2002-01-01

    The flow and mixing characteristics of molten steel during the vacuum circulation refining, including RH(Ruhrstahl-Her-aeus) and RH-KTB(Ruhrstahl-Heraeus-Kawasaki top blowing) processes, were investigated on a 1/5 linear scale water model of a 90t multifunction RH degasser. The circulation rate was directly and more accurately determined, using a new method by which themore reliable results can be obtained. The fluid flow pattern and flow field in the ladle were demonstrated, observed and analyzed.The mixing time of liquid in the ladle was measured using electrical conductivity method. The residence time distribution in the RHmodel was obtained by tracer response technique. The influence of the main technological and geometric factors, including the gas topblowing (KTB) operation, was examined. The results indicated that the circulation rate of molten steel in the RH degasser can befairly precisely calculated by the formula: Qlp=0..333Q0.26D0.69UD0.80D(t/min), where Qg- the lifting gas flow rate (NL/min); Duand Dd- the inner diameters of the up and down-snorkels (cm), respectively. The maximum value of circulation rate of molten steelin the case of the 30 cm diameters either of the up-and down-snorkels for the RH degasser (the "saturated" rate) is approximately 31t/min. The corresponding gas flow rate is 900 NL/min. Blowing gas into the vacuum chamber through the top lance like KTB opera-tion does not markedly influence the circulatory flow and mixing characteristics of the RH process under the conditions of the presentwork. There exist a major loop and a large number of small vortices and eddies in the ladle during the RH refining process. A liquid-liquid two-phase flow is formed between the descending stream from the down-snorkel and the liquid around the stream. All of theseflow situation and pattern will strongly influence and determine the mixing and mass transfer in the ladle during the refining. The cor-relation between the mixing time and the stirring

  1. The identification of physical close galaxy pairs

    CERN Document Server

    Soares, D S L

    2007-01-01

    A classification scheme for close pairs of galaxies is proposed. The scheme is motivated by the fact that the majority of apparent close pairs are in fact wide pairs in three-dimensional space. This is demonstrated by means of numerical simulations of random samples of binary galaxies and the scrutiny of the resulting projected and spatial separation distributions. Observational strategies for classifying close pairs according to the scheme are suggested. As a result, physical -- i.e., bound and spatially -- close pairs are identified.

  2. Pairing correlations and transitions in nuclear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Belic, A; Hjorth-Jensen, M

    2004-01-01

    We discuss several pairing-related phenomena in nuclear systems, ranging from superfluidity in neutron stars to the gradual breaking of pairs in finite nuclei. We describe recent experimental evidence that points to a relation between pairing and phase transitions (or transformations) in finite nuclear systems. A simple pairing interaction model is used in order to study and classify an eventual pairing phase transition in finite fermionic systems such as nuclei. We show that systems with as few as 10-16 fermions can exhibit clear features reminiscent of a phase transition.

  3. The type of GnRH analogue used during controlled ovarian stimulation influences early embryo developmental kinetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muñoz, Manuel; Cruz, María; Humaidan, Peter

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore if the GnRH analogue used for controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) and the ovulation triggering factor (GnRH agonist+hCG triggering versus GnRH antagonist+GnRH agonist triggering) affect embryo development and kinetics. STUDY DESIGN: In a retrospective cohort study in the In......OBJECTIVE: To explore if the GnRH analogue used for controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) and the ovulation triggering factor (GnRH agonist+hCG triggering versus GnRH antagonist+GnRH agonist triggering) affect embryo development and kinetics. STUDY DESIGN: In a retrospective cohort study...... in the Instituto Valenciano de Infertilidad (IVI) Alicante and the Instituto Universitario-IVI Valencia, Spain, 2817 embryos deriving from 400 couples undergoing oocyte donation were analysed. After controlled ovarian stimulation and IVF/intracytoplamic sperm injection, the timing of embryonic cleavages...

  4. Rh isoimmunization in Sub-Saharan Africa indicates need for universal access to anti-RhD immunoglobulin and effective management of D-negative pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaro, Erhabor; Charles, Adias Teddy

    2010-12-01

    Transplacental or fetomaternal hemorrhage (FMH) may occur during pregnancy or at delivery and lead to immunization to the D antigen if the mother is Rh-negative and the baby is Rh-positive. This can result in hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) in subsequent D-positive pregnancies. The aim of this study is to highlight the challenges associated with the effective management and prevention of Rh alloimmunization among Rh-negative women in Sub-Saharan Africa. In most Sub-Saharan African countries, there is poor and sometimes no alloimmunization prevention following potentially sensitizing events and during medical termination of pregnancy in Rh-negative women. Information about previous pregnancies and termination are often lacking in patients' medical notes due to poor data management. These issues have made the management of Rh-negative pregnancy a huge challenge. Despite the fact that the prevalence of Rh-negative phenotype is significantly lower among Africans than Caucasians, Rh alloimmunization remains a major factor responsible for perinatal morbidity in Sub-Saharan Africa and may result in the compromise of the woman's obstetric care due to the unaffordability of anti-D immunoglobulin. There is the urgent need for the implementation of universal access to anti-D immunoglobulin for the Rh-negative pregnant population in Africa. Anti-D immunoglobulin should be available in cases of potentially sensitizing events such as amniocentesis, cordocentesis, antepartum hemorrhage, vaginal bleeding during pregnancy, external cephalic version, abdominal trauma, intrauterine death and stillbirth, in utero therapeutic interventions, miscarriage, and therapeutic termination of pregnancy. There is also the need for the availability of FMH measurements following potentially sensitizing events. The low-cost acid elution method, a modification of the Kleihauer-Betke (KB) test, can become a readily available, affordable, and minimum alternative to flow cytometric

  5. Decision-Making Influence Strategies of Caregiving Daughters and Their Elderly Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Clara C.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Identified influence strategies used by elderly care-receiving mothers and their caregiving daughters, including positive strategies, overt and covert negative strategies, and option seeking. Findings from 64 mother-daughter pairs revealed that mother's health, level of dependency, and residence were not related to most strategy use. Negative…

  6. Factors affecting home range of mallard pairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riechmann, J.H.

    1976-06-01

    Certain habitat and social factors were investigated for their effect on home range size of mallard (Anas platyhynchos) pairs breeding in a forested region of north-central Minnesota during the spring of 1971--72. Data from 31 radio-marked hens and drakes were used, but primary emphasis was placed on 8 pairs (5 with both members of the pair marked). Pairs were radio-tracked on river marsh areas, river channels, and large sand lakes to provide comparative data for evaluating home range size differences. Home ranges varied from an average of 53 ha for pairs using primarily river habitat to 871 ha for pairs using only large sand lakes. River and lake shorelines varied considerably in species and density of vegetation. Interaction between pairs as well as density of flocked males appeared to be influenced by these habitat differences with resultant effects on home range sizes.

  7. On Minus Paired-Domination in Graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢化明; 孙良

    2003-01-01

    The study of minus paired-domination of a graph G=(V,E) is initiated. Let SV be any paired-dominating set of G, a minus paired-dominating function is a function of the form f∶V→{-1,0,1} such that f(v)=1 for v∈S, f(v)≤0 for v∈V-S, and f(N[v])≥1 for all v∈V. The weight of a minus paired-dominating function f is w(f)=∑f(v), over all vertices v∈V. The minus paired-domination number of a graph G is γ-p(G)=min{w(f)|f is a minus paired-dominating function of G}. On the basis of the minus paired-domination number of a graph G defined, some of its properties are discussed.

  8. A prospective study of GnRH long agonist versus flexible GnRH antagonist protocol in PCOS: Indian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harpreet Kaur

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome is a common endocrine disorder of reproductive age women. Many controlled ovarian stimulation (COS strategies have been offered for the treatment of patients with PCOS undergoing in vitro fertilization, but the optimal protocol is still a controversy. There is no compelling evidence for the advantage of one stimulation protocol over the other. Materials and Methods: This is a single-center prospective controlled study comparing long agonist and antagonist protocol in PCOS women. Results: There was no significant difference in live birth rate and clinical pregnancy rate. Rate of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome was significantly higher in the agonist group. Number of oocytes retrieved, number of follicles and peak estradiol levels were significantly more in the agonist group. Conclusion: The GnRH antagonist protocol is an equally effective but safer protocol in PCOS patients compared with the long agonist protocol.

  9. Cumulative Paired φ-Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo Klein

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A new kind of entropy will be introduced which generalizes both the differential entropy and the cumulative (residual entropy. The generalization is twofold. First, we simultaneously define the entropy for cumulative distribution functions (cdfs and survivor functions (sfs, instead of defining it separately for densities, cdfs, or sfs. Secondly, we consider a general “entropy generating function” φ, the same way Burbea et al. (IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 1982, 28, 489–495 and Liese et al. (Convex Statistical Distances; Teubner-Verlag, 1987 did in the context of φ-divergences. Combining the ideas of φ-entropy and cumulative entropy leads to the new “cumulative paired φ-entropy” ( C P E φ . This new entropy has already been discussed in at least four scientific disciplines, be it with certain modifications or simplifications. In the fuzzy set theory, for example, cumulative paired φ-entropies were defined for membership functions, whereas in uncertainty and reliability theories some variations of C P E φ were recently considered as measures of information. With a single exception, the discussions in the scientific disciplines appear to be held independently of each other. We consider C P E φ for continuous cdfs and show that C P E φ is rather a measure of dispersion than a measure of information. In the first place, this will be demonstrated by deriving an upper bound which is determined by the standard deviation and by solving the maximum entropy problem under the restriction of a fixed variance. Next, this paper specifically shows that C P E φ satisfies the axioms of a dispersion measure. The corresponding dispersion functional can easily be estimated by an L-estimator, containing all its known asymptotic properties. C P E φ is the basis for several related concepts like mutual φ-information, φ-correlation, and φ-regression, which generalize Gini correlation and Gini regression. In addition, linear rank tests for scale that

  10. Ginsenoside Rh2 Mitigates Pediatric Leukemia Through Suppression of Bcl-2 in Leukemia Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoru Wang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML is a severe malignant cancer worldwide, in both adult and pediatric patients. Since bone marrow cell transplantation is seriously limited by the availability of the immune-paired donor sources, the therapy for pediatric leukemia remains challenging. Ginsenoside Rh2 (GRh2 is a well-characterized component in red ginseng, and has established therapeutic effects for different diseases, although whether GRh2 may have a therapeutic effect on pediatric leukemia has not been investigated. Methods: We examined the effects of GRh2 on the survival of mice in an acute leukemia model. We analyzed the effects of GRh2 on the cell viability of leukemia cell lines in vitro, using a CCK-8 assay and an MTT assay. We analyzed the effects of GRh2 on the apoptosis of leukemia cell lines in vitro, by flow cytometry. We analyzed the levels of Bcl-2 and microRNA-21 (miR-21 in GRh2-treated leukemia cells. Prediction of binding between miR-21 and 3'-UTR of Bcl-2 mRNA was performed by a bioinformatics algorithm and confirmed by a dual luciferase reporter assay. Results: GRh2 significantly prolonged the survival of mice with pediatric leukemia. GRh2 significantly decreased the viability of leukemia cells in vitro, through induction of apoptosis. GRh2 significantly decreased the levels of an anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 in leukemia cells, possibly through induction of miR-21, which suppressed the translation of Bcl-2 mRNA via 3'-UTR binding. Conclusion: GRh2 may be an effective treatment for pediatric leukemia, and GRh2 may induce apoptosis of leukemia cells through miR-21-modulated suppression of Bcl-2.

  11. Towards tailoring the magnetocaloric response in FeRh-based ternary compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barua, Radhika, E-mail: barua.r@husky.neu.edu; Jiménez-Villacorta, Félix; Lewis, L. H. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States)

    2014-05-07

    In this work, we demonstrate that the magnetocaloric response of FeRh-based compounds may be tailored for potential magnetic refrigeration applications by chemical modification of the FeRh lattice. Alloys of composition Fe(Rh{sub 1−x}A{sub x}) or (Fe{sub 1−x}B{sub x})Rh (A = Cu, Pd; B = Ni; 0 < x < 0.06) were synthesized via arc-melting and subsequent annealing in vacuum at 1000 °C for 48 h. The magnetocaloric properties of the FeRh-based systems were determined using isothermal M(H) curves measured in the vicinity of the magnetostructural temperature (T{sub t}). It is found that the FeRh working temperature range (δT{sub FWHM}) may be chemically tuned over a wide temperature range, 100 K ≤ T ≤ 400 K. While elemental substitution consistently decreases the magnetic entropy change (ΔS{sub mag}) of the FeRh-based ternary alloys from that of the parent FeRh compound (ΔS{sub mag},{sub FeRh} ∼ 17 J/kg K; ΔS{sub mag,FeRh-ternary =} 7–14 J/kg K at H{sub app} = 2 T), the net refrigeration capacity (RC), defined as the amount of heat that can be transferred during one magnetic refrigeration cycle, of the modified systems is significantly higher (RC{sub FeRh} ∼ 150 J/kg; RC{sub FeRh-ternary =} 170–210 J/kg at H{sub app} = 2 T). These results are attributed to stoichiometry-induced changes in the FeRh electronic band structure and beneficial broadening of the magnetostructural transition due to local chemical disorder.

  12. In vitro fertilization outcome in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome treated with GnRH analogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Mehrafza

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS is the most common endocrinological disorders that affect approximately 5-7% of women in reproductive age. There is not any consensus about the efficient in vitro fertilization (IVF protocol for patients with PCOS. The aim of the present study was to compare the half and one-third dose depot gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH agonist protocols versus the GnRH antagonist protocol in PCOS patients.Methods: In the present study, we retrospectively evaluated 119 infertile women with PCOS. The patients entered in the study in accordance with Rotterdam criteria. According to GnRH analogue used for pituitary suppression, patients were divided into three groups: half and one-third dose depot GnRH agonist protocols and GnRH antagonist protocol. In GnRH agonist protocol, half or one-third dose depot Decapeptyl (1.875 mg, 1.25 mg was injected on 21st day of previous cycle. In GnRH antagonist cycles, cetrotide 0.25 mg were administered daily when the leading follicles reached 14 mm. All basal and controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH characteristics were analyzed. Results: Basal characteristics including: age, FBS, prolactin, hirsutism, length of menstrual cycle were similar between 3 groups. Statically significant decreases in days of stimulation, number of gonadotrophin ampoules and metaphase II (MII oocytes were found in GnRH antagonist protocol (P<0.001, P<0.001 and P=0.045, while the decrease in biochemical pregnancy (P=0.083 and live birth rate (P=0.169 wasn't significant. Number of embryos transferred were similar in the half and one-third dose depot GnRH agonist and GnRH antagonist cycles (P=0.881. The incidence of OHSS weren't significantly different between 3 groups (5%, 4.9% and 12.8%, P=0.308. Conclusion: Our study suggest that one-third dose depot GnRH agonist protocol could be a suitable choice for treatment of PCOS because of lower incidence of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS as

  13. Dynamic evolution of the GnRH receptor gene family in vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Barry L; Akazome, Yasuhisa; Oka, Yoshitaka; Eisthen, Heather L

    2014-10-25

    Elucidating the mechanisms underlying coevolution of ligands and receptors is an important challenge in molecular evolutionary biology. Peptide hormones and their receptors are excellent models for such efforts, given the relative ease of examining evolutionary changes in genes encoding for both molecules. Most vertebrates possess multiple genes for both the decapeptide gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) and for the GnRH receptor. The evolutionary history of the receptor family, including ancestral copy number and timing of duplications and deletions, has been the subject of controversy. We report here for the first time sequences of three distinct GnRH receptor genes in salamanders (axolotls, Ambystoma mexicanum), which are orthologous to three GnRH receptors from ranid frogs. To understand the origin of these genes within the larger evolutionary context of the gene family, we performed phylogenetic analyses and probabilistic protein homology searches of GnRH receptor genes in vertebrates and their near relatives. Our analyses revealed four points that alter previous views about the evolution of the GnRH receptor gene family. First, the "mammalian" pituitary type GnRH receptor, which is the sole GnRH receptor in humans and previously presumed to be highly derived because it lacks the cytoplasmic C-terminal domain typical of most G-protein coupled receptors, is actually an ancient gene that originated in the common ancestor of jawed vertebrates (Gnathostomata). Second, unlike previous studies, we classify vertebrate GnRH receptors into five subfamilies. Third, the order of subfamily origins is the inverse of previous proposed models. Fourth, the number of GnRH receptor genes has been dynamic in vertebrates and their ancestors, with multiple duplications and losses. Our results provide a novel evolutionary framework for generating hypotheses concerning the functional importance of structural characteristics of vertebrate GnRH receptors. We show that five

  14. Origin of enhanced visible light driven water splitting by (Rh, Sb)-SrTiO3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modak, Brindaban; Ghosh, Swapan K

    2015-06-21

    A systematic calculation, using hybrid density functional theory, has been carried out to investigate the origin of the enhancement of photo-conversion efficiency of Rh-doped SrTiO3 with codoping of Sb. In the case of Rh-doped SrTiO3, partially unoccupied states are introduced above the valence band, thus lowering the hole oxidation at the valence band (VB) drastically, which explains the poor oxygen evolution activity of Rh-doped SrTiO3. We show that the partially occupied t2g subset of the Rh 4d orbital is completely filled in the presence of Sb due to the transfer of the extra electron to the Rh center. As a result, acceptor states are completely passivated in the case of (Rh, Sb)-codoped SrTiO3 and a continuous band structure with reduced band gap is formed, which is responsible for the observed enhanced photocatalytic activity of (Rh, Sb)-codoped SrTiO3. We have shown that the relative positions of the band edges of (Rh, Sb)-codoped SrTiO3 with respect to the water redox levels are in favor of the spontaneous release of both hydrogen and oxygen during water splitting, which is consistent with the experimental observation. We have also studied the effect of codoping in different proportions (1 : 2 and 2 : 1) of Rh and Sb. Although 1 : 2 (Rh, Sb)-codoping leads to the formation of a clean band structure with the reduction of the band gap by a larger extent, it shows lower photo-conversion efficiency due to its charge non-compensated nature. In addition, the presence of acceptor states above the VB limits the oxygen evolution efficiency of 2 : 1 (Rh, Sb)-codoped SrTiO3. Thus, the present approach successfully reproduces the experimental features of the Rh-monodoped as well as (Rh, Sb)-codoped SrTiO3 and also explains their origin.

  15. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptors of cattle aggregate on the surface of gonadotrophs and are increased by elevated GnRH concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadokawa, Hiroya; Pandey, Kiran; Nahar, Asrafun; Nakamura, Urara; Rudolf, Faidiban O

    2014-11-30

    The presence of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptors (GnRHRs) on gonadotrophs in the anterior pituitary (AP) is an important factor for reproduction control. However, little is known regarding GnRHR gene expression in gonadotrophs of cattle owing to the lack of an appropriate anti-GnRHR antibody. Therefore, an anti-GnRHR antibody for immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry, and immunocytochemistry assays was developed to characterize GnRHR gene expression in gonadotrophs. The anti-GnRHR antibody could suppress GnRH-induced LH secretion from cultured AP cells of cattle. The GnRHR, luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) in the AP tissue was analyzed by fluorescence immunohistochemistry. The GnRHRs were aggregated on a limited area of the cell surface of gonadotrophs, possibly localized to lipid rafts. The LH secretion was stimulated with increasing amounts of GnRH; however, excessive concentrations (> 1 nM) resulted in a decrease in LH secretion. A novel method to purify gonadotrophs was developed using the anti-GnRHR antibody and fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Flow cytometric analysis using the anti-GnRHR antibody for cultured bovine AP cells, however, failed to support the hypothesis that GnRH induces GnRHR internalization and decreases GnRHR on the surface of GnRHR-positive AP cells. In contrast, immunocytochemistry using primary antibodies for cultured bovine AP cells showed that 10 nM (P < 0.05) and 100 nM (P < 0.01) GnRH, but not 0.01-1 nM GnRH, increased GnRHR in the cytoplasm of LH-positive cells. In conclusion, these data suggested that GnRHRs were aggregated on the surface of gonadotrophs and GnRHR inside gonadotrophs increased with elevated concentrations of GnRH.

  16. Spin order and dynamics in the diamond-lattice Heisenberg antiferromagnets CuRh2O4 and CoRh2O4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, L.; Flynn, J.; Paddison, J. A. M.; Stone, M. B.; Calder, S.; Subramanian, M. A.; Ramirez, A. P.; Mourigal, M.

    2017-08-01

    Antiferromagnetic insulators on a diamond lattice are candidate materials to host exotic magnetic phenomena ranging from spin-orbital entanglement to degenerate spiral ground states and topological paramagnetism. Compared to other three-dimensional networks of magnetic ions, such as the geometrically frustrated pyrochlore lattice, the investigation of diamond-lattice magnetism in real materials is less mature. In this work, we characterize the magnetic properties of model A -site spinels CoRh2O4 (cobalt rhodite) and CuRh2O4 (copper rhodite) by means of thermomagnetic and neutron-scattering measurements, and we perform group theory analysis, Rietveld refinement, mean-field theory, and spin-wave theory calculations to analyze the experimental results. Our investigation reveals that cubic CoRh2O4 is a canonical S =3 /2 diamond-lattice Heisenberg antiferromagnet with a nearest-neighbor exchange J =0.63 meV and a Néel ordered ground state below a temperature of 25 K. In tetragonally distorted CuRh2O4 , competing exchange interactions between up to third-nearest-neighbor spins lead to the development of an incommensurate spin helix at 24 K with a magnetic propagation vector km=(0 ,0 ,0.79 ) . Strong reduction of the ordered moment is observed for the S =1 /2 spins in CuRh2O4 and captured by our 1 /S corrections to the staggered magnetization. Our work identifies CoRh2O4 and CuRh2O4 as reference materials to guide future work searching for exotic quantum behavior in diamond-lattice antiferromagnets.

  17. Interaction of Rh with Rh nanoparticles encapsulated by ordered ultrathin TiO(1+x) film on TiO2(110) surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkó, A; Gubó, R; Ovári, L; Bugyi, L; Szenti, I; Kónya, Z

    2013-12-23

    Rh films of 5-50 monolayers (ML) were grown on TiO2(110)-(1 × 1) surface by physical vapor deposition (PVD) at 300 K followed by annealing at max. 1050 K. In the coverage range of 5-15 ML, separated stripe-like Rh nanoparticles of approximately 30 × 150 nm lateral size and 10-20 layer thickness with a flat top (111) facet were formed. At higher coverages (15-50 ML), the Rh film sustained its continuity at least up to 950 K. For both cases, the Rh(111) top facets were completely covered by a long-range ordered hexagonal "wagon-wheel" TiO(1+x) ultrathin oxide (hw-TiO-UTO) film. STM-STS, XPS, LEIS, and TDS methods were used for morphologic and electronic characterization of surfaces prepared in this way. The main part of this study is devoted to the study of postdeposition of Rh on the hw-TiO-UTO layer at different temperatures (230 K, 310 K, 500 K) and to the effect of subsequent annealing. It was found that 2D nanoparticles of 0.2-0.3 nm height and 1-2 nm diameter are formed at RT and their average lateral size increases gradually in the range of 300-900 K. The LEIS intensity data and the CO TDS titration of the particles have shown that an exchange of the postdeposited Rh atoms with the hw-TiO-UTO layer proceeds to an extent of around 50% at 230 K and this value increases up to 80-90% in the range of 300-500 K. The total disappearance of the characteristic LEIS signal for Rh takes place at around 900 K where a complete hw-TiO-UTO adlayer forms on top of the postdeposited metal (100% exchange).

  18. Reproductive Performance of Rabbit does Artificially Inseminated with Semen Supplemented with GnRH Analogue [des-Gly10, D-Ala6]-LH-RH Ethylamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogol, P

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate, the ability of a GnRH synthetic analogue [des-Gly10, D-Ala6]-LH-RH ethylamide to induce ovulation in rabbit does using intravaginal administration. A total of 138 primiparous lactating does were randomly divided into 4 groups that at the time of insemination received following treatments for ovulation induction: 1 μg of buserelin administered intramuscularly (control group); 5 μg of [des-Gly10, D-Ala6]-LH-RH ethylamide added to the semen dose (D5 group); 10 μg of [des-Gly10, D-Ala6]-LH-RH ethylamide added to the semen dose (D10 group); 15 μg of [des-Gly10, D-Ala6]-LH-RH ethylamide added to the semen dose (D15 group). Kindling rates were 68.8% in D10 and 66.7% in D15 groups and were comparable to that obtained in the control group (72.2%). The kindling rate in group D5 (29.4%) was significantly lower than those recorded in the other groups. The number of live born kits was not significantly affected by the ovulation induction treatment. The results of this study show that [des-Gly10, D-Ala6]-LH-RH ethylamide added directly into the semen dose can effectively stimulate ovulation in rabbits. The dose of 10 μg of [des-Gly10, D-Ala6]-LH-RH ethylamide per doe was sufficient to produce results comparable to those obtained by intramuscular administration of buserelin.

  19. 78 FR 19195 - RH International, LLC, 2531 West Maryland Avenue, Tampa, FL 33629, Respondent, Mohammad Reza (a/k...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security RH International, LLC, 2531 West Maryland Avenue, Tampa, FL 33629...; Order Denying Export Privileges A. Denial of Export Privileges of RH International, LLC On October 18, 2012, in the U.S. District Court, Middle District of Florida Tampa Division, RH International, LLC...

  20. Pulsational-Pair Instability Supernovae

    CERN Document Server

    Woosley, S E

    2016-01-01

    The final evolution of stars in the mass range 60 - 150 solar masses is explored. Depending upon their mass loss and rotation rates, many of these stars will end their lives as pulsational pair-instability supernovae. Even a non-rotating 70 solar mass star is pulsationally unstable during oxygen shell burning and can power a sub-luminous supernova. Rotation decreases the limit further. For more massive stars, the pulsations are less frequent, span a longer time, and are more powerful. Violent pulsations eject not only any residual low density envelope, but also that fraction of the helium core mass outside about 35 - 50 solar masses. The remaining core of helium and heavy elements continues to evolve, ultimately forming an iron core of about 2.5 solar masses that probably collapses to a black hole. A variety of observational transients result with total durations ranging from days to 10,000 years, and luminosities from 10$^{41}$ to 10$^{44}$ erg s$^{-1}$. Many transients resemble ordinary Type IIp supernovae,...

  1. Report on Pairing-based Cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, Dustin; Peralta, Rene; Perlner, Ray; Regenscheid, Andrew; Roginsky, Allen; Chen, Lily

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes study results on pairing-based cryptography. The main purpose of the study is to form NIST's position on standardizing and recommending pairing-based cryptography schemes currently published in research literature and standardized in other standard bodies. The report reviews the mathematical background of pairings. This includes topics such as pairing-friendly elliptic curves and how to compute various pairings. It includes a brief introduction to existing identity-based encryption (IBE) schemes and other cryptographic schemes using pairing technology. The report provides a complete study of the current status of standard activities on pairing-based cryptographic schemes. It explores different application scenarios for pairing-based cryptography schemes. As an important aspect of adopting pairing-based schemes, the report also considers the challenges inherent in validation testing of cryptographic algorithms and modules. Based on the study, the report suggests an approach for including pairing-based cryptography schemes in the NIST cryptographic toolkit. The report also outlines several questions that will require further study if this approach is followed.

  2. Understanding and controlling the structure and segregation behaviour of AuRh nanocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccolo, Laurent; Li, Z. Y.; Demiroglu, Ilker; Moyon, Florian; Konuspayeva, Zere; Berhault, Gilles; Afanasiev, Pavel; Lefebvre, Williams; Yuan, Jun; Johnston, Roy L.

    2016-01-01

    Heterogeneous catalysis, which is widely used in the chemical industry, makes a great use of supported late-transition-metal nanoparticles, and bimetallic catalysts often show superior catalytic performances as compared to their single metal counterparts. In order to optimize catalyst efficiency and discover new active combinations, an atomic-level understanding and control of the catalyst structure is desirable. In this work, the structure of catalytically active AuRh bimetallic nanoparticles prepared by colloidal methods and immobilized on rutile titania nanorods was investigated using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy. Depending on the applied post-treatment, different types of segregation behaviours were evidenced, ranging from Rh core – Au shell to Janus via Rh ball – Au cup configuration. The stability of these structures was predicted by performing density-functional-theory calculations on unsupported and titania-supported Au-Rh clusters; it can be rationalized from the lower surface and cohesion energies of Au with respect to Rh, and the preferential binding of Rh with the titania support. The bulk-immiscible AuRh/TiO2 system can serve as a model to understand similar supported nanoalloy systems and their synergistic behaviour in catalysis. PMID:27739480

  3. Genetics of Isolated Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism: Role of GnRH Receptor and Other Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karges Beate

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH is a key player in normal puberty and sexual development and function. Genetic causes of isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH have been identified during the recent years affecting the synthesis, secretion, or action of GnRH. Developmental defects of GnRH neurons and the olfactory bulb are associated with hyposmia, rarely associated with the clinical phenotypes of synkinesia, cleft palate, ear anomalies, or choanal atresia, and may be due to mutations of KAL1, FGFR1/FGF8, PROKR2/PROK2, or CHD7. Impaired GnRH secretion in normosmic patients with IHH may be caused by deficient hypothalamic GPR54/KISS1, TACR3/TAC3, and leptinR/leptin signalling or mutations within the GNRH1 gene itself. Normosmic IHH is predominantly caused by inactivating mutations in the pituitary GnRH receptor inducing GnRH resistance, while mutations of the β-subunits of LH or FSH are very rare. Inheritance of GnRH deficiency may be oligogenic, explaining variable phenotypes. Future research should identify additional genes involved in the complex network of normal and disturbed puberty and reproduction.

  4. Gliotransmission by Prostaglandin E2: a prerequisite for GnRH neuronal function?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome eClasadonte

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past four decades it has become clear that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, a phospholipid-derived signaling molecule, plays a fundamental role in modulating the GnRH neuroendocrine system and in shaping the hypothalamus. In this review, after a brief historical overview, we highlight studies revealing that PGE2 released by glial cells such as astrocytes and tanycytes is intimately involved in the active control of GnRH neuronal activity and neurosecretion. Recent evidence suggests that hypothalamic astrocytes surrounding GnRH neuronal cell bodies may respond to neuronal activity with an activation of the erbB receptor tyrosine-kinase signaling, triggering the release of PGE2 as a chemical transmitter from the glia themselves, and, in turn, leading to the feedback regulation of GnRH neuronal activity. At the GnRH neurohemal junction, in the median eminence of the hypothalamus, PGE2 is released by tanycytes in response to cell-cell signaling initiated by glial cells and vascular endothelial cells. Upon its release, PGE2 causes the retraction of the tanycyte end feet enwrapping the GnRH nerve terminals, enabling them to approach the adjacent pericapillary space and thus likely facilitating neurohormone diffusion from these nerve terminals into the pituitary portal blood. In view of these new insights, we suggest that synaptically-associated astrocytes and perijunctional tanycytes are integral modulatory elements of GnRH neuronal function at the cell soma/dendrite and nerve terminal levels, respectively.

  5. Social status, breeding state, and GnRH soma size in convict cichlids (Cryptoheros nigrofasciatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, San-San Amy; Espinoza, Walter A S; Iwaniuk, Andrew N; Pakan, Janelle M P; Gutiérrez-Ibáñez, Cristian; Wylie, Douglas R; Hurd, Peter L

    2013-01-15

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) expressing neurons in the preoptic area (POA) of the hypothalamus plays a key role in regulating reproductive function through the control of gonadotropin release. Several studies have illustrated the importance of the social environment in modulating the size of GnRH expressing neurons. In the African cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni, the size of the soma of GnRH expressing neurons in the POA varies with social status in males, and with breeding state in females. Territorial males have larger GnRH+ cells than non-territorial males, while brooder females have smaller GnRH+ cells than control females. The lek-like breeding system of A. burtoni is, however, only one type of social system within the diverse assemblage of cichlids. To gain a better understanding of GnRH neuronal plasticity in response to the changes in the social environment, we tested whether similar effects occur in the monogamous New World cichlid, the convict cichlid (Cryptoheros nigrofasciatus), a model species for the study of social behaviour. Our results indicate that, indeed GnRH expressing neuron soma size, and not cell number, varies with both male territorial status, and manipulations of female breeding state in this monogamous, biparental, New World cichlid.

  6. GnRH Protein Levels in Atrazine-Treated Axolotls (Ambystoma mexicanum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Leupen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Atrazine is the most widely used agricultural herbicide in the United States and a known endocrine disruptor. In amphibians, it has been shown to cause gonadal malformations, feminization of males, behavioral changes, and immune suppression; however, its mechanism ofaction is unknown. We hypothesized that atrazine reduces the production of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH in the hypothalamus. Axolotls (Ambystoma mexicanum were exposed to atrazine, 10-8 M ß-estradiol-3-benzoate, or no treatment and were sacrificed at 6, 8, and 10 months of age. GnRH neurons were labeled using immunocytochemistry, and labeled neurons were then counted using confocal microscopy. Although no significant difference wasfound in the total number of GnRH neurons, ectopic GnRH expression was seen in some brains. A significant negative correlation was found between presence of ectopic GnRH and number of normal GnRH neurons. Atrazine-treated animals were more likely than control or estrogentreated animals to have ectopic GnRH expression. The data implicate a central site of action of atrazine.

  7. Impact of a confirmatory RhD test on the correct serologic typing of blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Cayres Schmidt

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The RHD gene is highly polymorphic, which results in a large number of RhD variant phenotypes. Discrepancies in RhD typing are still a problem in blood banks and increase the risk of alloimmunization. In this study, the RhD typing strategy at a blood bank in Brazil was evaluated.METHODS: One-hundred and fifty-two samples typed as RhD negative and C or E positive by routine tests (automated system and indirect antiglobulin test using the tube technique were reevaluated for RhD status by three methods. The method with the best performance was implemented and evaluated for a period of one year (n = 4897 samples. Samples that were D positive exclusively in the confirmatory test were submitted to molecular analysis.RESULTS: The gel test for indirect antiglobulin testing with anti-D immunoglobulin G (clone ESD1 presented the best results. Seventy samples (1.43% previously typed as RhD negative showed reactivity in the gel test for indirect antiglobulin testing and were reclassified as D positive. D variants that may cause alloimmunization, such as weak D type 2 and partial DVI, were detected.CONCLUSION: The confirmatory RhD test using the gel test for indirect antiglobulin testing represents a breakthrough in transfusion safety in this blood center. Our results emphasize the importance of assessing the blood group typing strategy in blood banks.

  8. Insight into the effects of different ageing protocols on Rh/Al2O3 catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Baohuai; Ran, Rui; Cao, Yidan; Wu, Xiaodong; Weng, Duan; Fan, Jun; Wu, Xueyuan

    2014-07-01

    In this work, a catalyst of Rh loaded on Al2O3 was prepared by impregnating method with rhodium nitrate aqueous solution as the Rh precursor. The catalyst was aged under different protocols (lean, rich, inert and cyclic) to obtain several aged samples. All the Rh/Al2O3 samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method, CO-chemisorption, H2-temperature programmed reduction (H2-TPR), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It was found that a specific ageing treatment could strongly affect the catalytic activity. The N2 aged and the H2 aged samples had a better catalytic activity for CO + NO reaction than the fresh sample while the air aged and the cyclic aged samples exhibited much worse activity. More surface Rh content and better reducibility were obtained in the N2 and the H2 aged samples and the Rh particles existed with an appropriate size, which were all favorable to the catalytic reaction. However, the air and the cyclic ageing protocols induced a strong interaction between Rh species and the Al2O3 support, which resulted in a severe sintering of particles of Rh species and the loss of active sites. The structure evolution scheme of the catalysts aged in different protocols was also established in this paper.

  9. Synthesis, characterization, and catalytic activity of Rh-based lanthanum zirconate pyrochlores for higher alcohol synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelsayed, Victor; Shekhawat, Dushyant; Poston, James A.; Spivey, James J.

    2013-05-01

    Two lanthanum zirconate pyrochlores (La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7}; LZ) were prepared by Pechini method and tested for higher alcohols selectivity. In one, Rh was substituted into the pyrochlore lattice (LRZ, 1.7 wt%) while for the second, Rh was supported on an unsubstituted La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} (R/LZ, 1.8 wt%). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and temperature programmed reduction (TPR) results show that the surface reducibility depends on whether the Rh is in (or supported on) the LZ pyrochlore. Rhodium in the LRZ is more reducible than rhodium supported on the R/LZ pyrochlore, likely due to the presence of a perovskite phase (LaRhO{sub 3}; identified by XRD), in which rhodium is more reducible. The formation of the perovskite accompanies that of the pyrochlore. CO hydrogenation results show higher ethanol selectivity for R/LZ than LRZ, possibly due to the strong interaction between Rh and LZ on the R/LZ, forming atomically close Rh{sup +}/Rh{sup 0} sites, which have been suggested to favor ethanol production.

  10. Magnetism in the system Ce1-xLaxRh3B2 (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, S. K.; Umarji, A. M.; Shenoy, G. K.; Aldred, T. A.; Niarchos, D. G.

    1985-04-01

    The RRh3B2 (R=La to Gd) compounds form in the hexagonal CeCo3B2-type structure. The La containing compound in this series has been reported to be a superconductor while CeRh3B2 orders magnetically with Ce being in a nearly 3+ state. The magnetic ordering in CeRh3B2 is presumed to arise from the hybridization of nearly localized 4f electrons of Ce with sp conduction electrons or the 4d band of Rh or from the hybridization of the two. We have examined the magnetic behavior of the system Ce1-xLaxRh3B2 (x=0.0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8). All these compounds (except LaRh3B2) also order magnetically. The Curie temperature decreases from about 115 K for pure Ce compound to 2.3 K for Ce0.2La0.8Rh3B2. The magnetic moments per formula unit remains nearly constant for 0Rh3B2 for x ranging from 0.0 to 0.8. The La-rich side is being investigated for the occurrence of superconductivity. Details will be published elsewhere.

  11. Rh antigens and phenotype frequencies of the Ibibio, Efik, and Ibo ethnic nationalities in Calabar, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremiah, Z A; Odumody, C

    2005-01-01

    This report forms part of the study on the Rh phenotypes within the various ethnic nationalities in the south-south region of Nigeria. The aim is to demonstrate the Rh polymorphisms among the people of African descent. The frequencies of Rh blood group antigens and phenotypes of the Ibibio, Efik, and Ibo ethnic nationalities in Calabar municipality, Nigeria, were determined using standard serologic techniques. Of the 720 Calabar individuals tested, the frequencies of the Rh antigens within the nationalities were c (100%), e (96.38%), D (96.38%), E (15.22%), and C (3.62%) for the Ibibios; c (100%), e (95.60%), D (96.70%), E (21.98%), and C (0%) for the Efiks; and c (100%), e (94.29%), D (91.43%), E (28.57%), and C (2.86%) for the Ibos. The overall frequencies of the Rh antigens in these 720 individuals were c (100%), e (95.56%), D (94.44%), E (18.89%), and C (2.78%). Forty (5.56%) were found to be D-, while all were found to possess the c antigen. The most frequently occurring Rh phenotype was Dccee, with a frequency of 73.61 percent. The alternative allele, C, did not appear in homozygous form (CC) in the population tested. This study further demonstrates the variability of Rh blood group phenotypes in Nigeria and Africa.

  12. LaRh{sub 3}Ga{sub 2} - structure determination from a trilling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, Stefan; Hoffmann, Rolf-Dieter; Poettgen, Rainer [Institut fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie, Universitaet Muenster, Corrensstrasse 30, 48149 Muenster (Germany)

    2015-07-15

    The gallide LaRh{sub 3}Ga{sub 2} was obtained by arc-melting of the elements and subsequent annealing of the product button in a high-frequency furnace. The sample was studied by powder X-ray diffraction and the structure was refined from single crystal data of a trilling: ErRh{sub 3}Si{sub 2} type (CaCu{sub 5} superstructure), Imma, a = 760.1(2), b = 975.6(3), c = 564.0(2) pm, wR = 0.0358 for 717 F{sup 2} values and 23 variables; domain ratio 0.36(1) / 0.28(1) / 0.35(1). The rhodium atoms build up Kagome networks (281.8 and 282.2 pm Rh-Rh), which are condensed through the gallium atoms (249.6-251.0 pm Rh-Ga). The lanthanum atoms fill large voids left by the three-dimensional [Rh{sub 3}Ga{sub 2}] network. They have coordination number 18 (6 Ga + 12 Rh) in form of a hexa-capped hexagonal prism. The crystal chemical relationship with the aristotype CaCu{sub 5} is briefly discussed on the basis of a group-subgroup scheme. (Copyright copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Understanding and controlling the structure and segregation behaviour of AuRh nanocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccolo, Laurent; Li, Z. Y.; Demiroglu, Ilker; Moyon, Florian; Konuspayeva, Zere; Berhault, Gilles; Afanasiev, Pavel; Lefebvre, Williams; Yuan, Jun; Johnston, Roy L.

    2016-10-01

    Heterogeneous catalysis, which is widely used in the chemical industry, makes a great use of supported late-transition-metal nanoparticles, and bimetallic catalysts often show superior catalytic performances as compared to their single metal counterparts. In order to optimize catalyst efficiency and discover new active combinations, an atomic-level understanding and control of the catalyst structure is desirable. In this work, the structure of catalytically active AuRh bimetallic nanoparticles prepared by colloidal methods and immobilized on rutile titania nanorods was investigated using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy. Depending on the applied post-treatment, different types of segregation behaviours were evidenced, ranging from Rh core - Au shell to Janus via Rh ball - Au cup configuration. The stability of these structures was predicted by performing density-functional-theory calculations on unsupported and titania-supported Au-Rh clusters; it can be rationalized from the lower surface and cohesion energies of Au with respect to Rh, and the preferential binding of Rh with the titania support. The bulk-immiscible AuRh/TiO2 system can serve as a model to understand similar supported nanoalloy systems and their synergistic behaviour in catalysis.

  14. Ginsenoside Rh2 Showing Ability to Induce Apoptosis in HeLa Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    This paper deals with the inhibitory mechanisms of ginsenoside G-Rh2 on the growth of tumor cells. G-Rh2 significantly inhibited the proliferation of human cervical adenocarcinoma HeLa cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. G-Rh2 induced apoptotic manifestations in HeLa cells as evidenced by the changes in the cell morphology, the DNA fragmentation and the activation of caspases. Caspase inhibitors, caspase family inhibitor, z-Val-Ala-Asp-fmk(z-VAD-fmk); caspase-1 inhibitor, Ac-Tyr-Val-Ala-Asp-chloromethyl-ketone(Ac-YVAD-cmk); caspase-3 inhibitor, z-Asp-Glu-Val-Asp-fmk(z-DEVE-fmk) and caspase-8 inhibitor, z-Ile-Glu-Asp-fmk(z-IETD-fmk) effectively attenuated G-Rh2-induced cell death. The activities of caspase-1 and caspase-3 were increased in the G-Rh2-induced apoptotic process. However, caspase inhibitors can not inhibit G-Rh-2 induced cell death completely. These results suggest that G-Rh2-induced cell death is mediated by the activation of caspase cascade, but there might be some other pathways for induction of this apoptosis.

  15. Rh sensitized pregnancy with high ICT titre with favourable foetal outcome: a rare case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namrata Saxena

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Leiomyosarcoma Rhesus (Rh isoimmunization is the development of maternal IgG antibodies against fetal Rh Red Blood Cell (RBC antigens. Transplacental passage of maternal Rh antibody (IgG anti-D may result in Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn (HDN, a condition characterized by hemolysis, severe fetal anemia and generalized fetal edema (hydrops fetalis. The severity of Rh hemolytic disease may be assessed in the Immunized patient by several different means which include: past obstetric history, maternal antibody titer, ultrasonography, amniotic fluid bilirubin quantification, and percutaneous umbilical blood sampling. A past history of fetal demise, hydrops fetalis, intrauterine transfusion or neonatal exchange transfusion implies that the present pregnancy is or will be severely affected because Rh disease effects on the fetus generally recur or present progressively earlier or more severely with each successive Rh positive pregnancy. We present here a rare case of Rh sensitized pregnancy with high ICT titre who had normal fetal outcome. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(5.000: 1574-1576

  16. Cyst Formation from Virulent RH Strain of Toxoplasma gondii Tachyzoite: In Vitro Cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimi, Mahboobeh; Shojaee, Saeedeh; Keshavarz, Hossein; Mohebali, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    This study was performed to induce conversion of RH strain tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii to bradyzoites by pH changing of the culture medium. HeLa cell monolayers were infected at a 1:1 tachyzoite to cell ratio. Four hours after infection, the culture medium was removed and replaced with culture medium and 5% FCS, adjusted to pH 8 with NaOH. The culture was maintained at 37 °C without CO2 until the end of the experiment. Cyst-like structures were collected and stained with periodic acid schiff (PAS) staining method. The soluble antigens of cyst-like structures of RH strain, in addition to RH tachyzoite, bradyzoites of avirulent Tehran strain and uninfected HeLa cells were electrophoresed on 12.5% polyacrylamide gel. The gel was stained by coomassie brilliant blue R-250. Four days after infection of HeLa cells with tachyzoites of T. gondii, RH strain, cyst- like structures were noticed and stained with PAS. In the SDS-PAGE, protein bands of these structures had some differences with tachyzoites of RH strain, but there was quite similarity between protein bands of these structures and tissue cysts (bradyzoites) of Tehran strains. P34 and P36 (bradyzoite-specific proteins) were observed only in T. gondii bradyzoites of RH (cyst like structures) and bradyzoites of Tehran strains. Alkalization of culture medium to pH 8 induced expression of bradyzoite- specific proteins and production of RH cysts in cell culture.

  17. Antenatal bestemmelse af føtal RhD-blodtype baseret på føtalt DNA i plasma fra den RhD-negative mor--sekundaerpublikation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Frederik Banch; Krog, Grethe Risum; Rieneck, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    We present a reliable test for prenatal prediction of fetal RhD type using maternal plasma from RhD-women. This test is needed for a future antenatal RH prophylaxis. A new real time PCR based assay targeting RHD exon 7 and a published assay for RHD exon 10 were used to determine the fetal RHD...... status in DNA extracted from plasma from 56 pregnant women in 15th-36th week of gestation. Prediction of fetal RhD type was compared with the phenotype determined after birth, and showed 100% concordance. This setup will be of value in antenatal RH prophylaxis and in the management of immunised women....

  18. A thermodynamic description of the system Pd-Rh-H-D-T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joubert, J.-M., E-mail: jean-marc.joubert@icmpe.cnrs.fr [Chimie Metallurgique des Terres Rares, Institut de Chimie et des Materiaux Paris-Est, CNRS, Universite Paris-Est, UMR 7182, 2-8 Rue Henri Dunant, F-94320 Thiais (France); Thiebaut, S. [CEA/DAM/Valduc, F-21120 Is sur Tille (France)

    2011-02-15

    The quinary system D-H-Pd-Rh-T has been described thermodynamically by the CALPHAD approach. Previous descriptions of the binary subsystems have been used. To model the high pressure data an equation of state for the gases D{sub 2} and T{sub 2} compatible with the CALPHAD approach has been obtained similar to that previously used for H{sub 2}. A complete literature search has been undertaken for the three ternary systems H-Pd-Rh, D-Pd-Rh and Pd-Rh-T and the most significant experimental data have been selected for a thermodynamic assessment of these systems. In order to complement the available data, pressure-composition curves have been measured at different temperatures for the two last systems in the present work. Calculations and optimization of the system under para-equilibrium conditions, i.e. in pseudo-binary systems (Pd,Rh)-H, (Pd,Rh)-D or (Pd,Rh)-T, have been achieved using a pseudo-atom describing the Pd-Rh solid solution. This special method allows the presence of a miscibility gap in the binary metallic system to be dealt with. We show that a simple combination of the binary systems alone is unable to properly describe these ternary systems and that ternary interaction parameters have to be introduced. The binary and ternary systems may then be combined to perform calculations in the quinary D-H-Pd-Rh-T system. It is believed that extrapolation in systems containing different isotopes are fairly accurate provided that the so-called Toop model is used.

  19. RhE血型基因检测与临床输血的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆紫敏; 梁萍; 方琦; 李雪晨; 孙向华; 赵卫军

    2013-01-01

    目的:观察江浙地区人类红细胞 RhE 抗原分布,探讨序列特异性引物-聚合酶链式反应((PCR-SSP)技术在 RhE 血型基因检测中的临床意义。方法采用血清免疫学方法对临床住院病人和同期献血员的血液标本共计12100人份进行RhE表型分型,并且选其中82例临床住院首次输血的RhD病人血液标本进行RhE基因分型,并与血清学检测表型结果相互验证。结果 Dee表型的人群最为多见占49.84%, DEe表型为43.01%、DEE表型7.15%。采用PCR-SSP技术检测RhE血型结果与血清学检测表型结果相符率为98%。结论江苏、浙江地区汉族人群RhE抗原阴性率远远高于RhD抗原阴性率;在分子生物学水平上检测RhE血型比免疫血清学表型更深入可信。

  20. Systematic RH genotyping and variant identification in French donors of African origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappler-Gratias, Sandrine; Auxerre, Carine; Dubeaux, Isabelle; Beolet, Marylise; Ripaux, Maryline; Le Pennec, Pierre-Yves; Pham, Bach-Nga

    2014-01-01

    RH molecular analysis has enabled the documentation of numerous variants of RHD and RHCE alleles, especially in individuals of African origin. The aim of the present study was to determine the type and frequency of D and/or RhCE variants among blood donors of African origin in France, by performing a systematic RH molecular analysis, in order to evaluate the implications for blood transfusion of patients of African origin. Samples from 316 African blood donors, whose origin was established by their Fy(a-b-) phenotype, were first analysed using the RHD and RHCE BeadChips Kit (BioArray Solutions, Immucor, Warren, NJ, USA). Sequencing was performed when necessary. RHD molecular analysis showed that 26.2% of donors had a variant RHD allele. It allowed the prediction of a partial D in 11% of cases. RHCE molecular analysis showed that 14.2% of donors had a variant RHCE allele or RH [RN or (C)ces] haplotype. A rare Rh phenotype associated with the loss of a high-prevalence antigen or partial RhCE antigens were predicted from RHCE molecular analysis in 1 (0.3%) and 17 (5%) cases, respectively. Systematic RHD and RHCE molecular analysis performed in blood donors of African origin provides transfusion-relevant information for individuals of African origin because of the frequency of variant RH alleles. RH molecular analysis may improve transfusion therapy of patients by allowing better donor and recipient matching, based not only on phenotypically matched red blood cell units, but also on units that are genetically matched with regards to RhCE variants.

  1. A well-defined (POCOP)Rh catalyst for the coupling of aryl halides with thiols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpa, Samuel D; Pell, Christopher J; Ozerov, Oleg V

    2014-10-22

    This article describes a well-defined pincer-Rh catalyst for C-S cross-coupling reactions. (POCOP)Rh(H)(Cl) serves as an active precatalyst for the coupling of aryl chlorides and bromides with aryl and alkyl thiols under reasonable conditions (3% mol cat., 110 °C, 2-24 h, >90% yield). For select substrates, >90% yields were obtained with catalyst loading as low as 0.1%. Key mechanistic intermediates have been isolated and fully characterized, including (POCOP)Rh(Ph)(SPh) (6a) and (POCOP)Rh(SPh2) (6b). The aryl/bis(phosphinite) (POCOP)Rh system has been shown to favor aryl thiolate reductive elimination at elevated temperatures and in some cases at room temperature, compared with the analogous diarylamido/bis(phosphine) (PNP)Rh pincer system. Concerted reductive elimination has been studied with 6a directly and in the presence of aryl bromide and aryl chloride traps. This investigation demonstrates a clear rate dependence on aryl chloride concentration during catalysis, a dependence that is absent when using aryl bromides. The rate of catalysis is dramatically reduced or brought to zero for ortho-tolyl halides, which can be traced to slower C-S coupling and slower carbon-halogen oxidative addition for ortho-substituted aryls. The influence of the sterics in the thiol component is less straightforward. The S-H oxidative addition product (POCOP)Rh(H)(SPh) (16) has been fully characterized and its reactivity has been examined, resulting in the isolation of the sodium-thiolate adduct (POCOP)Rh(NaSPh) (19). The solid-state structure of 19 shows Na interactions not only with sulfur, but also with a neighboring Rh and the chelating aryl carbon of the pincer framework. The reactivity of 16 and 19 indicates that these potential side products should not hinder catalysis.

  2. Interlayer coupling of orthogonally magnetized (Rh/Fe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}){sub N}/Rh(001) thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yildiz, Fikret; Przybylski, Marek; Kirschner, Juergen [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Mikrostrukturphysik, Halle (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    We report on fully epitaxial (Rh/Fe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}){sub N}/Rh(001) exchange-coupled multilayer system in which every other magnetic layer (Fe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}, 0.4Rh(001) originates from an appropriate tetragonal distortion and varies with the film composition with a maximum around x=0.5. The most attractive advantage of the system is that the magnetic anisotropy can be continuously tuned by varying the alloy film composition. The magnetic layers are separated by Rh non-magnetic spacers which mediate a ferro- or antiferromagnetic exchange coupling depending on the thickness The Rh spacer layers support the distortion and thus the perpendicular easy magnetization axis up to tens of MLs. In reality the magnetization does not alternate between out-of-plane for the Fe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x} and in-plane for the Fe (or Co) layers since the interlayer exchange interaction tends to orient the magnetization of both layers in parallel.

  3. Ensemble treatments of thermal pairing in nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Nguyen Quang; Dang, Nguyen Dinh

    2009-10-01

    A systematic comparison is conducted for pairing properties of finite systems at nonzero temperature as predicted by the exact solutions of the pairing problem embedded in three principal statistical ensembles, namely the grandcanonical ensemble, canonical ensemble and microcanonical ensemble, as well as the unprojected (FTBCS1+SCQRPA) and Lipkin-Nogami projected (FTLN1+SCQRPA) theories that include the quasiparticle number fluctuation and coupling to pair vibrations within the self-consistent quasiparticle random-phase approximation. The numerical calculations are performed for the pairing gap, total energy, heat capacity, entropy, and microcanonical temperature within the doubly-folded equidistant multilevel pairing model. The FTLN1+SCQRPA predictions are found to agree best with the exact grand-canonical results. In general, all approaches clearly show that the superfluid-normal phase transition is smoothed out in finite systems. A novel formula is suggested for extracting the empirical pairing gap in reasonable agreement with the exact canonical results.

  4. Filipino au pairs on the move

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, Karina Märcher

    2016-01-01

    Most Filipina au pairs in Denmark send remittances back home, and for many, au pairing forms part of longer-term migration trajectories. This article explores how Filipina au pairs try to carve out a future for themselves abroad. It shows that they navigate within tight webs of financial interdep...... by including the migrants’ broader social network within the frame of research.......Most Filipina au pairs in Denmark send remittances back home, and for many, au pairing forms part of longer-term migration trajectories. This article explores how Filipina au pairs try to carve out a future for themselves abroad. It shows that they navigate within tight webs of financial...... interdependence, whilst they continuously form their trajectories in relation to opportunities and restraints posed along the way by their local and transnational social relations. The article argues that examinations of migration trajectories benefit from broadening the research out in both time and space...

  5. Pair programming in education: a literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, Brian; Fitzgerald, Sue; McCauley, Renée; Murphy, Laurie; Zander, Carol

    2011-06-01

    This article provides a review of educational research literature focused on pair programming in the undergraduate computer science curriculum. Research suggests that the benefits of pair programming include increased success rates in introductory courses, increased retention in the major, higher quality software, higher student confidence in solutions, and improvement in learning outcomes. Moreover, there is some evidence that women, in particular, benefit from pair programming. The literature also provides evidence that the transition from paired to solo programming is easy for students. The greatest challenges for paired students appear to concern scheduling and partner compatibility. This review also considers practical issues such as assigning partners, teaching students to work in pairs, and assessing individual contributions, and concludes with a discussion of open research questions.

  6. Ordered pairing in liquid metallic hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, A. E.; Ashcroft, N. W.

    1983-01-01

    We study two possible types of pairing involving the protons of a proposed low-temperature liquid phase metallic hydrogen. Electron-proton pairing, which can result in an insulating phase, is investigated by using an approximate solution of an Eliashberg-type equation for the anomalous self-energy. A very low estimate of the transition temperature is obtained by including proton correlations in the effective interaction. For proton-proton pairing, we derive a new proton pair potential based on the Abrikosov wave function. This potential includes the electron-proton interaction to all orders and has a much larger well depth than is obtained with linear screening methods. This suggests the possibility of either a superfluid paired phase analogous to that in He-3, or alternatively a phase with true molecular pairing.

  7. Galaxy pairs align with galactic filaments

    CERN Document Server

    Tempel, Elmo

    2015-01-01

    Context. Gravitational collapse theory and numerical simulations suggest that the velocity field within large-scale galaxy filaments is dominated by motions along the filaments. Aims. Our aim is to check whether observational data reveal any preferred orientation of galaxy pairs with respect to the underlying filaments as a result of the expectedly anisotropic velocity field. Methods. We use galaxy pairs and galaxy filaments identified from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data. For filament extraction, we use the Bisous model that is based the marked point process technique. During the filament detection, we use the centre point of each pair instead of the positions of galaxies to avoid a built-in influence of pair orientation on the filament construction. For pairs lying within filaments (3012 cases), we calculate the angle between the line connecting galaxies of each pair and their host filament. To avoid redshift-space distortions, the angle is measured in the plain of the sky. Results. The alignment analysis...

  8. Multipair approach to pairing in nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Sambataro, M

    2012-01-01

    The ground state of a general pairing Hamiltonian for a finite nuclear system is constructed as a product of collective, real, distinct pairs. These are determined sequentially via an iterative variational procedure that resorts to diagonalizations of the Hamiltonian in restricted model spaces. Different applications of the method are provided that include comparisons with exact and projected BCS results. The quantities that are examined are correlation energies, occupation numbers and pair transfer matrix elements. In a first application within the picket-fence model, the method is seen to generate the exact ground state for pairing strengths confined in a given range. Further applications of the method concern pairing in spherically symmetric mean fields and include simple exactly solvable models as well as some realistic calculations for middle-shell Sn isotopes. In the latter applications, two different ways of defining the pairs are examined: either with J=0 or with no well-defined angular momentum. The ...

  9. Rh(III)-Catalyzed meta-C-H Olefination Directed by a Nitrile Template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hua-Jin; Lu, Yi; Farmer, Marcus E; Wang, Huai-Wei; Zhao, Dan; Kang, Yan-Shang; Sun, Wei-Yin; Yu, Jin-Quan

    2017-02-15

    A range of Rh(III)-catalyzed ortho-C-H functionalizations have been developed; however, extension of this reactivity to remote C-H functionalizations through large-ring rhodacyclic intermediates has yet to be demonstrated. Herein we report the first example of the use of a U-shaped nitrile template to direct Rh(III)-catalyzed remote meta-C-H activation via a postulated 12-membered macrocyclic intermediate. Because the ligands used for Rh(III) catalysts are significantly different from those of Pd(II) catalysts, this offers new opportunities for future development of ligand-promoted meta-C-H activation reactions.

  10. Correlation analysis of hemolytic disease of newborn and RhD negative pregnant women carrying RhD positive fetus%RhD阴性孕妇妊娠RhD阳性胎儿与新生儿溶血病的相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何子毅; 刘赴平; 胡应明; 张建强

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨RhD阴性孕妇产前免疫性抗D抗体的检出率与产后新生儿溶血病(HDN)发病率的相关性.方法 收集2007年1月至2010年12月137例RhD阴性孕妇产前血样及40例产后血样,分析产前抗D抗体的检出率、产后HDN发病率及其与母儿ABO血型配合性的关系.结果 16例(12.60%)RhD阴性孕妇多次妊娠者检测到抗D抗体,10例首次妊娠者均未检出;产前血清抗D抗体的检出率低于产后(P0.05).结论 产前RhD阴性孕妇抗D抗体的检出率与产后发生HDN的相关性尚不明确; ABO血型不配合对RhD阴性孕妇发生RhD-HDN有保护作用,但对产生抗D抗体的检出率无影响.%Objective To explore the correlation of prenatal detection rate of immune anti-D antibody of pregnant women with RhD negative blood type and the incidence rate of postpartum hemolytic disease of newborn(HDN). Methods 137 prenatal blood samples of pregnant women with RhD negative blood type and 40 postpartum blood samples were collected from January 2007 to December 2010. Their prenatal detection rate of anti-D antibody, incidence rate of postpartum HDN and their relationship with maternal-fetal ABO-blood group compatibility were analyzed. Results Anti-D antibody was detected in 16(12. 60%) pregnant women with RhD negative blood type and history of several pregnancies, and was not detected in 10 women in their first pregnancy. The prenatal detection rate of serum anti-D antibody was lower than that after delivery(P0. 05). Conclusion The correlation of prenatal detection rate of anti-D antibody of RhD negative pregnant women and the incidence rate of postpartum HDN is not clear. ABO-blood group incompatibility has a protective effect on RhD negative pregnant women from RhD-HDN, but no effect on detection rate of anti-D antibodies.

  11. The kidneys play a central role in the clearance of rhGH in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Bill; Thygesen, Peter; Kreilgaard, Mads;

    2016-01-01

    The kidneys are thought to play an important role in the clearance of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH), but the relative importance is not clear. Obtaining knowledge of clearance pathway is an important prerequisite for the development of new long acting growth hormone analogues targeted...... at treatment of patients with growth hormone disorders. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relative importance of the kidneys in the clearance of rhGH. The study employed a newly validated nephrectomy rat model and a population based pharmacokinetic approach to assess renal clearance of rh...

  12. (Bifunctional chelates of Rh-105, Au-199, and other metallic radionuclides as potential radiotherapeutic agents)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    Progress during this period is reported under the following headings: Diethylenetriamine based and related bifunctional chelating agents and their complexation with Rh-105, Au-198, Pd-109, cu-67, In-111, and Co-57; studies of Pd-109, Rh-105 and Tc-99m with bifunctional chelates based on phenylenediamine; establishment of an appropriate protein assay method for conjugated proteins; studies of new bifunctional Bi, Tri and tetradentate amine oxime ligands with Rh-105; IgG and antibody B72.3 conjugation studies by HPLC Techniques with bifunctional metal chelates; and progress on ligand systems for Au(III).

  13. [Bifunctional chelates of Rh-105, Au-199, and other metallic radionuclides as potential radiotherapeutic agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    Progress during this period is reported under the following headings: Diethylenetriamine based and related bifunctional chelating agents and their complexation with Rh-105, Au-198, Pd-109, cu-67, In-111, and Co-57; studies of Pd-109, Rh-105 and Tc-99m with bifunctional chelates based on phenylenediamine; establishment of an appropriate protein assay method for conjugated proteins; studies of new bifunctional Bi, Tri and tetradentate amine oxime ligands with Rh-105; IgG and antibody B72.3 conjugation studies by HPLC Techniques with bifunctional metal chelates; and progress on ligand systems for Au(III).

  14. A novel soluble supramolecular system for sustained rh-GH delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmaso, Stefano; Bersani, Sara; Scomparin, Anna; Balasso, Anna; Brazzale, Chiara; Barattin, Michela; Caliceti, Paolo

    2014-11-28

    Methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol)s bearing a terminal cholanic moiety (mPEG(5kDa)-cholane, mPEG(10kDa)-cholane and mPEG(20kDa)-cholane) were physically combined with recombinant human growth hormone (rh-GH) to obtain supramolecular assemblies for sustained hormone delivery. The association constants (Ka) calculated by Scatchard analysis of size exclusion chromatography (SEC) data were in the order of 10(5)M(-1). The complete rh-GH association with mPEG(5kDa)-cholane, mPEG(10kDa)-cholane and mPEG(20kDa)-cholane was achieved with 7.5 ± 1.1, 3.9 ± 0.4 and 2.6 ± 0.4 w/w% rh-GH/mPEG-cholane, respectively. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) yielded association constants similar to that calculated by SEC and showed that rh-GH has 21-25 binding sites for mPEG-cholane, regardless the polymer molecular weight. Dialysis studies showed that the mPEG-cholane association strongly delays the protein release; 80-90% of the associated rh-GH was released in 200 h. However, during the first 8h the protein formulations obtained with mPEG(10kDa)-cholane and mPEG(20kDa)-cholane showed a burst release of 8 and 28%, respectively. Circular dichroism (CD) analyses showed that the mPEG(5kDa)-cholane association does not alter the secondary structure of the protein. Furthermore, mPEG(5kDa)-cholane was found to enhance both the enzymatic and physical stability of rh-GH. In vivo pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies were performed by subcutaneous administration of rh-GH and rh-GH/mPEG(5kDa)-cholane to normal and hypophysectomised rats. The study showed that mPEG(5kDa)-cholane decreases the maximal concentration in the blood but prolongs the body exposure of the protein, which resulted in 55% bioavailability increase. Finally, rh-GH formulated with mPEG(5kDa)-cholane yielded prolonged weight increase of hypophysectomised rats as compared to rh-GH in buffer or formulated with mPEG(5kDa)-OH. After the second administration the weight of the animals treated with rh-GH formulated with m

  15. Influence of rhIL and rhTPO on the number and quality of platelet and coagulability of whole bllood in monkeys%rhIL-11 和rhTPO对猕猴血小板数量、质量和全血凝血功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳晓兰; 孙连生; 郝静; 罗庆良; 熊国林; 邱丽玲

    2002-01-01

    @@ 国外在对rhIL-11(重组人白介素-11)和rhTPO(重组人血小板生成素)促血小板效果肯定的同时,也对其对血小板功能或全血凝固状态的影响给予了必要的重视.为了给国内rhIL-11和rhTPO的合理应用提供实验依据,本文观察了rhIL-11或rhTPO对猕猴血小板数、聚集功能和全血凝固活性的影响. 1 材料和方法 (1)实验动物及分组成年正常猕猴,体重(5.36±1.06)kg,雌、雄各半.实验分为赋型剂对照组和rhTPO 2 μg/(kg*d)组; rhIL-11分为120 μg/(kg*d)和1 080 μg/(kg*d)及赋型剂三个组.每组动物4~5只. (2)药品、给药剂量、时间和途径 rhTPO纯度大于98%,比活性为2.5×105IU/mg蛋白.rhIL-11比活性7.3×107 u/mg.rhTPO剂量为2 μg/(kg*d),皮下注射,每天一次,连续给20 d.rhIL-11剂量为120和1080 μg/(kg*d),皮下注射,每天一次,连续给49 d.对照组给相同体积赋型剂.

  16. Rh negative status and isoimmunization update: a case-based approach to care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrod, Kathryn Shisler; Hanson, Lisa; VandeVusse, Leona; Heywood, Patricia

    2003-01-01

    Prior to the 1970s and the advent of Rho (D) immune globulin (RIG) for Rh negative women, hemolytic disease of the newborn led to morbidity, long-term disabilities, and mortality. Antepartum RIG administration has been a standard of practice since 1983. Yet, Rh isoimmunization (sensitization) and its sequelae have not been completely eradicated. Rh-related issues remain clinical challenges facing perinatal and neonatal nurses. Evidence for the administration of RIG prenatally and during the postpartum period is presented including controversies and challenges. Current information about fetal and neonatal care of erythroblastosis fetalis and immune hydrops is also presented.

  17. A Localized Molecular Orbital Study of the Halogen Substitution Effect on (103)Rh NMR Shielding in [Cp*RhX2]2, Where X = Cl, Br, or I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaeva, Irina V; Mainichev, Dmitry A; Kozlova, Svetlana G

    2016-03-24

    (103)Rh NMR parameters and the bonding structure of three complexes of [Cp*RhX2]2, where X = Cl, Br, or I, have been studied with the help of natural bond orbitals (NBOs) and natural localized molecular orbitals (NLMOs). The complexes of [Cp*RhX2]2, where X = Cl, Br, or I, have similar bonding structures, with the major difference being in the degree of covalency of the Rh-X bonds. The decomposition of (103)Rh NMR shielding into diamagnetic, paramagnetic, and spin-orbit terms shows that normal halogen dependence (NHD) of the (103)Rh NMR shift is defined mostly by the paramagnetic term, with the spin-orbit term being significantly smaller. The decomposition of (103)Rh shielding into spin-free NBO and NLMO contributions shows that (103)Rh shielding is dominated by Rh d-orbital deshielding contributions. We explain the NHD of the (103)Rh NMR shift with the increase in the energies of the virtual antibonding Rh-X orbitals along the X = Cl, Br, and I series.

  18. An Entropic Approach for Pair Trading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Yoshikawa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we derive the optimal boundary for pair trading. This boundary defines the points of entry into or exit from the market for a given stock pair. However, if the assumed model contains uncertainty, the resulting boundary could result in large losses. To avoid this, we develop a more robust strategy by accounting for the model uncertainty. To incorporate the model uncertainty, we use the relative entropy as a penalty function in the expected profit from pair trading.

  19. Top pair production distributions at the Tevatron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeuchi Yuji

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available At the Tevatron, the top quark is mainly produced in pairs through the strong interaction and decays before forming hadrons. Thus the kinematical distributions at top pair production possess rich information on the tt¯$tar t$ production vertex including polarizations of top and anti-top quarks. In this article, recent measurements on top quark pair production distributions at Tevatron (CDF and DO are presented.

  20. An Entropic Approach for Pair Trading

    OpenAIRE

    Daisuke Yoshikawa

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we derive the optimal boundary for pair trading. This boundary defines the points of entry into or exit from the market for a given stock pair. However, if the assumed model contains uncertainty, the resulting boundary could result in large losses. To avoid this, we develop a more robust strategy by accounting for the model uncertainty. To incorporate the model uncertainty, we use the relative entropy as a penalty function in the expected profit from pair trading.