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Sample records for rewards russian supplier

  1. ATLAS Rewards Russian Supplier for Scintillating Tile Production

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    At a ceremony held at CERN on 30 July, the ATLAS collaboration awarded Russian firm SIA Luch from Podolsk in the Moscow region an ATLAS Suppliers Award. This follows delivery by the company of the final batch of scintillating tiles for the collaboration's Tile Calorimeter some six months ahead of schedule.   Representatives of Russian firm Luch Podolsk received the ATLAS Suppliers Award in the collaboration's Tile Calorimeter instrumentation plant at CERN on 30 July. In front of one Tile Calorimeter module instrumented by scintillating tiles are (left to right) IHEP physicists Evgueni Startchenko and Andrei Karioukhine, Luch Podolsk representatives Igor Karetnikov and Yuri Zaitsev, Tile Calorimeter Project Leader Rupert Leitner, ATLAS spokesperson Peter Jenni, and CERN Tile Calorimeter group leader Ana Henriques-Correia. Scintillating tiles form the active part of the ATLAS hadronic Tile Calorimeter, which will measure the energy and direction of particles produced in LHC collisions. They are emb...

  2. ATLAS rewards Russian supplier for scintillating tile production

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2001-01-01

    The ATLAS collaboration has awarded Russian firm SIA Luch from Podolsk in the Moscow region an ATLAS Supplier Award. This follows delivery by the company of the final batch of scintillating tiles for the collaboration's tile calorimeter some six months ahead of schedule. Representatives of the firm are seen here receiving the award at a ceremony held in the collaboration's tile calorimeter instrumentation plant at CERN on 30 July. In front of one tile calorimeter module instrumented by scintillating tiles are (left to right) IHEP physicists Evgueni Startchenko and Andrei Karioukhine, Luch Podolsk representatives Igor Karetnikov and Yuri Zaitsev, tile calorimeter project leader Rupert Leitner, ATLAS spokesperson Peter Jenni, and CERN tile calorimeter group leader Ana Henriques-Correia.

  3. CMS rewards eight of its suppliers

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    At the third awards ceremony to honour its top suppliers, the CMS collaboration presented awards to eight firms. Seven of them are involved in the manufacture of the magnet. The winners of the third CMS suppliers' awards visit the assembly site for the detector. Unsurprisingly, the CMS magnet was once again in the limelight at the third awards ceremony in honour of the collaboration's top suppliers. 'Unsurprisingly', because this magnet, which must produce an intense field of 4 Tesla inside an enormous volume (12 metres in diameter and 13 metres in length) is the detector's key component. As a result, many firms are involved in its construction. The CMS suppliers' awards are an annual event aimed at rewarding the exceptional efforts of certain companies. Firms are only eligible once they have delivered at least 50% of their supplies. This year, the collaboration honoured eight firms at a ceremony held on Monday 4 March in the main auditorium. Seven of th...

  4. ATLAS rewards two pixel detector suppliers

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Peter Jenni, ATLAS spokesperson, presented the ATLAS supplier award to Herbert Reichl, IZM director, and to Simonetta Di Gioia, from the SELEX company.Two of ATLAS’ suppliers were awarded prizes at a ceremony on Wednesday 13 June attended by representatives of the experiment’s management and of CERN. The prizes went to the Fraunhofer Institut für Zuverlässigkeit und Mikrointegration (IZM) in Berlin and the company SELEX Sistemi Integrati in Rome for the manufacture of modules for the ATLAS pixel detector. SELEX supplied 1500 of the modules for the tracker, while IZM produced a further 1300. The modules, each made up of 46080 channels, form the active part of the ATLAS pixel detector. IZM and SELEX received the awards for the excellent quality of their work: the average number of faulty channels per module was less than 2.10-3. They also stayed within budget and on schedule. The difficulty they faced was designing modules based on electronic components and sensor...

  5. CMS rewards its best suppliers with the Crystal Award

    CERN Document Server

    Patrice Loiez

    2002-01-01

    A. Ingman of the Finnish company Outokumpu Pori Oy, F. Krähenbuhl of the Swiss firm Nexans Suisse and M. Niemerski of the American company Plascore receive the highest distinction in the CMS supplier awards - the Crystal Award.

  6. ATLAS rewards two Japanese suppliers of major detector components.

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    The ATLAS supplier award in recognition of excellence has just been attributed to Kawasaki Heavy Industries, who produced the liquid-argon barrel cryostat. Kawasaki received its award in Hall 189 on the Meyrin site, where the cryostat is currently located. Toshiba Corporation's award for the superconducting central solenoid was presented two months ago at the Toshiba headquarters in Japan. Photo 01: P. Pailler, project leader for the ATLAS liquid-argon cryostats, addressing the Kawasaki delegation. Photo 04: H. Oberlack, project leader for the ATLAS liquid-argon system, addressing the Kawasaki delegation. Photo 11: P. Jenni (left), ATLAS Collaboration spokesperson, presenting the ATLAS supplier award for the barrel cryostat for the liquid-argon calorimeter to Mr. S. Nose, General Manager of Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd. Photo 18: J. Sondericker (left), liquid-argon barrel cryostat project engineer (BNL), presenting Mr. Nose (Kawasaki) an award from Brookhaven for the barrel cryostat for the ATLAS liquid-argo...

  7. Pain without gain? Reviewing the risks and rewards of investing in Russian coal-fired electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbacheva, Natalya V.; Sovacool, Benjamin K.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This study explores the risks and rewards facing coal in Russia. • Rewards include low costs, investment, rural modernization, exports, and innovation. • Risks include development challenges, air pollution and climate change, and policy support. - Abstract: Coal use—and thus investment—is expected to grow considerably in the Russian Federation over the next few decades. Projections suggest that at least $200 billion of investment will be needed to modernize existing coal-fired power plants by 2030, but the bulk of this financing is to come from the private sector or foreign enterprises. This study asks: what are the possible investment risks and rewards of pursuing this expansion of coal in the Russian power sector? To provide an answer, the study uses a mixed methods approach consisting of elite semi-structured interviews and a review of English and Russian peer-reviewed literature. The study provides a brief overview of the Russian electricity sector before discussing five distinct rewards to investing in coal such as low production costs, competitive returns on investment, rural modernization, expansion of exports, and the acceleration of innovation. These benefits however are offset by five risks: inferior performance to investments in oil and gas, development challenges, air pollution and climate change, social degradation from mining, and a tradeoff with existing policies incentivizing renewable energy and energy efficiency. The study concludes by analyzing what these disparate risks and rewards mean for policymakers and energy analysts

  8. The hospital-supplier partnership: take care of the relationship first, and individual rewards will follow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjoerdsma, M

    1995-02-01

    Partnerships and consolidation will continue to occur with increasing frequency within the supplier and health care provider communities as the health care industry strives to lower costs without diminishing quality and service. This article examines what constitutes the ideal hospital-supplier relationship. It asks the question: What does each partner need to do to make the relationship work effectively? It outlines the keys to a win-win proposition and ways to prevent the relationship from breaking down.

  9. Russian ElectroKhimPribor integrated plant - producer and supplier of enriched stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatarinov, A.N.; Polyakov, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    Russian ElectroKhimPribor Integrated Plant, as well as ORNL, is a leading production which manufactures and supplied to the world market such specific products as stable isotopes. More than 200 isotopes of 44 elements can be obtained at its electromagnetic separator. Changes being underway for a few last years in Russia affected production and distribution of stable isotopes. There arose a necessity in a new approach to handling work in this field so as to create favourable conditions for both producers and customers. As a result, positive changes in calutron operation at ElectroKhimPribor has been reached; quality management system covering all stages of production has been set up; large and attractive stock of isotopes has been created; prospective scientific isotope-based developments are taken into account when planning separation F campaigns; executing the contracts is guaranteed; business philosophy has been changed to meet maximum of customer needs. For more than forty years ElectroKhimPribor have had no claim from customers as to quality of products or implementing contracts. Supplying enriched stable isotopes virtually to all the world's leading customers, ElectroKhimPribor cooperates successfully with Canadian company Trace Science since 1996

  10. CERN recognises LHC suppliers

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    CERN has just presented the first awards recognising LHC suppliers. The Russian institute BINP, the Belgian firm Cockerill-Sambre and the US company Wah-Chang are the recipients of the first 'Golden Hadrons'.

  11. Rewards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunderman, Richard B; Kamer, Aaron P

    2011-05-01

    For much of the 20th century, psychologists and economists operated on the assumption that work is devoid of intrinsic rewards, and the only way to get people to work harder is through the use of rewards and punishments. This so-called carrot-and-stick model of workplace motivation, when applied to medical practice, emphasizes the use of financial incentives and disincentives to manipulate behavior. More recently, however, it has become apparent that, particularly when applied to certain kinds of work, such approaches can be ineffective or even frankly counterproductive. Instead of focusing on extrinsic rewards such as compensation, organizations and their leaders need to devote more attention to the intrinsic rewards of work itself. This article reviews this new understanding of rewards and traces out its practical implications for radiology today. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. ATLAS recognises its best suppliers

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The ATLAS Collaboration has recently rewarded two of its suppliers in the construction of very major detector components, fabricated in Japan. The ATLAS Supplier Award in recognition of excellent supplier performance has just been attributed to Kawasaki Heavy Industries, while Toshiba Corporation received the award two months ago at their headquarters in Japan.

  13. Dutch supplier rewarded for manufacture of the two vacuum vessels for the ATLAS end-cap toroids

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    The ATLAS collaboration has presented an award for outstanding supplier performance to Dutch firm Schelde Exotech. Based on a design by Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, UK, Schelde Exotech manufactured under a NIKHEF contract the two 500 m3 large vacuum vessels for the cryostats of the ATLAS end-cap toroids. These 11-metre diameter castellated aluminium vessels with stainless-steel bore tube are essentially made up of 40-mm-thick plates for the shells, 75-mm-thick plates for the endplates, and 150-mm-thick bars for the flanges. Because of transport constraints, the vessels were made in halves, temporarily sealed and vacuum tested at the works, then transported to CERN for final assembly and acceptance tests. Both vessels were vacuum-tight and the meticulous and clean way of working ensured that a high vacuum was obtained within a few days of pumping. The delivery to CERN was completed in July 2002. Representatives of Schelde Exotech are seen here receiving their award in the ATLAS assembly hall. In the backgro...

  14. A perfect fuel supplier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terasvirta, R.

    2008-01-01

    WWER fuel market is dominated by the Russian fuel vendor JSC TVEL. There have been attempts to open up the market also for other suppliers, such as BNFL/Westinghouse for Finland, Czech Republic, and Ukraine. However, at the moment it seems that JSC TVEL is the only real alternative to supply fuel to WWER reactors. All existing fuel suppliers have certified quality management systems which put a special emphasis on the customer satisfaction. This paper attempts to define from the customer's point of view, what are the important issues concerning the customer satisfaction. (author)

  15. Supplier Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Peder Veng; Notman, Dorian Mark; Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum

    2017-01-01

    The prevailing research in supplier innovation has been conceptual or based on small data sets. The analysis of a large data set gives a clearer perspective on the actual type and degree of involvement of suppliers in the customer’s innovation process. The supplier perspective of the research...... counterbalances the customer bias that exists in the prevailing literature in this area. Similarly, the issue of the benefit of supplier involvement in the innovation/NPD process can be better understood. Manufacturing suppliers benefit financially from their involvement in the innovation/NPD process of their key...

  16. Industrial excellence is rewarded by CMS : as part of the sixth annual ceremony to honour its top suppliers, the CMS collaboration presented awards to nine firms

    CERN Multimedia

    maximilien brice

    2005-01-01

    Photo 31 : the representatives of the firms that received the CMS best supplier awards displaying their awards on 5 April. From left to right: C. Fulvia (Plyform), K. Sato and K. Yamamura (Hamamatsu Photonics), G. Roveta (Criotec Impianti), M. Fornari (Telema), H. P. Reinhardt (Reinhardt Microtech), M. Sonninen (Planar Systems), E. Dyakov (Lutch), M. Mottier (NGK Instulators) and J. Vital (Chipidea Microelectronics).

  17. ATLAS recognises its best suppliers

    CERN Multimedia

    Jenni, P

    The ATLAS Collaboration has recently rewarded two of its suppliers in the construction of very major detector components, fabricated in Japan. The ATLAS Supplier Award in recognition of excellent supplier performance was attributed on 2nd September 2002 during a ceremony in Hall 180 to Kawasaki Heavy Industries, while Toshiba Corporation received the award two months before at their headquarters in Japan. The ATLAS experiment will become a reality thanks to a large international collaboration partnership. The industrial suppliers for the components all over the world play a major role in the construction of this gigantic jigsaw for the LHC. And sometimes they perform so well, that their work deserves specially to be recognised. This is the case for Kawasaki Heavy Industries and Toshiba Corporation, producers of the Liquid Argon Barrel Cryostat and of the Superconducting Central Solenoid, respectively. With these awards, the ATLAS Collaboration wants to congratulate Kawasaki and Toshiba for fulfilling the hi...

  18. Supplier selection for strategic supplier development

    OpenAIRE

    Calvi , R.; Le Dain , Marie-Anne; Fendt , T.C.; Herrmann , C.J.

    2010-01-01

    Cahier de recherche n° 2010-11 E4; This article describes the application of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to the supplier selection decision for the strategic development of lean suppliers at a large German industrial company. In a literature survey and from explorative interviews, relevant criteria including supplier improvement potential through buyer involvement, strategic factors of the supplier development program as well as project success factors in supplier development were el...

  19. ALICE rewards one of its suppliers

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    On 6 October 2007 the ALICE Collaboration Board awarded one of its prestigious Industrial Awards to Hewlett-Packard for its instrumental role in enabling ALICE physicists to collect and process experimental data on the Grid. From left to right: Jurgen Schukraft, ALICE Spokesperson; Michel Bénard, Hewlett Packard, Director, Technology Programs and University Relations; Federico Carminati, ALICE Computing Project Leader; Lodovico Riccati, ALICE Collaboration Board Chairperson; Arnaud Pierson, Hewlett Packard, E.M.E.A Program Manager, University Relations and HP Labs; Latchezar Betev, ALICE Distributed Computing Coordinator.The ALICE DAQ and Offline groups have been collaborating with HP since 1993 in the yearly Computing and GRID physics data challenges programme. These are high-level exercises of readiness of hardware and software frameworks for data acquisition and processing. HP hosted ALICE experts in their "centre de compétences"...

  20. ALICE honours two Italian suppliers

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    During the ALICE week held in Bologna from 19 to 23 June, the Collaboration recognized two of its top suppliers. From left to right: Robert Terpin (MIPOT), Pier Luigi Bellutti (ITC), Andrea Zanotti, President of ITC, Luciano Bosisio (Trieste University), Gennady Zinovjev (Kiev), Catherine Decosse (CERN), Lodovico Riccati, ALICE Collaboration Board Chair (INFN Torino), Paolo Giubellino (INFN Torino), Mario Zen, Director of ITC, Maurizio Boscardin (ITC), Paolo Tonella (ITC), Jurgen Schukraft, ALICE Spokesperson (CERN), Giacomo Vito Margagliotti (Trieste University), Nevio Grion (INFN Trieste), Marco Bregant (INFN Trieste). Front row from left to right: Paolo Traverso (ITC), Federico Carminati, ALICE Computing Project Leader (CERN), and Jean-Robert Lutz, ITS-SSD Project leader (IPHC Strasbourg). It is in the picturesque city of Bologna that the ALICE Collaboration has rewarded two Italian suppliers, Istituto Trentino di Cultura ITC-irst (Trento) and MIPOT (Cormons), both involved in the construction of the Sili...

  1. Improved partnering through supplier self-evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, R.K.; Cobb, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    Early in 1989, the Virginia Power purchasing department decided that a different approach was needed for resolving supplier partnering issues and to motivate the supplier to perform as promised to purchase order requirements. Purchasing formed task teams composed of purchasing personnel and requested that they investigate and evaluate alternative methods of order administration and supplier communications. The task teams were asked to research the feasibility of using a reward/penalty approach or to suggest an alternative method to motivate results. The task teams determined that the root cause of the problems for the identified areas of concern was that purchasing personnel and supplier personnel neither communicated well nor fully understood the effect that their actions or inactions had on each other

  2. Emerging nuclear suppliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sands, A.

    1990-01-01

    Efforts to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons have usually taken two tracks: The traditional approach has concentrated on a potential proliferant's perceived need for nuclear technology and possibly weapons; a second approach has targeted the supply side of the proliferation equation. The issue being examined in this book---emerging nuclear suppliers---falls between these two approaches. The potential proliferants have emerged as possible unrestrained suppliers of nuclear materials and technology. They threaten the entire nonproliferation regime by their exporting, not their weapons development. Analyzing and understanding the issue of emerging suppliers requires a refined definition of suppliers in general. The simple dichotomy of traditional versus emerging suppliers is no longer an adequate framework for analysis. Suppliers differ significantly in their technical capabilities, experience, and regime involvement, and these distinctions result in different nuclear export policies

  3. Dependence on Supplier, Supplier Trust and Green Supplier Integration: The Moderating Role of Contract Management Difficulty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuesong Zhao

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the impacts of dependence on supplier and supplier trust on green supplier integration, and the moderating role of contract management difficulty. In this study, we develop a dependence-trust-integration model based on resource dependence theory, social capital theory and transaction cost theory. We examine the hypothesized relationships using hierarchical regression analyses based on data collected from 187 Chinese firms. Our findings suggest that dependence on supplier has positive impacts on green supplier integration and supplier trust. Supplier trust partially mediates the relationship between dependence on supplier and green supplier integration. In addition, contract management difficulty negatively moderates the relationship between supplier trust and green supplier integration. This research contributes to the literature by offering empirical evidence concerning the indirect relationship between dependence on supplier and green supplier integration via supplier trust, and the trust-integration link depends on the level of contract management difficulty.

  4. Supplier Resource Mobilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Chris; Kragh, Hanne; Andersen, Poul Houman

    theoretical perspectives. This review, synthesis, and resultant discussion allow us to propose that future research should look closer at the resource activation process on the supplier side, the role of the buyer-supplier relationship in resource mobilization, and the approach of the buying company...

  5. Green Supplier Selection Criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Izabela Ewa; Banaeian, Narges; Golinska, Paulina

    2014-01-01

    Green supplier selection (GSS) criteria arise from an organization inclination to respond to any existing trends in environmental issues related to business management and processes, so GSS is integrating environmental thinking into conventional supplier selection. This research is designed...... to determine prevalent general and environmental supplier selection criteria and develop a framework which can help decision makers to determine and prioritize suitable green supplier selection criteria (general and environmental). In this research we considered several parameters (evaluation objectives......) to establish suitable criteria for GSS such as their production type, requirements, policy and objectives instead of applying common criteria. At first a comprehensive and deep review on prevalent and green supplier selection literatures performed. Then several evaluation objectives defined to assess the green...

  6. The emerging nuclear suppliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, L.A.

    1990-01-01

    Since the early 1980s, a growing amount of attention has been paid to a small group of mostly developing countries that have come to be called the emerging nuclear suppliers. Argentina and Brazil, China and South Korea, India and Pakistan, Spain and Yugoslavia have frequently been mentioned in this category. Their actual and potential nuclear export dealings and policies have been the subject of academic writings and policy papers, of scholarly symposia and exchanges at meetings of the traditional nuclear suppliers. With foundation and other support, UCLA's Center for International and Strategic Affairs has begun a major project to develop a database on the transactions, policies, and export control institutions of the emerging suppliers. This chapter provides some guidelines for policy toward the emerging nuclear suppliers

  7. Supplier Directory Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — These are the official datasets used on the Medicare.gov Supplier Directory provided by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. They provide names,...

  8. Managing Supplier Sustainability Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Harilainen, Hanna-Riitta

    2014-01-01

    Supply chains are increasingly global, often reaching to developing regions. The media pressure brand owners to be responsible, but a product is only as sustainable as the practices of all the companies involved in manufacturing it are. It’s not enough that the brand owner acts responsibly; sustainable practices have to reach component and raw material suppliers upstream. Image risk has often been recognized as reason for investing in sustainability. In the supply chain context, supplier m...

  9. Buyer-supplier relationships and planning solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hvolby, H.H.; Trienekens, J.H.; Steger-Jensen, K.

    2007-01-01

    The paper focuses on supply chain relationships and segmented planning and ICT concepts. Major supplier segments are distinguished based on literature: capacity suppliers, standard suppliers, system suppliers and key suppliers. Next, current supply chain planning solutions are distinguished: vendor

  10. Gold awards for CERN's top suppliers!

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    CERN's awards to the LHC project's best suppliers are now into their second year. Three companies received 'Golden Hadrons' for 2003. The Golden Hadron awards were presented to the delighted representatives of the winning firms by LHC Project Leader Lyn Evans on Friday 16 May. Only three out of the LHC's four hundred suppliers were lucky enough to receive a gold award. The consortium IHI (Japan)-Linde Kryotechnik (Switzerland), the Belgian company JDL Technologies and the Japanese firm Furukawa Electric Company were rewarded not only for their technical and financial achievements but also for their compliance with contractual deadlines. The 2003 Golden Hadron winners with Lyn Evans. From left to right: Armin Senn, Thomas Voigt, Kirkor Kurtcuoglu of LINDE KRYOTECHNIK ; Tadaaki Honda, Project Leader and Motoki Yoshinaga, Associate Director of IHI Corporation ; Lyn Evans, LHC Project Leader; Shinichiro Meguro, Managing Director of FURUKAWA ELECTRIC COMPANY ; Nobuyoshi Saji, Consulting Engineer of IHI Corporatio...

  11. GSFC Supplier Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    Topics covered include: Develop Program/Project Quality Assurance Surveillance Plans The work activities performed by the developer and/or his suppliers are subject to evaluation and audit by government-designated representatives. CSO supports project by selecting on-site supplier representative s by one of several methods: (1) a Defense Contract Management Agency (DCMA) person via a Letter Of Delegation (LOD), (2) an independent assurance contractor (IAC) via a contract Audits, Assessments, and Assurance (A3) Contract Code 300 Mission Assurance Support Contract (MASC)

  12. Suppliers perform balancing act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roggen, M.

    2004-01-01

    Firms that supply network operators in the Netherlands are in a difficult position. Liberalisation emphasises increasing the efficiency and maximising the use of the infrastructure, which is a shift in focus from which suppliers have little to gain. At the same time, their products are expected to meet higher quality standards. Coping with changing customer expectations calls for agility and flexibility [nl

  13. Academic Library-Supplier Relationship: The Experience of Supplier ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The partnership between an academic library and book suppliers is crucial for the timely and correct delivery of materials for use by customers. This article describes the relationship that exists between the University of Botswana Library (UBL) and its book suppliers. The process of supplier selection and evaluation used by ...

  14. Managing interdependencies in supplier networks

    OpenAIRE

    Catarina Roseira; Carlos Brito

    2010-01-01

    Building and managing a supplier base has been referred to in the literature as a key aspect of supplier management. Scholars have proposed a number of models aimed at enhancing the effectiveness of supplier network management, mainly based on a portfolio approach. In the IMP tradition of research, those models are often criticized as they ignore the interdependencies between the different existing dyadic relationships of a focal buyer company and its suppliers. Such interdependencies are the...

  15. Production Systems and Supplier Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedraza-Acosta, Isabel; Pilkington, Alan; Barnes, David

    2016-01-01

    strategic stamping suppliers. Findings: Our contribution is the multi-phased production and product innovation process. This is an advance from traditional supplier selection and also an extension of ideas of supplier-located product development as it includes production system development, and complements...

  16. Two ATLAS suppliers honoured

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment has recognised the outstanding contribution of two firms to the pixel detector. Recipients of the supplier award with Peter Jenni, ATLAS spokesperson, and Maximilian Metzger, CERN Secretary-General.At a ceremony held at CERN on 28 November, the ATLAS collaboration presented awards to two of its suppliers that had produced sensor wafers for the pixel detector. The CiS Institut für Mikrosensorik of Erfurt in Germany has supplied 655 sensor wafers containing a total of 1652 sensor tiles and the firm ON Semiconductor has supplied 515 sensor wafers (1177 sensor tiles) from its foundry at Roznov in the Czech Republic. Both firms have successfully met the very demanding requirements. ATLAS’s huge pixel detector is very complicated, requiring expertise in highly specialised integrated microelectronics and precision mechanics. Pixel detector project leader Kevin Einsweiler admits that when the project was first propo...

  17. Managing nuclear supplier risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramberg, B.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that with the appearance of such third-tier suppliers as Argentina, Brazil, South Korea, Taiwan, China, and others capable of producing nuclear components and sensitive nuclear materials, assurance that importers are using nuclear energy benignly and safely may become more uncertain. It is therefore important to integrate emerging exporters and importers into a regime of norms designed to minimize nuclear risks. The experience of the London Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) to arrive at a code of conduct is encouraging. Placed in the context of the larger evolving nuclear energy regime that seeks to address nuclear safety, proliferation, terrorism, and military attacks on reactors, the international community has made substantial progress. Still, there is much that remains to be done

  18. Beyond Rewards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Philip S.

    2009-01-01

    Using rewards to impact students' behavior has long been common practice. However, using reward systems to enhance student learning conveniently masks the larger and admittedly more difficult task of finding and implementing the structure and techniques that children with special needs require to learn. More important, rewarding the child for good…

  19. Packaging supplier inspection guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stromberg, H.M.; Gregg, R.E.; Kido, C.; Boyle, C.D.

    1991-05-01

    This is document is a guide for conducting quality assurance inspections of transportations packaging suppliers, where suppliers are defined as designers, fabricators, distributors, users, or owners of transportation packaging. This document can be used during an inspection to determine regulatory compliance within the requirements of 10 Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71, Subpart H (10 CFR 71.101--71.135). The guidance described in this document provides a framework for an inspection. It provides the inspector with the flexibility to adapt the methods and concepts presented here to meet the needs of the particular facility being inspected. The guide was developed to ensure a structured and consistent approach for inspections. The method treats each activity at a supplier facility as a separate entity (or functional element), and combines the activities within the framework of an ''inspection tree.'' The method separates each functional element into several areas of performance and then identifies guidelines, based on regulatory requirements, to be used to qualitatively rate each area. This document was developed to serve as a field manual to facilitate the work of inspectors. 1 ref., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  20. Rewards and Performance Incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigon, Jack

    1994-01-01

    Discusses rewards and performance incentives for employees, including types of rewards; how rewards help in managing; dysfunctional awards; selecting the right reward; how to find rewards that fit; and delivering rewards effectively. Examples are included. (three references) (LRW)

  1. CERN recognizes LHC suppliers with Golden Hadron awards

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    The recipients of CERN's first 'Golden Hadron' awards for outstanding supplier performance are the Russian institute BINP, the Belgian firm Cockerill-Sambre and the US company Wah-Chang. LHC project leader Lyn Evans (centre) with Santo Comel of Cockerill-Sambre (left) and Lynn Davis of Wah-Chang. The third recipient, Alexander Skrinsky of the Budker Institute, was unable to attend the ceremony and will collect the Institute's award in September.

  2. LHC: seven golden suppliers

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The fourth CERN Golden Hadron awards saw seven of the LHC's best suppliers receive recognition for the high quality of their work, compliance with delivery deadlines, flexibility and adaptability to the demanding working conditions of the project. The representatives of the seven companies which received awards during the Golden Hadron ceremony, standing with Lyn Evans, LHC Project Leader. 'The Golden Hadron awards are a symbol of our appreciation of not only the quality and timely delivery of components but also the collaborative and flexible way the firms have contributed to this very difficult project,' said Lyn Evans, head of the LHC project. The awards went to Kemppi-Kempower (Finland), Metso Powdermet (Finland), Transtechnik (Germany), Babcock Noell Nuclear (Germany), Iniziative Industriali (Italy), ZTS VVU Kosice (Slovakia), and Jehier (France). Babock Noell Nuclear (BNN) successfully produced one-third (416 cold dipole masses) of the LHC's superconducting dipole magnets, one of the most critical an...

  3. Outsourcing and supplier learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lema, Rasmus

    2012-01-01

    that learning from customers was important but insufficient for making the transition. Capability formation depended significantly on other channels and mechanisms outside or independent of outsourcing relationships. This paper shows how firms actively mobilised and combined internal and external sources......There is increasing agreement that Indian software firms are making the transition from competitive advantage based on low cost to competitive advantage based on innovation. However, there are few insights about how this transition process works. This paper seeks to bring together the outsourcing......, global value chains and firm capability literatures. It draws on empirical material focused on learning and innovation ‘events’ in Indian software firms – their inputs and sources – and makes headway in opening the ‘black box’ of supplier learning in outsourcing relationships. This paper suggests...

  4. The competition for supplier resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pulles, Niels Jaring

    2014-01-01

    Suppliers can have a major influence on the overall competitiveness of a firm. When firms lack certain capabilities or resources within their own organization, collaborations with suppliers can help them to acquire these resources and capabilities externally and improve competitive advantage.

  5. Identifying tier one key suppliers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, Steve

    2013-01-01

    In today's global marketplace, businesses are becoming increasingly reliant on suppliers for the provision of key processes, activities, products and services in support of their strategic business goals. The result is that now, more than ever, the failure of a key supplier has potential to damage reputation, productivity, compliance and financial performance seriously. Yet despite this, there is no recognised standard or guidance for identifying a tier one key supplier base and, up to now, there has been little or no research on how to do so effectively. This paper outlines the key findings of a BCI-sponsored research project to investigate good practice in identifying tier one key suppliers, and suggests a scalable framework process model and risk matrix tool to help businesses effectively identify their tier one key supplier base.

  6. ATLAS rewards industry

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Showing excellence in mechanics, electronics and cryogenics, three industries are honoured for their contributions to the ATLAS experiment. Representatives of the three award-wining companies after the ceremony. For contributing vital pieces to the ATLAS puzzle, three industries were recognized on Friday 5 May during a supplier awards ceremony. After a welcome and overview of the ATLAS experiment by spokesperson Peter Jenni, CERN Secretary-General Maximilian Metzger stressed the importance of industry to CERN's scientific goals. Close interaction with CERN was a key factor in the selection of each rewarded company, in addition to the high-quality products they delivered to the experiment. Alu Menziken Industrie AG, of Switzerland, was honoured for the production of 380,000 aluminium tubes for the Monitored Drift Tube Chambers (MDT). As Giora Mikenberg, the Muon System Project Leader stressed, the aluminium tubes were delivered on time with an extraordinary quality and precision. Between October 2000 and Jan...

  7. Evaluation and election of suppliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guibao

    2001-01-01

    Based on the construction experience in nuclear power plants, the author presents some methods of evaluation and selection for suppliers. It is applicable to various stages of nuclear power plants, furthermore, it can be used for other buyers

  8. The policies of supplier nations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moher, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    This chapter is concerned with the nuclear non-proliferation element of the policies of supplier nations. These policies include economic, commercial, resource management, financial and technological aspects. The evolution of the nuclear export policies of supplier nations is considered. The challenges facing the non-proliferation regime are looked at. Finally, the progress made is reviewed. Although this has been considerable, further work is necessary and this is mentioned. The postscript assesses the situation following the successful Third NPT Review Conference held in 1985. (U.K.)

  9. CMS Honours Three Russian and Bielorussian companies

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On 7 March, CMS handed out the three latest Gold Awards under its scheme for honouring its best suppliers suppliers (c.f. Bulletin n°10/2003). Three Russian and Bielorussian firms were honoured, on the occasion of a visit by dignitaries from the two countries. CERN played host to Anatoly Sherbak, Head of the Fundamental Research Department of the Russian Federation Ministry of Industry and Science, Ambassador Sergei Aleinik, Permanent Representative of the Republic of Belarus to the Office of the United Nations at Geneva, Andrei Pirogov, Assistant Permanent Representative of the Russian Federation to the Office of the United Nations, and Alexei Sissakian, Vice Director of the JINR (Joint Institute for Nuclear Research) at Dubna in Russia. The directors of the three Russian and Bielorussian firms have received their awards and are seen with the visiting Russian and Bielorussian dignitaries and the CMS leaders in front of the CMS hadron calorimeter, on the spot where the detector is being assembled.These promi...

  10. Industrial Buyer-Supplier Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rasmus Friis

    The dissertation considers industrial buyer-supplier cooperation from a systems and management perspective. The purpose is to discuss and elaborate on the buying company’s choice of cooperation strategy (governance mechanism). It is stated that no single governance mechanism will be the best in all...

  11. Green Suppliers Network Supply Chain Commitment Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Online form to show your company desires to be a Green Suppliers Network supply chain. Expresses an intent to: commit to engage at least five suppliers to complete an assessment process within a 12-month period and more.

  12. Medicare Provider Data - Physician and Other Supplier

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Physician and Other Supplier Public Use File (Physician and Other Supplier PUF) provides information on services and procedures provided to Medicare...

  13. Managing uncertainty in potential supplier identification

    OpenAIRE

    Ye , Yun ,; Jankovic , Marija; Okudan Kremer , Gül E.; Bocquet , Jean-Claude

    2014-01-01

    International audience; As a benefit of modularization of complex systems, Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) can choose suppliers in a less constricted way when faced with new or evolving requirements. Before a supplier is selected for each module, a group of potential suppliers should be identified in order to control the uncertainty along with other performance measures of the new system development. In modular design, because suppliers are more involved in system development, the pot...

  14. Performance Determinants for Convenience Store Suppliers

    OpenAIRE

    Zainah Abdullah; Aznur Hajar Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of information and communication technology (ICT) usage, internal relationship, supplier-retailer relationship, logistics services and inventory management on convenience store suppliers- performance. Data was collected from 275 convenience store managers in Malaysia using a set of questionnaire. The multiple linear regression results indicate that inventory management, supplier-retailer relationship, logistics services and internal relation...

  15. 22 CFR 130.7 - Supplier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Supplier. 130.7 Section 130.7 Foreign Relations... § 130.7 Supplier. Supplier means any person who enters into a contract with the Department of Defense for the sale of defense articles or defense services valued in an amount of $500,000 or more under...

  16. Supplier Cooperation in Drone Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Sawadsitang, Suttinee; Niyato, Dusit; Siew, Tan Puay; Wang, Ping

    2018-01-01

    Recently, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), also known as drones, has emerged as an efficient and cost-effective solution for package delivery. Especially, drones are expected to incur lower cost, and achieve fast and environment friendly delivery. While most of existing drone research concentrates on surveillance applications, few works studied the drone package delivery planning problem. Even so, the previous works only focus on the drone delivery planning of a single supplier. In this paper...

  17. Motivation and reward systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eerde, W.; Vodosek, M.; den Hartog, D.N.; McNett, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Reward systems are identified as one of the human resource management (HRM) practices that may impact motivation. Reward systems may consist of several components, including financial and nonfinancial rewards, in fixed and variable amounts. Reinforcement, expectancy, and equity principles are

  18. An integrated model for supplier selection process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    In today's highly competitive manufacturing environment, the supplier selection process becomes one of crucial activities in supply chain management. In order to select the best supplier(s) it is not only necessary to continuously tracking and benchmarking performance of suppliers but also to make a tradeoff between tangible and intangible factors some of which may conflict. In this paper an integration of case-based reasoning (CBR), analytical network process (ANP) and linear programming (LP) is proposed to solve the supplier selection problem.

  19. Improving Supplier Performance in New Product Development: The Role of Supplier Development

    OpenAIRE

    Potter, Antony; Lawson, Benn; Krause, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Suppliers play an increasingly central role in helping firms achieve their new product development (NPD) goals. Although much attention has focused on managing the buyer-supplier interface, we know little about how firms can enhance a supplier’s ability to contribute to an NPD effort. Thus, we propose a theoretical model that conceptualizes supplier development activities within inter-organizational NPD projects as bilateral knowledge-sharing processes. Antecedents (supplier responsibility,...

  20. Russian muscles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soerheim, Paul

    2004-01-01

    A tightening of the electric power balance in the Nordic countries and increased focus on the supply reliability have made the power import from Russia increasingly more important. The two most important players in the Russian power market are the state-owned companies RAO UES and RosEnergoAtom. RAO UES has already begun to strengthen its presence in the Nordic market. There are indications that there are limits to the growth of power import from Russia, and the Nordic power market cannot be based on it in the future

  1. Affecting the value chain through supplier kaizen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, C R; Vargas, D H

    1999-02-01

    In the aerospace industry, typically 60 percent of a product's cost and 70 percent of the lead time are due to purchased material. To affect price and customer responsiveness, improvement initiatives must be extended into the supply chain. Many companies have developed supply base management systems that include long-term agreements with suppliers, partnering with suppliers in risk taking and product design, information sharing, and quality and delivery rating systems. The premise is that suppliers are an extension of the factory. But to take full advantage of customer-supplier relationships, the suppliers must be "developed" in the same manner as a manufacturing unit. Supplier kaizen is a method of bringing suppliers to the same level of operations as the parent company, through training and improvement projects, to ensure superior performance and nurture the trust that is required for strong partnerships. This article describes Sikorsky Aircraft's use of kaizen to improve its supply base management.

  2. Supplier Selection Using Fuzzy Inference System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hamidreza kadhodazadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Suppliers are one of the most vital parts of supply chain whose operation has significant indirect effect on customer satisfaction. Since customer's expectations from organization are different, organizations should consider different standards, respectively. There are many researches in this field using different standards and methods in recent years. The purpose of this study is to propose an approach for choosing a supplier in a food manufacturing company considering cost, quality, service, type of relationship and structure standards of the supplier organization. To evaluate supplier according to the above standards, the fuzzy inference system has been used. Input data of this system includes supplier's score in any standard that is achieved by AHP approach and the output is final score of each supplier. Finally, a supplier has been selected that although is not the best in price and quality, has achieved good score in all of the standards.

  3. Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    In the Russian Federation (RF), management of radioactive wastes will be carried out within the framework of the Federal Target Program for management of radioactive wastes and used nuclear materials for the period 1996-2005. The agency within the RF responsible for this program is the Ministry of Russian Federation on Atomic Energy. Current radioactive waste disposal activities are focused on creating regional repositories for wastes generated by radiochemical production, nuclear reactors, science centers, and from other sources outside of the nuclear-fuel cycle (the latter wastes are managed by Scientific and Industrial Association, 'RADON'). Wastes of these types are in temporary storage, with the exception of non-fuel cycle wastes which are in long term storage managed by SAI 'RADON'. The criteria for segregating between underground or near-surface disposal of radioactive waste are based on the radiation fields and radionuclide composition of the wastes. The most progress in creating regional repositories has been made in the Northwest region of Russia. However, development of a detailed design has begun for a test facility in the Northeast for disposal of radioactive wastes generated in Murmansk and Arkhangelsk provinces. The feasibility study for construction of this facility is being evaluated by state monitoring organizations, the heads of administrations of the Arkhangelsk and Murmansk provinces, and Minatom of Russia

  4. Studying the emerging nuclear suppliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rydell, R.F.

    1990-01-01

    None of these events---nor any of the many others that are cited in the case studies of this book---can be singled out as heralding a revolutionary transformation of the global nuclear marketplace. The cumulative effect of such developments, however, may well be the emergence of a market in the year 2000 that is far less concentrated than today's market for nuclear reactors and fuel cycle technology. If this gradual structural transformation is accompanied by the entry into the market of new buyers and sellers that do not accept the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), safeguards administered by the IAEA, or other international norms directed at preventing the spread of nuclear weapon capabilities, the result may indeed have revolutionary dimensions for the business, diplomacy, and research of nuclear energy. A similar outcome could arise even f these norms are widely accepted but are not matched by an increase in the resources available to national governments and key international agencies that implement these norms. This paper identifies some of the pitfalls that researchers often encounter in researching the emerging suppliers and will outline some basic ground rules to guide the collection and interpretation of empirical evidence on supplier behavior

  5. ATLAS Award for Shield Supplier

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    ATLAS technical coordinator Dr. Marzio Nessi presents the ATLAS supplier award to Vojtech Novotny, Director General of Skoda Hute.On 3 November, the ATLAS experiment honoured one of its suppliers, Skoda Hute s.r.o., of Plzen, Czech Republic, for their work on the detector's forward shielding elements. These huge and very massive cylinders surround the beampipe at either end of the detector to block stray particles from interfering with the ATLAS's muon chambers. For the shields, Skoda Hute produced 10 cast iron pieces with a total weight of 780 tonnes at a cost of 1.4 million CHF. Although there are many iron foundries in the CERN member states, there are only a limited number that can produce castings of the necessary size: the large pieces range in weight from 59 to 89 tonnes and are up to 1.5 metres thick.The forward shielding was designed by the ATLAS Technical Coordination in close collaboration with the ATLAS groups from the Czech Technical University and Charles University in Prague. The Czech groups a...

  6. Matching to Openly Innovate with Suppliers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Linda Nhu

    2017-01-01

    heterogeneous suppliers with the internal organisation in order to openly innovate. More specifically, it focuses on a governance mode, recently emerged in practice, by which firms summon their suppliers and their own internal organisation at an event to match them for open innovation activities – innovation......When large firms choose to involve their many suppliers in open innovation, they are faced with a set of challenges pertaining to the governance of several suppliers. Suppliers are heterogeneous, offering heterogeneous materials, products, information, services, and knowledge, which are differently...... organized across functions and hierarchies. To make use of such heterogeneous resources, a critical challenge for open innovation is to pair a supplier resource with a suitable opportunity-for-use from within the firm – a challenge of matching. This dissertation addresses the challenge of matching...

  7. Supplier selection using different metric functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omosigho S.E.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Supplier selection is an important component of supply chain management in today’s global competitive environment. Hence, the evaluation and selection of suppliers have received considerable attention in the literature. Many attributes of suppliers, other than cost, are considered in the evaluation and selection process. Therefore, the process of evaluation and selection of suppliers is a multi-criteria decision making process. The methodology adopted to solve the supplier selection problem is intuitionistic fuzzy TOPSIS (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to the Ideal Solution. Generally, TOPSIS is based on the concept of minimum distance from the positive ideal solution and maximum distance from the negative ideal solution. We examine the deficiencies of using only one metric function in TOPSIS and propose the use of spherical metric function in addition to the commonly used metric functions. For empirical supplier selection problems, more than one metric function should be used.

  8. Supplier selection in the Malaysian telecommunications industry

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Rahim, Suzari

    2013-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. Supplier selection plays an important role in any organisation. This study investigates and examines supplier selection criteria and the impacts on buying firm performance; specifically focusing on the telecommunications industry in Malaysia. Previous studies in this area have focussed on the criteria such as quality, price, delivery, supplier relationship management and decision making tools...

  9. Industrial tissue: perennialization of suppliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pin, M.; Hutin, J.P.; Tetreau, F.

    1996-01-01

    The durability of industrial tissue is a necessary condition, and certainly the most important, for the performance of actual park and the successful of its renewal. Reciprocally, the maintenance and the evolution of the actual park, the preparation of its renewal, are sources of activities to insure this durability of industrial and favour their international development. In the period of reduced activity, which began for the nuclear market, the dialogue which has always existed between EDF and its suppliers must be reinforced, in the respect of their respective responsibility, to insure: a right reciprocal understanding of activities and strategies, a right adaptation to these activities, and finally, the maintenance of the competitiveness. (N.C.)

  10. A Framework for Assessing and Managing Large Purchaser - Minority Supplier Relationships in Supplier Diversity Initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Theodorakopoulos, Nicholas; Ram, Monder

    2008-01-01

    Supplier diversity initiatives can function as platforms for EMSs strategic learning (Theodorakopoulos et al., 2005; Theodorakopoulos & Ram, 2006) and the scant research in supplier diversity underscores the importance of relationship factors to the success of supplier diversity/development programmes (e.g. Pearson et al., 1993). However, purchaser-supplier relationship management as a vehicle for enhancing EMSs learning and supply capabilities has not been examined to any length within the c...

  11. Competitive and Cooperative Degree in Supply Chain: Supplier Selection between Competitors and Third-Party Suppliers

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Bo; Wang, Xianjia; Zhou, Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Part 5: Modelling and Simulation; International audience; This work explores the firm’s supplier selection question that the competitor firm and the third-party supplier can supply the substitutable component. We consider a supply chain with two competing original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) and two third-party suppliers. The two OEMs produce the competing products which are comprised by two main components. Each OEM only can produce one component in-house and each third-party supplier onl...

  12. Does supplier evaluation impact process improvement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Prasad h c

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The research explores and examines factors for supplier evaluation and its impact on process improvement particularly aiming on a steel pipe manufacturing firm in Gujarat, India. Design/Methodology/approach: The conceptual research framework was developed and hypotheses were stated considering the analysis of literature and discussions with the managers and engineers of a steel pipe manufacturing company in Gujarat, India. Data was collected using in-depth interview. The questionnaire primarily involves the perception of evaluation of supplier. Factors influencing supplier evaluation and its influence on process improvement is also examined in this study. The model testing and validation was done using partial least square method. Outcomes signified that the factors that influence evaluation of the supplier are quality, cost, delivery and supplier relationship management. Findings: The study depicted that quality and cost factors for supplier evaluation are insignificant. The delivery and supplier relationship management have significant influence on evaluation of the supplier. The research also depicted that supplier evaluation has significant influence on process improvement. Research limitations/implications: The study has been made specifically for ABC steel pipe manufacturing industry in Gujarat, India and may not be appropriate to the other industries or any parts of the world. There is a possibility of response bias as the conclusions of this research was interpreted on survey responses taken from the employees of case study company, so it is suggested that future research can overcome this problem by employing various methodologies in addition to surveys like carrying out focus group and in-depth interviews, brainstorming sessions with the experts etc. Originality/value: Many researchers have considered quality, cost and delivery as the factors for evaluating the suppliers. But for a company it is quintessential to have good

  13. Supplier relationship- specific investments and the role of safeguards for supplier innovation sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bode, C.; Wagner, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    The vast majority of the supplier innovation literature has focused on how buying firms can effectively “pull” innovations from their suppliers. Yet, we know remarkably little about the factors that contribute to a supplier voluntarily “pushing” innovations to its customers. The present study

  14. Local sourcing and technology spillovers to Mexican suppliers: How important are FDI and supplier characteristics?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jordaan, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    I present novel direct evidence on the static and dynamic impact of producer firms on local suppliers based on several firm level surveys that I conducted among producer firms and suppliers in Nuevo León, Mexico. I find that the level of use of suppliers does not differ between foreign direct

  15. Accounting calculations problems with suppliers and contractors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tikholaz I.A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available in the article an order of accounting reflection of payments with suppliers and contractors are researched and ways of enhancement of accounting calculations process development with the purpose of management decisions optimization for their implementation are offered. Theoretical bases of intraeconomic control of settlings with suppliers and contractors are developed.

  16. A new Russell model for selecting suppliers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azadi, Majid; Shabani, Amir; Farzipoor Saen, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Recently, supply chain management (SCM) has been considered by many researchers. Supplier evaluation and selection plays a significant role in establishing an effective SCM. One of the techniques that can be used for selecting suppliers is data envelopment analysis (DEA). In some situations, to

  17. Reaching suppliers of bovine meat: the presence of russia organizacion in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Marini Thomé

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to characterize Russian commercial organizations that are trading bovine meat from Brazil. It is a exploratory qualitative study. During the field work it was possible to conduct 14 interviews with Russian and Brazilian traders, from 01st until 12th of December/ 2008. It was found that traders developed four different types of transaction configurations. The first configuration described is the one with the highest number of organizations involved in the trading activities. It is a transaction configuration that aloud higher levels of specialization for the different trading firms, making possible for Russian wholesalers and retailers to buy from Brazilian abattoirs intermediated by international trading organizations. In the second observed configuration it was possible to perceive a more active role of the Russian wholesaler, since this category of organization was able to absorb the trading operations that where performed by an international trading company. In the third transaction confiuration a trading company licensed to trade with Russian retailers is the only intermediary between Brazilian exporters and retailers. The fourth transaction configuration has a Russian retailer trading directly with a Brazilian supplier of bovine meat.

  18. Liberalization of Russian gas exports: benefits and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakunina Alla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Russian gas export liberalization has been discussed throughout the post-Soviet period. Recently, the number of Gazprom’s export monopoly advocates has been diminishing as a result of dramatic changes in both European and Russian gas markets, which are: increasing international trade in liquefied natural gas; the EU movement from long-term contracts to the commodity markets and hub pricing; substantially increased share of the non-Gazprom gas suppliers at the Russian domestic market. Although there is a potential risk of price decrease in the EU gas market in the case of the Gazprom export monopoly abolition, the benefits of the Russian gas export liberalization would be greater than losses. The gas resource base and the cost of pipeline gas production would allow Russia to improve its positions in the world market.

  19. Ethical beliefs and information asymmetries in supplier relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, K.D.; Johnson, J.L.

    2010-01-01

    Heightened ethical concerns involving upstream suppliers (e.g., Peanut Corporation of America, dairy suppliers to Chinese infant formula manufacturers) have sparked interest in how managers' knowledge of suppliers' behavior influences decision making. This article explores the role of managers'

  20. Concurrent sourcing and external supplier opportunism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Niels Peter

    costs of opportunism are determined as a product of four factors. The four factors are: likelihood of discovering supplier opportunism, buyer’s internalized quantity as reaction to supplier opportunism, asset specificity of external supplier’s investments, and multiplicator effects. Each......When a firm simultaneously makes and buys the same components then the firm uses concurrent sourcing. This paper presents an agency model for explaining how and when concurrent sourcing reduces the likelihood of external supplier opportunism. In the proposed model, the external supplier’s expected...... of these factors are explained and discussed in the paper. The paper ends by offering a number of theoretical and managerial implications....

  1. Supplier Performance Evaluation and Rating System (SPEARS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oged, M.; Warner, D.; Gurbuz, E.

    1993-03-01

    The SSCL Magnet Quality Assurance Department has implemented a Supplier Performance Evaluation and Rating System (SPEARS) to assess supplier performance throughout the development and production stages of the SSCL program. The main objectives of SPEARS are to promote teamwork and recognize performance. This paper examines the current implementation of SPEARS. MSD QA supports the development and production of SSCsuperconducting magnets while implementing the requirements of DOE Order 5700.6C. The MSD QA program is based on the concept of continuous improvement in quality and productivity. The QA program requires that procurement of items and services be controlled to assure conformance to specification. SPEARS has been implemented to meet DOE requirements and to enhance overall confidence in supplier performance. Key elements of SPEARS include supplier evaluation and selection as well as evaluation of furnished quality through source inspection, audit, and receipt inspection. These elements are described in this paper

  2. Supplier selection problem: A fuzzy multicriteria approach

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kirstam

    simultaneously: maximising the total value of purchases, minimising ... Keywords: Supplier selection, multi-criteria decision-making, fuzzy logic, satisfaction ... includes both qualitative and quantitative factors, and it is necessary to make a.

  3. Prospects for UK fuel cells component suppliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcox, C.; Tunnicliffe, M.

    2002-07-01

    This report examines the capabilities of the UK fuel cell industry in meeting the expected increase in demand, and aims to identify all UK suppliers of fuel cell components, evaluate their products and match them to fuel cell markets, and identify components where the UK is in a competitive position. Component areas are addressed along with the need to reduce costs and ensure efficient production. The well established supplier base in the UK is noted, and the car engine manufacturing base and fuel supply companies are considered. The different strengths of UK suppliers of the various types of fuel cells are listed. The future industry structure, the opportunities and dangers for business posed by fuel cells, the investment in cleaner technologies by the large fuel companies, opportunities for catalyst suppliers, and the residential combined heat and power and portable electronics battery markets are discussed.

  4. Supplier Performance Evaluation and Rating System (SPEARS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oged, M.; Warner, D.G.; Gurbuz, E.

    1994-01-01

    The SSCL Magnet Quality Assurance Department has implemented a Supplier Performance Evaluation and Rating System (SPEARS) to assess supplier performance throughout the development and production stages of the SSCL program. The main objectives of SPEARS are to promote teamwork and recognize performance. This paper examines the current implementation of SPEARS. MSD QA supports the development and production of SSC superconducting magnets while implementing the requirements of DOE Order 5700.6C. The MSD QA program is based on the concept of continuous improvement in quality and productivity. The QA program requires that procurement of items and services be controlled to assure conformance to specification. SPEARS has been implemented to meet DOE requirements and to enhance overall confidence in supplier performance. Key elements of SPEARS include supplier evaluation and selection as well as evaluation of furnished quality through source inspection, audit, and receipt inspection. These elements are described in this paper

  5. New Approaches of Supplier Relationship Management

    OpenAIRE

    Cârstea Gheorghe; Pãun Oana; Pãun Sorin

    2014-01-01

    In a strong competitive environment, based on an increased degree of risk and uncertainty, supplier relationship management is considered to be a strategic value-adding process, able to contribute to the success of the organization. Supplier relationship management must also the development of a collaborative environment, based on trust between partners, so that both parties can achieve mutually beneficial objectives through joint effort and time investment.

  6. Routes towards supplier and production network internationalisation

    OpenAIRE

    A. CAMUFFO; FURLAN A; ROMANO P; VINELLI A

    2007-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate routes towards supplier and production network internationalisation. Design/methodology/approach – Multiple case-study analysis has been applied to a sample of 11 Italian footwear and apparel companies with headquarters located in the North-east of Italy. Within and cross-case analyses illustrate and compare how these firms relocated one or more segments of their supplier and production networks to Romania. Findings – The...

  7. LHC suppliers win Golden Hadron awards

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    In a ceremony on 30 July, three of the 200 suppliers for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) were presented with Golden Hadron awards. It is the third year that the awards have been presented to suppliers, not only for their technical and financial achievements but also for their compliance with contractual deadlines. This year the three companies are all involved in the supplies for the LHC's main magnet system.

  8. Russian and Belorussian firms receive CMS Gold Awards

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On 7 March, CMS handed out its three latest Gold Awards in recognition of outstanding supplier performance. The directors of two Russian firms (ENTEK and the Myasishchev Design Bureau) and of the Belorussian company MZOR received their awards on the occasion of a visit by dignitaries from the two countries. The directors and dignitaries are pictured here with leaders of the CMS Collaboration in front of the CMS hadron calorimeter end-cap at the detector's assembly site.

  9. Heterogeneity of reward mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajtha, A; Sershen, H

    2010-06-01

    The finding that many drugs that have abuse potential and other natural stimuli such as food or sexual activity cause similar chemical changes in the brain, an increase in extracellular dopamine (DA) in the shell of the nucleus accumbens (NAccS), indicated some time ago that the reward mechanism is at least very similar for all stimuli and that the mechanism is relatively simple. The presently available information shows that the mechanisms involved are more complex and have multiple elements. Multiple brain regions, multiple receptors, multiple distinct neurons, multiple transmitters, multiple transporters, circuits, peptides, proteins, metabolism of transmitters, and phosphorylation, all participate in reward mechanisms. The system is variable, is changed during development, is sex-dependent, and is influenced by genetic differences. Not all of the elements participate in the reward of all stimuli. Different set of mechanisms are involved in the reward of different drugs of abuse, yet different mechanisms in the reward of natural stimuli such as food or sexual activity; thus there are different systems that distinguish different stimuli. Separate functions of the reward system such as anticipation, evaluation, consummation and identification; all contain function-specific elements. The level of the stimulus also influences the participation of the elements of the reward system, there are possible reactions to even below threshold stimuli, and excessive stimuli can change reward to aversion involving parts of the system. Learning and memory of past reward is an important integral element of reward and addictive behavior. Many of the reward elements are altered by repeated or chronic stimuli, and chronic exposure to one drug is likely to alter the response to another stimulus. To evaluate and identify the reward stimulus thus requires heterogeneity of the reward components in the brain.

  10. Dopamine reward prediction error coding

    OpenAIRE

    Schultz, Wolfram

    2016-01-01

    Reward prediction errors consist of the differences between received and predicted rewards. They are crucial for basic forms of learning about rewards and make us strive for more rewards?an evolutionary beneficial trait. Most dopamine neurons in the midbrain of humans, monkeys, and rodents signal a reward prediction error; they are activated by more reward than predicted (positive prediction error), remain at baseline activity for fully predicted rewards, and show depressed activity with less...

  11. Supplier Selection Using Weighted Utility Additive Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karande, Prasad; Chakraborty, Shankar

    2015-10-01

    Supplier selection is a multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) problem which mainly involves evaluating a number of available suppliers according to a set of common criteria for choosing the best one to meet the organizational needs. For any manufacturing or service organization, selecting the right upstream suppliers is a key success factor that will significantly reduce purchasing cost, increase downstream customer satisfaction and improve competitive ability. The past researchers have attempted to solve the supplier selection problem employing different MCDM techniques which involve active participation of the decision makers in the decision-making process. This paper deals with the application of weighted utility additive (WUTA) method for solving supplier selection problems. The WUTA method, an extension of utility additive approach, is based on ordinal regression and consists of building a piece-wise linear additive decision model from a preference structure using linear programming (LP). It adopts preference disaggregation principle and addresses the decision-making activities through operational models which need implicit preferences in the form of a preorder of reference alternatives or a subset of these alternatives present in the process. The preferential preorder provided by the decision maker is used as a restriction of a LP problem, which has its own objective function, minimization of the sum of the errors associated with the ranking of each alternative. Based on a given reference ranking of alternatives, one or more additive utility functions are derived. Using these utility functions, the weighted utilities for individual criterion values are combined into an overall weighted utility for a given alternative. It is observed that WUTA method, having a sound mathematical background, can provide accurate ranking to the candidate suppliers and choose the best one to fulfill the organizational requirements. Two real time examples are illustrated to prove

  12. 47 CFR 68.320 - Supplier's Declaration of Conformity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplier's Declaration of Conformity. 68.320... Approval § 68.320 Supplier's Declaration of Conformity. (a) Supplier's Declaration of Conformity is a... Supplier's Declaration of Conformity attaches to all items subsequently marketed by the responsible party...

  13. A multi-supplier sourcing problem with a preference ordering of suppliers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honhon, D.B.L.P.; Gaur, V.; Seshadri, S.

    2012-01-01

    We study a sourcing problem faced by a firm that seeks to procure a product or a component from a pool of alternative suppliers. The firm has a preference ordering of the suppliers based on factors such as their past performance, quality, service, geographical location, and financial strength, which

  14. The role of reward and reward uncertainty in episodic memory

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, Alice; Farrell, Simon; Howard-Jones, Paul; Ludwig, Casimir

    2017-01-01

    Declarative memory has been found to be sensitive to reward-related changes in the environment. The reward signal can be broken down into information regarding the expected value of the reward, reward uncertainty and the prediction error. Research has established that high as opposed to low reward values enhance declarative memory. Research in neuroscience suggests that high uncertainty activates the reward system, which could lead to enhanced learning and memory. Here we present the results ...

  15. Supplier selection an MCDA-based approach

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Krishnendu

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to present a comprehensive review of the latest research and development trends at the international level for modeling and optimization of the supplier selection process for different industrial sectors. It is targeted to serve two audiences: the MBA and PhD student interested in procurement, and the practitioner who wishes to gain a deeper understanding of procurement analysis with multi-criteria based decision tools to avoid upstream risks to get better supply chain visibility. The book is expected to serve as a ready reference for supplier selection criteria and various multi-criteria based supplier’s evaluation methods for forward, reverse and mass customized supply chain. This book encompasses several criteria, methods for supplier selection in a systematic way based on extensive literature review from 1998 to 2012. It provides several case studies and some useful links which can serve as a starting point for interested researchers. In the appendix several computer code wri...

  16. Emerging nuclear suppliers in the Third World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stahl, K.

    1990-01-01

    The emergence of new supplier states of nuclear technology within the Third World has raised concern, if those nuclear supplier states will promote an unrestricted and uncontrolled transfer of nuclear technology to developing countries and augment the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation. The article analyses the nuclear export capacities, nuclear exports and the export policy of Argentina, Brazil and India. Argentina is considered as the most important emerging nuclear supplier state in the Third World. Nuclear exports have to be authorisized by the government in all three states and will be covered by IAEA-safeguards in the recipient country. The three states will exercise restraint in the transfer of sensitive nuclear technology. Nuclear exports of Argentina, Brazil and India so far will not augment the danger of nuclear weapons proliferation. (orig./HSCH) [de

  17. Supplier Evaluation Process by Pairwise Comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Kawa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose to assess suppliers by using consistency-driven pairwise comparisons for tangible and intangible criteria. The tangible criteria are simpler to compare (e.g., the price of a service is lower than that of another service with identical characteristics. Intangible criteria are more difficult to assess. The proposed model combines assessments of both types of criteria. The main contribution of this paper is the presentation of an extension framework for the selection of suppliers in a procurement process. The final weights are computed from relative pairwise comparisons. For the needs of the paper, surveys were conducted among Polish managers dealing with cooperation with suppliers in their enterprises. The Polish practice and restricted bidding are discussed, too.

  18. The emerging nuclear suppliers and nonproliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, W.C.

    1990-01-01

    The number of states capable of exporting nuclear material, technology, equipment, and services is large and growing. Once confined primarily to states party to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), the list of actual and potential nuclear suppliers now includes many countries that do not subscribe to the NPT or to other international nuclear export control agreements. Although international control accords---such as the Nuclear Exporters' (Zangger) Committee and the London Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) guidelines---do not prohibit the export of sensitive nuclear materials and equipment, they do reduce the risks of proliferation by imposing international safeguards as a condition for export. The purpose of this book---the culmination of one phase of an ongoing international research project on the emerging nuclear suppliers and nonproliferation---is to remedy, at least in part, this data deficiency

  19. Reward Merit with Praise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Hans A.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the efforts of two educational institutions to reward teaching excellence using positive feedback rather than merit pay incentives. An Arizona district, drawing on Herzberg's motivation theories, offers highly individualized rewards ranging from computers to conference money, while an Illinois community college bestows engraved plaques…

  20. Dopamine reward prediction error coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Wolfram

    2016-03-01

    Reward prediction errors consist of the differences between received and predicted rewards. They are crucial for basic forms of learning about rewards and make us strive for more rewards-an evolutionary beneficial trait. Most dopamine neurons in the midbrain of humans, monkeys, and rodents signal a reward prediction error; they are activated by more reward than predicted (positive prediction error), remain at baseline activity for fully predicted rewards, and show depressed activity with less reward than predicted (negative prediction error). The dopamine signal increases nonlinearly with reward value and codes formal economic utility. Drugs of addiction generate, hijack, and amplify the dopamine reward signal and induce exaggerated, uncontrolled dopamine effects on neuronal plasticity. The striatum, amygdala, and frontal cortex also show reward prediction error coding, but only in subpopulations of neurons. Thus, the important concept of reward prediction errors is implemented in neuronal hardware.

  1. Innovation During the Supplier Selection Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilkington, Alan; Pedraza, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Established ideas on supplier selection have not moved much from the original premise of how to choose between bidders. Whilst we have added many different tools and refinements to choose between alternative suppliers, its nature has not evolved. We move the original selection process approach...... observed through an ethnographic embedded researcher study has refined the selection process and has two selection stages one for first supply covering tool/process developed and another later for resupply of mature parts. We report the details of the process, those involved, the criteria employed...... and identify benefits and weaknesses of this enhanced selection process....

  2. Comparative Analysis of Smart Meters Deployment Business Models on the Example of the Russian Federation Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daminov, Ildar; Tarasova, Ekaterina; Andreeva, Tatyana; Avazov, Artur

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents the comparison of smart meter deployment business models to determine the most suitable option providing smart meters deployment. Authors consider 3 main business model of companies: distribution grid company, energy supplier (energosbyt) and metering company. The goal of the article is to compare the business models of power companies from massive smart metering roll out in power system of Russian Federation.

  3. The Russian gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Russian Federation holds the world's largest proven natural gas reserves, and produces more natural gas than any other nation. Russian exports of gas to Europe and the other nations of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) have a significant impact on natural gas markets throughout Europe and Asia. The aim of this three part study is to inform the international energy and investment community about the current status of the Russian gas industry and the prospects for its future development through 2010. It is also intended to provide an opportunity for the appropriate authorities in the Russian Federation to assess the needs of the industry and to consider areas for possible collaboration with the international investment community and international organizations in a rapidly changing economic and business environment. The study was prepared by the Energy Branch of the United Nations Department for Development Support and Management Services (UN/DDSMS). It was financed by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Part I describes Russian gas reserves and potential resources, and overviews the country's gas producing, pipeline and distribution industries. Additionally, it summarizes the markets for Russian natural gas including domestic and external markets. It discusses the primary economics and potential factors that currently impact the Russian gas industry during the Federation's transition toward a market economy. Part II highlights possible directions for the development of the Russian gas resource base, including upstream gas production and downstream marketing in five-, ten- and fifteen-year time frames. It projects export opportunities for Russian Federation gas and evaluates the options for shaping regional and international markets. Part III addresses the legal and regulatory framework and fiscal regime of the Russian gas industry. It also reviews the major investment requirements and the equipment and training needs of the Russian gas

  4. Russian: An Active Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Cruz, Nina

    The Active Introduction is one of the modules in an array of materials used in Russian training for beginners at the Foreign Service Institute. It is essentially a catalog of sentences relating to typical daily activities which can be combined to form different communication sequences in dialog form. Students learn to speak Russian through…

  5. Heutiges Russisch (Contemporary Russian)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russisch, 1976

    1976-01-01

    For the purpose of supplying information on actual contemporary Russian usage, this article excerpts sections on noun usage and variations of the genitive ending in the masculine singular from "Stilistik der russischen Sprache" (Russian Language Style) by D. Rosental and M. Telenkowa. (Text is in German.) (FB)

  6. Russian Language Course

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    The Russian Cultural Circle is organising a new course of "Russian for Beginners", and is continuing a course for Advanced Students (3rd year). Interested persons are invited to contact: Mrs M. Mikhailova e-mail : mailto:mmmacha@hotmail.com Tel. 022 788 27 53

  7. Russian Language Analysis Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serianni, Barbara; Rethwisch, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    This paper is the result of a language analysis research project focused on the Russian Language. The study included a diverse literature review that included published materials as well as online sources in addition to an interview with a native Russian speaker residing in the United States. Areas of study include the origin and history of the…

  8. Supplier's sales engineer as a knowledge worker

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kopecka, J.A.; Santema, S.C.; Hultink, H.J.

    2012-01-01

    The paper forms part of a multiple case study in progress that focuses on information relationships, i.e., the exchange of information and knowledge at the micro-social level between supplier and buyer firms in the fuzzy front end of product development. The micro-social level is made up of dyadic

  9. Advanced supplier partnership practices: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, B R

    2000-05-01

    This article describes how a supplier partnership was set up to avoid the typical purchasing relationship--price being inversely proportional to quantity and having the purchaser take all the risk of product obsolescence. The case study also describes how rate-based replenishment replaced time-based delivery, and how all these advantages were achieved at reduced administrative costs.

  10. Outranking methods in support of supplier selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, L.; van der Wegen, Leonardus L.M.; Telgen, Jan

    1998-01-01

    Initial purchasing decisions such as make-or-buy decisions and supplier selection are decisions of strategic importance to companies. The nature of these decisions usually is complex and unstructured. Management Science techniques might be helpful tools for this kind of decision making problems. So

  11. Supplier-induced demand as strategic framing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jaegher, K.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper develops a model of supplier-induced demand as strategic framing where the patient has reference-dependent references, and the physician can persuade the patient to buy a treatment by affecting the patient’s reference point. In the main result, the patient is assumed to have a constant

  12. A review of methods supporting supplier selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, L.; Labro, Eva; Morlacchi, Pierangela

    2001-01-01

    this paper we present a review of decision methods reported in the literature for supporting the supplier selection process. The review is based on an extensive search in the academic literature. We position the contributions in a framework that takes the diversity of procurement situations in terms

  13. CMS and ATLAS honour their suppliers

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    In order to motivate the hundreds of companies building their detectors, the CMS and ATLAS collaborations have recently been handing out awards of excellence to their top suppliers. At its second ceremony of this kind, CMS honoured four of its suppliers, while ATLAS for the first time paid tribute to two of its contractors. The atmosphere in the Council Chamber was festive rather than formal at the start of CMS week on Monday 5 March. Before embarking upon a long series of seminars and presentations, the Collaboration held its second awards ceremony to honour its top suppliers. By paying tribute to the exceptional efforts of certain suppliers, the Collaboration's aim is to motivate all the firms, some 500 in total, taking part in the experiment's construction. The CMS Awards panel thus singles out contractors who have not only provided full satisfaction in terms of compliance with specifications, quality and deadlines, but have in addition provided original solutions to delicate problems. Four firms came away...

  14. Evaluating the bases of supplier segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Day, Marc; Magnan, Gregory M.; Munkgaard Møller, Morten

    2010-01-01

    fragmentary in nature, current portfolio models are grouped into two principal taxonomic constructs of power and dependence and relational factors. In particular, the prevalent use of transaction cost economics (TCE) in portfolio modelling provides a foundation for purchasers to appraise risks from supplier...

  15. Supplier challenges in health tech innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolfstam, Max

    Suppliers, in particular small innovative firms, is an important contributor not only for innovation in health-tech, but also a component to consider in the light of the emerging policy interest for using public procurement as a means to stimulate innovation. Research on barriers preventing...

  16. Supplier evaluation: The first step in effective sourcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Pikousová

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation and selection of suppliers are important tasks in any organisation. Each organisation needs to have a supplier evaluation matrix or model in place. The goal of this article is not only to give an overview of supplier performance evaluation techniques but also to present an example of such a supplier evaluation matrix used in practice. The article shows that suppliers’ qualities, strategies and abilities affect a buying company’s business. Reliable suppliers can help to develop stabile, long-term relationships that will be beneficial to both parties. Effective sourcing and purchasing require high-quality suppliers.

  17. The Russian oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rucker, Laurent

    2003-01-01

    This article proposes a brief discussion of various assessments of Russian oil reserves, of the evolutions of Russian oil production (Russia is the second world producer after Saudi Arabia), of the distribution of Russian oil exports among various regions, and of the decrease of Russian oil consumption between 1992 and 2002. It describes the evolution of the actor system as the oil sector has been largely privatised since 1992, and indicates the main companies which should control the Russia market on a medium term. It also discusses the obstacles for the development of Production Sharing Agreements (PSA) between these companies. It addresses the issue of modernisation of the oil transport system as its status and its condition are often an obstacle to oil export for Russian companies. The article finally discusses the price issue, the relationship between Russia and other OPEC countries, and the need for huge investments

  18. Benchmarking Supplier Development: An Empirical Case Study of Validating a Framework to Improve Buyer-Supplier Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahzad Khuram

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In today’s dynamic business environment, firms are required to utilize efficiently and effectively all the useful resources to gain competitive advantage. Supplier development has evolved as an important strategic instrument to improve buyer supplier relationships. For that reason, this study focuses on providing the strategic significance of supplier development approaches to improve business relationships. By using qualitative research method, an integrated framework of supplier development and buyer-supplier relationship development has been tested and validated in a Finnish case company to provide empirical evidence. It particularly investigates how supplier development approaches can develop buyer-supplier relationships. The study present a set of propositions that identify significant supplier development approaches critical for the development of buyer-supplier relationships and develop a theoretical framework that specifies how these different supplier development approaches support in order to strengthen the relationships. The results are produced from an in-depth case study by implementing the proposed research framework. The findings reveal that supplier development strategies i.e., supplier incentives and direct involvements strongly effect in developing buyer-supplier relationships. Further research may focus on considering in-depth investigation of trust and communication factors along with propositions developed in the study to find out general applicability in dynamic business environment. Proposed integrated framework along with propositions is a unique combination of useful solutions for tactical and strategic management’s decision making and also valid for academic researchers to develop supplier development theories.

  19. Model Checking Markov Reward Models with Impulse Rewards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cloth, Lucia; Katoen, Joost-Pieter; Khattri, Maneesh; Pulungan, Reza; Bondavalli, Andrea; Haverkort, Boudewijn; Tang, Dong

    This paper considers model checking of Markov reward models (MRMs), continuous-time Markov chains with state rewards as well as impulse rewards. The reward extension of the logic CSL (Continuous Stochastic Logic) is interpreted over such MRMs, and two numerical algorithms are provided to check the

  20. Profiles of Major Suppliers to the Automotive Industry : Vol. 5. Multinational Automotive Parts and Components Suppliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    This study summarizes extensive information collected over a two-year period (October 1978 to October 1980) on suppliers of parts and components, materials, and machine tools to the automotive industry in the United States. The objective of the study...

  1. Profiles of Major Suppliers to the Automotive Industry : Vol. 6. Foreign Automotive Parts and Components Suppliers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    This study summarizes extensive information collected over a two-year period (October 1978 to October 1980) on suppliers of parts and components, materials, and machine tools to the automotive industry in the United States. The objective of the study...

  2. The Navy’s Superior Supplier Incentive Program: Analysis of Supplier Proposed Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    rather than “short-term, easy, expendable and replaceable sources of goods and services” (Carter & Choi, 2008, p. 2). Japanese automakers Toyota ...was the key element behind Toyota and Honda’s strategic successes. Under the supplier keiretsu, the automakers worked closely with the selected...suppliers to achieve mutually beneficial objectives. Toyota and Honda implemented the keiretsu model in their North American plants and achieved

  3. Sourcing for Quality: Cooperating with a Single Supplier or Developing Two Competing Suppliers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxian Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Supplier efforts regarding product quality are an important issue in outsourcing and play a critical role in a manufacturer’s choice of sourcing strategy. Consider a manufacturer that wants to outsource the manufacturing of two substitute products to external suppliers. This paper studies the strategic interactions under two sourcing strategies: single and dual sourcing. A four-stage noncooperative game model is established to describe each member’s decisions. We further propose four decision scenarios: single sourcing with and without manufacturer quality investment sharing and dual sourcing when suppliers cooperate or do not cooperate on quality decisions. By the backward induction approach, we obtain analytical equilibrium solutions for each decision scenario. By comparing each pair of equilibrium profiles, we find that an appropriate proportion of quality investment sharing by the manufacturer can enable a cooperating strategy with a single supplier to be the dominant strategy. When the manufacturer does not want to share or does not want to share a relatively large portion of its supplier’s quality investment, it will always prefer to develop two competing suppliers when the cost of dual sourcing is sufficiently low. However, dual sourcing can be extremely risky for the manufacturer because the suppliers could provide a relatively low product quality level by cooperating on the quality decision to extract the manufacturer’s profit.

  4. Reward and punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmund, K; Hauert, C; Nowak, M A

    2001-09-11

    Minigames capturing the essence of Public Goods experiments show that even in the absence of rationality assumptions, both punishment and reward will fail to bring about prosocial behavior. This result holds in particular for the well-known Ultimatum Game, which emerges as a special case. But reputation can induce fairness and cooperation in populations adapting through learning or imitation. Indeed, the inclusion of reputation effects in the corresponding dynamical models leads to the evolution of economically productive behavior, with agents contributing to the public good and either punishing those who do not or rewarding those who do. Reward and punishment correspond to two types of bifurcation with intriguing complementarity. The analysis suggests that reputation is essential for fostering social behavior among selfish agents, and that it is considerably more effective with punishment than with reward.

  5. A Markov reward model checker

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katoen, Joost P.; Maneesh Khattri, M.; Zapreev, I.S.; Zapreev, I.S.

    2005-01-01

    This short tool paper introduces MRMC, a model checker for discrete-time and continuous-time Markov reward models. It supports reward extensions of PCTL and CSL, and allows for the automated verification of properties concerning long-run and instantaneous rewards as well as cumulative rewards. In

  6. Reward, Context, and Human Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare L. Blaukopf

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal models of reward processing have revealed an extensive network of brain areas that process different aspects of reward, from expectation and prediction to calculation of relative value. These results have been confirmed and extended in human neuroimaging to encompass secondary rewards more unique to humans, such as money. The majority of the extant literature covers the brain areas associated with rewards whilst neglecting analysis of the actual behaviours that these rewards generate. This review strives to redress this imbalance by illustrating the importance of looking at the behavioural outcome of rewards and the context in which they are produced. Following a brief review of the literature of reward-related activity in the brain, we examine the effect of reward context on actions. These studies reveal how the presence of reward vs. reward and punishment, or being conscious vs. unconscious of reward-related actions, differentially influence behaviour. The latter finding is of particular importance given the extent to which animal models are used in understanding the reward systems of the human mind. It is clear that further studies are needed to learn about the human reaction to reward in its entirety, including any distinctions between conscious and unconscious behaviours. We propose that studies of reward entail a measure of the animal's (human or nonhuman knowledge of the reward and knowledge of its own behavioural outcome to achieve that reward.

  7. Factors Contributing to SMEs Failure in Meeting Supplier Performance Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Scheers Louise

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to determine the factors that contribute to the failure of small and medium enterprises (SMEs in meeting supplier performance standards. Suppliers are faced with the challenge of SMEs failing to meet supplier performance standards because they rely on these providers of products and services, mainly SMEs, for their operations and to ultimately achieve their mandate. The researchers were able to establish the main factors contributing to SME failure in meeting supplier performance standards. These are as follows: unclear specifications and terms of references from suppliers; insufficient information provided to SME suppliers to ensure understanding of requirements; insufficient feedback and support; no support of SME suppliers based on their Black Economic Empowerment (BEE status; limited or no use of business support programs by SME suppliers; and external factors such as access to finance, changes in the economy, and location.

  8. Managing supplier relationships in a new product development context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sjoerdsma, M.; Weele, van A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Organizations can no longer rely solely on their own resources to innovate and therefore look for strategic interactions outside their organizational boundaries. During the past years Early Supplier Involvement, supplier relationship management (SRM) and knowledge exchange in supply chain

  9. Sandia National Laboratories: Working with Sandia: Current Suppliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Systems & Assessments About Defense Systems & Assessments Program Areas Accomplishments Audit Sandia's Economic Impact Licensing & Technology Transfer Browse Technology Portfolios Suppliers iSupplier Account Accounts Payable Contract Information Construction and Facilities Contract Audit

  10. First CMS awards ceremony of 2003 to honour its top suppliers

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Each year CMS holds an awards ceremony to honour its top suppliers. This year 12 companies are receiving awards for their outstanding performances, eight the Gold Award and four the most prestigious award, the Crystal Award. The main ceremony will take place on 24 February during CMS week at CERN. However, one of the recipients of the Gold Award, the Snezhinsk All-Russian Institute of Scientific Research for Technical Physics (VNIITF) of the Russian Federal Nuclear Centre (RFNC) has already received its award. Felicitas Pauss, Vice-Chairman of the CMS Collaboration Board, hands a Gold Award for best CMS supplier to Professor Georgy Rykovanov, Director of Russia's RFNC-VNIITF Institute.The CMS Collaboration took the opportunity of the visit to CERN of the Director of the VNIITF and his deputy to make the award. which the Institute has received for its exceptional performance in the assembly of steel plates for the CMS's forward hadronic calorimeter. This calorimeter consists of two sets of 18 wedge-shape modul...

  11. ATLAS rewards industry

    CERN Document Server

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    For contributing vital pieces to the ATLAS puzzle, three industries were recognized on Friday 5 May during a supplier awards ceremony. After a welcome and overview of the ATLAS experiment by spokesperson Peter Jenni, CERN Secretary-General Maximilian Metzger stressed the importance of industry to CERN's scientific goals. Picture 30 : representatives of the three award-wining companies after the ceremony

  12. New environmental supplier selection criteria for circular supply chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prosman, Ernst Johannes; Sacchi, Romain

    2017-01-01

    upon a consequential life cycle assessment and the monetized environmental impact of four alternative fuel suppliers in the cement industry. The best supplier performs three times better than the worst supplier in terms of environmental impact, thereby exemplifying the need for this study. The findings...

  13. Overview of nuclear export policies of major foreign supplier nations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The United States faces increased competition from foreign nuclear suppliers, including West Germany, France, the United Kingdom, Canada, and possibly, in the near future, Japan. This general overview shows the differences and similarities in foreign nuclear supplier export requirements. It is based on summaries furnished by the Department of State covering the nuclear export policies and procedures of the major foreign supplier nations

  14. Preferred customer status, supplier satisfaction and their contingencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Frederik Guido Sebastiaan

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decades, firms shift increasingly from traditional in-house value creation strategies to cooperative buyer–supplier relationships as a source of value creation and competitive advantage. To reap extensive benefits from relationships with suppliers, assuring supplier satisfaction and

  15. In Chains? Automotive Suppliers and Their Product Development Activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. von Corswant; J.Y.F. Wynstra (Finn); M. Wetzels (Alex)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractA conceptual framework is developed and tested in which supplier downstream position in the supply chain, supplier innovation strategy and customer development commitment are seen as the antecedents of supplier product development activity. Using partial least squares (PLS), we analyze

  16. The global supplier - myth or reality?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawshaw, S A.M. [Long-Airdox Ltd., Ilkeston (United Kingdom)

    2002-02-01

    Coal remains a key feature of the world's energy and steel markets and coal mining is a global industry. Suppliers of equipment to the coal-mining industry have seen traditional markets almost disappear and new markets emerge. Suppliers need to work closely with customers, sometimes in remote areas developing long-term partnerships and continually improving the product to their mutual benefit. An attempt to explain how global changes to the underground coal industry have influenced the supply of coal-mining equipment is illustrated by recent developments in the Long-Airdox group. An example is given of how the group worked with the Cayirhan Mine in Turkey supplying cast armoured face conveyors for longwall mining. The paper was presented at a meeting of the Nottinghamshire Branch of the Institution of Mining and Metallurgy on 3 June 1998 in Nottinghamshire, UK. 1 fig.

  17. Russian translations for Cochrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudina, E V; Ziganshina, L E

    2015-01-01

    Cochrane collaboration has made a huge contribution to the development of evidence-based medicine; Cochrane work is the international gold standard of independent, credible and reliable high-quality information in medicine. Over the past 20 years the Cochrane Collaboration helped transforming decision-making in health and reforming it significantly, saving lives and contributing to longevity [1]. Until recently, Cochrane evidence were available only in English, which represents a significant barrier to their wider use in non-English speaking countries. To provide access to evidence, obtained from Cochrane Reviews, for health professionals and general public (from non-English-speaking countries), bypassing language barriers, Cochrane collaboration in 2014 initiated an international project of translating Plain language summaries of Cochrane Reviews into other languages [2, 3]. Russian translations of Plain language summaries were started in May 2014 by the team from Kazan Federal University (Department of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology; 2014-2015 as an Affiliated Centre in Tatarstan of the Nordic Cochrane Centre, since August 2015 as Cochrane Russia, a Russian branch of Cochrane Nordic, Head - Liliya Eugenevna Ziganshina) on a voluntary basis. To assess the quality of Russian translations of Cochrane Plain Language Summaries (PLS) and their potential impact on the Russian speaking community through user feedback with the overarching aim of furthering the translations project. We conducted the continuous online survey via Google Docs. We invited respondents through the electronic Russian language discussion forum on Essential Medicines (E-lek), links to survey on the Russian Cochrane.org website, invitations to Cochrane contributors registered in Archie from potential Russian-speaking countries. We set up the survey in Russian and English. The respondents were asked to respond to the questionnaire regarding the relevance and potential impact of the Cochrane Russian

  18. Agglomeration in the European automobile supplier industry

    OpenAIRE

    Klier, Thomas; McMillen, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Motor vehicle and motor vehicle parts production plants tend to exhibit a strong degree of agglomeration. This paper estimates a spatial model utilizing detailed plant-level data that is pooled across seven countries in Europe. The paper makes several contributions. First, we assemble a set of nearly 1,800 European plant locations of the largest motor vehicle parts suppliers, as well as the location of all light vehicle assembly plants operational in 2010. Second, we obtain detailed spatial d...

  19. Western values and the Russian energy weapon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Bennett K.

    This thesis explores the competition between Russia and the West for the oil and gas resources of the Caspian Sea region, an area where far more is at stake than simply acquisition of new energy supplies. Ultimately, the "winner" of the competition for Caspian Sea energy resources will determine whether Russia will become the primary energy supplier for Europe in the future, or whether there will be alternative, non-Russian energy routes from East to West. The thesis uses a qualitative approach, drawing on scholarly books and articles, current affairs publications, energy firm websites, and other sources to compare the ethical aspects of the strategies used by Russia and the West, to determine whose strategy has been more successful, and to analyze what this means for the political, economic, and security future of Europe. As this thesis demonstrates, Russia recognizes the importance of energy as both an economic and foreign policy tool. To secure access to the resources of the Caspian Sea region, Russia has used bribery and strongman tactics to secure arrangements and contracts favorable to Russian interests. When a country does not capitulate to these tactics, Russia applies other measures to influence these countries' policies. This thesis draws on two recent examples, Ukraine and Georgia, to demonstrate how Russia has used its position as a supplier of energy resources to influence countries to adopt policies complementary to Russian interests, or to punish them for failing to do so. The effectiveness of these Russian tactics is an important precedent for the countries of the Caspian Sea region to keep in mind as they make decisions that will determine their economic and political future for decades to come. In contrast, the western strategy of promoting quality products and services, while ensuring safety and conducting business according to western ethical norms, has been less successful than western firms originally envisioned. Undoubtedly western firms have

  20. ATLAS honours one of its suppliers

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On 12 February the Netherlands firm Schelde Exotech was awarded a prize for best ATLAS supplier for the construction of the two vacuum chambers for the ATLAS endcap toroid magnets. The award for best supplier is handed over to representatives of the firm Schelde Exotech in front of one of the two vacuum chambers built by the firm. From left to right: E. Baynham (RAL), H. Geerink (NIKHEF), Y. Lefevere (NIKHEF), J. Engelen (NIKHEF), P. Jenni (CERN), E. Holtom (RAL), R. Boddaert (Schelde Exotech), G. Luijckx (NIKHEF), H. Klumpus (Schelde Exotech), M. Nessi (CERN), H. ten Kate (CERN), M. Nordberg (CERN), H. Hoffmann (CERN).This ceremony has now become something of a tradition. For the third consecutive year, ATLAS has given best supplier awards for the most exceptional contributors to the construction of the future detector. The Netherlands firm Schelde Exotech has just received the award for the construction of the two vacuum chambers for the ATLAS endcap toroid magnets. With a diameter of 11 metres and a volum...

  1. The LHC's suppliers come up trumps

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Four of the LHC Project's most exceptional suppliers have just been honoured in the fifth Golden Hadron awards ceremony. For the first time, a CERN team was among the prize-winners. The CERN main workshop (Mechanical and Materials Engineering group, TS/MME) received the Golden Hadron Award at the prize-giving ceremony held at the Globe. From left to right, Saïd Atieh (TS/MME), Vincent Vuillemin (TS/MME group leader), Michel Caccioppoli (TS/MME), Lyn Evans (LHC Project Leader), Marc Polini (TS/MME-MS section leader), Jean-Luc Gayraud (Cegelec), Jean-Paul Bacher (TS/MME-AS section leader) and Paolo Ciriani (head of the TS Department). Flexible, responsive, committed... all fitting adjectives to describe the recipients of the fifth Golden Hadron awards. The prizes, designed to honour the LHC Project's best suppliers, were awarded to a total of four suppliers, including two that are involved in the final accelerator assembly work: proof, if it were needed, that the project has now entered its final phase. Drak...

  2. Partners in quality: managing your suppliers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, B A

    1991-05-01

    Just expecting more from your supplier is not what partnership is about. We have had the experience where the quality improvement and partnership banner has been waved but the tone and spirit of the meeting did not encourage or support a joint quality improvement effort. Benefits will not be achieved until the wall truly begins to come apart and the relationship is built on mutual respect and trust. Data collection and open answers to questions often reveal embarrassing errors and obvious needs for improvements. As stated before, blame and finger-pointing must be replaced with a mutual commitment to asking and answering the question, "How can we improve?" As Dr. W. Edwards Deming has stated, "End the practice of awarding business on the basis of price tag. Instead, minimize total cost. Move toward a single supplier for any one item on a long-term relationship of loyalty and trust." The structured approach of a quality improvement process and the application of quality methods and techniques has proven useful in removing emotion and helping the team focus on the process rather than the people and the issues involved. Quality improvement methods are focused on achieving both customer and supplier goals--customer satisfaction, employee satisfaction, and operational efficiency and effectiveness. Our experience with Partners in Quality as well as our experience with the quality leadership process supports a recent quote in the Harvard Business Review: "Quality is not just a slogan...(it is) the most profitable way to run a business."

  3. Benchmarking Supplier Development: An Empirical Case Study of Validating a Framework to Improve Buyer-Supplier Relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Shahzad Khuram; Sillanpää Ilkka; Sillanpää Elina; Imeri Shpend

    2016-01-01

    In today’s dynamic business environment, firms are required to utilize efficiently and effectively all the useful resources to gain competitive advantage. Supplier development has evolved as an important strategic instrument to improve buyer supplier relationships. For that reason, this study focuses on providing the strategic significance of supplier development approaches to improve business relationships. By using qualitative research method, an integrated framework of supplier development...

  4. Antecedents and Outcomes of Supplier Innovativeness in International Customer-Supplier Relationships: The Role of Knowledge Distance

    OpenAIRE

    Jean, Ruey-Jer "Bryan"; Sinkovics, Rudolf R.; Kim, Daekwan

    2017-01-01

    The increasing competitive pressures and speed of R&D and product innovation is prompting many multinational enterprise customers to outsource their core activities to suppliers. Despite organizational challenges due to cultural and physical separation from their partners, these are now charged with supplier-driven innovation. This study looks at key drivers of supplier innovativeness, examines the role of cross-national differences in shaping supplier innovativeness and examines the impa...

  5. The New Russian Book

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pristed, Birgitte Beck

    This book takes up the obtrusive problem of visual representation of fiction in contemporary Russian book design. By analyzing a broad variety of book covers, the study offers an absolutely unique material that illustrates a radically changing notion of literature in the transformation of Soviet ...... the fields of Russian studies, contemporary book and media history, art, design, and visual studies.......This book takes up the obtrusive problem of visual representation of fiction in contemporary Russian book design. By analyzing a broad variety of book covers, the study offers an absolutely unique material that illustrates a radically changing notion of literature in the transformation of Soviet...... print culture to a post-Soviet book market. It delivers a profound and critical exploration of Russian visual imaginary of classic, popular, and contemporary prose. Among all the carelessly bungled covers of mass-published post-Soviet series the study identifies gems from experimental designers...

  6. Russian separation program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rea, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    A small contract signed in FY92 with the Khlopin Radium Institute marked the beginning of the Russian Separations program. Under this contract the Khlopin Radium Institute performed laboratory and dynamic hot-cell testing using cobalt dicarbollide technology on simulated radioactive wastes similar to those found at DOE sites in the United States. The current scope of investigation has been extended to identify prospective technologies for application to other United States needs. The Khlopin Radium Institute project served as a model for three other pilot scale technology development projects. The premise of the pilot scale projects is to enable Russian scientists to demonstrate their technology in the context of DOE needs, using Russian technical expertise has proven to be a cost-effective means of screening Russian technologies

  7. Countering Russian Active Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-16

    information laundering has proven effective in several occasions.20 In 2016, Russian social media actors circulated a fake news story about the...Soviet Union, individuals in positions of power funneled communist party financial resources to off-shore bank accounts and later used this money to...international offshore banking industry, they [the current oligarchs] stole money that belonged to the Russian state, took it abroad for safety

  8. The New Russian Nationalism

    OpenAIRE

    Kolstø, Pal; Blakkisrud, Helge

    2016-01-01

    Assessing the transformation of Russian nationalist discourse in the 21st century Russian nationalism, previously dominated by ‘imperial’ tendencies – pride in a large, strong and multi-ethnic state able to project its influence abroad – is increasingly focused on ethnic issues. This new ethno-nationalism has come in various guises, like racism and xenophobia, but also in a new intellectual movement of ‘national democracy’ deliberately seeking to emulate conservative West European nationalism...

  9. Russian Language Classes

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The Russian Cultural Circle is organising a new Russian course for beginners and will continue its course for advanced students (3rd year), both from September onwards. Anyone interested in taking part is invited to contact Mrs M. Mikhailova (e-mail: mailto:mmmacha@hotmail.com or tel. 022 788 27 53) or Mrs C. Kukowka (e-mail: mailto:christinekukowka@orange.fror tel. ++ 33 4 50 42 43 22 after 8.00 p.m.).

  10. 42 CFR 424.57 - Special payment rules for items furnished by DMEPOS suppliers and issuance of DMEPOS supplier...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., telephone, computer, e-mail, instant messaging or in-person contact, by a DMEPOS supplier or its agents to a... communication records). (F) Is in a location that contains space for retaining the necessary ordering and... covers both the supplier's place of business and all customers and employees of the supplier. In the case...

  11. Spanish nuclear industry experience in the evaluation of suppliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos Pellejero, J. L.; Martinez, J. A.; Gomez, R.; Pablos, C. de; Herrero, J.

    2012-01-01

    The paper aims to present the experiences identified by the Evaluation Panel Suppliers in fulfilling its role of supplier evaluation of goods and services s afety related . It belongs to UNESA and its main objective the evaluation of the quality system of the supplier against the basic rules applicable. With it you get two main benefits: - standardize evaluation criteria share experiences between suppliers and better management of own resources. - market access to all Spanish nuclear fleet by a single evaluation. From the experience gained, it can be concluded that there is a population of highly technically qualified suppliers to meet equipment requirements.

  12. Supplier Selection by Coupling-Attribute Combinatorial Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyu Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing reliance on outsourcing has made supplier selection a critical success factor for a supply chain/network. In addition to cost, the synergy among product components and supplier selection criteria should be considered holistically during the supplier selection process. This paper shows this synergy using coupled-attribute analysis. The key coupling attributes, including total cost, quality, delivery reliability, and delivery lead time of the final product, are identified and formulated. A max-max model is designed to assist the selection of the optional combination of suppliers. The results are compared with the individual supplier selection. Management insights are also discussed.

  13. Supplier selection criteria and methods: past, present and future

    OpenAIRE

    MUKHERJEE, KRISHNENDU

    2014-01-01

    Sole purpose of supplier selection is not limited to get supply at low cost and at right time. Supplier selection is a strategic decision to fulfil company’s goal for long period of time at low risk. To accomplish this objective companies are moving from reactive buying to proactive buying to give more priority to co-creation of wealth with supplier/s. Considering this issue an attempt has been made in this paper to give systematic review of supplier selection and evaluation process from 2005...

  14. Reward Circuitry in Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Sarah; Robison, A J; Mazei-Robison, Michelle S

    2017-07-01

    Understanding the brain circuitry that underlies reward is critical to improve treatment for many common health issues, including obesity, depression, and addiction. Here we focus on insights into the organization and function of reward circuitry and its synaptic and structural adaptations in response to cocaine exposure. While the importance of certain circuits, such as the mesocorticolimbic dopamine pathway, are well established in drug reward, recent studies using genetics-based tools have revealed functional changes throughout the reward circuitry that contribute to different facets of addiction, such as relapse and craving. The ability to observe and manipulate neuronal activity within specific cell types and circuits has led to new insight into not only the basic connections between brain regions, but also the molecular changes within these specific microcircuits, such as neurotrophic factor and GTPase signaling or α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor function, that underlie synaptic and structural plasticity evoked by drugs of abuse. Excitingly, these insights from preclinical rodent work are now being translated into the clinic, where transcranial magnetic simulation and deep brain stimulation therapies are being piloted in human cocaine dependence. Thus, this review seeks to summarize current understanding of the major brain regions implicated in drug-related behaviors and the molecular mechanisms that contribute to altered connectivity between these regions, with the postulation that increased knowledge of the plasticity within the drug reward circuit will lead to new and improved treatments for addiction.

  15. Evaluating supplier quality performance using analytical hierarchy process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalimuthu Rajoo, Shanmugam Sundram; Kasim, Maznah Mat; Ahmad, Nazihah

    2013-09-01

    This paper elaborates the importance of evaluating supplier quality performance to an organization. Supplier quality performance evaluation reflects the actual performance of the supplier exhibited at customer's end. It is critical in enabling the organization to determine the area of improvement and thereafter works with supplier to close the gaps. Success of the customer partly depends on supplier's quality performance. Key criteria as quality, cost, delivery, technology support and customer service are categorized as main factors in contributing to supplier's quality performance. 18 suppliers' who were manufacturing automotive application parts evaluated in year 2010 using weight point system. There were few suppliers with common rating which led to common ranking observed by few suppliers'. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), a user friendly decision making tool for complex and multi criteria problems was used to evaluate the supplier's quality performance challenging the weight point system that was used for 18 suppliers'. The consistency ratio was checked for criteria and sub-criteria. Final results of AHP obtained with no overlap ratings, therefore yielded a better decision making methodology as compared to weight point rating system.

  16. Neurocircuitry of drug reward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikemoto, Satoshi; Bonci, Antonello

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, neuroscientists have produced profound conceptual and mechanistic advances on the neurocircuitry of reward and substance use disorders. Here, we will provide a brief review of intracranial drug self-administration and optogenetic self-stimulation studies that identified brain regions and neurotransmitter systems involved in drug- and reward-related behaviors. Also discussed is a theoretical framework that helps to understand the functional properties of the circuitry involved in these behaviors. The circuitry appears to be homeostatically regulated and mediate anticipatory processes that regulate behavioral interaction with the environment in response to salient stimuli. That is, abused drugs or, at least, some may act on basic motivation and mood processes, regulating behavior-environment interaction. Optogenetics and related technologies have begun to uncover detailed circuit mechanisms linking key brain regions in which abused drugs act for rewarding effects. PMID:23664810

  17. Supplier Assessment and Selection Using Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process in a Steel Manufacturing Company

    OpenAIRE

    Tahriri, Farzad; Ale Ebrahim, Nader; Dabbagh, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Every organization needs suppliers and no organization can exist without suppliers. Therefore, the organizations approach to suppliers and the selection of the appropriate supplier, its acquisition processes and policies, and its relationships with suppliers, is of vital importance, both to organizations and suppliers alike. No organization can be successful without the support of its supplier base, operationally and strategically, short or long-term.To select the best supplier, it is essenti...

  18. Russian institute receives CMS Gold Award

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2003-01-01

    The Snezhinsk All-Russian Institute of Scientific Research for Technical Physics (VNIITF) of the Russian Federal Nuclear Centre (RFNC) is one of twelve CMS suppliers to receive awards for outstanding performance this year. The CMS Collaboration took the opportunity of the visit to CERN of the Director of VNIITF and his deputy to present the CMS Gold Award, which the institute has received for its exceptional performance in the assembly of steel plates for the CMS forward hadronic calorimeter. This calorimeter consists of two sets of 18 wedge-shaped modules arranged concentrically around the beam-pipe at each end of the CMS detector. Each module consists of steel absorber plates with quartz fibres inserted into them. The institute developed a special welding technique to assemble the absorber plates, enabling a high-quality detector to be produced at relatively low cost.RFNC-VNIITF Director Professor Georgy Rykovanov (right), is seen here receiving the Gold Award from Felicitas Pauss, Vice-Chairman of the CMS ...

  19. Healthy versus Unhealthy Suppliers in Food Desert Neighborhoods: A Network Analysis of Corner Stores’ Food Supplier Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeeli Mui

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Products in corner stores may be affected by the network of suppliers from which storeowners procure food and beverages. To date, this supplier network has not been well characterized. Methods: Using network analysis, we examined the connections between corner stores (n = 24 in food deserts of Baltimore City (MD, USA and their food/beverage suppliers (n = 42, to determine how different store and supplier characteristics correlated. Results: Food and beverage suppliers fell into two categories: Those providing primarily healthy foods/beverages (n = 15 in the healthy supplier network (HSN and those providing primarily unhealthy food/beverages (n = 41 in the unhealthy supplier network (UHSN. Corner store connections to suppliers in the UHSN were nearly two times greater (t = 5.23, p < 0.001, and key suppliers in the UHSN core were more diverse, compared to the HSN. The UHSN was significantly more cohesive and densely connected, with corner stores sharing a greater number of the same unhealthy suppliers, compared to HSN, which was less cohesive and sparsely connected (t = 5.82; p < 0.001. Compared to African Americans, Asian and Hispanic corner storeowners had on average −1.53 (p < 0.001 fewer connections to suppliers in the HSN (p < 0.001. Conclusions: Our findings indicate clear differences between corner stores’ HSN and UHSN. Addressing ethnic/cultural differences of storeowners may also be important to consider.

  20. Reward deficiency and anti-reward in pain chronification

    OpenAIRE

    Borsook, D.; Linnman, C.; Faria, Vanda; Strassman, A. M.; Becerra, L.; Elman, I.

    2016-01-01

    Converging lines of evidence suggest that the pathophysiology of pain is mediated to a substantial degree via allostatic neuroadaptations in reward- and stress-related brain circuits. Thus, reward deficiency (RD) represents a within-system neuroadaptation to pain-induced protracted activation of the reward circuits that leads to depletion-like hypodopaminergia, clinically manifested anhedonia, and diminished motivation for natural reinforcers. Anti-reward (AR) conversely pertains to a between...

  1. Supplier-induced demand as strategic framing

    OpenAIRE

    De Jaegher, K.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper develops a model of supplier-induced demand as strategic framing where the patient has reference-dependent references, and the physician can persuade the patient to buy a treatment by affecting the patient’s reference point. In the main result, the patient is assumed to have a constant rate of risk aversion (lovingness) in the gain (loss) region. Two scenarios are treated. In the cure scenario, the physician wants to frame the patient’s decision problem such that he prefers to buy ...

  2. 1997 Eleventh annual downstream suppliers directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    An indexed directory of equipment and service suppliers to the oil and gas industry was provided. The index, preceding the directory, provides an alphabetic listing of companies grouped by major products or services, such as blowers, compressors, control systems, hauling, maintenance, pipes, pumps, valves, welding supplies, and many others. The directory itself is arranged in a single alphabet. Each entry provides brief, but adequate information about the products or services offered, distributed or manufactured, plant location, telephone, fax, E-mail/Internet addresses, and names of key personnel

  3. Russian nuclear industry exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbatchev, A.

    2016-01-01

    Rosatom is the world leader for the export of nuclear technologies. 34 reactors of Russian technology are being built or planned worldwide. Most reactors proposed by Rosatom are third generation VVER-1200 units with an electric power output of 1200 MWe. Although the nuclear island is always built by Rosatom, the remain of the plant can be subcontracted to other enterprises and European companies are sought because they would bring a european quality touch to Russian works. One of the main assets of Rosatom is to propose an integrated offer from supplying nuclear fuel to managing nuclear waste via the turnkey building of nuclear power plants. Another important asset is the financial assistance of the Russian state through state credit or the support from Russian national banks that appears to be a decisive advantage in the international competition to win markets. We have to temper the Russian export perspectives by noting that most projects are set in countries that are prone to instabilities and that the economic crisis affecting Russia has a negative impact on its financial means. (A.C.)

  4. Stress and reward

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chumbley, J R; Hulme, O; Köchli, H

    2014-01-01

    Healthy individuals tend to consume available rewards like food and sex. This tendency is attenuated or amplified in most stress-related psychiatric conditions, so we asked if it depends on endogenous levels of the 'canonical stress hormone' cortisol. We unobtrusively quantified how hard healthy...

  5. Bribes or Rewards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megyeri, Kathy A.

    Small tangible rewards for student progress, such as candy bars, pens, or ribbons, add potency to the verbal and written praise offered by the teacher, thus increasing student motivation. Giving students small prizes enhances the cooperative atmosphere of learning, especially for those who do not normally do well. Research indicates that low…

  6. Russian Sentence Adverbials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Elena; Durst-Andersen, Per

    2015-01-01

    way or the other to take their starting point in the previous discourse. It is, however, stressed that the specificity of the Russian language is found in modal adverbials where a division between external and internal reality exists. We end the examination by discussing the function of word order......Sentence adverbials (SA) in Russian are analyzed in their totality, i.e. from a lexical, syntactic, semantic and pragmatic point of view. They are classified according to Hare’s three utterance components which yields (1) neustic, (2) tropic and (3) phrastic SAs. These components are used...... to represent semantic paraphrases of Russian SAs in utterances from various types of discourse in order to show their exact contribution to the meaning conveyed by the entire utterance. They are further subdivided according to their function: (1) into connectives and non-connectives; (2) into attitudinal...

  7. Supplier integration for new product developments: antecedents for supplier integration in modular product designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggers, Justus Erich

    2016-01-01

    Original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) increasingly integrate supplier resources in new product developments (NPD) to overcome bottlenecks of resource and to create competitive advantages. At the same time, OEMs react to the new market challenges by implementing modular product designs. Despite the

  8. Winning the competition for supplier resources: The role of preferential resource allocation from suppliers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pulles, Niels Jaring; Veldman, Jasper; Schiele, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This paper examines the competition between buying firms for the supplier’s competitive resources. The purpose of this paper is to examine how indirect capabilities – the ability to access external resources – can help in obtaining preferential resource allocation from suppliers.

  9. Opportunities for suppliers in the North Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Ancona, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    If European suppliers to the offshore industry are to prosper, it has to be on the basis of a single internationally competitive North Sea market. If we continue to talk and think in terms of a British sector, a Norwegian sector, Dutch and Danish sectors, then we will inhibit the full development of contractors and suppliers. The long term future in oilfield supplies lies in a mixed portfolio of international projects. Oil and gas exploration and development, particularly offshore, is notoriously cyclical. To survive the downturns in one market supply, companies need to have access to the upswing in others. The significance of a single North Sea market is that it presents an international arena for the best companies to demonstrate their technical and commercial abilities. Individual national sectors do not - cannot - provide that opportunity to anything like the same extent. Taking then the North Sea as a single competitive market, it represents the most important offshore area in the world at the present time, and this is likely to continue during the 1990s. The prospects of achieving a single North Sea market are discussed. (author)

  10. Reward positivity: Reward prediction error or salience prediction error?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Sepideh; Holroyd, Clay B

    2016-08-01

    The reward positivity is a component of the human ERP elicited by feedback stimuli in trial-and-error learning and guessing tasks. A prominent theory holds that the reward positivity reflects a reward prediction error signal that is sensitive to outcome valence, being larger for unexpected positive events relative to unexpected negative events (Holroyd & Coles, 2002). Although the theory has found substantial empirical support, most of these studies have utilized either monetary or performance feedback to test the hypothesis. However, in apparent contradiction to the theory, a recent study found that unexpected physical punishments also elicit the reward positivity (Talmi, Atkinson, & El-Deredy, 2013). The authors of this report argued that the reward positivity reflects a salience prediction error rather than a reward prediction error. To investigate this finding further, in the present study participants navigated a virtual T maze and received feedback on each trial under two conditions. In a reward condition, the feedback indicated that they would either receive a monetary reward or not and in a punishment condition the feedback indicated that they would receive a small shock or not. We found that the feedback stimuli elicited a typical reward positivity in the reward condition and an apparently delayed reward positivity in the punishment condition. Importantly, this signal was more positive to the stimuli that predicted the omission of a possible punishment relative to stimuli that predicted a forthcoming punishment, which is inconsistent with the salience hypothesis. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  11. A Fuzzy MCDM Approach to Evaluate Green Suppliers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gizem Cifci

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the effect of industrial production on the environment brought out the importance of the green concept in supply chains. Particularly for supplier firms, greening is essential in a supply chain because with growing worldwide awareness of environmental protection, green production has become an important theme for almost every manufacturer. While literature related to supplier evaluation is plentiful, the works on green supplier evaluation are rather limited. Therefore, a green supplier evaluation model is proposed in this study. Due to its multi-criteria nature, the green supplier evaluation process requires an appropriate multi criteria analysis and solution approach. Selecting a proper method involves an insight analysis among available multi-criteria decision making (MCDM techniques. Among numerous methods of MCDM, this paper presents a decision framework based on group decision making (GDM and fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP for evaluating and selecting green suppliers. The applicability of the proposed approach is verified through a case study.

  12. Sustainable Supplier Performance Evaluation and Selection with Neofuzzy TOPSIS Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaharsooghi, S K; Ashrafi, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Supplier selection plays an important role in the supply chain management and traditional criteria such as price, quality, and flexibility are considered for supplier performance evaluation in researches. In recent years sustainability has received more attention in the supply chain management literature with triple bottom line (TBL) describing the sustainability in supply chain management with social, environmental, and economic initiatives. This paper explores sustainability in supply chain management and examines the problem of identifying a new model for supplier selection based on extended model of TBL approach in supply chain by presenting fuzzy multicriteria method. Linguistic values of experts' subjective preferences are expressed with fuzzy numbers and Neofuzzy TOPSIS is proposed for finding the best solution of supplier selection problem. Numerical results show that the proposed model is efficient for integrating sustainability in supplier selection problem. The importance of using complimentary aspects of sustainability and Neofuzzy TOPSIS concept in sustainable supplier selection process is shown with sensitivity analysis.

  13. Supplier Selection based on the Performance by using PROMETHEE Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinaga, T. S.; Siregar, K.

    2017-03-01

    Generally, companies faced problem to identify vendors that can provide excellent service in availability raw material and on time delivery. The performance of suppliers in a company have to be monitored to ensure the availability to fulfill the company needs. This research is intended to explain how to assess suppliers to improve manufacturing performance. The criteria that considered in evaluating suppliers is criteria of Dickson. There are four main criteria which further split into seven sub-criteria, namely compliance with accuracy, consistency, on-time delivery, right quantity order, flexibility and negotiation, timely of order confirmation, and responsiveness. This research uses PROMETHEE methodology in assessing the supplier performances and obtaining a selected supplier as the best one that shown from the degree of alternative comparison preference between suppliers.

  14. Learning to Select Supplier Portfolios for Service Supply Chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Li, Jingfei; Wu, Shaoyu; Meng, Dabin

    2016-01-01

    The research on service supply chain has attracted more and more focus from both academia and industrial community. In a service supply chain, the selection of supplier portfolio is an important and difficult problem due to the fact that a supplier portfolio may include multiple suppliers from a variety of fields. To address this problem, we propose a novel supplier portfolio selection method based on a well known machine learning approach, i.e., Ranking Neural Network (RankNet). In the proposed method, we regard the problem of supplier portfolio selection as a ranking problem, which integrates a large scale of decision making features into a ranking neural network. Extensive simulation experiments are conducted, which demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method. The proposed supplier portfolio selection model can be applied in a real corporation easily in the future.

  15. Performance Measurement Model for the Supplier Selection Based on AHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio De Felice

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The performance of the supplier is a crucial factor for the success or failure of any company. Rational and effective decision making in terms of the supplier selection process can help the organization to optimize cost and quality functions. The nature of supplier selection processes is generally complex, especially when the company has a large variety of products and vendors. Over the years, several solutions and methods have emerged for addressing the supplier selection problem (SSP. Experience and studies have shown that there is no best way for evaluating and selecting a specific supplier process, but that it varies from one organization to another. The aim of this research is to demonstrate how a multiple attribute decision making approach can be effectively applied for the supplier selection process.

  16. Supplier Relationship Management dalam Pendekatan Contigency dan Best Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Supriharyanti, Elisabeth

    2005-01-01

    The supplier relationship is one important type of cooperation between and among firms. Supplier relationship management (SRM) is a part of the overall supply chain management process. Over the past several years, there has been significant shift in the way organization approach supplier relationship management. Recent year have seen an increased interest and involvement in partnership model. Several authors said that partnersip will deliver superior performance. The “best practice” model of ...

  17. An Integrated DEMATEL-QFD Model for Medical Supplier Selection

    OpenAIRE

    Mehtap Dursun; Zeynep Şener

    2014-01-01

    Supplier selection is considered as one of the most critical issues encountered by operations and purchasing managers to sharpen the company’s competitive advantage. In this paper, a novel fuzzy multi-criteria group decision making approach integrating quality function deployment (QFD) and decision making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) method is proposed for supplier selection. The proposed methodology enables to consider the impacts of inner dependence among supplier assessment cr...

  18. Commitment to Self-Rewards

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, Alexander K.; Nafziger, Julia

    2009-01-01

    Self-administered rewards are ubiquitous. They serve as incentives for personal accomplish¬ments and are widely recommended as tools for overcoming self-control problems. However, it seems puzzling why self-rewards can work: the prospect of a reward has a motivating force only if the threat of self-denial of the reward after low performance is credible. We explain how a rational forward-looking individual may achieve commitment to self-rewards, by applying Köszegi and Rabin's (2006) model of ...

  19. Surgeons' vision rewarded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2010-08-01

    Surgeons and clinical staff, theatre circulation and scrub personnel, and anaesthetists, as well as the estates and facilities team at Kent's Maidstone Hospital, have worked with specialist supplier of integrated audio, video, and instrumentation systems for the operating room, Olympus Medical, to develop what is claimed is among the UK's most advanced operating theatres yet built for laparoscopic and endoscopic surgery. HEJ editor Jonathan Baillie discussed the project with Amir Nisar, the surgeon who championed efforts to get the facility built, and Olympus Medical national sales manager, systems integration, James Watts.

  20. Boosting INPO's programs with supplier know-how

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matson, B.

    1984-01-01

    Nuclear industry suppliers, such as Stone and Webster and Babcock and Wilcox, are key participants in the Institute of Nuclear Power Operators (INPO) effort to promote technical information exchanges throughout the industry and to contribute to INPO training programs. Suppliers have 21 employees on loan to the Institute, although steps must be taken to protect proprietary information and to avoid breaking antitrust laws. Among the NUCLEAR NETWORK programs using supplier expertise is the Significant Event Evaluation and Information Network (SEE-IN), which reviews important reports involving their products. Suppliers benefit by observing evaluation teams at construction sites and plant start-ups

  1. The emerging nuclear suppliers: some guidelines for policy (U)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Lewis A.

    1988-04-01

    Lewis A. Dunn, a former Assistant Director of the US Arms Control and Disarmament Agency and now a senior analyst with Science Applications International Corporation, looks to the future to offer "The Emerging Nuclear Suppliers: Some Guidelines for Policy ." Mr. Dunn notes that although most emerging suppliers are cautious, many are not party to existing nonproliferation treaties. He calls upon the nonproliferation community to continue the present policy of not supporting unsafeguarded nuclear activities. He suggests that the nonproliferation community work within existing standards and infrastructures of nuclear suppliers to convince emerging supplier nations of the merits of nuclear export control.

  2. Multiattribute Supplier Selection Using Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhat Aydin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Supplier selection is a multiattribute decision making (MADM problem which contains both qualitative and quantitative factors. Supplier selection has vital importance for most companies. The aim of this paper is to provide an AHP based analytical tool for decision support enabling an effective multicriteria supplier selection process in an air conditioner seller firm under fuzziness. In this article, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP under fuzziness is employed for its permissiveness to use an evaluation scale including linguistic expressions, crisp numerical values, fuzzy numbers and range numerical values. This scale provides a more flexible evaluation compared with the other fuzzy AHP methods. In this study, the modified AHP was used in supplier selection in an air conditioner firm. Three experts evaluated the suppliers according to the proposed model and the most appropriate supplier was selected. The proposed model enables decision makers select the best supplier among supplier firms effectively. We confirm that the modified fuzzy AHP is appropriate for group decision making in supplier selection problems.

  3. Astrophysical Russian Dolls

    OpenAIRE

    Loeb, Abraham; Imara, Nia

    2017-01-01

    Are there examples of "astrophysical Russian dolls," and what could we learn from their similarities? In this article, we list a few such examples, including disks, filaments, and clusters. We suggest that forging connections across disciplinary borders enhances our perception of beauty, while simultaneously leading to a more comprehensive understanding of the Universe.

  4. RUSSIAN LANGUAGE COURSES

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    Russian Language Courses will be given at CERN from mid-September. For details, please call the teacher, Mrs Mascha Mikhailova, tel. + 41 22 782 62 29. At CERN, please send an e-mail to esthel.laperriere@cern.ch.

  5. The amygdala, reward and emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Elisabeth A

    2007-11-01

    Recent research provides new insights into amygdala contributions to positive emotion and reward. Studies of neuronal activity in the monkey amygdala and of autonomic responses mediated by the monkey amygdala show that, contrary to a widely held view, the amygdala is just as important for processing positive reward and reinforcement as it is for negative. In addition, neuropsychological studies reveal that the amygdala is essential for only a fraction of what might be considered 'stimulus-reward processing', and that the neural substrates for emotion and reward are partially nonoverlapping. Finally, evidence suggests that two systems within the amygdala, operating in parallel, enable reward-predicting cues to influence behavior; one mediates a general, arousing effect of reward and the other links the sensory properties of reward to emotion.

  6. Big russian oil round

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovak, K.; Beer, G.

    2006-01-01

    The departure of Mikhail Khodorkovsky has brought an end to the idyllic times of supplies of Russian oil to the MOL-Slovnaft group. The group used to purchase oil directly from Yukos. But now brokers have again entered the Central European oil business. And their aim is to take control over all of the oil business. The Russians demonstrated the changed situation to Slovakia last autumn: you will either accept the new model, or there will be problems with oil deliveries. Consumers got the message. The main brokers of Russian oil in Central Europe are the Swiss companies Glencore and Fisotra. Little information is available regarding these commodity brokers. But the information available is sufficient to indicate that these are not small companies. Glencore undertakes 3% of all international oil trades. With an annual turnover of 72 billions USD, it was the biggest Swiss company by turnover in 2004. Fisotra also has an extensive product portfolio. It offers financial and commercial services and does not hide its good relations with Russian oil companies. Between 1994 and 1998, it managed their financial operations with major western companies such as BP, Cargill, Elf, Exxon, Shell, Total, and Mutsubishi and also with Glencore. Fisotra states that some of its clients achieved an annual turnover of 1.5 billions USD. At present, the Swiss brokers receive a fee of 1 to 1.5 USD per barrel. The Russian political elite must be aware of these brokerage services as the oil transport through the transit system is closely monitored by the state owned company Transneft. (authors)

  7. ATLAS presents award to a Russian manufacturer within an ISTC project

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    On 28 January the Russian machine building plant Molniya was awarded a prize for best ATLAS suppliers, for excellence in the construction of 29 modules for the Hadronic End-Cap Calorimeter of ATLAS. An ATLAS supplier award ceremony was held on Wednesday 28th January. The award for the most exceptional contribution to construction of the future detector was presented to the Russian company Molniya, a former weapons manufacturer based near Moscow. The Molniya machine building plant constructed a total of 29 modules for the LAr Hadronic End-Cap Calorimeter (HEC) of ATLAS. Thirteen are series modules which have already been integrated into the four wheels of the detector. The remaining 16 are calibration modules, designed for the ATLAS beam tests. To manufacture the unique copper plates and module structures required, the company set up a dedicated production process and developed stringent quality control criteria. The task was completed on time, within budget and the completed modules surpassed required qua...

  8. Supplier responsibility for nuclear material quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, P.S.; Dohna, A.E.

    1976-01-01

    Nuclear materials must be delivered by either the manufacturer or the distributor with objective, documented evidence that the material was manufactured, inspected, and tested by proven techniques performed by qualified personnel working to documented procedures. Measurement devices used for acceptance must be of proven accuracy. The material and all records must be identified for positive traceability as part of the quality history of the nuclear components, system, or structure in which the material was used. In conclusion, the nuclear material supplier must join the fabricator, the installer, and the user in effective implementation of the total systems approach to the application of quality assurance principles to all phases of procurement, fabrication, installation, and use of the safety-related components, systems, and structures in a nuclear power plant

  9. Interpersonal attraction in buyer–supplier relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The concept of attraction is not reserved for the study of interpersonal relationships between husband and wife, family members, or lifelong friends. On the contrary, it contains much potential as a variable describing interpersonal business exchange relationships. This potential has been noted...... by well-known industrial marketing scholars in the past, and recent theoretical advances have incorporated attraction to describe buyer– supplier exchange, although primarily at the interorganizational level of analysis. The in-depth understanding of interpersonal attraction between boundary spanners...... representing buying and supply companies has yet to be developed. By drawing on social psychology and social exchange literature, this paper attempts to fill some of this gap. It contributes by uncovering the elements and process of interpersonal attraction. Furthermore, propositions are formulated to guide...

  10. The uranium market: implications for suppliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes current factors important to suppliers operating in the natural uranium market-place and attempts to look forward in time to identify what factors will either remain or develop to complicate the lives of producers. In the absence of effective import restrictions in the United States, the market-place will continue to be a buyers' one for at least a few years, but some of the factors causing this situation will ease with the passage of time, or perhaps more correctly with the generation of more electricity from nuclear power plants. To survive over the next several years, a producer will need not only favourable production costs but also an intelligent approach to the marketing of his product. (author)

  11. Reward and punishment

    OpenAIRE

    Sigmund, Karl; Hauert, Christoph; Nowak, Martin A.

    2001-01-01

    Minigames capturing the essence of Public Goods experiments show that even in the absence of rationality assumptions, both punishment and reward will fail to bring about prosocial behavior. This result holds in particular for the well-known Ultimatum Game, which emerges as a special case. But reputation can induce fairness and cooperation in populations adapting through learning or imitation. Indeed, the inclusion of reputation effects in the corresponding dynamical models leads to the evolut...

  12. Comparative Analysis of Smart Meters Deployment Business Models on the Example of the Russian Federation Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daminov Ildar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the comparison of smart meter deployment business models to determine the most suitable option providing smart meters deployment. Authors consider 3 main business model of companies: distribution grid company, energy supplier (energosbyt and metering company. The goal of the article is to compare the business models of power companies from massive smart metering roll out in power system of Russian Federation.

  13. Spillover Effects of the Russian Economy: Regional Specificity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Anatolyevna Fedorova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to evaluate the strength and direction of the distribution of the foreign direct investments (FDI in regional economy. The subject matter of the research is FDI to the regions of Russia. The subject of the study is relevant as it makes possible to estimate the long-term consequences from the restrictions of the West countries (in connection with sanctions against the inflow of the foreign capital to the regions of the Russian Federation. The study is based on the following hypotheses: 1. Russian regional economy has horizontal (distribution of effects from FDI within an industry and vertical spillover effects (distribution according to a technological chain, from product suppliers to product consumers. Vertical effects are more important and have greater amplitude than horizontal effects. An industry competition is one of the causes of negative horizontal spillover effect, and the scale of the company is the reason of positive horizontal spillover effect. 2. FDI generates the positive regional spillover effects on the productivity of domestic firms in the Russian economy. 3. Regional industry specificity influences the sign and magnitude of spillovers from FDI. 4. Time sensitivity is revealed for horizontal spillovers, so the regional effects may change the direction. As an empirical basis of the study, the statements of 23567 Russian companies with FDI and 25354 Russian enterprises without FDI for the 5 years were used. The methodology of the research is the calculation of spillover effects, Cobb-Douglas production function and panel data regression. The study has found, that the direct vertical spillover effects are almost absent. That means that industrial consumers do not notice the effect of inward FDI. At the same time, the converse effect related to the product suppliers is positive, but as the direct effect, it is not more important in any group of regions then the horizontal effect. The Russian economy has a

  14. SUPPLIER EVALUATION AND SELECTION: CASE OF AN AUTOMOTIVE SPARE-PARTS SUPPLIER

    OpenAIRE

    Oflac, Bengu Sevil

    2015-01-01

     The main aim of this study is to conduct a current state analysis for a leading original and spare parts producer operating in automobile industry. In the focused company, due to having some problems about purchasing process, there was a need for reviewing and restructuring supplier evaluation mechanism. In this perspective, based on the results of qualitative techniques conducted, reasons for poor evaluation systems were found. As a contribution to practice, in line with the needs of compan...

  15. ADAPTING BUYER-SUPPLIER RELATIONSHIP PRACTICES IN THE LOCAL INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latifah Che Amad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the types and extent of supplier development activities undertaken by an identified manufacturing firm, along with the importance of supplier development goals. Data was collected through a cross-sectional survey of 26 respondents, consisting of officers, engineers, managers and senior managers from various sections within the buying firm's organisation. The analysis is based primarily on descriptive statistics. The results reveal that the supplier-specific factors are more prominent predictors of the outcomes of the supplier development efforts as compared to the other factors. The manufacturer's focus on the supplier development programme appears to be a short-term, results-oriented approach involving limited or no significant efforts on the side of thebuying firm. There is evidence indicating that the manufacturer has not fully utilised the expertise of its suppliers in designing its products, since there is lack of supplier involvement in the early stages of the design and development activities. The overallresults point to numerous deficiencies in the supplier development programme. Practical implications are provided in light of the findings.

  16. The wicked problems of supplier-driven innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Poul Rind; Munksgaard, Kristin Balslev; Bang, Anne Louise

    2017-01-01

    Suppliers stand in the wake of a new diversified strategic momentum in the global production network, where innovation is growing in importance. The term “supplier-driven innovation” is coined in contrast to the current hype on user-driven innovation; this paper aims to discuss the wicked problems...

  17. A pragmatic decision model for inventory management with heterogeneous suppliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakandala, Dilupa; Lau, Henry; Zhang, Jingjing; Gunasekaran, Angappa

    2018-05-01

    For enterprises, it is imperative that the trade-off between the cost of inventory and risk implications is managed in the most efficient manner. To explore this, we use the common example of a wholesaler operating in an environment where suppliers demonstrate heterogeneous reliability. The wholesaler has partial orders with dual suppliers and uses lateral transshipments. While supplier reliability is a key concern in inventory management, reliable suppliers are more expensive and investment in strategic approaches that improve supplier performance carries a high cost. Here we consider the operational strategy of dual sourcing with reliable and unreliable suppliers and model the total inventory cost where the likely scenario lead-time of the unreliable suppliers extends beyond the scheduling period. We then develop a Customized Integer Programming Optimization Model to determine the optimum size of partial orders with multiple suppliers. In addition to the objective of total cost optimization, this study takes into account the volatility of the cost associated with the uncertainty of an inventory system.

  18. Airbus’s Supplier Portal: changing a business paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. van Raaij (Erik); J.C.M. van den Ende (Jan); D. Baumann (Dominic)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractWith procurement volume determining 75 to 80 per cent of costs, Airbus heavily depends on its 1,000 or more key suppliers. As a solution to the complexity of its supply chain, it introduced a portal to serve as an electronic marketplace for all interactions with its suppliers. Five years

  19. Gaining insight into the effects : the supplier perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michiel Steeman; Christiaan de Goeij; Paulien de Graaf-Muller

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we discuss what suppliers can do to get insight into the effects of Reverse Factoring (RF), currently the most used form of Supply Chain Finance (SCF). Even though the usage of RF is increasing, empirical evidence is scarce, especially from the point of view of suppliers.

  20. Preferential customer treatment by suppliers : identifying benefits and antecedents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huttinger, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Due to an increased competitive condition in high-skilled supply markets, buying firms increasingly find themselves competing with their rivals for the best suppliers available in a certain field. Due to the scarcity of such suppliers, the latter may not dedicate their resources equally to all

  1. Priority issues affecting operators' and suppliers' liens: the Alberta perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbett, W.T.

    1996-01-01

    Selected aspects of priority issues in contractual obligations in the petroleum industry were discussed, focusing on the priority issues claimed by suppliers and operators with respect to Alberta properties. Discussions touched upon suppliers' lien rights in Alberta, operators' set-off rights, and on some of the priority issues involving operators' liens

  2. Customer retention through supplier-organization-customer relationship management

    OpenAIRE

    Žvirelienė, Renata; Bučiūnienė, Ilona; Škudienė, Vida; Sakalas, Algimantas

    2009-01-01

    The research objective was to assess the relationship marketing outputs' (internal relationship, relationship with customer, relationship with supplier) interrelationship and their relationship with customers' retention. The internal and external relationship dimensions of commitment, satisfaction, trust, communication, cooperation and empathy were used to measure supplier-organization-customer relationship strength. The survey was conducted in cargo vehicles trading industry companies in Lit...

  3. ABOUT INDEX EVALUATION OF MATERIAL RESOURCE SUPPLIER SELECTION

    OpenAIRE

    V. A. Skochinskaya

    2008-01-01

    The paper analyzes existing methods for evaluation of material resource supplier selection. It shows advantages and shortcomings of the present evaluation systems. The necessity for application of an index evaluation is justified in the paper. The paper contains rating (index) evaluation for material resource supplier selection which is based on the application of quantitative (index) tool instead of an expert (numerical) evaluation. 

  4. Priority issues affecting operators' and suppliers' liens: the Saskatchewan perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milani, M.W.

    1996-01-01

    Priority issues in contractual obligations in the petroleum industry were discussed from the perspective of Saskatchewan. In Saskatchewan, the priority issues relative to builders' and suppliers' liens are similar to those of Alberta, but there are some subtle differences, which were addressed. Priority issues claimed by suppliers and operators with respect to Saskatchewan properties were given special attention

  5. An integrated MCDM approach to green supplier selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Yazdani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Supplier selection management has been considered as an important subject for industrial organizations. In order to remain on the market, to gain profitability and to retain competitive advantage, business units need to establish an integrated and structured supplier selection system. In addition, environmental protection problems have been big solicitudes for organizations to consider green approach in supplier selection problem. However, finding proper suppliers involves several variables and it is critically a complex process. In this paper, the main attention is focused on finding the right supplier based on fuzzy multi criteria decision making (MCDM process. The weights of criteria are calculated by analytical hierarchical process (AHP and the final ranking is achieved by fuzzy technique for order preference by similarity to an ideal solution (TOPSIS. TOPSIS advantage among the other similar methods is to obtain the best solution close to ideal solution. The paper attempts to express better understanding by an example of an automobile manufacturing supply chain.

  6. A SUPPLIER SELECTION MODEL FOR SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT OUTSOURCING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hancu Lucian-Viorel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a multi-criteria decision making model used for supplier selection for software development outsourcing on e-marketplaces. This model can be used in auctions. The supplier selection process becomes complex and difficult on last twenty years since the Internet plays an important role in business management. Companies have to concentrate their efforts on their core activities and the others activities should be realized by outsourcing. They can achieve significant cost reduction by using e-marketplaces in their purchase process and by using decision support systems on supplier selection. In the literature were proposed many approaches for supplier evaluation and selection process. The performance of potential suppliers is evaluated using multi criteria decision making methods rather than considering a single factor cost.

  7. Supplier Development Literature Review and Key Future Research Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muddassir Ahmed

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to develop a Supplier Development (SD literature framework and identify the main focus areas in SD research. To this end, a comprehensive review of the existing SD academic literature has been undertaken, which includes 62 research papers. These papers are classified according to their research content and the research methodology employed. A comprehensive list of future research areas is also presented. Thus, this paper will also briefly explore proposed future research. The review of the SD literature presented here identifies the following main areas of focus: Supplier Development Activities, Practices and Success Factors; Direct or Indirect Supplier Development; Supplier Development as a Reactive or Strategic Process; Supplier Development in a Lean Six Sigma & SME context.

  8. Consequences of information technology usage on retailer-supplier relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    1. Retailers and suppliers increasingly tend to form long-term co-operative relationships. In the literature, the use of information technology is an enabling factor behind this trend. Nevertheless, our understanding of how information technology influences retailer-supplier relationships is still...... limited. The purpose of this paper therefore is to study the consequences of information technology usage on retailer supplier relationships, focusing on inter-organisational systems. 2. The paper begins by discussing the nature of retailer-supplier relations, noting that whereas these relationships have...... traditionally been adversarial, retailers and suppliers are beginning to realise that they can benefit from co-operating. Further, developmental processes in co-operative inter-organisational relations are discussed and the important role of social exchange in inter-organisational relationships is stressed. 3...

  9. Cooperative Evolutionary Game and Applications in Construction Supplier Tendency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianqian Shi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Major construction projects have a great influence on the national economy and society, wherein cooperative relationship between construction suppliers plays an increasingly significant role in the overall supply chain system. However, the relationships between suppliers are noncontractual, multistage, dynamic, and complicated. To gain a deeper insight into the suppliers’ cooperative relationships, an evolutionary game model is developed to explore the cooperation tendency of multisuppliers. A replicator dynamic system is further formulated to investigate the evolutionary stable strategies of multisuppliers. Then, fourteen “when-then” type scenarios are concluded and classified into six different evolutionary tracks. Meanwhile, the critical influencing factors are identified. The results show that the suppliers’ production capacity, owner-supplier contract, and the owner’s incentive mechanism influence the cooperation tendency of suppliers directly. The managerial implications contribute to insightful references for a more stable cooperative relationship between the owner and suppliers.

  10. Would you procure radioactive containers without a supplier quality evaluation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawk, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kapoor, A.; Natali, R.B.

    2004-07-01

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites/contractors purchase several different types of containers (such as boxes, drums, large bulk dump trucks, railcars, cargo containers, burrito wraps, and super sacks) for use in the storage and transportation of low-level waste. These containers are purchased from several suppliers - all of whom must be pre-approved according to DOE rules, orders and guidelines - and the suppliers must manufacture the containers to exact specifications and designs supplied by the DOE site/contractor. DOE studies and qualitative evaluations indicate that the current supplier evaluation process is too costly and inefficient. Therefore, DOE, in coordination with sites/contractors, instituted a corporate approach to centralize the supplier quality evaluation program for the procurement of containers. That effort resulted in the development of this Container Suppler Evaluation Program. The program was implemented when two suppliers were evaluated using this program.

  11. Would you procure radioactive containers without a supplier quality evaluation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawk, M.; Kapoor, A.; Natali, R.B.

    2004-01-01

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites/contractors purchase several different types of containers (such as boxes, drums, large bulk dump trucks, railcars, cargo containers, burrito wraps, and super sacks) for use in the storage and transportation of low-level waste. These containers are purchased from several suppliers - all of whom must be pre-approved according to DOE rules, orders and guidelines - and the suppliers must manufacture the containers to exact specifications and designs supplied by the DOE site/contractor. DOE studies and qualitative evaluations indicate that the current supplier evaluation process is too costly and inefficient. Therefore, DOE, in coordination with sites/contractors, instituted a corporate approach to centralize the supplier quality evaluation program for the procurement of containers. That effort resulted in the development of this Container Suppler Evaluation Program. The program was implemented when two suppliers were evaluated using this program

  12. A new DEA-GAHP method for supplier selection problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrooz Ahadian

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Supplier selection is one of the most important decisions made in supply chain management. Supplier evaluation problem has been in the center of supply chain researcher’s attention in these years. Managers regard some of these studies and methods inappropriate due to simple, weight scoring methods that generally are based on subjective opinions and judgments of decision maker units involved in the supplier evaluation process yielding imprecise and even unreliable results. This paper seeks to propose a methodology to integrate data envelopment analysis (DEA and group analytical hierarchy process (GAHP for evaluating and selecting the most efficient supplier. We develop a methodology, which consists of 6 steps, one by one has been introduced in lecture and finally applicability of proposed method is indicated by assessing 12 suppliers in a numerical example.

  13. Low Carbon Supplier Selection in the Hotel Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Wei Hsu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a model for evaluating the carbon and energy management performance of suppliers by using multiple-criteria decision-making (MCDM. By conducting a literature review and gathering expert opinions, 10 criteria on carbon and energy performance were identified to evaluate low carbon suppliers using the Fuzzy Delphi Method (FDM. Subsequently, the decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL method was used to determine the importance of evaluation criteria in selecting suppliers and the causal relationships between them. The DEMATEL-based analytic network process (DANP and VlseKriterijumska Optimizacija I Kompromisno Resenje (VIKOR were adopted to evaluate the weights and performances of suppliers and to obtain a solution under each evaluation criterion. An illustrative example of a hotel company was presented to demonstrate how to select a low carbon supplier according to carbon and energy management. The proposed hybrid model can help firms become effective in facilitating low carbon supply chains in hotels.

  14. Russian Medieval Military Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rappoport, Pavel

    1969-12-01

    Full Text Available In Russia defensive works were not less important than in Western Europe. Russian chronicles are full of reports of the building of towns, of their siege and defence. In Ancient Russian the word town meant not a town in the modern sense, but only a fortified settlement as distinct from an unfortified one. Thus the concept town applied to medieval towns proper and to citadels, feudal castles and even fortified villages. Every population centre with a wall round it was called a town. Moreover, until the 17th century this word was frequently applied to mean the fortifications themselves.

  15. Russian nuclear survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-07-01

    This document gives a broad overview of the organization of nuclear activities in the Russian federation: Minatom activities, nuclear park and availability (reactors, performances, export activity), perspectives of development (improvement of safety, age of reactors, new realizations); fuel cycle (uranium production, conversion and enrichment, fuel fabrication, spent fuel reprocessing); wastes management (storage and disposal sites); R and D activities (organizations) and nuclear safety authority. (J.S.)

  16. New Russian law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The information about the Russian Federation law dealing with population radiation safety signed by the President in January 1996 is given. The law is based on a new strategy of radiation protection including the mean efficient dose from all ionizing radiation sources as the main factor for evaluation of the safe level for the population. The norms stated in the law will become valid from January 1, 2000

  17. Social reward shapes attentional biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brian A

    2016-01-01

    Paying attention to stimuli that predict a reward outcome is important for an organism to survive and thrive. When visual stimuli are associated with tangible, extrinsic rewards such as money or food, these stimuli acquire high attentional priority and come to automatically capture attention. In humans and other primates, however, many behaviors are not motivated directly by such extrinsic rewards, but rather by the social feedback that results from performing those behaviors. In the present study, I examine whether positive social feedback can similarly influence attentional bias. The results show that stimuli previously associated with a high probability of positive social feedback elicit value-driven attentional capture, much like stimuli associated with extrinsic rewards. Unlike with extrinsic rewards, however, such stimuli also influence task-specific motivation. My findings offer a potential mechanism by which social reward shapes the information that we prioritize when perceiving the world around us.

  18. Monetary rewards modulate inhibitory control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Marcela Herrera

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability to override a dominant response, often referred to as behavioural inhibiton, is considered a key element of executive cognition. Poor behavioural inhibition is a defining characteristic of several neurological and psychiatric populations. Recently, there has been increasing interest in the motivational dimension of behavioural inhibition, with some experiments incorporating emotional contingencies in classical inhibitory paradigms such as the Go/Nogo and Stop Signal Tasks. Several studies have reported a positive modulatory effect of reward on the performance of such tasks in pathological conditions such as substance abuse, pathological gambling, and ADHD. However, experiments that directly investigate the modulatory effects of reward magnitudes on the performance of inhibitory paradigms are rare and consequently, little is known about the finer grained relationship between motivation and self-control. Here, we probed the effect of reward and reward magnitude on behavioural inhibition using two modified version of the widely used Stop Signal Task. The first task compared no reward with reward, whilst the other compared two different reward magnitudes. The reward magnitude effect was confirmed by the second study, whereas it was less compelling in the first study, possibly due to the effect of having no reward in some conditions. In addition, our results showed a kick start effect over global performance measures. More specifically, there was a long lasting improvement in performance throughout the task, when participants received the highest reward magnitudes at the beginning of the protocol. These results demonstrate that individuals’ behavioural inhibition capacities are dynamic not static because they are modulated by the reward magnitude and initial reward history of the task at hand.

  19. Impaired reward responsiveness in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nicholas; Hollis, Jeffrey P; Corcoran, Sarah; Gross, Robin; Cuthbert, Bruce; Swails, Lisette W; Duncan, Erica

    2018-03-08

    Anhedonia is a core negative symptom of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia patients report largely intact pleasure in consuming rewards, but have impairments in generating motivated behavior to pursue rewards, and show reduced fMRI activation of the reward pathway during presentation of rewarded stimuli. A computer based task measuring the development of a response bias in favor of rewarded stimuli permits assessment of reward-induced motivation. We hypothesized that subjects with schizophrenia would be impaired on this task. 58 schizophrenia subjects (SCZ) and 52 healthy controls (CON) were studied with a signal detection task to assess reward responsiveness. In multiple trials over three blocks subjects were asked to correctly identify two stimuli that were paired with unequal chance of monetary reward. The critical outcome variable was response bias, the development of a greater percent correct identification of the stimulus that was rewarded more often. An ANOVA on response bias with Block as a repeated-measures factor and Diagnosis as a between-group factor indicated that SCZ subjects achieved a lower bias to rewarded stimuli than CON subjects (F(1,105)=8.82, p=0.004, η 2 =0.078). Post hoc tests indicated that SCZ subjects had significantly impaired bias in Block 1 (p=0.002) and Block 2 (p=0.05), indicating that SCZ were slower to achieve normal levels of bias during the session. SCZ subjects were slower to develop response bias to rewarded stimuli than CON subjects. This finding is consonant with the hypothesis that people with schizophrenia have a blunted capacity to modify behavior in response to reward. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Commitment to self-rewards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander; Nafziger, Julia

    People often overcome self-control problems by promising to reward themselves for accomplishing a task. Such strategies based on self-administered rewards however require the person to believe that she would indeed deny herself the reward if she should fail to achieve the desired outcome. Drawing...... on Koszegi and Rabin's (2006) model of endogenous reference point formation, we show how a rational forward-looking individual can achieve such internal commitment. But our results also demonstrate the limitations of self regulation based on self-rewards....

  1. Ethnic Russian Minority in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Włodarska-Frykowska Agata

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the position of Russians in Estonia and their relation with ethnic Estonians. The author analyzes models of the society integration introduced by Tallinn after 1991. The results raise questions regarding language education in Estonia, the proficiency level of Estonian is getting widely known by Russians, but on the other hand, there is still a significant part of the population that cannot communicate in Estonian. Those who have a good command of Estonian tend to be better integrated and to coexist with both Estonians and Russians. Russians living in Estonia are supposed to be equally involved in social and political life of the state. The potential of all residents has to be effectively and considerably used, especially when the number of population is decreasing. The position of Russians in Estonia is a major domestic and bilateral issue in the relations with the Russian Federation.

  2. Buyer-Supplier Relationships and Power Position: Interchaining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hebatollah Morsy

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available According to several studies, power and interdependence play a considerable role in understanding the buyer–supplier relationships, yet, empirical research is still limited. Also, the nature of the buyer-supplier relationship and managing them might vary based on the power position of buyers and suppliers. Few studies focused on the reason behind this interrelation and strong influence of power on the buyer-supplier relationships. Thus, the purpose of this study is to gain better understanding and try to identify how power position and buyer-supplier relationships are interrelated, and whether there are common determinants and/or characteristics behind this strong bond between the two concepts. Both transaction cost analysis theory and social exchange theory were integrated in building the argument. Regarding the methodology, qualitative exploratory research design was employed by using multiple-case study as the main research method, where three multinational Egyptian organizations were selected. Moreover, data was collected using individual in-depth interviews, and analyzed through coding and cross case analysis techniques. The results showed that there are common factors that influence both buyer-supplier relationship characteristics and power position attributes. And according, the findings helped in pointing out a new lens of discussing and investigating the bond between buyer-supplier relationships ad power in research.

  3. Russian electrometallurgy: Achievements, problems, prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utochkin, Yu. I.; Semin, A. E.

    2011-12-01

    The changes in the Russian metallurgy, in particular, electric furnace steelmaking, having occurred in the recent years are analyzed. The main increase in the steelmaking output is due to putting into operation of new electric furnaces in new miniworks and enterprises equipped earlier with open-hearth furnaces. Reaching the rated capacity of a furnace in Russia substantially lags behind foreign enterprises. Only 30-35% of the Russian market of corrosion-resistant steel are provided by Russian metal.

  4. Monetary rewards influence retrieval orientations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsband, Teresa M; Ferdinand, Nicola K; Bridger, Emma K; Mecklinger, Axel

    2012-09-01

    Reward anticipation during learning is known to support memory formation, but its role in retrieval processes is so far unclear. Retrieval orientations, as a reflection of controlled retrieval processing, are one aspect of retrieval that might be modulated by reward. These processes can be measured using the event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited by retrieval cues from tasks with different retrieval requirements, such as via changes in the class of targeted memory information. To determine whether retrieval orientations of this kind are modulated by reward during learning, we investigated the effects of high and low reward expectancy on the ERP correlates of retrieval orientation in two separate experiments. The reward manipulation at study in Experiment 1 was associated with later memory performance, whereas in Experiment 2, reward was directly linked to accuracy in the study task. In both studies, the participants encoded mixed lists of pictures and words preceded by high- or low-reward cues. After 24 h, they performed a recognition memory exclusion task, with words as the test items. In addition to a previously reported material-specific effect of retrieval orientation, a frontally distributed, reward-associated retrieval orientation effect was found in both experiments. These findings suggest that reward motivation during learning leads to the adoption of a reward-associated retrieval orientation to support the retrieval of highly motivational information. Thus, ERP retrieval orientation effects not only reflect retrieval processes related to the sought-for materials, but also relate to the reward conditions with which items were combined during encoding.

  5. The effects of balanced and asymmetric dependence on supplier satisfaction : Identifying positive effects of dependency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caniëls, Marjolein C.J.; Vos, Frederik G.S.; Schiele, Holger; Pulles, Niels J.

    2017-01-01

    Studies argue that balance in dependence is critical to supplier satisfaction in buyer-supplier relationships. We examine whether asymmetric relationships can also lead to supplier satisfaction, arguing that traditional analysis methods are unsuitable for thoroughly analyzing this issue. With

  6. Critical elements of supplier development in the Malaysian automobile industry : Parts and components procurement and supplier development Practice at Proton【Article】

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah, Rashid; Maharjan, Keshav Lall

    2003-01-01

    Supplier development is defined as any effort of a buying firm with regard to its supplier to increasethe performance and/or capabilities of the supplier to meet the buying firm's supply needs. The procure-ment practice of the buyer is critical and acts as a window to nurture the supplier development effort, itis also crucial in determining the type of relationship that the company has with its suppliers. This paperexamines the procurement practice at PROTON for parts and component inputs at ...

  7. Japanese suppliers in transition from domestic nuclear reactor vendors to international suppliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Reich, W.J.; Rowan, W.J.

    1994-01-01

    Japan is emerging as a major leader and exporter of nuclear power technology. In the 1990s, Japan has the largest and strongest nuclear power supply industry worldwide as a result of the largest domestic nuclear power plant construction program. The Japanese nuclear power supply industry has moved from dependence on foreign technology to developing, design, building, and operating its own power plants. This report describes the Japanese nuclear power supply industry and examines one supplier--the Mitsubishi group--to develop an understanding of the supply industry and its relationship to the utilities, government, and other organizations

  8. Japanese suppliers in transition from domestic nuclear reactor vendors to international suppliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Reich, W.J.; Rowan, W.J.

    1994-06-27

    Japan is emerging as a major leader and exporter of nuclear power technology. In the 1990s, Japan has the largest and strongest nuclear power supply industry worldwide as a result of the largest domestic nuclear power plant construction program. The Japanese nuclear power supply industry has moved from dependence on foreign technology to developing, design, building, and operating its own power plants. This report describes the Japanese nuclear power supply industry and examines one supplier--the Mitsubishi group--to develop an understanding of the supply industry and its relationship to the utilities, government, and other organizations.

  9. Supplier's evaluation - internal and external audits and surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, J.L.; Derrick, R.

    1976-01-01

    The quality programme for SGHWR type reactors places responsibility upon all purchasers to evaluate potential suppliers' quality systems and to conduct audits and surveillance on the implementation of suppliers' quality assurance programmes during contract performance. This will be carried out in accordance with the requirements of Central Electricity Board standard QA42. It also places a responsibilty on every supplier to conduct in-house audits and surveillance of the effectiveness of his own quality assurance programmes. These procedures are discussed. (U.K.)

  10. Supplier/customer considerations in corporate financial decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayant R. Kale

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Earlier research focussed on firm characteristics and the interests of financial stakeholders (shareholders and bondholders as determinants of corporate policies. Subsequent research recognized that corporate policies are determined in a broader environment that includes nonfinancial stakeholders such as suppliers, customers, labour etc. In this paper, we summarize the theoretical and empirical research that includes supplier/customer considerations in the determination of corporate policies such as capital structure, dividends, takeovers, earnings management, and product quality. We highlight the significant effect that the inclusion of supplier/customer interests has on these corporate policies.

  11. Rethinking the Centrality of Customer and Supplier Interaction in Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Thomas; Phillips, W.; Caldwell, N.

    This paper evaluates the assumption that interaction within customer-supplier relationships is alwaysthe pivotal point for innovation. It argues that the relevance of customer and supplier relationshipsdepends on the nature and maturity of the technology being developed, thus exploring...... the potentialvariation in customer-supplier interactions during different phases of the innovation life cycle. Thepaper commences with a brief introduction to the literature and then uses the findings from anexploratory set of interviews to illustrate the premise of the paper. The paper concludes with adiscussion...... of the implications of the findings and outlines the plans for the next stage of the research.Keywords: technology, interaction, relationships, innovation life cycle...

  12. Application of a naive Bayesians classifiers in assessing the supplier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijailović Snežana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the class of interactive knowledge based systems whose main purpose of making proposals and assisting customers in making decisions. The mathematical model provides a set of examples of learning about the delivered series of outflows from three suppliers, as well as an analysis of an illustrative example for assessing the supplier using a naive Bayesian classifier. The model was developed on the basis of the analysis of subjective probabilities, which are later revised with the help of new empirical information and Bayesian theorem on a posterior probability, i.e. combining of subjective and objective conditional probabilities in the choice of a reliable supplier.

  13. E-Sourcing platforms as reasonable marketing tools for suppliers

    OpenAIRE

    Göbl, Martin; Greiter, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Research questions: E-sourcing platforms offer purchasing organisations often easy access to a high number of relevant suppliers, their goods and services and the accord-ing prices. For the suppliers, e-sourcing platforms are a good and easy pos-sibility to present their products and services to the relevant buyers and to get in contact with potential customers. Subject of this research will be the question, whether e-sourcing platforms are also a reasonable marketing tool for suppliers in or...

  14. Cooperation Between Suppliers and Retail Chains in Developing Systemic Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Bilińska-Reformat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Seeking a competitive advantage, retail chains develop systemic products. Introducing systemic products to retailers' offer requires establishment of close cooperation with their suppliers. In the paper the assumption has been made that offering systemic products makes the offer more attractive for customer. It is also reason for development of cooperation between retail chains and suppliers. Selected commercial enterprises were research objects in the study. Analyses included in the paper concern the years between 2009 and 2015. Research methods: critical analysis of the literature, results of own research method concerning cooperation between retail chains and suppliers, and the case research method.

  15. INTEGRASI METODE ANP DAN TOPSIS DALAM EVALUASI KINERJA SUPPLIER DAN PENENTUAN PRIORITAS SUPPLIER BAHAN BAKU UTAMA CETAK KORAN PADA PT MASSCOM GRAPHY SEMARANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darminto Pujotomo

    2017-01-01

      One of the factors that influence the company performance is the presence of suppliers which supplies raw materials. PT Masscom Graphy Semarang is a printing company which has cooperated with several suppliers to ensure continuity of production. Therefore,  supplier performance evaluation conducted by the company is very important to obtain a reliable supplier in the supply of raw materials. The purpose of this research was to identify the supplier performance evaluation criteria and priorities of suppliers in accordance with the company's needs, and determined the priority order of the main raw material supplier for newspaper print. There was 17 sub-criteria used in evaluating the performance of suppliers and prioritization of suppliers. Analytical Network Process (ANP can be used as an alternative to solve a problem that had many interrelated sub-criteria or influence in decision making. Furthermore, the method Technique For Orders Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS was used for ranking suppliers. Based on the weighted sub-criteria by using ANP, the most influence subcriteria in determining the priority of suppliers offering price of 0.17227. Furthermore, to the supplier prioritization was done by using the TOPSIS method and obtained the order suppliers for raw materials paper roll was a supplier A, B, C, and D, while the raw material for the ink web was a supplier of L, N, O and M.

  16. Model Checking Multivariate State Rewards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bo Friis; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2010-01-01

    We consider continuous stochastic logics with state rewards that are interpreted over continuous time Markov chains. We show how results from multivariate phase type distributions can be used to obtain higher-order moments for multivariate state rewards (including covariance). We also generalise...

  17. Today or not today: Deregulating the Russian gas sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoryev, Yuli

    2007-01-01

    Although Russia is the world's biggest producer of natural gas, its ability to maintain timely and reliable supply to meet the growing global demand has come under question in recent months. The gas war with Ukraine notwithstanding, concern has been raised by a number of observers that underinvestment in the gas sector will lead to a systemic failure of the state monopolist OAO Gazprom to increase or even maintain current levels of production. Yet with a quarter of European gas coming from Russia, and with increasing presence of Gazprom in European downstream operations (such as Germany, Hungary, and other CIS states) as well as seemingly closer ties with Algeria, another major supplier of gas to Europe, there has been a strong reaction from Europe's policy-makers to decrease dependence on Russian gas. Deregulating and liberalising the gas sector would see the lifting of restrictions to foreign or independent investors wishing to gain access to Russian reserves, as well as the unhindered access to the pipeline infrastructure and export markets. It would also signal the unbundling of Gazprom and an end to the artificially low price of gas to the domestic consumer. This paper discusses whether deregulation is the optimal way to raise capital, attract investment and increase supply security for Russia's Western neighbours. In doing so, the paper identifies the objectives of the EU as the importer whilst trying to align them with the objectives of the Russian Federation as the exporter, in the current political context

  18. The Kyoto Mechanisms and Russian Gas: A Powerful Combination?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moe, Arild; Tangen, Kristian

    1999-07-01

    The report analyses the development of a Russian climate policy and investigates possible links to the country's position and interests as a large energy producer and exporter. Whereas all hydrocarbon energy carriers and their non-carbon substitutes will be affected by a comprehensive climate regime, natural gas stands in a special position among hydrocarbon fuels, since it is more ''greenhouse-friendly'' per unit of consumed energy than oil and coal. There also happens to be an abundance of natural gas in Russia, an abundance which hitherto has given natural gas a dominant position in domestic supplies, making up for more than fifty per cent of primary energy consumption, which is unique. It has also placed Russia as the main external supplier to the European gas market and given it a crucial role in the further development of European energy supplies. This report discusses how these perspectives relate to the climate regime. Will climate politics hamper Russian gas exports, or on the contrary, will they offer new opportunities for Russian gas in the market? (author)

  19. The Russian Orthodox and Islamic Languages in the Russian Federation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bustanov, A.K.; Kemper, M.

    2013-01-01

    What happens to the Russian language if it is used by Muslims? Bustanov and Kemper (2012) analyzed the use of Islamic terminology in a variety of texts by contemporary Muslim authors from several regions of the Russian Federation. This led them to the hypothesis that one can speak of a new

  20. From the History of the Loan and Account Bank of Persia (From the Russian Archives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina K. Pavlova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes new Russian archival materials related to the activities of the Loan and Account Bank of Persia from the late nineteenth century to the early twentieth century. The article illustrates how the Bank through its various activities, turned into one of the main agents of Russian state interest in Persia during that period. The performance of the Bank has been elucidated in the works of Russian and foreign researchers encompassing various aspects of the Bank’s activities. This article, however, is based on the previously unused materials from the Russian State Historical Archive (RGIA, St. Petersburg and the Archive of Foreign Policy of the Russian Empire (AVPRI, Moscow. Among the new materials introduced and employed in this article, two documents are of an exceptional importance: “Case of rewarding Persian subjects with Russian orders and medals” and “Case of purchasing a movie theatre”. These documents confirm that the Bank’s works in Persian were multi-faceted. Many merchants were involved in commercial relations with the Bank. At the same time, some of them were informants of the Bank and helped the Russians to monitor the situation in Persia. On avenue used by the Board in order to maintain amiable relationships with Shah and His immediate circle was to bestow fascinating gifts on them.

  1. Risk and reward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellas, G.K.; Hodgshon, S.G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper looks at the problems facing the international oil explorationist and host Governments in 1992, under a cloud of low oil prices and falling company profits, yet with more quality acreage available worldwide than for many years, especially with the emergence of the CIS states as prospective hunting grounds for the western oil company. Given the extent of the spread of opportunities available to companies and recognition of the increasing need to justify, on economic grounds, progress with any licence application this paper suggests two approaches that companies can adopt to rank the opportunities available, and maximize the value, on an after risk basis, of their (limited) international exploration budget : subjective rating by factor or the Risk/Reward balance. Both of these approaches include measures of prospectivity and measures of local cost and fiscal effects in providing an overall exploration rating which can be used by companies to rank the available opportunities

  2. The Nuclear Suppliers Group: A multilateral arrangement devoted to supplier coordination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dedik, T.; Thorne, C.E.; Goorevich, R.S.

    1995-01-01

    When the then-26 adherents to the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) Guidelines met for the first time in more than 13 years in The Hague in April 1991 it began a new and dynamic process for coordinating the full range of nuclear supplier issues. In less than four years the NSG has expanded its membership to 31 countries and has implemented major changes to its Guidelines and commodity control lists. Enhancements to the Regime agreed to by the Group since its reinvigoration include the adoption of controls on nuclear-related-dual-use equipment, materials and technology; the requirements for a recipient country to have an agreement with the International Atomic Energy Agency calling for safeguards on its entire nuclear program, both now and in the future; a major expansion of the Trigger List (the list of commodities which ''trigger'' safeguards as a condition of supply) to clarify and add detail to the controlled commodities; comparable controls on technologies associated with Trigger List items; and ''fixes'' to the Guidelines to control retransfers and exports to countries with suspect nonproliferation credentials. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the NSG and discusses in detail the past, present and future work of the Group

  3. Reward deficiency and anti-reward in pain chronification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsook, D; Linnman, C; Faria, V; Strassman, A M; Becerra, L; Elman, I

    2016-09-01

    Converging lines of evidence suggest that the pathophysiology of pain is mediated to a substantial degree via allostatic neuroadaptations in reward- and stress-related brain circuits. Thus, reward deficiency (RD) represents a within-system neuroadaptation to pain-induced protracted activation of the reward circuits that leads to depletion-like hypodopaminergia, clinically manifested anhedonia, and diminished motivation for natural reinforcers. Anti-reward (AR) conversely pertains to a between-systems neuroadaptation involving over-recruitment of key limbic structures (e.g., the central and basolateral amygdala nuclei, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the lateral tegmental noradrenergic nuclei of the brain stem, the hippocampus and the habenula) responsible for massive outpouring of stressogenic neurochemicals (e.g., norepinephrine, corticotropin releasing factor, vasopressin, hypocretin, and substance P) giving rise to such negative affective states as anxiety, fear and depression. We propose here the Combined Reward deficiency and Anti-reward Model (CReAM), in which biopsychosocial variables modulating brain reward, motivation and stress functions can interact in a 'downward spiral' fashion to exacerbate the intensity, chronicity and comorbidities of chronic pain syndromes (i.e., pain chronification). Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Performance-based supplier audits - a quality and technical partnership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, E.L.

    1993-01-01

    The nuclear utility industry will realize the necessity and advantages of integrating engineering and quality assurance efforts into a unified, balanced approach to overview the activities of their suppliers (manufacturers)

  5. Audit of EDF generation and transmission division suppliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leconte, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the process for acceptance by EDF/production and transmission group of suppliers, industrial equipment manufacturers and providers of repair activities or services for the maintenance of nuclear plants. 1 tab

  6. Water Service Areas - Public Water Supplier's (PWS) Service Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Boundaries of current public water supplier's (PWS) service areas. This data set contains the present service area boundary of the water system and does not contain...

  7. Drivers of supplier-customer relationship profitability in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dawson, Bonnie; Young, Louise; Murray, John M.

    2017-01-01

    has implications for the ongoing management of international supplier-customer relationships, Chinese government policy with regard to SOEs as well as the inclusion of organization types as a consideration for business marketing relationship and value creation theory.......Business relationship performance depends on the context(s) in which the relationship is being conducted, including the cultural context and the nature of the organizations participating in them. Here, we examine the drivers of performance in Chinese supplier-customer relationships for two types...... of Chinese suppliers - International Joint Ventures (IJVs) and State Owned Enterprises (SOEs). The results indicate there are marked differences in the links between relationship drivers and perceived relationship profitability for these different types of suppliers. The profitability of SOEs' customer...

  8. The Supplier evaluation problem: the state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazanin Ghasemy

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In today's competitive world, one of important factor in survival is the reduction of production cost. In the current age the companies for remaining competitive and achieving the customer satisfaction has been paid more attention to supply chain management, so that competition between companies is no longer the case, also there is between supply chains. In this regard, the supplier selection as a strategic key plays an important role in the success of companies. Selecting the right suppliers can significantly reduce the cost of purchasing and Increase the competitiveness of the organization. Decision making and supplier selection is basically a multi-criteria issue. Nevertheless, some of these criteria might be in conflict with each other. This is one of strategic importance to most organizations. The nature of such decisions is usually complex and not structured. The present paper provides a comprehensive literature review on some of articles published for supplier evaluation in recent years.

  9. CMS hand out awards of excellence to their top suppliers

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2001-01-01

    CMS awarded its highest distinction to two suppliers: the Spanish firm Felguera Construcciones Mecanicas, represented by Ernesto Alvarez (left) and the Japanese firm Kawasaki Heavy Industries, represented by Kazuo Mizuno (right).

  10. How environmental collaboration with suppliers and customers influences firm performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grekova, K.; Calantone, R.J.; Bremmers, H.J.; Trienekens, J.H.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2016-01-01

    Searching for sustainable growth opportunities, manufacturing firms are increasingly embedding sustainability concerns into their relationships with supply chain partners. In the present paper, we explore the potential of environmental collaboration with suppliers and customers to induce

  11. Aluminium supplier selection for the automotive parts manufacturer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cieśla

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a methodology for selection of the optimal sources of supply, which is also known as the problem of supplier selection. Theoretical considerations are expanded with research related to aluminium supplier selection for a hypothetical manufacturer of aluminium parts for transportation equipment located in Poland. Evaluation of five suppliers of aluminium from Poland, Germany and Slovenia has been conducted using a weighted scoring method, a strengths and weaknesses method and a graphical method. Choosing the best offer and prioritizing suppliers allows not only the most rational decision in the field of supply logistics to be taken but also the quality of service in the metallurgical industry to be improved.

  12. Integrated model for supplier selection and performance evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borges de Araújo, Maria Creuza

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper puts forward a model for selecting suppliers and evaluating the performance of those already working with a company. A simulation was conducted in a food industry. This sector has high significance in the economy of Brazil. The model enables the phases of selecting and evaluating suppliers to be integrated. This is important so that a company can have partnerships with suppliers who are able to meet their needs. Additionally, a group method is used to enable managers who will be affected by this decision to take part in the selection stage. Finally, the classes resulting from the performance evaluation are shown to support the contractor in choosing the most appropriate relationship with its suppliers.

  13. Russian gas in 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, D.C.

    1994-01-01

    Natural gas output in Russia fell by 3.5% in 1993. This followed decades of rapid growth in production reaching a peak in 1991 and a minor fall in 1993. Gas consumption also peaked in 1991 and fell by 5% over the two following years. The major cause of the decline in consumption is the fall in electricity demand which has accompanied the economic recession. Gas has accounted for about 60% of the reduction in fuel consumption by power stations. Gas consumption by industrial and municipal boilers has also dropped steeply although household and other municipal consumption has increased. The fall in demand does not wholely account for the fall in production, however. Apart from Yamburg, all operational gas fields have now reached the stage of declining production. Government officials are talking tentatively of 1997 as the turning point for the Russian economy and following this, the demand for gas will rise again. It is not certain, however, that the industry will be able to meet the increased demand which is anticipated. Most of the increased production will have to come from new fields in the Yamal Peninsular the development of which is proceeding much more slowly than planned. In the longer term, possibly in the early years of the next century, the Shtokmanovsk gasfield in the Barents Sea may be developed. Other aspects of the Russian gas industry briefly covered are reserves, financing of exploratory drilling, investment, intra-CIS trade and exports and privatisation of the state owned company Garyprom. (UK)

  14. Do Russians Need Cliotherapia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris N. Mironov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The author gives detailed answers to the comments made by all eighteen round table participants in the course of the discussions that unfolded around his book “The Russian Empire: From Tradition to Modernity”. A fundamental debate on many of the issues raised in the book is conducted in the article. Among them: methodology and technique, in particular, the use of a variety of research strategies, the application of comparative historical approach, interdisciplinarity, macro- and micro-analysis, the search for patterns, the role of concepts, and the relationship between empirical and analytical aspects in the study. Much attention is paid to the controversial aspects of ethnoconfessional policies, mentalité and historical psychology, the unresolved issues of serfdom and colonization, cultural capital and educational policies, as well as self-government and civil society. The discussion concerning the specifics of Russian modernization and the issue of myth making occupies an important place in the article, as does historical optimism and cliotherapy.

  15. RUSSIAN INDUSTRY INVESTMENT SITUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Pochukaeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The actual deficiency of investment into Russian industry innovative development increases its technological drag from industries of countries with developed markets. Although the rate of investment into real sectors of Russian economics mid 2000 was higher compared to the previous period, annual investment amounts were much lower than in 1990. At present, highest investment amounts are directed to industry extractive branches and to the commerce. Amounts invested to various economy branches do not correspond to their contribution to the country’sGross Added Product; particularly underinvested are manufacturing industry branches. At present, foreign share in the country economy total investment makes 15–18%. Recently, most interesting for foreigners was investment to machine-building branches with overwhelming part (for example, 90% in 2007–2008 of foreign investment into the machine-building industry being directed to creation of new automobile plants. Today, first place in the list of foreign investors’ preferences in Russia is taken by the machine-tool construction sector.

  16. Russian JV workovers proliferating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-11-09

    Well remediation is gathering momentum in Russia as more companies apply western technology to idle wells. Western petroleum technology is being widely hailed as the best way to halt the decline in crude oil production in Russia and other members of the former Soviet Union. More than 20,000 Russian wells are estimated idle, many of which observers say could be returned to service with western know-how. Progress has been outlined on two significant projects in the Komi and Chechen autonomous republics of Russia: KomiQuest Ltd., a joint venture of an international group of companies and Komi republic agencies, has used a Russian rig and crew to work over four wells and started producing oil in one of four Vozey area oil fields in the Komi republic. A Chechen republic delegation led by President Dzhahar Jusyavitch Dudaev last month in Houston let a 2 year contract worth about $100 million to Enforce Energy Corp., San Antonio, covering workover, drilling, and other services in two oil fields north of the Chechen capital of Grozny.

  17. Unknown Russian giant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, Priscilla.

    1996-01-01

    The present position and future potential of the Russian oil company Tatneft are assessed. Tatneft, the eighteenth largest oil company in the world, has 85 oil fields and over 20,700 production wells. In 1995, it increased its production by 6% to 504,000bpd and its crude oil exports outside Russia were 213,000bpd. The company forms the basis of the oil industry in the semi-autonomous republic of Tatarstan. Tafneft became a joint stock company in May 1994 with the government of Tatarstan as the largest shareholder with a 46% stake. Although Tafneft produces far more crude than Conoco or YPF, its market capitalisation per barrel of production is only 5% of these companies. Its long-term future lies in successfully increasing production and enhancing financial performance. The former is being addressed through enhanced oil recovery methods and various joint ventures are being entered into with western partners in order to tap foreign expertise and to finance modern equipment. The achievement of the latter requires an improvement towards world prices of the price for Russian domestic crude and a reduction in the tax burden away from revenue towards a profits basis. (UK)

  18. 2010 Defense Logistics Agency Enterprise Supplier Conference and Exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    bakeries • Soda distributors • Ration assemblers and component suppliers • Food service equipment suppliers Focus on Industry WARFIGHTER FOCUSED...CHAIN LEADERSHIP 18 • Bread & Dairy – Unique market… regionally focused based on local bakeries and dairy plants – Many local businesses with limited...do) who not to buy from. • IDs buy many components directly from franchised distribution. Poor reflection of their customers. • Franchised

  19. Applying Fuzzy Decision Making Approach to IT Outsourcing Supplier Selection

    OpenAIRE

    Gülcin Büyüközkan; Mehmet Sakir Ersoy

    2009-01-01

    The decision of information technology (IT) outsourcing requires close attention to the evaluation of supplier selection process because the selection decision involves conflicting multiple criteria and is replete with complex decision making problems. Selecting the most appropriate suppliers is considered an important strategic decision that may impact the performance of outsourcing engagements. The objective of this paper is to aid decision makers to evaluate and assess possible IT outsourc...

  20. Building partnerships with suppliers as a new trend in management

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss Elżbieta; Tyszkiewicz Rafał

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of the paper is to show the importance of building partnerships with suppliers, and to present the results of research verifying the following hypothesis: Most of the furniture industry companies in Lower Silesia take into account the partnership relations with suppliers in their formulated business strategy. The study was carried out using CATI method and included a research sample consisting of 110 enterprises of Lower Silesia. Enterprises were selected using the purposiv...

  1. Determinants of supplier-buyer relationship competitiveness in transnational companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matevž Rašković

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Effective supplier-buyer relationship management should not be seen only in terms of cost and financial measures, as outlined by Transaction cost economics, but also in terms of other (“softer” relational benefits, like e.g. more comprehensive information sharing, higher levels of trust, better cooperation and increased relationship flexibility. This second view is grounded in both Relationship marketing and Resource-advantage theory. Surprisingly, only a few research papers on supplier-buyer relationships address both of these perspectives equally, as well as in terms of long-term competitiveness (vis-avis a traditional short-term performance. The purpose of this paper is to analyze business relationship determinants of supplier-buyer relationship competitiveness, where we study the impact of (1 relationship-based information exchange, (2 network spillover effects, (3 transaction-specific investments, (4 trust, (5 cooperation (joint actions and (6 flexibility on perceived (7 supplier-buyer relationship competitiveness. In this regard the main research question of our study is: Which relational and transactional dimensions determine supplier-buyer relationship competitiveness, as well as how strongly? To provide the answer this research question we employ an exploratory-type Partial Least Squares (PLS regression in conjunction with a novel perspective of network spillover effects, as a set of independent variables in our model. The data set consists of a sample of 130 international suppliers (approx. 30 % response rate connected to a transnational company (TNC headquartered in Slovenia, which operates in the steel construction solutions’ industry. Our results clearly identify a relational and a transactional set of determinants of supplier-buyer relationship competitiveness, with the former having a significantly higher impact on competitiveness than the latter. With regards to specific dimensions associated with this relational component

  2. SDC Supplier Obligation project : household energy from 2011 : final report

    OpenAIRE

    Sustainable Development Commission

    2008-01-01

    This report is based on 'SDC Supplier Obligation engagement project : process plan'. Evaluation of the engagement process used in this report can be found in 'SDC Supplier Obligation project : an evaluation of the Sustainable Development Commission's stakeholder and public engagement process'. This report presents the findings of the Sustainable Development Commission’s stakeholder and public engagement process and informs the development of Department for Environment, Food and Rural Af...

  3. The Strategic Importance of Supplier Relationships in the Automotive Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ove Brandes

    2013-06-01

    stakeholders, and who can outsource a large part of the technical development to the suppliers in areas also close to the core competences. The automakers must accept that their suppliers have competing automakers as their customers and search for synergies in their product portfolio. Theoretically, there is a need for conceptual development through deeper studies of the firm’s relational capability and its implications.

  4. Supplier selection based on multi-criterial AHP method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Pócsová

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a case-study of supplier selection based on multi-criterial Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP method.It is demonstrated that using adequate mathematical method can bring us “unprejudiced” conclusion, even if the alternatives (suppliercompanies are very similar in given selection-criteria. The result is the best possible supplier company from the viewpoint of chosen criteriaand the price of the product.

  5. Liability of suppliers to nuclear power plants in Western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, W.

    1988-01-01

    The Paris Convention provides that liability for a nuclear incident is channelled onto the operator of the nuclear installation concerned. However, the author analyses in which cases and by what mechanisms, the operator can have a right of recourse against a supplier of that installation. He illustrates, by several scenarios of nuclear incident with transfrontier effects how a supplier may be held liable, and describes the relevant rules of law applicable, based on private international law and tort law principles (NEA) [fr

  6. Antecedents and Consequences of Supplier Performance Evaluation Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-30

    Naval Postgraduate School supplier prior to contract award. Furthermore, the impact of deficient SPEs on the industrial supply base is unknown...identified evaluator turnover as having a potential impact on supplier evaluations over time. Therefore, is it posited that: H6: There will be a negative...Naval Postgraduate School H13 : There will be a positive relationship between communication formality and perceived accuracy. Weaknesses

  7. Sustainable Supplier Performance Evaluation and Selection with Neofuzzy TOPSIS Method

    OpenAIRE

    Chaharsooghi, S. K.; Ashrafi, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Supplier selection plays an important role in the supply chain management and traditional criteria such as price, quality, and flexibility are considered for supplier performance evaluation in researches. In recent years sustainability has received more attention in the supply chain management literature with triple bottom line (TBL) describing the sustainability in supply chain management with social, environmental, and economic initiatives. This paper explores sustainability in supply chain...

  8. ABOUT INDEX EVALUATION OF MATERIAL RESOURCE SUPPLIER SELECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Skochinskaya

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes existing methods for evaluation of material resource supplier selection. It shows advantages and shortcomings of the present evaluation systems. The necessity for application of an index evaluation is justified in the paper. The paper contains rating (index evaluation for material resource supplier selection which is based on the application of quantitative (index tool instead of an expert (numerical evaluation. 

  9. A simulated annealing approach to supplier selection aware inventory planning

    OpenAIRE

    Turk, Seda; Miller, Simon; Özcan, Ender; John, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Selection of an appropriate supplier is a crucial and challenging task in the effective management of a supply chain. Also, appropriate inventory management is critical to the success of a supply chain operation. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the area of selection of an appropriate vendor and creating good inventory planning using supplier selection information. In this paper, we consider both of these tasks in a two-stage approach employing Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Sets ...

  10. The responsibility of nuclear suppliers in the international market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiessen, C.W.; Cotton, J.D.; Tait, B.I.

    1978-01-01

    As a result of escalating oil prices, the developing countries are more and more turning to nuclear energy. As these countries become a more significant part of the international market, unique issues must be faced by the utility and country concerned and the nuclear supplier. A fundamental prerequisite of a successful supplier/customer relationship is a good relationship between their two governments. The supplier can fulfil an effective liaison function to ensure efficiency of communications in this area. In the preplanning phase the supplier can play a major role in supplying information relative to siting, unit size, system planning and plant economics. Once the nuclear choice is made, the pros and cons of purchasing plants on a turnkey versus non-turnkey basis must be weighed. The customer must balance his available resources and experience against his desires for acquisition of overall plant and systems knowledge. During the planning and procurement phase the subject of training, maintenance and service facilities can be an effective part of a comprehensive nuclear programme. In fact, local training and service centres could logically be the first step of a long-term localization effort. With respect to localization the supplier should be capable and experienced in developing this capability and willing to make a long-term commitment in this area. Through a clearer understanding of the responsibilities of the nuclear supplier and a clear delineation of his role, developing nations can more adequately assess the basis upon which to move forward on a nuclear programme. (author)

  11. An examination of hospital satisfaction with blood suppliers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carden, Robert; DelliFraine, Jami L

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors that predict overall hospital satisfaction with blood suppliers. The data for this study came from a 2001 satisfaction survey of hospital blood bank managers conducted by the National Blood Data Resource Center. A total of 1325 blood-utilizing hospitals were included in the final study database. The measurement of hospital satisfaction with its blood supplier encompasses the five composites of the SERVQUAL model. The five composites are 1) tangibles, 2) reliability, 3) responsiveness, 4) assurance, and 5) empathy. Linear regression was performed with overall hospital satisfaction as the dependent variable and the five composites of the SERVQUAL model and control variables as predictors of overall hospital satisfaction with blood suppliers. Significant predictors of hospital satisfaction with blood suppliers are satisfaction with medical and clinical support provided by the blood center, satisfaction with the routine delivery schedule, and price (service fee) of red cells. Prior studies have demonstrated the importance of customer satisfaction to organizations. As organizations, blood centers can benefit from improved satisfaction from their hospital customers. Blood center strategies that focus on improving these three predictors of overall hospital satisfaction with primary blood suppliers will be the most likely to improve and/or maintain hospital customer satisfaction with primary blood suppliers.

  12. Preferred supplier contracts in post-patent prescription drug markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankart, Carl Rudolf; Stargardt, Tom

    2016-02-22

    In recent years, the expiration of patents for large drug classes has increased the importance of post-patent drug markets. However, previous research has focused solely on patent drug markets. In this study, the authors evaluate the influence of preferred supplier contracts, the German approach to tendering, in post-patent drug markets using a hierarchical market share attraction model. The authors find that preferred supplier contracts are a powerful strategic instrument for generic manufacturers in a highly competitive environment. They quantify the effects of signing a preferred supplier contract and show that brand-name manufacturers are vulnerable to tendering. Therefore, brand-name manufacturers should readjust their strategies and consider including preferred supplier contracts in their marketing mix. In addition, the authors employ a simulation to demonstrate that a first-mover advantage might be gained from signing a preferred supplier contract. Furthermore, their results can be used as a blueprint for decision makers in the pharmaceutical industry to assess the market share effects of different contracting strategies regarding preferred supplier contracts.

  13. Supplier relationship management leverages intellectual capital for increased competitive advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Van Zyl

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this article is to demonstrate how supplier relationship management (SRM enables the capture and creation of intellectual capital, thereby attaining and sustaining a strategic competitive advantage and increasing supply chain profitability. In order to achieve this purpose, a large part of the article is devoted to exploring the relatively new and unknown field of SRM. It is shown that an organisation must possess a thorough understanding of good supplier characteristics and of the drivers, benefits and requirements for the successful implementation of SRM, in order to enable that organisation to leverage their supplier relationships to ensure the capture of supplier expertise, patents, experiences etc. (i.e. their intellectual capital. The article then explores how the integration of technology in SRM applications can improve the efficiency of supplier collaboration and intellectual capital capture and creation. It is then demonstrated how efficient and collaborative supplier relationships improve supply chain profitability and competitiveness. Lastly, the article explores the implementation pitfalls and trends of SRM that must be constantly considered and monitored by an organisation in order to continually capture and create intellectual capital and reap the full benefits of SRM. This exploration involved an examination of contemporary literature, theories and business cases and subsequently revealed that SRM is a vital discipline/philosophy that must be implemented by any organisation wishing to achieve greater supply chain efficiency and competitiveness. This competitiveness can only be achieved through the mutual unlocking, sharing and leveraging of intellectual capital.

  14. Using MACBETH method for supplier selection in manufacturing environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Karande

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Supplier selection is always found to be a complex decision-making problem in manufacturing environment. The presence of several independent and conflicting evaluation criteria, either qualitative or quantitative, makes the supplier selection problem a candidate to be solved by multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM methods. Even several MCDM methods have already been proposed for solving the supplier selection problems, the need for an efficient method that can deal with qualitative judgments related to supplier selection still persists. In this paper, the applicability and usefulness of measuring attractiveness by a categorical-based evaluation technique (MACBETH is demonstrated to act as a decision support tool while solving two real time supplier selection problems having qualitative performance measures. The ability of MACBETH method to quantify the qualitative performance measures helps to provide a numerical judgment scale for ranking the alternative suppliers and selecting the best one. The results obtained from MACBETH method exactly corroborate with those derived by the past researchers employing different mathematical approaches.

  15. Shifting orders among suppliers considering risk, price and transportation cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revitasari, C.; Pujawan, I. N.

    2018-04-01

    Supplier order allocation is an important supply chain decision for an enterprise. It is related to the supplier’s function as a raw material provider and other supporting materials that will be used in production process. Most of works on order allocation has been based on costs and other supply chain performance, but very limited of them taking risks into consideration. In this paper we address the problem of order allocation of a single commodity sourced from multiple suppliers considering supply risks in addition to the attempt of minimizing transportation costs. The supply chain risk was investigated and a procedure was proposed in the risk mitigation phase as a form of risk profile. The objective including risk profile in order allocation is to maximize the product flow from a risky supplier to a relatively less risky supplier. The proposed procedure is applied to a sugar company. The result suggests that order allocations should be maximized to suppliers that have a relatively low risk and minimized to suppliers that have a relatively larger risks.

  16. Addictive drugs and brain stimulation reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, R A

    1996-01-01

    Direct electrical or chemical stimulation of specific brain regions can establish response habits similar to those established by natural rewards such as food or sexual contact. Cocaine, mu and delta opiates, nicotine, phencyclidine, and cannabis each have actions that summate with rewarding electrical stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle (MFB). The reward-potentiating effects of amphetamine and opiates are associated with central sites of action where these drugs also have their direct rewarding effects, suggesting common mechanisms for drug reward per se and for drug potentiation of brain stimulation reward. The central sites at which these and perhaps other drugs of abuse potentiate brain stimulation reward and are rewarding in their own right are consistent with the hypothesis that the laboratory reward of brain stimulation and the pharmacological rewards of addictive drugs are habit forming because they act in the brain circuits that subserve more natural and biologically significant rewards.

  17. Profiles of Major Suppliers to the Automotive Industry : Vol. 2. Iron, Steel and Aluminum Suppliers to the Automotive Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    This study summarizes extensive information collected over a two-year period (October 1978 to October 1980) on suppliers of parts and components, materials, and machine tools to the automotive industry in the United States. The objective of the study...

  18. Profiles of Major Suppliers to the Automotive Industry : Vol. 7. Machine Tool Suppliers to the Automotive Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    This study summarizes extensive information collected over a two-year period (October 1978 to October 1980) on suppliers of parts and components, materials, and machine tools to the automotive industry in the United States. The objective of the study...

  19. Profiles of Major Suppliers to the Automotive Industry : Vol. 4. North American Automotive Parts and Components Suppliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    This study summarizes extensive information collected over a two-year period (October 1978 to October 1980) on suppliers of parts and components, materials, and machine tools to the automotive industry in the United States. The objective of the study...

  20. Employee Reward Systems in Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Došenović Dragana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Employee rewarding is one of the activities of human resource management concerning the management of money, goods and services that employees receive from their employer in exchange for their work. Given that a properly designed reward system is one of the conditions for a stable business, successful performance of work activities and the achievement of set objectives in each organization, the basic theme of this paper is the employee reward system, with a special focus on different elements of it. The purpose of this paper is to describe the role and significance of the observed system and to draw attention to its role in employee’s motivation.

  1. Sustaining Competitiveness Through product Development Activities Within Malaysian Automotive Suppliers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norizah Mohamad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The local automotive suppliers are facing a number of important challenges such asglobalisation, new requirement in market specifications and the competition brought about by theAsean Free Trade Area (AFTA agreements. In an effort to enhance the competitiveness of themanufacturing sector, the government has implemented the Second Industrial Master Plan, IMP2(1996-2005. The focus of the IMP2 is more on innovation and applications of new technologies, sothat industries can move up the value chain of their activities. Innovative capabilities achieved fromcompanies’ new product development activities have been recognized to be crucial for companies tosustain their competitiveness and organisational success. The importance of product development ismost obvious in the context of the discussion on the competitiveness of the Malaysian automotivesuppliers. The study will focus on the small medium enterprises (SMEs that make up more than 60 %of these automotive suppliers. The study is to determine the extensiveness of the suppliers’ productdevelopment activities by examining the involvement of the suppliers in customer’s productdevelopment activities. Consequently, the impact of this involvement to the competitiveness of thesuppliers is examined. The results were established based from a survey to parts and componentssuppliers of Proton, the Malaysian car national assembler. The study has shown that the SMEs wereinvolved from the early stages of the product development process that is during the design stage. Theproduct development efforts have shown to contribute towards increasing firms’ market share andfirms were also able to gain a better understanding of future product demand. A significant number ofthe suppliers have managed to penetrate the export market. Unfortunately, among the respondents,there is only one system supplier. This indicates that, either the technological capabilities of theSMEs still needed upgrading for the requirement as

  2. Russian-Saudian Political Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Kosach

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the development of Russian-Saudi political interaction after the restoration (at that time of Soviet-Saudi relations of bilateral relations in September 1990. The article focuses on the role of the Russian Muslim community in shaping the Russian politics towards Riyadh in the 1990-2000s. The authors state there are both periods of “crises” and detente in the development of Russian-Saudi political interaction that were marked by events in Chechnya and former Yugoslavia in 1994-2000, “Arab Spring” 2011, the post-September 2015 era, the Russian anti-terrorist campaign in Syria. The alternation of these periods is the constant of Russian-Saudi political contacts, despite the similarity in the approaches of both sides to the ways and methods of solving crisis situations in the Middle East region, as well as the Saudi’s pro-Russian position regarding the change in the status of the Crimea and the situation in the east of Ukraine. The general attitude of both sides towards ISIS and Jabha al-Nusra as a source of terrorism, regional instability and the challenge of international security does not remove the two main contradictions that divide Moscow and Riyadh – attitude toward the official Syrian regime and the Iran’s regional policy. The study comes to the conclusion that Russia and Saudi Arabia are interested (albeit for various reasons in diversifying their foreign policy and foreign economic relations.

  3. Unveiling the importance of being a preferred customer in order to develop innovations with suppliers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiele, Holger

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of the paper and literature addressed: The purpose of this research is to understand why early supplier integration in new product development repeatedly fails and how to select the right suppliers to avoid supplier obstructionism. We review the literature on early supplier integration.

  4. Supplier Portfolio Selection and Optimum Volume Allocation: A Knowledge Based Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aziz, Romana; Aziz, R.; van Hillegersberg, Jos; Kersten, W.; Blecker, T.; Luthje, C.

    2010-01-01

    Selection of suppliers and allocation of optimum volumes to suppliers is a strategic business decision. This paper presents a decision support method for supplier selection and the optimal allocation of volumes in a supplier portfolio. The requirements for the method were gathered during a case

  5. Random reward priming is task-contingent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ásgeirsson, Árni Gunnar; Kristjánsson, Árni

    2014-01-01

    Consistent financial reward of particular features influences the allocation of visual attention in many ways. More surprising are 1-trial reward priming effects on attention where reward schedules are random and reward on one trial influences attentional allocation on the next. Those findings...

  6. IS RUSSIAN DECOMMODIFYING IN CATALONIA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Микел Кабал-Гуарро

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The data collected in an ethnographic study conducted between 2014 and 2016 in tourist areas in Catalonia, Spain shows that the mastery of Russian has become a profitable commodity in Spanish tourism industry. The purpose of this paper is to show where and how Russian is used in the service industry and trace the commodification of the language over time. Against the background of fluctuating numbers of Russian-speaking visitors, this analysis will contribute to a better understanding of processes of language commodification and decommodification and the relationship between wider political and economic con-texts and valorisation of particular languages and speakers.

  7. Premotor and Motor Cortices Encode Reward.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavan Ramkumar

    Full Text Available Rewards associated with actions are critical for motivation and learning about the consequences of one's actions on the world. The motor cortices are involved in planning and executing movements, but it is unclear whether they encode reward over and above limb kinematics and dynamics. Here, we report a categorical reward signal in dorsal premotor (PMd and primary motor (M1 neurons that corresponds to an increase in firing rates when a trial was not rewarded regardless of whether or not a reward was expected. We show that this signal is unrelated to error magnitude, reward prediction error, or other task confounds such as reward consumption, return reach plan, or kinematic differences across rewarded and unrewarded trials. The availability of reward information in motor cortex is crucial for theories of reward-based learning and motivational influences on actions.

  8. Russian Orthography and Learning to Read

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerek, Eugenia; Niemi, Pekka

    2009-01-01

    The unique structure of Russian orthography may influence the organization and acquisition of reading skills in Russian. The present review examines phonemic-graphemic correspondences in Russian orthography and discusses its grain-size units and possible difficulties for beginning readers and writers. Russian orthography is governed by a…

  9. A model of the supplier involvement in the product innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Manoj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we examine the product innovation in a supply chain by a supplier and derive a model for a supplier’s product innovation policy. The product innovation of a supplier can contribute to the long-term competitiveness for the supply chain, and as it is for many supply chains a major factor, it should be considered in the development of strategies for a supplier. Here, we evaluate the effectiveness of supplier product innovation as a strategic tool to enhance the competitiveness and viability of supply chain. This paper explores the dynamic research performance of a supplier with endogenous time preference under a given arrangement of product innovation. We find that the optimal effort level and the achieved product innovation obey a saddle point path, or show tremendous fluctuations even without introducing the stochastic nature of product innovative activity. We also find that the fluctuation frequency is largely dependent both on the supplier’s characteristics such as supplier’s product innovative ability and on the nature of product innovation process per se. Short-run analyses are also made on the effect of supply chain cooperation in the product innovation process.

  10. Subcontractors and Component Suppliers in the Swedish Wind Power Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Linn

    2003-05-01

    This paper studies the Swedish component suppliers in the wind power industry. This group has not received much attention so far, and today very little is known. This study addresses the fact that the Swedish component suppliers have not been able to penetrate the wind power market despite the Swedish industry's strength in mechanical and electrical engineering. The aims of this paper were to gather information regarding the existing production and to identify factors that affect the Swedish component suppliers' scope to penetrate the wind turbine market. To date, although Sweden has spent considerable amounts of money on projects involving wind turbines, there is no series production of large wind turbines in Sweden. The historical development of the wind turbine industry suggests this alone would have inhibited the development of component production in Sweden. Yet, the country's proximity and good access to large wind turbine producing countries should be an advantage. Various factors and issues are identified and discussed in this paper that are relevant for the Swedish component suppliers' scope to penetrate the wind turbine market. These include market and product development, buyer-supplier relationships, export and sourcing behaviors, and time of market entry. This is a first step towards increasing the knowledge of Swedish component production and it is recognized that more studies are required. Various areas where relevant knowledge is largely missing or scarce are identified and discussed as well, and should serve as relevant starting points for continued research

  11. Subcontractors and Component Suppliers in the Swedish Wind Power Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Linn

    2003-05-01

    This paper studies the Swedish component suppliers in the wind power industry. This group has not received much attention so far, and today very little is known. This study addresses the fact that the Swedish component suppliers have not been able to penetrate the wind power market despite the Swedish industry's strength in mechanical and electrical engineering. The aims of this paper were to gather information regarding the existing production and to identify factors that affect the Swedish component suppliers' scope to penetrate the wind turbine market. To date, although Sweden has spent considerable amounts of money on projects involving wind turbines, there is no series production of large wind turbines in Sweden. The historical development of the wind turbine industry suggests this alone would have inhibited the development of component production in Sweden. Yet, the country's proximity and good access to large wind turbine producing countries should be an advantage. Various factors and issues are identified and discussed in this paper that are relevant for the Swedish component suppliers' scope to penetrate the wind turbine market. These include market and product development, buyer-supplier relationships, export and sourcing behaviors, and time of market entry. This is a first step towards increasing the knowledge of Swedish component production and it is recognized that more studies are required. Various areas where relevant knowledge is largely missing or scarce are identified and discussed as well, and should serve as relevant starting points for continued research.

  12. Supplier selection problem: A state-of-the-art review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilesh R. Ware

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the global competitiveness and growing market environment, “Actual competition is not between firms against firm, than supplier against supplier”. Globally in the fastest market development world gets closer and closer. Consumers prefer fast delivery, economical product, excellent service and high quality product with desired service level. For successful management of this supply chain, supplier considered as the base source for all processes. Therefore, an efficient supplier selection and evaluation process needs to be incorporate. The main purpose of this paper is to provide an extensive state-of-the-art literature review and critique of the studies related to various aspects of supplier selection problem over the past two decades. Research papers appearing in the reputed and leading international journals from 1991 to 2011 are gathered and analyzed. Primary focus is given on more than 200 published and unpublished works. It has been referred extensively to carry out state-of-the-art review for supplier selection problem. Finally, paper provides future perspective based on current research trends available in the published literature.

  13. Exploring the link between relationship quality and loyalty: Gaining Insights into Manufacturer-Supplier Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Lemke, Fred

    2003-01-01

    Manufacturers across industry sectors are gradually reducing their supplier base. Consequently, suppliers need an appropriate strategy to ensure preferred supplier status. It is argued, that `softer' - or more intangible - relationship factors potentially have the power to distinguish suppliers. But what are the intangible factors? How does a customer value them? Do they have an impact on the supplier selection process at all? Questions like these describe an area that ha...

  14. A simplified, result oriented supplier performance management system testing framework for SME

    OpenAIRE

    Satya Parkash Kaushik; Veerender Kumar Kaushik

    2014-01-01

    Background: Supplier performance management continues to be a significant concern for small & medium enterprises (SME). How can small & medium enterprises better position themselves to check and sustain actual supplier performance improvement? A key framework is the establishment of a value-added supplier performance audit program that places significant emphasis on supplier performance controls. A value-added supplier audit program can help SME mitigate business and regulatory risk w...

  15. AHP approach for supplier evaluation and selection in a steel manufacturing company

    OpenAIRE

    Tahriri, Farzad; Osman, M. Rasid; Ali, Aidy; Yusuff, Rosnah Mohd; Esfandiary, Alireza

    2008-01-01

    Supplier selection is one of the most critical activities of purchasing management in supply chain. Supplier selection is a complex problem involving qualitative and quantitative multi-criteria. A trade-off between these tangible and intangible factors is essential in selecting the best supplier. The work incorporates AHP in choosing the best suppliers. The results suggest that AHP process makes it possible to introduce the optimum order quantities among the selected suppliers so that the Tot...

  16. The Specific Features of the Contemporary Russian Foreign Energy Policy Shift in Modern Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egor S. Leonov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been brewing up a necessity in Russia to change direction of its external energy policy radically as a result of unconstructive and hugely politically charged approach of the EU - main and traditional partner of Russia - to settlement of fundamental issues in bilateral cooperation. First of all this refers to failed efforts to create regional energy security system, based on respective institutions and legal framework, by reason of unwillingness of the EU to respect the Russian standpoint as an exporter of energy resources. As a result, there is a legal vacuum today in energy cooperation between Russia and the EU, which they failed to fill. The current political crisis in Europe, which is caused by accession of the Republic of Crimea to the Russian Federation and events in Ukraine, has aggravated long-standing problems of energy partnership EU-Russia. At the same time active EU policy on diversification of energy sources and supply routes discredits peculiar role of Russia as EU key energy supplier. These factors have triggered a significant revision of Russian interests in favor of eastern direction. A new promising contract with China on 21 May 2014 and memorandum with Turkey on 1 December 2014 are the milestones of the present Russian eastern policy. Both contracts can disrupt power balance on the global energy market. The article deals with background and causes for the present Russian eastern activity.

  17. The framing of unconventional natural gas resources in the foreign energy policy discourse of the Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocelík, Petr; Osička, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The advent of unconventional resources of natural gas has altered the order on global as well as continental gas markets. With rising liquidity, the position of established dominant suppliers is eroding. We focus on the initial response of Russia, the leading supplier of natural gas to Europe, to the new situation, building the research on unit-level constructivism and discourse analysis. We use frame analysis to reveal what image of unconventional resources was constructed in Russian foreign energy policy discourse (FEPD) in the period between 2009 and 2011, when the “unconventional revolution” did not yet have any sharp contours. We conclude that in Russian FEPD the unconventionals are considered as a distinctive and inferior source of energy compared to conventional natural gas. Emphasis is put on their economic irrationality and environmental hazards. The bottom line of the discourse is the idea that there is a choice between conventional and unconventional sources, with this choice being framed as one between good and bad, or right and wrong. - Highlights: • We examine the image of “unconventional gas” in Russian foreign energy policy discourse. • Two main frames (reliable supplier and triumphant natural gas) were identified. • Two main argumentation schemes (economic and environmental) were identified. • The “unconventional gas” is defined as a mistaken and inferior source of energy

  18. Quantifiers in Russian Sign Language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kimmelman, V.; Paperno, D.; Keenan, E.L.

    2017-01-01

    After presenting some basic genetic, historical and typological information about Russian Sign Language, this chapter outlines the quantification patterns it expresses. It illustrates various semantic types of quantifiers, such as generalized existential, generalized universal, proportional,

  19. Russian Federation country report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labyntseva, Marina [Non governmental educational institution, ' ATOMPROF' , Aerodromnaya st., 4, 197348 St Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2008-07-01

    Nuclear in the Russian Federation: 31 reactors at 10 nuclear power plants, 454 nuclear material storage facilities, 16475 sources of ionizing radiation, 1508 storage facilities for radioactive material and radioactive waste. Nuclear power: 10 nuclear power plants with total installed capacity of 23.242 GWe, Total nuclear electricity generation 160 bln kWh in 2007, Share of nuclear electricity in the overall electricity generation is 16%. Future of nuclear power: Nuclear power development program for the period from 2007 to 2020: Lifetime extension of existing units, Completion of construction of nuclear power units at existing sites (Rostov-2, Kalinin-4, Beloyarsk-4). Construction of new nuclear power plants near existing NPP (Novovoronezh NPP-2, Leningrad NPP-2, Kursk NPP-2,Kola NPP-2) and Construction of new nuclear power plants: (Nizhny Novgorod NPP, Tver NPP, Central NPP, South Urals NPP, Seversk NPP, Primorskaya NPP, 2 floating nuclear power plants at Severodvinsk and Pevek). Radioactive waste management: The Law on radioactive waste management will be introduced to State Duma in June 2008. The radioactive waste management strategy includes construction and reconstruction of: Storage facilities for some 120 thousand cubic meters, RW treatment complexes at nuclear fuel cycle enterprises, Storage facilities and RW treatment complexes at nuclear power plants, Storage facilities for RW coming from non-nuclear facilities for 140 thousand cubic meters, Decommissioning of 140 facilities, Decontamination of territories, buildings and constructions with the total area of 1658 thousand square meters. Development of competences: In 2006 about 313 thousand employees were working at nuclear industry (Top level managers - 0,6%, Intermediate level managers - 6,0%, Specialists - 31,6%, Workers - 62%). The demand of Rosatom State Corporation will be 7000 - 8000 persons annually of more then 140 professions, among them: 2800 persons with higher professional education, 2000

  20. Language categories in Russian morphology

    OpenAIRE

    زهرایی زهرایی

    2009-01-01

    When studying Russian morphology, one can distinguish two categories. These categories are “grammatical” and “lexico-grammatical”. Grammatical categories can be specified through a series of grammatical features of words. Considering different criteria, Russian grammarians and linguists divide grammatical categories of their language into different types. In determining lexico-grammatical types, in addition to a series of grammatical features, they also consider a series of lexico-semantic fe...

  1. Russian Revolution: triumph or tragedy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drozdov Sergey Valentinovich

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The present paper focuses on the most important events that happened in Petrograd from February to October 1917 and radically changed the whole character of the country. The paper also deals with their participants’ actions which turned out to be critical for Russian history. The research is based on credible sources and literature. The author tries to understand how the mighty Russian Empire collapsed within several days and why the left extremists took over as a result.

  2. What a utility expects from its supplier organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winitsky, H.B.

    1986-01-01

    The suppliers of its goods and services are a most important resource of the utility industry. The unique and mutually beneficial technical relationship between utilities and their suppliers has been and continues to be a major contributor to the power industry's viability, vitality and growth, and thus to America's standard of living. The commercial and legal aspects of this relationship have been changing. This paper addresses the principles of: reasonably allocating and responsibility and accountability for ''the products'' provided to utilities including nuclear utilities; equitable risk-sharing as a prime requirement of utility procurement decision making; and the present and future relationship of the unique supplier/utility partnership as influenced and shaped by these requirements

  3. Challenges to nuclear suppliers : positioning for the nuclear renaissance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimels, R.

    2006-01-01

    With energy demand rising and the increasing recognition of the role of nuclear power as part of the energy mix, opportunities and challenges face the nuclear industry. The ability of nuclear industries to respond to utility requirements in terms of costs, schedule and quality will be determined by entire supplier base. The author speaks to the challenge of the entire infrastructure of suppliers to respond to these opportunities and challenges. Key issues are resource planning, procurement, risk management, supplier collaborations (such as teaming and partnerships); standardization of practices to minimize costs and time; and not least of which, the training, development and recruitment of labour. The author shares his perspective on the role of the supply chain to ensure it has the right resources to provide safe, cost-effective and reliable nuclear deliverables

  4. Identification of a supplier network through Quality Function Deployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Preben Sander; Holmen, Elsebeth

    1994-01-01

    and characteristics constituting this fan were based on the company's knowledge before entering into development interaction with suppliers. If these characteristics are used to express the company's demand in the subsequent interaction process, much information may be lost. We suggest that in development interacton...... supplier a company has to cancel the initial transformation processes that caused it to start interaction with the supplier in question, and start interaction on the basis of end-user attributes in their original forms, making new transofrmation processes into characteristics based on the joint knowledge......During 1993-94 the authors followed a product development process in a Danish Butter Cookie company. The process was structured according to the Quality Function Deployment technique House of Quality. Customer attributes were derived from a discus a diabetics end-user focus group. During a series...

  5. Understanding Supplier Resistance - Overcoming Obstacles to Supply Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    New Steve

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores an important but unexplored theme in the development of 'total quality' relationships in the supply chain: why suppliers may exhibit resistance to quality initiatives, and why what seems to customers as cooperation can appear as unwelcome interference or even exploitation to suppliers. This is a question of great relevance to all those seeking to understand current business practice, and also to those seeking to bring about practical improvements in supply chain quality. Too much of the supply chain and quality literature assumes the issue of supplier's compliance with customer initiatives is unproblematic (unable to understand this sentence; experience suggests it is one of the major obstacles in developing the quality-oriented, integrated supply chain.

  6. Supplier Value of Customer-Initiated Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Anita Friis; Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra; Steger-Jensen, Kenn

    2013-01-01

    Increased market demand and shortened product life cycles generate industrial customer requests for collaborative product development. Manufacture-to-stock suppliers struggle to manage the request process to obtain profitability. The purpose of this paper is to investigate if request management...... is profitable for suppliers, and to examine possible relations between profitability of requests and the requesting customer. Through a case study, request management is identified as a profitable process due to long-term accumulated profit from developed products. Request profitability is not identified...... as related to profitability or turnover of existing customers, and thus profitability of requests cannot be predicted based on these customer data. Results from a coupled interview study indicate that request management has a large potential for future exploitation, and an outline of the supplier value...

  7. A Hybrid Multiple Criteria Decision Making Model for Supplier Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Min Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable supplier selection would be the vital part in the management of a sustainable supply chain. In this study, a hybrid multiple criteria decision making (MCDM model is applied to select optimal supplier. The fuzzy Delphi method, which can lead to better criteria selection, is used to modify criteria. Considering the interdependence among the selection criteria, analytic network process (ANP is then used to obtain their weights. To avoid calculation and additional pairwise comparisons of ANP, a technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS is used to rank the alternatives. The use of a combination of the fuzzy Delphi method, ANP, and TOPSIS, proposing an MCDM model for supplier selection, and applying these to a real case are the unique features of this study.

  8. Development of supplier evaluation model applying in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yonggang; Fang Chunfa

    2006-01-01

    It is essential for the safe and stable operations of Nuclear Power Plants that various resources in the supply chain are effectively managed. Supplier is a significant resource of nuclear entities serving as an extension of the operation process. Scientific and radiation evaluation of the performance of suppliers is of vital importance to an effective and high quality supply chain. This paper establishes an advance and practical supplier evaluation system that is applicable for the operational nuclear power plants, based on the analysis of the current operation status of Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station against its targeted objectives, the acquisition of relevant practices home and abroad and the benchmarking with advanced peers, in order to enhance the core competence of nuclear power plant. (authors)

  9. Weekly changes of power supplier - consequences for the network owner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graabak, Ingeborg

    1997-01-01

    In Norway, it is expected that owners of electric distribution networks will be required to make it possible for the customers to change supplier each week. This report examines what consequences such a requirement will have for the network owners. An inquiry among nine network owners shows that at present changing supplier implies a great deal of manual work on the part of the network owner since many do not have computer based tools adapted to handle the situation. If the number of weekly changes of suppliers does not increase beyond a few percent of the network owner's total number of customers over 1 to 3 years, the network owner can cope with the situation. However, if for some reason the increase becomes larger, many network owners will have great problems because they lack the necessary computer tools. 1 table

  10. Nuclear liability and research reactor fuel. A plant supplier's view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roegler, H.-J.; Hetzmann, A.

    2000-01-01

    Contracts on Research Reactors are normally entered into by the owner and - very often - later user and the supplier of such plants. They are not concluded by the fuel supplier, except fuel supplier and plant supplier are identical. Thus, the fuel supplier mostly has no direct influence into the contract negotiations and the clauses which are eventually agreed upon between the parties. So has any other subcontractor for any other system or component. Any such subsupplier can and will negotiate a subsidiary supply contract (subcontract) with the supplier of the plant. The supplier drafts the related clauses so as to pass on to the subsupplier as many risks out of his contracts as possible. The subsupplier, on the other hand, tries to protect himself, tries to limit the risks he takes over, e.g. to the worth of his subcontract maximum. A critical issue in such negotiations is those concerning the risks the supplier had to accept and the subsupplier, although he may be responsible later for the risk changing to reality; i.e. the occurrence of a loss, cannot be hold liable for in full because the subcontract limits his liability, e.g. to the subcontract value or a certain delay penalty. A typical example for this conflict are delays of the entire project caused by one subsupplier. A very specific case in this context is the so-called nuclear liability. Nuclear liability means being hold responsible for the consequences or damages originating from a nuclear event in the plant. Those consequences or damages may be suffered by third parties, which are neither the owner/operator nor the supplier and result in a liability to such party (third party liability). Several of the aspects below may be related to the nuclear liability issue: The supplier often has its registered office not in the country where the plant is; The supplier may have far bigger assets than the owner/operator. The legal system of the supplier's country may be more favourable for enforcing claims of

  11. The role of a multinational nuclear fuel fabrication supplier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beard, S.J.

    1987-01-01

    The author argues that international markets and multinational suppliers provide large benefits to utilities. It represents a long term commitment to the nuclear business that these companies will be able to supply nuclear technology on the long haul. The technology that is available around the world becomes available to everyone through the international markets and multinational suppliers. The increased experience base is seen as valuable in that errors that have been made or have not been made yet can be avoided through the transfer or experience. The security of supply is discussed as important to any utility that is operating a reactor

  12. Three echelon supply chain design with supplier evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gandhi, Kanika; Jha, P. C.; Govindan, M.E., PhD.,, Kannan

    2014-01-01

    An effective supply chain management (SCM) facilitates companies to react to changing demand by swiftly communicating their needs to the supplier. Optimizing a supply chain (SC) performance is a key factor for success in long term SC relationships. Substantial information such as price, delivery...... in procurement and distribution in a supplier selection problem and a fuzzy model with two objectives is defined. The proposed model is a “fuzzy bi-objective mixed integer nonlinear” problem. To process the solution the fuzzy model is converted into crisp and further fuzzy goal programming approach is employed...

  13. Evolutionary advantages of adaptive rewarding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž

    2012-01-01

    Our well-being depends on both our personal success and the success of our society. The realization of this fact makes cooperation an essential trait. Experiments have shown that rewards can elevate our readiness to cooperate, but since giving a reward inevitably entails paying a cost for it, the emergence and stability of such behavior remains elusive. Here we show that allowing for the act of rewarding to self-organize in dependence on the success of cooperation creates several evolutionary advantages that instill new ways through which collaborative efforts are promoted. Ranging from indirect territorial battle to the spontaneous emergence and destruction of coexistence, phase diagrams and the underlying spatial patterns reveal fascinatingly rich social dynamics that explain why this costly behavior has evolved and persevered. Comparisons with adaptive punishment, however, uncover an Achilles heel of adaptive rewarding, coming from over-aggression, which in turn hinders optimal utilization of network reciprocity. This may explain why, despite its success, rewarding is not as firmly embedded into our societal organization as punishment. (paper)

  14. Russian Federation [National and regional programmes on the production of hydrogen using nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-15

    The Russian Federation, one of the world's big energy superpowers, is rich in natural energy resources. It has the largest known natural gas reserves of any country on earth, representing 32% of the world's proven reserves. Furthermore, it has, with 157 billion t, the world's second largest coal reserves (10% of the explored coal reserves). The Russian Federation is the largest oil producer of the non-OPEC countries, and the second largest in the world after Saudi Arabia. It has the biggest oil shale reserves in Europe, equal to 35.47 billion t of shale oil. Last but not least, it possesses 8% of the proven uranium reserves. In recent years, the Russian Federation has identified the gas sector as being of key strategic importance. The share of natural gas as a primary energy source is remarkably high compared with the rest of world. Gazprom has a monopoly for the natural gas pipelines and has the exclusive rights to export natural gas, and thus controls their access to the European market. The total primary energy consumption in the Russian Federation was 665 Mtoe in 2007, down from 871 Mtoe in 1990, with 55% covered by natural gas, 20% by oil and 15% by coal. It is the world's fourth largest electricity producer after the USA, China and Japan. In 2007, it produced 1013 TW.h of electricity. Roughly 67% of the Russian Federation's electricity is generated by thermal plants, 17% by hydropower and 17% by nuclear reactors. The Russian Federation is the world's leading net energy exporter and a major supplier to the European Union. In the Russian Federation, about 40% of electric power and 85% of heat supply, mainly in cogeneration, is covered by regional power industries with power plant units of {approx}300 MW(th).

  15. Russian Science and Russian State: Image of a Scientist in Modern Russian Cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana M. Medvedeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the image of a scientist represented in recent Russian movies. The article discusses two groups of questions: (1 nature and role of popular science in the life of society; (2 national features of scientific cultures. The article agues that popular science should not be conceived as a week copy of the real science. On the contrary, modern models of science communication assume that popular science have its own value and is able to influence scientific practices. Simultaneously we assume, that since popular science is less integrated with international scientific norms, it can easer reveal national traditions of scientific life. As a result, the analyze of recent Russian movies shows that the tradition established in Peter I times for Russian scientists to work out their self-identity in concern with Russian state still exists (scientist- state supporter/scientist- oppositionist. Actually the modern interpretation of dilemma between state patriotism and liberalism given by modern movies shows that Russian scientist don't have real choice, because they loose anyway whereas the state always wins. So owing to recent movies this representation of hopeless destiny of a scientist is becoming widespread in Russian public culture.

  16. The Social Rewards of Engagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robison, Joshua

    2017-01-01

    Political interest is a crucial precursor to political engagement, but little is known about how to stimulate greater interest. The article explores the role social motives have in generating interest. A laboratory experiment is used in which it is possible to manipulate beliefs about the social...... rewards of political engagement as well as external efficacy beliefs. Across two types of measures for political interest (self-reports and revealed preferences), connecting political engagement with social rewards led to substantial increases in political interest. Moreover, these effects were...... particularly strong among individuals with low levels of external efficacy. Ultimately, the data provide clear evidence that political interest can be positively stimulated with social rewards mobilisation techniques and that it is rooted in beliefs about the potential motives pursuable through politics...

  17. The Russian strategy of gas export: Europe against Asia?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locatelli, C.

    2005-01-01

    Can we say that today's gas strategy of Russia is the continuation of the one implemented by the former USSR? Three factors have to be taken into consideration: the liberalization of the European gas market is a major stake with lot of constraints but also lot of opportunities. This deregulation may lead to sensible evolutions of the organization of Russia's gas industry since the question of gas supply costs has to face the competition that should develop in the European market. Also, the possible integration of some Central and Eastern Europe countries to the European Union, which are important transit ways for the Russian gas exports towards Western Europe, but which are also markets where Gazprom has been the quasi-exclusive gas supplier so far. Finally, Europe is no longer the only goal of Russian gas exports: Gazprom clearly shows its will of defining a global export strategy. With about 40% of the world gas reserves, Russia definitely has a master card to play on the international energy markets. (J.S.)

  18. British suppliers, American operators: a partnership for the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, W

    1988-04-01

    Britain is a major equipment supplier to the US coal industry. This paper discusses the differences in management styles and legislation of the two countries. However, blending the experiences and ideas of US operators and UK manufacturers can improve the coal industry of both countries particularly in areas of quality control, cost efficiency and productivity, innovation and product development.

  19. Buyer-supplier relationship management in the construction industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemelmans, Jeroen

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this PhD research is to gain insight into ways in which contractors could improve the management of, and the collaboration with, suppliers in order to increase their competitiveness. To achieve this aim, four research phases are conducted. Firstly, the current status of

  20. Reflections on Supplier Entry Barriers to Domestic Retail Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lotte; Kamau, Paul; McCormick, Dorothy

    This paper examines challenges for Kenyan food processing firms in the ‘modern’ domestic supermarket sector, and thereby distinguishes itself from an increasing number of studies that have explored developing country suppliers in global value chains (GVCs). The paper also differs by focusing on f...

  1. Managing Coopetition in Supplier Networks : A Paradox Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilhelm, Miriam; Sydow, Jörg

    2018-01-01

    Scholars in the field of supply chain management have started to embrace the idea of simultaneous cooperation and competition (“coopetition”) in supplier networks but have mainly looked at coopetition from a structural perspective. In this paper, we complement the structural view with a paradox

  2. Dealing with defaulting suppliers using behavioral based governance methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prosman, Ernst Johannes; Scholten, Kirstin; Power, Damien

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to explore factors influencing the effectiveness of buyer initiated Behavioral Based Governance Methods (BBGMs). The ability of BBGMs to improve supplier performance is assessed considering power imbalances and the resource intensiveness of the BBGM. Agency Theory...

  3. Managing supplier involvement in new product development: a portfolio approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wynstra, Finn; ten Pierick, E.

    2000-01-01

    Supplier involvement in new product development projects has become an increasingly popular method for improving project effectiveness (product costs and quality) and project efficiency (development costs and time). One of the key issues in managing this involvement is determining which type of

  4. Regulatory Compliance in Multi-Tier Supplier Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossen, Emray R.; Buster, Duke A.

    2014-01-01

    Over the years, avionics systems have increased in complexity to the point where 1st tier suppliers to an aircraft OEM find it financially beneficial to outsource designs of subsystems to 2nd tier and at times to 3rd tier suppliers. Combined with challenging schedule and budgetary pressures, the environment in which safety-critical systems are being developed introduces new hurdles for regulatory agencies and industry. This new environment of both complex systems and tiered development has raised concerns in the ability of the designers to ensure safety considerations are fully addressed throughout the tier levels. This has also raised questions about the sufficiency of current regulatory guidance to ensure: proper flow down of safety awareness, avionics application understanding at the lower tiers, OEM and 1st tier oversight practices, and capabilities of lower tier suppliers. Therefore, NASA established a research project to address Regulatory Compliance in a Multi-tier Supplier Network. This research was divided into three major study efforts: 1. Describe Modern Multi-tier Avionics Development 2. Identify Current Issues in Achieving Safety and Regulatory Compliance 3. Short-term/Long-term Recommendations Toward Higher Assurance Confidence This report presents our findings of the risks, weaknesses, and our recommendations. It also includes a collection of industry-identified risks, an assessment of guideline weaknesses related to multi-tier development of complex avionics systems, and a postulation of potential modifications to guidelines to close the identified risks and weaknesses.

  5. Business intelligence gap analysis: a user, supplier and academic perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molensky, L.; Ketter, W.; Collins, J.; Bloemhof, J.M.; Koppel, van der H.

    2010-01-01

    Business intelligence (BI) takes many different forms, as indicated by the varying definitions of BI that can be found in industry and academia. These different definitions help us understand of what BI issues are important to the main players in the field of BI; users, suppliers and academics. The

  6. Supplier Choice Knowledge Support in the Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Khitilova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the issue of choice of suppliers in the market environment. It discusses expert systems as modern methods of its computer support. The issue of supplier choice is presented and viewpoints for the formulation of the decision-making task introduced. The piece of writing furthermore pinpoints the expert character of the solution of this task, making use of the knowledge of experienced professionals. It introduces the principles of fuzzy oriented expert systems as a suitable solution of the task at hand. Language models of the expert systems formalise the high quality mental models of an experienced expert. The global decision-making task is split into partial tasks; the expert modules for their formalisation are integrated into the hierarchic structure. The paper presents the structures of language models and the implementation of the structure of expert systems in the MATLAB-Simulink program environment. Special attention is paid to the issue of supplier flexibility. The efficiency of the decision-making system is proven by the solution of a simulation exercise which represents the classification of two current and two newly contemplated suppliers with various characteristics. The results are analysed and commented on.

  7. Beyond the design fix - New industrialisation in contractor's supplier relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Frödell, M.; Josephson, P.E.

    2010-01-01

    by the Erabuild program, this paper presents 3 cases of long term transformation of contractor- supplier relations as general contractors outsource and commence professionalising purchasing moving it from project purchasing into strategic purchasing. It is suggested that “new industrialisation” is a long term...

  8. 1994 Asia/Pacific mining yearbook and suppliers' source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    Contains a series of articles covering various aspects of the mining and minerals industries of Australia, New Zealand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, the Philippines, Russia, China, Myanmar, India and Papua New Guinea. Also contains the 1994 mining products and services buyer's guide, and the 1994 mining suppliers' source directory which provides information on the companies listed in the buyer's guide.

  9. Supplier selection problem: A fuzzy multicriteria approach | Allouche ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this paper is to suggest a fuzzy multi-criteria approach to solve the supplier selection problem, an approach based on the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process and imprecise goal programming. To deal with decision-maker (DM) preferences, the concept of satisfaction function is introduced. The proposed ...

  10. Exploring determinants of perceived interfirm dependence in industrial supplier relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noorderhaven, N.G.; Nooteboom, B.; Berger, H.

    1995-01-01

    Three groups of sources of supplier dependence are discussed in the literature: factors related to goal mediation, factors related to relation-specific assets, and factors related to network embeddedness. This paper explores the influence on the dependence of ego and alter, as perceived by the

  11. Fuzzy Multicriteria ABC Supplier Classification in Global Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petar Kefer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The determination of the optimal purchasing strategy in enterprise that is a part of global supply chain could be performed in two steps. In step one, a classification of potential suppliers is performed in order to determine the optimal portfolio of suppliers. This is delivered by using the fuzzy multicriteria proposed ABC classification method. Uncertainties in relative importance of criteria and their values are described by linguistic expressions. Modelling of linguistic expressions is based on the fuzzy sets theory. In the second step, ranking of optimal portfolio of suppliers is performed by using the modified ELECTRE method. The obtained results represent valuable input for determining the long time purchasing strategy and building partnership with the best suppliers. The developed two-step model is verified on real life data. The obtained results indicate good compliance with the opinions management in this type of industry. It is worth to mention that the proposed model can be easily extended and adopted to the analysis of other issues of management which could be applicable in different research areas.

  12. Introduction: Addiction and Brain Reward and Anti-Reward Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Eliot L.

    2013-01-01

    Addictive drugs have in common that they are voluntarily self-administered by laboratory animals (usually avidly) and that they enhance the functioning of the reward circuitry of the brain (producing the “high” that the drug-user seeks). The core reward circuitry consists of an “in series” circuit linking the ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens, and ventral pallidum - via the medial forebrain bundle. Although originally believed to encode simply the set-point of hedonic tone, these circuits are now believed to be functionally far more complex - also encoding attention, expectancy of reward, disconfirmation of reward expectancy, and incentive motivation. “Hedonic dysregulation” within these circuits may lead to addiction. The “second-stage” dopaminergic component in this reward circuitry is the crucial addictive-drug-sensitive component. All addictive drugs have in common that they enhance (directly or indirectly or even transsynaptically) dopaminergic reward synaptic function in the nucleus accumbens. Drug self-administration is regulated by nucleus accumbens dopamine levels, and is done to keep nucleus accumbens dopamine within a specific elevated range (to maintain a desired hedonic level). For some classes of addictive drugs (e.g., opiates), tolerance to the euphoric effects develops with chronic use. Post-use dysphoria then comes to dominate reward circuit hedonic tone, and addicts no longer use drugs to get “high,” but simply to get back to normal (“get straight”). The brain circuits mediating the pleasurable effects of addictive drugs are anatomically, neurophysiologically, and neurochemically different from those mediating physical dependence, and from those mediating craving and relapse. There are important genetic variations in vulnerability to drug addiction, yet environmental factors such as stress and social defeat also alter brain-reward mechanisms in such a manner as to impart vulnerability to addiction. In short, the

  13. Japan’s need for Russian oil and gas: A shift in energy flows to the Far East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motomura, Masumi

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the choices of Japan’s governmental institutions vis-à-vis Russian supplies of oil and gas. First, there is a perceived need to diversify the sources of crude oil in order to avoid too much reliance on the Middle East. Following the inauguration of the Sakhalin oil projects and completion of the ESPO pipeline, Russian crude oil is nearing a 10% share in the Japanese market. It is suggested that Russian crude oil supplies have been chosen due to their proximity, safety and flexibility, and their positive effect on Japan’s bargaining power in relation to crude suppliers in the Middle East. Second, Japan’s shift from nuclear to LNG in power generation after the Fukushima accident in March 2011 increased LNG imports by 25% in just two years. While Qatar expanded its market share the most, Russia also gained, even though it only had one operational LNG project in Sakhalin-2. Russian companies are now working on several LNG projects in Northeast Asia and the Arctic region. However, the resumption of nuclear power in Japan might have a negative impact on new Russian LNG projects. - Highlights: • Russia’s oil export will gain a 10% share in Japan. • Russian companies are accelerating several LNG projects in NE Asia. • Japan’s exploration activity in East Siberia has reached the investment stage

  14. Analisis Pemilihan Supplier Pada Komponen Lamp Cord Assy Untuk Speedometer Honda Blade Di PT. Indonesia Nippon Seiki

    OpenAIRE

    Sundana, Sambas; Sari, Yossy Yulia

    2014-01-01

    Dalam memenuhi kebutuhan speedometer PT. Indonesia Nippon Seiki bekerja samadengan supplier untuk mensuplai bahan baku nya. Bagian pembelian PT. IndonesiaNippon Seiki bertugas untuk melakukan proses pembelian dan pemilihan supplier yangtepat. Pemilihan supplier merupakan salah satu hal yang penting dalam aktivitaspembelian bagi Perusahaan. Penelitian ini ditulis dalam rangka meneliti bagaimana caramemilih supplier. Metode yang digunakan untuk pemilihan supplier adalah AHP(Analytical Hierarchy...

  15. Belief reward shaping in reinforcement learning

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Marom, O

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A key challenge in many reinforcement learning problems is delayed rewards, which can significantly slow down learning. Although reward shaping has previously been introduced to accelerate learning by bootstrapping an agent with additional...

  16. Profiles of Major Suppliers to the Automotive Industry : Vol. 3. Plastics, Glass and Fiberglass Suppliers to the Automotive Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    This study summarizes extensive information collected over a two-year period (October 1978 to 1980) on suppliers of parts and components, materials, and machine tools to the automotive industry in the United States. The objective of the study was to ...

  17. Modern methods of evaluation existing suppliers and suppliers selected by customer for small and medium-sized companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Jurová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available On existing conditions on global market (almost identical quality, almost identical purchasing values companies have to definite the total rating of importance of evaluative criteria. In post-crisis period the problem of suppliers’ evaluation is one of the biggest, because companies had to use all resources and all possibilities to develop their own business. Many authors wrote about collaborative planning and warehousing as one of possibilities to optimization work inside supply chain. For this paper define small and medium-sized enterprises (SME as enterprises with the size of maximum 250 em­ployers. In literature was read we couldn’t find information about own system of suppliers evaluation for small and medium-sized enterprises. SME can have some different types of business and in this case need the universal system of eva­lua­tion. The research of this paper is oriented on small and medium-sized enterprises with different types of business. The new theoretical universal method of calculation for evaluation existing suppliers for small and medium-sized enterprises will present in this paper. This theoretical method is based on average values. This method includes traditional evaluative criteria (quality, delivery time and other (mobility of supplier, possibilities of new level of partnership. This method of evaluation can not be used for continual manufacture. New method can improve the total evaluation of supplier in small and medium-sized enterprises.

  18. A simplified, result oriented supplier performance management system testing framework for SME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satya Parkash Kaushik

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Supplier performance management continues to be a significant concern for small & medium enterprises (SME. How can small & medium enterprises better position themselves to check and sustain actual supplier performance improvement? A key framework is the establishment of a value-added supplier performance audit program that places significant emphasis on supplier performance controls. A value-added supplier audit program can help SME mitigate business and regulatory risk while reducing the cost of poor quality (COPQ. Thus a good supplier performance audit program is the cornerstone of supplier performance management integrity. Methods: By acknowledging and addressing the challenges to an effective supplier Performance Audit program, this paper proposes an objective framework of supplier performance audit program, built on a strong, yet versatile statistical methodology - Analysis of variance (ANOVA. This performance audit framework considers process definition, standardization, review of the contemporary literature on ANOVA & its practical application in supplier performance scorecard of one of the reputed Sports Goods Industry in India. Results and conclusions: The advantages of this framework are that: it simultaneously considers multiple supplier performance in multiple time frames and effectively identifies the differences across the suppliers in terms of their performance. Through this framework the organization will be able to increase the odds of performing a predictable and successful implementation of a value-added supplier performance audit.

  19. Russian Contract Law for Foreigners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Shirvindt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The book by Maria Efremova, Svetlana Yakovleva and Jane Henderson aims to serve as a short introduction to Russian contract law for a foreign lawyer. Assuming that the target readership are mainly English lawyers the book’s second aim, expressly stated by the authors (pp. i, 1, is to make lawyers from common law countries familiar with codified law, with Russian law being just an example. The book covers most of the general law of obligations as well as some questions of formation and invalidity of contracts that belong to the general part of the Civil Сode, with this preceded by a brief introduction into the Russian law dealing with its history, federal structure and state agencies of Russia, its court system, sources of law and legal profession.

  20. Bell Discourse in Russian Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Элеонора Р Лассан

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the symbolic meaning of Russian ringing of bell in the Russian discourse. According to Lotman’s definition of symbol, it has dual nature: an invariant essence and its modification in relation to the cultural context. The article introduces informative and linguistic modifications of the bell topic in the Russian poetic discourse of the 19th, the 20th and the beginning of the 21st century. The author of the article provides the detailed analysis of such discursive descriptions of bell ringing as the ringing of church bells and alarm . The author arrives at the conlusion that the alarm topic prevails in contemporary poetry and this indicates the state of public dissatisfaction. In the 19th and the 20th centuries lexemes the ringing of church bells and alarm were used literally, but in the 21st century lexeme alarm acquires metaphorical meaning of call for blood.

  1. The Hidden Costs of Rewards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deci, Edward L.

    1976-01-01

    This paper discusses ways managers can motivate their employees to work and at the same time to increase their performance. Two theories of motivation--Vroom's theory and Atkinson's theory--focus on the use of extrinsic and intrinsic rewards respectively. A managerial strategy that combines the best of both intrinsic and extrinsic approaches to…

  2. Addiction: beyond dopamine reward circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkow, Nora D; Wang, Gene-Jack; Fowler, Joanna S; Tomasi, Dardo; Telang, Frank

    2011-09-13

    Dopamine (DA) is considered crucial for the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse, but its role in addiction is much less clear. This review focuses on studies that used PET to characterize the brain DA system in addicted subjects. These studies have corroborated in humans the relevance of drug-induced fast DA increases in striatum [including nucleus accumbens (NAc)] in their rewarding effects but have unexpectedly shown that in addicted subjects, drug-induced DA increases (as well as their subjective reinforcing effects) are markedly blunted compared with controls. In contrast, addicted subjects show significant DA increases in striatum in response to drug-conditioned cues that are associated with self-reports of drug craving and appear to be of a greater magnitude than the DA responses to the drug. We postulate that the discrepancy between the expectation for the drug effects (conditioned responses) and the blunted pharmacological effects maintains drug taking in an attempt to achieve the expected reward. Also, whether tested during early or protracted withdrawal, addicted subjects show lower levels of D2 receptors in striatum (including NAc), which are associated with decreases in baseline activity in frontal brain regions implicated in salience attribution (orbitofrontal cortex) and inhibitory control (anterior cingulate gyrus), whose disruption results in compulsivity and impulsivity. These results point to an imbalance between dopaminergic circuits that underlie reward and conditioning and those that underlie executive function (emotional control and decision making), which we postulate contributes to the compulsive drug use and loss of control in addiction.

  3. Addiction: Beyond dopamine reward circuitry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.-J.; Fowler, J.S.; Tomasi, D.; Telang, F.

    2011-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) is considered crucial for the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse, but its role in addiction is much less clear. This review focuses on studies that used PET to characterize the brain DA system in addicted subjects. These studies have corroborated in humans the relevance of drug-induced fast DA increases in striatum [including nucleus accumbens (NAc)] in their rewarding effects but have unexpectedly shown that in addicted subjects, drug-induced DA increases (as well as their subjective reinforcing effects) are markedly blunted compared with controls. In contrast, addicted subjects show significant DA increases in striatum in response to drug-conditioned cues that are associated with self-reports of drug craving and appear to be of a greater magnitude than the DA responses to the drug. We postulate that the discrepancy between the expectation for the drug effects (conditioned responses) and the blunted pharmacological effects maintains drug taking in an attempt to achieve the expected reward. Also, whether tested during early or protracted withdrawal, addicted subjects show lower levels of D2 receptors in striatum (including NAc), which are associated with decreases in baseline activity in frontal brain regions implicated in salience attribution (orbitofrontal cortex) and inhibitory control (anterior cingulate gyrus), whose disruption results in compulsivity and impulsivity. These results point to an imbalance between dopaminergic circuits that underlie reward and conditioning and those that underlie executive function (emotional control and decision making), which we postulate contributes to the compulsive drug use and loss of control in addiction.

  4. Addiction: Beyond dopamine reward circuitry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.; Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.-J.; Fowler, J.S.; Tomasi, D.; Telang, F.

    2011-09-13

    Dopamine (DA) is considered crucial for the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse, but its role in addiction is much less clear. This review focuses on studies that used PET to characterize the brain DA system in addicted subjects. These studies have corroborated in humans the relevance of drug-induced fast DA increases in striatum [including nucleus accumbens (NAc)] in their rewarding effects but have unexpectedly shown that in addicted subjects, drug-induced DA increases (as well as their subjective reinforcing effects) are markedly blunted compared with controls. In contrast, addicted subjects show significant DA increases in striatum in response to drug-conditioned cues that are associated with self-reports of drug craving and appear to be of a greater magnitude than the DA responses to the drug. We postulate that the discrepancy between the expectation for the drug effects (conditioned responses) and the blunted pharmacological effects maintains drug taking in an attempt to achieve the expected reward. Also, whether tested during early or protracted withdrawal, addicted subjects show lower levels of D2 receptors in striatum (including NAc), which are associated with decreases in baseline activity in frontal brain regions implicated in salience attribution (orbitofrontal cortex) and inhibitory control (anterior cingulate gyrus), whose disruption results in compulsivity and impulsivity. These results point to an imbalance between dopaminergic circuits that underlie reward and conditioning and those that underlie executive function (emotional control and decision making), which we postulate contributes to the compulsive drug use and loss of control in addiction.

  5. Virtual Rewards for Driving Green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Josh

    2010-01-01

    Carbon dioxide from automobiles is a major contributor to global climate change. In "Virtual Rewards for Driving Green," Josh Pritchard proposes a computer application that will enable fuel-efficient drivers to earn "green" dollars with which to buy digital merchandise on the Web. Can getting items that exist only in cyberspace actually change a…

  6. Video game training and the reward system

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenz, R.; Gleich, T.; Gallinat, J.; Kühn, S.

    2015-01-01

    Video games contain elaborate reinforcement and reward schedules that have the potential to maximize motivation. Neuroimaging studies suggest that video games might have an influence on the reward system. However, it is not clear whether reward-related properties represent a precondition, which biases an individual toward playing video games, or if these changes are the result of playing video games. Therefore, we conducted a longitudinal study to explore reward-related functional predictors ...

  7. OVERVIEW OF RUSSIAN CIVIL JUSTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Maleshin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary Russian civil procedure is not a pure Continental model because it also has procedural features of the common law system, as well as some other original and exceptional features. This article examines the main aspects of Russian civil justice: its main principles; judicial organization, including the structure of the courts and the division between courts of general jurisdiction and arbitrazh (commercial courts, and the Intellectual Property Court; sources of procedural law; bar organization; the jurisdiction of the courts; actions and proceedings; legal costs; evidence; administrative procedure; class actions; enforcement proceedings; and arbitration and mediation.

  8. BOLD responses in reward regions to hypothetical and imaginary monetary rewards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyapuram, Krishna P; Tobler, Philippe N; Gregorios-Pippas, Lucy; Schultz, Wolfram

    2012-01-16

    Monetary rewards are uniquely human. Because money is easy to quantify and present visually, it is the reward of choice for most fMRI studies, even though it cannot be handed over to participants inside the scanner. A typical fMRI study requires hundreds of trials and thus small amounts of monetary rewards per trial (e.g. 5p) if all trials are to be treated equally. However, small payoffs can have detrimental effects on performance due to their limited buying power. Hypothetical monetary rewards can overcome the limitations of smaller monetary rewards but it is less well known whether predictors of hypothetical rewards activate reward regions. In two experiments, visual stimuli were associated with hypothetical monetary rewards. In Experiment 1, we used stimuli predicting either visually presented or imagined hypothetical monetary rewards, together with non-rewarding control pictures. Activations to reward predictive stimuli occurred in reward regions, namely the medial orbitofrontal cortex and midbrain. In Experiment 2, we parametrically varied the amount of visually presented hypothetical monetary reward keeping constant the amount of actually received reward. Graded activation in midbrain was observed to stimuli predicting increasing hypothetical rewards. The results demonstrate the efficacy of using hypothetical monetary rewards in fMRI studies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A correction term for the covariance of renewal-reward processes with multivariate rewards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patch, B.; Nazarathy, Y.; Taimre, T.

    We consider a renewal-reward process with multivariate rewards. Such a process is constructed from an i.i.d. sequence of time periods, to each of which there is associated a multivariate reward vector. The rewards in each time period may depend on each other and on the period length, but not on the

  10. Neural Processing of Calories in Brain Reward Areas Can be Modulated by Reward Sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, Inge; Griffioen-Roose, Sanne; de Graaf, Cees; Smeets, Paul A M

    A food's reward value is dependent on its caloric content. Furthermore, a food's acute reward value also depends on hunger state. The drive to obtain rewards (reward sensitivity), however, differs between individuals. Here, we assessed the association between brain responses to calories in the mouth

  11. Discrete-time rewards model-checked

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, K.G.; Andova, S.; Niebert, Peter; Hermanns, H.; Katoen, Joost P.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a model-checking approach for analyzing discrete-time Markov reward models. For this purpose, the temporal logic probabilistic CTL is extended with reward constraints. This allows to formulate complex measures – involving expected as well as accumulated rewards – in a precise and

  12. Renewal processes with costs and rewards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlasiou, M.; Cochran, J.J.; Cox, L.A.; Keskinocak, P.; Kharoufeh, J.P.; Smith, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    We review the theory of renewal reward processes, which describes renewal processes that have some cost or reward associated with each cycle. We present a new simplified proof of the renewal reward theorem that mimics the proof of the Elementary Renewal Theorem and avoids the technicalities in the

  13. Reward, Distraction, and the Overjustification Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy W.; Pittman, Thane S.

    1978-01-01

    This study tests two differing hypotheses: the competing response hypothesis, which states that both reward and non-reward distractions produce decreases in interest which weaken over repeated trials, and the attribution/overjustification hypothesis, which maintains that rewards produce a decrease in interest that does not weaken over trials.…

  14. Incentive theory: IV. Magnitude of reward

    OpenAIRE

    Killeen, Peter R.

    1985-01-01

    Incentive theory is successfully applied to data from experiments in which the amount of food reward is varied. This is accomplished by assuming that incentive value is a negatively accelerated function of reward duration. The interaction of the magnitude of a reward with its delay is confirmed, and the causes and implications of this interaction are discussed.

  15. Russian Airpower in the Second Chechen War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Evans, Robert

    2001-01-01

    .... In the earlier conflict, Russian Air Force operations concentrated on achieving control of the air, directly supporting Russian ground forces, and attacking rebels in the foothills and mountains of southern Chechnya...

  16. Identifying the 'right' supplier for module developments-a cross-industrial case analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggers, Justus Erich; Hofman, Erwin; Schiele, Holger; Holschbach, Elmar

    2017-01-01

    Relational view argues that buying companies should integrate supplier resources in new product development (NPD) projects to realise competitive advantages. Due to decoupling of modules and the associated opportunity to allocate development activities to upstream suppliers, modular product

  17. On the relationship between supplier integration and time-to-market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perols, J.; Zimmermann, C.; Kortmann, S.

    2013-01-01

    Recent operations management and innovation management research emphasizes the importance of supplier integration. However, the empirical results as to the relationship between supplier integration and time-to-market are ambivalent. To understand this important relationship, we incorporate two major

  18. Management of Complex Industrial Supplier Relations - a Case of Customer Attractiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Chris

    relationship management is proposed – the concept of Customer Attractiveness. Customer Attractiveness is founded on the revised understanding of the supplier relationship management task and focuses on influencing suppliers by being an attractive customer, hereby motivating the necessary commitment to long......Companies are increasingly relying on suppliers when developing and manufacturing industrial products. Therefore the supplier relationships of the company need to be managed. This dissertation looks at existing theoretical approaches to supplier relationship management. By studying a number...... of supplier relationships of the company Danfoss Drives, an alternative understanding of the supplier relationship management task is proposed. The case study methodology forms the basis for the applied research design. The alternative understanding sees the management task as one of influencing suppliers...

  19. Supplier Selection Process Using ELECTRE I Decision Model and an Application in the Retail Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oğuzhan Yavuz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Supplier selection problem is one of the main topic for the today’s businesses. The supplier selection problem within the supply chain management activities is very important for the businesses, particularly operating in the retail sector. Thus, in this study, the supplier selection problem was discussed in order of importance between energy drinks suppliers of food business in the retail sector. Costs, delivery, quality and flexibility variables were used to select suppliers, and ELECTRE I Method, one of the multiple decision methods, was used to ranking suppliers according to this variables. Which suppliers are more important for the food company was determined by ranking suppliers according to computing net superior values and net inferior values. Results obtained werepresented in tables and certain steps

  20. Perceptions of technology uncertainty and the consequences for performance in buyer-supplier relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterhuis, M.; van der Vaart, T.; Molleman, E.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate how buyers' and suppliers' distinct perceptions of technology uncertainty affect the relationship between communication frequency and supplier performance. Information processing theory suggests that a fit is desirable between perceived environmental uncertainty and the

  1. Multi criteria decision making approaches for green supplier evaluation and selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan; Rajendran, S.; Sarkis, J.

    2015-01-01

    A large and growing body of literature to supplier evaluation and selection exists. Literature on green supplier evaluation that considers environmental factors are relatively limited. Recently, in supply chain management decision making, approaches for evaluating green supplier performance have ...... us to identify improvements for green supplier selection process and possible future directions.......A large and growing body of literature to supplier evaluation and selection exists. Literature on green supplier evaluation that considers environmental factors are relatively limited. Recently, in supply chain management decision making, approaches for evaluating green supplier performance have...... used both qualitative and quantitative environmental data. Given this evolving research field, the goal and purpose of this paper is to analyze research in international scientific journals and international conference proceedings that focus on green supplier selection. We propose the following...

  2. Emergence of new Russian and foreign investors in the Russian oil and gas complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbatov, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    A critical analysis is presented of the factors influencing foreign investment in Russian oil and gas exploration and production. Greater stability in the Russian economy would help and unfortunately some elements of the Russian bureaucracy hinder quick decision making. Western investors could improve their position by concentrating on developments which are unlikely to be developed by Russian companies in the next decade. (author)

  3. Supplier Selection for Food Industry: A Combination of Taguchi Loss Function and Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process

    OpenAIRE

    Renna Magdalena

    2012-01-01

    Supplier selection is an important part of supply chain management process by which firms identify, evaluate, and establish contracts with suppliers. Deciding the right supplier can be a complex task. As such, various criteria must be taken into account to choose the best supplier. This study focused on the supply in the packaging division of a food industry in Denpasar-Bali. A combination of Taguchi Loss Function and fuzzy-AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process Fuzzy Linear Programming) was used ...

  4. Supplier relationship management – anathema for the South African public procurement sector

    OpenAIRE

    Micheline J. Naude; Intaher M. Ambe; René Kling

    2013-01-01

    The public sector is recognised as being one of the most important customer groups for many suppliers and service providers because of the volume of public expenditure. Supplier relationship management (SRM) is a necessary tool on which businesses in the public and private sectors rely. However, in the South African public sector, despite the intention to boost service delivery through efficient and effective supplier-management processes, the development of sound supplier relationships is a ...

  5. A Fuzzy Decision Making Approach for Supplier Selection in Healthcare Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Zeynep Sener; Mehtap Dursun

    2014-01-01

    Supplier evaluation and selection is one of the most important components of an effective supply chain management system. Due to the expanding competition in healthcare, selecting the right medical device suppliers offers great potential for increasing quality while decreasing costs. This paper proposes a fuzzy decision making approach for medical supplier selection. A real-world medical device supplier selection problem is presented to illustrate the application of the proposed decision meth...

  6. A Bright Future for Russian Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishkovsky, Sophia

    2000-01-01

    Russian higher education is reinventing itself, but in distinctly Russian ways. While universities embrace new technology, students are frustrated as new freedoms confront old educational methods (grueling entrance exams, rote learning, dictatorial professors, and minimal participation). Education is still basically Russian, though capitalism is…

  7. Characteristics of Russian Professionals’ Organizational Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V V Khurtina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes organizational behavior of Russian professionals at the individual and organizational levels. The characteristics of Russian professionals’ organizational behavior are examined on the basis of the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey of HSE, depending on the qualification level and age.

  8. Russian Loanword Adaptation in Persian; Optimal Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambuziya, Aliye Kord Zafaranlu; Hashemi, Eftekhar Sadat

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we analyzed some of the phonological rules of Russian loanword adaptation in Persian, on the view of Optimal Theory (OT) (Prince & Smolensky, 1993/2004). It is the first study of phonological process on Russian loanwords adaptation in Persian. By gathering about 50 current Russian loanwords, we selected some of them to analyze. We…

  9. Value for value : the dynamics of supplier value in collaborative new product development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smals, R.G.M.; Smits, A.A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Suppliers are recognized as an important source of innovation. Research into supplier involvement in new product development has shown that benefits can potentially be reaped by customers. However, a relatively unexplored precondition is the willingness of suppliers to invest in their customers’

  10. Mirror, mirror on the wall... Let suppliers guide you towards improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weele, van A.J.; Rozemeijer, F.A.; Capaldo, G.; Esposito, E.; Lo Sorto, C.; Raffa, M.

    1998-01-01

    Suppliers may have a major impact on a firm's performance. The limitations of "traditional" buyer-supplier relationships are becoming more widely recognised. Co-operative relationships between suppliers and customers are attracting a lot of attention in today's business environment. Eurotel, a large

  11. Supplier selection based on improved MOGA and its application in nuclear power equipment procurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Zhaojun; Wang Dezhong; Zhou Lei

    2007-01-01

    Considering the fact that there are few objective and available methods supporting the supplier selection in nuclear power equipment purchasing process, a supplier selection method based on improved multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA) is proposed. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of this method for the supplier selection in nuclear power equipment procurement process. (authors)

  12. 49 CFR 583.10 - Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle... CONTENT LABELING § 583.10 Outside suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment. (a) For each unique type of passenger motor vehicle equipment for which a manufacturer or allied supplier requests information...

  13. 49 CFR 583.11 - Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle... CONTENT LABELING § 583.11 Allied suppliers of passenger motor vehicle equipment. (a) For each unique type of passenger motor vehicle equipment which an allied supplier supplies to the manufacturer with which...

  14. Supplier's involvement and success of radical new product development in new ventures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, Michael; Di Benedetto, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Supplier involvement is essential to a new venture seeking to develop a radical innovation. Despite this, prior literature has not adequately addressed supplier involvement in radical innovation, nor what the antecedents to increased supplier involvement are. We build and test a conceptual model of

  15. Information asymmetries as antecedents of opportunism in buyer-supplier relationships: testing principal-agent theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinle, Claus; Schiele, Holger; Ernst, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: A severe problem in supplier selection refers to moral hazard: suppliers not behaving in the expected way once contracted. Principal-agent theory could provide insights on how to reduce this problem. Because buyer–supplier relationships can be interpreted as principal-agent situations, the

  16. Supplier development and cost management in South-East Asia - Results from a field study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, Marc; van Jarwaarde, Ewout; Groen, B.A.C.

    2007-01-01

    This paper is about supplier development when international companies have production sites in Southeast Asia and look for opportunities to switch from international suppliers to local suppliers. We conducted a field study involving site visits to companies in Thailand and Vietnam, and interviews at

  17. Reflection in Russian Educational Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelissen, Jo M. C.; Tomic, Welko

    This paper discusses the cultural-historical school founded by Vygotsky, Luria, and Leontiev as the theoretical background of Russian educational psychologists who have been studying how children learn to reflect. Two approaches to reflection are examined within the cultural-historical tradition: first, reflection--like other higher psychological…

  18. Economic Factors of Russian Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobkov, Vyacheslav N.; Vakhtina, Margarita A.; Simonova, Marina V.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the researched problem is connected with the high level of economic inequality in Russia. The article goal is to show that the current Russian institutional system is not directed to decrease the economic inequality but on the contrary it continues to make and deepen it. The leading approach to study of this problem is the…

  19. Gazprom the new russian empire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosnard, D.

    2004-01-01

    The author analyzes the economical and political impacts of the great Gazprom group, leader in the russian energy domain, in Russia. Already number one of the world gas industry, this Group is becoming the right-hand of the Kremlin. Thus the author wonders on this empire transparency and limits. (A.L.B.)

  20. Russian nominal semantics and morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård-Sørensen, Jens

    The principal idea behind this book is that lexis and grammar make up a single coherent structure. It is shown that the grammatical patterns of the different classes of Russian nominals are closely interconnected. They can be described as reflecting a limited set of semantic distinctions which ar...... or weaker, of Russian. Students will see a pattern in what is traditionally described as disparate subsystems, and linguists may be inspired to consider the theoretical points concerning language as a coherent system, determining usage.......The principal idea behind this book is that lexis and grammar make up a single coherent structure. It is shown that the grammatical patterns of the different classes of Russian nominals are closely interconnected. They can be described as reflecting a limited set of semantic distinctions which...... are also rooted in the lexical-semantic classification of Russian nouns. The presentation focuses on semantics, both lexical and grammatical, and not least the connection between these two levels of content. The principal theoretical impact is the insight that grammar and lexis should not be seen...

  1. Roots of Russian Irregular Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK xiii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Crissy, your encouragement throughout my career and especially during this project has been...all of the Russian disinformation techniques in Ukraine came directly “from Soviet toolkits .” Maria Snegovaya, “Putin’s Information Warfare In

  2. Management of Russian military plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaleski, C.P.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to propose and discuss a solution which enables storing as quickly as possible all weapons-grade plutonium from Russian military program in a way which would prevent diversion. Two main conditions apply to this solution. First, it should be achieved in a manner acceptable to Russian government, notably by preserving plutonium for possible future energy production, and second, the economics of the total system should be good enough to ensure no charge or limited charge for the storage of plutonium. A proposal is made to store plutonium in a specially designed fast reactor or specially designed reactor core. This solution could be favorable in comparison to other solutions applying the above mentioned goal and conditions. Additionally the proposed solution would have the following side advantages: utilizing available personnel and installations of the Russian nuclear complex; providing possible basis for decommissioning of older and less safe Russian reactors; giving experience of construction and operation of a series of sodium-cooled fast reactors. The major problem however is the need for large capital investment with the risk of getting no adequate return on investment due to difficult political and economic situation in Russia

  3. REFLECTION IN RUSSIAN EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelissen, J.M.C.; Tomic, W.

    2008-01-01

    The present article explores the theoretical underpinnings upon which Russian psychologists base their analysis of reflection. The intention is to arrive at a clearer understanding of their research aims and research methods, and to explore the relevance of their research to educational practice.

  4. Reforming the Russian electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valladares, Mayra Rodriguez

    1999-08-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Overview; Russian energy markets; Evolution of the power sector; The electricity market; Regulation and proposed reforms; Politics in the power sector; Economics of the power sector; Regional differences; Foreign involvement; Valuation and company management; Conclusions. (Author)

  5. Russian Initiatives in Internet Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Sergeevich Shirin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the research of Russian initiatives concerning its participation in international system of Internet governance. In the research, conceptual and theoretic basis for participation of state governments in Internet governance is given, academic discourse of this issue is assessed, the review of main Russian initiatives made from 2005 (since the second stage of the World Summit on Information Society till the present day is carried out. The conclusion is made that the most successful Internet governance initiative of Russia is the implementation of cyrillic top level domains. Much less successful are Russian attempts to reconstruct existing organizational structure of Internet governance. Russian policy is assessed as a policy of preferring loud statements and PR rather than real influence on development of Internet technologies. Russia consideres Internet as political resource and tries to increase its influence on decision making process on a political, not operational level of Internet governance. The author states that federal government of the United States of America has fully lost the control on the domain name systems. These functions are going to be given to the private sector, while ICANN, which was established according to the Memorandum of Understanding/Joint Project Agreement with U.S. Department of Commerce, is becoming a truly independent international organization. Considering this, the author comes to the conclusion that political transformations for the sake of Russia are already made. He also forecast that next initiatives of Russia will be directed to the segmentation of the Internet.

  6. Quality assurance inspections in the transportation packaging supplier industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankovich, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the quality assurance inspections of the transportation packaging supplier industry, conducted by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) on a routine basis since 1989 are discussed. The term supplier is used to include designers, fabricators, and distributors that hold NRC approved Quality Assurance Programs and Certificates of Compliance for packagings to transport radioactive materials. The objective of the inspections is to provide assurance that transportation packagings are fabricated and procured in accordance with 10 CFR Parts 21 and 71 requirements. The inspections are conducted in a systematic and comprehensive manner, utilizing uniform inspection techniques in order to assure uniformity and comparability. During the April 1989 and May 1991 period approximately 21 inspections were conducted by the Transportation Branch, Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards of the NRC. The majority of the findings were identified in the areas of quality assurance procedures, control of special processes (e.g. welding, radiography), and maintenance of QA records

  7. Fuzzy Axiomatic Design approach based green supplier selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kannan, Devika; Govindan, Kannan; Rajendran, Sivakumar

    2015-01-01

    proposes a multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) approach called Fuzzy Axiomatic Design (FAD) to select the best green supplier for Singapore-based plastic manufacturing company. At first, the environmental criteria was developed along with the traditional criteria based on the literature review......Abstract Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM) is a developing concept recently utilized by manufacturing firms of all sizes. All industries, small or large, seek improvements in the purchasing of raw materials, manufacturing, allocation, transportation efficiency, in curbing storage time, importing...... responsible in addition to being efficiently managed. A significant way to implement responsible GSCM is to reconsider, in innovative ways, the purchase and supply cycle, and a preliminary step would be to ensure that the supplier of goods successfully incorporates green criteria. Therefore, this paper...

  8. Building partnerships with suppliers as a new trend in management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiss Elżbieta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the paper is to show the importance of building partnerships with suppliers, and to present the results of research verifying the following hypothesis: Most of the furniture industry companies in Lower Silesia take into account the partnership relations with suppliers in their formulated business strategy. The study was carried out using CATI method and included a research sample consisting of 110 enterprises of Lower Silesia. Enterprises were selected using the purposive sampling method. Selection of companies was based on factors such as: regional differences, basic products and the activity period, size organizational and legal form, basic profile of activity. Interviews with companies’ managers were based on an anonymous survey questionnaire. A time frame of research included 2 phases: phase I – exploratory phase: February – May 2013 and phase II – the essential phase: up to early 2014.

  9. Evaluating supplier quality performance using fuzzy analytical hierarchy process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nazihah; Kasim, Maznah Mat; Rajoo, Shanmugam Sundram Kalimuthu

    2014-12-01

    Evaluating supplier quality performance is vital in ensuring continuous supply chain improvement, reducing the operational costs and risks towards meeting customer's expectation. This paper aims to illustrate an application of Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process to prioritize the evaluation criteria in a context of automotive manufacturing in Malaysia. Five main criteria were identified which were quality, cost, delivery, customer serviceand technology support. These criteria had been arranged into hierarchical structure and evaluated by an expert. The relative importance of each criteria was determined by using linguistic variables which were represented as triangular fuzzy numbers. The Center of Gravity defuzzification method was used to convert the fuzzy evaluations into their corresponding crisps values. Such fuzzy evaluation can be used as a systematic tool to overcome the uncertainty evaluation of suppliers' performance which usually associated with human being subjective judgments.

  10. Customer-supplier alliances: A co-engineering process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouellet, P.

    1996-01-01

    The 90's are forcing companies to review all aspects of doing business. Partnerships, alliances and other inter-company relationships are now a matter of course. This paper explores an alternate method currently utilized by one of the major US oil pipelines to acquire products and/or services. The method stresses the formation of long-term alliances to the mutual benefit of both the supplier and the end user companies. The paper uses as an example a SCADA system currently being implemented for this oil company. It outlines the method and explains the pitfalls that have been encountered. As well, the potential benefits to both the supplier and the customer are summarized

  11. Automating radiochemistry: Considerations for commerical suppliers of devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, D.G.

    1993-01-01

    The fundamental decision to automate a particular radiochemical synthesis for in house use depends primarily on the demand for the compound and the total number of studies to be carried out with that compound. For a commercial supplier of automated chemistry systems, much more goes in to the decision to design, develop and produce a particular automated chemistry system. There is a dramatic difference in design effort between an industrial environment and an academic environment. An in house system must be built only once and needs only to incrementally simplify the synthesis process. A commercial product must: have reasonable manufacturing costs; be easy to use; be aesthetically pleasing; be easy to install and service; be functionally integral with other equipment sold by the manufacturer; be marketable within the regulatory environment; address radiation safety issues. This paper discusses issues that guide commercial suppliers in the formation of their product lines

  12. Guidelines for performance-based supplier audits (NCIG-16)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauderdale, J.R.; Mattu, R.K.; Roman, W.S.

    1990-06-01

    This document provides guidelines for planning and conducting performance-based audits of suppliers of items used in nuclear power plants. A common purpose of audits is to provide a basis for confidence in the supplier's controls to ensure that products received will perform their intended functions satisfactorily. Performance-based audits offer means of raising the level of confidence. This confidence comes from evaluation of important features of the product and the processes and activities that produce it. This document does not add requirements to those in existing codes, standards, or regulations. The guidance herein is intended to complement the information in existing industry standards and practices. Performance-based audits are one element of an effective procurement program. A companion EPRI/NCIG document, EPRI NP-6629, Guidelines for the Procurement and Receipt of Items for Nuclear Power Plants (NCIG-15), provides guidance for other elements of an effective procurement program

  13. The internal competitor: Buyer motives and external supplier marketing strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mols, Niels Peter; Sloth, Jacob Lerche; Thrane, Claus

    Abstract Purpose of the paper and literature addressed: The purpose of this paper is to identify buyer motives for supporting internal competitors and to suggest relevant marketing strategy elements for external suppliers confronting these internal competitors. Research method: With basis...... in a literature review we identify different buyer motives for choosing to combine external suppliers with internal production, i.e., an internal competitor. For each buyer motive, possible marketing strategies are identified and briefly discussed. Research findings: The paper describes different buyer motives...... relevant buyer motives, the existence of different buyer motives suggests that these buyers should be targeted with different marketing strategies. For each buyer motive, possible marketing strategies are suggested and briefly discussed. Thus, for each buyer motive it is briefly discussed (1) how...

  14. EDWARD SUESS AND RUSSIAN GEOLOGISTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris A. Natal’in

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The publication is devoted to the history of one of the greatest concepts of tectonics of Asia, that has been widely accepted and yet obliterated with time, while the splendors of this concept are doubtful. Numerous citations in the Russian papers to «The Face of the Earth» by Edward Suess and the fact that he was elected a Corresponding Member of the Imperial Saint Petersburg Academy of Sciences clearly demonstrate how highly Suess’s contribution to studies of the structure and geological evolution of Asia was valued by the Russian geological community. Suess’s letters to Vladimir A. Obruchev give evidence how close and productive the relationship between Edward Suess and the Russian researchers was in the late 19th and the early 20th centuries and also illustrate how the great tectonic concept of Asia [Suess, 1908] was born and developed. The idea of centrifugal propagation of tectonic waves of the Altaids from a continental node located somewhere in Siberia was mainly inspired by Suess’s profound scientific intuition. The idea matured after Edward Suess got acquainted with Ivan D. Chersky’s paper [Черский, 1886] that greatly facilitated in shaping and improving this idea. It was mailed to Suess by Vladimir A. Obruchev who translated the paper, attached his own map and provided explanations to Chersky’s ideas. The available historical documents suggest that Vladimir A. Obruchev facilitated communication between the Russian geologists, on the one side, and Edward Suess and other Austrian geologists who conducted geological studies in Asia, on the other side. Being actively involved in exchange of publications and cooperation in field data processing, Edward Suess was aware of all the details of the Russian geological studies.In addition to the concept of tectonic arcs of the Altaids and descriptions of main geological structures located in Northern Asia and China, Edward Suess adopted a concept of disjunctive dislocations

  15. Households' switching behavior between electricity suppliers in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ek, Kristina; Soederholm, Patrik [Economics Unit, Luleaa University of Technology, 971 87 Luleaa (Sweden)

    2008-12-15

    The overall purpose of this paper is to analyze the factors affecting households' decisions to: (a) switch to a new electricity supplier; and (b) actively renegotiate the electricity contract with the prevailing supplier. The study is based on 536 survey responses from Swedish households and they are analyzed econometrically using probit regression techniques. The analysis is based on a theoretical framework, which embraces both economic and psychological motives behind household decision-making. The results show that households that anticipate significant economic benefits from choosing a more active behavior are also more likely to purse this, while those with smaller potential gains (e.g., households without electric heating) are less likely to change supplier and/or renegotiate their contracts. The impact of overall electricity costs and knowledge about these is particularly important for the latter decision, while respondents that perceive relatively high search and information costs are less likely to switch to an alternative electricity supplier. Moreover, constraints on time, attention, and the ability to process information, may lead to optimizing analyses being replaced by imprecise routines and rules of thumb, and the benefits of the status quo appear to represent one of those simplifying rules. This also opens up for other influences on households' activity such as social interaction and media discourses that raise the attention level. Our results show that these influences are more likely to affect households' choice to switch to new service providers, i.e., the one area of the two investigated here that put the most demand on people's ability to search for and process information. (author)

  16. A supplier selection strategy within the Malaysian telecommunications industry

    OpenAIRE

    Sharif, A M; Abdul-Rahim, S; Gallear, D; Irani, Z

    2009-01-01

    The telecommunication industry in Malaysia has grown rapidly over the last 15 years, with effective supply chain management becoming increasing important within the sector. A multitude of providers and part owned Malaysian government companies, vendors and suppliers are involved in generating and creating value-adding products and services within this sector (across wireless, wireline, broadband business and consumer lines of business). This paper describes key challenges facing a major telec...

  17. Antecedents and Consequences of Supplier Performance Evaluation Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-30

    302–314. Cannon, J. P., & Perreault, W. D., Jr. (1999). Buyer–seller relationships in business markets. Journal of Marketing Research , 36, 439–460...some antecedents of opportunism in a marketing channel. Journal of Marketing Research , 21(3), 278–289. Kelman, S. (2010). Three ways to revitalize...supplier fairness on vulnerable resellers. Journal of Marketing Research , 32(1), 54–65. Lambe, J. C., Wittmann, C. M., & Spekman, R. E. (2001

  18. An exploratory study of close supplier-manufacturer relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Goffin, Keith; Lemke, Fred; Szwejczewski, Marek

    2006-01-01

    Close relationships with selected suppliers can enable manufacturers to reduce costs, improve quality and enhance new product development. Although the advantages of close co-operation are widely acknowledged in the literature, the specific attributes of such relationships are not well understood. To address this gap, 39 managers responsible for purchasing were interviewed using a technique from psychology, which is particularly effective at uncovering the characteristics of...

  19. Analysis of QA audit checklist for equipment suppliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Xuehang

    2012-01-01

    Eleven aspects during the equipment manufacturing by the suppliers, including the guidelines and objectives of quality assurance, management department review, document and record control, staffing and training, design control, procurement control, control of items, process control, inspection and testing control, non-conformance control, and internal and external QA audit, are analyzed in this article. The detailed QA audit checklist on these above mentioned aspects are described and the problems found in real QA audit are listed in this article. (authors)

  20. Liability of German suppliers and service providers for foreign projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raetzke, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Main topic is the question of the extent to which German plant constructors, suppliers, engineering consultants, experts or operators expose themselves to liability for the delivery of their products and services abroad. In principle, in almost all nuclear power countries, liability is channelled to the operator; suppliers and service providers are exempted from liability. However, there are conceivable cases in which this principle does not apply. This can occur, for example, if a major accident is assumed to have an impact on neighbouring countries of the country of destination; here, depending on the applicable law, the German supplier or service provider could be ordered to pay for damages. The risk of liability remaining in this way can be reduced if necessary by means of an exemption clause in the supply contract. The regulation of the operator's recourse to the contractor, insofar as the latter is responsible for the accident, and the - controversial -question of to what extent damage to the plant itself gives rise to claims for damages by the operator against the contractor are also discussed.

  1. ATLAS Supplier Award for the ECT Vacuum Vessels

    CERN Multimedia

    Jenni, P

    On 12 February the Netherlands firm Schelde Exotech was awarded the ATLAS Supplier Award for the construction of the two vacuum vessels for the ATLAS End- Cap Toroid (ECT) magnets. ATLAS Supplier Award ceremonies have now become something of a tradition. For the third consecutive year, ATLAS has given best supplier awards for the most exceptional contributors to the construction of the detector. The Netherlands firm Schelde Exotech has just received the award for the construction of the two vacuum vessels for the ECTs. With a diameter of 11 metres and a volume of 550 cubic metres, the ECT vacuum vessels are obviously impressive in scale. They consist of large aluminium plates and a stainless steel central bore tube. In order to obtain the required undulations, the firm had to develop a special assembly and welding technique. Despite the chambers' imposing size, a very high degree of precision has been achieved in their geometry. Moreover, the chambers, which were delivered in July 2002 to CERN, were built i...

  2. COLLABORATION BETWEEN SMALL RETAIL STORES AND SUPPLIERS OF FOOD PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Branska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Small grocery stores are forced to look for ways to retain customers. One possibility is through collaboration with suppliers. Therefore, the aim of this research was to determine the forms of collaboration between small Czech grocery stores and suppliers and to specify the differences in this collaboration depending on store location and the possible affiliation of the store with a retail chain. To achieve this goal, quantitative research was carried out among 65 Czech retail stores using face-to-face interviews with predetermined questions. Collaboration was assessed on the basis of four criteria defined by the authors. It was found that the most frequently occurring element of collaboration was the provision of trade credit to retailers – less often, long-term contracts and synchronization of replenishment. The least used was information sharing. The research results show that the form of collaboration is significantly affected by customer value. Therefore, the level of collaboration can be improved by building horizontally interconnected retail chains. The paper enriches theoretical knowledge by specifying possible elements of collaboration between small retail stores and suppliers and mapping the frequency of their implementation.

  3. Incremental effects of reward on creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberger, R; Rhoades, L

    2001-10-01

    The authors examined 2 ways reward might increase creativity. First, reward contingent on creativity might increase extrinsic motivation. Studies 1 and 2 found that repeatedly giving preadolescent students reward for creative performance in 1 task increased their creativity in subsequent tasks. Study 3 reported that reward promised for creativity increased college students' creative task performance. Second, expected reward for high performance might increase creativity by enhancing perceived self-determination and, therefore, intrinsic task interest. Study 4 found that employees' intrinsic job interest mediated a positive relationship between expected reward for high performance and creative suggestions offered at work. Study 5 found that employees' perceived self-determination mediated a positive relationship between expected reward for high performance and the creativity of anonymous suggestions for helping the organization.

  4. Brain Circuits Encoding Reward from Pain Relief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navratilova, Edita; Atcherley, Christopher W; Porreca, Frank

    2015-11-01

    Relief from pain in humans is rewarding and pleasurable. Primary rewards, or reward-predictive cues, are encoded in brain reward/motivational circuits. While considerable advances have been made in our understanding of reward circuits underlying positive reinforcement, less is known about the circuits underlying the hedonic and reinforcing actions of pain relief. We review findings from electrophysiological, neuroimaging, and behavioral studies supporting the concept that the rewarding effect of pain relief requires opioid signaling in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), activation of midbrain dopamine neurons, and the release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Understanding of circuits that govern the reward of pain relief may allow the discovery of more effective and satisfying therapies for patients with acute or chronic pain.

  5. Ventral pallidum roles in reward and motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kyle S; Tindell, Amy J; Aldridge, J Wayne; Berridge, Kent C

    2009-01-23

    In recent years the ventral pallidum has become a focus of great research interest as a mechanism of reward and incentive motivation. As a major output for limbic signals, the ventral pallidum was once associated primarily with motor functions rather than regarded as a reward structure in its own right. However, ample evidence now suggests that ventral pallidum function is a major mechanism of reward in the brain. We review data indicating that (1) an intact ventral pallidum is necessary for normal reward and motivation, (2) stimulated activation of ventral pallidum is sufficient to cause reward and motivation enhancements, and (3) activation patterns in ventral pallidum neurons specifically encode reward and motivation signals via phasic bursts of excitation to incentive and hedonic stimuli. We conclude that the ventral pallidum may serve as an important 'limbic final common pathway' for mesocorticolimbic processing of many rewards.

  6. Learned reward association improves visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Mengyuan; Li, Sheng

    2014-04-01

    Statistical regularities in the natural environment play a central role in adaptive behavior. Among other regularities, reward association is potentially the most prominent factor that influences our daily life. Recent studies have suggested that pre-established reward association yields strong influence on the spatial allocation of attention. Here we show that reward association can also improve visual working memory (VWM) performance when the reward-associated feature is task-irrelevant. We established the reward association during a visual search training session, and investigated the representation of reward-associated features in VWM by the application of a change detection task before and after the training. The results showed that the improvement in VWM was significantly greater for items in the color associated with high reward than for those in low reward-associated or nonrewarded colors. In particular, the results from control experiments demonstrate that the observed reward effect in VWM could not be sufficiently accounted for by attentional capture toward the high reward-associated item. This was further confirmed when the effect of attentional capture was minimized by presenting the items in the sample and test displays of the change detection task with the same color. The results showed significantly larger improvement in VWM performance when the items in a display were in the high reward-associated color than those in the low reward-associated or nonrewarded colors. Our findings suggest that, apart from inducing space-based attentional capture, the learned reward association could also facilitate the perceptual representation of high reward-associated items through feature-based attentional modulation.

  7. Russian perspectives: The past shapes the present

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houck, R.P.

    1994-11-01

    This document contains an outline of a speech given to a group of professionals at Pacific Northwest Laboratory which was intended to give an unbiased view of Soviet perceptions. Topics discussed include: The new mission of US and Soviet labs and institutions to develop products and dedicate research to post cold war threat, historical prospectives of Russia, Russian military roles and missions, ideology of Russian politics, evils of capitalism, Russian civil war, communism, world war II, Russian losses during the war, the cold war, reasons why America should care what happens in Russia, the internal threat against a market-based economy, the US should help, and the Russian people and their attitudes.

  8. Reward and Punishment in Minigames

    OpenAIRE

    Sigmund, K.; Hauert, C.; Nowak, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    Minigames capturing the essence of Public Goods experiments show that even in the absence of rationality assumptions, both punishment and reward will fail to bring about prosocial behavior. This result holds in particular for the well-known Ultimatum Game, which emerges as a special case. But reputation can induce fairness and cooperation in populations adapting through learning or imitation. Indeed, the inclusion of reputation effects in the corresponding dynamical models leads to the evolut...

  9. Joint Economic Lot Sizing Optimization in a Supplier-Buyer Inventory System When the Supplier Offers Decremental Temporary Discounts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Puspita Sari

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This research discusses mathematical models of joint economic lot size optimization in a supplier-buyer inventory system in a situation when the supplier offers decremental temporary discounts during a sale period. Here, the sale period consists of n phases and the phases of discounts offered descend as much as the number of phases. The highest discount will be given when orders are placed in the first phase while the lowest one will be given when they are placed in the last phase. In this situation, the supplier attempts to attract the buyer to place orders as early as possible during the sale period. The buyers will respon these offers by ordering a special quantity in one of the phase. In this paper, we propose such a forward buying model with discount-proportionally-distributed time phases. To examine the behaviour of the proposed model, we conducted numerical experiments. We assumed that there are three phases of discounts during the sale period. We then compared the total joint costs of special order placed in each phase for two scenarios. The first scenario is the case of independent situation – there is no coordination between the buyer and the supplie-, while the second scenario is the opposite one, the coordinated model. Our results showed the coordinated model outperform the independent model in terms of producing total joint costs. We finally conducted a sensitivity analyzis to examine the other behaviour of the proposed model. Keywords: supplier-buyer inventory system, forward buying model, decremental temporary discounts, joint economic lot sizing, optimization.

  10. Modeling and analysis for determining optimal suppliers under stochastic lead times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abginehchi, Soheil; Farahani, Reza Zanjirani

    2010-01-01

    systems. The item acquisition lead times of suppliers are random variables. Backorder is allowed and shortage cost is charged based on not only per unit in shortage but also per time unit. Continuous review (s,Q) policy has been assumed. When the inventory level depletes to a reorder level, the total...... order is split among n suppliers. Since the suppliers have different characteristics, the quantity ordered to different suppliers may be different. The problem is to determine the reorder level and quantity ordered to each supplier so that the expected total cost per time unit, including ordering cost...

  11. Supplier selection in automobile industry: A mixed balanced scorecard–fuzzy AHP approa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Rahiminezhad Galankashi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study proposed an integrated Balanced Scorecard–Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchical Process (BSC–FAHP model to select suppliers in the automotive industry. In spite of the vast amount of studies on supplier selection, the evaluation and selection of suppliers using the specific measures of the automotive industry are less investigated. In order to fill this gap, this research proposed a new BSC for supplier selection of automobile industry. Measures were gathered using a literature survey and accredited using Nominal Group Technique (NGT. Finally, a fuzzy AHP was used to select the best supplier.

  12. ASPECTS OF COMMODIFICATION OF RUSSIAN IN FINLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ханнес Виимаранта

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the commodification of Russian in Finland, where recent decades have seen a sharp rise in the size of the Russian-speaking population and the number of tourists from Russia. We particularly consider the use of Russian in the fields of traditional and medical tourism, education, and culture - all of them areas where Russian tourists show a strong preference for services in their native language. The need to provide a variety of services in Russian means that proficiency in Russian is a sig-nificant asset on the job market, both for immigrants and for the relatively small number of Finns who can speak the language. We also note that there is considerable demand among Russian-speaking parents in Fin-land for educational services to supplement their children’s school education.

  13. Business culture of russian entrepeneurs in their relations with workers (the end of 19th - beginning of 20th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Л И Бородкин

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider one of the most important components of pre-Revolutionary Russian entrepreneurial culture associated with the character of their relations with workers. The research is based on the archival materials of the two large textile manufactures located in the Central industrial region of Russia. The article presents different elements of the system of rewards and punishments practiced by entrepreneurs to stabilize working force, to attract and consolidate skilled and disciplined workers, to provide high quality of production.

  14. Polish-Bulgarian-Russian, Bulgarian-Polish-Russian or Russian-Bulgarian-Polish dictionary?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violetta Koseska-Toszewa

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Polish-Bulgarian-Russian, Bulgarian-Polish-Russian or Russian-Bulgarian-Polish dictionary? The trilingual dictionary (M. Duszkin, V. Koseska, J. Satoła and A. Tzoneva is being elaborated based on a working Polish-Bulgarian-Russian electronic parallel corpus authored by Maksim Duszkin, Violetta Koseska-Toszewa and Joanna Satoła-Staśkowiak, and works by A. Tzoneva. It is the first corpus comparing languages belonging to three different Slavic language groups: western, southern and eastern. Works on the dictionary are based on Gramatyka konfrontatywna bułgarsko-polska (Bulgarian-Polish confrontative grammar and the proposed there semantic-oriented interlanguage. Two types of classifiers have been introduced into the dictionary: classic and semantic. The trilingual dictionary will present a consistent and homogeneous set of facts of grammar and semantics. The Authors point out that in a traditional dictionary it is not clear for example whether aspect should be understood as imperfective / perfective form of a verb or as its meaning. Therefore in the dictionary forms and meaning are separated in a regular way. Imperfective verb form has two meanings: state and configuration of states and events culminating in state. Also perfective verb form has two meanings: event and configuration of states and events culminating in event. These meanings are described by the semantic classifiers, respectively, state and event, state1 and event1. The way of describing language units, mentioned in the article, gives a possibility to present language material (Polish, Bulgarian, Russian in any required order, hence the article’s title.

  15. AHP approach for supplier evaluation and selection in a steel manufacturing company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Tahriri

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Supplier selection is one of the most critical activities of purchasing management in supply chain. Supplier selection is a complex problem involving qualitative and quantitative multi-criteria. A trade-off between these tangible and intangible factors is essential in selecting the best supplier. The work incorporates AHP in choosing the best suppliers. The results suggest that AHP process makes it possible to introduce the optimum order quantities among the selected suppliers so that the Total Value of Purchasing (TVP becomes maximum. In this work, an AHP-based supplier selection model is formulated and then applied to a real case study for a steel manufacturing company in Malaysia. The use of the proposed model indicates that it can be applied to improve and assist decision making to resolve the supplier selection problem in choosing the optimal supplier combination. The work represents the systematic identification of the important criteria for supplier selection process. In addition, the results exhibit the application of development of a multi-criteria decision model for evaluation and selection of suppliers with proposed AHP model, which by scoring the performance of suppliers is able to reduce the time taken to select a vendor.

  16. PENGAMBILAN KEPUTUSAN UNTUK PEMILIHAN SUPPLIER BAHAN BAKU DENGAN PENDEKATAN ANALYTIC HIERARCHY PROCESSDI PR PAHALA SIDOARJO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miftakhul Jannah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Choosing right raw material supplier(s is essential to reassure raw material of good quality. There are several approcahes being used for supplier selection, including method of selection and evaluation system, and models. This study aimed at evaluating and developing raw material supplier selection method in PR Pahala, Sidoarjo, Indonesia, a cigarrette company. The model used in this study was QCDFR (Quality, Cost, Delivery, Flexibility, Responsiveness model. Several stages employed during development of the model were: establishing criterion, performance indicator of supplier of each criterion, alternative, criterion weight, performance indicator of supplier alternative and, making of spread sheet and reporting of evaluation election of supplier. There are several main suppliers of dried tobacco to be evaluated in this study, which come from four different areas, namely Madura, Bondowoso, Tulungagung, and Malang. The model developed should be able to assisst the company in the supplier selection to achieve supplier of the best performance.The most important criterion factor of supplier selection in PR Pahala is criterion of quality which had highest weight of 0,373, followed by cost of 0,266, criterion of responsivenessof 0,156, criterion of delivery of 0,128, criterion of flexibility of 0,077. Moreover, weight of selection alternative according to area were Madura with 0,311, Tulungagung 0,234, Bondowoso 0,253, Malang 0,202.

  17. Supplier Contribution to Profit Calculation and Supplier’s Expense Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Dorović

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Suppliers of goods present a very important cost object for trading companiessuch as retail. There is, however, no theoretical explanation as to how to calculate a contribution to profits generated from an individual supplier. This calculation is the subject of the paper. There is no calculation that shows how goods, provided from the supplier, create profit through gross margin and how the supplier`s behavior influences the costs (like delivery terms, costs of keeping specific goods fresh…. The final costs further decrease the profit generated by suppliers. As they have long found it illogical to calculate contribution to profit from suppliers in a production company, trading companies have long ignored it, as well. The Activity Based Costing (ABC, as the up-to-date system, still does not possess the cost hierarchy for suppliers as the cost object. The aim of the paper is to present a proposal for creating the cost hierarchy for suppliers in a trade company through creating a theoretical financial model as a method. The model also offers a theoretical explanation of how to calculate the contribution from a supplier or a group of suppliers. It is based on empirically evident activities in any supermarket or hypermarket, which makes it possible to create explanatory theoretical research.

  18. Green supplier development program selection using NGT and VIKOR under fuzzy environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awasthi, Anjali; Govindan, Kannan

    2016-01-01

    Developing environmental performance of suppliers is critical for green supply chain management. Organizations are nowadays investing in various green supplier development programs to enhance their supplier performances. The decision to select the right program for green supplier development...... is often a challenging decision due to lack of prior experience, limited quantitative information, specific context of the organization, and varying supplier backgrounds. This paper addresses the problem of evaluating green supplier development programs and proposes a fuzzy NGT (Nominal Group Technique......)-VIKOR (VlseKriterijumska Optimizacija I Kompromisno Resenje) based solution approach. NGT is used to identify criteria for evaluating green supplier development programs. Fuzzy theory is used to address qualitative (linguistic) ratings for the alternatives and the selected criteria used under lack...

  19. Supplier Selection for Food Industry: A Combination of Taguchi Loss Function and Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renna Magdalena

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Supplier selection is an important part of supply chain management process by which firms identify, evaluate, and establish contracts with suppliers. Deciding the right supplier can be a complex task. As such, various criteria must be taken into account to choose the best supplier. This study focused on the supply in the packaging division of a food industry in Denpasar-Bali. A combination of Taguchi Loss Function and fuzzy-AHP (Analytical Hierarchy Process Fuzzy Linear Programming was used to determine the best supplier. In this analysis, several suppliers’ criteria were considered, namely quality, delivery, completeness, quality loss and environmental management. By maximizing the suppliers’ performances based on each criterion and aggregating the suppliers’ performances based on the overall criteria, the best supplier was determined. Keywords: supplier selection, taguchi loss function, AHP, fuzzy linear programming,environment

  20. Examining the Modes Malware Suppliers Use to Provide Goods and Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Bailetti

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Malware suppliers use various modes to provide goods and services to customers. By mode, we mean “the way” the malware supplier chooses to function. These modes increase monetization opportunities and enable many security breaches worldwide. A theoretically sound framework that can be used to examine the various modes that malware suppliers use to produce and sell malware is needed. We apply a general model specified recently by Hagiu and Wright to study five modes that malware suppliers use to deliver goods and services to their customers. The framework presented in this article can be used to predict the mode in which a malware supplier will function; to study which types of malware suppliers, agents, and customers are attracted to each mode; to discover new modes; and to better understand the threat a malware supplier presents.

  1. Monetary reward speeds up voluntary saccades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lewis L; Chen, Y Mark; Zhou, Wu; Mustain, William D

    2014-01-01

    Past studies have shown that reward contingency is critical for sensorimotor learning, and reward expectation speeds up saccades in animals. Whether monetary reward speeds up saccades in human remains unknown. Here we addressed this issue by employing a conditional saccade task, in which human subjects performed a series of non-reflexive, visually-guided horizontal saccades. The subjects were (or were not) financially compensated for making a saccade in response to a centrally-displayed visual congruent (or incongruent) stimulus. Reward modulation of saccadic velocities was quantified independently of the amplitude-velocity coupling. We found that reward expectation significantly sped up voluntary saccades up to 30°/s, and the reward modulation was consistent across tests. These findings suggest that monetary reward speeds up saccades in human in a fashion analogous to how juice reward sped up saccades in monkeys. We further noticed that the idiosyncratic nasal-temporal velocity asymmetry was highly consistent regardless of test order, and its magnitude was not correlated with the magnitude of reward modulation. This suggests that reward modulation and the intrinsic velocity asymmetry may be governed by separate mechanisms that regulate saccade generation.

  2. Reward system dysfunction in autism spectrum disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte-Rüther, Martin; Nehrkorn, Barbara; Müller, Kristin; Fink, Gereon R.; Kamp-Becker, Inge; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Schultz, Robert T.; Konrad, Kerstin

    2013-01-01

    Although it has been suggested that social deficits of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are related to reward circuitry dysfunction, very little is known about the neural reward mechanisms in ASD. In the current functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we investigated brain activations in response to both social and monetary reward in a group of children with ASD, relative to matched controls. Participants with ASD showed the expected hypoactivation in the mesocorticolimbic circuitry in response to both reward types. In particular, diminished activation in the nucleus accumbens was observed when money, but not when social reward, was at stake, whereas the amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex were hypoactivated within the ASD group in response to both rewards. These data indicate that the reward circuitry is compromised in ASD in social as well as in non-social, i.e. monetary conditions, which likely contributes to atypical motivated behaviour. Taken together, with incentives used in this study sample, there is evidence for a general reward dysfunction in ASD. However, more ecologically valid social reward paradigms are needed to fully understand, whether there is any domain specificity to the reward deficit that appears evident in ASD, which would be most consistent with the ASD social phenotype. PMID:22419119

  3. Memory Consolidation and Neural Substrate of Reward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redolar-Ripoll, Diego

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this report is to analyze the relationships between reward and learning and memory processes. Different studies have described how information about rewards influences behavior and how the brain uses this reward information to control learning and memory processes. Reward nature seems to be processed in different ways by neurons in different brain structures, ranging from the detection and perception of rewards to the use of information about predicted rewards for the control of goal-directed behavior. The neural substrate underling this processing of reward information is a reliable way of improving learning and memory processes. Evidence from several studies indicates that this neural system can facilitate memory consolidation in a wide variety of learning tasks. From a molecular perspective, certain cardinal features of reward have been described as forms of memory. Studies of human addicts and studies in animal models of addiction show that chronic drug exposure produces stable changes in the brain at the cellular and molecular levels that underlie the long-lasting behavioral plasticity associated with addiction. These molecular and cellular adaptations involved in addiction are also implicated in learning and memory processes. Dopamine seems to be a critical common signal to activate different genetic mechanisms that ultimately remodel synapses and circuits. Despite memory is an active and complex process mediated by different brain areas, the neural substrate of reward is able to improve memory consolidation in a several paradigms. We believe that there are many equivalent traits between reward and learning and memory processes.

  4. Alternative of raw material’s suppliers using TOPSIS method in chicken slaughterhouse industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, R. M.; Rizkya, I.; Syahputri, K.; Anizar; Siregar, I.

    2018-02-01

    Chicken slaughterhouse industry is one of the fastest growing industries that depends on the freshness of raw materials. The raw materials quality arrive at the company depends heavily on the suppliers. Fresh chicken and frozen chicken meat are the main raw materials for this industry. Problems occurred by the suppliers are catering the amount of raw material needs that are not appropriate and also delay during delivery process. This condition causes disruption of the production process in the company. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the best suppliers to supply the main raw materials of fresh and frozen chicken meat on the slaughterhouse chicken industry. This study analyze the supplier’s capability by using TOPSIS method. This method use to find out the best supplier. The TOPSIS method is performed using the principle that chosen alternative must have the shortest distance from the positive solution and furthest from the ideal solution of the geometric point by using the Euclidean distance to determine the relative proximity of the optimum solution alternative. TOPSIS method found the rank of best supplier’s order is supplier A followed by supplier D, supplier B, supplier C, supplier E, supplier F, and supplier G. Based on the rank order obtained from each company, it will assist the company in prioritizing the order to the supplier with the best rank. Total supply from All suppliers are 885,994 kg per month. Based on the results of research, the top five suppliers have been sufficient to meet the needs of the company.

  5. Nuclear knowledge management: Russian lessons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagarinski, A.; Yakovlev, N.

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes the Soviet experience preserved in Russia and related to the strategy of nuclear knowledge preservation in period of fast nuclear energy deployment. It's also discusses the problems of 80-90ies: 'gap' between generations, loss of the experimental base, ageing of scientific teams, weakened governmental support, etc. Obviously resumed positive development of the Russian nuclear energy in the last years, as well as expectation of the 'Second Nuclear Era' of large-scale nuclear energy use in the country, has made the elimination of NKM defects and the development of human resources one of the most important and vital prerequisites of the further nuclear development. The paper considers the measures taken in this regard by the Russian nuclear industry, including international cooperation

  6. The risks and rewards for exploration and production ventures in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavers, B.A.

    1996-01-01

    At the 1995 APS conference, the author reviewed the difficult investment climate then prevailing in the Russian oil and gas industry. Today the focus is on the progress that has been made during the past twelve months. Will investor confidence be restored and maintained, or is ''plus ca change, plus c'est la meme chose ? Early western investors in joint ventures have had a very difficult time and few of them expect to recover more than a part of their original investment. Most Russian oil companies have virtually stopped investing and only survive by running up large debts with the tax authorities and other creditors. During the past year there have been a number of developments which impact on the risks and rewards of investing in Russia: re-distribution of gross revenue taxation; tax rebates; profit based taxes; production sharing legislation; pipeline access; and transportation tariffs are considered. (author)

  7. Heat transfer bibliography: russian works

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luikov, A V

    1965-02-01

    This bibliography of recent Russian publications in heat transfer is divided into the following categories: (1) books; (2) general; (3) experimental methods; (4) analytical calculation methods; (5) thermodynamics; (6) transfer processes involving phase conversions; ((7) transfer processes involving chemical conversions; (8) transfer processes involving very high velocities; (9) drying processes; (10) thermal properties of various materials, heat transfer agents and their determination methods; (11) high temperature physics and magneto- hydrodynamics; and (12) transfer processes in technological apparatuses. (357 refs.)

  8. Efficiency model of Russian banks

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlyuk, Dmitry

    2006-01-01

    The article deals with problems related to the stochastic frontier model of bank efficiency measurement. The model is used to study the efficiency of the banking sector of The Russian Federation. It is based on the stochastic approach both to the efficiency frontier location and to individual bank efficiency values. The model allows estimating bank efficiency values, finding relations with different macro- and microeconomic factors and testing some economic hypotheses.

  9. Corporate Corruption in Russian Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Ledeneva, A. V.

    2011-01-01

    To understand corporate corruption in Russia and to develop both effective anti-corruption policies at the macro level and anti-corruption strategies at the firm level one has to move beyond the predominant paradigm and to disaggregate its measurement. This article outlines the results of a pilot survey of CEOs of leading companies operating in the Russian regions with regard to their use of informal practices.

  10. Why Didn't They Ask the Supplier? The Utilization of Supplier Information and Knowledge in the Fuzzy Front End of New Product Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kopecká, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    In today’s world of multi-component and multi-technology products, firms are obliged to seek knowledge for new product development (NPD) from external sources. Supplier firms are one such external source. The thesis aims to contribute to the development of a theory on supplier involvement in new

  11. Dependency on suppliers as a peril in the acquisition of innovations? The role of buyer attractiveness in mitigating potential negative dependency effects in buyer–supplier relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiele, Holger; Vos, Frederik Guido Sebastiaan

    2015-01-01

    New product development occurs nowadays mostly in joint buyer–supplier projects, which require closer ties between the partners in order to mobilize their resources. One issue arising from this collaborative model is that the buyer tends to become more dependent on the supplier. Multiple cases of

  12. Russian RBMK reactor design information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-11-01

    This document concerns the systems, design, and operations of the graphite-moderated, boiling, water-cooled, channel-type (RBMK) reactors located in the former Soviet Union (FSU). The Russian Academy of Sciences Nuclear Safety Institute (NSI) in Moscow, Russia, researched specific technical questions that were formulated by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and provided detailed technical answers to those questions. The Russian response was prepared in English by NSI in a question-and-answer format. This report presents the results of that technical exchange in the context they were received from the NSI organization. Pacific Northwest Laboratory is generating this document to support the US Department of Energy (DOE) community in responding to requests from FSU states, which are seeking Western technological and financial assistance to improve the safety systems of the Russian-designed reactors. This report expands upon information that was previously available to the United States through bilateral information exchanges, international nuclear society meetings, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) reactor safety programs, and Research and Development Institute of Power Engineering (RDIPE) reports. The response to the PNL questions have not been edited or reviewed for technical consistency or accuracy by PNL staff or other US organizations, but are provided for use by the DOE community in the form they were received

  13. Russian Capital in Latvia: Trends and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N A Volgina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals the issue of the positions of Russian capital in Latvian market. The paper aims to estimate the volume and dynamics of Russian capital inflows into Latvia in compliance with Russian economic interests; to identify key sectors of Latvian economy that Russian capital is interested to invest in; to systemize information concerning Russian firms investing in Latvia; to assess the role of Russian capital in Latvian economy in comparison with other foreign investors; to propose author’s view on challenges and perspectives of Latvian-Russian investment cooperation in the situation of economic sanctions and geo-political conflict in east Ukraine. The author underlines that at the end of 2013, investments of Russian business to Latvia constituted about 5.0% of the total FDI stock and by that time Russia was the 7th largest investor with 0.5 bln euro of capital invested. The main sectors of Russian interests in Latvia are - gas supply, transport communications (transit corridors, banking and real estate. The article concludes that though the future of Russian-Latvian economic relations in the short-run is on a substantial pressure of geopolitical factors, the economic interests in mutual investment relations will prevail in the long-run perspectives.

  14. Learning Reward Uncertainty in the Basal Ganglia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G Mikhael

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Learning the reliability of different sources of rewards is critical for making optimal choices. However, despite the existence of detailed theory describing how the expected reward is learned in the basal ganglia, it is not known how reward uncertainty is estimated in these circuits. This paper presents a class of models that encode both the mean reward and the spread of the rewards, the former in the difference between the synaptic weights of D1 and D2 neurons, and the latter in their sum. In the models, the tendency to seek (or avoid options with variable reward can be controlled by increasing (or decreasing the tonic level of dopamine. The models are consistent with the physiology of and synaptic plasticity in the basal ganglia, they explain the effects of dopaminergic manipulations on choices involving risks, and they make multiple experimental predictions.

  15. Risk factors of metabolic syndrome among food suppliers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasdar Yahya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Objective. As a risk factor for chronic diseases, metabolic syndrome (MS is increasing at an alarming rate. The prevalence of MS varies according to lifestyle and occupation in different populations. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of MS and its components in food suppliers. Methods. A total of 112 food suppliers were randomly selected from all around the city. Data collection tools included demographic, physical activity, and food frequency questionnaires. Body composition was measured using Bio-Electrical Body Analyzer. A sample of 5 ml of fasting blood was taken from participants to assess lipid profile, blood sugar, insulin, and liver enzymes. The data were analyzed using χ2, Kolmogorov–Smirnov and ANOVA tests. Results. Participants’ mean BMI was 27.1 ± 3.9 kg/m2, 43.6% were overweight, and 26.4% were obese. Consumption of vegetables was less and of meats more than recommended amounts. The prevalence of MS was 45.5% (51 people, which increased with aging (p = 0.02. Among factors causing MS, the most common one was waist-to-hip ratio (WHR > 0.09 (72.7%, followed by high triglyceride and low HDL. Conclusion. In this study, the prevalence of MS among food suppliers was higher than the world average and than prevalence in other countries. WHR (or obesity was found to be the most important risk factor for MS. To reduce the risk of MS, changing dietary consumption habits and increased physical activity are recommended to persons with high risk and sedentary occupations.

  16. Reward disrupts reactivated human skill memory

    OpenAIRE

    Dayan, Eran; Laor-Maayany, Rony; Censor, Nitzan

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence across species and memory domains shows that when an existing memory is reactivated, it becomes susceptible to modifications. However, the potential role of reward signals in these mechanisms underlying human memory dynamics is unknown. Leaning on a wealth of findings on the role of reward in reinforcing memory, we tested the impact of reinforcing a skill memory trace with monetary reward following memory reactivation, on strengthening of the memory trace. Reinforcing re...

  17. The endocannabinoid system in brain reward processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solinas, M; Goldberg, S R; Piomelli, D

    2008-05-01

    Food, drugs and brain stimulation can serve as strong rewarding stimuli and are all believed to activate common brain circuits that evolved in mammals to favour fitness and survival. For decades, endogenous dopaminergic and opioid systems have been considered the most important systems in mediating brain reward processes. Recent evidence suggests that the endogenous cannabinoid (endocannabinoid) system also has an important role in signalling of rewarding events. First, CB(1) receptors are found in brain areas involved in reward processes, such as the dopaminergic mesolimbic system. Second, activation of CB(1) receptors by plant-derived, synthetic or endogenous CB(1) receptor agonists stimulates dopaminergic neurotransmission, produces rewarding effects and increases rewarding effects of abused drugs and food. Third, pharmacological or genetic blockade of CB(1) receptors prevents activation of dopaminergic neurotransmission by several addictive drugs and reduces rewarding effects of food and these drugs. Fourth, brain levels of the endocannabinoids anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol are altered by activation of reward processes. However, the intrinsic activity of the endocannabinoid system does not appear to play a facilitatory role in brain stimulation reward and some evidence suggests it may even oppose it. The influence of the endocannabinoid system on brain reward processes may depend on the degree of activation of the different brain areas involved and might represent a mechanism for fine-tuning dopaminergic activity. Although involvement of the various components of the endocannabinoid system may differ depending on the type of rewarding event investigated, this system appears to play a major role in modulating reward processes.

  18. An expert system for reward systems design.

    OpenAIRE

    Erturk, Alper

    2000-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Today's business environment is a highly competitive marketplace. In this competition, organizations distribute numerous rewards to motivate, attract and retain employees, such as pay, fringe benefits and promotions. However, not all managers have the necessary knowledge and expertise to effectively decide and structure reward systems. This thesis presents an expert system to assist managers with designing the most appropriate reward s...

  19. The Patent Literature As A Shortcut To Identify Knowledge Suppliers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Peder Veng

    patents which decreases the time span between a patent is filed and its value can be evaluated when searching the patent literature. A potential benefit thereof could be that the patent literature could become relevant in order to identify potential knowledge suppliers.......The present paper explores characteristics of valuable patents that have been subject to litigation which resulted in some of the largest fines to patent infringers reported in history. The valuable patents are compared with less valuable patents in order to identify new methods of evaluating...

  20. [Willingness of potential service suppliers to provide cancer screening in urban China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, A Y; Shi, J F; Qiu, W Q; Dong, P; Sun, Z X; Huang, H Y; Sun, X J; Liu, G X; Wang, D B; Bai, Y N; Liao, X Z; Ren, J S; Guo, L W; Lan, L; Zhou, Q; Zhou, J Y; Yang, L; Wang, J L; Qin, M F; Zhang, Y Z; Song, B B; Xing, X J; Zhu, L; Mai, L; Du, L B; Liu, Y Q; Lou, P A; Cai, B; Sun, X H; Wu, S L; Qi, X; Zhang, K; He, J; Dai, M

    2018-02-10

    Objective: Based on the investment for potential suppliers of cancer screening services, we assessed the reasons that affecting their participation motivation related to the long-term sustainability of cancer screening in China. Methods: Hospitals that had never been involved in any national level cancer screening project were selected by using the convenient sampling method within the 16 project cities of Cancer Screening Program in Urban China (CanSPUC) with 1 or 2 hospitals for each city. All the managers from the institutional/department level and professional staff working and providing screening services in these hospitals, were interviewed by paper-based questionnaire. SAS 9.4 was used for logical verification and data analysis. Results: A total of 31 hospitals (18 hospitals at the third level and, 13 hospitals at the second level) and 2 201 staff (508 hospital and clinic unit managers, 1 693 professional staff) completed the interview. All the hospitals guaranteed their potential capacity in service providing. 92.5% hospital managers showed strong willingness in providing cancer screening services, while 68.3% of them declared that the project fund-raising function was the responsibility of the government. For professional staff, their prospect gains from providing screening service would include development on professional skills (72.4%) and material rewards (46.8%). Their main worries would include extra work for CanSPUC might interfere their routine work (42.1%) plus inadequate compensation (41.8%). Medians of the prospect compensation for extra work ran between 20 to 90 Chinese Yuan per screening item respectively. For all the screening items, workers from the third-level hospitals expected their compensation to be twice as much of those working at the second level hospitals. Conclusion: Professional capacity building and feasible material incentive seemed to be the two key factors that influenced the sustainability and development of the programs.

  1. Self-stimulating rats combine subjective reward magnitude and subjective reward rate multiplicatively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, M I; Gallistel, C R

    1998-07-01

    For rats that bar pressed for intracranial electrical stimulation in a 2-lever matching paradigm with concurrent variable interval schedules of reward, the authors found that the time allocation ratio is based on a multiplicative combination of the ratio of subjective reward magnitudes and the ratio of the rates of reward. Multiplicative combining was observed in a range covering approximately 2 orders of magnitude in the ratio of the rates of reward from about 1:10 to 10:1) and an order of magnitude change in the size of rewards. After determining the relation between the pulse frequency of stimulation and subjective reward magnitude, the authors were able to predict from knowledge of the subjective magnitudes of the rewards and the obtained relative rates of reward the subject's time allocation ratio over a range in which it varied by more than 3 orders of magnitude.

  2. Scheme to reward microgenerators exporting excess electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Many suppliers are offering tariffs for export. However, many of the tariffs on offer deliver a value that is higher than the underlying commercial value of the electricity to the supplier. In most cases suppliers do not currently register the export within the industry's settlement arrangements and so gain no value from the export they have purchased. It is clear from this that the current situation is unlikely to be sustainable and suppliers will not be able to offer significant payment for a product that has little commercial value to them when the numbers of exporting microgenerators increases. Initiatives to simplify and streamline the existing trading arrangements should be progressed; this should include simplification of processes for registering new export customers and improvements in the provision of new export meters. Suppliers should initiate the change management procedures required to progress Option 1 (allowing suppliers to register a customer's export and import under a single registration (a single MPAN)) through the industry's normal change management procedures. Ofgem should ensure that its review of the Structure of Distribution charges includes the treatment of DUoS charges for customers with microgeneration and ensure that they properly reflect the benefits of microgeneration. Any changes that are progressed should not prevent the subsequent introduction of 'smart meters' that could process both import and export electricity data. Ofgem should ensure that the cost effectiveness of including both an import and export capability in all new metering systems is assessed as part of the metering innovation agenda. Suppliers should make the prices they are offering for export more widely available in a simple and easy to understand form. Government should consider whether additional intervention is required to yield a higher value for exported electricity (or total generation) via mechanisms such as those contemplated under Option 3 (The supplier

  3. An Expert System for Reward Systems Design

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Erturk, Alper

    2000-01-01

    Today's business environment is a highly competitive marketplace. In this competition, organizations distribute numerous rewards to motivate, attract and retain employees, such as pay, fringe benefits and promotions...

  4. Neural processing of reward in adolescent rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas W. Simon

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Immaturities in adolescent reward processing are thought to contribute to poor decision making and increased susceptibility to develop addictive and psychiatric disorders. Very little is known; however, about how the adolescent brain processes reward. The current mechanistic theories of reward processing are derived from adult models. Here we review recent research focused on understanding of how the adolescent brain responds to rewards and reward-associated events. A critical aspect of this work is that age-related differences are evident in neuronal processing of reward-related events across multiple brain regions even when adolescent rats demonstrate behavior similar to adults. These include differences in reward processing between adolescent and adult rats in orbitofrontal cortex and dorsal striatum. Surprisingly, minimal age related differences are observed in ventral striatum, which has been a focal point of developmental studies. We go on to discuss the implications of these differences for behavioral traits affected in adolescence, such as impulsivity, risk-taking, and behavioral flexibility. Collectively, this work suggests that reward-evoked neural activity differs as a function of age and that regions such as the dorsal striatum that are not traditionally associated with affective processing in adults may be critical for reward processing and psychiatric vulnerability in adolescents.

  5. How Do Contractors Select Suppliers for Greener Construction Projects? The Case of Three Swedish Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Mokhlesian

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There are many studies of contractor selection based on clients and the selection of suppliers by contractors. However, supplier selection specifically related to green construction projects has been much less studied. Green construction differs from conventional construction because of differences in its underlying principles and use of environmentally-friendly materials and technologies. This paper studies how procurers in contractor companies in Sweden adopt green projects and how contractor perception of supplier mastery of green knowledge affects supplier selection. The investigation is based on a set of semi-structured interviews conducted among three large contractors in Sweden. A main finding is that the perceived differences between green and conventional projects do not change supplier selection dramatically. An implication is that “greener projects” is a more appropriate denotation than “green project”. Evidence shows that suppliers’ green knowledge is an important factor in supplier selection, as respondents rated suppliers’ knowledge of green projects as very important, and to fix his, there was a consensus among respondents about the need for close collaboration between contractors and suppliers. To ensure knowledge acquisition from suppliers and to increase their competitive advantage over rivals, contractors collaborate with their suppliers in a partnering setting. It is anticipated that the results of this study will be used to fill the gap in the literature on supplier selection in green projects and can also be used for construction firms contemplating getting involved in green projects.

  6. The Establishment of a Green Supplier Selection and Guidance Mechanism with the ANP and IPA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Chao Chung

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to establish a green supplier selection and guidance mechanism by integrating the features of an ANP (Analytic Network Process and an IPA (Importance–Performance Analysis to achieve sustainable management for green supply chains. Using an expert survey, this study developed green supplier selection criteria. It adopted an ANP, which allows for interdependencies and feedback between the various criteria, to select competitive green suppliers. Then, it used an IPA, which can analyze the criteria’s significance and performance levels, to provide green suppliers with direction for guidance and improvements. The green supplier selection and guidance mechanism featuring an ANP and IPA is thus established and validated through case studies. The research results showed the following: (1 the green supplier selection criteria comprise a total of 11 performance evaluation criteria from the three dimensions of operation, competence, and environmental consciousness; (2 as shown by the APN evaluation results, environmental benefits, environmental regulations, finance, technological competence, and delivery time are the top five among the overall green criteria of the company; the performance of the various suppliers is thus arranged in order, and the most competitive supplier is selected; (3 an IPA is used to analyze the criteria’s significance and supplier performance levels and to provide the suppliers with suggestions on priority improvements, including implementing the requirements in the environmental regulations, establishing comprehensive financial management procedures, improving corporate technological competence, and consolidating customer service; (4 it is suggested that an ANP and IPA should be integrated in the applications, which could simplify the green supplier selection and guidance mechanisms and increase the efficiency of supplier management, thus creating a three-win situation for the clients, the company, and the

  7. Supplier selection criteria for sustainable supply chain management in thermal power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firoz, Faisal; Narayan Biswal, Jitendra; Satapathy, Suchismita

    2018-02-01

    Supplies are always in great demand when it comes to industrial operations. The quality of raw material their price accompanied by sustainability and environmental effects are a major concern for industrial operators these days. Supply Chain Management is the subject which is focused on how the supply of different products is carried out. The motive is that each operation performed can be optimized and inherently the efficiency of the whole chain is integrated. In this paper we will be dealing with all the criteria that are required to be evaluated before selecting a supplier, in particular, focusing on Thermal Power Plant. The most suppliers of the thermal power plant are the coal suppliers. The quality of coal directly determines the efficiency of the whole plant. And when there are matters concerning coal environmental pollution plays a very crucial role. ANP method has been used here to select suppliers of thermal power sectors in Indian context. After applying ANP to prioritize the sustainable supplier selection criteria, it is found that for thermal power industries best suppliers are Nationalized/State owned suppliers then 2nd ranked suppliers are imported supplier. Private owned suppliers are ranked least. So private owned suppliers must be more concerned about their performance. Among these suppliers it is found that to compete in the global market privatized suppliers have to give more emphasize on most important criteria like sustainability, then fuel cost and quality. Still some sub-criteria like a clean program, environmental issues, quality, reliability, service rate, investment in high technology, green transportation channel, waste management etc needs for continuous improvement as per their priority.

  8. Social Influences on Creativity: Interactive Effects of Reward and Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amabile, Teresa M.

    In a test of intrinsic motivation hypothesis of creativity, 60 undergraduate women did an artistic creativity task with either the expectation of receiving a reward or no expectation of reward. Reward was crossed with choice in task engagement, such that half of the reward Ss contracted to do the task in order to receive reward, and half simply…

  9. Neural activation to monetary reward is associated with amphetamine reward sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Natania A; Gorka, Stephanie M; Weafer, Jessica; Langenecker, Scott A; de Wit, Harriet; Phan, K Luan

    2018-03-14

    One known risk factor for drug use and abuse is sensitivity to rewarding effects of drugs. It is not known whether this risk factor extends to sensitivity to non-drug rewards. In this study with healthy young adults, we examined the association between sensitivity to the subjective rewarding effects of amphetamine and a neural indicator of anticipation of monetary reward. We hypothesized that greater euphorigenic response to amphetamine would be associated with greater neural activation to anticipation of monetary reward (Win > Loss). Healthy participants (N = 61) completed four laboratory sessions in which they received d-amphetamine (20 mg) and placebo in alternating order, providing self-report measures of euphoria and stimulation at regular intervals. At a separate visit 1-3 weeks later, participants completed the guessing reward task (GRT) during fMRI in a drug-free state. Participants reporting greater euphoria after amphetamine also exhibited greater neural activation during monetary reward anticipation in mesolimbic reward regions, including the bilateral caudate and putamen. This is the first study to show a relationship between neural correlates of monetary reward and sensitivity to the subjective rewarding effects of amphetamine in humans. These findings support growing evidence that sensitivity to reward in general is a risk factor for drug use and abuse, and suggest that sensitivity of drug-induced euphoria may reflect a general sensitivity to rewards. This may be an index of vulnerability for drug use or abuse.

  10. Major depressive disorder is characterized by greater reward network activation to monetary than pleasant image rewards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoski, Moria J; Rittenberg, Alison; Dichter, Gabriel S

    2011-12-30

    Anhedonia, the loss of interest or pleasure in normally rewarding activities, is a hallmark feature of unipolar Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). A growing body of literature has identified frontostriatal dysfunction during reward anticipation and outcomes in MDD. However, no study to date has directly compared responses to different types of rewards such as pleasant images and monetary rewards in MDD. To investigate the neural responses to monetary and pleasant image rewards in MDD, a modified Monetary Incentive Delay task was used during functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess neural responses during anticipation and receipt of monetary and pleasant image rewards. Participants included nine adults with MDD and 13 affectively healthy controls. The MDD group showed lower activation than controls when anticipating monetary rewards in right orbitofrontal cortex and subcallosal cortex, and when anticipating pleasant image rewards in paracingulate and supplementary motor cortex. The MDD group had relatively greater activation in right putamen when anticipating monetary versus pleasant image rewards, relative to the control group. Results suggest reduced reward network activation in MDD when anticipating rewards, as well as relatively greater hypoactivation to pleasant image than monetary rewards. 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Random reward priming is task-contingent: The robustness of the 1-trial reward priming effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Árni Gunnar Ásgeirsson

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Consistent financial reward of particular features influences the allocation of visual attention in many ways. More surprising are 1-trial reward priming effects on attention where reward schedules are random and reward on one trial influences attentional allocation on the next. Those findings are thought to reflect that rewarded features become more salient than unrewarded ones on the subsequent trial. Here we attempt to conceptually replicate this effect, testing its generalizability. In three versions of an analogous paradigm to the additional singleton paradigm involving singleton search for a Gabor patch of odd spatial frequency we found no evidence of reward priming, while we only partially replicate the reward priming in the exact original paradigm tested by Hickey and colleagues. The results cast doubt on the proposal that random reward enhances salience, suggested in the original papers, and highlight the need for a more nuanced account. In many other paradigms reward effects have been found to progress gradually, becoming stronger as they build up, and we argue that for robust reward priming, reward schedules need to be more consistent than in the original 1-trial reward priming paradigm.

  12. THE MYTH OF THE RUSSIAN EXISTENTIAL THREAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Putin’s intent. What we can do is learn from his actions, and what we see suggests growing Russian capabilities, significant military modernization...AU/ACSC/POWELL, N/AY16 AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE AIR UNIVERSITY THE MYTH OF THE RUSSIAN EXISTENTIAL THREAT...The methodology focuses on Russian capability, capacity, and intention to threaten NATO members’ existence. While Russia does possess nuclear weapons

  13. Russian Model Of The Administrative Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalja I. Jaroshenko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available On December 25, 2014 it would be twenty-one year since the Constitution of the Russian Federation was adopted on the national referendum on December 12, 1993. During this time, almost all constitutional provisions are implemented. The key point of course was the judicial reform in Russia, launched simultaneously with the adoption of Constitution of the Russian Federation. Adopted the new Civil Procedural Code, Criminal Procedural Code, Arbitration Procedural Code of the Russian Federation, Federal Constitutional Law "On the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation", Federal Constitutional Law "On the courts of general jurisdiction in Russia", Federal Constitutional Law "On the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation". However, during twenty-one year of Russian Constitution work, the question on establishment of administrative courts in our country has not been resolved. Merger of the Supreme Court and the Supreme Arbitration Court of the Russian Federation, which happened in the year 2014, also shown the need to resolve the status of administrative courts in Russia. Previously submitted to the State Duma of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation the draft of the Federal Constitutional Law "On the Federal Administrative Courts in the Russian Federation" and is on the revision, which does not correspond to changes in the judicial system of the Russian Federation. Despite the failure of the Federal Constitutional Law "On the Federal Administrative Courts in the Russian Federation", in the opinion of the author, and it should be called that way, it Russia has already developed an own model of the Russian administrative justice, which is very specific.

  14. Contaminant transport modeling studies of Russian sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, Chin-Fu

    1993-01-01

    Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) established mechanisms that promoted cooperation between U.S. and Russian scientists in scientific research as well as environmental technology transfer. Using Russian experience and U.S technology, LBL developed approaches for field investigations, site evaluation, waste disposal, and remediation at Russian contaminated sites. LBL assessed a comprehensive database as well as an actual, large-scale contaminated site to evaluate existing knowledge of and test mathematical models used for the assessment of U.S. contaminated sites

  15. Russian- Chinese relations : towards an energy partnership

    OpenAIRE

    Garanina, Olga

    2007-01-01

    18 p.; This paper aims to investigate the Russian-Chinese energy relations in the context of evolution of bilateral strategic relations since 1991.The research is focused on Russia and encompasses three main aspects: strategic approach of Russian-Chinese relations, Russian hydrocarbons production and export potential and prospects for the Eastern Russia. The paper is based on qualitative analysis. It shows that the framework of bilateral relations is globally favourable for creation of costly...

  16. Production control and supplier selection under demand disruptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianzhe Chen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effects of demand disruptions on production control and supplier selection in a three-echelon supply chain system. The customer demand is modeled as a jump-diffusion process in a continuous-time setting. A two-number production-inventory policy is implemented in the production control model for the manufacturer. The objective is to minimize the long-term average total cost consisting of backlog cost, holding cost, switching cost, and ordering cost. The simulated annealing method is applied to search the optimal critical switching values. Furthermore, an improved analytical hierarchy process (AHP is proposed to select the best supplier, based on quantitative factors such as the optimal long-term total cost obtained through the simulated annealing method under demand disruptions and qualitative factors such as quality and service. Numerical studies are conducted to demonstrate the effects of demand disruptions in the face of various risk scenarios. Managerial insights from simulation results are provided as well. Our approaches can be implemented as the “stress test” for companies in front of various supply chain disruption scenarios.

  17. Improving environmental impact and cost assessment for supplier evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beucker, Severin; Lang, Claus

    2004-02-01

    Improving a company"s environmental and financial performance necessitates the evaluation of environmental impacts deriving from the production and cost effects of corporate actions. These effects have to be made transparent and concrete targets have to be developed. Such an evaluation has to be done on a regular basis but with limited expenses. To achieve this, different instruments of environmental controlling such as LCA and environmental performance indicators have to be combined with methods from cost accounting. Within the research project CARE (Computer Aided Resource Efficiency Accounting for Medium-Sized Enterprises), the method Resource Efficiency Accounting (REA) is used to give the participating companies new insights into hidden costs and environmental effects of their production and products. The method combines process based cost accounting with environmental impact assessment methodology and offers results that can be integrated into a company"s environmental controlling system and business processes like cost accounting, supplier assessment, etc. Much of the data necessary for the combined assessment can be available within a company"s IT system and therefore can be efficiently used for the assessment process. The project CARE puts a strong focus on the use of company data and information systems for the described assessment process and offers a methodological background for the evaluation and the structuring of such data. Besides the general approach of the project CARE the paper will present results from a case study in which the described approach is used for the evaluation of suppliers.

  18. Types of unethical tactics in negotiation between buyer and supplier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božidar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: This article researches the kinds of unethical tactics, which can use customers or suppliers to achieve better negotiating outcome. Purpose: Determine which tactics they used, from where they rise from and what the other authors about resulting of using unethical tactics. Method: Analysis of articles from Ebsco and ProQuest databases. Results: Getting of ethical knowledge, types of unethical negotiation tactics and awareness of the limits of ethics in the negotiations process between suppliers and customers. Organization: Managers can gain the recognition of unethical tactics, their using in the negotiation process and the construction of negotiating temperament or even competence. The research contributes to a better achievement of the performance of the organization. The results of this article can contribute to the negotiators decision-making on the use of unethical tactics. Society: Ethical negotiation helps to improve the reputation and respect of the organization, which represents the negotiator. Originality: In a review of existing articles and searches we have not found similar studies to investigate the unethical negotiating tactics. Limitations/Future Research: The article is limited to fifteen articles and three books.

  19. Reward guides vision when it's your thing: trait reward-seeking in reward-mediated visual priming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clayton Hickey

    Full Text Available Reward-related mesolimbic dopamine is thought to play an important role in guiding animal behaviour, biasing approach towards potentially beneficial environmental stimuli and away from objects unlikely to garner positive outcome. This is considered to result in part from an impact on perceptual and attentional processes: dopamine initiates a series of cognitive events that result in the priming of reward-associated perceptual features. We have provided behavioural and electrophysiological evidence that this mechanism guides human vision in search, an effect we refer to as reward priming. We have also demonstrated that there is substantial individual variability in this effect. Here we show that behavioural differences in reward priming are predicted remarkably well by a personality index that captures the degree to which a person's behaviour is driven by reward outcome. Participants with reward-seeking personalities are found to be those who allocate visual resources to objects characterized by reward-associated visual features. These results add to a rapidly developing literature demonstrating the crucial role reward plays in attentional control. They additionally illustrate the striking impact personality traits can have on low-level cognitive processes like perception and selective attention.

  20. An integrative multi-criteria decision making techniques for supplier evaluation problem with its application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatrias, D.; Kamil, I.; Meilani, D.

    2018-03-01

    Coordinating business operation with suppliers becomes increasingly important to survive and prosper under the dynamic business environment. A good partnership with suppliers not only increase efficiency, but also strengthen corporate competitiveness. Associated with such concern, this study aims to develop a practical approach of multi-criteria supplier evaluation using combined methods of Taguchi loss function (TLF), best-worst method (BWM) and VIse Kriterijumska Optimizacija kompromisno Resenje (VIKOR). A new framework of integrative approach adopting these methods is our main contribution for supplier evaluation in literature. In this integrated approach, a compromised supplier ranking list based on the loss score of suppliers is obtained using efficient steps of a pairwise comparison based decision making process. Implemetation to the case problem with real data from crumb rubber industry shows the usefulness of the proposed approach. Finally, a suitable managerial implication is presented.

  1. Decision support model for selecting and evaluating suppliers in the construction industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Schramm

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A structured evaluation of the construction industry's suppliers, considering aspects which make their quality and credibility evident, can be a strategic tool to manage this specific supply chain. This study proposes a multi-criteria decision model for suppliers' selection from the construction industry, as well as an efficient evaluation procedure for the selected suppliers. The model is based on SMARTER (Simple Multi-Attribute Rating Technique Exploiting Ranking method and its main contribution is a new approach to structure the process of suppliers' selection, establishing explicit strategic policies on which the company management system relied to make the suppliers selection. This model was applied to a Civil Construction Company in Brazil and the main results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed model. This study allowed the development of an approach to Construction Industry which was able to provide a better relationship among its managers, suppliers and partners.

  2. INPO Perspectives and Activities to Enhance Supplier Human Performance and Safety Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, R. J.

    2016-01-01

    Within their own organizations, utilities have made significant improvements in human performance and safety culture, supported by a strong community of practice through INPO and WANO. In recent years, utilities have been making increasing use of suppliers for design, construction, inspection and maintenance services in support of their NPPs. Many of these suppliers do not have the benefit of being members of a community of practice when it comes to human performance and safety culture. To help the supplier community make improvements similar to what the utilities have achieved, INPO has recently expanded its Supplier Participant program to address the issue of human performance and safety culture in the supplier community. The intent of this paper will be to share the INPO’s perspectives and activities in helping suppliers of services and products to NPPs enhance their human performance and safety culture. (author)

  3. Strategic wholesale pricing for an incumbent supplier facing with a competitive counterpart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianwu

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a wholesale pricing strategy for an incumbent supplier facing with a competitive counterpart. We propose a profit function which considers both the present loss and future loss from a wholesale price and then study the optimal wholesale prices for different objectives about this profit function for the incumbent supplier. First, we achieve an optimal wholesale price for the incumbent supplier to maximize his expected profit. Then, to reduce the risk originating from the fluctuation in the competitive supplier's wholesale price, we integrate the conditional value-at-risk (CVaR) measure in financial risk management into this study and derive an optimal wholesale price to maximize CVaR about profit for the incumbent supplier. Besides, the properties of the two optimal wholesale prices are discussed. Finally, some management insights are suggested for the incumbent supplier in a competitive setting.

  4. Mixed integer linear programming model for dynamic supplier selection problem considering discounts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Wicaksono Purnawan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Supplier selection is one of the most important elements in supply chain management. This function involves evaluation of many factors such as, material costs, transportation costs, quality, delays, supplier capacity, storage capacity and others. Each of these factors varies with time, therefore, supplier identified for one period is not necessarily be same for the next period to supply the same product. So, mixed integer linear programming (MILP was developed to overcome the dynamic supplier selection problem (DSSP. In this paper, a mixed integer linear programming model is built to solve the lot-sizing problem with multiple suppliers, multiple periods, multiple products and quantity discounts. The buyer has to make a decision for some products which will be supplied by some suppliers for some periods cosidering by discount. To validate the MILP model with randomly generated data. The model is solved by Lingo 16.

  5. Supplier selection for a tire company with AHP and PROMETHEE methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atakan ALKAN

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Supplier selection is very important for a company to be successful in a globalized competitive environment. The aims at choosing the optimal supplier; to increase customer satisfaction, improve the competitive ability and continue to exist at minimal cost. This study was intended to choose the most suitable raw material supplier in a company engaged in the production of agricultural tires. In the study Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP and Promethee I-II methods were applied in order to select the most optimal supplier to a company. In conclusion, AHP and Promethee I-II methods used by the company to determine the suppliers with the optimal supplier and brought several recommendations.

  6. The Ideal Criteria of Supplier Selection for SMEs Food Processing Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramlan Rohaizan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Selection of good supplier is important to determine the performance and profitability of SMEs food processing industry. The lack of managerial capability on supplier selection in SMEs food processing industry affects the competitiveness of SMEs food processing industry. This research aims to determine the ideal criteria of supplier for food processing industry using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP. The research was carried out in a quantitative method by distributing questionnaires to 50 SMEs food processing industries. The collected data analysed using Expert Choice software to rank the supplier selection criteria. The result shows that criteria for supplier selection are ranked by cost, quality, service, delivery and management and organisation while purchase cost, audit result, defect analysis, transportation cost and fast responsiveness are the first five sub-criteria. The result of this research intends to improve managerial capabilities of SMEs food processing industry in supplier selection.

  7. A multiobjective optimization model for optimal supplier selection in multiple sourcing environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Mehlawat

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Supplier selection is an important concern of a firm’s competitiveness, more so in the context of the imperative of supply-chain management. In this paper, we use an approach to a multiobjective supplier selection problem in which the emphasis is on building supplier portfolios. The supplier evaluation and order allocation is based upon the criteria of expected unit price, expected score of quality and expected score of delivery. A fuzzy approach is proposed that relies on nonlinear S-shape membership functions to generate different efficient supplier portfolios. Numerical experiments conducted on a data set of a multinational company are provided to demonstrate the applicability and efficiency of the proposed approach to real-world applications of supplier selection

  8. Utility Expectations for Human Performance and Safety Culture in the Supplier Community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clewett, L. K.

    2016-01-01

    Canadian NPPs, like many others around the world, make use of suppliers for the design and execution of major projects, and to support on-going inspection and maintenance activities. The work performed by suppliers today represents a significant portion of the work performed at utility NPPs, and, at times, can even exceed the work performed by utility staff. It is imperative for both the utility and the supplier work forces to work in collaboration to ensure that the probability of consequential errors impacting plant safety or contributing to broader enterprise risk is kept very low. An important element for keeping the risk low is for utilities to work with their suppliers to develop a high degree of confidence that the supplier workforce is performing to the same standards of human performance and safety culture as its own staff. This paper will provide a senior utility executive’s expectations and perspective on achieving excellence in supplier human performance and safety culture. (author)

  9. Sustainable development of Russian regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Kuz’menkova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development of administrative-territorial units (ATU refers to the main directions of Russian Federation state policy to ensure the security of the national economy to meet the vital needs of people and the preservation of such a possibility for the future generations. The article describes and analyzes the factors that have the most significant impact on the level of ATE development. The dynamics of the gross output of agriculture in Russia and its critical evaluation are presents. It was revealed that the development of the region is the basis of the national economy security. At present, the concept of “sustainable development” in Russia is relevant and the role of regions in the sustainable development of the Russian Federation is constantly increasing. Stability of self-financing of the regional economy is achieved through conducting effective fiscal, financial, credit, tax and price policy, establishment of equal inter-budgetary relations with the federal center, the development of the securities market, increasing the volume of exports. Conducted research allowed: to identify the main factors influencing the sustainable development of Russia regions. The reasons for the backlog of economy of the Smolensk region of the nationwide growth rate and direction of their elimination are examined. Formation of the forecast of domestic agriculture development in the period up to 2020 should be based on the priority position of the industry in the agricultural sector, which is determined by its decisive role in meeting the population’s needs for basic food products. Prospective volumes of production of major agricultural products are based on the need to meet the challenges provided by the Russian Federation Government Decree.

  10. Nuclear knowledge management: Russian lessons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagarinski, A.; Yakovlev, N.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Union, the issue of generation and accumulation of nuclear knowledge and human resources for realizing this knowledge in practice, have received strong governmental support, and were subject to strict control of the state. This policy, despite the well-known Russian difficulties related to the lag of computational base and complicated scientific and technical exchange with the West ('Iron Curtain'), in the 50-70's has made it possible both to solve the required defence tasks and ensure development of peaceful nuclear energy applications in the Soviet Union. The report briefly summarizes the main achievements in the field of nuclear knowledge management strategy in the period of fast nuclear energy deployment, which include: - establishment, on the base of the 'Uranium Project' founder institutions, of a series of nuclear science and engineering centers (Arzamas, Dimitrovgrad, Dubna, etc.), both within the nuclear branch and in the USSR and Soviet Republics' Academies of Science; - formation of scientific schools headed by eminent scientists, on the base of major nuclear energy issues, gathering creative teams with 'natural' nuclear knowledge transfer; - harmonious nuclear education system, including a large network of higher professional education institutions, which had a principal achievement - close relationship with the leading nuclear research centers; - creation of a regional centers' network intended for regular retraining of nuclear specialists; - creation and development of national centers for collecting, processing and evaluation of nuclear and other data (materials, thermal physics, etc.) necessary for nuclear engineering, as well as for development of algorithms and codes. Russian nuclear program as a whole, and KNM system in particular, received three severe crises in a short time period: - Chernobyl accident (1986); - restructuring of the political system (end of 80's - beginning of 90's); - collapse of the Soviet Union (1991). The report

  11. Supplier Relationship Management at Army Life Cycle Management Commands: Gap Analysis of Best Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    contracts. - 76 - In step 9, maintaining momentum in supplier management , the relationship between the customer and supplier continues to develop...REPORT DATE 2012 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Supplier Relationship Management at Army Life... Relationship Management at Army Life Cycle Management Commands Gap Analysis of Best Practices Nancy Y. Moore, Amy G. Cox, Clifford A. Grammich

  12. Team Risk Management: A New Model for Customer-Supplier Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-07-01

    Management : A New Model for Customer - Supplier Relationships Ronald P. Higuera "Audrey J. Dorofee Julie A. Walker Ray C. Williams July 1994 ""•// 94...N/A N/A N/A 11. TITLE (Include Secuity Claaaificatioa) Team Risk Management : A New Model for Customer -Supplier Relationships 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S...by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB. GR. Customer - Supplier Relationships Risk Team Risk Management 19. ABSTRACT (cominus on = if necesaryd id’y by block

  13. The Ideal Criteria of Supplier Selection for SMEs Food Processing Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ramlan Rohaizan; Engku Abu Bakar Engku Muhammad Nazri; Mahmud Fatimah; Ng Hooi Keng

    2016-01-01

    Selection of good supplier is important to determine the performance and profitability of SMEs food processing industry. The lack of managerial capability on supplier selection in SMEs food processing industry affects the competitiveness of SMEs food processing industry. This research aims to determine the ideal criteria of supplier for food processing industry using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). The research was carried out in a quantitative method by distributing questionnaires to 50 ...

  14. Supplier Selection Proces: An Investigation and Implementation Action at Construction/Building Company

    OpenAIRE

    Hensmit, Andre

    2008-01-01

    The investigation was carried out to identify and understand the key characteristic of supplier selection that is to be considered in the real experience by Construction Company in South East Asia, especially Indonesia. The goal of this project focuses on the selection supplier process and its approaches, how the company performing the co-partnership relationship with suppliers, and as well find out the reason fro accomplishing these factors. The project involves interviewing a company in Ind...

  15. Strategic Wholesale Pricing for an Incumbent Supplier Facing with a Competitive Counterpart

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Jianwu

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a wholesale pricing strategy for an incumbent supplier facing with a competitive counterpart. We propose a profit function which considers both the present loss and future loss from a wholesale price and then study the optimal wholesale prices for different objectives about this profit function for the incumbent supplier. First, we achieve an optimal wholesale price for the incumbent supplier to maximize his expected profit. Then, to reduce the risk originating from the fluctuati...

  16. Dynamic supplier selection problem considering full truck load in probabilistic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutrisno, Wicaksono, Purnawan Adi

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a mathematical model in a probabilistic dynamic optimization to solve a dynamic supplier selection problem considering full truck load in probabilistic environment where some parameters are uncertain. We determine the optimal strategy for this problem by using stochastic dynamic programming. We give some numerical experiments to evaluate and analyze the model. From the results, the optimal supplier and the optimal product volume from the optimal supplier were determined for each time period.

  17. Video game training and the reward system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Robert C.; Gleich, Tobias; Gallinat, Jürgen; Kühn, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Video games contain elaborate reinforcement and reward schedules that have the potential to maximize motivation. Neuroimaging studies suggest that video games might have an influence on the reward system. However, it is not clear whether reward-related properties represent a precondition, which biases an individual toward playing video games, or if these changes are the result of playing video games. Therefore, we conducted a longitudinal study to explore reward-related functional predictors in relation to video gaming experience as well as functional changes in the brain in response to video game training. Fifty healthy participants were randomly assigned to a video game training (TG) or control group (CG). Before and after training/control period, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was conducted using a non-video game related reward task. At pretest, both groups showed strongest activation in ventral striatum (VS) during reward anticipation. At posttest, the TG showed very similar VS activity compared to pretest. In the CG, the VS activity was significantly attenuated. This longitudinal study revealed that video game training may preserve reward responsiveness in the VS in a retest situation over time. We suggest that video games are able to keep striatal responses to reward flexible, a mechanism which might be of critical value for applications such as therapeutic cognitive training. PMID:25698962

  18. Reward eliminates retrieval-induced forgetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Hisato; Kim, Dongho; Sasaki, Yuka; Watanabe, Takeo

    2014-12-02

    Although it is well known that reward enhances learning and memory, how extensively such enhancement occurs remains unclear. To address this question, we examined how reward influences retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF) in which the retrieval of a nonpracticed item under the same category as a practiced item is worse than the retrieval of a nonpracticed item outside the category. Subjects were asked to try to encode category-exemplar pairs (e.g., FISH-salmon). Then, they were presented with a category name and a two-letter word stem (e.g., FISH-sa) and were asked to complete an encoded word (retrieval practice). For a correct response, apple juice was given as a reward in the reward condition and a beeping sound was presented in the no-reward condition. Finally, subjects were asked to report whether each exemplar had been presented in the first phase. RIF was replicated in the no-reward condition. However, in the reward condition, RIF was eliminated. These results suggest that reward enhances processing of retrieval of unpracticed members by mechanisms such as spreading activation within the same category, irrespective of whether items were practiced or not.

  19. Video game training and the reward system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Robert C; Gleich, Tobias; Gallinat, Jürgen; Kühn, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Video games contain elaborate reinforcement and reward schedules that have the potential to maximize motivation. Neuroimaging studies suggest that video games might have an influence on the reward system. However, it is not clear whether reward-related properties represent a precondition, which biases an individual toward playing video games, or if these changes are the result of playing video games. Therefore, we conducted a longitudinal study to explore reward-related functional predictors in relation to video gaming experience as well as functional changes in the brain in response to video game training. Fifty healthy participants were randomly assigned to a video game training (TG) or control group (CG). Before and after training/control period, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was conducted using a non-video game related reward task. At pretest, both groups showed strongest activation in ventral striatum (VS) during reward anticipation. At posttest, the TG showed very similar VS activity compared to pretest. In the CG, the VS activity was significantly attenuated. This longitudinal study revealed that video game training may preserve reward responsiveness in the VS in a retest situation over time. We suggest that video games are able to keep striatal responses to reward flexible, a mechanism which might be of critical value for applications such as therapeutic cognitive training.

  20. Video Game Training and the Reward System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C. Lorenz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Video games contain elaborate reinforcement and reward schedules that have the potential to maximize motivation. Neuroimaging studies suggest that video games might have an influence on the reward system. However, it is not clear whether reward-related properties represent a precondition, which biases an individual towards playing video games, or if these changes are the result of playing video games. Therefore, we conducted a longitudinal study to explore reward-related functional predictors in relation to video gaming experience as well as functional changes in the brain in response to video game training.Fifty healthy participants were randomly assigned to a video game training (TG or control group (CG. Before and after training/control period, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI was conducted using a non-video game related reward task.At pretest, both groups showed strongest activation in ventral striatum (VS during reward anticipation. At posttest, the TG showed very similar VS activity compared to pretest. In the CG, the VS activity was significantly attenuated.This longitudinal study revealed that video game training may preserve reward responsiveness in the ventral striatum in a retest situation over time. We suggest that video games are able to keep striatal responses to reward flexible, a mechanism which might be of critical value for applications such as therapeutic cognitive training.

  1. Changes in Incentives, Rewards and Sanctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, Alan

    1993-01-01

    A review of the literature over the past decade reflects substantial changes in rewards, incentives, and sanctions used with college faculty. These changes parallel changes in the public sector generally. Increasing emphasis on formal evaluation and on use of money as an incentive and reward for performance is noted. (MSE)

  2. Self-rewards and personal motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, A.K.; Nafziger, J.; Suvorov, A.; van de Ven, J.

    2014-01-01

    Self-administered rewards are ubiquitous. They serve as incentives for personal accomplishments and are widely recommended to increase personal motivation. We show that in a model with time-inconsistent and reference-dependent preferences, self-rewards can be a credible and effective tool to

  3. Reward modulates perception in binocular rivalry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Svenja; Einhäuser, Wolfgang

    2015-01-14

    Our perception does not provide us with an exact imprint of the outside world, but is continuously adapted to our internal expectations, task sets, and behavioral goals. Although effects of reward-or value in general-on perception therefore seem likely, how valuation modulates perception and how such modulation relates to attention is largely unknown. We probed effects of reward on perception by using a binocular-rivalry paradigm. Distinct gratings drifting in opposite directions were presented to each observer's eyes. To objectify their subjective perceptual experience, the optokinetic nystagmus was used as measure of current perceptual dominance. In a first experiment, one of the percepts was either rewarded or attended. We found that reward and attention similarly biased perception. In a second experiment, observers performed an attentionally demanding task either on the rewarded stimulus, the other stimulus, or both. We found that-on top of an attentional effect on perception-at each level of attentional load, reward still modulated perception by increasing the dominance of the rewarded percept. Similarly, penalizing one percept increased dominance of the other at each level of attentional load. In turn, rewarding-and similarly nonpunishing-a percept yielded performance benefits that are typically associated with selective attention. In conclusion, our data show that value modulates perception in a similar way as the volitional deployment of attention, even though the relative effect of value is largely unaffected by an attention task. © 2015 ARVO.

  4. Performance-Based Rewards and Work Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganster, Daniel C.; Kiersch, Christa E.; Marsh, Rachel E.; Bowen, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Even though reward systems play a central role in the management of organizations, their impact on stress and the well-being of workers is not well understood. We review the literature linking performance-based reward systems to various indicators of employee stress and well-being. Well-controlled experiments in field settings suggest that certain…

  5. Monetary reward activates human prefrontal cortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thut, G.; Roelcke, U.; Nienhusmeier, M.; Missimer, J.; Maguire, R.P.; Leenders, K.L.; Schultz, W.

    1997-01-01

    We present a rCBF PET activation study, in which we demonstrated that reward processing in humans activates a cortical-subcortical network including dorsolateral prefrontal, orbital frontal, thalamic and midbrain regions. It is suggested that, as found for non-human primates, the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical system is implicated in reward processing. (author) 1 fig., 3 refs

  6. Self-rewards and personal motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander Karl; Nafziger, Julia; Suvorov, Anton

    2014-01-01

    Self-administered rewards are ubiquitous. They serve as incentives for personal accomplishments and are widely recommended to increase personal motivation. We show that in a model with time-inconsistent and reference-dependent preferences, self-rewards can be a credible and effective tool...

  7. Self-Rewards and Personal Motivation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander Karl; Nafziger, Julia; Suvorov, Anton

    Self-administered rewards are ubiquitous. They serve as incentives for personal accomplishments and are widely recommended to increase personal motivation. We show that in a model with time-inconsistent and reference-dependent preferences, self-rewards can be a credible and effective tool...

  8. The Dilemmas of Adopting Performance Related Pay as a Reward ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Dilemmas of Adopting Performance Related Pay as a Reward Strategy for ... over automatic pay increase (formal and transparent reward systems linked to ... of reward and compensation, and low level of motivation and performance.

  9. Extending Markov Automata with State and Action Rewards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guck, Dennis; Timmer, Mark; Blom, Stefan; Bertrand, N.; Bortolussi, L.

    This presentation introduces the Markov Reward Automaton (MRA), an extension of the Markov automaton that allows the modelling of systems incorporating rewards in addition to nondeterminism, discrete probabilistic choice and continuous stochastic timing. Our models support both rewards that are

  10. Advanced qualification of pharmaceutical excipient suppliers by multiple analytics and multivariate analysis combined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertrampf, A; Müller, H; Menezes, J C; Herdling, T

    2015-11-10

    Pharmaceutical excipients have different functions within a drug formulation, consequently they can influence the manufacturability and/or performance of medicinal products. Therefore, critical to quality attributes should be kept constant. Sometimes it may be necessary to qualify a second supplier, but its product will not be completely equal to the first supplier product. To minimize risks of not detecting small non-similarities between suppliers and to detect lot-to-lot variability for each supplier, multivariate data analysis (MVA) can be used as a more powerful alternative to classical quality control that uses one-parameter-at-a-time monitoring. Such approach is capable of supporting the requirements of a new guideline by the European Parliament and Council (2015/C-95/02) demanding appropriate quality control strategies for excipients based on their criticality and supplier risks in ensuring quality, safety and function. This study compares calcium hydrogen phosphate from two suppliers. It can be assumed that both suppliers use different manufacturing processes. Therefore, possible chemical and physical differences were investigated by using Raman spectroscopy, laser diffraction and X-ray powder diffraction. Afterwards MVA was used to extract relevant information from each analytical technique. Both CaHPO4 could be discriminated by their supplier. The gained knowledge allowed to specify an enhanced strategy for second supplier qualification. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Green supplier selection and order allocation in a low-carbon paper industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govindan, Kannan; Sivakumar, R.

    2016-01-01

    is to engage the case company with their supplier networks to diminish the greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions and cost in their production process. It proposes a model to support the selection of the best green supplier and an allocation of order among the potential suppliers. The proposed model contains a two......-phase hybrid approach. The first phase presents the rating and selection of potential suppliers by considering economics (cost), operational factors (quality and delivery), and environmental criteria (recycle capability and GHG emission control) using Fuzzy Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity....... Finally, a conclusion and a suggested direction of future research are introduced....

  12. QUANTITY DISCOUNTS IN SUPPLIER SELECTION PROBLEM BY USE OF FUZZY MULTI-CRITERIA PROGRAMMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tunjo Perić

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Supplier selection in supply chain is a multi-criteria problem that involves a number of quantitative and qualitative factors. This paper deals with a concrete problem of flour purchase by a company that manufactures bakery products and the purchasing price of flour depends on the quantity ordered. The criteria for supplier selection and quantities supplied by individual suppliers are: purchase costs, product quality and reliability of suppliers. The problem is solved using a model that combines revised weighting method and fuzzy multi-criteria linear programming (FMCLP. The paper highlights the efficiency of the proposed methodology in conditions when purchasing prices depend on order quantities.

  13. Simple, cost effective & result oriented framework for supplier performance measurement in sports goods manufacturing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The emergences of global markets have increased competition worldwide. For the Sports Goods Manufacturing Industry which is considered to be an intensive supplier base industry with limited resources to sustain in what is already a very competitive market there is a need for the entire supply chain viz. raw material and machinery suppliers and manufacturers to measure their supplier's performance to reduce business risks and revenue losses. How to design & execute a simple, cost effective & result oriented Framework for Supplier Performance Measurement for sports goods manufacturing small - medium enterprises is the main aim of this research paper.

  14. Multicriteria decision group model for the selection of suppliers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Hazin Alencar

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Several authors have been studying group decision making over the years, which indicates how relevant it is. This paper presents a multicriteria group decision model based on ELECTRE IV and VIP Analysis methods, to those cases where there is great divergence among the decision makers. This model includes two stages. In the first, the ELECTRE IV method is applied and a collective criteria ranking is obtained. In the second, using criteria ranking, VIP Analysis is applied and the alternatives are selected. To illustrate the model, a numerical application in the context of the selection of suppliers in project management is used. The suppliers that form part of the project team have a crucial role in project management. They are involved in a network of connected activities that can jeopardize the success of the project, if they are not undertaken in an appropriate way. The question tackled is how to select service suppliers for a project on behalf of an enterprise that assists the multiple objectives of the decision-makers.Vários autores têm estudado decisão em grupo nos últimos anos, o que indica a relevância do assunto. Esse artigo apresenta um modelo multicritério de decisão em grupo baseado nos métodos ELECTRE IV e VIP Analysis, adequado aos casos em que se tem uma grande divergência entre os decisores. Esse modelo é composto por dois estágios. No primeiro, o método ELECTRE IV é aplicado e uma ordenação dos critérios é obtida. No próximo estágio, com a ordenação dos critérios, o método VIP Analysis é aplicado e as alternativas são selecionadas. Para ilustrar o modelo, uma aplicação numérica no contexto da seleção de fornecedores em projetos é realizada. Os fornecedores que fazem parte da equipe do projeto têm um papel fundamental no gerenciamento de projetos. Eles estão envolvidos em uma rede de atividades conectadas que, caso não sejam executadas de forma apropriada, podem colocar em risco o sucesso do

  15. Reward Inference by Primate Prefrontal and Striatal Neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Xiaochuan; Fan, Hongwei; Sawa, Kosuke; Tsuda, Ichiro; Tsukada, Minoru; Sakagami, Masamichi

    2014-01-01

    The brain contains multiple yet distinct systems involved in reward prediction. To understand the nature of these processes, we recorded single-unit activity from the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) and the striatum in monkeys performing a reward inference task using an asymmetric reward schedule. We found that neurons both in the LPFC and in the striatum predicted reward values for stimuli that had been previously well experienced with set reward quantities in the asymmetric reward task. Im...

  16. Distinct Reward Properties are Encoded via Corticostriatal Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    David V. Smith; Anastasia E. Rigney; Mauricio R. Delgado

    2016-01-01

    The striatum serves as a critical brain region for reward processing. Yet, understanding the link between striatum and reward presents a challenge because rewards are composed of multiple properties. Notably, affective properties modulate emotion while informative properties help obtain future rewards. We approached this problem by emphasizing affective and informative reward properties within two independent guessing games. We found that both reward properties evoked activation within the nu...

  17. Reward sensitivity and food addiction in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loxton, Natalie J; Tipman, Renée J

    2017-08-01

    Sensitivity to the rewarding properties of appetitive substances has long been implicated in excessive consumption of palatable foods and drugs of abuse. Previous research focusing on individual differences in reward responsiveness has found heightened trait reward sensitivity to be associated with binge-eating, hazardous drinking, and illicit substance use. Food addiction has been proposed as an extreme form of compulsive-overeating and has been associated with genetic markers of heightened reward responsiveness. However, little research has explicitly examined the association between reward sensitivity and food addiction. Further, the processes by which individual differences in this trait are associated with excessive over-consumption has not been determined. A total of 374 women from the community completed an online questionnaire assessing reward sensitivity, food addiction, emotional, externally-driven, and hedonic eating. High reward sensitivity was significantly associated with greater food addiction symptoms (r = 0.31). Bootstrapped tests of indirect effects found the relationship between reward sensitivity and food addiction symptom count to be uniquely mediated by binge-eating, emotional eating, and hedonic eating (notably, food availability). These indirect effects held even when controlling for BMI, anxiety, depression, and trait impulsivity. This study further supports the argument that high levels of reward sensitivity may offer a trait marker of vulnerability to excessive over-eating, beyond negative affect and impulse-control deficits. That the hedonic properties of food (especially food availability), emotional, and binge-eating behavior act as unique mediators suggest that interventions for reward-sensitive women presenting with food addiction may benefit from targeting food availability in addition to management of negative affect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Touch massage, a rewarding experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Lenita; Jacobsson, Maritha; Lämås, Kristina

    2014-12-01

    This study aims to describe and analyze healthy individuals' expressed experiences of touch massage (TM). Fifteen healthy participants received whole body touch massage during 60 minutes for two separate occasions. Interviews were analyzed by narrative analysis. Four identifiable storyline was found, Touch massage as an essential need, in this storyline the participants talked about a desire and need for human touch and TM. Another storyline was about, Touch massage as a pleasurable experience and the participants talked about the pleasure of having had TM. In the third storyline Touch massage as a dynamic experience, the informants talked about things that could modulate the experience of receiving TM. In the last storyline, Touch massage influences self-awareness, the participants described how TM affected some of their psychological and physical experiences. Experiences of touch massage was in general described as pleasant sensations and the different storylines could be seen in the light of rewarding experiences. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. International ROR: risk, opportunity, reward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krentz, D.; Gair, J.

    1996-01-01

    Norcen Energy Resources Limited's pursuit of international oil and gas opportunities since the late 1980s were outlined. By 1994 Norcen had exploration and production concessions in 12 countries stretching from Algeria, Russia, Argentina, Indonesia to offshore Australia. The company had seen its share of risks, opportunities and rewards. Since 1994 international efforts of the Company have been focused on lower risk opportunities with exploration upside in defined core areas of South America, particularly in Venezuela, a country with conventional, heavy and ultra-heavy oil resources exceeding that of Saudi Arabia. These, and other similar foreign investments in the formerly closed national oil industries of South America have been greatly facilitated by the political liberalization, economic reforms and stabilization that have taken place there over the past ten years. The story of Norcen's successful bidding on the Oritupano-Leona production block in 1993 and Delta Centro exploration block in 1996 was the subject of this presentation

  20. Floral reward in Ranunculaceae species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Denisow

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Floral reward is important in ecological and evolutionary perspectives and essential in pollination biology. For example, floral traits, nectar and pollen features are essential for understanding the functional ecology, the dynamics of pollen transport, competition for pollinator services, and patterns of specialization and generalization in plant–pollinator interactions. We believe to present a synthetic description in the field of floral reward in Ranunculaceae family important in pollination biology and indicating connections between ecological and evolutionary approaches. The links between insect visitors’ behaviour and floral reward type and characteristics exist. Ranunculaceae is a family of aboot 1700 species (aboot 60 genera, distributed worldwide, however the most abundant representatives are in temperate and cool regions of the northern and southern hemispheres. The flowers are usually radially symmetric (zygomorphic and bisexual, but in Aconitum, Aquilegia are bilaterally symmetric (zygomorphic. Most Ranunculaceae flowers offer no nectar, only pollen (e.g., Ranunculus, Adonis vernalis, Thalictrum, but numerous species create trophic niches for different wild pollinators (e.g. Osmia, Megachile, Bombus, Andrena (Denisow et al. 2008. Pollen is a source of protein, vitamins, mineral salts, organic acids and hormones, but the nutritional value varies greatly between different plant species. The pollen production can differ significantly between Ranunculacea species. The mass of pollen produced in anthers differ due to variations in the number of developed anthers. For example, interspecies differences are considerable, 49 anthers are noted in Aquilegia vulgaris, 70 anthers in Ranunculus lanuginosus, 120 in Adonis vernalis. A significant intra-species differences’ in the number of anthers are also noted (e.g. 41 to 61 in Aquilegia vulgaris, 23-45 in Ranunculus cassubicus. Pollen production can be up to 62 kg per ha for Ranunculus acer